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Sample records for pyruvates

  1. Basis of pyruvate inhibition in Thiobacillus thiooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G S; Berger, L R

    1970-05-01

    Addition of 10(-3)m pyruvic acid to cultures of Thiobacillus thiooxidans, at pH 2.3, results in its rapid intracellular accumulation and in the cessation of sulfur oxidation, CO(2) fixation, and oxygen consumption; at pH 7.0, pyruvate neither inhibits oxygen uptake nor accumulates appreciably intracellularly. Pyruvate does not affect CO(2) fixation in cell-free extracts. The data suggest that the cells of T. thiooxidans are passively permeable to pyruvic acid at low pH. Thus entry of pyruvic acid causes accumulation of pyruvate with a concomitant decrease in intracellular pH.

  2. Deferasirox in pyruvate kinase deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Deeren, Dries

    2008-01-01

    Deferasirox in pyruvate kinase deficiency phone: +32-51-237437 (Deeren, Dries) (Deeren, Dries) Department of Haematology, Heilig-Hartziekenhuis Roeselare-Menen vzw - Wilgenstraat 2 - B-8800 - Roeselare - BELGIUM (Deeren, Dries) BELGIUM Registration: 2008-09-10 Received: 2008-09-05 Accepted: 2008-09-10 ePublished: 2008-09-23

  3. Isolated tumoral pyruvate dehydrogenase can synthesize acetoin which inhibits pyruvate oxidation as well as other aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggetto, L G; Lehninger, A L

    1987-05-29

    Oxidation of 1 mM pyruvate by Ehrlich and AS30-D tumor mitochondria is inhibited by acetoin, an unusual and important metabolite of pyruvate utilization by cancer cells, by acetaldehyde, methylglyoxal and excess pyruvate. The respiratory inhibition is reversed by other substrates added to pyruvate and also by 0.5 mM ATP. Kinetic properties of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex isolated from these tumor mitochondria have been studied. This complex appears to be able to synthesize acetoin from acetaldehyde plus pyruvate and is competitively inhibited by acetoin. The role of a new regulatory pattern for tumoral pyruvate dehydrogenase is presented.

  4. Pyruvate: A key Nutrient in Hypersaline Environments?

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    Aharon Oren

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most commonly occurring but difficult to isolate halophilic prokaryotes, Archaea as well as Bacteria, require or prefer pyruvate as carbon and energy source. The most efficient media for the enumeration and isolation of heterotrophic prokaryotes from natural environments, from freshwater to hypersaline, including the widely used R2A agar medium, contain pyruvate as a key ingredient. Examples of pyruvate-loving halophiles are the square, extremely halophilic archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi and the halophilic gammaproteobacterium Spiribacter salinus. However, surprisingly little is known about the availability of pyruvate in natural environments and about the way it enters the cell. Some halophilic Archaea (Halorubrum saccharovorum, Haloarcula spp. partially convert sugars and glycerol to pyruvate and other acids (acetate, lactate which are excreted to the medium. Pyruvate formation from glycerol was also shown during a bloom of halophilic Archaea in the Dead Sea. However, no pyruvate transporters were yet identified in the genomes of halophilic Archaea, and altogether, our understanding of pyruvate transport in the prokaryote world is very limited. Therefore, the preference for pyruvate by fastidious and often elusive halophiles and the empirically proven enhanced colony recovery on agar media containing pyruvate are still poorly understood.

  5. Characterization of pyruvate uptake in Escherichia coli K-12.

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    Jens Kreth

    Full Text Available The monocarboxylate pyruvate is an important metabolite and can serve as sole carbon source for Escherichia coli. Although specific pyruvate transporters have been identified in two bacterial species, pyruvate transport is not well understood in E. coli. In the present study, pyruvate transport was investigated under different growth conditions. The transport of pyruvate shows specific activities depending on the growth substrate used as sole carbon source, suggesting the existence of at least two systems for pyruvate uptake: i one inducible system and probably highly specific for pyruvate and ii one system active under non-induced conditions. Using the toxic pyruvate analog 3-fluoropyruvate, a mutant was isolated unable to grow on and transport pyruvate. Further investigation revealed that a revertant selected for growth on pyruvate regained the inducible pyruvate transport activity. Characterization of pyruvate excretion showed that the pyruvate transport negative mutant accumulated pyruvate in the growth medium suggesting an additional transport system for pyruvate excretion. The here presented data give valuable insight into the pyruvate metabolism and transport of E. coli suggesting the presence of at least two uptake systems and one excretion system to balance the intracellular level of pyruvate.

  6. Pyruvate anions neutralize peritoneal dialysate cytotoxicity.

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    Mahiout, A; Brunkhorst, R

    1995-01-01

    A new peritoneal dialysate containing pyruvate anions was developed in order to avoid cytotoxic effect of conventional lactate-based dialysate. The dialysate has a final pH of 5.4 to 5.6 and is composed of 1.36-3.86% glucose-monohydrate; 132 mmol/l sodium; 1.75 mmol/l calcium; 0.75 mmol/l magnesium; 102 mmol/l chloride and 35 mmol/l pyruvate. For cytotoxicity testing peritoneal macrophages, and mesothelial cells (MC) were exposed to conventional lactate dialysate, and pyruvate dialysate. We investigated the O2- generation and cytokine synthesis after endotoxin stimulation in peritoneal macrophages and the proliferation of mesothelial cells of cultured human MC. After exposure to lactate dialysate O2- generation and cytokine synthesis in peritoneal macrophages and proliferation of mesothelial cells were inhibited when compared to solution containing pyruvate and the control solution. After preincubation with 3.86% glucose containing solutions, all negative effects became even more pronounced in the lactate group whereas after pre-exposure to pyruvate containing solution the toxic effects were absent. These results suggest that the acute toxic effects of commercially available peritoneal dialysates can be avoided by the use of sodium pyruvate instead of sodium lactate.

  7. Crystal structure of Cryptosporidium parvum pyruvate kinase.

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    William J Cook

    Full Text Available Pyruvate kinase plays a critical role in cellular metabolism of glucose by serving as a major regulator of glycolysis. This tetrameric enzyme is allosterically regulated by different effector molecules, mainly phosphosugars. In response to binding of effector molecules and substrates, significant structural changes have been identified in various pyruvate kinase structures. Pyruvate kinase of Cryptosporidium parvum is exceptional among known enzymes of protozoan origin in that it exhibits no allosteric property in the presence of commonly known effector molecules. The crystal structure of pyruvate kinase from C. parvum has been solved by molecular replacement techniques and refined to 2.5 Å resolution. In the active site a glycerol molecule is located near the γ-phosphate site of ATP, and the protein structure displays a partially closed active site. However, unlike other structures where the active site is closed, the α6' helix in C. parvum pyruvate kinase unwinds and assumes an extended conformation. In the crystal structure a sulfate ion is found at a site that is occupied by a phosphate of the effector molecule in many pyruvate kinase structures. A new feature of the C. parvum pyruvate kinase structure is the presence of a disulfide bond cross-linking the two monomers in the asymmetric unit. The disulfide bond is formed between cysteine residue 26 in the short N-helix of one monomer with cysteine residue 312 in a long helix (residues 303-320 of the second monomer at the interface of these monomers. Both cysteine residues are unique to C. parvum, and the disulfide bond remained intact in a reduced environment. However, the significance of this bond, if any, remains unknown at this time.

  8. Moderate excess of pyruvate augments osteoclastogenesis

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    Jenna E. Fong

    2013-03-01

    Cell differentiation leads to adaptive changes in energy metabolism. Conversely, hyperglycemia induces malfunction of many body systems, including bone, suggesting that energy metabolism reciprocally affects cell differentiation. We investigated how the differentiation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts, large polykaryons formed through fusion and growth of cells of monocytic origin, is affected by excess of energy substrate pyruvate and how energy metabolism changes during osteoclast differentiation. Surprisingly, small increases in pyruvate (1–2 mM above basal levels augmented osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo, while larger increases were not effective in vitro. Osteoclast differentiation increased cell mitochondrial activity and ATP levels, which were further augmented in energy-rich conditions. Conversely, the inhibition of respiration significantly reduced osteoclast number and size. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK acts as a metabolic sensor, which is inhibited in energy-rich conditions. We found that osteoclast differentiation was associated with an increase in AMPK levels and a change in AMPK isoform composition. Increased osteoclast size induced by pyruvate (1 mM above basal levels was prevented in the presence of AMPK activator 5-amino-4-imidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR. In keeping, inhibition of AMPK using dorsomorphin or siRNA to AMPKγ increased osteoclast size in control cultures to the level observed in the presence of pyruvate. Thus, we have found that a moderate excess of pyruvate enhances osteoclastogenesis, and that AMPK acts to tailor osteoclastogenesis to a cell's bioenergetics capacity.

  9. Production of pyruvate from mannitol by mannitol-assimilating pyruvate decarboxylase-negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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    Yoshida, Shiori; Tanaka, Hideki; Hirayama, Makoto; Murata, Kousaku; Kawai, Shigeyuki

    2015-01-01

    Mannitol is contained in brown macroalgae up to 33% (w/w, dry weight), and thus is a promising carbon source for white biotechnology. However, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a key cell factory, is generally regarded to be unable to assimilate mannitol for growth. We have recently succeeded in producing S. cerevisiae that can assimilate mannitol through spontaneous mutations of Tup1-Cyc8, each of which constitutes a general corepressor complex. In this study, we demonstrate production of pyruvate from mannitol using this mannitol-assimilating S. cerevisiae through deletions of all 3 pyruvate decarboxylase genes. The resultant mannitol-assimilating pyruvate decarboxylase-negative strain produced 0.86 g/L pyruvate without use of acetate after cultivation for 4 days, with an overall yield of 0.77 g of pyruvate per g of mannitol (the theoretical yield was 79%). Although acetate was not needed for growth of this strain in mannitol-containing medium, addition of acetate had a significant beneficial effect on production of pyruvate. This is the first report of production of a valuable compound (other than ethanol) from mannitol using S. cerevisiae, and is an initial platform from which the productivity of pyruvate from mannitol can be improved.

  10. Purification and properties of pyruvate kinase from Streptococcus sanguis and activator specificity of pyruvate kinase from oral streptococci.

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    Abbe, K; Takahashi, S.; Yamada, T.

    1983-01-01

    It was found that pyruvate kinases with two different regulatory characteristics were distributed among oral streptococci. The pyruvate kinases of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, and Streptococcus bovis were activated by glucose 6-phosphate, whereas the enzymes of both Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mitis were activated by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. Pyruvate kinase (EC 2.7.1.40) from S. sanguis NCTC 10904 was purified, giving a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-po...

  11. Transcriptional Regulation of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase

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    Ji Yun Jeong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC activity is crucial to maintains blood glucose and ATP levels, which largely depends on the phosphorylation status by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK isoenzymes. Although it has been reported that PDC is phosphorylated and inactivated by PDK2 and PDK4 in metabolically active tissues including liver, skeletal muscle, heart, and kidney during starvation and diabetes, the precise mechanisms by which expression of PDK2 and PDK4 are transcriptionally regulated still remains unclear. Insulin represses the expression of PDK2 and PDK4 via phosphorylation of FOXO through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Several nuclear hormone receptors activated due to fasting or increased fat supply, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, glucocorticoid receptors, estrogen-related receptors, and thyroid hormone receptors, also participate in the up-regulation of PDK2 and PDK4; however, the endogenous ligands that bind those nuclear receptors have not been identified. It has been recently suggested that growth hormone, adiponectin, epinephrine, and rosiglitazone also control the expression of PDK4 in tissue-specific manners. In this review, we discuss several factors involved in the expressional regulation of PDK2 and PDK4, and introduce current studies aimed at providing a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the development of metabolic diseases such as diabetes.

  12. Production and Recovery of Pyruvic Acid: Recent Advances

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    Pal, Dharm; Keshav, Amit; Mazumdar, Bidyut; Kumar, Awanish; Uslu, Hasan

    2017-07-01

    Pyruvic acid is an important keto-carboxylic acid and can be manufactured by both chemical synthesis and biotechnological routes. In the present paper an overview of recent developments and challenges in various existing technique for the production and recovery of pyruvic acid from fermentation broth or from waste streams has been presented. The main obstacle in biotechnological production of pyruvic acid is development of suitable microorganism which can provide high yield and selectivity. On the other hand, technical limitation in recovery of pyruvic acid from fermentation broth is that, it could not be separated as other carboxylic acid in the form of salts by addition of alkali. Besides, pyruvic acid cannot be crystallized. Commercial separation by distillation is very expensive because pyruvic acid decomposes at higher temperature. It is also chemically reactive due to its peculiar molecular structure and has tendency to polymerize. Thus, at high concentration the various type of reaction leads to lower yield of the product, and hence, conventional methods are not favorable. Alternate separation technologies viable to both synthetic and biological routes are the current research areas. Latest techniques such as reactive extraction is new to the field of recovery of pyruvic acid. Recent development and future prospects in downstream processing of biochemically produced pyruvic acids has been discussed in this review article.

  13. Kinetics of lactate and pyruvate transport in cultured rat myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Grumbckow, Lena; Elsner, Peter; Hellsten, Ylva;

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal muscle transport of lactate and pyruvate was studied in primary cultures of rat myotubes, applying the pH-sensitive fluorescent indicator 2', 7'-bis(carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein. The initial rate of decrease in intracellular pH (pHi) upon lactate or pyruvate incubation was used...

  14. Accumulation of pyruvate by isolated rat liver mitochondria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaartjes, W.J.; Geelen, M.J.H.; Bergh, S.G. van den

    1979-01-01

    1. 1. Various methods to measure the rate of accumulation of [3-14C]pyruvate in the sucrose-impermeable space of isolated rat liver mitochondria are tested and compared with respect to their ability to distinguish between carrier-linked pyruvate transport and non-carrier-linked processes (adsorption

  15. Studies on the structure and function of pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreu, de R.A.

    1978-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to obtain more information of the structure and function of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes from Azotobacter vinelandii and Escherichia coli.In chapter 2 a survey is given of the recent literature on pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes.In chapter 3 results

  16. Pyruvate-Enhanced Resuscitation for Hemorrhagic Shock and Hindlimb Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-06

    Pyruvate-Enhanced Resuscitation for Hemorrhagic Shock and Hindlimb Ischemia The overall goals of this investigation were to test the ability of...Final Report: Pyruvate-Enhanced Resuscitation for Hemorrhagic Shock and Hindlimb Ischemia Report Title The overall goals of this investigation were to...during ischemia -reperfusion injury and cause cellular damage which likely contributes to myocardial contractile dysfunction. ROS oxidize and

  17. Pyruvate carboxylase is expressed in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minet, Ariane D; Gaster, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyses the carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate thereby allowing supplementation of citric acid cycle intermediates. The presence of PC in skeletal muscle is controversial. We report here, that PC protein is easily detectable...

  18. The Role of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase in Diabetes and Obesity

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    In-Kyu Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC is an emerging target for the treatment of metabolic syndrome. To maintain a steady-state concentration of adenosine triphosphate during the feed-fast cycle, cells require efficient utilization of fatty acid and glucose, which is controlled by the PDC. The PDC converts pyruvate, coenzyme A (CoA, and oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ into acetyl-CoA, reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH, and carbon dioxide. The activity of the PDC is up- and down-regulated by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase, respectively. In addition, pyruvate is a key intermediate of glucose oxidation and an important precursor for the synthesis of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and nonessential amino acids.

  19. Decarboxylation of Pyruvate to Acetaldehyde for Ethanol Production by Hyperthermophiles

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    Mohammad S. Eram

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC encoded by pdc is a thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP-containing enzyme responsible for the conversion of pyruvate to acetaldehyde in many mesophilic organisms. However, no pdc/PDC homolog has yet been found in fully sequenced genomes and proteomes of hyper/thermophiles. The only PDC activity reported in hyperthermophiles was a bifunctional, TPP- and CoA-dependent pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR/PDC enzyme from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. Another enzyme known to be involved in catalysis of acetaldehyde production from pyruvate is CoA-acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (AcDH encoded by mhpF and adhE. Pyruvate is oxidized into acetyl-CoA by either POR or pyruvate formate lyase (PFL, and AcDH catalyzes the reduction of acetyl-CoA to acetaldehyde in mesophilic organisms. AcDH is present in some mesophilic (such as clostridia and thermophilic bacteria (e.g., Geobacillus and Thermoanaerobacter. However, no AcDH gene or protein homologs could be found in the released genomes and proteomes of hyperthermophiles. Moreover, no such activity was detectable from the cell-free extracts of different hyperthermophiles under different assay conditions. In conclusion, no commonly-known PDCs was found in hyperthermophiles. Instead of the commonly-known PDC, it appears that at least one multifunctional enzyme is responsible for catalyzing the non-oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetaldehyde in hyperthermophiles.

  20. Reciprocal regulation of protein kinase and pyruvate kinase activities of pyruvate kinase M2 by growth signals.

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    Gao, Xueliang; Wang, Haizhen; Yang, Jenny J; Chen, Jing; Jie, Jiang; Li, Liangwei; Zhang, Yinwei; Liu, Zhi-Ren

    2013-05-31

    Pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (PKM2) is an enzyme-catalyzing conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate in the glycolysis pathway. It was demonstrated that PKM2 interacts with tyrosine phosphopeptide, and the interaction with the tyrosine phosphopeptide affects the pyruvate kinase activity of PKM2. Our experiments suggest that PKM2 is also an active protein kinase (Gao, X., Wang, H., Yang, J. J., Liu, X., and Liu, Z. R. (2012) Mol. Cell 45, 598-609). We report here that growth signals reciprocally regulate the pyruvate kinase and protein kinase activities of PKM2 by different mechanisms. On the one hand, growth signals induce protein tyrosine phosphorylations. The tyrosine-phosphorylated protein(s) regulates the conversion of pyruvate kinase and protein kinase of PKM2 by directly interacting with PKM2. Binding of the tyrosyl-phosphorylated proteins at the fructose 1,6-bisphosphate-binding site converts the tetrameric PKM2 to a dimer. On the other hand, growth stimulations also lead to PKM2 phosphorylation, which consequently regulates the conversion of protein kinase and pyruvate kinase activities. Growth factor stimulations significantly increase the dimer/tetramer PKM2 ratio in cells and consequently activate the protein kinase activity of PKM2. Our study suggests that the conversion between the pyruvate kinase and protein kinase activities of PKM2 may be an important mechanism mediating the effects of growth signals in promoting cell proliferation.

  1. Properties and subunit structure of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase.

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    Hamada, M; Hiraoka, T; Koike, K; Ogasahara, K; Kanzaki, T

    1976-06-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase [EC 1.2.4.1] was separated from the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and its molecular weight was estimated to be about 150,000 by sedimentation equilibrium methods. The enzyme was dissociated into two subunits (alpha and beta), with estimated molecular weights of 41,000 (alpha) and 36,000 (beta), respectively, by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate. The subunits were separated by phosphocellulose column chromatography and their chemical properties were examined. The subunit structure of the pyruvate dehydrogenase was assigned as alpha2beta2. The content of right-handed alpha-helix in the enzyme molecule was estimated to be about 29 and 28% by optical rotatory dispersion and by circular dichroism, respectively. The enzyme contained no thiamine-PP, and its dehydrogenase activity was completely dependent on added thiamine-PP and partially dependent on added Mg2+ and Ca2+. The Km value of pyruvate dehydrogenase for thiamine diphosphate was estimated to be 6.5 X 10(-5) M in the presence of Mg2+ or Ca2+. The enzyme showed highly specific activity for thiamine-PP dependent oxidation of both pyruvate and alpha-ketobutyrate, but it also showed some activity with alpha-ketovalerate, alpha-ketoisocaproate, and alpha-ketoisovalerate. The pyruvate dehydrogenase activity was strongly inhibited by bivalent heavy metal ions and by sulfhydryl inhibitors; and the enzyme molecule contained 27 moles of 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)-reactive sulfhydryl groups and a total of 36 moles of sulfhydryl groups. The inhibitory effect of p-chloromercuribenzoate was prevented by preincubating the enzyme with thiamine-PP plus pyruvate. The structure of pyruvate dehydrogenase necessary for formation of the complex is also reported.

  2. Pyruvate protects pathogenic spirochetes from H2O2 killing.

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    Bryan Troxell

    Full Text Available Pathogenic spirochetes cause clinically relevant diseases in humans and animals, such as Lyme disease and leptospirosis. The causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, and the causative agent of leptospirosis, Leptospria interrogans, encounter reactive oxygen species (ROS during their enzootic cycles. This report demonstrated that physiologically relevant concentrations of pyruvate, a potent H2O2 scavenger, and provided passive protection to B. burgdorferi and L. interrogans against H2O2. When extracellular pyruvate was absent, both spirochetes were sensitive to a low dose of H2O2 (≈0.6 µM per h generated by glucose oxidase (GOX. Despite encoding a functional catalase, L. interrogans was more sensitive than B. burgdorferi to H2O2 generated by GOX, which may be due to the inherent resistance of B. burgdorferi because of the virtual absence of intracellular iron. In B. burgdorferi, the nucleotide excision repair (NER and the DNA mismatch repair (MMR pathways were important for survival during H2O2 challenge since deletion of the uvrB or the mutS genes enhanced its sensitivity to H2O2 killing; however, the presence of pyruvate fully protected ΔuvrB and ΔmutS from H2O2 killing further demonstrating the importance of pyruvate in protection. These findings demonstrated that pyruvate, in addition to its classical role in central carbon metabolism, serves as an important H2O2 scavenger for pathogenic spirochetes. Furthermore, pyruvate reduced ROS generated by human neutrophils in response to the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 agonist zymosan. In addition, pyruvate reduced neutrophil-derived ROS in response to B. burgdorferi, which also activates host expression through TLR2 signaling. Thus, pathogenic spirochetes may exploit the metabolite pyruvate, present in blood and tissues, to survive H2O2 generated by the host antibacterial response generated during infection.

  3. The allosteric regulation of pyruvate kinase.

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    Valentini, G; Chiarelli, L; Fortin, R; Speranza, M L; Galizzi, A; Mattevi, A

    2000-06-16

    Pyruvate kinase (PK) is critical for the regulation of the glycolytic pathway. The regulatory properties of Escherichia coli were investigated by mutating six charged residues involved in interdomain salt bridges (Arg(271), Arg(292), Asp(297), and Lys(413)) and in the binding of the allosteric activator (Lys(382) and Arg(431)). Arg(271) and Lys(413) are located at the interface between A and C domains within one subunit. The R271L and K413Q mutant enzymes exhibit altered kinetic properties. In K413Q, there is partial enzyme activation, whereas R271L is characterized by a bias toward the T-state in the allosteric equilibrium. In the T-state, Arg(292) and Asp(297) form an intersubunit salt bridge. The mutants R292D and D297R are totally inactive. The crystal structure of R292D reveals that the mutant enzyme retains the T-state quaternary structure. However, the mutation induces a reorganization of the interface with the creation of a network of interactions similar to that observed in the crystal structures of R-state yeast and M1 PK proteins. Furthermore, in the R292D structure, two loops that are part of the active site are disordered. The K382Q and R431E mutations were designed to probe the binding site for fructose 1, 6-bisphosphate, the allosteric activator. R431E exhibits only slight changes in the regulatory properties. Conversely, K382Q displays a highly altered responsiveness to the activator, suggesting that Lys(382) is involved in both activator binding and allosteric transition mechanism. Taken together, these results support the notion that domain interfaces are critical for the allosteric transition. They couple changes in the tertiary and quaternary structures to alterations in the geometry of the fructose 1, 6-bisphosphate and substrate binding sites. These site-directed mutagenesis data are discussed in the light of the molecular basis for the hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia, which is caused by mutations in human erythrocyte PK gene.

  4. Twenty-seven Years of Cerebral Pyruvate Recycling.

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    Cerdán, Sebastián

    2017-01-18

    Cerebral pyruvate recycling is a metabolic pathway deriving carbon skeletons and reducing equivalents from mitochondrial oxaloacetate and malate, to the synthesis of mitochondrial and cytosolic pyruvate, lactate and alanine. The pathway allows both, to provide the tricarboxylic acid cycle with pyruvate molecules produced from alternative substrates to glucose and, to generate reducing equivalents necessary for the operation of NADPH requiring processes. At the cellular level, pyruvate recycling involves the activity of malic enzyme, or the combined activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and pyruvate kinase, as well as of those transporters of the inner mitochondrial membrane exchanging the corresponding intermediates. Its cellular localization between the neuronal or astrocytic compartments of the in vivo brain has been controversial, with evidences favoring either a primarily neuronal or glial localizations, more recently accepted to occur in both environments. This review provides a brief history on the detection and characterization of the pathway, its relations with the early developments of cerebral high resolution (13)C NMR, and its potential neuroprotective functions under hypoglycemic conditions or ischemic redox stress.

  5. Altered Fermentative Metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Mutants Lacking Pyruvate Formate Lyase and Both Pyruvate Formate Lyase and Alcohol Dehydrogenase

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    Catalanotti, C.; Dubini, A.; Subramanian, V.; Yang, W. Q.; Magneschi, L.; Mus, F.; Seibert, M.; Posewitz, M. C.; Grossman, A. R.

    2012-02-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a unicellular green alga, often experiences hypoxic/anoxic soil conditions that activate fermentation metabolism. We isolated three Chlamydomonas mutants disrupted for the pyruvate formate lyase (PFL1) gene; the encoded PFL1 protein catalyzes a major fermentative pathway in wild-type Chlamydomonas cells. When the pfl1 mutants were subjected to dark fermentative conditions, they displayed an increased flux of pyruvate to lactate, elevated pyruvate decarboxylation, ethanol accumulation, diminished pyruvate oxidation by pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase, and lowered H2 production. The pfl1-1 mutant also accumulated high intracellular levels of lactate, succinate, alanine, malate, and fumarate. To further probe the system, we generated a double mutant (pfl1-1 adh1) that is unable to synthesize both formate and ethanol. This strain, like the pfl1 mutants, secreted lactate, but it also exhibited a significant increase in the levels of extracellular glycerol, acetate, and intracellular reduced sugars and a decrease in dark, fermentative H2 production. Whereas wild-type Chlamydomonas fermentation primarily produces formate and ethanol, the double mutant reroutes glycolytic carbon to lactate and glycerol. Although the metabolic adjustments observed in the mutants facilitate NADH reoxidation and sustained glycolysis under dark, anoxic conditions, the observed changes could not have been predicted given our current knowledge of the regulation of fermentation metabolism.

  6. Role of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in traumatic brain injury and Measurement of pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme by dipstick test

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    Sharma Pushpa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was designed to investigate the role of a mitochondrial enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH on the severity of brain injury, and the effects of pyruvate treatment in rats with traumatic brain injury (TBI. Materials and Methods: We examined rats subjected to closed head injury using a fluid percussion device, and treated with sodium pyruvate (antioxidant and substrate for PDH enzyme. At 72 h post injury, blood was analyzed for blood gases, acid-base status, total PDH enzyme using a dipstick test and malondialdehyde (MDA levels as a marker of oxidative stress. Brain homogenates from right hippocampus (injured area were analyzed for PDH content, and immunostained hippocampus sections were used to determine the severity of gliosis and PDH E1-∞ subunit. Results: Our data demonstrate that TBI causes a significant reduction in PDH enzyme, disrupt-acid-base balance and increase oxidative stress in blood. Also, lower PDH enzyme in blood is related to the increased gliosis and loss of its PDH E1-∞ subunit PDH in brain tissue, and these effects of TBI were prevented by pyruvate treatment. Conclusion: Lower PDH enzyme levels in blood are related to the global oxidative stress, increased gliosis in brain, and severity of brain injury following TBI. These effects can be prevented by pyruvate through the protection of PDH enzyme and its subunit E-1.

  7. Prevention of cataract in diabetic mice by topical pyruvate

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    Hegde KR

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available KR Hegde1,3, S Kovtun1, SD Varma1,21Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, 2Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Coppin State University, Department of Natural Sciences, Baltimore, MD, USABackground: It has been previously reported that oral administration of sodium pyruvate inhibits oxidative stress and cataract formation in diabetic animals. With a view to exploring the clinical usefulness of these findings, this study examined its preventive effect when administered topically as an eye drop.Methods: Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin. At the onset of diabetes, an eye drop preparation containing 2.5% sodium pyruvate was administered six times a day at 90-minute intervals. Treatment was continued for 6 weeks. Cataract formation was monitored ophthalmoscopically after mydriasis with 1% tropicamide eye drops. Subsequently, the treated and untreated diabetic animals and the age-matched normal controls were euthanized, their eyes enucleated, and the lenses isolated for biochemical assessment of protein glycation and glutathione levels.Results: Treatment with pyruvate eye drops was found to be significantly effective in inhibiting protein glycation. Glutathione levels were also better maintained. In addition, ophthalmoscopic examination revealed that the incidence of cataract in the pyruvate-treated group was only 12% as compared with the untreated diabetics in whom the incidence was 73%. Cataracts at this stage were largely equatorial.Conclusion: The results demonstrate that topical application of pyruvate can potentially be useful in attenuating or preventing cataract formation induced by diabetes and other conditions of oxidative stress.Keywords: pyruvate eye drops, diabetic cataract, protein glycation, oxidative stress

  8. Intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of calcium pyruvate in the TNBS model of rat colitis: Comparison with ethyl pyruvate.

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    Algieri, F; Rodriguez-Nogales, A; Garrido-Mesa, J; Camuesco, D; Vezza, T; Garrido-Mesa, N; Utrilla, P; Rodriguez-Cabezas, M E; Pischel, I; Galvez, J

    2016-03-01

    Pyruvate is a key intermediate of the carbohydrate metabolism with endogenous scavenger properties. However, it cannot be used in clinics due to its instability. Ethyl pyruvate (EP) has shown better stability as well as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Calcium pyruvate monohydrate (CPM) is another stable pyruvate derivative that could also provide the benefits from calcium, fundamental for bone health. Considering everything, we propose CPM as a therapeutic strategy to treat diseases with an immune component in which there is also a significant dysregulation of the skeletal homeostasis. This could be applicable to inflammatory bowel disease, which is characterized by over-production of pro-inflammatory mediators, including cytokines and reactive oxygen and nitrogen metabolites that induces intestinal mucosal damage and chronic inflammation, and extra-intestinal symptoms like osteopenia and osteoporosis. The effects of CPM and EP (20, 40 and 100mg/kg) were evaluated on the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) model of colitis in rats, after a 7-day oral treatment, with main focus on colonic histology and inflammatory mediators. Both pyruvates showed intestinal anti-inflammatory effects in the TNBS-induced colitis. They were evident both histologically, with a recovery of the mucosal cytoarchitecture and a reduction of the neutrophil infiltration, and through the profile of inflammatory mediators (IL-1, IL-6, IL-17, IL-23, iNOS). However, CPM appeared to be more effective than ethyl pyruvate. In conclusion, CPM exerts intestinal anti-inflammatory effect on the TNBS-induced colitis in rats, although further experiments are needed to explore its beneficial effects on bone health and osteoporosis.

  9. Pyruvate Is Synthesized by Two Pathways in Pea Bacteroids with Different Efficiencies for Nitrogen Fixation▿

    OpenAIRE

    Mulley, Geraldine; Lopez-Gomez, Miguel; Zhang, Ye; Terpolilli, Jason; Prell, Jurgen; Finan, Turlough; Poole, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation in legume bacteroids is energized by the metabolism of dicarboxylic acids, which requires their oxidation to both oxaloacetate and pyruvate. In alfalfa bacteroids, production of pyruvate requires NAD+ malic enzyme (Dme) but not NADP+ malic enzyme (Tme). However, we show that Rhizobium leguminosarum has two pathways for pyruvate formation from dicarboxylates catalyzed by Dme and by the combined activities of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxykinase (PckA) and pyruvate kinase (...

  10. Ethyl Pyruvate Provides Therapeutic Benefits to Resuscitation Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    described in previous studies [40]. Animals without resuscitation were characterized by uremia, metabolic acidosis and hyperglycemia. Both resuscitation...AnGap) and negative base excess of extracellular fluid (BEecf). Resuscitation with Hextend alone or with ethyl pyruvate improved metabolic acidosis , anion...gap and BEecf . These effects on metabolic acidosis did not correlate with changes in bicarbonate, gases (total and partial CO2), or

  11. 21 CFR 862.1655 - Pyruvic acid test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... measure pyruvic acid (an intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrate) in plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the evaluation of electrolyte metabolism and in the diagnosis and treatment of acid-base and electrolyte disturbances or anoxia (the reduction of oxygen in body tissues)....

  12. Effect of Catalase on Biocatalytic Synthesis of Pyruvate by Enzymes from Pseudomonas sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Song GU; Yuan Xiu WANG; Qiang JIAO

    2004-01-01

    Pyruvate was produced from DL-lactate by a kind of green-chemical biocatalyst - cell-free extract from bacterial strain Pseudomonas sp. SM-6. Catalase in cell-free extract, which could stabilize the pyruvate formed by lactate oxidase, played an important role in pyruvate preparation. The effect of catalase in conversion process was evaluated.

  13. R-lipoic acid inhibits mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotchkina, Lioubov G; Sidhu, Sukhdeep; Patel, Mulchand S

    2004-10-01

    The four pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) and two pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase (PDP) isoenzymes that are present in mammalian tissues regulate activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of its pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1) component. The effect of lipoic acids on the activity of PDKs and PDPs was investigated in purified proteins system. R-lipoic acid, S-lipoic acid and R-dihydrolipoic acid did not significantly affect activities of PDPs and at the same time inhibited PDKs to different extents (PDK1>PDK4 approximately PDK2>PDK3 for R-LA). Since lipoic acids inhibited PDKs activity both when reconstituted in PDC and in the presence of E1 alone, dissociation of PDK from the lipoyl domains of dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase in the presence of lipoic acids is not a likely explanation for inhibition. The activity of PDK1 towards phosphorylation sites 1, 2 and 3 of E1 was decreased to the same extent in the presence of R-lipoic acid, thus excluding protection of the E1 active site by lipoic acid from phosphorylation. R-lipoic acid inhibited autophosphorylation of PDK2 indicating that it exerted its effect on PDKs directly. Inhibition of PDK1 by R-lipoic acid was not altered by ADP but was decreased in the presence of pyruvate which itself inhibits PDKs. An inhibitory effect of lipoic acid on PDKs would result in less phosphorylation of E1 and hence increased PDC activity. This finding provides a possible mechanism for a glucose (and lactate) lowering effect of R-lipoic acid in diabetic subjects.

  14. Molecular and biochemical characterization of bifunctional pyruvate decarboxylases and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductases from Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga hypogea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eram, Mohammad S; Wong, Alton; Oduaran, Erica; Ma, Kesen

    2015-12-01

    Hyperthermophilic bacteria Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga hypogea produce ethanol as a metabolic end product, which is resulted from acetaldehyde reduction catalysed by an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). However, the enzyme that is involved in the production of acetaldehyde from pyruvate is not well characterized. An oxygen sensitive and coenzyme A-dependent pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) activity was found to be present in cell free extracts of T. maritima and T. hypogea. Both enzymes were purified and found to have pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR) activity, indicating their bifunctionality. Both PDC and POR activities from each of the purified enzymes were characterized in regards to their optimal assay conditions including pH dependency, oxygen sensitivity, thermal stability, temperature dependency and kinetic parameters. The close relatedness of the PORs that was shown by sequence analysis could be an indication of the presence of such bifunctionality in other hyperthermophilic bacteria. This is the first report of a bifunctional PDC/POR enzyme in hyperthermophilic bacteria. The PDC and the previously reported ADHs are most likely the key enzymes catalysing the production of ethanol from pyruvate in bacterial hyperthermophiles.

  15. A Simple Procedure for the Synthesis of [32P]Phosphoenol Pyruvate via the Pyruvate Kinase Exchange Reaction at Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roossien, F.F.; Brink, J.; Robillard, G.T.

    1983-01-01

    A one step procedure is presented for the preparation of [32P]phosphoenolpyruvate from [γ-32P]ATP using pyruvate kinase. The reaction is carried out at chemical equilibrium and involves only an exchange of isotope between ATP and phosphoenolpyruvate. The initial phosphoenolpyruvate/ATP ratio in the

  16. Purification and properties of pyruvate kinase from Streptococcus sanguis and activator specificity of pyruvate kinase from oral streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbe, K; Takahashi, S; Yamada, T

    1983-03-01

    It was found that pyruvate kinases with two different regulatory characteristics were distributed among oral streptococci. The pyruvate kinases of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, and Streptococcus bovis were activated by glucose 6-phosphate, whereas the enzymes of both Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mitis were activated by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. Pyruvate kinase (EC 2.7.1.40) from S. sanguis NCTC 10904 was purified, giving a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme had a molecular weight of 250,000 to 260,000 and consisted of four identical subunits. Whereas the pyruvate kinase from S. mutans was completely dependent on glucose 6-phosphate (K. Abbe and T. Yamada, J. Bacteriol. 149:299-305, 1982), the enzyme from S. sanguis was activated by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. In the presence of 0.5 mM fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, the saturation curves for the substrates, phosphoenolpyruvate and ADP, were hyperbolic, and the Km values were 0.13 and 0.30 mM, respectively. Without fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, however, saturation curves for both substrates were sigmoidal. GDP, IDP, and UDP could replace ADP. Like the enzyme from S. mutans, the enzyme from S. sanguis required a divalent cation, Mg2+ or Mn2+, and a monovalent cation, K+ or NH4+, for activity, and it was strongly inhibited by Pi. When the concentration of Pi was increased, the half-saturating concentration and Hill coefficient for fructose 1,6-bisphosphate increased. The remarkable fluctuation of intracellular levels of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate observed in the cells growing under glucose limitation and nitrogen limitation implies that the intracellular concentration of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, in cooperation with that of Pi, may regulate pyruvate kinase activity in S. sanguis in vivo.

  17. Variability in spectrophotometric pyruvate analyses for predicting onion pungency and nutraceutical value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Vanesa H; Bannoud, Florencia; Insani, Marina; Galmarini, Claudio R; Cavagnaro, Pablo F

    2017-06-01

    Onion pyruvate concentration is used as a predictor of flavor intensity and nutraceutical value. The protocol of Schwimmer and Weston (SW) (1961) is the most widespread methodology for estimating onion pyruvate. Anthon and Barret (AB) (2003) proposed modifications to this procedure. Here, we compared these spectrophotometry-based procedures for pyruvate analysis using a diverse collection of onion cultivars. The SW method always led to over-estimation of pyruvate levels in colored, but not in white onions, by up to 65%. Identification of light-absorbance interfering compounds was performed by spectrophotometry and HPLC analysis. Interference by quercetin and anthocyanins, jointly, accounted for more than 90% of the over-estimation of pyruvate. Pyruvate determinations according to AB significantly reduced absorbance interference from compounds other than pyruvate. This study provides evidence about the mechanistic basis underlying differences between the SW and AB methods for indirect assessment of onion flavor and nutraceutical value.

  18. Optic neuropathy in a patient with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, Juan E. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Gonzalez, Guido E. [Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Clinica Alemana de Santiago, Departmento de Imagenes, Santiago (Chile); Nagao, Karina E.; Walton, David S. [Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Harvard Medical School, Department of Ophthalmology, Boston, MA (United States); Caruso, Paul A. [Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) deficiency is a genetic disorder of mitochondrial metabolism. The clinical manifestations range from severe neonatal lactic acidosis to chronic neurodegeneration. Optic neuropathy is an uncommon clinical sequela and the imaging findings of optic neuropathy in these patients have not previously been described. We present a patient with PDH deficiency with bilateral decreased vision in whom MRI demonstrated bilateral optic neuropathy and chiasmopathy. (orig.)

  19. Theory Study on Structures and Vibrational Frequencies of Pyruvic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Density functional theory BLYP (using Becke's and Lee-Yang-Parr's correlation functionals ), ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF) and hybrid DFT/HF B3LYP calculations were carried out to study the structure and vibrational spectra of pyruvic acid. The scaled B3LYP/6-31G* frequencies correspond well with available experimental assignment of the functional vibrational modes and the mean absolut devation is only 12.3cm-1.

  20. Red cell pyruvate kinase deficiency in Southern Sardinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perseu, L; Giagu, N; Satta, S; Sollaino, M C; Congiu, R; Galanello, R

    2010-12-15

    Pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency is the most frequent red cell enzymatic defect responsible for hereditary non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia. The clinical picture is quite variable and the reasons of this variability have been only partially clarified. We report the clinical description and the extended molecular analysis in 3 PK deficient patients with clinical phenotype of variable severity. We studied the clinical and hematological aspects of 3 patients and analyzed the following genes: pyruvate kinase-R, glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase, α-globin, uridindiphosphoglucuronil transferase and HFE. One patient (A) with a severe clinical picture resulted homozygote for exon 8 nt994A substitution, the other 2 (brothers) were compound heterozygotes for exon 8 nt994A and exon 11 nt1456T mutation. One of the two brothers with a more severe phenotype coinherited also had G6PD deficiency, while both had microcytosis due to the homozygosity for the non-deletional form of α-thalassemia ATG→ACG substitution at the initiation codon of the alpha2 globin gene. Our results suggest that extended molecular analysis is useful for studying how several interacting gene mutations contribute to the clinical variability of pyruvate kinase deficiency.

  1. Identification of the Elusive Pyruvate Reductase of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Chloroplasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Steven J.; Taha, Hussein; Yeoman, Justin A.; Iamshanova, Oksana; Chan, Kher Xing; Boehm, Marko; Behrends, Volker; Bundy, Jacob G.; Bialek, Wojciech; Murray, James W.; Nixon, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Under anoxic conditions the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii activates various fermentation pathways leading to the creation of formate, acetate, ethanol and small amounts of other metabolites including d-lactate and hydrogen. Progress has been made in identifying the enzymes involved in these pathways and their subcellular locations; however, the identity of the enzyme involved in reducing pyruvate to d-lactate has remained unclear. Based on sequence comparisons, enzyme activity measurements, X-ray crystallography, biochemical fractionation and analysis of knock-down mutants, we conclude that pyruvate reduction in the chloroplast is catalyzed by a tetrameric NAD+-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase encoded by Cre07.g324550. Its expression during aerobic growth supports a possible function as a ‘lactate valve’ for the export of lactate to the mitochondrion for oxidation by cytochrome-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenases and by glycolate dehydrogenase. We also present a revised spatial model of fermentation based on our immunochemical detection of the likely pyruvate decarboxylase, PDC3, in the cytoplasm. PMID:26574578

  2. Biosynthesis of pyruvic acid from glucose by Blastobotrys adeninivorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Morgunov, Igor G

    2016-09-01

    The ability of taxonomically different yeasts to synthesize pyruvic acid (PA) from glucose was studied. The study showed that many yeasts are able to produce PA from glucose under the condition of growth limitation by thiamine. This ability was found in the yeast Blastobotrys adeninivorans for the first time. The production (oversynthesis) of PA in this yeast can be explained by disturbance in the function of thiamine-dependent pyruvate dehydrogenase. Namely, the partial inhibition of this enzyme brings about the excretion of PA from the yeast cells. Due to incomplete inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase, the formation of acetyl-CoA continues, although at a lower level, maintaining the synthesis of α-ketoglutaric acid (KGA) in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. KGA is no longer oxidized in the TCA cycle, because thiamine limitation inhibits α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. As a result, KGA is excreted from the yeast cells as a byproduct of PA oversynthesis. Furthermore, the increased level of KGA in the yeast cells inhibits NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase in the TCA cycle and enhances the production and excretion of citric acid, another byproduct of PA oversynthesis. During cultivation in a fermentor, the strain Blastobotrys adeninivorans VKM Y-2677 produced 43.2 g l(-1) PA from glucose with a product yield (YPA) of 0.77 g PA/g glucose. The proportion of PA to byproducts was 18:1 for KGA and 8:1 for citric acid.

  3. Carbohydrate metabolism during prolonged exercise and recovery: interactions between pyruvate dehydrogenase, fatty acids, and amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourtzakis, Marina; Saltin, B.; Graham, T.;

    2006-01-01

    During prolonged exercise, carbohydrate oxidation may result from decreased pyruvate production and increased fatty acid supply and ultimately lead to reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity. Pyruvate also interacts with the amino acids alanine, glutamine, and glutamate, whereby the decline...... in pyruvate production could affect tricarboxycylic acid cycle flux as well as gluconeogenesis. To enhance our understanding of these interactions, we studied the time course of changes in substrate utilization in six men who cycled at 44 ± 1% peak oxygen consumption (mean ± SE) until exhaustion (exhaustion...... peaked at 2 h of exercise, whereas pyruvate production peaked at 1 h of exercise and was reduced ( 30%) thereafter, suggesting that pyruvate availability primarily accounted for reduced carbohydrate oxidation. Increased free fatty acid uptake (P

  4. Superior Cardiac Function Via Anaplerotic Pyruvate in the Immature Swine Heart After Cardiopulmonary Bypass and Reperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Aaron; Hyyti, Outi M.; Cohen, Gordon A.; Ning, Xue-Han; Sadilek, Martin; Isern, Nancy G.; Portman, Michael A.

    2008-12-01

    Pyruvate produces inotropic responses in the adult reperfused heart. Pyruvate oxidation and anaplerotic entry into the citric acid cycle (CAC) via carboxylation are linked to stimulation of contractile function. The goals of this study were to determine if these metabolic pathways operate and are maintained in the developing myocardium after reperfusion. Immature male swine (age 10-18 days) were subjected to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Intracoronary infusion of [2]-13C-pyruvate (to achieve a final concentration of 8 mM) was given for 35 minutes starting either during weaning (Group I), after discontinuation (Group II) or without (Control) CPB. Hemodynamic data was collected. 13C NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the fraction of pyruvate entering the CAC via pyruvate carboxylation (PC) to total CAC entry (PC plus decarboxlyation via pyruvate dehydrogenase). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine total glutamate enrichment.

  5. Development of a disposable pyruvate biosensor to determine pungency in onions (Allium cepa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Abayomi, Louise Anike; Terry, Leon A.; White, S. F.; Warner, P J

    2006-01-01

    A disposable prototype pyruvate biosensor was constructed using pyruvate oxidase immobilised on mediated meldolas blue electrodes to determine pungency in onions (Allium cepa L.). The optimum operating potential was +150 mV (versus Ag/AgCl). A strong correlation between the biosensor response and untreated onion juice of known pyruvate concentration 2–12 μmol/g fresh weight (FW) was demonstrated. The biosensor was able to differentiate between low and high pungency onions. The detection limit...

  6. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase as a Novel Therapeutic Target in Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopinath eSutendra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Current drug development in oncology is non-selective as it typically focuses on pathways essential for the survival of all dividing cells. The unique metabolic profile of cancer, which is characterized by increased glycolysis and suppressed mitochondrial glucose oxidation provides cancer cells with a proliferative advantage, conducive with apoptosis resistance and even increased angiogenesis. Recent evidence suggests that targeting the cancer-specific metabolic and mitochondrial remodeling may offer selectivity in cancer treatment. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK is a mitochondrial enzyme that is activated in a variety of cancers and results in the selective inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH, a complex of enzymes that converts cytosolic pyruvate to mitochondrial acetyl-CoA, the substrate for the Krebs’ cycle. Inhibition of PDK with either small interfering RNAs or the orphan drug dichloroacetate (DCA shifts the metabolism of cancer cells from glycolysis to glucose oxidation and reverses the suppression of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. In addition, this therapeutic strategy increases the production of diffusible Krebs’ cycle intermediates and mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (mROS, activating p53 or inhibiting pro-proliferative and pro-angiogenic transcription factors like nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α. These effects result in decreased tumor growth and angiogenesis in a variety of cancers with high selectivity. In a small but mechanistic clinical trial in patients with glioblastoma, a highly aggressive and vascular form of brain cancer, DCA decreased tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth, suggesting that metabolic targeting therapies can be translated directly to patients. Therefore, reversing the mitochondrial suppression with metabolic-modulating drugs, like PDK inhibitors holds promise in the rapidly expanding field of metabolic oncology.

  7. Pyruvate oxidase is a determinant of Avery's rough morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Aimee E; Clague, Melissa J; Glass, John I; Leblanc, Donald J

    2004-12-01

    In pioneering studies, Avery et al. identified DNA as the hereditary material (A. T. Avery, C. M. MacLeod, and M. McCarty, J. Exp. Med. 79:137-158, 1944). They demonstrated, by means of variation in colony morphology, that this substance could transform their rough type 2 Streptococcus pneumoniae strain R36A into a smooth type 3 strain. It has become accepted as fact, from modern textbook accounts of these experiments, that smooth pneumococci make capsule, while rough strains do not. We found that rough-to-smooth morphology conversion did not occur in rough strains R36A and R6 when the ability to synthesize native type 2 capsule was restored. The continued rough morphology of these encapsulated strains was attributed to a second, since-forgotten, morphology-affecting mutation that was sustained by R36A during strain development. We used a new genome-PCR-based approach to identify spxB, the gene encoding pyruvate oxidase, as the mutated locus in R36A and R6 that, with unencapsulation, gives rise to rough colony morphology, as we know it. The variant spxB allele of R36A and R6 is associated with increased cellular pyruvate oxidase activity relative to the ancestral strain D39. Increased pyruvate oxidase activity alters colony shape by mediating cell death. R36A requires a wild-type spxB allele for the expression of smooth type 2 morphology but not for the expression of smooth type 3 morphology, the phenotype monitored by Avery et al. Thus, the mutated spxB allele did not impact their use of smooth morphology to identify the transforming principle.

  8. Simultaneous investigation of cardiac pyruvate dehydrogenase flux, Krebs cycle metabolism and pH, using hyperpolarized [1,2-(13)C2]pyruvate in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Albert P; Hurd, Ralph E; Schroeder, Marie A; Lau, Angus Z; Gu, Yi-ping; Lam, Wilfred W; Barry, Jennifer; Tropp, James; Cunningham, Charles H

    2012-02-01

    (13)C MR spectroscopy studies performed on hearts ex vivo and in vivo following perfusion of prepolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate have shown that changes in pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) flux may be monitored non-invasively. However, to allow investigation of Krebs cycle metabolism, the (13)C label must be placed on the C2 position of pyruvate. Thus, the utilization of either C1 or C2 labeled prepolarized pyruvate as a tracer can only afford a partial view of cardiac pyruvate metabolism in health and disease. If the prepolarized pyruvate molecules were labeled at both C1 and C2 positions, then it would be possible to observe the downstream metabolites that were the results of both PDH flux ((13)CO(2) and H(13)CO(3)(-)) and Krebs cycle flux ([5-(13)C]glutamate) with a single dose of the agent. Cardiac pH could also be monitored in the same experiment, but adequate SNR of the (13)CO(2) resonance may be difficult to obtain in vivo. Using an interleaved selective RF pulse acquisition scheme to improve (13)CO(2) detection, the feasibility of using dual-labeled hyperpolarized [1,2-(13)C(2)]pyruvate as a substrate for dynamic cardiac metabolic MRS studies to allow simultaneous investigation of PDH flux, Krebs cycle flux and pH, was demonstrated in vivo.

  9. Binding of ethyl pyruvate to bovine serum albumin: Calorimetric, spectroscopic and molecular docking studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, Mallika [Department of Chemistry, Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi 11007 (India); Mishra, Rashmi; Agarwala, Paban K. [Department of Radiation Genetics and Epigenetics, Division of Radioprotective Drug Development Research, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi 110054 (India); Ojha, Himanshu, E-mail: himanshu.drdo@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Genetics and Epigenetics, Division of Radioprotective Drug Development Research, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi 110054 (India); Singh, Bhawna [Department of Radiation Genetics and Epigenetics, Division of Radioprotective Drug Development Research, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi 110054 (India); Singh, Anju; Kukreti, Shrikant [Nucleic Acid Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi 11007 (India)

    2016-06-10

    Highlights: • ITC study showed binding of ethyl pyruvate with BSA with high binding affinity. • Ethyl pyruvate binding caused conformation alteration of BSA. • Fluorescence quenching mechanism is static in nature. • Electrostatic, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic forces involved in binding. • Docking confirmed role of electrostatic, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic forces. - Abstract: Various in vitro and in vivo studies have shown the anti-inflammatory and anticancer potential role of ethyl pyruvate. Bio-distribution of drugs is significantly influenced by the drug-serum protein binding. Therefore, the binding mechanism of the ethyl pyruvate with bovine serum albumin was investigated using UV–vis absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism, isothermal titration calorimetry and molecular docking techniques. Absorption and fluorescence quenching studies indicated the binding of ethyl pyruvate with protein. Circular dichroism spectra of bovine serum albumin confirmed significant change in the conformation of protein upon binding. Thermodynamic data confirmed that ethyl pyruvate binds to bovine serum albumin at the two different sites with high affinity. Binding of ethyl pyruvate to bovine serum albumin involves hydrogen bonding, van der Waal and hydrophobic interactions. Further, docking studies indicated that ethyl pyruvate could bind significantly at the three binding sites. The results will definitely contribute to the development of ethyl pyruvate as drug.

  10. A Patient With Pyruvate Carboxylase Deficiency and Nemaline Rods on Muscle Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Ozlem; Orhan, Diclehan; Ostergaard, Elsebet; Tokatli, Aysegul; Dursun, Ali; Ozturk-Hismi, Burcu; Coskun, Turgay; Wibrand, Flemming; Kalkanoglu-Sivri, H Serap

    2013-11-01

    Nemaline rods are the pathologic hallmark of nemaline myopathy, but they have also been described as a secondary phenomenon in a variety of other disorders. Nemaline rods have not been reported in pyruvate carboxylase deficiency before. Here we present a patient with pyruvate carboxylase deficiency and nemaline rods detected on muscle biopsy. The nemaline rods may be due to cellular energy shortage and altered energy metabolism in pyruvate carboxylase deficiency, similar to that in the previously reported patients. The mechanism of nemaline rod formation may be associated with the role of pyruvate carboxylase in cellular energy pathways.

  11. A Patient With Pyruvate Carboxylase Deficiency and Nemaline Rods on Muscle Biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unal, Ozlem; Orhan, Diclehan; Ostergaard, Elsebet

    2013-01-01

    Nemaline rods are the pathologic hallmark of nemaline myopathy, but they have also been described as a secondary phenomenon in a variety of other disorders. Nemaline rods have not been reported in pyruvate carboxylase deficiency before. Here we present a patient with pyruvate carboxylase deficiency...... and nemaline rods detected on muscle biopsy. The nemaline rods may be due to cellular energy shortage and altered energy metabolism in pyruvate carboxylase deficiency, similar to that in the previously reported patients. The mechanism of nemaline rod formation may be associated with the role of pyruvate...

  12. Resolution of brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase into two isozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, D J; Dikdan, G; Jordan, F

    1986-03-01

    A novel purification method was developed for brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1) that for the first time resolved the enzyme into two isozymes on DEAE-Sephadex chromatography. The isozymes were found to be distinct according to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis: the first one to be eluted gave rise to one band, the second to two bands. The isozymes were virtually the same so far as specific activity, KM, inhibition kinetics and irreversible binding properties by the mechanism-based inhibitor (E)-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-oxo-3-butenoic acid are concerned. This finding resolves a longstanding controversy concerning the quaternary structure of this enzyme.

  13. [Heterogenicity of hepatic L-pyruvate kinase in fasting animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbach, Z V; Konovalenko, O V

    1993-01-01

    Molecular forms of hepatic pyruvate kinase (PK) were separated by fractionating on DEAE-cellulose. 120-h food deprivation of rats entails a progressive decline in L-PK activity, but not the activity of M-type enzyme of the minor fraction. The rate of L-PK degradation depends on the fasting duration. A rapid inactivation phase is followed by a slower one with the speed constants 0.023 and 0.0065 h-1, respectively. To control the L-PK degradation rates in fasting diets, protein modification by phosphorylation can be employed.

  14. Pyruvate carboxylase deficiency: An underestimated cause of lactic acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Habarou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pyruvate carboxylase (PC is a biotin-containing mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to oxaloacetate, thereby being involved in gluconeogenesis and in energy production through replenishment of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle with oxaloacetate. PC deficiency is a very rare metabolic disorder. We report on a new patient affected by the moderate form (the American type A. Diagnosis was nearly fortuitous, resulting from the revision of an initial diagnosis of mitochondrial complex IV (C IV defect. The patient presented with severe lactic acidosis and pronounced ketonuria, associated with lethargy at age 23 months. Intellectual disability was noted at this time. Amino acids in plasma and organic acids in urine did not show patterns of interest for the diagnostic work-up. In skin fibroblasts PC showed no detectable activity whereas biotinidase activity was normal. We had previously reported another patient with the severe form of PC deficiency and we show that she also had secondary C IV deficiency in fibroblasts. Different anaplerotic treatments in vivo and in vitro were tested using fibroblasts of both patients with 2 different types of PC deficiency, type A (patient 1 and type B (patient 2. Neither clinical nor biological effects in vivo and in vitro were observed using citrate, aspartate, oxoglutarate and bezafibrate. In conclusion, this case report suggests that the moderate form of PC deficiency may be underdiagnosed and illustrates the challenges raised by energetic disorders in terms of diagnostic work-up and therapeutical strategy even in a moderate form.

  15. Red cell pyruvate kinase deficiency: from genetics to clinical manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanella, A; Bianchi, P

    2000-03-01

    Pyruvate kinase deficiency is the most frequent enzyme abnormality of the Embden-Meyerhof pathway causing hereditary non-spherocytic haemolytic anaemia. The degree of haemolysis varies widely, ranging from very mild or fully compensated forms, to life-threatening neonatal anaemia and jaundice necessitating exchange transfusions. Splenectomy should be reserved for young patients who require regular blood transfusions. The gene encoding for pyruvate kinase (PK-LR) has been localized to the long arm of chromosome I; the cDNA of R-type is 2060 bp long and codes for 574 amino acids. More than 130 different mutations, mostly missense, have so far been described in association with PK deficiency, 1529A and 1456T being considered to be the most common mutations in Caucasians. Analysis of the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme may help in predicting the severity of the molecular defect. Further data on clinical features of homozygous patients are needed, at least for some mutations, to allow a more precise genotype/phenotype correlation.

  16. Directed evolution of pyruvate decarboxylase-negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yielding a C2-independent, glucose-tolerant, and pyruvate-hyperproducing yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Maris; J.M. Geertman; A. Vermeulen; M.K. Groothuizen; A.A. Winkler; M.D. Piper; J.P. van Dijken; J.T. Pronk

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe absence of alcoholic fermentation makes pyruvate decarboxylase-negative (Pdc(-)) strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae an interesting platform for further metabolic engineering of central metabolism. However, Pdc(-) S. cerevisiae strains have two growth defects:

  17. Improvement of isobutanol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by increasing mitochondrial import of pyruvate through mitochondrial pyruvate carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong-Hee; Kim, Sujin; Hahn, Ji-Sook

    2016-09-01

    Subcellular compartmentalization of the biosynthetic enzymes is one of the limiting factors for isobutanol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Previously, it has been shown that mitochondrial compartmentalization of the biosynthetic pathway through re-locating cytosolic Ehrlich pathway enzymes into the mitochondria can increase isobutanol production. In this study, we improved mitochondrial isobutanol production by increasing mitochondrial pool of pyruvate, a key substrate for isobutanol production. Mitochondrial isobutanol biosynthetic pathway was introduced into bat1Δald6Δlpd1Δ strain, where genes involved in competing pathways were deleted, and MPC1, MPC2, and MPC3 genes encoding the subunits of mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) hetero-oligomeric complex were overexpressed with different combinations. Overexpression of Mpc1 and Mpc3 forming high-affinity MPCOX was more effective in improving isobutanol production than overexpression of Mpc1 and Mpc2 forming low-affinity MPCFERM. The final engineered strain overexpressing MPCOX produced 330.9 mg/L isobutanol from 20 g/L glucose, exhibiting about 22-fold increase in production compared to wild type.

  18. Functional changes associated with the sequential transformation of L′4 into L4 pyruvate kinase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprengers, E.D.; Staal, Gerard E.J.

    1979-01-01

    The functional changes, associated with the sequential transformation of L′4 into L4 pyruvate kinase (ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.40) were studied. L′4 enzyme from human erythrocytes shows strong hysteretic behaviour: the initial rate of the enzyme preincubated with an unsaturating

  19. High-field dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization of [1-13C]pyruvic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshihara, Hikari A. I.; Can, Emine; Karlsson, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    [1-13C]pyruvate is the most widely used hyperpolarized metabolic magnetic resonance imaging agent. Using a custom-built 7.0 T polarizer operating at 1.0 K and trityl radical-doped [1-13C]pyruvic acid, unextrapolated solution-state 13C polarization greater than 60% was measured after dissolution a...

  20. Apparent rate constant mapping using hyperpolarized [1-(13) C]pyruvate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khegai, O.; Schulte, R. F.; Janich, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Hyperpolarization of [1-13C]pyruvate in solution allows real-time measurement of uptake and metabolism using MR spectroscopic methods. After injection and perfusion, pyruvate is taken up by the cells and enzymatically metabolized into downstream metabolites such as lactate, alanine, and bicarbona...

  1. Metabolic networks to generate pyruvate, PEP and ATP from glycerol in Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhasawi, Azhar; Thomas, Sean C; Appanna, Vasu D

    2016-04-01

    Glycerol is a major by-product of the biodiesel industry. In this study we report on the metabolic networks involved in its transformation into pyruvate, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and ATP. When the nutritionally-versatile Pseudomonas fluorescens was exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in a mineral medium with glycerol as the sole carbon source, the microbe reconfigured its metabolism to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) primarily via substrate-level phosphorylation (SLP). This alternative ATP-producing stratagem resulted in the synthesis of copious amounts of PEP and pyruvate. The production of these metabolites was mediated via the enhanced activities of such enzymes as pyruvate carboxylase (PC) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC). The high energy PEP was subsequently converted into ATP with the aid of pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK), phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (PEPS) and pyruvate kinase (PK) with the concomitant formation of pyruvate. The participation of the phospho-transfer enzymes like adenylate kinase (AK) and acetate kinase (ACK) ensured the efficiency of this O2-independent energy-generating machinery. The increased activity of glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) in the stressed bacteria provided the necessary precursors to fuel this process. This H2O2-induced anaerobic life-style fortuitously evokes metabolic networks to an effective pathway that can be harnessed into the synthesis of ATP, PEP and pyruvate. The bioconversion of glycerol to pyruvate will offer interesting economic benefit.

  2. Propionate Increases Hepatic Pyruvate Cycling and Anaplerosis and Alters Mitochondrial Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Rachel J; Borders, Candace B; Cline, Gary W;

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, pyruvate kinase (PK) plays a key role in regulating the balance between glycolysis and gluconeogenesis; however, in vivo regulation of PK flux by gluconeogenic hormones and substrates is poorly understood. To this end, we developed a novel NMR-liquid chromatography....../tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to directly assess pyruvate cycling relative to mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism (VPyr-Cyc/VMito) in vivo using [3-(13)C]lactate as a tracer. Using this approach, VPyr-Cyc/VMito was only 6% in overnight fasted rats. In contrast, when propionate was infused simultaneously...... glucagon suppressed VPyr-Cyc/VMito These data show that under fasting conditions, when hepatic gluconeogenesis is stimulated, pyruvate recycling is relatively low in liver compared with VMito flux and that liver metabolism, in particular pyruvate cycling, is sensitive to propionate making it an unsuitable...

  3. Pyruvate modifies metabolic flux and nutrient sensing during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in an immature swine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledee, Dolena R.; Kajimoto, Masaki; O' Kelly-Priddy, Colleen M.; Olson, Aaron; Isern, Nancy G.; Robillard Frayne, Isabelle; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2015-07-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides mechanical circulatory support for infants and children with postoperative cardiopulmonary failure. Nutritional support is mandatory during ECMO, although specific actions for substrates on the heart have not been delineated. Prior work shows that enhancing pyruvate oxidation promotes successful weaning from ECMO. Accordingly, we closely examined the role of prolonged systemic pyruvate supplementation in modifying metabolic parameters during the unique conditions of ventricular unloading provided by ECMO. Twelve male mixed breed Yorkshire piglets (age 30-49 days) received systemic infusion of either normal saline (Group C) or pyruvate (Group P) during ECMO for 8 hours. Over the final hour piglets received [2-13C] pyruvate, and [13C6]-L-leucine, as an indicator for oxidation and protein synthesis. A significant increase in lactate and pyruvate concentrations occurred, along with an increase in the absolute concentration of all measured CAC intermediates. Group P showed greater anaplerotic flux through pyruvate carboxylation although pyruvate oxidation relative to citrate synthase flux was similar to Group C. The groups demonstrated similar leucine fractional contributions to acetyl-CoA and fractional protein synthesis rates. Pyruvate also promoted an increase in the phosphorylation state of several nutrient sensitive enzymes, such as AMPK and ACC, and promoted O-GlcNAcylation through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP). In conclusion, prolonged pyruvate supplementation during ECMO modified anaplerotic pyruvate flux and elicited changes in important nutrient and energy sensitive pathways, while preserving protein synthesis. Therefore, the observed results support the further study of nutritional supplementation and its downstream effects on cardiac adaptation during ventricular unloading.

  4. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa Thibodeau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH complex is a mitochondrial matrix enzyme that serves a critical role in the conversion of anaerobic to aerobic cerebral energy. The regulatory complexity of PDH, coupled with its significant influence in brain metabolism, underscores its susceptibility to, and significance in, ischemia-reperfusion injury. Here, we evaluate proposed mechanisms of PDH-mediated neurodysfunction in stroke, including oxidative stress, altered regulatory enzymatic control, and loss of PDH activity. We also describe the neuroprotective influence of antioxidants, dichloroacetate, acetyl-L-carnitine, and combined therapy with ethanol and normobaric oxygen, explained in relation to PDH modulation. Our review highlights the significance of PDH impairment in stroke injury through an understanding of the mechanisms by which it is modulated, as well as an exploration of neuroprotective strategies available to limit its impairment.

  5. The Crystal Structure of Toxoplasma gondii Pyruvate Kinase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakszt, R.; Wernimont, A; Allali-Hassani, A; Mok, M; Hills, T; Hui, R; Pizarro, J

    2010-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase (PK), which catalyzes the final step in glycolysis converting phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate, is a central metabolic regulator in most organisms. Consequently PK represents an attractive therapeutic target in cancer and human pathogens, like Apicomplexans. The phylum Aplicomplexa, a group of exclusively parasitic organisms, includes the genera Plasmodium, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma, the etiological agents of malaria, cryptosporidiosis and toxoplasmosis respectively. Toxoplasma gondii infection causes a mild illness and is a very common infection affecting nearly one third of the world's population. We have determined the crystal structure of the PK1 enzyme from T. gondii, with the B domain in the open and closed conformations. We have also characterized its enzymatic activity and confirmed glucose-6-phosphate as its allosteric activator. This is the first description of a PK enzyme in a closed inactive conformation without any bound substrate. Comparison of the two tetrameric TgPK1 structures indicates a reorientation of the monomers with a concomitant change in the buried surface among adjacent monomers. The change in the buried surface was associated with significant B domain movements in one of the interacting monomers. We hypothesize that a loop in the interface between the A and B domains plays an important role linking the position of the B domain to the buried surface among monomers through two {alpha}-helices. The proposed model links the catalytic cycle of the enzyme with its domain movements and highlights the contribution of the interface between adjacent subunits. In addition, an unusual ordered conformation was observed in one of the allosteric binding domains and it is related to a specific apicomplexan insertion. The sequence and structural particularity would explain the atypical activation by a mono-phosphorylated sugar. The sum of peculiarities raises this enzyme as an emerging target for drug discovery.

  6. Pyruvate metabolism: A therapeutic opportunity in radiation-induced skin injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hyun; Kang, Jeong Wook [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Won [Department of Plastic Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sang Ho [Department of Dermatology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun-Sil [College of Pharmacy & Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewah Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun-Jung [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jaeho, E-mail: jjhmd@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-08

    Ionizing radiation is used to treat a range of cancers. Despite recent technological progress, radiation therapy can damage the skin at the administration site. The specific molecular mechanisms involved in this effect have not been fully characterized. In this study, the effects of pyruvate, on radiation-induced skin injury were investigated, including the role of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 (PDK2) signaling pathway. Next generation sequencing (NGS) identified a wide range of gene expression differences between the control and irradiated mice, including reduced expression of PDK2. This was confirmed using Q-PCR. Cell culture studies demonstrated that PDK2 overexpression and a high cellular pyruvate concentration inhibited radiation-induced cytokine expression. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated radiation-induced skin thickening and gene expression changes. Oral pyruvate treatment markedly downregulated radiation-induced changes in skin thickness and inflammatory cytokine expression. These findings indicated that regulation of the pyruvate metabolic pathway could provide an effective approach to the control of radiation-induced skin damage. - Highlights: • The effects of radiation on skin thickness in mice. • Next generation sequencing revealed that radiation inhibited pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 expression. • PDK2 inhibited irradiation-induced cytokine gene expression. • Oral pyruvate treatment markedly downregulated radiation-induced changes in skin thickness.

  7. Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier 2 Hypomorphism in Mice Leads to Defects in Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A. Vigueira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Carrier-facilitated pyruvate transport across the inner mitochondrial membrane plays an essential role in anabolic and catabolic intermediary metabolism. Mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 2 (Mpc2 is believed to be a component of the complex that facilitates mitochondrial pyruvate import. Complete MPC2 deficiency resulted in embryonic lethality in mice. However, a second mouse line expressing an N-terminal truncated MPC2 protein (Mpc2Δ16 was viable but exhibited a reduced capacity for mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation. Metabolic studies demonstrated exaggerated blood lactate concentrations after pyruvate, glucose, or insulin challenge in Mpc2Δ16 mice. Additionally, compared with wild-type controls, Mpc2Δ16 mice exhibited normal insulin sensitivity but elevated blood glucose after bolus pyruvate or glucose injection. This was attributable to reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and was corrected by sulfonylurea KATP channel inhibitor administration. Collectively, these data are consistent with a role for MPC2 in mitochondrial pyruvate import and suggest that Mpc2 deficiency results in defective pancreatic β cell glucose sensing.

  8. Mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 2 hypomorphism in mice leads to defects in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigueira, Patrick A; McCommis, Kyle S; Schweitzer, George G; Remedi, Maria S; Chambers, Kari T; Fu, Xiaorong; McDonald, William G; Cole, Serena L; Colca, Jerry R; Kletzien, Rolf F; Burgess, Shawn C; Finck, Brian N

    2014-06-26

    Carrier-facilitated pyruvate transport across the inner mitochondrial membrane plays an essential role in anabolic and catabolic intermediary metabolism. Mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 2 (Mpc2) is believed to be a component of the complex that facilitates mitochondrial pyruvate import. Complete MPC2 deficiency resulted in embryonic lethality in mice. However, a second mouse line expressing an N-terminal truncated MPC2 protein (Mpc2(Δ16)) was viable but exhibited a reduced capacity for mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation. Metabolic studies demonstrated exaggerated blood lactate concentrations after pyruvate, glucose, or insulin challenge in Mpc2(Δ16) mice. Additionally, compared with wild-type controls, Mpc2(Δ16) mice exhibited normal insulin sensitivity but elevated blood glucose after bolus pyruvate or glucose injection. This was attributable to reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and was corrected by sulfonylurea KATP channel inhibitor administration. Collectively, these data are consistent with a role for MPC2 in mitochondrial pyruvate import and suggest that Mpc2 deficiency results in defective pancreatic β cell glucose sensing.

  9. Pyruvate-fortified cardioplegia evokes myocardial erythropoietin signaling in swine undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryou, Myoung-Gwi; Flaherty, Devin C; Hoxha, Besim; Sun, Jie; Gurji, Hunaid; Rodriguez, Steven; Bell, Glenn; Olivencia-Yurvati, Albert H; Mallet, Robert T

    2009-11-01

    Pyruvate-fortified cardioplegia protects myocardium and hastens postsurgical recovery of patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Pyruvate reportedly suppresses degradation of the alpha-subunit of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), an activator of the gene encoding the cardioprotective cytokine erythropoietin (EPO). This study tested the hypothesis that pyruvate-enriched cardioplegia evoked EPO expression and mobilized EPO signaling mechanisms in myocardium. Hearts of pigs maintained on CPB were arrested for 60 min with 4:1 blood-crystalloid cardioplegia. The crystalloid component contained 188 mM glucose + or - 24 mM pyruvate. After 30-min cardiac reperfusion with cardioplegia-free blood, the pigs were weaned from CPB. Left ventricular myocardium was sampled 4 h after CPB for immunoblot assessment of HIF-1alpha, EPO and its receptor, the signaling kinases Akt and ERK, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), an effector of EPO signaling. Pyruvate-fortified cardioplegia stabilized arterial pressure post-CPB, induced myocardial EPO mRNA expression, and increased HIF-1alpha, EPO, and EPO-R protein contents by 60, 58, and 123%, respectively, vs. control cardioplegia (P Pyruvate cardioplegia also increased ERK phosphorylation by 61 and 118%, respectively, vs. control cardioplegia-treated and non-CPB sham myocardium (P pyruvate cardioplegia prevented these declines, yielding 49 and 80% greater NOS activity and eNOS content vs. respective control values (P Pyruvate-fortified cardioplegia induced myocardial EPO expression and mobilized the EPO-ERK-eNOS mechanism. By stabilizing HIF-1alpha, pyruvate-fortified cardioplegia may evoke sustained activation of EPO's cardioprotective signaling cascade in myocardium.

  10. Pyruvate and citric acid cycle carbon requirements in isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Jeffrey I; Jackman, Matthew R; Willis, Wayne T

    2004-03-01

    Carbohydrate depletion precipitates fatigue in skeletal muscle, but, because pyruvate provides both acetyl-CoA for mainline oxidation and anaplerotic carbon to the citric acid cycle (CAC), the mechanism remains obscure. Thus pyruvate and CAC kinetic parameters were independently quantified in mitochondria isolated from rat mixed skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (Jo) was measured polarographically while either pyruvate or malate was added stepwise in the presence of a saturating concentration of the other substrate. These substrate titrations were carried out across a physiological range of fixed extramitochondrial ATP free energy states (DeltaGP), established with a creatine kinase energy clamp, and also at saturating [ADP]. The apparent Km,malate for mitochondrial Jo ranged from 21 to 32 microM, and the apparent Km,pyruvate ranged from 12 to 26 microM, with both substrate Km values increasing as DeltaGP declined. Vmax for both substrates also increased as DeltaGP fell, reflecting thermodynamic control of Jo. Reported in vivo skeletal muscle [malate] are >10-fold greater than the Km,malate determined in this study. In marked contrast, the K(m,pyruvate) determined is near the [pyruvate] reported in muscle approaching exhaustion associated with glycogen depletion. When data were evaluated in the context of a linear thermodynamic force-flow (DeltaGP-Jo) relationship, the DeltaGP-Jo slope was essentially insensitive to changes in [malate] in the range observed in vivo but decreased markedly with declining [pyruvate] across the physiological range. Mitochondrial respiration is particularly sensitive to variations in [pyruvate] in the physiological range. In contrast, physiological [malate] exerts very little, if any, influence on mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation measured in vitro.

  11. Carbohydrate metabolism during prolonged exercise and recovery: interactions between pyruvate dehydrogenase, fatty acids, and amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourtzakis, Marina; Saltin, B.; Graham, T.

    2006-01-01

    at 3 h 23 min ± 11 min). Femoral arterial and venous blood, blood flow measurements, and muscle samples were obtained hourly during exercise and recovery (3 h). Carbohydrate oxidation peaked at 30 min of exercise and subsequently decreased for the remainder of the exercise bout (P ... with pyruvate metabolism, and they comprised 68% of total amino-acid release during exercise and recovery. Thus reduced pyruvate production was primarily associated with reduced carbohydrate oxidation, whereas the greatest production of pyruvate was related to glutamate, glutamine, and alanine metabolism...

  12. Beneficial Effects of Sodium or Ethyl Pyruvate after Traumatic Brain Injury in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Moro, Nobuhiro; Sutton, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Sodium pyruvate (SP) treatment initiated within 5 min post-injury is neuroprotective in a rat model of unilateral cortical contusion injury (CCI). The current studies examined: (1) effects of delayed SP treatments (1000 mg/kg, i.p., at 1, 12 and 24 h), (2) effects of single (1 h) or multiple (1, 12 and 24 h) ethyl pyruvate treatments (EP; at 20 or 40 mg/kg, i.p.), and (3) mechanisms of action for pyruvate effects after CCI. In Experiment 1, both SP and EP treatment(s) significantly reduced th...

  13. Changes in myocardial lactate, pyruvate and lactate-pyruvate ratio during cardiopulmonary bypass for elective adult cardiac surgery: Early indicator of morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P M Kapoor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myocardial lactate assays have been established as a standard method to compare various myocardial protection strategies. This study was designed to test whether coronary sinus (CS lactates, pyruvate and lactate-pyruvate (LP ratio correlates with myocardial dysfunction and predict postoperative outcomes. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted on 40 adult patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. CS blood sampling was done for estimation of myocardial lactate (ML, pyruvate (MP and lactate-pyruvate ratio (MLPR namely: pre-CPB (T 1 , after removal of aortic cross clamp (T 2 and 30 minutes post-CPB (T 3 . Results: Baseline myocardial LPR strongly correlated with Troponin-I at T1 (s: 0.6. Patients were sub grouped according to the median value of myocardial lactate (2.9 at baseline T1 into low myocardial lactate (LML group, mean (2.39±0.4 mmol/l, n=19 and a high myocardial lactate (HML group, mean (3.65±0.9 mmol/l, n=21. A significant increase in PL, ML, MLPR and TropI occurred in both groups as compared to baseline. Patients in HML group had significant longer period of ICU stay. Patients with higher inotrope score had significantly higher ML (T2, T3. ML with a baseline value of 2.9 mmol/l had 70.83% sensitivity and 62.5% specificity (ROC area: 0.7109 Std error: 0.09 while myocardial pyruvate with a baseline value of 0.07 mmol/l has 79.17% sensitivity and 68.75% specificity (ROC area: 0.7852, Std error: 0.0765 for predicting inotrope requirement after CPB. Conclusion: CS lactate, pyruvate and LP ratio correlate with myocardial function and can predict postoperative outcome.

  14. 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements with hyperpolarized [1‐13C] pyruvate can be used to detect the expression of transgenic pyruvate decarboxylase activity in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzien, Piotr; Tee, Sui‐Seng; Kettunen, Mikko I.; Lyons, Scott K.; Larkin, Timothy J.; Timm, Kerstin N.; Hu, De‐En; Wright, Alan; Rodrigues, Tiago B.; Serrao, Eva M.; Marco‐Rius, Irene; Mannion, Elizabeth; D'Santos, Paula; Kennedy, Brett W. C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization can increase the sensitivity of the 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiment by at least four orders of magnitude and offers a novel approach to the development of MRI gene reporters based on enzymes that metabolize 13C‐labeled tracers. We describe here a gene reporter based on the enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1), which catalyzes the decarboxylation of pyruvate to produce acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide. Methods Pyruvate decarboxylase from Zymomonas mobilis (zmPDC) and a mutant that lacked enzyme activity were expressed using an inducible promoter in human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells. Enzyme activity was measured in the cells and in xenografts derived from the cells using 13C MRS measurements of the conversion of hyperpolarized [1‐13C] pyruvate to H13 CO3–. Results Induction of zmPDC expression in the cells and in the xenografts derived from them resulted in an approximately two‐fold increase in the H13 CO3–/[1‐13C] pyruvate signal ratio following intravenous injection of hyperpolarized [1‐13C] pyruvate. Conclusion We have demonstrated the feasibility of using zmPDC as an in vivo reporter gene for use with hyperpolarized 13C MRS. Magn Reson Med 76:391–401, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:26388418

  15. The use of dynamic nuclear polarization 13C-pyruvate MRS in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Henrik Gutte; Espe Hansen, Adam; Hjort Johannesen, Helle

    2015-01-01

    -pyruvate due to favoring technicalities. Intravenous injection of the hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate results in appearance of 13C-lactate, 13C-alanine and 13C-bicarbonate resonance peaks depending on the tissue, disease and the metabolic state probed. In cancer, the lactate level is increased due to increased...... of hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate in healthy subjects and prostate cancer patients. The study showed an elevated 13C-lactate/13C-pyruvate ratio in regions of biopsy-proven prostate cancer compared to noncancerous tissue. However, more studies are needed in order to establish use of hyperpolarized 13C MRS imaging......In recent years there has been an immense development of new targeted anti-cancer drugs. For practicing precision medicine, a sensitive method imaging for non-invasive, assessment of early treatment response and for assisting in developing new drugs is warranted. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy...

  16. Metabolic imaging of patients with prostate cancer using hyperpolarized [1-¹³C]pyruvate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, Sarah J; Kurhanewicz, John; Vigneron, Daniel B

    2013-01-01

    of seconds. Preclinical studies in cancer models have detected elevated levels of hyperpolarized [1-¹³C]lactate in tumor, with the ratio of [1-¹³C]lactate/[1-¹³C]pyruvate being increased in high-grade tumors and decreased after successful treatment. Translation of this technology into humans was achieved......]pyruvate. The results were extremely promising in not only confirming the safety of the agent but also showing elevated [1-¹³C]lactate/[1-¹³C]pyruvate in regions of biopsy-proven cancer. These findings will be valuable for noninvasive cancer diagnosis and treatment monitoring in future clinical trials.......This first-in-man imaging study evaluated the safety and feasibility of hyperpolarized [1-¹³C]pyruvate as an agent for noninvasively characterizing alterations in tumor metabolism for patients with prostate cancer. Imaging living systems with hyperpolarized agents can result in more than 10...

  17. The use of dynamic nuclear polarization (13)C-pyruvate MRS in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutte Borgwardt, Henrik; Hansen, Adam Espe; Johannesen, Helle Hjorth

    2015-01-01

    -pyruvate due to favoring technicalities. Intravenous injection of the hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate results in appearance of (13)C-lactate, (13)C-alanine and (13)C-bicarbonate resonance peaks depending on the tissue, disease and the metabolic state probed. In cancer, the lactate level is increased due...... the safety of hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate in healthy subjects and prostate cancer patients. The study showed an elevated (13)C-lactate/(13)C-pyruvate ratio in regions of biopsy-proven prostate cancer compared to noncancerous tissue. However, more studies are needed in order to establish use......In recent years there has been an immense development of new targeted anti-cancer drugs. For practicing precision medicine, a sensitive method imaging for non-invasive, assessment of early treatment response and for assisting in developing new drugs is warranted. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy...

  18. Development of a disposable pyruvate biosensor to determine pungency in onions (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abayomi, L A; Terry, L A; White, S F; Warner, P J

    2006-05-15

    A disposable prototype pyruvate biosensor was constructed using pyruvate oxidase immobilised on mediated meldolas blue electrodes to determine pungency in onions (Allium cepa L.). The optimum operating potential was +150 mV (versus Ag/AgCl). A strong correlation between the biosensor response and untreated onion juice of known pyruvate concentration 2-12 micromol/g fresh weight (FW) was demonstrated. The biosensor was able to differentiate between low and high pungency onions. The detection limit using 1 unit of pyruvate oxidase was 1-2 micromol/g FW. Optimum concentrations of co-factors TPP, FAD and MgSO4 comprising the enzyme cocktail were determined as being 0.04, 0.1 and 30 mM, respectively.

  19. Interaction of thiamin diphosphate with phosphorylated and dephosphorylated mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqing; Bisswanger, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Kinetic and binding studies were carried out on substrate and cofactor interaction with the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from bovine heart. Fluoropyruvate and pyruvamide, previously described as irreversible and allosteric inhibitors, respectively, are strong competitive inhibitors with respect to pyruvate. Binding of thiamin diphosphate was used to study differences between the active dephosphorylated and inactive phosphorylated enzyme states by spectroscopic methods. The change in both the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and the fluorescence of the 6-bromoacetyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene-labelled enzyme complex produced on addition of the cofactor showed similar binding behaviour for both enzyme forms, with slightly higher affinity for the phosphorylated form. Changes in the CD spectrum, especially the negative Cotton effect at 330 nm as a function of cofactor concentration, both in the absence and presence of pyruvate, also revealed no drastic differences between the two enzyme forms. Thus, inactivation of the enzyme activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is not caused by impeding the binding of substrate or cofactor.

  20. Pyruvate inhibition of the carbon dioxide fixation of the strict chemolithotroph Thiobacillus thiooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, R G

    1975-12-01

    A flow-through dialysis system used to decrease the concentrations of toxic organic materials excreted by Thiobacillus thiooxidans permitted an improved efficiency of carbon dioxide fixation when compared with cells taken from the usual shaken culture. The additions of various concentrations of pyruvic acid and succinic acid inhibited growth significantly. Pyruvate at a concentration of 5 X 10(-3) M completely inhibited the respiration of resting cells oxidizing sulfur. The toxicity of pyruvic acid was found to be permanent as evidenced by the inability to obtain satisfactory oxidation rates after washing the exposed cells twice in buffer. Both pyruvate (10(-3) M) and succinate (10(-3) M) inhibited carbon dioxide fixation by 84%.

  1. Crystallization and initial X-ray diffraction analysis of human pyruvate dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszak, E.; Korotchkina, L. G.; Hong, Y. S.; Joachimiak, A.; Patel, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    Human pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1) is a component enzyme of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. The enzyme catalyzes the irreversible decarboxylation of pyruvic acid and the rate-limiting reductive acetylation of the lipoyl moiety linked to the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. E1 is an alpha(2)beta(2) tetramer ( approximately 154 kDa). Crystals of this recombinant enzyme have been grown in polyethylene glycol 3350 using a vapor-diffusion method at 295 K. The crystals are characterized as orthorhombic, space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 64.2, b = 126.9, c = 190.2 A. Crystals diffracted to a minimum d spacing of 2.5 A. The asymmetric unit contains one alpha(2)beta(2) tetrameric E1 assembly; self-rotation function analysis showed a pseudo-twofold symmetry relating the two alphabeta dimers.

  2. Structural Biology of Proteins of the Multi-enzyme Assembly Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Objectives and research challenges of this effort include: 1. Need to establish Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex protein crystals; 2. Need to test value of microgravity for improving crystal quality of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex protein crystals; 3. Need to improve flight hardware in order to control and understand the effects of microgravity on crystallization of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex proteins; 4. Need to integrate sets of national collaborations with the restricted and specific requirements of flight experiments; 5. Need to establish a highly controlled experiment in microgravity with a rigor not yet obtained; 6. Need to communicate both the rigor of microgravity experiments and the scientific value of results obtained from microgravity experiments to the national community; and 7. Need to advance the understanding of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex structures so that scientific and commercial advance is identified for these proteins.

  3. Structures of pyruvate kinases display evolutionarily divergent allosteric strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Hugh P; Zhong, Wenhe; McNae, Iain W; Michels, Paul A M; Fothergill-Gilmore, Linda A; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D

    2014-09-01

    The transition between the inactive T-state (apoenzyme) and active R-state (effector bound enzyme) of Trypanosoma cruzi pyruvate kinase (PYK) is accompanied by a symmetrical 8° rigid body rocking motion of the A- and C-domain cores in each of the four subunits, coupled with the formation of additional salt bridges across two of the four subunit interfaces. These salt bridges provide increased tetramer stability correlated with an enhanced specificity constant (k cat/S 0.5). A detailed kinetic and structural comparison between the potential drug target PYKs from the pathogenic protists T. cruzi, T. brucei and Leishmania mexicana shows that their allosteric mechanism is conserved. By contrast, a structural comparison of trypanosomatid PYKs with the evolutionarily divergent PYKs of humans and of bacteria shows that they have adopted different allosteric strategies. The underlying principle in each case is to maximize (k cat/S 0.5) by stabilizing and rigidifying the tetramer in an active R-state conformation. However, bacterial and mammalian PYKs have evolved alternative ways of locking the tetramers together. In contrast to the divergent allosteric mechanisms, the PYK active sites are highly conserved across species. Selective disruption of the varied allosteric mechanisms may therefore provide a useful approach for the design of species-specific inhibitors.

  4. Effects of sodium pyruvate on ameliorating metabolic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Zhao, Jing-Xiang; Wang, Ying; Chen, Gan; Cheng, Wei-Na; Luo, Xin; Pei, Xue-Tao; Zhao, Lian; Su, Qin; Zhou, Hong

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effects of sodium pyruvate (SP) on metabolic acidosis. For the in vivo experiments, we evaluated effects of SP on an ammonium chloride (NH4Cl)-induced hyperchloremic acidosis rat model. SP was infused at overall doses of 2, 4, and 6 mmol·kg(- 1) for the SP1, SP2, and SP3 groups, respectively. Treatment with sodium bicarbonate (SB) was used as a positive control (2 mmol·kg(- 1)), and treatment with normal saline (NS) was used as a volume control (2 mL·kg(- 1)). Blood was sampled from the ophthalmic venous plexus for pH, blood gases, electrolytes, glucose, creatinine (Cr), and urea analysis after injection. For the in vitro experiment, propionate was applied to induce intracellular acidosis in human endothelial cells. Intracellular pH (pHi) was fluorimetrically measured after the addition of SP. In the in vivo study, the pH of SP1 group showed no significant difference compared with that of the NS group. The SP2 and SP3 groups had a higher pH than the NS group (P acidosis.

  5. SERS study of the complexes of thiamine derivatives with pyruvate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekal, N. D.; Gachko, G. A.; Kivach, L. N.; Maskevich, S. A.

    1992-03-01

    The SER spectra of thiamine (T) 4'-hydroxythiamine (HOT), thiamine disphoshate (TDP) on silver electrode at acidic and neutral solution have been investigated. The influence of pyruvate (Pyr) on SER spectra at various applied voltages 0 - -0, 65 V has been studied. In the acidic solution T and TDP interact with the surface by means of the heteroatom of N of the pyrimidine and heteroatoms of N and S of thiazolium ring. The characteristic bands at 665, 755, 1210 and 1640 cm -1 are observed in SERS spectra. It is not detected the interaction of N atom of thiazolium ring of HOT with the silver surface. The Cl - ions play an important role in adsorption of these molecules. In the acidic solution Pyr enhances the interaction of thiazolium moiety of TDP with surface and decrease that of HOT. In the neutral solution and applied voltages more positive than> -0,5 V molecules of T derivatives desorptes and Pyr promotes that. The possible mechanisms of the influence of Pyr on adsorption of the T derivatives are discussed.

  6. Robust hyperpolarized (13)C metabolic imaging with selective non-excitation of pyruvate (SNEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Way Cherng; Teo, Xing Qi; Lee, Man Ying; Radda, George K; Lee, Philip

    2015-08-01

    In vivo metabolic imaging using hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate provides localized biochemical information and is particularly useful in detecting early disease changes, as well as monitoring disease progression and treatment response. However, a major limitation of hyperpolarized magnetization is its unrecoverable decay, due not only to T1 relaxation but also to radio-frequency (RF) excitation. RF excitation schemes used in metabolic imaging must therefore be able to utilize available hyperpolarized magnetization efficiently and robustly for the optimal detection of substrate and metabolite activities. In this work, a novel RF excitation scheme called selective non-excitation of pyruvate (SNEP) is presented. This excitation scheme involves the use of a spectral selective RF pulse to specifically exclude the excitation of [1-(13)C]pyruvate, while uniformly exciting the key metabolites of interest (namely [1-(13)C]lactate and [1-(13)C]alanine) and [1-(13)C]pyruvate-hydrate. By eliminating the loss of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate magnetization due to RF excitation, the signal from downstream metabolite pools is increased together with enhanced dynamic range. Simulation results, together with phantom measurements and in vivo experiments, demonstrated the improvement in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the extension of the lifetime of the [1-(13)C]lactate and [1-(13)C]alanine pools when compared with conventional non-spectral selective (NS) excitation. SNEP has also been shown to perform comparably well with multi-band (MB) excitation, yet SNEP possesses distinct advantages, including ease of implementation, less stringent demands on gradient performance, increased robustness to frequency drifts and B0 inhomogeneity as well as easier quantification involving the use of [1-(13)C]pyruvate-hydrate as a proxy for the actual [1-(13)C] pyruvate signal. SNEP is therefore a promising alternative for robust hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate metabolic imaging with high

  7. Activation of thiamin diphosphate and FAD in the phosphatedependent pyruvate oxidase from Lactobacillus plantarum

    OpenAIRE

    Tittmann, Kai; Proske, Daniela; Spinka, Michael; Ghisla, Sandro; Rudolph, Rainer; Hübner, Gerhard; Kern, Gunther

    1998-01-01

    The phosphate- and oxygen-dependent pyruvate oxidase from Lactobacillus plantarum is a homotetrameric enzyme that binds 1 FAD and 1 thiamine diphosphate per subunit. A kinetic analysis of the partial reactions in the overall oxidative conversion of pyruvate to acetyl phosphate and CO2 shows an indirect activation of the thiamine diphosphate by FAD that is mediated by the protein moiety. The rate constant of the initial step, the deprotonation of C2-H of thiamine diphosphate, increases 10-fold...

  8. Breast Cancer-Derived Lung Metastases Show Increased Pyruvate Carboxylase-Dependent Anaplerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Christen; Doriane Lorendeau; Roberta Schmieder; Dorien Broekaert; Kristine Metzger; Koen Veys; Ilaria Elia; Joerg Martin Buescher; Martin Franz Orth; Shawn Michael Davidson; Thomas Georg Philipp Grünewald; Katrien De Bock; Sarah-Maria Fendt

    2016-01-01

    Cellular proliferation depends on refilling the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle to support biomass production (anaplerosis). The two major anaplerotic pathways in cells are pyruvate conversion to oxaloacetate via pyruvate carboxylase (PC) and glutamine conversion to α-ketoglutarate. Cancers often show an organ-specific reliance on either pathway. However, it remains unknown whether they adapt their mode of anaplerosis when metastasizing to a distant organ. We measured PC-dependent anaplerosis ...

  9. Ethyl pyruvate ameliorates albuminuria and glomerular injury in the animal model of diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Kyung Don; Shin, Eun Kyoung; Cho, Eun Jin; Yoon, Hyun Bae; Kim, Hyo Sang; Kim, Hwajung; Yang, Jaeseok; Hwang, Young-Hwan; Ahn, Curie; Oh, Kook-Hwan

    2012-03-01

    Pyruvate is an endogenous antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substance. The present study was implemented to investigate the protective effect of ethyl pyruvate (EP) against the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy in an in vivo and in vitro model. Diabetic rats were prepared by injecting streptozotocin (65 mg/kg). Those that developed diabetes after 72 h were treated with EP (40 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Diabetic rats without pyruvate treatment and nondiabetic rats were used for control. As an in vitro experiment, rat mesangial cells cultured primarily from Sprague-Dawley rats were treated in high-glucose (HG; 50 mM) or normal-glucose (NG; 5 mM) conditions and with or without pyruvate. Pyruvate-treated diabetic rats exhibited decreased albuminuria and attenuated NADPH-dependent reactive oxygen species generation. Immunohistochemistry showed reduced laminin, type IV collagen, and fibronectin deposition in the glomeruli compared with nontreated diabetic rats. Parallel changes were shown in tissue mRNA and protein expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, transforming growth factor-β1, laminin, fibronectin, and type IV collagen in the kidney. Concordantly, protective effects were also exhibited in the mesangial cell culture system. These findings suggest that pyruvate protects against kidney injury via NADPH oxidase inhibition. The present study established that activation of NADPH oxidase plays a crucial role in diabetes-induced oxidative stress, glomerular hypertrophy, and ECM molecule expression. Pyruvate exhibited a renoprotective effect in the progression of experimental diabetic nephropathy. Future research is warranted to investigate the protective mechanism of pyruvate more specifically in relation to NADPH oxidase in diabetic nephropathy.

  10. Effect of. cap alpha. -ketobutyrate on the metabolism of pyruvate and palmitate in isolated rat hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brass, E.P.

    1986-05-01

    Alpha-ketobutyrate (..cap alpha..KB), an intermediate in the catabolism of threonine and methionine, is decarboxylated to propionyl-CoA. The authors have reported that propionate (PROP) inhibits oxidative metabolism in rate hepatocytes. Based on these observations, the present study examined the effects of ..cap alpha..KB on pyruvate and palmitate metabolism in hepatocytes isolated from fed rats. Similar to PROP, ..cap alpha..KB (10mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation and this inhibition was diminished when 10mM carnitine (CN) was added (35 +/- 6% inhibition without CN, 22 +/- 8% with CN). ..cap alpha..KB inhibited the conversion of 3-/sup 14/C-pyruvate to glucose and CO/sub 2/. Inhibition of pyruvate metabolism by ..cap alpha..KB was concentration-dependent. At equal concentrations, ..cap alpha..KB inhibited pyruvate metabolism to a greater extent than PROP. Addition of CN partially reversed the effects of PROP on pyruvate metabolism, but not those of ..cap alpha..KB despite the generation of propionylcarnitine when ..cap alpha..KB and CN were included in the incubation. These results demonstrate that accumulation of ..cap alpha..KB can impair normal hepatocyte metabolism. While some of the effects of ..cap alpha..KB can be explained on the basis of propionyl-CoA formation, ..cap alpha..KB has effects on pyruvate metabolism not explainable by this mechanism.

  11. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase inhibition: Reversing the Warburg effect in cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayden Bell

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The poor efficacy of many cancer chemotherapeutics, which are often non-selective and highly toxic, is attributable to the remarkable heterogeneity and adaptability of cancer cells. The Warburg effect describes the up regulation of glycolysis as the main source of adenosine 5’-triphosphate in cancer cells, even under normoxic conditions, and is a unique metabolic phenotype of cancer cells. Mitochondrial suppression is also observed which may be implicated in apoptotic suppression and increased funneling of respiratory substrates to anabolic processes, conferring a survival advantage. The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to meticulous regulation, chiefly by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. At the interface between glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex functions as a metabolic gatekeeper in determining the fate of glucose, making pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase an attractive candidate in a bid to reverse the Warburg effect in cancer cells. The small pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase inhibitor dichloroacetate has, historically, been used in conditions associated with lactic acidosis but has since gained substantial interest as a potential cancer chemotherapeutic. This review considers the Warburg effect as a unique phenotype of cancer cells in-line with the history of and current approaches to cancer therapies based on pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase inhibition with particular reference to dichloroacetate and its derivatives.

  12. Pyruvate fuels mitochondrial respiration and proliferation of breast cancer cells: effect of monocarboxylate transporter inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diers, Anne R; Broniowska, Katarzyna A; Chang, Ching-Fang; Hogg, Neil

    2012-06-15

    Recent studies have highlighted the fact that cancer cells have an altered metabolic phenotype, and this metabolic reprogramming is required to drive the biosynthesis pathways necessary for rapid replication and proliferation. Specifically, the importance of citric acid cycle-generated intermediates in the regulation of cancer cell proliferation has been recently appreciated. One function of MCTs (monocarboxylate transporters) is to transport the citric acid cycle substrate pyruvate across the plasma membrane and into mitochondria, and inhibition of MCTs has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy to target metabolic pathways in cancer. In the present paper, we examined the effect of different metabolic substrates (glucose and pyruvate) on mitochondrial function and proliferation in breast cancer cells. We demonstrated that cancer cells proliferate more rapidly in the presence of exogenous pyruvate when compared with lactate. Pyruvate supplementation fuelled mitochondrial oxygen consumption and the reserve respiratory capacity, and this increase in mitochondrial function correlated with proliferative potential. In addition, inhibition of cellular pyruvate uptake using the MCT inhibitor α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid impaired mitochondrial respiration and decreased cell growth. These data demonstrate the importance of mitochondrial metabolism in proliferative responses and highlight a novel mechanism of action for MCT inhibitors through suppression of pyruvate-fuelled mitochondrial respiration.

  13. Effect of ethyl pyruvate on skeletal muscle metabolism in rats fed on a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olek, Robert A; Ziolkowski, Wieslaw; Wierzba, Tomasz H; Kaczor, Jan J

    2013-07-01

    Impaired mitochondrial capacity may be implicated in the pathology of chronic metabolic diseases. To elucidate the effect of ethyl pyruvate supplementation on skeletal muscles metabolism we examined changes in activities of mitochondrial and antioxidant enzymes, as well as sulfhydryl groups oxidation (an indirect marker of oxidative stress) during the development of obesity. After 6 weeks feeding of control or high fat diet, Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control diet, control diet and ethyl pyruvate, high fat diet, and high fat diet and ethyl pyruvate. Ethyl pyruvate was administered as 0.3% solution in drinking water, for the following 6 weeks. High fat diet feeding induced the increase of activities 3-hydroxyacylCoA dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, and fumarase. Moreover, higher catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, as well as sulfhydryl groups oxidation, were noted. Ethyl pyruvate supplementation did not affect the mitochondrial enzymes' activities, but induced superoxide dismutase activity and sulfhydryl groups oxidation. All of the changes were observed in soleus muscle, but not in extensor digitorum longus muscle. Additionally, positive correlations between fasting blood insulin concentration and activities of catalase (p = 0.04), and superoxide dismutase (p = 0.01) in soleus muscle were noticed. Prolonged ethyl pyruvate consumption elevated insulin concentration, which may cause modifications in oxidative type skeletal muscles.

  14. Catalysis of acetoin formation by brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase isozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivers, J T; Washabaugh, M W

    1993-12-14

    Catalysis of C(alpha)-proton transfer from 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)thiamin diphosphate (HETDP) by pyruvate decarboxylase isozymes (PDC; EC 4.1.1.1) from Saccharomyces carlsbergensis was investigated by determining the steady-state kinetics of the reaction of [1-L]acetaldehyde (L = H, D, or T) to form acetoin and the primary kinetic isotope effects on the reaction. The PDC isozyme mixture and alpha 4 isozyme (alpha 4-PDC) have different steady-state kinetic parameters and isotope effects for acetoin formation in the presence and absence of the nonsubstrate allosteric effector pyruvamide: pyruvamide activation occurs by stabilization of the acetaldehyde/PDC ternary complex. The magnitudes of primary L(V/K)-type (L = D or T) isotope effects on C(alpha)-proton transfer from alpha 4-PDC-bound HETDP provide no evidence for significant breakdown of the Swain-Schaad relationship that would indicate partitioning of the putative C(alpha)-carbanion/enamine intermediate between HETDP and products. The substrate concentration dependence of the deuterium primary kinetic isotope effects provides evidence for an intrinsic isotope effect of 4.1 for C(alpha)-proton transfer from alpha 4-PDC-bound HETDP. A 1.10 +/- 0.02-fold 14C isotope discrimination against [1,2-14C]acetaldehyde in acetoin formation is inconsistent with a stepwise mechanism, in which the addition step occurs after rate-limiting formation of the C(alpha)-carbanion/enamine as a discrete enzyme-bound intermediate, and provides evidence for a concerted reaction mechanism with an important component of carbon-carbon bond formation in the transition state.

  15. Pyruvate is synthesized by two pathways in pea bacteroids with different efficiencies for nitrogen fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulley, Geraldine; Lopez-Gomez, Miguel; Zhang, Ye; Terpolilli, Jason; Prell, Jurgen; Finan, Turlough; Poole, Philip

    2010-10-01

    Nitrogen fixation in legume bacteroids is energized by the metabolism of dicarboxylic acids, which requires their oxidation to both oxaloacetate and pyruvate. In alfalfa bacteroids, production of pyruvate requires NAD+ malic enzyme (Dme) but not NADP+ malic enzyme (Tme). However, we show that Rhizobium leguminosarum has two pathways for pyruvate formation from dicarboxylates catalyzed by Dme and by the combined activities of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxykinase (PckA) and pyruvate kinase (PykA). Both pathways enable N2 fixation, but the PckA/PykA pathway supports N2 fixation at only 60% of that for Dme. Double mutants of dme and pckA/pykA did not fix N2. Furthermore, dme pykA double mutants did not grow on dicarboxylates, showing that they are the only pathways for the production of pyruvate from dicarboxylates normally expressed. PckA is not expressed in alfalfa bacteroids, resulting in an obligate requirement for Dme for pyruvate formation and N2 fixation. When PckA was expressed from a constitutive nptII promoter in alfalfa dme bacteroids, acetylene was reduced at 30% of the wild-type rate, although this level was insufficient to prevent nitrogen starvation. Dme has N-terminal, malic enzyme (Me), and C-terminal phosphotransacetylase (Pta) domains. Deleting the Pta domain increased the peak acetylene reduction rate in 4-week-old pea plants to 140 to 150% of the wild-type rate, and this was accompanied by increased nodule mass. Plants infected with Pta deletion mutants did not have increased dry weight, demonstrating that there is not a sustained change in nitrogen fixation throughout growth. This indicates a complex relationship between pyruvate synthesis in bacteroids, nitrogen fixation, and plant growth.

  16. Ethyl Pyruvate Ameliorates Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Inhibiting Intrinsic Pathway of Apoptosis and Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury is a pivotal clinical problem occurring in many clinical conditions such as transplantation, trauma, and hepatic failure after hemorrhagic shock. Apoptosis and autophagy have been shown to contribute to cell death in hepatic I/R injury. Ethyl pyruvate, a stable and simple lipophilic ester, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, the purpose is to explore both the effect of ethyl pyruvate on hepatic I/R injury and regulation of intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and autophagy. Methods. Three doses of ethyl pyruvate (20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, and 80 mg/kg were administered 1 h before a model of segmental (70% hepatic warm ischemia was established in Balb/c mice. All serum and liver tissues were obtained at three different time points (4 h, 8 h, and 16 h. Results. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and pathological features were significantly ameliorated by ethyl pyruvate (80 mg/kg. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Beclin-1, and LC3, which play an important role in the regulation of intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and autophagy, was also obviously decreased by ethyl pyruvate (80 mg/kg. Furthermore, ethyl pyruvate inhibited the HMGB1/TLR4/ NF-κb axis and the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6. Conclusion. Our results showed that ethyl pyruvate might attenuate to hepatic I/R injury by inhibiting intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and autophagy, mediated partly through downregulation of HMGB1/TLR4/ NF-κb axis and the competitive interaction with Beclin-1 of HMGB1.

  17. New Insights on the Mechanism of the K+-Independent Activity of Crenarchaeota Pyruvate Kinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Vega-Ruíz, Gustavo; Domínguez-Ramírez, Lenin; Riveros-Rosas, Héctor; Guerrero-Mendiola, Carlos; Torres-Larios, Alfredo; Hernández-Alcántara, Gloria; García-Trejo, José J.; Ramírez-Silva, Leticia

    2015-01-01

    Eukarya pyruvate kinases have glutamate at position 117 (numbered according to the rabbit muscle enzyme), whereas in Bacteria have either glutamate or lysine and in Archaea have other residues. Glutamate at this position makes pyruvate kinases K+-dependent, whereas lysine confers K+-independence because the positively charged residue substitutes for the monovalent cation charge. Interestingly, pyruvate kinases from two characterized Crenarchaeota exhibit K+-independent activity, despite having serine at the equivalent position. To better understand pyruvate kinase catalytic activity in the absence of K+ or an internal positive charge, the Thermofilum pendens pyruvate kinase (valine at the equivalent position) was characterized. The enzyme activity was K+-independent. The kinetic mechanism was random order with a rapid equilibrium, which is equal to the mechanism of the rabbit muscle enzyme in the presence of K+ or the mutant E117K in the absence of K+. Thus, the substrate binding order of the T. pendens enzyme was independent despite lacking an internal positive charge. Thermal stability studies of this enzyme showed two calorimetric transitions, one attributable to the A and C domains (Tm of 99.2°C), and the other (Tm of 105.2°C) associated with the B domain. In contrast, the rabbit muscle enzyme exhibits a single calorimetric transition (Tm of 65.2°C). The calorimetric and kinetic data indicate that the B domain of this hyperthermophilic enzyme is more stable than the rest of the protein with a conformation that induces the catalytic readiness of the enzyme. B domain interactions of pyruvate kinases that have been determined in Pyrobaculum aerophilum and modeled in T. pendens were compared with those of the rabbit muscle enzyme. The results show that intra- and interdomain interactions of the Crenarchaeota enzymes may account for their higher B domain stability. Thus the structural arrangement of the T. pendens pyruvate kinase could allow charge

  18. Isoform switch of pyruvate kinase M1 indeed occurs but not to pyruvate kinase M2 in human tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zhan

    Full Text Available Muscle type of pyruvate kinase (PKM is one of the key mediators of the Warburg effect and tumor metabolism. Due to alternative splicing, there are at least 12 known isoforms of the PKM gene, of which PKM1 and PKM2 are two major isoforms with only a 23 amino acid sequenced difference but quite different characteristics and functions. It was previously thought the isoform switch from PKM1 to PKM2 resulted in high PKM2 expression in tumors, providing a great advantage to tumor cells. However, this traditional view was challenged by two recent studies; one study claimed that this isoform switch does not occur during the Warburg effect; the other study asserted that the isoform switch is tissue-specific. Here, we re-analyzed the RNA sequencing data of 25 types of human tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas Data Portal, and confirmed that PKM2 was the major isoform in the tumors and was highly elevated in addition to the entire PKM gene. We further demonstrated that the expression level of PKM1 significantly declined even though there was substantially increased expression of the entire PKM gene. The proportion of PKM1 in total transcript variants also significantly declined in tumors but the proportion of PKM2 did not change accordingly. Therefore, we conclude that the isoform switch of PKM1 does indeed occur, but it switches to other isoforms rather than PKM2. Considering the change in the expression levels of PKM1, PKM2 and the entire PKM gene, we propose that the upregulation of PKM2 is primarily due to elevated transcriptional levels of the entire PKM gene, instead of the isoform switch.

  19. Metabolic responses to pyruvate kinase deletion in lysine producing Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittmann Christoph

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyruvate kinase is an important element in flux control of the intermediate metabolism. It catalyzes the irreversible conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate into pyruvate and is under allosteric control. In Corynebacterium glutamicum, this enzyme was regarded as promising target for improved production of lysine, one of the major amino acids in animal nutrition. In pyruvate kinase deficient strains the required equimolar ratio of the two lysine precursors oxaloacetate and pyruvate can be achieved through concerted action of the phosphotransferase system (PTS and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, whereby a reduced amount of carbon may be lost as CO2 due to reduced flux into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle. In previous studies, deletion of pyruvate kinase in lysine-producing C. glutamicum, however, did not yield a clear picture and the exact metabolic consequences are not fully understood. Results In this work, deletion of the pyk gene, encoding pyruvate kinase, was carried out in the lysine-producing strain C. glutamicum lysCfbr, expressing a feedback resistant aspartokinase, to investigate the cellular response to deletion of this central glycolytic enzyme. Pyk deletion was achieved by allelic replacement, verified by PCR analysis and the lack of in vitro enzyme activity. The deletion mutant showed an overall growth behavior (specific growth rate, glucose uptake rate, biomass yield which was very similar to that of the parent strain, but differed in slightly reduced lysine formation, increased formation of the overflow metabolites dihydroxyacetone and glycerol and in metabolic fluxes around the pyruvate node. The latter involved a flux shift from pyruvate carboxylase (PC to PEPC, by which the cell maintained anaplerotic supply of the TCA cycle. This created a metabolic by-pass from PEP to pyruvate via malic enzyme demonstrating its contribution to metabolic flexibility of C. glutamicum on glucose. Conclusion The metabolic

  20. Impact of high pyruvate concentration on kinetics of rabbit muscle lactate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, Matthew Warren; Byrne, Mark E; Chambers, Robert P

    2011-09-01

    In order to evaluate the effectiveness of L: -lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from rabbit muscle as a regenerative catalyst of the biologically important cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), the kinetics over broad concentrations were studied to develop a suitable kinetic rate expression. Despite robust literature describing the intricate complexations, the mammalian rabbit muscle LDH lacks a quantitative kinetic rate expression accounting for simultaneous inhibition parameters, specifically at high pyruvate concentrations. Product inhibition by L: -lactate was observed to reduce activity at concentrations greater than 25 mM, while expected substrate inhibition by pyruvate was significant above 4.3 mM concentration. The combined effect of ternary and binary complexes of pyruvate and the coenzymes led to experimental rates as little as a third of expected activity. The convenience of the statistical software package JMP allowed for effective determination of experimental kinetic constants and simplification to a suitable rate expression: [formula: see text] where the last three terms represent the inhibition complex terms for lactate, pyruvate, and pyruvate-NAD, respectively. The corresponding values of K (I-Lac), K (I-Pyr), and K (I-Pyr-NAD) for rabbit muscle LDH are 487.33 mM(-1) and 29.91 mM and 97.47 mM at 22 °C and pH 7.8.

  1. Field dependence of T1 for hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chattergoon, N.; Martnez-Santiesteban, F.; Handler, W. B.

    2013-01-01

    conformation and properties of the dissolution media such as buffer composition, solution pH, temperature and magnetic field. We have measured the magnetic field dependence of the spin–lattice relaxation time of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate using field-cycled relaxometry. [1-13C]pyruvate was hyperpolarized...... using dynamic nuclear polarization and then rapidly thawed and dissolved in a buffered solution to a concentration of 80 mmol l−1 and a pH of ~7.8. The hyperpolarized liquid was transferred within 8 s to a fast field-cycling relaxometer with a probe tuned for detection of 13C at a field strength of ~0...... of pyruvate. Using similar methods, we also determined the relaxivity of the triarylmethyl radical (OX063; used for dynamic nuclear polarization) on the C-1 of pyruvate at field strengths of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 T using 0.075, 1.0 and 2.0 mmol l−1 concentrations of OX063 in the hyperpolarized pyruvate...

  2. Central Role of Pyruvate Kinase in Carbon Co-catabolism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, Tahel; Vergnolle, Olivia; Hartman, Travis E; Rhee, Kyu Y; Jacobs, William R; Berney, Michael; Blanchard, John S

    2016-03-25

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) displays a high degree of metabolic plasticity to adapt to challenging host environments. Genetic evidence suggests thatMtbrelies mainly on fatty acid catabolism in the host. However,Mtbalso maintains a functional glycolytic pathway and its role in the cellular metabolism ofMtbhas yet to be understood. Pyruvate kinase catalyzes the last and rate-limiting step in glycolysis and theMtbgenome harbors one putative pyruvate kinase (pykA, Rv1617). Here we show thatpykAencodes an active pyruvate kinase that is allosterically activated by glucose 6-phosphate (Glc-6-P) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Deletion ofpykApreventsMtbgrowth in the presence of fermentable carbon sources and has a cidal effect in the presence of glucose that correlates with elevated levels of the toxic catabolite methylglyoxal. Growth attenuation was also observed in media containing a combination of short chain fatty acids and glucose and surprisingly, in media containing odd and even chain fatty acids alone. Untargeted high sensitivity metabolomics revealed that inactivation of pyruvate kinase leads to accumulation of phosphoenolpyruvate (P-enolpyruvate), citrate, and aconitate, which was consistent with allosteric inhibition of isocitrate dehydrogenase by P-enolpyruvate. This metabolic block could be relieved by addition of the α-ketoglutarate precursor glutamate. Taken together, our study identifies an essential role of pyruvate kinase in preventing metabolic block during carbon co-catabolism inMtb.

  3. Seed-Specific Overexpression of the Pyruvate Transporter BASS2 Increases Oil Content in Arabidopsis Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Oh, Minwoo; Hwang, Jae-Ung; Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Nishida, Ikuo; Lee, Youngsook

    2017-01-01

    Seed oil is important not only for human and animal nutrition, but also for various industrial applications. Numerous genetic engineering strategies have been attempted to increase the oil content per seed, but few of these strategies have involved manipulating the transporters. Pyruvate is a major source of carbon for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in plastids, and the embryo's demand for pyruvate is reported to increase during active oil accumulation. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that oil biosynthesis could be boosted by increasing pyruvate flux into plastids. We expressed the known plastid-localized pyruvate transporter BILE ACID:SODIUM SYMPORTER FAMILY PROTEIN 2 (BASS2) under the control of a seed-specific soybean (Glycine max) glycinin-1 promoter in Arabidopsis thaliana. The resultant transgenic Arabidopsis plants (OEs), which expressed high levels of BASS2, produced seeds that were larger and heavier and contained 10–37% more oil than those of the wild type (WT), but were comparable to the WT seeds in terms of protein and carbohydrate contents. The total seed number did not differ significantly between the WT and OEs. Therefore, oil yield per plant was increased by 24–43% in the OE lines compared to WT. Taken together, our results demonstrate that seed-specific overexpression of the pyruvate transporter BASS2 promotes oil production in Arabidopsis seeds. Thus, manipulating the level of specific transporters is a feasible approach for increasing the seed oil content.

  4. Modeling of the pyruvate production with Escherichia coli in a fed-batch bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelić, B; Vasić-Racki, D; Wandrey, C; Takors, R

    2004-07-01

    A family of 10 competing, unstructured models has been developed to model cell growth, substrate consumption, and product formation of the pyruvate producing strain Escherichia coli YYC202 ldhA::Kan strain used in fed-batch processes. The strain is completely blocked in its ability to convert pyruvate into acetyl-CoA or acetate (using glucose as the carbon source) resulting in an acetate auxotrophy during growth in glucose minimal medium. Parameter estimation was carried out using data from fed-batch fermentation performed at constant glucose feed rates of q(VG)=10 mL h(-1). Acetate was fed according to the previously developed feeding strategy. While the model identification was realized by least-square fit, the model discrimination was based on the model selection criterion (MSC). The validation of model parameters was performed applying data from two different fed-batch experiments with glucose feed rate q(VG)=20 and 30 mL h(-1), respectively. Consequently, the most suitable model was identified that reflected the pyruvate and biomass curves adequately by considering a pyruvate inhibited growth (Jerusalimsky approach) and pyruvate inhibited product formation (described by modified Luedeking-Piret/Levenspiel term).

  5. Seed-Specific Overexpression of the Pyruvate Transporter BASS2 Increases Oil Content in Arabidopsis Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Oh, Minwoo; Hwang, Jae-Ung; Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Nishida, Ikuo; Lee, Youngsook

    2017-01-01

    Seed oil is important not only for human and animal nutrition, but also for various industrial applications. Numerous genetic engineering strategies have been attempted to increase the oil content per seed, but few of these strategies have involved manipulating the transporters. Pyruvate is a major source of carbon for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in plastids, and the embryo's demand for pyruvate is reported to increase during active oil accumulation. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that oil biosynthesis could be boosted by increasing pyruvate flux into plastids. We expressed the known plastid-localized pyruvate transporter BILE ACID:SODIUM SYMPORTER FAMILY PROTEIN 2 (BASS2) under the control of a seed-specific soybean (Glycine max) glycinin-1 promoter in Arabidopsis thaliana. The resultant transgenic Arabidopsis plants (OEs), which expressed high levels of BASS2, produced seeds that were larger and heavier and contained 10-37% more oil than those of the wild type (WT), but were comparable to the WT seeds in terms of protein and carbohydrate contents. The total seed number did not differ significantly between the WT and OEs. Therefore, oil yield per plant was increased by 24-43% in the OE lines compared to WT. Taken together, our results demonstrate that seed-specific overexpression of the pyruvate transporter BASS2 promotes oil production in Arabidopsis seeds. Thus, manipulating the level of specific transporters is a feasible approach for increasing the seed oil content.

  6. [Effect of pyruvate and valine on avermectin biosynthesis by Streptomyces avermitilis UCM Ac-2179].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biliavs'ka, L O; Kozyryts'ka, V Ie; Valahurova, O V; Iutyns'ka, H O

    2007-01-01

    Pyruvate and valine have been studied for their effect on avermectin biosynthesis by the mutant strain Streptomyces avermitilis UCM Ac-2179. Valine in concentrations 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/l inhibited the antibiotic synthesis. The same concentrations of pyruvate increased the avermectin production 2-2.5 times. The strain cultivated in the mineral medium produced during trophophase some lipids which were not almost revealed during idiophase when avermectin active synthesis took place. The authors make a supposition about the ways of avermectin synthesis by S. avermitilis UCM Ac-2179: the antibiotic biosynthesis can proceed not only through pyruvate transformation but, to a considerable extent, at the expense of using fatty acids which are produced by the culture.

  7. Dynamic nuclear polarization facilitates monitoring of pyruvate metabolism in trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, You; Cordeiro, Ciro D; Hekmatyar, S Khan; Docampo, Roberto; Prestegard, James H

    2017-09-08

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) provides sensitivity improvements that make NMR a viable method for following metabolic conversions in real time. There are now many in vivo applications to animal systems and even to diagnosis of human disease. However, application to microbial systems is rare. Here we demonstrate its application to the pathogenic protozoan, Trypanosoma brucei, using hyperpolarized (13)C1- pyruvate as a substrate and compare the parasite metabolism to that of commonly cultured mammalian cell lines, HEK-293 and Hep-G2. Metabolic differences between insect and bloodstream forms of T. brucei were also investigated. Significant differences are noted with respect to lactate, alanine and CO2 production. Conversion of pyruvate to CO2 in the T. brucei bloodstream form provides new support for the presence of an active pyruvate dehydrogenase in this stage. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  8. Nonmetabolic functions of pyruvate kinase isoform M2 in controlling cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhimin Lu

    2012-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase catalyzes the rate-limiting final step of glycolysis,generating adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and pyruvate.The M2 tumor-specific isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) promotes glucose uptake and lactate production in the presence of oxygen,known as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect.As recently reported in Nature,PKM2,besides its metabolic function,has a nonmetabolic function in the direct control of cell cycle progression by activating β-catenin and inducing expression of the β-catenin downstream gene CCND1 (encoding for cyclin D1).This nonmetabolic function of PKM2 is essential for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation-induced tumorigenesis.

  9. Hyperpolarized 13C pyruvate mouse brain metabolism with absorptive-mode EPSI at 1 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloushev, Vesselin Z.; Di Gialleonardo, Valentina; Salamanca-Cardona, Lucia; Correa, Fabian; Granlund, Kristin L.; Keshari, Kayvan R.

    2017-02-01

    The expected signal in echo-planar spectroscopic imaging experiments was explicitly modeled jointly in spatial and spectral dimensions. Using this as a basis, absorptive-mode type detection can be achieved by appropriate choice of spectral delays and post-processing techniques. We discuss the effects of gradient imperfections and demonstrate the implementation of this sequence at low field (1.05 T), with application to hyperpolarized [1-13C] pyruvate imaging of the mouse brain. The sequence achieves sufficient signal-to-noise to monitor the conversion of hyperpolarized [1-13C] pyruvate to lactate in the mouse brain. Hyperpolarized pyruvate imaging of mouse brain metabolism using an absorptive-mode EPSI sequence can be applied to more sophisticated murine disease and treatment models. The simple modifications presented in this work, which permit absorptive-mode detection, are directly translatable to human clinical imaging and generate improved absorptive-mode spectra without the need for refocusing pulses.

  10. [Isoenzyme spectrum and kinetic properties of pyruvate kinase from the liver of thiamine-deficient rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalenko, O V; Maglysh, S S; Gorbach, Z V

    1990-01-01

    Thiamine-deficiency in animals induced by everyday subcutaneous administration of oxythiamine in a dose of 4, 40 and 100 mg/kg of weight for 10 days results in a decrease of the total activity of pyruvate kinase in the liver tissue and does not affect the mentioned index in the kidney and heart tissues. It is shown that as a result of the enzyme fractionation in the column with DEAE-cellulose the total activity of pyruvate kinase in the liver tissue of rats with thiamine-deficiency decreases due to L-isoform while the content of M-isoform remains unchanged. Thiamine deficiency does not affect kinetic characteristics of the L-isoform, extracted from the liver and this shows the absence of changes in the degree of phosphorylation of pyruvate kinase L-isoform under these conditions.

  11. Pyruvate administration reduces recurrent/moderate hypoglycemia-induced cortical neuron death in diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Young Choi

    Full Text Available Recurrent/moderate (R/M hypoglycemia is common in type 1 diabetes patients. Moderate hypoglycemia is not life-threatening, but if experienced recurrently it may present several clinical complications. Activated PARP-1 consumes cytosolic NAD, and because NAD is required for glycolysis, hypoglycemia-induced PARP-1 activation may render cells unable to use glucose even when glucose availability is restored. Pyruvate, however, can be metabolized in the absence of cytosolic NAD. We therefore hypothesized that pyruvate may be able to improve the outcome in diabetic rats subjected to insulin-induced R/M hypoglycemia by terminating hypoglycemia with glucose plus pyruvate, as compared with delivering just glucose alone. In an effort to mimic juvenile type 1 diabetes the experiments were conducted in one-month-old young rats that were rendered diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ, 50mg/kg, i.p. injection. One week after STZ injection, rats were subjected to moderate hypoglycemia by insulin injection (10 U/kg, i.p. without anesthesia for five consecutive days. Pyruvate (500 mg/kg was given by intraperitoneal injection after each R/M hypoglycemia. Three hours after last R/M hypoglycemia, zinc accumulation was evaluated. Three days after R/M hypoglycemia, neuronal death, oxidative stress, microglial activation and GSH concentrations in the cerebral cortex were analyzed. Sparse neuronal death was observed in the cortex. Zinc accumulation, oxidative injury, microglial activation and GSH loss in the cortex after R/M hypoglycemia were all reduced by pyruvate injection. These findings suggest that when delivered alongside glucose, pyruvate may significantly improve the outcome after R/M hypoglycemia by circumventing a sustained impairment in neuronal glucose utilization resulting from PARP-1 activation.

  12. Enhancement of pyruvate production by Torulopsis glabrata using a two-stage oxygen supply control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Hugenholtz, J; Chen, J; Lun, S-Y

    2002-10-01

    The effect of agitation speeds on the performance of producing pyruvate by a multi-vitamin auxotrophic yeast, Torulopsis glabrata, was investigated in batch fermentation. High pyruvate yield on glucose (0.797 g g(-1)) was achieved under high agitation speed (700 rpm), but the glucose consumption rate was rather low (1.14 g l(-1) h(-1)). Glucose consumption was enhanced under low agitation speed (500 rpm), but the pyruvate yield on glucose decreased to 0.483 g g(-1). Glycerol production was observed under low agitation speed and decreased with increasing agitation speed. Based on process analysis and carbon flux distribution calculation, a two-stage oxygen supply control strategy was proposed, in which the agitation speed was controlled at 700 rpm in the first 16 h and then switched to 500 rpm. This was experimentally proven to be successful. Relatively high concentration of pyruvate (69.4 g l(-1)), high pyruvate yield on glucose (0.636 g g(-1)), and high glucose consumption rate (1.95 g l(-1)h(-1)) were achieved by applying this strategy. The productivity (1.24 g l(-1) h(-1)) was improved by 36%, 23% and 31%, respectively, compared with fermentations in which agitation speeds were kept constant at 700 rpm, 600 rpm, and 500 rpm. Experimental results indicate that the difference between the performances for producing pyruvate under a favorable state of oxygen supply (dissolved oxygen concentration >50%) was caused by the different regeneration pathways of NADH generated from glycolysis.

  13. Pyruvate minimizes rtPA toxicity from in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryou, Myoung-Gwi; Choudhury, Gourav Roy; Winters, Ali; Xie, Luokun; Mallet, Robert T; Yang, Shao-Hua

    2013-09-12

    Clinical application of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) for stroke is limited by hemorrhagic transformation, which narrows rtPA's therapeutic window. In addition, mounting evidence indicates that rtPA is potentially neurotoxic if it traverses a compromised blood brain barrier. Here, we demonstrated that pyruvate protects cultured HT22 neuronal and primary microvascular endothelial cells co-cultured with primary astrocytes from oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)/reoxygenation stress and rtPA cytotoxicity. After 3 or 6h OGD, cells were reoxygenated with 11mmol/L glucose±pyruvate (8mmol/L) and/or rtPA (10µg/ml). Measured variables included cellular viability (calcein AM and annexin-V/propidium iodide), reactive oxygen species (ROS; mitosox red and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate), NADPH, NADP(+) and ATP contents (spectrophotometry), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) activities (gelatin zymography), and cellular contents of MMP2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP2), and phosphor-activation of anti-apoptotic p70s6 kinase, Akt and Erk (immunoblot). Pyruvate prevented the loss of HT22 cells after 3h OGD±rtPA. After 6h OGD, rtPA sharply lowered cell viability; pyruvate dampened this effect. Three hours OGD and 4h reoxygenation with rtPA increased ROS formation by about 50%. Pyruvate prevented this ROS formation and doubled cellular NADPH/NADP(+) ratio and ATP content. In endothelial cell monolayers, 3h OGD and 24h reoxygenation increased FITC-dextran leakage, indicating disruption of intercellular junctions. Although rtPA exacerbated this effect, pyruvate prevented it while sharply lowering MMP2/TIMP2 ratio and increasing phosphorylation of p70s6 kinase, Akt and Erk. Pyruvate protects neuronal cells and microvascular endothelium from hypoxia-reoxygenation and cytotoxic action of rtPA while reducing ROS and activating anti-apoptotic signaling. These results support the proposed use of pyruvate as an adjuvant to dampen the side effects of rt

  14. Anaerobic survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by pyruvate fermentation requires an Usp-type stress protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, K; Boes, N; Escbach, M

    2006-01-01

    Recently, we identified a pyruvate fermentation pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa sustaining anaerobic survival in the absence of alternative anaerobic respiratory and fermentative energy generation systems (M. Eschbach, K. Schreiber, K. Trunk, J. Buer, D. Jahn, and M. Schobert, J. Bacteriol. 186......:4596-4604, 2004). Anaerobic long-term survival of P. aeruginosa might be essential for survival in deeper layers of a biofilm and the persistent infection of anaerobic mucus plaques in the cystic fibrosis lung. Proteome analysis of P. aeruginosa cells during a 7-day period of pyruvate fermentation revealed...

  15. Asp295 Stabilizes the Active-Site Loop Structure of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase, Facilitating Phosphorylation of Ser292 by Pyruvate Dehydrogenase-Kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripty A. Hirani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an in vitro system for detailed analysis of reversible phosphorylation of the plant mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, comprising recombinant Arabidopsis thaliana α2β2-heterotetrameric pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1 plus A. thaliana E1-kinase (AtPDK. Upon addition of MgATP, Ser292, which is located within the active-site loop structure of E1α, is phosphorylated. In addition to Ser292, Asp295 and Gly297 are highly conserved in the E1α active-site loop sequences. Mutation of Asp295 to Ala, Asn, or Leu greatly reduced phosphorylation of Ser292, while mutation of Gly297 had relatively little effect. Quantitative two-hybrid analysis was used to show that mutation of Asp295 did not substantially affect binding of AtPDK to E1α. When using pyruvate as a variable substrate, the Asp295 mutant proteins had modest changes in kcat, Km, and kcat/Km values. Therefore, we propose that Asp295 plays an important role in stabilizing the active-site loop structure, facilitating transfer of the γ-phosphate from ATP to the Ser residue at regulatory site one of E1α.

  16. Chronic pyruvate supplementation increases exploratory activity and brain energy reserves in young and middle-aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennariikka eKoivisto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported neuroprotective effects of pyruvate when given in systemic injections. Impaired glucose uptake and metabolism are found in Alzheimer's disease (AD and in AD mouse models. We tested whether dietary pyruvate supplementation is able to provide added energy supply to brain and thereby attenuate aging- or AD-related cognitive impairment. Mice received ~ 800 mg/kg/day Na-pyruvate in their chow for 2- 6 months. In middle-aged wild-type mice and in 6.5-month-old APP/PS1 mice, pyruvate facilitated spatial learning and increased exploration of a novel odor. However, in passive avoidance task for fear memory, the treatment group was clearly impaired. Independent of age, long-term pyruvate increased explorative behavior, which likely explains the paradoxical impairment in passive avoidance. We also assessed pyruvate effects on body weight, muscle force and endurance, and found no effects. Metabolic post-mortem assays revealed increased energy compounds in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as increased brain glycogen storages in the pyruvate group. Pyruvate supplementation may counteract aging-related behavioral impairment but its beneficial effect seems related to increased explorative activity rather than direct memory enhancement.

  17. Increased expression of pyruvate carboxylase and biotin protein ligase increases lysine production in a biotin prototrophic Corynebacterium glutamicum strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhihao; Moslehi-Jenabian, Soloomeh; Solem, Christian

    2015-01-01

    pimeloyl-Acyl Carrier Protein [ACP]) formation. Pyruvate carboxylase (pycA), a biotin-dependent enzyme needed for lysine biosynthesis and biotin ligase (birA), which is responsible for attaching biotin to pyruvate carboxylase, were overexpressed by replacing the native promoters with the strong superoxide...

  18. Functional and structural characterization of a synthetic peptide representing the N-terminal domain of prokaryotic pyruvate dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, A.F.; Mierlo, van C.P.M.; Hooven, van den H.W.; Visser, A.J.W.G.; Kok, de A.

    2002-01-01

    A synthetic peptide (Nterm-E1p) is used to characterize the structure and function of the N-terminal region (amino acid residues 4-45) of the pyruvate dehydrogenase component (E1p) from the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex (PDHC) from Azotobacter vinelandii. Activity and binding studies es

  19. Chronic pyruvate supplementation increases exploratory activity and brain energy reserves in young and middle-aged mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivisto, Hennariikka; Leinonen, Henri; Puurula, Mari

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported neuroprotective effects of pyruvate when given in systemic injections. Impaired glucose uptake and metabolism are found in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in AD mouse models. We tested whether dietary pyruvate supplementation is able to provide added energy supply to b...

  20. Assessment of early diabetic renal changes with hyperpolarized [1‐13C]pyruvate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Østergaard, Jakob Appel; Lauritzen, Mette Hauge

    2013-01-01

    of the MR signal. The method has shown that the conversion of pyruvate to bicarbonate, i.e. pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, is significantly altered in the myocardium already at the onset of diabetes, and the predominant Warburg effect is a valuable cancer maker via the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH...... and the control kidneys in vivo. The diabetic kidney showed a 149% increase in the lactate/pyruvate ratio compared with the control rat kidney, whereas the bicarbonate/pyruvate ratio was unchanged between the diabetic and the control rat kidneys, consistent with literature findings. These metabolic findings...... paralleled a reduced intrarenal oxygen availability as found by blood oxygenation level‐dependent MRI. Hyperpolarized 13C‐MRI shows promise in the diagnosis and monitoring of early renal changes associated with diabetes, with the pyruvate/lactate ratio as an imaging biomarker for regional renal changes...

  1. Peculiarities of the inhibition of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by thiamine thiazolone diphosphate in vitro and in intact mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovleva, G.M.; Strumilo, S.A.; Gorenshtein, B.I.; Ostrovskii, Yu.M.

    1986-07-10

    Thiamine thiazolone diphosphate (TTPP) possesses the ability to penetrate through the mitochondrial membrane and inhibit the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in intact mitochondria, TTPP inhibits the activity of the complex of animal origin according to a mixed type (K/sub i/ 5 x 10/sup -8/ M) and yeast pyruvate decarboxylase according to a competitive type (K/sub i/ 5 x 10/sup -6/ M) with respect to thiamine diphosphate (TPP). Decarboxylation of pyruvate in intact and lysed rat liver and brain mitochondria is inhibited in the presence of TTPP significantly more weakly than the total activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, determined according to the formation of acetyl-CoA. It is suggested that TTPP, as an analog of the transition state, acts only in dehydrogenase reactions but not at the stage of simple decarboxylation of pyruvate.

  2. Computational, structural, and kinetic evidence that Vibrio vulnificus FrsA is not a cofactor-independent pyruvate decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, Whitney F; Brunk, Elizabeth; Desai, Bijoy J; Fedorov, Alexander A; Almo, Steven C; Gerlt, John A; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Richards, Nigel G J

    2013-03-19

    The fermentation-respiration switch (FrsA) protein in Vibrio vulnificus was recently reported to catalyze the cofactor-independent decarboxylation of pyruvate. We now report quantum mechanical/molecular mechenical calculations that examine the energetics of C-C bond cleavage for a pyruvate molecule bound within the putative active site of FrsA. These calculations suggest that the barrier to C-C bond cleavage in the bound substrate is 28 kcal/mol, which is similar to that estimated for the uncatalyzed decarboxylation of pyruvate in water at 25 °C. In agreement with the theoretical predictions, no pyruvate decarboxylase activity was detected for recombinant FrsA protein that could be crystallized and structurally characterized. These results suggest that the functional annotation of FrsA as a cofactor-independent pyruvate decarboxylase is incorrect.

  3. Underestimation of pyruvic acid concentrations by fructose and cysteine in 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine-mediated onion pungency test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Kil Sun; Lee, Eun Jin; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2011-10-01

    Onion pungency has been routinely measured by determining pyruvic acid concentration in onion juice by reacting with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) since 1961. However, the absorbency of the color adduct of the reaction rapidly decreased in onion samples as compared to that of the pyruvic acid standards, resulting in underestimations of the pyruvic acid concentrations. By measuring the absorbency at 1 min, we have demonstrated that accuracy could be substantially improved. As a continuation, the causes of degradation of the color adduct after the reaction and pyruvic acid itself before the reaction were examined in this study. Alliinase action in juice (fresh or cooked) and bulb colors did not influence the degradation. Some organic acids indigenously found in onion, such as ascorbic acid, proline, and glutamic acid, did not reduce the absorbency. However, fructose within the onion juice or supplemented caused the degradation of the color adduct, whereas sucrose and glucose had a lesser effect. Degradation rates increased proportionally as fructose concentrations increased up to 70 mg/mL. Cysteine was found to degrade the pyruvic acid itself before the pyruvic acid could react with DNPH. Approximately 90% of the pyruvic acid was degraded after 60 min in samples of 7 mM pyruvic acid supplemented with 10 mg/mL cysteine. Spectral comparisons of onion juice containing fructose naturally and pyruvic acid solution with supplemented fructose indicated identical patterns and confirmed that the color-adduct degradation was caused by fructose. Our study elucidated that fructose, a major sugar in onion juice, caused the degradation of color adduct in the onion pungency test and resulted in underestimation of the pyruvic acid concentration.

  4. Pyruvate neutralizes peritoneal dialysate cytotoxicity: maintained integrity and proliferation of cultured human mesothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunkhorst, R; Mahiout, A

    1995-07-01

    Toxic effects of commercially available peritoneal dialysate (PD) fluid include damage to mesothelial cells (MC), causing a severely disturbed proliferation of cultured MC. We investigated the injury to the cell membrane (by release of lactate dehydrogenase, LDH), the proliferation (by cell counts and by 3H-thymidine incorporation), and optional the cytokine generation (by IL-1 receptor-antagonist production, IL-1 ra) of cultured human MC during the 48 hours after a 30 minute exposure to PD containing either 35 mmol/liter sodium lactate or sodium pyruvate. All solutions had a pH of 5.2 to 5.6 and were composed as standard PD. Glucose contents of 1.36 and 3.86 mmol/liter were tested. After exposure to the lactate-PD containing 1.36% glucose, LDH activity was increased by more than 30%, proliferation of MC was inhibited by more than 30%, and IL-1 ra production was reduced significantly when compared to pyruvate-PD and the control solution. After preincubation with 3.86% glucose containing PD, all negative effects became even more pronounced in the lactate group whereas the MC maintained their integrity, rate of proliferation and IL-1 ra release after pre-exposure to pyruvate containing PD. These results suggest that the acute toxic effects of commercially available PD on the integrity, proliferation and IL-1 ra production of MC can be avoided by the use of sodium pyruvate instead of sodium lactate.

  5. Multisite Kinetic Modeling of 13C Metabolic MR Using [1-13C]Pyruvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Gómez Damián

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperpolarized 13C imaging allows real-time in vivo measurements of metabolite levels. Quantification of metabolite conversion between [1-13C]pyruvate and downstream metabolites [1-13C]alanine, [1-13C]lactate, and [13C]bicarbonate can be achieved through kinetic modeling. Since pyruvate interacts dynamically and simultaneously with its downstream metabolites, the purpose of this work is the determination of parameter values through a multisite, dynamic model involving possible biochemical pathways present in MR spectroscopy. Kinetic modeling parameters were determined by fitting the multisite model to time-domain dynamic metabolite data. The results for different pyruvate doses were compared with those of different two-site models to evaluate the hypothesis that for identical data the uncertainty of a model and the signal-to-noise ratio determine the sensitivity in detecting small physiological differences in the target metabolism. In comparison to the two-site exchange models, the multisite model yielded metabolic conversion rates with smaller bias and smaller standard deviation, as demonstrated in simulations with different signal-to-noise ratio. Pyruvate dose effects observed previously were confirmed and quantified through metabolic conversion rate values. Parameter interdependency allowed an accurate quantification and can therefore be useful for monitoring metabolic activity in different tissues.

  6. Unexpected Discovery of Dichloroacetate Derived Adenosine Triphosphate Competitors Targeting Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase To Inhibit Cancer Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Lin; Hu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Wen; Tam, Kin Yip

    2016-04-14

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs) have recently emerged as an attractive target for cancer therapy. Herein, we prepared a series of compounds derived from dichloroacetate (DCA) which inhibited cancer cells proliferation. For the first time, we have successfully developed DCA derived inhibitors that preferentially bind to the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) pocket of PDK isoform 1 (PDK1).

  7. [Spectroscopic study of the structure and intramolecular mobility of yeast pyruvate decarboxylase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskevich, S A; Maskevich, A A; Kivach, L N; Chernikevich, I P; Zabrodskaia, S V; Oparin, D A

    1993-12-01

    Steady-state and time-resolved fluorimetry were used to study the properties of holo- and apopyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1, PDC) from Brewer's yeast after interaction with substrate (pyruvate), cofactor (thiamine diphosphate, ThDP) and Mg2+ ions. The analysis of the enzyme's intrinsic fluorescence as well as of its complex with the probe 2-(p-toluidinylnaphthalene)-6-sulphonate (TNS) revealed that ThDP was found at the polar region of the PDC active sites, inducing a decrease in the mobility of the protein's nearest surroundings. The fluorescent probe had three different sites of binding to the protein apoform, two of which being located at the catalytic site and having different rotation freedom. The study of the PDC complex with thiochrome pyrophosphate, a ThDP structural analogue, pointed to the occurrence of a non-polar region of the enzyme active site for pyruvate absorption besides the polar region. The binding of pyruvate to the protein does not depend upon the cofactor's binding. On the basis of the fluorescent studies a model of the ThDP and pyruvate arrangement at the PDC active site is suggested.

  8. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier in health and disease: To carry or not to carry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Tom; Martinou, Jean-Claude

    2016-10-01

    Mitochondria play a key role in energy metabolism, hosting the machinery for oxidative phosphorylation, the most efficient cellular pathway for generating ATP. A major checkpoint in this process is the transport of pyruvate produced by cytosolic glycolysis into the mitochondrial matrix, which is accomplished by the recently identified mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC). As the gatekeeper for pyruvate entry into mitochondria, the MPC is thought to be of fundamental importance in establishing the metabolic programming of a cell. This is especially relevant in the context of the aerobic glycolysis, also known as the Warburg effect, which is a hallmark in many types of cancer, and MPC loss of function promotes cancer growth. Moreover, mitochondrial pyruvate uptake is needed for efficient hepatic gluconeogenesis and the regulation of blood glucose levels. In this review we discuss recent advances in our knowledge of the MPC, and we argue that it may offer a promising target in diseases like cancer and type 2 diabetes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Channels edited by Pierre Sonveaux, Pierre Maechler and Jean-Claude Martinou.

  9. NH4+ triggers the release of astrocytic lactate via mitochondrial pyruvate shunting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchundi, Rodrigo; Fernández-Moncada, Ignacio; Contreras-Baeza, Yasna; Sotelo-Hitschfeld, Tamara; Mächler, Philipp; Wyss, Matthias T.; Stobart, Jillian; Baeza-Lehnert, Felipe; Alegría, Karin; Weber, Bruno; Barros, L. Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Neural activity is accompanied by a transient mismatch between local glucose and oxygen metabolism, a phenomenon of physiological and pathophysiological importance termed aerobic glycolysis. Previous studies have proposed glutamate and K+ as the neuronal signals that trigger aerobic glycolysis in astrocytes. Here we used a panel of genetically encoded FRET sensors in vitro and in vivo to investigate the participation of NH4+, a by-product of catabolism that is also released by active neurons. Astrocytes in mixed cortical cultures responded to physiological levels of NH4+ with an acute rise in cytosolic lactate followed by lactate release into the extracellular space, as detected by a lactate-sniffer. An acute increase in astrocytic lactate was also observed in acute hippocampal slices exposed to NH4+ and in the somatosensory cortex of anesthetized mice in response to i.v. NH4+. Unexpectedly, NH4+ had no effect on astrocytic glucose consumption. Parallel measurements showed simultaneous cytosolic pyruvate accumulation and NADH depletion, suggesting the involvement of mitochondria. An inhibitor-stop technique confirmed a strong inhibition of mitochondrial pyruvate uptake that can be explained by mitochondrial matrix acidification. These results show that physiological NH4+ diverts the flux of pyruvate from mitochondria to lactate production and release. Considering that NH4+ is produced stoichiometrically with glutamate during excitatory neurotransmission, we propose that NH4+ behaves as an intercellular signal and that pyruvate shunting contributes to aerobic lactate production by astrocytes. PMID:26286989

  10. Growth hormone-induced insulin resistance in human subjects involves reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellemann, Birgitte; Vendelbo, Mikkel H; Nielsen, Thomas S

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance induced by growth hormone (GH) is linked to promotion of lipolysis by unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that suppression of the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase in the active form (PDHa) underlies GH-induced insulin resistance similar to what is observed during fasting....

  11. Cerebral glutamine concentration and lactate-pyruvate ratio in patients with acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring, P.N.; Hauerberg, J.; Frederiksen, Hans-Jørgen;

    2008-01-01

    AIM: Hyperammonemia causes brain edema and high intracranial pressure (ICP) in acute liver failure (ALF) by accumulation of glutamine in brain. Since a high-level glutamine may compromise mitochondrial function, the aim of this study was to determine if the lactate-pyruvate ratio is associated...... with a rise in the glutamine concentration and ICP. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 13 patients with ALF (8F/5M; median age 46 (range 18-66) years) the cerebral extracellular concentrations of glutamine, lactate, and pyruvate were measured by in vivo brain microdialysis together with ICP and cerebral perfusion...... pressure (CPP). RESULTS: The cerebral glutamine concentration was 4,396 (1,011-9,712) microM, lactate 2.15 (1.1-4.45) mM, and pyruvate 101 (43-255) microM. The lactate-pyruvate ratio was 21 (16-40), ICP 20 (2-28) mmHg, and CPP 72 (56-115) mmHg. Cerebral glutamine concentration correlated with the lactate...

  12. Embryonic Lethality of Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier 1 Deficient Mouse Can Be Rescued by a Ketogenic Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krznar, Petra; Hörl, Manuel; Ammar, Zeinab; Montessuit, Sylvie; Pierredon, Sandra; Zamboni, Nicola; Martinou, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial import of pyruvate by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) is a central step which links cytosolic and mitochondrial intermediary metabolism. To investigate the role of the MPC in mammalian physiology and development, we generated a mouse strain with complete loss of MPC1 expression. This resulted in embryonic lethality at around E13.5. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from mutant mice displayed defective pyruvate-driven respiration as well as perturbed metabolic profiles, and both defects could be restored by reexpression of MPC1. Labeling experiments using 13C-labeled glucose and glutamine demonstrated that MPC deficiency causes increased glutaminolysis and reduced contribution of glucose-derived pyruvate to the TCA cycle. Morphological defects were observed in mutant embryonic brains, together with major alterations of their metabolome including lactic acidosis, diminished TCA cycle intermediates, energy deficit and a perturbed balance of neurotransmitters. Strikingly, these changes were reversed when the pregnant dams were fed a ketogenic diet, which provides acetyl-CoA directly to the TCA cycle and bypasses the need for a functional MPC. This allowed the normal gestation and development of MPC deficient pups, even though they all died within a few minutes post-delivery. This study establishes the MPC as a key player in regulating the metabolic state necessary for embryonic development, neurotransmitter balance and post-natal survival. PMID:27176894

  13. A substrate-induced biotin binding pocket in the carboxyltransferase domain of pyruvate carboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietzan, Adam D; St Maurice, Martin

    2013-07-05

    Biotin-dependent enzymes catalyze carboxyl transfer reactions by efficiently coordinating multiple reactions between spatially distinct active sites. Pyruvate carboxylase (PC), a multifunctional biotin-dependent enzyme, catalyzes the bicarbonate- and MgATP-dependent carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate, an important anaplerotic reaction in mammalian tissues. To complete the overall reaction, the tethered biotin prosthetic group must first gain access to the biotin carboxylase domain and become carboxylated and then translocate to the carboxyltransferase domain, where the carboxyl group is transferred from biotin to pyruvate. Here, we report structural and kinetic evidence for the formation of a substrate-induced biotin binding pocket in the carboxyltransferase domain of PC from Rhizobium etli. Structures of the carboxyltransferase domain reveal that R. etli PC occupies a symmetrical conformation in the absence of the biotin carboxylase domain and that the carboxyltransferase domain active site is conformationally rearranged upon pyruvate binding. This conformational change is stabilized by the interaction of the conserved residues Asp(590) and Tyr(628) and results in the formation of the biotin binding pocket. Site-directed mutations at these residues reduce the rate of biotin-dependent reactions but have no effect on the rate of biotin-independent oxaloacetate decarboxylation. Given the conservation with carboxyltransferase domains in oxaloacetate decarboxylase and transcarboxylase, the structure-based mechanism described for PC may be applicable to the larger family of biotin-dependent enzymes.

  14. The role of biotin and oxamate in the carboxyltransferase reaction of pyruvate carboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietzan, Adam D; Lin, Yi; St Maurice, Martin

    2014-11-15

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is a biotin-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the MgATP-dependent carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate, an important anaplerotic reaction in central metabolism. During catalysis, carboxybiotin is translocated to the carboxyltransferase domain where the carboxyl group is transferred to the acceptor substrate, pyruvate. Many studies on the carboxyltransferase domain of PC have demonstrated an enhanced oxaloacetate decarboxylation activity in the presence of oxamate and it has been shown that oxamate accepts a carboxyl group from carboxybiotin during oxaloacetate decarboxylation. The X-ray crystal structure of the carboxyltransferase domain from Rhizobium etli PC reveals that oxamate is positioned in the active site in an identical manner to the substrate, pyruvate, and kinetic data are consistent with the oxamate-stimulated decarboxylation of oxaloacetate proceeding through a simple ping-pong bi bi mechanism in the absence of the biotin carboxylase domain. Additionally, analysis of truncated PC enzymes indicates that the BCCP domain devoid of biotin does not contribute directly to the enzymatic reaction and conclusively demonstrates a biotin-independent oxaloacetate decarboxylation activity in PC. These findings advance the description of catalysis in PC and can be extended to the study of related biotin-dependent enzymes.

  15. Protein S-glutathionylation alters superoxide/hydrogen peroxide emission from pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Marisa; Chalker, Julia; Slade, Liam; Gardiner, Danielle; Mailloux, Ryan J

    2017-05-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (Pdh) is a vital source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in several different tissues. Pdh has also been suggested to serve as a mitochondrial redox sensor. Here, we report that O2(•-)/ H2O2 emission from pyruvate dehydrogenase (Pdh) is altered by S-glutathionylation. Glutathione disulfide (GSSG) amplified O2(•-)/ H2O2 production by purified Pdh during reverse electron transfer (RET) from NADH. Thiol oxidoreductase glutaredoxin-2 (Grx2) reversed these effects confirming that Pdh is a target for S-glutathionylation. S-glutathionylation had the opposite effect during forward electron transfer (FET) from pyruvate to NAD(+) lowering O2(•-)/ H2O2 production. Immunoblotting for protein glutathione mixed disulfides (PSSG) following diamide treatment confirmed that purified Pdh can be S-glutathionylated. Similar observations were made with mouse liver mitochondria. S-glutathionylation catalysts diamide and disulfiram significantly reduced pyruvate or 2-oxoglutarate driven O2(•-)/ H2O2 production in liver mitochondria, results that were confirmed using various Pdh, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (Ogdh), and respiratory chain inhibitors. Immunoprecipitation of Pdh and Ogdh confirmed that either protein can be S-glutathionylated by diamide and disulfiram. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the S -glutathionylation of Pdh alters the amount of ROS formed by the enzyme complex. We also confirmed that Ogdh is controlled in a similar manner. Taken together, our results indicate that the redox sensing and ROS forming properties of Pdh and Ogdh are linked to S-glutathionylation.

  16. Investigating tumor perfusion and metabolism using multiple hyperpolarized 13C compounds: HP001, pyruvate and urea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Morze, Cornelius; Larson, Peder E.Z.; Hu, Simon

    2012-01-01

    ]pyruvate, with compressed sensing for resolution enhancement. For the dynamic data, peak signal maps and blood flow maps derived from perfusion modeling were generated. The spatial heterogeneity of perfusion was increased 2.9-fold in tumor tissues (P=.05), and slower washout was observed in the dynamic data. The results...

  17. Pyruvate Oxidase Influences the Sugar Utilization Pattern and Capsule Production in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, Sandra M.; Farshchi Andisi, Vahid; Gradstedt, Henrik; Neef, Jolanda; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Neves, Ana R.; Bijlsma, Jetta J. E.

    2013-01-01

    Pyruvate oxidase is a key function in the metabolism and lifestyle of many lactic acid bacteria and its activity depends on the presence of environmental oxygen. In Streptococcus pneumoniae the protein has been suggested to play a major role in metabolism and has been implicated in virulence, oxidat

  18. Magnetic resonance and fluorescence studies on pyruvate hydrogenase complexes and their small molecular weight constituents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grande, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    The articles presented in this thesis do not describe at first glance one well-defined subject. They are, however, in fact connected by one central theme: the study of large enzyme aggregates by molecular physical methods. Chosen was the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) because of its physiologi

  19. Atmospheric Implications of Aqueous Solvation on the Photochemistry of Pyruvic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed Harris, A. E.; Ervens, B.; Shoemaker, R.; Kroll, J. A.; Rapf, R.; Griffith, E. C.; Monod, A.; Vaida, V.

    2014-12-01

    Formation of aerosol from organic compounds is under investigation in order to better predict the overall radiative forcing from atmospheric aerosols and their influence on global climate. One possible formation pathway for secondary organic aerosol (SOA), which is now becoming more widely accepted, is from bulk aqueous photoreactions in atmospheric particles that create low volatility compounds. These products may remain particulate upon droplet evaporation, increasing SOA mass in the atmosphere. SOA formed in this manner may account for some of the discrepancy between measured and predicted amounts of SOA. This presentation will describe the photochemistry of pyruvic acid, an α-keto acid found in the atmosphere, in aqueous solutions representative of solutes in fogs, clouds, and wet aerosols. Solvation of pyruvic acid in water changes the photodissociation mechanism and products from that of the gas phase. The photoproducts from the aqueous phase are higher in molecular weight and therefore possible SOA precursors. Further, these polymers partition to the surface of water and are expected to modify the the surface properties of atmospheric aerosols that determine the kinetics of water uptake. The reaction mechanism of pyruvic acid as a function of its environment and concentration will be presented along with the kinetics obtained for the photochemistry in aqueous solution. These results are used as input in an atmospheric model to evaluate the atmospheric consequences of solvation of pyruvic acid on its atmospheric reactivity and its role as a global sink.

  20. Sunlight-initiated chemistry of aqueous pyruvic acid: building complexity in the origin of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Elizabeth C; Shoemaker, Richard K; Vaida, Veronica

    2013-10-01

    Coupling chemical reactions to an energy source is a necessary step in the origin of life. Here, we utilize UV photons provided by a simulated sun to activate aqueous pyruvic acid and subsequently prompt chemical reactions mimicking some of the functions of modern metabolism. Pyruvic acid is interesting in a prebiotic context due to its prevalence in modern metabolism and its abiotic availability on early Earth. Here, pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH, a C3 molecule) photochemically reacts to produce more complex molecules containing four or more carbon atoms. Acetoin (CH3CHOHCOCH3), a C4 molecule and a modern bacterial metabolite, is produced in this chemistry as well as lactic acid (CH3CHOHCOOH), a molecule which, when coupled with other abiotic chemical reaction pathways, can provide a regeneration pathway for pyruvic acid. This chemistry is discussed in the context of plausible environments on early Earth such as near the ocean surface and atmospheric aerosol particles. These environments allow for combination and exchange of reactants and products of other reaction environments (such as shallow hydrothermal vents). The result could be a contribution to the steady increase in chemical complexity requisite in the origin of life.

  1. Effect of Pyruvate on Polyol Pathway and Lens Epithelial Cells Apoptosis in Diabetic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanxiu Qi; Jisong Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of polyol pathway on lens epithelial cells apoptosis and the activity of caspase-3 and its reversal by pyruvate in diabetic rats.Methods: 220 Wister rats were divided into 3 groups: control group, model group and treatment group. After streptozotocin (STZ) induced cataract, the treatment group received 2% pyruvate in the diet and drinking. The opacification of lens was detected by microscope every 2 weeks. On 4W, 8W and 12W of the experiment, glucose and sorbitol in the lens were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The percentage of lens epithelial cells undergoing apoptosis was measured by Annexin V/PI staining. The activity of caspase-3 was analyzed by Western-blot.Results: Studies show that there was significant increase of glucose, sorbitol in lens of model group, the apoptosis rate and caspase-3 activity of lens epithelial cells were also gradually increase. Pyruvate treatment decreased the levels of sotbitol, glucose, lens epithelial cells apoptosis and caspase-3 activity. The progress of cataract was also significantly delayed.Conclusions: Polyol pathway, possibly through regulation of the activity of caspase-3,can induce apoptosis of lens epithelial cell. Pyruvate ingested orally can effective inhibit diabetic cataractogenesis in rats through inhibit polyol pathway.

  2. Serine is a natural ligand and allosteric activator of pyruvate kinase M2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaneton, Barbara; Hillmann, Petra; Zheng, Liang; Martin, Agnes C. L.; Maddocks, Oliver D. K.; Chokkathukalam, Achuthanunni; Coyle, Joseph E.; Jankevics, Andris; Holding, Finn P.; Vousden, Karen H.; Frezza, Christian; O'Reilly, Marc; Gottlieb, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cells exhibit several unique metabolic phenotypes that are critical for cell growth and proliferation(1). Specifically, they overexpress the M2 isoform of the tightly regulated enzyme pyruvate kinase (PKM2), which controls glycolytic flux, and are highly dependent on de novo biosynthesis of s

  3. Biocatalytic synthesis of pyruvate from DL-lactate with enzymes in Pseudomonas sp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A novel method of preparing pyruvate from DL-lactate catalyzed by enzymes from a bacterial strain of Pseudomonas sp. SM-6 was proposed. Catalytic processes of cell-free extract enzymes and immobilized enzymes were evaluated. The kinetic data were studied, too.

  4. Depolarizing actions of GABA in immature neurons depend neither on ketone bodies nor on pyruvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyzio, Roman; Allene, Camille; Nardou, Romain; Picardo, Michel A; Yamamoto, Sumii; Sivakumaran, Sudhir; Caiati, Maddalena D; Rheims, Sylvain; Minlebaev, Marat; Milh, Mathieu; Ferré, Pascal; Khazipov, Rustem; Romette, Jean-Louis; Lorquin, Jean; Cossart, Rosa; Khalilov, Ilgam; Nehlig, Astrid; Cherubini, Enrico; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel

    2011-01-05

    GABA depolarizes immature neurons because of a high [Cl(-)](i) and orchestrates giant depolarizing potential (GDP) generation. Zilberter and coworkers (Rheims et al., 2009; Holmgren et al., 2010) showed recently that the ketone body metabolite DL-3-hydroxybutyrate (DL-BHB) (4 mM), lactate (4 mM), or pyruvate (5 mM) shifted GABA actions to hyperpolarizing, suggesting that the depolarizing effects of GABA are attributable to inadequate energy supply when glucose is the sole energy source. We now report that, in rat pups (postnatal days 4-7), plasma D-BHB, lactate, and pyruvate levels are 0.9, 1.5, and 0.12 mM, respectively. Then, we show that DL-BHB (4 mM) and pyruvate (200 μM) do not affect (i) the driving force for GABA(A) receptor-mediated currents (DF(GABA)) in cell-attached single-channel recordings, (2) the resting membrane potential and reversal potential of synaptic GABA(A) receptor-mediated responses in perforated patch recordings, (3) the action potentials triggered by focal GABA applications, or (4) the GDPs determined with electrophysiological recordings and dynamic two-photon calcium imaging. Only very high nonphysiological concentrations of pyruvate (5 mM) reduced DF(GABA) and blocked GDPs. Therefore, DL-BHB does not alter GABA signals even at the high concentrations used by Zilberter and colleagues, whereas pyruvate requires exceedingly high nonphysiological concentrations to exert an effect. There is no need to alter conventional glucose enriched artificial CSF to investigate GABA signals in the developing brain.

  5. Low-temperature NMR characterization of reaction of sodium pyruvate with hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, Christopher; Mozziconacci, Olivier; Schöneich, Christian

    2015-02-12

    It was proposed that the reaction of sodium pyruvate and H2O2 generates the intermediate 2-hydroperoxy-2-hydroxypropanoate, which converts into acetate, CO2, and H2O ( Aleksankin et al. Kernenergie 1962 , 5 , 362 - 365 ). These conclusions were based on the products generated in (18)O-enriched water and H2O2 reacting with pyruvic acid at room temperature; however, the lifetime of 2-hydroperoxy-2-hydroxypropanoate at room temperature is too short for direct spectroscopic observation. Therefore, we applied the combination of low-temperature and (13)C NMR techniques to verify, for the first time, the formation of 2-deuteroperoxy-2-deuteroxypropanoate in mixtures of D2O and methanol-d4 and to monitor directly each species involved in the reaction between D2O2 and (13)C-enriched pyruvate. Our NMR results confirm the formation of 2-deuteroperoxy-2-deuteroxypropanoate, where the respective chemical shifts are supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. At near-neutral apparent pD (pD*) and -35 °C, the formation of 2-deuteroperoxy-2-deuteroxypropanoate occurred with k = 2.43 × 10(-3) dm(3)·mol(-1)·s(-1). The subsequent decomposition of 2-deuteroperoxy-2-deuteroxypropanoate into acetate, CO2, and D2O occurred with k = 2.58 × 10(-4) s(-1) at -35 °C. In order to provide a full kinetic analysis, we also monitored the equilibrium of pyruvate and methanol with the hemiacetal (2-deuteroxy-2-methoxypropanoate). The kinetics for the reaction of sodium pyruvate and D2O2 were fitted by taking into account all these equilibria and species.

  6. Neuron-astrocyte interactions, pyruvate carboxylation and the pentose phosphate pathway in the neonatal rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morken, Tora Sund; Brekke, Eva; Håberg, Asta; Widerøe, Marius; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Glucose and acetate metabolism and the synthesis of amino acid neurotransmitters, anaplerosis, glutamate-glutamine cycling and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) have been extensively investigated in the adult, but not the neonatal rat brain. To do this, 7 day postnatal (P7) rats were injected with [1-(13)C]glucose and [1,2-(13)C]acetate and sacrificed 5, 10, 15, 30 and 45 min later. Adult rats were injected and sacrificed after 15 min. To analyse pyruvate carboxylation and PPP activity during development, P7 rats received [1,2-(13)C]glucose and were sacrificed 30 min later. Brain extracts were analysed using (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. Numerous differences in metabolism were found between the neonatal and adult brain. The neonatal brain contained lower levels of glutamate, aspartate and N-acetylaspartate but similar levels of GABA and glutamine per mg tissue. Metabolism of [1-(13)C]glucose at the acetyl CoA stage was reduced much more than that of [1,2-(13)C]acetate. The transfer of glutamate from neurons to astrocytes was much lower while transfer of glutamine from astrocytes to glutamatergic neurons was relatively higher. However, transport of glutamine from astrocytes to GABAergic neurons was lower. Using [1,2-(13)C]glucose it could be shown that despite much lower pyruvate carboxylation, relatively more pyruvate from glycolysis was directed towards anaplerosis than pyruvate dehydrogenation in astrocytes. Moreover, the ratio of PPP/glucose-metabolism was higher. These findings indicate that only the part of the glutamate-glutamine cycle that transfers glutamine from astrocytes to neurons is operating in the neonatal brain and that compared to adults, relatively more glucose is prioritised to PPP and pyruvate carboxylation. Our results may have implications for the capacity to protect the neonatal brain against excitotoxicity and oxidative stress.

  7. Pyruvate Oxidoreductases Involved in Glycolytic Anaerobic Metabolism of Polychaetes from the Continental Shelf off Central-South Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, R. R.; Quiñones, R. A.

    2000-10-01

    The presence of low oxygen conditions in extensive areas of the continental shelf off central-south Chile has important effects on the biochemical adaptations of the organisms living in this ecosystem. Polychaetes assemblages cohabit on the shelf with an extensively distributed prokaryotic community made up of giant filamentous sulfur bacteria (mainly Thioploca sp.). The aim of this research was to characterize the pyruvate oxidoreductases enzymes involved in the biochemical adaptation of these benthic polychaetes. Nine polychaete species ( Paraprionospio pinnata, Nephtys ferruginea, Glycera americana, Haploscoloplos sp., Lumbrineris composita, Sigambra bassi, Aricidea pigmentata , Cossura chilensis, and Pectinaria chilensis) were assayed for lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), octopine dehydrogenase (OPDH), strombine dehydrogenase (STRDH) and alanopine dehydrogenase (ALPDH). Each species had a characteristic number of the pyruvate oxidoreductases assayed ranging from 4 in Paraprionospio pinnata to 1 in Pectinaria chilensis . The pyruvate saturation curves obtained for the enzymes from all species analysed, except L. composita, suggest that NADH can be oxidized at different rates depending on the amino acid used in the reaction with pyruvate. Our results indicate that organisms having more that one pyruvate oxidoreductase present a greater metabolic capacity to cope with functional and environmental hypoxia because these enzymes would better regulate the pyruvate consumption rate during the transition period. Thus, the dominance of Paraprionospio pinnata in the study area and its worldwide distribution is consistent with its higher number of pyruvate oxidoreductases with different pyruvate consumption rates involved in anaerobic metabolism. Finally, a positive allometric relationship was found between body size and the specific activity of ALPDH, STRDH, and maximum pyruvate oxidoreductase specific activity. This latter result suggests a positive scaling of the specific

  8. Saturation-recovery metabolic‐exchange rate imaging with hyperpolarized [1‐13C] pyruvate using spectral‐spatial excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulte, Rolf F.; Sperl, Jonathan I.; Weidl, Eliane

    2013-01-01

    Within the last decade hyperpolarized [1‐13C] pyruvate chemical‐shift imaging has demonstrated impressive potential for metabolic MR imaging for a wide range of applications in oncology, cardiology, and neurology. In this work, a highly efficient pulse sequence is described for time......‐recovery” scheme with the detected signal content being determined by forward conversion of the available pyruvate. In case of repetitive excitations, the polarization is preserved using smaller flip angles for pyruvate. Metabolic exchange rates are determined spatially resolved from the metabolite images using...

  9. How do components of real cloud water affect aqueous pyruvate oxidation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, Alexandra J.; Desyaterik, Yury; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    2014-06-01

    Chemical oxidation of dissolved volatile or semi-volatile organic compounds within fog and cloud droplets in the atmosphere could be a major pathway for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. This proposed pathway consists of: (1) dissolution of organic chemicals from the gas phase into a droplet; (2) reaction with an aqueous phase oxidant to yield low volatility products; and (3) formation of particle phase organic matter as the droplet evaporates. The common approach to simulating aqueous SOA (aqSOA) reactions is photo-oxidation of laboratory standards in pure water. Reactions leading to aqSOA formation should be studied within real cloud and fog water to determine whether additional competing processes might alter apparent rates of reaction as indicated by rates of reactant loss or product formation. To evaluate and identify the origin of any cloud water matrix effects on one example of observed aqSOA production, pyruvate oxidation experiments simulating aqSOA formation were monitored within pure water, real cloud water samples, and an aqueous solution of inorganic salts. Two analysis methods were used: online electrospray ionization high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-HR-ToF-MS), and offline anion exchange chromatography (IC) with quantitative conductivity and qualitative ESI-HR-ToF-MS detection. The apparent rate of oxidation of pyruvate was slowed in cloud water matrices: overall measured degradation rates of pyruvate were lower than in pure water. This can be at least partially accounted for by the observed formation of pyruvate from reactions of other cloud water components. Organic constituents of cloud water also compete for oxidants and/or UV light, contributing to the observed slowed degradation rates of pyruvate. The oxidation of pyruvate was not significantly affected by the presence of inorganic anions (nitrate and sulfate) at cloud-relevant concentrations. Future bulk studies of aqSOA formation reactions using simplified

  10. Reprint of "How do components of real cloud water affect aqueous pyruvate oxidation?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, Alexandra J.; Desyaterik, Yury; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical oxidation of dissolved volatile or semi-volatile organic compounds within fog and cloud droplets in the atmosphere could be a major pathway for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. This proposed pathway consists of: (1) dissolution of organic chemicals from the gas phase into a droplet; (2) reaction with an aqueous phase oxidant to yield low volatility products; and (3) formation of particle phase organic matter as the droplet evaporates. The common approach to simulating aqueous SOA (aqSOA) reactions is photo-oxidation of laboratory standards in pure water. Reactions leading to aqSOA formation should be studied within real cloud and fog water to determine whether additional competing processes might alter apparent rates of reaction as indicated by rates of reactant loss or product formation. To evaluate and identify the origin of any cloud water matrix effects on one example of observed aqSOA production, pyruvate oxidation experiments simulating aqSOA formation were monitored within pure water, real cloud water samples, and an aqueous solution of inorganic salts. Two analysis methods were used: online electrospray ionization high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-HR-ToF-MS), and offline anion exchange chromatography (IC) with quantitative conductivity and qualitative ESI-HR-ToF-MS detection. The apparent rate of oxidation of pyruvate was slowed in cloud water matrices: overall measured degradation rates of pyruvate were lower than in pure water. This can be at least partially accounted for by the observed formation of pyruvate from reactions of other cloud water components. Organic constituents of cloud water also compete for oxidants and/or UV light, contributing to the observed slowed degradation rates of pyruvate. The oxidation of pyruvate was not significantly affected by the presence of inorganic anions (nitrate and sulfate) at cloud-relevant concentrations. Future bulk studies of aqSOA formation reactions using simplified

  11. Multi-band frequency encoding method for metabolic imaging with hyperpolarized [1- 13C]pyruvate

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Morze, Cornelius; Reed, Galen; Shin, Peter; Larson, Peder E. Z.; Hu, Simon; Bok, Robert; Vigneron, Daniel B.

    2011-08-01

    A new method was developed for simultaneous spatial localization and spectral separation of multiple compounds based on a single echo, by designing the acquisition to place individual compounds in separate frequency encoding bands. This method was specially designed for rapid and robust metabolic imaging of hyperpolarized 13C substrates and their metabolic products, and was investigated in phantom studies and studies in normal mice and transgenic models of prostate cancer to provide rapid metabolic imaging of hyperpolarized [1- 13C]pyruvate and its metabolic products [1- 13C]lactate and [1- 13C]alanine at spatial resolutions up to 3 mm in-plane. Elevated pyruvate and lactate signals in the vicinity of prostatic tissues were observed in transgenic tumor mice. The multi-band frequency encoding technique enabled rapid metabolic imaging of hyperpolarized 13C compounds with important advantages over prior approaches, including less complicated acquisition and reconstruction methods.

  12. Ethyl Pyruvate Prevents Methyglyoxal-Induced Retinal Vascular Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyruvate is an endogenous antioxidant substance. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of ethyl pyruvate (EP on retinal vascular injury in diabetic retinopathy. To investigate the protective effect of EP on vascular cell apoptosis and blood-retinal barrier (BRB breakage, we have used intravitreally methylglyoxal-(MGO- injected rat eyes. Apoptosis of the retinal vascular cell that was stimulated by the intravitreal injection of MGO was evidently attenuated by the EP treatment. EP exerts inhibitory effect on MGO-induced vascular cell apoptosis by blocking oxidative injury. In addition, EP treatment prevented MGO-induced BRB breakage and the degradation of occludin, an important tight junction protein. These observations suggest that EP acts through an antioxidant mechanism to protect against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in retinal vessels.

  13. ParaHydrogen Induced Polarization of 13C carboxylate resonance in acetate and pyruvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reineri, Francesca; Boi, Tommaso; Aime, Silvio

    2015-01-05

    The advent of nuclear spins hyperpolarization techniques represents a breakthrough in the field of medical diagnoses by magnetic resonance imaging. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is the most widely used method, and hyperpolarized metabolites such as [1-(13)C]-pyruvate are shown to report on status of tumours. Parahydrogen-induced polarization (PHIP) is a chemistry-based technique, easier to handle and much less expensive in respect to DNP, with significantly shorter polarization times. Its main limitation is the availability of unsaturated precursors for the target substrates; for instance, acetate and pyruvate cannot be obtained by direct incorporation of the parahydrogen molecule. Herein we report a method that allows us to achieve hyperpolarization in this kind of molecule by means of a tailored precursor containing a hydrogenable functionality that, after polarization transfer to the target (13)C moiety, is cleaved to obtain the metabolite of interest. The reported procedure can be extended to a number of other biologically relevant substrates.

  14. Effects of pyruvate dose on in vivo metabolism and quantification of hyperpolarized 13C spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janich, M. A.; Menzel, M. I.; Wiesinger, F.

    2012-01-01

    by acquiring slice‐selective free induction decay signals in slices dominated by heart, liver and kidney tissue. Dose effects were noted in all cases, except for alanine in the cardiac slice below the dose of 0.2 mmol/kg. Our results indicate unlimited cellular uptake of pyruvate up to this dose and limited...... enzymatic activity of lactate dehydrogenase. In the cardiac slice above 0.2 mmol/kg and in liver and kidney slices, reflect limited cellular uptake or enzymatic activity, or a combination of both effects. The results indicate that the dose of pyruvate must be recognized as an important determinant...... for metabolic tissue kinetics, and saturation effects must be taken into account for the quantitative interpretation of the observed results. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  15. Anaerobic survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by pyruvate fermentation requires an Usp-type stress protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, K; Boes, N; Escbach, M;

    2006-01-01

    Recently, we identified a pyruvate fermentation pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa sustaining anaerobic survival in the absence of alternative anaerobic respiratory and fermentative energy generation systems (M. Eschbach, K. Schreiber, K. Trunk, J. Buer, D. Jahn, and M. Schobert, J. Bacteriol. 186......:4596-4604, 2004). Anaerobic long-term survival of P. aeruginosa might be essential for survival in deeper layers of a biofilm and the persistent infection of anaerobic mucus plaques in the cystic fibrosis lung. Proteome analysis of P. aeruginosa cells during a 7-day period of pyruvate fermentation revealed...... the induced synthesis of three enzymes involved in arginine fermentation, ArcA, ArcB, and ArcC, and the outer membrane protein OprL. Moreover, formation of two proteins of unknown function, PA3309 and PA4352, increased by factors of 72- and 22-fold, respectively. Both belong to the group of universal stress...

  16. Status of ammonia, glutamate, lactate and pyruvate during Plasmodium yoelii infection and pyrimethamine treatment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, A; Tripathi, L M; Pandey, V C

    1997-09-01

    Ammonia, lactate, glutamate and pyruvate levels in blood, liver, brain, spleen and kidney were determined during Plasmodium yoelii infection and pyrimethamine treatment in mice. Ammonia and lactate levels showed significant increase with rise in parasitaemia except in spleen where decrease in the lactate levels was observed. The glutamate level displayed a marked decrease in blood, liver and splenic tissues, whereas, significant increase in glutamate level in kidney was observed, although its level in cerebral tissue remained unaltered. The pyruvate level in blood and liver showed a noticeable decrease but brain, spleen and kidney registered an elevation of the same due to the parasitic infection. Pyrimethamine (oral) treatment (10 mg/kg body weight) to infected mice (5-10%) for four days brought back the altered levels of the above cellular constituents in different tissues to normal, a week after cessation of drug treatment.

  17. Pro-haloacetate Nanoparticles for Efficient Cancer Therapy via Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Santosh K.; Ye, Mao; Ostadhossein, Fatemeh; Pan, Dipanjan

    2016-06-01

    Anticancer agents based on haloacetic acids are developed for inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK), an enzyme responsible for reversing the suppression of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Through molecular docking studies mono- and dihaloacetates are identified as potent PDK2 binders and matched their efficiency with dichloroacetic acid. In silico screening directed their conversion to phospholipid prodrugs, which were subsequently self-assembled to pro-haloacetate nanoparticles. Following a thorough physico-chemical characterization, the functional activity of these novel agents was established in wide ranges of human cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo in rodents. Results indicated that the newly explored PDK modulators can act as efficient agent for cancer regression. A Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) assay mechanistically confirmed that these agents trigger their activity through the mitochondria-dependent apoptosis.

  18. Chemical Synthesis Elucidates the Immunological Importance of a Pyruvate Modification in the Capsular Polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Claney L; Geissner, Andreas; Anish, Chakkumkal; Seeberger, Peter H

    2015-08-17

    Carbohydrate modifications are believed to strongly affect the immunogenicity of glycans. Capsular polysaccharides (CPS) from bacterial pathogens are frequently equipped with a pyruvate that can be placed across the 4,6-, 3,4-, or 2,3-positions. A trans-2,3-linked pyruvate is present on the CPS of the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 4 (ST4), a pathogen responsible for pneumococcal infections. To assess the immunological importance of this modification within the CPS repeating unit, the first total synthesis of the glycan was carried out. Glycan microarrays containing a series of synthetic antigens demonstrated how antibodies raised against natural ST4 CPS specifically recognize the pyruvate within the context of the tetrasaccharide repeating unit. The pyruvate modification is a key motif for designing minimal synthetic carbohydrate vaccines for ST4.

  19. Malic acid production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: engineering of pyruvate carboxylation, oxaloacetate reduction, and malate export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelle, Rintze M; de Hulster, Erik; van Winden, Wouter A; de Waard, Pieter; Dijkema, Cor; Winkler, Aaron A; Geertman, Jan-Maarten A; van Dijken, Johannes P; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2008-05-01

    Malic acid is a potential biomass-derivable "building block" for chemical synthesis. Since wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains produce only low levels of malate, metabolic engineering is required to achieve efficient malate production with this yeast. A promising pathway for malate production from glucose proceeds via carboxylation of pyruvate, followed by reduction of oxaloacetate to malate. This redox- and ATP-neutral, CO(2)-fixing pathway has a theoretical maximum yield of 2 mol malate (mol glucose)(-1). A previously engineered glucose-tolerant, C(2)-independent pyruvate decarboxylase-negative S. cerevisiae strain was used as the platform to evaluate the impact of individual and combined introduction of three genetic modifications: (i) overexpression of the native pyruvate carboxylase encoded by PYC2, (ii) high-level expression of an allele of the MDH3 gene, of which the encoded malate dehydrogenase was retargeted to the cytosol by deletion of the C-terminal peroxisomal targeting sequence, and (iii) functional expression of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe malate transporter gene SpMAE1. While single or double modifications improved malate production, the highest malate yields and titers were obtained with the simultaneous introduction of all three modifications. In glucose-grown batch cultures, the resulting engineered strain produced malate at titers of up to 59 g liter(-1) at a malate yield of 0.42 mol (mol glucose)(-1). Metabolic flux analysis showed that metabolite labeling patterns observed upon nuclear magnetic resonance analyses of cultures grown on (13)C-labeled glucose were consistent with the envisaged nonoxidative, fermentative pathway for malate production. The engineered strains still produced substantial amounts of pyruvate, indicating that the pathway efficiency can be further improved.

  20. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase constitute an energy consuming redox circuit

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cellular proteins rely on reversible redox reactions to establish and maintain biological structure and function. How redox catabolic (NAD+:NADH) and anabolic (NADP+:NADPH) processes integrate during metabolism to maintain cellular redox homeostasis however is unknown. The present work identifies a continuously cycling, mitochondrial membrane potential-dependent redox circuit between the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) and nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT). PDHC is shown to...

  1. Iron may induce both DNA synthesis and repair in rat hepatocytes stimulated by EGF/pyruvate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenoufi, N.; Loreal, O.; Cariou, S.; Hubert, N.; Lescoat, G. [Univ. Hospital Pontchaillou, Unite de Recherches Hepatologiques, INSERM U 49, Rennes (France); Drenou, B. [Univ. Hospital Pontchaillou, Lab. d`Hematologie et d`Immunologie, Rennes (France); Leroyer, P.; Brissot, P. [Univ. Hospital Pontchaillou, Clinique des Maladies du Foie, Rennes (France)

    1997-03-01

    Background/Aims: Hepatocellular carcinoma develops frequently in the course of genetic hemochromatosis, and a role of iron overload in hepatic carcinogenesis is strongly suggested. Methods: The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of iron exposure on DNA synthesis of adult rat hepatocytes maintained in primary culture stimulated or not by EGF/pyruvate and exposed to iron-citrate complex. Results: In EGF/pyruvate-stimulated cultures, the level of [{sup 3}H] methyl thymidine incorporation was strongly increased as compared to unstimulated cultures. The addition of iron to stimulated cultures increased [{sup 3}H] methyl thymidine incorporation. The mitotic index was also significantly higher at 72 h. However,the number of cells found in the cell layer was not significantly different from iron-citrate free culture. By flow cytometry, no difference in cell ploidy was found between iron-treated and untreated EGF/pyruvate-stimulated cultures. A significant increase in LDH leakage reflecting a toxic effect of iron was found in the cell medium 48 h after cell seeding. In addition, [{sup 3}H] methyl thymidine incorporation in the presence of hydroxyurea was increased in iron-treated compared to untreated cultures. Conclusions: Our results show that DNA synthesis is increased in the presence of iron in rat hepatocyte cultures stimulated by EGF/pyruvate, and they suggest that DNA synthesis is likely to be related both to cell proliferation and to DNA repair. These observations may allow better understanding of the role of iron overload in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. (au) 61 refs.

  2. Cell density-correlated induction of pyruvate decarboxylase under aerobic conditions in the yeast Pichia stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergler, M; Klinner, U

    2001-01-01

    During the aerobic batch cultivation of P. stipitis CBS 5776 with glucose, pyruvate decarboxylase was activated in a cell number-correlated manner. Activation started when a cell number between 7 x 10(7) and x 10(8) cells ml(-1) was reached and the enzyme activity increased during further cultivation. This induction might have been triggered either by an unknown quorum sensing system or by a shortage of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA.

  3. Pyruvate kinase is necessary for Brucella abortus full virulence in BALB/c mouse

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    International audience; AbstractBrucellosis, caused by a facultative intracellular pathogen Brucella, is one of the most prevalent zoonosis worldwide. Host infection relies on several uncanonical virulence factors. A recent research hotpot is the links between carbon metabolism and bacterial virulence. In this study, we found that a carbon metabolism-related pyruvate kinase (Pyk) encoded by pyk gene (locus tag BAB_RS24320) was associated with Brucella virulence. Determination of bacterial gro...

  4. Two previously undetected variants of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase found by acidic polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    OpenAIRE

    McLellan, T

    1982-01-01

    Two new electrophoretic variants of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) have been found by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at acidic pH. They appeared to represent a single allele, GPT 2, by the standard method of starch gel electrophoresis. Studies in families show that they are inherited as codominant alleles at the GPT locus. Population frequencies are about the same as those of other rare GPT variants. Their behavior on gels is consistent with both of them having substitutions of histi...

  5. The pentose phosphate pathway and pyruvate carboxylation after neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, Eva M F; Morken, Tora S; Widerøe, Marius; Håberg, Asta K; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2014-04-01

    The neonatal brain is vulnerable to oxidative stress, and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) may be of particular importance to limit the injury. Furthermore, in the neonatal brain, neurons depend on de novo synthesis of neurotransmitters via pyruvate carboxylase (PC) in astrocytes to increase neurotransmitter pools. In the adult brain, PPP activity increases in response to various injuries while pyruvate carboxylation is reduced after ischemia. However, little is known about the response of these pathways after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). To this end, 7-day-old rats were subjected to unilateral carotid artery ligation followed by hypoxia. Animals were injected with [1,2-(13)C]glucose during the recovery phase and extracts of cerebral hemispheres ipsi- and contralateral to the operation were analyzed using (1)H- and (13)C-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After HI, glucose levels were increased and there was evidence of mitochondrial hypometabolism in both hemispheres. Moreover, metabolism via PPP was reduced bilaterally. Ipsilateral glucose metabolism via PC was reduced, but PC activity was relatively preserved compared with glucose metabolism via pyruvate dehydrogenase. The observed reduction in PPP activity after HI may contribute to the increased susceptibility of the neonatal brain to oxidative stress.

  6. Nuclear pyruvate kinase M2 complex serves as a transcriptional coactivator of arylhydrocarbon receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Shun; Adachi, Jun; Ihara, Masaru; Tanuma, Nobuhiro; Shima, Hiroshi; Kakizuka, Akira; Ikura, Masae; Ikura, Tsuyoshi; Matsuda, Tomonari

    2016-01-29

    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) regulate production of acetyl-CoA, which functions as an acetyl donor in diverse enzymatic reactions, including histone acetylation. However, the mechanism by which the acetyl-CoA required for histone acetylation is ensured in a gene context-dependent manner is not clear. Here we show that PKM2, the E2 subunit of PDC and histone acetyltransferase p300 constitute a complex on chromatin with arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a transcription factor associated with xenobiotic metabolism. All of these factors are recruited to the enhancer of AhR-target genes, in an AhR-dependent manner. PKM2 contributes to enhancement of transcription of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), an AhR-target gene, acetylation at lysine 9 of histone H3 at the CYP1A1 enhancer. Site-directed mutagenesis of PKM2 indicates that this enhancement of histone acetylation requires the pyruvate kinase activity of the enzyme. Furthermore, we reveal that PDC activity is present in nuclei. Based on these findings, we propose a local acetyl-CoA production system in which PKM2 and PDC locally supply acetyl-CoA to p300 from abundant PEP for histone acetylation at the gene enhancer, and our data suggest that PKM2 sensitizes AhR-mediated detoxification in actively proliferating cells such as cancer and fetal cells.

  7. Potential dysregulation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by bacterial toxins and insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gregory W; Mains, Charles W; Slone, Denetta Sue; Craun, Michael L; Bar-Or, David

    2009-09-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA, effectively controlling the entrance of glycolysis products into aerobic metabolism. Because hyperlactatemia is one of the hallmarks of sepsis, we hyphothesized that gram-positive and negative bacterial toxin treatment will interfere with mRNA levels of regulatory enzymes of the PDC and overall enzyme activity in hepatocytes. HEP G2 hepatocarcinoma cells were incubated for 24 hours in the presence of lipopolysaccaride (LPS) or lipoteichoic acid. Total RNA was then isolated and message RNA levels for both pyruvate dehydrogense kinase 4 and phosphatase 2 were determined by RTPCR. Amplified DNA fragments were visualized by ethidium bromide in agarose gels and densitometry of the bands was performed. Data were then normalized to the housekeeping gene, GAPDH. Enzyme activity was then determined by capturing intact PDC on nitrocellulose membranes then determining PDC-dependent production of NADH. LPS treatment led to a time dependent increase in PDK4 message while decreasing PDP2 levels. Enzyme activity, in these cells, also significantly decreased 24 hours after exposure to LPS. Cells cultured in the presence of lipoteichoic acid and insulin exhibited differing message ratios and activity levels when evaluated at 4 hours, but at 24 hours shifted to mimic those observed in LPS treated cells. This data may indicate that exposure to bacterial cell wall components and insulin could create cellular environments that result in a build-up of lactate.

  8. Production of L-phenylacetylcarbinol (L-PAC) from benzaldehyde using partially purified pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, H S; Rogers, P L

    1996-01-05

    Biotransformation of benzaldehyde to L-phenylacetylcarbinol (L-PAC) as a key intermediate for L-ephedrine synthesis has been evaluated using pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) partially purified from Candida utilis. PDC activity was enhanced by controlled fermentative metabolism and pulse feeding of glucose prior to the enzyme purification. With partially purified PDC, several enzymatic reactions occurred simultaneously and gave rise to by-products (acetaldehyde and acetoin) as well as L-PAC production. Optimal reaction conditions were determined for temperature, pH, addition of ethanol, PDC activity, benzaldehyde, and pyruvate:benzaldehyde ratio to maximize L-PAC, and minimize by-products. The highest L-PAC concentration of 28.6 g/L (190.6 mM) was achieved at 7 U/mL PDC activity and 200 mM benzaldehyde with 2.0 molar ratio of pyruvate to benzaldehyde in 40 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 2.0 M ethanol at 4 degrees C.

  9. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase regulatory mechanisms and inhibition in treating diabetes, heart ischemia, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, T E; Hiromasa, Y

    2007-04-01

    The fraction of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) in the active form is reduced by the activities of dedicated PD kinase isozymes (PDK1, PDK2, PDK3 and PDK4). Via binding to the inner lipoyl domain (L2) of the dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase (E2 60mer), PDK rapidly access their E2-bound PD substrate. The E2-enhanced activity of the widely distributed PDK2 is limited by dissociation of ADP from its C-terminal catalytic domain, and this is further slowed by pyruvate binding to the N-terminal regulatory (R) domain. Via the reverse of the PDC reaction, NADH and acetyl-CoA reductively acetylate lipoyl group of L2, which binds to the R domain and stimulates PDK2 activity by speeding up ADP dissociation. Activation of PDC by synthetic PDK inhibitors binding at the pyruvate or lipoyl binding sites decreased damage during heart ischemia and lowered blood glucose in insulin-resistant animals. PDC activation also triggers apoptosis in cancer cells that selectively convert glucose to lactate.

  10. Pyruvate kinase M2 activators promote tetramer formation and suppress tumorigenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasiou, Dimitrios; Yu, Yimin; Israelsen, William J.; Jiang, Jian-Kang; Boxer, Matthew B.; Hong, Bum Soo; Tempel, Wolfram; Dimov, Svetoslav; Shen, Min; Jha, Abhishek; Yang, Hua; Mattaini, Katherine R.; Metallo, Christian M.; Fiske, Brian P.; Courtney, Kevin D.; Malstrom, Scott; Khan, Tahsin M.; Kung, Charles; Skoumbourdis, Amanda P.; Veith, Henrike; Southall, Noel; Walsh, Martin J.; Brimacombe, Kyle R.; Leister, William; Lunt, Sophia Y.; Johnson, Zachary R.; Yen, Katharine E.; Kunii, Kaiko; Davidson, Shawn M.; Christofk, Heather R.; Austin, Christopher P.; Inglese, James; Harris, Marian H.; Asara, John M.; Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Salituro, Francesco G.; Jin, Shengfang; Dang, Lenny; Auld, Douglas S.; Park, Hee-Won; Cantley, Lewis C.; Thomas, Craig J.; Vander Heiden, Matthew G.

    2012-08-26

    Cancer cells engage in a metabolic program to enhance biosynthesis and support cell proliferation. The regulatory properties of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) influence altered glucose metabolism in cancer. The interaction of PKM2 with phosphotyrosine-containing proteins inhibits enzyme activity and increases the availability of glycolytic metabolites to support cell proliferation. This suggests that high pyruvate kinase activity may suppress tumor growth. We show that expression of PKM1, the pyruvate kinase isoform with high constitutive activity, or exposure to published small-molecule PKM2 activators inhibits the growth of xenograft tumors. Structural studies reveal that small-molecule activators bind PKM2 at the subunit interaction interface, a site that is distinct from that of the endogenous activator fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP). However, unlike FBP, binding of activators to PKM2 promotes a constitutively active enzyme state that is resistant to inhibition by tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. This data supports the notion that small-molecule activation of PKM2 can interfere with anabolic metabolism.

  11. Single Sodium Pyruvate Ingestion Modifies Blood Acid-Base Status and Post-Exercise Lactate Concentration in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Olek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of a single sodium pyruvate ingestion on a blood acid-base status and exercise metabolism markers. Nine active, but non-specifically trained, male subjects participated in the double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. One hour prior to the exercise, subjects ingested either 0.1 g·kg−1 of body mass of a sodium pyruvate or placebo. The capillary blood samples were obtained at rest, 60 min after ingestion, and then three and 15 min after completing the workout protocol to analyze acid-base status and lactate, pyruvate, alanine, glucose concentrations. The pulmonary gas exchange, minute ventilation and the heart rate were measured during the exercise at a constant power output, corresponding to ~90% O2max. The blood pH, bicarbonate and the base excess were significantly higher after sodium pyruvate ingestion than in the placebo trial. The blood lactate concentration was not different after the ingestion, but the post-exercise was significantly higher in the pyruvate trial (12.9 ± 0.9 mM than in the placebo trial (10.6 ± 0.3 mM, p < 0.05 and remained elevated (nonsignificant after 15 min of recovery. The blood pyruvate, alanine and glucose concentrations, as well as the overall pulmonary gas exchange during the exercise were not affected by the pyruvate ingestion. In conclusion, the sodium pyruvate ingestion one hour before workout modified the blood acid-base status and the lactate production during the exercise.

  12. Characterization of Streptococcus oligofermentans sucrose metabolism demonstrates reduced pyruvic and lactic acid production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Xu-dong; YUE Lin; GAO Xue-jun

    2011-01-01

    Background Streptococcus (S.) oligofermentans is a newly identified bacteria with a yet to be defined mechanism of sucrose metabolism that results in acid production.This study aimed to investigate the biochemical mechanisms of S.oligoferm-entans glucose metaolism.Methods The S.oligofermentans LMG21532,Lactobacillus (L.) fermentum 38 and the S.S.mutans UA140 were used to characterize sucrose metabolism by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and lactic acid production.Continuous dynamics and high performance capillary electrophoresis were used to determine LDH activity and lactic acid production,respectively,from bacteria collected at 0,10 and 30 minutes after cultured in 10% sucrose.Results These analyses demonstrated that LDH activity of the three bacterial strains examined remained stable but significantly different throughout the sucrose fermentation process.The S.o/igofermentans LDH activity ((0.61±0.05) U/mg) was significantly lower than that of L.fermentum ((52.91+8.97) U/mg).In addition,the S.oligofermentans total lactate production ((0.048±0.021) mmol/L) was also significantly lower than that of L.fermentum ((0.958±0.201) mmol/L).Although the S.oligofermentans LDH production was almost double of that produced by S.mutans ((0.32±0.07) U/mg),lactic acid production was approximately one sixth that of S.mutans ((0.296±0.058) mmol/L).Additional tests examining pyruvic acid production (the LDH substrate) demonstrated that lactic acid concentrations correlated with pyruvic acid production.That is,pyruvic acid production by S.oligofermentans was undetectable following sucrose incubation,however,(0.074±t0.024) and (0.175±0.098) mmol/L pyruvic acid were produced by S.mutans and L.fermentum,respectively.Conclusion S.oligofermentans is incapable of fermenting carbohydrates to produce enough pyruvic acid,which results in reduced lactic acid production.

  13. Effect of glucose and pyruvate in acidic and non-acidic peritoneal dialysis fluids on leukocytes cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahiout, A; Matata, B M; Brunkhorst, R

    1997-03-01

    A new peritoneal dialysate containing pyruvate anions has been tested for its effects on cell functions and compared with conventional lactate and bicarbonate based solutions. The dialysate has a final pH of 5.4 to 5.6 and is composed of 1.36 to 3.86% glucose-monohydrate, 132 mmol/liter sodium, 1.75 mmol/liter calcium, 0.75 mmol/liter magnesium, 102 mmol/liter chloride and 35 mmol/liter pyruvate. For cytotoxicity testing peritoneal macrophages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were exposed to conventional lactate dialysate, pyruvate dialysate, bicarbonate dialysate and a control medium RPMI 1640 (Biochrom KG, Berlin, Germany), followed by activation with different bacterial stimuli. In addition, the study further investigated the effect of varying glucose concentration in the different dialysates ranging from 0 to 3.86% and pH changes between 5.2 and 7.4 on the cytotoxicity effect on the selected cells. Mononuclear cells exposed to pyruvate-based dialysate before stimulation with endotoxin exhibited a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mRNA signal comparable to those of cells exposed to RPMI. In contrast, exposure to lactate-based dialysate completely inhibited TNF-mRNA synthesis. In addition, cytokine synthesis in macrophages and PBMCs after exposure to pyruvate was less inhibited when compared to the corresponding levels measured after exposure to lactate. The chemotactic response of polymorphonuclear cells and O-2 generation in all tested cell types after exposure to pyruvate was found not to be inhibited, whereas a complete inhibition was observed after exposure to lactate. The results demonstrate that cytotoxicity effects of peritoneal dialysate on cell lines can be minimized by using a new dialysate formulation containing pyruvate anions instead of lactate.

  14. Neuroprotective effect of ethyl pyruvate against Zn(2+) toxicity via NAD replenishment and direct Zn(2+) chelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Woo; Lee, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Ji; Yoon, Sung-Hwa; Lee, Ja-Kyeong

    2016-06-01

    Ethyl pyruvate (EP) is a simple aliphatic ester of pyruvic acid and has been shown to have robust protective effect in various pathological conditions. A variety of mechanisms have been reported to underlie the protective effects of EP, which include anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-apoptotic functions. Recently, we reported that EP suppressed high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) release from primary microglial cells via direct Ca(2+) chelation. In the present study, we investigated whether and how EP chelates Zn(2+) in neurons when it is present at toxic levels. In cortical neurons treated with 40 μM of Zn(2+) for 24 h, both EP and pyruvate significantly suppressed neuronal cell death, although the potency of pyruvate was greater than that of EP, and that NAD replenishment contributed to the neuroprotective effects of both pyruvate and EP. However, when cortical neurons were exposed to acute treatment of Zn(2+) (400 μM, 15 min), EP, but not pyruvate, significantly suppressed neuronal death, despite the fact that NAD replenishment by EP was weaker than that by pyruvate. Spectrophotometric studies revealed that EP directly chelates Zn(2+), and this was confirmed in physiological contexts, such as, NMDA-treated primary cortical cultures and OGD-subjected hippocampal slice cultures, in which EP suppressed intracellular Zn(2+) elevation and neuronal cell death. In addition, EP markedly reduced the expressions of PARP-1 and of the NADPH oxidase subunit in Zn(2+)-treated primary cortical neurons, well known Zn(2+)-induced downstream processes. Together, these results show EP suppresses Zn(2+) induced neurotoxicity via dual functions, chelating Zn(2+) and promoting NAD replenishment.

  15. c-Jun N-terminal kinase regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics by modulating pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in primary cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiongqiong; Lam, Philip Y; Han, Derick; Cadenas, Enrique

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the role of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in mitochondrial signaling and bioenergetics in primary cortical neurons and isolated rat brain mitochondria. Exposure of neurons to either anisomycin (an activator of JNK/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases) or H2O2 resulted in activation (phosphorylation) of JNK (mostly p46(JNK1)) and its translocation to mitochondria. Experiments with mitochondria isolated from either rat brain or primary cortical neurons and incubated with proteinase K revealed that phosphorylated JNK was associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane; this association resulted in the phosphorylation of the E(1alpha) subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase, a key enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate and that links two major metabolic pathways: glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. JNK-mediated phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase was not observed in experiments carried out with mitoplasts, thus suggesting the requirement of intact, functional mitochondria for this effect. JNK-mediated phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase was associated with a decline in its activity and, consequently, a shift to anaerobic pyruvate metabolism: the latter was confirmed by increased accumulation of lactic acid and decreased overall energy production (ATP levels). Pyruvate dehydrogenase appears to be a specific phosphorylation target for JNK, for other kinases, such as protein kinase A and protein kinase C did not elicit pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphorylation and did not decrease the activity of the complex. These results suggest that JNK mediates a signaling pathway that regulates metabolic functions in mitochondria as part of a network that coordinates cytosolic and mitochondrial processes relevant for cell function.

  16. Detecting response of rat C6 glioma tumors to radiotherapy using hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate and 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Day, Sam E.; Kettunen, Mikko I.; Cherkuri, Murali Krishna; James B Mitchell; Lizak, Martin J.; Morris, H. Douglas; Koretsky, Alan P.; Brindle, Kevin M.

    2010-01-01

    13C chemical shift images acquired following intravenous injection of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate into rats with implanted C6 gliomas showed significant labeling of lactate within the tumors but not in surrounding brain tissue. Signal from pyruvate was observed in blood vessels above the brain and from other major vessels elsewhere in the rat head. Pyruvate was largely undetectable within the tumor or surrounding normal brain tissue. The ratio of hyperpolarized 13C label in the injected py...

  17. Transcriptional regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 in skeletal muscle during and after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilegaard, Henriette; Neufer, P Darrell

    2004-05-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) has a key position in skeletal muscle metabolism as it represents the entry of carbohydrate-derived fuel into the mitochondria for oxidation. PDC is regulated by a phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle, in which the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) phosphorylates and inactivates the complex. PDK exists in four isoforms, of which the PDK4 isoform is predominantly expressed in skeletal and heart muscle. PDK4 transcription and PDK4 mRNA are markedly increased in human skeletal muscle during prolonged exercise and after both short-term high-intensity and prolonged low-intensity exercise. The exercise-induced transcriptional response of PDK4 is enhanced when muscle glycogen is lowered before the exercise, and intake of a low-carbohydrate high-fat diet during recovery from exercise results in increased transcription and mRNA content of PDK4 when compared with intake of a high-carbohydrate diet. The activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is increased during the first 2 h of low-intensity exercise, followed by a decrease towards resting levels, which is in line with the possibility that the increased PDK4 expressed influences the PDH activity already during prolonged exercise. PDK4 expression is also increased in response to fasting and a high-fat diet. Thus, increased PDK4 expression when carbohydrate availability is low seems to contribute to the sparing of carbohydrates by preventing carbohydrate oxidation. The impact of substrate availability on PDK4 expression during recovery from exercise also underlines the high metabolic priority given to replenishing muscle glycogen stores and re-establishing intracellular homeostasis after exercise.

  18. Comparison the effectiveness of pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% in the treatment of acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Jaffary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous follicles and one of the most common skin diseases. The peeling method has been recently found to be effective for acne treatment. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% peeling in the treatment of mild to moderate acne. Materials and Methods: In a prospective single-blinded clinical trial, 86 patients with acne were randomly assigned into two groups. In both groups, the routine treatment of acne (topical solution of erythromycin 4%, triclorocarban soap, and sunscreen were used twice a day for 8 weeks. In addition, salicylic acid 30% for the control group and pyruvic acid 50% for the case group were used. In both groups, acne severity index (ASI was calculated before and at week 2, 4, 6, and 8 of the treatment. Patient satisfaction was assessed at the end of the treatment. Side effects were recorded using a checklist. Results: In both groups, the reduction in the number of comedones, papules, and ASI were statistically significant (P < 0.001 in the course of treatment. However, it was not significant regarding the number of pustules (P = 0.09. None of the number of comedone, papules, pustules, and ASI was statistically different between study groups. Both treatment groups had similar side effects except for scaling in the fifth session, which was significantly lower in salicylic acid - treated patients (P = 0.015. Conclusion: Both pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% are effective in the improvement of mild to moderate acne with no significant difference in efficacy and side effects.

  19. Protective Effect of Pyruvate Against Radiation-Induced Damage in Collagenized Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griko, Y. V.; Yan, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation produces both acute and late effects on the collagenized tissues and have profound effects on wound healing. Because of the crucial practical importance for new radioprotective agents, our study has been focused on evaluation of the efficacy of non-toxic naturally occurring compounds to protect tissue integrity against high-dose gamma radiation. Here, we demonstrate that molecular integrity of collagen may serve as a sensitive biological marker for quantitative evaluation of molecular damage to collagenized tissue and efficacy of radioprotective agents. Increasing doses of gamma radiation (0-50kGy) result in progressive destruction of the native collagen fibrils, which provide a structural framework, strength, and proper milieu for the regenerating tissue. The strategy used in this study involved the thermodynamic specification of all structural changes in collagenized matrix of skin, aortic heart valve, and bone tissue induced by different doses and conditions of g-irradiation. This study describes a simple biophysical approach utilizing the Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) to characterize the structural resistance of the aortic valve matrix exposed to different doses of g-irradiation. It allows us to identify the specific response of each constituent as well as to determine the influence of the different treatments on the characteristic parameters of protein structure. We found that pyruvate, a substance that naturally occurs in the body, provide significant protection (up to 80%) from biochemical and biomechanical damage to the collagenized tissue through the effective targeting of reactive oxygen species. The recently discovered role of pyruvate in the cell antioxidant defense to O2 oxidation, and its essential constituency in the daily human diet, indicate that the administration of pyruvate-based radioprotective formulations may provide safe and effective protection from deleterious effects of ionizing

  20. Maturation of pig oocytes in vitro in a medium with pyruvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gonzales-Figueroa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of in vitro maturation oocyte systems is to produce oocytes of comparable quality to those derived in vivo. The present study was designed to examine the surface morphological changes of the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC and nuclear maturation in a culture system containing pyruvate. Ovaries were obtained from a slaughterhouseand transported to the laboratory within 2 h at 35-39ºC,and rinsed three times in 0.9% NaCl. The COCs were harvested from the ovaries and in vitro maturation was evaluated in San Marcos (SM medium, a chemically defined culture system containing 22.3 mM sodium pyruvate. Oocytes were cultured in SM, SM + porcine follicular fluid (pFF and in SM + pFF + gonadotropins (eCG and hCG for 20-22 h and then without hormonal supplements for an additional 20-22 h. After culture, the degree of cumulus expansion and frequency of nuclear maturation were determined. Oocytes matured in SM (40.9% and SM + pFF (42.9% showed moderate cumulus expansion, whereas oocytes matured in SM + pFF + gonadotropins (54.6% showed high cumulus expansion. The maturation rate of cultured oocytes, measured in function of the presence of the polar corpuscle, did not differ significantly between SM (40.9 ± 3.6% and SM + pFF (42.9 ± 3.7%. These results indicate that pig oocytes can be successfully matured in a chemically definedmedium and suggest a possible bifunctional role of pyruvate as an energy substrate and as an antioxidant protecting oocytes against the stress of the in vitro environment.

  1. Mechanism of reconstitution of brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase with thiamin diphosphate and magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, J A; Crane, E J; Harris, T K; Washabaugh, M W

    1995-10-01

    Reconstitution of apo-pyruvate decarboxylase isozymes (PDC, EC 4.1.1.1) from Saccharomyces carlsbergensis was investigated by determination of the steady-state kinetics of the reaction with thiamin diphosphate (TDP) and Mg2+ in the presence and absence of substrate (pyruvate) or allosteric effector (pyruvamide). Reconstitution of the PDC isozyme mixture and alpha 4 isozyme (alpha 4-PDC) exhibits biphasic kinetics with 52 +/- 11% of the PDC reacting with k1 = (1.0 +/- 0.3) x 10(-2) s-1 and 48 +/- 12% of the PDC reacting with k2 = (1.1 +/- 0.6) x 10(-1) s-1 when TDP (KTDP = 0.5 +/- 0.2 mM) is added to apo-PDC equilibrated with saturating Mg2+. PDC reconstitution exhibits first-order kinetics with k1 = (1.6 +/- 0.5) x 10(-2) s-1 upon addition of Mg2+ (KMg2+ = 0.2 +/- 0.1 mM) to apo-PDC equilibrated with saturating TDP. Biphasic kinetics for the PDC isozymes provides evidence that apo-PDC reconstitution with TDP and Mg2+ involves two pathways, TDP binding followed by Mg2+ (k1) or Mg2+ binding followed by TDP (k2). This is supported by a change in reconstitution pathway with the order of cofactor addition and is inconsistent with a single pathway involving ordered binding of the metal ion followed by TDP. The presence of pyruvamide has no significant effect on the rate constants for apo-PDC reconstitution and favors the k2 pathway; pyruvate decreases the value of k2 < or = 3-fold and has no effect on the value of k1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Stem cell selection in vivo using foamy vectors cures canine pyruvate kinase deficiency.

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    Grant D Trobridge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC gene therapy has cured immunodeficiencies including X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1 and adenine deaminase deficiency (ADA. For these immunodeficiencies corrected cells have a selective advantage in vivo, and low numbers of gene-modified cells are sufficient to provide therapeutic benefit. Strategies to efficiently transduce and/or expand long-term repopulating cells in vivo are needed for treatment of diseases that require higher levels of corrected cells, such as hemoglobinopathies. Here we expanded corrected stem cells in vivo in a canine model of a severe erythroid disease, pyruvate kinase deficiency. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a foamy virus (FV vector expressing the P140K mutant of methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMTP140K for in vivo expansion of corrected hematopoietic repopulating cells. FV vectors are attractive gene transfer vectors for hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy since they efficiently transduce repopulating cells and may be safer than more commonly used gammaretroviral vectors. Following transplantation with HSCs transduced ex vivo using a tri-cistronic FV vector that expressed EGFP, R-type pyruvate kinase, and MGMTP140K, we were able to increase marking from approximately 3.5% to 33% in myeloid long-term repopulating cells resulting in a functional cure. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we describe in one affected dog a functional cure for a severe erythroid disease using stem cell selection in vivo. In addition to providing a potential cure for patients with pyruvate kinase deficiency, in vivo selection using foamy vectors with MGMTP140K has broad potential for several hematopoietic diseases including hemoglobinopathies.

  3. Ligand-induced conformational changes in wild-type and mutant yeast pyruvate kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, R A; Kelly, S M; Price, N C; Fothergill-Gilmore, L A; Muirhead, H

    1996-12-01

    A mutant form of pyruvate kinase in which serine 384 has been mutated to proline has been engineered in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Residue 384 is located in a helix in a subunit interface of the tetrameric enzyme, and the mutation was anticipated to alter the conformation of the helix and hence destabilize the interface. Previous results indicate that the mutant favours the T quaternary conformation over the R conformation, and this is confirmed by the results presented here. Addition of phosphoenol-pyruvate (PEP), ADP and fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate (Fru-1.6-P2) singly to the wild-type and mutant enzymes results in a significant quenching of tryptophan fluorescence (12-44%), and for Fru-1,6-P2, a red shift of 15 nm in the emission maximum. Fluorescence titration experiments showed that PEP, ADP and Fru-1,6-P2 induce conformations which have similar ligand-binding properties in the wild-type and mutant enzymes. However, the Fru-1,6-P2 induced conformation is demonstrably different from those induced by either ADP or PEP. The enzymes differ in their susceptibility to trypsin digestion and N-ethylmaleimide inhibition. The thermal stability of the enzyme is unaltered by the mutation. Far-UV CD spectra show that both enzymes adopt a similar overall secondary structure in solution. Taken together, the results suggest that the Ser384-Pro mutation causes the enzyme to adopt a different tertiary and/or quaternary structure from the wild-type enzyme and affects the type and extent of the conformational changes induced in the enzyme upon ligand binding. A simplified minimal reaction mechanism is proposed in which the R and T states differ in both affinity and kcat. Thus, in terms of the models of cooperativity and allosteric interaction, pyruvate kinase is both a K and a V system.

  4. Fusion of pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase increases ethanol production in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicka, Aleksandra J; Lyczakowski, Jan J; Blackhurst, Gavin; Pashkuleva, Christiana; Rothschild-Mancinelli, Kyle; Tautvaišas, Dainius; Thornton, Harry; Villanueva, Hugo; Xiao, Weike; Slikas, Justinas; Horsfall, Louise; Elfick, Alistair; French, Christopher

    2014-12-19

    Ethanol is an important biofuel. Heterologous expression of Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc) and alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhB) increases ethanol production in Escherichia coli. A fusion of PDC and ADH was generated and expressed in E. coli. The fusion enzyme was demonstrated to possess both activities. AdhB activity was significantly lower when fused to PDC than when the two enzymes were expressed separately. However, cells expressing the fusion protein generated ethanol more rapidly and to higher levels than cells coexpressing Pdc and AdhB, suggesting a specific rate enhancement due to the fusion of the two enzymes.

  5. Plesiomonas shigelloides Septic Shock Leading to Death of Postsplenectomy Patient with Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency and Hemochromatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Although Plesiomonas shigelloides, a water-borne bacterium of the Enterobacteriaceae family, usually causes self-limiting gastroenteritis with diarrhea, several cases of sepsis have been reported. We report the case of a 43-year-old male patient with hemochromatosis, pyruvate kinase deficiency, and asplenia via splenectomy who developed septic shock caused by P. shigelloides complicated by respiratory failure, renal failure, liver failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Early aggressive antimicrobial therapy and resuscitation measures were unsuccessful and the patient passed away. We kindly suggest clinicians to implement early diagnosis of septic shock, empirical coverage with antibiotics, and prompt volume resuscitation based on the high mortality rate of P. shigelloides bacteremia. PMID:27610253

  6. Exercise-induced pyruvate dehydrogenase activation is not affected by 7 days of bed rest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Kristian; Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm; Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup

    2011-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that physical inactivity impairs the exercise-induced modulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), 6 healthy normally physically active male subjects completed 7 days of bed rest. Before and immediately after the bed rest, the subjects completed an OGTT and a one-legged knee...... after bed rest than before, indicating glucose intolerance. There were no differences in lactate release/uptake across the exercising muscle before and after bed rest, but glucose uptake after 40min of exercise was larger (P=0.05) before bed rest than after. Muscle glycogen content tended to be higher...

  7. Cloning and sequencing of pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) genes from bacteria and uses therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin-Furlow, Julie A [Gainesville, FL; Talarico, Lee Ann [Gainesville, FL; Raj, Krishnan Chandra [Tamil Nadu, IN; Ingram, Lonnie O [Gainesville, FL

    2008-02-05

    The invention provides isolated nucleic acids molecules which encode pyruvate decarboxylase enzymes having improved decarboxylase activity, substrate affinity, thermostability, and activity at different pH. The nucleic acids of the invention also have a codon usage which allows for high expression in a variety of host cells. Accordingly, the invention provides recombinant expression vectors containing such nucleic acid molecules, recombinant host cells comprising the expression vectors, host cells further comprising other ethanologenic enzymes, and methods for producing useful substances, e.g., acetaldehyde and ethanol, using such host cells.

  8. Structural Basis for Flip-Flop Action of Thiamin-Dependent Enzymes Revealed by Crystal Structure of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszak, Ewa; Korotchkina, Lioubov G.; Dominiak, Paulina M.; Sidhu, Sukdeep; Patel, Mulchand S.

    2003-01-01

    The biologically active derivative of vitamin B1; thiamin pyrophosphate; is used as cofactor by many enzymes that perform a wide range of catalytic functions in the pathways of energy production. In alpha2beta2-heterotetrameric human pyruvate dehydrogenase, the first catalytic component enzyme of human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, this cofactor is used to cleave the C(sup alpha)-C(=0) bond of pyruvate followed by reductive acetyl transfer to lipoyl-dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase, the second catalytic component of the complex. The dynamic nonequivalence of two, otherwise chemically equivalent, catalytic sites have puzzled researchers from earlier functional studies of this enzyme. In order to gain insight into the mechanism of action of this enzyme, we determined the crystal structure of the holoform of human pyruvate dehydrogenase at 1.958, resolution. We propose a kinetic model for the flip-flop action of this enzyme through the concerted approx. 2A, shuttle-like motion of the heterodimers. The similarity of thiamin pyrophosphate binding in human pyruvate dehydrogenase and other functionally related enzymes suggests this newly defined mechanism of shuttle-like motion of domains to be common for the family of thiamin pyrophosphate-dependent enzymes.

  9. Recovery of Pyruvic Acid using Tri-n-butylamine Dissolved in Non-Toxic Diluent (Rice Bran Oil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dharm; Keshav, Amit

    2016-04-01

    An attempt has been made to investigate the effectiveness of the vegetable oil based biocompatible solvent for the separation of pyruvic acid from fermentation broth, by using rice bran oil as natural, non-toxic diluent. Reactive extraction of pyruvic acid (0.1-0.5 k mol/m3) from aqueous solutions has been studied using tri-n-butylamine (TBA; 10-70 %) as an extractant dissolved in non toxic rice bran oil at T = 30 ± 1 °C. Results were presented in terms of distribution coefficient (Kd), extraction efficiency (E %), loading ratio (Z), and complexation constant (\\varphi_{α β }). Extraction equilibrium was interpreted using mass action modeling approach. Based on the extent of loading (Z < 0.5) only (1:1), pyruvic acid: TBA complex was proposed. Equilibrium complexation constant was evaluated to 1.22 m3/k mol. Results obtained are useful in understanding the extraction mechanism.

  10. The putative effector-binding site of Leishmania mexicana pyruvate kinase studied by site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannaert, Véronique; Yernaux, Cédric; Rigden, Daniel J; Fothergill-Gilmore, Linda A; Opperdoes, Fred R; Michels, Paul A M

    2002-03-13

    The activity of pyruvate kinase of Leishmania mexicana is allosterically regulated by fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (F-2,6-P(2)), contrary to the pyruvate kinases from other eukaryotes that are usually stimulated by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (F-1,6-P(2)). Based on the comparison of the three-dimensional structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae pyruvate kinase crystallized with F-1,6-P(2) present at the effector site (R-state) and the L. mexicana enzyme crystallized in the T-state, two residues (Lys453 and His480) were proposed to bind the 2-phospho group of the effector. This hypothesis was tested by site-directed mutagenesis. The allosteric activation by F-2,6-P(2) appeared to be entirely abrogated in the mutated enzymes confirming our predictions.

  11. Cloning and functions analysis of a pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong-Jun; Hu, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Hua-Shan; Zhan, Gao-Miao; Wang, Han-Zhong; Hua, Wei

    2011-08-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) is a negative regulator of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (mtPDC), which plays a key role in intermediary metabolism. In this study, a 1,490-bp PDK in Brassica napus (BnPDK1) was isolated and cloned from Brassica cDNA library. BnPDK1 has an 1,104 open reading frame encoding 367 amino acids. Genomic DNA gel blot analysis result indicated that BnPDK1 is a multi-copy gene. RNA gel blot analysis and RNA in situ hybridization were used to determine the expression of BnPDK1 in different organs. BnPDK1 gene was ubiquitously expressed in almost all the tissues tested, having the highest expression in the stamen and the young silique. Over-expression of BnPDK1 in transgenic Arabidopsis lines would repress the PDC activity, and resulted in the decrease of seed oil content and leaf photosynthesis. These results implied that BnPDK1 was involved in the regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis in developing seeds.

  12. Myocardial steatosis and necrosis in atria and ventricles of rats given pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Huw Bowen; Reens, Jaimini; Johnson, Elizabeth; Brocklehurst, Simon; Slater, Ian

    2014-12-01

    Pharmaceutical therapies for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) include plasma glucose lowering by enhancing glucose utilization. The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex is important in controlling the balance between glucose and fatty acid substrate oxidation. Administration of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase inhibitors (PDHKIs) to rats effectively lowers plasma glucose but results in myocardial steatosis that in some instances is associated primarily with atrial and to a lesser degree with ventricular pathology. Induction of myocardial steatosis is not dose-dependent, varies from minimal to moderate severity, and is either of multifocal or diffuse distribution. Ventricular histopathology was restricted to few myocardial degenerative fibers, while that in the atrium/atria was of either acute or chronic appearance with the former showing myocardial degeneration/necrosis, acute myocarditis, edema, endothelial activation (rounding up), endocarditis, and thrombosis associated with moderate myocardial steatosis and the latter with myocardial loss, replacement fibrosis, and no apparent or minimal association with steatosis. The evidence from these evaluations indicate that excessive intramyocardial accumulation of lipid may be either primarily adverse or represents an indicator of other adversely affected cellular processes.

  13. Tumor M2 pyruvate kinase: a tumor marker and its clinical application in gastrointestinal malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Philip D; Ewald, Nils

    2008-09-01

    Proliferating cells, in particular tumor cells, express a dimeric isoenzyme of pyruvate kinase, termed Tumor M2 pyruvate kinase. In the last few years, much attention has been paid to this novel tumor marker that can be determined in EDTA-plasma and in the feces. It has been used in diagnosis and surveillance of a variety of malignant diseases. As compared with the established tumor markers, Tumor M2-PK in EDTA-plasma proves to have at least equal sensitivity in pancreatic, gastric, esophageal, colorectal and cholangiocellular cancer. In combination with established tumor markers, EDTA-plasma M2-PK is a useful tool in diagnosis and surveillance of gastrointestinal tumors. In colorectal cancer, M2-PK in EDTA-plasma even proves superiority as compared with CEA. Fecal Tumor M2-PK testing resembles a good noninvasive screening parameter for colorectal cancer with a reported sensitivity of 68.8-91.0% and a specificity of 71.9-100%. It is superior to fecal occult blood testing in colorectal cancer screening. Since it is effective, easy to handle and bears rather low costs, fecal Tumor M2-PK testing is recommended for large-scale CRC screening.

  14. Pyruvate oxidase influences the sugar utilization pattern and capsule production in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M Carvalho

    Full Text Available Pyruvate oxidase is a key function in the metabolism and lifestyle of many lactic acid bacteria and its activity depends on the presence of environmental oxygen. In Streptococcus pneumoniae the protein has been suggested to play a major role in metabolism and has been implicated in virulence, oxidative stress survival and death in stationary phase. Under semi-aerobic conditions, transcriptomic and metabolite profiling analysis of a spxB mutant grown on glucose showed minor changes compared to the wild type, apart from the significant induction of two operons involved in carbohydrate uptake and processing. This induction leads to a change in the sugar utilization capabilities of the bacterium, as indicated by the analysis of the growth profiles of the D39 parent and spxB mutant on alternative carbohydrates. Metabolic analysis and growth experiments showed that inactivation of SpxB has no effect on the glucose fermentation pattern, except under aerobic conditions. More importantly, we show that mutation of spxB results in the production of increased amounts of capsule, the major virulence factor of S. pneumoniae. Part of this increase can be attributed to induction of capsule operon (cps transcription. Therefore, we propose that S. pneumoniae utilizes pyruvate oxidase as an indirect sensor of the oxygenation of the environment, resulting in the adaption of its nutritional capability and the amount of capsule to survive in the host.

  15. Solvent-derived protons in catalysis by brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T K; Washabaugh, M W

    1995-10-31

    Catalysis of proton transfer to thiamin diphosphate (TDP) and 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)thiamin diphosphate (HETDP) by pyruvate decarboxylase isozymes (PDC; EC 4.1.1.1) from Saccharomyces carlsbergensis was investigated by determining the solvent discrimination tritium isotope effect, (kH/kT)disc, on the reaction of pyruvate to form acetaldehyde in the presence of the nonsubstrate allosteric effector pyruvamide. The fractionation factors for TDP C(2)-L (phi C(2) = 0.98 +/- 0.06) and HETDP C(alpha)-L (phi C(alpha) = 1.01 +/- 0.07) (L = H or D) do not contribute significantly to observed enzymic isotopic discrimination. The value of (kH/kT)disc = 1.0 for reprotonation of TDP C(2)-L under single-turnover conditions ([E] > [S]) is consistent with C(2)-hydron transfer via a catalytic group (phi = 1) equilibrated with solvent. [1-L]Acetaldehyde formation under transient steady-state ([E] or = 1.2) provides significant intramolecular catalysis in the enzyme-bound coenzyme.

  16. Modulation of Malaria Phenotypes by Pyruvate Kinase (PKLR) Variants in a Thai Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bruggen, Rebekah; Gualtieri, Christian; Iliescu, Alexandra; Louicharoen Cheepsunthorn, Chalisa; Mungkalasut, Punchalee; Trape, Jean-François; Modiano, David; Sirima, Bienvenu Sodiomon; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Lathrop, Mark; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Bureau, Jean-François; Gros, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase (PKLR) is a critical erythrocyte enzyme that is required for glycolysis and production of ATP. We have shown that Pklr deficiency in mice reduces the severity (reduced parasitemia, increased survival) of blood stage malaria induced by infection with Plasmodium chabaudi AS. Likewise, studies in human erythrocytes infected ex vivo with P. falciparum show that presence of host PK-deficiency alleles reduces infection phenotypes. We have characterized the genetic diversity of the PKLR gene, including haplotype structure and presence of rare coding variants in two populations from malaria endemic areas of Thailand and Senegal. We investigated the effect of PKLR genotypes on rich longitudinal datasets including haematological and malaria-associated phenotypes. A coding and possibly damaging variant (R41Q) was identified in the Thai population with a minor allele frequency of ~4.7%. Arginine 41 (R41) is highly conserved in the pyruvate kinase family and its substitution to Glutamine (R41Q) affects protein stability. Heterozygosity for R41Q is shown to be associated with a significant reduction in the number of attacks with Plasmodium falciparum, while correlating with an increased number of Plasmodium vivax infections. These results strongly suggest that PKLR protein variants may affect the frequency, and the intensity of malaria episodes induced by different Plasmodium parasites in humans living in areas of endemic malaria.

  17. Modulation of Malaria Phenotypes by Pyruvate Kinase (PKLR Variants in a Thai Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah van Bruggen

    Full Text Available Pyruvate kinase (PKLR is a critical erythrocyte enzyme that is required for glycolysis and production of ATP. We have shown that Pklr deficiency in mice reduces the severity (reduced parasitemia, increased survival of blood stage malaria induced by infection with Plasmodium chabaudi AS. Likewise, studies in human erythrocytes infected ex vivo with P. falciparum show that presence of host PK-deficiency alleles reduces infection phenotypes. We have characterized the genetic diversity of the PKLR gene, including haplotype structure and presence of rare coding variants in two populations from malaria endemic areas of Thailand and Senegal. We investigated the effect of PKLR genotypes on rich longitudinal datasets including haematological and malaria-associated phenotypes. A coding and possibly damaging variant (R41Q was identified in the Thai population with a minor allele frequency of ~4.7%. Arginine 41 (R41 is highly conserved in the pyruvate kinase family and its substitution to Glutamine (R41Q affects protein stability. Heterozygosity for R41Q is shown to be associated with a significant reduction in the number of attacks with Plasmodium falciparum, while correlating with an increased number of Plasmodium vivax infections. These results strongly suggest that PKLR protein variants may affect the frequency, and the intensity of malaria episodes induced by different Plasmodium parasites in humans living in areas of endemic malaria.

  18. Rhodamine B piperazinoacetohydrazine: a water-soluble spectroscopic reagent for pyruvic acid labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jia; Wang, Ke; Shi, Wen; Chen, Suming; Li, Xiaohua; Ma, Huimin

    2010-06-11

    A new water-soluble reagent, rhodamine B piperazinoacetohydrazine (RBPH), with improved spectroscopic and reaction properties, has been developed and characterized for pyruvic acid labeling. The reagent RBPH is designed and synthesized by using rhodamine B as a spectroscopic unit, and hydrazine as a carbonyl-specific labeling unit; the two units are connected by a well-chosen linker of piperazine, which prohibits the formation of the nonfluorescent spirocyclic structure of rhodamine B, thereby keeping the spectroscopic response of the reagent in a stable state. Such a design enables RBPH not only to maintain its excellent spectroscopic properties over a wide pH range, but also to exist as a stable cation with high water solubility. Moreover, the hydrazino group of RBPH is expected to react selectively with carbonyl compounds under mild conditions through the rapid formation of hydrazones. These important features make RBPH of great potential use in the labeling of aldehydes or ketones in various biosystems, and such an application of RBPH as a precolumn derivatizing reagent has been successfully demonstrated on the analysis of pyruvic acid in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography with common UV/Vis detection.

  19. Cancer metabolism meets systems biology: Pyruvate kinase isoform PKM2 is a metabolic master regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian V Filipp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyruvate kinase activity is controlled by a tightly woven regulatory network. The oncofetal isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2 is a master regulator of cancer metabolism. PKM2 engages in parallel, feed-forward, positive and negative feedback control contributing to cancer progression. Besides its metabolic role, non-metabolic functions of PKM2 as protein kinase and transcriptional coactivator for c-MYC and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha are essential for epidermal growth factor receptor activation-induced tumorigenesis. These biochemical activities are controlled by a shift in the oligomeric state of PKM2 that includes acetylation, oxidation, phosphorylation, prolyl hydroxylation and sumoylation. Metabolically active PKM2 tetramer is allosterically regulated and responds to nutritional and stress signals. Metabolically inactive PKM2 dimer is imported into the nucleus and can function as protein kinase stimulating transcription. A systems biology approach to PKM2 at the genome, transcriptome, proteome, metabolome and fluxome level reveals how differences in biomolecular structure translate into a global rewiring of cancer metabolism. Cancer systems biology takes us beyond the Warburg effect, opening unprecedented therapeutic opportunities.

  20. Sulphate removal induces a major conformational change in Leishmania mexicana pyruvate kinase in the crystalline state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Lindsay B; Morgan, Hugh P; Hannaert, Véronique; Michels, Paul A M; Fothergill-Gilmore, Linda A; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D

    2008-11-14

    We report X-ray structures of pyruvate kinase from Leishmania mexicana (LmPYK) that are trapped in different conformations. These, together with the previously reported structure of LmPYK in its inactive (T-state) conformation, allow comparisons of three different conformers of the same species of pyruvate kinase (PYK). Four new site point mutants showing the effects of side-chain alteration at subunit interfaces are also enzymatically characterised. The LmPYK tetramer crystals grown with ammonium sulphate as precipitant adopt an active-like conformation, with sulphate ions at the active and effector sites. The sulphates occupy positions similar to those of the phosphates of ligands bound to active (R-state) and constitutively active (nonallosteric) PYKs from several species, and provide insight into the structural roles of the phosphates of the substrates and effectors. Crystal soaking in sulphate-free buffers was found to induce major conformational changes in the tetramer. In particular, the unwinding of the Aalpha6' helix and the inward hinge movement of the B domain are coupled with a significant widening (4 A) of the tetramer caused by lateral movement of the C domains. The two new LmPYK structures and the activity studies of site point mutations described in this article are consistent with a developing picture of allosteric activity in which localised changes in protein flexibility govern the distribution of conformer families adopted by the tetramer in its active and inactive states.

  1. Rescue of pyruvate kinase deficiency in mice by gene therapy using the human isoenzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Nestor W; Alonso-Ferrero, Maria E; Navarro, Susana; Quintana-Bustamante, Oscar; Valeri, Antonio; Garcia-Gomez, Maria; Bueren, Juan A; Bautista, Jose M; Segovia, Jose C

    2009-12-01

    Human erythrocyte R-type pyruvate kinase deficiency (PKD) is a disorder caused by mutations in the PKLR gene that produces chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. Besides periodic blood transfusion and splenectomy, severe cases require bone marrow (BM) transplant, which makes this disease a good candidate for gene therapy. Here, the normal human R-type pyruvate kinase (hRPK) complementary (cDNA) was expressed in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) derived from pklr deficient mice, using a retroviral vector system. These mice show a similar red blood cell phenotype to that observed in human PKD. Transduced HSCs were transplanted into myeloablated adult PKD mice or in utero injected into nonconditioned PKD fetuses. In the myeloablated recipients, the hematological manifestations of PKD were completely resolved and normal percentages of late erythroid progenitors, reticulocyte and erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin levels and erythrocyte biochemistry were restored. Corrected cells preserved their rescuing capacity after secondary and tertiary transplant. When corrected cells were in utero transplanted, partial correction of the erythrocyte disease was obtained, although a very low number of corrected cells became engrafted, suggesting a different efficiency of cell therapy applied in utero. Our data suggest that transduction of human RPK cDNA in PKLR mutated HSCs could be an effective strategy in severe cases of PKD.

  2. A Molecular Dynamics Study of Allosteric Transitions in Leishmania mexicana Pyruvate Kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naithani, Ankita; Taylor, Paul; Erman, Burak; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D

    2015-09-15

    A comparative molecular dynamics analysis of the pyruvate kinase from Leishmania mexicana is presented in the absence and presence of the allosteric effector fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. Comparisons of the simulations of the large 240 kDa apo and holo tetramers show that binding of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate cools the enzyme and reduces dynamic movement, particularly of the B-domain. The reduced dynamic movement of the holo form traps the pyruvate kinase tetramer in its enzymatically active state with the B-domain acting as a lid to cover the active site. The simulations are also consistent with a transition of the mobile active-site α6' helix, which would adopt a helical conformation in the active R-state and a less structured coil conformation in the inactive T-state. Analysis of the rigid body motions over the trajectory highlights the concerted anticorrelated rigid body rocking motion of the four protomers, which drives the T to R transition. The transitions predicted by these simulations are largely consistent with the Monod-Wyman-Changeux model for allosteric activation but also suggest that rigidification or cooling of the overall structure upon effector binding plays an additional role in enzyme activation.

  3. Differential regulation of mitochondrial pyruvate carrier genes modulates respiratory capacity and stress tolerance in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Timón-Gómez

    Full Text Available Mpc proteins are highly conserved from yeast to humans and are necessary for the uptake of pyruvate at the inner mitochondrial membrane, which is used for leucine and valine biosynthesis and as a fuel for respiration. Our analysis of the yeast MPC gene family suggests that amino acid biosynthesis, respiration rate and oxidative stress tolerance are regulated by changes in the Mpc protein composition of the mitochondria. Mpc2 and Mpc3 are highly similar but functionally different: Mpc2 is most abundant under fermentative non stress conditions and important for amino acid biosynthesis, while Mpc3 is the most abundant family member upon salt stress or when high respiration rates are required. Accordingly, expression of the MPC3 gene is highly activated upon NaCl stress or during the transition from fermentation to respiration, both types of regulation depend on the Hog1 MAP kinase. Overexpression experiments show that gain of Mpc2 function leads to a severe respiration defect and ROS accumulation, while Mpc3 stimulates respiration and enhances tolerance to oxidative stress. Our results identify the regulated mitochondrial pyruvate uptake as an important determinant of respiration rate and stress resistance.

  4. Structural intermediates and directionality of the swiveling motion of Pyruvate Phosphate Dikinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minges, Alexander; Ciupka, Daniel; Winkler, Christian; Höppner, Astrid; Gohlke, Holger; Groth, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) is a vital enzyme in cellular energy metabolism catalyzing the ATP- and Pi-dependent formation of phosphoenolpyruvate from pyruvate in C4 -plants, but the reverse reaction forming ATP in bacteria and protozoa. The multi-domain enzyme is considered an efficient molecular machine that performs one of the largest single domain movements in proteins. However, a comprehensive understanding of the proposed swiveling domain motion has been limited by not knowing structural intermediates or molecular dynamics of the catalytic process. Here, we present crystal structures of PPDKs from Flaveria, a model genus for studying the evolution of C4 -enzymes from phylogenetic ancestors. These structures resolve yet unknown conformational intermediates and provide the first detailed view on the large conformational transitions of the protein in the catalytic cycle. Independently performed unrestrained MD simulations and configurational free energy calculations also identified these intermediates. In all, our experimental and computational data reveal strict coupling of the CD swiveling motion to the conformational state of the NBD. Moreover, structural asymmetries and nucleotide binding states in the PPDK dimer support an alternate binding change mechanism for this intriguing bioenergetic enzyme. PMID:28358005

  5. Modulation of Malaria Phenotypes by Pyruvate Kinase (PKLR) Variants in a Thai Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bruggen, Rebekah; Gualtieri, Christian; Iliescu, Alexandra; Louicharoen Cheepsunthorn, Chalisa; Mungkalasut, Punchalee; Trape, Jean-François; Modiano, David; Sodiomon Sirima, Bienvenu; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Lathrop, Mark; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Bureau, Jean-François; Gros, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase (PKLR) is a critical erythrocyte enzyme that is required for glycolysis and production of ATP. We have shown that Pklr deficiency in mice reduces the severity (reduced parasitemia, increased survival) of blood stage malaria induced by infection with Plasmodium chabaudi AS. Likewise, studies in human erythrocytes infected ex vivo with P. falciparum show that presence of host PK-deficiency alleles reduces infection phenotypes. We have characterized the genetic diversity of the PKLR gene, including haplotype structure and presence of rare coding variants in two populations from malaria endemic areas of Thailand and Senegal. We investigated the effect of PKLR genotypes on rich longitudinal datasets including haematological and malaria-associated phenotypes. A coding and possibly damaging variant (R41Q) was identified in the Thai population with a minor allele frequency of ~4.7%. Arginine 41 (R41) is highly conserved in the pyruvate kinase family and its substitution to Glutamine (R41Q) affects protein stability. Heterozygosity for R41Q is shown to be associated with a significant reduction in the number of attacks with Plasmodium falciparum, while correlating with an increased number of Plasmodium vivax infections. These results strongly suggest that PKLR protein variants may affect the frequency, and the intensity of malaria episodes induced by different Plasmodium parasites in humans living in areas of endemic malaria. PMID:26658699

  6. Kinetic and molecular characterization of the pyruvate phosphate dikinase from Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Marcano, Eglys; Acosta, Héctor; Mijares, Alfredo; Concepción, Juan Luis

    2016-06-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, like other trypanosomatids analyzed so far, can use both glucose and amino acids as carbon and energy source. In these parasites, glycolysis is compartmentalized in glycosomes, authentic but specialized peroxisomes. The major part of this pathway, as well as a two-branched glycolytic auxiliary system, are present in these organelles. The first enzyme of one branch of this auxiliary system is the PPi-dependent pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) that converts phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) and AMP into pyruvate, inorganic phosphate (Pi) and ATP, thus contributing to the ATP/ADP balance within the glycosomes. In this work we cloned, expressed and purified the T. cruzi PPDK. It kinetic parameters were determined, finding KM values for PEP, PPi and AMP of 320, 70 and 17 μM, respectively. Using molecular exclusion chromatography, two native forms of the enzyme were found with estimated molecular weights of 200 and 100 kDa, corresponding to a homodimer and monomer, respectively. It was established that T. cruzi PPDK's specific activity can be enhanced up to 2.6 times by the presence of ammonium in the assay mixture. During growth of epimastigotes in batch culture an apparent decrease in the specific activity of PPDK was observed. However, when its activity is normalized for the presence of ammonium in the medium, no significant modification of the enzyme activity per cell in time was found.

  7. Kinetic simulation of malate-aspartate and citrate-pyruvate shuttles in association with Krebs cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korla, Kalyani; Vadlakonda, Lakshmipathi; Mitra, Chanchal K

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, we have kinetically simulated two mitochondrial shuttles, malate-aspartate shuttle (used for transferring reducing equivalents) and citrate-pyruvate shuttle (used for transferring carbon skeletons). However, the functions of these shuttles are not limited to the points mentioned above, and they can be used in different arrangements to meet different cellular requirements. Both the shuttles are intricately associated with Krebs cycle through the metabolites involved. The study of this system of shuttles and Krebs cycle explores the response of the system in different metabolic environments. Here, we have simulated these subsets individually and then combined them to study the interactions among them and to bring out the dynamics of these pathways in focus. Four antiports and a pyruvate pump were modelled along with the metabolic reactions on both sides of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Michaelis-Menten approach was extended for deriving rate equations of every component of the system. Kinetic simulation was carried out using ordinary differential equation solver in GNU Octave. It was observed that all the components attained steady state, sooner or later, depending on the system conditions. Progress curves and phase plots were plotted to understand the steady state behaviour of the metabolites involved. A comparative analysis between experimental and simulated data show fair agreement thus validating the usefulness and applicability of the model.

  8. Pyruvate effects on red blood cells during in vitro cardiopulmonary bypass with dogs' blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, DaMing; Tan, HongJing; Cai, HuiJun; Zhou, FangQiang

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the effects of pyruvate (Pyr) on adenosine triphosphate (ATP), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and nitric oxide (NO) in red blood cells (RBCs) during the cardiopulmonary bypass procedure (CPB), blood, 500 mL, was collected from each of 10 healthy dogs (weight 12-18 kg). The blood was divided into two parts (250 mL each) and randomly assigned into the control group (Group C, n = 10) or the Pyr group (Group P, n = 10). The blood was commingled with an equal volume of 0.9% NaCl and pyruvated isotonic solution (Pyr 50 mM) in the extracorporeal circuit in the two groups, respectively. The CPB procedure was fixed at 120 min, and the transferring flow was 4 L/min. Contents of ATP in RBCs, eNOS activities, and NO productions in plasma were measured before CPB and during CPB at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min in both groups. The ATP level, eNOS activity, and NO production were not different prior to CPB between the two groups. A decline of ATP levels was shown in both groups but remained significantly higher in Group P than in Group C at the same time points during in vitro CPB (P dogs' RBCs in the ATP level, eNOS activity, and NO production, in vitro, but Pyr effectively protected RBCs in these functions during CPB. Pyr would be clinically protective for RBCs during CPB.

  9. 3-Bromopyruvate antagonizes effects of lactate and pyruvate, synergizes with citrate and exerts novel anti-glioma effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, S M; El-Magd, R M Abou; Shishido, Y; Chung, S P; Diem, T H; Sakai, T; Watanabe, H; Kagami, S; Fukui, K

    2012-02-01

    Oxidative stress-energy depletion therapy using oxidative stress induced by D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) and energy depletion induced by 3-bromopyruvate (3BP) was reported recently (El Sayed et al., Cancer Gene Ther., 19, 1-18, 2012). Even in the presence of oxygen, cancer cells oxidize glucose preferentially to produce lactate (Warburg effect) which seems vital for cancer microenvironment and progression. 3BP is a closely related structure to lactate and pyruvate and may antagonize their effects as a novel mechanism of its action. Pyruvate exerted a potent H(2)O(2) scavenging effect to exogenous H(2)O(2), while lactate had no scavenging effect. 3BP induced H(2)O(2) production. Pyruvate protected against H(2)O(2)-induced C6 glioma cell death, 3BP-induced C6 glioma cell death but not against DAO/D-serine-induced cell death, while lactate had no protecting effect. Lactate and pyruvate protected against 3BP-induced C6 glioma cell death and energy depletion which were overcome with higher doses of 3BP. Lactate and pyruvate enhanced migratory power of C6 glioma which was blocked by 3BP. Pyruvate and lactate did not protect against C6 glioma cell death induced by other glycolytic inhibitors e.g. citrate (inhibitor of phosphofructokinase) and sodium fluoride (inhibitor of enolase). Serial doses of 3BP were synergistic with citrate in decreasing viability of C6 glioma cells and spheroids. Glycolysis subjected to double inhibition using 3BP with citrate depleted ATP, clonogenic power and migratory power of C6 glioma cells. 3BP induced a caspase-dependent cell death in C6 glioma. 3BP was powerful in decreasing viability of human glioblastoma multiforme cells (U373MG) and C6 glioma in a dose- and time-dependent manner.

  10. Xanthan biopolymers: A review of methods for the determination of concentration and for the measurement of acetate and pyruvate content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Kevin C.; Nasr-El-Din, Hisham A. (Petroleum Recovery Institute, Calgary, AB (Canada))

    1993-07-26

    Xanthan gum is used extensively for enhanced oil recovery as a mobility control agent, in drilling operations to increase the suspension capacity of the drilling mud, and in gels to improve the volumetric sweep efficiency. Flow properties, injectivity, and adsorption characteristics depend on acetate and pyruvate content of xanthan. This review discusses various methods and techniques available for measuring the concentration of xanthan and its pyruvate and acetate content in laboratory and field samples. It includes a description of the principles of each method, advantages, limitations, interferences, and other information necessary to understand the strengths and weaknesses of each.

  11. A novel dual allosteric activation mechanism of Escherichia coli ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase: the role of pyruvate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías D Asención Diez

    Full Text Available Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate activates ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and the synthesis of glycogen in Escherichia coli. Here, we show that although pyruvate is a weak activator by itself, it synergically enhances the fructose-1,6-bisphosphate activation. They increase the enzyme affinity for each other, and the combination increases Vmax, substrate apparent affinity, and decreases AMP inhibition. Our results indicate that there are two distinct interacting allosteric sites for activation. Hence, pyruvate modulates E. coli glycogen metabolism by orchestrating a functional network of allosteric regulators. We postulate that this novel dual activator mechanism increases the evolvability of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and its related metabolic control.

  12. Ethyl pyruvate inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma via regulation of the HMGB1–RAGE and AKT pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Ping; Dai, Weiqi; Wang, Fan; Lu, Jie; Shen, Miao; Chen, Kan; Li, Jingjing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Chengfen; Yang, Jing; Zhu, Rong; Zhang, Huawei; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Guo, Chuan-Yong, E-mail: guochuanyong@hotmail.com; Xu, Ling, E-mail: xuling606@sina.com

    2014-01-24

    Highlights: • Ethyl pyruvate inhibits liver cancer. • Promotes apoptosis. • Decreased the expression of HMGB1, p-Akt. - Abstract: Ethyl pyruvate (EP) was recently identified as a stable lipophilic derivative of pyruvic acid with significant antineoplastic activities. The high mobility group box-B1 (HMGB1)–receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) and the protein kinase B (Akt) pathways play a crucial role in tumorigenesis and development of many malignant tumors. We tried to observe the effects of ethyl pyruvate on liver cancer growth and explored its effects in hepatocellular carcinoma model. In this study, three hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were treated with ethyl pyruvate. An MTT colorimetric assay was used to assess the effects of EP on cell proliferation. Flow cytometry and TUNEL assays were used to analyze apoptosis. Real-time PCR, Western blotting and immunofluorescence demonstrated ethyl pyruvate reduced the HMGB1–RAGE and AKT pathways. The results of hepatoma orthotopic tumor model verified the antitumor effects of ethyl pyruvate in vivo. EP could induce apoptosis and slow the growth of liver cancer. Moreover, EP decreased the expression of HMGB1, RAGE, p-AKT and matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP9) and increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that ethyl pyruvate induces apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in G phase in hepatocellular carcinoma cells, plays a critical role in the treatment of cancer.

  13. A novel mechanism for the pyruvate protection against zinc-induced cytotoxicity: mediation by the chelating effect of citrate and isocitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sul, Jee-Won; Kim, Tae-Youn; Yoo, Hyun Ju; Kim, Jean; Suh, Young-Ah; Hwang, Jung Jin; Koh, Jae-Young

    2016-08-01

    Intracellular accumulation of free zinc contributes to neuronal death in brain injuries such as ischemia and epilepsy. Pyruvate, a glucose metabolite, has been shown to block zinc neurotoxicity. However, it is largely unknown how pyruvate shows such a selective and remarkable protective effect. In this study, we sought to find a plausible mechanism of pyruvate protection against zinc toxicity. Pyruvate almost completely blocked cortical neuronal death induced by zinc, yet showed no protective effects against death induced by calcium (ionomycin, NMDA) or ferrous iron. Of the TCA cycle intermediates, citrate, isocitrate, and to a lesser extent oxaloacetate, protected against zinc toxicity. We then noted with LC-MS/MS assay that exposure to pyruvate, and to a lesser degree oxaloacetate, increased levels of citrate and isocitrate, which are known zinc chelators. While pyruvate added only during zinc exposure did not reduce zinc toxicity, citrate and isocitrate added only during zinc exposure, as did extracellular zinc chelator CaEDTA, completely blocked it. Furthermore, addition of pyruvate after zinc exposure substantially reduced intracellular zinc levels. Our results suggest that the remarkable protective effect of pyruvate against zinc cytotoxicity may be mediated indirectly by the accumulation of intracellular citrate and isocitrate, which act as intracellular zinc chelators.

  14. Persistent changes in the initial rate of pyruvate transport by isolated rat liver mitochondria after preincubation with adenine nucleotides and calcium ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaartjes, W.J.; Breejen, J.N. den; Geelen, M.J.H.; Bergh, S.G. van den

    1980-01-01

    1. Preincubation of isolated rat-liver mitochondria in the presence of adenine nucleotides or Ca2+ results in definite and persistent changes in the initial rate of pyruvate transport. 2. These changes in the rate of pyruvate transport are accompanied by equally persistent changes in the opposite d

  15. Selective modification of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoform profile in skeletal muscle in hyperthyroidism: implications for the regulatory impact of glucose on fatty acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, M C; Lall, H S; Harris, R A; Holness, M J

    2000-11-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDK1-4) regulate glucose oxidation through inhibitory phosphorylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). Immunoblot analysis with antibodies raised against recombinant PDK isoforms demonstrated changes in PDK isoform expression in response to experimental hyperthyroidism (100 microg/100 g body weight; 3 days) that was selective for fast-twitch vs slow-twitch skeletal muscle in that PDK2 expression was increased in the fast-twitch skeletal muscle (the anterior tibialis) (by 1. 6-fold; P lactate --> glucose (Cori) and glucose --> alanine --> glucose cycles. We also propose that enhanced relative expression of the pyruvate-insensitive PDK isoform (PDK4) in skeletal muscle in hyperthyroidism uncouples glycolytic flux from pyruvate oxidation, sparing pyruvate for non-oxidative entry into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and thereby supporting entry of acetyl-CoA (derived from fatty acid oxidation) into the TCA cycle.

  16. Pyruvate induces transient tumor hypoxia by enhancing mitochondrial oxygen consumption and potentiates the anti-tumor effect of a hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Takakusagi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: TH-302 is a hypoxia-activated prodrug (HAP of bromo isophosphoramide mustard that is selectively activated within hypoxic regions in solid tumors. Our recent study showed that intravenously administered bolus pyruvate can transiently induce hypoxia in tumors. We investigated the mechanism underlying the induction of transient hypoxia and the combination use of pyruvate to potentiate the anti-tumor effect of TH-302. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: The hypoxia-dependent cytotoxicity of TH-302 was evaluated by a viability assay in murine SCCVII and human HT29 cells. Modulation in cellular oxygen consumption and in vivo tumor oxygenation by the pyruvate treatment was monitored by extracellular flux analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR oxygen imaging, respectively. The enhancement of the anti-tumor effect of TH-302 by pyruvate treatment was evaluated by monitoring the growth suppression of the tumor xenografts inoculated subcutaneously in mice. TH-302 preferentially inhibited the growth of both SCCVII and HT29 cells under hypoxic conditions (0.1% O2, with minimal effect under aerobic conditions (21% O2. Basal oxygen consumption rates increased after the pyruvate treatment in SCCVII cells in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that pyruvate enhances the mitochondrial respiration to consume excess cellular oxygen. In vivo EPR oxygen imaging showed that the intravenous administration of pyruvate globally induced the transient hypoxia 30 min after the injection in SCCVII and HT29 tumors at the size of 500-1500 mm(3. Pretreatment of SCCVII tumor bearing mice with pyruvate 30 min prior to TH-302 administration, initiated with small tumors (∼ 550 mm(3, significantly delayed tumor growth. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our in vitro and in vivo studies showed that pyruvate induces transient hypoxia by enhancing mitochondrial oxygen consumption in tumor cells. TH-302 therapy can be potentiated by pyruvate pretreatment if started at the

  17. Simultaneous hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate MRI and (18)F-FDG-PET in cancer (hyperPET)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutte Borgwardt, Henrik; Hansen, Adam E; Henriksen, Sarah T

    2015-01-01

    (DNP) and use of (13)C-pyruvate it is now possible to directly study the Warburg Effect through the rate of conversion of (13)C-pyruvate to (13)C-lactate. In this study, we combined it with (18)F-FDG-PET that studies uptake of glucose in the cells. A canine cancer patient with a histology verified......In this paper we demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of a new imaging concept - combined hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) and (18)F-FDG-PET imaging. This procedure was performed in a clinical PET/MRI scanner with a canine cancer patient. We...... have named this concept hyper PET. Intravenous injection of the hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate results in an increase of (13)C-lactate, (13)C-alanine and (13)C-CO2 ((13)C-HCO3) resonance peaks relative to the tissue, disease and the metabolic state probed. Accordingly, with dynamic nuclear polarization...

  18. Simultaneous hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate MRI and 18F-FDG-PET in cancer (hyperPET)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutte, Henrik; Hansen, Adam E.; Henriksen, Sarah T.

    2015-01-01

    of 13C-pyruvate it is now possible to directly study the Warburg Effect through the rate of conversion of 13C-pyruvate to 13C-lactate. In this study, we combined it with 18F-FDG-PET that studies uptake of glucose in the cells. A canine cancer patient with a histology verified local recurrence......In this paper we demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of a new imaging concept - combined hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) and 18F-FDG-PET imaging. This procedure was performed in a clinical PET/MRI scanner with a canine cancer patient. We have...... named this concept hyper PET. Intravenous injection of the hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate results in an increase of 13C-lactate, 13C-alanine and 13CCO2 (13C-HCO3) resonance peaks relative to the tissue, disease and the metabolic state probed. Accordingly, with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and use...

  19. [Selective inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase in the liver and heart of mice by triphosphate esters of thiochrome and tetrahydrothiamine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovskiĭ, Iu M; Zabrodskaia, S V; Zimatkina, T I; Oparin, D A

    1983-06-01

    In experiments with white mice it was shown that in contrast to hydroxythiamine and other known vitamin B1 antagonists, triphosphate esters of thiochrome and tetrahydrothiamine possess a selective anticoenzyme activity with respect to the only one of the thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent enzymes, i.e. pyruvate dehydrogenase.

  20. Partial pyruvate kinase deficiency aggravates the phenotypic expression of band 3 deficiency in a family with hereditary spherocytosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwieten, R. van; Oirschot, B.A.J.A. van; Veldthuis, M.; Dobbe, J.G.; Streekstra, G.J.; Solinge, W.W. van; Schutgens, R.E.; Wijk, R. Gerth van

    2015-01-01

    In a family with mild dominant spherocytosis, affected members showed partial band 3 deficiency. The index patient showed more severe clinical symptoms than his relatives, and his red blood cells displayed concomitant low pyruvate kinase activity. We investigated the contribution of partial PK defic

  1. Pyruvate: immunonutritional effects on neutrophil intracellular amino or alpha-keto acid profiles and reactive oxygen species production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathioudakis, D.; Engel, J.; Welters, I.D.; Dehne, M.G.; Matejec, R.; Harbach, H.; Henrich, M.; Schwandner, T.; Fuchs, M.; Weismuller, K.; Scheffer, G.J.; Muhling, J.

    2011-01-01

    For the first time the immunonutritional role of pyruvate on neutrophils (PMN), free alpha-keto and amino acid profiles, important reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced [superoxide anion (O(2) (-)), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))] as well as released myeloperoxidase (MPO) acitivity has been investiga

  2. Probing the molecular basis of substrate specificity, stereospecificity, and catalysis in the class II pyruvate aldolase, BphI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Perrin; Carere, Jason; Seah, Stephen Y K

    2011-05-03

    BphI, a pyruvate-specific class II aldolase found in the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) degradation pathway, catalyzes the reversible C-C bond cleavage of (4S)-hydroxy-2-oxoacids to form pyruvate and an aldehyde. Mutations were introduced into bphI to probe the contribution of active site residues to substrate recognition and catalysis. In contrast to the wild-type enzyme that has similar specificities for acetaldehyde and propionaldehyde, the L87A variant exhibited a 40-fold preference for propionaldehyde over acetaldehyde. The specificity constant of the L89A variant in the aldol addition reaction using pentaldehyde is increased ∼50-fold, making it more catalytically efficient for pentaldehyde utilization compared to the wild-type utilization of the natural substrate, acetaldehyde. Replacement of Tyr-290 with phenylalanine or serine resulted in a loss of stereochemical control as the variants were able to utilize substrates with both R and S configurations at C4 with similar kinetic parameters. Aldol cleavage and pyruvate α-proton exchange activity were undetectable in the R16A variant, supporting the role of Arg-16 in stabilizing a pyruvate enolate intermediate. The pH dependence of the enzyme is consistent with a single deprotonation by a catalytic base with pK(a) values of approximately 7. In H20A and H20S variants, pH profiles show the dependence of enzyme activity on hydroxide concentration. On the basis of these results, a catalytic mechanism is proposed.

  3. Cooperation of divalent ions and thiamin diphosphate in regulation of the function of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniecki, J; Czygier, M

    2001-12-01

    The role of Mg2+, Ca2+, and Mn2+ in regulation of purified pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) containing endogenous thiamin diphosphate (TDP) was studied. It was found that the effects of the cations depended on the presence of exogenous TDP. In the absence of added TDP, the divalent cations led to a shortening of a lag phase of the PDC reaction and a strong reduction of the Km value for pyruvate. The relative efficiency of the three types of ions are presented as follows: Mn2+>Ca2+>Mg2+. The other sources claim that in the presence of exogenous TDP, which alone strongly increased the affinity of PDC for pyruvate, any significant additional effects of the cations were not observed. However, Mg2+, Ca2+, and Mn2+ decreased the Km value for CoA in both cases, the absence and presence of exogenous TDP, in approximately a similar extent (about twofold). The affinity of PDC for NAD+ seems to be not sensitive to the presence of the divalent cations. The data obtained suggest that Mg2+, Ca2+, and Mn2+ can cooperate with TDP as positive regulatory effectors of pig heart PDC on the level of pyruvate dehydrogenase and lipoamide acetyltransferase components of the complex.

  4. Partial pyruvate kinase deficiency aggravates the phenotypic expression of band 3 deficiency in a family with hereditary spherocytosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, Rob; van Oirschot, Brigitte A; Veldthuis, Martijn; Dobbe, Johannes G; Streekstra, Geert J; van Solinge, Wouter W; Schutgens, Roger E G; van Wijk, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In a family with mild dominant spherocytosis, affected members showed partial band 3 deficiency. The index patient showed more severe clinical symptoms than his relatives, and his red blood cells displayed concomitant low pyruvate kinase activity. We investigated the contribution of partial PK defic

  5. An internal deletion in MTH1 enables growth on glucose of pyruvate-decarboxylase negative, non-fermentative Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oud, B.; Flores, C.L.; Gancedo, C.; Zhang, X.; Trueheart, J.; Daran, J.M.; Pronk, J.T.; Van Maris, A.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Pyruvate-decarboxylase negative (Pdc-) strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae combine the robustness and high glycolytic capacity of this yeast with the absence of alcoholic fermentation. This makes Pdc-S. cerevisiae an interesting platform for efficient conversion of glucose towards

  6. Saturation-recovery metabolic-exchange rate imaging with hyperpolarized [1-13C] pyruvate using spectral-spatial excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Rolf F; Sperl, Jonathan I; Weidl, Eliane; Menzel, Marion I; Janich, Martin A; Khegai, Oleksandr; Durst, Markus; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Glaser, Steffen J; Haase, Axel; Schwaiger, Markus; Wiesinger, Florian

    2013-05-01

    Within the last decade hyperpolarized [1-13C] pyruvate chemical-shift imaging has demonstrated impressive potential for metabolic MR imaging for a wide range of applications in oncology, cardiology, and neurology. In this work, a highly efficient pulse sequence is described for time-resolved, multislice chemical shift imaging of the injected substrate and obtained downstream metabolites. Using spectral-spatial excitation in combination with single-shot spiral data acquisition, the overall encoding is evenly distributed between excitation and signal reception, allowing the encoding of one full two-dimensional metabolite image per excitation. The signal-to-noise ratio can be flexibly adjusted and optimized using lower flip angles for the pyruvate substrate and larger ones for the downstream metabolites. Selectively adjusting the excitation of the down-stream metabolites to 90° leads to a so-called "saturation-recovery" scheme with the detected signal content being determined by forward conversion of the available pyruvate. In case of repetitive excitations, the polarization is preserved using smaller flip angles for pyruvate. Metabolic exchange rates are determined spatially resolved from the metabolite images using a simplified two-site exchange model. This novel contrast is an important step toward more quantitative metabolic imaging. Goal of this work was to derive, analyze, and implement this "saturation-recovery metabolic exchange rate imaging" and demonstrate its capabilities in four rats bearing subcutaneous tumors.

  7. Detection and formation scenario of citric acid, pyruvic acid, and other possible metabolism precursors in carbonaceous meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George; Reed, Chris; Nguyen, Dang; Carter, Malika; Wang, Yi

    2011-08-23

    Carbonaceous meteorites deliver a variety of organic compounds to Earth that may have played a role in the origin and/or evolution of biochemical pathways. Some apparently ancient and critical metabolic processes require several compounds, some of which are relatively labile such as keto acids. Therefore, a prebiotic setting for any such individual process would have required either a continuous distant source for the entire suite of intact precursor molecules and/or an energetic and compact local synthesis, particularly of the more fragile members. To date, compounds such as pyruvic acid, oxaloacetic acid, citric acid, isocitric acid, and α-ketoglutaric acid (all members of the citric acid cycle) have not been identified in extraterrestrial sources or, as a group, as part of a "one pot" suite of compounds synthesized under plausibly prebiotic conditions. We have identified these compounds and others in carbonaceous meteorites and/or as low temperature (laboratory) reaction products of pyruvic acid. In meteorites, we observe many as part of three newly reported classes of compounds: keto acids (pyruvic acid and homologs), hydroxy tricarboxylic acids (citric acid and homologs), and tricarboxylic acids. Laboratory syntheses using (13)C-labeled reactants demonstrate that one compound alone, pyruvic acid, can produce several (nonenzymatic) members of the citric acid cycle including oxaloacetic acid. The isotopic composition of some of the meteoritic keto acids points to interstellar or presolar origins, indicating that such compounds might also exist in other planetary systems.

  8. Cell surface expression of glycosylated, nonglycosylated, and truncated forms of a cytoplasmic protein pyruvate kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, S W; Lamb, R A

    1988-09-01

    The soluble cytoplasmic protein pyruvate kinase (PK) has been expressed at the cell surface in a membrane-anchored form (APK). The hybrid protein contains the NH2-terminal signal/anchor domain of a class II integral membrane protein (hemagglutinin/neuraminidase, of the paramyxovirus SV5) fused to the PK NH2 terminus. APK contains a cryptic site that is used for N-linked glycosylation but elimination of this site by site-specific mutagenesis does not prevent cell surface localization. Truncated forms of the APK molecule, with up to 80% of the PK region of APK removed, can also be expressed at the cell surface. These data suggest that neither the complete PK molecule nor its glycosylation are necessary for intracellular transport of PK to the cell surface, and it is possible that specific signals may not be needed in the ectodomain of this hybrid protein to specify cell surface localization.

  9. Degradation of atrazine photoinduced by Fe(III)-pyruvate complexes in the aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changbo; Wang, Lei; Pan, Gang; Wu, Feng; Deng, Nansheng; Mailhot, Gilles; Mestankova, Hana; Bolte, Michele

    2009-09-30

    The composition and photochemical properties of the Fe(III)-Pyr complexes in the aqueous solution was studied in this work. Fe(III) was complexed by Pyr in the ratio of 1:3. The photochemical processes occurred in the Fe(III)-Pyr system was studied in detail. Fe(II) was the main intermediate product. DMPO was used as scavenger to determine the active radicals, such as *OH, CO3*-, CO2*-, H and RCO2* by ESR. Photodegradation of atrazine induced by the photolysis of Fe(III)-Pyr was studied and the reaction kinetics fitted the first order reaction. Parameters such as pH, the initial concentrations of Fe(III), pyruvate (Pyr) and atrazine were all investigated. Photoproducts were detected by the LC-MS and the photodegradation scheme was proposed. *OH radical was the main pathway of atrazine degradation.

  10. Activity of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in plants is stimulated in the presence of malate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igamberdiev, Abir U; Lernmark, Ulrikа; Gardeström, Per

    2014-11-01

    The effect of malate on the steady-state activity of the pea (Pisum sativum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) leaf pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) has been studied in isolated mitochondria. The addition of malate was found to be stimulatory for the mitochondrial PDC, however there was no stimulation of chloroplast PDC. The stimulation was saturated below 1mM malate and was apparently related to а partially activated complex, which activity increased in the presence of malate by about twofold. Malate also reversed the reduction of PDC activity in the presence of glycine. Based on the obtained kinetic data, we suggest that the effect of malate is rather not a direct activation of PDC but involves the establishment of NAD-malate dehydrogenase equilibrium, decreasing concentration of NADH and relieving its inhibitory effect of PDC.

  11. The effects of creatine pyruvate and creatine citrate on performance during high intensity exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purpura Martin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study was performed to evaluate the effect of oral creatine pyruvate (Cr-Pyr and creatine citrate (Cr-Cit supplementation on exercise performance in healthy young athletes. Methods Performance during intermittent handgrip exercise of maximal intensity was evaluated before (pretest and after (posttest 28 days of Cr-Pyr (5 g/d, n = 16, Cr-Cit (5 g/d, n = 16 or placebo (pla, 5 g/d, n = 17 intake. Subjects performed ten 15-sec exercise intervals, each followed by 45 sec rest periods. Results Cr-Pyr (p Conclusion It is concluded that four weeks of Cr-Pyr and Cr-Cit intake significantly improves performance during intermittent handgrip exercise of maximal intensity and that Cr-Pyr might benefit endurance, due to enhanced activity of the aerobic metabolism.

  12. [Interaction of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from the heart muscle with thiamine diphosphate and its derivatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumilo, S A; Kiselevskiĭ, Iu V; Taranda, N I; Zabrodskaia, S V; Oparin, D A

    1989-01-01

    Inhibitory effects of 23 thiamin derivatives on the bovine heart pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) were studied. Oxythiamin diphosphate and tetrahydroxythiamin diphosphate exhibited the most pronounced effect on the PDC activity, affecting the complex by a competitive type of inhibition for thiamin diphosphate (TDP). The apparent affinity of TDP and the anticoenzyme derivatives for apo PDC depended on presence of phosphate and divalent metal ions. Phosphate considerably increased the Km values for TDP (up to 0.17 microM) and the Ki values for oxythiamin diphosphate (0.40 microM) as well as for tetrahydroxythiamin diphosphate (0.23 microM). In presence of Mn2+, Km value for TDP was 3.5-fold lower as compared with Mg2+ containing medium.

  13. Cholestasis and Hepatic Failure in a Neonate: A Case Report of Severe Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, François; Wieckowska, Anna; Piedboeuf, Bruno; Alvarez, Fernando

    2015-11-01

    Unexpected severe cholestasis is part of the presentation in some neonates with hemolytic anemia but is usually self-resolving. Here we report the case of a neonate with pyruvate kinase deficiency (PKD) who presented severe hemolytic anemia at birth, characterized by a rapidly progressive and severe cholestasis with normal γ-glutamyl transpeptidase level associated with hepatic failure. After an extensive investigation to rule out contributing conditions explaining the severity of this patient's clinical presentation, PKD has remained the sole identified etiology. The patient abruptly died of sepsis at 3 months of age before a planned splenectomy and ongoing evaluation for liver transplantation. To the best of our knowledge, only a few similar cases of severe neonatal presentation of PKD complicated with severe hepatic failure and cholestasis have been reported.

  14. Preliminary crystallographic data for the thiamin diphosphate-dependent enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase from brewers' yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyda, F; Furey, W; Swaminathan, S; Sax, M; Farrenkopf, B; Jordan, F

    1990-10-15

    Single crystals of the thiamin diphosphate (the vitamin B1 coenzyme)-dependent enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1) from brewers' yeast have been grown using polyethylene glycol as a precipitating agent. Crystals of the homotetrameric version alpha 4 of the holoenzyme are triclinic, space group P1, with cell constants a = 81.0, b = 82.4, c = 116.6 A, alpha = 69.5 beta = 72.6, gamma = 62.4 degrees. The crystals are reasonably stable in a rotating anode x-ray beam and diffract to at least 2.5 A resolution. The Vm value of 2.55 A/dalton is consistent with a unit cell containing four subunits with mass of approximately 60 kDa each. Rotation function results with native data indicate strong non-crystallographic 222 symmetry relating the four identical subunits, thus density averaging methods are likely to play a role in the structure determination.

  15. Further investigation of inhibitors of MRSA pyruvate kinase: Towards the conception of novel antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrière, Christophe; Gong, Huansheng; Finlay, B Brett; Reiner, Neil E; Young, Robert N

    2017-01-05

    Several novel series of compounds were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pyruvate kinase (PK). PK has been identified as a highly interconnected essential 'hub' protein in MRSA, with structural features distinct from the human homologs which makes it a novel antimicrobial target. Several MRSA PK inhibitors (including the hydrazide 1) were identified using in silico screening combined with enzyme assays and were found to be selective for bacterial enzyme compared to human PK isoforms. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies were carried out on the replacement of the hydrazide linker with 3-atoms, 2-atoms and 0-atom linkers and led us to discover more potent compounds with enzyme inhibiting activities in the low nanomolar range and some were found to effectively inhibit bacteria growth in culture with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) as low as 1 μg/mL.

  16. Crystal Structures of Human and Staphylococcus aureus Pyruvate Carboxylase and Molecular Insights into the Carboxyltransfer Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang,S.; Tong, L.

    2008-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) catalyzes the biotin-dependent production of oxaloacetate and has important roles in gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, insulin secretion and other cellular processes. PC contains the biotin carboxylase (BC), carboxyltransferase (CT) and biotin-carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) domains. We report here the crystal structures at 2.8-Angstroms resolution of full-length PC from Staphylococcus aureus and the C-terminal region (missing only the BC domain) of human PC. A conserved tetrameric association is observed for both enzymes, and our structural and mutagenesis studies reveal a previously uncharacterized domain, the PC tetramerization (PT) domain, which is important for oligomerization. A BCCP domain is located in the active site of the CT domain, providing the first molecular insights into how biotin participates in the carboxyltransfer reaction. There are dramatic differences in domain positions in the monomer and the organization of the tetramer between these enzymes and the PC from Rhizobium etli.

  17. Novel Mutations in the PC Gene in Patients with Type B Pyruvate Carboxylase Deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Elsebet; Duno, Morten; Møller, Lisbeth Birk

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated seven patients with the type B form of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) deficiency. Mutation analysis revealed eight mutations, all novel. In a patient with exon skipping on cDNA analysis, we identified a homozygous mutation located in a potential branch point sequence, the first...... possible branch point mutation in PC. Two patients were homozygous for missense mutations (with normal protein amounts on western blot analysis), and two patients were homozygous for nonsense mutations. In addition, a duplication of one base pair was found in a patient who also harboured a splice site...... mutation. Another splice site mutation led to the activation of a cryptic splice site, shown by cDNA analysis.All patients reported until now with at least one missense mutation have had the milder type A form of PC deficiency. We thus report for the first time two patients with homozygous missense...

  18. Allosteric mechanism of pyruvate kinase from Leishmania mexicana uses a rock and lock model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Hugh P; McNae, Iain W; Nowicki, Matthew W; Hannaert, Véronique; Michels, Paul A M; Fothergill-Gilmore, Linda A; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D

    2010-04-23

    Allosteric regulation provides a rate management system for enzymes involved in many cellular processes. Ligand-controlled regulation is easily recognizable, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have remained elusive. We have obtained the first complete series of allosteric structures, in all possible ligated states, for the tetrameric enzyme, pyruvate kinase, from Leishmania mexicana. The transition between inactive T-state and active R-state is accompanied by a simple symmetrical 6 degrees rigid body rocking motion of the A- and C-domain cores in each of the four subunits. However, formation of the R-state in this way is only part of the mechanism; eight essential salt bridge locks that form across the C-C interface provide tetramer rigidity with a coupled 7-fold increase in rate. The results presented here illustrate how conformational changes coupled with effector binding correlate with loss of flexibility and increase in thermal stability providing a general mechanism for allosteric control.

  19. Eimeria tenella enolase and pyruvate kinase: a likely role in glycolysis and in others functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Marie; Péroval, Marylène; Bourdieu, Christiane; Girard-Misguich, Fabienne; Péry, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    Two cDNA codings for glycolytic enzymes were cloned from a cDNA library constructed from the schizont stage of the avian parasite Eimeria tenella. Enolase and pyruvate kinase cDNA were fully sequenced and compared with sequences of enzymes from other organisms. Although these enzymes were already detected in the sporozoite stage, their expression was enhanced during the first schizogony in accordance with the anaerobic conditions of this part of the life cycle of the parasite. Under activating conditions, microscopic observations suggest that these glycolytic enzymes were relocalised inside sporozoites and moreover were in part secreted. The enzymes were also localised at the apex of the first generation of merozoites. Enolase was partly observed inside the nucleus of sporozoites and schizonts. Taken together, these results suggest that glycolytic enzymes not only have a function in glycolysis during anaerobic intracellular stages but may also participate in the invasion process and, for enolase, in the control of gene regulation.

  20. Effects of IL-6 on pyruvate dehydrogenase regulation in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup; Knudsen, Jakob Grunnet; Brandt, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle regulates substrate choice according to demand and availability and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is central in this regulation. Circulating interleukin (IL)-6 increases during exercise and IL-6 has been suggested to increase whole body fat oxidation. Furthermore, IL-6 has been...... not affect plasma glucose or muscle glycogen, but increased AMPK and ACC phosphorylation and tended to decrease p38 protein content in skeletal muscle in fasted mice. In addition IL-6 injection reduced PDHa activity in fed mice and increased PDHa activity in fasted mice without significant changes in PDH-E1α...... reported to increase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and AMPK suggested to regulate PDHa activity. Together, this suggests that IL-6 may be involved in regulating PDH. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a single injection of IL-6 on PDH regulation in skeletal muscle...

  1. Equilibrium concentrations for pyruvate dehydrogenase and the citric acid cycle at specified concentrations of certain coenzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberty, Robert A

    2004-04-01

    It is of interest to calculate equilibrium compositions of systems of biochemical reactions at specified concentrations of coenzymes because these reactants tend to be in steady states. Thermodynamic calculations under these conditions require the definition of a further transformed Gibbs energy G" by use of a Legendre transform. These calculations are applied to the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction plus the citric acid cycle, but steady-state concentrations of CoA, acetyl-CoA and succinyl-CoA cannot be specified because they are involved in the conservation of carbon atoms. These calculations require the use of linear algebra to obtain further transformed Gibbs energies of formation of reactants and computer programs to calculate equilibrium compositions. At specified temperature, pH, ionic strength and specified concentrations of several coenzymes, the equilibrium composition depends on the specified concentrations of the coenzymes and the initial amounts of reactants.

  2. Sources and sinks of formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids over central Amazonia. II - Wet season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, R. W.; Andreae, M. O.; Berresheim, H.; Jacob, D. J.; Beecher, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    Potential sources and sinks of formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids over the Amazon forest were investigated using a photochemical model and data collected on gas phase concentrations of these acids in the forest canopy, boundary layer, and free troposphere over the central Amazon Basin during the 1987 wet season. It was found that the atmospheric reactions previously suggested in the literature as sources of carboxylic acids (i.e., the gas phase decomposition of isoprene, the reaction between CH3CO3 and a peroxide, and aqueous phase oxidation of CH2O) appear to be too slow to explain the observed concentrations, suggesting that other atmospheric reactions, so far unidentified, could make a major contribution to the carboxylic acid budgets.

  3. Engineering pyruvate decarboxylase-mediated ethanol production in the thermophilic host Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zyl, L J; Taylor, M P; Eley, K; Tuffin, M; Cowan, D A

    2014-02-01

    This study reports the expression, purification, and kinetic characterization of a pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) from Gluconobacter oxydans. Kinetic analyses showed the enzyme to have high affinity for pyruvate (120 μM at pH 5), high catalytic efficiency (4.75 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) at pH 5), a pHopt of approximately 4.5 and an in vitro temperature optimum at approximately 55 °C. Due to in vitro thermostablity (approximately 40 % enzyme activity retained after 30 min at 65 °C), this PDC was considered to be a suitable candidate for heterologous expression in the thermophile Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius for ethanol production. Initial studies using a variety of methods failed to detect activity at any growth temperature (45-55 °C). However, the application of codon harmonization (i.e., mimicry of the heterogeneous host's transcription and translational rhythm) yielded a protein that was fully functional in the thermophilic strain at 45 °C (as determined by enzyme activity, Western blot, mRNA detection, and ethanol productivity). Here, we describe the first successful expression of PDC in a true thermophile. Yields as high as 0.35 ± 0.04 g/g ethanol per gram of glucose consumed were detected, highly competitive to those reported in ethanologenic thermophilic mutants. Although activities could not be detected at temperatures approaching the growth optimum for the strain, this study highlights the possibility that previously unsuccessful expression of pdcs in Geobacillus spp. may be the result of ineffective transcription/translation coupling.

  4. Substrate activation of brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase is abolished by mutation of cysteine 221 to serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baburina, I; Gao, Y; Hu, Z; Jordan, F; Hohmann, S; Furey, W

    1994-05-10

    Brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1), a thiamin diphosphate and Mg(II)-dependent enzyme, isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses four cysteines/subunit at positions 69, 152, 221, and 222. Earlier studies conducted on a variant of the enzyme with a single Cys at position 221 (derived from a gene that was the product of spontaneous fusion) showed that this enzyme is still subject to substrate activation [Zeng, X., Farrenkopf, B., Hohmann, S., Jordan, F., Dyda, F., & Furey, W. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 2704-2709], indicating that if Cys was responsible for this activation, it had to be C221. To further test the hypothesis, the C221S and C222S single and the C221S-C222S double mutants were constructed. It is clearly shown that the mutation at C221, but not at C222, leads to abolished substrate activation according to a number of kinetic criteria, both steady state and pre steady state. On the basis of the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme [Dyda, F., Furey, W., Swaminathan, S., Sax, M., Farrenkopf, B., Jordan, F. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 6165-6170], it is obvious that while C221 is located on the beta domain, whereas thiamin diphosphate is wedged at the interface of the alpha and gamma domains, addition of pyruvate or pyruvamide as a hemiketal adduct to the sulfur of C221 can easily bridge the gap between the beta and alpha domains. In fact, residues in one or both domains must be dislocated by this adduct formation. It is very likely that regulation as expressed in substrate activation is transmitted via this direct contact made between the two domains in the presence of the activator.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Structure-Derived Proton-Transfer Mechanism of Action Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszak, Ewa; Dominiak, Paulina

    2003-01-01

    The derivative of vitamin B1 thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) is a cofactor of pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1p) that is involved in decarboxylation of pyruvate followed by reductive acetylation of lipoic acid covalently bound to a lysine residue of dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase. The structure of E1p recently determined in our laboratory revealed patterns of association of foul subunits and specifics of two TPP binding sites. The mechanism of action in part includes a conserved hydrogen bond between the N1' atom of the aminopyrimidine ring of the cofactor and the carboxylate group of Glu59 from the beta subunits, and a V-conformation of the cofactor that brings the N4' atom of the aminopyrimidine ring to the distance of the intramolecular hydrogen bond formed with the C2-atom of the thiazolium moiety. The carboxylate group of Glu59 is the local proton acceptor that enables proton translocation within the aminopyrimidine ring and stabilization of the rare N4' - iminopyrimidine tautomer. Based on the analysis of E1p structure, we postulate that the protein environment drives N4' - amino/N4' - imino dynamics resulting in a concerted shuttle-like movement of the subunits. We also propose that this movement of the subunits is strictly coordinated with the two enzymatic reactions carried out in E1p by each of the two cofactor sites. It is proposed that these reactions are in alternating phases such that when one active site is involved in decarboxylation, the other is involved in acetylation of lipoyl noiety.

  6. Phenylalanine-pyruvate aminotransferase activity in chicks subjected to phenylalanine imbalance or phenylalanine toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J; Austic, R E

    2009-11-01

    Two experiments were done to determine the influence of Phe imbalance and excess on Phe-pyruvate aminotransferase (PAT) activity in the chick. Five replicates of 3 chicks (experiment 1) or 2 chicks (experiment 2) of a commercial brown egg layer strain were fed a semipurified diet for 1 wk and then received experimental diets for 10 d. Three diets were used in experiment 1: the basal diet contained 0.46% Phe; the imbalance diet was similar to the basal diet except that it contained a 10% mixture of indispensable amino acids lacking Phe (IAA - Phe) to create a Phe imbalance; the imbalance corrected diet was similar to the imbalance diet except that it was supplemented with 1.12% Phe to correct the imbalance. A 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in experiment 2 provided 3 dietary levels (0.46, 1.58, and 2.46%) of Phe and either no supplement or 10% supplement of IAA - Phe. Nonfasted chicks were killed and livers were sampled in experiment 1, and livers, kidneys, brains, and pectoralis major muscles were sampled in experiment 2. In experiment 1, liver PAT activity per gram of liver was 80 and 55% higher (P PAT per gram of tissue per minute and per milligram of tissue protein extract per minute than chicks that did not receive IAA - Phe (P PAT activity was detected (P > 0.05). Phenylalanine-pyruvate aminotransferase activity appears to be regulated in response to dietary content of indispensable amino acids but not by the dietary level of Phe.

  7. Erythrocyte Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency mutation identified in multiple breeds of domestic cats

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    Grahn Robert A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Erythrocyte pyruvate kinase deficiency (PK deficiency is an inherited hemolytic anemia that has been documented in the Abyssinian and Somali breeds as well as random bred domestic shorthair cats. The disease results from mutations in PKLR, the gene encoding the regulatory glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase (PK. Multiple isozymes are produced by tissue-specific differential processing of PKLR mRNA. Perturbation of PK decreases erythrocyte longevity resulting in anemia. Additional signs include: severe lethargy, weakness, weight loss, jaundice, and abdominal enlargement. In domestic cats, PK deficiency has an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance with high variability in onset and severity of clinical symptoms. Results Sequence analysis of PKLR revealed an intron 5 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at position 304 concordant with the disease phenotype in Abyssinian and Somali cats. Located 53 nucleotides upstream of the exon 6 splice site, cats with this SNP produce liver and blood processed mRNA with a 13 bp deletion at the 3’ end of exon 5. The frame-shift mutation creates a stop codon at amino acid position 248 in exon 6. The frequency of the intronic SNP in 14,179 American and European cats representing 38 breeds, 76 western random bred cats and 111 cats of unknown breed is 6.31% and 9.35% when restricted to the 15 groups carrying the concordant SNP. Conclusions PK testing is recommended for Bengals, Egyptian Maus, La Perms, Maine Coon cats, Norwegian Forest cats, Savannahs, Siberians, and Singapuras, in addition to Abyssinians and Somalis as well an any new breeds using the afore mentioned breeds in out crossing or development programs.

  8. The relationship between human skeletal muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase activity and muscle aerobic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Lorenzo K; LeBlanc, Paul J; Inglis, J Greig; Bradley, Nicolette S; Choptiany, Jon; Heigenhauser, George J F; Peters, Sandra J

    2011-08-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is a mitochondrial enzyme responsible for regulating the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA for use in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. PDH is regulated through phosphorylation and inactivation by PDH kinase (PDK) and dephosphorylation and activation by PDH phosphatase (PDP). The effect of endurance training on PDK in humans has been investigated; however, to date no study has examined the effect of endurance training on PDP in humans. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine differences in PDP activity and PDP1 protein content in human skeletal muscle across a range of muscle aerobic capacities. This association is important as higher PDP activity and protein content will allow for increased activation of PDH, and carbohydrate oxidation. The main findings of this study were that 1) PDP activity (r(2) = 0.399, P = 0.001) and PDP1 protein expression (r(2) = 0.153, P = 0.039) were positively correlated with citrate synthase (CS) activity as a marker for muscle aerobic capacity; 2) E1α (r(2) = 0.310, P = 0.002) and PDK2 protein (r(2) = 0.229, P =0.012) are positively correlated with muscle CS activity; and 3) although it is the most abundant isoform, PDP1 protein content only explained ∼ 18% of the variance in PDP activity (r(2) = 0.184, P = 0.033). In addition, PDP1 in combination with E1α explained ∼ 38% of the variance in PDP activity (r(2) = 0.383, P = 0.005), suggesting that there may be alternative regulatory mechanisms of this enzyme other than protein content. These data suggest that with higher muscle aerobic capacity (CS activity) there is a greater capacity for carbohydrate oxidation (E1α), in concert with higher potential for PDH activation (PDP activity).

  9. Isolation, purification and characterization of pyruvate kinase from Staphylococcus aureus : a potential drug target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Venkatesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: With emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, there is an urgent need for the development of new antimicrobials which are narrow and pathogen specific. In this context, pyruvate kinase (PK an important enzyme in the glycolysis, which catalyses the formation of pyruvate which is the key intersection in the network of metabolic pathways was isolated and purified from Staphylococcus aureus ATCC12600. Methods: Purification steps included 10%-20% ammonium sulphate fractionation, diethyl aminoethyl cellulose ion exchange chromatography followed by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. The pure PK molecular weight was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and Km and Vmax for the PK was demonstrated. Results: The pure PK obtained from Sephadex G-100 gel filtration column exhibited Km of 0.78+0.18 µM and Vmax 76.47+0.82 µM NADH/mg/min and molecular weight of 250 kDa in solution. However, in SDS-PAGE showed single band with a molecular weight of 63 kDa confirming the homotetramer nature. In all steps of purification the Km remained constant indicating presence of only one kind of enzyme. The PK gene searched in the genomic sequences of Staphylococcus aureus also confirmed the same. Interpretation and conclusions: In Staphylococcus aureus presence of only one kind of PK unlike in other Gram positive bacteria exhibiting distinct differences in enzyme kinetics. This enzyme also showed the functionality of PK is found to be different from its human host. Therefore, PK probably is regarded as an ideal drug target in the development of new potent antimicrobials.

  10. Structural basis for tumor pyruvate kinase M2 allosteric regulation and catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrauckas, Jill D; Santarsiero, Bernard D; Mesecar, Andrew D

    2005-07-12

    Four isozymes of pyruvate kinase are differentially expressed in human tissue. Human pyruvate kinase isozyme M2 (hPKM2) is expressed in early fetal tissues and is progressively replaced by the other three isozymes, M1, R, and L, immediately after birth. In most cancer cells, hPKM2 is once again expressed to promote tumor cell proliferation. Because of its almost ubiquitous presence in cancer cells, hPKM2 has been designated as tumor specific PK-M2, and its presence in human plasma is currently being used as a molecular marker for the diagnosis of various cancers. The X-ray structure of human hPKM2 complexed with Mg(2+), K(+), the inhibitor oxalate, and the allosteric activator fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) has been determined to a resolution of 2.82 A. The active site of hPKM2 is in a partially closed conformation most likely resulting from a ligand-induced domain closure promoted by the binding of FBP. In all four subunits of the enzyme tetramer, a conserved water molecule is observed on the 2-si face of the prospective enolate and supports the hypothesis that a proton-relay system is acting as the proton donor of the reaction (1). Significant structural differences among the human M2, rabbit muscle M1, and the human R isozymes are observed, especially in the orientation of the FBP-activating loop, which is in a closed conformation when FBP is bound. The structural differences observed between the PK isozymes could potentially be exploited as unique structural templates for the design of allosteric drugs against the disease states associated with the various PK isozymes, especially cancer and nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia.

  11. Structural and evolutionary characteristics of pyruvate phosphate dikinase in Giardia lamblia and other amitochondriate protozoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Xianmin; Yang Chunlin; Zheng Wenyu; Wen Jianfan

    2014-01-01

    Background Pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) reversibly catalyzes the interconversion of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and pyruvic acid,leading to catabolism and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis or gluconeogenesis and ATP consumption.Molecular modeling of PPDKs from divergent organisms demonstrates that the orientation of the phosphorylatable histidine residue within the central domain of PPDK determines whether this enzyme promotes catabolism or gluconeogenesis.The goal of this study was to determine whether PDDK from Giardia underwent adaptive evolution in order to produce more energy under anaerobic conditions.Methods A total of 123 PPDK sequences from protozoans,proteobacteria,plants,and algae were selected,based upon sequence similarities to Giardia lamblia PPDK and Zea mays PPDK.Three-dimensional (3-D) models were generated for PPDKs from divergent organisms and were used to compare the orientation of the phosphorylatable histidine residue within the central domain of PPDKs.These PPDKs were compared using a maximum-likelihood tree.Results For PPDK from Giardia,as well as from other anaerobic protozoans,the central domain tilted toward the N-terminal nucleotide-binding domain,indicating that this enzyme catalyzed ATP synthesis.Furthermore,the orientation of this central domain was determined by interactions between the N-and C-terminal domains.Phylogenetic analysis of the N-and C-terminal sequences of PPDKs from different species suggested that PPDK has likely undergone adaptive evolution in response to differences in environmental and metabolic conditions.Conclusion These results suggested that PPDK in anaerobic organisms is functionally adapted to generate energy more efficiently in an anaerobic environment.

  12. Endoplasmic reticulum stress mediates the anti-inflammatory effect of ethyl pyruvate in endothelial cells.

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    Ge Wang

    Full Text Available Ethyl pyruvate (EP is a simple aliphatic ester of the metabolic intermediate pyruvate that has been demonstrated to be a potent anti-inflammatory agent in a variety of in vivo and in vitro model systems. However, the protective effects and mechanisms underlying the actions of EP against endothelial cell (EC inflammatory injury are not fully understood. Previous studies have confirmed that endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS plays an important role in regulating the pathological process of EC inflammation. In this study, our aim was to explore the effects of EP on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α-induced inflammatory injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and to explore the role of ERS in this process. TNF-α treatment not only significantly increased the adhesion of monocytes to HUVECs and inflammatory cytokine (sICAM1, sE-selectin, MCP-1 and IL-8 production in cell culture supernatants but it also increased ICAM and MMP9 protein expression in HUVECs. TNF-α also effectively increased the ERS-related molecules in HUVECs (GRP78, ATF4, caspase12 and p-PERK. EP treatment effectively reversed the effects of the TNF-α-induced adhesion of monocytes on HUVECs, inflammatory cytokines and ERS-related molecules. Furthermore, thapsigargin (THA, an ERS inducer attenuated the protective effects of EP against TNF-α-induced inflammatory injury and ERS. The PERK siRNA treatment not only inhibited ERS-related molecules but also mimicked the protective effects of EP to decrease TNF-α-induced inflammatory injury. In summary, we have demonstrated for the first time that EP can effectively reduce vascular endothelial inflammation and that this effect at least in part depends on the attenuation of ERS.

  13. Secondary. beta. -deuterium isotope effects in decarboxylation and elimination reactions of. cap alpha. -lactylthiamin: intrinsic isotope effects of pyruvate decarboxylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluger, R.; Brandl, M.

    1986-11-26

    The reactions of the adduct of pyruvate and thiamine, lactylthiamin (2-(lact-2-yl)thiamine), are accurate nonenzymic models for reactions of intermediates formed during catalysis by pyruvate decarboxylase. The enzymatic reaction generates lactylthiamin diphosphate from pyruvate and thiamine diphosphate. ..beta..-Deuterium isotope effects were determined for the nonenzymic reactions, and the results were related to isotope effects on the enzymic reaction. 2-(Lact-2-yl-..beta..-d/sub 3/) thiamine was prepared by condensation of methyl pyruvate-d/sub 3/ with thiamine followed by hydrolysis. The isotope effect for decarboxylation of lactylthiamin in acidic solution at 25/sup 0/C (k/sub H3//k/sub D3/) is 1.09 (standard deviation (SD) 0.015) in pH 3.8, 0.5 M sodium acetate: isotope effect = 1.095 (SD 0.014) in 0.001 M HCl. The reaction was also studied using 38% ethanolic aqueous sodium acetate (pH 3.8 before mixing with ethanol) since the enzymic sites are less polar than water and the reaction is significantly accelerated by the cosolvent. The isotope effect is within statistical range of that for the reaction in water, 1.105 (SD 0.016), indicating that acceleration by the solvent does not change the extent of hyperconjugative stabilization of the transition state relative to the ground state. The isotope effect for the base-catalyzed elimination of pyruvate from lactylthiamin was determined from kinetic studies by using multiwavelength analysis for reactions in pH 11 sodium carbonate solution. The isotope effect (k/sub H3//k/sub D3/) is 1.12 (SD 0.01), which is slightly higher than the effect on decarboxylation.

  14. Brain pyruvate recycling and peripheral metabolism: an NMR analysis ex vivo of acetate and glucose metabolism in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serres, Sébastien; Bezancon, Eric; Franconi, Jean-Michel; Merle, Michel

    2007-06-01

    The occurrence of pyruvate recycling in the rat brain was studied in either pentobarbital anesthetized animals or awake animals receiving a light analgesic dose of morphine, which were infused with either [1-13C]glucose + acetate or glucose + [2-13C]acetate for various periods of time. Metabolite enrichments in the brain, blood and the liver were determined from NMR analyses of tissue extracts. They indicated that: (i) Pyruvate recycling was revealed in the brain of both the anesthetized and awake animals, as well as from lactate and alanine enrichments as from glutamate isotopomer composition, but only after infusion of glucose + [2-13C]acetate. (ii) Brain glucose was labelled from [2-13C]acetate at the same level in anaesthetized and awake rats (approximately 4%). Comparing its enrichment with that of blood and liver glucose indicated that brain glucose labelling resulted from hepatic gluconeogenesis. (iii) Analysing glucose 13C-13C coupling in the brain, blood and the liver confirmed that brain glucose could be labelled in the liver through the activities of both pyruvate recycling and gluconeogenesis. (iv) The rate of appearance and the amount of brain glutamate C4-C5 coupling, a marker of pyruvate recycling when starting from [2-13C]acetate, were lower than those of brain glucose labelling from hepatic metabolism. (v) The evaluation of the contributions of glucose and acetate to glutamate metabolism revealed that more than 60% of brain glutamate was synthesized from glucose whereas only 7% was from acetate and that glutamate C4-C5 coupling was mainly due to the metabolism of glucose labelled through hepatic gluconeogenesis. All these results indicate that, under the present conditions, the pyruvate recycling observed through the labelling of brain metabolites mainly originates from peripheral metabolism.

  15. Effects of ethyl pyruvate on leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the mesenteric microcirculation during early sepsis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Francisco Mota Siqueira Guarda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Experimental studies on sepsis have demonstrated that ethyl pyruvate is endowed with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ethyl pyruvate on leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the mesenteric microcirculation in a live Escherichia coli-induced sepsis model in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were administered an intravenous suspension of E. coli bacteria or were subjected to a sham procedure. Three hours after bacterial infusion, the rats were randomized into the following groups: a control group without treatment, a group treated with lactated Ringer’s solution (4 mL/kg, i.v., and a group treated with lactated Ringer’s solution (4 mL/kg, i.v. plus ethyl pyruvate (50 mg/kg. At 24 h after bacterial infusion, leukocyte-endothelial interactions were investigated using intravital microscopy, and the expression of P-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was evaluated via immunohistochemistry. White blood cell and platelet counts were also determined at baseline and 3 h and 24 h after E. coli inoculation. RESULTS: The non-treated and lactated Ringer’s solution-treated groups exhibited increases in the numbers of rolling leukocytes (∼2.5-fold increase, adherent cells (∼3.0-fold, and migrated cells (∼3.5-fold compared with the sham group. In contrast, treatment with Ringer’s ethyl pyruvate solution reduced the numbers of rolling, adherent and migrated leukocytes to the levels observed in the sham group. Additionally, the expression of P-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was significantly increased on mesenteric microvessels in the non-treated group compared with the sham group (p<0.001. The expression of both adhesion molecules was reduced in the other groups, with ethyl pyruvate being more effective than lactated Ringer’s solution. Infusion of bacteria caused significant leukopenia (3 h, followed by leukocytosis with granulocytosis (24 h. There was

  16. Formation and utilization of acetoin, an unusual product of pyruvate metabolism by Ehrlich and AS30-D tumor mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggetto, L G; Lehninger, A L

    1987-07-15

    [14C]Pyruvate was rapidly non-oxidatively decarboxylated by Ehrlich tumor mitochondria at a rate of 40 nmol/min/mg of protein in the presence or absence of ADP. A search for decarboxylation products led to significant amounts of acetoin formed when Ehrlich tumor mitochondria were incubated with 1 mM [14C] pyruvate in the presence of ATP. Added acetoin to aerobic tumor mitochondria was rapidly utilized in the presence of ATP at a rate of 65 nmol/min/mg of protein. Citrate has been found as a product of acetoin utilization and was exported from the tumor mitochondria. Acetoin has been found in the ascitic liquid of Ehrlich and AS30-D tumor-bearing animals. These unusual reactions were not observed in control rat liver mitochondria.

  17. Topical pyruvic acid (70% versus topical salicylic acid (16.7% compound in treatment of plantar warts: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabihollah Shahmoradi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Topical pyruvic acid and compound salicylic acid had the same efficacy and complications in treating plantar warts. Decision for choosing the treatment can be made based on the costs and individual factors as well as patients preferences.

  18. The structures of pyruvate oxidase from Aerococcus viridans with cofactors and with a reaction intermediate reveal the flexibility of the active-site tunnel for catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Juan, Ella Czarina Magat; Hoque, Md Mominul; Hossain, Md Tofazzal; Yamamoto, Tamotsu; Imamura, Shigeyuki; Suzuki, Kaoru; Sekiguchi, Takeshi; Takénaka, Akio

    2007-01-01

    The crystal structures of pyruvate oxidase from A. viridans in complex with flavin adenine dinucleotide, thiamine diphosphate and the reaction intermediate 2-acetyl-thiamine diphosphate reveal details of substrate recognition and catalysis.

  19. The effect of ethanol or sorbitol on glucose production from pyruvate in isolated hepatocytes from 48-hour fasted guinea-pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, M K; Weissberger, L E

    1985-01-01

    Hepatocytes isolated from 48-hour, fasted guinea-pigs were incubated with glucose precursors to compare relative rates of glucose production. Glucose production from lactate and pyruvate was similar (2.61 vs 3.18 mumol/hr per 100 mg wet weight). Glucose production from fructose was greater than that from sorbitol (4.68 vs 1.63 mumol/hr per 100 mg wet weight). When ethanol was added to pyruvate-containing buffer, the flux of pyruvate to glucose and lactate was synergistically enhanced (5.28 vs 3.76 and 7.51 vs 2.88 mumol/hr per 100 mg wet weight, respectively). When sorbitol was added to buffer containing pyruvate, glucose and lactate production were even greater than that seen with ethanol (8.32 vs 5.38 and 15.99 vs 7.51 mumol/hr per 100 mg wet weight, respectively).

  20. Enhancing the [13C]bicarbonate signal in cardiac hyperpolarized [1‐13C]pyruvate MRS studies by infusion of glucose, insulin and potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Mette Hauge; Laustsen, Christoffer; Butt, Sadia Asghar

    2013-01-01

    the myocardial glucose oxidation in the citric acid cycle, reflected as an increase in the [13C]bicarbonate signal in cardiac hyperpolarized [1‐13C]pyruvate MRS measurements in fasted rats. Two groups of rats were infused with two different doses of GIK and investigated by MRS after injection of hyperpolarized...... rats. The increased [13C]bicarbonate signal indicates an increased flux of pyruvate through the pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex and an increase in myocardial glucose oxidation through the citric acid cycle. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....... fasting, the myocardial glucose oxidation is low and the fatty acid oxidation (β‐oxidation) is high, which complicates the interpretation of pyruvate metabolism with the technique. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the infusion of glucose, insulin and potassium (GIK) could increase...

  1. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Chloroplasts Contain a Homodimeric Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase That Functions with FDX11[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lis, Robert; Baffert, Carole; Couté, Yohann; Nitschke, Wolfgang; Atteia, Ariane

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic algae have long been known to live in anoxic environments, but interest in their anaerobic energy metabolism has only recently gained momentum, largely due to their utility in biofuel production. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii figures remarkably in this respect, because it efficiently produces hydrogen and its genome harbors many genes for anaerobic metabolic routes. Central to anaerobic energy metabolism in many unicellular eukaryotes (protists) is pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFO), which decarboxylates pyruvate and forms acetyl-coenzyme A with concomitant reduction of low-potential ferredoxins or flavodoxins. Here, we report the biochemical properties of the homodimeric PFO of C. reinhardtii expressed in Escherichia coli. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of the recombinant enzyme (Cr-rPFO) showed three distinct [4Fe-4S] iron-sulfur clusters and a thiamine pyrophosphate radical upon reduction by pyruvate. Purified Cr-rPFO exhibits a specific decarboxylase activity of 12 µmol pyruvate min−1 mg−1 protein using benzyl viologen as electron acceptor. Despite the fact that the enzyme is very oxygen sensitive, it localizes to the chloroplast. Among the six known chloroplast ferredoxins (FDX1–FDX6) in C. reinhardtii, FDX1 and FDX2 were the most efficient electron acceptors from Cr-rPFO, with comparable apparent Km values of approximately 4 µm. As revealed by immunoblotting, anaerobic conditions that lead to the induction of CrPFO did not increase levels of either FDX1 or FDX2. FDX1, being by far the most abundant ferredoxin, is thus likely the partner of PFO in C. reinhardtii. This finding postulates a direct link between CrPFO and hydrogenase and provides new opportunities to better study and engineer hydrogen production in this protist. PMID:23154536

  2. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase constitute an energy-consuming redox circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey H; Lin, Chien-Te; Ryan, Terence E; Reese, Lauren R; Gilliam, Laura A A; Cathey, Brook L; Lark, Daniel S; Smith, Cody D; Muoio, Deborah M; Neufer, P Darrell

    2015-04-15

    Cellular proteins rely on reversible redox reactions to establish and maintain biological structure and function. How redox catabolic (NAD+/NADH) and anabolic (NADP+/NADPH) processes integrate during metabolism to maintain cellular redox homoeostasis, however, is unknown. The present work identifies a continuously cycling mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm)-dependent redox circuit between the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) and nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT). PDHC is shown to produce H2O2 in relation to reducing pressure within the complex. The H2O2 produced, however, is effectively masked by a continuously cycling redox circuit that links, via glutathione/thioredoxin, to NNT, which catalyses the regeneration of NADPH from NADH at the expense of ΔΨm. The net effect is an automatic fine-tuning of NNT-mediated energy expenditure to metabolic balance at the level of PDHC. In mitochondria, genetic or pharmacological disruptions in the PDHC-NNT redox circuit negate counterbalance changes in energy expenditure. At the whole animal level, mice lacking functional NNT (C57BL/6J) are characterized by lower energy-expenditure rates, consistent with their well-known susceptibility to diet-induced obesity. These findings suggest the integration of redox sensing of metabolic balance with compensatory changes in energy expenditure provides a potential mechanism by which cellular redox homoeostasis is maintained and body weight is defended during periods of positive and negative energy balance.

  3. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase constitute an energy consuming redox circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey H.; Lin, Chien-Te; Ryan, Terence E.; Reese, Lauren R.; Gilliam, Laura A. A.; Cathey, Brook L.; Lark, Daniel S.; Smith, Cody D.; Muoio, Deborah M.; Neufer, P. Darrell

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Cellular proteins rely on reversible redox reactions to establish and maintain biological structure and function. How redox catabolic (NAD+:NADH) and anabolic (NADP+:NADPH) processes integrate during metabolism to maintain cellular redox homeostasis however is unknown. The present work identifies a continuously cycling, mitochondrial membrane potential-dependent redox circuit between the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) and nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT). PDHC is shown to produce H2O2 in relation to reducing pressure within the complex. The H2O2 produced however is effectively masked by a continuously cycling redox circuit that links, via glutathione/thioredoxin, to NNT, which catalyzes the regeneration of NADPH from NADH at the expense of the mitochondrial membrane potential. The net effect is an automatic fine tuning of NNT-mediated energy expenditure to metabolic balance at the level of PDHC. In mitochondria, genetic or pharmacological disruptions in the PDHC-NNT redox circuit negate counterbalance changes in energy expenditure. At the whole animal level, mice lacking functional NNT (C57BL/6J) are characterized by lower energy expenditure rates, consistent with their well known susceptibility to diet-induced obesity. These findings suggest the integration of redox sensing of metabolic balance with compensatory changes in energy expenditure provides a potential mechanism by which cellular redox homeostasis is maintained and body weight is defended during periods of positive and negative energy balance. PMID:25643703

  4. MUC1-C oncoprotein regulates glycolysis and pyruvate kinase M2 activity in cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Kosugi

    Full Text Available Aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells is regulated by multiple effectors that include Akt and pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2. Mucin 1 (MUC1 is a heterodimeric glycoprotein that is aberrantly overexpressed by human breast and other carcinomas. Here we show that transformation of rat fibroblasts by the oncogenic MUC1-C subunit is associated with Akt-mediated increases in glucose uptake and lactate production, consistent with the stimulation of glycolysis. The results also demonstrate that the MUC1-C cytoplasmic domain binds directly to PKM2 at the B- and C-domains. Interaction between the MUC1-C cytoplasmic domain Cys-3 and the PKM2 C-domain Cys-474 was found to stimulate PKM2 activity. Conversely, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-mediated phosphorylation of the MUC1-C cytoplasmic domain on Tyr-46 conferred binding to PKM2 Lys-433 and inhibited PKM2 activity. In human breast cancer cells, silencing MUC1-C was associated with decreases in glucose uptake and lactate production, confirming involvement of MUC1-C in the regulation of glycolysis. In addition, EGFR-mediated phosphorylation of MUC1-C in breast cancer cells was associated with decreases in PKM2 activity. These findings indicate that the MUC1-C subunit regulates glycolysis and that this response is conferred in part by PKM2. Thus, the overexpression of MUC1-C oncoprotein in diverse human carcinomas could be of importance to the Warburg effect of aerobic glycolysis.

  5. Metabolic profiling indicates impaired pyruvate dehydrogenase function in myalgic encephalopathy/chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluge, Øystein; Mella, Olav; Bruland, Ove; Risa, Kristin; Dyrstad, Sissel E; Alme, Kine; Rekeland, Ingrid G; Sapkota, Dipak; Røsland, Gro V; Fosså, Alexander; Ktoridou-Valen, Irini; Lunde, Sigrid; Sørland, Kari; Lien, Katarina; Herder, Ingrid; Thürmer, Hanne; Gotaas, Merete E; Baranowska, Katarzyna A; Bohnen, Louis M L J; Schäfer, Christoph; McCann, Adrian; Sommerfelt, Kristian; Helgeland, Lars; Ueland, Per M; Dahl, Olav; Tronstad, Karl J

    2016-12-22

    Myalgic encephalopathy/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating disease of unknown etiology, with hallmark symptoms including postexertional malaise and poor recovery. Metabolic dysfunction is a plausible contributing factor. We hypothesized that changes in serum amino acids may disclose specific defects in energy metabolism in ME/CFS. Analysis in 200 ME/CFS patients and 102 healthy individuals showed a specific reduction of amino acids that fuel oxidative metabolism via the TCA cycle, mainly in female ME/CFS patients. Serum 3-methylhistidine, a marker of endogenous protein catabolism, was significantly increased in male patients. The amino acid pattern suggested functional impairment of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), supported by increased mRNA expression of the inhibitory PDH kinases 1, 2, and 4; sirtuin 4; and PPARδ in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from both sexes. Myoblasts grown in presence of serum from patients with severe ME/CFS showed metabolic adaptations, including increased mitochondrial respiration and excessive lactate secretion. The amino acid changes could not be explained by symptom severity, disease duration, age, BMI, or physical activity level among patients. These findings are in agreement with the clinical disease presentation of ME/CFS, with inadequate ATP generation by oxidative phosphorylation and excessive lactate generation upon exertion.

  6. Switching of pyruvate kinase isoform L to M2 promotes metabolic reprogramming in hepatocarcinogenesis.

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    Carmen Chak-Lui Wong

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is an aggressive tumor, with a high mortality rate due to late symptom presentation and frequent tumor recurrences and metastasis. It is also a rapidly growing tumor supported by different metabolic mechanisms; nevertheless, the biological and molecular mechanisms involved in the metabolic reprogramming in HCC are unclear. In this study, we found that pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2 was frequently over-expressed in human HCCs and its over-expression was associated with aggressive clinicopathological features and poor prognosis of HCC patients. Furthermore, knockdown of PKM2 suppressed aerobic glycolysis and cell proliferation in HCC cell lines in vitro. Importantly, knockdown of PKM2 hampered HCC growth in both subcutaneous injection and orthotopic liver implantation models, and reduced lung metastasis in vivo. Of significance, PKM2 over-expression in human HCCs was associated with a down-regulation of a liver-specific microRNA, miR-122. We further showed that miR-122 interacted with the 3UTR of the PKM2 gene. Re-expression of miR-122 in HCC cell lines reduced PKM2 expression, decreased glucose uptake in vitro, and suppressed HCC tumor growth in vivo. Our clinical data and functional studies have revealed a novel biological mechanism involved in HCC metabolic reprogramming.

  7. Regulation of Muscle Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex in Insulin Resistance: Effects of Exercise and Dichloroacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Constantin-Teodosiu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC controls the rate of carbohydrate oxidation, impairment of PDC activity mediated by high-fat intake has been advocated as a causative factor for the skeletal muscle insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D. There are also situations where muscle insulin resistance can occur independently from high-fat dietary intake such as sepsis, inflammation, or drug administration though they all may share the same underlying mechanism, i.e., via activation of forkhead box family of transcription factors, and to a lower extent via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. The main feature of T2D is a chronic elevation in blood glucose levels. Chronic systemic hyperglycaemia is toxic and can lead to cellular dysfunction that may become irreversible over time due to deterioration of the pericyte cell's ability to provide vascular stability and control to endothelial proliferation. Therefore, it may not be surprising that T2D's complications are mainly macrovascular and microvascular related, i.e., neuropathy, retinopathy, nephropathy, coronary artery, and peripheral vascular diseases. However, life style intervention such as exercise, which is the most potent physiological activator of muscle PDC, along with pharmacological intervention such as administration of dichloroacetate or L-carnitine can prove to be viable strategies for treating muscle insulin resistance in obesity and T2D as they can potentially restore whole body glucose disposal.

  8. Cloning and Characterization of Two Pyruvate Decarboxylase Genes from Pichia stipitis CBS 6054

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Davis, Brian P.; Jeffries, Thomas W.

    1998-01-01

    In Pichia stipitis, fermentative and pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) activities increase with diminished oxygen rather than in response to fermentable sugars. To better characterize PDC expression and regulation, two genes for PDC (PsPDC1 and PsPDC2) were cloned and sequenced from P. stipitis CBS 6054. Aside from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, from which three PDC genes have been characterized, P. stipitis is the only organism from which multiple genes for PDC have been identified and characterized. PsPDC1 and PsPDC2 have diverged almost as far from one another as they have from the next most closely related known yeast gene. PsPDC1 contains an open reading frame of 1,791 nucleotides encoding 597 amino acids. PsPDC2 contains a reading frame of 1,710 nucleotides encoding 570 amino acids. An 81-nucleotide segment in the middle of the β domain of PsPDC1 codes for a unique segment of 27 amino acids, which may play a role in allosteric regulation. The 5′ regions of both P. stipitis genes include two putative TATA elements that make them similar to the PDC genes from S. cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Hanseniaspora uvarum. PMID:9435065

  9. Exon-centric regulation of pyruvate kinase M alternative splicing via mutually exclusive exons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenxun Wang; Deblina Chatterjee; Hyun Yong Jeon; Martin Akerman; Matthew G. Vander Heiden; Lewis C. Cantley; Adrian R. Krainer

    2012-01-01

    Alternative splicing of the pyruvate kinase M gene (PK-M) can generate the M2 isoform and promote aerobic glycolysis and tumor growth.However,the cancer-specific alternative splicing regulation of PK-M is not completely understood.Here,we demonstrate that PK-M is regulated by reciprocal affects on the mutually exclusive exons 9 and 10,such that exon 9 is repressed and exon 10 is activated in cancer cells.Strikingly,exonic,rather than intronic,cis-elements are key determinants ef PK-M splicing isoform ratios.Using a systematic sub-exonic duplication approach,we identify a potent exonlc splicing enhancer in exon 10,which differs from its homologous counterpart in exon 9 by only two nucleotides.We identify SRSF3 as one of the cognate factors,and show that this serine/arginine-rich protein activates exon 10 and mediates changes in glucose metabolism.These findings provide mechanistic insights into the complex regulation of alternative splicing of a key regulator of the Warburg effect,and also have implications for other genes with a similar pattern of alternative splicing.

  10. Normal Growth of Transgenic Tobacco Plants in the Absence of Cytosolic Pyruvate Kinase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob-McHugh, Sylvia G.; Sangwan, Rajender S.; Blakeley, Stephen D.; Vanlerberghe, Greg C.; Ko, Kenton; Turpin, David H.; Plaxton, William C.; Miki, Brian L.; Dennis, David T.

    1992-01-01

    The coding sequence of the cytosolic isozyme of potato tuber pyruvate kinase (PK) was attached to the transit peptide of the small subunit of pea ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase and placed under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. This construct was transformed into Nicotiana tabacum. Unexpectedly, two primary transformants were recovered in which PK activity in leaves was greatly reduced. The reduction in PK activity appeared to result from the complete absence of the cytosolic form of the enzyme (PKc). In addition, no PKc could be detected on western blots of leaf extracts. Metabolite analyses indicated that the levels of phosphoenolpyruvate are substantially higher in PKc-deficient leaves than in wild-type leaves, consistent with a block in glycolysis at the step catalyzed by PK. PKc deficiency in the leaves does not appear to adversely affect plant growth. Analysis of progeny indicates that PKc deficiency is a heritable trait. The leaves of PKc-deficient transformants have normal rates of photosynthetic O2 evolution and respiratory O2 consumption, indicating that these plants are using alternative pathways to bypass PK. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:16653063

  11. Histidine phosphocarrier protein regulates pyruvate kinase A activity in response to glucose in Vibrio vulnificus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hey-Min; Park, Young-Ha; Yoon, Chang-Kyu; Seok, Yeong-Jae

    2015-04-01

    The bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) consists of two general energy-coupling proteins [enzyme I and histidine phosphocarrier protein (HPr)] and several sugar-specific enzyme IIs. Although, in addition to the phosphorylation-coupled transport of sugars, various regulatory roles of PTS components have been identified in Escherichia coli, much less is known about the PTS in the opportunistic human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus. In this study, we have identified pyruvate kinase A (PykA) as a binding partner of HPr in V. vulnificus. The interaction between HPr and PykA was strictly dependent on the presence of inorganic phosphate, and only dephosphorylated HPr interacted with PykA. Experiments involving domain swapping between the PykAs of V. vulnificus and E. coli revealed the requirement for the C-terminal domain of V. vulnificus PykA for a specific interaction with V. vulnificus HPr. Dephosphorylated HPr decreased the Km of PykA for phosphoenolpyruvate by approximately fourfold without affecting Vmax . Taken together, these findings indicate that the V. vulnificus PTS catalyzing the first step of glycolysis stimulates the final step of glycolysis in the presence of glucose through the direct interaction of dephospho-HPr with the C-terminal domain of PykA.

  12. A Symmetrical Tetramer for S. aureus Pyruvate Carboxylase in Complex with Coenzyme A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, L.; Xiang, S; Lasso, G; Gil, D; Valle, M; Tong, L

    2009-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is a conserved metabolic enzyme with important cellular functions. We report crystallographic and cryo-electron microscopy (EM) studies of Staphylococcus aureus PC (SaPC) in complex with acetyl-CoA, an allosteric activator, and mutagenesis, biochemical, and structural studies of the biotin binding site of its carboxyltransferase (CT) domain. The disease-causing A610T mutation abolishes catalytic activity by blocking biotin binding to the CT active site, and Thr908 might play a catalytic role in the CT reaction. The crystal structure of SaPC in complex with CoA reveals a symmetrical tetramer, with one CoA molecule bound to each monomer, and cryo-EM studies confirm the symmetrical nature of the tetramer. These observations are in sharp contrast to the highly asymmetrical tetramer of Rhizobium etli PC in complex with ethyl-CoA. Our structural information suggests that acetyl-CoA promotes a conformation for the dimer of the biotin carboxylase domain of PC that might be catalytically more competent.

  13. Pyruvate Kinase and Fcγ Receptor Gene Copy Numbers Associated With Malaria Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faik, Imad; van Tong, Hoang; Lell, Bertrand; Meyer, Christian G; Kremsner, Peter G; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P

    2017-07-15

    Genetic factors are associated with susceptibility to many infectious diseases and may be determinants of clinical progression. Gene copy number variation (CNV) has been shown to be associated with phenotypes of numerous diseases, including malaria. We quantified gene copy numbers of the pyruvate kinase, liver, and red blood cell (PKLR) gene as well as of the Fcγ receptor 2A and Fcγ receptor 2C (FCGR2A, FCGR2C) and Fcγ receptor 3 (FCGR3) genes using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays in Gabonese children with severe (n = 184) or and mild (n = 189) malaria and in healthy Gabonese and white individuals (n = 76 each). The means of PKLR, FCGR2A, FCGR2C, and FCGR3 copy numbers were significantly higher among children with severe malaria compared to those with mild malaria (P malaria severity. Copy numbers of the FCGR2A and FCGR2C genes were significantly lower (P = .005) in Gabonese individuals compared with white individuals. In conclusion, CNV of the PKLR, FCGR2A, FCGR2C, and FCGR3 genes is associated with malaria severity, and our results provide evidence for a role of CNV in host responses to malaria. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Prevalence of pyruvate kinase deficiency among the south Iranian population: quantitative assay and molecular analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavarian, M; Karimi, M; Shahriary, M; Afrasiabi, A R

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of screening for pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency on a cohort of 146 patients pre-selected from 4017 individuals by hematological index analysis. On average the PK activity levels measured in this cohort study were about 1.9% IU/g Hb while the activity measured in 85 healthy adults with normal erythrocyte indexes was in the range of 3.9-9.8 IU/g Hb. We were able to define 14 different mutations in the coding sequence of the R-PK gene in 74 individuals with low enzyme activity. The most common were the G1168A and G1529A mutations at exon 11 occurring in 54% of the cases. Other mutations occurring more than once were C1492T, C1456T, G1291A, C1594T, G787A, G994A, and G1010C. The polymorphism at nt 1705 was in linkage disequilibrium with the A and C polymorphism, which indicated a multi-centric origin of the mutation. Further study of the promoter region and intron/exon boundary is under investigation.

  15. Identification of novel allosteric regulators of human-erythrocyte pyruvate kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharalkar, Shilpa S; Joshi, Gajanan S; Musayev, Faik N; Fornabaio, Micaela; Abraham, Donald J; Safo, Martin K

    2007-11-01

    Erythrocyte pyruvate kinase (PK) is an important glycolytic enzyme, and manipulation of its regulatory behavior by allosteric modifiers is of interest for medicinal purposes. Human-erythrocyte PK was expressed in Rosetta cells and purified on an Ni-NTA column. A search of the small-molecules database of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), using the UNITY software, led to the identification of several compounds with similar pharmacophores as fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), the natural allosteric activator of the human kinases. The compounds were subsequently docked into the FBP binding site using the programs FlexX and GOLD, and their interactions with the protein were analyzed with the energy-scoring function of HINT. Seven promising candidates, compounds 1-7, were obtained from the NCI, and subjected to kinetics analysis, which revealed both activators and inhibitors of the R-isozyme of PK (R-PK). The allosteric effectors discovered in this study could prove to be lead compounds for developing medications for the treatment of hemolytic anemia, sickle-cell anemia, hypoxia-related diseases, and other disorders arising from erythrocyte PK malfunction.

  16. Allosteric regulation of pyruvate kinase M2 isozyme involves a cysteine residue in the intersubunit contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Y; Noguchi, T

    1998-05-15

    Pyruvate kinase M2 isozyme mutants with amino acid substitutions in the subunit interface were prepared and characterized. The substitutions were made in the allosteric M2 isozyme by the corresponding residues of the nonallosteric M1 isozyme to identify the residue involved in the allosteric effects. The replacement of Cys-423 by Leu led to substantial loss of both homotropic and heterotropic allosteric effects while the substitutions at Phe-389, Arg-398, Ala-401, Pro-402, Thr-408, and Ile-427 did not. The altered kinetic properties of the Cys-423-substituted mutant resulted from the shift of the allosteric transition toward the active R-state since the mutant exhibits the allosteric properties in the presence of an allosteric inhibitor, L-phenylalanine. The inverse correlation between the hydrophobicity of residue 423 and the extent of stabilization of the R-state was found by analysis of mutants with un-ionizable amino acids at position 423. Furthermore, the modification of Cys-423 with methyl methanethiosulfonate led to a shift of the allosteric transition toward the R-state, probably the result of increased hydrophobicity of the residue. These results suggest that Cys-423 is involved in the allosteric regulation of the enzyme through hydrophobic interactions.

  17. Anilides of (R)-trifluoro-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropionic acid as inhibitors of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebernitz, G R; Aicher, T D; Stanton, J L; Gao, J; Shetty, S S; Knorr, D C; Strohschein, R J; Tan, J; Brand, L J; Liu, C; Wang, W H; Vinluan, C C; Kaplan, E L; Dragland, C J; DelGrande, D; Islam, A; Lozito, R J; Liu, X; Maniara, W M; Mann, W R

    2000-06-01

    The optimization of a series of anilide derivatives of (R)-3,3, 3-trifluoro-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropionic acid as inhibitors of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDHK) is described that started from N-phenyl-3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide 1 (IC(50) = 35 +/- 1.4 microM). It was found that small electron-withdrawing groups on the ortho position of the anilide, i.e., chloro, acetyl, or bromo, increased potency 20-40-fold. The oral bioavailability of the compounds in this series is optimal (as measured by AUC) when the anilide is substituted at the 4-position with an electron-withdrawing group (i.e., carboxyl, carboxyamide, and sulfoxyamide). N-(2-Chloro-4-isobutylsulfamoylphenyl)-(R)-3,3, 3-trifluoro-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropionamide (10a) inhibits PDHK in the primary enzymatic assay with an IC(50) of 13 +/- 1.5 nM, enhances the oxidation of [(14)C]lactate into (14)CO(2) in human fibroblasts, lowers blood lactate levels significantly 2.5 and 5 h after oral doses as low as 30 micromol/kg, and increases the ex vivo activity of PDH in muscle, kidney, liver, and heart tissues. However, in contrast to sodium dichloroacetate (DCA), these PDHK inhibitors did not lower blood glucose levels. Nevertheless, they are effective at increasing the utilization and disposal of lactate and could be of utility to ameliorate conditions of inappropriate blood lactate elevation.

  18. The effect of erythropoietin on lactate, pyruvate and excess lactate under physical exercise in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meierhenrich, R; Jedicke, H; Voigt, A; Lange, H

    1996-02-01

    To investigate EPO-induced increase of hemoglobin on energy metabolism plasma concentrations of lactate (L), pyruvate (P) and excess lactate (XL) were determined in ten dialysis patients at rest, immediately after 6 minutes of ergometric exercise as well as after recovery for 15 and 30 min. The investigations were performed before EPO-therapy at a mean Hb = 7.5 +/- 0.9 g/dl and under EPO-therapy at a mean Hb = 10.0 +/- 0.6 g/dl and at a mean Hb = 11.9 +/- 0.8 g/dl. Ten healthy subjects were subjected to the same investigation at Hb = 14.7 +/- 1.1 g/dl. There was a significant rise of L and XL in all patient groups under ergometric exercise. The increase of hemoglobin from 7.5 g/dl to 10.0 g/dl led to significantly (p beyond 10.5 g/dl will have an additional positive effect on oxygen supply only in occasional cases. The comparison with healthy subjects shows that despite a very large degree of normalization of the hemoglobin content, no normalization of energy metabolism can be attained.

  19. Pyruvate kinase is a dosage-dependent regulator of cellular amino acid homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüning, Nana-Maria; Feichtinger, René; Krüger, Antje; Wamelink, Mirjam; Lehrach, Hans; Tate, Stephen; Neureiter, Daniel; Kofler, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase (PK) is required for cancer development, and has been implicated in the metabolic transition from oxidative to fermentative metabolism, the Warburg effect. However, the global metabolic response that follows changes in PK activity is not yet fully understood. Using shotgun proteomics, we identified 31 yeast proteins that were regulated in a PK-dependent manner. Selective reaction monitoring confirmed that their expression was dependent on PK isoform, level and activity. Most of the PK targets were amino acid metabolizing enzymes or factors of protein translation, indicating that PK plays a global regulatory role in biosynthethic amino acid metabolism. Indeed, we found strongly altered amino acid profiles when PK levels were changed. Low PK levels increased the cellular glutamine and glutamate concentrations, but decreased the levels of seven amino acids including serine and histidine. To test for evolutionary conservation of this PK function, we quantified orthologues of the identified PK targets in thyroid follicular adenoma, a tumor characterized by high PK levels and low respiratory activity. Aminopeptidase AAP-1 and serine hydroxymethyltransferase SHMT1 both showed PKM2- concentration dependence, and were upregulated in the tumor. Thus, PK expression levels and activity were important for maintaining cellular amino acid homeostasis. Mediating between energy production, ROS clearance and amino acid biosynthesis, PK thus plays a central regulatory role in the metabolism of proliferating cells. PMID:23154538

  20. Ethyl Pyruvate Inhibits Retinal Pathogenic Neovascularization by Downregulating HMGB1 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Mi Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal pathogenic angiogenesis in the eyes is a causative factor in retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. This study was designed to examine the pathogenic role of the high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1 protein and the inhibitory effect of ethyl pyruvate (EP, a well-known antioxidant substance, in retinal pathogenic angiogenesis in mice with oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR, one of the animal models of proliferative ischemic retinopathy. The OIR mouse model was used for our in vivo studies. The mice were exposed to 75% oxygen from postnatal day 7 (P7 to P11, after which the mice were brought to room air and intraperitoneally injected with EP (50 mg/kg, or 100 mg/kg for five days. At P17, the mice were perfused with fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran, and flat-mounted retinas were used to measure nonperfused and neovascular tufts. In OIR mice, an intraperitoneal injection of EP reduced the nonperfused retinal area in the treatment group and significantly reduced the retinal neovascular tufts. In addition, EP inhibited the overexpression of HMGB1 in the retinas of OIR mice. These data suggest that EP could serve as an innovative pharmaceutical agent to prevent retinal neovascularization through inhibiting HMGB1 expression.

  1. Ethyl pyruvate inhibits retinal pathogenic neovascularization by downregulating HMGB1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Mi; Kim, Junghyun; Jo, Kyuhyung; Shin, So Dam; Kim, Chan-Sik; Sohn, Eun Jin; Kim, Seon Gi; Kim, Jin Sook

    2013-01-01

    Retinal pathogenic angiogenesis in the eyes is a causative factor in retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. This study was designed to examine the pathogenic role of the high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein and the inhibitory effect of ethyl pyruvate (EP), a well-known antioxidant substance, in retinal pathogenic angiogenesis in mice with oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), one of the animal models of proliferative ischemic retinopathy. The OIR mouse model was used for our in vivo studies. The mice were exposed to 75% oxygen from postnatal day 7 (P7) to P11, after which the mice were brought to room air and intraperitoneally injected with EP (50 mg/kg, or 100 mg/kg) for five days. At P17, the mice were perfused with fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran, and flat-mounted retinas were used to measure nonperfused and neovascular tufts. In OIR mice, an intraperitoneal injection of EP reduced the nonperfused retinal area in the treatment group and significantly reduced the retinal neovascular tufts. In addition, EP inhibited the overexpression of HMGB1 in the retinas of OIR mice. These data suggest that EP could serve as an innovative pharmaceutical agent to prevent retinal neovascularization through inhibiting HMGB1 expression.

  2. Influence of 120 kDa Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase on Pathogenicity of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Ouk

    2016-02-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellate protozoan parasite and commonly infected the lower genital tract in women and men. Iron is a known nutrient for growth of various pathogens, and also reported to be involved in establishment of trichomoniasis. However, the exact mechanism was not clarified. In this study, the author investigated whether the 120 kDa protein of T. vaginalis may be involved in pathogenicity of trichomonads. Antibodies against 120 kDa protein of T. vaginalis, which was identified as pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) by peptide analysis of MALDI-TOF-MS, were prepared in rabbits. Pretreatment of T. vaginalis with anti-120 kDa Ab decreased the proliferation and adherence to vaginal epithelial cells (MS74) of T. vaginalis. Subcutaneous tissue abscess in anti-120 kDa Ab-treated T. vaginalis-injected mice was smaller in size than that of untreated T. vaginalis-infected mice. Collectively, the 120 kDa protein expressed by iron may be involved in proliferation, adhesion to host cells, and abscess formation, thereby may influence on the pathogenicity of T. vaginalis.

  3. Pyruvate:NADP+ oxidoreductase is stabilized by its cofactor, thiamin pyrophosphate, in mitochondria of Euglena gracilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Masami; Takenaka, Shigeo; Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Inui, Hiroshi; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Miyatake, Kazutaka

    2003-03-15

    Pyruvate:NADP(+) oxidoreductase (PNO) is a thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP)-dependent enzyme that plays a central role in the respiratory metabolism of Euglena gracilis, which requires thiamin for growth. When thiamin was depleted in Euglena cells, PNO protein level was greatly reduced, but its mRNA level was barely changed. In addition, a large part of PNO occurred as an apoenzyme lacking TPP in the deficient cells. The PNO protein level increased rapidly, without changes in the mRNA level, after supplementation of thiamin into its deficient cells. In the deficient cells, in contrast to the sufficient ones, a steep decrease in the PNO protein level was induced when the cells were incubated with cycloheximide. Immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that most of the PNO localized in the mitochondria in either the sufficient or the deficient cells. These findings suggest that PNO is readily degraded when TPP is not provided in mitochondria, and consequently the PNO protein level is greatly reduced by thiamin deficiency in E. gracilis.

  4. Brain glycogenolysis, adrenoceptors, pyruvate carboxylase, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Marie E. Gibbs' pioneering learning studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Leif; Xu, Junnan; Song, Dan; Du, Ting; Yan, Enzhi; Peng, Liang

    2013-01-01

    The involvement of glycogenolysis, occurring in astrocytes but not in neurons, in learning is undisputed (Duran et al., 2013). According to one school of thought the role of astrocytes for learning is restricted to supply of substrate for neuronal oxidative metabolism. The present "perspective" suggests a more comprehensive and complex role, made possible by lack of glycogen degradation, unless specifically induced by either (1) activation of astrocytic receptors, perhaps especially β-adrenergic or (2) even small increases in extracellular K(+) concentration above its normal resting level. It discusses (1) the known importance of glycogenolysis for glutamate formation, requiring pyruvate carboxylation; (2) the established role of K(+)-stimulated glycogenolysis for K(+) uptake in cultured astrocytes, which probably indicates that astrocytes are an integral part of cellular K(+) homeostasis in the brain in vivo; and (3) the plausible role of transmitter-induced glycogenolysis, stimulating Na(+),K(+)-ATPase/NKCC1 activity and thereby contributing both to the post-excitatory undershoot in extracellular K(+) concentration and the memory-enhancing effect of transmitter-mediated reduction of slow neuronal afterhyperpolarization (sAHP).

  5. Brain Glycogenolysis, Adrenoceptors, Pyruvate Carboxylase, Na+,K+-ATPase and Marie E. Gibbs’ Pioneering Learning Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif eHertz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of glycogenolysis, occurring in astrocytes but not in neurons, in learning is undisputed (Duran et al., JCBFM, in press. According to one school of thought the role of astrocytes for learning is restricted to supply of substrate for neuronal oxidative metabolism. The present ‘perspective’ suggests a more comprehensive and complex role, made possible by lack of glycogen degradation, unless specifically induced by either i activation of astrocytic receptors, perhaps especially beta-adrenergic, or ii even small increases in extracellular K+ concentration above its normal resting level. It discusses i the known importance of glycogenolysis for glutamate formation, requiring pyruvate carboxylation; ii the established role of K+-stimulated glycogenolysis for K+ uptake in cultured astrocytes, which probably indicates that astrocytes are an integral part of cellular K+ homeostasis in the brain in vivo; and iii the plausible role of transmitter-induced glycogenolysis, stimulating Na+,K+-ATPase/NKCC1 activity and thereby contributing both to the post-excitatory undershoot in extracellular K+ concentration and the memory-enhancing effect of transmitter-mediated reduction of slow neuronal afterhyperpolarization (sAHP.

  6. Trypanosoma evansi contains two auxiliary enzymes of glycolytic metabolism: Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and pyruvate phosphate dikinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Luz Amira; Concepción, Juan Luis; Quintero-Troconis, Ender; Quiñones, Wilfredo; Michels, Paul A M; Acosta, Héctor

    2016-06-01

    Trypanosoma evansi is a monomorphic protist that can infect horses and other animal species of economic importance for man. Like the bloodstream form of the closely related species Trypanosoma brucei, T. evansi depends exclusively on glycolysis for its free-energy generation. In T. evansi as in other kinetoplastid organisms, the enzymes of the major part of the glycolytic pathway are present within organelles called glycosomes, which are authentic but specialized peroxisomes. Since T. evansi does not undergo stage-dependent differentiations, it occurs only as bloodstream forms, it has been assumed that the metabolic pattern of this parasite is identical to that of the bloodstream form of T. brucei. However, we report here the presence of two additional enzymes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and PPi-dependent pyruvate phosphate dikinase in T. evansi glycosomes. Their colocalization with glycolytic enzymes within the glycosomes of this parasite has not been reported before. Both enzymes can make use of PEP for contributing to the production of ATP within the organelles. The activity of these enzymes in T. evansi glycosomes drastically changes the model assumed for the oxidation of glucose by this parasite.

  7. Severe encephalopathy associated to pyruvate dehydrogenase mutations and unbalanced coenzyme Q10 content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asencio, Claudio; Rodríguez-Hernandez, María A; Briones, Paz; Montoya, Julio; Cortés, Ana; Emperador, Sonia; Gavilán, Angela; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; Yubero, Dèlia; Montero, Raquel; Pineda, Mercedes; O'Callaghan, María M; Alcázar-Fabra, María; Salviati, Leonardo; Artuch, Rafael; Navas, Plácido

    2016-03-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is associated to a variety of clinical phenotypes including neuromuscular and nephrotic disorders. We report two unrelated boys presenting encephalopathy, ataxia, and lactic acidosis, who died with necrotic lesions in different areas of brain. Levels of CoQ10 and complex II+III activity were increased in both skeletal muscle and fibroblasts, but it was a consequence of higher mitochondria mass measured as citrate synthase. In fibroblasts, oxygen consumption was also increased, whereas steady state ATP levels were decreased. Antioxidant enzymes such as NQO1 and MnSOD and mitochondrial marker VDAC were overexpressed. Mitochondria recycling markers Fis1 and mitofusin, and mtDNA regulatory Tfam were reduced. Exome sequencing showed mutations in PDHA1 in the first patient and in PDHB in the second. These genes encode subunits of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) that could explain the compensatory increase of CoQ10 and a defect of mitochondrial homeostasis. These two cases describe, for the first time, a mitochondrial disease caused by PDH defects associated with unbalanced of both CoQ10 content and mitochondria homeostasis, which severely affects the brain. Both CoQ10 and mitochondria homeostasis appears as new markers for PDH associated mitochondrial disorders.

  8. Elementary steps in the reaction of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from pig heart. Kinetics of thiamine diphosphate binding to the complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sümegi, B; Alkonyi, I

    1983-11-02

    In the progress curve of the reaction of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, a lag phase was observed when the concentration of thiamin diphosphate was lower than usual (about 0.2-1 mM) in the enzyme assay. The length of the lag phase was dependent on thiamin diphosphate concentration, ranging from 0.2 min to 2 min as the thiamin diphosphate concentration varied from 800 nM to 22 nM. The lag phase was also observed in the elementary steps catalyzed by the pyruvate dehydrogenase component. A Km value of 107 nM was found for thiamin diphosphate with respect to the steady-state reaction rate following the lag phase. The pre-steady-state kinetic data indicate that the resulting lag phase was the consequence of a slow holoenzyme formation from apoenzyme and thiamin diphosphate. The thiamin diphosphate can bind to the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the absence of pyruvate, but the presence of 2 mM pyruvate increases the rate constant of binding from 1.4 X 10(4) M-1 S-1 to 1.3 X 10(5) M-1 S-1 and decreases the rate constant of dissociation from 2.3 X 10(-2) S-1 to 4.1 X 10(-3) S-1. On the other hand, the effect of pyruvate on the thiamin diphosphate binding revealed the existence of a thiamin-diphosphate-independent pyruvate-binding site in the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Direct evidence was also obtained with fluorescence techniques for the existence of this binding site and the dissociation constant of pyruvate was found to be 0.38 mM. On the basis of these data we have proposed a random mechanism for the binding of pyruvate and thiamin diphosphate to the complex. Binding of substrates to the enzyme complex caused an increase in the fluorescence of the dansylaziridine-labelled pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, showing that binding of substrates to the complex is accompanied by structural changes.

  9. Efficient production of pyruvate from DL-lactate by the lactate-utilizing strain Pseudomonas stutzeri SDM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The platform chemical lactate is currently produced mainly through the fermentation of sugars presented in biomass. Besides the synthesis of biodegradable polylactate, lactate is also viewed as a feedstock for the green chemistry of the future. Pyruvate, another important platform chemical, can be produced from lactate through biocatalysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: It was established that whole cells of Pseudomonas stutzeri SDM catalyze lactate oxidation with lactate-induced NAD-independent lactate dehydrogenases (iLDHs through the inherent electron transfer chain. Unlike the lactate oxidation processes observed in previous reports, the mechanism underlying lactate oxidation described in the present study excluded the costliness of the cofactor regeneration step and production of the byproduct hydrogen peroxide. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Biocatalysis conditions were optimized by using the cheap dl-lactate as the substrate and whole cells of the lactate-utilizing P. stutzeri SDM as catalyst. Under optimal conditions, the biocatalytic process produced pyruvate at a high concentration (48.4 g l(-1 and a high yield (98%. The bioconversion system provides a promising alternative for the green production of pyruvate.

  10. Identification of a mitochondrial target of thiazolidinedione insulin sensitizers (mTOT--relationship to newly identified mitochondrial pyruvate carrier proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry R Colca

    Full Text Available Thiazolidinedione (TZD insulin sensitizers have the potential to effectively treat a number of human diseases, however the currently available agents have dose-limiting side effects that are mediated via activation of the transcription factor PPARγ. We have recently shown PPARγ-independent actions of TZD insulin sensitizers, but the molecular target of these molecules remained to be identified. Here we use a photo-catalyzable drug analog probe and mass spectrometry-based proteomics to identify a previously uncharacterized mitochondrial complex that specifically recognizes TZDs. These studies identify two well-conserved proteins previously known as brain protein 44 (BRP44 and BRP44 Like (BRP44L, which recently have been renamed Mpc2 and Mpc1 to signify their function as a mitochondrial pyruvate carrier complex. Knockdown of Mpc1 or Mpc2 in Drosophila melanogaster or pre-incubation with UK5099, an inhibitor of pyruvate transport, blocks the crosslinking of mitochondrial membranes by the TZD probe. Knockdown of these proteins in Drosophila also led to increased hemolymph glucose and blocked drug action. In isolated brown adipose tissue (BAT cells, MSDC-0602, a PPARγ-sparing TZD, altered the incorporation of (13C-labeled carbon from glucose into acetyl CoA. These results identify Mpc1 and Mpc2 as components of the mitochondrial target of TZDs (mTOT and suggest that understanding the modulation of this complex, which appears to regulate pyruvate entry into the mitochondria, may provide a viable target for insulin sensitizing pharmacology.

  11. Scanning mutagenesis of the amino acid sequences flanking phosphorylation site 1 of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagib eAhsan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is regulated by reversible seryl-phosphorylation of the E1α subunit by a dedicated, intrinsic kinase. The phospho-complex is reactivated when dephosphorylated by an intrinsic PP2C-type protein phosphatase. Both the position of the phosphorylated Ser-residue and the sequences of the flanking amino acids are highly conserved. We have used the synthetic peptide-based kinase client assay plus recombinant pyruvate dehydrogenase E1α and E1α-kinase to perform scanning mutagenesis of the residues flanking the site of phosphorylation. Consistent with the results from phylogenetic analysis of the flanking sequences, the direct peptide-based kinase assays tolerated very few changes. Even conservative changes such as Leu, Ile, or Val for Met, or Glu for Asp, gave very marked reductions in phosphorylation. Overall the results indicate that regulation of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by reversible phosphorylation is an extreme example of multiple, interdependent instances of co-evolution.

  12. Pyruvate remediation of cell stress and genotoxicity induced by haloacetic acid drinking water disinfection by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dad, Azra; Jeong, Clara H; Pals, Justin A; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Plewa, Michael J

    2013-10-01

    Monohaloacetic acids (monoHAAs) are a major class of drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) and are cytotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic, and teratogenic. We propose a model of toxic action based on monoHAA-mediated inhibition of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as a target cytosolic enzyme. This model predicts that GAPDH inhibition by the monoHAAs will lead to a severe reduction of cellular ATP levels and repress the generation of pyruvate. A loss of pyruvate will lead to mitochondrial stress and genomic DNA damage. We found a concentration-dependent reduction of ATP in Chinese hamster ovary cells after monoHAA treatment. ATP reduction per pmol monoHAA followed the pattern of iodoacetic acid (IAA) > bromoacetic acid (BAA) > chloroacetic acid (CAA), which is the pattern of potency observed with many toxicological endpoints. Exogenous supplementation with pyruvate enhanced ATP levels and attenuated monoHAA-induced genomic DNA damage as measured with single cell gel electrophoresis. These data were highly correlated with the SN 2 alkylating potentials of the monoHAAs and with the induction of toxicity. The results from this study strongly support the hypothesis that GAPDH inhibition and the possible subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species is linked with the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, teratogenicity, and neurotoxicity of these DBPs.

  13. Simultaneous hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate MRI and (18)F-FDG-PET in cancer (hyperPET)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutte Borgwardt, Henrik; Hansen, Adam E; Henriksen, Sarah T

    2015-01-01

    have named this concept hyper PET. Intravenous injection of the hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate results in an increase of (13)C-lactate, (13)C-alanine and (13)C-CO2 ((13)C-HCO3) resonance peaks relative to the tissue, disease and the metabolic state probed. Accordingly, with dynamic nuclear polarization...... (DNP) and use of (13)C-pyruvate it is now possible to directly study the Warburg Effect through the rate of conversion of (13)C-pyruvate to (13)C-lactate. In this study, we combined it with (18)F-FDG-PET that studies uptake of glucose in the cells. A canine cancer patient with a histology verified...... increased (13)C-lactate production, which also corresponded to high (18)F-FDG uptake on PET. This is in agreement with the fact that glycolysis and production of lactate are increased in tumor cells compared to normal cells. Yet, most interestingly, also in the muscle of the forepaw of the dog high (18)F...

  14. Inhibition of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase 2 Protects Against Hepatic Steatosis Through Modulation of Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Anaplerosis and Ketogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Younghoon; Jeong, Ji Yun; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Jeon, Jae-Han; Park, Bo-Yoon; Kang, Hyeon-Ji; Ha, Chae-Myeong; Choi, Young-Keun; Lee, Sun Joo; Ham, Hye Jin; Kim, Byung-Gyu; Park, Keun-Gyu; Park, So Young; Lee, Chul-Ho; Choi, Cheol Soo; Park, Tae-Sik; Lee, W N Paul; Harris, Robert A; Lee, In-Kyu

    2016-10-01

    Hepatic steatosis is associated with increased insulin resistance and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux, but decreased ketogenesis and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) flux. This study examined whether hepatic PDC activation by inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 (PDK2) ameliorates these metabolic abnormalities. Wild-type mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, and increased levels of pyruvate, TCA cycle intermediates, and malonyl-CoA but reduced ketogenesis and PDC activity due to PDK2 induction. Hepatic PDC activation by PDK2 inhibition attenuated hepatic steatosis, improved hepatic insulin sensitivity, reduced hepatic glucose production, increased capacity for β-oxidation and ketogenesis, and decreased the capacity for lipogenesis. These results were attributed to altered enzymatic capacities and a reduction in TCA anaplerosis that limited the availability of oxaloacetate for the TCA cycle, which promoted ketogenesis. The current study reports that increasing hepatic PDC activity by inhibition of PDK2 ameliorates hepatic steatosis and insulin sensitivity by regulating TCA cycle anaplerosis and ketogenesis. The findings suggest PDK2 is a potential therapeutic target for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  15. Structural Basis for Inactivation of the Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex by Phosphorylation: Role of Disordered Phosphorylation Loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Masato; Wynn, R. Max; Chuang, Jacinta L.; Tso, Shih-Chia; Machius, Mischa; Li, Jun; Chuang, David T. (UTSMC)

    2009-09-11

    We report the crystal structures of the phosporylated pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1p) component of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). The complete phosphorylation at Ser264-{alpha} (site 1) of a variant E1p protein was achieved using robust pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 free of the PDC core. We show that unlike its unmodified counterpart, the presence of a phosphoryl group at Ser264-{alpha} prevents the cofactor thiamine diphosphate-induced ordering of the two loops carrying the three phosphorylation sites. The disordering of these phosphorylation loops is caused by a previously unrecognized steric clash between the phosphoryl group at site 1 and a nearby Ser266-{alpha}, which nullifies a hydrogen-bonding network essential for maintaining the loop conformations. The disordered phosphorylation loops impede the binding of lipoyl domains of the PDC core to E1p, negating the reductive acetylation step. This results in the disruption of the substrate channeling in the PDC, leading to the inactivation of this catalytic machine.

  16. Metabolic analysis of Escherichia coli in the presence and absence of the carboxylating enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate carboxylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokarn, R.R.; Eiteman, M.A.; Altman, E.

    2000-05-01

    Fermentation patterns of Escherichia coli with and without the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PPC) and pyruvate carboxylase (PYC) enzymes were compared under anaerobic conditions with glucose as a carbon source. Time profiles of glucose and fermentation product concentrations were determined and used to calculate metabolic fluxes through central carbon pathways during exponential cell growth. The presence of the Rhizobium etli pyc gene in E. coli (JCL1242/pTrc99A-pyc) restored the succinate producing ability of E. coli ppc null mutants (JCL1242), with PYC competing favorably with both pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase. Succinate formation was slightly greater by JCL1242/pTrc99a-pyc than by cells which overproduced PPC(JCL1242/pPC201, ppc{sup +}), even though PPC activity in cell extracts of JCL1242/pPC201 (ppc{sup +}) was 40-fold greater than PYC activity in extracts of JCL1242/pTrc99a-pyc. Flux calculations indicate that during anaerobic metabolism the pyc{sup +} strain had a 34% greater specific glucose consumption rate, a 37% greater specific rate of ATP formation, and a 6% greater specific growth rate compared to the ppc{sup +} strain. In light of the important position of pyruvate at the juncture of NADH-generating pathways and NADH-dissimilating branches, the results show that when PPC or PYC is expressed, the metabolic network adapts by altering the flux to lactate and the molar ratio of ethanol to acetate formation.

  17. The E1 beta-subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase is surface-expressed in Lactobacillus plantarum and binds fibronectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vastano, Valeria; Salzillo, Marzia; Siciliano, Rosa A; Muscariello, Lidia; Sacco, Margherita; Marasco, Rosangela

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is among the species with a probiotic activity. Adhesion of probiotic bacteria to host tissues is an important principle for strain selection, because it represents a crucial step in the colonization process of either pathogens or commensals. Most bacterial adhesins are proteins, and a major target for them is fibronectin, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein. In this study we demonstrate that PDHB, a component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, is a factor contributing to fibronectin-binding in L. plantarum LM3. By means of fibronectin overlay immunoblotting assay, we identified a L. plantarum LM3 surface protein with apparent molecular mass of 35 kDa. Mass spectrometric analysis shows that this protein is the pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 beta-subunit (PDHB). The corresponding pdhB gene is located in a 4-gene cluster encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase. In LM3-B1, carrying a null mutation in pdhB, the 35 kDa adhesin was not anymore detectable by immunoblotting assay. Nevertheless, the pdhB null mutation did not abolish pdhA, pdhC, and pdhD transcription in LM3-B1. By adhesion assays, we show that LM3-B1 cells bind to immobilized fibronectin less efficiently than wild type cells. Moreover, we show that pdhB expression is negatively regulated by the CcpA protein and is induced by bile.

  18. Inhibition of lactate production in rat brain extracts and synaptosomes by 3-[4-(reduced 3-pyridine aldehyde-adenine dinucleotide)]-pyruvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A J; Lai, J C; Coleman, A E; Pulsinelli, W A

    1987-06-01

    In basic solutions, pyruvate enolizes and reacts (through its 3-carbon) with the 4-carbon of the nicotinamide ring of NAD+, yielding an NAD-pyruvate adduct in which the nicotinamide ring is in the reduced form. This adduct is a strong inhibitor of lactate dehydrogenase, presumably because it binds simultaneously to the NADH and pyruvate sites. The potency of the inhibition, however, is muted by the adduct's tendency to cyclize to a lactam. We prepared solutions of the pyruvate adduct of NAD+ and of NAD+ analogues in which the -C(O)NH2 of NAD+ was replaced with -C(S)NH2, -C(O)CH3, and -C(O)H. Of the four, only the last analogue, 3-[4-(reduced 3-pyridine aldehyde-adenine dinucleotide)]-pyruvate (RAP) cannot cyclize and it was found to be the most potent inhibitor of beef heart and rat brain lactate dehydrogenases. The inhibitor binds very tightly to the NADH site (Ki approximately 1 nM for the A form). Even at high concentrations (20 microM), RAP had little or no effect on rat brain glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, pyruvate, alpha-ketoglutarate, isocitrate, soluble and mitochondrial malate, and glutamate dehydrogenases. The glycolytic enzymes, hexokinase and phosphofructokinase, were similarly unaffected. RAP strongly inhibited lactate production from glucose in rat brain extracts but was less effective in inhibiting lactate production from glucose in synaptosomes.

  19. The Role of the Pyruvate Acetyl-CoA Switch in the Production of 1,3-Propanediol by Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jidong; Wang, Dexin; Wang, Chenghong; Gu, Jinjie; Kim, Chul Ho; Shi, Jiping; Jiang, Biao; Wang, Min; Hao, Jian

    2017-03-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase-complex (AcoABCD) and pyruvate formate-lyase (PFL) are two pathways responsible for synthesis of acetyl-CoA from pyruvate (pyruvate acetyl-CoA switch). The two pathways were individually deleted in Klebsiella pneumoniae, and the role of the pyruvate acetyl-CoA switch in 1,3-propanediol production was investigated. Fermentation results showed that the two pathways were both active in the wild-type strain. Acetyl-CoA formation between the two pathways was equal in the wild-type strain. The pflB mutant produced high level of lactic acid, and deletion of ldhA eliminated lactic acid synthesis. The conversion ratio of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol in the pflB-ldhA mutant reached 0.541 g/g, which was 9.4 % higher than that of the wild-type strain. However, the productivity of 1,3-propanediol was decreased in the pflB-ldhA mutant. In contrast, the productivity of 1,3-propanediol was increased by 19 % in the acoABCD mutant, with the disadvantage of lower substrate conversion ratio. Regulating the pyruvate acetyl-CoA switch presents a novel way to improve the conversion ratio or productivity of 1,3-propanediol produced by K. pneumoniae.

  20. A novel pyruvate kinase and its application in lactic acid production under oxygen deprivation in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xin; Shang, Xiuling; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Shuwen; Liang, Yong; Zhang, Yun; Wen, Tingyi

    2016-11-16

    Pyruvate kinase (Pyk) catalyzes the generation of pyruvate and ATP in glycolysis and functions as a key switch in the regulation of carbon flux distribution. Both the substrates and products of Pyk are involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, anaplerosis and energy anabolism, which places Pyk at a primary metabolic intersection. Pyks are highly conserved in most bacteria and lower eukaryotes. Corynebacterium glutamicum is an industrial workhorse for the production of various amino acids and organic acids. Although C. glutamicum was assumed to possess only one Pyk (pyk1, NCgl2008), NCgl2809 was annotated as a pyruvate kinase with an unknown role. Here, we identified that NCgl2809 was a novel pyruvate kinase (pyk2) in C. glutamicum. Complementation of the WTΔpyk1Δpyk2 strain with the pyk2 gene restored its growth on D-ribose, which demonstrated that Pyk2 could substitute for Pyk1 in vivo. Pyk2 was co-dependent on Mn(2+) and K(+) and had a higher affinity for ADP than phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). The catalytic activity of Pyk2 was allosterically regulated by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) activation and ATP inhibition. Furthermore, pyk2 and ldhA, which encodes L-lactate dehydrogenase, were co-transcribed as a bicistronic mRNA under aerobic conditions and pyk2 deficiency had a slight effect on the intracellular activity of Pyk. However, the mRNA level of pyk2 in the wild-type strain under oxygen deprivation was 14.24-fold higher than that under aerobic conditions. Under oxygen deprivation, pyk1 or pyk2 deficiency decreased the generation of lactic acid, and the overexpression of either pyk1 or pyk2 increased the production of lactic acid as the activity of Pyk increased. Fed-batch fermentation of the pyk2-overexpressing WTΔpyk1 strain produced 60.27 ± 1.40 g/L of lactic acid, which was a 47% increase compared to the parent strain under oxygen deprivation. Pyk2 functioned as a pyruvate kinase and contributed to the increased level of Pyk activity under oxygen

  1. Enhanced survival effect of pyruvate correlates MAPK and NF-kappaB activation in hydrogen peroxide-treated human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Jin; Kang, Il-Jun; Bünger, Rolf; Kang, Young-Hee

    2004-02-01

    We recently reported that pyruvate inhibited translocation and activation of p53 caused by DNA damage due to oxidant injury (Lee YJ, Kang IJ, Bünger R, and Kang YH. Microvasc Res 66: 91-101, 2003); this was associated with increased expression of apoptosis-related bcl-2 and decreased expression of bax gene. This study attempted to delineate possible regulatory sites and mechanisms of antiapoptotic pyruvate, focusing on reactive oxygen species-mediated signaling in a human umbilical vein endothelial cell model. We compared the effects of the cytosolic reductant l-lactate and malate-aspartate shuttle blocker aminooxyacetate, both of which increase cytosolic NADH, on the downstream signaling pathway. Hydrogen peroxide (0.5 mM H2O2) depleted intracellular total glutathione that was prevented by pyruvate but not by l-lactate or aminooxyacetate. Activation of caspase-3 and the cleavage of procaspase-6 and procaspase-7 were strongly inhibited by pyruvate but markedly enhanced by l-lactate and aminooxyacetate, implicating redox-related antiapoptotic mechanisms of pyruvate. Western blot analysis and immunochemical data revealed that H2O2-induced transactivation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) was also inhibited by pyruvate but not by l-lactate or aminooxyacetate. In addition, H2O2 downregulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), effects that were fully reversed by pyruvate within 2 h. Collectively, these findings indicate that pyruvate can protect cellular glutathione, thus enhancing cellular antioxidant potential, and that enhanced antioxidant potential can desensitize NF-kappaB transactivation due to reactive oxygen species, suggesting possible metabolic redox relations to NF-kappaB. Furthermore, pyruvate blocked the p38 MAPK pathway and activated the ERK pathway in an apparently redox-sensitive manner, which may regulate expression of genes believed to prevent apoptosis and promote cell

  2. Modulation of allostery of pyruvate kinase by shifting of an ensemble of microstates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Ching Lee

    2008-01-01

    Since the introduction of the concepts of allostery about four decades ago,much advancement has been made in elucidating the structure-function correlation in allostery.However,there are still a number of issues that remain unresolved.In this review we used mammalian pyruvate kinase (PK) as a model system to understand the role of protein dynamics in modulating cooperativity.PK has a triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) (α/β)8 barrel structural motif.PK is an ideal system to address basic questions regarding regulatory mechanismsabout this common(α/β)8 structural motif.The simplest model accounting for all of the solution thermodynamic and kinetic data on iigand-enzyme interactions involves two conformational states,inactive ET and active ER.These conformational states are represented by domain movements.Further studies provide the first evidence for a differential effect of ligand binding on the dynamics of the structural elements,not major secondary structural changes.These data are consistent with our model that allosteric regulation of PK is the consequence of perturbation of the distribution of an ensemble of states in which the inactive ET and active ER represent the two extreme end states.Sequence differences and ligands can modulate the distribution of states leading to alterations of functions.The future work includes:defining the network of functionally connected residues;elucidating the chemical principles governing the sequence differences which affect functions;and probing the nature of mutations on the stability of the secondary structural elements,which in turn modulate allostery.

  3. miR-122 targets pyruvate kinase M2 and affects metabolism of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Liu

    Full Text Available In contrast to normal differentiated cells that depend on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for energy production, cancer cells have evolved to utilize aerobic glycolysis (Warburg's effect, with benefit of providing intermediates for biomass production. MicroRNA-122 (miR-122 is highly expressed in normal liver tissue regulating a wide variety of biological processes including cellular metabolism, but is reduced in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Overexpression of miR-122 was shown to inhibit cancer cell proliferation, metastasis, and increase chemosensitivity, but its functions in cancer metabolism remains unknown. The present study aims to identify the miR-122 targeted genes and to investigate the associated regulatory mechanisms in HCC metabolism. We found the ectopic overexpression of miR-122 affected metabolic activities of HCC cells, evidenced by the reduced lactate production and increased oxygen consumption. Integrated gene expression analysis in a cohort of 94 HCC tissues revealed miR-122 level tightly associated with a battery of glycolytic genes, in which pyruvate kinase (PK gene showed the strongest anti-correlation coefficient (Pearson r = -0.6938, p = <0.0001. In addition, reduced PK level was significantly associated with poor clinical outcomes of HCC patients. We found isoform M2 (PKM2 is the dominant form highly expressed in HCC and is a direct target of miR-122, as overexpression of miR-122 reduced both the mRNA and protein levels of PKM2, whereas PKM2 re-expression abrogated the miR-122-mediated glycolytic activities. The present study demonstrated the regulatory role of miR-122 on PKM2 in HCC, having an implication of therapeutic intervention targeting cancer metabolic pathways.

  4. Pyruvate formate lyase acts as a formate supplier for metabolic processes during anaerobiosis in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibig, Martina; Liebeke, Manuel; Mader, Diana; Lalk, Michael; Peschel, Andreas; Götz, Friedrich

    2011-02-01

    Previous studies demonstrated an upregulation of pyruvate formate lyase (Pfl) and NAD-dependent formate dehydrogenase (Fdh) in Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. To investigate their physiological role, we constructed fdh and pfl deletion mutants (Δfdh and Δpfl). Although formate dehydrogenase activity in the fdh mutant was lost, it showed little phenotypic alterations under oxygen-limited conditions. In contrast, the pfl mutant displayed pleiotropic effects and revealed the importance of formate production for anabolic metabolism. In the pfl mutant, no formate was produced, glucose consumption was delayed, and ethanol production was decreased, whereas acetate and lactate production were unaffected. All metabolic alterations could be restored by addition of formate or complementation of the Δpfl mutant. In compensation reactions, serine and threonine were consumed better by the Δpfl mutant than by the wild type, suggesting that their catabolism contributes to the refilling of formyl-tetrahydrofolate, which acts as a donor of formyl groups in, e.g., purine and protein biosynthesis. This notion was supported by reduced production of formylated peptides by the Δpfl mutant compared to that of the parental strain, as demonstrated by weaker formyl-peptide receptor 1 (FPR1)-mediated activation of leukocytes with the mutant. FPR1 stimulation could also be restored either by addition of formate or by complementation of the mutation. Furthermore, arginine consumption and arc operon transcription were increased in the Δpfl mutant. Unlike what occurred with the investigated anaerobic conditions, a biofilm is distinguished by nutrient, oxygen, and pH gradients, and we thus assume that Pfl plays a significant role in the anaerobic layer of a biofilm. Fdh might be critical in (micro)aerobic layers, as formate oxidation is correlated with the generation of NADH/H(+), whose regeneration requires respiration.

  5. Is there any association between cerebral vasoconstriction/vasodilatation and microdialysis Lactate to Pyruvate ratio increase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Shadnaz; Vespa, Paul; Hu, Xiao

    2013-08-01

    Although abnormally high Lactate/Pyruvate ratio (LPR) could indicate cerebral ischemia for brain injury patients, there is a debate on what is primary factor responsible for LPR increase. A data analysis experiment is taken to test whether any association between cerebral vasodilatation/vasoconstriction and LPR increase exists. We studied 4,316 microdialysis data samples collected in an average interval of 1.3 h from 30 severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. The LPR increase episodes were automatically identified using a moving time-window of 5 samples. A novel pulse morphological template matching (PMTM) algorithm was applied to the intracranial pressure (ICP) data of the corresponding patients to assess the occurrence of cerebral vasodilatation and vasoconstriction during the identified LPR increase episodes. Several analyses were performed to evaluate the association between cerebral vasoconstriction/vasodilatation and LPR increase. Results revealed that although more than half of the LPR increase episodes are not associated with any detected cerebral vasoconstriction/vasodilatation, when a vaso-change happens in association of LPR increase, it is more likely that this vaso-change is in the form of vasoconstriction rather than vasodilatation. Also for few subjects with dominant number of vasoconstriction episodes, a causality relationship between vasoconstriction and LPR increase were observed (vasoconstriction precedes LPR increase). Using continuous intracranial pressure monitoring and our pulse morphological template matching (PMTM) algorithm could be potentially helpful in teasing out whether culprit cerebral vascular changes precede metabolic crisis for traumatic brain injury patients and hence guiding the management of this condition.

  6. Identification of pyruvate kinase in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a novel antimicrobial drug target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoraghi, Roya; See, Raymond H; Axerio-Cilies, Peter; Kumar, Nag S; Gong, Huansheng; Moreau, Anne; Hsing, Michael; Kaur, Sukhbir; Swayze, Richard D; Worrall, Liam; Amandoron, Emily; Lian, Tian; Jackson, Linda; Jiang, Jihong; Thorson, Lisa; Labriere, Christophe; Foster, Leonard; Brunham, Robert C; McMaster, William R; Finlay, B Brett; Strynadka, Natalie C; Cherkasov, Artem; Young, Robert N; Reiner, Neil E

    2011-05-01

    Novel classes of antimicrobials are needed to address the challenge of multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Using the architecture of the MRSA interactome, we identified pyruvate kinase (PK) as a potential novel drug target based upon it being a highly connected, essential hub in the MRSA interactome. Structural modeling, including X-ray crystallography, revealed discrete features of PK in MRSA, which appeared suitable for the selective targeting of the bacterial enzyme. In silico library screening combined with functional enzymatic assays identified an acyl hydrazone-based compound (IS-130) as a potent MRSA PK inhibitor (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] of 0.1 μM) with >1,000-fold selectivity over human PK isoforms. Medicinal chemistry around the IS-130 scaffold identified analogs that more potently and selectively inhibited MRSA PK enzymatic activity and S. aureus growth in vitro (MIC of 1 to 5 μg/ml). These novel anti-PK compounds were found to possess antistaphylococcal activity, including both MRSA and multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA) strains. These compounds also exhibited exceptional antibacterial activities against other Gram-positive genera, including enterococci and streptococci. PK lead compounds were found to be noncompetitive inhibitors and were bactericidal. In addition, mutants with significant increases in MICs were not isolated after 25 bacterial passages in culture, indicating that resistance may be slow to emerge. These findings validate the principles of network science as a powerful approach to identify novel antibacterial drug targets. They also provide a proof of principle, based upon PK in MRSA, for a research platform aimed at discovering and optimizing selective inhibitors of novel bacterial targets where human orthologs exist, as leads for anti-infective drug development.

  7. Organism-adapted specificity of the allosteric regulation of pyruvate kinase in lactic acid bacteria.

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    Nadine Veith

    Full Text Available Pyruvate kinase (PYK is a critical allosterically regulated enzyme that links glycolysis, the primary energy metabolism, to cellular metabolism. Lactic acid bacteria rely almost exclusively on glycolysis for their energy production under anaerobic conditions, which reinforces the key role of PYK in their metabolism. These organisms are closely related, but have adapted to a huge variety of native environments. They include food-fermenting organisms, important symbionts in the human gut, and antibiotic-resistant pathogens. In contrast to the rather conserved inhibition of PYK by inorganic phosphate, the activation of PYK shows high variability in the type of activating compound between different lactic acid bacteria. System-wide comparative studies of the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria are required to understand the reasons for the diversity of these closely related microorganisms. These require knowledge of the identities of the enzyme modifiers. Here, we predict potential allosteric activators of PYKs from three lactic acid bacteria which are adapted to different native environments. We used protein structure-based molecular modeling and enzyme kinetic modeling to predict and validate potential activators of PYK. Specifically, we compared the electrostatic potential and the binding of phosphate moieties at the allosteric binding sites, and predicted potential allosteric activators by docking. We then made a kinetic model of Lactococcus lactis PYK to relate the activator predictions to the intracellular sugar-phosphate conditions in lactic acid bacteria. This strategy enabled us to predict fructose 1,6-bisphosphate as the sole activator of the Enterococcus faecalis PYK, and to predict that the PYKs from Streptococcus pyogenes and Lactobacillus plantarum show weaker specificity for their allosteric activators, while still having fructose 1,6-bisphosphate play the main activator role in vivo. These differences in the specificity of allosteric

  8. Modulation of allostery of pyruvate kinase by shifting of an ensemble of microstates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J Ching

    2008-07-01

    Since the introduction of the concepts of allostery about four decades ago, much advancement has been made in elucidating the structure-function correlation in allostery. However, there are still a number of issues that remain unresolved. In this review we used mammalian pyruvate kinase (PK) as a model system to understand the role of protein dynamics in modulating cooperativity. PK has a triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) (alpha/beta)(8) barrel structural motif. PK is an ideal system to address basic questions regarding regulatory mechanisms about this common (alpha/beta)(8) structural motif. The simplest model accounting for all of the solution thermodynamic and kinetic data on ligand-enzyme interactions involves two conformational states, inactive E(T) and active E(R). These conformational states are represented by domain movements. Further studies provide the first evidence for a differential effect of ligand binding on the dynamics of the structural elements, not major secondary structural changes. These data are consistent with our model that allosteric regulation of PK is the consequence of perturbation of the distribution of an ensemble of states in which the inactive E(T) and active E(R) represent the two extreme end states. Sequence differences and ligands can modulate the distribution of states leading to alterations of functions. The future work includes: defining the network of functionally connected residues; elucidating the chemical principles governing the sequence differences which affect functions; and probing the nature of mutations on the stability of the secondary structural elements, which in turn modulate allostery.

  9. NEK2 Promotes Aerobic Glycolysis in Multiple Myeloma Through Regulating Splicing of Pyruvate Kinase

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    Zhimin Gu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aerobic glycolysis, a hallmark of cancer, is characterized by increased metabolism of glucose and production of lactate in normaxia. Recently, pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2 has been identified as a key player for regulating aerobic glycolysis and promoting tumor cell proliferation and survival. Methods Tandem affinity purification followed up by mass spectrometry (TAP-MS and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP were used to study the interaction between NIMA (never in mitosis gene A-related kinase 2 (NEK2 and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNP A1/2. RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP was performed to identify NEK2 binding to PKM pre-mRNA sequence. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP-PCR was performed to analyze a transcriptional regulation of NEK2 by c-Myc. Western blot and real-time PCR were executed to analyze the regulation of PKM2 by NEK2. Results NEK2 regulates the alternative splicing of PKM immature RNA in multiple myeloma cells by interacting with hnRNPA1/2. RIP shows that NEK2 binds to the intronic sequence flanking exon 9 of PKM pre-mRNA. Knockdown of NEK2 decreases the ratio of PKM2/PKM1 and also other aerobic glycolysis genes including GLUT4, HK2, ENO1, LDHA, and MCT4. Myeloma patients with high expression of NEK2 and PKM2 have lower event-free survival and overall survival. Our data indicate that NEK2 is transcriptionally regulated by c-Myc in myeloma cells. Ectopic expression of NEK2 partially rescues growth inhibition and cell death induced by silenced c-Myc. Conclusions Our studies demonstrate that NEK2 promotes aerobic glycolysis through regulating splicing of PKM and increasing the PKM2/PKM1 ratio in myeloma cells which contributes to its oncogenic activity.

  10. Study of pyruvate kinase activity in human astrocytomas - Alanine-inhibition test revisted

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    Javalkar V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies have confirmed that alterations in the isoenzyme of pyruvate kinase (PK provide tumor cells with selective growth advantage. Aims: Our aim was to establish the mean activity of the enzyme PK in human astrocytomas and to look for any trends in the activity with relation to histological grade. Materials and Methods: The PK (EC 2.7.1.40 activity was measured in the tumor homogenate by spectrophotometric rate determination. ΔAbsorbance at 340 nm (A 340nm per minute was obtained using the maximal linear rate for both the test and the blank. Enzyme activity was estimated in the presence and absence of amino acid alanine. Results: The mean PK level in astrocytomas was 3.5 ± 2.0 mmol/min/mg protein, which was significantly higher (24%; P < 0.001 when compared to 2.8 ± 0.3 mmol/min/mg protein in control brain. Highest PK activity was noted in grade 2 astrocytomas. In controls there was no change in PK activity in the presence of alanine. In grade 2 astrocytomas there was 7% decrease in mean PK activity in the presence of alanine, this difference in grade 3 astrocytomas was 33% and in grade 4 astrocytomas it was 61%. As the tumors were becoming malignant there was a graded increase in the levels of PK inhibition. Conclusions: Mean PK activity was significantly higher in astrocytomas. There was a graded increase in level of PK inhibition as the tumors were becoming more malignant.

  11. Functional energetic landscape in the allosteric regulation of muscle pyruvate kinase. 1. Calorimetric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Petr; Lee, J Ching

    2009-10-13

    Rabbit muscle pyruvate kinase (RMPK) is an important allosteric enzyme of the glycolytic pathway catalyzing a transfer of the phosphate from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to ADP. The energetic landscape of the allosteric regulatory mechanism of RMPK was characterized by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) in the temperature range from 4 to 45 degrees C. ITC data for RMPK binding to substrates PEP and ADP, for the allosteric inhibitor Phe, and for combination of ADP and Phe were globally analyzed. The thermodynamic parameters characterizing the linked-multiple-equilibrium system were extracted. Four novel insights were uncovered. (1) The binding preference of ADP for either the T or R state is temperature-dependent, namely, more favorable to the T and R states at high and low temperatures, respectively. This crossover of affinity toward R and T states implies that ADP plays a complex role in modulating the allosteric behavior of RMPK. Depending on the temperature, binding of ADP can regulate RMPK activity by favoring the enzyme to either the R or T state. (2) The binding of Phe is negatively coupled to that of ADP; i.e., Phe and ADP prefer not to bind to the same subunit of RMPK. (3) The release or absorption of protons linked to the various equilibria is specific to the particular reaction. As a consequence, pH will exert a complex effect on these linked equilibria, resulting in the proton being an allosteric regulatory ligand of RMPK. (4) The R T equilibrium is accompanied by a significant DeltaC(p), rendering RMPK most sensitive to temperature under physiological conditions. During muscle activity, both pH and temperature fluctuations are known to happen; thus, results of this study are physiologically relevant.

  12. M2 pyruvate kinase provides a mechanism for nutrient sensing and regulation of cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Hugh P; O'Reilly, Francis J; Wear, Martin A; O'Neill, J Robert; Fothergill-Gilmore, Linda A; Hupp, Ted; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D

    2013-04-09

    We show that the M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (M2PYK) exists in equilibrium between monomers and tetramers regulated by allosteric binding of naturally occurring small-molecule metabolites. Phenylalanine stabilizes an inactive T-state tetrameric conformer and inhibits M2PYK with an IC50 value of 0.24 mM, whereas thyroid hormone (triiodo-L-thyronine, T3) stabilizes an inactive monomeric form of M2PYK with an IC50 of 78 nM. The allosteric activator fructose-1,6-bisphosphate [F16BP, AC50 (concentration that gives 50% activation) of 7 μM] shifts the equilibrium to the tetrameric active R-state, which has a similar activity to that of the constitutively fully active isoform M1PYK. Proliferation assays using HCT-116 cells showed that addition of inhibitors phenylalanine and T3 both increased cell proliferation, whereas addition of the activator F16BP reduced proliferation. F16BP abrogates the inhibitory effect of both phenylalanine and T3, highlighting a dominant role of M2PYK allosteric activation in the regulation of cancer proliferation. X-ray structures show constitutively fully active M1PYK and F16BP-bound M2PYK in an R-state conformation with a lysine at the dimer-interface acting as a peg in a hole, locking the active tetramer conformation. Binding of phenylalanine in an allosteric pocket induces a 13° rotation of the protomers, destroying the peg-in-hole R-state interface. This distinct T-state tetramer is stabilized by flipped out Trp/Arg side chains that stack across the dimer interface. X-ray structures and biophysical binding data of M2PYK complexes explain how, at a molecular level, fluctuations in concentrations of amino acids, thyroid hormone, and glucose metabolites switch M2PYK on and off to provide the cell with a nutrient sensing and growth signaling mechanism.

  13. Functional energetic landscape in the allosteric regulation of muscle pyruvate kinase. 2. Fluorescence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Petr; Lee, J Ching

    2009-10-13

    The energetic landscape of the allosteric regulatory mechanism of rabbit muscle pyruvate kinase (RMPK) was characterized by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Four novel insights were uncovered. (1) ADP exhibits a dual property. Depending on the temperature, ADP can regulate RMPK activity by switching the enzyme to either the R or T state. (2) The assumption that ligand binding to RMPK is state-dependent is only correct for PEP but not Phe and ADP. (3) The effect of pH on the regulatory behavior of RMPK is partly due to the complex pattern of proton release or absorption linked to the multiple linked equilibria which govern the activity of the enzyme. (4) The R T equilibrium is accompanied by a significant DeltaC(p), rendering RMPK most sensitive to temperature under physiological conditions. To rigorously test the validity of conclusions derived from the ITC data, in this study a fluorescence approach, albeit indirect, that tracks continuous structural perturbations was employed. Intrinsic Trp fluorescence of RMPK in the absence and presence of substrates phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and ADP, and the allosteric inhibitor Phe, was measured in the temperature range between 4 and 45 degrees C. For data analysis, the fluorescence data were complemented by ITC experiments to yield an extended data set allowing more complete characterization of the RMPK regulatory mechanism. Twenty-one thermodynamic parameters were derived to define the network of linked interactions involved in regulating the allosteric behavior of RMPK through global analysis of the ITC and fluorescent data sets. In this study, 27 independent curves with more than 1600 experimental points were globally analyzed. Consequently, the consensus results substantiate not only the conclusions derived from the ITC data but also structural information characterizing the transition between the active and inactive states of RMPK and the antagonism between ADP and Phe binding. The latter observation reveals a

  14. miR-122 targets pyruvate kinase M2 and affects metabolism of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Angela M; Xu, Zhi; Shek, Felix H; Wong, Kwong-Fai; Lee, Nikki P; Poon, Ronnie T; Chen, Jinfei; Luk, John M

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to normal differentiated cells that depend on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for energy production, cancer cells have evolved to utilize aerobic glycolysis (Warburg's effect), with benefit of providing intermediates for biomass production. MicroRNA-122 (miR-122) is highly expressed in normal liver tissue regulating a wide variety of biological processes including cellular metabolism, but is reduced in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Overexpression of miR-122 was shown to inhibit cancer cell proliferation, metastasis, and increase chemosensitivity, but its functions in cancer metabolism remains unknown. The present study aims to identify the miR-122 targeted genes and to investigate the associated regulatory mechanisms in HCC metabolism. We found the ectopic overexpression of miR-122 affected metabolic activities of HCC cells, evidenced by the reduced lactate production and increased oxygen consumption. Integrated gene expression analysis in a cohort of 94 HCC tissues revealed miR-122 level tightly associated with a battery of glycolytic genes, in which pyruvate kinase (PK) gene showed the strongest anti-correlation coefficient (Pearson r = -0.6938, p = <0.0001). In addition, reduced PK level was significantly associated with poor clinical outcomes of HCC patients. We found isoform M2 (PKM2) is the dominant form highly expressed in HCC and is a direct target of miR-122, as overexpression of miR-122 reduced both the mRNA and protein levels of PKM2, whereas PKM2 re-expression abrogated the miR-122-mediated glycolytic activities. The present study demonstrated the regulatory role of miR-122 on PKM2 in HCC, having an implication of therapeutic intervention targeting cancer metabolic pathways.

  15. 3-Phosphoglycerate is an allosteric activator of pyruvate kinase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, J T Graham; Johnsen, Ulrike; Schönheit, Peter; Davies, Christopher

    2013-08-27

    Pyruvate kinase (PK) is a highly regulated enzyme that catalyzes the final step of glycolysis. PK from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum (PaPK) is distinguished from most PK enzymes of eukarya and bacteria by not responding to any known allosteric effectors and apparently exhibiting only cooperative regulation. We determined the crystal structure of PaPK to 2.2 Å resolution and, in a manner consistent with the lack of a response to conventional effectors, observed that the canonical allosteric site is occluded by a tyrosine. Unexpectedly, though, a bound sulfate was observed at a position equivalent to the 6'-phosphate of sugar effectors, suggesting an allosteric site, but for an unknown effector and sharing only the phosphate position. A search of three-carbon intermediates of glycolysis revealed 3-phosphoglycerate (3PG) as a potent allosteric activator of PaPK. The response was abolished by mutation of residues that contact the sulfate and of an arginine proposed to interact with the 3PG carboxylate group. Regulation of PK by 3PG is consistent with the ancestral glycolysis of hyperthermophilic archaea in which this intermediate is produced by an irreversible enzyme, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate ferredoxin oxidoreductase. Coordinated regulation within the lower half of glycolysis contrasts sharply with conventional glycolysis in which 3PG is produced reversibly and PK is regulated by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, the product of phosphofructokinase, an irreversible enzyme in the upper half of the pathway. Regulation of PaPK by a carboxylate molecule rather than a sugar phosphate may reflect a step in the evolution of glycolysis that predates the dominance of sugars in metabolism.

  16. Multiple orientations in a physiological complex: the pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase-ferredoxin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieulle, Laetitia; Nouailler, Matthieu; Morelli, Xavier; Cavazza, Christine; Gallice, Philippe; Blanchet, Stéphane; Bianco, Pierre; Guerlesquin, Françoise; Hatchikian, E Claude

    2004-12-14

    Ferredoxin I from Desulfovibrio africanus (Da FdI) is a small acidic [4Fe-4S] cluster protein that exchanges electrons with pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), a key enzyme in the energy metabolism of anaerobes. The thermodynamic properties and the electron transfer between PFOR and either native or mutated FdI have been investigated by microcalorimetry and steady-state kinetics, respectively. The association constant of the PFOR-FdI complex is 3.85 x 10(5) M(-1), and the binding affinity has been found to be highly sensitive to ionic strength, suggesting the involvement of electrostatic forces in formation of the complex. Surprisingly, the punctual or combined neutralizations of carboxylate residues surrounding the [4Fe-4S] cluster slightly affect the PFOR-FdI interaction. Furthermore, hydrophobic residues around the cluster do not seem to be crucial for the PFOR-FdI system activity; however, some of them play an important role in the stability of the FeS cluster. NMR restrained docking associated with site-directed mutagenesis studies suggested the presence of various interacting sites on Da FdI. The modification of additional acidic residues at the interacting interface, generating a FdI pentamutant, evidenced at least two distinct FdI binding sites facing the distal [4Fe-4S] cluster of the PFOR. We also used a set of various small acidic partners to investigate the specificity of PFOR toward redox partners. The remarkable flexibility of the PFOR-FdI system supports the idea that the specificity of the physiological complex has probably been "sacrificed" to improve the turnover rate and thus the efficiency of bacterial electron transfer.

  17. Attenuation of Methotrexate-Induced Embryotoxicity and Oxidative Stress by Ethyl Pyruvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najafi Gholamreza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Methotrexate (MTX, as an anti-folate agent, is widely used in the treatment of rheumatic disorders and malignant tumors, however it damages reproductive sys- tem in mice. The aim of this research was to study the effects of ethyl pyruvate (EP on embryo development and oxidative stress changes in the testis of mice treated with MTX. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, thirty-two adult male Naval Medical Research Institute mice, with average weight of 26 ± 2 g, were divided into four groups. The first group (control received distilled water (0.1 ml/mice/day, while the second group was intraperitoneally (IP treated with 20 mg/kg MTX once per week. The third group was IP treated with 40 mg/kg/day EP, and the fourth group was IP treated with both 20 mg/kg MTX and 40 mg/kg/day EP for 30 days. At the end of treatment fertilization rate and embryonic development were evaluated. Differences between these groups were assessed by ANOVA using the SPSS software package for Windows with a Tukey-Kramer multiple post-hoc comparison test. Results MTX treatment caused significant (P<0.05 increase in malondialdehyde (MDA and reduced catalase (CAT, as well as leading to in vitro fertilization (IVF and embryonic development. The improved effects of EP on the IVF were determined by the reduced level of MDA (index of oxidative stress and significant increased level of CAT (a key antioxidant. We observed significant increase in fertilization rate and embryonic development in the treated group with both MTX and EP. Conclusion It is suggested that EP can be useful in ameliorating testicular damages and embryotoxicity induced by MTX. These effects could be attributed to its antioxidant properties.

  18. Characterization of interactions of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase with its binding protein in the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yun-Hee [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Patel, Mulchand S., E-mail: mspatel@buffalo.edu [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States)

    2010-05-07

    Unlike pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes (PDCs) from prokaryotes, PDCs from higher eukaryotes have an additional structural component, E3-binding protein (BP), for binding of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) in the complex. Based on the 3D structure of the subcomplex of human (h) E3 with the di-domain (L3S1) of hBP, the amino acid residues (H348, D413, Y438, and R447) of hE3 for binding to hBP were substituted singly by alanine or other residues. These substitutions did not have large effects on hE3 activity when measured in its free form. However, when these hE3 mutants were reconstituted in the complex, the PDC activity was significantly reduced to 9% for Y438A, 20% for Y438H, and 18% for D413A. The binding of hE3 mutants with L3S1 determined by isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that the binding affinities of the Y438A, Y438H, and D413A mutants to L3S1 were severely reduced (1019-, 607-, and 402-fold, respectively). Unlike wild-type hE3 the binding of the Y438A mutant to L3S1 was accompanied by an unfavorable enthalpy change and a large positive entropy change. These results indicate that hE3-Y438 and hE3-D413 play important roles in binding of hE3 to hBP.

  19. Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and citric acid cycle intermediates during high cardiac power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Naveen; Okere, Isidore C; Brunengraber, Daniel Z; McElfresh, Tracy A; King, Kristen L; Sterk, Joseph P; Huang, Hazel; Chandler, Margaret P; Stanley, William C

    2005-01-15

    A high rate of cardiac work increases citric acid cycle (CAC) turnover and flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH); however, the mechanisms for these effects are poorly understood. We tested the hypotheses that an increase in cardiac energy expenditure: (1) activates PDH and reduces the product/substrate ratios ([NADH]/[NAD(+)] and [acetyl-CoA]/[CoA-SH]); and (2) increases the content of CAC intermediates. Measurements were made in anaesthetized pigs under control conditions and during 15 min of a high cardiac workload induced by dobutamine (Dob). A third group was made hyperglycaemic (14 mm) to stimulate flux through PDH during the high work state (Dob + Glu). Glucose and fatty acid oxidation were measured with (14)C-glucose and (3)H-oleate. Compared with control, the high workload groups had a similar increase in myocardial oxygen consumption ( and cardiac power. Dob increased PDH activity and glucose oxidation above control, but did not reduce the [NADH]/[NAD(+)] and [acetyl-CoA]/[CoA-SH] ratios, and there were no differences between the Dob and Dob + Glu groups. An additional group was treated with Dob + Glu and oxfenicine (Oxf) to inhibit fatty acid oxidation: this increased [CoA-SH] and glucose oxidation compared with Dob; however, there was no further activation of PDH or decrease in the [NADH]/[NAD(+)] ratio. Content of the 4-carbon CAC intermediates succinate, fumarate and malate increased 3-fold with Dob, but there was no change in citrate content, and the Dob + Glu and Dob + Glu + Oxf groups were not different from Dob. In conclusion, compared with normal conditions, at high myocardial energy expenditure (1) the increase in flux through PDH is regulated by activation of the enzyme complex and continues to be partially controlled through inhibition by fatty acid oxidation, and (2) there is expansion of the CAC pool size at the level of 4-carbon intermediates that is largely independent of myocardial fatty acid oxidation.

  20. Ethyl pyruvate ameliorates experimental colitis in mice by inhibiting the HMGB1-Th17 and Th1/Tc1 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xianghua; Guo, Runhua; Luo, Xia; Zhou, Lian

    2015-12-01

    Ethyl pyruvate (EP), a simple lipophilic pyruvate ester, has demonstrated protective effects against murine colitis through inhibition the release of inflammatory factor high-mobility group protein box 1 (HMGB1). HMGB1 has been implicated in several autoimmune diseases by inducing Thl and Thl7 cells activation. This study was designed to investigate whether EP amelioration of murine colitis is related to the blocking of the HMGB1-Th17/Thl pathway. We induced murine colitis by intrarectal administration of 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Ethyl pyruvate was injected intraperitoneally once a day for 7days. One week after intrarectal challenge with TNBS, HMGB1, IL-17 and IFN-γ protein levels were remarkably increased following severe colon inflammation. Meanwhile, excessive infiltration of Th17 cells in colonic tissues, and an upregulated proportion of Th17 and Th1/Tc1 cells in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) were found in the TNBS-treated group compared to the control group. Treatment with the HMGB1 inhibitor EP not only remarkably improved colon pathological damage, but also significantly reduced the number of Th17 cells in the local tissues of the colitis-induced mice. Furthermore, the percentage of Th1/Tc1 and Th17 cells in the spleen and MLN, as well as levels of serum IFN-γ and IL-17A, were all markedly decreased in the EP-treated group. Moreover, in vitro, our results showed that EP in a dose dependent manner inhibited HMGB1 release induced by LPS from CT26 cells (murine colon adenocarcinoma cell line). These results suggest that HMGB1 contributes to the development of murine colitis by promoting the Th17 and Th1/Tc1 responses, and that EP can significantly inhibit HMGB1-Th17 and Thl/Tc1 pathway activation, which may provide better protection to mice with TNBS-induced colitis.

  1. GABAergic transmission and chloride equilibrium potential are not modulated by pyruvate in the developing optic tectum of Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arseny S Khakhalin

    Full Text Available In the developing mammalian brain, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is thought to play an excitatory rather than an inhibitory role due to high levels of intracellular Cl(- in immature neurons. This idea, however, has been questioned by recent studies which suggest that glucose-based artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF may be inadequate for experiments on immature and developing brains. These studies suggest that immature neurons may require alternative energy sources, such as lactate or pyruvate. Lack of these other energy sources is thought to result in artificially high intracellular Cl(- concentrations, and therefore a more depolarized GABA receptor (GABAR reversal potential. Since glucose metabolism can vary widely among different species, it is important to test the effects of these alternative energy sources on different experimental preparations. We tested whether pyruvate affects GABAergic transmission in isolated brains of developing wild type Xenopus tadpoles in vitro by recording the responsiveness of tectal neurons to optic nerve stimulation, and by measuring currents evoked by local GABA application in a gramicidin perforated patch configuration. We found that, in contrast with previously reported results, the reversal potential for GABAR-mediated currents does not change significantly between developmental stages 45 and 49. Partial substitution of glucose by pyruvate had only minor effects on both the GABA reversal potential, and the responsiveness of tectal neurons at stages 45 and 49. Total depletion of energy sources from the ACSF did not affect neural responsiveness. We also report a strong spatial gradient in GABA reversal potential, with immature cells adjacent to the lateral and caudal proliferative zones having more positive reversal potentials. We conclude that in this experimental preparation standard glucose-based ACSF is an appropriate extracellular media for in vitro experiments.

  2. Cloning of affecting pyruvate decarboxylase gene in the production bioethanol of agricultural waste in the E.coli bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masome Zeinali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ethanol made by a biomass is one of the useful strategies in terms of economic and environmental and as a clean and safe energy to replace fossil fuels considered and examined. Materials and methods: In this study, key enzyme in the production of ethanol (Pyruvate decarboxylase from Zymomonas mobilis bacteria was isolated and cloned at E. coli bacteria by freeze and thaw method. For gene cloning, we used specific primers of pdc and PCR reaction and then pdc gene isolated and pET 28a plasmid double digested with (Sal I and Xho I enzymes. Digestion Products were ligated by T4 DNA ligase in 16 °C for 16 hours. Results: Results of bacteria culture showed that a few colonies containing pET 28a plasmid could grow. Result of colony pcr of pdc gene with specific primers revealed 1700 bp bands in 1% agarose gel electrophoresis. The results of PCR with T7 promotor forward primer and pdc revers primer have proved the accurate direction of integration of pdc gene into plasmid and revealed 1885 bp band. Double digestion of recombinant plasmid with SalI and XhoI enzymes revealed same bands. Finally, RT showed the expected band of 1700 bp that implies the desired gene expression in the samples. Discussion and conclusion: Due to the increased production of ethanol via pyruvate decarboxylase gene cloning in expression plasmids with a strong promoter upstream of the cloning site can conclude that, pyruvate decarboxylase cloning as a key gene would be useful and according to beneficial properties of E. coli bacteria, transfering the gene to bacteria appears to be reasonable.

  3. Pyruvate kinase M2 prevents apoptosis via modulating Bim stability and associates with poor outcome in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wen; Lu, Shi-Xun; Li, Min; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Li-Li; Fu, Jia; Jin, Jie-Tian; Luo, Rong-Zhen; Zhang, Chris Zhiyi; Yun, Jing-Ping

    2015-03-30

    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) contributes to the Warburg effect, a hallmark of cancer. We showed that PKM2 levels were correlated with overall survival (hazard ration = 1.675, 95% confidence interval: 1.389-2.019, P Bim siRNA markedly abolished the PKM2-depletion-induced apoptosis. PKM2 depletion decreased the degradation of Bim. In clinical samples, PKM2 expression was reversely correlated with Bim expression. Combination of PKM2 and Bim levels had the best prognostic significance. We suggest that PKM2 serves as a promising biomarker for poor prognosis of patients with HCC and its knockdown induces HCC apoptosis by stabilizing Bim.

  4. Neonatal pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency due to a R302H mutation in the PDHA1 gene: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares-Fernandes, Joao P.; Ribeiro, Manuel; Magalhaes, Zita; Rocha, Jaime F. [Hospital de S. Marcos, Department of Neuroradiology, Braga (Portugal); Teixeira-Gomes, Roseli [Hospital Pedro Hispano, Division of Neuropediatrics, Matosinhos (Portugal); Cruz, Romeu [Hospital Geral de Sto. Antonio, Department of Neuroradiology, Porto (Portugal); Leijser, Lara M. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Paediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2008-05-15

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) deficiency is one of the most common causes of congenital lactic acidosis. Correlations between the genetic defect and neuroimaging findings are lacking. We present conventional and diffusion-weighted MRI findings in a 7-day-old male neonate with PDH deficiency due to a mosaicism for the R302H mutation in the PDHA1 gene. Corpus callosum dysgenesis, widespread increased diffusion in the white matter, and bilateral subependymal cysts were the main features. Although confirmation of PDH deficiency depends on specialized biochemical analyses, neonatal MRI plays a role in evaluating the pattern and extent of brain damage, and potentially in early diagnosis and clinical decision making. (orig.)

  5. Brain hypoxanthine concentration correlates to lactate/pyruvate ratio but not intracranial pressure in patients with acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring, Peter Nissen; Hauerberg, John; Jørgensen, Linda;

    2010-01-01

    The pathogenesis of cerebral edema in acute liver failure is suggested, in in vitro and animal studies, to involve a compromised oxidative metabolism with a decrease in cerebral ATP levels and an increase in purine concentrations. In this study we hypothesize that the cerebral concentrations...... of hypoxanthine, inosine, and lactate/pyruvate (LP) ratio are increased and correlated in patients with acute liver failure. Furthermore, we expect the purines and L/P ratio to correlate with intracranial pressure (ICP) (positively), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) (negatively)....

  6. MODIFICATION OF TRANSITION METAL CATIONS TO POLYMER- STABILIZED PLATINUM COLLOIDAL CLUSTERS IN ENANTIOSELECTIVE HYDROGENATION OF METHYL PYRUVATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-ping Yan; Bao-lin He; Jie Zhang; Han-fan Liu

    2005-01-01

    Modification of transition metal cations to polymer-stabilized Pt colloidal clusters modified with cinchonidine was studied in enantioselective hydrogenation of methyl pyruvate. Compared to the enantiomeric excess (e.e.) value (71.4%)obtained without the presence of metal cations, obvious e.e. enhancement (up to 82.5%) was resulted from the addition of Zn2+ but with a certain decrease in activity. The reaction parameters in the presence of Zn2+ were also studied. It was found that the Pt colloidal catalysts in the presence of metal cations performed very differently from that in the absence of metal cations.

  7. Structure and gene cluster of the O-antigen of Escherichia coli O156 containing a pyruvic acid acetal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhifeng; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N; Guo, Xi; Perepelov, Andrei V; Shashkov, Alexander S; Liu, Bin; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2016-07-22

    The lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli O156 was degraded under mild acidic and alkaline conditions and the resulting polysaccharides were studied by sugar analysis and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The following structure of the pentasaccharide repeating unit of the O-polysaccharide was established: where Rpyr indicates R-configurated pyruvic acid acetal. Minor O-acetyl groups also were present and tentatively localized on the Gal residues. The gene cluster for biosynthesis of the O-antigen of E. coli O156 was analyzed and shown to be consistent with the O-polysaccharide structure.

  8. Somatic mosaicism for a novel PDHA1 mutation in a male with severe pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin K. Deeb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC deficiencies are mostly due to mutations in the X-linked PDHA1 gene. Males with hemizygous PDHA1 mutations are clinically more severely affected, while those with mosaic PDHA1 mutations may manifest milder phenotypes. We report a patient harboring a novel, mosaic missense PDHA1 mutation, c.523G > A (p.A175T, with a severe clinical presentation of congenital microcephaly, significant brain abnormalities, persistent seizures, profound developmental delay, and failure to thrive. We review published cases of PDHA1 mosaicism.

  9. Coupling between the blood lactate-to-pyruvate ratio and MCA Vmean at the onset of exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Madsen, Camilla A; Nielsen, Henning B

    2009-01-01

    Activation-induced increase in cerebral blood flow is coupled to enhanced metabolic activity, maybe with brain tissue redox state and oxygen tension as key modulators. To evaluate this hypothesis at the onset of exercise in humans, blood was sampled at 0.1 to 0.2 Hz from the radial artery and right...... internal jugular vein, while middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MCA V(mean)) was recorded. Both the arterial and venous lactate-to-pyruvate ratio increased after 10 s (P arterial ratio remained slightly higher than the venous (P ... oxygen tension decreased by 2.7 mmHg after 5 s (P

  10. Activation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase and decline of mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase activity during brain aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiongqiong; Lam, Philip Y; Han, Derick; Cadenas, Enrique

    2009-04-02

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is often associated with aging and neurodegeneration. c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and its translocation to mitochondria increased as a function of age in rat brain. This was associated with a decrease of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity upon phosphorylation of the E(1alpha) subunit of PDH. Phosphorylation of PDH is likely mediated by PDH kinase, the protein levels and activity of which increased with age. ATP levels were diminished, whereas lactic acid levels increased, thus indicating a shift toward anaerobic glycolysis. The energy transduction deficit due to impairment of PDH activity during aging may be associated with JNK signaling.

  11. Structural and functional energetic linkages in allosteric regulation of muscle pyruvate kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J Ching; Herman, Petr

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of the molecular mechanisms of allostery in rabbit muscle pyruvate kinase (RMPK) is still in its infancy. Although, there is a paucity of knowledge on the ground rules on how its functions are regulated, RMPK is an ideal system to address basic questions regarding the fundamental chemical principles governing the regulatory mechanisms about this enzyme which has a TIM (α/β)(8) barrel structural motif [Copley, R. R., and Bork, P. (2000). Homology among (βα)8 barrels: Implications for the evolution of metabolic pathways. J. Mol. Biol.303, 627-640; Farber, G. K., and Petsko, G. A. (1990). The evolution of α/ß barrel enzymes. Trends Biochem.15, 228-234; Gerlt, J. A., and Babbitt, P. C. (2001). Divergent evolution of enzymatic function: Mechanistically diverse superfamilies and functionally distinct superfamilies. Annu. Rev. Biochem.70, 209-246; Heggi, H., and Gerstein, M. (1999). The relationship between protein structure and function: A comprehensive survey with application to the yeast genome. J. Mol. Biol.288, 147-164; Wierenga, R. K. (2001). The TIM-barrel fold: A versatile framework for efficient enzymes. FEB Lett.492, 193-198]. RMPK is a homotetramer. Each subunit consists of 530 amino acids and multiple domains. The active site resides between the A and B domains. Besides the basic TIM-barrel motif, RMPK also exhibits looped-out regions in the α/β barrel of each monomer forming the B- and C-domains. The two isozymes of PK, namely, the kidney and muscle isozymes, exhibit very different allosteric behaviors under the same experimental condition. The only amino acid sequence differences between the mammalian kidney and muscle PK isozymes are located in the C-domain and are involved in intersubunit interactions. Thus, embedded in these two isozymes of PK are the rules involved in engineering the popular TIM (α/β)(8) motif to modulate its allosteric properties. The PK system exhibits a lot of the properties that will allow mining of the

  12. Decreased expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase A1 predicts an unfavorable prognosis in ovarian carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaqing; Huang, Ruixia; Li, Xiaoli; Li, Xiaoran; Yu, Dandan; Zhang, Mingzhi; Wen, Jianguo; Goscinski, Mariusz Adam; Trope, Claes G; Nesland, Jahn M; Suo, Zhenhe

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase A1 (PDHA1) serves as a gate-keeper enzyme link between glycolysis and the mitochondrial citric acid cycle. The inhibition of PDHA1 in cancer cells can result in an increased Warburg effect and a more aggressive phenotype in cancer cells. This study was conducted to investigate the expression of PDHA1 in ovarian cancer and the correlation between PDHA1 expression and the prognosis of patients. The PDHA1 protein expression in 3 ovarian cancer cell lines (OVCAR-3, SKOV-3 and ES-2) and 248 surgically removed ovarian carcinoma samples was immunocytochemically examined. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the correlations between PDHA1 expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of the patients as well as the predictive value of PDHA1. The results showed the presence of variable expression of PDHA1 in the three ovarian cancer cell lines. Of the 248 ovarian cancer tissue specimens, 45 cases (18.1%) were negative in tumor cells for PDHA1, 162 cases (65.3%) displayed a low expression level, and 41 cases (16.5%) had a relatively high PDHA1 staining. The expression of PDHA1 was associated with the histological subtype (P=0.004) and FIGO stage (P=0.002). The median OS time in the PDHA1 negative group, low expression group and high expression group were 0.939 years, 1.443 years and 9.900 years, respectively. The median PFS time in the above three groups were 0.287 years, 0.586 years and 9.900 years, respectively. Furthermore, the high expression of PDHA1 in ovarian carcinoma cells was significantly associated with better OS and PFS by statistical analyses. Multivariate analyses showed that PDHA1 expression was also an independent prognostic factor for higher OS in ovarian cancer patients (HR=0.705, 95% CI 0.541-0.918, P=0.01). Our study indicated that the decreased expression of PDHA1 might be an independent prognostic factor in unfavorable outcomes. PMID:27725912

  13. Reverse reaction of malic enzyme for HCO3- fixation into pyruvic acid to synthesize L-malic acid with enzymatic coenzyme regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yoko; Nakamori, Toshihiko; Zheng, Haitao; Suye, Shin-ichiro

    2008-05-01

    Malic enzyme [L-malate: NAD(P)(+) oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.1.39)] catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of L-malic acid to produce pyruvic acid using the oxidized form of NAD(P) (NAD(P)(+)). We used a reverse reaction of the malic enzyme of Pseudomonas diminuta IFO 13182 for HCO(3)(-) fixation into pyruvic acid to produce L-malic acid with coenzyme (NADH) generation. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC1.1.1.49) of Leuconostoc mesenteroides was suitable for coenzyme regeneration. Optimum conditions for the carboxylation of pyruvic acid were examined, including pyruvic acid, NAD(+), and both malic enzyme and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase concentrations. Under optimal conditions, the ratio of HCO(3)(-) and pyruvic acid to malic acid was about 38% after 24 h of incubation at 30 degrees C, and the concentration of the accumulated L-malic acid in the reaction mixture was 38 mM. The malic enzyme reverse reaction was also carried out by the conjugated redox enzyme reaction with water-soluble polymer-bound NAD(+).

  14. A Comparison between Radiolabeled Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake and Hyperpolarized 13C-Labeled Pyruvate Utilization as Methods for Detecting Tumor Response to Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy H. Witney

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection of early tumor responses to treatment can give an indication of clinical outcome. Positron emission tomography measurements of the uptake of the glucose analog, [18F] 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG, have demonstrated their potential for detecting early treatment response in the clinic. We have shown recently that 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging measurements of the uptake and conversion of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate into [1-13C]lactate can be used to detect treatment response in a murine lymphoma model. The present study compares these magnetic resonance measurements with changes in FDG uptake after chemotherapy. A decrease in FDG uptake was found to precede the decrease in flux of hyperpolarized 13C label between pyruvate and lactate, both in tumor cells in vitro and in tumors in vivo. However, the magnitude of the decrease in FDG uptake and the decrease in pyruvate to lactate flux was comparable at 24 hours after drug treatment. In cells, the decrease in FDG uptake was shown to correlate with changes in plasma membrane expression of the facilitative glucose transporters, whereas the decrease in pyruvate to lactate flux could be explained by an increase in poly(ADP-ribose polymerase activity and subsequent depletion of the NAD(H pool. These results show that measurement of flux between pyruvate and lactate may be an alternative to FDG-positron emission tomography for imaging tumor treatment response in the clinic.

  15. Growth of Campylobacter incubated aerobically in fumarate-pyruvate media or media supplemented with dairy, meat, or soy extracts and peptones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Arthur

    2016-09-01

    The ability of Campylobacter to grow aerobically in media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate or with dairy, meat, or soy extracts or peptones was examined. Optical densities (OD) of Campylobacter cultured in basal media, media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate or with 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, or 7.5% beef extract was measured. Growth was also compared in media supplemented with other extracts or peptones. Finally, cfu/mL of Campylobacter recovered from basal media or media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate, casamino acids, beef extract, soytone, or beef extract and soytone was determined. Results indicated that OD of cultures grown in media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate or with 5.0 or 7.5% beef extract were higher than OD of isolates grown in basal media or media supplemented with lower concentrations of beef extract. Highest OD were produced by isolates grown in media supplemented with beef extract, peptone from meat, polypeptone, proteose peptone, or soytone. Also, more cfu/mL were recovered from media with fumarate-pyruvate, beef extract, soytone, or beef extract-soytone than from basal media or media with casamino acids. Findings indicate that media supplemented with organic acids, vitamins, and minerals and media supplemented with extracts or peptones containing these metabolites can support aerobic growth of Campylobacter. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. The pkI gene encoding pyruvate kinase I links to the luxZ gene which enhances bioluminescence of the lux operon from Photobacterium leiognathi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J W; Lu, H C; Chen, H Y; Weng, S F

    1997-10-09

    Partial 3'-end nucleotide sequence of the pkI gene (GenBank accession No. AF019143) from Photobacterium leiognathi ATCC 25521 has been determined, and the encoded pyruvate kinase I is deduced. Pyruvate kinase I is the key enzyme of glycolysis, which converts phosphoenol pyruvate to pyruvate. Alignment and comparison of pyruvate kinase Is from P. leiognathi, E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium show that they are homologous. Nucleotide sequence reveals that the pkI gene is linked to the luxZ gene that enhances bioluminescence of the lux operon from P. leiognathi. The gene order of the pkI and luxZ genes is-pk1-ter-->-R&R"-luxZ-ter"-->, whereas ter is transcriptional terminator for the pkI and related genes, and R&R" is the regulatory region and ter" is transcriptional terminator for the luxZ gene. It clearly elicits that the pkI gene and luxZ gene are divided to two operons. Functional analysis confirms that the potential hairpin loop omega T is the transcriptional terminator for the pkI and related genes. It infers that the pkI and related genes are simply linked to the luxZ gene in P. leiognathi genome.

  17. The progression from a lower to a higher invasive stage of bladder cancer is associated with severe alterations in glucose and pyruvate metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde, Vanessa R. [CICS-UBI–Health Sciences Research Centre, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã (Portugal); Oliveira, Pedro F. [CICS-UBI–Health Sciences Research Centre, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã (Portugal); Department of Microscopy, Laboratory of Cell Biology and Unit for Multidisciplinary Research in Biomedicine, Abel Salazar Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Porto – UMIB/ICBAS/UP (Portugal); Nunes, Ana R.; Rocha, Cátia S. [CICS-UBI–Health Sciences Research Centre, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã (Portugal); Ramalhosa, Elsa; Pereira, José A. [Mountain Research Centre (CIMO), School of Agriculture, Polytechnic Institute of Bragança (Portugal); Alves, Marco G., E-mail: alvesmarc@gmail.com [CICS-UBI–Health Sciences Research Centre, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã (Portugal); Silva, Branca M., E-mail: bmcms@ubi.pt [CICS-UBI–Health Sciences Research Centre, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã (Portugal)

    2015-07-01

    Cancer cells present a particular metabolic behavior. We hypothesized that the progression of bladder cancer could be accompanied by changes in cells glycolytic profile. We studied two human bladder cancer cells, RT4 and TCCSUP, in which the latter represents a more invasive stage. The levels of glucose, pyruvate, alanine and lactate in the extracellular media were measured by Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The protein expression levels of glucose transporters 1 (GLUT1) and 3 (GLUT3), monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4), phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK1), glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined. Our data showed that glucose consumption and GLUT3 levels were similar in both cell lines, but TCCSUP cells displayed lower levels of GLUT1 and PFK expression. An increase in pyruvate consumption, concordant with the higher levels of lactate and alanine production, was also detected in TCCSUP cells. Moreover, TCCSUP cells presented lower protein expression levels of GPT and LDH. These results illustrate that bladder cancer progression is associated with alterations in cells glycolytic profile, namely the switch from glucose to pyruvate consumption in the more aggressive stage. This may be useful to develop new therapies and to identify biomarkers for cancer progression. - Highlights: • Metabolic phenotype of less and high invasive bladder cancer cells was studied. • Bladder cancer progression involves alterations in cells glycolytic profile. • More invasive bladder cancer cells switch from glucose to pyruvate consumption. • Our results may help to identify metabolic biomarkers of bladder cancer progression.

  18. Assessment of real-time myocardial uptake and enzymatic conversion of hyperpolarized [1-¹³C]pyruvate in pigs using slice selective magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menichetti, Luca; Frijia, Francesca; Flori, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    such as the heart, through the quantification of kinetic patterns under both normal and pathological conditions. In this study we assessed myocardial uptake and metabolism of hyperpolarized [1-¹³C]pyruvate in anesthetized pigs. Pyruvate metabolism was studied at baseline and during dobutamine-induced stimulation....... We applied a numerical approach for spectral analysis and kinetic fitting (LSFIT/KIMOfit), making a comparison with a well-known jMRUI/AMARES analysis and γ-variate function, and we estimated the apparent conversion rate of hyperpolarized [1-¹³C]pyruvate into its downstream metabolites [1-¹³C......]lactate, [1-¹³C]alanine and [¹³C]bicarbonate in a 3 T MR scanner. We detected an increase in the apparent kinetic constants (k(PX) ) for bicarbonate and lactate of two-fold during dobutamine infusion. These data correlate with the double product (rate-pressure product), an indirect parameter of cardiac oxygen...

  19. Regulation of [15N]urea synthesis from [5-15N]glutamine. Role of pH, hormones, and pyruvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, I; Yudkoff, M; Brosnan, J T

    1996-12-01

    We have utilized both [5-15N]glutamine and [3-13C] pyruvate as metabolic tracers in order to: (i) examine the effect of pH, glucagon (GLU), or insulin on the precursor-product relationship between 15NH3, [15N]citrulline, and, thereby, [15N]urea synthesis and (ii) elucidate the mechanism(s) by which pyruvate stimulates [15N] urea synthesis. Hepatocytes isolated from rat were incubated at pH 6.8, 7.4, or 7.6 with 1 mM [5-15N]glutamine and 0.1 mM 14NH4Cl in the presence or the absence of [3-13C] pyruvate (2 mM). A separate series of experiments was performed at pH 7.4 in the presence of insulin or GLU. 15NH3 enrichment exceeded or was equal to that of [15N]citrulline under all conditions except for pH 7.6, when the 15N enrichment in citrulline exceeded that in ammonia. The formation of [15N]citrulline (atom % excess) was increased with higher pH. Flux through phosphate-dependent glutaminase (PDG) and [15N]urea synthesis were stimulated (p < 0.05) at pH 7.6 or with GLU and decreased (p < 0.05) at pH 6.8. Insulin had no significant effect on flux through PDG or on [15N]urea synthesis. Decreased [15N]urea production at pH 6.8 was associated with depleted aspartate and glutamate levels. Pyruvate attenuated this decrease in the aspartate and glutamate pools and stimulated [15N]urea synthesis. Production of Asp from pyruvate was increased with increasing medium pH. Approximately 80% of Asp was derived from [3-13C]pyruvate regardless of incubation pH or addition of hormone. Furthermore, approximately 20, 40, and 50% of the mitochondrial N-acetylglutamate (NAG) pool was derived from [3-13C]pyruvate at pH 6.8, 7.4, and 7.6, respectively. Both the concentration and formation of [13C]NAG from [3-13C]pyruvate were increased (p < 0.05) with glucagon and decreased (p < 0.05) with insulin or at pH 6.8. The data suggest a correlation between changes in [15N]urea synthesis and alterations in the level and synthesis of [13C]NAG from pyruvate. The current observations suggest that the

  20. Component co-expression and purification of recombinant human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from baculovirus infected SF9 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Guofeng; Oza, Khyati; Myers, Linda; Holbert, Marc A; Sweitzer, Sharon

    2014-05-01

    The mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a multi-component mitochondrial enzyme that plays a key role in the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA connecting glycolysis to the citric acid cycle. Recent studies indicate that targeting the regulation of PDC enzymatic activity might offer therapeutic opportunities by inhibiting cancer cell metabolism. To facilitate drug discovery in this area, a well defined PDC sample is needed. Here, we report a new method of producing functional, recombinant, high quality human PDC complex. All five components were co-expressed in the cytoplasm of baculovirus-infected SF9 cells by deletion of the mitochondrial localization signal sequences of all the components and E1a was FLAG-tagged to facilitate purification. The protein FLAG tagged E1a complex was purified using FLAG-M2 affinity resin, followed by Superdex 200 sizing chromatography. The E2 and E3BP components were then Lipoylated using an enzyme based in vitro process. The resulting PDC is over 90% pure and homogenous. This non-phosphorylated, lipoylated human PDC was demonstrated to produce a robust detection window when used to develop an enzyme coupled assay of PDHK.

  1. Partial pyruvate kinase deficiency aggravates the phenotypic expression of band 3 deficiency in a family with hereditary spherocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zwieten, Rob; van Oirschot, Brigitte A; Veldthuis, Martijn; Dobbe, Johannes G; Streekstra, Geert J; van Solinge, Wouter W; Schutgens, Roger E G; van Wijk, Richard

    2015-03-01

    In a family with mild dominant spherocytosis, affected members showed partial band 3 deficiency. The index patient showed more severe clinical symptoms than his relatives, and his red blood cells displayed concomitant low pyruvate kinase activity. We investigated the contribution of partial PK deficiency to the phenotypic expression of mutant band 3 in this family. Pyruvate kinase deficiency and band 3 deficiency were characterized by DNA analysis. Results of red cell osmotic fragility testing, the results of cell deformability obtained by the Automated Rheoscope and Cell Analyzer and the results obtained by Osmotic Gradient Ektacytometry, which is a combination of these tests, were related to the red cell ATP content. Spherocytosis in this family was due to a novel heterozygous mutation in SLC4A1, the gene for band 3. Reduced PK activity of the index patient was attributed to a novel mutation in PKLR inherited from his mother, who was without clinical symptoms. Partial PK deficiency was associated with decreased red cell ATP content and markedly increased osmotic fragility. This suggests an aggravating effect of low ATP levels on the phenotypic expression of band 3 deficiency.

  2. Novel O-palmitolylated beta-E1 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase is phosphorylated during ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barr Amy J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During and following myocardial ischemia, glucose oxidation rates are low and fatty acids dominate as a source of oxidative metabolism. This metabolic phenotype is associated with contractile dysfunction during reperfusion. To determine the mechanism of this reliance on fatty acid oxidation as a source of ATP generation, a functional proteomics approach was utilized. Results 2-D gel electrophoresis of mitochondria from working rat hearts subjected to 25 minutes of global no flow ischemia followed by 40 minutes of aerobic reperfusion identified 32 changes in protein abundance compared to aerobic controls. Of the five proteins with the greatest change in abundance, two were increased (long chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (48 ± 1 versus 39 ± 3 arbitrary units, n = 3, P In silico analysis identified the putative kinases as the insulin receptor kinase for the more basic form and protein kinase Cζ or protein kinase A for the more acidic form. These modifications of pyruvate dehydrogenase are associated with a 35% decrease in glucose oxidation during reperfusion. Conclusions Cardiac ischemia/reperfusion induces significant changes to a number of metabolic proteins of the mitochondrial proteome. In particular, ischemia/reperfusion induced the post-translational modification of pyruvate dehydrogenase, the rate-limiting step of glucose oxidation, which is associated with a 35% decrease in glucose oxidation during reperfusion. Therefore these post-translational modifications may have important implications in the regulation of myocardial energy metabolism.

  3. Alternative Oxidase Activity in Tobacco Leaf Mitochondria (Dependence on Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle-Mediated Redox Regulation and Pyruvate Activation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlerberghe, G. C.; Day, D. A.; Wiskich, J. T.; Vanlerberghe, A. E.; McIntosh, L.

    1995-10-01

    Transgenic Nicotiana tabacum (cv Petit Havana SR1) containing high levels of mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) protein due to the introduction of a sense transgene(s) of Aox1, the nuclear gene encoding AOX, were used to investigate mechanisms regulating AOX activity. After purification of leaf mitochondria, a large proportion of the AOX protein was present as the oxidized (covalently associated and less active) dimer. High AOX activity in these mitochondria was dependent on both reduction of the protein by DTT (to the noncovalently associated and more active dimer) and its subsequent activation by certain [alpha]-keto acids, particularly pyruvate. Reduction of AOX to its more active form could also be mediated by intramitochondrial reducing power generated by the oxidation of certain tricarboxylic acid cycle substrates, most notably isocitrate and malate. Our evidence suggests that NADPH may be specifically required for AOX reduction. All of the above regulatory mechanisms applied to AOX in wild-type mitochondria as well. Transgenic leaves lacking AOX due to the introduction of an Aox1 antisense transgene or multiple sense transgenes were used to investigate the potential physiological significance of the AOX-regulatory mechanisms. Under conditions in which respiratory carbon metabolism is restricted by the capacity of mitochondrial electron transport, feed-forward activation of AOX by mitochondrial reducing power and pyruvate may act to prevent redirection of carbon metabolism, such as to fermentative pathways.

  4. Improved consistency in DNPH-mediated pyruvic acid analysis of onion juice by modifying the sample processing order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Kil Sun; Lee, Eun Jin; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2011-01-01

    Onion pungency is commonly measured on absorbency of the wine pink color that results from adding NaOH to the heated mixture of dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and onion juice. However, significant variation exists among several modifications of the original Schwimmer and Weston (SW) method. We observed differences in pyruvic acid concentrations of 20%-30% between our automated method and a batch method with manual absorbency readings. To determine the source of the differences, we examined the heating time and waiting time of the sample-DNPH mixtures and found no differences. The differences were caused by differential color degradation between the pyruvic acid standards and onion juice samples. These differences could be minimized by reading the absorbency within 1 min of NaOH addition. Using this information, we devised the one-by-one method to control the reading time at 30 s. We compared 5 different analysis methods of 40 onion samples representing 4 onion colors. The automated, high-performance liquid chromatography, and SW methods had similar results, with only about a 5% difference. However, the batch method resulted in differences of approximately 24% as compared to the automated method. The one-by-one method produced very comparable results, within 5%, to the automated method. By modifying the procedure to ensure a uniform and fast reading time, we increased the consistency between the pungency analysis methods. Therefore, fast and uniform absorbency reading time is essential for an accurate measurement of pungency in undiluted onion juice.

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of full-length and proteolytically activated pyruvate oxidase from Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidner, Annett; Neumann, Piotr; Wille, Georg; Stubbs, Milton T.; Tittmann, Kai, E-mail: kai.tittmann@biochemtech.uni-halle.de [Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät I, Institut für Biochemie und Biotechnologie, Kurt-Mothes-Strasse 3, D-06120 Halle (Germany)

    2008-03-01

    The peripheral membrane flavoprotein pyruvate oxidase from E. coli has been crystallized in the full-length form and as a proteolytically activated truncation variant lacking the last 23 amino acids at the C-terminus. The thiamine diphosphate- and flavin-dependent peripheral membrane enzyme pyruvate oxidase from Escherichia coli (EcPOX) has been crystallized in the full-length form and as a proteolytically activated C-terminal truncation variant which lacks the last 23 amino acids (Δ23 EcPOX). Crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using either protamine sulfate (full-length EcPOX) or 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol (Δ23 EcPOX) as precipitants. Native data sets were collected at a X-ray home source to a resolution of 2.9 Å. The two forms of EcPOX crystallize in different space groups. Whereas full-length EcPOX crystallizes in the tetragonal space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 with two monomers per asymmetric unit, the crystals of Δ23 EcPOX belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and contain 12 monomers per asymmetric unit.

  6. miR-378 Activates the Pyruvate-PEP Futile Cycle and Enhances Lipolysis to Ameliorate Obesity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Changyin; Li, Hu; Song, Yipeng; Zhao, Yixia; Zhai, Lili; Wang, Haixia; Zhong, Ran; Tang, Huiru; Zhu, Dahai

    2016-03-01

    Obesity has been linked to many health problems, such as diabetes. However, there is no drug that effectively treats obesity. Here, we reveal that miR-378 transgenic mice display reduced fat mass, enhanced lipolysis, and increased energy expenditure. Notably, administering AgomiR-378 prevents and ameliorates obesity in mice. We also found that the energy deficiency seen in miR-378 transgenic mice was due to impaired glucose metabolism. This impairment was caused by an activated pyruvate-PEP futile cycle via the miR-378-Akt1-FoxO1-PEPCK pathway in skeletal muscle and enhanced lipolysis in adipose tissues mediated by miR-378-SCD1. Our findings demonstrate that activating the pyruvate-PEP futile cycle in skeletal muscle is the primary cause of elevated lipolysis in adipose tissues of miR-378 transgenic mice, and it helps orchestrate the crosstalk between muscle and fat to control energy homeostasis in mice. Thus, miR-378 may serve as a promising agent for preventing and treating obesity in humans.

  7. Kinetic evaluation of biotransformation of benzaldehyde to L-phenylacetylcarbinol by immobilized pyruvate decarboxylase from Candida utilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, H S; Rogers, P L

    1996-02-20

    Biotransformation of benzaldehyde to L-phenylacetylcarbinol (L-PAC) as a key intermediate for L-ephedrine has been evaluated using immobilized pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) from Candida utilis. PDC immobilized in spherical polyacrylamide beads was found to have a longer half-life compared with free enzyme. In a batch process, the immobilized PDC generally produced lower L-PAC than free enzyme at the same concentrations of substrates due to increased by-products acetaldehyde and acetoin and reduced benzaldehyde uptake. With immobilized PDC, L-PAC formation occurred at higher benzaldehyde concentrations (up to 300 mM) with the highest L-PAC concentration being 181 mM (27.1 g/L). For a continuous process, when 50 mM benzaldehyde and 100 mM sodium pyruvate were fed into a packed-bed reactor at 4 degrees C and pH 6.5, a productivity of 3.7 mM/h (0.56 g/L . h) L-PAC was obtained at an average concentration of 30 mM (4.5 g/L). The half-life of immobilized PDC reactor was 32 days. (c) 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. In silico-screening approaches for lead generation: identification of novel allosteric modulators of human-erythrocyte pyruvate kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ashutosh; Safo, Martin K

    2012-01-01

    Identification of allosteric binding site modulators have gained increased attention lately for their potential to be developed as selective agents with a novel chemotype and targeting perhaps a new and unique binding site with probable fewer side effects. Erythrocyte pyruvate kinase (R-PK) is an important glycolytic enzyme that can be pharmacologically modulated through its allosteric effectors for the treatment of hemolytic anemia, sickle-cell anemia, hypoxia-related diseases, and other disorders arising from erythrocyte PK malfunction. An in-silico screening approach was applied to identify novel allosteric modulators of pyruvate kinase. A small-molecules database of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), was virtually screened based on structure/ligand-based pharmacophore. The virtual screening campaign led to the identification of several compounds with similar pharmacophoric features as fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), the natural allosteric activator of the kinase. The compounds were subsequently docked into the FBP-binding site using the programs FlexX and GOLD, and their interactions with the protein were analyzed with the energy-scoring function of HINT. Seven promising candidates were obtained from the NCI and subjected to kinetics analysis, which revealed both activators and inhibitors of the R-isozyme of PK (R-PK).

  9. Ethyl pyruvate reduces myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury by inhibiting high mobility group box 1 protein in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaorong; Cui, Bo; Zhou, Xiaoya; Xu, Changwu; Lu, Zhibing; Jiang, Hong

    2012-01-01

    High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) plays an important role in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. Ethyl pyruvate (EP), a potent reactive oxygen species scavenger, has been reported to inhibit myocardial apoptosis and reduce myocardial I/R injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which EP reduces myocardial I/R injury in rats. Anesthetized male rats were once treated with EP (50 mg/kg, i.p.) before ischemia, and then subjected to ischemia for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 4 h. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and infarct size were measured. HMGB1 expression was assessed by immunoblotting. The results showed that pretreatment of EP (50 mg/kg) could significantly reduce the infarct size and the levels of LDH and CK after 4 h reperfusion (all PR. The present study suggested that ethyl pyruvate could attenuate myocardial I/R injury by inhibiting HMGB1 expression.

  10. In vitro and in vivo expression of human erythrocyte pyruvate kinase in erythroid cells: a gene therapy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, N W; Quintana-Bustamante, O; Puyet, A; Rio, P; Navarro, S; Diez, A; Bueren, J A; Bautista, J M; Segovia, J C

    2007-06-01

    Human pyruvate kinase deficiency (PKD), an autosomal recessive disorder produced by mutations in the PKLR gene, is the most common cause of chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. Transduction of wild-type erythroid (R-type) pyruvate kinase (RPK) cDNA into deficient hematopoietic stem cells could be of potential use as rescue therapy in severe clinical cases. In this study, gammaretroviral vectors expressing human RPK were designed as possible gene therapy candidates for this disease. Through real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and flow cytometric analysis, we demonstrate stable RPK expression in both undifferentiated and differentiated murine erythroleukemia cells. In this in vitro assay, the proportion of transduced cells and the intensity of expression of the transgene remained unaltered after 6 months of culture. Moreover, transplanting human RPK-transduced Lin(-)Sca-1(+) mouse cells in myeloablated primary and secondary recipients rendered high proportions of erythroid precursors and mature erythrocytes expressing RPK, without inducing hematopoietic effects. These findings suggest that retroviral vectors could be useful for the delivery and expression of RPK in erythroid cells, and provide evidence of the potential use of gene therapy strategies to phenotypically correct erythroid PKD.

  11. Interindividual differences in leg muscle mass and pyruvate kinase activity correlate with interindividual differences in jumping performance of Hyla multilineata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Rob S; Wilson, Robbie S; de Carvalho, José E; Kohlsdorf, Tiana; Gomes, Fernando R; Navas, Carlos A

    2005-01-01

    Frog jumping is an excellent model system for examining the structural basis of interindividual variation in burst locomotor performance. Some possible factors that affect jump performance, such as total body size, hindlimb length, muscle mass, and muscle mechanical and biochemical properties, were analysed at the interindividual (intraspecies) level in the tree frog Hyla multilineata. The aim of this study was to determine which of these physiological and anatomical variables both vary between individuals and are correlated with interindividual variation in jump performance. The model produced via stepwise linear regression analysis of absolute data suggested that 62% of the interindividual variation in maximum jump distance could be explained by a combination of interindividual variation in absolute plantaris muscle mass, total hindlimb muscle mass (excluding plantaris muscle), and pyruvate kinase activity. When body length effects were removed, multiple regression indicated that the same independent variables explained 43% of the residual interindividual variation in jump distance. This suggests that individuals with relatively large jumping muscles and high pyruvate kinase activity for their body size achieved comparatively large maximal jump distances for their body size.

  12. Fusarium graminearum pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (FgPDK1 Is Critical for Conidiation, Mycelium Growth, and Pathogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Gao

    Full Text Available Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK is an important mitochondrial enzyme that blocks the production of acetyl-CoA by selectively inhibiting the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH through phosphorylation. PDK is an effectively therapeutic target in cancer cells, but the physiological roles of PDK in phytopathogens are largely unknown. To address these gaps, a PDK gene (FgPDK1 was isolated from Fusarium graminearum that is an economically important pathogen infecting cereals. The deletion of FgPDK1 in F. graminearum resulted in the increase in PDH activity, coinciding with several phenotypic defects, such as growth retardation, failure in perithecia and conidia production, and increase in pigment formation. The ΔFgPDK1 mutants showed enhanced sensitivity to osmotic stress and cell membrane-damaging agent. Physiological detection indicated that reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation and plasma membrane damage (indicated by PI staining, lipid peroxidation, and electrolyte leakage occurred in ΔFgPDK1 mutants. The deletion of FgPDK1 also prohibited the production of deoxynivalenol (DON and pathogenicity of F. graminearum, which may resulted from the decrease in the expression of Tri6. Taken together, this study firstly identified the vital roles of FgPDK1 in the development of phytopathogen F. graminearum, which may provide a potentially novel clue for target-directed development of agricultural fungicides.

  13. Roles of Pyruvate, NADH, and Mitochondrial Complex I in Redox Balance and Imbalance in β Cell Function and Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoting Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic β cells not only use glucose as an energy source, but also sense blood glucose levels for insulin secretion. While pyruvate and NADH metabolic pathways are known to be involved in regulating insulin secretion in response to glucose stimulation, the roles of many other components along the metabolic pathways remain poorly understood. Such is the case for mitochondrial complex I (NADH/ubiquinone oxidoreductase. It is known that normal complex I function is absolutely required for episodic insulin secretion after a meal, but the role of complex I in β cells in the diabetic pancreas remains to be investigated. In this paper, we review the roles of pyruvate, NADH, and complex I in insulin secretion and hypothesize that complex I plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of β cell dysfunction in the diabetic pancreas. This hypothesis is based on the establishment that chronic hyperglycemia overloads complex I with NADH leading to enhanced complex I production of reactive oxygen species. As nearly all metabolic pathways are impaired in diabetes, understanding how complex I in the β cells copes with elevated levels of NADH in the diabetic pancreas may provide potential therapeutic strategies for diabetes.

  14. Determination of organic acids in biological fluids by ion chromatography: plasma lactate and pyruvate and urinary vanillylmandelic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, W; Johnson, E; Lois, L; Kabra, P; Stafford, B; Marton, L

    1980-09-01

    We describe the general aspects of ion chromatography and how on-line counted ion-exchange techniques can be utilized to determine pyruvic and lactic acids in plasma and vanillymandelic acid in urine. Pyruvate and lactate are extracted from deproteinized plasma by use of an ion-exclusion resin. After elution from the resin, the plasma extract is chromatographed on an anion-exchange column, with 0.66 mmol/L sodium bicarbonate as the mobile phase. The effluent is detected with an electrical conductivity cell. Vanillylmandelic acid is extracted from diluted urine by use of an anion-exchange resin. After elution from resin, the urine extract is chromatographed on an ion-exclusion column, followed by electrochemical detection. We evaluated the procedures for precision, linearity, analytical recovery, intefering substances, and correlation with an established procedure. the combination of a preliminary resin extraction, an ion chromatographic separation, and a conductivity or electrochemical detector results in rapid, specific methods that can be adapted for use in the clinical laboratory. Preliminary data for other organic acids are presented.

  15. miR-378 Activates the Pyruvate-PEP Futile Cycle and Enhances Lipolysis to Ameliorate Obesity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has been linked to many health problems, such as diabetes. However, there is no drug that effectively treats obesity. Here, we reveal that miR-378 transgenic mice display reduced fat mass, enhanced lipolysis, and increased energy expenditure. Notably, administering AgomiR-378 prevents and ameliorates obesity in mice. We also found that the energy deficiency seen in miR-378 transgenic mice was due to impaired glucose metabolism. This impairment was caused by an activated pyruvate-PEP futile cycle via the miR-378-Akt1-FoxO1-PEPCK pathway in skeletal muscle and enhanced lipolysis in adipose tissues mediated by miR-378-SCD1. Our findings demonstrate that activating the pyruvate-PEP futile cycle in skeletal muscle is the primary cause of elevated lipolysis in adipose tissues of miR-378 transgenic mice, and it helps orchestrate the crosstalk between muscle and fat to control energy homeostasis in mice. Thus, miR-378 may serve as a promising agent for preventing and treating obesity in humans.

  16. Fatty acid synthesis and pyruvate metabolism pathways remain active in dihydroartemisinin-induced dormant ring stages of Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nanhua; LaCrue, Alexis N; Teuscher, Franka; Waters, Norman C; Gatton, Michelle L; Kyle, Dennis E; Cheng, Qin

    2014-08-01

    Artemisinin (ART)-based combination therapy (ACT) is used as the first-line treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria worldwide. However, despite high potency and rapid action, there is a high rate of recrudescence associated with ART monotherapy or ACT long before the recent emergence of ART resistance. ART-induced ring-stage dormancy and recovery have been implicated as possible causes of recrudescence; however, little is known about the characteristics of dormant parasites, including whether dormant parasites are metabolically active. We investigated the transcription of 12 genes encoding key enzymes in various metabolic pathways in P. falciparum during dihydroartemisinin (DHA)-induced dormancy and recovery. Transcription analysis showed an immediate downregulation for 10 genes following exposure to DHA but continued transcription of 2 genes encoding apicoplast and mitochondrial proteins. Transcription of several additional genes encoding apicoplast and mitochondrial proteins, particularly of genes encoding enzymes in pyruvate metabolism and fatty acid synthesis pathways, was also maintained. Additions of inhibitors for biotin acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase and enoyl-acyl carrier reductase of the fatty acid synthesis pathways delayed the recovery of dormant parasites by 6 and 4 days, respectively, following DHA treatment. Our results demonstrate that most metabolic pathways are downregulated in DHA-induced dormant parasites. In contrast, fatty acid and pyruvate metabolic pathways remain active. These findings highlight new targets to interrupt recovery of parasites from ART-induced dormancy and to reduce the rate of recrudescence following ART treatment.

  17. Analysis of Mitochondrial Proteins in the Surviving Myocardium after Ischemia Identifies Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier Expression as Possible Mediator of Tissue Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Caggiano, Mariana; Prysyazhna, Oleksandra; Barallobre-Barreiro, Javier; CalviñoSantos, Ramón; Aldama López, Guillermo; Generosa Crespo-Leiro, Maria; Eaton, Philip; Doménech, Nieves

    2016-01-01

    The endogenous mechanisms contributing to tissue survival following myocardial infarction are not fully understood. We investigated the alterations in the mitochondrial proteome after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) and its possible implications on cell survival. Mitochondrial proteomic analysis of cardiac tissue from an in vivo porcine I/R model found that surviving tissue in the peri-infarct border zone showed increased expression of several proteins. Notably, these included subunits of the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC), namely MPC1 and MPC2. Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and mRNA analysis corroborated the elevated expression of MPC in the surviving tissue. Furthermore, MPC1 and MPC2 protein levels were found to be markedly elevated in the myocardium of ischemic cardiomyopathy patients. These findings led to the hypothesis that increased MPC expression is cardioprotective due to enhancement of mitochondrial pyruvate uptake in the energy-starved heart following I/R. To test this, isolated mouse hearts perfused with a modified Krebs buffer (containing glucose, pyruvate, and octanoate as metabolic substrates) were subjected to I/R with or without the MPC transport inhibitor UK5099. UK5099 increased myocardial infarction and attenuated post-ischemic recovery of left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. However, aerobically perfused control hearts that were exposed to UK5099 did not modulate contractile function, although pyruvate uptake was blocked as evidenced by increased cytosolic lactate and pyruvate levels. Our findings indicate that increased expression of MPC leads to enhanced uptake and utilization of pyruvate during I/R. We propose this as a putative endogenous mechanism that promotes myocardial survival to limit infarct size.

  18. Hydration of the simplest α-keto acid: a rotational spectroscopic and ab initio study of the pyruvic acid-water complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Elijah G; Seifert, Nathan A; Ghosh, Supriya; Thomas, Javix; Xu, Yunjie; Jäger, Wolfgang

    2017-02-08

    Intermolecular interactions between pyruvic acid, the simplest α-keto acid, and water are important in bio- and atmospheric chemistry. In this context, the pure rotational spectrum of the pyruvic acid-water complex was measured from 7 to 15 GHz using a cavity-based Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer. In the detected isomer, water acts as a hydrogen bond donor and acceptor, bridging the acidic hydrogen and the keto oxygen. Both a- and b-type transitions were observed; however, c-type transitions were not observed, due to vibrational averaging of the effectively barrier-less wagging motion of the free hydrogen of the water subunit, which results in an effective ground state structure with a plane of symmetry. The mass distribution out of the ab-plane, corrected for the out-of-plane hydrogen atoms of the methyl group, confirms that the complex has a plane of symmetry. The observed transitions exhibit splittings due to internal rotations of the water subunit and the methyl group. The proposed internal rotation of water nominally breaks one hydrogen bond, so it is remarkable that the barrier was calculated to be as low as 5.2 kJ mol(-1); however, a non-covalent interactions analysis indicates that water rotation has surprisingly little effect on the interactions between the water and pyruvic acid subunits. The barrier to methyl internal rotation was determined to be about 4.6 kJ mol(-1) experimentally, significantly higher than that of the pyruvic acid monomer. In general, the structure and dynamics investigated here provide insights into the interactions between pyruvic acid and water that dictate the fate of pyruvic acid in aqueous aerosols and living cells.

  19. Tumor type M2 pyruvate kinase expression in gastric cancer,colorectal cancer and controls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Zhang; Jian-Ying Chen; Dao-Da Chen; Guo-Bin Wang; Ping Shen

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Tumor formation is generally linked to an expansion of glycolytic phosphometabolite pools and aerobic glycolytic flux rates. To achieve this, tumor cells generally overexpress a special glycolytic isoenzyme, termed pyruvate kinase type M2. The present study was designed to evaluate the use of a new tumor marker, tumor M2-PK, in discriminating gastrointestinal cancer patients from healthy controls, and to compare with the reference tumor markers CEA and CA72-4.METHODS: The concentration of tumor M2-PK in body fluids could be quantitatively determined by a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-kit (ScheBo(R) Tech, Giessen, Germany). By using this kit, the tumor M2-PK concentration was measured in EDTA-plasma of 108 patients. For the healthy blood donors a cut-off value of 15 U/mL was evaluated, which corresponded to 90% specificity. Overall 108 patients were included in this study, 54 patients had a histological confirmed gastric cancer, 54 patients colorectal cancer, and 20 healthy volunteers served as controls.RESULTS: The cut-off value to discriminate patients from controls was established at 15 U/mL for tumor M2-PK. The mean tumor M2-PK concentration of gastric cancer was 26.937 U/mL. According to the TNM stage system, the mean tumor M2-PK concentration of stage Ⅰ was 16.324 U/mL, of stage Ⅱ 15.290 U/mL, of stage Ⅲ 30.289 U/mL, of stage Ⅳ127.31 U/mL, of non-metastasis 12.854 U/mL and of metastasis 35.711 U/mL. The mean Tumor M2-PK concentration of colorectal cancer was 30.588 U/mL. According to the Dukes stage system, the mean tumor M2-PK concentration of Dukes A was 16.638 U/mL, of Dukes B 22.070 U/mL, and of Dukes C 48.024 U/mL, of non-metastasis 19.501 U/mL, of metastasis 49.437 U/mL. The mean tumor M2-PK concentration allowed a significant discrimination of colorectal cancers (30.588 U/mL) from controls (10.965 U/mL) (P<0.01), and gastric cancer (26.937 U/mL) from controls (10.965 U/mL)(P<0.05). The overall

  20. Ethyl pyruvate protects against experimental acute-on-chronic liver failure in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu-Wen Wang; Li-Kun Wang; Hui Chen; Cheng Fan; Xun Li; Can-Ming He; Zuo-Jiong Gong

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the protective effects of ethyl pyruvate (EP) on acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in METHODS:An ACLF model was established in rats,and animals were randomly divided into normal,model and EP treatment groups.The rats in EP treatment group received EP (40 mg/kg) at 3 h,6 h,12 h and 24 h after induction of ACLF.Serum endotoxin,high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1),alanine transaminase (ALT),tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α),interferon-α (IFN-y),interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-18 levels,changes of liver histology and HMGB1 expressions in liver tissues were detected at 48 h after induction of ACLF.The effects of EP on the survival of ACLF rats were also observed.RESULTS:Serum levels of endotoxin (0.394 ± 0.066 EU/mL vs 0.086 ± 0.017 EU/mL,P < 0.001),HMGB1 (35.42 ± 10.86 μg/L vs 2.14 ± 0.27 μg/L,P < 0.001),ALT (8415.87 ± 3567.54 IU/L vs 38.64 ± 8.82 IU/L,P < 0.001),TNF-α (190.77 ± 12.34 ng/L vs 124.40 ± 4.12 ng/L,P < 0.001),IFN-γ (715.38 ± 86.03 ng/L vs 398.66 ± 32.91 ng/L,P < 0.001),IL-10 (6.85 ± 0.64ng/L vs 3.49 ± 0.24 ng/L,P < 0.001) and IL-18 (85.19± 3.49 ng/L vs 55.38 ± 1.25 ng/L,P < 0.001) were significantly increased,and liver tissues presented severe pathological injury in the model group compared with the normal group.However,EP administration significantly improved hepatic histopathology and reduced the serum levels of endotoxin (0.155 ± 0.045 EU/mL vs 0.394-0.066 EU/mL,P < 0.001) and inflammatory cytokines (11.13 ± 2.58 μg/L vs 35.42± 10.86 μg/L for HMGB1,3512.86 ± 972.67 IU/L vs 8415.87 ± 3567.54 IU/L for ALT,128.55 ± 5.76 ng/L vs 190.77-12.34 ng/L for TNF-α,438.16 ± 38.10 ng/L vs 715.38 ± 86.03 ng/L for IFN-y,3.55 ± 0.36 ng/L vs 6.85 ± 0.64 ng/L for IL-10,and 60.35 ± 1.63ng/L vs 85.19 ± 3.49 ng/L for IL-18,respectively,P < 0.001),and the levels of HMGB1 in liver tissues regardless of treatment time after induction of ACLF.EP treatment at the four time points prolonged the median survival time

  1. FoxO1 regulates myocardial glucose oxidation rates via transcriptional control of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Keshav; Saleme, Bruno; Al Batran, Rami; Aburasayn, Hanin; Eshreif, Amina; Ho, Kim L; Ma, Wayne K; Almutairi, Malak; Eaton, Farah; Gandhi, Manoj; Park, Edwards A; Sutendra, Gopinath; Ussher, John R

    2017-09-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is the rate-limiting enzyme for glucose oxidation and a critical regulator of metabolic flexibility during the fasting to feeding transition. PDH is regulated via both PDH kinases (PDHK) and PDH phosphatases, which phosphorylate/inactivate and dephosphorylate/activate PDH, respectively. Our goal was to determine whether the transcription factor forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) regulates PDH activity and glucose oxidation in the heart via increasing the expression of Pdk4, the gene encoding PDHK4. To address this question, we differentiated H9c2 myoblasts into cardiac myocytes and modulated FoxO1 activity, after which Pdk4/PDHK4 expression and PDH phosphorylation/activity were assessed. We assessed binding of FoxO1 to the Pdk4 promoter in cardiac myocytes in conjunction with measuring the role of FoxO1 on glucose oxidation in the isolated working heart. Both pharmacological (1 µM AS1842856) and genetic (siRNA mediated) inhibition of FoxO1 decreased Pdk4/PDHK4 expression and subsequent PDH phosphorylation in H9c2 cardiac myocytes, whereas 10 µM dexamethasone-induced Pdk4/PDHK4 expression was abolished via pretreatment with 1 µM AS1842856. Furthermore, transfection of H9c2 cardiac myocytes with a vector expressing FoxO1 increased luciferase activity driven by a Pdk4 promoter construct containing the FoxO1 DNA-binding element region, but not in a Pdk4 promoter construct lacking this region. Finally, AS1842856 treatment in fasted mice enhanced glucose oxidation rates during aerobic isolated working heart perfusions. Taken together, FoxO1 directly regulates Pdk4 transcription in the heart, thereby controlling PDH activity and subsequent glucose oxidation rates.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Although studies have shown an association between FoxO1 activity and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 expression, our study demonstrated that pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 is a direct transcriptional target of FoxO1 (but not FoxO3/FoxO4) in the heart. Furthermore, we report

  2. An internal deletion in MTH1 enables growth on glucose of pyruvate-decarboxylase negative, non-fermentative Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oud Bart

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyruvate-decarboxylase negative (Pdc- strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae combine the robustness and high glycolytic capacity of this yeast with the absence of alcoholic fermentation. This makes Pdc-S. cerevisiae an interesting platform for efficient conversion of glucose towards pyruvate-derived products without formation of ethanol as a by-product. However, Pdc- strains cannot grow on high glucose concentrations and require C2-compounds (ethanol or acetate for growth under conditions with low glucose concentrations, which hitherto has limited application in industry. Results Genetic analysis of a Pdc- strain previously evolved to overcome these deficiencies revealed a 225bp in-frame internal deletion in MTH1, encoding a transcriptional regulator involved in glucose sensing. This internal deletion contains a phosphorylation site required for degradation, thereby hypothetically resulting in increased stability of the protein. Reverse engineering of this alternative MTH1 allele into a non-evolved Pdc- strain enabled growth on 20 g l-1 glucose and 0.3% (v/v ethanol at a maximum specific growth rate (0.24 h-1 similar to that of the evolved Pdc- strain (0.23 h-1. Furthermore, the reverse engineered Pdc- strain grew on glucose as sole carbon source, albeit at a lower specific growth rate (0.10 h-1 than the evolved strain (0.20 h-1. The observation that overexpression of the wild-type MTH1 allele also restored growth of Pdc-S. cerevisiae on glucose is consistent with the hypothesis that the internal deletion results in decreased degradation of Mth1. Reduced degradation of Mth1 has been shown to result in deregulation of hexose transport. In Pdc- strains, reduced glucose uptake may prevent intracellular accumulation of pyruvate and/or redox problems, while release of glucose repression due to the MTH1 internal deletion may contribute to alleviation of the C2-compound auxotrophy. Conclusions In this study we have discovered and

  3. [Clinical trial of a topical preparation containing urea, sunflower oil, evening primrose oil, wheat germ oil and sodium pyruvate, in several hyperkeratotic skin conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, J

    1986-01-01

    A topical clinical trial with preparations containing urea and sodium pyruvate has been made. It was used for diverse hyperkeratotic skin conditions (psoriasis, xerosis, pityriasis rubra pilaris, stuccokeratosis, seborrheic dermatitis, stasis dermatitis, pityriasis lichenoides chronica). A month later a clinical improvement was evident in all cases except in pityriasis lichenoides.

  4. Brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase produces acetoin from acetaldehyde: a novel tool to study the mechanism of steps subsequent to carbon dioxide loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G C; Jordan, F

    1984-07-31

    A gas-liquid chromatographic technique was developed for the determination of both acetaldehyde and the 3-4% acetoin side product that results from the brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1) catalyzed reaction of pyruvic acid. Employing this method enabled the demonstration of the catalysis of acetaldehyde condensation to acetoin by the enzyme. It was found that the acetoin produced enzymatically from pyruvic acid or from acetaldehyde was optically active, thus providing stereochemical information about the reaction. Deuterium kinetic isotope effects (employing CH3CHO and CH3CDO) were determined on the steady-state kinetic parameters to be 4.5 (Vmax) and 3.2 (Vmax/Kappm), respectively. This enabled, for the first time, the estimation of relative kinetic barriers for steps past decarboxylation. It could be concluded that (a) C-H bond scission was part of rate limitation in the enzyme-catalyzed condensation of acetaldehyde to acetoin and that (b) among the steps leading to the release of acetaldehyde, protonation of the key enamine intermediate was part of rate limitation. This latter finding is also directly applicable to the mechanism of pyruvate decarboxylation.

  5. Simultaneous hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate MRI and 18F-FDG-PET in cancer (hyperPET)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Henrik Gutte; Hansen, Adam Espe; Henriksen, Sarah T.

    2015-01-01

    -FDG uptake was observed. This was due to activity in these muscles prior to anesthesia, which was not accompanied by a similarly high (13)C-lactate production. Accordingly, this clearly demonstrates how the Warburg Effect directly can be demonstrated by hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate MRSI...

  6. 5´AMP activated protein kinase α2 controls substrate metabolism during post-exercise recovery via regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzen, Andreas Mæchel; Lundsgaard, Annemarie; Jeppesen, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    in muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) mRNA expression in WT and AMPKα2 KO was observed following exercise, which is consistent with AMPKα2 -deficiency not affecting the exercise-induced activation of the PDK4 transcriptional regulators, HDAC4 and SIRT1. Interestingly, PDK4 protein content...

  7. The effect of a varying Mg2+free concentration upon the kinetic behaviour of human liver L-type pyruvate kinase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprengers, E.D.; Staal, Gerard E.J.

    1979-01-01

    We have proposed negative cooperativity for human liver L-type pyruvate kinase, a phenomenon also observed in: Lineweaver-Burk plots V⁻¹ versus [phosphoenolpyruvatel]⁻¹ were straight lines at low phosphoenolpyruvate concentrations, and bent downward near they axis (high phosphoenolpyruvate concentra

  8. ENZYME-IIB(CELLOBIOSE) OF THE PHOSPHOENOL-PYRUVATE-DEPENDENT PHOSPHOTRANSFERASE SYSTEM OF ESCHERICHIA-COLI - BACKBONE ASSIGNMENT AND SECONDARY STRUCTURE DETERMINED BY 3-DIMENSIONAL NMR-SPECTROSCOPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AB, E; SCHUURMANWOLTERS, GK; SAIER, MH; REIZER, J; JACUINOD, M; ROEPSTORFF, P; DIJKSTRA, K; SCHEEK, RM; ROBILLARD, GT

    1994-01-01

    The assignment of backbone resonances and the secondary structure determination of the Cys 10 Ser mutant of enzyme IIBCellobiose of the Escherichia coli cellobiose-specific phosphoenol-pyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system are presented. The backbone resonances were assigned using 4 triple re

  9. Enzyme IIBcellobiose of the phosphoenol-pyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system of Escherichia coli : Backbone assignment and secondary structure determined by three-dimensional NMR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AB, Eiso; Schuurman-Wolters, Gea K.; Saier, Milton H.; Reizer, Jonathan; Jacuinod, Michel; Roepstorff, Peter; Dijkstra, Klaas; Scheek, Ruud M.; Robillard, George T.

    1994-01-01

    The assignment of backbone resonances and the secondary structure determination of the Cys 10 Ser mutant of enzyme IIBcellobiose of the Escherichia coli cellobiose-specific phosphoenol-pyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system are presented. The backbone resonances were assigned using 4 triple re

  10. Molecular characterization of a membrane transporter for lactate, pyruvate, and other monocarboxylates: implications for the Cori cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C K; Goldstein, J L; Pathak, R K; Anderson, R G; Brown, M S

    1994-03-11

    Lactate and pyruvate cross cell membranes via a monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) with well-defined properties but undefined molecular structure. We report the cloning of a cDNA encoding MCT1, a monocarboxylate transporter whose properties resemble those of the erythrocyte MCT, including proton symport, trans acceleration, and sensitivity to alpha-cyanocinnammates. A Phe to Cys substitution in MCT1 converts it to Mev, a mevalonate transporter. MCT1 is abundant in erythrocytes, cardiac muscle, and basolateral intestinal epithelium. In skeletal muscle it is restricted to mitochondria-rich myocytes. As sperm traverse the epididymis, MCT1 switches from sperm to epithelial cells. MCT1 is present at low levels in liver, suggesting another MCT in this tissue. By exporting lactate from intestine and erythrocytes, MCT1 participates in the Cori cycle. It also participates in novel pathways of monocarboxylate metabolism in muscle and sperm.

  11. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a New cis-Dioxovanadium (V) Complex with Pyruvic Acid Isonicotinyl Hydrazone (PAINH)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Rui-Jin; ZHOU Yin-Zhuang; HU Dai-Di; TU Shu-Jie; XIAO Ling-Mei

    2006-01-01

    A new cis-dioxovanadium (V) complex [VO2(C9H8N3O3)](C5H5N) involving a carboxyl group coordination employing a tridentate Schiff Base derived from pyruvic acid and isonicotinyl hydrazide is reported. This complex crystallizes in triclinic, space group P(1-) with a = 7.3522 (12), b = 7.8376(13), c = 14.898(2)(A), α= 84.010(2),β= 86.568(2), γ = 64.586(2)°, V = 771.1(2)(A)3, Z = 2, F(000) = 376, Mr = 368.22, Dc = 1.586 g/cm3, μ = 0.677 mm-1, R = 0.0421 and wR = 0.1253. The vanadium atom of the dioxovanadium (V) is five-coordinated to furnish a distorted trigonal bipyramid geometry.

  12. Ach1 is involved in shuttling mitochondrial acetyl units for cytosolic C2 provision in Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking pyruvate decarboxylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yun; Zhang, Yiming; Siewers, Verena

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, acetyl-CoA is compartmentalized in the cytosol, mitochondrion, peroxisome and nucleus, and cannot be directly transported between these compartments. With the acetyl-carnitine or glyoxylate shuttle, acetyl-CoA produced in peroxisomes or the cytoplasm can be transported......Acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is not only an essential intermediate in central carbon metabolism, but also an important precursor metabolite for native or engineered pathways that can produce many products of commercial interest such as pharmaceuticals, chemicals or biofuels. In the yeast...... into the cytoplasm or the mitochondria. However, whether acetyl-CoA generated in the mitochondria can be exported to the cytoplasm is still unclear. Here, we investigated whether the transfer of acetyl-CoA from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm can occur using a pyruvate decarboxylase negative, non...

  13. Solution thermodynamics of sodium pyruvate in aqueous glycine solutions at T 298.15-313.15 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandit Bijan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effects of sodium pyruvate on the solution thermodynamics of glycine in terms of the solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions in aqueous solutions. Measured density and viscosity were used to derive apparent molar volumes (φV, standard partial molar volumes (φV0 and viscosity B-coefficients at 298.15, 303.15 K, 308.15, and 318.15 K under ambient pressure. The interactions are further discussed in terms of ion-dipolar, hydrophobic- hydrophobic, hydrophilic-hydrophobic group interactions. The activation parameters of viscous flow were also discussed in terms of transition state theory. The overall results indicated that ion-hydrophilic and hydrophilic-hydrophilic group interactions are predominant in the ternary solutions.

  14. Exercise-induced AMPK and pyruvate dehydrogenase regulation is maintained during short-term low-grade inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup; Olesen, Jesper; van Hauen, Line

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) regulation in human skeletal muscle at rest and during exercise. Nine young healthy physically inactive male subjects...... approximately 2½ h after the LPS injection. The exercise bout with muscle samples obtained before and immediately after was repeated in a control trial without LPS injection. The plasma tumor necrosis factor α concentration increased 17-fold 2 h after LPS relative to before. Muscle lactate and muscle glycogen...... were unchanged from before to 2 h after LPS and exercise increased muscle lactate and decreased muscle glycogen in the control (P 

  15. Structure of D-lactate dehydrogenase from Aquifex aeolicus complexed with NAD(+) and lactic acid (or pyruvate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonyuk, Svetlana V; Strange, Richard W; Ellis, Mark J; Bessho, Yoshitaka; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Inoue, Yumiko; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Hasnain, S Samar

    2009-12-01

    The crystal structure of D-lactate dehydrogenase from Aquifex aeolicus (aq_727) was determined to 2.12 A resolution in space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 90.94, b = 94.43, c = 188.85 A. The structure was solved by molecular replacement using the coenzyme-binding domain of Lactobacillus helveticus D-lactate dehydrogenase and contained two homodimers in the asymmetric unit. Each subunit of the homodimer was found to be in a ;closed' conformation with the NADH cofactor bound to the coenzyme-binding domain and with a lactate (or pyruvate) molecule bound at the interdomain active-site cleft.

  16. Quorum Sensing Coordinates Cooperative Expression of Pyruvate Metabolism Genes To Maintain a Sustainable Environment for Population Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawver, Lisa A.; Giulietti, Jennifer M.; Baleja, James D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Quorum sensing (QS) is a microbial cell-cell communication system that regulates gene expression in response to population density to coordinate collective behaviors. Yet, the role of QS in resolving the stresses caused by the accumulation of toxic metabolic by-products at high cell density is not well defined. In response to cell density, QS could be involved in reprogramming of the metabolic network to maintain population stability. Using unbiased metabolomics, we discovered that Vibrio cholerae mutants genetically locked in a low cell density (LCD) QS state are unable to alter the pyruvate flux to convert fermentable carbon sources into neutral acetoin and 2,3-butanediol molecules to offset organic acid production. As a consequence, LCD-locked QS mutants rapidly lose viability when grown with fermentable carbon sources. This key metabolic switch relies on the QS-regulated small RNAs Qrr1-4 but is independent of known QS regulators AphA and HapR. Qrr1-4 dictate pyruvate flux by translational repression of the enzyme AlsS, which carries out the first step in acetoin and 2,3-butanediol biosynthesis. Consistent with the idea that QS facilitates the expression of a common trait in the population, AlsS needs to be expressed cooperatively in a group of cells. Heterogeneous populations with high percentages of cells not expressing AlsS are unstable. All of the cells, regardless of their respective QS states, succumb to stresses caused by toxic by-product accumulation. Our results indicate that the ability of the bacteria to cooperatively control metabolic flux through QS is critical in maintaining a sustainable environment and overall population stability. PMID:27923919

  17. Effects of eliminating pyruvate node pathways and of coexpression of heterogeneous carboxylation enzymes on succinate production by Enterobacter aerogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Yoko; Fukui, Keita; Nishio, Yousuke; Hashiguchi, Kenichi; Usuda, Yoshihiro; Sode, Koji

    2015-02-01

    Lowering the pH in bacterium-based succinate fermentation is considered a feasible approach to reduce total production costs. Newly isolated Enterobacter aerogenes strain AJ110637, a rapid carbon source assimilator under weakly acidic (pH 5.0) conditions, was selected as a platform for succinate production. Our previous work showed that the ΔadhE/PCK strain, developed from AJ110637 with inactivated ethanol dehydrogenase and introduced Actinobacillus succinogenes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK), generated succinate as a major product of anaerobic mixed-acid fermentation from glucose under weakly acidic conditions (pH <6.2). To further improve the production of succinate by the ΔadhE/PCK strain, metabolically engineered strains were designed based on the elimination of pathways that produced undesirable products and the introduction of two carboxylation pathways from phosphoenolpyruvate and pyruvate to oxaloacetate. The highest production of succinate was observed with strain ES04/PCK+PYC, which had inactivated ethanol, lactate, acetate, and 2,3-butanediol pathways and coexpressed PCK and Corynebacterium glutamicum pyruvate carboxylase (PYC). This strain produced succinate from glucose with over 70% yield (gram per gram) without any measurable formation of ethanol, lactate, or 2,3-butanediol under weakly acidic conditions. The impact of lowering the pH from 7.0 to 5.5 on succinate production in this strain was evaluated under pH-controlled batch culture conditions and showed that the lower pH decreased the succinate titer but increased its yield. These findings can be applied to identify additional engineering targets to increase succinate production.

  18. Distribution of the thiamin diphosphate C(2)-proton during catalysis of acetaldehyde formation by brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T K; Washabaugh, M W

    1995-10-31

    The distribution of tritium derived from enzyme-bound [thiazole-2-T]thiamin diphosphate (TDP) during the reaction of pyruvate to form acetaldehyde catalyzed by pyruvate decarboxylase isozymes (PDC; EC 4.1.1.1) from Saccharomyces carlsbergensis was determined under single-turnover conditions ([E] > [S]) in the presence of the nonsubstrate allosteric effector pyruvamide. The specific radioactivity of the [1-L]acetaldehyde product and solvent ([L]H2O) was 43 +/- 4% and 54 +/- 2%, respectively, of the initial specific radioactivity of PDC-bound [thiazole-2-T]TDP and was independent of the extent of the single-turnover reaction. There is little (< or = 3%) or no return of the abstracted C(2)-hydron to the C(2) position of PDC-bound TDP. This provides evidence that the abstracted C(2)-hydron is involved in the specific protonation of the C(alpha) position of the PDC-bound intermediate 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)thiamin diphosphate (HETDP), which is cleaved to form [1-L]acetaldehyde and PDC-bound [thiazole-2-H]TDP. The partial exchange of C(2)-derived tritium into solvent requires that (1) hydron transfer from C(2) occurs to a catalytic-base in which the conjugate catalytic acid is partially shielded from hydron exchange with the solvent, (2) the conjugate catalytic acid transfers the C(2)-derived hydron to the C(alpha) position of HETDP, and (3) hydron transfer to C(2) to regenerate the coenzyme occurs either from solvent directly or from a second catalytic acid of the enzyme that undergoes rapid hydron exchange with the solvent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Novel mutations and structural implications in R-type pyruvate kinase-deficient patients from Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, L; Della Morte, R; Frisso, G; Alfinito, F; Vitale, D; Calise, R M; Ferraro, F; Zagari, A; Rotoli, B; Salvatore, F

    1998-01-01

    Deficiency of the R-type pyruvate kinase (R-PK) causes an autosomal recessive, hereditary, nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia (HNSHA). We screened seven unrelated patients from the south of Italy for the known mutations and found one patient homozygous for the 1529A (R510Q) mutation, two others bearing the 1456T (R486W) mutation, one homozygous and another heterozygous, and two heterozygotes for the 994A mutation (G332S). We also found three novel mutations at the heterozygote status: a G to C transversion in position 1010 (1010C; R337P) and a C to T transition in position 1492 (1492T; R498C), which are missense, and a T to G transversion in position 1523 (1523G; L508Z), which produces a stop codon with a subsequent loss of the C-terminal protein domain. The structural features of R-PK in the mutation-bearing regions were examined. In all cases the mutations altered the local conformation of the enzyme. Both G332S and R337P are in highly conserved sequence regions. In particular, the R337P mutation significantly affects the intersubunit interactions, because it is located in a region subjected to a large conformational change that occurs during the R-->T allosteric transition, which is essential for the enzyme activity. The R486W mutation affects an external pocketlike region, producing only a local conformational change; the R498C mutation changes the interactions among neighbouring residues; the R510Q mutation involves the loss of interdomain interactions that may reduce enzyme stability and activity. Our data also indicate that in patients from Southern Italy, pyruvate kinase deficiency is heterogeneous, the 1529A mutation, which is the most frequent mutation in the U.S. Caucasian population, having a lower frequency.

  20. The structure of pyruvate kinase from Leishmania mexicana reveals details of the allosteric transition and unusual effector specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigden, D J; Phillips, S E; Michels, P A; Fothergill-Gilmore, L A

    1999-08-20

    Glycolysis occupies a central role in cellular metabolism, and is of particular importance for the catabolic production of ATP in protozoan parasites such as Leishmania and Trypanosoma. In these organisms pyruvate kinase plays a key regulatory role, and is unique in responding to fructose 2,6-bisphosphate as allosteric activator. The determination of the first eukaryotic pyruvate kinase crystal structure in the T-state is reported. A comparison of the leishmania and yeast R-state enzymes reveals fewer differences than the previous comparison of Escherichia coli T-state and rabbit muscle non-allosteric enzymes. Structural changes related to the allosteric transition can therefore be distinguished from those that are a consequence of the inherent wide structural divergence between bacterial and mammalian proteins. The allosteric transition involves significant changes in a tightly packed array of eight alpha helices at the interface near the catalytic site. At the other interface the allosteric transition appears to be accompanied by the bending of a ten-stranded intersubunit beta sheet adjacent to the effector site. Helix Calpha1 makes contacts to the N-terminal helical domain and bridges both interfaces. A comparison of the effector sites of the leishmania and yeast enzymes reveals the structural basis for the different effector specificity. Two loops comprising residues 443-453 and 480-489 adopt very different conformations in the two enzymes, and Lys453 and His480 that are a feature of trypanosomatid enzymes provide probable ligands for the 2-phospho group of the effector molecule. These differences offer an opportunity for the design of drugs that would bind to the trypanosomatid enzymes but not to those of the mammalian host.

  1. TRIIODOTHYRONINE INCREASES MYOCARDIAL FUNCTION AND PYRUVATE ENTRY INTO THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE AFTER REPERFUSION IN A MODEL OF INFANT CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Aaron; Bouchard, Bertrand; Ning, Xue-Han; Isern, Nancy G.; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2012-03-01

    We utilized a translational model of infant CPB to test the hypothesis that T3 modulates pyruvate entry into the citric acid cycle (CAC) thereby providing the energy support for improved cardiac function after ischemia-reperfusion. Methods and Results: Neonatal piglets received intracoronary [2-13Carbon(13C)]-pyruvate for 40 minutes (8 mM) during control aerobic conditions (Cont) or immediately after reperfusion (IR) from global hypothermic ischemia. A third group (IR-Tr) received T3 (1.2 ug/kg) during reperfusion. We assessed absolute CAC intermediate levels (aCAC) and flux parameters into the CAC through oxidative pyruvate decarboxylation (PDC ) and anaplerotic carboxylation (PC; ) using 13C-labeled pyruvate and isotopomer analysis by gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and 13C NMR. Neither IR nor IR-Tr modified aCAC. However, compared to IR, T3 (group IR-Tr) increased cardiac power and oxygen consumption after CPB while elevating both PDC and PC (~ four-fold). T3 inhibited IR induced reductions in CAC intermediate molar percent enrichment (MPE) and oxaloacetate(citrate)/malate MPE ratio; an index of aspartate entry into the CAC. Conclusions: T3 markedly enhances PC and PDC thereby providing substrate for elevated cardiac function and work after reperfusion. The increases in pyruvate flux occur with preservation of the CAC intermediate pool. Additionally, T3 inhibition of reductions in CAC intermediate MPEs indicates that T3 reduces the reliance on amino acids (AA) for anaplerosis after reperfusion. Thus, AA should be more available for other functions such as protein synthesis.

  2. 丙酮酸盐在腹膜透析液中优于乳酸盐%Advantages of pyruvate over lactate in peritoneal dialysis solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周方强

    2001-01-01

    This review discusses effects of both lactate and pyruvate, and high glucose in peritoneal dialysis solutions (PDS) on leukocytes, mainly on intracellular pH ( [pH]i ), glucose metabolic pathways, and apoptosis.Lactate-based PDS (L-PDS) are bioincompatible primarily due to the low pH, high lactate, and glucose excess in both individual and combination. High lactate in an acidi milieu would induce severe intracellular acidosis of leukocytes, and high glucose may disturb glucose metabolic pathways and activate protein kinase C (PKC) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κ B) of the cells, leading to apoptosis. Pymvate-based PDS (P-PDS) are novel experimental PDS. Evidence shows that P-PDS are superior in biocompatibility. Pyruvate protection of cells has been confirmed in many fields besides the PDS area.Although the underlying mechanism whereby P-PDS preserve cell function is not fully understood, it may be associated with the maintenance of [ pH ]i close to physiological, due to its low buffering capacity, improvement of cellular glucose metabolic pathways and redox state,and sustainment of intracellular calcium ([ Ca2+ ]i )homeostasis in high glucose concentrations. It may also inhibit PKC and NF-c B activation in high glucose. In addition, pyruvate is a strong antioxidant, a scavenger of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). However, exogenous pyruvate in PDS could not be an energy source for cells and also the Crabtree effect might not occur in neutrophils.Pyruvate is a hopeful candidate of buffers in PDS in the near future. Further observation of P-PDS is strongly needed with peritoneal cells to verify the cell protection both in vitro and in vivo before clinic trials.

  3. C2-alpha-lactylthiamin diphosphate is an intermediate on the pathway of thiamin diphosphate-dependent pyruvate decarboxylation. Evidence on enzymes and models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Liu, Min; Yan, Yan; Zhang, Zhen; Jordan, Frank

    2004-12-24

    Thiamin diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent decarboxylations are usually assumed to proceed by a series of covalent intermediates, the first one being the C2-trimethylthiazolium adduct with pyruvate, C2-alpha-lactylthiamin diphosphate (LThDP). Herein is addressed whether such an intermediate is kinetically competent with the enzymatic turnover numbers. In model studies it is shown that the first-order rate constant for decarboxylation can indeed exceed 50 s(-1) in tetrahydrofuran as solvent, approximately 10(3) times faster than achieved in previous model systems. When racemic LThDP was exposed to the E91D yeast pyruvate decarboxylase variant, or to the E1 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc-E1) from Escherichia coli, it was partitioned between reversion to pyruvate and decarboxylation. Under steady-state conditions, the rate of these reactions is severely limited by the release of ThDP from the enzyme. Under pre-steady-state conditions, the rate constant for decarboxylation on exposure of LThDP to the E1 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was 0.4 s(-1), still more than a 100-fold slower than the turnover number. Because these experiments include binding, decarboxylation, and oxidation (for detection purposes), this is a lower limit on the rate constant for decarboxylation. The reasons for this slow reaction most likely include a slow conformational change of the free LThDP to the V conformation enforced by the enzyme. Between the results from model studies and those from the two enzymes, it is proposed that LThDP is indeed on the decarboxylation pathway of the two enzymes studied, and once LThDP is bound the protein needs to provide little assistance other than a low polarity environment.

  4. Triiodothyronine increases myocardial function and pyruvate entry into the citric acid cycle after reperfusion in a model of infant cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Aaron K; Bouchard, Bertrand; Ning, Xue-Han; Isern, Nancy; Rosiers, Christine Des; Portman, Michael A

    2012-03-01

    Triiodothyronine (T3) supplementation improves clinical outcomes in infants after cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass by unknown mechanisms. We utilized a translational model of infant cardiopulmonary bypass to test the hypothesis that T3 modulates pyruvate entry into the citric acid cycle (CAC), thereby providing the energy support for improved cardiac function after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). Neonatal piglets received intracoronary [2-(13)Carbon((13)C)]pyruvate for 40 min (8 mM) during control aerobic conditions (control) or immediately after reperfusion (I/R) from global hypothermic ischemia. A third group (I/R-Tr) received T3 (1.2 μg/kg) during reperfusion. We assessed absolute CAC intermediate levels and flux parameters into the CAC through oxidative pyruvate decarboxylation (PDC) and anaplerotic carboxylation (PC) using [2-(13)C]pyruvate and isotopomer analysis by gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. When compared with I/R, T3 (group I/R-Tr) increased cardiac power and oxygen consumption after I/R while elevating flux of both PDC and PC (∼4-fold). Although neither I/R nor I/R-Tr modified absolute CAC levels, T3 inhibited I/R-induced reductions in their molar percent enrichment. Furthermore, (13)C-labeling of CAC intermediates suggests that T3 may decrease entry of unlabeled carbons at the level of oxaloacetate through anaplerosis or exchange reaction with asparate. T3 markedly enhances PC and PDC fluxes, thereby providing potential substrate for elevated cardiac function after reperfusion. This T3-induced increase in pyruvate fluxes occurs with preservation of the CAC intermediate pool. Our labeling data raise the possibility that T3 reduces reliance on amino acids for anaplerosis after reperfusion.

  5. Short-term prognostic value of perioperative coronary sinus-derived-serum cardiac troponin-I, creatine kinase-MB, lactate, pyruvate, and lactate-pyruvate ratio in adult patients undergoing open heart surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjwal Kumar Chowdhury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the release pattern of different cardiac metabolites and biomarkers directly from the coronary sinus (CS and to establish the diagnostic discrimination limits of each marker protein and metabolites to evaluate perioperative myocardial injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. Patients and Methods: Sixty-eight patients undergoing first mitral and/or aortic valve replacements with/without coronary artery bypass grafting and Bentall procedure under CPB and blood cardioplegic arrest were studied. All cardiac metabolites and biomarkers were measured in serial CS-derived blood samples at pre-CPB, immediate post aortic declamping, 10 minutes post-CPB and 12 hrs post-CPB. Results: Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of cardiac biomarkers indicated lactate-pyruvate ratio as the superior diagnostic discriminator of myocardial injury with an optimal "cut-off" value >10.8 immediately after aortic declamping (AUC, 0.92; 95% CI: 0.85-0.98. Lactate was the second best diagnostic discriminator of myocardial injury with an optimal "cut-off" value >2mmol/l at immediately after aortic declamping (AUC, 0.89; 95% CI: 0.80-0.96. Cardiac troponin-I was the third best diagnostic discriminator of myocardial injury with an optimal "cut-off" value >2.1ng/ml at immediately after aortic declamping (AUC, 0.88; 95% CI: 0.80-0.95. Creatine kinase-MB was the fourth best diagnostic discriminator of myocardial injury with an optimal "cut-off" value >58 log units/ml prior to decanulation (AUC, 0.85; 95% CI: 0.78-0.94. Conclusions: Measurable cardiac damage exists in all patients undergoing cardiac surgery under cardioplegic arrest. The degree of myocardial injury is more in patients with poor ventricular function and those requiring longer aortic clamp time. CS-derived lactate-pyruvate ratio, lactate, cTn-I served as superior diagnostic discriminators of peri-operative myocardial damage.

  6. 丙酮酸盐对组织细胞的保护作用%Protective effects of pyruvate on histocyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左珊珊; 芶大明; 周方强

    2014-01-01

    背景 半个多世纪来的研究证实丙酮酸盐具有多细胞/组织的保护功能. 目的 阐述丙酮酸盐对组织细胞的保护作用和可能的机制,提供深入研究的基础. 内容 丙酮酸是糖酵解的中间产物,是三大营养物质的代谢枢纽.外源性丙酮酸盐可在无氧和严重缺氧下保护多组织和器官功能,尤其是心肌、内皮和血细胞以及神经/视网膜和肠组织等;这可能和改善糖代谢紊乱,促进细胞能量代谢,抗氧化和硝基化,纠正细胞内酸中毒,抑制炎症反应等多途径修复细胞损伤有关. 趋向 丙酮酸可能在保护缺血/缺氧以及创伤和感染等所致组织细胞损伤和重症病例的治疗方面具有良好的应用前景.%Background Pyruvate has been demonstrated since over half a century ago that it has multi-histocyte protection function.Objective The present review illustrated the pyruvate's protection of multi-histocyte and its potential mechanisms for further studies.Context Pyruvate is metabolite of glycolysis,a center of three major nutrition's metabolisms in human beings.Exogenous pyruvate can preserve protection function on multiple tissue/organ under hypoxic,even anoxic conditions,especially cardiomyocytes,endothelial cells,blood cells,neurons and retina.The pyruvate protection may be closely associated with its correction of glucose metabolic disorders,enhancement of energy,anti-oxidative and-nitrosative stress,correction of intracellular acidosis,inhibition of inflammation,as well as anti-apoptosis.Trend Pyruvate may have great prospect in treating tissue damage and severe cases caused by ischemia,hypoxia,trauma and infection.

  7. Inhibiting sperm pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and its E3 subunit, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase affects fertilization in Syrian hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana B Siva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: The importance of sperm capacitation for mammalian fertilization has been confirmed in the present study via sperm metabolism. Involvement of the metabolic enzymes pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc and its E3 subunit, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD in hamster in vitro fertilization (IVF via in vitro sperm capacitation is being proposed through regulation of sperm intracellular lactate, pH and calcium. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Capacitated hamster spermatozoa were allowed to fertilize hamster oocytes in vitro which were then assessed for fertilization, microscopically. PDHc/DLD was inhibited by the use of the specific DLD-inhibitor, MICA (5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid. Oocytes fertilized with MICA-treated (MT [and thus PDHc/DLD-inhibited] spermatozoa showed defective fertilization where 2nd polar body release and pronuclei formation were not observed. Defective fertilization was attributable to capacitation failure owing to high lactate and low intracellular pH and calcium in MT-spermatozoa during capacitation. Moreover, this defect could be overcome by alkalinizing spermatozoa, before fertilization. Increasing intracellular calcium in spermatozoa pre-IVF and in defectively-fertilized oocytes, post-fertilization rescued the arrest seen, suggesting the role of intracellular calcium from either of the gametes in fertilization. Parallel experiments carried out with control spermatozoa capacitated in medium with low extracellular pH or high lactate substantiated the necessity of optimal sperm intracellular lactate levels, intracellular pH and calcium during sperm capacitation, for proper fertilization. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the importance of pyruvate/lactate metabolism in capacitating spermatozoa for successful fertilization, besides revealing for the first time the importance of sperm PDHc/ DLD in fertilization, via the modulation of sperm intracellular lactate, pH and calcium during capacitation. In

  8. Inhibiting Sperm Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex and Its E3 Subunit, Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase Affects Fertilization in Syrian Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailasree, Purnima; Singh, Durgesh K.; Kameshwari, Duvurri B.; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The importance of sperm capacitation for mammalian fertilization has been confirmed in the present study via sperm metabolism. Involvement of the metabolic enzymes pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) and its E3 subunit, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD) in hamster in vitro fertilization (IVF) via in vitro sperm capacitation is being proposed through regulation of sperm intracellular lactate, pH and calcium. Methodology and Principal Findings Capacitated hamster spermatozoa were allowed to fertilize hamster oocytes in vitro which were then assessed for fertilization, microscopically. PDHc/DLD was inhibited by the use of the specific DLD-inhibitor, MICA (5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid). Oocytes fertilized with MICA-treated (MT) [and thus PDHc/DLD-inhibited] spermatozoa showed defective fertilization where 2nd polar body release and pronuclei formation were not observed. Defective fertilization was attributable to capacitation failure owing to high lactate and low intracellular pH and calcium in MT-spermatozoa during capacitation. Moreover, this defect could be overcome by alkalinizing spermatozoa, before fertilization. Increasing intracellular calcium in spermatozoa pre-IVF and in defectively-fertilized oocytes, post-fertilization rescued the arrest seen, suggesting the role of intracellular calcium from either of the gametes in fertilization. Parallel experiments carried out with control spermatozoa capacitated in medium with low extracellular pH or high lactate substantiated the necessity of optimal sperm intracellular lactate levels, intracellular pH and calcium during sperm capacitation, for proper fertilization. Conclusions This study confirms the importance of pyruvate/lactate metabolism in capacitating spermatozoa for successful fertilization, besides revealing for the first time the importance of sperm PDHc/ DLD in fertilization, via the modulation of sperm intracellular lactate, pH and calcium during capacitation. In addition, the

  9. Increased Interstitial Concentrations of Glutamate and Pyruvate in Vastus Lateralis of Women with Fibromyalgia Syndrome Are Normalized after an Exercise Intervention – A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdle, Björn; Ernberg, Malin; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa; Larsson, Britt; Kosek, Eva; Christidis, Nikolaos; Ghafouri, Bijar

    2016-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is associated with central alterations, but controversies exist regarding the presence and role of peripheral factors. Microdialysis (MD) can be used in vivo to study muscle alterations in FMS. Furthermore for chronic pain conditions such as FMS, the mechanisms for the positive effects of exercise are unclear. This study investigates the interstitial concentrations of algesics and metabolites in the vastus lateralis muscle of 29 women with FMS and 28 healthy women before and after an exercise intervention. Methods All the participants went through a clinical examination and completed a questionnaire. In addition, their pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in their upper and lower extremities were determined. For both groups, MD was conducted in the vastus lateralis muscle before and after a 15-week exercise intervention of mainly resistance training of the lower limbs. Muscle blood flow and interstitial muscle concentrations of lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, glucose, and glycerol were determined. Results FMS was associated with significantly increased interstitial concentrations of glutamate, pyruvate, and lactate. After the exercise intervention, the FMS group exhibited significant decreases in pain intensity and in mean interstitial concentrations of glutamate, pyruvate, and glucose. The decrease in pain intensity in FMS correlated significantly with the decreases in pyruvate and glucose. In addition, the FMS group increased their strength and endurance. Conclusion This study supports the suggestion that peripheral metabolic and algesic muscle alterations are present in FMS patients and that these alterations contribute to pain. After an exercise intervention, alterations normalized, pain intensity decreased (but not abolished), and strength and endurance improved, all findings that suggest the effects of exercise are partially peripheral. PMID:27695113

  10. Synthesis, characterization and thermal behaviour on solid pyruvates of light trivalent lanthanides; Sintese, caracterizacao e comportamento termico dos piruvatos de lantanideos leves no estado solido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, A.B.; Carvalho, C.T. de; Ionashiro, M. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: massaoi@iq.unesp.br; Rodrigues, E.C. [Fundacao Educacional de Barretos, SP (Brazil); Ionashiro, E.Y.; Bannach, G. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2007-07-01

    Solid State Ln-L compounds, where Ln stands for light trivalent lanthanides (La - Gd) and L is pyruvate, have been synthesized. Thermogravimetry and derivative thermogravimetry (TG/DTG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-Ray powder diffractometry, infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and complexometry were used to characterize and to study the thermal behaviour of these compounds. The results led to information about the composition, dehydration, ligand denticity, thermal behaviour and thermal decomposition of the isolated compounds. (author)

  11. Pungency evaluation of onion cultivars from the Venezuelan West-Center region by flow injection analysis-UV-visible spectroscopy pyruvate determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Pineda; Lué-Merú, Marcó P; Ricardo, Rivas; Máximo, Gallignani; Maribel, Valero; Luis, Burguera José; Marcela, Burguera

    2004-12-15

    A flow injection analysis (FIA) method was developed for the determination of pyruvate in onion cultivars (Allium cepa L.) from the West-Center region of Venezuela. The reference Schwimmer and Weston (1961) (J. Agric. Food Chem. 9 (1961) 301) Batch method was modified and adapted to FIA conditions. The formation kinetic of the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-pyruvate complex was evaluated at room temperature and at 37 degrees C. It was demonstrated the suitability of the chromopher formation at room temperature. The optimal values for the FIA parameters were: sample injection volume 3mL, flow rate 6mLmin(-1), reactor length 1.5m, sodium hydroxide concentration 1.0molL(-1) and hydrochloric acid concentration 0.5molL(-1). The working calibration range was extended from 80mgL(-1) (Batch method) to 700mgL(-1) with the FIA set up. The sample dilution step is thus avoided, simplifying the whole analysis process. The pungency in representative samples of the cultivars Yellow granex 438, Ultra Hybrid and Red onion "Sangre de Toro" was evaluated by the flow injection analysis (FIA)-pyruvate method and the results were compared to the reference Batch pyruvate method and to the taste panel test. Non-significant differences were found at the 95% of confidence level between the FIA method and the Batch reference method. Correlation coefficient when comparing the FIA results to the taste panel test was r(2) = 0.8353. Significant differences (P pungency of the cultivars, the Ultra Hybrid having the highest pungency. The pungency order from minor to major was: Red onion, Texas Grano 438 and Ultra Hybrid.

  12. Resistance imparted by traditional Chinese medicines to the acute change of glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase activities in rat blood caused by noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bei-Wei; Sun, Yu-Mei; Yun, Xia; Han, Song; Piao, Mei-Lan; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Tada, Mikiro

    2004-05-01

    The activities of serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and creatine kinase (CK) in rats injected or not with the Chinese medicines, Astragali, Rhodiolae and Ligusticum, were determined after noise exposure. Noise at 95 and 105 dB significantly increased the activities of GPT, ALP and CK, and showed a dependence on the exposure time. The injection of each medicine significantly suppressed the increased enzyme activities by 95 and 105 dB noise.

  13. Protective effect of indole-3-pyruvate against ultraviolet b-induced damage to cultured HaCaT keratinocytes and the skin of hairless mice.

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    Reiji Aoki

    Full Text Available Previous investigations demonstrated that pyruvate protects human keratinocytes against cell damage stemming from exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB radiation. This study endeavoured to elucidate the protective capacity of aromatic pyruvates (e.g., phenylpyruvate (PPyr, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (HPPyr, and indole-3-pyruvate (IPyr against UVB-induced injury to skin cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Cultured human HaCaT keratinocytes were irradiated with UVB light (60 mJ/cm2 and maintained with or without test compounds (1-25 mM.In addition, the dorsal skin of hairless mice (HR-1 was treated with test compounds (10 μmol and exposed to UVB light (1 J/cm2 twice [corrected]. The ability of the test compounds to ameliorate UVB-induced cytotoxicity and inflammation was then assessed. Aromatic pyruvates reduced cytotoxicity in UVB-irradiated HaCaT keratinocytes, and also diminished the expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β and interleukin 6 (IL-6. IPyr was more efficacious than either PPyr or HPPyr. Furthermore, only IPyr inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2 expression at both the mRNA and the protein level in UVB-treated keratinocytes. Topical application of IPyr to the dorsal skin of hairless mice reduced the severity of UVB-induced skin lesions, the augmentation of dermal thickness, and transepithelial water loss. Overproduction of IL-1β and IL-6 in response to UVB radiation was also suppressed in vivo by the topical administration of IPyr. These data strongly suggest that IPyr might find utility as a UVB-blocking reagent in therapeutic strategies to lessen UVB-induced inflammatory skin damage.

  14. Data regarding the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM on different carbohydrates and recombinant production of elongation factor G and pyruvate kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celebioglu, Hasan Ufuk; Olesen, Sita Vaag; Prehn, Kennie

    2017-01-01

    he present study describes the growth of the very well-known probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM on different carbohydrates. Furthermore, recombinant production of putative moonlighting proteins elongation factor G and pyruvate kinase from this bacterium is described. For further...... and detailed interpretation of the data presented here, please see the research article “Mucin- and carbohydrate-stimulated adhesion and subproteome changes of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM” (Celebioglu et al., 2017) [1]....

  15. SNPs within the beta myosin heavy chain (MYH7 and the pyruvate kinase muscle (PKM2 genes in horse

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    Vincenzo Russo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two highly expressed skeletal muscle genes (the MYH7 gene encoding the myosin heavy chain slow/β-cardiac isoform and the PKM2 gene encoding the pyruvate kinase muscle isoforms were investigated with the objective to identify DNA markers in horses. A panel of DNA samples from different horse breeds was analysed using a PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP approach. Four and two alleles were identified for the MYH7 and PKM2 loci, respectively. Mendelian inheritance of alleles of the two investigated genes was confirmed analysing horse families. Sequencing of PCR products obtained from the MYH7 and PKM2 genes made it possible to characterise two SSCP alleles for each gene. The polymorphisms found in the MYH7 and PKM2 genes were further studied in 61 and 68 horses of three (Italian Heavy Draught Horse, Italian Saddler and Murgese and five (Franches-Montagnes, Haflinger, Italian Heavy Draught Horse, Murgese and Standardbred breeds, respectively. Allele frequencies of the two loci varied among the considered breeds. The SNPs discovery in MYH7 and PKM2 genes makes it possible to locate new molecular markers to ECA1. The identified markers could be used in association analysis with performance traits in horses.

  16. Pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase overexpression in Escherichia coli resulted in high ethanol production and rewired metabolic enzyme networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingfeng; Li, Xuefeng; Bu, Chunya; Wang, Hui; Shi, Guanglu; Yang, Xiushan; Hu, Yong; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2014-11-01

    Pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase are efficient enzymes for ethanol production in Zymomonas mobilis. These two enzymes were over-expressed in Escherichia coli, a promising candidate for industrial ethanol production, resulting in high ethanol production in the engineered E. coli. To investigate the intracellular changes to the enzyme overexpression for homoethanol production, 2-DE and LC-MS/MS were performed. More than 1,000 protein spots were reproducibly detected in the gel by image analysis. Compared to the wild-type, 99 protein spots showed significant changes in abundance in the recombinant E. coli, in which 46 were down-regulated and 53 were up-regulated. Most proteins related to tricarboxylic acid cycle, glycerol metabolism and other energy metabolism were up-regulated, whereas proteins involved in glycolysis and glyoxylate pathway were down-regulated, indicating the rewired metabolism in the engineered E. coli. As glycolysis is the main pathway for ethanol production, and it was inhibited significantly in engineered E. coli, further efforts should be directed at minimizing the repression of glycolysis to optimize metabolism network for higher yields of ethanol production.

  17. Subcellular localization and expression of multiple tomato gamma-aminobutyrate transaminases that utilize both pyruvate and glyoxylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Shawn M; Di Leo, Rosa; Van Cauwenberghe, Owen R; Mullen, Robert T; Shelp, Barry J

    2009-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) catalyses the breakdown of GABA to succinic semialdehyde. In this report, three GABA-T isoforms were identified in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plant. The deduced amino acid sequences of the three isoforms are highly similar over most of their coding regions with the exception of their N-terminal regions. Transient expression of the individual full-length GABA-T isoforms fused to the green fluorescent protein in tobacco suspension-cultured cells revealed their distinct subcellular localizations to the mitochondrion, plastid or cytosol, and that the specific targeting of the mitochondrion- and plastid-localized isoforms is mediated by their predicted N-terminal presequences. Removal of the N-terminal targeting presequences from the mitochondrion and plastid GABA-T isoforms yielded good recovery of the soluble recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli when they were co-expressed with the GroES/EL molecular chaperone complex. Activity assays indicated that all three recombinant isoforms possess both pyruvate- and glyoxylate-dependent GABA-T activities, although the mitochondrial enzyme has a specific activity that is significantly higher than that of its plastid and cytosolic counterparts. Finally, differential expression patterns of the three GABA-T isoforms in reproductive tissues, but not vegetative tissues, suggest unique roles for each enzyme in developmental processes. Overall, these findings, together with recent information about rice and pepper GABA-Ts, indicate that the subcellular distribution of GABA-T in the plant kingdom is highly variable.

  18. Comparative 13C metabolic flux analysis of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-deficient, L-valine-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartek, Tobias; Blombach, Bastian; Lang, Siegmund; Eikmanns, Bernhard J; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Oldiges, Marco; Nöh, Katharina; Noack, Stephan

    2011-09-01

    L-Valine can be formed successfully using C. glutamicum strains missing an active pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex (PDHC). Wild-type C. glutamicum and four PDHC-deficient strains were compared by (13)C metabolic flux analysis, especially focusing on the split ratio between glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Compared to the wild type, showing a carbon flux of 69% ± 14% through the PPP, a strong increase in the PPP flux was observed in PDHC-deficient strains with a maximum of 113% ± 22%. The shift in the split ratio can be explained by an increased demand of NADPH for l-valine formation. In accordance, the introduction of the Escherichia coli transhydrogenase PntAB, catalyzing the reversible conversion of NADH to NADPH, into an L-valine-producing C. glutamicum strain caused the PPP flux to decrease to 57% ± 6%, which is below the wild-type split ratio. Hence, transhydrogenase activity offers an alternative perspective for sufficient NADPH supply, which is relevant for most amino acid production systems. Moreover, as demonstrated for L-valine, this bypass leads to a significant increase of product yield due to a concurrent reduction in carbon dioxide formation via the PPP.

  19. Deletion of the aceE gene (encoding a component of pyruvate dehydrogenase) attenuates Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Ervinna; Tien-Lin, Chang; Selvaraj, Madhan; Chang, Jason; Kwang, Jimmy

    2011-10-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a major food-borne pathogen. From a transposon insertion mutant library created previously using S. Enteritidis 10/02, one of the mutants was identified to have a 50% lethal dose (LD(50) ) at least 100 times that of the parental strain in young chicks, with an attenuation in a poorly studied gene encoding a component of pyruvate dehydrogenase, namely the aceE gene. Evaluation of the in vitro virulence characteristics of the ΔaceE∷kan mutant revealed that it was less able to invade epithelial cells, less resistant to reactive oxygen intermediate, less able to survive within a chicken macrophage cell line and had a retarded growth rate compared with the parental strain. Young chicks vaccinated with 2 × 10(9) CFU of the ΔaceE∷kan mutant were protected from the subsequent challenge of the parental strain, with the mutant colonized in the liver and spleen in a shorter time than the group infected with the parental strain. In addition, compared with the parental strain, the ΔaceE∷kan mutant did not cause persistent eggshell contamination of vaccinated hens.

  20. Molecular modeling on pyruvate phosphate dikinase of Entamoeba histolytica and in silico virtual screening for novel inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Preyesh; Vijayan, Ramachandran; Bhat, Audesh; Subbarao, N.; Bamezai, R. N. K.

    2008-09-01

    Pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) is the key enzyme essential for the glycolytic pathway in most common and perilous parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Inhibiting the function of this enzyme could control the wide spread of intestinal infections caused by Entamoeba histolytica in humans. With this objective, we modeled the three dimensional structure of the PPDK protein. We used templates with 51% identity and 67% similarity to employ homology-modeling approach. Stereo chemical quality of protein structure was validated by protein structure validation program PROCHECK and VERIFY3D. Experimental proof available in literature along with the in silico studies indicated Lys21, Arg91, Asp323, Glu325 and Gln337 to be the probable active sites in the target protein. Virtual screening was carried out using the genetic docking algorithm GOLD and a consensus scoring function X-Score to substantiate the prediction. The small molecule libraries (ChemDivision database, Diversity dataset, Kinase inhibitor database) were used for screening process. Along with the high scoring results, the interaction studies provided promising ligands for future experimental screening to inhibit the function of PPDK in Entamoeba histolytica. Further, the phylogeny study was carried out to assess the possibility of using the proposed ligands as inhibitors in related pathogens.

  1. ERK2-Pyruvate Kinase Axis Permits Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate-induced Megakaryocyte Differentiation in K562 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaman, Noor; Iqbal, Mohammad Askandar; Siddiqui, Farid Ahmad; Gopinath, Prakasam; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

    2015-09-25

    Metabolic changes that contribute to differentiation are not well understood. Overwhelming evidence shows the critical role of glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase (PK) in directing metabolism of proliferating cells. However, its role in metabolism of differentiating cells is unclear. Here we studied the role of PK in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced megakaryocytic differentiation in human leukemia K562 cells. We observed that PMA treatment decreased cancer-type anabolic metabolism but increased ATP production, along with up-regulated expression of two PK isoforms (PKM2 and PKR) in an ERK2-dependent manner. Interestingly, silencing of PK (PKM2 and PKR) inhibited PMA-induced megakaryocytic differentiation, as revealed by decreased expression of megakaryocytic differentiation marker CD61 and cell cycle behavior. Further, PMA-induced ATP production reduced greatly upon PK silencing, suggesting that PK is required for ATP synthesis. In addition to metabolic effects, PMA treatment also translocated PKM2, but not PKR, into nucleus. ERK1/2 knockdowns independently and together suggested the role of ERK2 in the up-regulation of both the isoforms of PK, proposing a role of ERK2-PK isoform axis in differentiation. Collectively, our findings unravel ERK2 guided PK-dependent metabolic changes during PMA induction, which are important in megakaryocytic differentiation.

  2. ERK2-Pyruvate Kinase Axis Permits Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate-induced Megakaryocyte Differentiation in K562 Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaman, Noor; Iqbal, Mohammad Askandar; Siddiqui, Farid Ahmad; Gopinath, Prakasam; Bamezai, Rameshwar N. K.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic changes that contribute to differentiation are not well understood. Overwhelming evidence shows the critical role of glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase (PK) in directing metabolism of proliferating cells. However, its role in metabolism of differentiating cells is unclear. Here we studied the role of PK in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced megakaryocytic differentiation in human leukemia K562 cells. We observed that PMA treatment decreased cancer-type anabolic metabolism but increased ATP production, along with up-regulated expression of two PK isoforms (PKM2 and PKR) in an ERK2-dependent manner. Interestingly, silencing of PK (PKM2 and PKR) inhibited PMA-induced megakaryocytic differentiation, as revealed by decreased expression of megakaryocytic differentiation marker CD61 and cell cycle behavior. Further, PMA-induced ATP production reduced greatly upon PK silencing, suggesting that PK is required for ATP synthesis. In addition to metabolic effects, PMA treatment also translocated PKM2, but not PKR, into nucleus. ERK1/2 knockdowns independently and together suggested the role of ERK2 in the up-regulation of both the isoforms of PK, proposing a role of ERK2-PK isoform axis in differentiation. Collectively, our findings unravel ERK2 guided PK-dependent metabolic changes during PMA induction, which are important in megakaryocytic differentiation. PMID:26269597

  3. Evaluation of hyperpolarized [1-¹³C]-pyruvate by magnetic resonance to detect ionizing radiation effects in real time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad C Sandulache

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation (IR cytotoxicity is primarily mediated through reactive oxygen species (ROS. Since tumor cells neutralize ROS by utilizing reducing equivalents, we hypothesized that measurements of reducing potential using real-time hyperpolarized (HP magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS and spectroscopic imaging (MRSI can serve as a surrogate marker of IR induced ROS. This hypothesis was tested in a pre-clinical model of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC, an aggressive head and neck malignancy. Human ATC cell lines were utilized to test IR effects on ROS and reducing potential in vitro and [1-¹³C] pyruvate HP-MRS/MRSI imaging of ATC orthotopic xenografts was used to study in vivo effects of IR. IR increased ATC intra-cellular ROS levels resulting in a corresponding decrease in reducing equivalent levels. Exogenous manipulation of cellular ROS and reducing equivalent levels altered ATC radiosensitivity in a predictable manner. Irradiation of ATC xenografts resulted in an acute drop in reducing potential measured using HP-MRS, reflecting the shunting of reducing equivalents towards ROS neutralization. Residual tumor tissue post irradiation demonstrated heterogeneous viability. We have adapted HP-MRS/MRSI to non-invasively measure IR mediated changes in tumor reducing potential in real time. Continued development of this technology could facilitate the development of an adaptive clinical algorithm based on real-time adjustments in IR dose and dose mapping.

  4. Improving the culturability of freshwater bacteria using FW70, a low-nutrient solid medium amended with sodium pyruvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imazaki, Iori; Kobori, Youichi

    2010-04-01

    Bacterial culture based on the use of plate media is an effective method for investigating bacterial populations in the environment. To improve the culturability of bacteria from freshwater lakes, we developed a new medium, FW70, which contains sodium pyruvate, casamino acids, and lake water and is solidified using gellan gum. To test the importance of these components, we prepared a series of media in which one or more of the components was absent. Water was sampled 31 times from 3 Japanese lakes and was passed through a membrane filter (pore size = 0.45 microm) to remove fast-growing microbes before the water was spread onto the plates. In most cases, significantly larger numbers of bacterial colonies were detected on FW70 than on other media. Furthermore, to test the practicality of FW70, we compared it with standard nutrient agar and R2A agar. In all cases, the culturability was significantly greater on FW70 than on standard nutrient agar or R2A agar. Some isolates recovered by means of FW70 belonged to bacteria that had not previously been classified. These results suggest that FW70 improves the culturability of freshwater bacteria and can be used for the isolation of novel bacteria as a result of the filtration step.

  5. Reciprocal Changes in Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase and Pyruvate Kinase with Age Are a Determinant of Aging in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yiyuan; Hakimi, Parvin; Kao, Clara; Kao, Allison; Liu, Ruifu; Janocha, Allison; Boyd-Tressler, Andrea; Hang, Xi; Alhoraibi, Hanna; Slater, Erin; Xia, Kevin; Cao, Pengxiu; Shue, Quinn; Ching, Tsui-Ting; Hsu, Ao-Lin; Erzurum, Serpil C; Dubyak, George R; Berger, Nathan A; Hanson, Richard W; Feng, Zhaoyang

    2016-01-15

    Aging involves progressive loss of cellular function and integrity, presumably caused by accumulated stochastic damage to cells. Alterations in energy metabolism contribute to aging, but how energy metabolism changes with age, how these changes affect aging, and whether they can be modified to modulate aging remain unclear. In locomotory muscle of post-fertile Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified a progressive decrease in cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C), a longevity-associated metabolic enzyme, and a reciprocal increase in glycolytic pyruvate kinase (PK) that were necessary and sufficient to limit lifespan. Decline in PEPCK-C with age also led to loss of cellular function and integrity including muscle activity, and cellular senescence. Genetic and pharmacologic interventions of PEPCK-C, muscle activity, and AMPK signaling demonstrate that declines in PEPCK-C and muscle function with age interacted to limit reproductive life and lifespan via disrupted energy homeostasis. Quantifications of metabolic flux show that reciprocal changes in PEPCK-C and PK with age shunted energy metabolism toward glycolysis, reducing mitochondrial bioenergetics. Last, calorie restriction countered changes in PEPCK-C and PK with age to elicit anti-aging effects via TOR inhibition. Thus, a programmed metabolic event involving PEPCK-C and PK is a determinant of aging that can be modified to modulate aging.

  6. A new PKLR gene mutation in the R-type promoter region affects the gene transcription causing pyruvate kinase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manco, L; Ribeiro, M L; Máximo, V; Almeida, H; Costa, A; Freitas, O; Barbot, J; Abade, A; Tamagnini, G

    2000-09-01

    Mutations in the PKLR gene responsible for pyruvate kinase (PK)-deficient anaemia are mainly located in the coding regions: 11 are in the splicing sites and, recently, three mutations have been described in the promoter region. We now report a novel point mutation A-->G on nucleotide 72, upstream from the initiation codon of the PKLR gene, in four Portuguese PK-deficient patients. This new regulatory mutation occurs within the most proximal of the four GATA motifs (GATA-A element) in the R-type promoter region. In two patients who were homozygous for this mutation, a semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure was used to evaluate the amount of R-PK mRNA transcript in the reticulocytes. The mRNA level was about five times lower than in normal controls, demonstrating that the PKLR gene transcription is severely affected, most probably because the -72A-->G point mutation disables the binding of the erythroid transcription factor GATA-1 to the GATA-A element. Supporting these data, the two patients homozygous for the -72A-->G mutation had severe haemolytic anaemia and were transfusion dependent until splenectomy. Two other patients who were compound heterozygous for this mutation and the previously described missense mutation 1456C-->T had a mild condition.

  7. Control of oxygen free radical formation from mitochondrial complex I: roles for protein kinase A and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raha, Sandeep; Myint, A Tomoko; Johnstone, Leslie; Robinson, Brian H

    2002-03-01

    Human NADH CoQ oxidoreductase is composed of a total of 43 subunits and has been demonstrated to be a major site for the production of superoxide by mitochondria. Incubation of rat heart mitochondria with ATP resulted in the phosphorylation of two mitochondrial membrane proteins, one with a M(r) of 6 kDa consistent with the NDUFA1 (MWFE), and one at 18kDa consistent with either NDUFS4 (AQDQ) or NDUFB7 (B18). Phosphorylation of both subunits was enhanced by cAMP derivatives and protein kinase A (PKA) and was inhibited by PKA inhibitors (PKAi). When mitochondrial membranes were incubated with pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, phosphorylation of an 18kDa protein but not a 6kDa protein was observed. NADH cytochrome c reductase activity was decreased and superoxide production rates with NADH as substrate were increased. On the other hand, with protein kinase A-driven phosphorylation, NADH cytochrome c reductase was increased and superoxide production decreased. Overall there was a 4-fold variation in electron transport rates observable at the extremes of these phosphorylation events. This suggests that electron flow through complex I and the production of oxygen free radicals can be regulated by phosphorylation events. In light of these observations we discuss a potential model for the dual regulation of complex I and the production of oxygen free radicals by both PKA and PDH kinase.

  8. Tumor M2-pyruvate kinase in stool as a biomarker for diagnosis of colorectal cancer: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Xi Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the diagnosis value of tumor M2-pyruvate kinase (M2-PK in stool as a biomarker for diagnosis of colorectal cancer. Materials and Methods: By searching the databases of Cochrane Library, PubMed, China national knowledge Information and Wanfang, the diagnosis study related to tumor M2-PK in stool as a biomarker for diagnosis of colorectal cancer were screened and included in this study. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (+LR, negative likelihood ratio (−LR and the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC were calculated by stata 11.0 software. Results: According to the including criteria, 14 trials including 1990 subjects were finally included in this meta-analysis. The pooled diagnosis sensitivity, specificity, +LR, −LR and area under curve were 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.74-0.81, 0.77 (95% CI: 0.76-0.79, 4.38 (95% CI: 3.27-5.88, 0.28 (95% CI: 0.23-0.34 and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.834-0.89. No statistical publication bias was found in this study. Conclusion: Tumor M2-PK in stool can be a useful biomarker in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer with relative high sensitivity and specificity.

  9. Novel type of red blood cell pyruvate kinase hyperactivity predicts a remote regulatory locus involved in PKLR gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oirschot, Brigitte Antoinette; Francois, Jerney Johanna Jeanette Maria; van Solinge, Wouter Willem; van Wesel, Annet Cornelia Wilhelmina; Rijksen, Gert; van Amstel, Hans Kristian Ploos; van Wijk, Richard

    2014-04-01

    Red blood cell pyruvate kinase (PK-R) is a key regulatory enzyme of red cell metabolism. Hereditary deficiency of PK-R is caused by mutations in the PKLR gene, leading to chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. In contrast to PK deficiency, inherited PK hyperactivity has also been described. This very rare abnormality of RBC metabolism has been documented in only two families and appears to be without clinical consequences. Thus far, it has been attributed to either a gain of function mutation in PKLR or to persistent expression of the fetal PK isozyme PK-M2 in mature red blood cells. We here report on a novel type of inherited PK hyperactivity that is characterized by solely increased expression of a kinetically normal PK-R. In line with the latter, no mutations were detected in PKLR. Mutations in regulatory regions as well as variations in PKLR copy number were also absent. In addition, linkage analysis suggested that PK hyperactivity segregated independently from the PKLR locus. We therefore postulate that the causative mutation resides in a novel yet-unidentified locus, and upregulates PKLR gene expression. Other mutations of the same locus may be involved in those cases of PK deficiency that fail to reveal mutations in PKLR.

  10. Insulinotropic effect of cinnamaldehyde on transcriptional regulation of pyruvate kinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and GLUT4 translocation in experimental diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Prachi; Murali, K Y; Tandon, Vibha; Murthy, P S; Chandra, Ramesh

    2010-06-07

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder affecting about 6% of population worldwide with its complications and is rapidly reaching epidemic scale. Cinnamomum zeylanicum is widely used in alternative system of medicine for treatment of diabetes. In the present study, we have performed bioassay guided fractionation of chloroform extract of C. zeylaniucm and identified cinnamaldehyde (CND) as an active principle against diabetes. In continuation to it, a detailed study was undertaken to elucidate its mode of antidiabetic action in STZ induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of CND (20 mg/kg bw) to diabetic rats for 2 months showed significant improvement (pCND enhanced the insulin release compared to glibenclamide. The insulinotropic effect of CND was found to increase the glucose uptake through glucose transporter (GLUT4) translocation in peripheral tissues. The treatment also showed a significant improvement in altered enzyme activities of pyruvate kinase (PK) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and their mRNA expression levels. Furthermore, the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of CND could not be obtained even at 20 times (0.4 g/kg bw) of its effective dose. With the high margin of safety of CND, it can be developed as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of diabetes.

  11. Physiological effects of an allozyme polymorphism: glutamate-pyruvate transaminase and response to hyperosmotic stress in the copepod Tigriopus californicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, R S; Feldman, M W

    1983-04-01

    In order to regulate cell volume during hyperosmotic stress, the intertidal copepod Tigriopus californicus, like other aquatic crustaceans, rapidly accumulates high levels of intracellular alanine, proline, and glycine. Glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT; EC 2.6.1.2), which catalyzes the final step of alanine synthesis, is genetically polymorphic in T. californicus populations at Santa Cruz, California. Spectrophotometric studies of homogenates derived from a homozygous isofemale line of each of the two common GPT alleles indicated that the GPTF allozyme has a significantly higher specific activity than the GPTS allozyme. Under conditions of hyperosmotic stress, individual adult copepods of GPTF and GPTF/S genotypes accumulated alanine, but not glycine or proline, more rapidly than GPTS homozygotes. When young larvae were subjected to the same hyperosmotic conditions, GPTS larvae suffered a significantly higher mortality than GPTF or GPTF/S larvae. These results suggest that the biochemical differences among GPT allozymes result in specific physiological variation among GPT genotypes and that this physiological variation is manifested in differential genotypic survivorships under some naturally occurring environmental conditions.

  12. Pyruvic Oxime Nitrification and Copper and Nickel Resistance by a Cupriavidus pauculus, an Active Heterotrophic Nitrifier-Denitrifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ramirez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterotrophic nitrifiers synthesize nitrogenous gasses when nitrifying ammonium ion. A Cupriavidus pauculus, previously thought an Alcaligenes sp. and noted as an active heterotrophic nitrifier-denitrifier, was examined for its ability to produce nitrogen gas (N2 and nitrous oxide (N2O while heterotrophically nitrifying the organic substrate pyruvic oxime [CH3–C(NOH–COOH]. Neither N2 nor N2O were produced. Nucleotide and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the organism is a member of a genus (Cupriavidus known for its resistance to metals and its metabolism of xenobiotics. The microbe (a Cupriavidus pauculus designated as C. pauculus strain UM1 was examined for its ability to perform heterotrophic nitrification in the presence of Cu2+ and Ni2+ and to metabolize the xenobiotic phenol. The bacterium heterotrophically nitrified well when either 1 mM Cu2+ or 0.5 mM Ni2+ was present in either enriched or minimal medium. The organism also used phenol as a sole carbon source in either the presence or absence of 1 mM Cu2+ or 0.5 mM Ni2+. The ability of this isolate to perform a number of different metabolisms, its noteworthy resistance to copper and nickel, and its potential use as a bioremediation agent are discussed.

  13. Fullerene-C60-MWCNT composite film based ultrasensitive electrochemical sensing platform for the trace analysis of pyruvic acid in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahman, Pradeep Kumar; Pandey, Nidhi; Topkaya, Seda Nur; Singhai, Rashmi

    2015-03-01

    We propose development of a novel electrochemical sensor based on fullerene-multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite film for the sensitive determination of the pyruvic acid in biological fluids. The developed sensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry. The nanocomposite film of C60-MWCNTs on GCE exhibits electrocatalytic activity towards pyruvic acid reduction and also decreases the reduction overpotential. The influence of the optimization parameters such as pH and effect of loading of composite mixture of C60 and MWCNTs on the electrochemical performance of the sensor were evaluated. Various kinetic parameters such as electron transfer number (n=2), proton transfer number (m=2) and charge transfer coefficient (α=0.56) were also calculated. Under optimized conditions, the squarewave reduction peak current was linear over the concentration range of 2.0-55 nM with the detection and quantification limit of 0.1 nM and 0.8 nM respectively. The fabricated sensor was successfully applied to the detection of pyruvic acid in biological samples with good recovery ranging from 97.6% to 103.6%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Control of voltage-gated potassium channel Kv2.2 expression by pyruvate-isocitrate cycling regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mette V; Haldeman, Jonathan M; Zhang, Hengtao; Lu, Danhong; Huising, Mark O; Vale, Wylie W; Hohmeier, Hans E; Rosenberg, Paul; Newgard, Christopher B

    2013-08-09

    Recent studies have shown that the pyruvate-isocitrate cycling pathway, involving the mitochondrial citrate/isocitrate carrier and the cytosolic NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDc), is involved in control of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Here we demonstrate that pyruvate-isocitrate cycling regulates expression of the voltage-gated potassium channel family member Kv2.2 in islet β-cells. siRNA-mediated suppression of ICDc, citrate/isocitrate carrier, or Kv2.2 expression impaired GSIS, and the effect of ICDc knockdown was rescued by re-expression of Kv2.2. Moreover, chronic exposure of β-cells to elevated fatty acids, which impairs GSIS, resulted in decreased expression of Kv2.2. Surprisingly, knockdown of ICDc or Kv2.2 increased rather than decreased outward K(+) current in the 832/13 β-cell line. Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated interaction of Kv2.1 and Kv2.2, and co-overexpression of the two channels reduced outward K(+) current compared with overexpression of Kv2.1 alone. Also, siRNA-mediated knockdown of ICDc enhanced the suppressive effect of the Kv2.1-selective inhibitor stromatoxin1 on K(+) currents. Our data support a model in which a key function of the pyruvate-isocitrate cycle is to maintain levels of Kv2.2 expression sufficient to allow it to serve as a negative regulator of Kv channel activity.

  15. Generation of a High Number of Healthy Erythroid Cells from Gene-Edited Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency Patient-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garate, Zita; Quintana-Bustamante, Oscar; Crane, Ana M.; Olivier, Emmanuel; Poirot, Laurent; Galetto, Roman; Kosinski, Penelope; Hill, Collin; Kung, Charles; Agirre, Xabi; Orman, Israel; Cerrato, Laura; Alberquilla, Omaira; Rodriguez-Fornes, Fatima; Fusaki, Noemi; Garcia-Sanchez, Felix; Maia, Tabita M.; Ribeiro, Maria L.; Sevilla, Julian; Prosper, Felipe; Jin, Shengfang; Mountford, Joanne; Guenechea, Guillermo; Gouble, Agnes; Bueren, Juan A.; Davis, Brian R.; Segovia, Jose C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Pyruvate kinase deficiency (PKD) is a rare erythroid metabolic disease caused by mutations in the PKLR gene. Erythrocytes from PKD patients show an energetic imbalance causing chronic non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia, as pyruvate kinase defects impair ATP production in erythrocytes. We generated PKD induced pluripotent stem cells (PKDiPSCs) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PB-MNCs) of PKD patients by non-integrative Sendai viral vectors. PKDiPSCs were gene edited to integrate a partial codon-optimized R-type pyruvate kinase cDNA in the second intron of the PKLR gene by TALEN-mediated homologous recombination (HR). Notably, we found allele specificity of HR led by the presence of a single-nucleotide polymorphism. High numbers of erythroid cells derived from gene-edited PKDiPSCs showed correction of the energetic imbalance, providing an approach to correct metabolic erythroid diseases and demonstrating the practicality of this approach to generate the large cell numbers required for comprehensive biochemical and metabolic erythroid analyses. PMID:26549847

  16. Generation of a High Number of Healthy Erythroid Cells from Gene-Edited Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency Patient-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita Garate

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pyruvate kinase deficiency (PKD is a rare erythroid metabolic disease caused by mutations in the PKLR gene. Erythrocytes from PKD patients show an energetic imbalance causing chronic non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia, as pyruvate kinase defects impair ATP production in erythrocytes. We generated PKD induced pluripotent stem cells (PKDiPSCs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PB-MNCs of PKD patients by non-integrative Sendai viral vectors. PKDiPSCs were gene edited to integrate a partial codon-optimized R-type pyruvate kinase cDNA in the second intron of the PKLR gene by TALEN-mediated homologous recombination (HR. Notably, we found allele specificity of HR led by the presence of a single-nucleotide polymorphism. High numbers of erythroid cells derived from gene-edited PKDiPSCs showed correction of the energetic imbalance, providing an approach to correct metabolic erythroid diseases and demonstrating the practicality of this approach to generate the large cell numbers required for comprehensive biochemical and metabolic erythroid analyses.

  17. Creatine and pyruvate prevent the alterations caused by tyrosine on parameters of oxidative stress and enzyme activities of phosphoryltransfer network in cerebral cortex of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Rodrigo Binkowski; Gemelli, Tanise; Rojas, Denise Bertin; Bonorino, Narielle Ferner; Costa, Bruna May Lopes; Funchal, Cláudia; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo; Wannmacher, Clovis Milton Duval

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine accumulates in inborn errors of tyrosine catabolism, especially in tyrosinemia type II. In this disease caused by tyrosine aminotransferase deficiency, eyes, skin, and central nervous system disturbances are found. In the present study, we investigated the chronic effect of tyrosine methyl ester (TME) and/or creatine plus pyruvate on some parameters of oxidative stress and enzyme activities of phosphoryltransfer network in cerebral cortex homogenates of 21-day-old Wistar. Chronic administration of TME induced oxidative stress and altered the activities of adenylate kinase and mitochondrial and cytosolic creatine kinase. Total sulfhydryls content, GSH content, and GPx activity were significantly diminished, while DCFH oxidation, TBARS content, and SOD activity were significantly enhanced by TME. On the other hand, TME administration decreased the activity of CK from cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions but enhanced AK activity. In contrast, TME did not affect the carbonyl content and PK activity in cerebral cortex of rats. Co-administration of creatine plus pyruvate was effective in the prevention of alterations provoked by TME administration on the oxidative stress and the enzymes of phosphoryltransfer network, except in mitochondrial CK, AK, and SOD activities. These results indicate that chronic administration of TME may stimulate oxidative stress and alter the enzymes of phosphoryltransfer network in cerebral cortex of rats. In case this also occurs in the patients affected by these disorders, it may contribute, along with other mechanisms, to the neurological dysfunction of hypertyrosinemias, and creatine and pyruvate supplementation could be beneficial to the patients.

  18. Regulatory roles of the N-terminal domain based on crystal structures of human pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 containing physiological and synthetic ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoechel, Thorsten R; Tucker, Alec D; Robinson, Colin M; Phillips, Chris; Taylor, Wendy; Bungay, Peter J; Kasten, Shane A; Roche, Thomas E; Brown, David G

    2006-01-17

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDHK) regulates the activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex. PDHK inhibition provides a route for therapeutic intervention in diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. We report crystal structures of human PDHK isozyme 2 complexed with physiological and synthetic ligands. Several of the PDHK2 structures disclosed have C-terminal cross arms that span a large trough region between the N-terminal regulatory (R) domains of the PDHK2 dimers. The structures containing bound ATP and ADP demonstrate variation in the conformation of the active site lid, residues 316-321, which enclose the nucleotide beta and gamma phosphates at the active site in the C-terminal catalytic domain. We have identified three novel ligand binding sites located in the R domain of PDHK2. Dichloroacetate (DCA) binds at the pyruvate binding site in the center of the R domain, which together with ADP, induces significant changes at the active site. Nov3r and AZ12 inhibitors bind at the lipoamide binding site that is located at one end of the R domain. Pfz3 (an allosteric inhibitor) binds in an extended site at the other end of the R domain. We conclude that the N-terminal domain of PDHK has a key regulatory function and propose that the different inhibitor classes act by discrete mechanisms. The structures we describe provide insights that can be used for structure-based design of PDHK inhibitors.

  19. VER-246608, a novel pan-isoform ATP competitive inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, disrupts Warburg metabolism and induces context-dependent cytostasis in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jonathan D; Staniszewska, Anna; Shaw, Terence; D'Alessandro, Jalanie; Davis, Ben; Surgenor, Alan; Baker, Lisa; Matassova, Natalia; Murray, James; Macias, Alba; Brough, Paul; Wood, Mike; Mahon, Patrick C

    2014-12-30

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) is a pivotal enzyme in cellular energy metabolism that has previously been implicated in cancer through both RNAi based studies and clinical correlations with poor prognosis in several cancer types. Here, we report the discovery of a novel and selective ATP competitive pan-isoform inhibitor of PDK, VER-246608. Consistent with a PDK mediated MOA, VER-246608 increased pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) activity, oxygen consumption and attenuated glycolytic activity. However, these effects were only observed under D-glucose-depleted conditions and required almost complete ablation of PDC E1α subunit phosphorylation. VER-246608 was weakly anti-proliferative to cancer cells in standard culture media; however, depletion of either serum or combined D-glucose/L-glutamine resulted in enhanced cellular potency. Furthermore, this condition-selective cytostatic effect correlated with reduced intracellular pyruvate levels and an attenuated compensatory response involving deamination of L-alanine. In addition, VER-246608 was found to potentiate the activity of doxorubicin. In contrast, the lipoamide site inhibitor, Nov3r, demonstrated sub-maximal inhibition of PDK activity and no evidence of cellular activity. These studies suggest that PDK inhibition may be effective under the nutrient-depleted conditions found in the tumour microenvironment and that combination treatments should be explored to reveal the full potential of this therapeutic strategy.

  20. Generation of a High Number of Healthy Erythroid Cells from Gene-Edited Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency Patient-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garate, Zita; Quintana-Bustamante, Oscar; Crane, Ana M; Olivier, Emmanuel; Poirot, Laurent; Galetto, Roman; Kosinski, Penelope; Hill, Collin; Kung, Charles; Agirre, Xabi; Orman, Israel; Cerrato, Laura; Alberquilla, Omaira; Rodriguez-Fornes, Fatima; Fusaki, Noemi; Garcia-Sanchez, Felix; Maia, Tabita M; Ribeiro, Maria L; Sevilla, Julian; Prosper, Felipe; Jin, Shengfang; Mountford, Joanne; Guenechea, Guillermo; Gouble, Agnes; Bueren, Juan A; Davis, Brian R; Segovia, Jose C

    2015-12-08

    Pyruvate kinase deficiency (PKD) is a rare erythroid metabolic disease caused by mutations in the PKLR gene. Erythrocytes from PKD patients show an energetic imbalance causing chronic non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia, as pyruvate kinase defects impair ATP production in erythrocytes. We generated PKD induced pluripotent stem cells (PKDiPSCs) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PB-MNCs) of PKD patients by non-integrative Sendai viral vectors. PKDiPSCs were gene edited to integrate a partial codon-optimized R-type pyruvate kinase cDNA in the second intron of the PKLR gene by TALEN-mediated homologous recombination (HR). Notably, we found allele specificity of HR led by the presence of a single-nucleotide polymorphism. High numbers of erythroid cells derived from gene-edited PKDiPSCs showed correction of the energetic imbalance, providing an approach to correct metabolic erythroid diseases and demonstrating the practicality of this approach to generate the large cell numbers required for comprehensive biochemical and metabolic erythroid analyses.

  1. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion does not require activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase: impact of adenovirus-mediated overexpression of PDH kinase and PDH phosphate phosphatase in pancreatic islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Linda I; Ainscow, Edward K; Rutter, Guy A

    2002-03-01

    Glucose-stimulated increases in mitochondrial metabolism are generally thought to be important for the activation of insulin secretion. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is a key regulatory enzyme, believed to govern the rate of pyruvate entry into the citrate cycle. We show here that elevated glucose concentrations (16 or 30 vs 3 mM) cause an increase in PDH activity in both isolated rat islets, and in a clonal beta-cell line (MIN6). However, increases in PDH activity elicited with either dichloroacetate, or by adenoviral expression of the catalytic subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase, were without effect on glucose-induced increases in mitochondrial pyridine nucleotide levels, or cytosolic ATP concentration, in MIN6 cells, and insulin secretion from isolated rat islets. Similarly, the above parameters were unaffected by blockade of the glucose-induced increase in PDH activity by adenovirus-mediated over-expression of PDH kinase (PDK). Thus, activation of the PDH complex plays an unexpectedly minor role in stimulating glucose metabolism and in triggering insulin release.

  2. Subunits of the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Cluster of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Are Surface-Displayed Proteins that Bind and Activate Human Plasminogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gründel

    Full Text Available The dual role of glycolytic enzymes in cytosol-located metabolic processes and in cell surface-mediated functions with an influence on virulence is described for various micro-organisms. Cell wall-less bacteria of the class Mollicutes including the common human pathogen Mycoplasma pneumoniae possess a reduced genome limiting the repertoire of virulence factors and metabolic pathways. After the initial contact of bacteria with cells of the respiratory epithelium via a specialized complex of adhesins and release of cell-damaging factors, surface-displayed glycolytic enzymes may facilitate the further interaction between host and microbe. In this study, we described detection of the four subunits of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHA-D among the cytosolic and membrane-associated proteins of M. pneumoniae. Subunits of PDH were cloned, expressed and purified to produce specific polyclonal guinea pig antisera. Using colony blotting, fractionation of total proteins and immunofluorescence experiments, the surface localization of PDHA-C was demonstrated. All recombinant PDH subunits are able to bind to HeLa cells and human plasminogen. These interactions can be specifically blocked by the corresponding polyclonal antisera. In addition, an influence of ionic interactions on PDHC-binding to plasminogen as well as of lysine residues on the association of PDHA-D with plasminogen was confirmed. The PDHB subunit was shown to activate plasminogen and the PDHB-plasminogen complex induces degradation of human fibrinogen. Hence, our data indicate that the surface-associated PDH subunits might play a role in the pathogenesis of M. pneumoniae infections by interaction with human plasminogen.

  3. Purification of the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Multienzyme Complex of Zymomonas mobilis and Identification and Sequence Analysis of the Corresponding Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveling, Ute; Klasen, Ralf; Bringer-Meyer, Stephanie; Sahm, Hermann

    1998-01-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex of the gram-negative bacterium Zymomonas mobilis was purified to homogeneity. From 250 g of cells, we isolated 1 mg of PDH complex with a specific activity of 12.6 U/mg of protein. Analysis of subunit composition revealed a PDH (E1) consisting of the two subunits E1α (38 kDa) and E1β (56 kDa), a dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) of 48 kDa, and a lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) of 50 kDa. The E2 core of the complex is arranged to form a pentagonal dodecahedron, as shown by electron microscopic images, resembling the quaternary structures of PDH complexes from gram-positive bacteria and eukaryotes. The PDH complex-encoding genes were identified by hybridization experiments and sequence analysis in two separate gene regions in the genome of Z. mobilis. The genes pdhAα (1,065 bp) and pdhAβ (1,389 bp), encoding the E1α and E1β subunits of the E1 component, were located downstream of the gene encoding enolase. The pdhB (1,323 bp) and lpd (1,401 bp) genes, encoding the E2 and E3 components, were identified in an unrelated gene region together with a 450-bp open reading frame (ORF) of unknown function in the order pdhB-ORF2-lpd. Highest similarities of the gene products of the pdhAα, pdhAβ, and pdhB genes were found with the corresponding enzymes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other eukaryotes. Like the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferases of S. cerevisiae and numerous other organisms, the product of the pdhB gene contains a single lipoyl domain. The E1β subunit PDH was found to contain an amino-terminal lipoyl domain, a property which is unique among PDHs. PMID:9515924

  4. Ethyl pyruvate therapy attenuates experimental severe arthritis caused by type II collagen (CII) in the mouse (CIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paola, R; Mazzon, E; Galuppo, M; Esposito, E; Bramanti, P; Fink, M P; Cuzzocrea, S

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that ethyl pyruvate (EP), a simple aliphatic ester with anti-inflammatory effects, can reduce type II collagen-induced mouse arthritis (CIA). DBA/1J mice were used for the study, developing erosive hind paw arthritis when immunized with CII in an emulsion in complete Freund?s adjuvant (CFA). The incidence of CIA was 100 percent by day 28 in the CII-challenged mice, and the severity of CIA progressed over a 35-day period with radiographic evaluation revealing focal resorption of bone. The histopathology of CIA included erosion of the cartilage at the joint margins. EP-treatment (40 mg/kg/day i.p.) starting at the onset of arthritis (day 25) ameliorated the clinical signs at days 26-35 and improved histological status in the joint and paw. Immunohistochemical analysis for nitrotyrosine, poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) revealed a positive staining in inflamed joints from mice subjected to CIA, while no staining was observed for HO-1 and Nrf-2 in the same group. The degree of staining for nitrotyrosine, PAR, iNOS, was significantly reduced in CII-challenged mice treated with the EP. Immuno-positive-staining for HO-1 and Nrf-2 was observed instead, in joints obtained from the EP-treated group. Plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and the joint tissue levels of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α and MIP-2 were also significantly reduced by EP treatment. Thirty-five days after immunization, EP-treatment significantly increased plasma levels of IL-10. These data demonstrate that EP treatment exerts an anti-inflammatory effect during chronic inflammation and is able to ameliorate the tissue damage associated with CIA.

  5. The pyruvic acid analog 3-bromopyruvate interferes with the tetrazolium reagent MTS in the evaluation of cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy-Kanniappan, Shanmugasundaram; Geschwind, Jean-Francois H; Kunjithapatham, Rani; Buijs, Manon; Syed, Labiq H; Rao, Pramod P; Ota, Shinichi; Vali, Mustafa

    2010-04-01

    3-Bromopyruvate (3BrPA) is a pyruvate analog known for its alkylating property. Recently, several reports have documented the antiglycolytic and anticancer effects of 3BrPA and its potential for therapeutic applications. 3BrPA-mediated cytotoxicity has been evaluated in vitro by various methods including tetrazolium salt (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide)-based assays such as MTT, MTS, and so on. However, growing body of evidences has shown that tetrazolium reagent may interfere with the test compounds. In this study, we investigated whether the tetrazolium reagent interferes with the assessment of 3BrPA cytotoxicity. The results of the tetrazolium-based MTS assay were compared with 3 distinct cell viability detection methods, that is, Trypan Blue staining, ATP depletion, and Annexin V staining in 2 different cell lines, Vx-2 and HepG2. The MTS assay data showed false positive results by indicating increased cell viability at 1 mM and 2 mM 3BrPA whereas the other cell viability assays demonstrated that both Vx-2 and HepG2 cells are not viable at the same treatment conditions. In order to validate the direct interaction of 3BrPA with MTS reagent, we tested cell-free media incubated with different concentrations of 3BrPA. The results of cell-free media showed an increase in absorbance in a dose-dependent manner confirming the interaction of MTS with 3BrPA. Thus, our data clearly demonstrate that 3BrPA interferes with the accuracy of MTS-based cytotoxicity evaluation. Hence, we suggest that employing multiple methods of biochemical as well as morphological cytotoxicity assays is critical to evaluate 3BrPA-mediated cell death.

  6. Pyruvate Kinase M2 and Lactate Dehydrogenase A Are Overexpressed in Pancreatic Cancer and Correlate with Poor Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Goran Hamid; Olde Damink, S W M; Malago, Massimo; Dhar, Dipok Kumar; Pereira, Stephen P

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has a 5-year survival rate of less than 4%. Despite advances in diagnostic technology, pancreatic cancer continues to be diagnosed at a late and incurable stage. Accurate biomarkers for early diagnosis and to predict treatment response are urgently needed. Since alteration of glucose metabolism is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells, we proposed that pyruvate kinase type M2 (M2PK) and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) enzymes could represent novel diagnostic markers and potential therapeutic targets in pancreatic cancer. In 266 tissue sections from normal pancreas, pancreatic cystic neoplasms, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and cancer, we evaluated the expression of PKM2, LDHA, Ki-67 and CD8+ by immunohistochemistry and correlated these markers with clinicopathological characteristics and patient survival. PKM2 and LDHA expression was also assessed by Western blot in 10 human pancreatic cancer cell lines. PKM2 expression increased progressively from cyst through PanIN to cancer, whereas LDHA was overexpressed throughout the carcinogenic process. All but one cell line showed high expression of both proteins. Patients with strong PKM2 and LDHA expression had significantly worse survival than those with weak PKM2 and/or LDHA expression (7.0 months vs. 27.9 months, respectively, p = 0.003, log rank test). The expression of both PKM2 and LDHA correlated directly with Ki-67 expression, and inversely with intratumoral CD8+ cell count. PKM2 was significantly overexpressed in poorly differentiated tumours and both PKM2 and LDHA were overexpressed in larger tumours. Multivariable analysis showed that combined expression of PKM2 and LDHA was an independent poor prognostic marker for survival. In conclusion, our results demonstrate a high expression pattern of two major glycolytic enzymes during pancreatic carcinogenesis, with increased expression in aggressive tumours and a significant adverse effect on survival.

  7. Secondary amides of (R)-3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropionic acid as inhibitors of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicher, T D; Anderson, R C; Gao, J; Shetty, S S; Coppola, G M; Stanton, J L; Knorr, D C; Sperbeck, D M; Brand, L J; Vinluan, C C; Kaplan, E L; Dragland, C J; Tomaselli, H C; Islam, A; Lozito, R J; Liu, X; Maniara, W M; Fillers, W S; DelGrande, D; Walter, R E; Mann, W R

    2000-01-27

    N'-methyl-N-(4-tert-butyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine)thiourea, SDZ048-619 (1), is a modest inhibitor (IC(50) = 180 microM) of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDHK). In an optimization of the N-methylcarbothioamide moiety of 1, it was discovered that amides with a small acyl group, in particular appropriately substituted amides of (R)-3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropionic acid, are inhibitors of PDHK. Utilizing this acyl moiety, herein is reported the rationale leading to the optimization of a series of acylated piperazine derivatives. Methyl substitution of the piperazine at the 2- and 5-positions (with S and R absolute stereochemistry) markedly increased the potency of the lead compound (>1,000-fold). Oral bioavailability of the compounds in this series is good and is optimal (as measured by AUC) when the 4-position of the piperazine is substituted with an electron-poor benzoyl moiety. (+)-1-N-[2,5-(S, R)-Dimethyl-4-N-(4-cyanobenzoyl)piperazine]-(R)-3,3, 3-trifluoro-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide (14e) inhibits PDHK in the primary enzymatic assay with an IC(50) of 16 +/- 2 nM, enhances the oxidation of [(14)C]lactate into (14)CO(2) in human fibroblasts with an EC(50) of 57 +/- 13 nM, diminishes lactate significantly 2.5 h post-oral-dose at doses as low as 1 micromol/kg, and increases the ex vivo activity of PDH in muscle, liver, and fat tissues in normal Sprague-Dawley rats. These PDHK inhibitors, however, do not lower glucose in diabetic animal models.

  8. Pyruvate Kinase M2 and Lactate Dehydrogenase A Are Overexpressed in Pancreatic Cancer and Correlate with Poor Outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Hamid Mohammad

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer has a 5-year survival rate of less than 4%. Despite advances in diagnostic technology, pancreatic cancer continues to be diagnosed at a late and incurable stage. Accurate biomarkers for early diagnosis and to predict treatment response are urgently needed. Since alteration of glucose metabolism is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells, we proposed that pyruvate kinase type M2 (M2PK and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA enzymes could represent novel diagnostic markers and potential therapeutic targets in pancreatic cancer. In 266 tissue sections from normal pancreas, pancreatic cystic neoplasms, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN and cancer, we evaluated the expression of PKM2, LDHA, Ki-67 and CD8+ by immunohistochemistry and correlated these markers with clinicopathological characteristics and patient survival. PKM2 and LDHA expression was also assessed by Western blot in 10 human pancreatic cancer cell lines. PKM2 expression increased progressively from cyst through PanIN to cancer, whereas LDHA was overexpressed throughout the carcinogenic process. All but one cell line showed high expression of both proteins. Patients with strong PKM2 and LDHA expression had significantly worse survival than those with weak PKM2 and/or LDHA expression (7.0 months vs. 27.9 months, respectively, p = 0.003, log rank test. The expression of both PKM2 and LDHA correlated directly with Ki-67 expression, and inversely with intratumoral CD8+ cell count. PKM2 was significantly overexpressed in poorly differentiated tumours and both PKM2 and LDHA were overexpressed in larger tumours. Multivariable analysis showed that combined expression of PKM2 and LDHA was an independent poor prognostic marker for survival. In conclusion, our results demonstrate a high expression pattern of two major glycolytic enzymes during pancreatic carcinogenesis, with increased expression in aggressive tumours and a significant adverse effect on survival.

  9. Understanding the role of PknJ in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: biochemical characterization and identification of novel substrate pyruvate kinase A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjan Arora

    Full Text Available Reversible protein phosphorylation is a prevalent signaling mechanism which modulates cellular metabolism in response to changing environmental conditions. In this study, we focus on previously uncharacterized Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ser/Thr protein kinase (STPK PknJ, a putative transmembrane protein. PknJ is shown to possess autophosphorylation activity and is also found to be capable of carrying out phosphorylation on the artificial substrate myelin basic protein (MyBP. Previous studies have shown that the autophosphorylation activity of M. tuberculosis STPKs is dependent on the conserved residues in the activation loop. However, our results show that apart from the conventional conserved residues, additional residues in the activation loop may also play a crucial role in kinase activation. Further characterization of PknJ reveals that the kinase utilizes unusual ions (Ni(2+, Co(2+ as cofactors, thus hinting at a novel mechanism for PknJ activation. Additionally, as shown for other STPKs, we observe that PknJ possesses the capability to dimerize. In order to elucidate the signal transduction cascade emanating from PknJ, the M. tuberculosis membrane-associated protein fraction is treated with the active kinase and glycolytic enzyme Pyruvate kinase A (mtPykA is identified as one of the potential substrates of PknJ. The phospholabel is found to be localized on serine and threonine residue(s, with Ser(37 identified as one of the sites of phosphorylation. Since Pyk is known to catalyze the last step of glycolysis, our study shows that the fundamental pathways such as glycolysis can also be governed by STPK-mediated signaling.

  10. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase-mediated Glycolytic Metabolic Shift in the Dorsal Root Ganglion Drives Painful Diabetic Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Habibur; Jha, Mithilesh Kumar; Kim, Jong-Heon; Nam, Youngpyo; Lee, Maan Gee; Go, Younghoon; Harris, Robert A; Park, Dong Ho; Kook, Hyun; Lee, In-Kyu; Suk, Kyoungho

    2016-03-11

    The dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is a highly vulnerable site in diabetic neuropathy. Under diabetic conditions, the DRG is subjected to tissue ischemia or lower ambient oxygen tension that leads to aberrant metabolic functions. Metabolic dysfunctions have been documented to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diverse pain hypersensitivities. However, the contribution of diabetes-induced metabolic dysfunctions in the DRG to the pathogenesis of painful diabetic neuropathy remains ill-explored. In this study, we report that pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDK2 and PDK4), key regulatory enzymes in glucose metabolism, mediate glycolytic metabolic shift in the DRG leading to painful diabetic neuropathy. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes substantially enhanced the expression and activity of the PDKs in the DRG, and the genetic ablation of Pdk2 and Pdk4 attenuated the hyperglycemia-induced pain hypersensitivity. Mechanistically, Pdk2/4 deficiency inhibited the diabetes-induced lactate surge, expression of pain-related ion channels, activation of satellite glial cells, and infiltration of macrophages in the DRG, in addition to reducing central sensitization and neuroinflammation hallmarks in the spinal cord, which probably accounts for the attenuated pain hypersensitivity. Pdk2/4-deficient mice were partly resistant to the diabetes-induced loss of peripheral nerve structure and function. Furthermore, in the experiments using DRG neuron cultures, lactic acid treatment enhanced the expression of the ion channels and compromised cell viability. Finally, the pharmacological inhibition of DRG PDKs or lactic acid production substantially attenuated diabetes-induced pain hypersensitivity. Taken together, PDK2/4 induction and the subsequent lactate surge induce the metabolic shift in the diabetic DRG, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of painful diabetic neuropathy.

  11. Effects of high-fat diet and physical activity on pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 in mouse skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinnankoski-Tuikka Rita

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of PDK4 is elevated by diabetes, fasting and other conditions associated with the switch from the utilization of glucose to fatty acids as an energy source. It is previously shown that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α, a master regulator of energy metabolism, coactivates in cell lines pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK4 gene expression via the estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα. We investigated the effects of long-term high-fat diet and physical activity on the expression of PDK4, PGC-1α and ERRα and the amount and function of mitochondria in skeletal muscle. Methods Insulin resistance was induced by a high-fat (HF diet for 19 weeks in C57BL/6 J mice, which were either sedentary or with access to running wheels. The skeletal muscle expression levels of PDK4, PGC-1α and ERRα were measured and the quality and quantity of mitochondrial function was assessed. Results The HF mice were more insulin-resistant than the low-fat (LF -fed mice. Upregulation of PDK4 and ERRα mRNA and protein levels were seen after the HF diet, and when combined with running even more profound effects on the mRNA expression levels were observed. Chronic HF feeding and voluntary running did not have significant effects on PGC-1α mRNA or protein levels. No remarkable difference was found in the amount or function of mitochondria. Conclusions Our results support the view that insulin resistance is not mediated by the decreased qualitative or quantitative properties of mitochondria. Instead, the role of PDK4 should be contemplated as a possible contributor to high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance.

  12. 一种丙酮酸乙酯微囊的制备方法%The preparation of microencapsulating ethyl pyruvate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李延志; 吴文忠; 孙昱; 陈剑彬; 张春枝; 李代

    2011-01-01

    The optimum materials and conditions were studied for the microencapsulation of ethyl pyruvate by comparing the encapsulation rate of the microcapsules. The best results were obtained when gum arabic and Hi-cap 100 were used as shell materials, the ratio of shell materials and water was 1. 5 : 1, the best inlet air temperature was 160 'C and outlet air temperature was 80 ℃. Content determination of microencapsuled ethyl pyruvate powder by RP-HPLC. Content of microencapsuled ethyl pyruvate was 29.4% and encapsulation rate was 98%. Microencapsulated powder surface was smooth, no collapse, no cracks, micro-capsules to meet the requirements.%对丙酮酸乙酯进行微囊化研究,经过对比丙酮酸乙酯的包埋率确定最适的选材及条件,并对其各项性能指标进行测定.对制备的丙酮酸乙酯微囊进行喷雾干燥,得到丙酮酸乙酯微囊粉末.实验结果表明,最适壁材组合是阿拉伯胶与Hi-cap 100,壁材与水的最佳质量比例是1.5∶1,最佳喷雾干燥条件进风口温度为160℃,出风口温度为80℃.经过高效液相色谱检测丙酮酸乙酯微胶囊粉末包埋量29.4%,包埋率98%,微囊粉末表面光滑,无塌陷无裂缝,微囊符合要求.

  13. Formation of a beta-carboline (1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-methyl-beta-carboline-1-carboxylic acid) following intracerebroventricular injection of tryptamine and pyruvic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, R; Rommelspacher, H

    1987-01-01

    Tritium labelled 1-carboxy-tetrahydroharman was identified in rat brain following i.c.v.-injection of [3H]tryptamine and pyruvic acid. The animals had been treated with the MAO inhibitor pargyline (40 mg/kg) 30 min before i.c.v. injection. Under these conditions, only trace amounts of [3H]indole acetic acid could be detected in the brain. The formation of 1-CTHH was time-dependent. Five minutes following the i.c.v. injection, approximately 0.45% of the administered tryptamine was converted into 1-CTHH and 23% were still unchanged. The amount of the radioactive 1-CTHH increased slightly within 1 h (0.8%; [3H] tryptamine: 6%). Pretreatment of the rats with high doses of pargyline (75 mg/kg; 90 min before i.c.v. injection) prevented the formation of both [3H]1-CTHH and [3H]indole acetic acid (IAA) suggesting that high doses of pargyline inhibit the formation of 1-CTHH. As control for a possible non-enzymatic formation of 1-CTHH, [3H]tryptamine and various concentrations of pyruvic acid were incubated in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. 1-CTHH was not detected under these conditions. However, the formation of 1-CTHH was observed at high pyruvic acid concentrations (final concentration = 100 mM) and low pH values (less than pH4). To support the assumption that the observed condensation of both precursors to 1-CTHH occurred intracellularly, the metabolism of tryptamine was studied. Two minutes after i.c.v. injection of [3H]tryptamine approximately 4% of the injected dose remained unchanged and 10% were metabolized to [3H]IAA. These findings suggest a rapid disappearance of [3H]tryptamine from the cerebrospinal fluid as well as a rapid penetration into the cerebral tissue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. ω-Amino Acid:Pyruvate Transaminase from Alcaligenes denitrificans Y2k-2: a New Catalyst for Kinetic Resolution of β-Amino Acids and Amines

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Hyungdon; Lim, Seongyop; Cho, Byung-Kwan; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2004-01-01

    Alcaligenes denitrificans Y2k-2 was obtained by selective enrichment followed by screening from soil samples, which showed ω-amino acid:pyruvate transaminase activity, to kinetically resolve aliphatic β-amino acid, and the corresponding structural gene (aptA) was cloned. The gene was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 by using an isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible pET expression system (9.6 U/mg), and the recombinant AptA was purified to show a specific activity...

  15. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pyruvate kinase as a target for bis-indole alkaloids with antibacterial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoraghi, Roya; Worrall, Liam; See, Raymond H; Strangman, Wendy; Popplewell, Wendy L; Gong, Huansheng; Samaai, Toufiek; Swayze, Richard D; Kaur, Sukhbir; Vuckovic, Marija; Finlay, B Brett; Brunham, Robert C; McMaster, William R; Davies-Coleman, Michael T; Strynadka, Natalie C; Andersen, Raymond J; Reiner, Neil E

    2011-12-30

    Novel classes of antimicrobials are needed to address the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We have recently identified pyruvate kinase (PK) as a potential novel drug target based upon it being an essential hub in the MRSA interactome (Cherkasov, A., Hsing, M., Zoraghi, R., Foster, L. J., See, R. H., Stoynov, N., Jiang, J., Kaur, S., Lian, T., Jackson, L., Gong, H., Swayze, R., Amandoron, E., Hormozdiari, F., Dao, P., Sahinalp, C., Santos-Filho, O., Axerio-Cilies, P., Byler, K., McMaster, W. R., Brunham, R. C., Finlay, B. B., and Reiner, N. E. (2011) J. Proteome Res. 10, 1139-1150; Zoraghi, R., See, R. H., Axerio-Cilies, P., Kumar, N. S., Gong, H., Moreau, A., Hsing, M., Kaur, S., Swayze, R. D., Worrall, L., Amandoron, E., Lian, T., Jackson, L., Jiang, J., Thorson, L., Labriere, C., Foster, L., Brunham, R. C., McMaster, W. R., Finlay, B. B., Strynadka, N. C., Cherkasov, A., Young, R. N., and Reiner, N. E. (2011) Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 55, 2042-2053). Screening of an extract library of marine invertebrates against MRSA PK resulted in the identification of bis-indole alkaloids of the spongotine (A), topsentin (B, D), and hamacanthin (C) classes isolated from the Topsentia pachastrelloides as novel bacterial PK inhibitors. These compounds potently and selectively inhibited both MRSA PK enzymatic activity and S. aureus growth in vitro. The most active compounds, cis-3,4-dihyrohyrohamacanthin B (C) and bromodeoxytopsentin (D), were identified as highly potent MRSA PK inhibitors (IC(50) values of 16-60 nM) with at least 166-fold selectivity over human PK isoforms. These novel anti-PK natural compounds exhibited significant antibacterial activities against S. aureus, including MRSA (minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 12.5 and 6.25 μg/ml, respectively) with selectivity indices (CC(50)/MIC) >4. We also report the discrete structural features of the MRSA PK tetramer as determined by x

  16. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 is essential for transplantable mouse bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell and progenitor function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvarsson, Camilla; Eliasson, Pernilla

    2017-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence suggests that hypoxic areas in the bone marrow are crucial for maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) by supporting a quiescent state of cell cycle and regulating the transplantation capacity of long-term (LT)-HSCs. In addition, HSCs seem to express a metabolic profile of energy production away from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in favor of glycolysis. At oxygen deprivation, hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is known to induce glycolytic enzymes as well as suppressing mitochondrial energy production by inducing pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (Pdk1) in most cell types. It has not been established whether PDK1 is essential for HSC function and mediates hypoxia-adapting functions in HSCs. While the Pdk gene family contains four members (Pdk1-4), it was recently shown that Pdk2 and Pdk4 have an important role in regulating LT-HSCs. Principle findings Here we demonstrate that PDK1 activity is crucial for transplantable HSC function. Whereas Pdkl, Pdk2, and Pdk3 transcripts were expressed at higher levels in different subtypes of HSCs compared to differentiated cells, we could not detect any major differences in expression between LT-HSCs and more short-term HSCs and multipotent progenitors. When studying HIF-1α-mediated regulation of Pdk activity in vitro, Pdk1 was the most robust target regulated by hypoxia, whereas Pdk2, Pdk3, and Pdk4 were not affected. Contrary, genetic ablation in a cre-inducible Hif-1α knockout mouse did not support a link between HIF-1α and Pdk1. Silencing of Pdk1 by shRNA lentiviral gene transfer partially impaired progenitor colony formation in vitro and had a strong negative effect on both long-term and short-term engraftment in mice. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that PDK1 has broad effects in hematopoiesis and is a critical factor for engraftment of both HSCs and multipotent progenitors upon transplantation to recipient mice. While Pdk1 was a robust hypoxia-inducible gene

  17. Mitochondrial glutathione depletion reveals a novel role for the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex as a key H2O2 emitting source under conditions of nutrient overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey H.; Gilliam, Laura A. A.; Lin, Chien-Te; Cathey, Brook L.; Lark, Daniel S.; Neufer, P. Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Once regarded as “byproducts” of aerobic metabolism, the production of superoxide/H2O2 is now understood to be a highly specialized and extensively regulated process responsible for exerting control over a vast number of thiol-containing proteins, collectively referred to as the redox-sensitive proteome. Although disruptions within this process, secondary to elevated peroxide exposure, have been linked to disease, delineation of the sources and mechanisms regulating increased peroxide burden remain poorly defined and as such difficult to target using pharmacotherapy. Here we identify the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) as a key source of H2O2 within skeletal muscle mitochondria under conditions of depressed glutathione redox buffering integrity. Treatment of permeabilized myofibers with varying concentrations of the glutathione depleting agent 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) led to a dose-dependent increase in pyruvate-supported JH2O2 emission, with emission rates eventually rising to exceed those of all substrate combinations tested. This striking sensitivity to glutathione depletion was observed in permeabilized fibers prepared from multiple species and was specific to PDC. Physiological oxidation of the cellular glutathione pool following high fat feeding in rodents was found to elevate PDC JH2O2 emission, as well as increase the sensitivity of the complex to GSH depletion. These findings reveal PDC as a potential major site of H2O2 production that is extremely sensitive to mitochondrial glutathione redox status. PMID:24056031

  18. Simultaneous Hyperpolarized 13C-Pyruvate MRI and 18F-FDG PET (HyperPET) in 10 Dogs with Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutte, Henrik; Hansen, Adam E; Larsen, Majbrit M E

    2015-01-01

    concordance of (18)F-FDG uptake and production of (13)C-lactate in most, but not all, axial slices. In this study, we have shown in a series of dogs with cancer that hyperPET can easily be performed within 2 h. We showed mostly correspondence between (13)C-lactate production and (18)F-FDG uptake and expect...... was to establish a practical workflow for performing (18)F-FDG PET and hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate MRS imaging simultaneously for tumor tissue characterization and on a larger scale test its feasibility. In addition, we evaluated the correlation between (18)F-FDG uptake and (13)C-lactate production. Ten dogs...... that combined (18)F-FDG PET and (13)C-pyruvate MRS imaging was possible in a single session of approximately 2 h. A continuous workflow was obtained with the injection of (18)F-FDG when the dogs was placed in the PET/MR scanner. (13)C-MRS dynamic acquisition demonstrated in an axial slab increased (13)C-lactate...

  19. Determination of pyruvate and lactate as potential biomarkers of embryo viability in assisted reproduction by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mádr, Aleš; Celá, Andrea; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Pelcová, Marta; Crha, Igor; Žáková, Jana; Glatz, Zdeněk

    2015-06-01

    Human-assisted reproduction is increasing in importance due to the constantly rising number of couples suffering from infertility issue. A key step in in vitro fertilization is the proper assessment of embryo viability in order to select the embryo with the highest likelihood of resulting in a pregnancy. This study proposes a method based on CE with contactless conductivity detection for the determination of pyruvate and lactate in spent culture media used in human-assisted reproduction. A fused-silica capillary of 64.0 cm total length and 50 μm inner diameter was used. The inner capillary wall was modified by the coating of successive layers of the ionic polymers polybrene and dextran sulfate to reverse EOF. The BGE was composed of 10 mM MES/lithium hydroxide, pH 6.50. The sample was injected by pressure 50 mbar for 18 s, separation voltage was set to -24 kV, and capillary temperature to 15°C. The presented method requires only 2 μL of the culture medium, with LODs for pyruvate and lactate of 0.03 and 0.02 μM, respectively. The results demonstrated the method's suitability for the analysis of spent culture media to support embryo viability assessment by light microscopy, providing information about key metabolites of the energy metabolism of a developing embryo.

  20. Effects of Ethyl Pyruvate on Myocardial Apoptosis and Expression of Bcl-2 and Bax Proteins after Ischemia-reperfusion in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jialong GUO; Kailun ZHANG; Yanmei JI; Xionggang JIANG; Shunqing ZUO

    2008-01-01

    In order to study the effects of ethyl pyruvate on cardiomyocyte apoptosis following ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in vitro and the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins, isolated rat hearts were perfused in a Langendorff model. Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=8 in each group): control group was perfused for 120min. In the I/R group, after 30min stabilization the injury was induced by 30min global ischemia followed by 60min reperfusion. Ethyl pyruvate (EP) group was set up with the same protocol as I/R group except that it was supplied with 2mmol/L EP 15min before ischemia and throughout reperfusion. Myocardial malonaldehyde (MDA) content Was measured. Myocardial apoptotic index (AI) was tested by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. The expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and pro-apoptotic protein Bax in cardiac myocytes was detected by immunohistochemistry. As compared with control group, the content of MDA, myocardial AI and the expression of Bcl-2, Bax proteins were increased significantly in I/R group, but the content of MDA, myocardial AI and the expression of Bax protein were decreased obviously and the expression of Bcl-2 protein was up-regulated in EP group (P<0.05). These results demonstrate that EP could inhibit apoptosis of cardiac myocytes possibly via alleviating oxidative stress, up-regulating Bcl-2 and down-regulating Bax proteins.

  1. Spectroscopic and computational studies of NTBC bound to the non-heme iron enzyme (4-hydroxyphenyl)pyruvate dioxygenase: active site contributions to drug inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidig, Michael L; Decker, Andrea; Kavana, Michael; Moran, Graham R; Solomon, Edward I

    2005-12-01

    (4-Hydroxyphenyl)pyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) is an alpha-keto-acid-dependent dioxygenase which catalyzes the conversion of (4-hydroxyphenyl)pyruvate (HPP) to homogentisate as part of tyrosine catabolism. While several di- and tri-ketone alkaloids are known as inhibitors of HPPD and used commercially as herbicides, one such inhibitor, [2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC), has also been used therapeutically to treat type I tyrosinemia and alkaptonuria in humans. To gain further insight into the mechanism of inhibition by NTBC, a combination of CD/MCD spectroscopy and DFT calculations of HPPD/Fe(II)/NTBC has been performed to evaluate the contribution of the Fe(II)-NTBC bonding interaction to the high affinity of this drug for the enzyme. The results indicate that the bonding of NTBC to Fe(II) is very similar to that for HPP, both involving similar pi-backbonding interactions between NTBC/HPP and Fe(II). Combined with the result that the calculated binding energy of NTBC is, in fact, approximately 3 kcal/mol less than that for HPP, the bidentate coordination of NTBC to Fe(II) is not solely responsible for its extremely high affinity for the enzyme. Thus, the pi-stacking interactions between the aromatic rings of NTBC and two phenyalanine residues, as observed in the crystallography of the HPPD/Fe(II)/NTBC complex, appear to be responsible for the observed high affinity of drug binding.

  2. Moringa oleifera leaf extract ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes in rats by regeneration of β cells and reduction of pyruvate carboxylase expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Latif, Amira; El Bialy, Badr El Said; Mahboub, Hamada Dahi; Abd Eldaim, Mabrouk Attia

    2014-10-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. contains many active ingredients with nutritional and medicinal values. It is commonly used in folk medicine as an antidiabetic agent. The present study was designed to investigate how an aqueous extract from the leaves of M. oleifera reveals hypoglycemia in diabetic rats. M. oleifera leaf extract counteracted the alloxan-induced diabetic effects in rats as it normalized the elevated serum levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, and malondialdehyde, and normalized mRNA expression of the gluconeogenic enzyme pyruvate carboxylase in hepatic tissues. It also increased live body weight gain and normalized the reduced mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase in the liver of diabetic rats. Moreover, it restored the normal histological structure of the liver and pancreas damaged by alloxan in diabetic rats. This study revealed that the aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves possesses potent hypoglycemic effects through the normalization of elevated hepatic pyruvate carboxylase enzyme and regeneration of damaged hepatocytes and pancreatic β cells via its antioxidant properties.

  3. Flux control analysis of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in rat skeletal muscle: pyruvate and palmitoyl-carnitine as substrates give different control patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzen, Anette J; Grunnet, Niels; Quistorff, Bjørn

    2007-01-01

    Flux control analysis of eight reactions involved in oxidative phosphorylation of mitochondria from rat quadriceps muscle was performed under circumstances resembling in vivo conditions of carbohydrate or fatty acid oxidation. The major flux control at a respiration rate of 55% of state 3...... was associated with the ADP-generating system, i.e., 0.58 +/- 0.05 with pyruvate, but significantly lower, 0.40 +/- 0.05, with palmitoyl-carnitine as substrate. The flux control coefficients of complex I, III and IV, the ATP synthase, the ATP/ADP carrier and the P(i) carrier were 0.070 +/- 0.03, 0.083 +/- 0.......02 and 0.012 +/- 0.002, respectively), probably caused by the shift from NADH to FADH(2) oxidation. The sum of flux control coefficients was not significantly different from unity with pyruvate, while only 0.58 with palmitoyl-carnitine, indicating significant control contributions from the enzymes involved...

  4. Synthesis,Characterization,Thermal Decomposition Mechanism and Non—Isothermal Kinetics of the Pyruvic Acid—Salicylhydrazone and Its Complex of Prasseodymium(Ⅲ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何水样; 刘煜; 赵建社; 赵宏安; 杨锐; 胡荣祖; 史启祯

    2003-01-01

    The pyruvic acid-salicylhydrazone and its new complex of Pr(Ⅲ) were synthesized.The formulae C10H10N2O4(mark as H3L)and [Pr2(L)2(H2O)2]·3H2O(L=the trad from of the pyruvic acid salicylhydrazone[C10H7N2O4]3-)were determined by elemental and EDTA volumetric analysis.Molar conductance,IR,UV,X-ray and 1H NMR were carried out for the characterizations of the complex and the ligand.The thermal decompositions of the ligand and the complex with the kinetic study were carried out by nonisothermal thermogravimetry.The Kissinger’s method and Ozawa’s method are used to calculate the activation energy value of the main step decomposition.The stages of the decompostions were identified by TG-DTG-DSC curve.The non-isothermal kinetic data were analyzed by means of integral and differential methods.The possible reaction mechanism and the kinetic equation were investigated by comparing the kinetic parameters.

  5. Hereditary Xerocytosis due to Mutations in PIEZO1 Gene Associated with Heterozygous Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency and Beta-Thalassemia Trait in Two Unrelated Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercellati, Cristina; Marcello, Anna Paola; Zaninoni, Anna; van Wijk, Richard; Mirra, Nadia; Curcio, Cristina; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Zanella, Alberto; Barcellini, Wilma; Bianchi, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary xerocytosis (HX) is a rare disorder caused by defects of RBC permeability, associated with haemolytic anaemia of variable degree and iron overload. It is sometimes misdiagnosed as hereditary spherocytosis or other congenital haemolytic anaemia. Splenectomy is contraindicated due to increased risk of thromboembolic complications. We report the clinical, haematological, and molecular characteristics of four patients from two unrelated Italian families affected by HX, associated with beta-thalassemia trait and heterozygous pyruvate kinase deficiency, respectively. Two patients had been splenectomised and displayed thrombotic episodes. All patients had iron overload in the absence of transfusion, two of them requiring iron chelation. The diagnosis of HX was confirmed by LoRRca Osmoscan analysis showing a left-shifted curve. PIEZO1 gene sequencing revealed the presence of mutation p.E2496ELE, showing that this is one of the most frequent mutations in this disease. The concomitant defects did not aggravate the clinical phenotype; however, in one patient, the initial diagnosis of pyruvate kinase deficiency delayed the correct diagnosis of HX for many years and resulted in splenectomy followed by thrombotic complications. The study underlines the importance of a precise diagnosis in HX, particularly in view of splenectomy, and the need of a molecular confirmation of suspected RBC enzymopathy. PMID:28367341

  6. Engineering the α-ketoglutarate overproduction from raw glycerol by overexpression of the genes encoding NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase and pyruvate carboxylase in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovkova, Venelina; Otto, Christina; Aurich, Andreas; Mauersberger, Stephan; Barth, Gerold

    2014-03-01

    To establish and develop a biotechnological process of α-ketoglutaric acid (KGA) production by Yarrowia lipolytica, it is necessary to increase the KGA productivity and to reduce the amounts of by-products, e.g. pyruvic acid (PA) as major by-product and fumarate, malate and succinate as minor by-products. The aim of this study was the improvement of KGA overproduction with Y. lipolytica by a gene dose-dependent overexpression of genes encoding NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDP1) and pyruvate carboxylase (PYC1) under KGA production conditions from the renewable carbon source raw glycerol. Recombinant Y. lipolytica strains were constructed, which harbour multiple copies of the respective IDP1, PYC1 or IDP1 and PYC1 genes together. We demonstrated that a selective increase in IDP activity in IDP1 multicopy transformants changes the produced amount of KGA. Overexpression of the gene IDP1 in combination with PYC1 had the strongest effect on increasing the amount of secreted KGA. About 19% more KGA compared to strain H355 was produced in bioreactor experiments with raw glycerol as carbon source. The applied cultivation conditions with this strain significantly reduced the main by-product PA and increased the KGA selectivity to more than 95% producing up to 186 g l(-1) KGA. This proved the high potential of this multicopy transformant for developing a biotechnological KGA production process.

  7. Diisopropylamine dichloroacetate, a novel pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 inhibitor, as a potential therapeutic agent for metabolic disorders and multiorgan failure in severe influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Yamane

    Full Text Available Severe influenza is characterized by cytokine storm and multiorgan failure with metabolic energy disorders and vascular hyperpermeability. In the regulation of energy homeostasis, the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH complex plays an important role by catalyzing oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate, linking glycolysis to the tricarboxylic acid cycle and fatty acid synthesis, and thus its activity is linked to energy homeostasis. The present study tested the effects of diisopropylamine dichloroacetate (DADA, a new PDH kinase 4 (PDK4 inhibitor, in mice with severe influenza. Infection of mice with influenza A PR/8/34(H1N1 virus resulted in marked down-regulation of PDH activity and ATP level, with selective up-regulation of PDK4 in the skeletal muscles, heart, liver and lungs. Oral administration of DADA at 12-h intervals for 14 days starting immediately after infection significantly restored PDH activity and ATP level in various organs, and ameliorated disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism in the blood, together with marked improvement of survival and suppression of cytokine storm, trypsin up-regulation and viral replication. These results indicate that through PDK4 inhibition, DADA effectively suppresses the host metabolic disorder-cytokine cycle, which is closely linked to the influenza virus-cytokine-trypsin cycle, resulting in prevention of multiorgan failure in severe influenza.

  8. Insulin-induced inhibition of gluconeogenesis genes, including glutamic pyruvic transaminase 2, is associated with reduced histone acetylation in a human liver cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Kazue; Kamikubo, Michiko; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Goda, Toshinao

    2017-06-01

    Hepatic glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT; also known as alanine aminotransferase) is a gluconeogenesis enzyme that catalyzes conversions between alanine and pyruvic acid. It is also used as a blood biomarker for hepatic damage. In this study, we investigated whether insulin regulates GPT expression, as it does for other gluconeogenesis genes, and if this involves the epigenetic modification of histone acetylation. Human liver-derived HepG2 cells were cultured with 0.5-100nM insulin for 8h, and the mRNA expression of GPT, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), PCK1, G6PC and FBP1 was measured. We also investigated the extent of histone acetylation around these genes. Insulin suppressed the mRNA expression of gluconeogenesis genes (GPT2, GOT1, GOT2, GGT1, GGT2, G6PC, and PCK1) in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. mRNA levels of GPT2, but not GPT1, were decreased by insulin. Histone acetylation was also reduced around GPT2, G6PC, and PCK1 in response to insulin. The expression of GPT2 and other gluconeogenesis genes such as G6PC and PCK1 was suppressed by insulin, in association with decreases in histone H3 and H4 acetylation surrounding these genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pyruvate Carboxylase Is Up-Regulated in Breast Cancer and Essential to Support Growth and Invasion of MDA-MB-231 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phannasil, Phatchariya; Thuwajit, Chanitra; Warnnissorn, Malee; Wallace, John C; MacDonald, Michael J; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut

    2015-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is an anaplerotic enzyme that catalyzes the carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate, which is crucial for replenishing tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates when they are used for biosynthetic purposes. We examined the expression of PC by immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded breast tissue sections of 57 breast cancer patients with different stages of cancer progression. PC was expressed in the cancerous areas of breast tissue at higher levels than in the non-cancerous areas. We also found statistical association between the levels of PC expression and tumor size and tumor stage (P MB-435 (moderate metastasis) and MDA-MB-231 (high metastasis). The abundance of both PC mRNA and protein in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 cells was 2-3-fold higher than that in MCF-7 and SKBR3 cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of PC expression in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 cells resulted in a 50% reduction of cell proliferation, migration and in vitro invasion ability, under both glutamine-dependent and glutamine-depleted conditions. Overexpression of PC in MCF-7 cells resulted in a 2-fold increase in their proliferation rate, migration and invasion abilities. Taken together the above results suggest that anaplerosis via PC is important for breast cancer cells to support their growth and motility.

  10. Identification of a novel operon in Lactococcus lactis encoding three enzymes for lactic acid synthesis: phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, R M; Harris, C J; Hillier, A J; Davidson, B E

    1993-01-01

    The discovery of a novel multicistronic operon that encodes phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase in the lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis is reported. The three genes in the operon, designated pfk, pyk, and ldh, contain 340, 502, and 325 codons, respectively. The intergenic distances are 87 bp between pfk and pyk and 117 bp between pyk and ldh. Plasmids containing pfk and pyk conferred phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase activity, respectively, on their host. The identity of ldh was established previously by the same approach (R. M. Llanos, A. J. Hillier, and B. E. Davidson, J. Bacteriol. 174:6956-6964, 1992). Each of the genes is preceded by a potential ribosome binding site. The operon is expressed in a 4.1-kb transcript. The 5' end of the transcript was determined to be a G nucleotide positioned 81 bp upstream from the pfk start codon. The pattern of codon usage within the operon is highly biased, with 11 unused amino acid codons. This degree of bias suggests that the operon is highly expressed. The three proteins encoded on the operon are key enzymes in the Embden-Meyerhoff pathway, the central pathway of energy production and lactic acid synthesis in L. lactis. For this reason, we have called the operon the las (lactic acid synthesis) operon. Images PMID:8478320

  11. Hereditary Xerocytosis due to Mutations in PIEZO1 Gene Associated with Heterozygous Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency and Beta-Thalassemia Trait in Two Unrelated Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Fermo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary xerocytosis (HX is a rare disorder caused by defects of RBC permeability, associated with haemolytic anaemia of variable degree and iron overload. It is sometimes misdiagnosed as hereditary spherocytosis or other congenital haemolytic anaemia. Splenectomy is contraindicated due to increased risk of thromboembolic complications. We report the clinical, haematological, and molecular characteristics of four patients from two unrelated Italian families affected by HX, associated with beta-thalassemia trait and heterozygous pyruvate kinase deficiency, respectively. Two patients had been splenectomised and displayed thrombotic episodes. All patients had iron overload in the absence of transfusion, two of them requiring iron chelation. The diagnosis of HX was confirmed by LoRRca Osmoscan analysis showing a left-shifted curve. PIEZO1 gene sequencing revealed the presence of mutation p.E2496ELE, showing that this is one of the most frequent mutations in this disease. The concomitant defects did not aggravate the clinical phenotype; however, in one patient, the initial diagnosis of pyruvate kinase deficiency delayed the correct diagnosis of HX for many years and resulted in splenectomy followed by thrombotic complications. The study underlines the importance of a precise diagnosis in HX, particularly in view of splenectomy, and the need of a molecular confirmation of suspected RBC enzymopathy.

  12. Coordinate cis-[Cr(C2O4(pm(OH22]+ Cation as Molecular Biosensor of Pyruvate’s Protective Activity Against Hydrogen Peroxide Mediated Cytotoxity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Chmurzyński

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper instrumental methods of carbon dioxide (CO2 detection in biological material were compared. Using cis-[Cr(C2O4(pm(OH22]+ cation as a specific molecular biosensor and the stopped-flow technique the concentrations of CO2 released from the cell culture medium as one of final products of pyruvate decomposition caused by hydrogen peroxide were determined. To prove the usefulness of our method of CO2 assessment in the case of biological samples we investigated protective properties of exogenous pyruvate in cultured osteosarcoma 143B cells exposed to 1 mM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 added directly to culture medium. Pyruvic acid is well known scavenger of H2O2 and, moreover, a molecule which is recognized as one of the major mediator of oxidative stress detected in many diseases and pathological situations like ischemiareperfusion states. The pyruvate's antioxidant activity is described as its rapid reaction with H2O2,which causes nonenzymatic decarboxylation of pyruvate and releases of CO2, water and acetate as final products. In this work for the first time we have correlated the concentration of CO2 dissolved in culture medium with pyruvate's oxidant-scavenging abilities. Moreover, the kinetics of the reaction between aqueous solution of CO2 and coordinate ion, cis-[Cr(C2O4(pm(OH22]+ was analysed. The results obtained enabled determination of the number of steps of the reaction studied. Based on the kinetic equations, rate constants were determined for each step.

  13. Platform engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum with reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity for improved production of L-lysine, L-valine, and 2-ketoisovalerate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Jens; Schwentner, Andreas; Brunnenkan, Britta; Gabris, Christina; Grimm, Simon; Gerstmeir, Robert; Takors, Ralf; Eikmanns, Bernhard J; Blombach, Bastian

    2013-09-01

    Exchange of the native Corynebacterium glutamicum promoter of the aceE gene, encoding the E1p subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC), with mutated dapA promoter variants led to a series of C. glutamicum strains with gradually reduced growth rates and PDHC activities. Upon overexpression of the l-valine biosynthetic genes ilvBNCE, all strains produced l-valine. Among these strains, C. glutamicum aceE A16 (pJC4 ilvBNCE) showed the highest biomass and product yields, and thus it was further improved by additional deletion of the pqo and ppc genes, encoding pyruvate:quinone oxidoreductase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, respectively. In fed-batch fermentations at high cell densities, C. glutamicum aceE A16 Δpqo Δppc (pJC4 ilvBNCE) produced up to 738 mM (i.e., 86.5 g/liter) l-valine with an overall yield (YP/S) of 0.36 mol per mol of glucose and a volumetric productivity (QP) of 13.6 mM per h [1.6 g/(liter × h)]. Additional inactivation of the transaminase B gene (ilvE) and overexpression of ilvBNCD instead of ilvBNCE transformed the l-valine-producing strain into a 2-ketoisovalerate producer, excreting up to 303 mM (35 g/liter) 2-ketoisovalerate with a YP/S of 0.24 mol per mol of glucose and a QP of 6.9 mM per h [0.8 g/(liter × h)]. The replacement of the aceE promoter by the dapA-A16 promoter in the two C. glutamicum l-lysine producers DM1800 and DM1933 improved the production by 100% and 44%, respectively. These results demonstrate that C. glutamicum strains with reduced PDHC activity are an excellent platform for the production of pyruvate-derived products.

  14. 缬氨酸转氨酶基因原核表达载体构建及表达%Construction and expression of prokaryotic vector of valine-pyruvate transaminase gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张飞; 魏涛; 刘寅; 何培新

    2013-01-01

    构建了具有缬氨酸转氨酶基因的大肠杆菌工程菌,对该酶表达条件进行了优化.PCR结果表明,扩增出一特异DNA条带且长度与avtA基因长度1 254 bp符合.通过纸层析检测,筛选到了阳性克隆,但是酶活偏低.SDS-PAGE凝胶电泳显示目的蛋白表达量较低.酶表达优化结果显示:蛋白胨浓度12 g/L,IPTG浓度0.4 mmol/L,经过8h诱导,酶活达到最大值.%The engineered strain of Escherichia coli with valine-pyruvate transaminase gene was constructed and the expression condition for valine-pyruvate transaminase was optimized. The result of PCR showed that a special DNA band was amplified and the length of the band was accord with the length of avtA, 1 254 bp. Activity of valine-pyruvate transaminase was found by paper chromatography but the enzyme activity was not high. The expression of valine-pyruvate transaminase was evaluated by SDS-PAGE and a high expression was displayed. The optimal conditions were peptone 12 g/L,IPTG 0. 4 mmol/L and induced time 8 h.

  15. Active site directed irreversible inactivation of brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase by the conjugated substrate analogue (E)-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-oxo-3-butenoic acid: development of a suicide substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, D J; Jordan, F

    1983-08-01

    (E)-4-(4-Chlorophenyl)-2-oxo-3-butenoic acid (CPB) was found to irreversibly inactivate brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC, EC 4.1.1.1) in a biphasic, sigmoidal manner, as is found for the kinetic behavior of substrate. An expression was derived for two-site irreversible inhibition of allosteric enzymes, and the kinetic behavior of CPB fit the expression for two-site binding. The calculated Ki's of 0.7 mM and 0.3 mM for CPB were assigned to the catalytic site and the regulatory site, respectively. The presence of pyruvic acid at high concentrations protected PDC from inactivation, whereas low concentrations of pyruvic acid accelerated inactivation by CPB. Pyruvamide, a known allosteric activator of PDC, was found to enhance inactivation by CPB. The results can be explained if pyruvamide binds only to a regulatory site, but CPB and pyruvic acid compete for both the regulatory and the catalytic centers. [1-14C]CPB was found to lose 14CO2 concurrently with the inactivation of the enzyme. Therefore, CPB was being turned over by PDC, in addition to inactivating it. CPB can be labeled a suicide-type inactivator for PDC.

  16. Brain pyruvate and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes are mitochondrial targets of the CoA ester of the Refsum disease marker phytanic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunik, Victoria I; Raddatz, Günter; Wanders, Ronald J A; Reiser, Georg

    2006-06-12

    Pyruvate and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes are strongly inhibited by phytanoyl-CoA (IC(50) approximately 10(-6)-10(-7) M). Palmitoyl-CoA is 10-fold less potent. Phytanic or palmitic acids have no inhibitory effect up to 0.3 mM. At the substrate saturation, the acyl-CoA's affect the first and second enzymatic components of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, while the third component is inhibited only at a low saturation with its substrate dihydrolipoamide. Thus, key regulatory branch points of mitochondrial metabolism are targets of a cellular derivative of phytanic acid. Decreased activity of the complexes might therefore contribute to neurological symptoms upon accumulation of phytanic acid in Refsum disease.

  17. The level of pyruvate-formate lyase controls the shift from homolactic to mixed-acid product formation in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchiorsen, C.R.; Jokumsen, K.V.; Villadsen, John

    2002-01-01

    promoters in L. lactis MG1363 and in the PFL-deficient strain CRM40. Strains with five different PFL levels were obtained. Variation in the PFL level markedly affected the resulting end-product formation in these strains. During growth on galactose, the flux towards mixed-acid products was to a great extent......Regulation of pyruvate-formate lyase (PFL) activity in vivo plays a central role in the shift from homolactic to mixed-acid product formation observed during the growth of Lactococcus lactis on glucose and galactose, respectively. Characterisation of L lactis MG1363 in anaerobic batch cultures...... controlled by the PFL level. This demonstrates that a regulated PFL level plays a predominant role in the regulation of the metabolic shift from homolactic to mixed-acid product formation in L lactis....

  18. Mitochondrial glutathione depletion reveals a novel role for the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex as a key H2O2-emitting source under conditions of nutrient overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey H; Gilliam, Laura A A; Lin, Chien-Te; Cathey, Brook L; Lark, Daniel S; Neufer, P Darrell

    2013-12-01

    Once regarded as a "by-product" of aerobic metabolism, the production of superoxide/H2O2 is now understood to be a highly specialized and extensively regulated process responsible for exerting control over a vast number of thiol-containing proteins, collectively referred to as the redox-sensitive proteome. Although disruptions within this process, secondary to elevated peroxide exposure, have been linked to disease, the sources and mechanisms regulating increased peroxide burden remain poorly defined and as such are difficult to target using pharmacotherapy. Here we identify the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) as a key source of H2O2 within skeletal muscle mitochondria under conditions of depressed glutathione redox buffering integrity. Treatment of permeabilized myofibers with varying concentrations of the glutathione-depleting agent 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene led to a dose-dependent increase in pyruvate-supported JH2O2 emission (the flux of H2O2 diffusing out of the mitochondrial matrix into the surrounding assay medium), with emission rates eventually rising to exceed those of all substrate combinations tested. This striking sensitivity to glutathione depletion was observed in permeabilized fibers prepared from multiple species and was specific to PDC. Physiological oxidation of the cellular glutathione pool after high-fat feeding in rodents was found to elevate PDC JH2O2 emission, as well as increasing the sensitivity of the complex to GSH depletion. These findings reveal PDC as a potential major site of H2O2 production that is extremely sensitive to mitochondrial glutathione redox status. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Recognition of the inner lipoyl-bearing domain of dihydrolipoyl transacetylase and of the blood glucose-lowering compound AZD7545 by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuganova, Alina; Klyuyeva, Alla; Popov, Kirill M

    2007-07-24

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 (PDHK2) is a unique mitochondrial protein kinase that regulates the activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex (PDC). PDHK2 is an integral component of PDC tightly bound to the inner lipoyl-bearing domains (L2) of the dihydrolipoyl transacetylase component (E2) of PDC. This association has been reported to bring about an up to 10-fold increase in kinase activity. Despite the central role played by E2 in the maintenance of PDHK2 functionality in the PDC-bound state, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the recognition of L2 by PDHK2 and for the E2-dependent PDHK2 activation are largely unknown. In this study, we used a combination of molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis to identify the amino acid residues essential for the interaction between PDHK2 and L2 and for the activation of PDHK2 by E2. On the basis of the results of site-directed mutagenesis, it appears that a number of PDHK2 residues located in its R domain (P22, L23, F28, F31, F44, L45, and L160) and in the so-called "cross arm" structure (K368, R372, and K391) are critical in determining the strength of the interaction between PDHK2 and L2. The residues of L2 essential for recognition by PDHK2 include L140, K173, I176, E179, and to a lesser extent D164, D172, and A174. Importantly, certain PDHK2 residues forming interfaces with L2, i.e., K17, P22, F31, F44, R372, and K391, are also critical for the maintenance of enhanced PDHK2 activity in the E2-bound state. Finally, evidence that the blood glucose-lowering compound AZD7545 disrupts the interactions between PDHK2 and L2 and thereby inhibits PDHK2 activity is presented.

  20. Lethal neonatal case and review of primary short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase (SCEH) deficiency associated with secondary lymphocyte pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoyan, Jirair K; Yang, Samuel P; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Jack, Rhona M; Miron, Alexander; Grahame, George; DeBrosse, Suzanne D; Hoppel, Charles L; Kerr, Douglas S; Wanders, Ronald J A

    2017-04-01

    Mutations in ECHS1 result in short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase (SCEH) deficiency which mainly affects the catabolism of various amino acids, particularly valine. We describe a case compound heterozygous for ECHS1 mutations c.836T>C (novel) and c.8C>A identified by whole exome sequencing of proband and parents. SCEH deficiency was confirmed with very low SCEH activity in fibroblasts and nearly absent immunoreactivity of SCEH. The patient had a severe neonatal course with elevated blood and cerebrospinal fluid lactate and pyruvate concentrations, high plasma alanine and slightly low plasma cystine. 2-Methyl-2,3-dihydroxybutyric acid was markedly elevated as were metabolites of the three branched-chain α-ketoacids on urine organic acids analysis. These urine metabolites notably decreased when lactic acidosis decreased in blood. Lymphocyte pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) activity was deficient, but PDC and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex activities in cultured fibroblasts were normal. Oxidative phosphorylation analysis on intact digitonin-permeabilized fibroblasts was suggestive of slightly reduced PDC activity relative to control range in mitochondria. We reviewed 16 other cases with mutations in ECHS1 where PDC activity was also assayed in order to determine how common and generalized secondary PDC deficiency is associated with primary SCEH deficiency. For reasons that remain unexplained, we find that about half of cases with primary SCEH deficiency also exhibit secondary PDC deficiency. The patient died on day-of-life 39, prior to establishing his diagnosis, highlighting the importance of early and rapid neonatal diagnosis because of possible adverse effects of certain therapeutic interventions, such as administration of ketogenic diet, in this disorder. There is a need for better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms and phenotypic variability in this relatively recently discovered disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of the Staphylococcus epidermidis LytSR two-component regulatory system on murein hydrolase activity, pyruvate utilization and global transcriptional profile

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    Yu Fangyou

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus epidermidis has emerged as one of the most important nosocomial pathogens, mainly because of its ability to colonize implanted biomaterials by forming a biofilm. Extensive studies are focused on the molecular mechanisms involved in biofilm formation. The LytSR two-component regulatory system regulates autolysis and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. However, the role of LytSR played in S. epidermidis remained unknown. Results In the present study, we demonstrated that lytSR knock-out in S. epidermidis did not alter susceptibility to Triton X-100 induced autolysis. Quantitative murein hydrolase assay indicated that disruption of lytSR in S. epidermidis resulted in decreased activities of extracellular murein hydrolases, although zymogram showed no apparent differences in murein hydrolase patterns between S. epidermidis strain 1457 and its lytSR mutant. Compared to the wild-type counterpart, 1457ΔlytSR produced slightly more biofilm, with significantly decreased dead cells inside. Microarray analysis showed that lytSR mutation affected the transcription of 164 genes (123 genes were upregulated and 41 genes were downregulated. Specifically, genes encoding proteins responsible for protein synthesis, energy metabolism were downregulated, while genes involved in amino acid and nucleotide biosynthesis, amino acid transporters were upregulated. Impaired ability to utilize pyruvate and reduced activity of arginine deiminase was observed in 1457ΔlytSR, which is consistent with the microarray data. Conclusions The preliminary results suggest that in S. epidermidis LytSR two-component system regulates extracellular murein hydrolase activity, bacterial cell death and pyruvate utilization. Based on the microarray data, it appears that lytSR inactivation induces a stringent response. In addition, LytSR may indirectly enhance biofilm formation by altering the metabolic status of the bacteria.

  2. Evidence of Glycolysis Up-Regulation and Pyruvate Mitochondrial Oxidation Mismatch During Mechanical Unloading of the Failing Human Heart

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    Nikolaos A. Diakos, MD, PhD

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to investigate the effects of mechanical unloading on myocardial energetics and the metabolic perturbation of heart failure (HF in an effort to identify potential new therapeutic targets that could enhance the unloading-induced cardiac recovery. The authors prospectively examined paired human myocardial tissue procured from 31 advanced HF patients at left ventricular assist device (LVAD implant and at heart transplant plus tissue from 11 normal donors. They identified increased post-LVAD glycolytic metabolites without a coordinate increase in early, tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle intermediates. The increased pyruvate was not directed toward the mitochondria and the TCA cycle for complete oxidation, but instead, was mainly converted to cytosolic lactate. Increased nucleotide concentrations were present, potentially indicating increased flux through the pentose phosphate pathway. Evaluation of mitochondrial function and structure revealed a lack of post-LVAD improvement in mitochondrial oxidative functional capacity, mitochondrial volume density, and deoxyribonucleic acid content. Finally, post-LVAD unloading, amino acid levels were found to be increased and could represent a compensatory mechanism and an alternative energy source that could fuel the TCA cycle by anaplerosis. In summary, the authors report evidence that LVAD unloading induces glycolysis in concert with pyruvate mitochondrial oxidation mismatch, most likely as a result of persistent mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings suggest that interventions known to improve mitochondrial biogenesis, structure, and function, such as controlled cardiac reloading and conditioning, warrant further investigation to enhance unloading-induced reverse remodeling and cardiac recovery.

  3. Cloning and Characterization of a Pyruvate Carboxylase Gene from Penicillium rubens and Overexpression of the Genein the Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica for Enhanced Citric Acid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ge-Yi; Lu, Yi; Chi, Zhe; Liu, Guang-Lei; Zhao, Shou-Feng; Jiang, Hong; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a pyruvate carboxylase gene (PYC1) from a marine fungus Penicillium rubens I607 was cloned and characterized. ORF of the gene (accession number: KM397349.1) had 3534 bp encoding 1177 amino acids with a molecular weight of 127.531 kDa and a PI of 6.20. The promoter of the gene was located at -1200 bp and contained a TATAA box, several CAAT boxes and a sequence 5'-SYGGRG-3'. The PYC1 deduced from the gene had no signal peptide, was a homotetramer (α4), and had the four functional domains. After expression of the PYC1 gene from the marine fungus in the marine-derived yeast Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b, the transformant PR32 obtained had much higher specific pyruvate carboxylase activity (0.53 U/mg) than Y. lipolytica SWJ-1b (0.07 U/mg), and the PYC1 gene expression (133.8%) and citric acid production (70.2 g/l) by the transformant PR32 were also greatly enhanced compared to those (100 % and 27.3 g/l) by Y. lipolytica SWJ-1b. When glucose concentration in the medium was 60.0 g/l, citric acid (CA) concentration formed by the transformant PR32 was 36.1 g/l, leading to conversion of 62.1% of glucose into CA. During a 10-l fed-batch fermentation, the final concentration of CA was 111.1 ± 1.3 g/l, the yield was 0.93 g/g, the productivity was 0.46 g/l/h, and only 1.72 g/l reducing sugar was left in the fermented medium within 240 h. HPLC analysis showed that most of the fermentation products were CA. However, minor malic acid and other unknown products also existed in the culture.

  4. ¹³C metabolic flux analysis identifies an unusual route for pyruvate dissimilation in mycobacteria which requires isocitrate lyase and carbon dioxide fixation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany J V Beste

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis requires the enzyme isocitrate lyase (ICL for growth and virulence in vivo. The demonstration that M. tuberculosis also requires ICL for survival during nutrient starvation and has a role during steady state growth in a glycerol limited chemostat indicates a function for this enzyme which extends beyond fat metabolism. As isocitrate lyase is a potential drug target elucidating the role of this enzyme is of importance; however, the role of isocitrate lyase has never been investigated at the level of in vivo fluxes. Here we show that deletion of one of the two icl genes impairs the replication of Mycobacterium bovis BCG at slow growth rate in a carbon limited chemostat. In order to further understand the role of isocitrate lyase in the central metabolism of mycobacteria the effect of growth rate on the in vivo fluxes was studied for the first time using ¹³C-metabolic flux analysis (MFA. Tracer experiments were performed with steady state chemostat cultures of BCG or M. tuberculosis supplied with ¹³C labeled glycerol or sodium bicarbonate. Through measurements of the ¹³C isotopomer labeling patterns in protein-derived amino acids and enzymatic activity assays we have identified the activity of a novel pathway for pyruvate dissimilation. We named this the GAS pathway because it utilizes the Glyoxylate shunt and Anapleurotic reactions for oxidation of pyruvate, and Succinyl CoA synthetase for the generation of succinyl CoA combined with a very low flux through the succinate--oxaloacetate segment of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. We confirm that M. tuberculosis can fix carbon from CO₂ into biomass. As the human host is abundant in CO₂ this finding requires further investigation in vivo as CO₂ fixation may provide a point of vulnerability that could be targeted with novel drugs. This study also provides a platform for further studies into the metabolism of M. tuberculosis using ¹³C-MFA.

  5. Consequences of phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotranferase system and pyruvate kinase isozymes inactivation in central carbon metabolism flux distribution in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meza Eugenio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP is a key central metabolism intermediate that participates in glucose transport, as precursor in several biosynthetic pathways and it is involved in allosteric regulation of glycolytic enzymes. In this work we generated W3110 derivative strains that lack the main PEP consumers PEP:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS- and pyruvate kinase isozymes PykA and PykF (PTS-pykA- and PTS-pykF-. To characterize the effects of these modifications on cell physiology, carbon flux distribution and aromatics production capacity were determined. Results When compared to reference strain W3110, strain VH33 (PTS- displayed lower specific rates for growth, glucose consumption and acetate production as well as a higher biomass yield from glucose. These phenotypic effects were even more pronounced by the additional inactivation of PykA or PykF. Carbon flux analysis revealed that PTS inactivation causes a redirection of metabolic flux towards biomass formation. A cycle involving PEP carboxylase (Ppc and PEP carboxykinase (Pck was detected in all strains. In strains W3110, VH33 (PTS- and VH35 (PTS-, pykF-, the net flux in this cycle was inversely correlated with the specific rate of glucose consumption and inactivation of Pck in these strains caused a reduction in growth rate. In the PTS- background, inactivation of PykA caused a reduction in Ppc and Pck cycling as well as a reduction in flux to TCA, whereas inactivation of PykF caused an increase in anaplerotic flux from PEP to OAA and an increased flux to TCA. The wild-type and mutant strains were modified to overproduce L-phenylalanine. In resting cells experiments, compared to reference strain, a 10, 4 and 7-fold higher aromatics yields from glucose were observed as consequence of PTS, PTS PykA and PTS PykF inactivation. Conclusions Metabolic flux analysis performed on strains lacking the main activities generating pyruvate from PEP revealed the high

  6. [Oxidation of [1-14C]palmitoyl-CoA, [1-14C]acetyl-CoA and [2-14C]pyruvate in rabbit adrenal, liver and heart mitochondria under normal conditions and in acute stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrik, K A; Doroshkevich, N A; Vinogradov, V V

    1986-01-01

    The acute immobilized stress was studied for its effect on oxidation rate of [1-14C]palmitoyl-CoA, [1-14C]acetyl-CoA and [2-14C]pyruvate in mitochondria of the adrenals, liver and heart of rabbits. The stress effect on the energy metabolism of adrenals is associated with an increase of the rate of CO2 formation from pyruvate and with a decrease of the rate of CO2 formation from palmitoyl-CoA. Intensified oxidation of all substrates is observed in the heart mitochondria. The processes of beta-oxidation are more active in the liver. The data obtained evidence for differences in the mechanisms of energy metabolism reconstruction under acute stress in tissues with different functional specialization.

  7. Simultaneous hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate MRI and (18)F-FDG-PET in cancer (hyperPET): feasibility of a new imaging concept using a clinical PET/MRI scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutte, Henrik; Hansen, Adam E; Henriksen, Sarah T; Johannesen, Helle H; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan; Vignaud, Alexandre; Hansen, Anders E; Børresen, Betina; Klausen, Thomas L; Wittekind, Anne-Mette N; Gillings, Nic; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Clemmensen, Andreas; Højgaard, Liselotte; Kjær, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of a new imaging concept - combined hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) and (18)F-FDG-PET imaging. This procedure was performed in a clinical PET/MRI scanner with a canine cancer patient. We have named this concept hyper PET. Intravenous injection of the hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate results in an increase of (13)C-lactate, (13)C-alanine and (13)C-CO2 ((13)C-HCO3) resonance peaks relative to the tissue, disease and the metabolic state probed. Accordingly, with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and use of (13)C-pyruvate it is now possible to directly study the Warburg Effect through the rate of conversion of (13)C-pyruvate to (13)C-lactate. In this study, we combined it with (18)F-FDG-PET that studies uptake of glucose in the cells. A canine cancer patient with a histology verified local recurrence of a liposarcoma on the right forepaw was imaged using a combined PET/MR clinical scanner. PET was performed as a single-bed, 10 min acquisition, 107 min post injection of 310 MBq (18)F-FDG. (13)C-chemical shift imaging (CSI) was performed just after FDG-PET and 30 s post injection of 23 mL hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate. Peak heights of (13)C-pyruvate and (13)C-lactate were quantified using a general linear model. Anatomic (1)H-MRI included axial and coronal T1 vibe, coronal T2-tse and axial T1-tse with fat saturation following gadolinium injection. In the tumor we found clearly increased (13)C-lactate production, which also corresponded to high (18)F-FDG uptake on PET. This is in agreement with the fact that glycolysis and production of lactate are increased in tumor cells compared to normal cells. Yet, most interestingly, also in the muscle of the forepaw of the dog high (18)F-FDG uptake was observed. This was due to activity in these muscles prior to anesthesia, which was not accompanied by a similarly high (13)C-lactate production. Accordingly, this clearly

  8. Enhanced hydrogenation activity and diastereomeric interactions of methyl pyruvate co-adsorbed with R-1-(1-naphthyl)ethylamine on Pd(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Mausumi; Burkholder, Luke; Garvey, Michael; Bai, Yun; Saldin, Dilano K; Tysoe, Wilfred T

    2016-08-04

    Unmodified racemic sites on heterogeneous chiral catalysts reduce their overall enantioselectivity, but this effect is mitigated in the Orito reaction (methyl pyruvate (MP) hydrogenation to methyl lactate) by an increased hydrogenation reactivity. Here, this effect is explored on a R-1-(1-naphthyl)ethylamine (NEA)-modified Pd(111) model catalyst where temperature-programmed desorption experiments reveal that NEA accelerates the rates of both MP hydrogenation and H/D exchange. NEA+MP docking complexes are imaged using scanning tunnelling microscopy supplemented by density functional theory calculations to allow the most stable docking complexes to be identified. The results show that diastereomeric interactions between NEA and MP occur predominantly by binding of the C=C of the enol tautomer of MP to the surface, while simultaneously optimizing C=O····H2N hydrogen-bonding interactions. The combination of chiral-NEA driven diastereomeric docking with a tautomeric preference enhances the hydrogenation activity since C=C bonds hydrogenate more easily than C=O bonds thus providing a rationale for the catalytic observations.

  9. The design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel thiamin diphosphate analog inhibitors against the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex E1 from Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lingling; He, Junbo; He, Haifeng; Zhao, Lulu; Deng, Lingfu; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Lin; Ren, Yanliang; Wan, Jian; He, Hongwu

    2014-11-28

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex E1 (PDHc E1) is a potential target enzyme when looking for inhibitors to combat microbial disease. In this study, we designed and synthesized a series of novel thiamin diphosphate (ThDP) analogs with triazole ring and oxime ether moieties as potential inhibitors of PDHc E1. Their inhibitory activities against PDHc E1 were examined both in vitro and in vivo. Most of the tested compounds exhibited moderate inhibitory activities against PDHc E1 (IC50 = 6.1-75.5 μM). The potent inhibitors 4g, 4h and 4j, had strong inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 6.7, 6.9 and 6.1 μM against PDHc E1 in vitro and with inhibition rates of 35%, 50% and 33% at 100 μg mL(-1) against Gibberella zeae in vivo, respectively. The binding mode of 4j to PDHc E1 was analyzed by a molecular docking method. Furthermore, the possible interactions of the important residues of PDHc E1 with compound 4j were examined by site-directed mutagenesis, enzymatic assays and spectral fluorescence studies. The theoretical and experimental results are in good agreement and suggest that compound 4j could be used as a lead compound for further optimization, and may have potential as a new microbicide.

  10. Functional role of pyruvate kinase from Lactobacillus bulgaricus in acid tolerance and identification of its transcription factor by bacterial one-hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Zhengyuan; An, Haoran; Wang, Guohong; Luo, Yunbo; Hao, Yanling

    2015-11-19

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus develops acid tolerance response when subjected to acid stress conditions, such as the induction of enzymes associated with carbohydrate metabolism. In this study, pyk gene encoding pyruvate kinase was over-expressed in heterologous host Lactococcus lactis NZ9000, and SDS-PAGE analysis revealed the successful expression of this gene in NZ9000. The survival rate of Pyk-overproducing strain was 45-fold higher than the control under acid stress condition (pH 4.0). In order to determine the transcription factor (TF) which regulates the expression of pyk by bacterial one-hybrid, we constructed a TF library including 65 TFs of L. bulgaricus. Western blotting indicated that TFs in this library could be successfully expressed in host strains. Subsequently, the promoter of pfk-pyk operon in L. bulgaricus was identified by 5'-RACE PCR. The bait plasmid pH3U3-p01 carrying the deletion fragment of pfk-pyk promoter captured catabolite control protein A (CcpA) which could regulate the expression of pyk by binding to a putative catabolite-responsive element (5'-TGTAAGCCCTAACA-3') upstream the -35 region. Real-time qPCR analysis revealed the transcription of pyk was positively regulated by CcpA. This is the first report about identifying the TF of pyk in L. bulgaricus, which will provide new insight into the regulatory network.

  11. Activity of cholinesterases, pyruvate kinase and adenosine deaminase in rats experimentally infected by Fasciola hepatica: Influences of these enzymes on inflammatory response and pathological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Bottari, Nathieli B; Mendes, Ricardo E; Schwertz, Claiton I; Lucca, Neuber J; Dalenogare, Diessica; Bochi, Guilherme V; Moresco, Rafael N; Morsch, Vera M; Schetinger, Maria R C; Rech, Virginia C; Jaques, Jeandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in total blood and liver tissue; butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in serum and liver tissue; adenosine deaminase (ADA) in serum and liver tissue; and pyruvate kinase (PK) in liver tissue of rats experimentally infected by Fasciola hepatica. Animals were divided into two groups with 12 animals each, as follows: group A (uninfected) and group B (infected). Samples were collected at 20 (A1 and B1;n=6 each) and 150 (A2 and B2; n=6 each) days post-infection (PI). Infected animals showed an increase in AChE activity in whole blood and a decrease in AChE activity in liver homogenates (P<0.05) at 20 and 150 days PI. BChE and PK activities were decreased (P<0.05) in serum and liver homogenates of infected animals at 150 days PI. ADA activity was decreased in serum at 20 and 150 days PI, while in liver homogenates it was only decreased at 150 days PI (P<0.05). Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities in serum were increased (P<0.05), while concentrations of total protein and albumin were decreased (P<0.05) when compared to control. The histological analysis revealed fibrous perihepatitis and necrosis. Therefore, we conclude that the liver fluke is associated with cholinergic and purinergic dysfunctions, which in turn may influence the pathogenesis of the disease.

  12. Dealing with the sulfur part of cysteine: four enzymatic steps degrade l-cysteine to pyruvate and thiosulfate in Arabidopsis mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfler, Saskia; Lorenz, Christin; Busch, Tjorven; Brinkkötter, Mascha; Tohge, Takayuki; Fernie, Alisdair R; Braun, Hans-Peter; Hildebrandt, Tatjana M

    2016-07-01

    Amino acid catabolism is essential for adjusting pool sizes of free amino acids and takes part in energy production as well as nutrient remobilization. The carbon skeletons are generally converted to precursors or intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In the case of cysteine, the reduced sulfur derived from the thiol group also has to be oxidized in order to prevent accumulation to toxic concentrations. Here we present a mitochondrial sulfur catabolic pathway catalyzing the complete oxidation of l-cysteine to pyruvate and thiosulfate. After transamination to 3-mercaptopyruvate, the sulfhydryl group from l-cysteine is transferred to glutathione by sulfurtransferase 1 and oxidized to sulfite by the sulfur dioxygenase ETHE1. Sulfite is then converted to thiosulfate by addition of a second persulfide group by sulfurtransferase 1. This pathway is most relevant during early embryo development and for vegetative growth under light-limiting conditions. Characterization of a double mutant produced from Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA insertion lines for ETHE1 and sulfurtransferase 1 revealed that an intermediate of the ETHE1 dependent pathway, most likely a persulfide, interferes with amino acid catabolism and induces early senescence.

  13. The Diagnostic Accuracy of the M2 Pyruvate Kinase Quick Stool Test--A Rapid Office Based Assay Test for the Detection of Colorectal Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Sithambaram

    Full Text Available M2 pyruvate kinase (M2PK is an oncoprotein secreted by colorectal cancers in stools. This the first report on the accuracy of a rapid stool test in the detection of colorectal cancer (CRC.To determine the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive value of a rapid, point of care stool test M2 PK- the M2PK Quick.Consecutive cases of endoscopically diagnosed and histological proven CRC were recruited. Stools were collected by patients and tested with the immunochromatographic M2PK Quick Test (Schebo Biotech AC, Giessen, Germany. Controls were consecutively chosen from patients without any significant colorectal or gastrointestinal disease undergoing colonoscopy. CRC was staged according to the AJCC staging manual (7th Edition and location of tumor defined as proximal or distal.The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and overall accuracy were: 93%, 97.5%, 94.9%, 96.5% and 96.0% respectively. The positive predictive value for proximal tumors was significantly lower compared to distal tumors. No differences were seen between the different stages of the tumor.The M2-PK Quick, rapid, point-of-care test is a highly accurate test in the detection of CRC. It is easy and convenient to perform and a useful diagnostic test for the detection of CRC in a clinical practice setting.

  14. A proteomic approach links decreased pyruvate kinase M2 expression to oxaliplatin resistance in patients with colorectal cancer and in human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Balibrea, Eva; Plasencia, Carmen; Ginés, Alba; Martinez-Cardús, Anna; Musulén, Eva; Aguilera, Rodrigo; Manzano, José Luis; Neamati, Nouri; Abad, Albert

    2009-04-01

    We aimed to gain further understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in oxaliplatin resistance in colorectal cancer by using a proteomic approach. A 5-fold oxaliplatin-resistant cell line, HTOXAR3, was compared with its parental cell line, HT29, using two-dimensional PAGE. Mass spectrometry, Western blot, and real-time quantitative PCR confirmed the down-regulation of pyruvate kinase M2 (PK-M2) in HTOXAR3 cells. In a panel of eight colorectal cancer cell lines, we found a negative correlation between oxaliplatin resistance and PK-M2 mRNA levels (Spearman r=-0.846, P=0.008). Oxaliplatin exposure in both HT29 and HTOXAR3 led to PK-M2 mRNA up-regulation. PK-M2 mRNA levels were measured by real-time quantitative PCR in 41 tumors treated with oxaliplatin/5-fluorouracil. Tumors with the lowest PK-M2 levels attained the lowest response rates (20% versus 64.5%, P=0.026). High PK-M2 levels were associated with high p53 levels (P=0.032). In conclusion, the data provided clearly link PK-M2 expression and oxaliplatin resistance mechanisms and further implicate PK-M2 as a predictive marker of response in patients with oxaliplatin-treated colorectal cancer.

  15. `In crystallo' substrate binding triggers major domain movements and reveals magnesium as a co-activator of Trypanosoma brucei pyruvate kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wenhe; Morgan, Hugh P; McNae, Iain W; Michels, Paul A M; Fothergill-Gilmore, Linda A; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D

    2013-09-01

    The active site of pyruvate kinase (PYK) is located between the AC core of the enzyme and a mobile lid corresponding to domain B. Many PYK structures have already been determined, but the first `effector-only' structure and the first with PEP (the true natural substrate) are now reported for the enzyme from Trypanosoma brucei. PEP soaked into crystals of the enzyme with bound allosteric activator fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (F26BP) and Mg(2+) triggers a substantial 23° rotation of the B domain `in crystallo', resulting in a partially closed active site. The interplay of side chains with Mg(2+) and PEP may explain the mechanism of the domain movement. Furthermore, it is apparent that when F26BP is present but PEP is absent Mg(2+) occupies a position that is distinct from the two canonical Mg(2+)-binding sites at the active site. This third site is adjacent to the active site and involves the same amino-acid side chains as in canonical site 1 but in altered orientations. Site 3 acts to sequester Mg(2+) in a `priming' position such that the enzyme is maintained in its R-state conformation. In this way, Mg(2+) cooperates with F26BP to ensure that the enzyme is in a conformation that has a high affinity for the substrate.

  16. A new sickle cell disease phenotype associating Hb S trait, severe pyruvate kinase deficiency (PK Conakry), and an alpha2 globin gene variant (Hb Conakry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Solal, M; Préhu, C; Wajcman, H; Poyart, C; Bardakdjian-Michau, J; Kister, J; Promé, D; Valentin, C; Bachir, D; Galactéros, F

    1998-12-01

    A Guinean woman, heterozygous for haemoglobin (Hb) S, was studied because of episodes of marked anaemia, repeated typical metaphyseal painful crises and haemosiderosis. Her sickling syndrome resulted from the association of Hb S trait with a severe pyruvate kinase deficiency leading to a 2,3-DPG concentration of twice normal levels. Sequence of the PK-R gene revealed an undescribed mutation in the homozygous or hemizygous state within exon 5 (nucleotide 2670 C-->A), leading to the interchange of Ser 130 into Tyr (PK Conakry). In addition, the patient carried a new haemoglobin variant, Hb Conakry [alpha80(F1) Leu-->Val], which seemed to have a mild effect. The high intraerythrocytic 2,3-DPG concentration induced by the PK deficiency resulted in a decreased oxygen affinity which favoured sickling to a level almost similar to that of Hb S/C compound heterozygous patients. This was confirmed by oxygen binding measurements of Hb A/Hb S erythrocytes in which 2,3-DPG content was modified in vitro. Hysteresis between deoxy- and reoxygenation curves, as well as increase in the n(max) value, demonstrated that the extent of HbS polymerization in the propositus was almost the same as that of RBCs from a homozygous sickle cell patient or those of an A/S heterozygous patient with an artificial in vitro increase of 2,3-DPG concentration.

  17. Enhanced production of 2,3-butanediol in pyruvate decarboxylase-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae through optimizing ratio of glucose/galactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Ji; Kim, Jin-Woo; Kim, Soo-Jung; Seo, Seung-Oh; Lane, Stephan; Park, Yong-Cheol; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2016-11-01

    Galactose and glucose are two of the most abundant monomeric sugars in hydrolysates of marine biomasses. While Saccharomyces cerevisiae can ferment galactose, its uptake is tightly controlled in the presence of glucose by catabolite repression. It is desirable to construct engineered strains capable of simultaneous utilization of glucose and galactose for producing biofuels and chemicals from marine biomass. The MTH1 gene coding for transcription factor in glucose signaling was mutated in a pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc)-deficient S. cerevisiae expressing heterologous 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) biosynthetic genes. The engineered S. cerevisiae strain consumed glucose and galactose simultaneously and produced 2,3-BD as a major product. Total sugar consumption rates increased with a low ratio of glucose/galactose, though, occurrence of the glucose depletion in a fed-batch fermentation decreased 2,3-BD production substantially. Through optimizing the profiles of sugar concentrations in a fed-batch cultivation with the engineered strain, 99.1 ± 1.7 g/L 2,3-BD was produced in 143 hours with a yield of 0.353 ± 0.022 g 2,3-BD/g sugars. This result suggests that simultaneous and efficient utilization of glucose and galactose by the engineered yeast might be applicable to the economical production of not only 2,3-BD, but also other biofuels and chemicals from marine biomass.

  18. The MDM2–p53–pyruvate carboxylase signalling axis couples mitochondrial metabolism to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomu; Cheng, Kenneth K. Y.; Liu, Zhuohao; Yang, Jin-Kui; Wang, Baile; Jiang, Xue; Zhou, Yawen; Hallenborg, Philip; Hoo, Ruby L. C.; Lam, Karen S. L.; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Gao, Xin; Xu, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial metabolism is pivotal for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic β-cells. However, little is known about the molecular machinery that controls the homeostasis of intermediary metabolites in mitochondria. Here we show that the activation of p53 in β-cells, by genetic deletion or pharmacological inhibition of its negative regulator MDM2, impairs GSIS, leading to glucose intolerance in mice. Mechanistically, p53 activation represses the expression of the mitochondrial enzyme pyruvate carboxylase (PC), resulting in diminished production of the TCA cycle intermediates oxaloacetate and NADPH, and impaired oxygen consumption. The defective GSIS and mitochondrial metabolism in MDM2-null islets can be rescued by restoring PC expression. Under diabetogenic conditions, MDM2 and p53 are upregulated, whereas PC is reduced in mouse β-cells. Pharmacological inhibition of p53 alleviates defective GSIS in diabetic islets by restoring PC expression. Thus, the MDM2–p53–PC signalling axis links mitochondrial metabolism to insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis, and could represent a therapeutic target in diabetes. PMID:27265727

  19. Enhanced hydrogenation activity and diastereomeric interactions of methyl pyruvate co-adsorbed with R-1-(1-naphthyl)ethylamine on Pd(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Mausumi; Burkholder, Luke; Garvey, Michael; Bai, Yun; Saldin, Dilano K.; Tysoe, Wilfred T.

    2016-08-01

    Unmodified racemic sites on heterogeneous chiral catalysts reduce their overall enantioselectivity, but this effect is mitigated in the Orito reaction (methyl pyruvate (MP) hydrogenation to methyl lactate) by an increased hydrogenation reactivity. Here, this effect is explored on a R-1-(1-naphthyl)ethylamine (NEA)-modified Pd(111) model catalyst where temperature-programmed desorption experiments reveal that NEA accelerates the rates of both MP hydrogenation and H/D exchange. NEA+MP docking complexes are imaged using scanning tunnelling microscopy supplemented by density functional theory calculations to allow the most stable docking complexes to be identified. The results show that diastereomeric interactions between NEA and MP occur predominantly by binding of the C=C of the enol tautomer of MP to the surface, while simultaneously optimizing C=O....H2N hydrogen-bonding interactions. The combination of chiral-NEA driven diastereomeric docking with a tautomeric preference enhances the hydrogenation activity since C=C bonds hydrogenate more easily than C=O bonds thus providing a rationale for the catalytic observations.

  20. α-(Substituted-phenoxyacetoxy)-α-heterocyclylmethylphosphonates: synthesis, herbicidal activity, inhibition on pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc), and application as postemergent herbicide against broadleaf weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong-Wu; Peng, Hao; Wang, Tao; Wang, Chubei; Yuan, Jun-Lin; Chen, Ting; He, Junbo; Tan, Xiaosong

    2013-03-13

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) is the site of action of a new class of herbicides. On the basis of the previous work for O,O'-dimethyl α-(substituted-phenoxyacetoxy)alkylphosphonates (I), further synthetic modifications were made by introducing a fural and a thienyl group to structure I. A series of α-(substituted-phenoxyacetoxy)-α-heterocyclylmethylphosphonate derivatives (II) were synthesized as potential inhibitors of PDHc. The postemergent activity of the title compounds II was evaluated in greenhouse experiments. The in vitro efficacy of II against PDHc was also examined. Compounds II with fural as R(3) and 2,4-dichloro as X and Y showed significant herbicidal activity and effective inhibition against PDHc from plants. O,O'-Dimethyl α-(2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetoxy)-α-(furan-2-yl)methylphosphonate II-17 had higher inhibitory potency against PDHc from Pisum sativum than against PDHc from Oryza sativa in vitro and was most effective against broadleaf weeds at 50 and 300 ai g/ha. II-17 was safe for maize and rice even at the dose of 900-1200 ai g/ha. Field trials at different regions in China showed that II-17 (HWS) could control a broad spectrum of broad-leaved and sedge weeds at the rate of 225-375 ai g/ha for postemergent applications in maize fields. II-17 (HWS) displayed potential utility as a selective herbicide.

  1. Co-administration of creatine plus pyruvate prevents the effects of phenylalanine administration to female rats during pregnancy and lactation on enzymes activity of energy metabolism in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoluzzi, Vanessa Trindade; de Franceschi, Itiane Diehl; Rieger, Elenara; Wannmacher, Clóvis Milton Duval

    2014-08-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most frequent inborn error of metabolism. It is caused by deficiency in the activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase, leading to accumulation of phenylalanine and its metabolites. Untreated maternal PKU or hyperphenylalaninemia may result in nonphenylketonuric offspring with low birth weight and neonatal sequelae, especially microcephaly and intellectual disability. The mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of brain injury in maternal PKU syndrome are poorly understood. In the present study, we evaluated the possible preventive effect of the co-administration of creatine plus pyruvate on the effects elicited by phenylalanine administration to female Wistar rats during pregnancy and lactation on some enzymes involved in the phosphoryltransfer network in the brain cortex and hippocampus of the offspring at 21 days of age. Phenylalanine administration provoked diminution of body, brain cortex an hippocampus weight and decrease of adenylate kinase, mitochondrial and cytosolic creatine kinase activities. Co-administration of creatine plus pyruvate was effective in the prevention of those alterations provoked by phenylalanine, suggesting that altered energy metabolism may be important in the pathophysiology of maternal PKU. If these alterations also occur in maternal PKU, it is possible that pyruvate and creatine supplementation to the phenylalanine-restricted diet might be beneficial to phenylketonuric mothers.

  2. Interaction of (4-hydroxyphenyl)pyruvate dioxygenase with the specific inhibitor 2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]-1,3-cyclohexanedione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavana, Michael; Moran, Graham R

    2003-09-01

    (4-Hydroxyphenyl)pyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) is a non-heme Fe(II) enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (4-hydroxyphenyl)pyruvate (HPP) to homogentisate as part of the tyrosine catabolism pathway. Inhibition of HPPD by the triketone 2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC) is used to treat type I tyrosinemia, a rare but fatal defect in tyrosine catabolism. Although triketones have been used for many years as HPPD inhibitors for both medical and herbicidal purposes, the mechanism of inhibition is not well understood. The following work provides mechanistic insight into NTBC binding. The tautomeric population of NTBC in aqueous solution is dominated by a single enol as determined by NMR spectroscopy. NTBC preferentially binds to the complex of HPPD and FeII [HPPD.Fe(II)] as evidenced by a visible absorbance feature centered at 450 nm. The binding of NTBC to HPPD.Fe(II) was observed using a rapid mixing method and was shown to occur in two phases and comprise three steps. A hyperbolic dependence of the first observable process with NTBC concentration indicates a pre-equilibrium binding step followed by a limiting rate (K(1) = 1.25 +/- 0.08 mM, k(2) = 8.2 +/- 0.2 s(-1)), while the second phase (k(3) = 0.76 +/- 0.02 s(-1)) had no dependence on NTBC concentration. Neither K(1),k(2), nor k(3) was influenced by pH in the range of 6.0-8.0. Isotope effects on both k(2) and k(3) were observed when D(2)O is used as the solvent (for k(2), k(h)/k(d) = 1.3; for k(3), k(h)/k(d) = 3.2). It is therefore proposed that the bidentate association of NTBC with the active site metal ion (k(2)) precedes the Lewis acid-assisted conversion of the bound enol to the enolate (k(3)). Although the native enzyme without substrate reacts with molecular oxygen to form the oxidized holoenzyme, the HPPD.Fe(II).NTBC complex does not. When the complex is exposed to atmospheric oxygen, the absorbance feature associated with NTBC binding does not diminish over the course of 2

  3. Application of a genetically encoded biosensor for live cell imaging of L-valine production in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafi, Nurije; Grünberger, Alexander; Mahr, Regina; Helfrich, Stefan; Nöh, Katharina; Blombach, Bastian; Kohlheyer, Dietrich; Frunzke, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The majority of biotechnologically relevant metabolites do not impart a conspicuous phenotype to the producing cell. Consequently, the analysis of microbial metabolite production is still dominated by bulk techniques, which may obscure significant variation at the single-cell level. In this study, we have applied the recently developed Lrp-biosensor for monitoring of amino acid production in single cells of gradually engineered L-valine producing Corynebacterium glutamicum strains based on the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-deficient (PDHC) strain C. glutamicum ΔaceE. Online monitoring of the sensor output (eYFP fluorescence) during batch cultivation proved the sensor's suitability for visualizing different production levels. In the following, we conducted live cell imaging studies on C. glutamicum sensor strains using microfluidic chip devices. As expected, the sensor output was higher in microcolonies of high-yield producers in comparison to the basic strain C. glutamicum ΔaceE. Microfluidic cultivation in minimal medium revealed a typical Gaussian distribution of single cell fluorescence during the production phase. Remarkably, low amounts of complex nutrients completely changed the observed phenotypic pattern of all strains, resulting in a phenotypic split of the population. Whereas some cells stopped growing and initiated L-valine production, others continued to grow or showed a delayed transition to production. Depending on the cultivation conditions, a considerable fraction of non-fluorescent cells was observed, suggesting a loss of metabolic activity. These studies demonstrate that genetically encoded biosensors are a valuable tool for monitoring single cell productivity and to study the phenotypic pattern of microbial production strains.

  4. Metabolic Agents that Enhance ATP can Improve Cognitive Functioning: A Review of the Evidence for Glucose, Oxygen, Pyruvate, Creatine, and l-Carnitine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Owen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past four or five decades, there has been increasing interest in the neurochemical regulation of cognition. This field received considerable attention in the 1980s, with the identification of possible cognition enhancing agents or “smart drugs”. Even though many of the optimistic claims for some agents have proven premature, evidence suggests that several metabolic agents may prove to be effective in improving and preserving cognitive performance and may lead to better cognitive aging through the lifespan. Aging is characterized by a progressive deterioration in physiological functions and metabolic processes. There are a number of agents with the potential to improve metabolic activity. Research is now beginning to identify these various agents and delineate their potential usefulness for improving cognition in health and disease. This review provides a brief overview of the metabolic agents glucose, oxygen, pyruvate, creatine, and l-carnitine and their beneficial effects on cognitive function. These agents are directly responsible for generating ATP (adenosine triphosphate the main cellular currency of energy. The brain is the most metabolically active organ in the body and as such is particularly vulnerable to disruption of energy resources. Therefore interventions that sustain adenosine triphosphate (ATP levels may have importance for improving neuronal dysfunction and loss. Moreover, recently, it has been observed that environmental conditions and diet can affect transgenerational gene expression via epigenetic mechanisms. Metabolic agents might play a role in regulation of nutritional epigenetic effects. In summary, the reviewed metabolic agents represent a promising strategy for improving cognitive function and possibly slowing or preventing cognitive decline.

  5. Improvement of Neuroenergetics by Hypertonic Lactate Therapy in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury Is Dependent on Baseline Cerebral Lactate/Pyruvate Ratio

    KAUST Repository

    Quintard, Hervé

    2015-09-30

    Energy dysfunction is associated with worse prognosis after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recent data suggest that hypertonic sodium lactate infusion (HL) improves energy metabolism after TBI. Here, we specifically examined whether the efficacy of HL (3h infusion, 30-40 μmol/kg/min) in improving brain energetics (using cerebral microdialysis [CMD] glucose as a main therapeutic end-point) was dependent on baseline cerebral metabolic state (assessed by CMD lactate/pyruvate ratio [LPR]) and cerebral blood flow (CBF, measured with perfusion computed tomography [PCT]). Using a prospective cohort of 24 severe TBI patients, we found CMD glucose increase during HL was significant only in the subgroup of patients with elevated CMD LPR >25 (n = 13; +0.13 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.19] mmol/L, p < 0.001; vs. +0.04 [-0.05-0.13] in those with normal LPR, p = 0.33, mixed-effects model). In contrast, CMD glucose increase was independent from baseline CBF (coefficient +0.13 [0.04-0.21] mmol/L when global CBF was <32.5 mL/100 g/min vs. +0.09 [0.04-0.14] mmol/L at normal CBF, both p < 0.005) and systemic glucose. Our data suggest that improvement of brain energetics upon HL seems predominantly dependent on baseline cerebral metabolic state and support the concept that CMD LPR - rather than CBF - could be used as a diagnostic indication for systemic lactate supplementation following TBI. Copyright © 2016 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  6. Role of cysteines in the activation and inactivation of brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase investigated with a PDC1-PDC6 fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X; Farrenkopf, B; Hohmann, S; Dyda, F; Furey, W; Jordan, F

    1993-03-16

    Possible roles of the Cys side chains in the activation and inactivation mechanisms of brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase were investigated by comparing the behavior of the tetrameric enzyme pdc1 containing four cysteines/subunit (positions 69, 152, 221, and 222) with that of a fusion enzyme (pdc1-6, a result of spontaneous gene fusion between PDC1 and PDC6 genes) that is 84% identical in sequence with pdc1 and has only Cys221 (the other three Cys being replaced by aliphatic side chains). The two forms of the enzyme are rather similar so far as steady-state kinetic parameters and substrate activation are considered, as tested for activation by the substrate surrogate pyruvamide. Therefore, if a cysteine is responsible for substrate activation, it must be Cys221.