Sample records for qinghai-tibet plateau electronic

  1. Genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships of the ectomycorrhizal Floccularia luteovirens on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. (United States)

    Xing, Rui; Gao, Qing-Bo; Zhang, Fa-Qi; Fu, Peng-Cheng; Wang, Jiu-Li; Yan, Hui-Ying; Chen, Shi-Long


    Floccularia luteovirens, as an ectomycorrhizal fungus, is widely distributed in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. As an edible fungus, it is famous for its unique flavor. Former studies mainly focus on the chemical composition and genetic structure of this species. However, the phylogenetic relationship between genotypes remains unknown. In this study, the genetic variation and phylogenetic relationship between the genotypes of F. luteovirens in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was estimated through the analysis on two protein-coding genes (rpb1 and ef-1α) from 398 individuals collected from 24 wild populations. The sample covered the entire range of this species during all the growth seasons from 2011 to 2015. 13 genotypes were detected and moderate genetic diversity was revealed. Based on the results of network analysis, the maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP), and Bayesian inference (BI) analyses, the genotypes H-1, H-4, H-6, H-8, H-10, and H-11 were grouped into one clade. Additionally, a relatively higher genotype diversity (average h value is 0.722) and unique genotypes in the northeast edge of Qinghai- Tibet plateau have been found, combined with the results of mismatch analysis and neutrality tests indicated that Southeast Qinghai-Tibet plateau was a refuge for F. luteovirens during the historical geological or climatic events (uplifting of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau or Last Glacial Maximum). Furthermore, the present distribution of the species on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau has resulted from the recent population expansion. Our findings provide a foundation for the future study of the evolutionary history and the speciation of this species.

  2. Qinghai-Tibet Plateau crustal thickness derived from EGM2008 and CRSUT2.0

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    Zhou Hao


    Full Text Available Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the most complex region for crustal thickness inversion, while high-resolution earth gravity model (EGM makes it possible to obtain high precision gravity anomaly, which is a key parameter to depict the Earth’s inner structure in geodesy domain. On the basis of this principle, we calculated the Bouguer gravity anomalies in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with EGM2008 and SRTM6. 0 by efficient high-degree spherical harmonic synthesis algorithm. In order to obtain the gravity anomaly caused by Moho density mutant, the noises caused by the topography was removed by wavelet details. Then, the crustal thickness was corrected on the basis of CRUST 2. 0 with the deep-large-scale single density interface formula. The inversion result indicates that the crustal thickness in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is between 50 km and 75 km, which is in correspondence with the recent science research result. Compared with the 2 degree CRUST 2. 0 model, the spatial resolution of crustal thickness in our research can reach 40 arc minutes. In addition, there is a positive relationship between the inversed crustal thickness and topography, which can prove the effectiveness of Airy-Heiskanen isostatic model in gravity reduction.

  3. [Research progress on resources and quality evaluation of Tibetan medicine in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau]. (United States)

    Li, Xuan-Hao; Zhao, Cai-Yun; Liu, Yue; Wan, Li; Jia, Min-Ru; Xie, Cai-Xiang; Zhang, Yi


    With the development of Tibetan medicine industry, the demands for Tibetan medicine were rising sharply. In addition, with the eco-environment vulnerability of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau region and the phenomenon of synonymies and homonymies in Tibetan medicine, there were a lack of resources and varieties in the clinical application of Tibetan medicine. At present, the shortage of Tibetan medicine and the inadequacy of its quality standard have become the two major problems that seriously restricted the sustainable development of Tibetan medicine industry. Therefore, it is important to develop the resources investigation and quality evaluation for Tibetan medicine, which were contribute to its resources protection and sustainable utilization. In this paper, current status of resources investigation, quality standardization, artificial breeding and germplasm resources of Tibetan medicine were presented by the integrated application of the new technologies, such as DNA barcoding and 1H-NMR, which provided a reference information for resources protection, sustainable utilization, variety identification and quality standardization of Tibetan medicine resources in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. What controls the partitioning between baseflow and mountain block recharge in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau? (United States)

    Yao, Yingying; Zheng, Chunmiao; Andrews, Charles; Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Aijing; Liu, Jie


    Mountainous areas are referred to as "water towers" since they are the source of water for many low-lying communities. The hydrologic budgets of these areas, which are particularly susceptible to climate change, are typically poorly constrained. To address this, we analyzed the partitioning between baseflow and mountain block recharge (MBR) using a regional groundwater model of the northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau run with multiple scenarios. We found that 19% of precipitation is recharged, approximately 35% of which becomes MBR, while 65% discharges as baseflow. This partitioning is relatively independent of the recharge rate but is sensitive to exponential depth decrease of hydraulic conductivity (K). The MBR is more sensitive to this exponential decrease in K than baseflow. The proportion of MBR varies from twice to half of baseflow as the decay exponent increases by more than fivefold. Thus, the depth dependence of K is critical for quantifying hydrologic partitioning in these sensitive areas.

  5. Evaluation of the Township Proper Carrying Capacity over Qinghai-Tibet plateau by CASA model (United States)

    Wu, Chengyong; Cao, Guangchao; Xue, Huaju; Jiang, Gang; Wang, Qi; Yuan, Jie; Chen, Kelong


    The existing study of proper carrying capacity (PCC) has mostly focused on province or county administrative units, which can only macroscopically master the quantitative characteristics of PCC, but could not effectively take some animal husbandry management measures that are pertinent and operational. At town-scale, this paper used CASA model to estimate the PCC in Mongolian Autonomous County of Henan, Qinghai province, China,with serious grassland degeneration that mainly caused by overgrazing. The results showed that the PCC throughout the County was 950,417 sheep unit. For the township, the PCC of Saierlong and Duosong were the largest (247,100 sheep unit) and the smallest (82,016 sheep unit) respectively. This study will provide reference data for developing sustainable development of town-scale pasture policies and also will help to evaluate the health status of the alpine grassland ecosystem on Qinghai-Tibet plateau.

  6. The relationship between soil physical properties and alpine plant diversity on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

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    Lin Tang


    Full Text Available Through a large-scale research, we examined the heterogeneity of soil properties and plant diversity, as well as their relationships across alpine grassland types on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The soil pH and EC value increased with the constant deepening of the soil in all the three alpine grassland types which in order of absolute value in every soil layer were alpine desert steppe, alpine steppe and alpine meadow. Among the three grassland types, the alpine meadow possessed the highest SM but the lowest SBD. For plant diversity, alpine meadow was the highest, alpine desert steppe ranked the second and alpine steppe was the last. SM and SBD were the highest influential soil physical properties to species richness, but with opposite effects.

  7. Hypoxia adaptations in the grey wolf (Canis lupus chanco) from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. (United States)

    Zhang, Wenping; Fan, Zhenxin; Han, Eunjung; Hou, Rong; Zhang, Liang; Galaverni, Marco; Huang, Jie; Liu, Hong; Silva, Pedro; Li, Peng; Pollinger, John P; Du, Lianming; Zhang, XiuyYue; Yue, Bisong; Wayne, Robert K; Zhang, Zhihe


    The Tibetan grey wolf (Canis lupus chanco) occupies habitats on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, a high altitude (>3000 m) environment where low oxygen tension exerts unique selection pressure on individuals to adapt to hypoxic conditions. To identify genes involved in hypoxia adaptation, we generated complete genome sequences of nine Chinese wolves from high and low altitude populations at an average coverage of 25× coverage. We found that, beginning about 55,000 years ago, the highland Tibetan grey wolf suffered a more substantial population decline than lowland wolves. Positively selected hypoxia-related genes in highland wolves are enriched in the HIF signaling pathway (P = 1.57E-6), ATP binding (P = 5.62E-5), and response to an oxygen-containing compound (P≤5.30E-4). Of these positively selected hypoxia-related genes, three genes (EPAS1, ANGPT1, and RYR2) had at least one specific fixed non-synonymous SNP in highland wolves based on the nine genome data. Our re-sequencing studies on a large panel of individuals showed a frequency difference greater than 58% between highland and lowland wolves for these specific fixed non-synonymous SNPs and a high degree of LD surrounding the three genes, which imply strong selection. Past studies have shown that EPAS1 and ANGPT1 are important in the response to hypoxic stress, and RYR2 is involved in heart function. These three genes also exhibited significant signals of natural selection in high altitude human populations, which suggest similar evolutionary constraints on natural selection in wolves and humans of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

  8. Assessing the permafrost temperature and thickness conditions favorable for the occurrence of gas hydrate in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qingbai; Jiang Guanli; Zhang Peng


    Permafrost accounts for about 52% of the total area of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and the permafrost area is about 140 x 10 4 km 2 . The mean annual ground temperature of permafrost ranges from -0.1 to -5 deg. C, and lower than -5 deg. C at extreme high-mountains. Permafrost thickness ranges from 10 to 139.4 m by borehole data, and more than 200 m by geothermal gradients. The permafrost geothermal gradient ranges from 1.1 deg. C/100 m to 8.0 deg. C/100 m with an average of 2.9 deg. C/100 m, and the geothermal gradient of the soil beneath permafrost is about 2.8-8.5 deg. C/100 m with an average of 6.0 deg. C/100 m in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. For a minimum of permafrost geothermal gradients of 1.1 deg. C/100 m, the areas of the potential occurrence of methane hydrate (sI) is approximately estimated to be about 27.5% of the total area of permafrost regions in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. For an average of permafrost geothermal gradients of 2.9 deg. C/100 m, the areas of the potential occurrence of methane hydrate (sI) is approximately estimated about 14% of the total area of permafrost regions in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. For the sII hydrate, the areas of the potential occurrence of sII hydrate are more than that of sI methane hydrate.

  9. A new vision of the intracontinental evolution of the eastern Kunlun Mountains, Northern Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, W.-M.; Zhang, X.-T.; Dong, J.-Q.; Tang, Y.-H.; Yu, F.-S.; Wang, S.-C.


    Based on apatite fission track ages (FTA) of 41 samples collected from a south-north transect of the eastern Kunlun mountains, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China, this paper shows that (1) the FTA in different blocks increases with the distance from the South-Kunlun fault and Mid-Kunlun faults, respectively, indicating the control of the main faults on the tectonic evolution of this region; and (2) the thermal histories are characterized by slow cooling from ∼160 deg. C to ∼80 deg. C at ∼240 to ∼20 Ma, followed by rather rapid cooling to surface temperatures

  10. Tracers Show Ecohydrologic Influences on Runoff Generation Components at the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (United States)

    Liu, H.; Liu, J.; Peng, A.; Gu, W.; Wang, W.; Gao, F.


    In order to learn more about the critical zone ecohydrological dynamics at the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, a research on the identification of runoff components using tracers was carried out in the Niyang River upstream, a tributary of the Yalung Zangbo River. In this study, four basins with the areas of 182, 216, 243, 213 km2 which are embed in a larger basin were sampled at altitudes between 3667 to 6140 m. The types of land use in the basins mainly include forest land, grassland and glacier. River water and precipitation were sampled monthly, while spring water, glacial ice, soil, and plants were sampled seasonally. Soil and plant samples were taken along the valleys with spatial interval of about 5 km. Soil and plant waters were extracted via cryogenic vacuum distillation method, and then analyzed for isotopes and ions. Preliminary results show that the δD and δ18O of the precipitation water spread approximately along the LMWL of the Namucuo Lake near Lasa city, which varied according to altitude. Stem water δD and δ18O from different elevations and tree species also varied regularly, albeit with no apparent relationship to recent precipitation. It appears that trees utilized fissure water and soil water formed by precipitation. Future efforts will involve (1) an expanded sampling strategy across basins, and (2) a series of experiments on the Hydrohill catchment in the Chuzhou Experimental Facility, whereby an improved understanding of K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ export dynamics could aid in much better description and modeling of Niyang River runoff composition and generation. This research is funded by the NSFC project 91647111 and 91647203, which are included in the Runoff Change and its Adaptive Management in the Major Rivers in Southwestern China Major Research Plan.

  11. Unraveling of permafrost hydrological variabilities on Central Qinghai-Tibet Plateau using stable isotopic technique. (United States)

    Yang, Yuzhong; Wu, Qingbai; Hou, Yandong; Zhang, Zhongqiong; Zhan, Jing; Gao, Siru; Jin, Huijun


    Permafrost degradation on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) will substantially alter the surface runoff discharge and generation, which changes the recharge processes and influences the hydrological cycle on the QTP. Hydrological connections between different water bodies and the influence of thawing permafrost (ground ice) are not well understood on the QTP. This study applied water stable isotopic method to investigate the permafrost hydrological variabilities in Beiluhe Basin (BLB) on Central QTP. Isotopic variations of precipitation, river flow, thermokarst lake, and near-surface ground ice were identified to figure out the moisture source of them, and to elaborate the hydrological connections in permafrost region. Results suggested that isotopic seasonalities in precipitation is evident, it is showing more positive values in summer seasons, and negative values in winter seasons. Stable isotopes of river flow are mainly distributed in the range of precipitation which is indicative of important replenishment from precipitation. δ 18 O, δD of thermokarst lakes are more positive than precipitation, indicating of basin-scale evaporation of lake water. Comparison of δ I values in different water bodies shows that hydrology of thermokarst lakes was related to thawing of permafrost (ground ice) and precipitation. Near-surface ground ice in BLB exhibits different isotopic characteristics, and generates a special δD-δ 18 O relationship (freezing line): δD=5.81δ 18 O-23.02, which reflects typical freezing of liquid water. From isotopic analysis, it is inferred that near-surface ground ice was mainly recharged by precipitation and active layer water. Stable isotopic and conceptual model is suggestive of striking hydrological connections between precipitation, river flow, thermokarst lake, and ground ice under degrading permafrost. This research provides fundamental comprehensions into the hydrological processes in permafrost regions on QTP, which should be considered

  12. Annual ecosystem respiration variability of alpine peatland on the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its controlling factors. (United States)

    Peng, Haijun; Hong, Bing; Hong, Yetang; Zhu, Yongxuan; Cai, Chen; Yuan, Lingui; Wang, Yu


    Peatlands are widely developed in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, but little is known about carbon budgets for these alpine peatland ecosystems. In this study, we used an automatic chamber system to measure ecosystem respiration in the Hongyuan peatland, which is located in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Annual ecosystem respiration measurements showed a typical seasonal pattern, with the peak appearing in June. The highest respiration was 10.43 μmol CO2/m(2)/s, and the lowest was 0.20 μmol CO2/m(2)/s. The annual average ecosystem respiration was 2.06 μmol CO2/m(2)/s. The total annual respiration was 599.98 g C/m(2), and respiration during the growing season (from May to September) accounted for 78 % of the annual sum. Nonlinear regression revealed that ecosystem respiration has a significant exponential correlation with soil temperature at 10-cm depth (R (2) = 0.98). The Q 10 value was 3.90, which is far higher than the average Q 10 value of terrestrial ecosystems. Ecosystem respiration had an apparent diurnal variation pattern in growing season, with peaks and valleys appearing at approximately 14:00 and 10:00, respectively, which could be explained by soil temperature and soil water content variation at 10-cm depth.

  13. Changes of Soil Enzyme Activities in Different Restoration Ages of Spruce Forests on the Eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-mei; BAO Wei-kai; PANG Xue-yong; WU Ning; ZHOU Guo-yi


    Six soil enzymes (invertase, acid phosphatase, proteinase, catalase, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase ) were chosen for investigation under different spruce forests with restoration ages of 4,10,16 years and an old-growth spruce forest over 400 years old in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. Results showed that the activities of invertase, phosphatase, proteinase, catalase and peroxidase decreased in newly restored forests except for pholyphenoloxidase. With the development of forests after restoration, the activities of invertase, acid phosphadase, proteinase increased gradually. Our study also indicated that the soil enzyme activities were associated with surface soils and decreased with depths. This result suggested that in the earlier restoration stage the application of organic fertilizer may be more effective by surface addition to soils than deep addition.

  14. Genetic diversity and distribution patterns of host insects of Caterpillar Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. (United States)

    Quan, Qing-Mei; Chen, Ling-Ling; Wang, Xi; Li, Shan; Yang, Xiao-Ling; Zhu, Yun-Guo; Wang, Mu; Cheng, Zhou


    The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis is one of the most valuable medicinal fungi in the world, and it requires host insects in family Hepialidae (Lepidoptera) to complete its life cycle. However, the genetic diversity and phylogeographic structures of the host insects remain to be explored. We analyzed the genetic diversity and temporal and spatial distribution patterns of genetic variation of the host insects throughout the O. sinensis distribution. Abundant haplotype and nucleotide diversity mainly existed in the areas of Nyingchi, ShangriLa, and around the edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, where are considered as the diversity center or micro-refuges of the host insects of O. sinensis. However, there was little genetic variation among host insects from 72.1% of all populations, indicating that the host species composition might be relatively simple in large-scale O. sinensis populations. All host insects are monophyletic except for those from four O. sinensis populations around Qinghai Lake. Significant phylogeographic structure (NST>GST, Pinsects, and the three major phylogenetic groups corresponded with specific geographical areas. The divergence of most host insects was estimated to have occurred at ca. 3.7 Ma, shortly before the rapid uplift of the QTP. The geographical distribution and star-like network of the haplotypes implied that most host insects were derived from the relicts of a once-widespread host that subsequently became fragmented. Neutrality tests, mismatch distribution analysis, and expansion time estimation confirmed that most host insects presented recent demographic expansions that began ca. 0.118 Ma in the late Pleistocene. Therefore, the genetic diversity and distribution of the present-day insects should be attributed to effects of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau uplift and glacial advance/retreat cycles during the Quaternary ice age. These results provide valuable information to guide the protection and sustainable use of these host

  15. Genetic diversity and distribution patterns of host insects of Caterpillar Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

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    Qing-Mei Quan

    Full Text Available The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis is one of the most valuable medicinal fungi in the world, and it requires host insects in family Hepialidae (Lepidoptera to complete its life cycle. However, the genetic diversity and phylogeographic structures of the host insects remain to be explored. We analyzed the genetic diversity and temporal and spatial distribution patterns of genetic variation of the host insects throughout the O. sinensis distribution. Abundant haplotype and nucleotide diversity mainly existed in the areas of Nyingchi, ShangriLa, and around the edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, where are considered as the diversity center or micro-refuges of the host insects of O. sinensis. However, there was little genetic variation among host insects from 72.1% of all populations, indicating that the host species composition might be relatively simple in large-scale O. sinensis populations. All host insects are monophyletic except for those from four O. sinensis populations around Qinghai Lake. Significant phylogeographic structure (NST>GST, P<0.05 was revealed for the monophyletic host insects, and the three major phylogenetic groups corresponded with specific geographical areas. The divergence of most host insects was estimated to have occurred at ca. 3.7 Ma, shortly before the rapid uplift of the QTP. The geographical distribution and star-like network of the haplotypes implied that most host insects were derived from the relicts of a once-widespread host that subsequently became fragmented. Neutrality tests, mismatch distribution analysis, and expansion time estimation confirmed that most host insects presented recent demographic expansions that began ca. 0.118 Ma in the late Pleistocene. Therefore, the genetic diversity and distribution of the present-day insects should be attributed to effects of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau uplift and glacial advance/retreat cycles during the Quaternary ice age. These results provide valuable

  16. Pollution, ecological-health risks, and sources of heavy metals in soil of the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Lu, Jian; Li, Leiming; Min, Xiuyun; Luo, Yongming


    The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, especially the northeastern region, is not a pure land any more due to recently increasing anthropogenic activities. This study collected soil samples from 70 sites of the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to evaluate pollution, ecological-health risks, and possible pollution sources of heavy metals. The concentrations of heavy metals in soil were relatively high. Values of geo-accumulation index exhibited that Hg pollution was the most serious meanwhile Hg possessed the strongest enrichment feature based on enrichment factor values. The modified degrees of contamination showed that about 54.3% and 17.1% of sampling sites were at moderate and high contamination degree while pollution load indexes illustrated that 72.9% and 27.1% of sampling sites possessed moderate and high contamination level, respectively. Ecological risk indexes of heavy metals in soil ranged from 234.6 to 3759.0, suggesting that most of sites were under considerable/very high risks. Cancer risks for adults and children were determined as high and high-very high levels while non-cancer risks for children were high although those for adults were low. Industrial source contributed to the main fraction of ecological and health risks. Summarily speaking, heavy metals in soil of the study area has caused significantly serious pollution and exerted high potential ecological and health risks, especially for children who are more susceptible to hurt from pollutants. Therefore, more efficient and strict pollution control and management in study area should be put out as soon as possible. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. TMPA Products 3B42RT & 3B42V6: Evaluation and Application in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (United States)

    Hao, Z.; Sun, L.; Wang, J.


    Hydrological researchers in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau tend to be haunted by deficiency of station gauged precipitation data for the sparse and uneven distribution of local meteorological stations. Fortunately, alternative data can be obtained from TRMM (Tropic Rainfall Measurement Mission) satellite. Preliminary evaluation and necessary correction of TRMM satellite rainfall products is required for the sake of reliability and suitability considering that TRMM precipitation is unconventional and natural condition in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is unusually complicated. 3B42RT and 3B42V6 products from TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis(TMPA) are evaluated in northeast Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with 50 stations quality-controlled gauged daily precipitation as the benchmark precipitation set. It is found that the RT data overestimates the actual precipitation greatly while V6 only overestimates it slightly. RT data shows different seasonal and inter-annual accuracies. Summer and autumn see better accuracies than winter and spring and wet years see higher accuracies than dry years. Latitude is believed to be an important factor that influences the accuracy of satellite precipitation. Both RT and V6 can reflect the general pattern of the spatial distribution of precipitation even though RT overestimates the quantity greatly. A new parameter, accumulated precipitation weight point (APWP), was introduced to describe the temporal-spatial pattern evolution of precipitation. The APWP of both RT and V6 were moving from south to north in the past decade, but they are all in the west of station gauged precipitation APWP(s).V6 APWP track fit gauged precipitation perfectly while RT APWP track has over-exaggerated legs, indicating that spatial distribution of RT precipitation experienced unreasonable sharp changes. A practical and operational procedure to correct satellite precipitation data is developed. For RT, there are two steps. Step 1, the downscaling, original daily precipitation

  18. Vegetation Response to Climate Change in the Southern Part of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau at Basinal Scale (United States)

    Liu, X.; Liu, C.; Kang, Q.; Yin, B.


    Global climate change has significantly affected vegetation variation in the third-polar region of the world - the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. As one of the most important indicators of vegetation variation (growth, coverage and tempo-spatial change), the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is widely employed to study the response of vegetation to climate change. However, a long-term series analysis cannot be achieved because a single data source is constrained by time sequence. Therefore, a new framework was presented in this paper to extend the product series of monthly NDVI, taking as an example the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin, one of the most important river basins in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. NDVI products were acquired from two public sources: Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate-Resolution Imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS). After having been extended using the new framework, the new time series of NDVI covers a 384 months period (1982-2013), 84 months longer than previous time series of NDVI product, greatly facilitating NDVI related scientific research. In the new framework, the Gauss Filtering Method was employed to filter out noise in the NDVI product. Next, the standard method was introduced to enhance the comparability of the two data sources, and a pixel-based regression method was used to construct NDVI-extending models with one pixel after another. The extended series of NDVI fit well with original AVHRR-NDVI. With the extended time-series, temporal trends and spatial heterogeneity of NDVI in the study area were studied. Principal influencing factors on NDVI were further determined. The monthly NDVI is highly correlated with air temperature and precipitation in terms of climatic change wherein the spatially averaged NDVI slightly increases in the summer and has increased in temperature and decreased in precipitation in the 32 years period. The spatial heterogeneity of


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    X. Liu


    Full Text Available Global climate change has significantly affected vegetation variation in the third-polar region of the world – the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. As one of the most important indicators of vegetation variation (growth, coverage and tempo-spatial change, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI is widely employed to study the response of vegetation to climate change. However, a long-term series analysis cannot be achieved because a single data source is constrained by time sequence. Therefore, a new framework was presented in this paper to extend the product series of monthly NDVI, taking as an example the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin, one of the most important river basins in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. NDVI products were acquired from two public sources: Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR and Moderate-Resolution Imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS. After having been extended using the new framework, the new time series of NDVI covers a 384 months period (1982–2013, 84 months longer than previous time series of NDVI product, greatly facilitating NDVI related scientific research. In the new framework, the Gauss Filtering Method was employed to filter out noise in the NDVI product. Next, the standard method was introduced to enhance the comparability of the two data sources, and a pixel-based regression method was used to construct NDVI-extending models with one pixel after another. The extended series of NDVI fit well with original AVHRR-NDVI. With the extended time-series, temporal trends and spatial heterogeneity of NDVI in the study area were studied. Principal influencing factors on NDVI were further determined. The monthly NDVI is highly correlated with air temperature and precipitation in terms of climatic change wherein the spatially averaged NDVI slightly increases in the summer and has increased in temperature and decreased in precipitation in the 32 years period. The

  20. Exploring the ground ice recharge near permafrost table on the central Qinghai-Tibet Plateau using chemical and isotopic data (United States)

    Wang, Weihua; Wu, Tonghua; Zhao, Lin; Li, Ren; Zhu, Xiaofan; Wang, Wanrui; Yang, Shuhua; Qin, Yanhui; Hao, Junmin


    Thawing permafrost on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) has great impacts on the local hydrological process by way of causing ground ice to thaw. Until now there is little knowledge on ground ice hydrology near permafrost table under a warming climate. This study applied stable tracers (isotopes and chloride) and hydrograph separation model to quantify the sources of ground ice near permafrost table in continuous permafrost regions of the central QTP. The results indicated that the ground ice near permafrost table was mainly supplied by active layer water and permafrost water, accounting for 58.9 to 87.0% and 13.0 to 41.1%, respectively, which implying that the active layer was the dominant source. The contribution rates from the active layer to the ground ice in alpine meadow (59 to 69%) was less than that in alpine steppe (70 to 87%). It showed well-developed hydrogeochemical depth gradients, presenting depleted isotopes and positive chemical gradients with depth within the soil layer. The effects of evaporation and freeze-out fractionation on the soil water and ground ice were evident. The results provide additional insights into ground ice sources and cycling near permafrost table in permafrost terrain, and would be helpful for improving process-based detailed hydrologic models under the occurring global warming.

  1. Temperature sensitivity of gaseous elemental mercury in the active layer of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau permafrost. (United States)

    Ci, Zhijia; Peng, Fei; Xue, Xian; Zhang, Xiaoshan


    Soils represent the single largest mercury (Hg) reservoir in the global environment, indicating that a tiny change of Hg behavior in soil ecosystem could greatly affect the global Hg cycle. Climate warming is strongly altering the structure and functions of permafrost and then would influence the Hg cycle in permafrost soils. However, Hg biogeochemistry in climate-sensitive permafrost is poorly investigated. Here we report a data set of soil Hg (0) concentrations in four different depths of the active layer in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau permafrost. We find that soil Hg (0) concentrations exhibited a strongly positive and exponential relationship with temperature and showed different temperature sensitivity under the frozen and unfrozen condition. We conservatively estimate that temperature increases following latest temperature scenarios of the IPCC could result in up to a 54.9% increase in Hg (0) concentrations in surface permafrost soils by 2100. Combining the simultaneous measurement of air-soil Hg (0) exchange, we find that enhanced Hg (0) concentrations in upper soils could favor Hg (0) emissions from surface soil. Our findings indicate that Hg (0) emission could be stimulated by permafrost thawing in a warmer world. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Spatiotemporal dynamics of grassland aboveground biomass on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau based on validated MODIS NDVI. (United States)

    Liu, Shiliang; Cheng, Fangyan; Dong, Shikui; Zhao, Haidi; Hou, Xiaoyun; Wu, Xue


    Spatiotemporal dynamics of aboveground biomass (AGB) is a fundamental problem for grassland environmental management on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data can feasibly be used to estimate AGB at large scales, and their precise validation is necessary to utilize them effectively. In our study, the clip-harvest method was used at 64 plots in QTP grasslands to obtain actual AGB values, and a handheld hyperspectral spectrometer was used to calculate field-measured NDVI to validate MODIS NDVI. Based on the models between NDVI and AGB, AGB dynamics trends during 2000-2012 were analyzed. The results showed that the AGB in QTP grasslands increased during the study period, with 70% of the grasslands undergoing increases mainly in the Qinghai Province. Also, the meadow showed a larger increasing trend than steppe. Future AGB dynamic trends were also investigated using a combined analysis of the slope values and the Hurst exponent. The results showed high sustainability of AGB dynamics trends after the study period. Predictions indicate 60% of the steppe and meadow grasslands would continue to increase in AGB, while 25% of the grasslands would remain in degradation, with most of them distributing in Tibet.

  3. Contribution of supra-permafrost discharge to thermokarst lake water balances on the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (United States)

    Pan, Xicai; Yu, Qihao; You, Yanhui; Chun, Kwok Pan; Shi, Xiaogang; Li, Yanping


    The seasonal hydrological mechanisms of two thermokarst lakes on the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) were characterized by three-year intensive field observations and a water balance model. In three ice-free seasons, the supra-permafrost discharge contributed a mean ratio of over 170% of the precipitation. In the ice-cover seasons, the supra-permafrost discharge contribution varied between -20% and 22% of the water storage change. Results show that a large portion of the lake water storage change is because of the supra-permafrost discharge resulting from precipitation. Furthermore, a precipitation-subsurface runoff function is preliminarily identified in which the supra-permafrost discharge nonlinearly increased with more precipitation. Our results show that the recent lake expansion is linked with increasing supra-permafrost discharge dominated by precipitation. This study also suggests that we need to pay attention to the nonlinear increase of precipitation-controlled supra-permafrost discharge on the large lake expansion at the catchment scale in the QTP region, instead of only looking at the inputs (e.g., precipitation and river discharge) as shown in the previous studies.

  4. Transcriptome sequencing of Crucihimalaya himalaica (Brassicaceae) reveals how Arabidopsis close relative adapt to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (United States)

    Qiao, Qin; Wang, Qia; Han, Xi; Guan, Yanlong; Sun, Hang; Zhong, Yang; Huang, Jinling; Zhang, Ticao


    The extreme environment of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) provides an ideal natural laboratory for studies on adaptive evolution. Few genome/transcriptome based studies have been conducted on how plants adapt to the environments of QTP compared to numerous studies on vertebrates. Crucihimalaya himalaica is a close relative of Arabidopsis with typical QTP distribution, and is hoped to be a new model system to study speciation and ecological adaptation in extreme environment. In this study, we de novo generated a transcriptome sequence of C. himalaica, with a total of 49,438 unigenes. Compared to five relatives, 10,487 orthogroups were shared by all six species, and 4,286 orthogroups contain putative single copy gene. Further analysis identified 487 extremely significantly positively selected genes (PSGs) in C. himalaica transcriptome. Theses PSGs were enriched in functions related to specific adaptation traits, such as response to radiation, DNA repair, nitrogen metabolism, and stabilization of membrane. These functions are responsible for the adaptation of C. himalaica to the high radiation, soil depletion and low temperature environments on QTP. Our findings indicate that C. himalaica has evolved complex strategies for adapting to the extreme environments on QTP and provide novel insights into genetic mechanisms of highland adaptation in plants.

  5. Vegetation Changes along the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Engineering Corridor Since 2000 Induced by Climate Change and Human Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Song


    Full Text Available The Qinghai-Tibet (QT Plateau Engineering Corridor is located in the hinterland of the QT Plateau, which is highly sensitive to global climate change. Climate change causes permafrost degradation, which subsequently affects vegetation growth. This study focused on the vegetation dynamics and their relationships with climate change and human activities in the region surrounding the QT Plateau Engineering Corridor. The vegetation changes were inferred by applying trend analysis, the Mann-Kendall trend test and abrupt change analysis. Six key regions, each containing 40 nested quadrats that ranged in size from 500 × 500 m to 20 × 20 km, were selected to determine the spatial scales of the impacts from different factors. Cumulative growing season integrated enhanced vegetation index (CGSIEVI values were calculated for each of the nested quadrats of different sizes to indicate the overall vegetation state over the entire year at different spatial scales. The impacts from human activities, a sudden increase in precipitation and permafrost degradation were quantified at different spatial scales using the CGSIEVI values and meteorological data based on the double mass curve method. Three conclusions were derived. First, the vegetation displayed a significant increasing trend over 23.6% of the study area. The areas displaying increases were mainly distributed in the Hoh Xil. Of the area where the vegetation displayed a significant decreasing trend, 72.4% was made up of alpine meadows. Second, more vegetation, especially the alpine meadows, has begun to degenerate or experience more rapid degradation since 2007 due to permafrost degradation and overgrazing. Finally, an active layer depth of 3 m to 3.2 m represents a limiting depth for alpine meadows.

  6. Saline Playas on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau as Mars Analog for the Formation-Preservation of Hydrous Salts and Biosignatures (United States)

    Wang, A.; Zheng, M.; Kong, F.; Sobron, P.; Mayer, D. P.


    Qinghai-Tibet (QT) Plateau has the highest average elevation on Earth (~ 4500 m, about 50-60% of atmospheric pressure at sea-level). The high elevation induces a tremendous diurnal (and seasonal) temperature swing caused by high level of solar irradiation during the day and low level of atmospheric insulation during the evening. In addition, the Himalaya mountain chain (average height >6100 m) in the south of the QT Plateau largely blocks the pathway of humid air from the Indian Ocean, and produces a Hyperarid region (Aridity Index, AI ~ 0.04), the Qaidam Basin (N32-35, E90-100) at the north edge of the QT Plateau. Climatically, the low P, T, large ΔT, high aridity, and high UV radiation all make the Qaidam basin to be one of the most similar places on Earth to Mars. Qaidam basin has the most ancient playas (up to Eocene) and the lakes with the highest salinity on QT Plateau. More importantly, Mg-sulfates appear in the evaporative salts within the most ancient playas (Da Langtang) at the northwest corner of Qaidam basin, which mark the final stage of the evaporation sequence of brines rich in K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, C, B, S, and Cl. The evaporation minerals in the saline playas of Qaidam basin, their alteration and preservation under hyperarid conditions can be an interesting analog for the study of Martian salts and salty regolith. We conducted a field investigation at Da Langtan playa in Qaidam basin, with combined remote sensing (ASTER on board of NASA’s Terra satellite, 1.656, 2.167, 2.209, 2.62, 2.336, 2.40 µm), in situ sensing of a portable NIR spectrometer (WIR, 1.25-2.5 µm continuous spectral range), and the laboratory analyses of collected samples from the field (ASD spectrometer, 0.4 -2.5 µm, and Laser Raman spectroscopy). The results indicate that the materials contributing the high albedo layers in playa deposits are carbonate-gypsum-bearing surface soils, salt-clay-bearing exhaumed Pleistocene deposits, dehydrated Na-sulfates, hydrous Mg

  7. [Carbon balance of household production system in the transition zone from the Loess Plateau to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China]. (United States)

    Wu, Chao Chao; Gao, Xiao Ye; Hou, Fu Jiang


    The transition zone from the Loess Plateau to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is one of the regions with most dramatic changes in agricultural production mode and most sensitive response to the carbon balance effect. This paper analyzed the carbon balance of the agriculture system along the altitude gradient in Tongwei, Weiyuan and Xiahe counties. The results showed that with the increase of altitude, the carbon emission, carbon fixation and carbon sink capacity of crops per unit area decreased accordingly, while the average carbon emission, carbon fixation and carbon source capacity of each household in livestock system increased. The integrated crop-livestock production system changed from carbon sink to carbon source. The average carbon emission of each household rose with altitude, but the carbon fixation was the opposite. The change of percentage ofhousehold in the transition zone from the Loess Plateau to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with carbon balance could be fitted with Logistic equation. In the crop system of Tongwei, Weiyuan and Xiahe with the altitude increase, carbon emission at the inflection point where the household percentage accounted for 50.0% was 1491, 857 and 376 kg CE·household -1 , and carbon fixation was 6187, 3872 and 778 kg CE·household -1 , respectively. For the livestock system, carbon emission was 2218, 3725 and 49511 kg CE·household -1 , and carbon fixation was 138, 230 and 2706 kg CE·household -1 , respectively. For the integrated crop-livestock system, carbon emission was 3615, 4583 and 49918 kg CE·household -1 , and carbon fixation was 6289, 4113 and 3819 kg CE·household -1 , respectively, which could be the key point for the regulation of regional carbon balance.

  8. Phosphorus and Defoliation Interact and Improve the Growth and Composition of the Plant Community and Soil Properties in an Alpine Pasture of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. (United States)

    Qi, Juan; Nie, Zhongnan; Jiao, Ting; Zhang, Degang


    Pasture degradation caused by overgrazing and inappropriate fertiliser management is a major production and environmental threat in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Previous research has focused on the effects of mixed nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertiliser and reduced grazing pressure on the plant community of the grassland; however, the role of P and how it interacts with various defoliation (the process of the complete or partial removal of the above-ground parts of plants by grazing or cutting) intensities on the plant and soil of the grassland ecosystem have not been quantified. A field experiment was conducted to quantify how P application in combination of defoliation pressure could impact the dynamic change of the plant and soil in a native alpine grassland ecosystem of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China, from May 2012 to September 2014. A split-plot design with 4 replicates and repeated measures was used to determine the growth and composition of plant community and soil physical and chemical properties under various levels of P fertiliser and defoliation intensity. The results showed that applying 20 kg P/ha increased the herbage yield of Melissitus ruthenica by 68% and total pasture yield by 25%. Close defoliation favoured the growth and plant frequency of the shorter species, whereas lax defoliation favoured that of the taller plant species. Medium P rate and cutting to 3 cm above ground gave an overall best outcome in pasture yield, quality and frequency and soil moisture and nutrient concentration. Application of P fertiliser with a moderate defoliation pressure to promote legume growth and N fixation has the potential to achieve multiple benefits in increasing pasture and livestock production and improving environmental sustainability in the alpine pasture of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, a fragile and P-deficient ecosystem zone in China and its western neighbouring countries.

  9. Pore Effect on the Occurrence and Formation of Gas Hydrate in Permafrost of Qilian Mountain, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China (United States)

    Gao, H.; Lu, H.; Lu, Z.


    Gas hydrates were found in the permafrost of Qilian Mountain, Qinghai- Tibet Plateau, China in 2008. It has been found that gas hydrates occur in Jurassic sedimentary rocks, and the hydrated gases are mainly thermogenic. Different from the gas hydrates existing in loose sands in Mallik, Mackenzie Delta, Canada and North Slope, Alaska, USA, the gas hydrates in Qilian Mountain occurred in hard rocks. For understanding the occurrence and formation mechanism of gas hydrate in hard rcok, extensive experimental investigations have been conducted to study the pore features and hydrate formation in the rocks recovered from the hydrate layers in Qilian Mountain. The structures of sedimentary rock were observed by high-resolution X-ray CT, and pore size distribution of a rock specimen was measured with the mercury-injection method. Methane hydrate was synthesized in water-saturated rocks, and the saturations of hydrate in sedimentary rocks of various types were estimated from the amount of gas released from certain volume of rock. X-ray CT observation revealed that fractures were developed in the rocks associated with faults, while those away from faults were generally with massive structure. The mercury-injection analysis of pore features found that the porosities of the hydrate-existing rocks were generally less than 3%, and the pore sizes were generally smaller than 100 nm. The synthesizing experiments found that the saturation of methane hydrate were generally lower than 6% of pore space in rocks, but up to 16% when fractures developed. The low hydrate saturation in Qilian sedimentary rocks has been found mainly due to the small pore size of rock. The low hydrate saturation in the rocks might be the reason for the failure of regional seismic and logging detections of gas hydrates in Qilian Mountain.

  10. Detection and genetic characterization of porcine deltacoronavirus in Tibetan pigs surrounding the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China. (United States)

    Wang, M; Wang, Y; Baloch, A R; Pan, Y; Tian, L; Xu, F; Shivaramu, S; Chen, S; Zeng, Q


    Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a recently discovered RNA virus that belongs to the family Coronaviridae and genus Deltacoronavirus. This virus causes enteric disease in piglets that is characterized by enteritis and diarrhoea. In our present investigation, 189 diarrhoeic samples were collected between July 2016 and May 2017 from Tibetan pigs inhabiting in three different provinces surrounding the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China. We then applied the molecular-based method of reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs) to detect the presence of PDCoV in collected samples, and RT-PCR indicated that the prevalence of PDCoV was 3.70% (7/189) in Tibetan pigs. Four of 7 PDCoV-positive pigs were monoinfections of PDCoV, three samples were co-infections of PDCoV with porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV), and 52 (27.51%) samples were positive for PEDV. Four strains with different full-length genomes were identified (CHN/GS/2016/1, CHN/GS/2016/2, CHN/GS-/2017/1 and CHN/QH/2017/1), and their genomes were used to analyse the characteristics of PDCoV currently prevalent in Tibetan pigs. We found a 3-nt insertion in the spike gene in four strains in Tibetan pigs. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome and spike and nucleocapsid gene sequences revealed that these strains shared ancestors with the strain CHN-AH-2004, which was found in pigs from the Anhui province of China mainland. However, PDCoV strains from Tibetan pigs formed different branches within the same cluster, implying continuous evolution in the field. Our present findings highlight the importance of epidemiologic surveillance to limit the spread of PDCoV in livestock at high altitudes in China. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Diploid hybrid origin of Ostryopsis intermedia (Betulaceae) in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau triggered by Quaternary climate change. (United States)

    Liu, Bingbing; Abbott, Richard J; Lu, Zhiqiang; Tian, Bin; Liu, Jianquan


    Despite the well-known effects that Quaternary climate oscillations had on shaping intraspecific diversity, their role in driving homoploid hybrid speciation is less clear. Here, we examine their importance in the putative homoploid hybrid origin and evolution of Ostryopsis intermedia, a diploid species occurring in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), a biodiversity hotspot. We investigated interspecific relationships between this species and its only other congeners, O. davidiana and O. nobilis, based on four sets of nuclear and chloroplast population genetic data and tested alternative speciation hypotheses. All nuclear data distinguished the three species clearly and supported a close relationship between O. intermedia and the disjunctly distributed O. davidiana. Chloroplast DNA sequence variation identified two tentative lineages, which distinguished O. intermedia from O. davidiana; however, both were present in O. nobilis. Admixture analyses of genetic polymorphisms at 20 SSR loci and sequence variation at 11 nuclear loci and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) tests supported the hypothesis that O. intermedia originated by homoploid hybrid speciation from O. davidiana and O. nobilis. We further estimated that O. davidiana and O. nobilis diverged 6-11 Ma, while O. intermedia originated 0.5-1.2 Ma when O. davidiana is believed to have migrated southward, contacted and hybridized with O. nobilis possibly during the largest Quaternary glaciation that occurred in this region. Our findings highlight the importance of Quaternary climate change in the QTP in causing hybrid speciation in this important biodiversity hotspot. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Crust-mantle density distribution in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau revealed by satellite-derived gravity gradients (United States)

    LI, Honglei; Fang, Jian; Braitenberg, Carla; Wang, Xinsheng


    As the highest, largest and most active plateau on Earth, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has a complex crust-mantle structure, especially in its eastern part. In response to the subduction of the lithospheric mantle of the Indian plate, large-scale crustal motion occurs in this area. Despite the many previous studies, geodynamic processes at depth remain unclear. Knowledge of crust and upper mantle density distribution allows a better definition of the deeper geological structure and thus provides critically needed information for understanding of the underlying geodynamic processes. With an unprecedented precision of 1-2 mGal and a spatial resolution better than 100 km, GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer) mission products can be used to constrain the crust-mantle density distribution. Here we used GOCE gravitational gradients at an altitude of 10km after reducing the effects of terrain, sediment thickness variations, and Moho undulations to image the density structures of eastern Tibet up to 200 km depths. We inverted the residual satellite gravitational gradients using a least square approach. The initial density model for the inversion is based on seismic velocities from the tomography. The model is composed of rectangular blocks, having a uniform density, with widths of about 100 km and variable thickness and depths. The thickness of the rectangular cells changes from10 to 60km in accordance with the seismic model. Our results reveal some large-scale, structurally controlled density variations at depths. The lithospheric root defined by higher-density contrast features from southwest to northeast, with shallowing in the central part: base of lithosphere reaches a depth of180 km, less than 100km, and 200 km underneath the Lhasa, Songpan-Ganzi, and Ordos crustal blocks, respectively. However, these depth values only represent a first-order parameterization because they depend on model discretization inherited from the original seismic

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community composition affected by original elevation rather than translocation along an altitudinal gradient on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Zheng, Yong; Gao, Cheng; Duan, Ji-Chuang; Wang, Shi-Ping; Guo, Liang-Dong


    Elucidating arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal responses to elevation changes is critical to improve understanding of microbial function in ecosystems under global asymmetrical climate change scenarios. Here we examined AM fungal community in a two-year reciprocal translocation of vegetation-intact soil blocks along an altitudinal gradient (3,200 m to 3,800 m) in an alpine meadow on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. AM fungal spore density was significantly higher at lower elevation than at higher elevation regardless of translocation, except that this parameter was significantly increased by upward translocation from original 3,200 m to 3,400 m and 3,600 m. Seventy-three operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of AM fungi were recovered using 454-pyrosequencing of 18S rDNA sequences at a 97% sequence similarity. Original elevation, downward translocation and upward translocation did not significantly affect AM fungal OTU richness. However, with increasing altitude the OTU richness of Acaulosporaceae and Ambisporaceae increased, but the OTU richness of Gigasporaceae and Glomeraceae decreased generally. The AM fungal community composition was significantly structured by original elevation but not by downward translocation and upward translocation. Our findings highlight that compared with the short-term reciprocal translocation, original elevation is a stronger determinant in shaping AM fungal community in the Qinghai-Tibet alpine meadow.

  14. Climate warming over the past half century has led to thermal degradation of permafrost on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (United States)

    Ran, Youhua; Li, Xin; Cheng, Guodong


    Air temperature increases thermally degrade permafrost, which has widespread impacts on engineering design, resource development, and environmental protection in cold regions. This study evaluates the potential thermal degradation of permafrost over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) from the 1960s to the 2000s using estimated decadal mean annual air temperatures (MAATs) by integrating remote-sensing-based estimates of mean annual land surface temperatures (MASTs), leaf area index (LAI) and fractional snow cover values, and decadal mean MAAT date from 152 weather stations with a geographically weighted regression (GWR). The results reflect a continuous rise of approximately 0.04 °C a-1 in the decadal mean MAAT values over the past half century. A thermal-condition classification matrix is used to convert modelled MAATs to permafrost thermal type. Results show that the climate warming has led to a thermal degradation of permafrost in the past half century. The total area of thermally degraded permafrost is approximately 153.76 × 104 km2, which corresponds to 88 % of the permafrost area in the 1960s. The thermal condition of 75.2 % of the very cold permafrost, 89.6 % of the cold permafrost, 90.3 % of the cool permafrost, 92.3 % of the warm permafrost, and 32.8 % of the very warm permafrost has been degraded to lower levels of thermal condition. Approximately 49.4 % of the very warm permafrost and 96 % of the likely thawing permafrost has degraded to seasonally frozen ground. The mean elevations of the very cold, cold, cool, warm, very warm, and likely thawing permafrost areas increased by 88, 97, 155, 185, 161, and 250 m, respectively. The degradation mainly occurred from the 1960s to the 1970s and from the 1990s to the 2000s. This degradation may lead to increased risks to infrastructure, reductions in ecosystem resilience, increased flood risks, and positive climate feedback effects. It therefore affects the well-being of millions of people

  15. Applying GIPL2.0 Model to assess the permafrost dynamics on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (United States)

    Wu, T.


    The modeling of active layer and permafrost distribution is of great importance to understand the permafrost dynamics of cold regions, especially in those regions where are difficult to approach such as the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). In this study we have applied the Geophysical Institute Permafrost Lab model (GIPL2.0) to estimate the active layer thickness and assess the permafrost thermal regime on the QTP. The GIPL 2.0 have been widely applied in the Arctic regions of Alaska, however less on the QTP. The model has been calibrated according to the four active layer in-situ measurement sites which have different underlying surface and soil characteristics. We extended the original GIPL2 model depth to the depth of 18 m. After the calibration of the GIPL2.0 at those four sites, the first-hand single point model is expanded to a regional model. The key permafrost parameters were simulated, including active layer thickness (ALT), mean annual ground temperature (MAGT) at multiple soil layers, and the permafrost classification was also carried out in order to study the permafrost the thermal stability across the QTP. To validate the performance of expanded regional-GIPL2 model, we compare simulated ALT and MAGT at the depth of zero annual amplitude (DZAA) with observed data. It is demonstrated that the modifications regional-GIPL2 model are able to improve the accuracy of permafrost thermal regime simulations greatly on the QTP. The simulated ALT are generally underestimate the observed ones with the MBE value of -0.14 m and the RMSE value of 0.22 m. For the MAGT at the DZAA of all 51 sites, the simulation errors range from - 0.9 ° to 0.9 ° with the RMSE value of 0.41 °. For the whole permafrost area of the QTP, the simulated ALT ranges from 0 to 8 m, with an average of 2.30 m. The simulated results indicate that most of regions were underlain by the sub-stable permafrost and less regions were underlain by the extremely stable permafrost.

  16. The burying and grazing effects of plateau pika on alpine grassland are small: a pilot study in a semiarid basin on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yi


    Full Text Available There is considerable controversy about the effects of plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae, hereafter pika on alpine grassland on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP. On the one hand, pika is considered a keystone species. On the other hand, it is being poisoned. Although significant efforts have been made to study the effects of pika at a quadrat scale ( ∼  m2, our knowledge about its distribution and effects at a larger scale is very limited. In this study, we investigated the direct effects, i.e., burying and grazing, of pika by upscaling field sampling at a quadrat scale to a plot scale ( ∼  1000 m2 by aerial photographing. Altogether 168 plots were set on four different types of alpine grassland in a semiarid basin on the QTP. Results showed that (1 the effects of pika pile burying on the reduction of vegetation cover, biomass, soil carbon, and nitrogen were less than 10 %, which was much smaller than the effects of bald patches; and (2 pika consumed 8–21 % of annual net primary production of grassland. We concluded that the direct burying and grazing effects of pika on alpine grassland were minor in this region. The quadcopter is an efficient and economic tool for long-term repeated monitoring over large regions for further understanding the role of pika.

  17. The burying and grazing effects of plateau pika on alpine grassland are small: a pilot study in a semiarid basin on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (United States)

    Yi, Shuhua; Chen, Jianjun; Qin, Yu; Xu, Gaowei


    There is considerable controversy about the effects of plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae, hereafter pika) on alpine grassland on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). On the one hand, pika is considered a keystone species. On the other hand, it is being poisoned. Although significant efforts have been made to study the effects of pika at a quadrat scale ( ˜ m2), our knowledge about its distribution and effects at a larger scale is very limited. In this study, we investigated the direct effects, i.e., burying and grazing, of pika by upscaling field sampling at a quadrat scale to a plot scale ( ˜ 1000 m2) by aerial photographing. Altogether 168 plots were set on four different types of alpine grassland in a semiarid basin on the QTP. Results showed that (1) the effects of pika pile burying on the reduction of vegetation cover, biomass, soil carbon, and nitrogen were less than 10 %, which was much smaller than the effects of bald patches; and (2) pika consumed 8-21 % of annual net primary production of grassland. We concluded that the direct burying and grazing effects of pika on alpine grassland were minor in this region. The quadcopter is an efficient and economic tool for long-term repeated monitoring over large regions for further understanding the role of pika.

  18. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus velezensis LM2303, a biocontrol strain isolated from the dung of wild yak inhabited Qinghai-Tibet plateau. (United States)

    Chen, Liang


    Bacillus velezensis LM2303 is a biocontrol strain with a broad inhibitory spectrum against plant pathogens, isolated from the dung of wild yak inhabited Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China. Here we present its complete genome sequence, which consists of a single, circular chromosome of 3,989,393bp with a 46.68% G+C content. Genome analysis revealed genes encoding specialized functions for the biosynthesis of antifungal metabolites and antibacterial metabolites, the promotion of plant growth, the alleviation of oxidative stress and nutrient utilization. And the biosynthesis of antimicrobial metabolites in strain LM2303 was confirmed by biochemical analysis, while its plant growth promoting traits were confirmed by inoculation tests. Our results will establish a better foundation for further studies and biocontrol application of B. velezensis LM2303. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Spatial variability and its main controlling factors of the permafrost soil-moisture on the northern-slope of Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (United States)

    Cao, W.; Sheng, Y.


    The soil moisture movement is an important carrier of material cycle and energy flow among the various geo-spheres in the cold regions. It is very critical to protect the alpine ecology and hydrologic cycle in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Especially, it becomes one of the key problems to reveal the spatial-temporal variability of soil moisture movement and its main influence factors in earth system science. Thus, this research takes the north slope of Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau as a case study. The present study firstly investigates the change of permafrost moisture in different slope positions and depths. Based on this investigation, this article attempts to investigate the spatial variability of permafrost moisture and identifies the key influence factors in different terrain conditions. The method of classification and regression tree (CART) is adopted to identify the main controlling factors influencing the soil moisture movement. And the relationships between soil moisture and environmental factors are revealed by the use of the method of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The results show that: 1) the change of the soil moisture on the permafrost slope is divided into 4 stages, including the freezing stability phase, the rapid thawing phase, the thawing stability phase and the fast freezing phase; 2) this greatly enhances the horizontal flow in the freezing period due to the terrain slope and the freezing-thawing process. Vertical migration is the mainly form of the soil moisture movement. It leads to that the soil-moisture content in the up-slope is higher than that in the down-slope. On the contrary, the soil-moisture content in the up-slope is lower than that in the down-slope during the melting period; 3) the main environmental factors which affect the slope-permafrost soil-moisture are elevation, soil texture, soil temperature and vegetation coverage. But there are differences in the impact factors of the soil moisture in different

  20. Precipitation change and its effects on prehistorical human activities in the Gonghe Basin, Northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau during middle and late Holocene (United States)

    Hou, Xiaoqing; Hou, Guangliang; Wang, Fangfang; Wang, Qingbo


    Northeastern Qinghai-tibet Plateau is considered as the ideal region for study of the climate change during the Holocene. Based on the meteorological data, the surface & fossil pollen data, this paper reconstructed the precipitation series of the region since middle Holocene with the GIS and MAT techniques, and discussed its relationship with prehistorical human activities. The results indicate that there are four major climatic phases: (I) Middle Holocene Humid Phase (6300-5000 aBP), with the primitive millet-farming first imported into the region; (II) Late Middle Holocene Sub-humid Phase (5000-3900 aBP), with the millet-farming spread rapidly within the region; (III) Late Holocene Fluctuation Phase (3900-2900 aBP), with the mean annual precipitation dropped down to lower than 240 mm, and a production mode-shift to a combination of cropping and husbandry; (IV) Late Holocene Stationary Phase (2900-0 aBP), with a precipitation alike the modern time, and a steady farming-pastoral economic pattern.

  1. Changes in frozen ground in the Source Area of the Yellow River on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China, and their eco-environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Huijun; He Ruixia; Cheng Guodong; Wu Qingbai; Wang Shaoling; Lue Lanzhi; Chang Xiaoli, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soils Engineering, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 326 West Donggang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China)


    The Source Area of the Yellow River is located in the mosaic transition zones of seasonally frozen ground, and discontinuous and continuous permafrost on the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Vertically, permafrost is attached or detached from frost action. The latter can be further divided into shallow (depth to the permafrost table <=8 m), deep (>8 m) and two-layer permafrost. Since the 1980s, air temperatures have been rising at an average rate of 0.02 deg. C yr{sup -1}. Human activities have also increased remarkably, resulting in a regional degradation of permafrost. The lower limit of permafrost has risen by 50-80 m. The average maximum depth of frost penetration has decreased by 0.1-0.2 m. The temperatures of the suprapermafrost water have increased by 0.5-0.7 deg. C. General trends of permafrost degradation include reduction in areal extent from continuous and discontinuous to sporadic and patchy permafrost, thinning of permafrost, and expansion of taliks. Isolated patches of permafrost have either been significantly reduced in areal extent, or changed into seasonally frozen ground. Degradation of permafrost has led to a lowering of ground water levels, shrinking lakes and wetlands, and noticeable change of grassland ecosystems alpine meadows to steppes. The degradation of alpine grasslands will cause further degradation of permafrost and result in the deterioration of ecological environments as manifested by expanding desertification and enhancing soil erosion.

  2. Changes in frozen ground in the Source Area of the Yellow River on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China, and their eco-environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Huijun; He Ruixia; Cheng Guodong; Wu Qingbai; Wang Shaoling; Lue Lanzhi; Chang Xiaoli


    The Source Area of the Yellow River is located in the mosaic transition zones of seasonally frozen ground, and discontinuous and continuous permafrost on the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Vertically, permafrost is attached or detached from frost action. The latter can be further divided into shallow (depth to the permafrost table ≤8 m), deep (>8 m) and two-layer permafrost. Since the 1980s, air temperatures have been rising at an average rate of 0.02 deg. C yr -1 . Human activities have also increased remarkably, resulting in a regional degradation of permafrost. The lower limit of permafrost has risen by 50-80 m. The average maximum depth of frost penetration has decreased by 0.1-0.2 m. The temperatures of the suprapermafrost water have increased by 0.5-0.7 deg. C. General trends of permafrost degradation include reduction in areal extent from continuous and discontinuous to sporadic and patchy permafrost, thinning of permafrost, and expansion of taliks. Isolated patches of permafrost have either been significantly reduced in areal extent, or changed into seasonally frozen ground. Degradation of permafrost has led to a lowering of ground water levels, shrinking lakes and wetlands, and noticeable change of grassland ecosystems alpine meadows to steppes. The degradation of alpine grasslands will cause further degradation of permafrost and result in the deterioration of ecological environments as manifested by expanding desertification and enhancing soil erosion.

  3. Preparation and thermal properties of Glauber’s salt-based phase-change materials for Qinghai-Tibet Plateau solar greenhouses (United States)

    Jiang, Zipeng; Tie, Shengnian


    This paper reports the preparation and characterization of eutectic Glauber’s salt-based composite, phase-change materials (G-PCMs). PCMs were prepared using industrial-grade sodium sulfate decahydrate (Na2SO4 ṡ 10H2O) as the basic material. Other salts were added to obtain the eutectic Glauber’s salt-based PCMs with phase-change temperatures of 25∘C, 15∘C and 10∘C. The modification of the G-PCMs was designed using the same experimental method to select the efficient nucleating, thickening and thermal conductive agents. The results show that borax can be an effective nucleating agent, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is an excellent thickener and carbon powder is a good thermal conductive agent. The phase-change temperature, latent heat and thermal conductivity of the three different PCMs are 23.9∘C, 15.4∘C and 9.5∘C; 179.6, 129 and 116.2 J/g; and 1.02, 1.10 and 1.23 W/(m K), respectively. These PCMs possess suitable phase-change temperature, high latent heat and good thermal conductivity, and can be used in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau agricultural solar greenhouses.

  4. ANN Model-Based Simulation of the Runoff Variation in Response to Climate Change on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Juan


    Full Text Available Precisely quantitative assessments of stream flow response to climatic change and permafrost thawing are highly challenging and urgent in cold regions. However, due to the notably harsh environmental conditions, there is little field monitoring data of runoff in permafrost regions, which has limited the development of physically based models in these regions. To identify the impacts of climate change in the runoff process in the Three-River Headwater Region (TRHR on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, two artificial neural network (ANN models, one with three input variables (previous runoff, air temperature, and precipitation and another with two input variables (air temperature and precipitation only, were developed to simulate and predict the runoff variation in the TRHR. The results show that the three-input variable ANN model has a superior real-time prediction capability and performs well in the simulation and forecasting of the runoff variation in the TRHR. Under the different scenarios conditions, the forecasting results of ANN model indicated that climate change has a great effect on the runoff processes in the TRHR. The results of this study are of practical significance for water resources management and the evaluation of the impacts of climatic change on the hydrological regime in long-term considerations.

  5. Allopatric divergence of Stuckenia filiformis (Potamogetonaceae) on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its comparative phylogeography with S. pectinata in China. (United States)

    Du, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Qing-Feng


    In the aquatic genus Stuckenia, the wide geographic range of S. pectinata and S. filiformis make them suited for examination of topographic and climatic effects on plant evolution. Using nuclear ITS sequence and ten chloroplast sequences, we conducted comparative phylogeographical analyses to investigate their distribution regions and hybrid zones in China, and compare their phylogeographical patterns and demographical histories. These two species were allopatric in China. S. filiformis occurred only on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), whereas S. pectinata occupied a wide range of habitats. These two species formed hybrid zones on the northeastern edge of QTP. Most of the genetic variance of S. filiformis was between the southern and eastern groups on the QTP, showing a significant phylogeographic structure. The geographical isolations caused by the Nyenchen Tanglha Mountains and the Tanggula Mountains promoted intraspecific diversification of alpine plants on the QTP. This study revealed the lack of phylogeographic structure in S. pectinata, due to the continued gene flow among its distribution regions. The ecological niche modeling showed that the distribution ranges of these two herbaceous species did not contract too much during the glacial period.

  6. The aliphatic hydrocarbon distributions of terrestrial plants around an alpine lake: a pilot study from Lake Ximencuo, Eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (United States)

    Pu, Yang; Jia, Jihong; Cao, Jicheng


    As part of an investigation of the sources of aliphatic hydrocarbons to the sediments of alpine Lake Ximencuo, leaves of the eight dominant vascular plants were collected and their hydrocarbon contents were analyzed. A series of unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons were identified in the plant leaves; in particular, Festuca sp. contain a series of n-alkadienes that have rarely been reported in previous studies. The comparison of n-alkane proxies (ACL 27-33, ACL T, P aq, and CPI) and δ13Corg among plant leaves, surface soils, and lake sediments suggests that organic proxies have been altered to varying degrees during the transport and burial process of organic materials. It is believed that microbial reworking and source changes have great impacts on organic proxies in the alpine lake system. In addition, the cluster analysis for plant leaves depending on n-alkane compositions and the ACL T proxy generates similar results. Accordingly, we postulate that the average chain length of plant waxes might be a potential indicator of plant classification in regions such as the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

  7. Role of rainwater induced subsurface flow in water-level dynamics and thermoerosion of shallow thermokarst ponds on the Northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (United States)

    Pan, X.; Yu, Q.; You, Y.


    Understanding hydrological and thermal regimes of thermokarst lakes is of great importance for predicting their responses to climate change. However, mechanism of water-level dynamics and associated thermal effects on thermoerosion of thermokarst lakes are still not well understood on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). In this study, we investigate two typical shallow thermokarst ponds (namely small lakes) in a warm permafrost region with thick active layer on the northeastern QTP through quantifying water budget. Results demonstrate that, rainfall induced subsurface lateral flow dominates pond water-level regime. Annual variation of pond water-level relies on areal water budget of surrounding active layer, particularly the high variable of precipitation. Besides, it is worth noting the extraordinary warming during the late ice-cover period, because marked air gap between upper ice-cover and underlying water, led by the upward thawing of thick ice-cover, might result in greenhouse-like condition due to the unique weather that strong solar radiation and little snowpack. This hydrological mechanism also exerts evident impacts on thermal regime and thermoerosion of the shallow thermokarst ponds, and they are closely related to retreat of thermokarst pondshore and underlying permafrost degradation. These findings imply a localized model addressing the unique hydrological and thermal regimes of thermokarst lakes would be essential to study the evolution of these shallow rainwater dominated thermokarst ponds on the QTP.

  8. Rapid response of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities to short-term fertilization in an alpine grassland on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjia Xiang


    Full Text Available Background: The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP is home to the vast grassland in China. The QTP grassland ecosystem has been seriously degraded by human land use practices and climate change. Fertilization is used in this region to increase vegetation yields for grazers. The impact of long-term fertilization on plant and microbial communities has been studied extensively. However, the influence of short-term fertilization on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF communities in the QTP is largely unknown, despite their important functional role in grassland ecosystems. Methods: We investigated AMF community responses to three years of N and/or P addition at an experimental field site on the QTP, using the Illumina MiSeq platform (PE 300. Results: Fertilization resulted in a dramatic shift in AMF community composition and NP addition significantly increased AMF species richness and phylogenetic diversity. Aboveground biomass, available phosphorus, and NO3− were significantly correlated with changes in AMF community structure. Changes in these factors were driven by fertilization treatments. Thus, fertilization had a large impact on AMF communities, mediated by changes in aboveground productivity and soil chemistry. Discussion: Prior work has shown how plants often lower their reliance on AMF symbioses following fertilization, leading to decrease AMF abundance and diversity. However, our study reports a rise in AMF diversity with fertilization treatment. Because AMF can provide stress tolerance to their hosts, we suggest that extreme weather on the QTP may help drive a positive relationship between fertilizer amendment and AMF diversity.

  9. Monitoring coal mine changes and their impact on landscape patterns in an alpine region: a case study of the Muli coal mine in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. (United States)

    Qian, Dawen; Yan, Changzhen; Xing, Zanpin; Xiu, Lina


    The Muli coal mine is the largest open-cast coal mine in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and it consists of two independent mining sites named Juhugeng and Jiangcang. It has received much attention due to the ecological problems caused by rapid expansion in recent years. The objective of this paper was to monitor the mining area and its surrounding land cover over the period 1976-2016 utilizing Landsat images, and the network structure of land cover changes was determined to visualize the relationships and pattern of the mining-induced land cover changes. In addition, the responses of the surrounding landscape pattern were analysed by constructing gradient transects. The results show that the mining area was increasing in size, especially after 2000 (increased by 71.68 km 2 ), and this caused shrinkage of the surrounding lands, including alpine meadow wetland (53.44 km 2 ), alpine meadow (6.28 km 2 ) and water (6.24 km 2 ). The network structure of the mining area revealed the changes in lands surrounding the mining area. The impact of mining development on landscape patterns was mainly distributed within a range of 1-6 km. Alpine meadow wetland was most affected in Juhugeng, while alpine meadow was most affected in Jiangcang. The results of this study provide a reference for the ecological assessment and restoration of the Muli coal mine land.

  10. Impacts of changes in vegetation cover on soil water heat coupling in an alpine meadow of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Genxu


    Full Text Available Alpine meadow is one of the most widespread grassland types in the permafrost regions of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and the transmission of coupled soil water heat is one of the most crucial processes influencing cyclic variations in the hydrology of frozen soil regions, especially under different vegetation covers. The present study assesses the impact of changes in vegetation cover on the coupling of soil water and heat in a permafrost region. Soil moisture (θv, soil temperature (Ts, soil heat content, and differences in θvTs coupling were monitored on a seasonal and daily basis under three different vegetation covers (30, 65, and 93% on both thawed and frozen soils. Regression analysis of θv vs. Ts plots under different levels of vegetation cover indicates that soil freeze-thaw processes were significantly affected by the changes in vegetation cover. The decrease in vegetation cover of an alpine meadow reduced the difference between air temperature and ground temperature (ΔTa−s, and it also resulted in a decrease in Ts at which soil froze, and an increase in the temperature at which it thawed. This was reflected in a greater response of soil temperature to changes in air temperature (Ta. For ΔTa−s outside the range of −0.1 to 1.0°C, root zone soil-water temperatures showed a significant increase with increasing ΔTa−s; however, the magnitude of this relationship was dampened with increasing vegetation cover. At the time of maximum water content in the thawing season, the soil temperature decreased with increasing vegetation. Changes in vegetation cover also led to variations in θvTs coupling. With the increase in vegetation cover, the surface heat flux decreased. Soil heat storage at 20 cm in

  11. Insights into the evolution of pathogenicity of Escherichia coli from genomic analysis of intestinal E. coli of Marmota himalayana in Qinghai-Tibet plateau of China. (United States)

    Lu, Shan; Jin, Dong; Wu, Shusheng; Yang, Jing; Lan, Ruiting; Bai, Xiangning; Liu, Sha; Meng, Qiong; Yuan, Xuejiao; Zhou, Juan; Pu, Ji; Chen, Qiang; Dai, Hang; Hu, Yuanyuan; Xiong, Yanwen; Ye, Changyun; Xu, Jianguo


    Escherichia coli is both of a widespread harmless gut commensal and a versatile pathogen of humans. Domestic animals are a well-known reservoir for pathogenic E. coli. However, studies of E. coli populations from wild animals that have been separated from human activities had been very limited. Here we obtained 580 isolates from intestinal contents of 116 wild Marmot Marmota himalayana from Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China, with five isolates per animal. We selected 125 (hereinafter referred to as strains) from the 580 isolates for genome sequencing, based on unique pulse field gel electrophoresis patterns and at least one isolate per animal. Whole genome sequence analysis revealed that all 125 strains carried at least one and the majority (79.2%) carried multiple virulence genes based on the analysis of 22 selected virulence genes. In particular, the majority of the strains carried virulence genes from different pathovars as potential 'hybrid pathogens'. The alleles of eight virulence genes from the Marmot E. coli were found to have diverged earlier than all known alleles from human and other animal E. coli. Phylogenetic analysis of the 125 Marmot E. coli genomes and 355 genomes selected from 1622 human and other E. coli strains identified two new phylogroups, G and H, both of which diverged earlier than the other phylogroups. Eight of the 12 well-known pathogenic E. coli lineages were found to share a most recent common ancestor with one or more Marmot E. coli strains. Our results suggested that the intestinal E. coli of the Marmots contained a diverse virulence gene pool and is potentially pathogenic to humans. These findings provided a new understanding of the evolutionary origin of pathogenic E. coli.

  12. Relative Roles of Deterministic and Stochastic Processes in Driving the Vertical Distribution of Bacterial Communities in a Permafrost Core from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. (United States)

    Hu, Weigang; Zhang, Qi; Tian, Tian; Li, Dingyao; Cheng, Gang; Mu, Jing; Wu, Qingbai; Niu, Fujun; Stegen, James C; An, Lizhe; Feng, Huyuan


    Understanding the processes that influence the structure of biotic communities is one of the major ecological topics, and both stochastic and deterministic processes are expected to be at work simultaneously in most communities. Here, we investigated the vertical distribution patterns of bacterial communities in a 10-m-long soil core taken within permafrost of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. To get a better understanding of the forces that govern these patterns, we examined the diversity and structure of bacterial communities, and the change in community composition along the vertical distance (spatial turnover) from both taxonomic and phylogenetic perspectives. Measures of taxonomic and phylogenetic beta diversity revealed that bacterial community composition changed continuously along the soil core, and showed a vertical distance-decay relationship. Multiple stepwise regression analysis suggested that bacterial alpha diversity and phylogenetic structure were strongly correlated with soil conductivity and pH but weakly correlated with depth. There was evidence that deterministic and stochastic processes collectively drived bacterial vertically-structured pattern. Bacterial communities in five soil horizons (two originated from the active layer and three from permafrost) of the permafrost core were phylogenetically random, indicator of stochastic processes. However, we found a stronger effect of deterministic processes related to soil pH, conductivity, and organic carbon content that were structuring the bacterial communities. We therefore conclude that the vertical distribution of bacterial communities was governed primarily by deterministic ecological selection, although stochastic processes were also at work. Furthermore, the strong impact of environmental conditions (for example, soil physicochemical parameters and seasonal freeze-thaw cycles) on these communities underlines the sensitivity of permafrost microorganisms to climate change and potentially subsequent

  13. Phylogeny and biogeography of Primula sect. Armerina: implications for plant evolution under climate change and the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. (United States)

    Ren, Guangpeng; Conti, Elena; Salamin, Nicolas


    The historical orogenesis and associated climatic changes of mountain areas have been suggested to partly account for the occurrence of high levels of biodiversity and endemism. However, their effects on dispersal, differentiation and evolution of many groups of plants are still unknown. In this study, we examined the detailed diversification history of Primula sect. Armerina, and used biogeographic analysis and macro-evolutionary modeling to investigate a series of different questions concerning the evolution of the geographical and ecological distribution of the species in this section. We sequenced five chloroplast and one nuclear genes for species of Primula sect. Armerina. Neither chloroplast nor nuclear trees support the monophyly of the section. The major incongruences between the two trees occur among closely related species and may be explained by hybridization. Our dating analyses based on the chloroplast dataset suggest that this section began to diverge from its relatives around 3.55 million years ago, largely coinciding with the last major uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). Biogeographic analysis supports the origin of the section in the Himalayan Mountains and dispersal from the Himalayas to Northeastern QTP, Western QTP and Hengduan Mountains. Furthermore, evolutionary models of ecological niches show that the two P. fasciculata clades have significantly different climatic niche optima and rates of niche evolution, indicating niche evolution under climatic changes and further providing evidence for explaining their biogeographic patterns. Our results support the hypothesis that geologic and climatic events play important roles in driving biological diversification of organisms in the QTP area. The Pliocene uplift of the QTP and following climatic changes most likely promoted both the inter- and intraspecific divergence of Primula sect. Armerina. This study also illustrates how niche evolution under climatic changes influences biogeographic

  14. Seasonal and interannual dynamics of soil microbial biomass and available nitrogen in an alpine meadow in the eastern part of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Wang, Jinniu; Wu, Ning; Wu, Yan; Shi, Fusun


    Soil microbial activity varies seasonally in frozen alpine soils during cold seasons and plays a crucial role in available N pool accumulation in soil. The intra- and interannual patterns of microbial and nutrient dynamics reflect the influences of changing weather factors, and thus provide important insights into the biogeochemical cycles and ecological functions of ecosystems. We documented the seasonal and interannual dynamics of soil microbial and available N in an alpine meadow in the eastern part of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China, between April 2011 and October 2013. Soil was collected in the middle of each month and analyzed for water content, microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN), dissolved organic C and N, and inorganic N. Soil microbial community composition was measured by the dilution-plate method. Fungi and actinomycetes dominated the microbial community during the nongrowing seasons, and the proportion of bacteria increased considerably during the early growing seasons. Trends of consistently increasing MBC and available N pools were observed during the nongrowing seasons. MBC sharply declined during soil thaw and was accompanied by a peak in available N pool. Induced by changes in soil temperatures, significant shifts in the structures and functions of microbial communities were observed during the winter-spring transition and largely contributed to microbial reduction. The divergent seasonal dynamics of different N forms showed a complementary nutrient supply pattern during the growing season. Similarities between the interannual dynamics of microbial biomass and available N pools were observed, and soil temperature and water conditions were the primary environmental factors driving interannual fluctuations. Owing to the changes in climate, seasonal soil microbial activities and nutrient supply patterns are expected to change further, and these changes may have crucial implications for the productivity and biodiversity of alpine ecosystems.

  15. [Identification of ecological corridors for Tibetan antelope and assessment of their human disturbances in the alpine desert of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau]. (United States)

    Zhuge, Hai-jin; Lin, Dan-qi; Li, Xiao-wen


    The alpine desert of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) provides the largest habitats for those endangered ungulates (e.g., Tibetan antelope, Tibetan Kiang and wild yak) on the earth. However, human disturbance especially infrastructure constructions (e.g., railway & highway) has increasingly fragmented the habitats of those endangered ungulates by disturbing and interrupting their ecological corridors for their seasonal migration. Aiming at identifying the potential ecological corridors for Tibetan antelope, a GIS-based model-Linkage Mapper was used to model and detect the potential ecological corridors of Tibetan antelope based on the principle of least cost path. Three categories of ecological corridors, i. e., closed (inside reserves), linking (linking the reserves) and open (starting from reserve but ending outside) corridors were distinguished by their spatial interactions with existing major national nature reserves (i.e., Altun, Kekexili and Qiangtang NNRs) in the alpine desert of QTP, and their spatial patterns, conservation status associated with human disturbance were also examined. Although our research indicated a general ecological integration of both habitats and ecological corridors in the alpine desert ecosystem, increasing human disturbance should not be ignored, which particularly partially undermined the functioning of those ecological corridors linking the nature reserves. Considering disadvantages of prevailing separate administrative structure of nature reserve on the effective conservation of ecological corridors for those endangered ungulates, a coordinative conservation network among these major national nature reserves should be established to ensure the unified trans-boundary conservation efforts and to enhance its overall conservation efficacy by sharing information, knowledge and optimizing conservation resources.

  16. Spatiotemporal changes of freezing/thawing indices and their response to recent climate change on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau from 1980 to 2013 (United States)

    Wu, Tonghua; Qin, Yanhui; Wu, Xiaodong; Li, Ren; Zou, Defu; Xie, Changwei


    The spatial and temporal changes of the ground surface freezing indices (GFIs), ground surface thawing indices (GTIs), air freezing indices (AFIs), and air thawing indices (ATIs) in permafrost and seasonally frozen ground regions of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) were analyzed based on the daily ground surface and air temperatures from 69 meteorological stations using the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimate. The spatial patterns of the freezing indices (FIs) and thawing indices (TIs) are nearly negatively correlated. On the annual scale, the GFI and GTI are greater than the AFI and ATI in both permafrost and seasonally frozen ground regions. The marked upward and downward trends have been observed for the time series of TI and FI, respectively, since 1998 on the QTP. Moreover, GFI and AFI decrease more significantly in permafrost regions than in seasonally frozen ground regions; the increasing rate of GTI and ATI in the seasonally frozen ground regions is greater than that in the permafrost regions. In permafrost regions, the downward trend of FI is greater than the upward trend of TI. However, the upward trend of TI shows a more drastic change than the FI in the seasonally frozen ground regions. The results indicate that the warming in the permafrost regions is more pronounced in winter than in the other seasons. The summer warming is more pronounced than the other seasons in the seasonally frozen ground regions. The decreasing rate of AFI and GFI increases as the altitude rises, while they decrease with increasing ATI. The average decreasing rate of GFI is greater than that of the AFI in different altitudinal zones. The greatest decrease of FI occurs in permafrost regions in the hinterland of the QTP, which indicates the dominant winter warming in this region. The downward trend of FI and upward trend of TI are responsible for the reported permafrost degradation on the QTP.

  17. Biological soil crust formation under artificial vegetation effect and its properties in the Mugetan sandy land, northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (United States)

    Li, Y. F.; Li, Z. W.; Jia, Y. H.; Zhang, K.


    Mugetan sandy land is an inland desertification area of about 2,065 km2 in the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. In the ecological restoration region of the Mugetan sandy land, different crusts have formed under the action of vegetation in three types of sandy soil (i.e. semi-fixed sand dune, fixed sand dune and ancient fixed aeolian sandy soil). The surface sand particle distribution, mineral component and vegetation composition of moving sand dunes and three types of sandy soil were studied in 2010-2014 to analyze the biological crust formation properties in the Mugetan sandy land and the effects of artificial vegetation. Results from this study revealed that artificial vegetation increases the clay content and encourages the development of biological curst. The fine particles (i.e. clay and humus) of the surface layer of the sand dunes increased more than 15% ten years after the artificial vegetation planting, and further increased up to 20% after one hundred years. The interaction of clay, humus, and other fine particles formed the soil aggregate structure. Meanwhile, under the vegetation effect from the microbes, algae, and moss, the sand particles stuck together and a biological crust formed. The interconnection of the partial crusts caused the sand dunes to gradually be fixed as a whole. Maintaining the integrity of the biological crust plays a vital role in fixing the sand under the crust. The precipitation and temperature conditions in the Mugetan sandy land could satisfy the demand of biological crust formation and development. If rational vegetation measures are adopted in the region with moving sand dunes, the lichen-moss-algae biological curst will form after ten years, but it still takes more time for the sand dunes to reach the nutrient enrichment state. If the biological curst is partly broken due to human activities, reasonable closure and restoration measures can shorten the restoration time of the biological crust.

  18. Free and Bound Phenolic Compound Content and Antioxidant Activity of Different Cultivated Blue Highland Barley Varieties from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. (United States)

    Yang, Xi-Juan; Dang, Bin; Fan, Ming-Tao


    In this study, the polyphenols composition and antioxidant properties of 12 blue highland barley varieties planted on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau area were measured. The contents of the free, bound and total phenolic acids varied between 166.20-237.60, 170.10-240.75 and 336.29-453.94 mg of gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of dry weight (DW) blue highland barley grains, while the free and bound phenolic acids accounted for 50.09% and 49.91% of the total phenolic acids, respectively. The contents of the free, bound and total flavones varied among 20.61-25.59, 14.91-22.38 and 37.91-47.98 mg of catechin equivalents per 100 g of dry weight (DW) of blue highland barley grains, while the free and bound flavones accounted for 55.90% and 44.10% of the total flavones, respectively. The prominent phenolic compounds in the blue hulless barley grains were gallic acid, benzoic acid, syringic acid, 4-coumaric acid, naringenin, hesperidin, rutin, (+)-catechin and quercetin. Among these, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid and (+)-catechin were the major phenolic compounds in the free phenolics extract. The most abundant bound phenolics were gallic acid, benzoic acid, syringic acid, 4-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, dimethoxybenzoic acid, naringenin, hesperidin, quercetin and rutin. The average contribution of the bound phenolic extract to the DPPH • free radical scavenging capacity was higher than 86%, that of free phenolic extract to the ABTS •+ free radical scavenging capacity was higher than 79%, and that of free phenolic (53%) to the FRAP antioxidant activity was equivalent to that of the bound phenol extract (47%). In addition, the planting environment exerts a very important influence on the polyphenol composition, content and antioxidant activity of blue highland barley. The correlation analysis showed that 2,4-hydroxybenzoic acid and protocatechuic acid were the main contributors to the DPPH • and ABTS •+ free radical scavenging capacity in the free phenolic extract

  19. Degradation and structure change of humic acids corresponding to water decline in Zoige peatland, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xuejun; Du, Wei; Wang, Xuan; Yang, Zhifeng


    As the largest plateau-type wetland in the world and the largest peat storage in China, Zoige wetland faces severe water decline, and consequently accelerated peat degradation and carbon emission. Here, a variety of characterization approaches, including elemental analysis, UV–vis spectra, FT-IR spectra, and solid state 13 C NMR spectra were used to investigate the degradation and the structural shift of humic acids (HAs) in correspondence with serious water loss in Zoige peatland. Water loss derived from both natural slope and artificial drainage caused a substantial degradation of organic matter and HAs. Compared with the blocks immersed by free surface water, HAs extracted from the drier blocks had more pronounced signals of carboxyl and carbonyl groups, but carried lower content of methoxyl, carbohydrate, alcohol and ether groups. The total aliphatic carbon in HAs from natural-slope drier site decreased almost one half, but in the artificial-drained site, only slightly decreased. Correspondingly, the HA aromaticity substantially increased in the site undergoing the longer time of aerobic oxidation, whereas varied little in the site impacted by extensive water leaching. - Highlights: ► HAs were decomposed significantly due to water loss in Zoige peatland. ► Water loss induced a significant shift in FT-IR and 13 C NMR spectra of HAs. ► The ratio of aliphatic to O-aliphatic carbon (A/O-A ratio) dramatically increased. ► The aromaticity of HAs increased with water loss in the higher-altitude site

  20. Degradation and structure change of humic acids corresponding to water decline in Zoige peatland, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xuejun, E-mail:; Du, Wei; Wang, Xuan; Yang, Zhifeng, E-mail:


    As the largest plateau-type wetland in the world and the largest peat storage in China, Zoige wetland faces severe water decline, and consequently accelerated peat degradation and carbon emission. Here, a variety of characterization approaches, including elemental analysis, UV–vis spectra, FT-IR spectra, and solid state {sup 13}C NMR spectra were used to investigate the degradation and the structural shift of humic acids (HAs) in correspondence with serious water loss in Zoige peatland. Water loss derived from both natural slope and artificial drainage caused a substantial degradation of organic matter and HAs. Compared with the blocks immersed by free surface water, HAs extracted from the drier blocks had more pronounced signals of carboxyl and carbonyl groups, but carried lower content of methoxyl, carbohydrate, alcohol and ether groups. The total aliphatic carbon in HAs from natural-slope drier site decreased almost one half, but in the artificial-drained site, only slightly decreased. Correspondingly, the HA aromaticity substantially increased in the site undergoing the longer time of aerobic oxidation, whereas varied little in the site impacted by extensive water leaching. - Highlights: ► HAs were decomposed significantly due to water loss in Zoige peatland. ► Water loss induced a significant shift in FT-IR and {sup 13}C NMR spectra of HAs. ► The ratio of aliphatic to O-aliphatic carbon (A/O-A ratio) dramatically increased. ► The aromaticity of HAs increased with water loss in the higher-altitude site.

  1. Cluster analysis on summer precipitation field over Qinghai-Tibet Plateau from 1961 to 2004%1961-2004年青藏高原夏季降水的时空分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢鹤立; 邵全琴; 刘纪远; 王军邦; 陈沈斌; 陈卓奇


    The summer day-by-day precipitation data of 97 meteorological stations on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau from 1961 to 2004 were selected to analyze the temporal-spatial dis- tribution through accumulated variance, correlation analysis, regression analysis, empirical orthogonal function, power spectrum function and spatial analysis tools of GIS. The result showed that summer precipitation occupied a relatively high proportion in the area with less annual precipitation on the Plateau and the correlation between summer precipitation and annual precipitation was strong. The altitude of these stations and summer precipitation ten- dency presented stronger positive correlation below 2000 m, with correlation value up to 0.604 (a=0.01). The subtracting tendency values between 1961-1983 and 1984-2004 at five altitude ranges (2000-2500 m, 2500-3000 m, 3500-4000 m, 4000-4500 m and above 4500 m) were above zero and accounted for 71.4% of the total. Using empirical orthogonal function, summer precipitation could be roughly divided into three precipitation pattern fields: the Southeast Plateau Pattern Field, the Northeast Plateau Pattern field and the Three Rivers' Headstream Regions Pattern Field. The former two ones had a reverse value from the north to the south and opposite line was along 35°N. The potential cycles of the three pattern fields were 5.33a, 21.33a and 2.17a respectively, tested by the confidence probability of 90%. The station altitudes and summer precipitation potential cycles presented strong negative corre- lation in the stations above 4500 m, with correlation value of -0.626 (a=0.01). In Three Rivers Headstream Regions summer precipitation cycle decreased as the altitude rose in the sta- tions above 3500 m and increased as the altitude rose in those below 3500 m. The empirical orthogonal function analysis in June precipitation, July precipitation and August precipitation showed that the June precipitation pattern field was similar to the July's, in which

  2. Dramatic and long-term lake level changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau from Cryosat-2 altimeter: validation and augmentation by results from repeat altimeter missions and satellite imagery (United States)

    Hwang, Cheinway; Huang, YongRuei; Cheng, Ys; Shen, WenBin; Pan, Yuanjin


    The mean elevation of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) exceeds 4000 m. Lake levels in the QTP are less affected by human activities than elsewhere, and may better reflect the state of contemporary climate change. Here ground-based lake level measurements are rare. Repeat altimeter missions, particularly those from the TOPEX and ERS series of altimetry, have provided long-term lake level observations in the QTP, but their large cross-track distances allow only few lakes to be monitored. In contrast, the Cryosat-2 altimeter, equipped with the new sensor SIRAL (interferometric/ synthetic aperture radar altimeter), provides a much better ranging accuracy and a finer spatial coverage than these repeated missions, and can detect water level changes over a large number of lakes in the QTP. In this study, Cryosat-2 data are used to determine lake level changes over 75˚E-100˚E and 28˚N-37.5˚N, where Cryosat-2 covers 60 lakes and SARAL/ AltiKa covers 32 lakes from 2013 to 2016. Over a lake, Cryosat-2 in different cycles can pass through different spots of the lake, making the numbers of observations non-uniform and requiring corrections for lake slopes. Four cases are investigated to cope with these situations: (1) neglecting inconsistency in data volume and lake slopes (2) considering data volume, (3) considering lake slopes only, and (4) considering both data volume and lake slopes. The CRYOSAT-2 result is then compared with the result from the SARAL to determine the best case. Because Cryosat-2 is available from 2010 to 2016, Jason-2 data are used to fill gaps between the time series of Cryosat-2 and ICESat (2003-2009) to obtain >10 years of lake level series. The Cryosat-2 result shows dramatic lake level rises in Lakes Kusai, Zhuoaihu and Salt in 2011 caused by floods. Landsat satellite imagery assists the determination and interpretation of such rises.

  3. Revisiting the evolutionary events in Allium subgenus Cyathophora (Amaryllidaceae): Insights into the effect of the Hengduan Mountains Region (HMR) uplift and Quaternary climatic fluctuations to the environmental changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. (United States)

    Li, Min-Jie; Tan, Jin-Bo; Xie, Deng-Feng; Huang, De-Qing; Gao, Yun-Dong; He, Xing-Jin


    The respective roles that the Hengduan Mountains Region (HMR) uplift around 4-3 Ma and Quaternary climatic oscillations played in causing the environmental changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) remain unknown. Here, we reconstruct the evolutionary history of two varieties of Allium cyathophorum and A. spicatum of subgenus Cyathophora, restricted to the HMR and the western QTP, respectively. Forty-five populations were surveyed for chloroplast and nuclear sequence variation to evaluate phylogenetic relationships, dates of divergence and ancestral area/inflorescence reconstructions. In addition, analyses were conducted on discernable micromorphologies, cytotypes and seed size variation. Our results indicated that two varieties of A. cyathophorum are separate species, i.e. A. farreri and A. cyathophorum, and the initial split of Cyathophora was triggered by the HMR uplift around 4-3 Ma. Subsequently, A. spicatum originated through the strengthened aridification in the western QTP induced vicariance of the ancestral populations in the HMR during the early Pleistocene. A self-sustaining allotetraploid species from A. farreri and A. cyathophorum was established during an interglacial period of penultimate glaciation of the QTP. Seed size variation also supports these by the colonization-competition tradeoff among small and large seeds. Our findings appear to suggest that the HMR uplift could have strengthened the development of the Asian monsoon regimes in this region and aridification in the western QTP, while the Quaternary climatic oscillations spurred the allopatric species' range shifts and created new open microhabitat for the alloploid species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Geochronology, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopic compositions of the granitoids in the Yemaquan orefield, East Kunlun orogenic belt, northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau: Implications for magmatic fractional crystallization and sub-solidus hydrothermal alteration (United States)

    Yin, Shuo; Ma, Changqian; Xu, Jiannan


    A general consensus has emerged that high field strength elements (HFSE) can mobile to some extent in a hydrothermal fluid. However, there are hot debates on whether sub-solidus hydrothermal alteration can lower the Nb/Ta ratio in evolved melts. In this study, we present petrography, geochronology and geochemistry of the barren and mineralized rocks in the Yemaquan skarn iron deposit, northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, to probe magmatic-hydrothermal transition. The barren rocks consist of diorites, granodiorites, granites and syenogranites, whereas the porphyritic granodiorites are associated with mineralization for an excellent consistency between the magmatic zircon U-Pb age (225 ± 2 Ma) and the hydrothermal phlogopite 40Ar-39Ar age (225 ± 1.5 Ma). The Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopic data demonstrate that the Yemaquan granitoids are originated from a relatively homogenous enriched mantle with different degrees of crust contamination (assimilation fractional crystallization, AFC). Trace elements signatures indicate that the porphyritic granodiorites related to mineralization display amphibole crystallization for high water contents, whereas the barren granites have gone through biotite crystallization due to potassium enrichment by continuous upper crust contamination, both of which are responsible for their Nb/Ta ratios, respectively. Modeling results suggest that a basaltic melt with Nb/Ta ratio of 15.3 can reach a minimum Nb/Ta ratio of 12 in the producing granodioritic melt by amphibole fractional crystallization based on partition coefficients of Nb and Ta between amphibole and melts from previous experiments. This may explain the average Nb/Ta ratio (13.7) of the barren granodiorites, while it cannot account for the average Nb/Ta ratio (8.4) of the mineralized porphyritic granodiorites, and it is even lower than that of the granites (10.3) with biotite fractional crystallization. Exsolution of a magmatic-hydrothermal fluid is inevitable when a water saturated magma

  5. Apatite fission track analysis for revealing tectonic events of the Bayinguole area in the west section of Eastern Kunlun Mountains, northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoning; Yuan Wanming; Hao Nana; Duan Hongwei; Feng Yunlei; Zhang Aikui


    Background: Qimantage is an important tectonic metallogenic belt in western part of East Kunlun Mountain. It has experienced complex geological evolution, and significant mineralization. However, because of the plateau climate and inaccessibility, fewer research works have been done on this area, especially after Indo-sinian epoch. Purpose: Our work is to research tectonic activity, thermal history and uplifting around Bayinguole river in Qimantage belt. Methods: The apatite fission-track method was applied to research the tectonic setting, simulate the thermal history and calculate the uplift size and uplift speed. Results: A series of apatite fission track ages from granitoid samples in Bayinguole area of Eastern Kunlun Mountain were obtained, ranging from 120 Ma to 47 Ma that might be divided into three groups': 120-100 Ma, 67 Ma and 54-47 Ma. These ages reflected tectonic events in this area very well. Conclusions: The 120-100 Ma and 67 Ma ages present collision-convergences of Gangdese terrane and Himalayan terrane with their north-side terranes in Early Cretaceous and Late Cretaceous respectively. The ages of 54-47 Ma reflect post-orogenic stretching events in Eocene. Three stages of thermal evolution history are revealed by apatite fission track modeling in this area. Stage one 180-140 Ma is in the bottom temperature of apatite fission track anneal zone. Stage two 140-13 Ma records slow cooling. The last stage after 13 Ma records rapid cooling with temperature dropped 50℃. The uplifting ranges for these three stages are 1.0 km, 0.6 km and 1.4 km, respectively. The cumulative amount of uplift is about 3.0 km. The formula calculations for the 3 samples have their rock uplifts of 3623 m, 3317 m and 3769 m, respectively, averaging 3570 m, in accordance with the results based on the 3 stage thermal history. (authors)

  6. The effects of the Qinghai-Tibet railway on heavy metals enrichment in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hua [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resource Research (IGSNRR), CAS, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China); Wang, Zhaofeng [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resource Research (IGSNRR), CAS, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhang, Yili, E-mail: [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resource Research (IGSNRR), CAS, Beijing 100101 (China); Hu, Zhongjun [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resource Research (IGSNRR), CAS, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China)


    The impact of land transportation on local soil environments is an important topic in environmental and ecological sciences. The rapid development of transportation infrastructure lends increasing importance to studies that identify and evaluate related heavy metal pollution. This paper discusses the effects of railways on soil heavy metal enrichments in the Tibetan plateau. At a representative area along the Haergai-Delingha railway, lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, chromium, nickel, cobalt, and vanadium were measured in 127 topsoil samples (0-10 cm depth). The results indicate that railway transport has a significant effect on the concentration of Zn, Cd and Pb in the soil, with levels of enrichment ranging from no pollution to significant pollution. The affected area was within 20 m of the railway. The soil at Delingha was the most contaminated soil with heavy metals, and the enrichment level of Cd in the soil was the highest along the Qinghai-Tibet railway. The horizontal distributions of the three heavy metals present different characteristics at different sampling sites, which may be due to discrepancies in terrain and vegetation types. Alkaline soils and guardrails along the railway might reduce the effect of soil pollution on local people and animals. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Levels of Zn, Cd and Pb in soils are affected by railway transportation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium enrichment is especially high. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The affected area for these pollutants was within 20 m of the railway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The distributions of metal presented different characteristics in different sites.

  7. Effects of the opening of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway on municipal solid waste management generation in Lhasa. (United States)

    Ding, Xu-Tong; Wang, Ji-Hua


    Lhasa, the capital of Tibet, is located on the Tibetan Plateau. Accelerated economic development and flourishing tourism resulting from the opening of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) have increased solid waste generation and contamination in recent years. Using data from Lhasa Statistical Yearbooks and previous studies, this study estimates the future population of permanent residents and tourists using the least squares method to extrapolate the population from 2015-2025, and evaluates the effects of the QTR on municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in Lhasa and estimates future MSW generation. There were approximately 1.35 million tourists in 2008 when the QTR had been operating for 2 years and MSW generation was approximately 470 tons per day. The amount of MSW generated increased dramatically with time after opening the QTR. This study estimates that MSW generation will reach 962 tons per day in 2025. Due to the existence of the QTR, increasing numbers of people are traveling to Lhasa, and tourism has driven the development of the local economy. During the studies, the proportion of MSW produced by tourists increased from 2.99% to 20.06%, and it is estimated that it will increase to 33.49% in 2025. If the current trend continues, Lhasa will face significant challenges from garbage disposal. This study analyzes the current situation of urban garbage treatment in Lhasa, and it suggests several options for improvement to MSW generation, transportation equipment, disposal, and resource recycling.

  8. The Wenquan ultramafic rocks in the Central East Kunlun Fault zone, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau—crustal relics of the Paleo-Tethys ocean (United States)

    Jia, Lihui; Meng, Fancong; Feng, Huibin


    The Wenquan ultramafic rocks, located in the East Kunlun Orogenic belt in the northeastern part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, consist of dunite, wehrlite, olivine-clinopyroxenite and clinopyroxenite, and exhibit cumulate textures. Olivine from dunite has high Fo (forsterite, 90.0-91.8 wt%) and NiO content (0.15-0.42 wt%). Cr-spinels from all of the rocks in this suite are characterized by high Cr# (100×[Cr/(Cr + Al)], 67-91), low Mg# (100×[Mg/(Mg + Fe2+)], 17-35) and low TiO2 contents (mostly rocks show enrichment of LILE, Sr, and Ba, and depletion of Nb and Th. High-Mg# (mostly > 80) and low-CaO (evolution along the Central East Kunlun Fault zone.

  9. Design and Build of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway considering the Impacts of Warming Climate and Permafrost (United States)

    Ma, W.; Jin, H.; Cheng, G.; Wu, Q.; Lai, Y.


    During the period from 1960 to 2000, an 1°C increase of air temperature has been observed along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) traversing 632 km of warm and ice-rich permafrost through the interior of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Correspondingly, mean annual ground temperatures (MAGTs) of warm (>-1 °C) permafrost on average increased about 0.3 to 0.5°C during 1970s-1990, while that of colder permafrost had increased by 0.1 to 0.3°C. During 1996-2004, ground temperatures at the permafrost table were increasing at the rates of 0.01-0.08°C a-1, and the permafrost table was lowering at the rates of 2.6 to 6.6 cm a-1; and the ground temperatures at depths of 6 to 8 m were warming at the rates of 0.02 to 0.05°C a-1. Consequently, the strengths of permafrost as the foundation of the QTR would be weakened if proper engineering measures were not taken. Based on the experiences and lessons learned from the road construction in permafrost regions from Alaska, Canada and Russia, and northeastern China, and taking into consideration of possible climatic warming along the QTR during the next 100 years, the design and construction of the QTR adopted the principle of``cooling the roadbed'' because most of the permafrost along the route is too deep to be thawed, too thermally sensitive to climatic warming and too critical to have appreciable thaw settlements. About 550 km of QTR is in continuous permafrost zone, 82 km is in discontinuous permafrost zone; 275 km is in warm permafrost areas, and 110 km of permafrost is ice-rich. The QTR is designed for safe operations during the next 100 years during which a warming of 2.2 to 2.6°C by 2050 is projected. Without engineering measures to keep ground frozen or maintain the settlement within the acceptable limits, thaw settlement in the foundation soils, and induced environmental instability would threaten the integrity and safety of QTR operation. However, only increasing therma resistance, such as increasing fill thickness or

  10. [Evaluation of ecosystem resilience in the regions across Qinghai-Tibet railway based on GIS]. (United States)

    Gao, Jiang-bo; Zhao, Zhi-qiang; Li, Shuang-cheng


    Based on GIS technique and the methods of mean-squared deviation weight decision and catastrophe progression, a more clear definition and associated evaluation for ecosystem resilience were given, with a case study in the regions across Qinghai-Tibet railway by using the indices of plant community coverage, species diversity, and biomass. It was shown that the areas with high ecosystem resilience were mainly located in the Qilian Mountain meadow grassland, Huangshui Valley needle-leaved and deciduous broad-leaved forest, and south Tanggula Mountain kobresia swamp meadow, while those with the lowest resilience were in the central part of Qaidam Basin, and the Kunlun Mountains. Most areas in the regions had higher or medium ecosystem resilience, with a trend of that in the south of Kunlun Mountains, the resilience in the north of the railway was lower, while in the east of Qaidam Basin (especially in the Qinghai Lake area), the resilience was lower in the south than in the north of the railway. Through the evaluation of ecosystem resilience, the key issues in the process of ecological resilience could be found, and corresponding effective measures would be pointed out to manage alpine ecosystems. Moreover, combining with the evaluation of vulnerability, scientific basis for regional development could be provided to avoid or mitigate the negative effects of human activities on eco-environment.

  11. First report of Echinococcus shiquicus in dogs from eastern Qinghai-Tibet plateau region, China.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boufana, B.; Qui, J.; Chen, X.; Budke, C.; Campos Ponce, M.; Craig, P.S.


    Echinococcus shiquicus was discovered in foxes and pika wildlife hosts in Sichuan Province, China in 2005. Faecal samples from dogs collected in a previous echinococcosis purgation survey from Shiqu County, Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (Sichuan) were screened by coproPCR to investigate the

  12. Range expansion, genetic differentiation, and phenotypic adaption of Hippophae neurocarpa (Elaeagnaceae) on the Qinghai- Tibet Plateau

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kou, Y.-X.; Wu, Y.-X.; Jia, Dong-Rui; Li, Z.-H.; Wang, Y.-J.


    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2014), s. 303-312 ISSN 1674-4918 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : genetic differentiation * phenotyp adaptation * range expansion Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.488, year: 2014

  13. Status and future perspectives of energy consumption and its ecological impacts in the Qinghai-Tibet region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping, Xiaoge [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Jiang, Zhigang; Li, Chunwang [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China)


    Qinghai-Tibet region is a unique geographic zone due to its average altitude of over 4000 m, sparse human population and prevalent pastoral system. However, little is known about the energy consumption in the region. We reviewed current situation of energy consumption and its ecological impacts, outlined future energy prospects in the region. Per capita household energy consumption was about two and three times of the national average in Qinghai and Tibet. Per urban household consumed more energy than rural household in the region. Moreover, the urban households and rural households used different energy resources, natural gas and electricity accounted for 57.57% and 42.29%, respectively in household energy consumption in urban areas while biomass accounted for 79.13% and 94.19% in household energy consumption in rural areas in Qinghai and Tibet in 2007. This region was abundant in renewable energy resources and was among the richest in hydro-power and solar energy resources in China. Hydro-power accounted for 67.88% and 92.04% in total electricity in Qinghai and Tibet in 2007. Population density was rather low in this region (4.35 versus 137.63 persons per 100 hm{sup 2} in Qinghai-Tibet region and China in 2007), thus small photovoltaic power stations and hydro-power plants were more cost-effective than the electricity grid. The overuse of biotic energy resources in rural areas caused decline in soil fertility and desertification. Whereas the low utilization of fossil energy in this region released less waste gas which was beneficial to the local, national and global carbon budgets. Accelerating economic growth and booming tourism have increased energy demand and posed a challenge to the unique ecosystem in the Qinghai-Tibet region. It was estimated that energy consumption of tourism accounted for 6.06% and 14.18% of the total energy consumption in Qinghai and Tibet in 2007. Thus, exploitation of renewable energy resources like solar energy, wind energy and

  14. Status and future perspectives of energy consumption and its ecological impacts in the Qinghai-Tibet region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping, Xiaoge; Jiang, Zhigang; Li, Chunwang


    Qinghai-Tibet region is a unique geographic zone due to its average altitude of over 4000 m, sparse human population and prevalent pastoral system. However, little is known about the energy consumption in the region. We reviewed current situation of energy consumption and its ecological impacts, outlined future energy prospects in the region. Per capita household energy consumption was about two and three times of the national average in Qinghai and Tibet. Per urban household consumed more energy than rural household in the region. Moreover, the urban households and rural households used different energy resources, natural gas and electricity accounted for 57.57% and 42.29%, respectively in household energy consumption in urban areas while biomass accounted for 79.13% and 94.19% in household energy consumption in rural areas in Qinghai and Tibet in 2007. This region was abundant in renewable energy resources and was among the richest in hydro-power and solar energy resources in China. Hydro-power accounted for 67.88% and 92.04% in total electricity in Qinghai and Tibet in 2007. Population density was rather low in this region (4.35 versus 137.63 persons per 100 hm 2 in Qinghai-Tibet region and China in 2007), thus small photovoltaic power stations and hydro-power plants were more cost-effective than the electricity grid. The overuse of biotic energy resources in rural areas caused decline in soil fertility and desertification. Whereas the low utilization of fossil energy in this region released less waste gas which was beneficial to the local, national and global carbon budgets. Accelerating economic growth and booming tourism have increased energy demand and posed a challenge to the unique ecosystem in the Qinghai-Tibet region. It was estimated that energy consumption of tourism accounted for 6.06% and 14.18% of the total energy consumption in Qinghai and Tibet in 2007. Thus, exploitation of renewable energy resources like solar energy, wind energy and biomass

  15. Active Features of Guguan-Guizhen Fault at the Northeast Margin of Qinghai-Tibet Block since Late Quaternary (United States)

    Shi, Yaqin; Feng, Xijie; Li, Gaoyang; Ma, Ji; Li, Miao; Zhang, Yi


    Guguan-Guizhen fault is located at the northeast margin of Qinghai-Tibet Block and northwest margin of Ordos Block; it is the boundary of the two blocks, and one of the multiple faults of northwest Haiyuan-Liupanshan-Baoji fault zone. Guguan-Guizhen fault starts from Putuo Village, Huating County, Gansu Province, and goes through Badu Town, Long County in Shaanxi Province ends in Guozhen Town in Baoji City, Shaanxi Province. The fault has a full length of about 130km with the strike of 310-330°, the dip of SW and the rake of 50-60°, which is a sinistral slip reverse fault in the north part, and a sinistral slip normal fault in the southeast part. Guguan-Guizhen fault has a clear liner structure in satellite images and significant landform elevation difference with a maximum difference of 80m, and is higher in the east lower in the west. The northwest side of Guguan-Guizhen fault is composed of purplish-red Lower Cretaceous sandstones and river terrace; the northeast side is composed of Ordovician Limestone. Shigou, Piliang, Songjiashan, Tianjiagou and Chenjiagou fault profiles are found to the south of Badu Village. After 14C and optically stimulated luminescence dating, the fault does not dislocate the stratum since late Pleistocene (90.5±4.4ka) in Shigou, Piliang and Songjiashan fault profiles, and does not dislocate the cobble layer of Holocene first terrace and recent sliderock (3180±30 BP). But the fault dislocated the stratum of middle Pleistocene in some of the fault profiles. All the evidences above indicate that the fault is active in middle Pleistocene, and being silence since late Pleistocene. It might be active in Holocene to the north of Badu Village due to collapses are found in a certain area. The cause of these collapses is Qinlong M6-7 earthquake in 600 A.D., and might be relevant with Guguan-Guizhen fault after analysis of the scale, feature and age determination of the collapse. If any seismic surface rupture and ancient earthquake traces

  16. [Community structure and diversity of culturable moderate halophilic bacteria isolated from Qrhan salt lake on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau]. (United States)

    Shen, Shuo


    I studied the community structure and diversity of culturable moderate halophilic bacteria isolated from Qrhan Salt Lake. I isolated and cultured the moderate halophilic bacteria on different selective media. After the 16S rRNA gene sequences was amplified and measured, I constructed the phylogenic tree, analyzed the community structure and calculated the diversity indexes according to the 16S rRNA gene information. A total of 421 moderate halophilic bacteria were isolated from water and mud samples in Qrhan Salt Lake. The 16S rRNA gene information showed that 4 potential novel species belonged to the family Bacillaceae. Eighty-three model strains belonged to 3 phylurms 6 families 16 genus. Among them, Bacillus sp., Oceanobacillus sp. and Halomonas sp. were dominant species. Diversity analysis showed that the diversity of strains isolated from water sample was higher than that from mud sample, but the dominance degree of strains isolated from mud sample was higher than that from water sample. The genetic diversity of moderate halophilic bacteria isolated from Qrhan Salt Lake was abundant. Also, there were dominant and novel species of culturable moderate halophilic bacteria in this lake.

  17. Observation and analysis of electrical structure change and diversity in thunderstorms on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (United States)

    Li, Yajun; Zhang, Guangshu; Wang, Yanhui; Wu, Bin; Li, Jing


    A comprehensive observation on thunderstorms was conducted in the Qinghai area by using a very high frequency three-dimensional lightning mapping system and Doppler radar. The spatio-temporal evolution of the charge structure of the isolated thunderstorm was analyzed according to the developing process of thunderstorm, and the reasons for the change in charge structure diversity were studied. During the initial developing and mature stages of the thunderstorm, the charge structure was a steady negative dipole polarity, i.e., the negative charge region was above the positive charge region. Furthermore, the total number of flashes was lower during these two stages. During the thunderstorm's dissipation stage, the charge structure was varied and complicated, with a positive dipole, negative dipole, and a tripole charge structure changing and coexisting during this stage. This charge structure diversity was primarily caused by the collision and merging of two local thunderstorm cells, leading to a charge rearrangement and distribution and the formation of a new charge structure. The frequency of the negative cloud-to-ground and intracloud flashes increased sharply in the dissipation stage, reaching a maximum value. The increase in frequency of negative cloud-to-ground was mainly caused by the lower positive charge weakening during the dissipation stage. In addition, the relationship between charging regions and temperature layers was analyzed by combining sounding temperature data with the theory of a non-inductive charging mechanism.

  18. The Influence Analysis of the Rainfall Meteorological Conditions on the Operation of the Balloon Borne Radar in Plateau (United States)

    Li, Qiong; Geng, Fangzhi


    Based on the characteristics of complex terrain and different seasons’ weather in Qinghai Tibet Plateau, through statistic the daily rainfall that from 2002 to 2012, nearly 11 years, by Bomi meteorological station, Bomi area rainfall forecast model is established, and which can provide the basis forecasting for dangerous weather warning system on the balloon borne radar in the next step, to protect the balloon borne radar equipment’s safety work and combat effectiveness.

  19. Permafrost Distribution along the Qinghai-Tibet Engineering Corridor, China Using High-Resolution Statistical Mapping and Modeling Integrated with Remote Sensing and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujun Niu


    Full Text Available Permafrost distribution in the Qinghai-Tibet Engineering Corridor (QTEC is of growing interest due to the increase in infrastructure development in this remote area. Empirical models of mountain permafrost distribution have been established based on field sampled data, as a tool for regional-scale assessments of its distribution. This kind of model approach has never been applied for a large portion of this engineering corridor. In the present study, this methodology is applied to map permafrost distribution throughout the QTEC. After spatial modelling of the mean annual air temperature distribution from MODIS-LST and DEM, using high-resolution satellite image to interpret land surface type, a permafrost probability index was obtained. The evaluation results indicate that the model has an acceptable performance. Conditions highly favorable to permafrost presence (≥70% are predicted for 60.3% of the study area, declaring a discontinuous permafrost distribution in the QTEC. This map is useful for the infrastructure development along the QTEC. In the future, local ground-truth observations will be required to confirm permafrost presence in favorable areas and to monitor permafrost evolution under the influence of climate change.

  20. Environmental impact assessment and environmental audit in large-scale public infrastructure construction: the case of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway. (United States)

    He, Guizhen; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Yonglong


    Large-scale public infrastructure projects have featured in China's modernization course since the early 1980s. During the early stages of China's rapid economic development, public attention focused on the economic and social impact of high-profile construction projects. In recent years, however, we have seen a shift in public concern toward the environmental and ecological effects of such projects, and today governments are required to provide valid environmental impact assessments prior to allowing large-scale construction. The official requirement for the monitoring of environmental conditions has led to an increased number of debates in recent years regarding the effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and Governmental Environmental Audits (GEAs) as environmental safeguards in instances of large-scale construction. Although EIA and GEA are conducted by different institutions and have different goals and enforcement potential, these two practices can be closely related in terms of methodology. This article cites the construction of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway as an instance in which EIA and GEA offer complementary approaches to environmental impact management. This study concludes that the GEA approach can serve as an effective follow-up to the EIA and establishes that the EIA lays a base for conducting future GEAs. The relationship that emerges through a study of the Railway's construction calls for more deliberate institutional arrangements and cooperation if the two practices are to be used in concert to optimal effect.

  1. Production and genetic analysis of resynthesized Brassica napus from a B. rapa landrace from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and B. alboglabra. (United States)

    Liu, H D; Zhao, Z G; Du, D Z; Deng, C R; Fu, G


    This study aimed to reveal the genetic and epigenetic variations involved in a resynthesized Brassica napus (AACC) generated from a hybridization between a B. rapa (AA) landrace and B. alboglabra (CC). Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism, and the cDNA-AFLP technique were performed to detect changes between different generations at the genome, methylation, and transcription levels. We obtained 30 lines of resynthesized B. napus with a mean 1000-seed weight of over 7.50 g. All of the lines were self-compatible, probably because both parents were self-compatible. At the genome level, the S0 generation had the lowest frequency of variations (0.18%) and the S3 generation had the highest (6.07%). The main variation pattern was the elimination of amplified restriction fragments on the CC genome from the S0 to the S4 generations. At the methylation level, we found three loci that exhibited altered methylation patterns on the parental A genome; the variance rate was 1.35%. At the transcription level, we detected 43.77% reverse mutations and 37.56% deletion mutations that mainly occurred on the A and C genomes, respectively, in the S3 generation. Our results highlight the genetic variations that occur during the diploidization of resynthesized B. napus.

  2. Progress in studies on hydrological impacts of degrading permafrost in the Source Area of Yellow River on NE Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, SW China (United States)

    Jin, H.; Ma, Q.; Jin, X.


    Permafrost degradation substantially impacts hydrological processes in the Source Area of the Yellow River (SAYR). Deepening active layer has directly led to a reduction of surface runoffs, alters the generation and dynamics of slope runoffs and groundwater, leading to a deepening of groundwater flow paths. At present, however, there is only a limited understanding of the hydrological impact mechanisms of degrading permafrost. On the basis of analyzing and evaluating the current states, changing history and developing trends of climate, permafrost and hydrological processes, this program aims at further and better quantifying the nature of these mechanisms linking the degrading permafrost with changing hydrological processes. The key scientific themes for this research are the characterization of interactions between ground freezing-thawing and hydrogeology in the SAYR. For this study, a coupling is made between geothermal states and the occurrences of taliks in river systems, in order to understand how expanding taliks control groundwater and surface-water interactions and how these interactions might intensify or weaken when the climate warms and dries persistently. Numerical models include freeze-thaw dynamics coupled to groundwater and surface flow processes. For the proper parameterization of these models, field and laboratory studies are conducted with a focus on the SAYR. Geophysical investigations are employed for mapping permafrost distribution in relation to landscape elements. Boreholes and water wells and observation sites for the hydrothermal processes and water tables are used for establishing the current thermal state of frozen ground and talik and monitor their changes over time, and serve to ground-truth surface geophysical observations. Boreholes and wellbores, water wells and active layer sites have provided access to the permafrost and aquifer systems, allowing the dating of ground-water and -ice and soil strata for elucidating the regional hydrogeological system underlying the SAYR, and groundwater recharge mechanisms. The project plans to quantitatively study the impacting mechanisms of degrading frozen ground on changes in hydrological processes and systems in the SAYR.

  3. Seasonal Variation of Arsenic Concentration in Natural Water of the Source Area of the Yellow River on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China (United States)

    Yu, C.; Wen, L.; Yu, Z.


    Seasonal variation in the arsenic (As) concentration of natural water has been studied the first time in the source area of the Yellow River (SAYR) in Tibet, China. Samples were collected in the lake, river and spring across the whole area in April (spring) and July (summer), 2014. In April the average values of arsenic concentration in SAYR from high to low were: lake (38.1μg/L, n=47, range 8.6-131.0μg/L) > river (24.3μg/L, n=83, range 4.3-77.1μg/L) > spring (19.1μg/L, n=12, range 12.0-29.4μg/L). In July the same order of the average values of arsenic concentration in SAYR was found: lake (14.1μg/L, n=57, range 5.8-68.5μg/L) > river (7.3μg/L, n=106, range 3.6-22.9μg/L)> spring (6.7μg/L, n=9, range 4.8-8.2μg/L).The average arsenic concentrations in April were almost three times higher than those in July. In both season, the higher concentrations of arsenic were distributed in the upper reaches above the two biggest lakes of Gyaring and Ngoring Lakes in SAYR. The two big lakes buffered the naturally generated arsenic concentration in surface water, suggesting the important ecological role of the lakes. Generally, the lower concentrations in July probably were due to 1. the dilution effect of the precipitation; 2 the change of water sources. In April when the permafrost and mountain snow started to thaw and melt, ground water with high arsenic concentration was the main water source with high concentration of arsenic; but in July, with the increase of the temperature, mountain snow, permafrost would contribute more than in April, in addition, the main arsenic contributor groundwater was diluted by the precipitation recharge. Since in spring, lake and river water arsenic concentration decreased with almost the same magnitude., assuming the dilution effect dominant. The exported arsenic from SAYR in April (903.4Kg) were twice more than it in July (449.1Kg), because the flowrates were similar in the two months, the water source of the runoff components was grandly different in April and July. The seasonal variation of arsenic is obvious and further investigation is needed.

  4. Impacts of the thawing-freezing process on runoff generation in the Sources Area of the Yellow River on the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoling; Xiang, Xiaohua; Qiu, Chao; Li, Li


    In cold regions, precipitation, air temperature and snow cover significantly influence soil water, heat transfer, the freezing-thawing processes of the active soil layer, and runoff generation. Hydrological regimes of the world's major rivers in cold regions have changed remarkably since the 1960s, but the mechanisms underlying the changes have not yet been fully understood. Using the basic physical processes for water and heat balances and transfers in snow covered soil, a water-heat coupling model for snow cover and its underlying soil layers was established. We found that freezing-thawing processes can affect the thickness of the active layer, storage capacity for liquid water, and subsequent surface runoffs. Based on calculations of thawing-freezing processes, we investigated hydrological processes at Qumalai. The results show that the water-heat coupling model can be used in this region to provide an understanding of the local movement of hydrological regimes.

  5. Out of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau: evidence for the origin and dispersal of Eurasian temperate plants from a phylogeographic study of Hippophae rhamnoides (Elaeagnaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jia, Dong-Rui; Abbott, R.J.; Liu, T.-L.; Mao, K.-S.; Bartish, Igor V.; Liu, J.-Q.


    Roč. 194, č. 4 (2012), s. 1123-1133 ISSN 0028-646X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : intraspecefic evolution * migration * phylogeography Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 6.736, year: 2012

  6. Thermal regime of warm-dry permafrost in relation to ground surface temperature in the Source Areas of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, SW China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Dongliang; Jin, Huijun; Wu, Qingbai; Bense, Victor F.; He, Ruixia; Ma, Qiang; Gao, Shuhui; Jin, Xiaoying; Lu¨, Lanzhi


    Ecology, hydrology, and natural resources in the source areas of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers (SAYYR) are closely linked to interactions between climate and permafrost. However, a comprehensive study of the interactions is currently hampered by sparsely- and unevenly-distributed monitoring sites

  7. Development of Three PCR Assays for the Differentiation between Echinococcus shiquicus, E. granulosus (G1 genotype), and E. multilocularis DNA in the Co-Endemic Region of Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China (United States)

    Boufana, Belgees; Umhang, Gérald; Qiu, Jiamin; Chen, Xingwang; Lahmar, Samia; Boué, Franck; Jenkins, David; Craig, Philip


    To investigate echinococcosis in co-endemic regions, three polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays based on the amplification of a fragment within the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) mitochondrial gene were optimized for the detection of Echinococcus shiquicus, Echinococcus granulosus G1, and Echinococcus multilocularis DNA derived from parasite tissue or canid fecal samples. Specificity using parasite tissue-derived DNA was found to be 100% except for E. shiquicus primers that faintly detected E. equinus DNA. Sensitivity of the three assays for DNA detection was between 2 and 10 pg. Ethanol precipitation of negative PCR fecal samples was used to eliminate false negatives and served to increase sensitivity as exemplified by an increase in detection from 0% to 89% of E. shiquicus coproDNA using necropsy-positive fox samples. PMID:23438764

  8. Factor analysis and cluster analysis research on the relationship between the trace elements of flowers of Gentianaceae plants and the traditional Chinese medicine efficacy from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (United States)

    Zhou, Libing


    Flowers of Gentianaceae plants have historically been used in treating gastritis, dysuria, pruritus vulvae and detoxification. Gentianaceae plants have medicinal applications to treat a wide range of diseases such as rheumatic arthritis, pneumonia along with cough, chronic gastritis, et al Therefore, the research on the relationship between human health and trace elements of flowers of Gentianaceae plants is of great significance. These studies provide the scientific base and theoretical foundation for the future large-scale rational relation development of Gentianaceae plants resources as well as the relationship between the race elements of them and traditional Chinese medicine efficacy.

  9. Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-1 Genes in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Lowland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-bing Chen


    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1 play a pivotal role in regulating cellular hypoxic response. In this study, we cloned and characterized the genes encoding IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 to improve the current knowledge on their roles in highland Bos grunniens (Yak. We also compared their expression levels in the liver and kidney tissues between yaks and lowland cattle. We obtained full-length 465 bp IGF-1 and 792 bp IGFBP-1, encoding 154 amino acids (AA IGF-1, and 263 AA IGFBP-1 protein, respectively using reverse transcriptase-polyerase chain reaction (RT-PCR technology. Analysis of their corresponding amino acid sequences showed a high identity between B. grunniens and lowland mammals. Moreover, the two genes were proved to be widely distributed in the examined tissues through expression pattern analysis. Real-time PCR results revealed that IGF-1 expression was higher in the liver and kidney tissues in B. grunniens than in Bos taurus (p<0.05. The IGFBP-1 gene was expressed at a higher level in the liver (p<0.05 of B. taurus than B. grunniens, but it has a similar expression level in the kidneys of the two species. These results indicated that upregulated IGF-1 and downregulated IGFBP-1 are associated with hypoxia adaptive response in B. grunniens.

  10. Molecular identification of Taenia mustelae cysts in subterranean rodent plateau zokors (Eospalax baileyi). (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Ma, Jun-Ying; Cai, Hui-Xia; Su, Jian-Ping; Hou, Zhi-Bin; Zhang, Tong-Zuo; Lin, Gong-Hua


    Cestode larvae spend one phase of their two-phase life cycle in the viscera of rodents, but cases of cestodes infecting subterranean rodents have only been rarely observed. To experimentally gain some insight into this phenomenon, we captured approximately 300 plateau zokors (Eospalax baileyi), a typical subterranean rodent inhabiting the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and examined their livers for the presence of cysts. Totally, we collected five cysts, and using a mitochondrial gene (cox1) and two nuclear genes (pepck and pold) as genetic markers, we were able to analyze the taxonomy of the cysts. Both the maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods showed that the cysts share a monophyly with Taenia mustelae, while Kimura 2-parameter distances and number of different sites between our sequences and T. mustelae were far less than those found between the examined sequences and other Taeniidae species. These results, alongside supporting paraffin section histology, imply that the cysts found in plateau zokors can be regarded as larvae of T. mustelae, illustrating that zokors are a newly discovered intermediate host record of this parasite.

  11. [The epidemiology and etiology research of Tibetan sheep plague in Qinghai plateau]. (United States)

    Wei, Baiqing; Xiong, Haoming; Yang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yonghai; Qi, Meiying; Jin, Juan; Xin, Youquan; Li, Xiang; Yang, Hanqing; Han, Xiumin; Dai, Ruixia


    To identify the epidemiology and etiology characteristics of Tibetan sheep plague in Qinghai plateau. The background materials of Qinghai Tibetan sheep plague found during 1975 to 2009 were summarized, the regional, time and interpersonal distribution, infection routes, ecological factors for the spread were used to analyze; followed by choosing 14 Yersinia pestis strains isolated from such sheep for biochemical test, toxicity test, virulence factors identification, plasmid analysis, and DFR genotype. From 1975 to 2009, 14 Yersinia pestis strains were isolated from Tibetan sheep in Qinghai province. Tibetan sheep, as the infection source, had caused 10 cases of human plague, 25 plague patients, and 13 cases of death. All of the initial cases were infected due to eating Tibetan sheep died of plague; followed by cases due to contact of plague patients, while all the initial cases were bubonic plague. Cases of bubonic plague developed into secondary pneumonic plague and septicemia plague were most popular and with high mortality. Most of the Tibetan sheep plague and human plague occurred in Gannan ecological zone in southern Gansu province, which was closely related to its unique ecological and geographical landscape. Tibetan sheep plague coincided with human plague caused by Tibetan sheep, especially noteworthy was that November (a time for marmots to start their dormancy) witnesses the number of Yersinia pestis strains isolated from Tibetan sheep and human plague cases caused by Tibetan sheep. This constituted the underlying cause that the epidemic time of Tibetan sheep plague lags obviously behind that of the Marmot plague. It was confirmed in the study that all the 14 strains were of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau ecotype, with virulence factors evaluation and toxicity test demonstrating strains as velogenic. As found in the (Different Region) DFR genotyping, the strains isolated from Yushu county and Zhiduo county were genomovar 5, the two strain isolated from Nangqian

  12. The expression of Ldh-c in the skeletal muscle of plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae enhances adaptation to a hypoxic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi F. An


    Full Text Available The plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae is a species of sprint-running alpine animals in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which is a harsh highland hypoxic environment. Ldh-c is expressed in the testis, sperm and somatic tissues of plateau pika. To reveal the role and physiological mechanisms of sperm-specific lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-C4, in plateau pika to adapt to hypoxic environment, an adenoviral line of pMultiRNAi-Ldhc was constructed and injected into the bilateral biceps femoris of the hind legs. The swimming times of the pikas, and the Ldh-c expression levels, total LDH activities and ATP levels in skeletal muscle, were measured after the pikas were raised in the trapped site for 5 days. Our results showed that after Ldh-c was silenced, the sprint-running ability (swimming time of the plateau pikas was significant decreased, and the total LDH activities and ATP levels were reduced by 28.21% and 27.88%, respectively. Our results indicated that expression of Ldh-c in the skeletal muscle of plateau pika increased anaerobic glycolysis and enhanced adaptation to highland hypoxic environments.

  13. Impact of radial transport on the quasilinear plateau formation due to electron cyclotron wave absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, A.G.; Westerhof, E.


    Numerical simulations using a three-dimensional Fokker-Planck code show that for small tokamaks the transport of electrons across the magnetic surfaces at a level consistent with anomalous transport has a large influence on the formation of the quasilinear plateau during electron cyclotron resonant

  14. Seasonal dynamics of the tick Haemaphysalis tibetensis in the Tibetan Plateau, China. (United States)

    Liu, M; Li, T; Yu, Z J; Qiu, Z X; Yan, P; Li, Y; Liu, J


    The tick Haemaphysalis tibetensis (Acari: Ixodidae) Hoogstraal is an important arthropod vector widespread in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and knowledge of its seasonal dynamics is still poor. The current study investigated the seasonal dynamics of the parasitic and non-parasitic H. tibetensis over a 2-year period from March 2014 to February 2016 in the Tibetan Plateau, China. During this timeframe, non-parasitic ticks were collected weekly by flag-dragging in grassland and shrubland areas, and parasitic ticks were removed weekly from selected sheep. Plateau pikas were captured using traps and examined for immature ticks between May to September 2014. Results suggest that non-parasitic H. tibetensis were mainly distributed in the grassland, and the parasitic adults and nymphs were found mostly on sheep. Larvae were usually found on Plateau pikas and the prevalence of infestation and mean parasitic intensity were 72.1 and 1.81%, respectively. Adults were observed from March to July with the major peak occurring in mid-April. Nymphs were found from March to August and reached a peak in late June. Larvae were collected from April to September, and their numbers peaked in late May. In the parasitic and non-parasitic period, the overall sex ratio of males to females was 1.62 and 1.30, respectively. Results show that H. tibetensis can complete one generation per year, with a population overlap between stages over the spring-summer months. These findings provide additional information on the biology and ecology of H. tibetensis as well as insights on its control in the environment and on sheep. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  15. [Responses of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to precipitation changes on the grassland of Tibetan Plateau from 2000 to 2015. (United States)

    Wang, Zhi Peng; Zhang, Xian Zhou; He, Yong Tao; Li, Meng; Shi, Pei Li; Zu, Jia Xing; Niu, Ben


    Precipitation change is an important factor in the inter-annual variation of grassland growth on the Tibetan Plateau. The total amount, distribution pattern and concentration time are three basic characteristics of precipitation change. The temporal and spatial characteristics of precipitation change were analyzed based on climate data of 145 meteorological stations on the Tibetan Plateau and nearby areas from 2000 to 2015. The total precipitation amount was characterized by annual precipitation, distribution pattern of precipitation during the year was characterized by improved precipitation concentration index (PCI), and precipitation centroid (PC) was defined to indicate the change in precipitation concentrated time. To better illustrate the response of grassland to precipitation change, vegetation growth status was characterized by the maximum value of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI max ). Results indicated that the annual precipitation and PCI had an apparent gradient across the whole plateau and the latest PC occurred in the southern plateau. NDVI max of alpine shrub grassland was significantly correlated with the change of PCI,increased with even distribution of precipitation during growth period, and limited by the total annual precipitation. Alpine meadow did not show significantly correlations with these three indices. The inter-annual variability of NDVI max of steppe was controlled by both PCI and PC. NDVI max of alpine desert grassland was mainly controlled by annual precipitation. In addition to annual total amount of precipitation, the distribution characteristics of precipitation should be further considered when the influence of precipitation change on different types of vegetation on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau was studied.

  16. Phylogeographic analysis reveals significant spatial genetic structure of Incarvillea sinensis as a product of mountain building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shaotian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incarvillea sinensis is widely distributed from Southwest China to Northeast China and in the Russian Far East. The distribution of this species was thought to be influenced by the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Quaternary glaciation. To reveal the imprints of geological events on the spatial genetic structure of Incarvillea sinensis, we examined two cpDNA segments ( trnH- psbA and trnS- trnfM in 705 individuals from 47 localities. Results A total of 16 haplotypes was identified, and significant genetic differentiation was revealed (GST =0.843, NST = 0.975, P  Conclusions The results revealed that the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau likely resulted in the significant divergence between the lineage in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the other one outside this area. The diverse niches in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau created a wide spectrum of habitats to accumulate and accommodate new mutations. The features of genetic diversity of populations outside the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau seemed to reveal the imprints of extinction during the Glacial and the interglacial and postglacial recolonization. Our study is a typical case of the significance of the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Quaternary Glacial in spatial genetic structure of eastern Asian plants, and sheds new light on the evolution of biodiversity in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau at the intraspecies level.

  17. The Plateau de Bure ASTEP Platform Test in natural radiation environment of electronic components and circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autran, J.L.; Munteanu, D.; Sauze, S.; Roche, Ph.; Gasiot, G.; Borel, J.


    Reducing the size of microelectronic devices and increasing the integration density of circuits lead (following the famous Moore's law) to an increased sensitivity of circuits to natural terrestrial radiation environment. - Such sensitivity to atmospheric particles (mainly neutrons) can cause non-destructive (soft-errors) or destructive (latch-up) failures in most electronic circuits, including volatile static memories (SRAM), object of the research work carried out since 2004 on the European Test Platform ASTER. - This paper presents in details the ASTEP platform, its location, the instruments (neutron monitor of the Plateau de Bure) and the experiences (memory tester) currently installed on the Plateau de Bure. In a second part, we also report a synthesis of the key results concerning the natural radiation sensitivity of SRAM fabricated in 130 nm and 65 nm bulk silicon technologies. (authors)

  18. Prevalence, Associated Risk Factors, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Toxocara vitulorum Infection in Yaks on the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau, China. (United States)

    Li, Kun; Lan, Yanfang; Luo, Houqiang; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Dongyu; Zhang, Lihong; Gui, Rui; Wang, Lei; Shahzad, Muhammad; Sizhu, Suolang; Li, Jiakui; Chamba, Yangzom


    Toxocara vitulorum has been rarely reported in yaks at high altitudes and remote areas of Sichuan Province of Tibetan Plateau of China. The current study was designed to investigate the prevalence, associated risk factors, and phylogenetic characteristics of T. vitulorum in yak calves on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau. Fecal samples were collected from 891 yak calves and were examined for the presence of T. vitulorum eggs by the McMaster technique. A multivariable logistic regression model was employed to explore variables potentially associated with exposure to T. vitulorum infection. T. vitulorum specimens were collected from the feces of yaks in Hongyuan of Sichuan Province, China. DNA was extracted from ascaris. After PCR amplification, the sequencing of ND1 gene was carried out and phylogenetic analyses was performed by MEGA 6.0 software. The results showed that 64 (20.1%; 95% CI 15.8-24.9%), 75 (17.2; 13.8-21.1), 29 (40.9; 29.3-53.2), and 5 (7.6; 2.5-16.8) yak calves were detected out to excrete T. vitulorum eggs in yak calve feces in Qinghai, Tibet, Sichuan, and Gansu, respectively. The present study revealed that high infection and mortality by T. vitulorum is wildly spread on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau, China by fecal examination. Geographical origin, ages, and fecal consistencies are the risk factors associated with T. vitulorum prevalence by logistic regression analysis. Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of ND1 gene of T. vitulorum indicated that T. vitulorum in the yak calves on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau are homologous to preveiously studies reported.

  19. On the inward drift of runaway electrons during the plateau phase of runaway current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Di, E-mail: [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Qin, Hong [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); School of Nuclear Science and Technology and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)


    The well observed inward drift of current carrying runaway electrons during runaway plateau phase after disruption is studied by considering the phase space dynamic of runaways in a large aspect ratio toroidal system. We consider the case where the toroidal field is unperturbed and the toroidal symmetry of the system is preserved. The balance between the change in canonical angular momentum and the input of mechanical angular momentum in such a system requires runaways to drift horizontally in configuration space for any given change in momentum space. The dynamic of this drift can be obtained by integrating the modified Euler-Lagrange equation over one bounce time. It is then found that runaway electrons will always drift inward as long as they are decelerating. This drift motion is essentially non-linear, since the current is carried by runaways themselves, and any runaway drift relative to the magnetic axis will cause further displacement of the axis itself. A simplified analytical model is constructed to describe such inward drift both in the ideal wall case and no wall case, and the runaway current center displacement as a function of parallel momentum variation is obtained. The time scale of such displacement is estimated by considering effective radiation drag, which shows reasonable agreement with the observed displacement time scale. This indicates that the phase space dynamic studied here plays a major role in the horizontal displacement of runaway electrons during plateau phase.

  20. Control of electron localization to isolate and enhance molecular harmonic plateau in asymmetric HeH2+ system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Ruifeng; Yu, Chao; Wang, Yunhui; Shi, Qi; Zhang, Yadong


    High-order harmonic generation from the asymmetric molecular ion HeH 2+ exposed to intense laser fields was investigated by quantum wave packet calculations in which the initial wave packet of HeH 2+ was prepared in the first excited 2pσ state. The calculated molecular harmonic plateau at low frequencies was effectively isolated and enhanced by adjusting the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of the laser field. Furthermore, double-well model, time-dependent electronic density, electronic state population, and time-frequency analyses were presented to explain the underlying mechanism of the efficient isolated molecular plateau. By taking advantage of the CEP effect to control the electronic dynamics, this isolated molecular plateau can be used to generate high-intensity single attosecond pulses.

  1. Impact of overgrazing on the transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis in Tibetan pastoral communities of Sichuan Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Qian; Xiao, Yong-fu; Vuitton, Dominique A; Schantz, Peter M; Raoul, Francis; Budke, Christine M; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Craig, Philip S; Giraudoux, Patrick


    BACKGROUND: Overgrazing was assumed to increase the population density of small mammals that are the intermediate hosts of Echinococcus multilocularis, the pathogen of alveolar echinococcosis in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. This research tested the hypothesis that overgrazing might promote

  2. Characterizations of geothermal springs along the Moxi deep fault in the western Sichuan plateau, China (United States)

    Qi, Jihong; Xu, Mo; An, Chengjiao; Wu, Mingliang; Zhang, Yunhui; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Qiang; Lu, Guoping


    Abundant geothermal springs occur along the Moxi fault located in western Sichuan Province (the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau), highlighted by geothermal water outflow with an unusually high temperature of 218 °C at 21.5 MPa from a 2010-m borehole in Laoyulin, Kangding. Earthquake activity occurs relatively more frequently in the region and is considered to be related to the strong hydrothermal activity. Geothermal waters hosted by a deep fault may provide evidence regarding the deep underground; their aqueous chemistry and isotopic information can indicate the mechanism of thermal springs. Cyclical variations of geothermal water outflows are thought to work under the effect of solid earth tides and can contribute to understanding conditions and processes in underground geo-environments. This paper studies the origin and variations of the geothermal spring group controlled by the Moxi fault and discusses conditions in the deep ground. Flow variation monitoring of a series of parameters was performed to study the geothermal responses to solid tides. Geothermal reservoir temperatures are evaluated with Na-K-Mg data. The abundant sulfite content, dissolved oxygen (DO) and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) data are discussed to study the oxidation-reduction states. Strontium isotopes are used to trace the water source. The results demonstrate that geothermal water could flow quickly through the Moxi fault the depth of the geothermal reservoir influences the thermal reservoir temperature, where supercritical hot water is mixed with circulating groundwater and can reach 380 °C. To the southward along the fault, the circulation of geothermal waters becomes shallower, and the waters may have reacted with metamorphic rock to some extent. Our results provide a conceptual deep heat source model for geothermal flow and the reservoir characteristics of the Moxi fault and indicate that the faulting may well connect the deep heat source to shallower depths. The

  3. Enzymatic Kinetic Properties of the Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme C4 of the Plateau Pika (Ochotona curzoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang


    Full Text Available Testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-C4 is one of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH isozymes that catalyze the terminal reaction of pyruvate to lactate in the glycolytic pathway. LDH-C4 in mammals was previously thought to be expressed only in spermatozoa and testis and not in other tissues. Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae belongs to the genus Ochotona of the Ochotonidea family. It is a hypoxia-tolerant species living in remote mountain areas at altitudes of 3000–5000 m above sea level on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Surprisingly, Ldh-c is expressed not only in its testis and sperm, but also in somatic tissues of plateau pika. To shed light on the function of LDH-C4 in somatic cells, Ldh-a, Ldh-b, and Ldh-c of plateau pika were subcloned into bacterial expression vectors. The pure enzymes of Lactate Dehydrogenase A4 (LDH-A4, Lactate Dehydrogenase B4 (LDH-B4, and LDH-C4 were prepared by a series of expression and purification processes, and the three enzymes were identified by the method of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE. The enzymatic kinetics properties of these enzymes were studied by Lineweaver-Burk double-reciprocal plots. The results showed the Michaelis constant (Km of LDH-C4 for pyruvate and lactate was 0.052 and 4.934 mmol/L, respectively, with an approximate 90 times higher affinity of LDH-C4 for pyruvate than for lactate. At relatively high concentrations of lactate, the inhibition constant (Ki of the LDH isoenzymes varied: LDH-A4 (Ki = 26.900 mmol/L, LDH-B4 (Ki = 23.800 mmol/L, and LDH-C4 (Ki = 65.500 mmol/L. These data suggest that inhibition of lactate by LDH-A4 and LDH-B4 were stronger than LDH-C4. In light of the enzymatic kinetics properties, we suggest that the plateau pika can reduce reliance on oxygen supply and enhance its adaptation to the hypoxic environments due to increased anaerobic glycolysis by LDH-C4.

  4. [Farmer's perception and adaptation intention for climate change in high-cold eco-fragile region: A case of Gannan Plateau, China. (United States)

    Zhao, Xue Yan; Xue, Bing


    In order to provide reference for formulating the effective policies of climate change, we selected Ganan Plateau located in the eastern margin of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau as the study area, and used the farmer's investigation data to analyze the impact of the farmers' perception of climate change on their adaptation indention. The results showed that the farmer's severity perception of climate change declined from the pure agriculture household to the household with combined occupation, and to the non-agriculture household, but the farmer's adaptation efficacy perception was vice versa. Moreover, all of the perceived probability, self-efficacy and adaptation cost of the household with combined occupation were highest, those of the non-agriculture household were the second place and those of the pure agriculture household were the lowest. The farmer's positive adaptation indention of climate change increased from the pure agriculture household to the household with combined occupation, and to the non-agriculture household. Increasing the perceived risk and adaptation efficacy would promote the farmer's positive adaptation intention, but increasing the perceived adaptation cost would promote the farmers' passive adaptation intention. Meanwhile, the more the farmer's agricultural acreage, livestock, income and optimistic degree were, the stronger the farmer's positive adaptation intention was; But the more the farmers' fixed capital, unpaid cash assistance opportunities, relative number and the number of people offering help were, the weaker the farmers' positive adaptation intention was. Finally, we pointed out the measures of promoting the positive adaptation intention and the problems on which we should focus in the future research.

  5. The relationship between the opening of South China Sea and the formation of the Tibetan Plateau (Invited) (United States)

    Mo, X.


    The South China Sea is one of the largest marginal seas in western Pacific and underwent a complex history. Xu et al.(2004) suggested that the evolution of the South China Sea can be divided into two first order phases: Paleogene (—Early Miocene) rifting and Neogene post- rifting. An oceanic crust was formed during 32-17 Ma. Whether or not the opening of South China Sea were related to Indo-Eurasia collision and the formation of the Tibetan Plateau is one of challenging problem in Earth sciences. With an exception of the southwestern China, the Chinese continent has become an united continent in the Triassic by the Indosinian orogeny. However, the Qinghai-Tibet area in SW China was still an oceanic region, that is, the Neo-Tethys. During the period of 145-100 Ma, the Lhasa terrane collided with the Qiangtang terrane and added to the south margin of the Eurasian continent. On the other hand, the Indian plate subducted underneath the Eurasian continent since Jurassic- Cretaceous. Subsequently, collision between the two continents, India and Eurasia, were completed during 65-40 Ma, and went into a post-collisional stage, characterized by intra-continental movements, including intra-continental subduction, overthrust, strike-slip and so on. The Tibetan Plateau, the highest plateau in the world had been formed by multi-stage uplifts. Several huge strike-slip shear zone such as the Red River Fault and the Altyn were formed during that period. The >1000-km-long Oligocene—Miocene left-lateral Red River shear zone (RRSZ) and the Pliocene—active right-lateral Red River fault (RRF), stretching from SE Tibet to the South China Sea, has been cited as a lithospheric scale strike-slip fault. The age of RRSZ was recently determined no earlier than 31.9-24.2Ma and no later than 21.7 Ma (Searle et al., 2010). Many geologists believe that there possibly be close relationship between the opening of the South China Sea and Indo-Eurasia collision and the formation of the Tibetan

  6. Improvement of Seed Germination and In Vitro Propagation of a Multipurpose Plateau Shrub Species Sophora Moorcroftiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Y.; Yao, W.; Li, S.; Li, H.


    Sophora moorcroftiana (Benth.) Baker (Fabaceae) with blue flowers is a shrub species in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. This species is an important ornamental, ecological and economical species mainly distributed in the wide valleys of Yarlung Tsangpo and Lhasa River. It contains strong drought, solar radiation and sand burial resistance. However, it is on the verge of extinction because of over-exploitation in recent years, seedling production is a bottleneck in this plant's development, and information is lacking on an In vitro propagation system for S. moorcroftiana. Therefore, an effective propagation technique is urgently needed. In the present study, S. moorcroftiana seed germinations both In vitro and on an open moistened filter paper were significantly improved. The best germination percentage (88.67+-0.67) and percentage of cotyledons presented (69.67+-0.33) were obtained when the seeds were placed in moistened filter paper for 30 d after treatment with 98 percent concentration sulphuric acid for 70 min, and then treated with either Gibberellic acid (GA3) 100 mg L/sup-1/ or 500 mg L/sup -1/. Besides, an In vitro propagation system was developed for this species, the impacts of various media combined with different plant growth regulators (PGR) on multiple shoots proliferation were evaluated. The result showed Woody Plant Medium (WPM) supplemented with 1.0 mg L/sup -1/ N/sup 6/ -Benzyladenine (BA) and 0.2 mg L/sup -1/ alpha-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) was found to be optimum for production of multiple shoots (89.33 percent shoot regeneration frequency and 18.67 shoots per explant) using cotyledonary node. The best rooted medium for regenerated shoots (89.72 percent, 4.68 roots per shoot) was half-strength Murashige and Skoog (1/2 MS) supplemented with 0.5 mg L/sup -1/ indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 0.02 mg L/sup -1/ NAA. The rooted plantlets were successfully acclimated, and survival of plantlets was 75 percent after transfer to soil. These results could be

  7. Impacts of Global Change on Water Resources in Dryland East Asia (United States)

    Ge Sun; Xiaoming Feng; Jingfeng Xiao; Alex Shiklomanov; Shengping Wang; Zhiqiang Zhang; Nan Lu; Shuai Wang; Liding Chen; Bojie Fu; Yaning Chen; Jiquan Chen


    The vast Dryland East Asia (DEA) area consists of several large geographic regions including the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Loess Plateau, and Mongolia Plateau. T he region is of great importance to the functioning of the earth system under a changing climate. In the past three decades, due to the unprecedented land use/land cover change, urbanization, industrialization...

  8. The extent of permafrost in China during the local Last Glacial Maximum (LLGM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, L.; Jin, H.; Li, C.; Cui, Z.; Chang, X.; Marchenko, S.S.; Vandenberghe, J.; Zhang, T.; Luo, D.; Liu, G.; Yi, C.


    Recent investigations into relict periglacial phenomena in northern and western China and on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau provide information for delineating the extent of permafrost in China during the Late Pleistocene. Polygonal and wedge-shaped structures indicate that, during the local Last Glacial

  9. Psychrophilic fungi from the world’s roof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Jiang, X.; Wu, W.; Hao, Y.; Su, Y.; Cai, L.; Xiang, M.; Liu, X.


    During a survey of cold-adapted fungi in alpine glaciers on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, 1 428 fungal isolates were obtained of which 150 species were preliminary identified. Phoma sclerotioides and Pseudogymnoascus pannorum were the most dominant species. Psychrotolerant species in Helotiales

  10. Soil formation in high elevation and permafrost areas in the Qinghai Plateau (China Edafogénesis en zonas elevadas y con permafrost en el Plateau Qunghai (China Formação do solo em áreas de elevada altitude e em ambientes"permafrost" do planalto de Qinghai Plateau (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselito Arocena


    Full Text Available

    Soil systems continuously gain and lose matter and energy even in areas where climate is too harsh to support the higher plants such as in high elevations and in permafrost environments. The purpose of this paper was to elucidate soil formation at 4 700 m asl in the Kunlun Mountains of the Qinghai (Tibet Plateau, China. We collected twenty-six samples from three pedons developed on carbonate-rich slate and quartzitic-sandstone materials. The samples were analyzed for routine physical, chemical and mineralogical properties. Our results indicate that soil-forming processes are barely taking place in the study site as shown by pH > 7.0 reflecting limited decarbonation, biological activity (< 1.0% total C and < 0.05% total N, podzolization (<1 g Fep+Alp kg-1 soil and lessivage. The relative amounts of mica and kaolinite show no apparent change with depth suggesting minimal transformation and translocation of phyllosilicates. The most noticeable mineral transformation resulted in micaceous “flakes” and feldspathic “fragments” possibly due to thermal stress. Calcite is also observed coating the slate fragments. The soils are classified as Cryosols in the World Reference Base system and Gelisols in the Soil Taxonomy with ochric epipedon as the only diagnostic horizon indicating recent development of soils due to cold and arid environment. The results of this study show that soil-forming processes in harsh environments are manifested in the mechanical breakdown of minerals such as mica and feldspars.

    Los sistemas edáficos ganan y pierden continuamente materia y energía incluso en zonas donde el clima es demasiado severo como para permitir el desarrollo de plantas superiores, como son las zonas de elevada altitud o los ambientes con permafrost. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la formación del suelo a una altitud de 4 700 m en las Monta

  11. Strategic Environmental Assessment and Environmental Auditing in Large-scale Public Infrastructure Construction: the case of Qinghai-Tibet Railway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, G.; Zhang, L.; Lu, Y.


    Large-scale public infrastructure projects have featured in China’s modernization course since the early 1980s. During the early stages of China’s rapid economic development, public attention focused on the economic and social impact of high-profile construction projects. In recent years, however,

  12. Explaining plateaued diffusion by combining the user-IT-success factors (USIT) and adopter categories: the case of electronic prescription systems for general practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, R.W.; Spil, Antonius A.M.


    Although the diffusion of new IT in healthcare does not seem to have levelled off, successes are reported frequently. Many of these successful cases show enthusiastic use of an innovation by a limited group of physicians or other users. This paper explains plateaued diffusion by differentiating the

  13. Deep physical structure and geotectonic implications of the eastern margin of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li


    eastern margin may contain a middle–lower crustal fluid material with the attributes of high conductivity and low density. Its distribution is closely related to the uplift mechanism and deep seismogenic activities at the QTP’s eastern margin.   Estructura profunda e implicaciones geotectónicas del margen oriental del altiplano Qinghai-Tíbet  Resumen El margen oriental del altiplano Qinghai-Tíbet (QTP, del inglés Qinghai-Tibet Plateau es el área de la extrusión lateral hacia el Este de material cortical. Este trabajo se enfoca en explorar la respuesta estructural de las capas superiores en el altiplano y las bases para su estructuración geológica. Se utilizó información magnetotelúrica y anomalías de Bouguer para determinar la respuesta geofísica de las capas superiores en el margen occidental del altiplano. Dentro de los principales resultados se tiene: (i la distribución de la densidad aparente indica la presencia de material de baja densidad en las capas medias y bajas de los bloques Songpan y Sichuan-Yunnan en el Este del QTP. Por otro lado, el bloque cratónico Yangtze (en la cuenca Sichuan contiene material con una mayor densidad. Al oeste de las zonas tectónicas Longmeshan-Panxi, y a lo largo de las capas inferiores, entre 40 y 50 kilómetros de profundidad, hay una zona de baja densidad con orientación noreste-suroeste. (ii El modelo eléctrico que abarca el bloque Songpan, la zona tectónica Longmeshan y el bloque Yangtze, revela tres unidades a lo largo de la sección cruzada subordinada a la zona tectónica Longmenshan. La primera unidad está en el bloque Songpan, con alta resistividad en la capa superficial y baja en las capas media e inferiores. Luego aparece el cratón Yangtze, con baja resistividad en la superficie y resistividad media en las capas media e inferiores. La tercera unidad es la zona tectónica transicional de Longmenshan, cuya estructura superficial y profunda está caracterizada por una estructura eléctrica asociada

  14. Tibial Plateau Fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsøe, Rasmus

    This PhD thesis reported an incidence of tibial plateau fractures of 10.3/100,000/year in a complete Danish regional population. The results reported that patients treated for a lateral tibial plateau fracture with bone tamp reduction and percutaneous screw fixation achieved a satisfactory level...... with only the subgroup Sport significantly below the age matched reference population. The thesis reports a level of health related quality of life (Eq5d) and disability (KOOS) significantly below established reference populations for patients with bicondylar tibial plateau fracture treated with a ring...... fixator, both during treatment and at 19 months following injury. In general, the thesis demonstrates that the treatment of tibial plateau fractures are challenging and that some disabilities following these fractures must be expected. Moreover, the need for further research in the area, both with regard...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROMINE, L.D.


    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Tibetan red fox (Vulpes vulpes montana). (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Honghai; Zhao, Chao; Chen, Lei; Sha, Weilai; Liu, Guangshuai


    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the Tibetan red fox (Vulpes Vulpes montana) was sequenced for the first time using blood samples obtained from a wild female red fox captured from Lhasa in Tibet, China. Qinghai--Tibet Plateau is the highest plateau in the world with an average elevation above 3500 m. Sequence analysis showed it contains 12S rRNA gene, 16S rRNA gene, 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 control region (CR). The variable tandem repeats in CR is the main reason of the length variability of mitochondrial genome among canide animals.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)




  18. Greenland plateau jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George William Kent Moore


    Full Text Available The high ice-covered topography of Greenland represents a significant barrier to atmospheric flow and, as a direct and indirect result, it plays a crucial role in the coupled climate system. The wind field over Greenland is important in diagnosing regional weather and climate, thereby providing information on the mass balance of the ice sheet as well as assisting in the interpretation of ice core data. Here, we identify a number of hitherto unrecognised features of the three-dimensional wind field over Greenland; including a 2500-km-long jet along the central ice sheet's western margin that extends from the surface into the middle-troposphere, as well as a similar but smaller scale and less intense feature along its eastern margin. We refer to these features as Greenland Plateau Jets. The jets are coupled to the downslope katabatic flow and we argue that they are maintained by the zonal temperature gradients associated with the strong temperature inversion over the central ice sheet. Their importance for Greenland's regional climate is discussed.

  19. Representative value of cross-fault in the northeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet block and case analysis of the 2016 Menyuan Ms6.4 earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruisha Li


    Full Text Available The equation for determining cross-fault representative value is calculated based on hanging wall and foot wall reference level surfaces. The cross-fault data reliability are analyzed base on the stability of reference datum and observation points, thereby facilitating plotting of the representative value curves after removing interference. The spatial and temporal characteristics of fault deformation abnormalities before the 2016 Menyuan Ms6.4 earthquake, as well as the fault-movement characteristics reflected by representative value, are summarized. The results show that many site trends had changed 1–3 years before the Menyuan Ms6.4 earthquake in the Qilian Fault, reflecting certain background abnormalities. The short-term abnormalities centrally had appeared in the 6 months to 1 year period before the earthquake near and in the neighborhood of the source region, demonstrating a significantly increased number of short-term abnormalities. Many sites near and in the neighborhood of the source region had strengthened inverse activities or had changed from positive to inverse activities in the most recent 2–3 years, which reflect stress-field enhancements or adjustment features.

  20. Organizational restructuring and career plateauing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Paffen; Hans Timmermans


    This article describes a flexibility program for plateaued professionals in a technical Dutch firm operating in the consultancy sector we will refer to with the pseudonym Greentree Corp. First, we will discuss the impact reorganization had on job-requirements and career opportunities for technical

  1. The Pajarito Plateau: A bibliography (United States)

    Mathien, Frances Joan; Steen, Charlie R.; Allen, Craig D.


    This bibliography is the result of two initially independent projects. As the consulting archaeologist at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Charlie R. Steen collected entries at the suggestion of the staff of the Environmental Surveillance Group of the Health, Safety, and Environmental Division, HSE-8. The primary purpose was to aid the staff in evaluating cultural resources on LANL lands. In addition to works that related to the archaeology and history of the area, Steen included notations of a few books and articles in other fields such as geology and natural history. It was hoped that they also would be of value to other organizations and to students of past human activities on the Pajarito Plateau.At the same time, the National Park Service (NPS) was planning a major survey of Bandelier National Monument (BNM). As part of this plan, the author was asked to prepare a background document that described research previously carried out in the area, including an annotated bibliography. Although the survey would be limited to the park boundaries, the larger Pajarito Plateau is a more logical study area from physiographic, environmental, and cultural perspectives; hence the focus was on this larger region. Mathien (1986) also included some references to natural resources studies, particularly those initiated by NPS within Bandelier National Monument.Both bibliographies were made available to Colleen Olinger and Beverly Larson of the Health and Environmental Services Group at Los Alamos. They realized that while neither was complete, each included entries missing from the other. Larson suggested the two bibliographies be combined. (At this time, Craig Allen was studying the landscape of the Jemez Mountains [Allen 1984c, 1989]. His investigations included much detailed information on natural resource studies and were added in 1991 and 1992.)To limit the scope of their work, Steen and Mathien had chosen their parameter: the Pajarito Plateau. Geographically, the

  2. Monuments of the Giza Plateau (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    The colossal pyramids of the pharaohs Khufu (Cheops), Khafre (Chephren), and Menkaure (Mycerinus) have attracted a huge amount of astronomical interest over the years, both scholarly and popular. Less attention is usually given to the broader context of structures on the Giza Plateau. One of the most notorious ideas connecting the Giza Plateau with astronomy is that the three large pyramids are laid out on the ground so as to reflect the appearance of the three stars of Orion's Belt in the sky. This idea is unsupportable for several reasons but has succeeded in generating huge public interest. Of much greater serious interest is the fact that the three main pyramids were oriented cardinally to extraordinary precision, which raises the questions of why this was important and how it was achieved. Another idea that has attracted serious attention but also some confusion is that the orientations of some narrow shafts within Khufu's pyramid might have been deliberately aligned upon particular stars. The overall layout of monuments on the plateau may certainly have been designed so as to emphasize certain solar phenomena, for symbolic and ideological reasons relating to a dominant sun cult. It is also possible that it formed part of a wider cosmological "master plan" extending to other pyramids and temples up to 20 km distant.


    Feraru, Crenguta Ioana; Pantalon, Anca Delia; Chiselita, Dorin; Branisteanu, Daniel


    Plateau iris is characterized by closing the anterior chamber angle due to a large ciliary body or due to its anterior insertion that alters the position of iris periphery in respect to the trabecular meshwork. There are two aspects that need to be differentiated: plateau iris configuration and plateau iris syndrome. The first describes a situation when the iris root is flat and the anterior chamber is not shallow, the latter refers to a post laser iridotomy condition in which a patent iridotomy has removed the relative pupillary block, but goniscopically confirmed angle closure recurs without central shallowing of the anterior chamber. Isolated plateau iris syndrome is rare compared to plateau iris configuration. We hereby present two case reports of plateau iris syndrome in young patients who came to an ophthalmologic consult by chance.

  4. Iceberg incursions across Campbell Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northcote, L.; Neil, H.; Carter, L.


    The last reported sighting of icebergs off eastern New Zealand was on 28th October, 1892, at the Chatham Islands. Prior to that time, the SW Pacific Ocean periodically hosted flotillas of icebergs, as revealed by a palaeoceanographic analysis of 8 cores from the Campbell Plateau. Stable isotope stratigraphy, coupled with down-core measurements of magnetic susceptibility, grain size, calcium carbonate and ice-rafted debris, highlight climate-related fluctuations in iceberg activity back to at least marine isotope stage (MIS) 6 - our longest complete record. (author)


    Stefan, Cornel; Iliescu, Daniela Adriana; Batras, Mehdi; Timaru, Cristina Mihaela; De Simone, Algerino


    Objectives: The objective of our study was to review the current knowledge on the diagnosis and treatment options of plateau iris configuration and syndrome. Systematic review methodology: Relevant publications on plateau iris that were published until 2014. Conclusions: Plateau iris syndrome is a form of primary angle closure glaucoma caused by a large or anteriorly positioned ciliary body that leads to mechanical obstruction of trabecular meshwork. This condition is most often found in younger patients. Plateau iris has been considered an abnormal anatomic variant of the iris that can be diagnosed on ultrasound biomicroscopy or optical coherence tomography of anterior segment. Patients with plateau iris syndrome can be recognized by the lack of response in angle opening after iridotomy. The treatment of choice in these cases is argon laser peripheral iridoplasty PMID:27373109


    Stefan, Cornel; Iliescu, Daniela Adriana; Batras, Mehdi; Timaru, Cristina Mihaela; De Simone, Algerino


    The objective of our study was to review the current knowledge on the diagnosis and treatment options of plateau iris configuration and syndrome. Relevant publications on plateau iris that were published until 2014. Plateau iris syndrome is a form of primary angle closure glaucoma caused by a large or anteriorly positioned ciliary body that leads to mechanical obstruction of trabecular meshwork. This condition is most often found in younger patients. Plateau iris has been considered an abnormal anatomic variant of the iris that can be diagnosed on ultrasound biomicroscopy or optical coherence tomography of anterior segment. Patients with plateau iris syndrome can be recognized by the lack of response in angle opening after iridotomy. The treatment of choice in these cases is argon laser peripheral iridoplasty.

  7. [Climate change impacts on yield of Cordyceps sinensis and research on yield prediction model of C. sinensis]. (United States)

    Zhu, Shou-Dong; Huang, Lu-Qi; Guo, Lan-Ping; Ma, Xing-Tian; Hao, Qing-Xiu; Le, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Yang, Guang; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Mei-Lan


    Cordyceps sinensis is a Chinese unique precious herbal material, its genuine producing areas covering Naqu, Changdu in Qinghai Tibet Plateau, Yushu in Qinghai province and other regions. In recent 10 years, C. sinensis resources is decreasing as a result of the blindly and excessively perennial dug. How to rationally protect, develop and utilize of the valuable resources of C. sinensis has been referred to an important field of research on C. sinensis. The ecological environment and climate change trend of Qinghai Tibet plateau happens prior to other regions, which means that the distribution and evolution of C. sinensis are more obvious and intense than those of the other populations. Based on RS (remote sensing)/GIS(geographic information system) technology, this paper utilized the relationship between the snowline elevation, the average temperature, precipitation and sunshine hours in harvest period (April and may) of C. sinensis and the actual production of C. sinensis to establish a weighted geometric mean model. The model's prediction accuracy can reach 82.16% at least in forecasting C. sinensis year yield in Naqu area in every early June. This study can provide basic datum and information for supporting the C. sinensis industry healthful, sustainable development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. Studies on the characteristics of vegetation and soil on mount sejila, tibet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, X.; Hu, Z.; Xin, G.


    In order to better understand the ecosystems of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, we studied the characteristics of the vegetation and soil on Mount Sejila in Tibet, at altitudes ranging from 3700m to 4700m was studied. Eleven sampling areas were examined, and the vegetation composition, species diversity, plant biomass and soil properties were measured in each one. Representatives of 99 different plant species from 26 families were identified, and the plant communities exhibited a clear degree of altitude dependence: some species were found in all samples while others were only present in a single sampling area. Plant aboveground biomass correlated negatively with altitude, but the species diversity (based on the Shannon-Wiener and Simpson diversity indices as well as evenness and species richness measurements) were not altitude dependent. Community similarity decreased as the difference in altitude between sites increased. The measured soil properties had significant effects on plant characteristics, especially the soil nitrogen, soil moisture and temperature. The results presented herein provide a solid foundation for a more comprehensive study of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau's ecosystems and will be useful in drawing up biodiversity and ecosystem preservation schemes. (author)

  9. The fractional acoustoelectric current plateau induced by the energy-dependent tunnelling from dynamic quantum dots into an impurity dot (United States)

    Chen, S. W.; Song, L.


    The fractional acoustoelectric (AE) current plateau in surface-acoustic-waves (SAW) single-electron transport devices is studied by measuring the current plateau as a function of the SAW power and gate bias as well as a function of perpendicular magnetic filed. Our investigation indicates that the fractional plateau is induced by the tunnelling effect from the dynamic quantum dots (QDs) into a static impurity dot. Rate equations are used to extract the tunnelling rates, which change a lot with the number of electrons in the dynamic QDs, the SAW power and gate bias. In addition, the current plateau evolves into a fractional structure, when a strong perpendicular magnetic field is applied to the system.

  10. Prehistoric human settling on the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Chen, F.; Zhang, D.; Dong, G.; Xia, H.


    When and where did human first settle down on the Tibetan Plateau is under hot debate among archaeologist, anthropologists, geneticist and paleo-geographers. Based on systematic archaeological, chronological and archaeo-botanical studies of 53 sites in Northeastern Tibetan Plateau, we propose that agriculture facilitated human permanent settlement on the Tibetan Plateau initially since 5200 years ago below 2500 masl and since 3600 years ago up to around 4000 masl, possibly assisted by domesticated animals (Chen et al. 2015). By redating the age of hand- and footprints in Chusang site in Tibet, Meyer et al. (2017) argue that hunter-gatherers permanently occupied central Tibetan Plateau in early Holocene (before 7.4 ka) without the help of agriculture. Except for the possible problem of dating, however, the limited hand- and footprints could only indicate the presence of prehistoric hunter-gatherers on the remote central Tibetan Plateau in the early Holocene, unable to support the permanent inhabitation assertion (Zhang et al., 2017). To better understand how human spread to, settle on and adapt to the Tibetan Plateau, we are closely working together with anthropologists, archaeologists and geneticists to do system Paleolithic surveys, full excavations, and genetic analysis of ancient and modern human, animals and plants. Our preliminary study show that human migrated to the Tibetan Plateau from the last Deglacial period to late Holocene mainly from North China via Yellow River valley and its tributary valleys in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau (NETP). This migration is constituted of four stages (Upper Paleolithic, Epi-Paleolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age) with different adaptation strategies, including microlithic technology, millet and barley farming, and sheep herding and so on (Zhang et al., 2016). In addition, our new finds in Tibet indicate that there are probably more migration routes from southeast and southwest Tibetan Plateau in the late Pleistocene or

  11. Electronics (United States)


    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  12. Application of UTCI in China from tourism perspective (United States)

    Ge, Quansheng; Kong, Qinqin; Xi, Jianchao; Zheng, Jingyun


    This study uses ERA-Interim reanalysis data and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) to investigate the spatial pattern of thermal bioclimatic conditions in China. Our results show that the annual UTCI increases with decreasing latitude throughout most of China. Areas that experience "no thermal stress" are located southeast of the line formed by the Yanshan Mountains, Taihang Mountains, the southern edge of the Loess Plateau, and the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, with an area of 312.83e4 km2. During spring and autumn, the UTCI distribution is similar to the annual distribution. During summer, areas with "no thermal stress" cover the largest area (563.55e4 km2), including northern and southwestern China; in contrast, during winter, areas with "no thermal stress" only occur south of the Nanling Mountains. The annual number of days with "no thermal stress" increases from north to south in central and eastern China, exceeding 200 days in the Sichuan Basin, the southeastern coastal regions and the Yungui Plateau. The minimum and maximum values occur on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (≤10 days) and the southern Yungui Plateau (>280 days). Seasonal analysis indicates that there are over 70 days with "no thermal stress" in the Sichuan Basin, the Yungui Plateau and the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River during spring and autumn, while there are more than 80 days in northern and southwestern China during summer and over 80 days in areas south of the Nanling Mountains during winter. The results of this study can be helpful for optimization of the tourism industry and tourism destinations development in China.

  13. The Hikurangi Plateau: Tectonic Ricochet and Accretion (United States)

    Willis, David; Moresi, Louis; Betts, Peter; Whittaker, Joanne


    80 million years between interactions with different subduction systems provided time for the Hikurangi Plateau and Pacific Ocean lithosphere to cool, densify and strengthen. Neogene subduction of the Hikurangi Plateau occurring orthogonal to its Cretaceous predecessor, provides a unique opportunity to explore how changes to the physical properties of oceanic lithosphere affect subduction dynamics. We used Underworld to build mechanically consistent collision models to understand the dynamics of the two Hikurangi collisions. The Hikurangi Plateau is a ~112 Ma, 15km thick oceanic plateau that has been entrained by subduction zones immediately preceding the final break-up of Eastern Gondwana and currently within the active Hikurangi Margin. We explore why attempted subduction of the plateau has resulted in vastly different dynamics on two separate occasions. Slab break-off occured during the collision with Gondwana, currently there is apparent subduction of the plateau underneath New Zealand. At ~100Ma the young, hot Hikurangi Plateau, positively buoyant with respect to the underlying mantle, impacted a Gondwana Margin under rapid extension after the subduction of an mid-ocean ridge 10-15Ma earlier. Modelling of plateaus within young oceanic crust indicates that subduction of the thickened crust was unlikely to occur. Frontal accretion of the plateau and accompanying slab break-off is expected to have occured rapidly after its arrival. The weak, young slab was susceptible to lateral propagation of the ~1500 km window opened by the collision, and break-off would have progressed along the subduction zone inhibiting the "step-back" of the trench seen in older plates. Slab break-off coincided with a world-wide reorganisation of plate velocites, and orogenic collapse along the Gondwana margin characterised by rapid extension and thinning of the over-riding continental plate from ~60 to 30km. Following extension, Zealandia migrated to the NW until the Miocene allowing the

  14. Computed tomography of tibial plateau fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafii, M.; Firooznia, H.; Golimbu, C.; Bonamo, J.


    Twenty patients with tibial plateau fractures were studied by conventional tomography and computed tomography (CT) in order to determine the role and feasibility of CT in management of such patients. CT resulted in less discomfort to the patient and provided optimal visualization of the plateau defect and the split fragments. It proved more accurate than conventional tomography in assessing depressed and split fractures when they involved the anterior or posterior border of the plateau and in demonstrating the extent of fracture comminution. Split fragments with an oblique plane of fracture also were seen better by CT. The degree of fracture depression and separation as measured by the computerized technique was often more accurate than measurements obtained from conventional tomograms


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, T.B.


    Cleanup of the Hanford Site is a complex and challenging undertaking. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a comprehensive vision for completing Hanford's cleanup mission including transition to post-cleanup activities. This vision includes 3 principle components of cleanup: the ∼200 square miles ofland adjacent to the Columbia River, known as the River Corridor; the 75 square miles of land in the center of the Hanford Site, where the majority of the reprocessing and waste management activities have occurred, known as the Central Plateau; and the stored reprocessing wastes in the Central Plateau, the Tank Wastes. Cleanup of the River Corridor is well underway and is progressing towards completion of most cleanup actions by 2015. Tank waste cleanup is progressing on a longer schedule due to the complexity of the mission, with construction of the largest nuclear construction project in the United States, the Waste Treatment Plant, over 50% complete. With the progress on the River Corridor and Tank Waste, it is time to place increased emphasis on moving forward with cleanup of the Central Plateau. Cleanup of the Hanford Site has been proceeding under a framework defmed in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In early 2009, the DOE, the State of Washington Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency signed an Agreement in Principle in which the parties recognized the need to develop a more comprehensive strategy for cleanup of the Central Plateau. DOE agreed to develop a Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy as a starting point for discussions. This DOE Strategy was the basis for negotiations between the Parties, discussions with the State of Oregon, the Hanford Advisory Board, and other Stakeholder groups (including open public meetings), and consultation with the Tribal Nations. The change packages to incorporate the Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy were signed by the

  16. Plateau iris secondary to iridociliary cysts. (United States)

    Vila-Arteaga, J; Díaz-Céspedes, R A; Suriano, M M


    We present a case of plateau iris and glaucoma due to multiple unilateral iridociliary cysts. The patient was treated with iridotomy Nd: YAG laser and 360° iridoplasty, without achieving pressure control. Phacoemulsification improved the hypertension. Dynamic gonioscopy and OCT of the anterior chamber was also performed before and after treatment. Iridociliary cysts are a benign condition that can cause iris plateau configuration, and can produce a difficult to treat ocular hypertension. Cystotomy, peripheral iridoplasty, and other treatments have been proposed. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of temperature anisotropy on neoclassical transport in the plateau and banana-plateau regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Masayoshi


    The neoclassical transport theory in a presence of temperature anisotropy is investigated in the low to the intermediate collision frequency regimes for a large aspect-ratio tokamak plasma. The standard procedure for an isotropic plasma in the plateau regime is extended to an anisotropic plasma, and the neoclassical transport coefficients in this regime are explicitly calculated. By interpolating the results in the plateau regime and the previously obtained ones in the banana regime, the expressions for the neoclassical transport coefficients which are continuously valid from the banana to the plateau regimes are presented. (author)

  18. (Bos grunniens) in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 30, 2012 ... Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, as it represents a unique bovine species adapted to ..... al., 1993; Udina et al., 2003), mastitis caused by. Staphylococcus sp. ... for prevention and treatment in many cases (Gerald et al., 2003). But in ...

  19. Genetic diversity and sex-bias dispersal of plateau pika in Tibetan plateau. (United States)

    Zhang, Liangzhi; Qu, Jiapeng; Li, Kexin; Li, Wenjing; Yang, Min; Zhang, Yanming


    Dispersal is an important aspect in organism's life history which could influence the rate and outcome of evolution of organism. Plateau pika is the keystone species in community of grasslands in Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we combine genetic and field data to character the population genetic pattern and dispersal dynamics in plateau pika ( Ochotona curzoniae ). Totally, 1,352 individual samples were collected, and 10 microsatellite loci were analyzed. Results revealed that plateau pika possessed high genetic diversity and inbreeding coefficient in a fine-scale population. Dispersal distance is short and restricted in about 20 m. An effective sex-biased dispersal strategy is employed by plateau pika: males disperse in breeding period for mating while females do it after reproduction for offspring and resource. Inbreeding avoiding was shown as the common driving force of dispersal, together with the other two factors, environment and resource. In addition, natal dispersal is female biased. More detailed genetic analyzes are needed to confirm the role of inbreeding avoidance and resource competition as ultimate cause of dispersal patterns in plateau pika.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoff, E.N.; Peterson, R.S.


    Through QuarkNet, students across the country have access to cosmic ray detectors in their high school classrooms. These detectors operate using a scintillator material and a photomultiplier tube (PMT). A data acquisition (DAQ) board counts cosmic ray hits from the counters. Through an online e-Lab, students can analyze and share their data. In order to collect viable data, the PMTs should operate at their plateau voltages. In these plateau ranges, the number of counts per minute remains relatively constant with small changes in PMT voltage. We sought to plateau the counters in the test array and to clarify the plateauing procedure itself. In order to most effectively plateau the counters, the counters should be stacked and programmed to record the number of coincident hits as well as their singles rates. We also changed the threshold value that a signal must exceed in order to record a hit and replateaued the counters. For counter 1, counter 2, and counter 3, we found plateau voltages around 1V. The singles rate plateau was very small, while the coincidence plateau was very long. The plateau voltages corresponded to a singles rate of 700–850 counts per minute. We found very little effect of changing the threshold voltages. Our chosen plateau voltages produced good performance studies on the e-Lab. Keeping in mind the nature of the experiments conducted by the high school students, we recommend a streamlined plateauing process. Because changing the threshold did not drastically affect the plateau voltage or the performance study, students should choose a threshold value, construct plateau graphs, and analyze their data using a performance study. Even if the counters operate slightly off their plateau voltage, they should deliver good performance studies and return reliable results.

  1. [Surgical approaches to tibial plateau fractures]. (United States)

    Krause, Matthias; Müller, Gunnar; Frosch, Karl-Heinz


    Intra-articular tibial plateau fractures can present a surgical challenge due to complex injury patterns and compromised soft tissue. The treatment goal is to spare the soft tissue and an anatomical reconstruction of the tibial articular surface. Depending on the course of the fracture, a fracture-specific access strategy is recommended to provide correct positioning of the plate osteosynthesis. While the anterolateral approach is used in the majority of lateral tibial plateau fractures, only one third of the joint surface is visible; however, posterolateral fragments require an individual approach, e. g. posterolateral or posteromedial. If necessary, osteotomy of the femoral epicondyles can improve joint access for reduction control. Injuries to the posterior columns should be anatomically reconstructed and biomechanically correctly addressed via posterior approaches. Bony posterior cruciate ligament tears can be refixed via a minimally invasive posteromedial approach.

  2. Plateau's problem an invitation to varifold geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Frederick J Almgren, Jr


    There have been many wonderful developments in the theory of minimal surfaces and geometric measure theory in the past 25 to 30 years. Many of the researchers who have produced these excellent results were inspired by this little book--or by Fred Almgren himself. The book is indeed a delightful invitation to the world of variational geometry. A central topic is Plateau's Problem, which is concerned with surfaces that model the behavior of soap films. When trying to resolve the problem, however, one soon finds that smooth surfaces are insufficient: Varifolds are needed. With varifolds, one can obtain geometrically meaningful solutions without having to know in advance all their possible singularities. This new tool makes possible much exciting new analysis and many new results. Plateau's problem and varifolds live in the world of geometric measure theory, where differential geometry and measure theory combine to solve problems which have variational aspects. The author's hope in writing this book was to encour...

  3. Freshwater Biogeography and Limnological Evolution of the Tibetan Plateau - Insights from a Plateau-Wide Distributed Gastropod Taxon (Radix spp.) (United States)

    von Oheimb, Parm Viktor; Albrecht, Christian; Riedel, Frank; Du, Lina; Yang, Junxing; Aldridge, David C.; Bößneck, Ulrich; Zhang, Hucai; Wilke, Thomas


    Background The Tibetan Plateau is not only the highest and largest plateau on earth; it is also home to numerous freshwater lakes potentially harbouring endemic faunal elements. As it remains largely unknown whether these lakes have continuously existed during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), questions arise as to whether taxa have been able to exist on the plateau since before the latest Pleistocene, from where and how often the plateau was colonized, and by which mechanisms organisms conquered remote high altitude lentic freshwater systems. In this study, species of the plateau-wide distributed freshwater gastropod genus Radix are used to answer these biogeographical questions. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on a broad spatial sampling of Radix spp. on the Tibetan Plateau, and phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequence data, three probably endemic and one widespread major Radix clade could be identified on the plateau. Two of the endemic clades show a remarkably high genetic diversity, indicating a relatively great phylogenetic age. Phylogeographical analyses of individuals belonging to the most widely distributed clade indicate that intra-plateau distribution cannot be explained by drainage-related dispersal alone. Conclusions/Significance Our study reveals that Radix spp. persisted throughout the LGM on the Tibetan Plateau. Therefore, we assume the continuous existence of suitable water bodies during that time. The extant Radix diversity on the plateau might have been caused by multiple colonization events combined with a relatively long intra-plateau evolution. At least one colonization event has a Palaearctic origin. In contrast to freshwater fishes, passive dispersal, probably by water birds, might be an important mechanism for conquering remote areas on the plateau. Patterns found in Radix spp. are shared with some terrestrial plateau taxa, indicating that Radix may be a suitable model taxon for inferring general patterns of biotic origin, dispersal and

  4. Collision-induced post-plateau volcanism: Evidence from a seamount on Ontong Java Plateau (United States)

    Hanyu, Takeshi; Tejada, Maria Luisa G.; Shimizu, Kenji; Ishizuka, Osamu; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Chang, Qing; Senda, Ryoko; Miyazaki, Takashi; Hirahara, Yuka; Vaglarov, Bogdan S.; Goto, Kosuke T.; Ishikawa, Akira


    Many seamounts on the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) occur near the Stewart Arch, a topographic high that extends parallel to the North Solomon Trench along the southern margins of the plateau. Despite the thick sediment cover, several volcanic cones with strong acoustic reflection were discovered on the submarine flank of the Nuugurigia Seamount. From such volcanic cones, basalts were successfully sampled by dredging. Radiometric dating of basalts and ferromanganese encrustation indicate eruption age of 20-25 Ma, significantly younger than the 122 Ma main OJP plateau and post-plateau basalts. The age range coincides with the collision of the OJP with the Solomon Arc. The Nuugurigia basalts geochemically differ from any other rocks sampled on the OJP so far. They are alkali basalts with elevated Sr, low Zr and Hf, and Enriched Mantle-I (EMI)-like isotopic composition. Parental magmas of these alkali basalts may have formed by small-degree melting of peridotitic mantle impregnated with recycled pyroxenite material having enriched geochemical composition in the OJP's mantle root. We conclude that small-volume alkali basalts from the enriched mantle root migrated through faults or fractures caused by the collision along the Stewart Arch to form the seamount. Our results suggest that the collision of the OJP with the Solomon arc played an important role in the origin of similar post-plateau seamounts along the Stewart Arch.

  5. Scaling behavior and variable hopping conductivity in the quantum Hall plateau transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Tao; Zhao, Yong-Jie; Guo, Guo-Ping; Hao, Xiao-Jie; Guo, Guang-Can


    We have measured the temperature dependence of the longitudinal resistivity ρ xx of a two-dimensional electron system in the regime of the quantum Hall plateau transition. We extracted the quantitative form of scaling function for ρ xx and compared it with the results of ordinary scaling theory and variable range hopping based theory. We find that the two alternative theoretically proposed scaling functions are valid in different regions

  6. Measurement of Photomultipier Plateau Curves and Single MIP response in the AD detector at ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez Falero, Sebastian De Jesus


    The Alice Diffractive (AD) detector is a forward detector in the ALICE experiment at CERN. It is aimed to the triggering on diffractive events and extends the pseudorapidity coverage to about 4.9 < /n/ < 6.3. In this work, a PMT's efficiency plateau and single MIP response are measured using a replica of the detector's scintillator modules, electronic and data acquisition system and cosmic rays as particle source.

  7. Chemical erosion and hydrologic budget for the Susure karst plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikić Zoran


    Full Text Available The karst plateau of Susure, about 4.5 km2 in surface area, is situated on the Jadovnik eastern offset, western Serbia. The plateau is a morphologic unit higher 15 m to 30 m than the surrounding terrain. The unit consists of crushed and karstified Middle Triassic limestones. Numerous hydrogeological and geomorphologic features of the plateau are attractive for visitors in this economically underdeveloped country. Rocks building up the surrounding terrain are largely peridotites. Surface streams flow neither into nor off the plateau. Atmospheric precipitations discharge to evapotanspiration and filtration underground. More than eighteen constant springs at the limestone/peridotite tectonic contact drain fracture aquifers on the karst plateau border. Measured precipitations and springflows were the input and output data for accounting water budget of an aquifer of Middle Triassic limestones in the Susure plateau.

  8. Pv rural electrification programme at the Bolivian high plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo, E.; Aguilera, J. [Instituto de Energia Solar, ETSI Telecomunicacion, (Spain)


    Since 1988 the Institute of Solar Energy of the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid is carrying out a pv rural electrification programme at the Bolivian high plateau. This programme has been focused in three aspects: the domestic electrification, users participation and transfer technology. At present, there are about 1,500 electrified dwellings distributed in the Bolivian high plateau. We have got deep knowledge about life style and organization of the aymara Indians who are the inhabitants of the working zone. We think that this knowledge can be very useful for a large scale introduction of PV solar energy in this region. Finally, we present a new way to transfer PV technology to developing countries. Thanks to this programme a group of aymara Indians is able to manufacture charge regulators and electronic ballast to use in the PV installations of the programme. [Espanol] Desde 1988 el Instituto de Energia Solar de la Universidad Politecnica de Madrid esta llevando a cabo un programa fotovoltaico de electrificacion rural en la altiplanicie Boliviana. Este programa ha sido enfocado a tres aspectos: la electrificacion domestica, la participacion de los usuarios y la transferencia de la tecnologia. Actualmente, hay alrededor de 1500 conjuntos habitacionales electrificados distribuidos en la altiplanicie Boliviana. Hemos obtenido un profundo conocimiento del estilo de vida y de la organizacion de los indios aymara que son los habitantes de la zona de trabajo. Pensamos que este conocimiento puede ser muy util para una introduccion en gran escala de la energia solar fotovoltaica en esta region. Finalmente, presentamos una nueva forma de transferir la tecnologia fotovoltaica a paises en desarrollo. Gracias a este programa un grupo de indios aymara pueden fabricar reguladores de carga y balastros electronicos para ser usados en instalaciones fotovoltaicas del programa.

  9. Pv rural electrification programme at the Bolivian high plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo, E; Aguilera, J [Instituto de Energia Solar, ETSI Telecomunicacion, (Spain)


    Since 1988 the Institute of Solar Energy of the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid is carrying out a pv rural electrification programme at the Bolivian high plateau. This programme has been focused in three aspects: the domestic electrification, users participation and transfer technology. At present, there are about 1,500 electrified dwellings distributed in the Bolivian high plateau. We have got deep knowledge about life style and organization of the aymara Indians who are the inhabitants of the working zone. We think that this knowledge can be very useful for a large scale introduction of PV solar energy in this region. Finally, we present a new way to transfer PV technology to developing countries. Thanks to this programme a group of aymara Indians is able to manufacture charge regulators and electronic ballast to use in the PV installations of the programme. [Espanol] Desde 1988 el Instituto de Energia Solar de la Universidad Politecnica de Madrid esta llevando a cabo un programa fotovoltaico de electrificacion rural en la altiplanicie Boliviana. Este programa ha sido enfocado a tres aspectos: la electrificacion domestica, la participacion de los usuarios y la transferencia de la tecnologia. Actualmente, hay alrededor de 1500 conjuntos habitacionales electrificados distribuidos en la altiplanicie Boliviana. Hemos obtenido un profundo conocimiento del estilo de vida y de la organizacion de los indios aymara que son los habitantes de la zona de trabajo. Pensamos que este conocimiento puede ser muy util para una introduccion en gran escala de la energia solar fotovoltaica en esta region. Finalmente, presentamos una nueva forma de transferir la tecnologia fotovoltaica a paises en desarrollo. Gracias a este programa un grupo de indios aymara pueden fabricar reguladores de carga y balastros electronicos para ser usados en instalaciones fotovoltaicas del programa.

  10. Fission track dating of authigenic quartz in red weathering crusts of carbonate rocks in Guizhou province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiuming; Wang Shijie; Zhang Feng


    The Cenozoic evolution history of Guizhou Province, which is located on the southeastern flank of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, is unclear because of the lack of sedimentation records. The red weathering crusts widespread on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau may bear critical information about their evolution history. This work firstly determined the ages of four red weathering crusts in eastern, central and northern Guizhou. The material used in fission track dating is well-crystallized quartz occurring in many in-situ weathering crusts of carbonate rocks. The results showed that the fission track ages of quartz vary over a wide range from 1 Ma to 25 Ma in the four profiles, significantly younger than the ages of Triassic and Cambrian parent rocks. In combination with the regionally geological evolution history during the period from 25 Ma to 1 Ma, the ages of quartz can exclude the possibility that the origin of quartz has nothing to do with primary clastic minerals in parent rocks, authigenesis during diagenesis and hydrothermal precipitation or replacement by volcanic activities. It is deduced that the well-crystallized quartz was precipitated from Si-rich weathering fluids during weathering processes of carbonate rocks. The recorded ages of quartz from the four profiles are consistent with the episodes of planation surfaces on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the stages of red soil in the tropics of South China, the tectonically stable periods in Guizhou, and the ages of weathering in other parts of the world during the Cenozoic era. That is to say, the ages of authigenic quartz dated by the fission track method are well feasible and credible. (authors)

  11. Happily Ever After: Plateauing as a Means for Long-Term Career Satisfaction. (United States)

    Montgomery, Denise L.


    Discusses plateauing as a means for long-term career satisfaction, Highlights include a literature review; what plateauing is and why it occurs, including career-based plateauing and life plateauing; some solutions to plateauing for librarians, including management changes and individual changes; and personal examples. (LRW)

  12. Colorado Plateau magmatism and uplift by warming of heterogeneous lithosphere. (United States)

    Roy, Mousumi; Jordan, Thomas H; Pederson, Joel


    The forces that drove rock uplift of the low-relief, high-elevation, tectonically stable Colorado Plateau are the subject of long-standing debate. While the adjacent Basin and Range province and Rio Grande rift province underwent Cenozoic shortening followed by extension, the plateau experienced approximately 2 km of rock uplift without significant internal deformation. Here we propose that warming of the thicker, more iron-depleted Colorado Plateau lithosphere over 35-40 Myr following mid-Cenozoic removal of the Farallon plate from beneath North America is the primary mechanism driving rock uplift. In our model, conductive re-equilibration not only explains the rock uplift of the plateau, but also provides a robust geodynamic interpretation of observed contrasts between the Colorado Plateau margins and the plateau interior. In particular, the model matches the encroachment of Cenozoic magmatism from the margins towards the plateau interior at rates of 3-6 km Myr(-1) and is consistent with lower seismic velocities and more negative Bouguer gravity at the margins than in the plateau interior. We suggest that warming of heterogeneous lithosphere is a powerful mechanism for driving epeirogenic rock uplift of the Colorado Plateau and may be of general importance in plate-interior settings.

  13. Auroal electron distribution function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, R.L.; Dusenbery, P.B.; Thomas, B.J.; Arnoldy, R.L.


    The electron velocity distribution function is presented in the energy range 25 eV 8 cm/s (E=300 eV) are nearly isotropic in pitch angle throughout the flight. Upgoing electrons show almost no pitch angle dependence beyond 120 0 , and their fluxes decline smoothly as energy increases, with little or no evidence of a plateau. Preliminary results of numerical integrations, to study bulk properties and stability of the plasma are presented

  14. Therapeutical Management of the Tibial Plateau Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obada B.


    Full Text Available The study was aimed to identify the role of surgical treatment of tibial plateau fractures, its functional outcome and complications. Demographic data for the patients and details of current clinical and radiological follow-up findings were obtained to assess range of motion, clinical stability, alignment of the knee, and posttraumatic arthrosis (Kellgren/Lawrence score. 64 cases of tibial plateau fractures treated by different surgical methods and variuos implants type were studied from 2013 to 2015 and followed-up for minimum period of 6 months. The systematisation of the casuitry was made using Schatzker and AO classifications. The treatment methods consist of: percutaneous cannulated cancellous screws, ORIF with buttress plate with or without bone grafting, locking or nonlocking plates, external fixator. As complications we found: redepression 4 case, malunion 2 cases, knee stiffness 9, wound dehiscence in 1 cases and non-union or infection in none of our cases. The average flexion of the injured knee was significantly lower in comparison with the contralateral side (124.9°/135.2°. Knee stability did not differ statistically significantly. There were no signs of posttraumatic arthrosis in 45% of cases, mild signs in 30%, clear signs in 18%, and severe signs in 7%. As conclusion we found that surgical management of tibial plateau fractures will give excellent anatomical reduction and rigid fixation to restore articular congruity, facilitate early motion and reduce arthrosis risk and hence to achieve optimal knee function. The choice of optimal surgical methods, proper approach and implant is made in relation to fracture type according Schatzker and AO classification.

  15. Vertebrate Fossils Imply Paleo-elevations of the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Deng, T.; Wang, X.; Li, Q.; Wu, F.; Wang, S.; Hou, S.


    The uplift of the Tibetan Plateau remains unclear, and its paleo-elevation reconstructions are crucial to interpret the geodynamic evolution and to understand the climatic changes in Asia. Uplift histories of the Tibetan Plateau based on different proxies differ considerably, and two viewpoints are pointedly opposing on the paleo-elevation estimations of the Tibetan Plateau. One viewpoint is that the Tibetan Plateau did not strongly uplift to reach its modern elevation until the Late Miocene, but another one, mainly based on stable isotopes, argues that the Tibetan Plateau formed early during the Indo-Asian collision and reached its modern elevation in the Paleogene or by the Middle Miocene. In 1839, Hugh Falconer firstly reported some rhinocerotid fossils collected from the Zanda Basin in Tibet, China and indicated that the Himalayas have uplifted by more than 2,000 m since several million years ago. In recent years, the vertebrate fossils discovered from the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas implied a high plateau since the late Early Miocene. During the Oligocene, giant rhinos lived in northwestern China to the north of the Tibetan Plateau, while they were also distributed in the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent to the south of this plateau, which indicates that the elevation of the Tibetan Plateau was not too high to prevent exchanges of large mammals; giant rhinos, the rhinocerotid Aprotodon, and chalicotheres still dispersed north and south of "Tibetan Plateau". A tropical-subtropical lowland fish fauna was also present in the central part of this plateau during the Late Oligocene, in which Eoanabas thibetana was inferred to be closely related to extant climbing perches from South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. In contrast, during the Middle Miocene, the shovel-tusked elephant Platybelodon was found from many localities north of the Tibetan Plateau, while its trace was absent in the Siwaliks of the subcontinent, which implies that the Tibetan Plateau had

  16. Banana fluxes in the plateau regime for a nonaxisymmetrically confined plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balescu, R.; Fantechi, S.


    The banana (or banana-plateau) fluxes, related to the generalized stresses left-angle B·∇·π α(n) right-angle, left-angle B T ·∇·π α(n) right-angle have been determined in the plateau regime, for a plasma confined by a toroidal magnetic field of arbitrary geometry. The complete set of transport coefficients for both the ''parallel'' (ambipolar) and ''toroidal'' (nonambipolar) banana fluxes was obtained in the 13-moment (13M) approximation, going beyond the previously known expressions in the nonaxisymmetric case. The main emphasis is laid on the structure of the transport matrix and of its coefficients. It is shown that the Onsager symmetry of this matrix partly breaks down (for the mixed electron--ion coefficients) in a nonaxisymmetrically confined plasma

  17. [Operative treatment for complex tibial plateau fractures]. (United States)

    Song, Qi-Zhi; Li, Tao


    To explore the surgical methods and clinical evaluation of complex tibial plateau fractures resulted from high-energy injuries. From March 2006 to May 2009,48 cases with complex tibial plateau fractures were treated with open reduction and plate fixation, including 37 males and 11 females, with an average age of 37 years (ranged from 18 to 63 years). According to Schatzker classification, 16 cases were type IV, 20 cases type V and 12 cases type VI. All patients were examined by X-ray flim and CT scan. The function of knee joint were evaluated according to postoperative follow-up X-ray and Knee Merchant Rating. Forty-eight patients were followed up with a mean time of 14 months. According to Knee Merchant Rating, 24 cases got excellent results, 16 cases good, 6 cases fair and 2 cases poor. Appropriate operation time, anatomical reduction, suitable bone graft and reasonable rehabilitation exercises can maximally recovery the function of knee joint.

  18. Joint inversion of gravity and seismic data along a profile across the seismogenic fault of 2010 Yushu Ms7.1 earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guangliang


    Full Text Available Yushu Ms7.1 earthquake occurred on the Ganzi-Yushu fault zone, across which we carried out a joint relative-gravity and seismic-reflection survey, and then performed a gravity inversion constrained by the seismic-reflection result. Based on the data of complete Bouguer gravity anomaly and seismic reflection, we obtained a layered interface structure in deep crust down to Moho. Our study showed that the inversion could reveal the interfaces of strata along the survey profile and the directions of regional faults in two-dimension. From the characteristics of the observed topography of the Moho basement, we tentatively confirmed that the uplift of eastern edge of Qinghai-Tibet plateau was caused by the subduction of the Indian plate.

  19. Correlation between seismicity and geomorphology in Dingxi Basin, Gansu Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xue


    Full Text Available A M6.6 earthquake occurred on July 22, 2013 at Dingxi Basin in Gansu Province within the tectonially expanding northeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. We analyzed the geomorphological features of the Dingxi Basin by using remote sensing technology and compared them with local seismic activity. We found that most of the river basins are at the robust stage of development and that the major local rivers and the development of some basins boundaries are controlled by the seismic faults. Among four zones identified to have significant tectonic activities, the northwestly-oriented one located in the south has the highest seismic activity, and it is where the M6. 6 earthquake occurrred.

  20. Loess Thickness Variations Across the Loess Plateau of China (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanjun; Jia, Xiaoxu; Shao, Mingan


    The soil thickness is very important for investigating and modeling soil-water processes, especially on the Loess Plateau of China with its deep loess deposit and limited water resources. A digital elevation map (DEM) of the Loess Plateau and neighborhood analysis in ArcGIS software were used to generate a map of loess thickness, which was then validated by 162 observations across the plateau. The generated loess thickness map has a high resolution of 100 m × 100 m. The map indicates that loess is thick in the central part of the plateau and becomes gradually shallower in the southeast and northwest directions. The areas near mountains and river basins have the shallowest loess deposit. The mean loess thickness is the deepest in the zones with 400-600-mm precipitation and decreases gradually as precipitation varies beyond this range. Our validation indicates that the map just slightly overestimates loess thickness and is reliable. The loess thickness is mostly between 0 and 350 m in the Loess Plateau region. The calculated mean loess thickness is 105.7 m, with the calibrated value being 92.2 m over the plateau exclusive of the mountain areas. Our findings provide very basic data of loess thickness and demonstrate great progress in mapping the loess thickness distribution for the plateau, which are valuable for a better study of soil-water processes and for more accurate estimations of soil water, carbon, and solute reservoirs in the Loess Plateau of China.

  1. Geochemical characteristics of the Jos-Plateau Basalts, North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Jos Plateau basalts, present Zr/Nb ratios (2.4-3.0) comparable to those of the alkali basalts of the lower Benue valley, and of the Cameroon volcanic line, suggesting that they were possibly derived from the same mantle source. Keywords: Jos Plateau, alkali basalt, mantle, partial melting, incompatible elements.

  2. Parhelic-like circle from light scattering in Plateau borders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, A., E-mail:; Tufaile, A.P.B.


    We are reporting a new simple optical element to generate halos. We have observed interesting patterns of light scattering in Plateau borders in foams. In analogy to the atmospheric phenomena known as parhelic circle, sun dogs, and sun pillars, we have named the features of the patterns observed as parlaseric circle, laser dogs, and laser pillars. The triangular symmetry of the Plateau borders is analogous to the hexagonal symmetry of ice crystals which produce these atmospheric phenomena. Working with one Plateau border at a time, we have observed wave optics phenomena that are not perceived in the atmospheric phenomena, such as diffraction and interference. - Highlights: • We obtained halo formation from light scattering in a Plateau border using an experiment. • We explained halo formation using geometrical theory of diffraction. • An optical element based on a Plateau border is proposed. • We compared some aspects of the parhelic circle with the parlaseric circle.

  3. Heat flow in the north-central Colorado Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodell, J.M.; Chapman, D.S.


    We report new heat flow measurements at 25 evenly distributed sites in the north-central Colorado Plateau. Heat flow values computed for these new sites and one previously published site range from 43 to 116 mW m -2 but fall into the following district subsets related to physiographic and tectonic elements within the Plateau: (1) heat flow of 51 mW m -2 (12 sites; s.d. 6) in the San Rafael Swell and Green River Desert which constitute the core of the Colorado Plateau at this latitude, (2) heat flows of 69 mW m -2 (5 sites; s.d. 10) in successive parallel north-south bands approaching the Wasatch Plateau to the west but still 80 km east of the Basin and Range physiographic boundary, (3) heat flow of 64 mW m -2 (5 sites; s.d. 2) along the Salt Anticline trend which strikes northwest in the region of Moab, Utah. Heat flow results for the entire Colorado Plateau have been reexamined in view of our new results, and the overall pattern supports the concept of a low heat flow 'thermal interior' for the plateau surrounded by a periphery some 100 km wide having substantially higher heat flow. Average heat flow in the thermal interior is about 60 mW m -2 compared to 80--90 mW m -2 in the periphery. This regional heat flow pattern supports a model of tertiary lithospheric thinning under the Colorado Plateau whereby the plateau is still in transient thermal response and a 15--20 m.y. lag between uplift and corresponding surface heat flow anomaly is to be expected. The position of the heat flow transition between our interior and peripheral regions in the northwest plateau is roughly consistent with lateral warming and weakening of the Colorado Plateau lithosphere initiated at the Basin and Range boundary some 20 m.y. ago

  4. Satellite precipitation estimation over the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Porcu, F.; Gjoka, U.


    Precipitation characteristics over the Tibetan Plateau are very little known, given the scarcity of reliable and widely distributed ground observation, thus the satellite approach is a valuable choice for large scale precipitation analysis and hydrological cycle studies. However,the satellite perspective undergoes various shortcomings at the different wavelengths used in atmospheric remote sensing. In the microwave spectrum often the high soil emissivity masks or hides the atmospheric signal upwelling from light-moderate precipitation layers, while low and relatively thin precipitating clouds are not well detected in the visible-infrared, because of their low contrast with cold and bright (if snow covered) background. In this work an IR-based, statistical rainfall estimation technique is trained and applied over the Tibetan Plateau hydrological basin to retrive precipitation intensity at different spatial and temporal scales. The technique is based on a simple artificial neural network scheme trained with two supervised training sets assembled for monsoon season and for the rest of the year. For the monsoon season (estimated from June to September), the ground radar precipitation data for few case studies are used to build the training set: four days in summer 2009 are considered. For the rest of the year, CloudSat-CPR derived snowfall rate has been used as reference precipitation data, following the Kulie and Bennartz (2009) algorithm. METEOSAT-7 infrared channels radiance (at 6.7 and 11 micometers) and derived local variability features (such as local standard deviation and local average) are used as input and the actual rainrate is obtained as output for each satellite slot, every 30 minutes on the satellite grid. The satellite rainrate maps for three years (2008-2010) are computed and compared with available global precipitation products (such as C-MORPH and TMPA products) and with other techniques applied to the Plateau area: similarities and differences are

  5. The characteristics changes of pH and EC of atmospheric precipitation and analysis on the source of acid rain in the source area of the Yangtze River from 2010 to 2015 (United States)

    Zong-Jie, Li; Song, Ling-Ling; Jing-zhu, Ma; Li, Yong-ge


    Through the analysis of pH value, EC, precipitation and wind speed of 402 precipitation samples in the source region of the Yangtze River from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2015, especially for the analysis of the 14 acid rain events. The results showed that: the acid rain in the source region of the Yangtze River was mainly affected by the southwest monsoon and the westerly circulation. The occurrence of acid rain mainly controlled by industrial pollution and other pollutants coming from India and other surrounding areas. And the other cause was that because of the Qinghai Tibet highway and the Qinghai Tibet railway, there were a lot of cars coming and going. And there were people in the summer to plateau tourism increased year by year, and more for self-driving travelling. This added additional pollutants (automobile exhaust) for the source of the Yangtze River. During the period of sampling, the variation range of pH value was from 4.0 to 8.57, with the mean was 6.37. And the range of EC was from 5.2 to 124.4 μs/cm, the average was 27.59 μs/cm. The order of conductivity in the four seasons was Spring > Winter > Summer > Autumn. And the order of pH in four seasons was Summer > Spring = Winter > Autumn. The results are also helpful for further understanding the acid rain in the Tibetan Plateau and providing scientific basis for the effective prevention and control of acid rain.

  6. Uranium indicator plants of the Colorado plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massingill, G.L.


    Two methods of botanical prospecting for uranium deposits have been applied on the Colorado Plateau. The first, based on a chemical analysis of deep-rooted plants that absorb uranium from ore bodies, detects small but measurable amounts of the element in plants rooted in ore. A second method involves mapping the distribution of indicator plants because these plants are dependent--either directly or indirectly--upon the presence of abnormally high levels of elements in the parent soil or rock. Botanical prospecting studies made in ten districts have been productive. In the Thompson district, Grand County, Utah, five ore bodies were found solely on the basis of indicator plant data. 15 refs

  7. Plateau inflation in SUGRA-MSSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Kumar Chakravarty


    Full Text Available We explored a Higgs inflationary scenario in the SUGRA embedding of the MSSM in Einstein frame where the inflaton is contained in the SU(2 Higgs doublet. We include all higher order non-renormalizable terms to the MSSM superpotential and an appropriate Kähler potential which can provide slow-roll inflaton potential in the D-flat direction. In this model, a plateau-like inflation potential can be obtained if the imaginary part of the neutral Higgs acts as the inflaton. The inflationary predictions of this model are consistent with the latest CMB observations. The model represents a successful Higgs inflation scenario in the context of Supergravity and it is compatible with Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model.

  8. Surgical site infection after open reduction and internal fixation of tibial plateau fractures. (United States)

    Lin, Shishui; Mauffrey, Cyril; Hammerberg, E Mark; Stahel, Philip F; Hak, David J


    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for surgical site infections and to quantify the contribution of independent risk factors to the probability of developing infection after definitive fixation of tibial plateau fractures in adult patients. A retrospective analysis was performed at a level I trauma center between January 2004 and December 2010. Data were collected from a review of the patient's electronic medical records. A total of 251 consecutive patients (256 cases) were divided into two groups, those with surgical site infections and those without surgical site infections. Preoperative and perioperative variables were compared between these groups, and risk factors were determined by univariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression. Variables analyzed included age, gender, smoking history, diabetes, presence of an open fracture, presence of compartment syndrome, Schatzker classification, polytrauma status, ICU stay, time from injury to surgery, use of temporary external fixation, surgical approach, surgical fixation, operative time, and use of a drain. The overall rate of surgical site infection after ORIF of tibial plateau fractures during the 7 years of this study was 7.8% (20 of 256). The most common causative pathogens was Staphylococcus aureus (n=15, 75%). Independent predictors of surgical site infection identified by multivariate analyses were open tibial plateau fracture (odds ratio=3.9; 95% CI=1.3-11.6; p=0.015) and operative time (odds ratio=2.7; 95% CI=1.6-4.4; psite infection. Both open fracture and operative time are independent risks factors for postoperative infection.

  9. Giant magnetoresistance, three-dimensional Fermi surface and origin of resistivity plateau in YSb semimetal. (United States)

    Pavlosiuk, Orest; Swatek, Przemysław; Wiśniewski, Piotr


    Very strong magnetoresistance and a resistivity plateau impeding low temperature divergence due to insulating bulk are hallmarks of topological insulators and are also present in topological semimetals where the plateau is induced by magnetic field, when time-reversal symmetry (protecting surface states in topological insulators) is broken. Similar features were observed in a simple rock-salt-structure LaSb, leading to a suggestion of the possible non-trivial topology of 2D states in this compound. We show that its sister compound YSb is also characterized by giant magnetoresistance exceeding one thousand percent and low-temperature plateau of resistivity. We thus performed in-depth analysis of YSb Fermi surface by band calculations, magnetoresistance, and Shubnikov-de Haas effect measurements, which reveals only three-dimensional Fermi sheets. Kohler scaling applied to magnetoresistance data accounts very well for its low-temperature upturn behavior. The field-angle-dependent magnetoresistance demonstrates a 3D-scaling yielding effective mass anisotropy perfectly agreeing with electronic structure and quantum oscillations analysis, thus providing further support for 3D-Fermi surface scenario of magnetotransport, without necessity of invoking topologically non-trivial 2D states. We discuss data implying that analogous field-induced properties of LaSb can also be well understood in the framework of 3D multiband model.

  10. Diet simplification selects for high gut microbial diversity and strong fermenting ability in high-altitude pikas. (United States)

    Li, Huan; Qu, Jiapeng; Li, Tongtong; Wirth, Stephan; Zhang, Yanming; Zhao, Xinquan; Li, Xiangzhen


    The gut microbiota in mammals plays a key role in host metabolism and adaptation. However, relatively little is known regarding to how the animals adapts to extreme environments through regulating gut microbial diversity and function. Here, we investigated the diet, gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles, and cellulolytic activity from two common pika (Ochotona spp.) species in China, including Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Daurian pika (Ochotona daurica) from the Inner Mongolia Grassland. Despite a partial diet overlap, Plateau pikas harbored lower diet diversity than Daurian pikas. Some bacteria (e.g., Prevotella and Ruminococcus) associated with fiber degradation were enriched in Plateau pikas. They harbored higher gut microbial diversity, total SCFA concentration, and cellulolytic activity than Daurian pikas. Interestingly, cellulolytic activity was positively correlated with the gut microbial diversity and SCFAs. Gut microbial communities and SCFA profiles were segregated structurally between host species. PICRUSt metagenome predictions demonstrated that microbial genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy metabolism were overrepresented in the gut microbiota of Plateau pikas. Our results demonstrate that Plateau pikas harbor a stronger fermenting ability for the plant-based diet than Daurian pikas via gut microbial fermentation. The enhanced ability for utilization of plant-based diets in Plateau pikas may be partly a kind of microbiota adaptation for more energy requirements in cold and hypoxic high-altitude environments.

  11. Hydrologic modeling of the Columbia Plateau basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, F.H.; Cole, C.R.; Bond, F.W.; Zimmerman, D.A.


    The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) directed the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program to conduct a technology demonstration of current performance assessment techniques for the Department of Energy (DOE) as applied to a nuclear waste repository in the Columbia Plateau Basalts. Hypothetical repository coordinates were selected for an actual geographical setting on the Hanford Reservation in the state of Washington. Published hydrologic and geologic data used in the analyses were gathered in 1979 or earlier. The hydrologic simulation was divided into three major parts: (1) aquifer recharge calculations, (2) a regional hydrologic model, and (3) a local hydrologic model of the Pasco Basin. The presentation discusses the regional model. An estimate of the amount of water transmitted through the groundwater system was required to bound the transmissivity values and to estimate the transmissivity distributions for the deeper basalts. The multiple layer two-dimensional Variable Thickness Transient (VTT) code was selected as appropriate for the amount of data available and for the conditions existing in the regional systems. This model uses a finite difference formulation to represent the partial differential flow equation. The regional study area as defined for the VTT model was divided into 55 by 55 square pattern with each grid 5 kilometers on a side. The regional system was modeled as a held potential surface layer and two underlying basalt layers. The regional model established the boundary conditions for the hydrologic model the Pasco Basin

  12. Does the climate warming hiatus exist over the Tibetan Plateau? (United States)

    Duan, Anmin; Xiao, Zhixiang


    The surface air temperature change over the Tibetan Plateau is determined based on historical observations from 1980 to 2013. In contrast to the cooling trend in the rest of China, and the global warming hiatus post-1990s, an accelerated warming trend has appeared over the Tibetan Plateau during 1998-2013 (0.25 °C decade(-1)), compared with that during 1980-1997 (0.21 °C decade(-1)). Further results indicate that, to some degree, such an accelerated warming trend might be attributable to cloud-radiation feedback. The increased nocturnal cloud over the northern Tibetan Plateau would warm the nighttime temperature via enhanced atmospheric back-radiation, while the decreased daytime cloud over the southern Tibetan Plateau would induce the daytime sunshine duration to increase, resulting in surface air temperature warming. Meanwhile, the in situ surface wind speed has recovered gradually since 1998, and thus the energy concentration cannot explain the accelerated warming trend over the Tibetan Plateau after the 1990s. It is suggested that cloud-radiation feedback may play an important role in modulating the recent accelerated warming trend over the Tibetan Plateau.

  13. Fate of Glaciers in the Tibetan Plateau by 2100 (United States)

    Duan, K.


    As the third polar on the Earth, the Tibetan plateau holds more than 40,000 glaciers which have experienced a rapid retreat in recent decades. The variability of equilibrium line altitude (ELA) indicates expansion and wastage of glacier directly. Here we simulated the ELA variability in the Tibetan Plateau based on a full surface energy and mass balance model. The simulation results are agreement with the observations. The ELAs have risen at a rate of 2-8m/a since 1970 throughout the Plateau, especially in the eastern Plateau where the ELAs have risen to or over the top altitude of glacier, indicating the glaciers are accelerating to melting over there. Two glaciers, XD glacier in the center of the Plateau and Qiyi glacier in the Qilian Mountain, are chosen to simulate its future ELA variability in the scenarios of RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5 given by IPCC. The results show the ELAs will arrive to its maximum in around 2040 in RCP2.6, while the ELAs will be over the top altitude of glaciers in 2035-2045 in RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, suggesting the glaciers in the eastern Plateau will be melting until the disappear of the glaciers by the end of 2100.

  14. The Colorado Plateau II: biophysical, socioeconomic, and cultural research (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; van Riper, Charles


    The publication of The Colorado Plateau: Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research in 2004 marked a timely summation of current research in the Four Corners states. This new volume, derived from the seventh Biennial Conference on the Colorado Plateau in 2003, complements the previous book by focusing on the integration of science into resource management issues. The 32 chapters range in content from measuring human impacts on cultural resources, through grazing and the wildland-urban interface issues, to parameters of climate change on the Plateau. The book also introduces economic perspectives by considering shifting patterns and regional disparities in the Colorado Plateau economy. A series of chapters on mountain lions explores the human-wildland interface. These chapters deal with the entire spectrum of challenges associated with managing this large mammal species in Arizona and on the Colorado Plateau, conveying a wealth of timely information of interest to wildlife managers and enthusiasts. Another provocative set of chapters on biophysical resources explores the management of forest restoration, from the micro scale all the way up to large-scale GIS analyses of ponderosa pine ecosystems on the Colorado Plateau. Given recent concerns for forest health in the wake of fires, severe drought, and bark-beetle infestation, these chapters will prove enlightening for forest service, park service, and land management professionals at both the federal and state level, as well as general readers interested in how forest management practices will ultimately affect their recreation activities. With broad coverage that touches on topics as diverse as movement patterns of rattlesnakes, calculating watersheds, and rescuing looted rockshelters, this volume stands as a compendium of cutting-edge research on the Colorado Plateau that offers a wealth of insights for many scholars.

  15. Morphologies and elemental compositions of local biomass burning particles at urban and glacier sites in southeastern Tibetan Plateau: Results from an expedition in 2010. (United States)

    Hu, Tafeng; Cao, Junji; Zhu, Chongshu; Zhao, Zhuzi; Liu, Suixin; Zhang, Daizhou


    Many studies indicate that the atmospheric environment over the southern part of the Tibetan Plateau is influenced by aged biomass burning particles that are transported over long distances from South Asia. However, our knowledge of the particles emitted locally (within the plateau region) is poor. We collected aerosol particles at four urban sites and one remote glacier site during a scientific expedition to the southeastern Tibetan Plateau in spring 2010. Weather and backward trajectory analyses indicated that the particles we collected were more likely dominated by particles emitted within the plateau. The particles were examined using an electron microscope and identified according to their sizes, shapes and elemental compositions. At three urban sites where the anthropogenic particles were produced mainly by the burning of firewood, soot aggregates were in the majority and made up >40% of the particles by number. At Lhasa, the largest city on the Tibetan Plateau, tar balls and mineral particles were also frequently observed because of the use of coal and natural gas, in addition to biofuel. In contrast, at the glacier site, large numbers of chain-like soot aggregates (~25% by number) were noted. The morphologies of these aggregates were similar to those of freshly emitted ones at the urban sites; moreover, physically or chemically processed ageing was rarely confirmed. These limited observations suggest that the biomass burning particles age slowly in the cold, dry plateau air. Anthropogenic particles emitted locally within the elevated plateau region may thus affect the environment within glaciated areas in Tibet differently than anthropogenic particles transported from South Asia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hexabromocyclododecane in alpine fish from the Tibetan Plateau, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Nali; Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Ssebugere, Patrick; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin


    Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) has just been listed into Stockholm Convention as a persistent organic pollutant recently. This paper studied the HBCDs in 79 wild fish from high mountain lakes and rivers of the Tibetan Plateau. The ∑HBCDs in fish muscles ranged from non detectable levels to 13.7 ng/g lipid weight (lw) (mean value of 2.12 ng/g lw) with a high detection frequency of 65.8%. α-HBCD dominated among the isomers and accounted for 78.2% of the total burden. Concentrations of ∑HBCDs in the fish were significantly correlated with the lipid content . A decreasing trend was observed between α-HBCD and trophic level. Positive correlation was also noted between the HBCD levels in fish from lakes and the annual precipitation, and this implied the long-range atmospheric transport of HBCDs to the Tibet Plateau. This was the first work to widely explore HBCDs contamination in the aquatic ecosystems of the Tibetan Plateau. -- Highlights: •HBCDs were ubiquitous in fish of the Tibetan Plateau. •α-HBCD showed a negative correlation with TL in the Lhasa River aquatic food web. •Concentrations of ∑HBCD were significantly correlated with lipid contents of fish. -- HBCD was ubiquitous in fish of the Tibetan Plateau, and its concentration was significantly correlated with lipid content

  17. Fraturas do planalto tibial Tibial plateau fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Kfuri Júnior


    Full Text Available As fraturas do planalto tibial são lesões articulares cujos princípios de tratamento envolvem a redução anatômica da superfície articular e a restauração funcional do eixo mecânico do membro inferior. Contribuem para a tomada de decisões no tratamento dessas fraturas o perfil do paciente, as condições do envelope de tecidos moles, a existência de outros traumatismos associados e a infraestrutura disponível para abordagens cirúrgicas. Para as fraturas de alta energia, o tratamento estagiado, seguindo o princípio do controle de danos, tem como prioridade a manutenção do alinhamento do membro enquanto se aguarda a resolução das más condições de tecidos moles. Já nos traumas de baixa energia, desde que os tecidos moles não sejam um fator adverso, o tratamento deve ser realizado em tempo único, com osteossíntese definitiva. Fixação estável e movimento precoce são variáveis diretamente relacionadas com os melhores prognósticos. Desenvolvimentos recentes, como os implantes com estabilidade angular, substitutos ósseos e imagens tridimensionais para controle intraoperatório, deverão contribuir para cirurgias menos invasivas e melhores resultados.Tibial plateau fractures are joint lesions that require anatomical reduction of joint surface and functional restoration of mechanical axis of a lower limb. Patient profile, soft tissue conditions, presence of associated injuries and the available infrastructure for the treatment all contribute to the decision making about the best treatment for these fractures. High-energy fractures are usually approached in a staged manner respecting the principle of damage control, and are primarily targeted to maintain limb alignment while the resolution unfavorable soft tissue conditions is pending. Low-energy trauma can be managed on a single-stage basis, provided soft tissues are not an adverse factor, with open reduction and internal f-ixation. Stable fixation and early painless joint

  18. Teaching Rayleigh–Plateau instabilities in the laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragkopoulos, A A; Ellis, P W; Fernandez-Nieves, A


    The breakup of a liquid jet into spherical droplets via the Rayleigh–Plateau instability is a common and fundamental part of fluid mechanics. However, teaching this instability in a laboratory setting is challenging, requiring sophisticated methods to generate and study the jet dynamics. Recently, toroidal droplets were shown to break into one or more spherical droplets in the thin-drop limit via the Rayleigh–Plateau instability. We propose a simple experimental setup to generate toroidal droplets that break up on the order of tens of seconds, allowing for easy video capture using a basic CCD camera. With this setup, it is possible to quantify the Rayleigh–Plateau instability in a pedagogical laboratory setting. In addition, the role of curvature on jet breakup can be explored using thick toroidal droplets. We envision this setup as a powerful teaching tool for one of the most fundamental fluid dynamics processes. (paper)

  19. Fukushima Nuclear Accident Recorded in Tibetan Plateau Snow Pits (United States)

    Wang, Ninglian; Wu, Xiaobo; Kehrwald, Natalie; Li, Zhen; Li, Quanlian; Jiang, Xi; Pu, Jianchen


    The β radioactivity of snow-pit samples collected in the spring of 2011 on four Tibetan Plateau glaciers demonstrate a remarkable peak in each snow pit profile, with peaks about ten to tens of times higher than background levels. The timing of these peaks suggests that the high radioactivity resulted from the Fukushima nuclear accident that occurred on March 11, 2011 in eastern Japan. Fallout monitoring studies demonstrate that this radioactive material was transported by the westerlies across the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The depth of the peak β radioactivity in each snow pit compared with observational precipitation records, suggests that the radioactive fallout reached the Tibetan Plateau and was deposited on glacier surfaces in late March 2011, or approximately 20 days after the nuclear accident. The radioactive fallout existed in the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau for about one month. PMID:25658094

  20. An avifaunal case study of a plateau from Goa, India: an eye opener for conservation of plateau ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minal Desai


    Full Text Available The lateritic plateaux typical of the midlands between the Western Ghats and the coastal plains of the Arabian Sea are known to be a unique ecosystem with a sizeable endemic flora. However, there is a total lack of studies on the faunal diversity of these plateaux, which are currently experiencing enormous anthropogenic pressures. We conducted a year-long study on the avifauna of the Taleigao Plateau, Goa. The Taleigao Plateau harbours 114 species of birds, accounting for 37% of the avifaunal diversity of the state. The resident bird population did not vary significantly through the seasons. Among the migrant birds, Rosy Starling Sturnus roseus was particularly partial to the plateau. Besides, five species of larks, grassland specialists were also recorded on the plateau. However, the absence of forest birds like the Malabar Pied Hornbill and the Indian Grey Hornbill (recorded earlier and the predominance of habitat generalists like the House Crow and the Jungle Myna seemed to be the offshoot of heavy anthropogenic pressures on the plateau. It is recommended that at least some plateaux in the belt deserve to be protected from the impact of unsustainable developmental process

  1. Mineralogy and geochemistry of vanadium in the Colorado Plateau (United States)

    Weeks, A.D.


    The chief domestic source of vanadium is uraniferous sandstone in the Colorado Plateau. Vanadium is 3-, 4-, or 5-valent in nature and, as oxides or combined with other elements, it forms more than 40 minerals in the Plateau ores. These ores have been studied with regard to the relative amounts of vanadium silicates and oxide-vanadates, uranium-vanadium ratios, the progressive oxidation of black low-valent ores to high-valent carnotite-type ores, and theories of origin. ?? 1961.

  2. Does the climate warming hiatus exist over the Tibetan Plateau?


    Anmin Duan; Zhixiang Xiao


    The surface air temperature change over the Tibetan Plateau is determined based on historical observations from 1980 to 2013. In contrast to the cooling trend in the rest of China, and the global warming hiatus post-1990s, an accelerated warming trend has appeared over the Tibetan Plateau during 1998–2013 (0.25 °C decade−1), compared with that during 1980–1997 (0.21 °C decade−1). Further results indicate that, to some degree, such an accelerated warming trend might be attributable to cloud–ra...

  3. Late-Glacial radiocarbon- and palynostratigraphy in the Swiss Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammann, B.; Lotter, A.F.


    A detailed Late-Glacial radiocarbon stratigraphy for the Swiss Plateau has been established on the basis of over 90 accelerator 14 C dates on terrestrial plant macrofossils. A comparison of the radiocarbon ages derived from terrestrial, telmatic and limnic material at different sites on the Swiss Plateau yields a proposal for modifying the zonation system of Welten for the Late-Glacial. By retaining the limits of chronozones and by refining the palynostratigraphic criteria for the limits of biozones, a separation between chrono- and biozonation at the beginning of the Boelling and the Younger Dryas becomes obvious. 54 refs

  4. Plateau onset for correlation dimension: When does it occur?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, M.; Grebogi, C.; Ott, E.; Sauer, T.; Yorke, J.A.


    Chaotic experimental systems are often investigated using delay coordinates. Estimated values of the correlation dimension in delay coordinate space typically increase with the number of delays and eventually reach a plateau (on which the dimension estimate is relatively constant) whose value is commonly taken as an estimate of the correlation dimension D 2 of the underlying chaotic attractor. We report a rigorous result which implies that, for long enough data sets, the plateau begins when the number of delay coordinates first exceeds D 2 . Numerical experiments are presented. We also discuss how lack of sufficient data can produce results that seem to be inconsistent with the theoretical prediction

  5. Orogenic plateau growth: Expansion of the Turkish-Iranian Plateau across the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt (United States)

    Allen, M. B.; Saville, C.; Blanc, E. J.-P.; Talebian, M.; Nissen, E.


    This paper shows how the Turkish-Iranian Plateau grows laterally by incrementally incorporating adjacent parts of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt. The limit of significant, seismogenic, thrusting in the Zagros (Mw > 5) occurs close to the regional 1250 m elevation contour. The seismicity cutoff is not a significant bedrock geology boundary. Elevations increase northward, toward regional plateau elevations of 2 km, implying that another process produced the extra elevation. Between the seismogenic limit of thrusting and the suture, this process is a plausibly ductile thickening of the basement, suggesting depth-dependent strain during compression. Similar depth-dependant crustal strain may explain why the Tibetan plateau has regional elevations 1500 m greater than the elevation limit of seismogenic thrusting at its margins. We estimate 68 km shortening across the Zagros Simply Folded Belt in the Fars region, and 120 km total shortening of the Arabian plate. The Dezful Embayment is a low strain zone in the western Zagros. Deformation is more intense to its northeast, in the Bakhtyari Culmination. The orogenic taper (across strike topographic gradient) across the Dezful Embayment is 0.0004, and across the Bakhtyari Culmination, 0.022. Lateral plateau growth is more pronounced farther east (Fars), where a more uniform structure has a taper of 0.010 up to elevations of 1750 m. A >100 km wide region of the Zagros further northeast has a taper of 0.002 and is effectively part of the Turkish-Iranian Plateau. Internal drainage enhances plateau development but is not a pre-requisite. Aspects of the seismicity, structure, and geomorphology of the Zagros do not support critical taper models for fold-and-thrust belts.

  6. Functional-trait ecology of the plateau pika Ochotona curzoniae (Hodgson, 1858) in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau ecosystem. (United States)

    Smith, Andrew T; Badingqiuying; Wilson, Maxwell C; Hogan, Brigitte W


    Understanding a species' functional traits allows for a directed and productive perspective on the role a species plays in nature, thus its relative importance to conservation planning. The functional trait ecology of the plateau pika Ochotona curzoniae (Hodgson, 1858) is examined to better understand the resilience and sustainability of the high alpine grasslands of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). The key functional traits of plateau pikas are their abundance and behavior of digging extensive burrow systems. Plateau pikas have been poisoned over a significant part of their original geographic distribution across the QTP, allowing comparison of ecological communities with and without pikas. Nearly all mammalian and avian carnivores, most of which are obligate predators on pikas, have been lost in regions where pikas have been poisoned. Most endemic birds on the QTP nest in pika burrows; when pikas are poisoned, burrows collapse, and these birds are greatly reduced in number. Due to the biopedturbation resulting from their burrows, regional plant species richness is higher in areas with pikas than without. The presence of pika burrows allows higher rates of infiltration during heavy monsoon rains compared to poisoned areas, possibly mitigating runoff and the potential for serious downslope erosion and flooding. Thus the functional traits of plateau pikas enhance native biodiversity and other important ecosystem functions; these traits are irreplaceable. As plateau pikas are not natural colonizers, active re-introduction programs are needed to restore pikas to areas from which they have been poisoned to restore the important functional ecological traits of pikas. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Medial tibial plateau morphology and stress fracture location: A magnetic resonance imaging study


    Yukata, Kiminori; Yamanaka, Issei; Ueda, Yuzuru; Nakai, Sho; Ogasa, Hiroyoshi; Oishi, Yosuke; Hamawaki, Jun-ichi


    AIM To determine the location of medial tibial plateau stress fractures and its relationship with tibial plateau morphology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS A retrospective review of patients with a diagnosis of stress fracture of the medial tibial plateau was performed for a 5-year period. Fourteen patients [three female and 11 male, with an average age of 36.4 years (range, 15-50 years)], who underwent knee MRI, were included. The appearance of the tibial plateau stress fract...

  8. Characteristics of black carbon in snow from Laohugou No. 12 glacier on the northern Tibetan Plateau. (United States)

    Zhang, Yulan; Kang, Shichang; Li, Chaoliu; Gao, Tanguang; Cong, Zhiyuan; Sprenger, Michael; Liu, Yajun; Li, Xiaofei; Guo, Junming; Sillanpää, Mika; Wang, Kun; Chen, Jizu; Li, Yang; Sun, Shiwei


    Black carbon (BC) emitted from the incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuel impacts the climate system, cryospheric change, and human health. This study documents black carbon deposition in snow from a benchmark glacier on the northern Tibetan Plateau. Significant seasonality of BC concentrations indicates different input or post-depositional processes. BC particles deposited in snow had a mass volume median diameter slightly larger than that of black carbon particles typically found in the atmosphere. Also, unlike black carbon particles in the atmosphere, the particles deposited in snow did not exhibit highly fractal morphology by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope. Footprint analysis indicated BC deposited on the glacier in summer originated mainly from Central Asia; in winter, the depositing air masses generally originated from Central Asia and Pakistan. Anthropogenic emissions play an important role on black carbon deposition in glacial snow, especially in winter. The mass absorption efficiency of BC in snow at 632nm exhibited significantly seasonality, with higher values in summer and lower values in winter. The information on black carbon deposition in glacial snow provided in this study could be used to help mitigate the impacts of BC on glacier melting on the northern Tibetan Plateau. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantifying the Plutonic to Volcanic Relationship Along the Puna Plateau: Implications for Cordilleran Plateau Evolution (United States)

    Ward, K. M.; Delph, J. R.; Zandt, G.; Beck, S. L.; Ducea, M. N.


    Quantifying well constrained plutonic to volcanic (P:V) ratios is inherently difficult because the tectonic processes that exhume intrusive bodies rarely preserve their extrusive equivalents. Conversely, active magmatic systems that have well-preserved volcanic deposits require sophisticated geophysical or geochemical approaches to estimate their plutonic roots and even when these sophisticated approaches are available, it is not always clear what constitutes a plutonic volume. Further complicating the enigmatic plutonic to volcanic relationship is the highly episodic nature of pluton emplacement where magmatic flare-ups produce several orders of magnitude more magmatism when compared against magmatic lulls. Despite this inherent difficulty, a growing body of independently measured P:V ratios (e.g. seismic tomography, geomorphic modeling, geological mapping/dating, and Zircon age spectra modeling) suggests the contribution of magmatic addition as an uplift mechanism in Cordilleran systems is much larger than is currently accepted. However, it remains unclear if these studies can be generalized to represent type behavior in Cordilleran systems or result from the non-uniform sampling imposed by the ability to measure large P:V ratios in only a few select and potentially anomalous regions of the American Cordillera. To better examine the role of magmatic processes in building Cordilleran high plateaus, we image the crustal seismic shear-wave velocity for an 800 km section (20.5°-28°S) of the active South American Cordillera (Puna Plateau). When placed in the context of existing geological and geophysical datasets, our seismic model reveals numerous mid-crustal low-velocity zones that we unambiguously interpret as the plutonic underpinnings associated with the voluminous silicic volcanics of the Puna Plateau. These larger P:V ratios are consistent with recent thermomechanical modeling of granitic magma intrusions that support the existence of long-lived, partially

  10. 40 CFR 81.162 - Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.162 Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial area...

  11. Threshold friction velocity of soils within the Columbia Plateau (United States)

    Wind erosion only occurs when the friction velocity exceeds the threshold friction velocity (TFV) of the surface. The TFV of loessial soils commonly found across the Columbia Plateau region of the U.S. Pacific Northwest is virtually unknown even though these soils are highly erodible and a source of...

  12. Deep mantle forces and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moucha, R; Forte, A M; Rowley, D B; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P


    Since the advent of plate tectonics, it has been speculated that the northern extension of the East Pacific Rise, specifically its mantle source, has been over-ridden by the North American Plate in the last 30 Myrs. Consequently, it has also been postulated that the opening of the Gulf of California, the extension in the Basin and Range province, and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau are the resulting continental expressions of the over-ridden mantle source of the East Pacific Rise. However, only qualitative models based solely on surface observations and heuristic, simplified conceptions of mantle convection have been used in support or against this hypothesis. We introduce a quantitative model of mantle convection that reconstructs the detailed motion of a warm mantle upwelling over the last 30 Myrs and its relative advance towards the interior of the southwestern USA. The onset and evolution of the crustal uplift in the central Basin and Range province and the Colorado Plateau is determined by tracking the topographic swell due to this mantle upwelling through time. We show that (1) the extension and magmatism in the central Basin and Range province between 25 and 10 Ma coincides with the reconstructed past position of this focused upwelling, and (2) the southwestern portion of the Colorado Plateau experienced significant uplift between 10 Ma and 5 Ma that progressed towards the northeastern portion of the plateau. These uplift estimates are consistent with a young, ca. 6 Ma, Grand Canyon model and the recent commencement of mafic magmatism.

  13. Mapping risk of plague in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. (United States)

    Qian, Quan; Zhao, Jian; Fang, Liqun; Zhou, Hang; Zhang, Wenyi; Wei, Lan; Yang, Hong; Yin, Wenwu; Cao, Wuchun; Li, Qun


    Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China is known to be the plague endemic region where marmot (Marmota himalayana) is the primary host. Human plague cases are relatively low incidence but high mortality, which presents unique surveillance and public health challenges, because early detection through surveillance may not always be feasible and infrequent clinical cases may be misdiagnosed. Based on plague surveillance data and environmental variables, Maxent was applied to model the presence probability of plague host. 75% occurrence points were randomly selected for training model, and the rest 25% points were used for model test and validation. Maxent model performance was measured as test gain and test AUC. The optimal probability cut-off value was chosen by maximizing training sensitivity and specificity simultaneously. We used field surveillance data in an ecological niche modeling (ENM) framework to depict spatial distribution of natural foci of plague in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Most human-inhabited areas at risk of exposure to enzootic plague are distributed in the east and south of the Plateau. Elevation, temperature of land surface and normalized difference vegetation index play a large part in determining the distribution of the enzootic plague. This study provided a more detailed view of spatial pattern of enzootic plague and human-inhabited areas at risk of plague. The maps could help public health authorities decide where to perform plague surveillance and take preventive measures in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  14. Behavior of Colorado Plateau uranium minerals during oxidation (United States)

    Garrels, Robert Minard; Christ, C.L.


    Uranium occurs as U(VI) and U(IV) in minerals of the Colorado Plateau ores. The number of species containing U(VI) is large, but only two U(IV) minerals are known from the Plateau: uraninite, and oxide, and coffinite, a hydroxy-silicate. These oxidize to yield U(VI) before reacting significantly with other mineral constituents. Crystal-structure analysis has shown that U(VI) invariable occurs as uranyl ion, UO2+2. Uranyl ion may form complex carbonate or sulfate ions with resulting soluble compounds, but only in the absence of quinquevalent vanadium, arsenic, or phosphorous. In the presence of these elements in the +5 valence state, the uranyl ion is fixed in insoluble layer compounds formed by union of uranyl ion with orthovanadate, orthophosphate, or orthoarsenate. Under favorable conditions UO2+2 may react to form the relatively insoluble rutherfordine, UO2CO3, or hydrated uranyl hydroxides. These are rarely found on the Colorado Plateau as opposed to their excellent development in other uraniferous areas, a condition which is apparently related to the semiarid climate and low water table of the Plateau. Uranium may also be fixed as uranyl silicate, but little is known about minerals of this kind. In the present study emphasis has been placed on a detailing of the chemical and crystal structural changes which occur in the oxidation paragenetic sequence.

  15. Sensitivity of LUCC on the Surface Temperature of Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Qi, W.; Deng, X.; Wu, F.


    The Tibetan Plateau has an important effect on the ecological security in China, even in Asia, which makes the region become the hot spot in recently research. Under the joint influence of global change and human activities, ecosystem destabilizing and the increasing pressure on resources and environment emerge on the Tibetan Plateau, but the potential spatial sensitivity of land use and land cover changes(LUCC) on surface temperature has not been quantitatively analyzed. This study analyzed the mainly types of LUCC, urbanization, grassland degradation, deforestation on Tibetan Plateau along with Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The LUCC in recent decades was first quantitatively analyzed in this study to give the basic fact with a significant increase in temperatures, reduced precipitation and increased evaporation. This study focused on the future spatio-temporal heterogeneity of the temperature and precipitation. Finally, the influencing factors with LUCC on Tibetan Plateau were simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and the sensitivity of different land use types was spatially analyzed with Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). The results indicate that the large-area alpine grassland plays a more important role in alleviating global warming than other vegetation types do. The changes of the landscape structure resulting from the urban expansion play a significant role in intensifying regional temperature increase. In addition, the effects of LUCC on monthly average temperature change would vary from month to month with obviously spatial heterogeneity.

  16. Excessive Afforestation and Soil Drying on China's Loess Plateau (United States)

    Zhang, Shuilei; Yang, Dawen; Yang, Yuting; Piao, Shilong; Yang, Hanbo; Lei, Huimin; Fu, Bojie


    Afforestation and deforestation as human disturbances to vegetation have profound impacts on ecohydrological processes influencing both water and carbon cycles and ecosystem sustainability. Since 1999, large-scale revegetation activities such as "Grain-to-Green Program" have been implemented across China's Loess Plateau. However, negative ecohydrological consequences, including streamflow decline and soil drying have emerged. Here we estimate the equilibrium vegetation cover over the Loess Plateau based on an ecohydrological model and assess the water balance under the equilibrium and actual vegetation cover over the past decade. Results show that the current vegetation cover (0.48 on average) has already exceeded the climate-defined equilibrium vegetation cover (0.43 on average) in many parts of the Loess Plateau, especially in the middle-to-east regions. This indicates a widespread overplanting, which is found to primarily responsible for soil drying in the area. Additionally, both the equilibrium vegetation cover and soil moisture tend to decrease under future (i.e., 2011-2050) climate scenarios due to declined atmospheric water supply (i.e., precipitation) and increased atmospheric water demand (i.e., potential evapotranspiration). Our findings suggest that further revegetation on the Loess Plateau should be applied with caution. To maintain a sustainable ecohydrological environment in the region, a revegetation threshold is urgently needed to guide future revegetation activities.

  17. Discovery of cryptic Armillaria solidipes genotypes within the Colorado Plateau (United States)

    J. W. Hanna; N. B. Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim; S. M. Ashiglar; A. L. Ross-Davis; G. I. McDonald


    Armillaria solidipes (= A. ostoyae) is a root-disease pathogen that causes severe losses in growth and productivity of forest trees throughout the Northern Hemisphere. This species is genetically diverse with variable disease activities across different regions of the world. In North America, A. solidipes in the Colorado Plateau exists in drier habitats and causes more...

  18. Protozoan Diversity in a productive fishpond of a tropical plateau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of the Protozoan species diversity in a productive fishpond of the Jos Plateau, Nigeria was investigated at 7 day interval over a period of 11 months. Samples were collected from water column and sediment. Protozoans were found to compose of the flagellates sarcodines and cilliates. There was a significant ...

  19. Les jeux de plateau: une géographie ludique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric BIZET


    Full Text Available Les jeux de plateau utilisent le plus souvent une carte «papier» comme support. Au-delà de l'aspect cartographique, ces jeux intègrent également des notions de territorialité et d'analyse spatiale.

  20. Geologic studies of the Columbia Plateau: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, C.W.; Price, S.M.


    The results of recent geologic studies of the Columbia Plateau, with emphasis on work completed under the Basalt Waste Isolation Project, Rockwell Hanford Operations, are summarized in this report. Geologic studies were performed mostly during the period from 1977 to 1979. The major objective of these studies was to examine the feasibility of using deep underground tunnels mined into Columbia River basalt beneath the Hanford Site for final storage of nuclear waste. The results are presented in four chapters: Introduction; Regional Geology; Pasco Basin Geology; and Seismicity and Tectonics. Results from surface mapping and remote sensing studies in the Washington State portion of the Columbia Plateau are presented in the Regional Geology chapter. Results from surface mapping, borehole studies, and geophysical surveys in the Pasco Basin are presented in the Pasco Basin Geology chapter. Results that relate to the tectonic stability of the Pasco Basin and Columbia Plateau and discussion of findings from earthquake monitoring in the region for the past ten years are summarized in the Seismicity and Tectonics chapter. A volume of Appendices is included. This volume contains a description of study tasks, a description of the methodology used in geophysical surveys the geophysical survey results, a summary of earthquake records in eastern Washington, a description of tectonic provinces, and a preliminary description of the regional tectonic setting of the Columbia Plateau

  1. Plateau diffusion coefficient for arbitrary flux surface geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, H.K.; Hirshman, S.P.; Sigmar, D.J.; Lao, L.L.


    A relatively simple but accurate representation has been developed for magnetic flux surfaces; it is valid for finite β and it describes configurations with both ellipticity and D-shape. This representation has been applied to the computation of the diffusion coefficient in the plateau regime

  2. Rainfall Erosivity Factor for Uasin Gishu Plateau, Kenya | Kariaga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Runoff plots were established on bare soil classified as Dystric Nitosols (Typic Rhodudults) at Moi University Main Campus, on Uasin Gishu Plateau, Kenya. The objective of the study was to determine the best erosivity factor for the area. This was found to be EI30, defined as the product of the rainstorm's kinetic energy and ...

  3. Greenhouse gases emissions in rivers of the Tibetan Plateau. (United States)

    Qu, Bin; Aho, Kelly Sue; Li, Chaoliu; Kang, Shichang; Sillanpää, Mika; Yan, Fangping; Raymond, Peter A


    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions from streams are important to regional biogeochemical budgets. This study is one of the first to incorporate stream GHGs (CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O) concentrations and emissions in rivers of the Tibetan Plateau. With one-time sampling from 32 sites in rivers of the plateau, we found that most of the rivers were supersaturated with CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O during the study period. Medians of partial pressures of CO 2 (pCO 2 ), pCH 4 and pN 2 O were presented 864 μatm, 6.3 μatm, and 0.25 μatm respectively. Based on a scaling model of the flux of gas, the calculated fluxes of CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O (3,452 mg-C m 2 d -1 , 26.7 mg-C m 2 d -1 and 0.18 mg-N m 2 d -1 , respectively) in rivers of the Tibetan Plateau were found comparable with most other rivers in the world; and it was revealed that the evasion rates of CO 2 and CH 4 in tributaries of the rivers of the plateau were higher than those in the mainstream despite its high altitude. Furthermore, concentrations of GHGs in the studied rivers were related to dissolved carbon and nitrogen, indicating that riverine dissolved components could be used to scale GHGs envision in rivers of the Tibetan Plateau.

  4. Integrated geophysical study of the northeastern margin of Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Shi, L.; Meng, X.; Guo, L.


    Tibetan Plateau, the so-called "Roof of the World", is a direct consequence of collision of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate starting in the early Cenozoic time. The continent-continent collision is still going on. The northeastern margin of Tibetan Plateau is the front part of the Tibetan Plateau extends to mainland and favorable area for studying uplift and deformation of the Tibetan Plateau. In the past decades, a variety of geophysical methods were conducted to study geodynamics and geological tectonics of this region. We assembled satellite-derived free-air gravity anomalies with a resolution of one arc-minute from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and reduced them to obtain Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomalies. Then we gridded Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomalies on a regular grid, and subsequently processed them with the preferential continuation method to attenuate high-frequency noise and analyzed regional and residual anomalies. We also calculated tilt-angle derivative of Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomalies to derive clearer geological structures with more details. Then we calculated the depth distribution of the Moho discontinuity surface in this area by 3D density interface inversion. From the results of preliminary processing, we analyzed the main deep faults and geological tectonics in this region. We extracted seven important profiles' data of Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomalies in this area, and then did forward modeling and inversion on each profile with constraints of geological information and other geophysical data. In the future, we will perform 3D constrained inversion of Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomalies in this region for better understanding deep structure and tectonics of the northeastern margin of Tibetan Plateau. Acknowledgment: We acknowledge the financial support of the SinoProbe project (201011039), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2010ZY26 2011PY0184), and the National Natural Science Foundation

  5. Intracontinental Deformation in the NW Iranian Plateau and Comparisons with the Northern Margin of the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Chen, L.; Jiang, M.; Talebian, M.; Wan, B.; Ai, Y.; Ghods, A.; Sobouti, F.; Xiao, W.; Zhu, R.


    This study investigates the intracontinental deformation and its relationship with the structure of the crust and uppermost mantle in the NW Iranian plateau by combining new seismic and geological observations, to understand how this part of the plateau deformed to accommodate the Arabia-Eurasia plate collision and how the property of the lithosphere controls the deformation pattern. In contrast to the adjacent Anatolian block that exhibits westward large-scale extrusion, the northwesternmost part of the Iranian plateau shows dispersed intracontinental deformations with the development of numerous small-scale and discontinuous right-lateral strike-slip faults. The dispersed surface structures and deformation pattern correspond well to the active volcanism and seismically slow crust and uppermost mantle, and hence a weak lithosphere of the area. Further to the southeast are the western part of the Alborz Mountains and the southern Caspian Sea, both of which are characterized by stronger and more rigid lithosphere with relatively fast crust and uppermost mantle and absence of Quaternary volcanoes. A sharp Moho offset of 18 km has been imaged at the border of the Alborz and southern Caspian Sea using teleseismic receiver function data from a dense seismic array deployed under a collaborative project named "China-Iran Geological and Geophysical Survey in the Iranian Plateau (CIGSIP)". The sharp Moho offset and the minor undulations of the Moho on both sides indicate insignificant intracrustal deformation but mainly relative crustal movements between the Alborz Mountains and southern Caspian Sea, a behavior consistent with the relatively rigid nature of the lithosphere. Similar Moho offsets and lithospheric structures have been reported at the borders between the Kunlun Mountains and Qaidam or Tarim Basins in the northern margin of the Tibetan plateau, suggesting the occurrence of relative crustal movements with the effects of rigid continental lithosphere in the region

  6. Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Plateau Pika (Ochotona curzoniae) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. (United States)

    Bai, Xiangning; Zhang, Wang; Tang, Xinyuan; Xin, Youquan; Xu, Yanmei; Sun, Hui; Luo, Xuelian; Pu, Ji; Xu, Jianguo; Xiong, Yanwen; Lu, Shan


    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are an emerging group of zoonotic pathogens. Ruminants are the natural reservoir of STEC. In this study we determined the prevalence and characteristics of the STEC in plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. A total of 1116 pika samples, including 294 intestinal contents samples, 317 fecal samples, and 505 intestinal contents samples, were collected from May to August in the years 2012, 2013, and 2015, respectively. Twenty-one samples (1.88%) yielded at least one STEC isolate; in total, 22 STEC isolates were recovered. Thirteen different O serogroups and 14 serotypes were identified. One stx 1 subtype (stx 1a) and three stx 2 subtypes (stx 2a, stx 2b, and stx 2d) were present in the STEC isolates. Fifteen, fourteen, and three STEC isolates harbored the virulence genes ehxA, subA, and astA, respectively. Adherence-associated genes iha and saa were, respectively, present in 72.73 and 68.18% of the STEC isolates. Twenty antibiotics were active against all the STEC isolates; all strains were resistant to penicillin G, and some to cephalothin or streptomycin. The 22 STEC isolates were divided into 16 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and 12 sequence types. Plateau pikas may play a role in the ongoing circulation of STEC in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. This study provides the first report on STEC in plateau pikas and new information about STEC reservoirs in wildlife. Based on the serotypes, virulence gene profiles and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) analysis, the majority of these pika STECs may pose a low public health risk.

  7. Into Tibet: An Early Pliocene Dispersal of Fossil Zokor (Rodentia: Spalacidae) from Mongolian Plateau to the Hinterland of Tibetan Plateau. (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoming


    This paper reports the fossil zokors (Myospalacinae) collected from the lower Pliocene (~4.4 Ma) of Zanda Basin, southwestern Tibet, which is the first record in the hinterland of Tibetan Plateau within the Himalayan Range. Materials include 29 isolated molars belonging to Prosiphneus eriksoni (Schlosser, 1924) by having characters including large size, highly fused roots, upper molars of orthomegodont type, m1 anterior cap small and centrally located, and first pair of m1 reentrants on opposing sides, high crowns, and high value of dentine tract parameters. Based on the cladistics analysis, all seven species of Prosiphneus and P. eriksoni of Zanda form a monophyletic clade. P. eriksoni from Zanda, on the other hand, is nearly the terminal taxon of this clade. The appearance of P. eriksoni in Zanda represents a significant dispersal in the early Pliocene from its center of origin in north China and Mongolian Plateau, possibly via the Hol Xil-Qiangtang hinterland in northern Tibet. The fast evolving zokors are highly adapted to open terrains at a time when regional climates had become increasingly drier in the desert zones north of Tibetan Plateau during the late Miocene to Pliocene. The occurrence of this zokor in Tibet thus suggests a rather open steppe environment. Based on fossils of large mammals, we have formulated an "out of Tibet" hypothesis that suggests earlier and more primitive large mammals from the Pliocene of Tibet giving rise to the Ice Age megafauna. However, fossil records for large mammals are still too poor to evaluate whether they have evolved from lineages endemic to the Tibetan Plateau or were immigrants from outside. The superior record of small mammals is in a better position to address this question. With relatively dense age intervals and numerous localities in much of northern Asia, fossil zokors provide the first example of an "into Tibet" scenario--earlier and more primitive taxa originated from outside of the Tibetan Plateau and the

  8. [The pathogenic ecology research on plague in Qinghai plateau]. (United States)

    Dai, Rui-xia; Wei, Bai-qing; Li, Cun-xiang; Xiong, Hao-ming; Yang, Xiao-yan; Fan, Wei; Qi, Mei-ying; Jin, Juan; Wei, Rong-jie; Feng, Jian-ping; Jin, Xing; Wang, Zu-yun


    To study the pathogenic ecology characteristics of plague in Qinghai plateau. Applied molecular biology techniques, conventional technologies and geographic information system (GIS) to study phenotypic traits, plasmid spectrum, genotype, infected host and media spectrum etc.of 952 Yersinia pestis strains in Qinghai plateau plague foci, which were separated from different host and media in different regions during 1954 to 2012. The ecotypes of these strains were Qingzang plateau (91.49%, 871/952),Qilian mountain (6.41%, 61/952) and Microtus fuscus (1.26%, 12/952).83.6% (796/952) of these strains contained all the 4 virulence factors (Fr1, Pesticin1,Virulence antigen, and Pigmentation), 93.26% (367/392) were velogenic strains confirmed by virulence test.725 Yersinia pestis strains were separated from Qinghai plateau plague foci carried 9 kinds of plasmid, among which 713 strains from Marmot himalayan plague foci carried 9 kinds of plasmid, the Mr were 6×10(6), 7×10(6), 23×10(6), 27×10(6), 30×10(6), 45×10(6), 52×10(6), 65×10(6) and 92×10(6) respectively. 12 Yersinia pestis strains were separated from Microtus fuscus plague foci carried only 3 kinds of plasmid, the Mr were 6×10(6), 45×10(6), 65×10(6). Meanwhile, the strains carrying large plasmid (52×10(6), 65×10(6) and 92×10(6)) were only distributed in particular geographical location, which had the category property. The research also confirmed that 841 Yersinia pestis strains from two kinds of plague foci in Qinghai plateau had 11 genomovars. The strains of Marmot himalayan plague foci were given priority to genomovar 5 and 8, amounted to 611 strains, genomovar 8 accounted for 56.00% (471/841), genomovar 5 accounted for 23.07% (194/841). Besides, 3 new genomovars, including new 1(62 strains), new 2(52 strains), new 3(48 strains) were newly founded, and 12 strains of Microtus fuscus plague foci were genomovar 14. The main host and media of Qinghai plateau plague foci directly affected the spatial

  9. Exploring the undulating plateau: the future of global oil supply. (United States)

    Jackson, Peter M; Smith, Leta K


    In this paper, we analyse the factors that will influence long-term oil supply and describe the future form of the global oil supply profile as an 'undulating plateau' rather than an irreversible, short-term peak or an ever upward trend of increasing production. The ultimate transition from a world of relatively plentiful and cheap oil to one of tight supply and high cost will be slow and challenging. An understanding of the signposts for the future path of supply and the drivers of that profile will be critical to managing the transition. The ultimate form of the global supply curve may well be dictated by demand evolution rather than a limited resource endowment in the longer term. Several factors will probably control future global oil supply. We believe that the scale of global oil resource will not constitute a physical supply limit for at least the next two or three decades. However, all categories of oil resources are already more expensive to develop than in the past, requiring high oil prices to stimulate supply growth. Lower rates of oil demand growth relative to economic growth, combined with more challenging supply growth, will probably lead to an undulating plateau sometime after 2040, with demand from non-Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development states continuing to dominate. Upstream investment requirements and oil price volatility will increase towards and beyond the undulating production plateau. In this new world, high oil prices will induce demand destruction, fuel substitution and ever increasing energy efficiency. As we discuss below, the fundamental differences between the IHS Cambridge Energy Research Associates' (IHS CERA) view of the future of oil supply and many peak oil supply models are the timing of the onset of a dramatic slowdown in the rate of growth of supply and the existence or otherwise of a production plateau. We do not dispute that supply will plateau and eventually fall; the question is when, how and at what price

  10. Late Quaternary Soil Development Enhances Aeolian Landform Stability, Moenkopi Plateau, Southern Colorado Plateau, USA

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    Amy L. Ellwein


    Full Text Available The Moenkopi dune field in northeastern Arizona covers roughly 1250 km2, but most of the field is inactive. Dune deposits on the Moenkopi Plateau (MP have remained inactive throughout the Holocene despite periods of elevated aridity or historical reductions of vegetation cover by livestock grazing. We argue that this inactivity is not because of any diminishment of driving forces in the aeolian system (e.g., insufficient winds, but rather because of increased cohesion due to soil development that enhances resistance to wind erosion. Abundant aeolian sediments were supplied to the Black Mesa region by the Little Colorado River and its tributaries during the late Pleistocene (MIS 2 and 3, which enabled the development of climbing dunes and transport of sand over the Adeii Eechii Cliffs and onto the MP. These deposits (Qe1 stabilized during the Pleistocene/Holocene climatic transition (~12–7.5 ka because of reduced sediment supply and high dust flux which resulted in rapid soil formation. Erosion of climbing dunes/sand ramps from the Adeii Eechii Cliffs eliminated delivery of large quantities of new sand to the MP during the mid to late Holocene. Soil development within the Qe1 mantle increased sediment cohesion and prevented widespread aeolian reactivation during the Holocene, despite the occurrence of conditions (wind speed, climate, etc. under which dune reactivation would be expected. Drylands comprise roughly 40% of the land cover of earth and climate models predict their expansion. Pedogenic stability is not commonly considered in climate-based models used to predict aeolian activity. To improve predictions of future dune activity in drylands, the degree of soil development in aeolian deposits should be considered when evaluating sediment availability in aeolian systems.

  11. Parametric decay of current-driven Langmuir waves in plateau plasmas: Relevance to solar wind and foreshock events (United States)

    Sauer, Konrad; Malaspina, David M.; Pulupa, Marc; Salem, Chadi S.


    Langmuir amplitude modulation in association with type III radio bursts is a well-known phenomenon since the beginning of space observations. It is commonly attributed to the superposition of beam-excited Langmuir waves and their backscattered counterparts as a result of parametric decay. The dilemma, however, is the discrepancy between fast beam relaxation and long-lasting Langmuir wave activity. Instead of starting with an unstable electron beam, our focus in this paper is on the nonlinear response of Langmuir oscillations that are driven after beam stabilization by the still persisting current of the (stable) two-electron plasma. The velocity distribution function of the second population forms a plateau (index h) with a point at which ∂fh/∂v ˜0 associated with weak damping over a more or less extended wave number range k. As shown by particle-in-cell simulations, this so-called plateau plasma drives primarily Langmuir oscillations at the plasma frequency (ωe) with k = 0 over long times without remarkable change of the distribution function. These Langmuir oscillations act as a pump wave for parametric decay by which an electron-acoustic wave slightly below ωe and a counterstreaming ion-acoustic wave are generated. Both high-frequency waves have nearly the same amplitude, which is given by the product of plateau density and velocity. Beating of these two wave types leads to pronounced Langmuir amplitude modulation, in reasonable agreement with solar wind and terrestrial foreshock observations made by the Wind spacecraft.

  12. Neglected, semimembranosus osteochondral avulsion fracture of the posteromedial tibial plateau

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    Rakesh John


    Full Text Available Semimembranosus avulsion fracture is infrequently reported and is easy to miss on plain radiographs; the mechanism of injury is highly controversial. Initial reports linked it to anterior cruciate ligament and medial meniscal tears. We report an osteochondral semimembranosus avulsion fracture of the posteromedial tibial plateau with associated posterior cruciate ligament rupture. Also described is a novel surgical fixation technique for such osteochondral fractures where the surgical exposure is limited due to the obliquity of the fracture line resulting in a greater involvement of the articular cartilage than the small bony component. The fixation technique described may be used for osteochondral fractures where the application of a conventional compression screw may not be feasible. Keywords: Osteochondral fracture, Semimembranosus avulsion fracture, Posteromedial tibial plateau, Neglected, Nonunion

  13. Neoclassical kinetic theory near an X point: Plateau regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano, E.R.; Hazeltine, R.D.


    Traditionally, neoclassical transport calculations ignore poloidal variation of the poloidal magnetic field. Near an X point of the confining field of a diverted plasma, the poloidal field is small, causing guiding centers to linger at that poloidal position. A study of how neoclassical transport is affected by this differential shaping is presented. The problem is solved in general in the plateau regime, and a model poloidal flux function with an X point is utilized as an analytic example to show that the plateau diffusion coefficient can change considerably (factor of 2 reduction). Ion poloidal rotation is proportional to the local value of B pol but otherwise it is not strongly affected by shaping. The usual favorable scaling of neoclassical confinement time with plasma current is unaffected by the X point

  14. Minimal surfaces, stratified multivarifolds, and the plateau problem

    CERN Document Server

    Thi, Dao Trong; Primrose, E J F; Silver, Ben


    Plateau's problem is a scientific trend in modern mathematics that unites several different problems connected with the study of minimal surfaces. In its simplest version, Plateau's problem is concerned with finding a surface of least area that spans a given fixed one-dimensional contour in three-dimensional space--perhaps the best-known example of such surfaces is provided by soap films. From the mathematical point of view, such films are described as solutions of a second-order partial differential equation, so their behavior is quite complicated and has still not been thoroughly studied. Soap films, or, more generally, interfaces between physical media in equilibrium, arise in many applied problems in chemistry, physics, and also in nature. In applications, one finds not only two-dimensional but also multidimensional minimal surfaces that span fixed closed "contours" in some multidimensional Riemannian space. An exact mathematical statement of the problem of finding a surface of least area or volume requir...

  15. [Dynamic changes of Ruoergai Plateau wetland ecosystem service value]. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yun; Lü, Xian-Guo; Shen, Song-Ping


    Based on the satellite remote sensing data acquired in 1975 and 2006, and by using the assessment method of ecosystem service value, the dynamic changes of physical production value, gas regulation value, and water storage value of Ruoergai Plateau wetland ecosystem in 1975-2006 were studied. During study period, the total value of the three services decreased from 19.59 billion RMB Yuan to 12.38 billion Yuan RMB, among which, physical production value increased by 0.302 billion RMB Yuan, while the gas regulation and water storage value decreased by 7.507 billion RMB Yuan. The benefit from the increase of physical production was much less than the loss of ecosystem degradation. Overgrazing induced the biomass reduction and soil deterioration, resulting in the decline of Ruoergai Plateau wetland ecosystem service value and service capacity.

  16. Interactions between ecosystems and hydrology in the Loess Plateau (United States)

    Fu, B.; Wang, S.


    The Loess Plateau is located in the arid and semi-arid temperate continental monsoon climatic zone. Large-scale "Grain-for-Green" project has been implemented in the since 1999, which has made remarkable contribution to the soil and water control, but also has led to some negative ecological effects. Understanding the interactions between ecosystems and hydrology is significant for the vegetation carrying capacity assessment and guiding the vegetation restoration. We observed the soil moisture at multiple scales including slope, catchment and transect across Loess Plateau to analyze the effects of land use change and its trend along the precipitation gradient. Remote sensing data also used to capture the spatiotemporal variance of soil moisture in the Loess Plateau, as well as the in-situ measured soil moisture decrease following the massive re-vegetation. We found soil moisture decrease in response to the massive re-vegetation occurred in a transition zone of grass-forest ecosystems with annual precipitation between 450-550 mm. The average runoff in the Loess Plateau also decreased continuously during the period 1961-2009 (average rate of -0.9 mm yr-1, P < 0.001). Human intervention played a dominant role in creating the transition points, Water yield (i.e., the ratio of runoff to precipitation) decreased following each anthropogenic transition, causing a 56% reduction in available freshwater resources during the period 1961-2009. From currently revegetated areas and human water demand, we estimate a threshold of NPP of 400±5 g C m-2 yr-1 above which the population will suffer water shortages. NPP in this region is found to be already close to this limit.

  17. Groundwater quality in the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau, California (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Shelton, Jennifer L.


    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau area constitutes one of the study units being evaluated.

  18. Mixing on the Heard Island Plateau during HEOBI (United States)

    Robertson, R.


    On the plateau near Heard and McDonald Islands, the water column was nearly always well mixed. Typically, temperature differences between the surface and the bottom, 100-200 m, were less than 0.2oC and often less that 0.1oC. Surface stratification developed through insolation and deep primarily through a combination of upwelling from canyons and over the edge of the plateau and tidal advection. This stratification was primarily removed by a combination of wind and tidal mixing. Persistent winds of 30 knots mixed the upper 20-50 m. Strong wind events, 40-60 knots, mixed the water column to 100-200 m depth, which over the plateau, was often the entire water column. Benthic tidal friction mixed the bottom 30-50 m. Although the water column was unstratified at the two plume sites intensively investigated, tidal velocities were baroclinic, probably due to topographic controls. Tidal advection changed the bottom temperatures by 0.5oC within 8 hours, more than doubling the prior stratification. Wind mixing quickly homogenized the water column, resulting in the surface often showing the deeper upwelling and advective events. Although acoustic plumes with bubbles were observed in the water column, there was no evidence of geothermal vents or geothermal influence on temperatures. Mixing by bubbles rising in the water column was indistinguishable from the wind and tidal mixing, although the strongest upward vertical velocities were observed at the sites of these acoustic/bubble plumes.

  19. Internal tides and vertical mixing over the Kerguelen Plateau (United States)

    Park, Young-Hyang; Fuda, Jean-Luc; Durand, Isabelle; Naveira Garabato, Alberto C.


    Within the context of the natural iron-fertilization study KEOPS, time series measurements of CTD and LADCP profiles at a site (50.6°S, 72°E; 528 m) coinciding with an annual phytoplankton bloom over the Kerguelen Plateau were made during the January-February 2005 KEOPS cruise. An important activity of highly nonlinear semidiurnal internal tides having peak-to-peak isopycnal displacements of up to 80 m is identified. These internal tides appear to be a principal agent for promoting elevated vertical mixing indispensable for upward transfer of iron within the seasonal thermocline. We estimate local vertical eddy diffusivities of the order of 4×10 -4 m 2 s -1 using a Thorpe scale analysis. Although this estimate is higher by an order of magnitude than the canonical value O (0.1×10 -4 m 2 s -1) in the open ocean away from boundaries, it is consistent with nonlinear internal wave/wave interaction theories, as verified by independent diffusivity estimates using the vertical wavenumber spectral methods for shear and strain. It is also suggested that the general ocean circulation may play an important role in preconditioning the bloom in that the relatively sluggish circulation over the shallow plateau (compared to the much more dynamic neighbouring deep ocean) may foster the bloom's observed annual recurrence over the plateau.

  20. Black Carbon Radiative Forcing over the Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Cenlin; Li, Qinbin; Liou, K. N.; Takano, Y.; Gu, Yu; Qi, L.; Mao, Yuhao; Leung, Lai-Yung R.


    We estimate the snow albedo forcing and direct radiative forcing (DRF) of black carbon (BC) in the Tibetan Plateau using a global chemical transport model in conjunction with a stochastic snow model and a radiative transfer model. Our best estimate of the annual BC snow albedo forcing in the Plateau is 2.9 W m-2 (uncertainty: 1.5–5.0 W m-226 ). We find that BC-snow internal mixing increases the albedo forcing by 40-60% compared with external mixing and coated BC increases the forcing by 30-50% compared with uncoated BC, whereas Koch snowflakes reduce the forcing by 20-40% relative to spherical snow grains. Our best estimate of the annual BC DRF at the top of the atmosphere is 2.3 W m-2 (uncertainty: 0.7–4.3 W m-230 ) in the Plateau after scaling the modeled BC absorption optical depth to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations. The BC forcings are attributed to emissions from different regions.

  1. Cenozoic mountain building on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Lease, Richard O.


    Northeastern Tibetan Plateau growth illuminates the kinematics, geodynamics, and climatic consequences of large-scale orogenesis, yet only recently have data become available to outline the spatiotemporal pattern and rates of this growth. I review the tectonic history of range growth across the plateau margin north of the Kunlun fault (35°–40°N) and east of the Qaidam basin (98°–107°E), synthesizing records from fault-bounded mountain ranges and adjacent sedimentary basins. Deformation began in Eocene time shortly after India-Asia collision, but the northeastern orogen boundary has largely remained stationary since this time. Widespread middle Miocene–Holocene range growth is portrayed by accelerated deformation, uplift, erosion, and deposition across northeastern Tibet. The extent of deformation, however, only expanded ~150 km outward to the north and east and ~150 km laterally to the west. A middle Miocene reorganization of deformation characterized by shortening at various orientations heralds the onset of the modern kinematic regime where shortening is coupled to strike slip. This regime is responsible for the majority of Cenozoic crustal shortening and thickening and the development of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau.

  2. The medicinal plants of Frangensko Plateau (Northeastern Bulgaria) (United States)

    Zahariev, Dimcho; Kacheva, Cvetelina


    The Frangensko Plateau is located in the northeastern part of Bulgaria and covers an area of 360 km2. On the territory of the plateau there are two protected areas, as well as two areas of the European ecological network NATURA 2000. The study of the medicinal plants on the territory of the Frangensko Plateau is made for the first time. As a result of our research we found 362 species of vascular plants from 242 genera and 80 families. The most of the families and the genera are represented by a small number of inferior taxa. The analysis of their life form indicates that the hemicryptophytes dominate with 39.50%, followed by the phanerophytes (22.10%). The biological types are represented mainly by perennial herbaceous plants (52.21%), annual herbaceous plants (14.09%) and trees (10.50%). There are 8 types of floristic elements divided in 32 groups. The largest percentage of species is of European type (51.93%). Among the medicinal plants, there are two Balkan endemic species, one Bulgarian endemic species and 30 relic species. Thirty four species with protection statute are described. The anthropophytes among the medicinal plants are 242 species (66.85%).

  3. Path of Social Construction in Northwest Sichuan Plateau Pastoral Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    On the basis of main contents of social construction and key points of construction,this paper analyzes features of conditions of northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area.The social construction at current stage mainly includes social cause in narrow sense,and social management at meso-level.The northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area is faced with the best policy and development opportunity.However,there are still many weak aspects.Firstly,social structure is not coordinated with economic structure.Secondly,social construction ability of grass-roots government is weak.Thirdly,the ability to respond to public demands is low.Fourthly,there is a big gap in availability of basic public service.Finally,it presents path selection for social construction of northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area:strengthen social construction ability of grass-roots government;promote social construction with livelihood projects as key projects;boost social construction taking advantage of ecological construction;develop basic public service with the aid of external forces;intensify evaluation system for supervision of social construction works.

  4. Plateau inflation in R-parity violating MSSM

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    Girish Kumar Chakravarty


    Full Text Available Inflation with plateau potentials give the best fit to the CMB observables as they predict tensor to scalar ratio stringently bounded by the observations from Planck and BICEP2/Keck. In supergravity models it is possible to obtain plateau potentials for scalar fields in the Einstein frame which can serve as the inflation potential by considering higher dimensional Planck suppressed operators and by the choice of non-canonical Kähler potentials. We construct a plateau inflation model in MSSM where the inflation occurs along a sneutrino-Higgs flat direction. A hidden sector Polonyi field is used for the breaking of supersymmetry after the end of the inflation. The proper choice of superpotential leads to strong stabilization of the Polonyi field, mZ2≫m3/22, which is required to solve the cosmological moduli problem. Also, the SUSY breaking results in a TeV scale gravitino mass and scalar masses and gives rise to bilinear and trilinear couplings of scalars which can be tested at the LHC. The sneutrino inflation field can be observed at the LHC as a TeV scale diphoton resonance like the one reported by CMS and ATLAS.

  5. Diversity and Ecology of Dendrobiums (Orchidaceae in Chotanagpur Plateau, India

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    Pankaj Kumar


    Full Text Available As part of All India Coordinated Research Project on Taxonomy of orchids (AICOPTAX Chotanagpur Plateau was surveyed extensively for documentation of orchid species and distribution during 2002 -2006. Sixty three species were collected from the study area with Dendrobium as one of the largest group of epiphytic orchids comprising of 11 species, namely, Dendrobium aphyllum, D. bicameratum, D. cucullatum, D. crepidatum, D. formosum, D. fimbriatum, D. herbaceum, D. moschatum, D. peguanum, D. regium and D. transparens. Most of the species were found in the Sal (Shorea robusta dominated forests. Stratified Random Sampling was used for ecological studies in the forested regions on the plateau. Results show that D. aphyllum was the most common amongst 11 species and it was distributed through out the altitudinal gradient, whereas, rest of the orchid species were found to be localised at comparatively higher altitudes. D. herbaceum was always found on the upper areas of the plateaus between 900-1000 m asl. D. crepidatum was seen in both epiphytic as well as lithophytic conditions, whereas D. moschatum were found growing as lithophytes along the streams. Rest of the species were epithytic. The paper also deals some microhabitat features governing the distribution of these orchids on the plateau along with their key for identification.

  6. Influence of Western Tibetan Plateau Summer Snow Cover on East Asian Summer Rainfall (United States)

    Wang, Zhibiao; Wu, Renguang; Chen, Shangfeng; Huang, Gang; Liu, Ge; Zhu, Lihua


    The influence of boreal winter-spring eastern Tibetan Plateau snow anomalies on the East Asian summer rainfall variability has been the focus of previous studies. The present study documents the impacts of boreal summer western and southern Tibetan Plateau snow cover anomalies on summer rainfall over East Asia. Analysis shows that more snow cover in the western and southern Tibetan Plateau induces anomalous cooling in the overlying atmospheric column. The induced atmospheric circulation changes are different corresponding to more snow cover in the western and southern Tibetan Plateau. The atmospheric circulation changes accompanying the western Plateau snow cover anomalies are more obvious over the midlatitude Asia, whereas those corresponding to the southern Plateau snow cover anomalies are more prominent over the tropics. As such, the western and southern Tibetan Plateau snow cover anomalies influence the East Asian summer circulation and precipitation through different pathways. Nevertheless, the East Asian summer circulation and precipitation anomalies induced by the western and southern Plateau snow cover anomalies tend to display similar distribution so that they are more pronounced when the western and southern Plateau snow cover anomalies work in coherence. Analysis indicates that the summer snow cover anomalies over the Tibetan Plateau may be related to late spring snow anomalies due to the persistence. The late spring snow anomalies are related to an obvious wave train originating from the western North Atlantic that may be partly associated with sea surface temperature anomalies in the North Atlantic Ocean.

  7. Dust emissions from unpaved roads on the Colorado Plateau (United States)

    Duniway, M.; Flagg, C.; Belnap, J.


    On the Colorado Plateau, elevated levels of aeolian dust have become a major land management and policy concern due to its influence on climate, weather, terrestrial ecosystem dynamics, landscape development and fertility, melting of snow and ice, air quality, and human health. Most desert soil surfaces are stabilized by plants, rocks, and/or physical or biological soil crusts, but once disturbed, sediment production from these surfaces can increase dramatically. Road development and use is a common surface disturbing activity in the region. The extent and density of roads and road networks is rapidly increasing due to continued energy exploration, infrastructure development, and off-highway recreation activities. Though it is well known that unpaved roads produce dust, the relative contribution of dust from existing roads or the implications of future road development to regional dust loading is unknown. To address this need, we have initiated a multifaceted research effort to evaluating dust emissions from unpaved roads regionally. At 34 sites arranged across various road surfaces and soil textures in southeastern Utah, we are: 1) monitoring dust emissions, local wind conditions, and vehicle traffic and 2) evaluating fugitive dust potential using a portable wind tunnel and measuring road characteristics that affect dust production. We will then 3) develop a GIS-based model that integrates results from 1 & 2 to estimate potential dust contributions from current and future scenarios of regional road development. Passive, horizontal sediment traps were installed at three distances downwind from the road edge. One control trap was placed upwind of the samplers to account for local, non-road dust emissions. An electronic vehicle counter and anemometer were also installed at monitoring sites. Dust samples were collected every three months at fixed heights, 15 cm up to 100 cm above the soil surface, from March 2010 to the present. Threshold friction velocities (TFV

  8. Plateau iris Íris em platô

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    Alberto Diniz Filho


    Full Text Available The term plateau iris was first coined in 1958 to describe the iris configuration of a patient. Two years later the concept of plateau iris was published. In 1977, the plateau iris configuration was classically defined as presurgical changes of an eye with a relative normal central anterior chamber depth, flat iris by conventional biomicroscopy, but displaying an extremely narrow or closed angle on gonioscopic examination. On the other hand, the plateau iris syndrome was defined as an acute glaucoma crisis in one eye with a relative normal central anterior chamber depth and patent iridotomy on direct examination, presenting angle closure confirmed by gonioscopic examination after mydriasis. In 1992, the anatomic aspects of plateau iris were studied using ultrasound biomicroscopy. Finally, plateau iris has been considered an anatomic variant of iris structure in which the iris periphery angulates sharply forward from its insertion point and then again angulates sharply and centrally backward, along with an anterior positioning of the ciliary processes seen on ultrasound biomicroscopy. The clinical treatment of plateau iris syndrome is carried out with topical use of pilocarpine. However, the definitive treatment should be fulfilled by performing an argon laser peripheral iridoplasty.O termo íris em platô foi primeiramente inventado em 1958 para descrever a configuração da íris de um paciente. Dois anos depois o conceito de íris em platô foi publicado. Em 1977, a configuração de íris em platô foi classicamente definida como alterações pré-cirúrgicas de um olho com uma profundidade de câmara anterior relativamente normal, íris plana pela biomicroscopia convencional, mas mostrando um ângulo extremamente estreito ou fechado pela gonioscopia. Por outro lado, a síndrome de íris em platô foi definida como uma crise de glaucoma agudo em um olho com uma profundidade de câmara anterior relativamente normal e uma iridectomia patente ao

  9. Early Human Occupation on the Northeast Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Rhode, D.; Madsen, D.; Brantingham, P.; Perrault, C.


    The Tibetan Plateau presents great challenges for human occupation: low oxygen, high ultraviolet radiation, harsh seasonal climate, low overall biological productivity. How and when early humans were able to cope physiologically, genetically, and behaviorally with these extremes is important for understanding the history of human adaptive flexibility. Our investigations of prehistoric human settlement on the northeast Tibetan Plateau focus on (a) establishing well-dated evidence for occupation of altitudes >3000 m, (b) the environmental context of high altitude adaptation, and (c) relations of hunting and pastoralism to lower-altitude agrarian systems. We observe two major prehistoric settlement patterns in the Qinghai Lake area. The earliest, ~15,000-7500 yr old, consists of small isolated firehearths with sparse associated stone tools and wild mammal remains (1). Numerous hearths often occur in the same localities, indicating repeated short-duration occupations by small hunting parties. A second pattern, ~9000-4000 yr old, was established during the Holocene climatic optimum. These sites represent prolonged seasonal residential occupation, containing dark anthropogenic midden, hearth and pit constructions, abundant stone tools, occasional ceramics, and abundant diverse faunal remains (including medium-large mammals but lacking domestic sheep/yak)(2). These Plateau-margin base camps allowed greater intensity of use of the high Plateau. Residential occupation was strongly influenced by nearby lower-altitude farming communities; development of the socioeconomic landscape along the Yellow River likely played at least as great a role in Plateau occupation patterns as did Holocene environmental changes. Holocene vegetation changes in the NE Tibetan Plateau have been attributed to climate (3) or anthropogenic modification (4). Our results document changes in shrub/tree presence from ~12,000-4000 BP, similar to pollen records, that likely reflect climate rather than

  10. The Supercritical Pile Gamma-Ray Burst Model: The GRB Afterglow Steep Decline and Plateau Phase (United States)

    Sultana, Joseph; Kazanas, D.; Mastichiadis, A.


    We present a process that accounts for the steep decline and plateau phase of the Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT) light curves, vexing features of gamma-ray burst (GRB) phenomenology. This process is an integral part of the "supercritical pile" GRB model, proposed a few years ago to account for the conversion of the GRB kinetic energy into radiation with a spectral peak at E(sub pk) is approx. m(sub e)C(exp 2). We compute the evolution of the relativistic blast wave (RBW) Lorentz factor Gamma to show that the radiation-reaction force due to the GRB emission can produce an abrupt, small (approx. 25%) decrease in Gamma at a radius that is smaller (depending on conditions) than the deceleration radius R(sub D). Because of this reduction, the kinematic criticality criterion of the "supercritical pile" is no longer fulfilled. Transfer of the proton energy into electrons ceases and the GRB enters abruptly the afterglow phase at a luminosity smaller by approx. m(sub p)/m(sub e) than that of the prompt emission. If the radius at which this slow-down occurs is significantly smaller than R(sub D), the RBW internal energy continues to drive the RBW expansion at a constant (new) Gamma and its X-ray luminosity remains constant until R(sub D) is reached, at which point it resumes its more conventional decay, thereby completing the "unexpected" XRT light curve phase. If this transition occurs at R is approx. equal to R(sub D), the steep decline is followed by a flux decrease instead of a "plateau," consistent with the conventional afterglow declines. Besides providing an account of these peculiarities, the model suggests that the afterglow phase may in fact begin before the RBW reaches R is approx. equal to R(sub D), thus providing novel insights into GRB phenomenology.

  11. Spiny Neurons of Amygdala, Striatum and Cortex Use Dendritic Plateau Potentials to Detect Network UP States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina D Oikonomou


    Full Text Available Spiny neurons of amygdala, striatum, and cerebral cortex share four interesting features: [1] they are the most abundant cell type within their respective brain area, [2] covered by thousands of thorny protrusions (dendritic spines, [3] possess high levels of dendritic NMDA conductances, and [4] experience sustained somatic depolarizations in vivo and in vitro (UP states. In all spiny neurons of the forebrain, adequate glutamatergic inputs generate dendritic plateau potentials (dendritic UP states characterized by (i fast rise, (ii plateau phase lasting several hundred milliseconds and (iii abrupt decline at the end of the plateau phase. The dendritic plateau potential propagates towards the cell body decrementally to induce a long-lasting (longer than 100 ms, most often 200 – 800 ms steady depolarization (~20 mV amplitude, which resembles a neuronal UP state. Based on voltage-sensitive dye imaging, the plateau depolarization in the soma is precisely time-locked to the regenerative plateau potential taking place in the dendrite. The somatic plateau rises after the onset of the dendritic voltage transient and collapses with the breakdown of the dendritic plateau depolarization. We hypothesize that neuronal UP states in vivo reflect the occurrence of dendritic plateau potentials (dendritic UP states. We propose that the somatic voltage waveform during a neuronal UP state is determined by dendritic plateau potentials. A mammalian spiny neuron uses dendritic plateau potentials to detect and transform coherent network activity into a ubiquitous neuronal UP state. The biophysical properties of dendritic plateau potentials allow neurons to quickly attune to the ongoing network activity, as well as secure the stable amplitudes of successive UP states.

  12. Timing and mechanism of the rise of the Shillong Plateau in the Himalayan foreland.


    Govin, Gwladys; Najman, Yanina Manya Rachel; Copley, Alex; Millar, Ian; Van der Beek, Peter; Huyghe, Pascale; Grujic, Djordje; Davenport, Jesse


    The Shillong Plateau (northeastern India) constitutes the only significant topography in the Himalayan foreland. Knowledge of its surface uplift history is key to understanding topographic development and unraveling tectonic–climate–topographic coupling in the eastern Himalaya. We use the sedimentary record of the Himalayan foreland basin north of the Shillong Plateau to show that the paleo-Brahmaputra river was redirected north and west by the rising plateau at 5.2–4.9 Ma. We suggest that on...

  13. A preliminary study of the heating effect of the Tibetan Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Yao

    Full Text Available The immense and towering Tibetan Plateau acts as a heating source and, thus, deeply shapes the climate of the Eurasian continent and even the whole world. However, due to the scarcity of meteorological observation stations and very limited climatic data, little is quantitatively known about the heating effect of the plateau and its implications. This paper firstly collects climate data (2001-2007 from 109 observation stations and MODIS-based estimated monthly mean temperature data in the plateau and the neighboring Sichuan Basin, and conducts correlation and simple linear regression to reveal the altitudinal pattern of temperature. Then, according to the linear relationships of temperature and altitude for each month, it compares air temperature differences on the same elevation between the main plateau and surrounding mountains and the Sichuan Basin so as to quantify the heating effect and discuss its implication on timberline of the plateau. The results show that: 1 the heating effect of the plateau is significant. The temperature of the main plateau area was higher than that of free air on the same elevation above the neighboring areas; on the elevation of 4500 m (the main plateau, temperature is 1-6°C higher in the main Plateau than over the Sichuan Basin for different months and 5.9-10.7°C higher than in the Qilian Mountains in the northeastern corner of the plateau. 2 Even at altitudes of 5000-6000 m in the main Plateau, there are 4 months with a mean temperature above 0°C. The mean temperature of the warmest month (July can reach 10°C at about 4600-4700 m. This may help explain why the highest timberline in the northern hemisphere is on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau.

  14. Medial tibial plateau morphology and stress fracture location: A magnetic resonance imaging study. (United States)

    Yukata, Kiminori; Yamanaka, Issei; Ueda, Yuzuru; Nakai, Sho; Ogasa, Hiroyoshi; Oishi, Yosuke; Hamawaki, Jun-Ichi


    To determine the location of medial tibial plateau stress fractures and its relationship with tibial plateau morphology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A retrospective review of patients with a diagnosis of stress fracture of the medial tibial plateau was performed for a 5-year period. Fourteen patients [three female and 11 male, with an average age of 36.4 years (range, 15-50 years)], who underwent knee MRI, were included. The appearance of the tibial plateau stress fracture and the geometry of the tibial plateau were reviewed and measured on MRI. Thirteen of 14 stress fractures were linear, and one of them stellated on MRI images. The location of fractures was classified into three types. Three fractures were located anteromedially (AM type), six posteromedially (PM type), and five posteriorly (P type) at the medial tibial plateau. In addition, tibial posterior slope at the medial tibial plateau tended to be larger when the fracture was located more posteriorly on MRI. We found that MRI showed three different localizations of medial tibial plateau stress fractures, which were associated with tibial posterior slope at the medial tibial plateau.

  15. Posterior Slope of the Tibia Plateau in Malaysian Patients Undergoing Total Knee Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Yoga


    Full Text Available The posterior slope of the tibial plateau is an important feature to preserve during knee replacement. The correct slope aids in the amount of flexion and determines if the knee will be loose on flexion. This is a study on the posterior tibial plateau slope based on preoperative and postoperative radiographs of 100 consecutive patients who had total knee replacements. The average posterior slope of the tibia plateau was 10.1 degrees. There is a tendency for patients with higher pre-operative posterior tibial plateau slope to have higher post-operative posterior tibial plate slope.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The large land area in the center of the vast Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State is known as 'the plateau'--aptly named because its surface elevations are 250-300 feet above the groundwater table. By contrast, areas on the 585-square mile Site that border the Columbia River sit just 30-80 feet above the water table. The Central Plateau, which covers an ellipse of approximately 70 square miles, contains Hanford's radiochemical reprocessing areas--the 200 East and 200 West Areas--and includes the most highly radioactive waste and contaminated facilities on the Site. Five 'canyons' where chemical processes were used to separate out plutonium (Pu), 884 identified soil waste sites (including approximately 50 miles of solid waste burial trenches), more than 900 structures, and all of Hanford's liquid waste storage tanks reside in the Central Plateau. (Notes: Canyons is a nickname given by Hanford workers to the chemical reprocessing facilities. The 177, underground waste tanks at Hanford comprise a separate work scope and are not under Fluor's management). Fluor Hanford, a DOE prime cleanup contractor at the Site for the past 12 years, has moved aggressively to investigate Central Plateau waste sites in the last few years, digging more than 500 boreholes, test pits, direct soil 'pushes' or drive points; logging geophysical data sets; and performing electrical-resistivity scans (a non-intrusive technique that maps patterns of sub-surface soil conductivity). The goal is to identify areas of contamination areas in soil and solid waste sites, so that cost-effective and appropriate decisions on remediation can be made. In 2007, Fluor developed a new work plan for DOE that added 238 soil waste-site characterization activities in the Central Plateau during fiscal years (FYs) 2007-2010. This number represents a 50 percent increase over similar work previously done in central Hanford. Work Plans are among the required steps in the Comprehensive

  17. Re-evaluating the 1940s CO2 plateau (United States)

    Bastos, Ana; Ciais, Philippe; Barichivich, Jonathan; Bopp, Laurent; Brovkin, Victor; Gasser, Thomas; Peng, Shushi; Pongratz, Julia; Viovy, Nicolas; Trudinger, Cathy M.


    The high-resolution CO2 record from Law Dome ice core reveals that atmospheric CO2 concentration stalled during the 1940s (so-called CO2 plateau). Since the fossil-fuel emissions did not decrease during the period, this stalling implies the persistence of a strong sink, perhaps sustained for as long as a decade or more. Double-deconvolution analyses have attributed this sink to the ocean, conceivably as a response to the very strong El Niño event in 1940-1942. However, this explanation is questionable, as recent ocean CO2 data indicate that the range of variability in the ocean sink has been rather modest in recent decades, and El Niño events have generally led to higher growth rates of atmospheric CO2 due to the offsetting terrestrial response. Here, we use the most up-to-date information on the different terms of the carbon budget: fossil-fuel emissions, four estimates of land-use change (LUC) emissions, ocean uptake from two different reconstructions, and the terrestrial sink modelled by the TRENDY project to identify the most likely causes of the 1940s plateau. We find that they greatly overestimate atmospheric CO2 growth rate during the plateau period, as well as in the 1960s, in spite of giving a plausible explanation for most of the 20th century carbon budget, especially from 1970 onwards. The mismatch between reconstructions and observations during the CO2 plateau epoch of 1940-1950 ranges between 0.9 and 2.0 Pg C yr-1, depending on the LUC dataset considered. This mismatch may be explained by (i) decadal variability in the ocean carbon sink not accounted for in the reconstructions we used, (ii) a further terrestrial sink currently missing in the estimates by land-surface models, or (iii) LUC processes not included in the current datasets. Ocean carbon models from CMIP5 indicate that natural variability in the ocean carbon sink could explain an additional 0.5 Pg C yr-1 uptake, but it is unlikely to be higher. The impact of the 1940-1942 El Niño on the

  18. The Evolution of Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis of Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Wu, T.; Li, M.; Zhang, Y.; Hua, Y.; Zhang, B.


    Indian plate has been colliding with Eurasian plate since 50Ma years ago, resulting in the Tethys extinction, crust shortening and Tibetan plateau uplift. But it is still a debate how the Tibetan Plateau material escaped. This study tries to invert the distributions of dispersion phase velocity and anisotropy in Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis (EHS) based on the seismic data. We focused on the seven sub-blocks around EHS region. Sub-block "EHS" represents EHS corner with high velocity anomalies, significantly compressed in the axle and strike directions. Sub-blocks "LSD", "QTB" and "SP-GZB" are located at its northern areas with compressions also, and connected with low-velocity anomalies in both crustal and upper mantle rocks. Sub-block "ICB" is located at its southern area with low velocity anomaly, and connected with Tengchong volcano. Sub-blocks "SYDB" and "YZB" are located at its eastern areas with high velocity anomalies in both crustal and upper mantle rocks. Our results demonstrated that significant azimuthal anisotropy of crust (t£30s) and upper mantle (30s£t£60s). Crustal anisotropy indicates the orogenic belt matched well with the direction of fast propagation, and upper mantle anisotropy represents the lattic-preferred orientation (LPO) of mantle minerals (e.g. olivine and basalt), indicating the features of subducting Indian plate. Besides, Red River fault is a dextral strike fault, controlling the crustal and mantle migration. There is a narrow zone to be the channel flow of Tibetan crustal materials escaping toward Yunnan area. The evolution of EHS seems constrained by gravity isostatic mechanism. Keywords: Tibetan Plateau; Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis; Red River fault; crustal flow; surface wave; anisotropy

  19. Prolonged operative time increases infection rate in tibial plateau fractures. (United States)

    Colman, Matthew; Wright, Adam; Gruen, Gary; Siska, Peter; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Tarkin, Ivan


    Fractures of the tibial plateau present a treatment challenge and are susceptible to both prolonged operative times and high postoperative infection rates. For those fractures treated with open plating, we sought to identify the relationship between surgical site infection and prolonged operative time as well as to identify other surgical risk factors. We performed a retrospective controlled analysis of 309 consecutive unicondylar and bicondylar tibial plateau fractures treated with open plate osteosynthesis at our institution's level I trauma centre during a recent 5-year period. We recorded operative times, injury characteristics, surgical treatment, and need for operative debridement due to infection. Operative times of infected cases were compared to uncomplicated surgical cases. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for postoperative infection. Mean operative time in the infection group was 2.8h vs. 2.2h in the non-infected group (p=0.005). 15 fractures (4.9%) underwent four compartment fasciotomies as part of their treatment, with a significantly higher infection rate than those not undergoing fasciotomy (26.7% vs. 6.8%, p=0.01). Open fracture grade was also significantly related to infection rate (closed fractures: 5.3%, grade 1: 14.3%, grade 2: 40%, grade 3: 50%, pinfection rates (13.9% vs. 8.7%, p=0.36). Multivariable logistic regression analysis of the entire study group identified longer operative times (OR 1.78, p=0.013) and open fractures (OR 7.02, psite infection. Operative times approaching 3h and open fractures are related to an increased overall risk for surgical site infection after open plating of the tibial plateau. Dual incision approaches with bicolumnar plating do not appear to expose the patient to increased risk compared to single incision approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reconstructing plateau icefields: Evaluating empirical and modelled approaches (United States)

    Pearce, Danni; Rea, Brice; Barr, Iestyn


    Glacial landforms are widely utilised to reconstruct former glacier geometries with a common aim to estimate the Equilibrium Line Altitudes (ELAs) and from these, infer palaeoclimatic conditions. Such inferences may be studied on a regional scale and used to correlate climatic gradients across large distances (e.g., Europe). In Britain, the traditional approach uses geomorphological mapping with hand contouring to derive the palaeo-ice surface. Recently, ice surface modelling enables an equilibrium profile reconstruction tuned using the geomorphology. Both methods permit derivation of palaeo-climate but no study has compared the two methods for the same ice-mass. This is important because either approach may result in differences in glacier limits, ELAs and palaeo-climate. This research uses both methods to reconstruct a plateau icefield and quantifies the results from a cartographic and geometrical aspect. Detailed geomorphological mapping of the Tweedsmuir Hills in the Southern Uplands, Scotland (c. 320 km2) was conducted to examine the extent of Younger Dryas (YD; 12.9 -11.7 cal. ka BP) glaciation. Landform evidence indicates a plateau icefield configuration of two separate ice-masses during the YD covering an area c. 45 km2 and 25 km2. The interpreted age is supported by new radiocarbon dating of basal stratigraphies and Terrestrial Cosmogenic Nuclide Analysis (TCNA) of in situ boulders. Both techniques produce similar configurations however; the model results in a coarser resolution requiring further processing if a cartographic map is required. When landforms are absent or fragmentary (e.g., trimlines and lateral moraines), like in many accumulation zones on plateau icefields, the geomorphological approach increasingly relies on extrapolation between lines of evidence and on the individual's perception of how the ice-mass ought to look. In some locations this results in an underestimation of the ice surface compared to the modelled surface most likely due to

  1. Soil carbon sequestration potential for "grain for green" project in Loess Plateau, China (United States)

    Chang, R.; Fu, B.; Liu, Gaisheng; Liu, S.


    Conversion of cropland into perennial vegetation land can increase soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation, which might be an important mitigation measure to sequester carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The “Grain for Green” project, one of the most ambitious ecological programmes launched in modern China, aims at transforming the low-yield slope cropland into grassland and woodland. The Loess Plateau in China is the most important target of this project due to its serious soil erosion. The objectives of this study are to answer three questions: (1) what is the rate of the SOC accumulation for this “Grain for Green” project in Loess Plateau? (2) Is there a difference in SOC sequestration among different restoration types, including grassland, shrub and forest? (3) Is the effect of restoration types on SOC accumulation different among northern, middle and southern regions of the Loess Plateau? Based on analysis of the data collected from the literature conducted in the Loess Plateau, we found that SOC increased at a rate of 0.712 TgC/year in the top 20 cm soil layer for 60 years under this project across the entire Loess Plateau. This was a relatively reliable estimation based on current data, although there were some uncertainties. Compared to grassland, forest had a significantly greater effect on SOC accumulation in middle and southern Loess Plateau but had a weaker effect in the northern Loess Plateau. There were no differences found in SOC sequestration between shrub and grassland across the entire Loess Plateau. Grassland had a stronger effect on SOC sequestration in the northern Loess Plateau than in the middle and southern regions. In contrast, forest could increase more SOC in the middle and southern Loess Plateau than in the northern Loess Plateau, whereas shrub had a similar effect on SOC sequestration across the Loess Plateau. Our results suggest that the “Grain for Green” project can significantly increase the SOC storage in Loess Plateau

  2. Old-field plant succession on the Pajarito Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foxx, T.; Mullen, M.; Salisbury, M.; Tierney, G.


    Eight fallow historic fields of the ponderosa pine and pinon-juniper cover types were surveyed to determine species composition and distribution. The purpose of the study was to understand plant succession on old fields as related to mechanically manipulated sites such as material disposal areas (MDAs). Additionally, the authors wanted a listing of species on disturbed lands of the Pajarito Plateau to aide in the reclamation planning of MDAs using native species. They also wanted to determine if any species could be used as an indicator of disturbance. The eight historic fields were all within Los Alamos County, New Mexico, and had been abandoned in 1943. Two sites were within the boundaries of Los Alamos National Laboratory and were studied both in 1982 and 1993. The study provides a description of each of the field sites, historic information about the homesteads from patent applications, a photographic record of some of the sites, and a listing of species found within each field. The study showed that there were 78 different plant species found on disturbed sites. Of these 78 species, 23 were found to be dominant on one or more of the MDAs or old fields. Although, the disturbance history of each site is imperfectly known, the study does provide an indication of successional processes within disturbed sites of the Pajarito Plateau. Additionally, it provides a listing of species that will invade disturbed sites, species that may be used in site reclamation

  3. Uranium exploration of the Colorado Plateau: interim staff report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report is an issue of the original draft copy of the Interim Staff Report on Uranium Exploration on the Colorado Plateau, dated June 1951. The original draft copy was only recently located and is being published at this time because of the interest in the contained historical content. The table of contents of this report lists: history of uranium mining; geology; proposed program for the geologic investigations section; general activities of industry and government; and future exploration of sedimentary uranium deposits and anticipated results. Under the proposed program section are: future of the copper-uranium deposits as a source of uranium; uraniferous asphaltite deposits; and commission exploration and future possibilities. The section on general activities of industry and government includes: exploratory and development drilling; field investigations and mapping; early geologic investigations and investigations by the US geological survey; and geophysical exploration. Tables are also presented on: uranium production by districts; US Geological survey drilling statistics; Colorado Exploration Branch drilling statistics; summary of drilling projects; and comparative yearly core-drill statistics on the Colorado Plateau

  4. Unilatelaral iris plateau syndrome after the use of ecstasy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Predrag


    Full Text Available Bacground. Courmon street name for 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA is ecstasy. This widely abused 'recreational' drug causes both an increased release of monoamine neurotransmitters, including serotonine and dopamine, and an increased reuptake inhibition of serotonin. As a consequence, mydriasis and increased intraocular pressure (IOP in predisposed patients occur. We present herein a rare case of acute increased IOP after use of ecstasy. Case report. A female patient, aged 38 years, visited doctor complaing of a decreased vision acuity and severe pain in the left eye and in the left part of the head. The initial treatment was urgent antiglaucomatous therapy followed by withdrawal of subjective problems of the patient and improvement of objective finding. History taking procedure reveled that just before the onset of the pain the patient had used ecstasy and had had similar 'experience' 6 years ago after cocaine snorting. She had not been to a doctor although she had experienced sporadic migrenous pain. Previous medical records excavation of revealed optic disk (cup-to-dise C/D=06, Bjerum arcuate scotoma and iris plateau with narrow chamber angle (Scheie II- III so the diagnosis was a rare unilateral iris plateau syndrome of the left eye. Although the patient was given some pieces of information about the dangerous and possible deadly consequences of psychoactive substance abuse, she has not continue the treatment. Conclusion. Ecstasy abuse might cause a complete loss of vision, thus medicametous and surgical treatment are obligatory.

  5. Aerosol vertical distribution characteristics over the Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Z Q; Han, Y X; Zhao, Q; Li, J


    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) aerosol products are widely used in climatic characteristic studies and stratospheric aerosol pattern research. Some SAGE II products, e.g., temperature, aerosol surface area density, 1020 nm aerosol extinction coefficient and dust storm frequency, from ground-based observations were analysed from 1984 to 2005. This analysis explored the time and spatial variations of tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols on the Tibet Plateau. The stratospheric aerosol extinction coefficient increased more than two orders of magnitude because of a large volcanic eruption. However, the tropospheric aerosol extinction coefficient decreased over the same period. Removing the volcanic eruption effect, the correlation coefficient for stratospheric AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth) and tropospheric AOD was 0.197. Moreover, the correlation coefficient for stratospheric AOD and dust storm frequency was 0.315. The maximum stratospheric AOD was attained in January, the same month as the tropospheric AOD, when the Qaidam Basin was the centre of low tropospheric AOD and the large mountains coincided with high stratospheric AOD. The vertical structure generated by westerly jet adjustment and the high altitude of the underlying surface of the Tibetan Plateau were important factors affecting winter stratospheric aerosols

  6. Multielement stoichiometry of submerged macrophytes across Yunnan plateau lakes (China). (United States)

    Xing, Wei; Wu, Haoping; Shi, Qiao; Hao, Beibei; Liu, Han; Wang, Zhixiu; Liu, Guihua


    Stoichiometric homeostasis of element composition is one of the central concepts of ecological stoichiometry. We analyzed concentrations of macroelements (C, N, P, Ca, K, Mg, S), microelements (Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Zn) and beneficial elements (Na, Se, Si) in submerged macrophytes, water and sediments across 20 Yunnan plateau lakes. We predicted that tissue element composition in submerged macrophytes is affected by lake trophic level and taxonomy, and submerged macrophytes have weak stoichiometric homeostasis for all above 16 elements. Canonical discriminant analyses successfully discriminated among trophic level groups and taxa groups. Of all the elements, C, N, P and S most effectively discriminated among trophic level groups across 20 lakes, revealing lake trophic level mostly affect tissue macroelement composition in submerged macrophytes; while Ca, K and Se most effectively discriminated among submerged macrophytes taxa groups, suggesting taxonomy mostly affect compositions of macroelements and beneficial elements in submerged macrophytes. In addition, the stoichiometric homeostatic coefficient of 1/HCa:C for all five taxa of submerged macrophytes were less than zero, suggesting submerged macrophytes in Yunnan plateau lakes have strong Ca stoichiometric homeostasis. Our findings, not only broaden the knowledge of multielement stoichiometric homeostasis, but also help to choose most appropriate lake management strategy.

  7. Snow surface microbiome on the High Antarctic Plateau (DOME C). (United States)

    Michaud, Luigi; Lo Giudice, Angelina; Mysara, Mohamed; Monsieurs, Pieter; Raffa, Carmela; Leys, Natalie; Amalfitano, Stefano; Van Houdt, Rob


    The cryosphere is an integral part of the global climate system and one of the major habitable ecosystems of Earth's biosphere. These permanently frozen environments harbor diverse, viable and metabolically active microbial populations that represent almost all the major phylogenetic groups. In this study, we investigated the microbial diversity in the surface snow surrounding the Concordia Research Station on the High Antarctic Plateau through a polyphasic approach, including direct prokaryotic quantification by flow cytometry and catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH), and phylogenetic identification by 16S RNA gene clone library sequencing and 454 16S amplicon pyrosequencing. Although the microbial abundance was low (<10(3) cells/ml of snowmelt), concordant results were obtained with the different techniques. The microbial community was mainly composed of members of the Alpha-proteobacteria class (e.g. Kiloniellaceae and Rhodobacteraceae), which is one of the most well-represented bacterial groups in marine habitats, Bacteroidetes (e.g. Cryomorphaceae and Flavobacteriaceae) and Cyanobacteria. Based on our results, polar microorganisms could not only be considered as deposited airborne particles, but as an active component of the snowpack ecology of the High Antarctic Plateau.

  8. Snow surface microbiome on the High Antarctic Plateau (DOME C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Michaud

    Full Text Available The cryosphere is an integral part of the global climate system and one of the major habitable ecosystems of Earth's biosphere. These permanently frozen environments harbor diverse, viable and metabolically active microbial populations that represent almost all the major phylogenetic groups. In this study, we investigated the microbial diversity in the surface snow surrounding the Concordia Research Station on the High Antarctic Plateau through a polyphasic approach, including direct prokaryotic quantification by flow cytometry and catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH, and phylogenetic identification by 16S RNA gene clone library sequencing and 454 16S amplicon pyrosequencing. Although the microbial abundance was low (<10(3 cells/ml of snowmelt, concordant results were obtained with the different techniques. The microbial community was mainly composed of members of the Alpha-proteobacteria class (e.g. Kiloniellaceae and Rhodobacteraceae, which is one of the most well-represented bacterial groups in marine habitats, Bacteroidetes (e.g. Cryomorphaceae and Flavobacteriaceae and Cyanobacteria. Based on our results, polar microorganisms could not only be considered as deposited airborne particles, but as an active component of the snowpack ecology of the High Antarctic Plateau.

  9. Deformation of the southeast part of the Columbia Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, P.R.; Camp, V.E.


    Four structural elements north of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament in the southeast part of the Columbia Plateau (Washington, Idaho, and Oregon) are (1) the offlap of progressively younger basalt units from prebasalt topographic highs; (2) east-west open folds associated with reverse faulting; (3) northwest-southeast, northeast-southwest, and north-south faults with predominantly vertical displacement; and (4) vertical north-northwest-south-southeast feeder dikes. These may be explained by (1) a regional east to west tilting of the plateau caused by the isostatic rise of older rocks on the eastern margin; (2) a stress regime with a horizontal maximum principal stress in a north-northwest-south-southeast direction, and a horizontal minimum principal stress in a west-southwest-east-northeast direction; and (3) reactivation of an older northwest-southeast, northeast-southwest, and north-south structural grain in the pre-Miocene basement. The stress regime is similar to that envisaged for the area southwest of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament, and the difference in the type of deformation on either side of that feature may be attributed to differences in the thickness of the crust across the ancient boundary

  10. Surface hydrologic investigations of the Columbia Plateau Region, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhart, L.S.


    The Washington State portion of the Columbia Plateau is divided into six hydrologic sub-basins on the basis of the principal surface drainage systems present, structural and topographic relationships, and political and other considerations. Baseline descriptions of the surface water systems and resources are presented for the Columbia Plateau with emphasis on the Pasco Sub-basin. A preliminary evaluation of the hydrologic budget for each sub-basin is derived. For each sub-basin, recharge/discharge relationships arising from precipitation/evapotranspiration/runoff, stream losses and gains, and artificial mechanisms are determined on the basis of available data. The net exchange between surface and groundwater systems is evaluated and relative estimates of the net groundwater flow into or out of the sub-basin are obtained. An evaluation is made of hydrologic risk factors arising from: (1) tributary flooding in eastern Washington; and, (2) major flooding of the Columbia River within the Pasco Sub-basin. Scenarios are presented for credible natural and man-generated catastrophic events

  11. Old-field plant succession on the Pajarito Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxx, T.; Mullen, M.; Salisbury, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Tierney, G. [Tierney (Gail), Santa Fe, NM (United States)


    Eight fallow historic fields of the ponderosa pine and pinon-juniper cover types were surveyed to determine species composition and distribution. The purpose of the study was to understand plant succession on old fields as related to mechanically manipulated sites such as material disposal areas (MDAs). Additionally, the authors wanted a listing of species on disturbed lands of the Pajarito Plateau to aide in the reclamation planning of MDAs using native species. They also wanted to determine if any species could be used as an indicator of disturbance. The eight historic fields were all within Los Alamos County, New Mexico, and had been abandoned in 1943. Two sites were within the boundaries of Los Alamos National Laboratory and were studied both in 1982 and 1993. The study provides a description of each of the field sites, historic information about the homesteads from patent applications, a photographic record of some of the sites, and a listing of species found within each field. The study showed that there were 78 different plant species found on disturbed sites. Of these 78 species, 23 were found to be dominant on one or more of the MDAs or old fields. Although, the disturbance history of each site is imperfectly known, the study does provide an indication of successional processes within disturbed sites of the Pajarito Plateau. Additionally, it provides a listing of species that will invade disturbed sites, species that may be used in site reclamation.

  12. [Tibial plateau fractures in winter sports. Current treatment options]. (United States)

    Zimmermann, V


    Tibial plateau fractures overall and especially in winter sports are rare. However, the incidence in recent years is increasing. In a retrospective study from 2009-2012, we found 52 injuries affiliated with winter sports. Noticeable was the high rate of severe injury patterns. In 20 of the 52 cases, there were complete articular or bicondylar fractures (38 %). In 25 cases (48 %), fragment dislocation corresponding to the Moore classification was observed. The operative algorithm was based on the initial soft tissue damage and the type of fracture. A two or more stage procedure with first line soft tissue management and temporary external fixation stabilization was performed 12 times. The final internal osteosynthesis was based on the morphology of the fracture, i.e., direct exposition and stabilization of relevant fracture patterns. In 24 cases (46 %), there was a need for two (or more) approaches. In the anterior aspect of the tibial head, customary implants were used; posterior pathologies were stabilized with low-dimension implants. Summarizing with regard to the literature, there is a more discriminating view of tibial plateau fractures, regarding all relevant fracture patterns. Thus, different options in operative access and choice of implants can be made.

  13. Surface hydrologic investigations of the Columbia Plateau region, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhart, L.S.


    The Washington State portion of the Columbia Plateau is divided into six hydrologic sub-basins on the basis of the principal surface drainage systems present, structural and topographic relationships, and political and other considerations. Baseline descriptions of the surface water systems and resources are presented for the Columbia Plateau with emphasis on the Pasco Sub-basin. A preliminary evaluation of the hydrologic budget for each sub-basin is derived. For each sub-basin, recharge/discharge relationships arising from precipitation/evapotranspiration/runoff, stream losses and gains, and artificial mechanisms are determined on the basis of available data. The net exchange between surface and ground-water systems is evaluated and relative estimates of the net ground-water flow into or out of the sub-basin are obtained. An evaluation is made of hydrologic risk factors arising from: (1) tributary flooding in eastern Washington; and (2) major flooding of the Columbia River within the Pasco Sub-basin. Scenarios are presented for credible natural and man-generated catastrophic events

  14. Climatic variability of the column ozone over the Iranian plateau (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyyed Shafi; Farajzadeh, Manuchehr; Rahimi, Yousef Ghavidel; Bidokhti, Abbasali Aliakbari


    This study analyzes the total ozone column (TOC) variability over the Iranian plateau (Esfahan) from 1978 to 2011. Results show that the annual average of TOC in Esfahan tends to decrease with time, which is strongly dependent on the season, with maximum values during the winter-spring months (more than 2.2 %/decade). By applying a defined threshold that includes the TOC monthly -2 σ, it is found that the maximum occurrence of low ozone events (LOEs) tends to be more frequent in the second half of year with about four-fifth of the observed LOEs (last summer, autumn, and early winter). During two cases of LOE, the tropopause height (TH) was uplifted 2-4 km with temperature of 10 °C colder than the long-term mean, and the synoptic pattern was characterized by high-pressure systems in UTLS region. The extreme LOEs were consistent with the horizontal transport of ozone-poor air toward the Iranian plateau and vertical advection in UTLS region. The former mechanism plays a primary role in formation of extreme LOEs based on the observed TOC reductions during previous days over the source regions (Sahara desert and Himalaya region). Day-to-day variations of maximum UV index during LOEs show that by a decrease in TOC 14 %, while the aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the cloudless condition reach their lowest rates (lower than 0.3), UV radiation exceeds very high and extreme levels in late winter and mid-spring, respectively.

  15. Crop characteristics and their temporal change on the Loess Plateau of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu Yongqiu,; Xie Kunqing,; Zhang Qingchun,; Zhnag Yan,; Xie Yun,; Zhang Guanghui,; Zhang Wenbo,; Ritsema, C.J.


    Crop characteristics with obvious seasonal changes strongly influence soil loss. The purpose of this study is to measure and analyze the plant characteristics and their seasonal change in the Loess Plateau. A small watershed, Danangou in the Loess Plateau of north China, was selected for this study.

  16. Mapping the plateau of novices in virtual reality simulation training of mastoidectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A.W. Andersen, Steven; Konge, Lars; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier


    To explore why novices' performance plateau in directed, self-regulated virtual reality (VR) simulation training and how performance can be improved.......To explore why novices' performance plateau in directed, self-regulated virtual reality (VR) simulation training and how performance can be improved....

  17. Control of Eospalax baileyi (Plateau Zokor) with arrow traps in western China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kong, Yang; Xidong, Li; Gaowei, Xu; Wei, Liu; Meerburg, B.G.


    In order to manage Eospalax (Myospalax) baileyi (Plateau zokors) pests with physical method, the efficacy of four different arrow traps was tested to control the plateau zokor in Sichuan Northwest Prairie, China. Population densities of 39.7-42.1 ha-1 were found in the test plots. Such densities

  18. Long-term complications following tibial plateau levelling osteotomy in small dogs with tibial plateau angles > 30°. (United States)

    Knight, Rebekah; Danielski, Alan


    Tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO) is commonly performed for surgical management of cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease. It has been suggested that small dogs may have steeper tibial plateau angles (TPAs) than large dogs, which has been associated with increased complication rates after TPLO. A retrospective study was performed to assess the rate and nature of long-term complications following TPLO in small dogs with TPAs>30°. Medical records were reviewed for dogs with TPAs>30° treated for CCL rupture by TPLO with a 2.0 mm plate over a five-year period. Radiographs were assessed to determine TPA, postoperative tibial tuberosity width and to identify any complication. Up-to-date medical records were obtained from the referring veterinary surgeon and any complications in the year after surgery were recorded. The effects of different variables on complication rate were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Minor complications were reported in 22.7 per cent of cases. This is similar to or lower than previously reported complication rates for osteotomy techniques in small dogs and dogs with steep TPAs. A smaller postoperative TPA was the only variable significantly associated with an increased complication rate. No major complications were identified. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H


    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  20. Geometry and kinematics of Majiatan Fold-and-thrust Belt, Western Ordos Basin: implication for Tectonic Evolution of North-South Tectonic Belt (United States)

    He, D.


    The Helan-Chuandian North-South Tectonic Belt crossed the central Chinese mainland. It is a boundary of geological, geophysical, and geographic system of Chinese continent tectonics from shallow to deep, and a key zone for tectonic and geomorphologic inversion during Mesozoic to Cenozoic. It is superimposed by the southeastward and northeastward propagation of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in late Cenozoic. It is thus the critical division for West and East China since Mesozoic. The Majiatan fold-and-thrust belt (MFTB), locating at the central part of HCNSTB and the western margin of Ordos Basin, is formed by the tectonic evolution of the Helan-Liupanshan Mountains. Based on the newly-acquired high-resolution seismic profiles, deep boreholes, and surface geology, the paper discusses the geometry, kinematics, and geodynamic evolution of MFTB. With the Upper Carboniferous coal measures and the pre-Sinian ductile zone as the detachments, MFTB is a multi-level detached thrust system. The thrusting was mainly during latest Jurassic to Late Cretaceous, breaking-forward in the foreland, and resulting in a shortening rate of 25-29%. By structural restoration, this area underwent extension in Middle Proterozoic to Paleozoic, which can be divided into three phases of rifting such as Middle to Late Proterozoic, Cambiran to Ordovician, and Caboniferous to early Permian. It underwent compression since Late Triassic, including such periods as Latest Triassic, Late Jurassic to early Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous to early Paleogene, and Pliocene to Quaternary, with the largest shortening around Late Jurassic to early Cretaceous period (i.e. the mid-Yanshanian movement by the local name). However, trans-extension since Eocene around the Ordos Basin got rise to the formation the Yingchuan, Hetao, and Weihe grabens. It is concluded that MFTB is the leading edge of the intra-continental Helan orogenic belt, and formed by multi-phase breaking-forward thrusting during Late Jurassic to Cretaceous

  1. Enhancing the early differential diagnosis of plateau iris and pupillary block using a-scan ultrasonography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yen Chen

    Full Text Available To distinguish the frequently misdiagnosed plateau iris eyes from pupillary block group and normal group, we compared the ocular biometrical parameters of them by A-scan ultrasongraphy.In total, we retrospectively reviewed general characteristics and ocular findings including ocular biometric measurements of 71 normal, 39 plateau iris, and 83 pupillary block eyes.The normal controls, plateau iris group and pupillary block group were significantly different in age, but not in gender. The anterior chamber depth tended to decrease and the lens thickness tended to increase from normal to plateau iris to pupillary block eyes. Compared to those of plateau iris group, the pupillary block group had significantly shallower anterior chamber depth (2.90mm vs. 2.33mm; p<0.001, thicker lens (4.77mm vs. 5.11mm; p<0.001, shorter axial length (23.16mm vs. 22.63mm; p<0.001, smaller relative lens position (2.28 vs. 2.16; p<0.001 and larger lens/axial length factor (2.06 vs. 2.26; p<0.001. However, when comparing plateau iris and normal eyes, only axial length and lens/axial length factor were significantly different (23.16 vs. 23.54; p<0.05 and 2.06 vs. 1.96; p<0.05.Measured by A-scan ultrasonography, the ocular biometrics of plateau iris were significantly different from those of pupillary block eyes. However, our A-scan ultrasongraphy generally found no significant biometric differences between plateau iris and normal eyes. These findings suggest that while A-scan ultrasonography might be used as a practical tool for differentiating plateau iris and papillary block eyes, a more meticulous gonioscopy and other assessments may be necessary to distinguish plateau iris from normal eyes.

  2. Morphological and molecular identification of Phytophthora species isolated from the rhizosphere of declining oak trees in Krotoszyn Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkaczyk Miłosz


    Full Text Available The following paper presents the results on the determination of the diversity of species from the Phytophthora genus occurring in the declining oak stands in Krotoszyn Plateau in Poland. From the 50s of the last century, significant deterioration of oak health was observed in these stands, and Phytophthora species were suggested as one of the factors of the decline. In order to determine the presence of pathogenic organisms from the Phytophthora genus in these stands, 180 rhizosphere soil samples from three forest districts throughout the Krotoszyn Plateau were collected and subjected to the isolation method. Phytophthora species were consistently isolated from all the sampled stands, and 194 isolates from 111 positive samples were obtained. However, 150 (77% and 44 (23% isolates originated from the samples taken under the symptomatic and asymptomatic trees, respectively. All the obtained isolates were morphologically classified using the light and scanning electron microscopy and divided into morphological groups. Genomic DNA was isolated from selected isolates representing each group, ITS regions were amplified and sequence analyses were performed. In total, four different Phytophthora species were detected, including P. cactorum, P. plurivora, P. quercina and P. europaea. The most often isolated species were P. cactorum and P. plurivora. This is the first report of P. europaea in oak stands in Poland.

  3. Ecophysiological Responses of Three Tree Species to a High-Altitude Environment in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirui Gong


    Full Text Available This paper measured the ecophysiological responses of Populus cathayana Rehd., Salix longistamina C. Wang et P. Y. Fu., and Ulmus pumila L. to high altitude in the Tibetan Plateau based on changes in water relations, gas exchange, and chlorophyll fluorescence. P. cathayana and U. pumila have higher survival rates than S. longistamina, but the latter has highest biomass. S. longistamina has higher water-use efficiency (WUE, lower transpiration rates (E, higher water potential (Ψ, highest light saturation point (LSP and higher photosystem II (PSII photochemistry efficiency (Fv’/Fm’ and non-photochemistry quenching (NPQ than the other species, and is thus adapted to its habitat for afforestation. U. pumila has lower E, light compensation point (LCP, dark respiration (Rd, Fv’/Fm’ and electron transport rate (ETR, with higher Ψ, apparent quantum yield (AQY, net photosynthetic rate (Pn and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ, which helps it maintain water balance and utilize weak light to survive at high altitude. Relative low WUE, Ψ, Rd, NPQ, with high E, Pn, Fv’/Fm’ and biomass, imply that P. cathayana is more suitable for shelterbelt forests than for a semi-arid habitat. These three species can adapt to high-altitude conditions by different physiological mechanisms and morphological characteristics, which can provide a theoretical basis for afforestation and forest management in the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau.

  4. Hot electron and real space transfer in double-quantum-well structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Eiichi; Sawaki, Nobuhiko; Akasaki, Isamu; Kano, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Masafumi.


    The hot electron phenomena and real space transfer (RST) effect are studied in GaAs/AlGaAs double-quantum-well (DQW) structures, in which we have two kind of quantum wells with different widths. The drift velocity and the electron temperature at liquid helium temperature are investigated as a function of the external electric field applied parallel to the heterointerface. By increasing the field, the electron temperature rises and reaches a plateau in the intermediate region, followed by further rise in the high-field region. The appearance of the plateau is attributed to the RST effect between the two quantum wells. The threshold field for the appearance of the plateau is determined by the difference energy between the quantized levels in two wells. The energy loss rate as a function of the electron temperature indicates that the RST is assisted by LO phonon scattering. (author)

  5. The shape of soap films and Plateau borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortes, M A; Teixeira, P I C; Deus, A M


    We have calculated the shapes of flat liquid films, and of the transition region to the associated Plateau borders (PBs), by integrating the Laplace equation with a position-dependent surface tension γ(x), where 2x is the local film thickness. We discuss films in either zero or non-zero gravity, using standard γ(x) potentials for the interaction between the two bounding surfaces. We have investigated the effects of the film flatness, liquid underpressure, and gravity on the shape of films and their PBs. Films may exhibit 'humps' and/or 'dips' associated with inflection points and minima of the film thickness. Finally, we propose an asymptotic analytical solution for the film width profile

  6. 200 Area plateau inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.


    Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) has been tasked by Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) to incorporate current location data for 64 of the 200-Area plateau inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUST) into the centralized mapping computer database for the Hanford facilities. The IMUST coordinate locations and tank names for the tanks currently assigned to the Hanford Site contractors are listed in Appendix A. The IMUST are inactive tanks installed in underground vaults or buried directly in the ground within the 200-East and 200-West Areas of the Hanford Site. The tanks are categorized as tanks with a capacity of less than 190,000 liters (50,000 gal). Some of the IMUST have been stabilized, pumped dry, filled with grout, or may contain an inventory or radioactive and/or hazardous materials. The IMUST have been out of service for at least 12 years

  7. The shape of soap films and Plateau borders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, M A [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais and Instituto de Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais e SuperfIcies, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Teixeira, P I C [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa Rua Conselheiro EmIdio Navarro 1, P-1950-062 Lisbon (Portugal); Deus, A M [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais and Instituto de Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais e SuperfIcies, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)


    We have calculated the shapes of flat liquid films, and of the transition region to the associated Plateau borders (PBs), by integrating the Laplace equation with a position-dependent surface tension {gamma}(x), where 2x is the local film thickness. We discuss films in either zero or non-zero gravity, using standard {gamma}(x) potentials for the interaction between the two bounding surfaces. We have investigated the effects of the film flatness, liquid underpressure, and gravity on the shape of films and their PBs. Films may exhibit 'humps' and/or 'dips' associated with inflection points and minima of the film thickness. Finally, we propose an asymptotic analytical solution for the film width profile.

  8. Analysis of turbulence characteristics over the northern Tibetan Plateau area (United States)

    Li, M. S.; Ma, Y. M.; Ma, W. Q.; Hu, Z. Y.; Ishikawa, H.; Su, Z. B.; Sun, G. L.


    Based on CATOP/Tibet [Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CA-IMP) on the Tibetan Plateau) turbulent data collected at the Bujiao (BJ) site of the Nagqu area, the turbulent structure and transportation characteristics in the near surface layer during summer are analyzed. The main results show that the relationship between the normalized standard deviation of 3D wind speed and stability satisfies the similarity law tinder both unstable and stable stratifications. The relations of normalized standard deviation of temperature and specific humidity to stability only obey the "-1/3 power law." tinder unstable conditions. In the case of stable stratifications, their relations to stability are dispersing. The sensible heat dominates in the dry period, while in the wet period, the latent heat is larger than the sensible heat.

  9. Plateau inflation from random non-minimal coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broy, Benedict J.; Roest, Diederik


    A generic non-minimal coupling can push any higher-order terms of the scalar potential sufficiently far out in field space to yield observationally viable plateau inflation. We provide analytic and numerical evidence that this generically happens for a non-minimal coupling strength ξ of the order N 2 e . In this regime, the non-minimally coupled field is sub-Planckian during inflation and is thus protected from most higher-order terms. For larger values of ξ, the inflationary predictions converge towards the sweet spot of PLANCK. The latter includes ξ≅10 4 obtained from CMB normalization arguments, thus providing a natural explanation for the inflationary observables measured.

  10. Regional basalt hydrology of the Columbia Plateau in Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.; Barrett, G.; Wildrick, L.


    This study is part of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project, operated for the US Department of Energy by Rockwell Hanford Operations. The overall purpose of the study is to assess locations within the Columbia River Basalt Group beneath the Hanford Site in south-central Washington suitable for a geologic repository for radioactive waste. This hydrologic study was made to describe the hydrologic characteristics of the basalt units of the Columbia Plateau. This was done by comprehensive data compilation, data interpretation and analysis. Data are presented in the form of maps and tables suitable as input information about the regional hydrology for possible future analysis by computer models. The report includes: an introduction; basic data; interpretation which covers stratigraphic trend surface, water levels, transmissivity and storage of aquifers, recharge, discharge, flow, subbasins, cross sections, references and appendix of record of wells

  11. Electron spin resonance dating of fault gouge from Desamangalam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The preliminary results from the electron spin resonance (ESR) dating on the quartz grains from the fault gouge indicate that the last major faulting in this site occurred 430 ± 43 ka ago. The experiments on different grain sizes of quartz from the gouge showed consistent decrease in age to a plateau of low values, indicating ...

  12. Tibetan Plateau glacier and hydrological change under stratospheric aerosol injection (United States)

    Ji, D.


    As an important inland freshwater resource, mountain glaciers are highly related to human life, they provide water for many large rivers and play a very important role in regional water cycles. The response of mountain glaciers to future climate change is a topic of concern especially to the many people who rely on glacier-fed rivers for purposes such as irrigation. Geoengineering by stratospheric aerosol injection is a method of offsetting the global temperature rise from greenhouse gases. How the geoengineering by stratospheric aerosol injection affects the mass balance of mountain glaciers and adjacent river discharge is little understood. In this study, we use regional climate model WRF and catchment-based river model CaMa-Flood to study the impacts of stratospheric aerosol injection to Tibetan Plateau glacier mass balance and adjacent river discharge. To facilitate mountain glacier mass balance study, we improve the description of mountain glacier in the land surface scheme of WRF. The improvements include: (1) a fine mesh nested in WRF horizontal grid to match the highly non-uniform spatial distribution of the mountain glaciers, (2) revising the radiation flux at the glacier surface considering the surrounding terrain. We use the projections of five Earth system models for CMIP5 rcp45 and GeoMIP G4 scenarios to drive the WRF and CaMa-Flood models. The G4 scenario, which uses stratospheric aerosols to reduce the incoming shortwave while applying the rcp4.5 greenhouse gas forcing, starts stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection at a rate of 5 Tg per year over the period 2020-2069. The ensemble projections suggest relatively slower glacier mass loss rates and reduced river discharge at Tibetan Plateau and adjacent regions under geoengineering scenario by stratospheric aerosol injection.

  13. The chromium in timberline forests in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. (United States)

    Luo, Ji; Tang, Ronggui; She, Jia; Chen, Youchao; Gong, Yiwen; Zhou, Jun; Yu, Dong


    In order to study the regional distribution, trait and possible source of chromium in the eastern Tibetan Plateau, we collected samples of xylem, bark, leaves and twigs in two parallel northwest-southeast belt transects (TA and TB) from the Hengduan Mountains. According to the Cr mean concentration, organ/tissue was split into two groups: the high-level organ/tissue (twigs: 1.476 mg kg(-1)) and the low-level organ/tissue (bark: 0.413 mg kg(-1), leaves: 0.340 mg kg(-1) and xylem: 0.194 mg kg(-1)). The mean Cr concentrations of twigs and leaves in TB samples were higher than those in the TA samples, and the mean Cr concentration in both sites gradually reduced from southeast to northwest. Both the southeasterly and southwesterly monsoons could be significant, influential factors in this connection. The top three mean Cr concentrations were S7, S1 and S8, which were closer to the developed city. Mean Cr concentrations in S3, S4 and S5, (remote, high mountains) were relatively low. The high mountains acting as a barrier to the monsoon and the distance from the big city may play important roles in the distribution of Chromium. Furthermore, the relationship between the mean Cr concentration and precipitation, timberline trees as bio-monitors of chromium pollution in polluted areas and the possible source of Cr in the eastern Tibetan Plateau are also discussed. This study may provide reliable proof of Cr contamination processes, and so help in future to prevent further Cr pollution, and also be helpful in understanding the important function of forest ecosystems in relation to atmospheric pollution and global change. To better understand the characteristics of temporal and spatial distribution of Cr concentration, we found that tree ring, fine roots and soil samples are good choices.

  14. Report on geologic remote sensing of the Columbia Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandness, G.A.; Kimball, C.S.; Schmierer, K.E.; Lindberg, J.W.


    The purpose of this remote sensing study is to identify faults or other geologic features which may have a significant bearing on the structural and tectonic character of the Hanford Site and the surrounding region. Landsat imagery, Skylab photographs, and U-2 photographs were analyzed to identify and map geologic photolineaments in the Columbia Plateau. The Landsat and Skylab imagery provided a regional perspective and allowed the identification of large-scale linear features. The U-2 photography provided much greater spatial resolution as well as a stereoscopic viewing capability. This allowed identification of smaller structural or geologic features and the identification of many cultural and nongeologic lineaments detected in the Landsat and Skylab imagery. The area studied totals, approximately 85,000 square miles, and encompasses virtually all exposures of Columbia River Basalt in the states of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. It also includes an area bordering the Columbia River Basalt outcrop. This border area was studied in order to identify significant structures that may extend into the plateau. Included are a description of the procedures used for image analysis, 20 lineament maps at a scale of 1:250,000, geological summaries for the areas covered by the lineament maps, and discussions of many of the lineaments shown on the maps. Comparisons of the lineament maps with available geologic maps showed that the number of detected lineaments was much greater than the number of known faults and other linear features. Approximately 70% of the faults shown on the geologic maps were detected and are characterized as lineaments. Lineament trends in the northwest-southeast and northeast-southwest directions were found to predominate throughout the study area

  15. Evaporative cooling over the Tibetan Plateau induced by vegetation growth (United States)

    Shen, Miaogen; Piao, Shilong; Jeong, Su-Jong; Zhou, Liming; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Ciais, Philippe; Chen, Deliang; Huang, Mengtian; Jin, Chun-Sil; Li, Laurent Z. X.; Li, Yue; Myneni, Ranga B.; Yang, Kun; Zhang, Gengxin; Zhang, Yangjian; Yao, Tandong


    In the Arctic, climate warming enhances vegetation activity by extending the length of the growing season and intensifying maximum rates of productivity. In turn, increased vegetation productivity reduces albedo, which causes a positive feedback on temperature. Over the Tibetan Plateau (TP), regional vegetation greening has also been observed in response to recent warming. Here, we show that in contrast to arctic regions, increased growing season vegetation activity over the TP may have attenuated surface warming. This negative feedback on growing season vegetation temperature is attributed to enhanced evapotranspiration (ET). The extra energy available at the surface, which results from lower albedo, is efficiently dissipated by evaporative cooling. The net effect is a decrease in daily maximum temperature and the diurnal temperature range, which is supported by statistical analyses of in situ observations and by decomposition of the surface energy budget. A daytime cooling effect from increased vegetation activity is also modeled from a set of regional weather research and forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model simulations, but with a magnitude smaller than observed, likely because the WRF model simulates a weaker ET enhancement. Our results suggest that actions to restore native grasslands in degraded areas, roughly one-third of the plateau, will both facilitate a sustainable ecological development in this region and have local climate cobenefits. More accurate simulations of the biophysical coupling between the land surface and the atmosphere are needed to help understand regional climate change over the TP, and possible larger scale feedbacks between climate in the TP and the Asian monsoon system. PMID:26170316

  16. Progenitors of low-luminosity Type II-Plateau supernovae (United States)

    Lisakov, Sergey M.; Dessart, Luc; Hillier, D. John; Waldman, Roni; Livne, Eli


    The progenitors of low-luminosity Type II-Plateau supernovae (SNe II-P) are believed to be red supergiant (RSG) stars, but there is much disparity in the literature concerning their mass at core collapse and therefore on the main sequence. Here, we model the SN radiation arising from the low-energy explosion of RSG stars of 12, 25 and 27 M⊙ on the main sequence and formed through single star evolution. Despite the narrow range in ejecta kinetic energy (2.5-4.2 × 1050 erg) in our model set, the SN observables from our three models are significantly distinct, reflecting the differences in progenitor structure (e.g. surface radius, H-rich envelope mass and He-core mass). Our higher mass RSG stars give rise to Type II SNe that tend to have bluer colours at early times, a shorter photospheric phase, and a faster declining V-band light curve (LC) more typical of Type II-linear SNe, in conflict with the LC plateau observed for low-luminosity SNe II. The complete fallback of the CO core in the low-energy explosions of our high-mass RSG stars prevents the ejection of any 56Ni (nor any core O or Si), in contrast to low-luminosity SNe II-P, which eject at least 0.001 M⊙ of 56Ni. In contrast to observations, Type II SN models from higher mass RSGs tend to show an H α absorption that remains broad at late times (due to a larger velocity at the base of the H-rich envelope). In agreement with the analyses of pre-explosion photometry, we conclude that low-luminosity SNe II-P likely arise from low-mass rather than high-mass RSG stars.

  17. Relationship between gullying and landslides within the Barlad Plateau, Romania (United States)

    Niacsu, Lilian; Ionita, Ion


    Located in the eastern Romania and extending on 8200 km2 the Barlad Plateau is considered the most typical subunit of the Moldavian Plateau. The sedimentary Miocene-Pliocene clay-sandy layers, inter-bedded with shallow sandstone and limestone are gently dipping toward S-SE as homoclinal structure. Land degradation through soil erosion, gullying and landslides represent the most important environmental threat in the region. By using both the classical research methods such as repeated field surveys and mapping, mathematical-statistical processing as well as the present-day methods based on the GIS software it was possible to precisely measure and evaluate the gully erosion rates and triggered landslides during the last two centuries, especially with a very high accuracy since 1960. Results have indicated that the landslide development is strongly controlled by gullying. Generally, by combining the areal growth of both gullying and new landslides within the selected study catchments, it is noticeable that 62 % of the total recent land degradation occurred during the last 55 years, with the remainder pre-1960. In addition, half of the gully areal growth occurred since 1961 but the new triggered landslides amount over three-quarters of the total area under landslides. This asymmetrical distribution reveals that usually a preparing time lag of tens of years is required for triggering landslides by gullying and this pattern depicts the common mechanism for landslide development. Acknowledgements: This work was partly supported by a grant from the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, CNDI-UEFISCDI, Project number PN-II-PT-PCCA-2011-3.2-0975.

  18. Phylogeography of Schizopygopsis stoliczkai (Cyprinidae) in Northwest Tibetan Plateau area. (United States)

    Wanghe, Kunyuan; Tang, Yongtao; Tian, Fei; Feng, Chenguang; Zhang, Renyi; Li, Guogang; Liu, Sijia; Zhao, Kai


    Schizopygopsis stoliczkai (Cyprinidae, subfamily Schizothoracinae) is one of the major freshwater fishes endemic to the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. In the current study, we used mitochondrial DNA markers cytochrome b (Cyt b ) and 16S rRNA (16S), as well as the nuclear marker, the second intron of the nuclear beta-actin gene (Act2), to uncover the phylogeography of S. stoliczkai . In total, we obtained 74 haplotypes from 403 mitochondrial concatenated sequences. The mtDNA markers depict the phylogenetic structures of S. stoliczkai , which consist of clade North and clade South. The split time of the two clades is dated back to 4.27 Mya (95% HPD = 1.96-8.20 Mya). The estimated split time is earlier than the beginning of the ice age of Pleistocene (2.60 Mya), suggesting that the northwestern area of the Tibetan Plateau probably contain at least two glacial refugia for S. stoliczkai . SAMOVA supports the formation of four groups: (i) the Karakash River group; (ii) The Lake Pangong group; (iii) the Shiquan River group; (iv) the Southern Basin group. Clade North included Karakash River, Lake Pangong, and Shiquan River groups, while seven populations of clade South share the haplotypes. Genetic diversity, star-like network, BSP analysis, as well as negative neutrality tests indicate recent expansions events of S. stoliczkai . Conclusively, our results illustrate the phylogeography of S. stoliczkai , implying the Shiquan River is presumably the main refuge for S. stoliczkai .

  19. Overcoming the Photovoltage Plateau in Large Bandgap Perovskite Photovoltaics. (United States)

    Rajagopal, Adharsh; Stoddard, Ryan J; Jo, Sae Byeok; Hillhouse, Hugh W; Jen, Alex K-Y


    Development of large bandgap (1.80-1.85 eV E g ) perovskite is crucial for perovskite-perovskite tandem solar cells. However, the performance of 1.80-1.85 eV E g perovskite solar cells (PVKSCs) are significantly lagging their counterparts in the 1.60-1.75 eV E g range. This is because the photovoltage ( V oc ) does not proportionally increase with E g due to lower optoelectronic quality of conventional (MA,FA,Cs)Pb(I,Br) 3 and results in a photovoltage plateau ( V oc limited to 80% of the theoretical limit for ∼1.8 eV E g ). Here, we incorporate phenylethylammonium (PEA) in a mixed-halide perovskite composition to solve the inherent material-level challenges in 1.80-1.85 eV E g perovskites. The amount of PEA incorporation governs the topography and optoelectronic properties of resultant films. Detailed structural and spectroscopic characterization reveal the characteristic trends in crystalline size, orientation, and charge carrier recombination dynamics and rationalize the origin of improved material quality with higher luminescence. With careful interface optimization, the improved material characteristics were translated to devices and V oc values of 1.30-1.35 V were achieved, which correspond to 85-87% of the theoretical limit. Using an optimal amount of PEA incorporation to balance the increase in V oc and the decrease in charge collection, a highest power conversion efficiency of 12.2% was realized. Our results clearly overcome the photovoltage plateau in the 1.80-1.85 eV E g range and represent the highest V oc achieved for mixed-halide PVKSCs. This study provides widely translatable insights, an important breakthrough, and a promising platform for next-generation perovskite tandems.

  20. [Diversity and faunal analysis of crustaceans in Potatso National Park, Shangri-La, China]. (United States)

    Shu, Shu-Sen; Chen, Fei-Zhou; Yang, Jun-Xing; Yang, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Xiao-Yong


    Potatso National Park was the first national park in mainland China, preceded by the earlier Bitahai Nature Reserve. Located in the northwest of Yunnan and on the southeast of Qinghai-Tibet plateau, Potatso is a typical low latitude and high elevation wetland nature reserve, with large areas of coniferous forest around alpine lakes and both wetland and water area ecosystems. In August, 2011, we undertook a survey of crustaceans in the park, sampling lakes, ponds, streams, and rivers throughout Potatso. We found a total of 29 species (including varieties) belonging to 24 genera and 11 families. Notable discoveries include Parartemiopsis sp, Arctodiaptomus parvispinus and Simocephalus congener, which are the first examples of these species to be recorded in China. Likewise, Gammarus bitaensis is a unique crustacean found only in Potatso National Park and Thermocyclops dumonti and Gammarus paucispinus are both endemic species to northwestern Yunnan. The overall faunal characteristics of crustaceans in the park also revealed several things about Potatso: (1) Cosmopolitan and Palaearctic elements reach 48.27% and 37.93%, clearly showing the Palaearctic element as the dominant fauna; (2) most of the crustacean, such as Arctodiaptomus parvispinus and Gammarus, are typical alpine types, confirming that Potatso has feature typical of alpine and plateau fauna; and (3) the proportion of endemic and rare crustacean species in Potatso National Park is approximately 10%, suggesting that the Potatso National Park in particular and the northwest of Yunnan in general have a unique geological and evolutionary history.

  1. Himalayan origin and evolution of Myricaria (Tamaricaeae in the neogene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Li Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Myricaria consists of about twelve-thirteen species and occurs in Eurasian North Temperate zone, most species in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP and adjacent areas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twelve species of Myricaria plus two other genera Tamarix and Reaumuria in Tamaricaceae, were sampled, and four markers, ITS, rps16, psbB-psbH, and trnL-trnF were sequenced. The relaxed Bayesian molecular clock BEAST method was used to perform phylogenetic analysis and molecular dating, and Diva, S-Diva, and maximum likelihood Lagrange were used to estimate the ancestral area. The results indicated that Myricaria could be divided into four phylogenetic clades, which correspond to four sections within the genus, of them two are newly described in this paper. The crown age of Myricaria was dated to early Miocene ca. 20 Ma, at the probable early uplifting time of the Himalayas. The Himalayas were also shown as the center of origin for Myricaria from the optimization of ancestral distribution. Migration and dispersal of Myricaria were indicated to have taken place along the Asian Mountains, including the Himalayas, Kunlun, Altun, Hendukosh, Tianshan, Altai, and Caucasus etc., westward to Europe, eastward to Central China, and northward to the Mongolian Plateau. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Myricaria spatiotemporal evolution presented here, especially the Himalayan origin at early Miocene ca. 20 Ma, and then migrated westward and eastward along the Asian mountains, offers a significant evolutionary case for QTP and Central Asian biogeography.

  2. The melt inclusion record from the rhyolitic Kos Plateau Tuff (Aegean Arc) (United States)

    Bachmann, Olivier; Wallace, Paul J.; Bourquin, Julie


    The >60 km3 rhyolitic Kos Plateau Tuff provides an exceptional probe into the behavior of volatile components in highly evolved arc magmas: it is crystal-rich (30-40 vol% crystals), was rapidly quenched by the explosive eruptive process, and contains abundant homogeneous melt inclusions in large quartz crystals. Several methods for measuring major, trace and volatile element concentrations (SIMS, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, electron microprobe, LA-ICPMS) were applied to these melt inclusions. We found a ~2 wt% range of H2O contents (4.5-6.5 wt% H2O, measured independently by SIMS, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy) and relatively low CO2 concentrations (15-140 ppm measured by FTIR, with most analyses <100 ppm). No obvious correlations between H2O, CO2, major and trace elements are observed. These observations require a complex, protracted magma evolution in the upper crust that included: (1) vapor-saturated crystallization in a chamber located between 1.5 and 2.5 kb pressure, (2) closed-system degassing (with up to 10 vol% exsolved gas) as melts percolated upwards through a vertically extensive mush zone (2-4 km thick), and (3) periodic gas fluxing from subjacent, more mafic and more CO2-rich magma, which is preserved as andesite bands in pumices. These processes can account for the range of observed H2O and CO2 values and the lack of correlation between volatiles and trace elements in the melt inclusions.

  3. Vegetation greenness trend (2000 to 2009) and the climate controls in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Guo, Huadong; Ji, Lei; Lei, Liping; Wang, Cuizhen; Yan, Dongmei; Li, Bin; Li, Jing


    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau has been experiencing a distinct warming trend, and climate warming has a direct and quick impact on the alpine grassland ecosystem. We detected the greenness trend of the grasslands in the plateau using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data from 2000 to 2009. Weather station data were used to explore the climatic drivers for vegetation greenness variations. The results demonstrated that the region-wide averaged normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) increased at a rate of 0.036  yr−1. Approximately 20% of the vegetation areas, which were primarily located in the northeastern plateau, exhibited significant NDVI increase trend (p-value plateau. A strong positive relationship between NDVI and precipitation, especially in the northeastern plateau, suggested that precipitation was a favorable factor for the grassland NDVI. Negative correlations between NDVI and temperature, especially in the southern plateau, indicated that higher temperature adversely affected the grassland growth. Although a warming climate was expected to be beneficial to the vegetation growth in cold regions, the grasslands in the central and southwestern plateau showed a decrease in trends influenced by increased temperature coupled with decreased precipitation.

  4. Geodynamics of oceanic plateau and plume head accretion and their role in Phanerozoic orogenic systems of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G. Betts


    Full Text Available We present three 3D numerical models of deep subduction where buoyant material from an oceanic plateau and a plume interact with the overriding plate to assess the influence on subduction dynamics, trench geometry, and mechanisms for plateau accretion and continental growth. Transient instabilities of the convergent margin are produced, resulting in: contorted trench geometry; trench migration parallel with the plate margin; folding of the subducting slab and orocline development at the convergent margin; and transfer of the plateau to the overriding plate. The presence of plume material beneath the oceanic plateau causes flat subduction above the plume, resulting in a “bowed” shaped subducting slab. In plateau-only models, plateau accretion at the edge of the overriding plate results in trench migration around the edge of the plateau before subduction is re-established directly behind the trailing edge of the plateau. The plateau shortens and some plateau material subducts. The presence of buoyant plume material beneath the oceanic plateau has a profound influence on the behaviour of the convergent margin. In the plateau + plume model, plateau accretion causes rapid trench advance. Plate convergence is accommodated by shearing at the base of the plateau and shortening in the overriding plate. The trench migrates around the edge of the plateau and subduction is re-established well behind the trailing edge of the plateau, effectively embedding the plateau into the overriding plate. A slab window forms beneath the accreted plateau and plume material is transferred from the subducting plate to the overriding plate through the window. In all of the models, the subduction zone maintains a relatively stable configuration away from the buoyancy anomalies within the downgoing plate. The models provide a dynamic context for plateau and plume accretion in Phanerozoic accretionary orogenic systems such as the East China Orogen and the Central Asian

  5. Extensional Seismogenic Stress and Tectonic Movement on the Central Region of the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiren Xu


    Full Text Available Various earthquake fault types, mechanism solutions and stress fields, as well as GPS and geothermal data are analyzed for the study of the crustal movements on the Tibetan plateau and their tectonic implications. The results show that a lot of the normal faulting type-event concentrated at altitudes greater than 4000 m on the central Tibetan plateau. The altitudes concentrating normal faulting type-events can be zoned two parts: the western part, the Lhasa block, and the eastern part, the Qiangtang-Changdu region. The azimuths of T-axes are in a general E-W direction in the Lhasa block and NW-SE or NNW-SSE in the Qiangtang-Changdu region at the altitudes of the Tibetan plateau. The tensional stresses in E-W direction and NW-SE direction predominate normal faulting earthquake occurrence in the Lhasa block and the Qiangtang-Changdu region, respectively. The slipping displacements of the normal-faulting-type events have great components in near E-W direction and NW-SE direction in the Lhasa block and the Qiangtang-Changdu region, respectively. The extensions are probably an eastward or southeastward extensional motion, being mainly tectonic activity phenomena in the plateau altitudes. The extensional motions due to normal-fault earthquakes are important tectonic activity regimes on the high altitudes of the plateau. The easterly crustal extensions on the plateau are attributable to the gravitational collapse of the high plateau and eastward extrusion of hotter mantle materials beneath the eastern boundary of the plateau. Numbers of thrust-fault and strike-slip-fault earthquakes with strong compressive stress in a general NNE-SSW direction occur on the edges of the plateau.

  6. Genetic evidence of paleolithic colonization and neolithic expansion of modern humans on the tibetan plateau. (United States)

    Qi, Xuebin; Cui, Chaoying; Peng, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yang, Zhaohui; Zhong, Hua; Zhang, Hui; Xiang, Kun; Cao, Xiangyu; Wang, Yi; Ouzhuluobu; Basang; Ciwangsangbu; Bianba; Gonggalanzi; Wu, Tianyi; Chen, Hua; Shi, Hong; Su, Bing


    Tibetans live on the highest plateau in the world, their current population size is approximately 5 million, and most of them live at an altitude exceeding 3,500 m. Therefore, the Tibetan Plateau is a remarkable area for cultural and biological studies of human population history. However, the chronological profile of the Tibetan Plateau's colonization remains an unsolved question of human prehistory. To reconstruct the prehistoric colonization and demographic history of modern humans on the Tibetan Plateau, we systematically sampled 6,109 Tibetan individuals from 41 geographic populations across the entire region of the Tibetan Plateau and analyzed the phylogeographic patterns of both paternal (n = 2,354) and maternal (n = 6,109) lineages as well as genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism markers (n = 50) in Tibetan populations. We found that there have been two distinct, major prehistoric migrations of modern humans into the Tibetan Plateau. The first migration was marked by ancient Tibetan genetic signatures dated to approximately 30,000 years ago, indicating that the initial peopling of the Tibetan Plateau by modern humans occurred during the Upper Paleolithic rather than Neolithic. We also found evidences for relatively young (only 7-10 thousand years old) shared Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA haplotypes between Tibetans and Han Chinese, suggesting a second wave of migration during the early Neolithic. Collectively, the genetic data indicate that Tibetans have been adapted to a high altitude environment since initial colonization of the Tibetan Plateau in the early Upper Paleolithic, before the last glacial maximum, followed by a rapid population expansion that coincided with the establishment of farming and yak pastoralism on the Plateau in the early Neolithic.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Rongfeng; Matzner, Christopher D., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H4 (Canada)


    The plateaus observed in about one half of the early X-ray afterglows are the most puzzling feature in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by Swift. By analyzing the temporal and spectral indices of a large X-ray plateau sample, we find that 55% can be explained by external, forward shock synchrotron emission produced by a relativistic ejecta coasting in a {rho}{proportional_to}r{sup -2}, wind-like medium; no energy injection into the shock is needed. After the ejecta collects enough medium and transitions to the adiabatic, decelerating blast wave phase, it produces the post-plateau decay. For those bursts consistent with this model, we find an upper limit for the initial Lorentz factor of the ejecta, {Gamma}{sub 0} {<=} 46({epsilon}{sub e}/0.1){sup -0.24}({epsilon}{sub B}/0.01){sup 0.17}; the isotropic equivalent total ejecta energy is E{sub iso} {approx} 10{sup 53}({epsilon}{sub e}/0.1){sup -1.3}({epsilon}{sub B}/0.01){sup -0.09}(t{sub b} /10{sup 4} s) erg, where {epsilon}{sub e} and {epsilon}{sub B} are the fractions of the total energy at the shock downstream that are carried by electrons and the magnetic field, respectively, and t{sub b} is the end of the plateau. Our finding supports Wolf-Rayet stars as the progenitor stars of some GRBs. It raises intriguing questions about the origin of an intermediate-{Gamma}{sub 0} ejecta, which we speculate is connected to the GRB jet emergence from its host star. For the remaining 45% of the sample, the post-plateau decline is too rapid to be explained in the coasting-in-wind model, and energy injection appears to be required.

  8. Active shortening, intermontane basin formation, and geomorphic evolution in an orogenic plateau: Central Puna Plateau, NW Argentina (24°37'S, 67°03'W) (United States)

    Strecker, Manfred R.; Alonso, Ricardo N.; Bookhagen, Bodo; Freymark, Jessica; Pingel, Heiko


    The high-elevation Andean Plateau (Altiplano-Puna; 4km) is a first-order morphotectonic province of the Central Andes and constitutes the world's second largest orogenic plateau. While there are many unifying basin characteristics in this region, including internal drainage, semi-arid to arid climate and associated deposition of evaporites, there are notable differences between the northern and southern parts of the plateau. In contrast to the vast basins of the Altiplano (north) and incipient establishment of fluvial connectivity and sediment transport to the foreland, the Puna (south) comprises numerous smaller basins, bordered by reverse-fault bounded ranges up to 6 km high. The plateau is internally drained and fluvial connectivity with the foreland does not exist leading to thick sedimentary basin fills that comprise continental evaporites, volcanic and clastic deposits, typically between 3 and 5 km thick. However, repeated impacts of climate change and superposed tectonic activity in the southern plateau have resulted in further basin differentiation, abandonment or re-arrangement of fluvial networks and impacts on sediment transport. Here we report evidence for sustained contractional tectonic activity in the Pocitos Basin in the southern plateau. On the western margin of the basin fanning of dipping strata and regraded, steeply inclined gravel-covered pediment surfaces and wind gaps associated with gravel derived from distant sources in the west document late Tertiary to Pleistocene growth of an approximately N-S oriented and N plunging anticline. The growth of the eastern limb of this anticline has caused the isolation of a formerly more extensive basin. In addition, Late Pleistocene and Holocene lake shorelines and lacustrine deposits are tilted eastward along the same structure and InSAR measurements of deformed lake terraces document that the fold is growing. Despite widely reported extensional faulting in the southern Puna, we conclude (1) that the

  9. Repair of potentially lethal damage in unfed plateau phase cultures of Ehrlich ascited tumour cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illiakis, G.


    Plateau phase EAT-cells have been irradiated at different times in the plateau phase and their ability to repair PLD has been measured. A large capacity to repair PLD has been observed if the cultures were kept in the plateau phase for some hours after irradiation before diluting and plating to measure the survival. In combination with theoretical considerations it is concluded that almost all the PLD produced under these conditions can be repaired. The reaction rate of this repair was independent of the dose and the age of the culture. The results also indicate that PLD repair is independent of the intercellular contact of EAT-cells. (author)

  10. Electronic transport on the Shastry-Sutherland lattice in Ising-type rare-earth tetraborides (United States)

    Ye, Linda; Suzuki, Takehito; Checkelsky, Joseph G.


    In the presence of a magnetic field frustrated spin systems may exhibit plateaus at fractional values of saturation magnetization. Such plateau states are stabilized by classical and quantum mechanisms including order by disorder, triplon crystallization, and various competing order effects. In the case of electrically conducting systems, free electrons represent an incisive probe for the plateau states. Here we study the electrical transport of Ising-type rare-earth tetraborides R B4 (R =Er , Tm), a metallic Shastry-Sutherland lattice showing magnetization plateaus. We find that the longitudinal and transverse resistivities reflect scattering with both the static and the dynamic plateau structure. We model these results consistently with the expected strong uniaxial anisotropy on a quantitative level, providing a framework for the study of plateau states in metallic frustrated systems.

  11. Climatic Changes on Tibetan Plateau Based on Ice Core Records (United States)

    Yao, T.


    Climatic changes have been reconstructed for the Tibetan Plateau based on ice core records. The Guliya ice core on the Tibetan Plateau presents climatic changes in the past 100,000 years, thus is comparative with that from Vostok ice core in Antarctica and GISP2 record in Arctic. These three records share an important common feature, i.e., our climate is not stable. It is also evident that the major patterns of climatic changes are similar on the earth. Why does climatic change over the earth follow a same pattern? It might be attributed to solar radiation. We found that the cold periods correspond to low insolation periods, and warm periods to high insolation periods. We found abrupt climatic change in the ice core climatic records, which presented dramatic temperature variation of as much as 10 °C in 50 or 60 years. Our major challenge in the study of both climate and environment is that greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4 are possibly amplifying global warming, though at what degree remains unclear. One of the ways to understand the role of greenhouse gases is to reconstruct the past greenhouse gases recorded in ice. In 1997, we drilled an ice core from 7100 m a.s.l. in the Himalayas to reconstruct methane record. Based on the record, we found seasonal cycles in methane variation. In particular, the methane concentration is high in summer, suggestiing active methane emission from wet land in summer. Based on the seasonal cycle, we can reconstruct the methane fluctuation history in the past 500 years. The most prominent feature of the methane record in the Himalayan ice core is the abrupt increase since 1850 A.D.. This is closely related to the industrial revolution worldwide. We can also observe sudden decrease in methane concentration during the World War I and World War II. It implies that the industrial revolution has dominated the atmospheric greenhouse gas emission for about 100 years. Besides, the average methane concentration in the Himalayan ice core is

  12. Review of climate and cryospheric change in the Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Shichang; Xu Yanwei; You Qinglong; Yao Tandong; Fluegel, Wolfgang-Albert; Pepin, Nick


    The Tibetan Plateau (TP), with an average elevation of over 4000 m asl and an area of approximately 2.5 x 10 6 km 2 , is the highest and most extensive highland in the world and has been called the 'Third Pole'. The TP exerts a huge influence on regional and global climate through thermal and mechanical forcing mechanisms. Because the TP has the largest cryospheric extent outside the polar region and is the source region of all the large rivers in Asia, it is widely recognized to be the driving force for both regional environmental change and amplification of environmental changes on a global scale. Within China it is recognized as the 'Asian water tower'. In this letter, we summarize the recent changes observed in climate elements and cryospheric indicators on the plateau before discussing current unresolved issues concerning climate change in the TP, including the temporal and spatial components of this change, and the consistency of change as represented by different data sources. Based on meteorological station data, reanalyses and remote sensing, the TP has shown significant warming during the last decades and will continue to warm in the future. While the warming is predominantly caused by increased greenhouse gas emissions, changes in cloud amount, snow-albedo feedback, the Asian brown clouds and land use changes also partly contribute. The cryosphere in the TP is undergoing rapid change, including glacier retreat, inconsistent snow cover change, increasing permafrost temperatures and degradation, and thickening of the active layer. Hydrological processes impacted by glacial retreat have received much attention in recent years. Future attention should be paid to additional perspectives on climate change in the TP, such as the variations of climate extremes, the reliability of reanalyses and more detailed comparisons of reanalyses with surface observations. Spatial issues include the identification of whether an elevational dependency and weekend effect exist

  13. Geomorphological investigations and GIS approach of the Tamiš loess plateau, Banat region (northern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Dragan


    Full Text Available The focus of this study was the loess plateau located in the Tamiš River valley in the central part of Banat region (northern Serbia. This morphologic unit has been formed by the loess accumulation process during the last two glacial periods. Digital elevation model (DEM is based on the 1:25.000 scale topographic maps. Detailed geomorphologic and hypsometric maps are provided with selected cross sections. The borders of the plateau and spatial distribution of the micromorphology are precisely defined on DEM. The plateau rises gradually from the Upper Pleistocene terrace on the north and northwest, while to the east and south slopes and vertical bluffs were controlled by the lateral erosion process of surrounding channels and by the weathering process on the loess. The plateau has an atypical morphology characterized by reduced geomorphologic diversity. Loess topography is significantly flattened by human impact. Its micromorphology is characterised by shallow depressions and gullies.

  14. Impact of Cataract Surgery on Quality of Life in Plateau State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Cataract Surgery on Quality of Life in Plateau State, Nigeria. ... The study instrument was the standardized Visual Function (VF-14) and Quality of ... Outcome Research Team (PORT), and designed to measure the impact of impaired ...

  15. Fixation of tibial plateau fractures with synthetic bone graft versus natural bone graft: a comparison study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ong, J C Y


    The goal of this study was to determine differences in fracture stability and functional outcome between synthetic bone graft and natural bone graft with internal fixation of tibia plateau metaphyseal defects.

  16. The Application of Chaos Theory to the Career-Plateaued Worker. (United States)

    Duffy, Jean Ann


    Applies some of the principles of chaos theory to career-plateaued workers on the basis of a case study. Concludes that chaos theory provides career practitioners a useful application for working with this type of client. (Author/JDM)

  17. A study of the bone healing kinetics of plateau versus screw root design titanium dental implants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leonard, Gary


    This study was designed to compare the bone healing process around plateau root from (PRF) and screw root from (SRF) titanium dental implants over the immediate 12 week healing period post implant placement.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayless, Amanda J.; Roming, Peter W. A. [Southwest Research Institute, Department of Space Science, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States); Pritchard, Tyler A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Penn State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kuin, Paul [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Brown, Peter J. [Texas A and M University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Botticella, Maria Teresa; Dall' Ora, Massimo [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Frey, Lucille H.; Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Maund, Justyn R.; Fraser, Morgan [Astrophysics Research Center, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)


    Observations with the Swift UV Optical Telescope have unambiguously uncovered for the first time a long-lived, UV ''plateau'' in a Type II-P supernova (SN). Although this flattening in slope is hinted at in a few other SNe, due to its proximity and minimal line-of-sight extinction, SN 2012aw has afforded the first opportunity to clearly observe this UV plateau. The observations of SN 2012aw revealed all Swift UV and u-band light curves initially declined rapidly, but 27 days after the explosion the light curves flattened. Some possible sources of the UV plateau are the same thermal process that causes the optical plateau, heating from radioactive decay, or a combination of both processes.

  19. Assessment of continuous gas resources in the Khorat Plateau Province, Thailand and Laos, 2016 (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Drake, Ronald M.


    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 2.3 trillion cubic feet of continuous gas in the Khorat Plateau Province of Thailand and Laos.

  20. Element concentrations in surface soils of the Coconino Plateau, Grand Canyon region, Coconino County, Arizona (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.


    This report provides the geochemical analyses of a large set of background soils collected from the surface of the Coconino Plateau in northern Arizona. More than 700 soil samples were collected at 46 widespread areas, sampled from sites that appear unaffected by mineralization and (or) anthropogenic contamination. The soils were analyzed for 47 elements, thereby providing data on metal concentrations in soils representative of the plateau. These background concentrations can be used, for instance, for comparison to metal concentrations found in soils potentially affected by natural and anthropogenic influences on the Coconino Plateau in the Grand Canyon region of Arizona.The soil sampling survey revealed low concentrations for the metals most commonly of environmental concern, such as arsenic, cobalt, chromium, copper, mercury, manganese, molybdenum, lead, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. For example, the median concentrations of the metals in soils of the Coconino Plateau were found to be comparable to the mean values previously reported for soils of the western United States.

  1. Observation of the Zero Hall Plateau in a Quantum Anomalous Hall Insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Yang; Feng, Xiao; Ou, Yunbo; Wang, Jing; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Liguo; Zhao, Dongyang; Jiang, Gaoyuan; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; He, Ke; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qi-Kun; Wang, Yayu


    We report experimental investigations on the quantum phase transition between the two opposite Hall plateaus of a quantum anomalous Hall insulator. We observe a well-defined plateau with zero Hall conductivity over a range of magnetic field around coercivity when the magnetization reverses. The features of the zero Hall plateau are shown to be closely related to that of the quantum anomalous Hall effect, but its temperature evolution exhibits a significant difference from the network model for a conventional quantum Hall plateau transition. We propose that the chiral edge states residing at the magnetic domain boundaries, which are unique to a quantum anomalous Hall insulator, are responsible for the novel features of the zero Hall plateau.

  2. Neoclassical resonant-plateau transport in the noncircular equipotential surface of a tandem mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katanuma, I.; Kiwamoto, Y.; Ishii, K.; Yatsu, K.; Miyoshi, S.


    Neoclassical resonant-plateau transport in a minimum-B anchored tandem mirror is calculated in an experimentally observed case that a magnetic flux tube of an equipotential contours is not circular at the central cell. (author)

  3. Neoclassical resonant-plateau transport in the noncircular equipotential surface of a tandem mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katanuma, I.; Kiwamoto, Y.; Ishii, K.; Yatsu, K.; Miyoshi, S.


    Neoclassical resonant-plateau transport in a minimum-B anchored tandem mirror is calculated in an experimentally observed case where a flux tube of equipotential contours is not circular at the central cell

  4. Paleodrainage of the Columbia River system on the Columbia Plateau of Washington State: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecht, K.R.; Reidel, S.P.; Tallman, A.M.


    The evolution of the Columbia River drainage system on the Columbia Plateau of Washington in the last 17 My reflects the geologic history of the plateau. We have updated an interpretation of the evolution of the Columbia River system and defined the geomorphic and structural features that have controlled the position of ancestral streams. The sequence of geologic events and the resulting drainage system for various time intervals in the last 17 My are summarized below. 121 refs., 14 figs

  5. Changes in Cerebral Partial Oxygen Pressure and Cerebrovascular Reactivity During Intracranial Pressure Plateau Waves. (United States)

    Lang, Erhard W; Kasprowicz, Magdalena; Smielewski, Peter; Pickard, John; Czosnyka, Marek


    Plateau waves in intracranial pressure (ICP) are frequently recorded in neuro intensive care and are not yet fully understood. To further investigate this phenomenon, we analyzed partial pressure of cerebral oxygen (pbtO2) and a moving correlation coefficient between ICP and mean arterial blood pressure (ABP), called PRx, along with the cerebral oxygen reactivity index (ORx), which is a moving correlation coefficient between cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) and pbtO2 in an observational study. We analyzed 55 plateau waves in 20 patients after severe traumatic brain injury. We calculated ABP, ABP pulse amplitude (ampABP), ICP, CPP, pbtO2, heart rate (HR), ICP pulse amplitude (ampICP), PRx, and ORx, before, during, and after each plateau wave. The analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc test was used to compare the differences in the variables before, during, and after the plateau wave. We considered all plateau waves, even in the same patient, independent because they are separated by long intervals. We found increases for ICP and ampICP according to our operational definitions for plateau waves. PRx increased significantly (p = 0.00026), CPP (p pressure remains stable in ICP plateau waves, while cerebral autoregulatory indices show distinct changes, which indicate cerebrovascular reactivity impairment at the top of the wave. PbtO2 decreases during the waves and may show a slight overshoot after normalization. We assume that this might be due to different latencies of the cerebral blood flow and oxygen level control mechanisms. Other factors may include baseline conditions, such as pre-plateau wave cerebrovascular reactivity or pbtO2 levels, which differ between studies.

  6. A Complex System of Glacial Sub-Refugia Drives Endemic Freshwater Biodiversity on the Tibetan Plateau. (United States)

    Clewing, Catharina; Albrecht, Christian; Wilke, Thomas


    Although only relatively few freshwater invertebrate families are reported from the Tibetan Plateau, the degree of endemism may be high. Many endemic lineages occur within permafrost areas, raising questions about the existence of isolated intra-plateau glacial refugia. Moreover, if such refugia existed, it might be instructive to learn whether they were associated with lakes or with more dynamic ecosystems such as ponds, wetlands, or springs. To study these hypotheses, we used pulmonate snails of the plateau-wide distributed genus Radix as model group and the Lake Donggi Cona drainage system, located in the north-eastern part of the plateau, as model site. First, we performed plateau-wide phylogenetic analyses using mtDNA data to assess the overall relationships of Radix populations inhabiting the Lake Donggi Cona system for revealing refugial lineages. We then conducted regional phylogeographical analyses applying a combination of mtDNA and nuclear AFLP markers to infer the local structure and demographic history of the most abundant endemic Radix clade for identifying location and type of (sub-)refugia within the drainage system. Our phylogenetic analysis showed a high diversity of Radix lineages in the Lake Donggi Cona system. Subsequent phylogeographical analyses of the most abundant endemic clade indicated a habitat-related clustering of genotypes and several Late Pleistocene spatial/demographic expansion events. The most parsimonious explanation for these patterns would be a scenario of an intra-plateau glacial refugium in the Lake Donggi Cona drainage system, which might have consisted of isolated sub-refugia. Though the underlying processes remain unknown, an initial separation of lake and watershed populations could have been triggered by lake-level fluctuations before and during the Last Glacial Maximum. This study inferred the first intra-plateau refugium for freshwater animals on the Tibetan Plateau. It thus sheds new light on the evolutionary history

  7. Strain transformation between tectonic extrusion and crustal thickening in the growth of the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Liu, M.; Li, Y.; Sun, Y.; Shen, X.


    The Indo-Eurasian continental collision since 50 Ma has thickened the crust to raise the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau and driven lateral extrusion of Asian lithospheric blocks to affect Cenozoic tectonics in central and east Asia. The relative roles of crustal thickening and tectonic extrusion, and the strain partitioning between them over time and space, remain controversial. We have analyzed the strain rates using GPS velocities, and correlated the results with vertical motion derived from precise leveling. We found that tectonic extrusion largely transforms to crustal thickening near the margins of the Tibetan Plateau. Near the NW margin of the Tibetan Plateau, the shear stain transforms to compressive strain, consistent with neotectonic studies that indicate crustal shortening and uplift. Around the SE margin, shear stain largely terminates in the southern Yunnan province of China. The present-day crustal motion in SE Tibetan Plateau can be well explained by gravitational spreading without invoking plate-edge push as envisioned in the tectonic extrusion model. Using data collected from local seismic arrays, we derived receiver functions to image the lithospheric structures across the Tibetan Plateau and the Alashan block to its north and the Ordos block to its east. Our results indicate that the mantle lithosphere of these bounding Asian blocks has not been reworked by Tibetan tectonics; instead they have acted as restrictive walls to the growing Tibetan Plateau. Our finite element modeling shows that crustal deformation along the margins of the Tibetan Plateau are consistent with the notion that the east- and southeastward extrusion of the Tibetan lithosphere is largely confined to the Tibetan Plateau because of the restrictive bounding blocks of the Asian lithosphere. Thus the tectonic impact of the Indo-Eurasian collision on the Cenozoic Asian tectonics may not be as extensive as previously thought.

  8. A pliocene cliff-line around the Giza Pyramids Plateau, Egypt


    Aigner, Thomas


    Aigner, T., 1983. A Pliocene cliff-line around the Giza Pyramids Plateau, Egypt. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol., 4 2 : 313—322. Escarpments bordering the Giza Pyramids Plateau represent the cliff-line of a Pliocene transgression up the pre-Nile ("Eonile") Valley. Geomorphologically, a limestone cliff can be distinguished from a slip-block shore associated with a distinct fining-up sequence. Differences in bedrock lithology and in structure (Joint pattern, faults) are morphogen...

  9. Importance of dynamic topography in Himalaya-Tibetan plateau region (United States)

    Ghosh, A.; Singh, S.


    Himalaya-Tibetan plateau region has the highest topography in the world. Various studies have been done to understand the mechanisms responsible for sustaining this high topography. However, the existence of dynamic topography in this region is still uncertain, though there have been some studies exploring the role of channel flow in lower crust leading to some topography. We investigated the role of radial mantle flow in this region by studying the relationship between geoid and topography. High geoid-to-topography ratios (GTR) were observed along the Himalayas suggesting deeper compensation mechanisms. However, further north, the geoid and topography relationship became a lot more complex as high as well as low GTR values were observed. The high GTR regions also coincided with area of high filtered free air gravity anomalies, indicating dynamic support. We also looked at the spectral components of gravity, geoid and topography, and calculated response functions to distinguish between different compensation mechanisms. We estimated the average elastic thickness of the whole region to be around 40 km from coherence and admittance studies. The GTR and admittance-coherence studies suggest deeper mass anomalies playing a role in supporting the topography along Himalayas and the area between Altyn Tagh and Kunlun faults.

  10. Motivating Communities To Go Beyond the Discovery Plateau (United States)

    Habermann, T.; Kozimor, J.


    Years of emphasizing discovery and minimal metadata requirements have resulted in a culture that accepts that metadata are for discovery and complete metadata are too complex or difficult for researchers to understand and create. Evolving the culture past this "data-discovery plateau" requires a multi-faceted approach that addresses the rational and emotional sides of the problem. On the rational side, scientists know that data and results must be well documented in order to be reproducible, re-usable, and trustworthy. We need tools that script critical moves towards well-described destinations and help identify members of the community that are already leading the way towards those destinations. We need mechanisms that help those leaders share their experiences and examples. On the emotional side, we need to emphasize that high-quality metadata makes data trustworthy, divide the improvement process into digestible pieces and create mechanisms for clearly identifying and rewarding progress. We also need to provide clear opportunities for community members to increase their expertise and to share their skills.

  11. Drop coalescence and liquid flow in a single Plateau border (United States)

    Cohen, Alexandre; Fraysse, Nathalie; Raufaste, Christophe


    We report a comprehensive study of the flow of liquid triggered by injecting a droplet into a liquid foam microchannel, also called a Plateau border. This drop-injected experiment reveals an intricate dynamics for the liquid redistribution, with two contrasting regimes observed, ruled either by inertia or viscosity. We devoted a previous study [A. Cohen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 218303 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.218303] to the inertial imbibition regime, unexpected at such small length scales. Here we report other features of interest of the drop-injected experiment, related to the coalescence of the droplet with the liquid microchannel, to both the inertial and viscous regimes, and to the occurrence of liquid flow through the soap films as well as effects of the interfacial rheology. The transition between the two regimes is investigated and qualitatively accounted for. The relevance of our results to liquid foam drainage is tackled by considering the flow of liquid at the nodes of the network of interconnected microchannels. Extensions of our study to liquid foams are discussed.

  12. Magnetotelluric data, Taos Plateau Volcanic Field, New Mexico (United States)

    Ailes, Chad E.; Rodriguez, Brian D.


    The population of the San Luis Basin region of northern New Mexico is growing. Water shortfalls could have serious consequences. Future growth and land management in the region depend on accurate assessment and protection of the region's groundwater resources. An important issue in managing the groundwater resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Santa Fe Group and the nature of the sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift, which contain the principal groundwater aquifers. The shallow unconfined aquifer and the deeper confined Santa Fe Group aquifer in the San Luis Basin are the main sources of municipal water for the region. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the San Luis Basin. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, an electromagnetic survey called magnetotellurics (MT), and hydrologic and lithologic data are being used to better understand the aquifers. This report describes a regional east-west MT sounding profile acquired in late July 2009 across the Taos Plateau Volcanic Field where drillhole data are sparse. Resistivity modeling of the MT data can be used to help map changes in electrical resistivity with depths that are related to differences in rock types. These various rock types help control the properties of aquifers. The purpose of this report is to release the MT sounding data collected along the east-west profile. No interpretation of the data is included.

  13. Seismicity of the Paradox Basin and the Colorado Plateau interior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, I.G.


    National Waste Terminal Storage Program site qualification criteria require that a nuclear waste repository be located so that ground motion associated with the maximum credible and maximum probable earthquakes or other earthquake-associated effects will not have an unacceptable adverse impact on system performance. To determine whether a potential repository site located in the Paradox salt formation in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah satisfies these criteria, seismological studies were undertaken by Woodward-Clyde Consultants (WCC) in March 1978. These studies included: (1) analysis of historical seismicity; (2) analysis of contemporary seismicity and tectonics of both the Paradox Basin and surrounding Colorado Plateau, including an extensive program of microearthquake monitoring; (3) evaluation of the Paradox Basin crustal structure; (4) evaluation of mining-induced seismicity; and (5) characterization of design-related earthquake-induced ground motions pertinent to a potential repository site through studies of attentation and subsurface ground motions. A detailed discussion of the results of the seismological studies performed through December 1980 is contained in WCC (1982). The purpose of this topical report is to update and summarize the studies on the local, regional, and mining-induced seismicity conducted through December 1982. The limitations of any interpretations are also discussed and additional information that remains to be acquired is identified. 56 references, 45 figures, 4 tables

  14. [Clinical practice guideline on closed tibial plateau fractures in adulthood]. (United States)

    Ocegueda-Sosa, Miguel Ángel; Valenzuela-Flores, Adriana Abigail; Aldaco-García, Víctor Daniel; Flores-Aguilar, Sergio; Manilla-Lezama, Nicolás; Pérez-Hernández, Jorge


    Closed tibiae plateau fractures are common injuries in the emergency room. The optimal treatment is not well defined or established. For this reason, there are several surgical management options: open reduction and internal fixation, closed reduction and percutaneous synthesis, external fixation, and even conservative treatment for this kind of fracture. The mechanism of production of this fracture is through large varus or valgus deformation to which is added a factor of axial load. The trauma may be direct or indirect. The degree of displacement, fragmentation and involvement of soft tissues like ligaments, menisci, vascular and nerve structures are determined by the magnitude of the force exerted. Any intra-articular fracture treatment can lead to an erroneous instability, deformity and limitation of motion with subsequent arthritic changes, leading to joint incongruity, limiting activity and significantly altering the quality of life. Open reduction and internal fixation with anatomic restitution is the method used in this type of fracture. However, the results of numerous publications can be questioned due to the inclusion in the same study of fractures treated with very different methods.

  15. Warming slowdown over the Tibetan plateau in recent decades (United States)

    Liu, Yaojie; Zhang, Yangjian; Zhu, Juntao; Huang, Ke; Zu, Jiaxing; Chen, Ning; Cong, Nan; Stegehuis, Annemiek Irene


    As the recent global warming hiatus and the warming on high elevations are attracting worldwide attention, this study examined the robustness of the warming slowdown over the Tibetan plateau (TP) and its related driving forces. By integrating multiple-source data from 1982 to 2015 and using trend analysis, we found that the mean temperature (T mean), maximum temperature (T max) and minimum temperature (T min) showed a slowdown of the warming trend around 1998, during the period of the global warming hiatus. This was found over both the growing season (GS) and non-growing season (NGS) and suggested a robust warming hiatus over the TP. Due to the differences in trends of T max and T min, the trend of diurnal temperature range (DTR) also shifted after 1998, especially during the GS temperature. The warming rate was spatially heterogeneous. The northern TP (NTP) experienced more warming than the southern TP (STP) in all seasons from 1982 to 1998, while the pattern was reversed in the period from 1998 to 2015. Water vapour was found to be the main driving force for the trend in T mean and T min by influencing downward long wave radiation. Sunshine duration was the main driving force behind the trend in T max and DTR through a change in downward shortwave radiation that altered the energy source of daytime temperature. Water vapour was the major driving force for temperature change over the NTP, while over the STP, sunshine duration dominated the temperature trend.

  16. New Hf-Nd evidence supports a heterogeneous plume source for the Caribbean Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.M.E; Kempton, P.D; White, R.V; Kerr, A.C; Tarney, J.; Sauders, A.D


    Hf-Nd systematics provide us with a valuable tool for tracing mantle sources and signatures in ancient or altered rocks. Hf and Nd are amongst the most resistant of all elements to secondary alteration processes (Pearce et al., 1999) and hence can give us insights into the source compositions of altered plateau basalts that other isotopic systems will not. Here we use Hf-Nd systematics to probe the depths of the Cretaceous Caribbean Plateau, in order to characterise its isotope systematics, and hence determine the geochemical nature of the mantle plume responsible for its formation. Much of the plateau is already well characterised in terms of trace elements and isotopes such as Sr, Nd, Pb and Os (Kerr et al., 1997; White et al., 1999; Walker et al., 1999). Unfortunately, isotope system resetting due to sub- solidus alteration, amongst other factors, has ensured that these isotopes have been inconclusive in resolving many important issues, such as whether the Caribbean plateau is a product of an earlier Galapagos plume phase, and how the apparently unique Gorgona komatiites relate to the rest of the Caribbean plateau. We present new Hf-Nd isotopic data which reveal that the Caribbean plume must have been compositionally heterogeneous, comprising at least three different source components. We then compare this 'Caribbean plume' to other present-day plumes, (e.g. Galapagos) and from this speculate whether initial magmatism from the Galapagos plume could indeed have been responsible for the formation of the Caribbean Plateau (au)

  17. Spatial and temporal variation of tectonic uplift in the southeastern Ethiopian Plateau from morphotectonic analysis (United States)

    Xue, Liang; Alemu, Tadesse; Gani, Nahid D.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.


    We use morphotectonic analysis to study the tectonic uplift history of the southeastern Ethiopian Plateau (SEEP). Based on studies conducted on the Northwestern Ethiopian Plateau, steady-state and pulsed tectonic uplift models were proposed to explain the growth of the plateau since 30 Ma. We test these two models for the largely unknown SEEP. We present the first quantitative morphotectonic study of the SEEP. First, in order to infer the spatial distribution of the tectonic uplift rates, we extract geomorphic proxies including normalized steepness index ksn, hypsometric integral HI, and chi integral χ from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) digital elevation model (DEM). Second, we compare these rates with the thickness of flood basalt that we estimated from geological maps. Third, to constrain the timing of regional tectonic uplift, we develop a knickpoint celerity model. Fourth, we compare our results to those from the Northwestern Ethiopian Plateau to suggest a possible mechanism to explain regional tectonic uplift of the entire Ethiopian Plateau. We find an increase in tectonic uplift rates from the southeastern escarpments of the Afar Depression in the northeast to that of the Main Ethiopian Rift to the southwest. We identify three regional tectonic uplift events at 11.7, 6.5, and 4.5 Ma recorded by the development of regionally distributed knickpoints. This is in good agreement with ages of tectonic uplift events reported from the Northwestern Ethiopian Plateau.

  18. The Caribbean-Colombian cretaceous igneous province: The internal anatomy of an oceanic plateau (United States)

    Kerr, Andrew C.; Tarney, John; Marriner, Giselle F.; Nivia, Alvaro; Saunders, Andrew D.

    The Late Cretaceous Caribbean—Colombian igneous province is one of the world's best-exposed examples of a plume-derived oceanic plateau. The buoyancy of the plateau (resulting from residual heat and thick crust) kept it from being totally subducted as it moved eastward with the Farallon Plate from its site of generation in the eastern Pacific and encountered a destructive plate margin. In effect, the plateau makes up much of the Caribbean Plate; it is well exposed around its margins, but more so in accreted terranes in western Colombia (including the well-known Gorgona komatiites and Bolívar mafic/ultramafic cumulates). Compositionally, the lavas of the plateau form three groups: (a) basalts, picrites, and komatiites with light-rare-earth-element (LREE)-depleted chondrite-normalised patterns; (b) basalts with LREE-enriched patterns; and (c) basalts with essentially flat REE patterns (the most dominant type) similar to many of the basalts from the Ontong Java Plateau. These three types demonstrate the heterogeneous nature of the mantle plume source region. The picrites and the komatiites seem to lie nearer the base of the plateau than the more homogeneous basalts; thus, the more MgO-rich melts may have been erupted before large magma chambers had a chance to develop. A reconstructed crustal cross section through the plateau consists of dunitic and pyroxenitic cumulates near the base which are overlain by layered olivine-rich gabbros and more isotropic gabbros. The lowermost eruptive sequence comprises compositionally heterogeneous picrites/komatiites overlain by more homogeneous pillow basalts. Spectacular hornblende-plagioclase veins cut the Bolívar assemblage and these may represent local partial melts of the plateau's base as it was thrusted onto the continent. Subduction-related batholiths and extrusive rocks found around the margin of the province are of two distinct ages; one suite represents pre-plateau collision-related volcanism whereas the other suite

  19. The first report of Cryptosporidium spp. in Microtus fuscus (Qinghai vole) and Ochotona curzoniae (wild plateau pika) in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area, China. (United States)

    Zhang, Xueyong; Jian, Yingna; Li, Xiuping; Ma, Liqing; Karanis, Gabriele; Karanis, Panagiotis


    Cryptosporidium is one of the most important genera of intestinal zoonotic pathogens, which can infect various hosts and cause diarrhoea. There is little available information about the molecular characterisation and epidemiological prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Microtus fuscus (Qinghai vole) and Ochotona curzoniae (wild plateau pika) in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area of Qinghai Province, Northwest China. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine Cryptosporidium species/genotypes and epidemiological prevalence in these mammals by detecting the SSU rRNA gene by PCR amplification. The Cryptosporidium spp. infection rate was 8.9% (8/90) in Qinghai voles and 6.25% (4/64) in wild plateau pikas. Positive samples were successfully sequenced, and the following Cryptosporidium species were found: C. parvum, C. ubiquitum, C. canis and a novel genotype in Qinghai voles and C. parvum and a novel genotype in wild plateau pikas. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium infections in M. fuscus and wild O. curzoniae in Northwest China. The results suggest the possibility of Cryptosporidium species transmission among these two hosts, the environment, other animals and humans and provide useful molecular epidemiological data for the prevention and control of Cryptosporidium infections in wild animals and the surrounding environments. The results of the present study indicate the existence of Cryptosporidium species infections that have potential public health significance. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium multi-species infections in these animal hosts.

  20. The Development in modeling Tibetan Plateau Land/Climate Interaction (United States)

    Xue, Yongkang; Liu, Ye; li, qian; Maheswor Shrestha, Maheswor; Ma, Hsi-Yen; Cox, Peter; Sun, shufen; Koike, Toshio


    Tibetan Plateau (TP) plays an important role in influencing the continental and planetary scale climate, including East Asian and South Asian monsoon, circulation and precipitation over West Pacific and Indian Oceans. The numerical study has identified TP as the area with strongest land/atmosphere interactions over the midlatitude land. The land degradation there has also affected the monsoon precipitation in TP along the monsoon pathway. The water cycle there affects water sources for major Asian river systems, which include the Tarim, Amu Darya, Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Irrawaddy, Salween, Mekong, Yellow, and Yangtze Rivers. Despite the importance of TP land process in the climate system, the TP land surface processes are poorly modeled due to lack of data available for model validation. To better understand, simulate, and project the role of Tibetan Plateau land surface processes, better parameterization of the Tibetan Land surface processes have been developed and evaluated. The recently available field measurement there and satellite observation have greatly helped this development. This paper presents these new developments and preliminary results using the newly developed biophysical/dynamic vegetation model, frozen soil model, and glacier model. In recent CMIP5 simulation, the CMIP5 models with dynamic vegetation model show poor performance in simulating the TP vegetation and climate. To better simulate the TP vegetation condition and its interaction with climate, we have developed biophysical/dynamic vegetation model, the Simplified Simple Biosphere Model version 4/Top-down Representation of Interactive Foliage and Flora Including Dynamics Model (SSiB4/TRIFFID), based on water, carbon, and energy balance. The simulated vegetation variables are updates, driven by carbon assimilation, allocation, and accumulation, as well as competition between plant functional types. The model has been validated with the station data, including those measured over the TP

  1. Aridity changes in the Tibetan Plateau in a warming climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yanhong; Li, Xia; Xu, Jianwei; Ruby Leung, L.; Chen, Deliang


    Desertification in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has drawn increasing attention in the recent decades. It has been postulated as a consequence of increasing climate aridity due to the observed warming. This study quantifies the aridity changes in the TP and attributes the changes to different climatic factors. Using the ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration (P/PET) as an aridity index, we used observed meteorological records at 83 stations in the TP to calculate PET using the Penman–Monteith algorithm and the ratio. Spatial and temporal changes of P/PET in 1979–2011 were analyzed. Results show that stations located in the arid and semi-arid northwestern TP are becoming significantly wetter, and half of the stations in the semi-humid eastern TP are becoming drier, though not significantly, in the recent three decades. The aridity change patterns are significantly correlated with the change patterns of precipitation, sunshine duration and diurnal temperature range. Temporal correlations between the annual P/PET ratio and other meteorological variables confirm the significant correlation between aridity and the three variables, with precipitation being the dominant driver of P/PET changes at the interannual time scale. Annual PET are insignificantly but negatively correlated with P/PET in the cold season. In the warm season, however, the correlation between PET and P/PET is significant at the confidence level of 99.9% when the cryosphere near the surface melts. Significant correlation between annual wind speed and aridity occurs in limited locations and months. Consistency in the climatology pattern and linear trends in surface air temperature and precipitation calculated using station data, gridded data, and nearest grid-to-stations for the TP average and across sub-basins indicate the robustness of the trends despite the large spatial heterogeneity in the TP that challenge climate monitoring. (letter)

  2. Plateau subduction, intraslab seismicity, and the Denali (Alaska) volcanic gap (United States)

    Chuang, Lindsay Yuling; Bostock, Michael; Wech, Aaron; Plourde, Alexandre


    Tectonic tremors in Alaska (USA) are associated with subduction of the Yakutat plateau, but their origins are unclear due to lack of depth constraints. We have processed tremor recordings to extract low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs), and generated a set of six LFE waveform templates via iterative network matched filtering and stacking. The timing of impulsive P (compressional) wave and S (shear) wave arrivals on template waveforms places LFEs at 40–58 km depth, near the upper envelope of intraslab seismicity and immediately updip of increased levels of intraslab seismicity. S waves at near-epicentral distances display polarities consistent with shear slip on the plate boundary. We compare characteristics of LFEs, seismicity, and tectonic structures in central Alaska with those in warm subduction zones, and propose a new model for the region’s unusual intraslab seismicity and the enigmatic Denali volcanic gap (i.e., an area of no volcanism where expected). We argue that fluids in the Yakutat plate are confined to its upper crust, and that shallow subduction leads to hydromechanical conditions at the slab interface in central Alaska akin to those in warm subduction zones where similar LFEs and tremor occur. These conditions lead to fluid expulsion at shallow depths, explaining strike-parallel alignment of tremor occurrence with the Denali volcanic gap. Moreover, the lack of double seismic zone and restriction of deep intraslab seismicity to a persistent low-velocity zone are simple consequences of anhydrous conditions prevailing in the lower crust and upper mantle of the Yakutat plate.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In 2008, the primary Hanford clean-up contract transitioned to the CH2MHill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). Prior to transition, Engineering resources assigned to remediation/Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) activities were a part of a centralized engineering organization and matrixed to the performing projects. Following transition, these resources were reassigned directly to the performing project, with a loose matrix through a smaller Central Engineering (CE) organization. The smaller (10 FTE) central organization has retained responsibility for the overall technical quality of engineering for the CHPRC, but no longer performs staffing and personnel functions. As the organization has matured, there are lessons learned that can be shared with other organizations going through or contemplating performing a similar change. Benefits that have been seen from the CHPRC CE organization structure include the following: (1) Staff are closely aligned with the 'Project/facility' that they are assigned to support; (2) Engineering priorities are managed to be consistent with the 'Project/facility' priorities; (3) Individual Engineering managers are accountable for identifying staffing needs and the filling of staffing positions; (4) Budget priorities are managed within the local organization structure; (5) Rather than being considered a 'functional' organization, engineering is considered a part of a line, direct funded organization; (6) The central engineering organization is able to provide 'overview' activities and maintain independence from the engineering organizations in the field; and (7) The central engineering organization is able to maintain a stable of specialized experts that are able to provide independent reviews of field projects and day-to-day activities.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronvall, C.M.


    In 2008, the primary Hanford clean-up contract transitioned to the CH2MHill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). Prior to transition, Engineering resources assigned to remediation/Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) activities were a part of a centralized engineering organization and matrixed to the performing projects. Following transition, these resources were reassigned directly to the performing project, with a loose matrix through a smaller Central Engineering (CE) organization. The smaller (10 FTE) central organization has retained responsibility for the overall technical quality of engineering for the CHPRC, but no longer performs staffing and personnel functions. As the organization has matured, there are lessons learned that can be shared with other organizations going through or contemplating performing a similar change. Benefits that have been seen from the CHPRC CE organization structure include the following: (1) Staff are closely aligned with the 'Project/facility' that they are assigned to support; (2) Engineering priorities are managed to be consistent with the 'Project/facility' priorities; (3) Individual Engineering managers are accountable for identifying staffing needs and the filling of staffing positions; (4) Budget priorities are managed within the local organization structure; (5) Rather than being considered a 'functional' organization, engineering is considered a part of a line, direct funded organization; (6) The central engineering organization is able to provide 'overview' activities and maintain independence from the engineering organizations in the field; and (7) The central engineering organization is able to maintain a stable of specialized experts that are able to provide independent reviews of field projects and day-to-day activities.

  5. Arbovirological survey in Silica plateau area, Roznava District, Czechoslovakia. (United States)

    Hubálek, Z; Cerný, V; Mittermayer, T; Kilík, J; Halouzka, J; Juricová, Z; Kuhn, I; Bárdos, V


    The serosurveys conducted in the Silica plateau area of the Slovak karst region revealed the presence of specific neutralizing antibody against tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus in 18% of local inhabitants (33 examined, mostly goats and sheep farmers), 54% of goats (26 examined), 18% of sheep (120 examined) and 13% of cattle (60 examined), against Lipovník (LIP) virus in 30% of inhabitants, 88% of goats, 55% of sheep and 45% of cattle, and against Bhanja (BHA) virus in 27% of inhabitants, 46% of goats, 29% of sheep and 23% of cattle. The results of hemagglutination-inhibition tests with TBE and BHA antigens were analogous. A detailed analysis of these serologic data points to a recent enhancement of the circulation of LIP and BHA viruses and to a very low TBE virus activity in this natural focus of arboviral infections. The immunological surveys of the 32 former "Roznava disease" patients, conducted 25 years after an extensive epidemic of a TBE virus infection that originated in Roznava in 1951, revealed the presence of neutralizing (and also hemagglutination-inhibiting) antibodies against TBE virus in as many as 78% of cases. Antibodies against LIP and BHA viruses were also detectable in the sera of 16% and 9%, respectively, of these individuals. Populations of the ectoparasites examined for the presence of arbovirus comprised 231 Ixodes ricinus, 806 Dermacentor marginatus and 204 Haemaphysalis punctata ticks and 117 specimens of the louse-flies Melophagus ovinus. Two strains of arbivirus that were antigenically related to Lipovník and Tribec viruses belonging to a group of Kemerovo viruses were isolated from male and female I. ricinus ticks collected from cattle.

  6. Three-dimensional Crustal Structure beneath the Tibetan Plateau Revealed by Multi-scale Gravity Analysis (United States)

    Xu, C.; Luo, Z.; Sun, R.; Li, Q.


    The Tibetan Plateau, the largest and highest plateau on Earth, was uplifted, shorten and thicken by the collision and continuous convergence of the Indian and Eurasian plates since 50 million years ago, the Eocene epoch. Fine three-dimensional crustal structure of the Tibetan Plateau is helpful in understanding the tectonic development. At present, the ordinary method used for revealing crustal structure is seismic method, which is inhibited by poor seismic station coverage, especially in the central and western plateau primarily due to the rugged terrain. Fortunately, with the implementation of satellite gravity missions, gravity field models have demonstrated unprecedented global-scale accuracy and spatial resolution, which can subsequently be employed to study the crustal structure of the entire Tibetan Plateau. This study inverts three-dimensional crustal density and Moho topography of the Tibetan Plateau from gravity data using multi-scale gravity analysis. The inverted results are in agreement with those provided by the previous works. Besides, they can reveal rich tectonic development of the Tibetan Plateau: (1) The low-density channel flow can be observed from the inverted crustal density; (2) The Moho depth in the west is deeper than that in the east, and the deepest Moho, which is approximately 77 km, is located beneath the western Qiangtang Block; (3) The Moho fold, the directions of which are in agreement with the results of surface movement velocities estimated from Global Positioning System, exists clearly on the Moho topography.This study is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41504015), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2015M572146), and the Surveying and Mapping Basic Research Programme of the National Administration of Surveying, Mapping and Geoinformation (Grant No. 15-01-08).

  7. Surface ozone at Nam Co in the inland Tibetan Plateau: variation, synthesis comparison and regional representativeness (United States)

    Yin, Xiufeng; Kang, Shichang; de Foy, Benjamin; Cong, Zhiyuan; Luo, Jiali; Zhang, Lang; Ma, Yaoming; Zhang, Guoshuai; Rupakheti, Dipesh; Zhang, Qianggong


    Ozone is an important pollutant and greenhouse gas, and tropospheric ozone variations are generally associated with both natural and anthropogenic processes. As one of the most pristine and inaccessible regions in the world, the Tibetan Plateau has been considered as an ideal region for studying processes of the background atmosphere. Due to the vast area of the Tibetan Plateau, sites in the southern, northern and central regions exhibit different patterns of variation in surface ozone. Here, we present continuous measurements of surface ozone mixing ratios at Nam Co Station over a period of ˜ 5 years (January 2011 to October 2015), which is a background site in the inland Tibetan Plateau. An average surface ozone mixing ratio of 47.6 ± 11.6 ppb (mean ± standard deviation) was recorded, and a large annual cycle was observed with maximum ozone mixing ratios in the spring and minimum ratios during the winter. The diurnal cycle is characterized by a minimum in the early morning and a maximum in the late afternoon. Nam Co Station represents a background region where surface ozone receives negligible local anthropogenic emissions inputs, and the anthropogenic contribution from South Asia in spring and China in summer may affect Nam Co Station occasionally. Surface ozone at Nam Co Station is mainly dominated by natural processes involving photochemical reactions, vertical mixing and downward transport of stratospheric air mass. Model results indicate that the study site is affected differently by the surrounding areas in different seasons: air masses from the southern Tibetan Plateau contribute to the high ozone levels in the spring, and enhanced ozone levels in the summer are associated with air masses from the northern Tibetan Plateau. By comparing measurements at Nam Co Station with those from other sites on the Tibetan Plateau, we aim to expand the understanding of ozone cycles and transport processes over the Tibetan Plateau. This work may provide a

  8. Spatiotemporal evolution of Calophaca (fabaceae) reveals multiple dispersals in central Asian mountains. (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Li; Wen, Zhi-Bin; Fritsch, Peter W; Sanderson, Stewart C


    The Central Asian flora plays a significant role in Eurasia and the Northern Hemisphere. Calophaca, a member of this flora, includes eight currently recognized species, and is centered in Central Asia, with some taxa extending into adjacent areas. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus utilizing nuclear ribosomal ITS and plastid trnS-trnG and rbcL sequences was carried out in order to confirm its taxonomic status and reconstruct its evolutionary history. We employed BEAST Bayesian inference for dating, and S-DIVA and BBM for ancestral area reconstruction, to study its spatiotemporal evolution. Our results show that Calophacais monophyletic and nested within Caragana. The divergence time of Calophaca is estimated at ca. 8.0 Ma, most likely driven by global cooling and aridification, influenced by rapid uplift of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau margins. According to ancestral area reconstructions, the genus most likely originated in the Pamir Mountains, a global biodiversity hotspot and hypothesized Tertiary refugium of many Central Asian plant lineages. Dispersals from this location are inferred to the western Tianshan Mountains, then northward to the Tarbagatai Range, eastward to East Asia, and westward to the Caucasus, Russia, and Europe. The spatiotemporal evolution of Calophaca provides a case contributing to an understanding of the flora and biodiversity of the Central Asian mountains and adjacent regions.

  9. Assessing and Broadening Genetic Diversity of Elymus sibiricus Germplasm for the Improvement of Seed Shattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyu Zhang


    Full Text Available Siberian wild rye (Elymus sibiricus L. is an important native grass in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China. It is difficult to grow for commercial seed production, since seed shattering causes yield losses during harvest. Assessing the genetic diversity and relationships among germplasm from its primary distribution area contributes to evaluating the potential for its utilization as a gene pool to improve the desired agronomic traits. In the study, 40 EST-SSR primers were used to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of 36 E. sibiricus accessions with variation of seed shattering. A total of 380 bands were generated, with an average of 9.5 bands per primer. The polymorphic information content (PIC ranged from 0.23 to 0.50. The percentage of polymorphic bands (P for the species was 87.11%, suggesting a high degree of genetic diversity. Based on population structure analysis, four groups were formed, similar to results of principal coordinate analysis (PCoA. The molecular variance analysis (AMOVA revealed the majority of genetic variation occurred within geographical regions (83.40%. Two genotypes from Y1005 and ZhN06 were used to generate seven F1 hybrids. The molecular and morphological diversity analysis of F1 population revealed rich genetic variation and high level of seed shattering variation in F1 population, resulting in significant improvement of the genetic base and desired agronomic traits.

  10. Mechanism study on a plague outbreak driven by the construction of a large reservoir in southwest china (surveillance from 2000-2015). (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Wei, Xiaoyu; Song, Zhizhong; Wang, Mingliu; Xi, Jinxiao; Liang, Junrong; Liang, Yun; Duan, Ran; Tian, Kecheng; Zhao, Yong; Tang, Guangpeng; You, Lv; Yang, Guirong; Liu, Xuebin; Chen, Yuhuang; Zeng, Jun; Wu, Shengrong; Luo, Shoujun; Qin, Gang; Hao, Huijing; Jing, Huaiqi


    Plague, a Yersinia pestis infection, is a fatal disease with tremendous transmission capacity. However, the mechanism of how the pathogen stays in a reservoir, circulates and then re-emerges is an enigma. We studied a plague outbreak caused by the construction of a large reservoir in southwest China followed 16-years' surveillance. The results show the prevalence of plague within the natural plague focus is closely related to the stability of local ecology. Before and during the decade of construction the reservoir on the Nanpan River, no confirmed plague has ever emerged. With the impoundment of reservoir and destruction of drowned farmland and vegetation, the infected rodent population previously dispersed was concentrated together in a flood-free area and turned a rest focus alive. Human plague broke out after the enzootic plague via the flea bite. With the construction completed and ecology gradually of human residential environment, animal population and type of vegetation settling down to a new balance, the natural plague foci returned to a rest period. With the rodent density decreased as some of them died, the flea density increased as the rodents lived near or in local farm houses where had more domestic animals, and human has a more concentrated population. In contrast, in the Himalayan marmot foci of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the Qilian Mountains. There are few human inhabitants and the local ecology is relatively stable; plague is prevalence, showing no rest period. Thus the plague can be significantly affected by ecological shifts.

  11. Rhizospheric fungi and their link with the nitrogen-fixing Frankia harbored in host plant Hippophae rhamnoides L. (United States)

    Zhou, Xue; Tian, Lei; Zhang, Jianfeng; Ma, Lina; Li, Xiujun; Tian, Chunjie


    Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is a pioneer plant used for land reclamation and an appropriate material for studying the interactions of symbiotic microorganisms because of its nitrogen-fixing root nodules and mycorrhiza. We used high-throughput sequencing to reveal the diversities and community structures of rhizospheric fungi and their link with nitrogen-fixing Frankia harbored in sea buckthorn collected along an altitude gradient from the Qinghai Tibet Plateau to interior areas. We found that the fungal diversities and compositions varied between different sites. Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota were the dominant phyla. The distribution of sea buckthorn rhizospheric fungi was driven by both environmental factors and the geographic distance. Among all examined soil characteristics, altitude, AP, and pH were found to have significant (p < 0.05) effect on the rhizospheric fungal community. The rhizospheric fungal communities became more distinct as the distance increased. Moreover, co-inertia analysis identified significant co-structures between Frankia and AMF communities in the rhizosphere of sea buckthorn. We conclude that at the large scale, there are certain linkages between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and the AMF expressed in the distributional pattern. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Genetic evidence from mitochondrial DNA corroborates the origin of Tibetan chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Zhang

    Full Text Available Chicken is the most common poultry species and is important to human societies. Tibetan chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus is a breed endemic to China that is distributed mainly on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. However, its origin has not been well characterized. In the present study, we sequenced partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control region of 239 and 283 samples from Tibetan and Sichuan indigenous chickens, respectively. Incorporating 1091 published sequences, we constructed the matrilineal genealogy of Tibetan chickens to further document their domestication history. We found that the genetic structure of the mtDNA haplotypes of Tibetan chickens are dominated by seven major haplogroups (A-G. In addition, phylogenetic and network analyses showed that Tibetan chickens are not distinguishable from the indigenous chickens in surrounding areas. Furthermore, some clades of Tibetan chickens may have originated from game fowls. In summary, our results collectively indicated that Tibetan chickens may have diverged from indigenous chickens in the adjacent regions and hybridized with various chickens.

  13. Selection by pollinators on floral traits in generalized Trollius ranunculoides (Ranunculaceae along altitudinal gradients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Gang Zhao

    Full Text Available Abundance and visitation of pollinator assemblages tend to decrease with altitude, leading to an increase in pollen limitation. Thus increased competition for pollinators may generate stronger selection on attractive traits of flowers at high elevations and cause floral adaptive evolution. Few studies have related geographically variable selection from pollinators and intraspecific floral differentiation. We investigated the variation of Trollius ranunculoides flowers and its pollinators along an altitudinal gradient on the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and measured phenotypic selection by pollinators on floral traits across populations. The results showed significant decline of visitation rate of bees along altitudinal gradients, while flies was unchanged. When fitness is estimated by the visitation rate rather than the seed number per plant, phenotypic selection on the sepal length and width shows a significant correlation between the selection strength and the altitude, with stronger selection at higher altitudes. However, significant decreases in the sepal length and width of T. ranunculoides along the altitudinal gradient did not correspond to stronger selection of pollinators. In contrast to the pollinator visitation, mean annual precipitation negatively affected the sepal length and width, and contributed more to geographical variation in measured floral traits than the visitation rate of pollinators. Therefore, the sepal size may have been influenced by conflicting selection pressures from biotic and abiotic selective agents. This study supports the hypothesis that lower pollinator availability at high altitude can intensify selection on flower attractive traits, but abiotic selection is preventing a response to selection from pollinators.

  14. [Spatiotemporal variations of natural wetland CH4 emissions over China under future climate change]. (United States)

    Liu, Jian-gong; Zhu, Qiu-an; Shen, Yan; Yang, Yan-zheng; Luo, Yun-peng; Peng, Chang-hui


    Based on a new process-based model, TRIPLEX-GHG, this paper analyzed the spatio-temporal variations of natural wetland CH4 emissions over China under different future climate change scenarios. When natural wetland distributions were fixed, the amount of CH4 emissions from natural wetland ecosystem over China would increase by 32.0%, 55.3% and 90.8% by the end of 21st century under three representative concentration pathways (RCPs) scenarios, RCP2. 6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively, compared with the current level. Southern China would have higher CH4 emissions compared to that from central and northern China. Besides, there would be relatively low emission fluxes in western China while relatively high emission fluxes in eastern China. Spatially, the areas with relatively high CH4 emission fluxes would be concentrated in the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the Northeast and the coasts of the Pearl River. In the future, most natural wetlands would emit more CH4 for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 than that of 2005. However, under RCP2.6 scenario, the increasing trend would be curbed and CH4 emissions (especially from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau) begin to decrease in the late 21st century.

  15. Treeline dynamics in response to climate change in the Min Mountains, southwestern China. (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Jiang; Shen, Guo-Zhen; Tan, Liu-Yi; Kang, Dong-Wei; Wang, Meng-Jun; Kang, Wen; Guo, Wen-Xia; Zeppel, Melanie Jb; Yu, Qiang; Li, Jun-Qing


    Abies faxoniana is the dominant plant species of the forest ecosystem on the eastern edge of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, where the treeline is strongly defined by climate. The tree-ring chronologies and age structure of Abies faxoniana were developed in the treeline ecotones on the northwestern and southeastern aspects of the Min Mountains in the Wanglang Nature Reserve to examine the treeline dynamics of recent decades in response to climate change. On the northwestern aspect, correlation analysis showed that the radial growth was significantly and positively correlated with precipitation in current January and monthly mean temperature in current April, but significantly and negatively correlated with monthly mean temperature in previous August. On the southeastern aspect, the radial growth was significantly negatively correlated with monthly mean temperature in previous July and August. The different responses of radial growth to climatic variability on both the aspects might be mainly due to the micro-environmental conditions. The recruitment benefited from the warm temperature in current April, July and September on the northwestern aspect. The responses of radial growth and recruitment to climatic variability were similar on the northwestern slope. Recruitment was greatly restricted by competition with dense bamboos on the southeastern aspect.

  16. Characteristics of the gravel size and potassium in the Ejin Alluvial Fan from remote sensing images and stratigraphic section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lu; Guo, Huadong; Wang, Qinjun


    The Ejin Alluvial Fan (EAF), located in the north-west of China, is an important recorder of both paleoclimatic and tectonic information of the north margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Remote sensing technics, including optical and microwave sensors, have been the key spatial observation tools to extract the surface information related to the paleoenvironment. In this paper, the gravel size and chemical element potassium K distributions of the EAF were obtained from RadarSat-2 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data and LandSat TM optical data, respectively. In addition, the stratigraphic section of the EAF was established and the corresponding geological information in the vertical direction with different periods was obtained. Combining the geological survey information and surface distribution information, it can be concluded as follows. 1) The EAF covers an area of above 30,000 km 2 and may be the largest arid and semi-arid alluvial fan in the world based on the remote sensing survey. 2) Some surface parameters which are related to the paleoenvironmental change can be obtained from remote sensing data, such as the gravel size and potassium K parameters. 3) The forming process of the EAF and the corresponding environments will be understood deeply, combining the paleoenvironmental related parameters derived from remote sensing data and the geologic survey data

  17. Two-step source tracing strategy of Yersinia pestis and its historical epidemiology in a specific region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Yan

    Full Text Available Source tracing of pathogens is critical for the control and prevention of infectious diseases. Genome sequencing by high throughput technologies is currently feasible and popular, leading to the burst of deciphered bacterial genome sequences. Utilizing the flooding genomic data for source tracing of pathogens in outbreaks is promising, and challenging as well. Here, we employed Yersinia pestis genomes from a plague outbreak at Xinghai county of China in 2009 as an example, to develop a simple two-step strategy for rapid source tracing of the outbreak. The first step was to define the phylogenetic position of the outbreak strains in a whole species tree, and the next step was to provide a detailed relationship across the outbreak strains and their suspected relatives. Through this strategy, we observed that the Xinghai plague outbreak was caused by Y. pestis that circulated in the local plague focus, where the majority of historical plague epidemics in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau may originate from. The analytical strategy developed here will be of great help in fighting against the outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, by pinpointing the source of pathogens rapidly with genomic epidemiological data and microbial forensics information.

  18. Flavonolignans from Elymus natans L. and Phytotoxic Activities. (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Wu, Chenghui; Peng, Aifeng; Gao, Kun; Chen, Jianjun; Li, Ya; Fu, Hua


    Elymus natans, a perennial gramineous grass, plays an important role in animal husbandry and environmental sustenance in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau as a result of its high forage quality and good adaptability to the local environment. A bioassay showed that the extracts of green grasses of E. natans (GG) exhibited stronger phytotoxic activities than withered grasses (WG) against crops and grasses. In view of the secondary metabolites, which may be responsible for the resistance of the plant, the chemical components of GG were investigated. The flavone tricin, E1, and 10 flavonolignans, E2-E11, including three new flavonolignans, E2, E10, and E11, were isolated and identified. As far as we know, this is the first report on the chemical constitutions of the plant until now. The contents of compounds E1 and E4-E7 in GG were significantly higher than those in WG in high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, and they also showed observably phytotoxic activities against lettuce and Festuca arundinacea.

  19. Evaluation of PERSIANN-CDR for Meteorological Drought Monitoring over China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Guo


    Full Text Available In this paper, Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks–Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR is analyzed for the assessment of meteorological drought. The evaluation is conducted over China at 0.5° spatial resolution against a ground-based gridded China monthly Precipitation Analysis Product (CPAP from 1983 to 2014 (32 years. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI at various time scales (1 month to 12 months is calculated for detecting drought events. The results show that PERSIANN-CDR depicts similar drought behavior as the ground-based CPAP in terms of capturing the spatial and temporal patterns of drought events over eastern China, where the intensity of gauge networks and the frequency of droughts are high. 6-month SPI shows the best agreement with CPAP in identifying drought months. However, large differences between PERSIANN-CDR and CPAP in depicting drought patterns and identifying specific drought events are found over northwestern China, particularly in Xinjiang and Qinghai-Tibet Plateau region. Factors behind this may be due to the relatively sparse gauge networks, the complicated terrain and the performance of PERSIANN algorithm.

  20. Phylogeography of Sophora moorcroftiana Supports Wu's Hypothesis on the Origin of Tibetan Alpine Flora. (United States)

    Cheng, Shanmei; Qiong, La; Lu, Fan; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Yin, Ganqiang; Song, Zhiping; Wang, Yuguo; Yang, Ji; Zhang, Wenju


    Wu hypothesized that the Tibetan flora originated mostly from the paleotropical Tertiary flora in the Hengduan Mountains by adapting to the cold and arid environments associated with the strong uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). Here, we combine the phylogeographic history of Sophora moorcroftiana with that of Sophora davidii to explore the speciation of S. moorcroftiana to test this hypothesis. We collected 151 individuals from 17 populations and sequenced 2 chloroplast fragments and the internal transcribed spacer of rDNA. Five chlorotypes and 9 ribotypes were detected but no significant phylogeographic structure was revealed. The integrated results of phylogeographic studies of these 2 species clearly support the progenitor-derivative relationship between them. We infer that the western peripheral population of S. davidii migrated westwards from the Hengduan Mountains to the middle reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River and differentiated from its ancestor in the process of adaptation to increasingly cold and arid environments with the uplift of the QTP and finally evolved into S. moorcroftiana during the Late Pliocene. In addition, our findings shed light on the idea that natural selection, as imposed by climate differentiation (especially mean diurnal range and precipitation seasonality), directly drove this peripatric speciation event after geographic isolation. The speciation of S. moorcroftiana is a strong case supporting Wu's hypothesis about the origin of Tibet's flora. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  1. Grey relation projection model for evaluating permafrost environment in the Muli coal mining area, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Cao; Yu Sheng; Yinghong Qin; Jing Li; Jichun Wu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soil Engineering


    This study attempts to estimate the current stage of the permafrost environment in the Muli coal mining area, an opencast mining site in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China. The estimation is done by regarding this site's permafrost environment as a system which was divided into three subsystems consisting of permafrost freeze-thaw erosion sensibility, permafrost thermal stability, and permafrost ecological fragility. The subsystems were characterized with their influencing indicators, each of which was assigned with a weight according to analytic hierarchy process. The relationship between these indictors is established using an environmental evaluation model based on grey system theory. The evaluated results show that currently the normalised grey relation projection values (GRPV) of permafrost freezing-thawing erosion sensibility, permafrost thermal stability, permafrost ecological fragility and permafrost environment are 0.58 (general situation), 0.47 (bad situation), 0.63 (general situation) and 0.56 (general situation), respectively. These values imply that the permafrost environment has been deteriorated to a certain degree by human activities and potentially could be further degraded. However, at this degree, a new equilibrium could be achieved if the current environmental degradation ratio is held and if effective treatments are constructed against further damages.

  2. Eco-Environment Status Evaluation and Change Analysis of Qinghai Based on National Geographic Conditions Census Data (United States)

    Zheng, M.; Zhu, M.; Wang, Y.; Xu, C.; Yang, H.


    As the headstream of the Yellow River, the Yangtze River and the Lantsang River, located in the hinterland of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Qinghai province is hugely significant for ecosystem as well as for ecological security and sustainable development in China. With the accomplishment of the first national geographic condition census, the frequent monitoring has begun. The classification indicators of the census and monitoring data are highly correlated with Technical Criterion for Ecosystem Status Evaluation released by Ministry of Environmental Protection in 2015. Based on three years' geographic conditions data (2014-2016), Landsat-8 images and thematic data (water resource, pollution emissions, meteorological data, soil erosion, etc.), a multi-years and high-precision eco-environment status evaluation and spatiotemporal change analysis of Qinghai province has been researched on the basis of Technical Criterion for Ecosystem Status Evaluation in this paper. Unlike the evaluation implemented by environmental protection department, the evaluation unit in this paper is town rather than county. The evaluation result shows that the eco-environment status in Qinghai is generally in a fine condition, and has significant regional differences. The eco-environment status evaluation based on national geographic conditions census and monitoring data can improve both the time and space precision. The eco-environment status with high space precise and multi-indices is a key basis for environment protection decision-making.

  3. The roles of calving migration and climate change in the formation of the weak genetic structure in the Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii). (United States)

    Chen, Jiarui; Lin, Gonghua; Qin, Wen; Yan, Jingyan; Zhang, Tongzuo; Su, Jianping


    Geographical barriers and distance can reduce gene exchange among animals, resulting in genetic divergence of geographically isolated populations. The habitats of Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii) has a geographical range of approximately 1,600 km across the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) with a series tall mountains and big rivers. However, previously studies indicated that there was little genetic differentiation among their geographically delineated populations. To better understand the genetic structure of P. hodgsonii populations, we collected 145 samples from the three major calving regions considering their various calving grounds and migration routes. We used a combination of mitochondrial sequences (Cyt b, ATPase, D-loop and COX I) to investigate the genetic structure and the evolutionary divergence of the populations. Significant, albeit weak, genetic differentiation was detected among the three geographical populations. Analysis of the genetic divergence process revealed that the animals gradually entered into a period of rapid genetic differentiation since approximately 60,000 years ago. The calving migration of P. hodgsonii cannot be the main cause of their weak genetic structure since such cannot fully homogenize the genetic pool. Instead, the geological and climatic events as well as the coupling vegetation succession process during this period have been suggested to greatly contribute to the genetic structure and the expansion of genetic diversity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of SSR markers for a Tibetan medicinal plant, Lancea tibetica (Phrymaceae), based on RAD sequencing. (United States)

    Tian, Zunzhe; Zhang, Faqi; Liu, Hairui; Gao, Qingbo; Chen, Shilong


    Lancea tibetica (Phrymaceae), a Tibetan medicinal plant, is endemic to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The over-exploitation of wild L. tibetica has led to the destruction of many populations. To enhance protection and management, biological research, especially population genetic studies, should be carried out on L. tibetica . Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers of L. tibetica were developed to analyze population diversity. Four thousand four hundred and forty-one SSR loci were identified for L. tibetica based on restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing on the Illumina HiSeq platform. One hundred SSR loci were arbitrarily selected for primer design, and 38 of them were successfully amplified. These markers were tested on 56 individuals from three populations of L. tibetica , and 10 markers displayed polymorphisms. The total number of alleles per locus ranged from three to eight, and observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.200 to 1.000 and 0.683 to 0.879, respectively. We tested for cross-amplification of these 10 markers in the related species L. hirsuta and found that nine could be successfully amplified. The SSR markers characterized here are the first to be developed and tested in L. tibetica . They will be useful for future population genetic studies on L. tibetica and closely related species.

  5. Intraoperative study on anthropometry and gender differences of the proximal tibial plateau at the arthroplasty resection surface. (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Yu, Jiakuo; Gong, Xi; Chen, Lianxu; Wang, Yongjian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Haijun; Zhang, Jiying


    The tibial plateau is asymmetric with a larger medial plateau. We observed from clinical practice that the shape of the tibial plateau does not always present a larger medial plateau. Tibial plateau also showed other shapes. The purpose of this study was to analyze the anthropometric data of the proximal tibia in a large group of Chinese patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty and to investigate the morphology of the resected proximal tibial surface and its gender differences. A total of 822 knees (164 males, 658 females) from the Chinese population were measured intraoperatively for medial anteroposterior (MAP) and lateral anteroposterior (LAP) dimensions of the resected proximal tibial surface. The difference of MAP and LAP (DML) was also calculated as MAP minus LAP. We then classified the data into three groups based on the DML (2 mm) to analyze the morphology of the proximal tibia and its distribution between male and female. The shape of proximal tibial plateau was of three types: larger medial plateau type, symmetric type, and larger lateral plateau type. There were significant differences between males and females in relation to the shape distribution of the proximal tibial plateau (P 2 mm and 120 of 822 (14.6%) tibia having a DMLDMLs to better match the different anthropometry of the resected tibial surface.

  6. [Correlation between morphogical factor of lateral plateau fracture and meniscus injury]. (United States)

    Bai, L; Zhou, W; Zhang, W T; Huang, W; You, T; Chen, P; Zhang, H L


    To analyze morphological character of lateral tibial plateau fracture fragment, and its correlation to the presence of a meniscus injury in tibial plateau fractures. A total of 79 consecutive patients of the simple lateral tibial plateau fractures from July 2011 to July 2015 were included in this study, with 65 males and 14 females with an average age of (34.3±7.2) years and 22-61 years. According to Schatzker classification, 21 cases were of Type I, 41 cases Type II, and 17 cases Type III. The characteristics of lateral tibial plateau fractures were evaluated by plain X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The type and severity of meniscus injury were diagnosed by MRI scan. Three-dimensional measurements of the lateral fragment width (LFW), the lateral plateau depression (LPD), the coronal angulation of lateral fragment (CALF), and tibial plateau widening (TPW) were measured with Picture Archiving and Communication Systems(PACS) software. The patients with and without meniscus injuries were divided into different groups and analyzed respectively. Comparison of the above measurements between the two groups was analyzed by independent t test. In all the 79 lateral tibial plateau fracture patients, 26 cases (32.9%) of meniscus injuries were detected by MRI. Among all the meniscus injury cases, 3 were of Schatzker I, 16 Schatzker II, and 7 Schatzker III. In meniscus intact group, the average LFW was (22.0±2.8) mm while in meniscus injury group it was (21.3± 3.3) mm (t=-1.008, P=0.317).The average LPD of non meniscus injury group was (5.4±2.8) mm, while in meniscus injury group was (8.7±2.8) mm (t=4.98, P=0.001). The average CALF of the two groups were 9.1°±6.1°and 10.6°± 7.1°, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (t=0.38, P=0.831). The average TPW was (3.0± 1.1) mm, and (4.8±1.7) mm of the two groups. There were significant differences between the two groups (t=5.216, P=0.001). There was no obvious correlation between the

  7. Electronic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su


    This book is composed of five chapters, which introduces electronic technology about understanding of electronic, electronic component, radio, electronic application, communication technology, semiconductor on its basic, free electron and hole, intrinsic semiconductor and semiconductor element, Diode such as PN junction diode, characteristic of junction diode, rectifier circuit and smoothing circuit, transistor on structure of transistor, characteristic of transistor and common emitter circuit, electronic application about electronic equipment, communication technology and education, robot technology and high electronic technology.

  8. Soil moisture decline due to afforestation across the Loess Plateau, China (United States)

    Jia, Xiaoxu; Shao, Ming'an; Zhu, Yuanjun; Luo, Yi


    The Loess Plateau of China is a region with one of the most severe cases of soil erosion in the world. Since the 1950s, there has been afforestation measure to control soil erosion and improve ecosystem services on the plateau. However, the introduction of exotic tree species (e.g., R. pseudoacacia, P. tabulaeformis and C. korshinskii) and high-density planting has had a negative effect on soil moisture content (SMC) in the region. Any decrease in SMC could worsen soil water shortage in both the top and deep soil layers, further endangering the sustainability of the fragile ecosystem. This study analyzed the variations in SMC following the conversion of croplands into forests in the Loess Plateau. SMC data within the 5-m soil profile were collected at 50 sites in the plateau region via field survey, long-term in-situ observations and documented literature. The study showed that for the 50 sites, the depth-averaged SMC was much lower under forest than under cropland. Based on in-situ measurements of SMC in agricultural plots and C. korshinskii plots in 2004-2014, SMC in the 0-4 m soil profile in both plots declined significantly (p resources demands in the Loess Plateau.

  9. Thorium abundances on the aristarchus plateau: Insights into the composition of the aristarchus pyroclastic glass deposits (United States)

    Hagerty, Justin J.; Lawrence, D.J.; Hawke, B.R.; Gaddis, Lisa R.


    Thorium (Th) data from the Lunar Prospector gamma ray spectrometer (LP-GRS) are used to constrain the composition of lunar pyroclastic glass deposits on top of the Aristarchus plateau. Our goal is to use forward modeling of LP-GRS Th data to measure the Th abundances on the plateau and then to determine if the elevated Th abundances on the plateau are associated with the pyroclastic deposits or with thorium-rich ejecta from Aristarchus crater. We use a variety of remote sensing data to show that there is a large, homogenous portion of the pyroclastics on the plateau that has seen little or no contamination from the Th-rich ejecta of Aristarchus crater. Our results show that the uncontaminated pyroclastic glasses on Aristarchus plateau have an average Th content of 6.7 ppm and ???7 wt % TiO2. These Th and Ti values are consistent with Th-rich, intermediate-Ti yellow glasses from the lunar sample suite. On the basis of this information, we use petrologic equations and interelement correlations for the Moon to estimate the composition of the source region from which the Aristarchus glasses were derived. We find that the source region for the Aristarchus glasses contained high abundances of heat-producing elements, which most likely served as a thermal driver for the prolonged volcanic activity in this region of the Moon. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Peripheral laser iridoplasty opens angle in plateau iris by thinning the cross-sectional tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu J


    Full Text Available Ji Liu,1,2 Tania Lamba,1 David A Belyea1 1Department of Ophthalmology, The George Washington University, Washington DC, USA; 2Yale Eye Center, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA Abstract: Plateau iris syndrome has been described as persistent angle narrowing or occlusion with intraocular pressure elevation after peripheral iridotomy due to the abnormal plateau iris configuration. Argon laser peripheral iridoplasty (ALPI is an effective adjunct procedure to treat plateau iris syndrome. Classic theory suggests that the laser causes the contraction of the far peripheral iris stroma, "pulls" the iris away from the angle, and relieves the iris-angle apposition. We report a case of plateau iris syndrome that was successfully treated with ALPI. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography confirmed the angle was open at areas with laser treatment but remained appositionally closed at untreated areas. Further analysis suggested significant cross-sectional thinning of the iris at laser-treated areas in comparison with untreated areas. The findings indicate that APLI opens the angle, not only by contracting the iris stroma, but also by thinning the iris tissue at the crowded angle. This is consistent with the ALPI technique to aim at the iris as far peripheral as possible. This case also suggests that spectral domain optical coherence tomography is a useful adjunct imaging tool to gonioscopy in assessing the angle condition. Keywords: plateau iris, optic coherence tomography, argon laser peripheral iridoplasty, angle-closure glaucoma

  11. Brain blood flow studies with single photon emission computed tomography in patients with plateau waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Minoru; Kobayashi, Hidenori; Kawano, Hirokazu; Handa, Yuji; Noguchi, Yoshiyuki; Shirasaki, Naoki; Hirose, Satoshi


    The authors studied brain blood flow with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in two patients with plateau waves. The intracranial pressure and blood pressure were also monitored continuously in these patients. They included one patient with brain-tumor (rt. sphenoid ridge meningioma) and another with hydrocephalus after subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of lt. internal carotid aneurysm. The intracranial pressure was monitored through an indwelling ventricular catheter attached to a pressure transducer. The blood pressure was recorded through an intraarterial catheter placed in the dorsalis pedis artery. Brain blood flow was studied with Headtome SET-011 (manufactured by Shimazu Co., Ltd.). For this flow measurement study, an intravenous injection of Xenon-133 of about 30 mCi was given via an antecubital vein. The position of the slice for the SPECT was selected so as to obtain information not only from the cerebral hemisphere but also from the brain stem : a cross section 25 deg over the orbito-meatal line, passing through the inferior aspect of the frontal horn, the basal ganglia, the lower recessus of the third ventricle and the brain stem. The results indicated that, in the cerebral hemisphere, plateau waves were accompanied by a decrease in blood flow, whereas, in the brain stem, the blood flow showed little change during plateau waves as compared with the interval phase between two plateau waves. These observations may explain why there is no rise in the blood pressure and why patients are often alert during plateau waves. (author)

  12. Aged dissolved organic carbon exported from rivers of the Tibetan Plateau. (United States)

    Qu, Bin; Sillanpää, Mika; Li, Chaoliu; Kang, Shichang; Stubbins, Aron; Yan, Fangping; Aho, Kelly Sue; Zhou, Feng; Raymond, Peter A


    The role played by river networks in regional and global carbon cycle is receiving increasing attention. Despite the potential of radiocarbon measurements (14C) to elucidate sources and cycling of different riverine carbon pools, there remain large regions such as the climate-sensitive Tibetan Plateau for which no data are available. Here we provide new 14C data on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from three large Asian rivers (the Yellow, Yangtze and Yarlung Tsangpo Rivers) running on the Tibetan Plateau and present the carbon transportation pattern in rivers of the plateau versus other river system in the world. Despite higher discharge rates during the high flow season, the DOC yield of Tibetan Plateau rivers (0.41 gC m-2 yr-1) was lower than most other rivers due to lower concentrations. Radiocarbon ages of the DOC were older/more depleted (511±294 years before present, yr BP) in the Tibetan rivers than those in Arctic and tropical rivers. A positive correlation between radiocarbon age and permafrost watershed coverage was observed, indicating that 14C-deplted/old carbon is exported from permafrost regions of the Tibetan Plateau during periods of high flow. This is in sharp contrast to permafrost regions of the Arctic which export 14C-enriched carbon during high discharge periods.

  13. Study on the relevance of some of the description methods for plateau-honed surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousfi, M; Mezghani, S; Demirci, I; El Mansori, M


    Much work has been undertaken in recent years into the determination of a complete parametric description of plateau-honed surfaces with the intention of making a link between the process conditions, the surface topography and the required functional performances. Different advanced techniques (plateau/valleys decomposition using the normalized Abbott–Firestone curve or morphological operators, multiscale decomposition using continuous wavelets transform, etc) were proposed and applied in different studies. This paper re-examines the current state of developments and addresses a discussion on the relevance of the different proposed parameters and characterization methods for plateau-honed surfaces by considering the control loop manufacturing-characterization-function. The relevance of appropriate characterization is demonstrated through two experimental studies. They consider the effect of the most plateau honing process variables (the abrasive grit size and abrasive indentation velocity in finish-honing and the plateau-honing stage duration and pressure) on cylinder liner surface textures and hydrodynamic friction of the ring-pack system. (paper)

  14. Preliminary subsurface hydrologic considerations: Columbia River Plateau Physiographic Province. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veatch, M.D.


    This report contains a discussion of the hydrologic conditions of the Columbia River Plateau physiographic province. The Columbia River Plateau is underlain by a thick basalt sequence. The Columbia River basalt sequence contains both basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds. These sedimentary interbeds, which are layers of sedimentary rock between lava flows, are the main aquifer zones in the basalt sequence. Permeable interflow zones, involving the permeable top and/or rubble bottom of a flow, are also water-transmitting zones. A number of stratigraphic units are present in the Pasco Basin, which is in the central part of the Columbia River Plateau. At a conceptual level, the stratigraphic sequence from the surface downward can be separated into four hydrostratigraphic systems. These are: (1) the unsaturated zone, (2) the unconfined aquifer, (3) the uppermost confined aquifers, and (4) the lower Yakima basalt hydrologic sequence. A conceptual layered earth model (LEM) has been developed. The LEM represents the major types of porous media (LEM units) that may be encountered at a number of places on the Columbia Plateau, and specifically in the Pasco Basin. The conceptual LEM is not representative of the actual three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic sequence and hydrologic conditions existing at any specific site within the Columbia Plateau physiographic province. However, the LEM may be useful for gaining a better understanding of how the hydrologic regime may change as a result of disruptive events that may interact with a waste repository in geologic media

  15. Plateau hypoxia attenuates the metabolic activity of intestinal flora to enhance the bioavailability of nifedipine. (United States)

    Zhang, Juanhong; Chen, Yuyan; Sun, Yuemei; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Junmin; Jia, Zhengping


    Nifedipine is completely absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract and its pharmacokinetics and metabolism may be influenced by microorganisms. If gut microbes are involved in the metabolism of nifedipine, plateau hypoxia may regulate the bioavailability and the therapeutic effect of nifedipine by altering the metabolic activity of the gut microbiota. We herein demonstrated for the first time that gut flora is involved in the metabolism of nifedipine by in vitro experiments. In addition, based on the results of 16S rRNA analysis of feces in rats after acute plateau, we first confirmed that the plateau environment could cause changes in the number and composition of intestinal microbes. More importantly, these changes in flora could lead to a slower metabolic activity of nifedipine in the body after an acute plateau, resulting in increased bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of nifedipine. Our research will provide basis and new ideas for changes in the fecal flora of human acutely entering the plateau, and contribute to rational drug use of nifedipine.

  16. Past and future spatiotemporal changes in evapotranspiration and effective moisture on the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Yin, Yunhe; Wu, Shaohong; Zhao, Dongsheng


    evaporative demand has decreased worldwide during the past several decades. This trend is also noted on the Tibetan Plateau, a region that is particularly sensitive to climate change. However, patterns and trends of evapotranspiration and their relationship to drought stress on the Tibetan Plateau are complex and poorly understood. Here, we analyze spatiotemporal changes in evapotranspiration and effective moisture (defined as the ratio of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) to reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo)) based on the modified Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ). Climate data from 80 meteorological stations on the Tibetan Plateau were compiled for the period 1981-2010 and future climate projections were generated by a regional climate model through the 21st century. The results show regional trends towards decreasing ETo and statistically significant increases in ETa (p stress, because of generally increased effective moisture. Future regional differences are most pronounced in terms of effective moisture, which shows notable increases in the northwestern plateau and decreases in the southeastern plateau. Moreover, the reduced magnitude of effective moisture is likely to intensify in the long term, due mainly to increased evaporative demand.

  17. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George


    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  18. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. Assessment of satellite rainfall products over the Andean plateau (United States)

    Satgé, Frédéric; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Gosset, Marielle; Molina, Jorge; Hernan Yuque Lima, Wilson; Pillco Zolá, Ramiro; Timouk, Franck; Garnier, Jérémie


    Nine satellite rainfall estimations (SREs) were evaluated for the first time over the South American Andean plateau watershed by comparison with rain gauge data acquired between 2005 and 2007. The comparisons were carried out at the annual, monthly and daily time steps. All SREs reproduce the salient pattern of the annual rain field, with a marked north-south gradient and a lighter east-west gradient. However, the intensity of the gradient differs among SREs: it is well marked in the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis 3B42 (TMPA-3B42), Precipitation Estimation from remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN) and Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP) products, and it is smoothed out in the Climate prediction center MORPHing (CMORPH) products. Another interesting difference among products is the contrast in rainfall amounts between the water surfaces (Lake Titicaca) and the surrounding land. Some products (TMPA-3B42, PERSIANN and GSMaP) show a contradictory rainfall deficit over Lake Titicaca, which may be due to the emissivity contrast between the lake and the surrounding lands and warm rain cloud processes. An analysis differentiating coastal Lake Titicaca from inland pixels confirmed this trend. The raw or Real Time (RT) products have strong biases over the study region. These biases are strongly positive for PERSIANN (above 90%), moderately positive for TMPA-3B42 (28%), strongly negative for CMORPH (- 42%) and moderately negative for GSMaP (- 18%). The biases are associated with a deformation of the rain rate frequency distribution: GSMaP underestimates the proportion of rainfall events for all rain rates; CMORPH overestimates the proportion of rain rates below 2 mm day- 1; and the other products tend to overestimate the proportion of moderate to high rain rates. These biases are greatly reduced by the gauge adjustment in the TMPA-3B42, PERSIANN and CMORPH products, whereas a

  20. Isotope study of the groundwater of the Apodi Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, M.M.F.; Silva, C.M.S.V.; Frischkorn, H.; Manoel Filho, J.; Mendes Filho, J.


    Full text: The environmental isotopes oxygen-18 and deuterium, excellent natural tracers in hydrology, are used to characterize the groundwater stored in the Sedimentary Apodi Basin. They are originating from the Acu Sandstone Formation and from the limestone of the Jandaira Formation. These waters assist the needs from agricultural industry implanted on the top of the Apodi Plateau, responsible for the export of tropical horticulture products. This turns these waters a strategic reserve for the economic and social development of the area, and detailed knowledge of their storage and recharge conditions is necessary in order to maintain a sustainable exploration and an appropriate rational administration. With the objective of understanding the recharge mechanism and the interaction between the two aquifers, hydro chemical parameters, pH, and electric conductivity and isotopes oxygen-18 and deuterium were measured. Samples were collected in two periods, being one during the dry (set/09) and the other one at the beginning of the rainy period (jan/10). Values of δ 18 (in per mil) range from -3.5 to -2.0 in the Jandaira limestone waters, whereas they have an average of only -4.5 in Acu sandstone. Thus Jandaira values indicate the presence of recent waters and the values below - 4.0 in Acu waters indicate the presence of paleowaters, waters that should be considered as strategic reserve. The relationships between the two isotopes measured in the dry and rainy periods are described respectively by the equations δD = 4.0δO 18 - 10.5 and δD = 5.3δO 18 - 1.3. Comparing them to the classical World Meteoric Water Line (δD = 8δO 18 + 10, we identify that especially in the dry period evaporation and/or limestone dissolution play an important role. Electric conductivities of Jandaira waters range from 1000 to 3000μS/cm; waters from Acu sandstone are of lower salinity with a mean value of 500μS/cm. The relationship between the parameters oxygen-18, deuterium and electric

  1. Elevation Pattern in Growth Coherency on the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Lyu

    Full Text Available It is generally expected that inter-annual changes in radial growth among trees would be similar to the increase in altitude due to the limitation of increasingly harsher climatic factors. Here, we examine whether this pattern exists in alpine forests on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Increment cores were collected from mature trees at the lower, middle and upper limits of balfour spruce (Picea likiangensis var. balfouriana (Rehd. et Wils. Hillier ex Slsvin forests at the Buze and Yela Mountains in Basu County, Changdu Prefecture of Tibet, China. The treeline elevations are 4320 m and 4510 m a.s.l. for Buze and Yela, respectively. Tree-ring widths were measured, crossdated, and detrended to obtain a sequence of ring-width indices for each individual sample. Annual growth rate, climate sensitivity, growth-climate relationships, and growth synchrony among trees were calculated and compared across altitudes. In Buze Mountain, the annual growth rate of trees has no significant difference across altitudes. The mean sensitivity of trees is lower at the treelines than at lower elevations. Tree growth has stronger correlation with winter temperature at upper elevations than at lower elevations, has significant correlation with moisture, not temperature, in the growing season, and the growth response to moisture is lower at the treeline than at lower elevations. The correlation among individual tree-ring sequences is lower at the treeline than at sites at lower elevation. In Yela Mountain, the characterisitics of annual growth rate, mean sensitivity, tree growth-climate relationships, and inter-serial correlation are similar to those in Buze, but their differences along altitudinal gradients are less significant as those in Buze. Our data do not support the general expectation of growth convergence among individuals with increasing altitude. We conclude that individual heterogeneity and microhabitat diversity are important features for treeline trees

  2. Elevation Pattern in Growth Coherency on the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. (United States)

    Lyu, Lixin; Deng, Xu; Zhang, Qi-Bin

    It is generally expected that inter-annual changes in radial growth among trees would be similar to the increase in altitude due to the limitation of increasingly harsher climatic factors. Here, we examine whether this pattern exists in alpine forests on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Increment cores were collected from mature trees at the lower, middle and upper limits of balfour spruce (Picea likiangensis var. balfouriana (Rehd. et Wils.) Hillier ex Slsvin) forests at the Buze and Yela Mountains in Basu County, Changdu Prefecture of Tibet, China. The treeline elevations are 4320 m and 4510 m a.s.l. for Buze and Yela, respectively. Tree-ring widths were measured, crossdated, and detrended to obtain a sequence of ring-width indices for each individual sample. Annual growth rate, climate sensitivity, growth-climate relationships, and growth synchrony among trees were calculated and compared across altitudes. In Buze Mountain, the annual growth rate of trees has no significant difference across altitudes. The mean sensitivity of trees is lower at the treelines than at lower elevations. Tree growth has stronger correlation with winter temperature at upper elevations than at lower elevations, has significant correlation with moisture, not temperature, in the growing season, and the growth response to moisture is lower at the treeline than at lower elevations. The correlation among individual tree-ring sequences is lower at the treeline than at sites at lower elevation. In Yela Mountain, the characterisitics of annual growth rate, mean sensitivity, tree growth-climate relationships, and inter-serial correlation are similar to those in Buze, but their differences along altitudinal gradients are less significant as those in Buze. Our data do not support the general expectation of growth convergence among individuals with increasing altitude. We conclude that individual heterogeneity and microhabitat diversity are important features for treeline trees that may dampen

  3. Preliminary evaluation of the uranium favorability in the Kaiparowits Plateau Region, Garfield and Kane Counties, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubyk, W.S.; Young, P.


    The basal sandstone of the Chinle Formation (Upper Triassic) and the Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) in the Kaiparowits Plateau, southcentral Utah, were evaluated in terms of uranium potential. Both surface and subsurface data were utilized. Favorability of the basal Chinle sandstone was based on (1) presence of intermediate-size sandstone-filled channels cut into the Moenkopi; (2) presence of carbonaceous material; (3) an adequate source of uranium; and (4) gamma-ray anomalies from test-hole logs. Favorability of the Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation was based on (1) sandstone-mudstone ratios that approach equality, and (2) presence of thick sandstone lenses, carbonaceous material, and halos of light-tan to brown limonite staining. Although the basal Chinle sandstone and the Salt Wash Member of the Morrison contain sizable uranium deposits throughout much of the Colorado Plateau, both units lack characteristics that are favorable for significant uranium deposits in the Kaiparowits Plateau

  4. Remote sensing of severe convective storms over Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Liu, J. M.; Tsao, D. Y.; Smith, R. E.


    The American satellite, GOES-1 was moved to the Indian Ocean at 58 deg E during the First GARP Global Experiment (FGGE). The Qinghai-Xizang Plateau significantly affects the initiation and development of heavy rainfall and severe storms in China, just as the Rocky Mountains influence the local storms in the United States. Satelite remote sensing of short-lived, meso-scale convective storms is particularly important for covering a huge area of a high elevation with a low population density, such as the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. Results of this study show that a high growth rate of the convective clouds, followed by a rapid collapse of the cloud top, is associated with heavy rainfall in the area. The tops of the convective clouds developed over the Plateau lie between the altitudes of the two tropopauses, while the tops of convective clouds associated with severe storms in the United States usually extend much above the tropopause.

  5. Model Package Report: Central Plateau Vadose Zone Geoframework Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, Sarah D.


    The purpose of the Central Plateau Vadose Zone (CPVZ) Geoframework model (GFM) is to provide a reasonable, consistent, and defensible three-dimensional (3D) representation of the vadose zone beneath the Central Plateau at the Hanford Site to support the Composite Analysis (CA) vadose zone contaminant fate and transport models. The GFM is a 3D representation of the subsurface geologic structure. From this 3D geologic model, exported results in the form of point, surface, and/or volumes are used as inputs to populate and assemble the various numerical model architectures, providing a 3D-layered grid that is consistent with the GFM. The objective of this report is to define the process used to produce a hydrostratigraphic model for the vadose zone beneath the Hanford Site Central Plateau and the corresponding CA domain.

  6. Classification Of The Groundwaters Of The Antalya Travertine Plateau By Isotope Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atilla, O.A.


    The relation between the springs and wells located in Antalya Travertine Plateau is evaluated and classified by using the isotopic composition ({ 3 H(T), ( 18 O), 2 H(D)})of these water resources. The δ 18 O-δD, δ 18 O-TU, δ 18 O-EC, δ 18 O-Cl relations between the water resources in the area are explained and three groups are determined: (1) groundwater with longer residence time discharging in upper plateau and Varsak-Duedenbasi system, (2) groundwater with shorter residence time discharging in the lower plateau, (3) surface waters. The same results obtained by using cluster and principal factor analysis of the hydrogeochemical and isotopic data

  7. A longitudinal cline characterizes the genetic structure of human populations in the Tibetan plateau (United States)

    Peter, Benjamin M.; Basnyat, Buddha; Neupane, Maniraj; Beall, Cynthia M.; Childs, Geoff; Craig, Sienna R.; Novembre, John; Di Rienzo, Anna


    Indigenous populations of the Tibetan plateau have attracted much attention for their good performance at extreme high altitude. Most genetic studies of Tibetan adaptations have used genetic variation data at the genome scale, while genetic inferences about their demography and population structure are largely based on uniparental markers. To provide genome-wide information on population structure, we analyzed new and published data of 338 individuals from indigenous populations across the plateau in conjunction with worldwide genetic variation data. We found a clear signal of genetic stratification across the east-west axis within Tibetan samples. Samples from more eastern locations tend to have higher genetic affinity with lowland East Asians, which can be explained by more gene flow from lowland East Asia onto the plateau. Our findings corroborate a previous report of admixture signals in Tibetans, which were based on a subset of the samples analyzed here, but add evidence for isolation by distance in a broader geospatial context. PMID:28448508

  8. The application of INAA in a study of environment geochemistry on the Xizang (Tibet) Plateau, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junliang Tian; Puling Liu; Yaqi Li


    INAA as a routine analysis method has been used in a study of environment geochemistry on the Xizang (Tibet) Plateau in China, and 34 elements in soil samples were determined by INAA with both short and long irradiations. Some primary results from the study, including mean element concentrations in Tibetian soil, patterns of element distribution in soils developed from main types of parent materials on the plateau are described. The results confirm the expectation that soil formed in such cold and dry environment on the the plateau retained the main geochemical characteristics of the parent materials. However, the results still imply the possible migration of some elements in different bio-climatic environments during the soil formation. The elements in the top soils, mainly the alkalis and alkaline earths, and also As, Br, etc., were enriched or depleted in varying degrees in proportion to their abundance in the parent materials. (author) 9 refs.; 4 tabs

  9. Morphotectonics of a high plateau on the northwestern flank of the Continental Rift of southeastern Brazil (United States)

    Modenesi-Gauttieri, May Christine; Takashi Hiruma, Silvio; Riccomini, Claudio


    Integration of landform and structural analysis allowed the identification of Late Pleistocene-Holocene pulses of tectonic activity in the Campos do Jordão Plateau with ages and regimes similar to the ones from the continental rift. Fault reactivation along Precambrian shear zones give rise to a series of conspicuous morphotectonic features, determine the formation of stream piracy phenomena, and divide the plateau into smaller blocks. Recognition of these tectonic pulses as well as of their effects in landform development—particularly clear on the Campos de São Francisco at the highest area of the SE edge of the plateau—show that besides the climate-related Quaternary environmental changes significant neotectonic instability should be considered in the geomorphic evolution of the Campos do Jordão Plateau.

  10. Electron radiography (United States)

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher


    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  11. Glacier mass changes on the Tibetan Plateau 2003–2009 derived from ICESat laser altimetry measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neckel, N; Kropáček, J; Hochschild, V; Bolch, T


    Glacier mass changes are a valuable indicator of climate variability and monsoon oscillation on the underexplored Tibetan Plateau. In this study data from the Ice Cloud and Elevation Satellite (ICESat) is employed to estimate elevation and mass changes of glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau between 2003 and 2009. In order to get a representative sample size of ICESat measurements, glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau were grouped into eight climatically homogeneous sub-regions. Most negative mass budgets of − 0.77 ± 0.35 m w.e. a −1 were found for the Qilian Mountains and eastern Kunlun Mountains while a mass gain of + 0.37 ± 0.25 m w.e. a −1 was found in the westerly-dominated north-central part of the Tibetan Plateau. A total annual mass budget of − 15.6 ± 10.1 Gt a −1 was estimated for the eight sub-regions sufficiently covered by ICESat data which represents ∼80% of the glacier area on the Tibetan Plateau. 13.9 ± 8.9 Gt a −1 (or 0.04 ± 0.02 mm a −1 sea-level equivalent) of the total mass budget contributed ‘directly’ to the global sea-level rise while 1.7 ± 1.9 Gt a −1 drained into endorheic basins on the plateau. (paper)

  12. Some practical notes on the land surface modeling in the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yang


    Full Text Available The Tibetan Plateau is a key region of land-atmosphere interactions, as it provides an elevated heat source to the middle-troposphere. The Plateau surfaces are typically characterized by alpine meadows and grasslands in the central and eastern part while by alpine deserts in the western part. This study evaluates performance of three state-of-the-art land surface models (LSMs for the Plateau typical land surfaces. The LSMs of interest are SiB2 (the Simple Biosphere, CoLM (Common Land Model, and Noah. They are run at typical alpine meadow sites in the central Plateau and typical alpine desert sites in the western Plateau.

    The identified key processes and modeling issues are as follows. First, soil stratification is a typical phenomenon beneath the alpine meadows, with dense roots and soil organic matters within the topsoil, and it controls the profile of soil moisture in the central and eastern Plateau; all models, when using default parameters, significantly under-estimate the soil moisture within the topsoil. Second, a soil surface resistance controls the surface evaporation from the alpine deserts but it has not been reasonably modeled in LSMs; an advanced scheme for soil water flow is implemented in a LSM, based on which the soil resistance is determined from soil water content and meteorological conditions. Third, an excess resistance controls sensible heat fluxes from dry bare-soil or sparsely vegetated surfaces, and all LSMs significantly under-predict the ground-air temperature gradient, which would result in higher net radiation, lower soil heat fluxes and thus higher sensible heat fluxes in the models. A parameterization scheme for this resistance has been shown to be effective to remove these biases.

  13. Combining CHAMP and Swarm Satellite Data to Invert the Lithospheric Magnetic Field in the Tibetan Plateau. (United States)

    Qiu, Yaodong; Wang, Zhengtao; Jiang, Weiping; Zhang, Bingbing; Li, Fupeng; Guo, Fei


    CHAMP and Swarm satellite magnetic data are combined to establish the lithospheric magnetic field over the Tibetan Plateau at satellite altitude by using zonal revised spherical cap harmonic analysis (R-SCHA). These data are integrated with geological structures data to analyze the relationship between magnetic anomaly signals and large-scale geological tectonic over the Tibetan Plateau and to explore the active tectonic region based on the angle of the magnetic anomaly. Results show that the model fitting error is small for a layer 250-500 km high, and the RMSE of the horizontal and radial geomagnetic components is better than 0.3 nT. The proposed model can accurately describe medium- to long-scale lithospheric magnetic anomalies. Analysis indicates that a negative magnetic anomaly in the Tibetan Plateau significantly differs with a positive magnetic anomaly in the surrounding area, and the boundary of the positive and negative regions is generally consistent with the geological tectonic boundary in the plateau region. Significant differences exist between the basement structures of the hinterland of the plateau and the surrounding area. The magnetic anomaly in the Central and Western Tibetan Plateau shows an east-west trend, which is identical to the direction of the geological structures. The magnetic anomaly in the eastern part is arc-shaped and extends along the northeast direction. Its direction is significantly different from the trend of the geological structures. The strongest negative anomaly is located in the Himalaya block, with a central strength of up to -9 nT at a height of 300 km. The presence of a strong negative anomaly implies that the Curie isotherm in this area is relatively shallow and deep geological tectonic activity may exist.

  14. Subduction of a buoyant plateau at the Manila Trench: Tomographic evidence and geodynamic implications (United States)

    Fan, Jianke; Zhao, Dapeng; Dong, Dongdong


    We determined P-wave tomographic images by inverting a large number of arrival-time data from 2749 local earthquakes and 1462 teleseismic events, which are used to depict the three-dimensional morphology of the subducted Eurasian Plate along the northern segment of the Manila Trench. Dramatic changes in the dip angle of the subducted Eurasian Plate are revealed from the north to the south, being consistent with the partial subduction of a buoyant plateau beneath the Luzon Arc. Slab tears may exist along the edges of the buoyant plateau within the subducted plate induced by the plateau subduction, and the subducted lithosphere may be absent at depths greater than 250 km at ˜19°N and ˜21°N. The subducted buoyant plateau is possibly oriented toward NW-SE, and the subducted plate at ˜21°N is slightly steeper than that at ˜19°N. These results may explain why the western and eastern volcanic chains in the Luzon Arc are separated by ˜50 km at ˜18°N, whereas they converge into a single volcanic chain northward, which may be related to the oblique subduction along the Manila Trench caused by the northwestern movement of the Philippine Sea Plate. A low-velocity zone is revealed at depths of 20-200 km beneath the Manila Accretionary Prism at ˜22°N, suggesting that the subduction along the Manila Trench may stop there and the collision develops northward. The Taiwan Orogeny may originate directly from the subduction of the buoyant plateau, because the initial time of the Taiwan Orogeny is coincident with that of the buoyant plateau subduction.

  15. Complex Medial Meniscus Tears Are Associated With a Biconcave Medial Tibial Plateau. (United States)

    Barber, F Alan; Getelman, Mark H; Berry, Kathy L


    To determine whether an association exists between a biconcave medial tibial plateau and complex medial meniscus tears. A consecutive series of stable knees undergoing arthroscopy were evaluated retrospectively with the use of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), radiographs, and arthroscopy documented by intraoperative videos. Investigators independently performed blinded reviews of the MRI or videos. Based on the arthroscopy findings, medial tibial plateaus were classified as either biconcave or not biconcave. A transverse coronal plane ridge, separating the front of the tibial plateau from the back near the inner margin of the posterior body of the medial meniscus, was defined as biconcave. The medial plateau slope was calculated with MRI sagittal views. General demographic information, body mass index, and arthroscopically confirmed knee pathology were recorded. A total of 179 consecutive knees were studied from July 2014 through August 2015; 49 (27.2%) biconcave medial tibial plateaus and 130 (72.8%) controls were identified at arthroscopy. Complex medial meniscus tears were found in 103. Patients with a biconcave medial tibial plateau were found to have more complex medial meniscus tears (69.4%) than those without a biconcavity (53.1%) (P = .049) despite having lower body mass index (P = .020). No difference in medial tibial plateau slope was observed for biconcavities involving both cartilage and bone, bone only, or an indeterminate group (P = .47). Biconcave medial tibial plateaus were present in 27.4% of a consecutive series of patients undergoing knee arthroscopy. A biconcave medial tibial plateau was more frequently associated with a complex medial meniscus tear. Level III, case-control study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. All rights reserved.

  16. 1/3 magnetization plateau in a one-dimensional anisotropic ferrimagnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonegawa, T [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Fukui University of Technology, Fukui 910-8505 (Japan); Sakai, T [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Spring-8, Hyogo 679-5148, and Crest JST, Japan (Japan); Okamoto, K [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Kaburagi, M [Faculty of Cross-Cultural Studies, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)


    Using mainly numerical methods, we investigate the ground-state magnetization curve of a mixed spin chain with uniaxial single-ion anisotropies, where S = 1 and S = 2 spins are alternating and coupled antiferromagnetically. Special attention is paid to the magnetization plateau, the 1/3-plateau, which appears at one third of the saturation magnetization in the magnetization curve. It is found that there appear three kinds of 1/3-plateaux, one of which has a quantum nature, while the remaining two have a classical (Ising) nature.

  17. The Seasonal and Intraseasonal Variability of Diurnal Cloud Activity over the Tibetan Plateau


    Hatsuki, Fujinami; Tetsuzo, Yasunari; Institute of Geoscience, University of Tsukuba; Institute of Geoscience, University of Tsukuba


    Seasonal variation of diurnal cloud activity(abbreviated DCA)over the Tibetan Plateau throughout the year is examined using 3-hourly geostationary meteorological satellite(GMS)data for 6-years(1989-1994). The DCA shows two distinct variance maxima in the seasonal cycle. One is in spring(pre-monsoon season), and the other is in the summer monsoon season. The DCA begins in late January, and reaches its maximum from March through April. The active DCA extends over almost the whole of the plateau...

  18. Livelihood Vulnerability Assessment Of Farmers and Nomads in Eastern Ecotone of Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Yan, J.; Zhang, Y.


    Livelihood vulnerability assessment provides a scientific basis for anti-poverty of people and regional sustainable development in vulnerable area. Although there are massive discussions on concept of vulnerability, it is still difficult to make it quantitative and to carry out comprehensive appraise. Vulnerability assessments based on sustainable livelihood frame are widely accepted in case studies for attentions to vulnerable groups. However, these case studies are always on regional scale and never reflect how climate change affects people's livelihood and adaptive capability of people. It is necessary to seek vulnerable assessment index system and means based on livelihood process of local people. This paper develops a livelihood vulnerability assessment index system on the basis of sustainable livelihood framework and appraises livelihood vulnerability values of 11 townships, using data of 879 sample households. Livelihood vulnerability assessment index system reflects main risks, livelihood assets and adaptation strategies of local people and government. The results show that livelihood vulnerability level of plateau region is higher than that of mountain to plateau region and mountain gorge region. Manzhang Township in plateau region is the most vulnerable township and nomads there cannot cope with risks of climate change, meadow degeneration and herbs degradation. Upper part of mountain to plateau region and the whole plateau region have high livelihood vulnerability values and local nomads would not cope with risks if no measures are taken by government. The driving forces of livelihood vulnerability include strikes of risks and deficiency of livelihood assets and adaptive capability. Farmers and nomads in high mountain gorge region and lower part of mountain to plateau region can cope with these risks, meanwhile, there are more employment opportunities in second and tertiary industries are needed to help them realize livelihood diversification. Therefore

  19. Toward Quantitative Understanding of the Atmospheric Heating over the Tibetan Plateau (Invited) (United States)

    Koike, T.; Tamura, T.; Rasmy, M.; Seto, R.


    There are different ideas on the atmospheric heating over the Tibetan Plateau. Yanai et al. (1992) and Yanai and Li (1994) concluded this sensible heat flux from the surface is the major source of heating on the plateau before the summer rain commences. On the other hand, Ueda et al. (2003) also showed the importance of condensation heating in the heat balance during the pre-onset-phase of the summer monsoon over the western part of the Tibetan Plateau. The first intensive in situ observation in early spring was implemented on the plateau in April 2004 under the framework of the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) (Koike, 2004). Taniguchi and Koike (2007) revealed the importance of cumulus activity in atmospheric temperature increases in the upper troposphere even in April by in situ and satellite observations and numerical simulations. They concluded that sensible heat transfer by dry convection is insufficient to warm the upper layer over the plateau and that the development of cloud convection is indispensable for atmospheric heating in the upper troposphere over the plateau during early spring. Then, Taniguchi and Koike (2008) investigated the seasonal variation in the cloud activity over the eastern part of the Tibetan Plateau, and the vertical profile of the atmosphere and moist condition causing the cloud. They showed cumulus convections easily occur under the adiabatically neutral condition of the first phase of the active convections in April. During a resting phase before the second active phase, the atmosphere is conditionally unstable but an unsaturated condition restrains cloud activity, while during second phase, the atmosphere is inclined to be saturated and cloud activity begins again. From early May to mid June, there is a resting period of cumulus convective activity. However, the tropospheric temperature at 200 hPa increases rapidly from late April. Such rapid tropospheric warming without significant cumulus convective activity is

  20. Human-computer interfaces applied to numerical solution of the Plateau problem (United States)

    Elias Fabris, Antonio; Soares Bandeira, Ivana; Ramos Batista, Valério


    In this work we present a code in Matlab to solve the Problem of Plateau numerically, and the code will include human-computer interface. The Problem of Plateau has applications in areas of knowledge like, for instance, Computer Graphics. The solution method will be the same one of the Surface Evolver, but the difference will be a complete graphical interface with the user. This will enable us to implement other kinds of interface like ocular mouse, voice, touch, etc. To date, Evolver does not include any graphical interface, which restricts its use by the scientific community. Specially, its use is practically impossible for most of the Physically Challenged People.

  1. Numberical Calculations of Atmospheric Conditions over Tibetan Plateau by Using WRF Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Xuan; Yao, Yongqiang; Wang, Hongshuai; Liu, Liyong; Li, Junrong; Yin, Jia


    The wind field, precipitable water vapor are analyzed by using the mesoscale numerical model WRF over Tibetan Plateau, and the aerosol is analyzed by using WRF- CHEM model. The spatial and vertical distributions of the relevant atmospheric factors are summarized, providing truth evidence for selecting and further evaluating an astronomical site. It has been showed that this method could provide good evaluation of atmospheric conditions. This study serves as a further demonstration towards astro-climate regionalization, and provides with essential database for astronomical site survey over Tibetan Plateau. (paper)

  2. [Study of blood oxygen saturation, heart rate changes and plateau reaction of the Antarctic Kunlun station investigation team in different plateau environments]. (United States)

    Zhao, Shun-yun; Wu, Xin-min; Guo, Ya-min; Zhang, Shu-shun; An, Yan-ming; Li, Bing; Wang, Hao


    To explore the blood oxygen saturation and heart rate changes of the Antarctic explorers. During August 2010 to April 2011, the changes in blood oxygen saturation, heart rate and plateau reaction of 16 Antarctic expedition team in different plateau environments (Tibetan plateau versus Antarctic plateau) were monitored with the noninvasive pulse oximeter MD300-C. The extent of acute mountain sickness was determined according to the Lake Louise Consensus acute mountain reaction symptom scores and judgment method. The changes of blood oxygen saturation, heart rate at different altitudes of 110, 3650, 4300 m (96.8% ± 1.2%,89.1% ± 1.2%, 86.1% ± 2.0%, (75.0 ± 5.4) times/min, (104.0 ± 4.3) times/min, (113.0 ± 5.2) times/min,F = 214.155, 240.088,both P rate at different altitudes of 2000, 2500, 3000, 3500 and 4087 m(91.9% ± 1.3%,90.5% ± 1.3%,87.6% ± 1.4%,85.0% ± 1.8%,81.5% ± 2.2%, (85.9 ± 3.2) times/min, (90.6 ± 2.8) times/min, (97.8 ± 4.1) times/min, (102.0 ± 3.4) times/min, (106.3 ± 3.9) times/min, F = 105.418, 90.174, both P rate were both correlated with the risk of altitude sickness (r = -0.446 and 0.565, both P rate of the Antarctic explorers. And with the increases of altitude, the risk of altitude sickness gradually increases.

  3. Ornithological monitoring of the wind farms of the Garrigue high plateau (Aude); Suivi ornithologique des parcs eoliens du Plateau de Garrigue Haute (Aude)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document presents the monitoring of the premarital migration 2001 in the wind farm of Corbieres-Maritime on the Garrigue Haute plateau. It aims to study the wind turbines impacts and risks on the migration. In spite of a weak mortality, the number of observed modifications in the birds habits at the approach of the wind turbines confirms the necessity of taking into account the migration phenomena in the wind farms projects. (A.L.B.)

  4. Mechanism of plateau formation in the fractional quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruus, H.; Hansen, O.P.; Hansen, E.B.


    Laughlin's fractionally charged quasi-holes and quasi-electrons are assumed to be pinned, and to be subject to a force j vectorxΦ 0 vector from the transport current. A force balance argument then explains the existence of Hall plateaus. (orig.)

  5. Breaking the spiral of unsustainability : an exploratory land use study for Ansai, the Loess Plateau of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, C.


    Serious soil loss, food insecurity, population pressure, and low income of the rural population are interrelated, and consequently result in a spiral of unsustainability in the Loess Plateau, China. This thesis takes Ansai County in the Loess Plateau of China as a case study, to explore

  6. Double hump sign in indentation gonioscopy is correlated with presence of plateau iris configuration regardless of patent iridotomy. (United States)

    Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Kanamoto, Takashi; Nakamura, Takao


    A plateau iris is one of the clinical forms of angle closure glaucoma. In patients with a patent iridotomy, the double hump sign detected during indentation gonioscopy has been reported to indicate the existence of a plateau iris configuration. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the double hump sign is correlated with the presence of the plateau iris syndrome regardless of the patency of the iridotomy. Five women and 3 men without a patent iridotomy presented with narrow angles on gonioscopy and a double hump sign on indentation gonioscopy. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) imaging was performed to determine the etiology of the narrow angle and double hump sign, and to determine the appropriate treatment to prevent the progression of visual field damage. Ten patients with narrow angles and without a double hump sign were also examined by UBM to serve as a control group. All 8 patients who showed double hump sign had a short iris root, which was inserted anterior to the ciliary face, a typical anatomic appearance of a plateau iris. On the other hand, only 1 eye of 10 eyes in control group appeared to have a plateau iris. A double hump sign observed on indentation gonioscopy is strongly correlated with the presence of a plateau iris, and therefore a useful indicator of a plateau iris configuration regardless of the patency of a laser iridotomy. Thus, a plateau iris configuration can be detected without using a UBM in many cases.

  7. Mapping of lithologic and structural units using multispectral imagery. [Afar-Triangle/Ethiopia and adjacent areas (Ethiopian Plateau, Somali Plateau, and parts of Yemen and Saudi Arabia) (United States)

    Kronberg, P. (Principal Investigator)


    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 MSS imagery covering the Afar-Triangle/Ethiopia and adjacent regions (Ethiopian Plateau, Somali Plateau, and parts of Yemen and Saudi Arabi) was applied to the mapping of lithologic and structural units of the test area at a scale 1:1,000,000. Results of the geological evaluation of the ERTS-1 imagery of the Afar have proven the usefullness of this type of satellite data for regional geological mapping. Evaluation of the ERTS images also resulted in new aspects of the structural setting and tectonic development of the Afar-Triangle, where three large rift systems, the oceanic rifts of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden and the continental East African rift system, seem to meet each other. Surface structures mapped by ERTS do not indicate that the oceanic rift of the Gulf of Aden (Sheba Ridge) continues into the area of continental crust west of the Gulf of Tadjura. ERTS data show that the Wonji fault belt of the African rift system does not enter or cut through the central Afar. The Aysha-Horst is not a Horst but an autochthonous spur of the Somali Plateau.

  8. A study of cloud microphysics and precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau by radar observations and cloud-resolving model simulations: Cloud Microphysics over Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Wenhua [State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing China; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Sui, Chung-Hsiung [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei Taiwan; Fan, Jiwen [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Hu, Zhiqun [State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing China; Zhong, Lingzhi [State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing China


    Cloud microphysical properties and precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) are unique because of the high terrains, clean atmosphere, and sufficient water vapor. With dual-polarization precipitation radar and cloud radar measurements during the Third Tibetan Plateau Atmospheric Scientific Experiment (TIPEX-III), the simulated microphysics and precipitation by the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) with the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences (CAMS) microphysics and other microphysical schemes are investigated through a typical plateau rainfall event on 22 July 2014. Results show that the WRF-CAMS simulation reasonably reproduces the spatial distribution of 24-h accumulated precipitation, but has limitations in simulating time evolution of precipitation rates. The model-calculated polarimetric radar variables have biases as well, suggesting bias in modeled hydrometeor types. The raindrop sizes in convective region are larger than those in stratiform region indicated by the small intercept of raindrop size distribution in the former. The sensitivity experiments show that precipitation processes are sensitive to the changes of warm rain processes in condensation and nucleated droplet size (but less sensitive to evaporation process). Increasing droplet condensation produces the best area-averaged rain rate during weak convection period compared with the observation, suggesting a considerable bias in thermodynamics in the baseline simulation. Increasing the initial cloud droplet size causes the rain rate reduced by half, an opposite effect to that of increasing droplet condensation.

  9. Cyprininae phylogeny revealed independent origins of the Tibetan Plateau endemic polyploid cyprinids and their diversifications related to the Neogene uplift of the plateau. (United States)

    Wang, Xuzhen; Gan, Xiaoni; Li, Junbing; Chen, Yiyu; He, Shunping


    Origin and diversification of the Tibetan polyploid cyprinids (schizothoracins) may help us to explore relationships between diversification of the cyprinids and the Tibetan Plateau uplift. Cyprininae phylogeny was analyzed using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences to trace origins of polyploidy and diversifications of schizothoracins. Ancestral states reconstruction for ploidy levels indicated that the Cyprininae was diploid origin and the schizothoracin clades tetraploid origins. There were two diversification rate shifts along with diversification of the cyprinine fishes in response to the Tibetan uplift. The unusual diversification shifts were located to branches subtending the clades of Tibetan polyploid cyprinids. Our analyses suggested that (i) phylogeny of Cyprininae recovered two independent origins of the Tibetan polyploidy schizothoracins; (ii) diversifications of the schizothoracins were closely related to the Neogene uplift of the Tibetan plateau in the following ways: the relatively ancient Late Oligocene-Middle Miocene adaptive radiation may be associated with the uplift of the southern Tibet and Himalaya; the Middle Miocene-Early Pleistocene lineage-specific diversification broadly coincident with major phase of the Neogene Tibetan uplift; and the most recent Pleistocene diversification shift in Schizothorax closely coincident with the successive Kunlun-Huanghe and Gonghe movements of the Tibetan uplift and the glaciation-induced climate oscillations on the plateau.

  10. Paleosols in low-order streams and valley heads in the Araucaria Plateau - Record of continental environmental conditions in southern Brazil at the end of MIS 3 (United States)

    Paisani, Julio Cesar; Pontelli, Marga Eliz; Osterrieth, Margarita Luisa; Paisani, Sani Daniela Lopes; Fachin, Andressa; Guerra, Simone; Oliveira, Leandro


    The Araucaria Plateau is a geomorphological unit that occupies approximately three-quarters of the terrain in the southern region of Brazil. The plateau displays different altitudinal levels (600 to relief inversion occurred, which resulted in fossilization of the valleys.

  11. Carbon fluxes of Kobresia pygmaea pastures on the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Foken, T.; Biermann, T.; Babel, W.; Ma, Y.


    With an approximate cover of 450,000 km2 on the Tibetan Plateau (TP), the Cyperaceae Kobresia pygmaea forms he world's largest alpine ecosystem. This species, especially adapted to grazing pressure, grows to a height of only 2-6 cm and can be found in an altitudinal range of 4000 to 5960 m a.s.l. A special characteristic of this ecosystem is the stable turf layer, which is built up from roots and plays a significant role in protecting soil from erosion. This is of great importance since soils on the TP store 2.5 % of the global soil organic carbon stocks. The aim of the investigation was the study of the carbon storage and the impact of human-induced land use change on these Kobresia pygmaea pastures. We therefore applied eddy-covariance measurements and modelling as a long-term control of the fluxes between the atmosphere and the pastures and 13C labelling for the investigation of flux partitioning, and chamber measurements to investigate the degradation of the pastures. Combining CO2 budgets observed in 2010 with eddy-covariance measurements and relative partitioning of Carbon fluxes estimated with 13C labelling enabled us to characterise the C turnover for the vegetation period with absolute fluxes within the plant-soil-atmosphere continuum. These results revealed that this ecosystem indeed stores a great amount of C in below-ground pools, especially in the root turf layer. To further investigate the importance of the root layer, the experiments in 2012 focused on flux measurements over the different surface types which make up the heterogeneity of the Kobresia pygmaea pastures and might result from degradation due to extensive grazing. The three surface types investigated with a LiCOR long-term monitoring chamber system include Kobresia pygmaea with intact turf layer (IRM), a surface type where the turf layer is still present but the vegetation is sparse and mainly consists of Cryptogam crusts (DRM) and finally areas without the turf layer (BS). According to

  12. Summary of the mineralogy of the Colorado Plateau uranium ores (United States)

    Weeks, Alice D.; Coleman, Robert Griffin; Thompson, Mary E.


    In the Colorado Plateau uranium has been produced chiefly from very shallow mines in carnotite ores (oxidized vanadiferous uranium ores) until recent deeper mining penetrated black unoxidized ores in water-saturated rocks and extensive exploration has discovered many deposits of low to nonvanadiferous ores. The uranium ores include a wide range from highly vanadiferous and from as much as one percent to a trace of copper, and contain a small amount of iron and traces of lead, zinc, molybdenum, cobalt, nickel, silver, manganese, and other metals. Recent investigation indicates that the carnotite ores have been derived by progressive oxidation of primary (unoxidized) black ores that contain low-valent uranium and vanadium oxides and silicates. The uranium minerals, uraninite and coffinite, are associated with coalified wood or other carbonaceous material. The vanadium minerals, chiefly montroseite, roscoelite, and other vanadium silicates, occur in the interstices of the sandstone and in siltstone and clay pellets as well as associated with fossil wood. Calcite, dolomite, barite and minor amounts of sulfides, arsenides, and selenides occur in the unoxidized ore. Partially oxidized vanadiferous ore is blue black, purplish brown, or greenish black in contrast to the black or dark gray unoxidized ore. Vanadium combines with uranium to form rauvite. The excess vanadium is present in corvusite, fernandinite, melanovanadite and many other quadrivalent and quinquevalent vanadium minerals as well as in vanadium silicates. Pyrite and part or all of the calcite are replaced by iron oxides and gypsum. In oxidized vanadiferous uranium ores the uranium is fixed in the relatively insoluble minerals carnotite and tyuyamunite, and the excess vanadium commonly combines with one or more of the following: calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, aluminum, iron, copper, manganese, or barium, or rarely it forms the hydrated pentoxide. The relatively stable vanadium silicates are little

  13. Simulation studies of plasma waves in the electron foreshock: The generation of Langmuir waves by a gentle bump-on-tail electron distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dum, C.T.


    The generation of Langmuir waves by a gentle bump-on-tail electron distribution is analyzed. It is shown that with appropriately designed simulation experiments, quasi-linear theory can be quantitatively verified for parameters corresponding to the electron foreshock. The distribution function develops a plateau by resonant diffusion, and changes outside this velocity range are negligible, except for the contribution of nonresonant diffusion to acceleration of bulk electrons. The dispersion relation is solved for the evolving distribution function and exhibits the dynamics of wave growth and changes in real frequency. The integral of the quasi-linear equations is also used to relate the evolution of distribution function and wave spectrum and gives agreement with the simulations. Even in extremely long simulation runs there is practically no evolution in wave energy or the distribution function, once a plateau has been formed. the saturated field levels are much lower than the estimates that are generally used to assess the importance of additional weak or strong turbulence effects. These effects cannot prevent plateau formation and are only noticeable if ions are also included in the model. They then lead to a redistribution of the spectrum toward low wave number modes which propagate mainly opposite to the beam. This occurs long after plateau formation and plays no significant role in the overall system dynamics or energy balance. One will have to live with quasi-linear theory as a key ingredient for a global model of foreshock wave phenomena

  14. Socio-economic burden of parasitic infections in yaks from 1984 to 2017 on Qinghai Tibetan Plateau of China-A review. (United States)

    Li, Kun; Shahzad, Muhammad; Zhang, Hui; Jiang, Xiong; Mehmood, Khalid; Zhao, Xiaodong; Li, Jiakui


    Yak is an important animal for the Tibetans at Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China. The burden of parasitic diseases has been a major threat to the health of yaks at this region presenting a considerable socio-economic losses and impact to yak production and local nomads. Keeping in view, we collected the published papers from 1984 to 2017 on major parasitic infections in yaks by electronic literature search from five databases including CNKI, Google, PubMed, Science Direct and Web of Science. The prevalence of Eimeria, Babesia, Theileria, Hypodermosis, Cystic echinococcosis, Alveolar echinococcosis, Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Cryptosporidium, Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Toxocara vitulorum, and Fascioliasis infection in yaks was found to be 48.02%, 13.06%, 36.11%, 59.85%, 16.93%, 0.99%, 20.50%, 5.14%, 10.00%, 3.68%, 4.07%, 22.23% and 28.7% respectively. Data presented are contemplated to enhance our current understanding on the major parasitic diseases of yaks at Qinghai Tibetan plateau, China. The main aim of this effort is to ameliorate the effects of the parasitic burden in this specie; so that, the attempts are made to minimize the incidence of these infections in future to raise the socio-economic levels of local community. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Electrons, Electronic Publishing, and Electronic Display. (United States)

    Brownrigg, Edwin B.; Lynch, Clifford A.


    Provides a perspective on electronic publishing by distinguishing between "Newtonian" publishing and "quantum-mechanical" publishing. Highlights include media and publishing, works delivered through electronic media, electronic publishing and the printed word, management of intellectual property, and recent copyright-law issues…

  16. Threshold friction velocity influenced by wetness of soils within the Columbia Plateau (United States)

    Windblown dust impacts air quality in the Columbia Plateau of the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Wind erosion of agricultural lands, which is the predominate source of windblown dust in the region, occurs when the friction velocity exceeds the threshold friction velocity (TFV) of the surface. Soil moisture...

  17. Changes in Climate Extremes and Catastrophic Events in the Mongolian Plateau from 1951 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Yao, Zhi-Jun; Jiang, Liguang


    The spatiotemporal changes in 21 indices of extreme temperature and precipitation for the Mongolian Plateau from 1951 to 2012 were investigated on the basis of daily temperature and precipitation data from 70 meteorological stations. Changes in catastrophic events, such as droughts, floods, and s...

  18. Erosion patterns produced by the paleo Haizishan ice cap, SE Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Fu, P.; Stroeven, A. P.; Harbor, J.; Hättestrand, C.; Heyman, J.; Caffee, M. W.


    Erosion is a primary driver of landscape evolution, topographic relief production, geochemical cycles, and climate change. Combining in situ 10Be and 26Al exposure age dating, geomorphological mapping, and field investigations, we examine glacial erosion patterns of the almost 4,000 km2 paleo Haizishan ice cap on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Our results show that ice caps on the low relief Haizishan Plateau produced a zonal pattern of landscape modification. In locations where apparent exposure ages on bedrock are consistent with the last deglaciation, complete resetting of the cosmogenic exposure age clock indicates glacial erosion of at least a few meters. However, older apparent exposure ages on bedrock in areas known to have been covered by the paleo ice cap during the Last Glacial Maximum indicate inheritance and thus limited glacial erosion. Inferred surface exposure ages from cosmogenic depth profiles through two saprolites vary from resetting and thus saprolite profile truncation to nuclide inheritance indicating limited erosion. Finally, significant nuclide inheritance in river sand samples from basins on the scoured plateau surface also indicate limited glacial erosion during the last glaciation. Hence, for the first time, our study shows clear evidence of preservation under non-erosive ice on the Tibetan Plateau. As patterns of glacial erosion intensity are largely driven by the basal thermal regime, our results confirm earlier inferences from geomorphology for a concentric basal thermal pattern for the paleo Haizishan ice cap during the LGM.

  19. Market perceptions and opportunities for native plant production on the southern Colorado Plateau (United States)

    Donna L. Peppin; Peter Z. Fule; Janet C. Lynn; Anne L. Mottek-Lucas; Carolyn Hull Sieg


    Increases in revegetation activities have created a large demand for locally adapted native plant materials (NPM) in the southwestern United States. Currently, there is a minimal supply of local genotypes to meet this demand. We investigated the potential for the initiation of a native plant market in the southern Colorado Plateau. Through a literature search,...

  20. Generalizing ecological site concepts of the Colorado Plateau for landscape-level applications (United States)

    The Colorado Plateau is an iconic landscape of the American West— containing dozens of national parks, monuments, historic sites, and several UNESCO World Heritage Sites— including some of the Nation’ s most recognizable landmarks, such as the Grand Canyon and the Arches National Park. The concentra...

  1. A scenario exploration of strategic land use options for the Loess Plateau in northern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, C.H.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Rabbinge, R.


    Soil-loss, food insecurity, population pressure and low income of the rural population are interrelated problems in the Loess Plateau of northern China, and result in a spiral of unsustainability. This paper examines Ansai County as a case study to explore strategic land use options that may meet

  2. A trade-off analysis of policy objectives for Ansai, the Loess Plateau of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, C.H.; Ittersum, van M.K.


    Ansai is a county characterized by hilly loess relief that experiences all problems typical to the Loess Plateau of northern China, such as population pressure, soil loss, over-use of marginal lands, and poverty and food insecurity problems. Alleviation of these problems needs an integrated

  3. [Coupling coordinated development of ecological-economic system in Loess Plateau]. (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Feng; Wu, Fa-Qi; Wang, Li; Wang, Jian


    Based on system theory, a coupling coordinated development model of ecological-economic system in Loess Plateau was established, and the evaluation criteria and basic types of the coordinated development of the ecological-economic system were proposed. The county-level coupling coordinated development of the ecological-economic system was also discussed, based on the local characteristics. The interactions between the ecological and economic systems in Loess Plateau could be divided into four stages, i.e., seriously disordered development stage, mild-disordered development stage, low-level coordinated development stage, and high level well-coordinated development stage. At each stage, there existed a cyclic process of profit and loss-antagonist-running-dominant-synchronous development. The coupling development degree of the ecological-economic system in Loess Plateau was overall at a lower level, being about 62.7% of the counties at serious disorder, 30.1% of the counties at mild disorder, and 7.1% of the counties at low but coordinated level. The coupling development degree based on the model established in this study could better reflect the current social-economic and ecological environment situations, especially the status of coordination. To fully understand the coupling of ecological-economic system and to adopt appropriate development mode would be of significance to promote the county-level coordinated development in Loess Plateau.

  4. Distribution of hanging garden vegetation associations on the Colorado Plateau, USA (United States)

    James F. Fowler; N. L. Stanton; Ronald L. Hartman


    Hanging gardens are island-like habitats dominated by mesophytic-hydrophytic plant communities, growing on seeps on the xeric canyon walls of the Colorado Plateau in the American West. We measured the abundance of species and physical microhabitat characteristics of 73 individual hanging gardens during the growing seasons of 1991-1993. Cluster analysis of a simplified...

  5. Soil erosion simulations of land use scenarios for a small Loess Plateau catchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messing, I.; Hessel, R.; Chen Liding,; Ritsema, C.J.; Stolte, J.


    Several land use scenarios were developed for the 3.5 km2 Danangou catchment on the Chinese Loess Plateau. These scenarios consist of four groups of three scenarios each: one group is based on the present land use distribution, the other three (alternative land uses) on a redistribution of land use

  6. Abundance of color bands in Neogene carbonate sediments on Ontong Java Plateau:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, W.H.; Lind, Ida


    When comparing color-band abundances within one sediment section with those of others of the same age but deposited at different depths along a transect on the northeastern flank of Ontong Java Plateau in the western equatorial Pacific (ODP Leg 130), one notes that the sections with the highest s...

  7. Slow growth of the Rayleigh-Plateau instability in aqueous two phase systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geschiere, S.D.; Ziemecka, I.; Van Steijn, V.; Koper, G.J.M.; Van Esch, J.H.; Kreutzer, M.T.


    This paper studies the Rayleigh-Plateau instability for co-flowing immiscible aqueous polymer solutions in a microfluidic channel. Careful vibration-free experiments with controlled actuation of the flow allowed direct measurement of the growth rate of this instability. Experiments for the

  8. Water chemistry in the rives of the permafrost regions on the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Wu, X.; Ma, X.; Ye, L.; Liu, G.


    Qinghai-Tibetan is the largest middle-low latitude permafrost areas on the world. There are several large rivers in the plateau, and the changes of the water resources of these rivers are associated with the water resource security of more than 1.35 billion people. Due to the high gradients, these rivers have a tremendous amount of potential energy for electricity output. To promote economic and social development and provide clean energy, hydropower development has taken place on several rivers which originate on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Since dam construction affect the flow velocity, water temperature, sediments delivery as well as organic matter and nitrogen, it is important to investigate the river chemistry in the head rivers of the reservoirs. We examined the water physio-chemical characteristics in the rivers under the typical vegetation types in the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, and further analyzed their relationship to vegetation. The results showed that the total suspended sediment in the rivers were higher within the catchment of alpine steppe, with the lowest dissolved organic carbon content. In contrast, the rivers within the meadow had the highest dissolved organic carbon and lowest total suspension sediment. The dissolved organic carbon significantly positively correlated with the proportions of the meadow and wet meadow in the catchment. The pH, turbidity, and SUVA254 and dissolved organic carbon also correlated with each other. The results suggest that the vegetation type strongly affect the water chemistry in the permafrost regions on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  9. Facilitation of plateau potentials in turtle motoneurones by a pathway dependent on calcium and calmodulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrier, J F; Mejia-Gervacio, S; Hounsgaard, J


    1. The involvement of intracellular calcium and calmodulin in the modulation of plateau potentials in motoneurones was investigated using intracellular recordings from a spinal cord slice preparation. 2. Chelation of intracellular calcium with BAPTA-AM or inactivation of calmodulin with W-7 or tr...

  10. Plateau Waves of Intracranial Pressure and Partial Pressure of Cerebral Oxygen. (United States)

    Lang, Erhard W; Kasprowicz, Magdalena; Smielewski, Peter; Pickard, John; Czosnyka, Marek


    This study investigates 55 intracranial pressure (ICP) plateau waves recorded in 20 patients after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) with a focus on a moving correlation coefficient between mean arterial pressure (ABP) and ICP, called PRx, which serves as a marker of cerebrovascular reactivity, and a moving correlation coefficient between ABP and cerebral partial pressure of oxygen (pbtO2), called ORx, which serves as a marker for cerebral oxygen reactivity. ICP and ICPamplitude increased significantly during the plateau waves, whereas CPP and pbtO2 decreased significantly. ABP, ABP amplitude, and heart rate remained unchanged. In 73 % of plateau waves PRx increased during the wave. ORx showed an increase during and a decrease after the plateau waves, which was not statistically significant. Our data show profound cerebral vasoparalysis on top of the wave and, to a lesser extent, impairment of cerebral oxygen reactivity. The different behavior of the indices may be due to the different latencies of the cerebral blood flow and oxygen level control mechanisms. While cerebrovascular reactivity is a rapidly reacting mechanism, cerebral oxygen reactivity is slower.

  11. Long-term streamflow response to climatic variability in the Loess Plateau, China (United States)

    Shenping Wang; Zhiqiang Zhang; Ge Sun; Steven G. McNulty; Huayong Zhang; Jianlao Li; Manliang Zhang


    The Loess Plateau region in northwestern China has experienced severe water resource shortages due to the combined impacts of climate and land use changes and water resource exploitation during the past decades. This study was designed to examine the impacts of climatic variability on streamflow characteristics of a 12-km2 watershed near Tianshui City, Gansu Province...

  12. Potential productivity of the Miscanthus energy crop in the Loess Plateau of China under climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wei; Sang, Tao


    With a vast area of marginal land, the Loess Plateau of China is a promising region for large-scale production of second-generation energy crops. However, it remains unknown whether such production is sustainable in the long run, especially under climate change. Using a regional climate change model, PRECIS, we analyzed the impact of climate change on Miscanthus production in the Loess Plateau. Under three emission scenarios, A2, B2, and A1B, both the average yield and total area capable of supporting Miscanthus production would increase continuously in the future period (2011–2099). As a result, the total yield potential in the region would increase by about 20% in this future period from the baseline period (1961–1990). This was explained primarily by predicted increases in temperature and precipitation across the Loess Plateau, which improved the yield of the perennial C4 plants relying exclusively on rainfed production. The areas that are currently too dry or too cold to support Miscanthus production could be turned into energy crop fields, especially along the arid–semiarid transition zone. Thus the Loess Plateau would become increasingly desirable for growing second-generation energy crops in this century, which could in turn contribute to soil improvement and ecological restoration of the region. (letter)

  13. Parasitisme du safoutier par les Tapinanthus au plateau de Logbessou (Douala, Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mony, R.


    Full Text Available Safou Parasitism by Tapinanthus on Logbessou's plateau (Douala, Cameroon. In Cameroon, parasitism by Loranthaceae is a limiting factor of the safou tree cultivation as well as the perishable nature of the fruit which reduces the shelf life. Inventories were carried out in the home gardens of Logbessou's plateau in Douala. All the safou trees likely to produce and located within a perimeter of 200 m x 25 m from the center to the periphery of the plateau were observed and characterized by the circumference of the trunk, the number of tufts of Loranthaceae present on the tree and the taxon of the parasite. Safou trees are primarily parasitized by two species of Tapinanthus. Parasitism rate (34% varied significantly between center and periphery of the plateau. The average number of tufts of Tapinanthus by tree was also significantly different according to the location of the trees and between the two species of Tapinanthus. It is important to investigate the age at which pests significantly affect Safou yields in order to be able to propose adequate control methods when the farmers want to limit the parasitism of this species.

  14. Effects of biochar addition on evaporation in the five typical Loess Plateau soils (United States)

    Soil evaporation is the main route of soil moisture loss and often exceeds precipitation in the arid and semi-arid regions of the Loess Plateau. This study was conducted to determine whether biochar addition could reduce soil evaporation in drylands. We measured the evaporative loss in five typical ...

  15. Effectiveness of 10 polymorphic microsatellite markers for parentage and pedigree analysis in plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yanming


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae is an underground-dwelling mammal, native to the Tibetan plateau of China. A set of 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci has been developed earlier. Its reliability for parentage assignment has been tested in a plateau pika population. Two family groups with a known pedigree were used to validate the power of this set of markers. Results The error in parentage assignment using a combination of these 10 loci was very low as indicated by their power of discrimination (0.803 - 0.932, power of exclusion (0.351 - 0.887, and an effectiveness of the combined probability of exclusion in parentage assignment of 99.999%. Conclusion All the offspring of a family could be assigned to their biological mother; and their father or relatives could also be identified. This set of markers therefore provides a powerful and efficient tool for parentage assignment and other population analyses in the plateau pika.

  16. Biogeography of cryoconite bacterial communities on glaciers of the Tibetan Plateau. (United States)

    Liu, Yongqin; Vick-Majors, Trista J; Priscu, John C; Yao, Tandong; Kang, Shichang; Liu, Keshao; Cong, Ziyuang; Xiong, Jingbo; Li, Yang


    Cryoconite holes, water-filled pockets containing biological and mineralogical deposits that form on glacier surfaces, play important roles in glacier mass balance, glacial geochemistry and carbon cycling. The presence of cryoconite material decreases surface albedo and accelerates glacier mass loss, a problem of particular importance in the rapidly melting Tibetan Plateau. No studies have addressed the microbial community composition of cryoconite holes and their associated ecosystem processes on Tibetan glaciers. To further enhance our understanding of these glacial ecosystems on the Tibetan Plateau and to examine their role in carbon cycling as the glaciers respond to climate change, we explored the bacterial communities within cryoconite holes associated with three climatically distinct Tibetan Plateau glaciers using Illumina sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Cryoconite bacterial communities were dominated by Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Betaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Cryoconite bacterial community composition varied according to their geographical locations, exhibiting significant differences among glaciers studied. Regional beta diversity was driven by the interaction between geographic distance and environmental variables; the latter contributed more than geographic distance to the variation in cryoconite microbial communities. Our study is the first to describe the regional-scale spatial variability and to identify the factors that drive regional variability of cryoconite bacterial communities on the Tibetan Plateau. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  17. Heavy metals in the surface sediments of lakes on the Tibetan Plateau, China. (United States)

    Guo, Bixi; Liu, Yongqin; Zhang, Fan; Hou, Juzhi; Zhang, Hongbo; Li, Chaoliu


    Heavy metal contamination has affected many regions in the world, particularly the developing countries of Asia. We investigated 8 heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni, and As) in the surface sediments of 18 lakes on the Tibetan Plateau. It was found that the distributions of the heavy metals showed no clear spatial pattern on the plateau. The results indicated that the mean concentrations of these metals in the sediment samples diminished as follows: Cr > As > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cu > Co > Cd. The results of geoaccumulation index (I geo ) and potential ecological risk factor (E i r ) assessments showed that the sediments were moderately polluted by Cd and As, which posed much higher risks than the other metals. The values of the potential ecological risk index (RI) showed that lake Bieruoze Co has been severely polluted by heavy metals. Principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and Pearson correlation analysis results indicated that the 8 heavy metals in the lake surface sediments of the Tibetan Plateau could be classified into four groups. Group 1 included Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, and Ni which were mainly derived from both natural and traffic sources. Group 2 included Cd which mainly originated from anthropogenic sources like alloying, electroplating, and dyeing industries and was transported to the Tibetan Plateau by atmospheric circulation. Group 3 included Cr and it might mainly generate from parent rocks of watersheds. The last Group (As) was mainly from manufacturing, living, and the striking deterioration of atmospheric environment of the West, Central Asia, and South Asia.

  18. Growing season carries stronger contributions to albedo dynamics on the Tibetan plateau. (United States)

    Tian, Li; Chen, Jiquan; Zhang, Yangjian


    The Tibetan Plateau has experienced higher-than-global-average climate warming in recent decades, resulting in many significant changes in ecosystem structure and function. Among them is albedo, which bridges the causes and consequences of land surface processes and climate. The plateau is covered by snow/ice and vegetation in the non-growing season (nGS) and growing season (GS), respectively. Based on the MODIS products, we investigated snow/ice cover and vegetation greenness in relation to the spatiotemporal changes of albedo on the Tibetan Plateau from 2000 through 2013. A synchronous relationship was found between the change in GSNDVI and GSalbedo over time and across the Tibetan landscapes. We found that the annual average albedo had a decreasing trend, but that the albedo had slightly increased during the nGS and decreased during the GS. Across the landscapes, the nGSalbedo fluctuated in a synchronous pattern with snow/ice cover. Temporally, monthly snow/ice coverage also had a high correspondence with albedo, except in April and October. We detected clear dependencies of albedo on elevation. With the rise in altitude, the nGSalbedo decreased below 4000 m, but increased for elevations of 4500-5500 m. Above 5500 m, the nGSalbedo decreased, which was in accordance with the decreased amount of snow/ice coverage and the increased soil moisture on the plateau. More importantly, the decreasing albedo in the most recent decade appeared to be caused primarily by lowered growing season albedo.

  19. Understanding the circulation of geothermal waters in the Tibetan Plateau using oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Hongbing; Zhang, Yanfei; Zhang, Wenjie; Kong, Na; Zhang, Qing; Huang, Jingzhong


    Highlights: • Unique geothermal resources in Tibetan Plateau were discussed. • Isotopes were used to trace circulation of geothermal water. • Magmatic water mixing dominates geothermal water evolution. - Abstract: With the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, many of the world’s rarest and most unique geothermal fields have been developed. This study aims to systematically analyze the characteristics of the hydrogen and oxygen isotopic data of geothermal, river, and lake waters to understand the circulation of groundwater and to uncover the mechanism of geothermal formation in the Tibetan Plateau. Field observations and isotopic data show that geothermal water has higher temperatures and hydraulic pressures, as well as more depleted D and 18 O isotopic compositions than river and lake waters. Thus, neither lakes nor those larger river waters are the recharge source of geothermal water. Snow-melt water in high mountains can vertically infiltrate and deeply circulate along some stretching tensile active tectonic belts or sutures and recharge geothermal water. After deep circulation, cold surface water evolves into high-temperature thermal water and is then discharged as springs at the surface again in a low area, under high water-head difference and cold–hot water density difference. Therefore, the large-scale, high-temperature, high-hydraulic-pressure geothermal systems in the Tibetan Plateau are developed and maintained by rapid groundwater circulation and the heat source of upwelled residual magmatic water. Inevitably, the amount of geothermal water will increase if global warming accelerates the melting of glaciers in high mountains

  20. Oxygen-18 in present-day precipitation on the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章新平; 姚檀栋; 中尾正义


    The temporal and spatial variations of the δ18O in precipitation on the Tibetan Plateau are analyzed. There is no temperature effect in the southern Tibetan Plateau. Amount effect has been observed at Lhasa station. However, the seasonal variations of the δ18O in precipitation are different from that of precipitation intensity, showing that the precipitation intensity is not a main controlling factor on the stable isotopic compositions in precipitation in the southern Tibetan Plateau. There is notable temperature effect in the middle and northern Tibetan Plateau. The seasonal variations of the δ18O in precipitation are almost consistent with those of air temperature there, indicating that temperature is a main factor controlling the stable isotopic variations in precipitation. A meridional cross-section shows that a notable depletion of the stable isotopic ratio in precipitation takes place in the Himalayas due to very strong rainout of vapor as it rises over the Himalayas, then the δ18O remains basi

  1. Rotavirus VP7, and VP4 Types circulating in Plateau State Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the rotavirus genotypes circulating in Plateau State using RT – PCR. Materials and Methods: Thirty one rotavirus isolates recovered from diarrhoeic stools in 1998 and 1999 were analyzed using nested multiplex RT – PCR technique for the determination of VP7 and VP4 genotypes. Results: VP7 ...

  2. Pharmacodynamic Comparison of Rocuronium Bromide between Patients from the Plateau Area and from the Plain Area. (United States)

    Xie, Min; Huang, Jianxin; Li, Peng; Ou, Zhiyan; Hou, Jing


    We aimed to conduct a pharmacodynamic comparison of rocuronium bromide between patients from the plateau area and from the plain area. A total of 104 patients who received laparoscopic cholecystectomy in Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital and Aba Autonomous Prefecture People's Hospital from October 2015 to December 2015 were included in this study. Among them, 46 patients were from the plateau area and 58 were from the plain area. Both groups received total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with a dose of 0.6mg/kg rocuronium bromide during induction. In the meantime, neuromuscular block was monitored using a train-of-four (TOF) stimulation mode. The onset time (time to achieve the lowest TOF value after the injection of rocuronium bromide), duration of maximal neuromuscular block (duration of lowest T1 value), time to 25% recovery, time to 75% recovery, recovery index (time from 25% recovery to 75% recovery), time to extubation, length of stay in Post Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) and muscle strength upon PACU discharge were all recorded. The onset time, time to 25% recovery, time to 75% recovery and time to extubation were all significantly prolonged in patients from the plateau area after receiving one single dose of rocuronium bromide (P0.05). Compared to patients from the plain area, patients from the plateau area showed prolonged onset time of rocuronium bromide, reduced metabolic capabilities and longer duration of muscular relaxation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of the MIKE SHE model for application in the Loess Plateau, China (United States)

    Zhiqiang Zhang; Shenping Wang; Ge Sun; Steven G. McNulty; Huayong Zhang; Jianlao Li; Manliang Zhang; Eduard Klaghofer; Peter Strauss


    Quantifying the hydrologic responses to land use / land cover change and climate variability is essential for integrated sustainable watershed management in water limited regions such as the Loess Plateau in Northwestern China where an adaptive watershed management approach is being implemented. Traditional empirical modeling approach to quantifying the accumulated...

  4. Prevalence of Gastro-Intestinal Parasites of Pigs in Jos, Plateau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a growing concern for pig parasites as a bottleneck for low productivity and reduction in the market value of pork meat. The economic losses resulting from gastrointestinal parasites of pigs are quite enormous. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of pigs in Jos Plateau ...

  5. On the reproducibility of apatite fission-track plateau-age dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poupeau, G.; Baitelli, R.; Berbert, M.; Fonseca, A.


    Duplicate measurements as well as published data show that plateau-age measurements on apatites have a reproducibility - when made in optical microscopy - generally better than +- 5%, which may be accounted for by statistical errors on track density measurement. (Author) [pt

  6. Geologic field-trip guide to the volcanic and hydrothermal landscape of the Yellowstone Plateau (United States)

    Morgan Morzel, Lisa Ann; Shanks, W. C. Pat; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Farrell, Jamie M.; Robinson, Joel E.


    Yellowstone National Park, a nearly 9,000 km2 (~3,468 mi2) area, was preserved in 1872 as the world’s first national park for its unique, extraordinary, and magnificent natural features. Rimmed by a crescent of older mountainous terrain, Yellowstone National Park has at its core the Quaternary Yellowstone Plateau, an undulating landscape shaped by forces of late Cenozoic explosive and effusive volcanism, on-going tectonism, glaciation, and hydrothermal activity. The Yellowstone Caldera is the centerpiece of the Yellowstone Plateau. The Yellowstone Plateau lies at the most northeastern front of the 17-Ma Yellowstone hot spot track, one of the few places on Earth where time-transgressive processes on continental crust can be observed in the volcanic and tectonic (faulting and uplift) record at the rate and direction predicted by plate motion. Over six days, this field trip presents an intensive overview into volcanism, tectonism, and hydrothermal activity on the Yellowstone Plateau (fig. 1). Field stops are linked directly to conceptual models related to monitoring of the various volcanic, geochemical, hydrothermal, and tectonic aspects of the greater Yellowstone system. Recent interest in young and possible future volcanism at Yellowstone as well as new discoveries and synthesis of previous studies, (for example, tomographic, deformation, gas, aeromagnetic, bathymetric, and seismic surveys), provide a framework in which to discuss volcanic, hydrothermal, and seismic activity in this dynamic region.

  7. Scale effects and variability of forest–water yield relationships on the Loess Plateau, China (United States)

    Chao Bi; Huaxing Bi; Ge Sun; Yifang Chang; Lubo Gao


    The relationship between forests and water yield on the Loess Plateau is a concern to forest hydrologists and local governments. Most research indicates that forests reduce runoff but the degree of reduction is different at different sites. Data on precipitation, runoff depth, evapotranspiration and forest cover were collected for 67 watersheds through synthesizing...

  8. Climate and soils of the South Kinangop Plateau of Kenya : their limitations on land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyandat, N.N.


    In the Kinangop Plateau of Kenya where small holder farmers have been settled, varied climate and soils occur and the level of land use and management is not as high as may be expected. The climate and soils were therefore studied with a view to identity the constraints they present to land use and

  9. A Mechanism of Land Degradation in Turf-Mantled Slopes of the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Okin, Gregory S.; D'Odorico, Paolo; Liu, Jianquan


    Kobresia pygmaea meadows are typical of Tibetan Plateau landscapes in the 3,000 to 5,500 m elevation range and constitute the most extensive alpine ecosystem in the world. Kobresia pygmaea forms turf mats that stabilize the surface and shelter the underlying soils from water erosion. Large tracts of the Plateau, however, exhibit signs of ongoing degradation of the turf and erosion of the underlying soil. Despite the crucial role played by K. pygmaea turf mats in the stabilization of the headwaters of major Asian rivers, the mechanisms responsible for their degradation remain poorly investigated. Here we develop a process-based model of land degradation of Tibetan Plateau slopes, which accounts for (i) turf cracking, (ii) water flow concentration in the cracks, (iii) crack widening by scouring, and (iv) sheet-flow erosion. As expected, soil erosion increases with the slope and drainage area (hence the observation of stronger erosion in relatively steep downhill sites). Model simulations indicate that with a sensible set of parameters representative of soil and hydrologic conditions in the region, Tibetan Plateau landscapes are vulnerable to turf mat degradation and soil erosion. As soon as polygonal cracks develop, water flow widens them until the landscape is completely barren. At this point sheet flow eventually erodes the mineral soil leaving behind a highly degraded landscape.

  10. High-Resolution Regional Phase Attenuation Models of the Iranian Plateau and Surrounding Regions (United States)


    crustal structure or sediment thickness across much of the Iranian plateau. The lone exception is the region between the central Zagros and the Lut block...L11303, 2007. Meunier, P., N. Hovius, and J. A. Haines, Topographic site effects and the location of earthquake induced landslides, Earth Planet . Sci

  11. San Luis Valley - Taos Plateau Landscape-Level Cultural Heritage Values and Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wescott, Konstance L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Abplanalp, Jennifer M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brown, Jeff [Bureau of Land Management, Monte Vista, CO (United States); Cantwell, Brian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dicks, Merrill [Bureau of Land Management, Taos, NM (United States); Fredericks, Brian [Bureau of Land Management, Monte Vista, CO (United States); Krall, Angie [US Forest Service, Creede, CO (United States); Rollins, Katherine E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sullivan, Robert [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Valdez, Arnie [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Verhaaren, Bruce [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vieira, Joseph [Bureau of Land Management, Monte Vista, CO (United States); Walston, Lee [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zvolanek, Emily A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    The San Luis Valley – Taos Plateau Landscape-Level Cultural Heritage Values and Risk Assessment (hereafter referred to as cultural assessment) is a BLM pilot project designed to see whether the Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) framework (already established and implemented throughout many ecoregions in the West) can be applied to the cultural environment.

  12. Evaluation of ECMWF's soil moisture analyses using observations on the Tibetan Plateau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Zhongbo; de Rosnay, P.; Wen, J.; Wang, Lichun; Zeng, Yijian


    An analysis is carried out for two hydrologically contrasting but thermodynamically similar areas on the Tibetan Plateau, to evaluate soil moisture analysis based on the European Centre for Medium‐Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) previous optimum interpolation scheme and the current point‐wise

  13. Changes in effective moisture on the Tibetan Plateau during the period 1981-2010 (United States)

    Yin, Y.; Wu, S.; Zhao, D.


    Observed evaporative demand has decreased worldwide during the past several decades. This trend is also noted on the Tibetan Plateau, a region that is particularly sensitive to climate change. However, actual evapotranspiration trends and their relationship to drought stress on the Tibetan Plateau are poorly understood. We analyzed the spatiotemporal changes in potential evapotranspiration(PET), actual evapotranspiration(AET) and effective moisture (defined as AET/PET) during 1981-2010. Climate data from 80 meteorological stations on the Tibetan Plateau were compiled for the period 1981-2010. New plant functional types were defined for the Tibetan Plateau and evapotranspiration is simulated by the modified Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ). The results show regional trends towards decreasing PET and statistically significant increases in AET (p < 0.05) and effective moisture (p < 0.001) during the period 1981-2010. A transition from significant negative to positive PET occurred in 1997. Additionally, a pronounced increase in effective moisture occurred during the period 1981-1997 because of significant decreased PET before 1997.

  14. Plateau properties in mammalian spinal interneurons during transmitter-induced locomotor activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiehn, O.; Johnson, B. R.; Raastad, M.


    We examined the organization of spinal networks controlling locomotion in the isolated spinal cord of the neonatal rat, and in this study we provide the first demonstration of plateau and bursting mechanisms in mammalian interneurons that show locomotor-related activity. Using tight-seal whole...

  15. Estimates of grassland biomass and turnover time on the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Xia, Jiangzhou; Ma, Minna; Liang, Tiangang; Wu, Chaoyang; Yang, Yuanhe; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yangjian; Yuan, Wenping


    The grassland of the Tibetan Plateau forms a globally significant biome, which represents 6% of the world’s grasslands and 44% of China’s grasslands. However, large uncertainties remain concerning the vegetation carbon storage and turnover time in this biome. In this study, we quantified the pool size of both the aboveground and belowground biomass and turnover time of belowground biomass across the Tibetan Plateau by combining systematic measurements taken from a substantial number of surveys (i.e. 1689 sites for aboveground biomass, 174 sites for belowground biomass) with a machine learning technique (i.e. random forest, RF). Our study demonstrated that the RF model is effective tool for upscaling local biomass observations to the regional scale, and for producing continuous biomass estimates of the Tibetan Plateau. On average, the models estimated 46.57 Tg (1 Tg = 1012g) C of aboveground biomass and 363.71 Tg C of belowground biomass in the Tibetan grasslands covering an area of 1.32 × 106 km2. The turnover time of belowground biomass demonstrated large spatial heterogeneity, with a median turnover time of 4.25 years. Our results also demonstrated large differences in the biomass simulations among the major ecosystem models used for the Tibetan Plateau, largely because of inadequate model parameterization and validation. This study provides a spatially continuous measure of vegetation carbon storage and turnover time, and provides useful information for advancing ecosystem models and improving their performance.

  16. Surface ozone at Nam Co in the inland Tibetan Plateau: variation, synthesis comparison and regional representativeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Yin


    Full Text Available Ozone is an important pollutant and greenhouse gas, and tropospheric ozone variations are generally associated with both natural and anthropogenic processes. As one of the most pristine and inaccessible regions in the world, the Tibetan Plateau has been considered as an ideal region for studying processes of the background atmosphere. Due to the vast area of the Tibetan Plateau, sites in the southern, northern and central regions exhibit different patterns of variation in surface ozone. Here, we present continuous measurements of surface ozone mixing ratios at Nam Co Station over a period of  ∼ 5 years (January 2011 to October 2015, which is a background site in the inland Tibetan Plateau. An average surface ozone mixing ratio of 47.6 ± 11.6 ppb (mean ± standard deviation was recorded, and a large annual cycle was observed with maximum ozone mixing ratios in the spring and minimum ratios during the winter. The diurnal cycle is characterized by a minimum in the early morning and a maximum in the late afternoon. Nam Co Station represents a background region where surface ozone receives negligible local anthropogenic emissions inputs, and the anthropogenic contribution from South Asia in spring and China in summer may affect Nam Co Station occasionally. Surface ozone at Nam Co Station is mainly dominated by natural processes involving photochemical reactions, vertical mixing and downward transport of stratospheric air mass. Model results indicate that the study site is affected differently by the surrounding areas in different seasons: air masses from the southern Tibetan Plateau contribute to the high ozone levels in the spring, and enhanced ozone levels in the summer are associated with air masses from the northern Tibetan Plateau. By comparing measurements at Nam Co Station with those from other sites on the Tibetan Plateau, we aim to expand the understanding of ozone cycles and transport processes over the Tibetan Plateau

  17. Coseismic Strain Steps of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake Indicate EW Extension of Tibetan Plateau and Increased Hazard South to Epicenter (United States)

    Fu, G.; Shen, X.; Tang, J.; Fukuda, Y.


    The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Ms8.0) occurred at the east edge of Tibetan Plateau. It is the biggest seismic disaster in China since the 1976 Tangshan earthquake. To determine the effects of the earthquake on the deformation field of Tibetan Plateau, we collect and analyze continuing strain data of three stations before and after the earthquake in Tibetan Plateau observed by capacitance-type bore-hole strainmeters (Chi, 1985). We collect strain data in NS, EW, NE-SW and NW-NS directions at each borehole. Then we deduce the co-seismic strain steps at time point 14:28 of May 12, 2008 (at this time point the earthquake occurred) with the data before and after the earthquake using the least squares method. Our observation shows that in Tibetan Plateau significant co-seismic strain steps are accompanied with the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Extension in EW direction is observed at interior and north Tibetan Plateau which indicates a rapid EW extension of the whole Plateau. Field investigation shows that the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake is a manifestation of eastward growth of the Tibetan Plateau (Dong et al., 2008). Eastwards growth of the Tibetan Plateau results naturally in the extension of the Plateau in EW direction. Our co-seismic strain observation agrees well with the conclusion from surface rupture investigation. The magnitude of co-seismic strain step equals to five times of average year extensional strain rate throughout the plateau interior. Shortening in SE- NW direction is observed at the east edge of the Plateau. As hints that the eastward extension of Tibetan Plateau is resisted by Sichuan rigid basin which increases the potential earthquake hazard around the observation station, manifests the declaration from co-seismic stress changes calculation (Persons et al., 2008). Our observed co-seismic strain steps are in total lager than theoretical calculations of dislocation theories which indicate that magnitude of the great earthquake should be bigger than 7.9. Due

  18. IODP Expedition 324: Ocean Drilling at Shatsky Rise Gives Clues about Oceanic Plateau Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Geldmacher


    Full Text Available Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expedition 324 cored Shatsky Rise at five sites (U1346–U1350 to study processes of oceanic plateau formation and evolution. Site penetrations ranged from 191.8 m to 324.1 m with coring of 52.6 m to 172.7 m into igneous basement at four of the sites. Average recovery in basement was 38.7%–67.4%. Cored igneous sections consist mainly of variably evolved tholeiiticbasalts emplaced as pillows or massive flows. Massive flows are thickest and make up the largest percentage of section on the largest and oldest volcano, late Jurassic age Tamu Massif; thus, it may have formed at high effusion rates. Such massive flows are characteristic of flood basalts, and similar flows were cored at Ontong Java Plateau. Indeed, the similarity of igneous sections at Site U1347 with that cored on Ontong Java Plateau implies similar volcanic styles for these two plateaus. On younger, smaller Shatsky Rise volcanoes, pillow flows are common and massive flows thinner andfewer, which might mean volcanism waned with time. Cored sediments from summit sites contain fossils and structures implying shallow water depths or emergence at the time of eruption and normal subsidence since. Summit sites also show pervasive alteration that could be due to high fluid fluxes. A thick section of volcaniclastics cored on Tamu Massif suggests that shallow, explosive submarine volcanism played a significant role in the geologic development of the plateau summit. Expedition 324 results imply that Shatsky Risebegan with massive eruptions forming a huge volcano and that subsequent eruptions waned in intensity, forming volcanoes that are large, but which did not erupt with unusually high effusionrates. Similarities of cored sections on Tamu Massif with those ofOntong Java Plateau indicate that these oceanic plateaus formed insimilar fashion.

  19. The Climate Effect of the Topographies at the Northern Margin of the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Sha, Y.; Shi, Z.; Liu, X.


    The Tibetan Plateau play a crucial role in the formation and evolution of the Asian monsoon-interior aridity climate system. However, the climate effect of other relatively smaller topographies receives less attention. Based on high-resolved general circulation models, we conducted a series of sensitive experiments as with/without mountains, which include the Mongolian Plateau and the Tian Shan Mountains. The numerical simulations reveal the important impacts of the mountain ranges at the northern margins of the Tibetan Plateau. Compared to the main body of the Tibetan Plateau, the uplift of the Mongolian Plateau is essential for the establishment of the strong Siberian High. The East Asian winter monsoon and the westerly jet over the North Pacific Ocean are also significantly strengthened. At present, the Tian Shan Mountains geographically separate the arid interior Asia to the west and east sub-regions. However, the arid west sub-region (Central Asia) and the east sub-region (arid northwestern China) was connected as one large arid region before the uplift of the Tian Shan Mountains. The large arid interior land shares the same precipitation seasonality, with most rains fall in spring and winter while lowest precipitation in summer. After the uplift of the Tian Shan, the large arid region is divided into the west and east sub-regions by the wetter uplifted mountain ranges. More importantly, the precipitation seasonality in the east of the Tian Shan is reversed to be the summer-peak type, which is opposite to that in the Central Asia. The precipitation alteration corresponds well with the change of vertical motion. By the conservation of potential vorticity, the atmosphere stationary waves are modulated. Thus, the remote East Asian monsoon is also modulated. Though enhanced southerly wind blows over East Asia, the monsoon precipitation over the east coast of China and subtropical western Pacific Ocean is significantly reduced as an anticyclonic circulation appears

  20. Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kopacz


    Full Text Available The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity analysis, which provides a detailed map of the location of emissions that directly contribute to black carbon concentrations at receptor locations. We find that emissions from northern India and central China contribute the majority of BC to the Himalayas, although the precise location varies with season. The Tibetan Plateau receives most BC from western and central China, as well as from India, Nepal, the Middle East, Pakistan and other countries. The magnitude of contribution from each region varies with season and receptor location. We find that sources as varied as African biomass burning and Middle Eastern fossil fuel combustion can significantly contribute to the BC reaching the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. We compute radiative forcing in the snow-covered regions and find the forcing due to the BC induced snow-albedo effect to vary from 5–15 W m−2 within the region, an order of magnitude larger than radiative forcing due to the direct effect, and with significant seasonal variation in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Radiative forcing from reduced snow albedo likely accelerates glacier melting. Our analysis may help inform mitigation efforts to slow the rate of glacial melt by identifying regions that make the largest contributions to BC deposition in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

  1. External fixation combined with delayed internal fixation in treatment of tibial plateau fractures with dislocation. (United States)

    Tao, Xingguang; Chen, Nong; Pan, Fugen; Cheng, Biao


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of external fixation, delayed open reduction, and internal fixation in treating tibial plateau fracture with dislocation.Clinical data of 34 patients diagnosed with tibial plateau fracture complicated with dislocation between January 2009 and May 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Fifteen patients in group A underwent early calcaneus traction combined with open reduction and internal fixation and 19 in group B received early external fixation combined with delayed open reduction and internal fixation. Operation time, postoperative complication, bone healing time, knee joint range of motion, initial weight-bearing time, Rasmussen tibial plateau score, and knee function score (HSS) were statistically compared between 2 groups.The mean follow-up time was 18.6 months (range: 5-24 months). The mean operation time in group A was 96 minutes, significantly longer than 71 minutes in group B (P  .05). In group A, initial weight-bearing time in group A was (14.0 ± 3.6) weeks, significantly differing from (12.9 ± 2.8) weeks in group B (P  0.05). Rasmussen tibial plateau score in group A was slightly lower than that in group B (P > .05). The excellent rate of knee joint function in group A was 80% and 84.21% in group B (P > .05).External fixation combined with delayed open reduction and internal fixation is a safer and more efficacious therapy of tibial plateau fracture complicated with dislocation compared with early calcaneus traction and open reduction and internal fixation.

  2. IOD influence on the early winter tibetan plateau snow cover: diagnostic analyses and an AGCM simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Chaoxia; Tozuka, Tomoki; Yamagata, Toshio [The University of Tokyo, Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Graduate School of Science, Tokyo (Japan)


    Using diagnostic analyses and an AGCM simulation, the detailed mechanism of Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) influence on the early winter Tibetan Plateau snow cover (EWTPSC) is clarified. In early winter of pure positive IOD years with no co-occurrence of El Nino, the anomalous dipole diabatic heating over the tropical Indian Ocean excites the baroclinic response in the tropics. Since both baroclinic and barotropic components of the basic zonal wind over the Arabian Peninsula increase dramatically in early winter due to the equatorward retreat of the westerly jet, the baroclinic mode excites the barotropic Rossby wave that propagates northeastward and induces a barotropic cyclonic anomaly north of India. This enables the moisture transport cyclonically from the northern Indian Ocean toward the Tibetan Plateau. The convergence of moisture over the plateau explains the positive influence of IOD on the EWTPSC. In contrast, the basic zonal wind over the Arabian Peninsula is weak in autumn. This is not favorable for excitation of the barotropic Rossby wave and teleconnection, even though the IOD-related diabatic heating anomaly in autumn similar to that in early winter exists. This result explains the insignificant (significant positive) partial correlation between IOD and the autumn (early winter) Tibetan Plateau snow cover after excluding the influence of ENSO. The sensitivity experiment forced by the IOD-related SST anomaly within the tropical Indian Ocean well reproduces the baroclinic response in the tropics, the teleconnection from the Arabian Peninsula, and the increased moisture supply to the Tibetan Plateau. Also, the seasonality of the atmospheric response to the IOD is simulated. (orig.)

  3. Sources, atmospheric transport and deposition mechanism of organochlorine pesticides in soils of the Tibetan Plateau. (United States)

    Chen, Laiguo; Feng, Qianhua; He, Qiusheng; Huang, Yumei; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Guo; Zhao, Wei; Gao, Bo; Lin, Kui; Xu, Zhencheng


    Because of mountain cold-trapping, the soil in the Tibetan Plateau may be an important global sink of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). However, there are limited data on OCPs in the soils of the Tibetan Plateau. In addition, the atmospheric transport and deposition mechanisms of OCPs also need to be further studied. In this study, the sampling area covered most regions of the Tibetan Plateau. The detection frequencies of ΣChlordane (sum of trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane and oxychlordane), HCB, ΣNonachlor (sum of trans- and cis-nonachlor), DDTs, ΣEndo (sum of endosulfan-I, endosulfan-II and endosulfate), aldrin, HCHs, ΣHeptachlor (sum of heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide), mirex and dieldrin were 100%, 98.3%, 96.6%, 94.8%, 89.7%, 87.9%, 62.1%, 55.2%, 32.8% and 6.9%, respectively. DDTs (with arithmetic mean values of 1050ngkg -1 dw) and HCHs (393ngkg -1 ) were the principal OCPs in cultivated soils, whereas ΣEndo (192ngkg -1 ) and ΣChlordane (152ngkg -1 ) were the principal OCPs in non-cultivated soils. Local use of DDTs, dicofol and HCHs may be an important source of OCP accumulation in the soil of the Tibetan Plateau. Aldrin and endosulfan are considered to be good indicators for studying atmospheric transport and deposition of OCPs from South Asia and Southeast Asia. Two zones with high OCP levels were found in the southeast and northwest of the Tibetan Plateau. The zones have dissimilar pollution sources of OCPs and are influenced by different factors that affect their precipitation scavenging efficiency. The amount of precipitation was the dominant factor in the southeast, whereas large differences in temperature and wind speed were the dominant factors in the northwest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Patterns of species diversity and phylogenetic structure of vascular plants on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. (United States)

    Yan, Yujing; Yang, Xian; Tang, Zhiyao


    Large-scale patterns of species richness and the underlying mechanisms regulating these patterns have long been the central issues in biogeography and macroecology. Phylogenetic community structure is a result of combined effects of contemporary ecological interactions, environmental filtering, and evolutionary history, and it links community ecology with biogeography and trait evolution. The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau provides a good opportunity to test the influence of contemporary climate on shaping species richness because of its unique geological history, cold climate, and high biodiversity. In this study, based on high-resolution distributions of ˜9000 vascular plant species, we explored how species richness and phylogenetic structure of vascular plants correlate with climates on the highest (and species rich) plateau on the Earth. The results showed that most of the vascular plants were distributed on the eastern part of the plateau; there was a strong association between species richness and climate, even after the effects of habitat heterogeneity were controlled. However, the responses of richness to climate remarkably depended on life-forms. Richness of woody plants showed stronger climatic associations than that of herbaceous plants; energy and water availability together regulated richness pattern of woody plants; whereas water availability predominantly regulated richness pattern of herbaceous plants. The phylogenetic structure of vascular species clustered in most areas of the plateau, suggesting that rapid speciation and environment filtering dominated the assembly of communities on the plateau. We further propose that biodiversity conservation in this area should better take into account ecological features for different life-forms and phylogenetic lineages.

  5. The Colorado Plateau III: integrating research and resources management for effective conservation (United States)

    Sogge, Mark K.; van Riper, Charles


    Roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States, the Colorado Plateau covers an area of 130,000 square miles. The relatively high semi-arid province boasts nine national parks, sixteen national monuments, many state parks, and dozens of wilderness areas. With the highest concentration of parklands in North America and unique geological and ecological features, the area is of particular interest to researchers. Derived from the Eighth Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau, this third volume in a series of research on the Colorado Plateau expands upon the previous two books. This volume focuses on the integration of science into resource management issues, summarizes what criteria make a successful collaborative effort, outlines land management concerns about drought, provides summaries of current biological, sociological, and archaeological research, and highlights current environmental issues in the Four Corner States of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah. With broad coverage that touches on topics as diverse as historical aspects of pronghorn antelope movement patterns through calculating watershed prescriptions to the role of wind-blown sand in preserving archaeological sites on the Colorado River, this volume stands as a compendium of cuttingedge management-oriented research on the Colorado Plateau. The book also introduces, for the first time, tools that can be used to assist with collaboration efforts among landowners and managers who wish to work together toward preserving resources on the Colorado Plateau and offers a wealth of insights into land management questions for many readers, especially people interested in the natural history, biology, anthropology, wildlife, and cultural management issues of the region.

  6. Aeolian processes during the Holocene in Gannan Region, Eastern Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Yang, S.; Cheng, T.; Li, S.; Liang, M.


    Aeolian desertification occurring in the Tibetan Plateau has received attention recently for it has become a severe environmental problem by accelerating the grassland degradation and eco-environment damage. The Gannan Region is located in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau with a mean altitude of 3500m. It is highly sensitive to global environmental change and human disturbance. Serious soil erosion and desertification and extensive land degradation have caused heavy eco-environmental impacts. To investigate the evolution of the desertification in Holocene in the Plateau is of great importance for understanding the desertification trend under the global changes in the Tibetan Plateau. Loess and aeolian sands is a key geological archive related to desertification processes and the past environment changes. In this study a typical 8.5m-thick loess-sands profile named MQQ, was selected at the Maqu city. It is situated on the first terrace (T1) of the Yellow River. Detailed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dating of bulk organic matter content has shown the Aeolian sediments of the MQQ section occurring since the early Holocene. the mass-specific frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility (χfd) and grainsize records show a clear upward increase in the contents of superparamagnetic grains and fine fractions in grain size, which indicates a gradual wetting trend during the Holocene.The sediment rates change from very high in the early Holocene to low values after 8.2 ka. The wetting process can be divided into three steps: 10.0-8.2 ka, 8.2-3.0 ka and 3.0-present. It indicates that the climate in the eastern Tibetan Plateau was dry during the early Holocene. After that the climate was getting wet gradually. The variations of the westerlies and the Asian monsoon may cause the environmental change in this region.

  7. A Comparative Study of the Electrical Structure of Circum Tibetan Plateau Orogenic Belts and its Tectonic Implications (United States)

    Jin, Sheng; Zhang, Letian; Wei, Wenbo; Ye, Gaofeng; Jing, Jianen; Dong, Hao; Xie, Chengliang; Yin, Yaotian


    The Tibetan Plateau, as known as "roof of the world", was created through the on-going continent-continent collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates since 55 Ma. As the process continues, the plateau is growing both vertically and horizontally. The horizontal expansion of the plateau is blocked by the Yangtze block in the east, the Tarim block in the north, and the Ordos block in the northeast, and consequently lead to the formation of the circum Tibetan plateau orogenic belts. To better understand the mechanism behind this process, we conducted a comparative study by collecting 7 magnetotelluric (MT) profiles over the margins of the Tibetan plateau, namely, the INDEPTH 100, 700 and 800 lines in the southern Tibet, the INDEPTH 4000 and 5000 lines across the Altyn Tagh fault on the northern margin of the plateau, as well as other two profiles across the Haiyuan fault and the Longmenshan fault on the northeastern and eastern margins of the plateau deployed under the framework of project SinoProbe. The electrical features of the stable blocks surrounding the Tibetan plateau are generally resistive, while crustal conductive layers are found to be wide spread within the plateau. The southern margin of the Tibetan plateau is characterized by large scale underthrust of the Indian lithosphere beneath the plateau. This intense converging process created the thrust fault system distributed along the southern margin of the Tibetan plateau over 1000 km. Crustal conductive layers discovered in southern Tibet are generally associated with the southward crustal flow that originated from the lower crust within the plateau and exhumed along the thrust belts in the Himalayas. On the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau, the electrical structures suggest that the Yangtze block wedged into the Tibetan lithosphere and caused decoupling between the crust and upper mantel. Large scale conductors discovered beneath the Songpan-Ganze block reflect that the eastward crustal flow was

  8. Electron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, H.; Mogami, A.


    A device for measuring electron densities at a given energy level in an electron beam or the like having strong background noise, for example, in the detection of Auger electric energy spectrums is described. An electron analyzer passes electrons at the given energy level and at the same time electrons of at least one adjacent energy level. Detecting means associated therewith produce signals indicative of the densities of the electrons at each energy level and combine these signals to produce a signal indicative of the density of the electrons of the given energy level absent background noise

  9. Reactions and reaction rates in the regional aquifer beneath the Pajarito Plateau, north-central New Mexico, USA (United States)

    Hereford, Anne G.; Keating, Elizabeth H.; Guthrie, George D.; Zhu, Chen


    Reactions and reaction rates within aquifers are fundamental components of critical hydrological processes. However, reactions simulated in laboratory experiments typically demonstrate rates that are much faster than those observed in the field. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct more reaction rate analyses in natural settings. This study of geochemical reactions in the regional aquifer in the Pajarito Plateau near Los Alamos, New Mexico combines modeling with petrographic assessment to further knowledge and understanding of complex natural hydrologic systems. Groundwater geochemistry shows marked evolution along assumed flow paths. The flow path chosen for this study was evaluated using inverse mass balance modeling to calculate the mass transfer. X-ray diffraction and field emission gun scanning electron microscopy were used to identify possible reactants and products. Considering the mineralogy of the aquifer and saturation indices for the regional water refined initial interpretations. Calculations yielded dissolution rates for plagioclase on the order of 10-15 mol s-1 m-2 and for K-feldspar on the order of 10-17 mol s-1 m-2, orders of magnitude slower than laboratory rates. While these rates agree with other aquifer studies, they must be considered in the light of the uncertainty associated with geometric surface area estimates, 14C ages, and aquifer properties.

  10. Resistance of plateau-phase human normal and xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts to the cytotoxic effect of ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, G.L.; Little, J.B.


    Clonogenic survival response to 254-nm ultraviolet light was measured in 2 strains of repair-proficient normal human fibroblasts and 4 strains of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) fibroblasts belonging to complementation groups A, C, D and variant. In all strains except XPA, cells irradiated in plateau phase and subcultured immediately were much more resistant to the lethal effect of UV than cells irradiated in the exponential phase of growth. Typically, 10-20% of plateau-phase cells were extremely resistant. When the cultures were held in plateau phase for 24 h after irradiation and before subculture, there was a further enhancement of survival. By use of a UV-specific endonuclease assay, no difference was found in the number of DNA lesions induced in exponentially growing and plateau cultures by the same dose of UV light. Thus plateau-phase cells appear to be more efficient in their DNA-repair capability than cells in exponential growth. XP group A cells were uniquely found to be deficient in the processes which lead to plateau-phase resistance. Since plateau-phase repair was not lacking in XP groups C, D and variant, it may be related to a DNA-repair process different from that which is responsible for the overall UV sensitivity of these cells. (orig.)

  11. Surveillance of Echinococcus isolates from Qinghai, China. (United States)

    Ma, Junying; Wang, Hu; Lin, Gonghua; Zhao, Fang; Li, Chao; Zhang, Tongzuo; Ma, Xiao; Zhang, Yongguo; Hou, Zhibin; Cai, Huixia; Liu, Peiyun; Wang, Yongshun


    Echinococcosis is highly endemic over large parts of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), China. Based on a large number of samples, we present data on the current presence, host distribution, and genetic diversity of Echinococcus in the Qinghai Province, located in the northeastern corner of the QTP and constituting >25% of the area of the plateau. We used 521 samples (including 451 newly collected samples and 70 samples from our previous study) from humans, yaks, sheep, goats, dogs, fox, plateau pikas, and voles in 36 counties, and genotyped them using the mitochondrial DNA marker cytochrome oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene and the maximum parsimony and Bayesian reconstruction methods. Based on the 792 bp sequence matrix, we recorded 177 variable sites; 157 were parsimony-informative. A total of 105 haplotypes (H1-H105) were detected, of which H1-H15 and H90-H104, H16-H17, H18-H89, and H105 belonged to Echinococcus shiquicus, Echinococcus multilocularis, Echinococcus granulosus, and Echinococcus canadensis, respectively. Our results showed that, (i) the Qinghai Province was under a high burden of Echinococcus epidemiology; (ii) E. granulosus was the main echinococcosis threat to the local people, and the followed is E. multilocularis; (iii) there are a considerable number of haplotypes shared by domestic animals (sheep, yaks, and dogs) and humans, demonstrating the close relationship between human and domestic animals epidemiology; (iv) the threat of E. shiquicus on humans and livestock can be mostly ignored, while the infection risk of E. canadensis echinococcosis should not be neglected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Insight into microevolution of Yersinia pestis by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujun Cui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Yersinia pestis, the pathogen of plague, has greatly influenced human history on a global scale. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR, an element participating in immunity against phages' invasion, is composed of short repeated sequences separated by unique spacers and provides the basis of the spoligotyping technology. In the present research, three CRISPR loci were analyzed in 125 strains of Y. pestis from 26 natural plague foci of China, the former Soviet Union and Mongolia were analyzed, for validating CRISPR-based genotyping method and better understanding adaptive microevolution of Y. pestis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using PCR amplification, sequencing and online data processing, a high degree of genetic diversity was revealed in all three CRISPR elements. The distribution of spacers and their arrays in Y. pestis strains is strongly region and focus-specific, allowing the construction of a hypothetic evolutionary model of Y. pestis. This model suggests transmission route of microtus strains that encircled Takla Makan Desert and ZhunGer Basin. Starting from Tadjikistan, one branch passed through the Kunlun Mountains, and moved to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Another branch went north via the Pamirs Plateau, the Tianshan Mountains, the Altai Mountains and the Inner Mongolian Plateau. Other Y. pestis lineages might be originated from certain areas along those routes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: CRISPR can provide important information for genotyping and evolutionary research of bacteria, which will help to trace the source of outbreaks. The resulting data will make possible the development of very low cost and high-resolution assays for the systematic typing of any new isolate.

  13. Spatial distribution and controlling factors of stable isotopes in meteoric waters on the Tibetan Plateau: Implications for paleoelevation reconstruction (United States)

    Li, Lin; Garzione, Carmala N.


    Debates persist about the interpretations of stable isotope based proxies for the surface uplift of the central-northern Tibetan Plateau. These disputes arise from the uncertain relationship between elevation and the δ18 O values of meteoric waters, based on modern patterns of isotopes in precipitation and surface waters. We present a large river water data set (1,340 samples) covering most parts of the Tibetan Plateau to characterize the spatial variability and controlling factors of their isotopic compositions. Compared with the amount-weighted mean annual oxygen isotopic values of precipitation, we conclude that river water is a good substitute for isotopic studies of precipitation in the high flat (e.g., elevation >3,300 m) interior of the Tibetan Plateau in the mean annual timescale. We construct, for the first time based on field data, contour maps of isotopic variations of meteoric waters (δ18 O, δD and d-excess) on the Tibetan Plateau. In the marginal mountainous regions of the Plateau, especially the southern through eastern margins, the δ18 O and δD values of river waters decrease with increasing mean catchment elevation, which can be modeled as a Rayleigh distillation process. However, in the interior of the Plateau, northward increasing trends in δ18 O and δD values are pronounced and present robust linear relations; d-excess values are lower than the marginal regions and exhibit distinct contrasts between the eastern (8 ‰- 12 ‰) and western (Asian monsoon and Westerly winds; 2) contribution of moisture from recycled surface water; and 3) sub-cloud evaporation. We further provide a sub-cloud evaporation modified Rayleigh distillation and mixing model to simulate the isotopic variations in the western Plateau. Results of this work suggest that stable isotope-based paleoaltimetry studies are reliable in the southern through eastern Plateau margins; towards the central-northern Plateau, this method cannot be applied without additional

  14. A possible cause of the Miocene uplift and volcanism in the central Anatolian plateau (United States)

    Bartol, J.; Govers, R. M.; Wortel, M. J.


    During the middle and late Miocene (13-5Ma) several seemingly unrelated events occurred in central Anatolia, Turkey; (1) a new epoch of widespread volcanic activity with a mantle signature, (2) sudden uplift and disruption of a Oligocene-lower Miocene palaeo drainage system in the Western Taurus (southwest Turkey) and (3) a regional regression across southern Turkey (Antalya, Adana, Mut) coeval with volcanic activity. These observations suggest an uplift (>1000 meters) of the central Anatolian plateau by a mechanism which also triggered widespread volcanic activity. In eastern Anatolia, similar events are attributed to delamination of the lithospheric mantle [e.g. Keskin et al., 2003]. Results from tomography [W.Spakman, pers. com]) suggest that the (deeper) Bitlis slab was laterally continuous below the eastern and central Anatolian plateau. We therefore propose that the scenario developed for eastern Anatolian plateau also applies to the central Anatolian plateau. In this scenario, delamination started along the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone and was possibly induced by remnants of a northern Neotethys slab or continental collision between Arabia and Eurasia. As the lithospheric mantle separated from the crust it sank into the asthenosphere and was replaced by hot mantle material. If true, delamination is expected to have had a thermal and isostatic imprint. Using a three-dimensional thermal-flexural model and taking changes of the effective elastic thickness due to thermal perturbation into account, we aim to quantify the possible imprints in the geological record of the central and eastern Anatolian plateau. Our model results show that delamination of the lithospheric mantle can explain the present day elevation (1500 m) of the central Anatolian plateau. For the eastern Anatolian plateau, however, delamination of the lithospheric mantle alone can only explain half (1000 m) of the present day elevation. Thickening of the eastern Anatolia crust by 1-5 km (β=1

  15. Electron/electron acoustic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, S.P.


    The electron acoustic wave becomes a normal mode of an unmagnetized collisionless plasma in the presence of two electron components with similar densities, but strongly disparate temperatures. The characteristic frequency of this mode is the plasma frequency of the cooler electron component. If these two electron components have a relative drift speed several times the thermal speed of the cooler component, the electron/electron acoustic instability may arise. This paper describes the parametric dependences of the threshold drift speed and maximum growth rate of this instability, and compares these with the same properties of the electron/ion acoustic instability. Under the condition of zero current, the electron/ion acoustic instability typically has the lower threshold drift speed, so that observation of the electron/electron acoustic instability is a strong indication of the presence of an electrical current in the plasma

  16. Gravity anomaly and crustal structure characteristics in North-South Seismic Belt of China (United States)

    Shen, Chongyang; Xuan, Songtbai; Yang, Guangliang; Wu, Guiju


    reflects basic frame work of the regional crust structure. The earth's crust basically present three layer structure, nearly horizontally distributes, undulation of Moho is obvious, which is consistent with the results of seismic sounding and seismic array detection; in the local area, there are lower density layer zonal distribution in the earth's crust what accelerates the lateral movement in up and middle crust; when the substance of the Tibetan plateau spreads around, the integrity in up and middle crust is well, and it is basically a coupling movement together; in the lower crust, the thickness of the Tibetan plateau is outward gradually thinning, there is decoupling phenomenon in crust-mantle; The results of the gravity and the crustal density structure show that the research area can be divided into several part such as Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Sichuan-Yunnan block, Ordos block and Alxa block, the transitional zones of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Sichuan basin, and Alxa and Ordos are complex, and Moho slope is bigger, where is the part of strong tectonic activity and strong earthquakes occur easily. The research is of great significance for study the crustal deep structure, geodynamic evolution process and environment of earthquake gestation of the NSSB region.

  17. Impact of Cryosphere Hydrological Changes on the River Runoff in the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Yang, D.


    The Tibetan Plateau is the headwaters of many major rivers in Asia, the change in streamflow is significant for social and economic development and natural ecology in the middle and lower reaches. Located in the alpine region, streamflow in the plateau is mainly affected by the cryosphere hydrological processes. Due to global warming in recent decades, the Tibetan Plateau is experiencing glaciers shrinking and permafrost degradation. Accelerated glacier melt led to the increasing meltwater, thus affecting the streamflow. Permafrost is an important factor in stabilizing the water cycle and streamflow, the ecological degradation and the significant changes of rivers, lakes, swamps, wetlands and other hydrological environment in recent decades in the Tibetan plateau is closely related to permafrost degradation. Therefore, it is important to explore the impact of cryosphere hydrological changes on the streamflow for the future water management. This study uses a method of base flow separation and a stepwise multiple regression model to investigate the reasons for the runoff changes in different regions of the Tibetan Plateau during 1960-2000. The contribution of glacier melt to annual runoff is particularly estimated to explore the possible influences of soil freezing and thawing on annual runoff changes. The results show an increasing trend of the annual runoff in the upstream of Nujiang River, Lancang River and Qilian Mountains, dominated by the increasing of base flow; and a decreasing trend of the runoff in the upper reach of the Yarlung Zangbo River, Yellow River and Yangtze River, dominated by the reduction of quick flow. Change in the amount of runoff was mainly due to change in precipitation. Rising temperature accelerates the melting of glaciers and increases the summer quick flow. In addition, rising temperature may reduce the quick flow and increase the base flow due to change of the active permafrost layers, which leads to the increase of soil water storage

  18. Predicting the distribution of Stipa purpurea across the Tibetan Plateau via the MaxEnt model. (United States)

    Ma, Baibing; Sun, Jian


    The ecosystems across Tibetan Plateau are changing rapidly under the influence of climate warming, which has caused substantial changes in spatial and temporal environmental patterns. Stipa purpurea, as a dominant herbsage resource in alpine steppe, has a great influence on animal husbandry in the Tibetan Plateau. Global warming has been forecasted to continue in the future (2050s, 2070s), questioning the future distribution of S. purpurea and its response to climate change. The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) modeling, due to its multiple advantages (e.g. uses presence-only data, performs well with incomplete data, and requires small sample sizes and gaps), has been used to understand species environment relationships and predict species distributions across locations that have not been sampled. Annual mean temperature, annual precipitation, temperature seasonality, altitude, and precipitation during the driest month, significantly affected the distribution of S. purpurea. Only 0.70% of the Tibetan Plateau area included a very highly suitable habitat (habitat suitability [HS] = 0.8-1.0). Highly suitable habitat (HS = 0.6-0.8), moderately suitable habitat (HS = 0.4-0.6), and unsuitable habitat (HS = 0.2-0.4) occupied 6.20, 14.30 and 22.40% of the Tibetan Plateau area, respectively, and the majority (56.40%) of the Tibetan Plateau area constituted a highly unsuitable habitat (HS = 0-0.2). In addition, the response curves of species ecological suitability simulated by generalized additive model nearly corresponded with the response curves generated by the MaxEnt model. At a temporal scale, the habitat suitability of S. purpurea tends to increase from the 1990s to 2050s, but decline from the 2050s to 2070s. At a spatial scale, the future distribution of S. purpurea will not exhibit sweeping changes and will remain in the central and southeastern regions of the Tibetan Plateau. These results benefit the local animal husbandry and provide evidence for establishing

  19. Electronic emission and electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Amitava


    This paper reviews the process of electron emission from metal surface. Although electrons move freely in conductors like metals, they normally do not leave the metal without some manipulation. In fact, heating and bombardment are the two primary ways in which electrons are emitted through the use of a heating element behind the cathode (termed thermionic emission) or as a result of bombardment with a beam of electrons, ions, or metastable atoms (termed secondary emission). Another important emission mechanism called Explosive Electron Emission (EEE) is also often used in various High Voltage Pulse Power Systems to generate very high current (few hundreds of kA) pulsed electron beams. The electron gun is the device in that it shoots off a continuous (or pulsed) stream of electrons. A brief idea about the evolution of the electron gun components and their basis of functioning are also discussed. (author)

  20. Sticker electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Torres Sevilla, Galo Andres; Diaz Cordero, Marlon Steven


    Electronic stickers may be manufactured on flexible substrates (110, 120, 130) as layers and packaged together. The package may then have an adhesive applied to one side to provide capability for sticking the electronic devices to surfaces


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    "[to] promote the understanding and, acceptance of and growth in the number of electronic transactions .... Chapter III of the ECT Act is based on the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic. Commerce ... Communications Technology Law 146. 22.

  2. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A


    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  3. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen


    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  4. Electronic Commerce


    Slavko Đerić


    Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks...

  5. Comparison of Outcomes of Operatively Treated Bicondylar Tibial Plateau Fractures by External Fixation and Internal Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC Chan


    Full Text Available The outcome of bicondylar tibial plateau fractures treated with either external fixation (35 patients or internal fixation (24 patients was reviewed. Outcome measures included the Rasmussen score, clinical complications, development of osteoarthritis and the requirement for total knee replacement (TKR. Twenty-two (92% anatomical reductions were achieved in the internal fixation group compared to 27 (77% in the external fixation group. Infective complications were more common in the external fixation group (9 patients, 26% due to pin tract infection. There were no deep infections in the internal fixation group. The mean Rasmussen score was not significantly different (mean score 32 in external fixation and 29 in internal fixation between the two groups and the incidence of osteoarthritis was the same in both groups. Four patients in the external fixation group underwent a TKR compared to 5 patients in the internal fixation group. Bicondylar tibial plateau fractures have similar outcomes following external or internal fixation.

  6. The effect of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy position on cranial tibial subluxation: an in vitro study. (United States)

    Kowaleski, Michael P; Apelt, Detlef; Mattoon, John S; Litsky, Alan S


    To compare centered versus distal tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) position on cranial tibial subluxation, postoperative tibial plateau angle (TPA), and tibial long axis shift (TLAS). In vitro biomechanical evaluation. Six pairs of canine cadaveric hind limbs. One limb of each pair was randomly assigned to the distal (TPLO-D) or centered (TPLO-C) osteotomy group. Cranial tibial subluxation (CTS) under load was quantified sequentially under 3 conditions: intact, after cranial cruciate ligament transection, and after TPLO; a corrected CTS value was also calculated. Postoperative TPA and TLAS were measured. Comparisons were made using 1-way repeated measures ANOVA with a Tukey's multiple comparison post hoc test for CTS, and a Wilcoxon's sign rank test for TPA and TLAS. Significance was set at Pcranial tibial thrust. The centered osteotomy position is geometrically more precise, and biomechanically more effective than the distal position.

  7. Land–biosphere–atmosphere interactions over the Tibetan plateau from MODIS observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Menglin S; Mullens, Terrence J


    Eleven years (2000–10) of monthly observations from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Terra Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) show the diurnal, seasonal, and inter-annual variations of skin temperature over the Tibetan plateau (75–100°E, 27–45°N) at 0.05° × 0.05° resolution. A slight warming trend is observed during this period of time, although the relatively short duration of the observation makes such a trend uncertain. More importantly, using the most recent climatology of land skin temperature, spatially high correlation coefficients are found among normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), water vapor and cloud relations, indicating that the land surface, vegetation and atmosphere influence one another. Such a quantitative understanding of these relationships at high spatial resolution would be helpful for modeling the biosphere–atmosphere–land surface interaction processes over the Tibetan plateau. (letter)

  8. Possible functions of transmitter-controlled plateau potentials in α motoneurones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eken, T.; Hultborn, H.; Kiehn, O.


    are responsible for this bistable firing property in intact animals. The role of plateau potentials in locomotion is difficult to study. At present there are no clear indications of the utilization of plateau potentials in locomotion in intact animals. However, “clamped frequency” bursts which are observed...... in α motoneurones in reduced preparations is described. Thereafter we present some new data on a bistable behaviour in motor units in unrestrained intact animals during posture. Finally, the possible role of motoneuronal bistability in locomotion and in spasticity is discussed. Recently a bistable...... consequences of a bistable firing behaviour in the intact animal, the firing pattern of individual soleus motor units was studied by means of chronic EMG registration in awake unrestrained rats during quiet standing. Implanted electrodes allowed the delivery of excitatory and inhibitory stimulus trains...

  9. Posterolateral Corner Injury Associated with a Schatzker Type 2 Tibial Plateau Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris A. Zelle


    Full Text Available Isolated posterolateral corner (PLC injuries are rarely seen with tibial plateau fractures and can be missed during the initial assessment. The objective of this paper is to present a case of a Schatzker type 2 tibial plateau fracture with associated isolated PLC injury and give a discussion on physical exam, diagnostic studies, and treatment options. A twenty-five-year-old female sustained a concomitant Schatzker type 2 fracture and PLC injury. Magnetic Resonance Imaging showed an isolated PLC disruption. Open reduction-internal fixation was performed with subsequent PLC repair. At sixteen months postoperatively, the patient had full range of motion and strength of her knee and no signs of laxity. This case emphasizes the importance of physical exam and appropriate imaging modalities in order to diagnose and treat this significant injury in a prompt fashion. In this case, surgical fracture fixation and subsequent repair of the PLC provided a good clinical outcome.

  10. Water quality in the Tibetan Plateau: Metal contents of four selected rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiang; Sillanpaeae, Mika; Duo Bu; Gjessing, Egil T.


    The water used by 85% of the Asian population originates in Tibetan Plateau. During April and May of 2006, water samples were collected from four major Asian rivers in the Plateau (i.e. the Salween, Mekong, Yangtze River and Yarlung Tsangpo) and analyzed for Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag, Mo, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Li, Mn, Al, Fe, Mg and Hg. The results showed that elements such as Mg were rather high in Tibetan rivers, giving a mean electrical conductance of 36 mS/m. In a few locations, the results also showed relatively high concentrations of Al and Fe (>1 mg/L). However, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, and Cr were generally low. Contamination with Pb was identified at a few locations in the Salween and Ni at a few sites in the Yangtze River. - For the first time, total dissolved metal contents in source water of four major Asian rivers were evaluated at the same time

  11. Quantum critical behaviour of the plateau-insulator transition in the quantum Hall regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, A de; Ponomarenko, L A; Galistu, G; Lang, D T N de; Pruisken, A M M; Zeitler, U; Maude, D


    High-field magnetotransport experiments provide an excellent tool to investigate the plateau-insulator phase transition in the integral quantum Hall effect. Here we review recent low-temperature high-field magnetotransport studies carried out on several InGaAs/InP heterostructures and an InGaAs/GaAs quantum well. We find that the longitudinal resistivity ρ xx near the critical filling factor ν c ∼ 0.5 follows the universal scaling law ρ xx (ν, T) ∝ exp(-Δν/(T/T 0 ) κ ), where Δν = ν-ν c . The critical exponent κ equals 0.56 ± 0.02, which indicates that the plateau-insulator transition falls in a non-Fermi liquid universality class


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Ioana IAMANDEI


    Full Text Available In the Mehedinţi Plateau area, there is a great number of karsts complexes, also named geomorphosites, created by the action of water in the massive calcareous rocks. Some of these, such as Izverna and Topolnita karsts complexes, are suitable to speleological tourism, cave diving, tourist and scientific explorations, underground and underwater photography and filming. Tourists come here from all over the world and this is a place where special camps for cave diving the fans are organized. This study presents especially the types of geomorphosites generated by water, the touristic offer in this area and the analysis of indicators representing the global value of one of the main geomorphosites. This global value increased in particular due to their scientific, cultural and aesthetic values which makes them suitable to ecotourism. The economic value is also an important indicator for the touristic activities in Mehedinți Plateau.

  13. Summer rainfall over the southwestern Tibetan Plateau controlled by deep convection over the Indian subcontinent (United States)

    Dong, Wenhao; Lin, Yanluan; Wright, Jonathon S.; Ming, Yi; Xie, Yuanyu; Wang, Bin; Luo, Yong; Huang, Wenyu; Huang, Jianbin; Wang, Lei; Tian, Lide; Peng, Yiran; Xu, Fanghua


    Despite the importance of precipitation and moisture transport over the Tibetan Plateau for glacier mass balance, river runoff and local ecology, changes in these quantities remain highly uncertain and poorly understood. Here we use observational data and model simulations to explore the close relationship between summer rainfall variability over the southwestern Tibetan Plateau (SWTP) and that over central-eastern India (CEI), which exists despite the separation of these two regions by the Himalayas. We show that this relationship is maintained primarily by ‘up-and-over' moisture transport, in which hydrometeors and moisture are lifted by convective storms over CEI and the Himalayan foothills and then swept over the SWTP by the mid-tropospheric circulation, rather than by upslope flow over the Himalayas. Sensitivity simulations confirm the importance of up-and-over transport at event scales, and an objective storm classification indicates that this pathway accounts for approximately half of total summer rainfall over the SWTP. PMID:26948491

  14. Bibliography of geologic studies: Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt) and adjacent areas in Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strowd, W.


    The objective of this compilation is to present a comprehensive listing of published, unpublished, and open-file references pertaining to the geology of the Columbia Plateau and adjacent areas in the State of Idaho. The bibliography was compiled in support of Rockwell's Basalt Waste Isolation Program that is evaluating the feasibility of nuclear waste storage in the Columbia River Basalt Group. The emphasis is on stratigraphy, structural geology, seismicity, and tectonics, although the nature of Columbia River Basalt distribution in Idaho has necessitated the inclusion of a sizeable collection of references on geology marginal to the Columbia Plateau and associated mineral resources. The bibliography is divided into two major sections, the alphabetical listing of all references and the subject index. The subject index is divided into 19 categories to facilitate locating a specific reference in the user's field of interest

  15. Pseudoarthrosis of medial tibial plateau fracture-role of alignment procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devgan Ashish


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Nonunion in tibial plateau fractures is very rare. Limited literature is available on Pubmed search on intraarticular tibial nonunion. Most of the cases reported have been following failed surgical treatment and none was neglected fractures. Three patients of isolated and neglected medial tibial plateau nonunion with almost similar demo-graphic profile are reported in this paper. All the three pa-tients were managed by minimally invasive compression fixation using lag screws supplemented with limb realign-ment procedure of high tibial osteotomy. We discussed the injury mechanism, management and rehabilitation in such cases and reviewed the available literature regarding such a presentation. Key words: Fracture healing; Tibial fractures; Frac-ture fixation; Osteotomy

  16. Radiocarbon reservoir between charred seeds and fish bone in Neolithic sites, northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Zhou, A.; Dong, G.; Ren, L.


    Many efforts have been done to understand the reservoir effect of Qinghai Lake, yet no agreement has been reached. Five archaeological sites, located around the junction between the estuary of Rivers and Qinghai Lake, are the earliest Neolithic Age sites in the Qinghai- Tibetan Plateau (QTP), which is critical for understanding patterns of prehistoric human inhabitation in the high plateau extreme environments. This study compares radiocarbon dates of fish bones and terrestrial plant remains uncovered from the same archaeological strata to see whether there was reservoir effect reference to reliable data. Results demonstrate that there were reservoir effects ranging from 300 to 600 years back to 3600 years ago, nevertheless, no reservoir was observed of the modern fish. Besides, stable isotopic analysis illustrated that modern fish consumed similar food to those of millennias ago.

  17. Soil erosion assessment in the core area of the Loss Plateau (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Wang, Quanjiu


    In order to explore the spatiotemporal evolution of erosion and sediment yield before and after Grain for Green Project in the Loss Plateau. The soil loss of Yulin is estimated by Chinese Water Erosion on Hill Slope Prediction Model. The result shows that the spatiotemporal variations of soil erosion are largely related to rainfall erosion distribution, slope, and land use type. The overall soil erosion categories in the south region are higher than that of the northwest. Mid slopes and valleys are the major topographical contributors to soil erosion. With the growth of slope gradient, soil erosion significantly increased. The soil loss has a decreasing tendency after Grain for Green Project. The results indicate that the vegetation restoration as part of the Grain for Green Project on the Loess Plateau is effective.

  18. Mental health of Automobile Transportation Troop personnel stationed in the Western Sichuan Plateau of China (United States)

    Tan, Yan; Li, Yunming; Wu, Juan; Chen, Fuqin; Lu, Hao; Lu, Shijun; Yang, Xianjun; Ma, Xiao


    Abstract This study investigated the mental health of military transport personnel in the Western Sichuan Plateau of China, and factors that correlate with their mental health. The Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) was used to investigate the mental health status of the subjects. Their scores were compared with the national and military norm in China. Demographic factors were analyzed for associations with SCL-90 scores. Psychological problems were detected in 28.90% of total 1076 male officers and soldiers surveyed. The SCL-90 scale somatization score of these servicemen was higher than the national and military norms in China, while other scores were comparable. The reported physical health symptoms and being an only child were strongly associated with the SCL-90 scores. The mental health of military transport personnel in the China Western Sichuan Plateau should receive more attention. PMID:29561449

  19. Conventional radiographic examination in the evaluation of sequelae after tibial plateau fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, D.B.; Bjerg-Nielsen, A.; Laursen, N.; Glostrup Univ. Hospital


    Seventy patients with 72 conservatively treated tibial plateau fractures were re-examined after an average of 5 3/4 years. Among 55 fractured knees with a primary articular depression of 1-20 mm, the depression was still present radiographically in 47 knees. No correlation existed between the persistent radiographic depression and function of the knee. Moderate to severe osteoarthrosis was found in 10 knees; in five of these the osteoarthrosis was of clinical importance. More than 10 degrees of valgus/varus deformity was present in two knees. In two patients osteotomy had been performed to correct deformity. It is concluded that a persistent radiographic articular depression is of no clinical importance in tibial plateau fractures treated by conservative methods, which include early movement of the knee. The radiographic examination, however is, useful in the evaluation of valgus/varus deformity and osteoarthrosis. (orig.)

  20. Electronic Publishing. (United States)

    Lancaster, F. W.


    Describes various stages involved in the applications of electronic media to the publishing industry. Highlights include computer typesetting, or photocomposition; machine-readable databases; the distribution of publications in electronic form; computer conferencing and electronic mail; collaborative authorship; hypertext; hypermedia publications;…

  1. Desertification in 1957-2015 Estimated from Vegetation Coverage and Climate Conditions on the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Cuo, L.


    Desert is an area that receives less than 25 cm precipitation in cold climate or 50 cm precipitation in hot climate (Miller, 1961). Others defined true desert as a region having no recorded precipitation in 12 consecutive months (McGinnies et al., 1968). According to Koppen-Gieger climate classification system, if mean annual precipitation is less than 50% of the value A calculated by mean annual temperature times 20 plus 280 if 70% or more precipitation falls in April-September, the region has desert climate; if the mean annual precipitation is within 50%-100% of the value A, the region has semi-arid or steppe climate. On the Tibetan Plateau, the above definitions will result in no desert at all or the majority of the region falling into the category of desert which is not consistent with reality based on field exploration. In this study, the fractional vegetation coverage (FPC), precipitation, soil moisture and extreme wind days are used as indices to define areas of various degrees of desertification which produces much more realistic distribution of desert areas on the plateau. The Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Vegetation model (LPJ) is used to simulate vegetation growth, succession and vegetation properties such as FPC and soil moisture on the Tibetan Plateau. Gridded daily climate data are generated to drive the model and to analyze the status and changes of various deserts including light desert, medium desert, severe desert, extremely severe desert and desert proned area. The study will reveal the status and changes of possible driving factors of desertification, as well as various kinds of desert on the Tibetan Plateau during 1957-2015.

  2. Relationships between climate and growth of Gymnocypris selincuoensis in the Tibetan Plateau. (United States)

    Tao, Juan; Chen, Yifeng; He, Dekui; Ding, Chengzhi


    The consequences of climate change are becoming increasingly evident in the Tibetan Plateau, represented by glaciers retreating and lakes expanding, but the biological response to climate change by plateau-lake ecosystems is poorly known. In this study, we applied dendrochronology methods to develop a growth index chronology with otolith increment widths of Selincuo naked carp (Gymnocypris selincuoensis), which is an endemic species in Lake Selincuo (4530 m), and investigated the relationships between fish growth and climate variables (regional and global) in the last three decades. A correlation analysis and principle component regression analysis between regional climate factors and the growth index chronology indicated that the growth of G. selincuoensis was significantly and positively correlated with length of the growing season and temperature-related variables, particularly during the growing season. Most of global climate variables, which are relevant to the Asian monsoon and the midlatitude westerlies, such as El Nino Southern Oscillation Index, the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and North America Pattern, showed negative but not significant correlations with the annual growth of Selincuo naked carp. This may have resulted from the high elevation of the Tibetan Plateau and the high mountains surrounding this area. In comparison, the Pacific Decade Oscillation (PDO) negatively affected the growth of G. selincuoensis. The reason maybe that enhancement of the PDO can lead to cold conditions in this area. Taken together, the results indicate that the Tibetan Plateau fish has been affected by global climate change, particularly during the growing season, and global climate change likely has important effects on productivity of aquatic ecosystems in this area.

  3. Dendrochronological potential of the alpine shrub Rhododendron nivale on the south-eastern Tibetan Plateau. (United States)

    Liang, Eryuan; Eckstein, Dieter


    Shrubs and dwarf shrubs are wider spread on the Tibetan Plateau than trees and hence offer a unique opportunity to expand the present dendrochronological network into extreme environments beyond the survival limit of trees. Alpine shrublands on the Tibetan Plateau are characterized by rhododendron species. The dendrochronological potential of one alpine rhododendron species and its growth response to the extreme environment on the south-east Tibetan Plateau were investigated. Twenty stem discs of the alpine snowy rhododendron (Rhododendron nivale) were collected close to the tongue of the Zuoqiupu Glacier in south-east Tibet, China. The skeleton plot technique was used for inter-comparison between samples to detect the growth pattern of each stem section. The ring-width chronology was developed by fitting a negative exponential function or a straight line of any slope. Bootstrapping correlations were calculated between the standard chronology and monthly climate data. The wood of snowy rhododendron is diffuse-porous with evenly distributed small-diameter vessels. It has well-defined growth rings. Most stem sections can be visually and statistically cross-dated. The resulting 75-year-long standard ring-width chronology is highly correlated with a timberline fir chronology about 200 km apart, providing a high degree of confidence in the cross-dating. The climate/growth association of alpine snowy rhododendron and of this timberline fir is similar, reflecting an impact of monthly mean minimum temperatures in November of the previous year and in July during the year of ring formation. The alpine snowy rhododendron offers new research directions to investigate the environmental history of the Tibetan Plateau in those regions where up to now there was no chance of applying dendrochronology.

  4. Modern limnology of two lakes in the Tibetan Plateau - evidence from in-situ monitoring (United States)

    Wang, M.; Li, X.; Lei, L.; He, Y.; Hou, J.


    The mechanisms of climate change in the Tibetan Plateau, known as the Third Pole, receive more and more attention due to its unique geographic location and the influence of multiple climate systems. Among the paleoclimate archives, widespread lakes provide abundant information on past climate changes and have been investigated for decades. Though many high-quality paleolimnological records have been reported in the Tibetan Plateau, little is known about the modern limnological processes in most Tibetan lakes as most lakes are difficult to access and not ready for long-term monitoring. We have installed a series of temperature data logger at different water levels in two Tibetan lakes, Bangong Co and Dagze Co in July 2012 to monitor hourly variability of temperature profile. Bangong Co (33.5°N, 79.8°E, 4245 m asl) is a freshwater lake (salinity ~0.5 g/L) in the westernmost Tibetan Plateau, receiving melt water from mountain glaciers in the basin. Dagze Co (31.9°N, 87.5°E, 4470 m asl) is saline lake (salinity ~15 g/L) in the central Tibetan Plateau, mostly fed by precipitation. In combination with the climate data in the nearby weather stations, we wish to understand the modern limnological processes in the two lakes and their potential effect on the lake biology, sedimentation, and sedimentary biomarkers. Based on the data collected for the first calendar year (Jul 2012 ~ Aug 2013), we anticipate to understand: 1) the influence of climate on the hydrological processes in high elevation lakes; 2) the difference in the metalimnion in meltwater-fed lake (Bangong Co) and precipitation-fed lake (Dagze Co) and their potential effect on the lake biology; 3) the difference in the spring turnover and fall turnover and the effect of meltwater and salinity.

  5. Holocene debris flows on the Colorado Plateau: The influence of clay mineralogy and chemistry (United States)

    Webb, R.H.; Griffiths, P.G.; Rudd, L.P.


    Holocene debris flows do not occur uniformly on the Colorado Plateau province of North America. Debris flows occur in specific areas of the plateau, resulting in general from the combination of steep topography, intense convective precipitation, abundant poorly sorted material not stabilized by vegetation, and the exposure of certain fine-grained bedrock units in cliffs or in colluvium beneath those cliffs. In Grand and Cataract Canyons, fine-grained bedrock that produces debris flows contains primarily single-layer clays - notably illite and kaolinite - and has low multilayer clay content. This clay-mineral suite also occurs in the colluvium that produces debris flows as well as in debris-flow deposits, although unconsolidated deposits have less illite than the source bedrock. We investigate the relation between the clay mineralogy and major-cation chemistry of fine-grained bedrock units and the occurrence of debris flows on the entire Colorado Plateau. We determined that 85 mapped fine-grained bedrock units potentially could produce debris flows, and we analyzed clay mineralogy and major-cation concentration of 52 of the most widely distributed units, particularly those exposed in steep topography. Fine-grained bedrock units that produce debris flows contained an average of 71% kaolinite and illite and 5% montmorillonite and have a higher concentration of potassium and magnesium than nonproducing units, which have an average of 51% montmorillonite and a higher concentration of sodium. We used multivariate statistics to discriminate fine-grained bedrock units with the potential to produce debris flows, and we used digital-elevation models and mapped distribution of debris-flow producing units to derive a map that predicts potential occurrence of Holocene debris flows on the Colorado Plateau. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  6. The Pangaean megamonsoon - evidence from the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation, Colorado Plateau (United States)

    Dubiel, R.F.; Totman, Parrish J.; Parrish, J.M.; Good, S.C.


    The Chinle was deposited between about 5?? to 15??N paleolatitude in the western equatorial region of Pangaea, a key area for documenting the effects of the monsoonal climate. This study summarizes sedimentological and paleontologic data from the Chinle Formation on the Colorado Plateau and integrates that data with paleoclimatic models. The evidence for abundant moisture and seasonality attest to the reversal of equatorial flow and support the hypothesis that the Triassic Pangaean climate was dominated by monsoonal circulation. -from Authors

  7. Seismic imaging of the upper mantle beneath the northern Central Andean Plateau: Implications for surface topography (United States)

    Ward, K. M.; Zandt, G.; Beck, S. L.; Wagner, L. S.


    Extending over 1,800 km along the active South American Cordilleran margin, the Central Andean Plateau (CAP) as defined by the 3 km elevation contour is second only to the Tibetan Plateau in geographic extent. The uplift history of the 4 km high Plateau remains uncertain with paleoelevation studies along the CAP suggesting a complex, non-uniform uplift history. As part of the Central Andean Uplift and the Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) project, we use surface waves measured from ambient noise and two-plane wave tomography to image the S-wave velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle to investigate the upper mantle component of plateau uplift. We observe three main features in our S-wave velocity model including (1), a high velocity slab (2), a low velocity anomaly above the slab where the slab changes dip from near horizontal to a normal dip, and (3), a high-velocity feature in the mantle above the slab that extends along the length of the Altiplano from the base of the Moho to a depth of ~120 km with the highest velocities observed under Lake Titicaca. A strong spatial correlation exists between the lateral extent of this high-velocity feature beneath the Altiplano and the lower elevations of the Altiplano basin suggesting a potential relationship. Non-uniqueness in our seismic models preclude uniquely constraining this feature as an uppermost mantle feature bellow the Moho or as a connected eastward dipping feature extending up to 300 km in the mantle as seen in deeper mantle tomography studies. Determining if the high velocity feature represents a small lithospheric root or a delaminating lithospheric root extending ~300 km into the mantle requires more integration of observations, but either interpretation shows a strong geodynamic connection with the uppermost mantle and the current topography of the northern CAP.

  8. Soil carbon fractions and enzyme activities under different vegetation types on the Loess Plateau of China


    Zhang, Haixin; Zeng, Quanchao; An, Shaoshan; Dong, Yanghong; Darboux, Frédéric


    Vegetation restoration was effective way of protecting soil erosion and water conservation on the Loess Plateau. Carbon fractions and enzyme activities were sensitive parameters for assessment of soil remediation through revegetation. Forest, forest steppe and grassland soils were collected at 0–5 cm and 5–20 cm soil layers in Yanhe watershed, Shaanxi Province. Urease, sucrase, alkaline phosphatase, soil organic carbon (SOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), easily ox...

  9. The link between Tibetan Plateau monsoon and Indian summer precipitation: a linear diagnostic perspective (United States)

    Ge, Fei; Sielmann, Frank; Zhu, Xiuhua; Fraedrich, Klaus; Zhi, Xiefei; Peng, Ting; Wang, Lei


    The thermal forcing of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is analyzed to investigate the formation and variability of Tibetan Plateau Summer Monsoon (TPSM), which affects the climates of the surrounding regions, in particular the Indian summer monsoon precipitation. Dynamic composites and statistical analyses indicate that the Indian summer monsoon precipitation is less/greater than normal during the strong/weak TPSM. Strong (weak) TPSM is associated with an anomalous near surface cyclone (anticyclone) over the western part of the Tibetan Plateau, enhancing (reducing) the westerly flow along its southern flank, suppressing (favoring) the meridional flow of warm and moist air from the Indian ocean and thus cutting (providing) moisture supply for the northern part of India and its monsoonal rainfall. These results are complemented by a dynamic and thermodynamic analysis: (i) A linear thermal vorticity forcing primarily describes the influence of the asymmetric heating of TP generating an anomalous stationary wave flux. Composite analysis of anomalous stationary wave flux activity (after Plumb in J Atmos Sci 42:217-229, 1985) strongly indicate that non-orographic effects (diabatic heating and/or interaction with transient eddies) of the Tibetan Plateau contribute to the generation of an anomalous cyclone (anti-cyclone) over the western TP. (ii) Anomalous TPSM generation shows that strong TPSM years are related to the positive surface sensible heating anomalies over the eastern TP favoring the strong diabatic heating in summer. While negative TPSM years are associated with the atmospheric circulation anomalies during the preceding spring, enhancing northerly dry-cold air intrusions into TP, which may weaken the condensational heat release in the middle and upper troposphere, leading to a weaker than normal summer monsoon over the TP in summer.

  10. External versus internal fixation for bicondylar tibial plateau fractures: systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Metcalfe, David; Hickson, Craig J; McKee, Lesley; Griffin, Xavier L


    It is uncertain whether external fixation or open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) is optimal for patients with bicondylar tibial plateau fractures. A systematic review using Ovid MEDLINE, Embase Classic, Embase, AMED, the Cochrane Library, Open Grey, Orthopaedic Proceedings, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Current Controlled Trials, US National Institute for Health Trials Registry, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. The search was conducted on 3rd October 2014 and no language limits were applied. Inclusion criteria were all clinical study designs comparing external fixation with open reduction internal fixation of bicondylar tibial plateau fractures. Studies of only one treatment modality were excluded, as were those that included unicondylar tibial plateau fractures. Treatment effects from studies reporting dichotomous outcomes were summarised using odds ratios. Continuous outcomes were converted to standardized mean differences to assess the treatm