Sample records for pyrrhotite

  1. Electrochemical flotation of diethyldithiocarbamate-pyrrhotite system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡岳华; 戴晶平; 张芹


    Using sodium diethyldithiocarbamate as a collector the flotation behavior of pyrrhotite was investigated. The relationship between potential and pH range for pyrrhotite flotation was established. The results show that the flotation of pyrrhotite is dependent on pulp potential at certain pH values. Pyrrhotite has good floatability from pH 2 to pH 12, and poor flotability at pH>12. Cyclic voltammetry and Fourier transform infrared spectrum analysis show that the major adsorption product of DDTC on pyrrhotite is tetraethylthiuram disulfide. The intensity of Fourier transform infrared signals of tetraethylthiuram disulfide adsorbed on pyrrhotite and the anode current of a pyrrhotite electrode and flotation response of pyrrhotite are correlated with pulp potentials.

  2. Oxidoreductase mimic activity of natural pyrrhotite (United States)

    Ibáñez de Aldecoa, A. L.; Velasco, F.; Menor-Salván, C.


    The theory of the chemo-autotrophic origin of life, also called the "iron-sulfur world hypothesis", proposes that the system FeS/FeS2 present in the primitive Earth crust gave the reductive power necessary to conduct the first protometabolic redox reactions. Some experimental studies demonstrated the redox activity of the FeS/SH2 system, but none of them used natural FeS. Here, we show that the iron sulfide mineral pyrrhotite is able to mimic the redox activity of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase, which reversibly reduces the pyruvate in lactate, under prebiotic conditions with pyrite formation.

  3. Electrode process of diethyldithiocarbamate on surface of pyrrhotite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei-zhong; QIN Wen-qing; QIU Guan-zhou; DONG Qing-hai


    The electrode process of diethyldithiocarbamate on the surface of pyrrhotite was studied using systematic electrochemical analysis, including cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and galvanostatic. Experimental results show that tetraethylthioram disulphide(TETD) is electrodeposited on pyrrhotite electrode surface in the presence of 1.0×10-4 mol/L diethyldithiocarbamate when the electrode potential is higher than 0.25 V. The electrochemical kinetics parameters of the electrode process of diethyldithiocarbamate on surface of pyrrhotite are calculated as follows: the exchange current density is 2.48 μA/cm2, and the transmission coefficient is 0.46. The electrodeposition includes two steps electrochemical reaction. The first reaction is electrochemical adsorption of diethyldithiocarbamate ion, then the adsorbed ion associates with a diethyldithiocarbamate ion from the solution and forms tetraethylthioram disulphide on the surface of pyrrhotite.

  4. An electrokinetic study of synthetic greigite and pyrrhotite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, M.J.; Schoonen, M.A.A.


    The isoefectric points of synthetic greigite, Fe&, and pyrrhotite, Fe, _& in 10 -3- 1.1 10 -* M NaCl solution at or, < lop4 and as < 10W4 were determined to be pH 3 and 2, respectively. Below pH 2 for pyrrhotite and below pH 3 for greigite, the surfaces are positively charged; above these pH

  5. Assessing microstructures of pyrrhotites in basalts by multifractal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Xie


    Full Text Available Understanding and describing spatial arrangements of mineral particles and determining the mineral distribution structure are important to model the rock-forming process. Geometric properties of individual mineral particles can be estimated from thin sections, and different models have been proposed to quantify the spatial complexity of mineral arrangement. The Gejiu tin-polymetallic ore-forming district, located in Yunnan province, southwestern China, is chosen as the study area. The aim of this paper is to apply fractal and multifractal analysis to quantify distribution patterns of pyrrhotite particles from twenty-eight binary images obtained from seven basalt segments and then to discern the possible petrological formation environments of the basalts based on concentrations of trace elements. The areas and perimeters of pyrrhotite particles were measured for each image. Perimeter-area fractal analysis shows that the perimeter and area of pyrrhotite particles follow a power-law relationship, which implies the scale-invariance of the shapes of the pyrrhotites. Furthermore, the spatial variation of the pyrrhotite particles in space was characterized by multifractal analysis using the method of moments. The results show that the average values of the area-perimeter exponent (DAP, the width of the multifractal spectra (Δ(D(0−D(2 and Δ(D(qminD(qmax and the multifractality index (τ"(1 for the pyrrhotite particles reach their minimum in the second basalt segment, which implies that the spatial arrangement of pyrrhotite particles in Segment 2 is less heterogeneous. Geochemical trace element analysis results distinguish the second basalt segment sample from other basalt samples. In this aspect, the fractal and multifractal analysis may provide new insights into the quantitative assessment of mineral microstructures which may be closely associated with the petrogenesis as shown by the

  6. Elective culture of bacteria used in bioleaching on pyrrhotite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱冠周; 覃文庆; 蓝卓越; 黎维中


    Elective culture of bacteria on pyrrhotite was researched, and the selected bacteria were tested on bi-oleaching of marmatite and zinc sulfide ore. The results show that the microorganism cultured on pyrrhotite with va-rious S/Fe ratios is a mixed culture of thiobacillus ferrooxidans and thiobacillus thiooxidans, of which the integral ac-tivity and the oxidation capability of Fe2+ and S are enhanced. With the high Fe and low S content of pyrrhotite, the oxida-tion capacity of ferrous ion is improved; on the contrary, the oxidation capacity of sulfur is advanced. The bioleaching ca-pacity of bacteria cultured on marmatite is better than that of the bacteria cultivated by conventional methods.

  7. Flotation separation of marmatite from pyrrhotite using DMPS as depressant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Wei; LIU Run-qing; CAO Xue-feng; HU Yue-hua


    Mercapto organic compound DMPS was used as the depressant for separation of copper activated marmatite from pyrrhotite in the presence of butyl xanthate. The flotation tests of single mineral show that DMPS has strong depressing effect on pyrrhotite in the absence and presence of copper ion, but has activated effect on marmatite in the presence of copper ion. The floatability of marmatite is improved in the pH range of 2-12. The flotation test of mixture mineral shows that copper-activated marmatite can be separated efficiently from pyrrhotite using DMPS as depressant. Infrared adsorption spectra demonstrate that there are a number of function groups such as -SH and -SO3 in the molecular structure ofDMPS. Xanthate and DMPS compete in their adsorption on sulfide minerals.

  8. What causes the Besnus transition in monoclinic pyrrhotite? (United States)

    Gehring, A. U.; Koulialias, D.; Löffler, J. F.; Charilaou, M.


    Monoclinic 4C pyrrhotite (ideal formula Fe7S8) is a major magnetic remanence carrier in the Earth's crust and in extraterrestrial materials. Because of its low-temperature magnetic transition around 30 K also known as Besnus transition, this mineral phase is easily detectable in rock samples. An intrinsic origin of the Besnus transition due to a crystallographic change similar to that in the Verwey transition has generally been postulated (1). Although the physical properties of pyrrhotite have intensively been studied, the physics behind the pronounced change in magnetization at the low-temperature transition is still unresolved. To address this question we performed structural and magnetic analyses on a natural pyrrhotite single crystal (Fe6.6S8) from Auerbach, Germany (2,3). Chemical analysis, X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy show that this pyrrhotite consists of an intergrowth of 4C and an incommensurate 5C* superstructure that are polymorphs with different vacancy distributions. The occurrence of two superstructures is magnetically confirmed by symmetric inflection points in the hysteresis measurements above the transition at about 30 K. The disappearance of the inflection points and the associated change of the hysteresis parameters indicate that the two superstructures become embedded to form a unitary magnetic anisotropy system at the transition. This embedding of the 5C* into the 4C pyrrhotite at about 30 K is directly visible by the occurrence of additional 4-fold and 12-fold symmetry terms in magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic magnetic resistivity mesarurements, respectively. From this it follows that the Besnus transition in monoclinic pyrrhotite is an extrinsic magnetic phenomenon with respect to the 4C superstructure, i.e., a coupling effect, and therefore the physics behind it is in fact different from that of the well-known Verwey transition. (1) Rochette et al., The IRM Quarterly, 21, 1 (2011); (2) Charilaou et al., J

  9. Evolution of pyrrhotite oxidation in aggregates for concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira, I.


    Full Text Available Rocks containing pyrrhotite bands are sometimes used to produce concrete. These rocks oxidize and produce long-term expansive reactions that damage concrete structures, leading to important economic and risk related repercussions. The present study analyses several aspects that affect the oxidation process of the aggregate such as the existence of preferential paths for the entrance of the oxidizing agent and the conversion process of the chemical elements involved in the reaction. For that, host rock samples containing pyrrhotite were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results shows that the pyrrhotite appears in bands that create planes of weakness and present cracks that serve as preferential paths for the entrance of oxygen. Furthermore, a new representation is proposed for the oxidation process.Rocas con bandas de pirrotina han sido usadas para producir áridos destinados a la fabricación de hormigones. Las mismas son susceptible a un fenómeno de oxidación que a largo plazo produce la degradación del material, llevando a importantes repercusiones económica y en cuanto a la seguridad. El presente estudio evalúa la influencia de diferentes aspectos que pueden afectar dicho proceso de oxidación del agregado, tales como la existencia de caminos preferentes para la entrada del agente oxidante y los elementos químicos involucrados en la reacción. Para ello, muestras de roca con pirrotina han sido analizadas mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido. Los resultados indican que la pirrotina aparece en bandas que dan lugar a planos de debilidad y fisuración. Esas fisuras actúan como caminos preferentes a la entrada del oxígeno. Asimismo, con base en los análisis realizados se ha propuesto una nueva representación para el proceso de oxidación.

  10. Mechanism of pyrrhotite formation from ferric oxyhydroxide catalyst; Kokoritsu sekitan ekika shokubai no kaihatsu (Okishi suisankatetsu shokubai karano pyrrhotite seisei kyodo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazawa, K.; Koyama, T.; Kaneko, T.; Shimasaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    It is thought that iron-based catalysts for coal liquefaction exercise their catalytic activity by forming pyrrhotite (Fe(1-x)S). However, there are still a lot of unknown problems remained concerning the formation and agglomeration behaviors of pyrrhotite. These make a difficulty for improving the activity of iron-based catalysts. In this study, sulfiding behaviors of {alpha}-iron oxyhydroxide ({alpha}-FeOOH) and {gamma}-iron oxyhydroxide ({gamma}-FeOOH) were investigated to reveal the formation and agglomeration behaviors of pyrrhotite. It was found that pyrrhotite was easily converted from ferric oxyhydroxide catalysts having large specific surface areas at the sulfiding temperature below 250{degree}C, and fine crystallites of pyrrhotite were formed at the initial stage of sulfiding. Crystal growth of pyrrhotite at the sulfiding temperature over 350{degree}C depended on the catalyst forms. It was also found that smaller crystallites of pyrrhotite were formed from {gamma}-FeOOH than from {alpha}-FeOOH and amorphous iron oxyhydroxide. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Some rockmagnetic parameters for natural goethite, pyrrhotite and fine-grained hematite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, M.J.


    The increasing importance of sediments for paleomagnetic research prompted a study of rockmagnetic parameters of natural goethite, pyrrhotite and hematite. Grain-size dependent behaviour of such parameters is poorly known for goethite and pyrrhotite as well as for fine-grained hematite. Data of

  12. Some rockmagnetic parameters for natural goethite, pyrrhotite and fine-grained hematite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, M.J.


    The increasing importance of sediments for paleomagnetic research prompted a study of rockmagnetic parameters of natural goethite, pyrrhotite and hematite. Grain-size dependent behaviour of such parameters is poorly known for goethite and pyrrhotite as well as for fine-grained hematite. Data of

  13. Unusual shape of pyrrhotite inclusions in scapolite of igneous rocks from the southernern Urals (United States)

    Korinevsky, V. G.; Korinevsky, E. V.


    The unique igneous rock (scapolite-diopside gabbro) from the Ilmeny Mountains in the southern Urals is described. Gabbro fills a segment of dike 1.3 m thick that cuts through calcite-dolomite carbonatite. Medium-grain pyroxenite with scapolite that occurs at selvages gradually passes to scapolite-bearing gabbro in the central part of the dike. Scapolite crystals display surfaces of concurrent growth, which are evidence of their magmatic origin. Scapolite (Me 63-70%) contains numerous pyrrhotite inclusions as platelets 0.001 mm thick oriented parallel to the cleavage plane {100}. The calculated pyrrhotite formula is consistent with its stoichiometry (Fe1-xS). The morphology of the platelets (hexagonal sections) and their optical properties indicate a hexagonal symmetry of pyrrhotite. As follows from the insignificant difference between scapolite grains with and without pyrrhotite inclusions, scapolite and pyrrhotite should be regarded as products of synchronous magmatic melt crystallization.

  14. Bio-oxidation of pyrite, chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper deals with the bio-oxidation processes by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans of pyrite, chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite. Our experimental results show distinctive bio-oxidation characteristics for the three sulfide minerals. In the presence of A. ferrooxidans, the sulfide oxidation rates generally decrease in the order of pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite and pyrite. The pH during bio-oxidation of pyrite tends to decrease as a whole, whereas a rise-fall pattern was recorded for both chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite in their pH variations. No deposition was observed during the bio-oxidation of pyrite, suggesting a possible link to lower pH value in the process. However, large amounts of jarosite and element sulfur were determined in the bio-oxidation processes of chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite. A. ferrooxidans individuals were found directly as attachments to erosion pits on the smooth surface of pyrite. The erosion pits are similar to the bacterium in shape and length, and thus are probably products of dissolution of organic acid secreted by the cells on the mineral surface. More complicatedly, biofilm exists on the surfaces of chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite. This type of structured community of A. ferrooxidans is enclosed in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and covered with the deposition generated in the bio-oxidation processes of chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite. Different bio-oxidation processes of pyrite, chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite may be linked mainly to characteristics of individual minerals and the pH in the reaction solution of the bio-oxidation system.

  15. Pyrrhotite mineralization as a search criterion for sulfide deposits at sediment-covered spreading centers (United States)

    Bogdanova, O. Yu.; Lein, A. Yu.; Dara, O. M.; Ozhogina, E. G.; Lisitzin, A. P.


    Pyrrhotite ores forming the hydrothermal vents of the Hydrothermal Hills in the Southern Trough of the Guaymas depression were studied. A series of features pointing to the occurrence of surface and buried sulfide deposits of pyrrhotite mineralization was revealed: the presence of pyrrhotite associations to hydrocarbons of oil series; low concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Pb; the enrichment of sulfur of pyrrhotite and hydrogen sulfide of hydrothermal solutions in heavy 34S isotope by 5-7%; and the heavy isotope composition of carbon in naphthoid compounds. The results obtained allow one to suggest searching for large sulfide deposits at active rifts of high spreading and sedimentation rates, i.e., at near-continental rifts of the humid zone of avalanche sedimentation.

  16. Mechanical investigation of U(VI) on pyrrhotite by batch, EXAFS and modeling techniques. (United States)

    Liu, Haibo; Zhu, Yuke; Xu, Bin; Li, Ping; Sun, Yubing; Chen, Tianhu


    The interaction mechanism of U(VI) on pyrrhotite was demonstrated by batch, spectroscopic and modeling techniques. Pyrite was selected as control group in this study. The removal of U(VI) on pyrite and pyrrhotite significantly decreased with increasing ionic strength from 0.001 to 0.1mol/L at pH 2.0-6.0, whereas the no effect of ionic strength was observed at pH >6.0. The maximum removal capacity of U(VI) on pyrite and pyrrhotite calculated from Langmuir model was 10.20 and 21.34mgg(-1) at pH 4.0 and 333K, respectively. The XPS analysis indicated the U(VI) was primarily adsorbed on pyrrhotite and pyrite and then approximately 15.5 and 9.8% of U(VI) were reduced to U(IV) by pyrrhotite and pyrite after 20 days, respectively. Based on the XANES analysis, the adsorption edge of uranium-containing pyrrhotite located between U(IV)O2(s) and U(VI)O2(2+) spectra. The EXAFS analysis demonstrated the inner-sphere surface complexation of U(VI) on pyrrhotite due to the occurrence of U-S shell, whereas the U-U shell revealed the reductive co-precipitates of U(VI) on pyrrhotite/pyrite with increasing reaction times. The surface complexation modeling showed that outer- and inner-surface complexation dominated the U(VI) removal at pH5.0, respectively. The findings presented herein play a crucial role in the removal of radionuclides on iron sulfide in environmental cleanup applications.

  17. Mineralogical change and self-reversed magnetizations in pyrrhotite resulting from partial oxidation; geophysical implications (United States)

    Bina, Mansour; Daly, Lucien


    Low-field thermomagnetic studies performed on natural and synthetic pyrrhotite samples showed that a very low oxygen fugacity is already sufficient to start the transformation into magnetite at 500°C. The quantity of magnetite produced is a function of the oxidation time during which the temperature is maintained. The remanent magnetization acquired by the magnetite during its formation in the applied field is a chemical remanent magnetization (CRM). In the case of partial oxidation, the close coexistence of pyrrhotite and magnetite in a single grain may produce a self-reversed thermoremanent magnetization in pyrrhotite upon cooling in zero field. If the initial pyrrhotite is hexagonal, oxidation is necessary to obtain the transformation into the monoclinic variety, which may also show the self-reversed TRM. In contrast to the natural samples, in synthetic pyrrhotite, the magnetite produced by oxidation carries a CRM, but shows no self-reversal upon cooling to room temperature. A model for a self-reversal and structural change processes following oxidation is presented in which the size and the shape of pyrrhotite grains play an important role. The consequences for palaeomagnetism and magnetic anomaly interpretation are discussed.

  18. Pyrite-pyrrhotite intergrowths in calcite marble from Bistriški Vintgar, Slovenia (United States)

    Zavašnik, J.


    Roman marble quarry in Bistrica gorge in southern Pohorje Mt. (north-eastern Slovenia) is situated in a 20 m thick lens of layered marble, at the contact zone between granodiorite and metamorphites. Grey and yellowish non-homogenous calcite marble is heavily included by mica, quartz, feldspars, zoisite, pyrite and amphiboles. In the present research, we have studied numerous pyrite (FeS2) crystals associated with yellowish-bronze non-stoichiometric pyrrhotite (Fe1-xS), not previously reported from this locality. SEM investigation revealed unusual sequence of crystallisation: primary skeletal pyrrhotite matrix is sparsely overgrown by well-crystalline pyrite, both being overgrown by smaller, well-developed hexagonal pyrrhotite crystals of the second generation. With TEM we identify the pyrrhotite as 5T-Fe1-xS phase, where x is about 0.1 and is equivalent to Fe9S10. The pyrite-pyrrhotite coexistence allows us a construction of fO2-pH diagram of stability fields, which reflects geochemical conditions at the time of marble re-crystallisation.

  19. Magnetic properties of nanocrystalline pyrrhotite prepared by high-energy milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balaz, P.; Godocikova, E.; Alacova, A.;


    The nanocrystalline pyrrhotite was prepared by high-energy milling of lead sulphide with elemental Fe acting as reducing element. X-ray diffractometry, Mossbauer spectroscopy and VSM magnetometry were used to determine the properties of nanocrystalline iron sulphide prepared by the corresponding...... mechanochemical reaction. Pyrrhotite Fe1-xS together with the residual Fe metal were identified by the X-ray diffractometry. The kinetic studies performed by Mossbauer spectroscopy and VSM magnetometry allowed us to follow in more details the progress of the nanocrystalline magnetic phase formation during...... the milling....

  20. Variable defect structures cause the magnetic low-temperature transition in natural monoclinic pyrrhotite (United States)

    Koulialias, D.; Kind, J.; Charilaou, M.; Weidler, P. G.; Löffler, J. F.; Gehring, A. U.


    Non-stoichiometric monoclinic 4C pyrrhotite (Fe7S8) is a major magnetic remanence carrier in the Earth's crust and in extraterrestrial materials. Because of its low-temperature magnetic transition around 30 K also known as Besnus transition, which is considered to be an intrinsic property, this mineral phase is easily detectable in natural samples. Although the physical properties of pyrrhotite have intensively been studied, the mechanism behind the pronounced change in magnetization at the low-temperature transition is still debated. Here we report magnetization experiments on a pyrrhotite crystal (Fe6.6S8) that consists of a 4C and an incommensurate 5C* superstructure that are different in their defect structure. The occurrence of two superstructures is magnetically confirmed by symmetric inflection points in hysteresis measurements above the transition at about 30 K. The disappearance of the inflection points and the associated change of the hysteresis parameters indicate that the two superstructures become strongly coupled to form a unitary magnetic anisotropy system at the transition. From this it follows that the Besnus transition in monoclinic pyrrhotite is an extrinsic magnetic phenomenon with respect to the 4C superstructure and therefore the physics behind it is in fact different from that of the well-known Verwey transition.

  1. Low-temperature magnetic study of naturally and experimentally shocked pyrrhotite (United States)

    Mang, C.; Kontny, A. M.; Hecht, L.


    The most intriguing observation from the suevite unit of the 35 Ma old Chesapeake Bay impact structure (CBIS), Virginia, USA, is the occurrence of "shocked pyrrhotite", which might provide clues for a better understanding of the acquisition of shock-induced remagnetization during an impact event. A large range of differently strong deformed and melted components are mixed in the suevite and maximum shock pressures up to 35 GPa are reported (Wittmann et al. 2009). Pyrrhotite occurs as grains and grain clusters within the suevite matrix and rarely in melt fragments, and abundant lattice defects in pyrrhotite prove a shock-induced deformation. The shocked mineral is characterized by a significant loss of iron and the stoichiometric formula lies between Fe0.808S and Fe0.811S. This composition falls significantly below the Fe/S ratio of regular pyrrhotite (Fe>0.875) and is similar to the one of smythite (Fe9S11). The Curie temperature (TC) is above that of the ferrimagnetic 4C modification (320°C) and lies between 350 and 365°C. However, a transition at 30 K (Rochette et al. 1990), visible in low temperature remanence curves, confirms the presence of ferrimagnetic monoclinic 4C pyrrhotite.The present work aims at the question if all these different features observed in the natural pyrrhotite from the CBIS suevite are impact-related. Therefore we experimentally shocked a pyrrhotite ore from the Cerro de Pasco mine, Peru at 3, 5, 8, 20 and 30 GPa using a high pressure gun and high explosive devices. The obtained samples have been investigated by low-temperature AC susceptibility and remanence measurements (LT). In addition, we determined TC using AC susceptibility as function of temperature. LT experiments of the pyrrhotite ore unfortunately do not only show magnetic transition temperatures related to pure pyrrhotite but additionally of accessory magnetic mineral phases like magnetite (Fe3O4) and pyrophanite (MnTiO3). The contribution of those phases makes especially

  2. Bioleaching of sphalerite by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans cultured in 9K medium modified with pyrrhotite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Song; QIU Guan-zhou; QIN Wen-qing; LAN Zhuo-yue


    Elective culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans in 9K medium modified with pyrrhotite was studied. Bioleaching of flotation concentrate of sphalerite by the selected bacteria was carried out. The results show that the microorganisms cultured by pyrrhotite are a mixture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, of which the capability to oxidize ferrous to ferric irons is enhanced by the high mass ratio of Fe to S in pyrrhotite. Three pyrrhotite samples were separated into various parts with corresponding S/Fe ratios by magnetic separation and were used to culture the elective bacteria as the substrate. The association of the cultures could provide a more rapid and complete oxidation of sphalerite than that of bacteria cultivated by conventional methods.

  3. One-step disposal of Cr (Ⅵ)-bearing wastewater by natural pyrrhotite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Cr(Ⅵ)-bearing wastewater can be treated by natural pyrrhotite which is used for reductant to reduce Cr(Ⅵ) and precipitant to precipitate Cr(Ⅲ) simultaneously. The disposal products can be divided into three parts in the beakers,namely supernatant in the upper part,the yellowish colloidal precipitates in the middle part and the pyrrhotite in the lower part. The content of total Cr=Cr(Ⅵ)+Cr(Ⅲ) in the supernatant liquid is 0.06 mg/L,which is lower than 1.5 mg/L of the discharge standard of China and near to 0.05 mg/L of the standard of potable water. This one-step disposal composing of both reduction and precipitation which is traditionally divided into two independent steps called reducing technology and precipitating technology respectively. The new method is of obvious economic advantage and favourable to decreasing surplus mud derived from adding Ca(OH)2 to precipitate Cr(Ⅲ) traditionally so as to avoid recontamination. In fact,sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) used in disposal of Cr(Ⅵ) was traditionally produced from natural mineral of pyrrhotite (FeS). One molecule of FeS is 4 times more than that of Na2SO3 from a view point of rational use of mineral resources. Therefore the prospective of application of the one-step disposal of Cr(Ⅵ) method is full of promise.

  4. Influence of Initial Texture, Temperature and Total Strain on the Texture Development of Polycrystalline Pyrrhotite Ores in Deformation Experiments


    Niederschlag, Elke; Siemes, Heinrich


    The development of the crystallographic preferred orientation (texture) of polycrystalline pyrrhotite from Sullivan mine, Canada, and Cerro de Pasco, Peru was determined by neutron texture analyses before and after experimental deformation. The pyrrhotite ore from Sullivan has an initial texture with a distinct c-axis maximum perpendicular to the foliation whereas the ore from Cerro de Pasco shows a weak and moreover inhomogeneous texture within the specimen.The deformation texture and deform...

  5. Low-temperature magnetic properties of monoclinic pyrrhotite with particular relevance to the Besnus transition (United States)

    Volk, Michael W. R.; Gilder, Stuart A.; Feinberg, Joshua M.


    Monoclinic pyrrhotite (Fe7S8) owes its ferrimagnetism to an ordered array of Fe vacancies. Its magnetic properties change markedly around 30 K, in what is known as the Besnus transition. Plausible explanations for the Besnus transition are either due to changes in crystalline anisotropy from a transformation in crystal symmetry or from the establishment of a two-phase system with magnetic interaction between the two phases. To help resolve this discrepancy, we measured hysteresis loops every 5° and backfield curves every 10° in the basal plane of an oriented single crystal of monoclinic pyrrhotite at 300 K and every 2 K from 50 K through the Besnus transition until 20 K. Between 50 and 30 K, hysteresis loops possess double inflections between crystallographic a-axes and only a single inflection parallel to the a-axes. Magnetization energy calculations and relative differences of the loops show a sixfold symmetry in this temperature range. We propose that the inflections stem from magnetic axis switching, which is both field and temperature dependent, in a manner somewhat analogous to an isotropic point where magnetocrystalline constants change their sign. The Besnus transition is best characterized by changes in magnetic remanence and coercivity over a 6° temperature span (28-34 K) with a maximum rate of change at 30 K. A surprising yet puzzling finding is that the coercivity ratio becomes less than unity below the transition when fourfold symmetry arises. Because the changes in magnetic parameters are linked to the crystal structure, we conclude the Besnus transition owes its origin to a distortion of the crystallographic axes below 30 K rather than an apparition of a two-phase system. An isothermal magnetization of natural pyrrhotite cycled from room temperature to successively lower temperatures through the Besnus transition decreases 2-4 times less than equivalent grain sizes of magnetite, with less than a 10 per cent loss in remanence between 300 and 150 K

  6. Magnetic anomalies associated with abundant production of pyrrhotite in a sulfide deposit in the Okinawa Trough, Japan (United States)

    Honsho, Chie; Yamazaki, Toshitsugu; Ura, Tamaki; Okino, Kyoko; Morozumi, Haruhisa; Ueda, Satoshi


    We report here results from a deep-sea magnetic survey using an autonomous underwater vehicle over the Hakurei hydrothermal site, in the middle Okinawa Trough. Magnetic inversion revealed that the Hakurei site is associated with well-defined high-magnetization zones distributed within a broad low-magnetization zone. Results from rock magnetic measurements, performed on sulfide ore samples obtained by drilling, showed that some samples possessed extremely high natural remanent magnetization (NRM) (as much as 6.8-953.0 A/m), although most of the measured samples had much lower NRM. These high-NRM samples were characterized by high Königsberger ratios (101-103), indicating much larger NRM than induced magnetization, and contained pyrrhotite as the only magnetic mineral. This suggests that NRM carried by pyrrhotite is the source of the observed magnetic anomalies. The wide range of NRM intensity was considered to be due to a highly heterogeneous distribution of pyrrhotite, because pyrrhotite was commonly identified in both the high-NRM and low-NRM samples. Pyrrhotite production may have been occasionally drastically increased, with highly magnetic ores formed as a result. Rapid burial of active vents may result in the creation of an extensive reducing environment under the seafloor, which is favorable to pyrrhotite production, and may also prevent oxidation of pyrrhotite by isolating it from seawater. Because the magnetization intensity of sulfide ores was highly variable, it would not be straightforward to estimate the quantity of ore deposits from the magnetic anomalies. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates the usefulness of magnetic surveys in detecting hydrothermal deposits.

  7. Ferric Sulfate Leaching of Pyrrhotite Tailings between 30 to 55 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Samadifard


    Full Text Available Mine tailings present major environmental issues in the mining industry. However due to the depletion of high-grade sulfide ores for metal recovery, tailings could also be a potential resource for certain valuable metals. The present study investigates the potential to recover nickel from pyrrhotite tailings. Leaching tests were performed in acidic ferric sulfate media with 0.14 wt % solids to keep the ferric concentration essentially constant. The temperature was varied between 30 and 55 °C, and the ferric concentration was in a range 0.02–0.3 M. The results showed that both temperature and ferric sulfate concentration had significant effects on the nickel extraction kinetics. The shrinking core model (SCM was applied to the nickel extraction data. The rate controlling step was found to be product layer diffusion. The Arrhenius plot yielded an activation energy of Ea = 62.12 kJ/mol based on apparent reaction rates obtained by the SCM. The reaction order with respect to ferric ion was found to be 1 at the high concentration range. SEM images of partially leached tailings confirmed the presence of elemental sulfur around the pyrrhotite particles, which was responsible for the observed non-linear leaching kinetics (diffusion control.

  8. Activation of persulfates by natural magnetic pyrrhotite for water disinfection: Efficiency, mechanisms, and stability. (United States)

    Xia, Dehua; Li, Yan; Huang, Guocheng; Yin, Ran; An, Taicheng; Li, Guiying; Zhao, Huijun; Lu, Anhuai; Wong, Po Keung


    This study introduces natural occurring magnetic pyrrhotite (NP) as an environmentally friendly, easy available, and cost-effective alternative catalyst to activate persulfate (PS) of controlling microbial water contaminants. The E. coli K-12 inactivation kinetics observed in batch experiments was well described with first-order reaction. The optimum inactivation rate (k = 0.47 log/min) attained at a NP dose of 1 g/L and a PS dose of 1 mM, corresponding to total inactivation of 7 log10 cfu/mL cells within 15 min. Measured k increased > 2-fold when temperature increased from 20 to 50 °C; and > 4-fold when pH decreased from 9 to 3. Aerobic conditions were more beneficial to cell inactivation than anaerobic conditions due to more reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated. ROS responsible for the inactivation were identified to be SO4(-) > OH > H2O2 based on a positive scavenging test and in situ ROS determination. In situ characterization suggested that PS effectively bind to NP surface was likely to form charge transfer complex (≡Fe(II)⋯O3SOOSO3(-)), which mediated ROS generation and E. coli K-12 oxidation. The increased cell-envelope lesions consequently aggravated intracellular protein depletion and genome damage to cause definite bacterial death. The NP still maintained good physiochemical structure and stable activity even after 4 cycle. Moreover, NP/PS system also exhibited good E. coli K-12 inactivation efficiency in authentic water matrices like surface water and effluents of secondary wastewater.

  9. Heterogeneous histories of Ni-bearing pyrrhotite and pentlandite grains in the CI chondrites Orgueil and Alais (United States)

    Berger, Eve L.; Lauretta, Dante S.; Zega, Thomas J.; Keller, Lindsay P.


    Compositional and structural analyses of CI chondrite iron-nickel sulfide grains reveal heterogeneity both across and within the Orgueil and Alais meteorites. Orgueil grains with the 4C monoclinic pyrrhotite structure have variable metal-to-sulfur ratios and nickel contents. These range from the nominal ratio of 0.875 for Fe7S8 with atom% nickel to a high metal-to-sulfur ratio of 0.97 with 15 atom% nickel. These data reveal a previously unrecognized low-temperature solid solution between Fe7S8 and Fe5Ni3S8. We have also identified 6C monoclinic pyrrhotite among the Orgueil iron-nickel sulfides. The occurrence of pentlandite in Orgueil is confirmed for the first time crystallographically. In contrast, sulfide grains in Alais do not show the same spread in composition and structure; rather they represent the endmembers: low-Ni 4C monoclinic pyrrhotite and pentlandite. We investigate possible formation/alteration scenarios: crystallization from a melt, solid-state diffusion and/or exsolution, oxidation of pre-existing sulfides, and precipitation from a fluid. Sulfide grains are sensitive to alteration conditions; these data suggest that the structures and compositions of the sulfide assemblages in Orgueil and Alais were established by late-stage parent body aqueous alteration, followed in some cases by low-temperature solid-state processes. The samples record different alteration histories, with Orgueil experiencing lower equilibration temperatures (25 °C) than Alais (100-135 °C). We conclude that millimeter-scale heterogeneity existed in alteration conditions (e.g., temperature, pH, oxygen fugacity, sulfur fugacity, duration of alteration) on the parent body. This variability is evidenced by the diversity among sulfide grains located within millimeters of one another.

  10. [Selection of a community of acidochemolithotrophic microorganisms with a high oxidation rate of pyrrhotite- containing sulphide ore flotatation concentrate]. (United States)

    Kondrat'eva, T F; Pivovarova, T A; Bulaev, A G; Moshchanetskiĭ, P V; Tsaplina, I A; Grigor'eva, N V; Zhuravleva, A E; Melamud, V S; Belyĭ, A V


    A community of acidochemolithotrophic microorganisms with a high oxidation rate of pyrrhotite-containing sulphide ore flotation concentrate was selected. The Acidithiobacillus caldus OP-1 and Ferroplasma acidiphilum OP-2 cultures were identified to be dominating members. The presence of the Acidithio- bacillusferrooxidans OP-3, Leptospirillumferriphilum OP-4, and Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans OP-5 cultures in the community's composition was also mentioned. The analysis results of solid residues of the process showed a greater elemental sulfur oxidation level and gold recovery when the initial pH value in tank I was maintained at a level of 1.8-2.0 (90.5%) rather than 1.6-1.8 (86.3%).

  11. Controls on Weathering of Pyrrhotite in a Low-Sulfide, Granitic Mine-Waste Rock in the Canadian Arctic (United States)

    Langman, J. B.; Holland, S.; Sinclair, S.; Blowes, D.


    Increased environmental risk is incurred with expansion of mineral extraction in the Arctic. A greater understanding of geochemical processes associated with hard-rock mining in this cold climate is needed to evaluate and mitigate these risks. A laboratory and in-situ experiment was conducted to examine mineral weathering and the generation of acid rock drainage in a low-sulfide, run-of-mine waste rock in an Arctic climate. Rock with different concentrations of sulfides (primarily pyrrhotite [Fe7S8] containing small amounts of Co and Ni) and carbonates were weathered in the laboratory and in-situ, large-scale test piles to examine leachate composition and mineral weathering. The relatively larger sulfide-containing rock produced sufficient acid to overcome carbonate buffering and produced a declining pH environment with concomitant release of SO4, Fe, Co, and Ni. Following carbonate consumption, aluminosilicate buffering stabilized the pH above 4 until a reduction in acid generation. Results from the laboratory experiment assisted in determining that after consumption of 1.6 percent of the total sulfide, the larger sulfide-concentration test pile likely is at an internal steady-state or maximal weathering rate after seven years of precipitation input and weathering that is controlled by an annual freeze-thaw cycle. Further weathering of the test pile should be driven by external factors of temperature and precipitation in this Arctic, semi-arid region instead of internal factors of wetting and non-equilibrium buffering. It is predicted that maximal weathering will continue until at least 20 percent of the total sulfide is consumed. Using the identified evolution of sulfide consumption in this Arctic climate, a variable rate factor can now be assessed for the possible early evolution and maximal weathering of larger scale waste-rock piles and seasonal differences because of changes in the volume of a waste-rock pile undergoing active weathering due to the freeze

  12. Anisotropies of field-dependent in-phase and out-of-phase magnetic susceptibilities of some pyrrhotite-bearing rocks (United States)

    Hrouda, Frantisek; Chadima, Martin; Jezek, Josef


    Pyrrhotite shows strong and non-linear variations of both the in-phase and out-of-phase magnetic susceptibilities with magnetizing field unlike to magnetite and paramagnetic minerals whose susceptibility is field independent if measured in low fields. Consequently, the magnetic sub-fabric of pyrrhotite unaffected by magnetite/paramagnetics can be directly investigated either through the anisotropy of field-dependent in-phase susceptibility (hdAMS) or through the anisotropy of out-of-phase susceptibility (opAMS). If the driving fields used for the susceptibility measurement are really low, within the range of validity of the Rayleigh Law, both the field-dependent component of the hdAMS and the opAMS are represented by the field-independent second rank Rayleigh Tensor. The determination of the Rayleigh Tensor via hdAMS requires the AMS measurements in several fields within the Rayleigh Law range, while in the determination of the Rayleigh Tensor via opAMS the measurement in one field is sufficient. It should be noted that if the AMS is measured by the KLY5 Kappabridge, the opAMS is measured simultaneously with standard in-phase AMS (ipAMS) during one measuring process. The Rayleigh Tensors determined by the above two methods should be more or less identical provided that the opAMS of pyrrhotite is dominantly due to weak field hysteresis, virtually unaffected by electrical eddy currents or viscous relaxation. In a collection of various pyrrhotite-bearing rocks, both the hdAMS and opAMS were investigated using the KLY5 Kappabridge and the correlations between the Rayleigh Tensors determined by the above two methods were made in terms of the anisotropy degree, shape parameter, and the orientations of principal directions. Reasonable correlations were found indicating that the pyrrhotite opAMS is dominantly due to weak field hysteresis. As the opAMS is measured automatically and simultaneously with standard ipAMS, the advantage of the opAMS in the determination of the

  13. Acquisition d'aimantations thermorémanentes partielles successives par la pyrrhotite monodomaine lors du refroidissement de la Zone dauphinoise interne (Alpes occidentales, France) (United States)

    Crouzet, Christian; Rochette, Pierre; Ménard, Gilles; Prévot, Michel


    The magnetization of the marls and marly limestones from the internal part of the Dauphinoise zone is carried by monoclinic pyrrhotite. Our experiments show the equality of blocking and unblocking temperatures which suggests that magnetic grains are single domain. Thermal demagnetization analysis shows the presence of colinear components of opposite polarity. They are interpreted as partial thermoremanent magnetizations acquired during different polarity periods of the geomagnetic field at the time of the slow cooling of the studied area.

  14. Magnetic characterization of non-ideal single-domain monoclinic pyrrhotite and its demagnetization under hydrostatic pressure up to 2 GPa with implications for impact demagnetization (United States)

    Bezaeva, Natalia S.; Chareev, Dmitriy A.; Rochette, Pierre; Kars, Myriam; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Feinberg, Joshua M.; Sadykov, Ravil A.; Kuzina, Dilyara M.; Axenov, Sergey N.


    Here we present a comprehensive magnetic characterization of synthesized non-ideal single-domain (SD) monoclinic pyrrhotite (Fe7S8). The samples were in the form of a powder and a powder dispersed in epoxy. "Non-ideal" refers to a powder fraction of predominantly SD size with a minor contribution of small pseudo-single-domain grains; such non-ideal SD pyrrhotite was found to be a remanence carrier in several types of meteorites (carbonaceous chondrites, SNC…), which justifies the usage of synthetic compositions as analogous to natural samples. Data were collected from 5 to 633 K and include low-field magnetic susceptibility (χ0), thermomagnetic curves, major hysteresis loops, back-field remanence demagnetization curves, first-order reversal curves (FORCs), alternating field and pressure demagnetization of saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM), low temperature data (such as zero-field-cooled and field-cooled remanence datasets together with room temperature SIRM cooling-warming cycles) as well as XRD and Mössbauer spectra. The characteristic Besnus transition is observed at ∼33 K. FORC diagrams indicate interacting SD grains. The application of hydrostatic pressure up to 2 GPa using nonmagnetic high-pressure cells resulted in the demagnetization of the sample by 32-38%. Repeated cycling from 1.8 GPa to atmospheric pressure and back resulted in a total remanence decrease of 44% (after 3 cycles). Pressure demagnetization experiments have important implications for meteorite paleomagnetism and suggest that some published paleointensities of meteorites with non-ideal SD monoclinic pyrrhotite as remanence carrier may be lower limits because shock demagnetization was not accounted for.

  15. [Effect of temperature on the rate of oxidation of pyrrhotite-rich sulfide ore flotation concentrate and the structure of the acidophilic chemolithoautotrophic microbial community]. (United States)

    Moshchanetskii, P V; Pivovarova, T A; Belyi, A V; Kondrat'eva, T F


    Oxidation of flotation concentrate of a pyrrhotite-rich sulfide ore by acidophilic chemolithoautotrophic microbial communities at 35, 40, and 45 degrees C was investigated. According to the physicochemical parameters of the liquid phase of the pulp, as well as the results of analysis of the solid residue after biooxidation and cyanidation, the community developed at 40 degrees C exhibited the highest rate of oxidation. The degree of gold recovery at 35, 40, and 45 degrees C was 89.34, 94.59, and 83.25%, respectively. At 40 degrees C, the highest number of microbial cells (6.01 x 10(9) cells/mL) was observed. While temperature had very little effect on the species composition of microbial communities, except for the absence of Leptospirillum ferriphilum at 35 degrees C, the shares of individual species in the communities varied with temperature. Relatively high numbers of Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans, the organism oxidizing iron and elemental sulfur at higher rates than other acidophilic chemolithotrophic species, were observed at 40 degrees C.

  16. Research on Application of Tailing with Pyrrhotite in Production of Portland Clinker%含磁黄铁矿尾矿在硅酸盐水泥中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐迅; 齐砚勇


    The aim of the research is that using tailing with pyrrhotite to produce Portland clinker and solidify S element in cement. It is shown that the copper tailing containing pyrrhotite in Sudbury has a wide composition scope producing Portland clinker and the minerals crystal in clinker is perfect and wellbuilt. Setting time of clinker is normal, the early strength of that is high and later strength of that increases steadily. S2- of pyrrhotitein tailing was solidified as SO42- during sintering process of clinker. At 1000 ℃ the solidification quantity reaches maximum. The best proportion of tailing in industrial production is 3%.%本实验旨在利用含磁黄铁矿尾矿生产硅酸盐水泥熟料,将有害元素硫固化在水泥中.结果表明,该尾矿可在较宽的组成范围内形成硅酸盐水泥熟料.水泥熟料凝结时间正常,早期强度较高,后期稳定增长.尾矿中所含的S2在水泥熟料煅烧过程中以SO42-形式固化在水泥熟料中,在1000℃左右固硫量最大.生产实际中以掺入3%尾矿配料为佳.

  17. The use of mixed pyrrhotite/pyrite catalysts for co-liquefaction of coal and waste rubber tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadyburjor, D.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Sharma, R.K. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others


    The overall objective of this research program is to determine the optimum processing conditions for tire/coal co-liquefaction. The catalysts used will be a ferric-sulfide-based materials, as well as promising catalysts from other consortium laboratories. The intent here is to achieve the maximum coal+tire conversion at the mildest conditions of temperature and pressure. Specific objectives include an investigation of the effects of time, temperature, pressure, catalyst and co-solvent on the conversion and product slate of the co-liquefaction. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  18. Interpretation of low-temperature data part 4: The low-temperature magnetic transition of monoclinic pyrrhotite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rochette, P.; Fillion, G.; Dekkers, M.J.


    Use of low temperature (LT) magnetic transitions to identify magnetic minerals that carry a remanence – either natural or laboratory-induced – at room temperature, is a classic tool in rock magnetism (e.g. Nagata et al., 1964; Kosterov, 2007). This particularly applies to magnetite (Verwey transitio

  19. Ferromagnetic resonance characterization of greigite (Fe3S4), monoclinic pyrrhotite (Fe7S8) and non-interacting titanomagnetite (Fe3-xTixO4)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, L.; Winklhofer, M.; Roberts, A.P.; Dekkers, M.J.; Horng, C.-S.; Hu, L.; Chen, Q.


    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy has become an increasingly useful tool for studying the magnetic properties of natural samples. Magnetite (Fe3O4) is the only magnetic mineral that has been well characterized using FMR. This limits the wider use of FMR in rock magnetism and

  20. Magnetic mineralogy of the Hongqiling Cu-Ni sulphide deposit:Implications for ore genesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Pyrrhotite is one of the common ore minerals in Cu-Ni sulphide deposits, but only monoclinic pyrrhotite is ferromagnetic at room temperature. X-ray and EPA analyses reveal that most pyrrhotite forming sideronitic texture in the Hongqiling Cu-Ni sulphide deposit is monoclinic, but that in the massive ore is a mixture of monoclinic and hexagonal pyrrhotites. Differential thermal and magneticthermogravimetric analyses of massive ore indicate a magnetic transition and heat absorption at 323℃, suggesting that this temperature is the thermomagnetic and phase transition point of pyrrhotite. For massive pyrrhotite ores heated at 400℃ for 30 h and then quenched by cool water, the monoclinic pyrrhotite (mpo) transforms completely into the hexagonal pyrrhotite (hpo). However, all the pyrrhotites resulting from slow cooling of the sample in air are mpo. These results indicate that transformation between hpo and mpo depends upon the cooling rate. Therefore, massive ores in this deposit might have been formed via rapid cooling of ore melts. On the other hand, it is significant to study the effect of the ratio of the magnetite in total ores on the genesis of magmatic Cu-Ni suphide deposits.

  1. 广西某矿田磁黄铁矿的研究及其区别特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Naturally occurring hexagonal and monoclinie pyrrhotites have been recognized by X-ray diffraction analysis and DTA from an ore deposit in Guangxi. They are distinguishable from each other in magnetism, reflectivity, hardness and some other properties. A correct distinction between hexagonal and monoclinie pyrrhotites is of practical importance in prospecting and theoretical study.

  2. Iron-sulfide crystals in probe deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Karin; Frandsen, Flemming


    Iron-sulfides were observed in deposits collected on a probe inserted at the top of the furnace of a coal-fired power station in Denmark. The chemical composition of the iron-sulfides is equivalent to pyrrhotite (FeS). The pyrrhotites are present as crystals and, based on the shape of the crystals......, it was deduced that they were not deposited but instead grew within the deposit. The presence of unburned char particles within the deposits supports the concept that a reducing environment existed in the deposits. Two processes are proposed for explaining the existence of pyrrhotite crystals within a deposit...

  3. In-Situ Incubation of Iron-Sulfide Mineral in Seawater Reveals Colonization by Iron-Oxidizing Gammaproteobacteria and Zetaproteobacteria. (United States)

    Barco, R. A.; Ramírez, G. A.; Sylvan, J. B.; Edwards, K. J.


    Sulfide mineral precipitation occurs at mid-ocean ridge (MOR) spreading centers, both in the form of plume particles and massive sulfide structures. A common constituent of MOR sulfide mineral is pyrrhotite (Fe1-xS). This mineral was chosen as a substrate for in-situ incubation studies in the shallow waters of Catalina Islands, CA to investigate the colonization of iron-oxidizing bacteria. Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria largely dominated the bacterial community on pyrrhotite samples incubated in the water column. Pyrrhotite samples incubated at the sediment/water column interface showed more even dominance by Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Cultivations that originated from these pyrrhotite samples resulted in the enrichment of Zetaproteobacteria with either twisted-stalks (Mariprofundus) or sheath structures. Additionally, a candidate novel Gammaproteobacterium was isolated and shown to grow autotrophically via the oxidation of iron.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The selective dielectric heating of microwave energy to convert a portion of each pyrite particle to moderately magnetic pyrrhotite has been suggested to enhance the magnetic separation of inorganic sulfur from coal.The results for Mossbauer analyses show that the considerable amount of pyrrhotite produced during microwave irradiation,carrying with it some of non-magnetic pyrite(unconverted),ferrous sulfate,and troilite,is completely removed from coal after magnetic separation.The optimum desulfurization efficiency can be attained by appropriately controlling the irradiation time to maximize the amount of pyrrhotite formed pyrite decomposition.Excessive irradiation would be ddisadvantageous for improving magnetic separation due to the further decomposition of pyrrhotite to antiferromagnetic troilite.

  5. Alteration of Sulphides in the Rumuruti Chondrite La Paz Icefield (LAP) 031275 (United States)

    Steer, E. D.; Treiman, A. H.


    Pyrrhotite in LAP 03175 (R5) has altered to a fine-grained mineral mixture. New data (optical, chemical, and Raman) suggest the mixture includes violarite and tochilinite, but not (as suggested earlier) graphite, hematite, and/or jarosite.

  6. Mechanochemical activation of iron ore-based catalysts for the hydrogenation of brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, P.N.; Kuznetsova, L.I.; Chumakov, V.G.; Moiseeva, G.A. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Chemistry and Chemical Technology


    Genesis of pyrrhotite catalysts from different iron ore concentrates and pure iron oxides was investigated using the method of mechanochemical treatment in a planetary mill. The dispersion and fine crystalline structure of oxide and pyrrhotite particles were studied as the function of mechanical load, sulfiding temperature and mode of preparation. Methods for the preparation of high performance iron ore-based catalysts for brown coal hydrogenation have been developed. (orig.)

  7. Early mineralization at Cerro de Pasco (central Peru) revisited


    Rottier, Bertrand; Casanova, Vincent; Fontboté, Lluis; Kouzmanov, Kalin; Alvarez, Hugo; Bendezú, Ronner


    The large Cerro de Pasco Cordilleran base metal deposit in central Peru is located on the eastern margin of a Middle Miocene diatreme-dome complex. A striking characteristic is the presence of a N-S trending massive funnel-shape pyrite-quartz replacement ore body that contains pyrrhotite pipes grading outwards to lead-zinc replacement bodies, along the eastern contact of the diatreme-dome complex. Earlier workers interpreted the pyrrhotite pipes as postdating the pyritequartz body. This study...

  8. Geology, petrography, geochemistry, and genesis of sulfide-rich pods in the Lac des Iles palladium deposits, western Ontario, Canada (United States)

    Duran, Charley J.; Barnes, Sarah-Jane; Corkery, John T.


    The Lac des Iles Pd deposits are known for their Pd-rich sulfide-poor mineralization. However, previously undocumented sulfide-rich pods also occur within the intrusion that hosts the deposits. Given the complex magmatic and hydrothermal history of the mineralization at Lac des Iles, the sulfide-rich pods could have crystallized from magmatic sulfide liquids or precipitated from hydrothermal fluids. Sulfide-rich pods occur throughout the stratigraphy, in all rock types, and along comagmatic shear zones, and contain net-textured to massive sulfides. They can be divided into four main groups based on the variation in mineral assemblages: (1) pyrrhotite-pentlandite ± pyrite-chalcopyrite-magnetite-ilmenite; (2) chalcopyrite ± pyrrhotite-pentlandite-pyrite-magnetite-ilmenite; (3) pyrite ± pentlandite-chalcopyrite-pyrrhotite-magnetite-ilmenite; and (4) magnetite ± ilmenite-pyrrhotite-pentlandite-pyrite-chalcopyrite. Whole rock metal contents and S isotopic compositions do not change with the amount of pyrite present, except for slight enrichments in As and Bi. The presence of an essentially magmatic sulfide mineral assemblage (pyrrhotite-pentlandite ± chalcopyrite) with pentlandite exsolution flames in pyrrhotite in some pods suggests that the pods crystallized from magmatic sulfide liquids. The very low Cu contents of the pods suggests that they are mainly cumulates of monosulfide solid solution (MSS). We propose a model whereby sulfide liquids were concentrated into dilation zones prior to crystallizing cumulus MSS. Intermediate solid solution crystallized from the fractionated liquids at the edges of some pods leaving residual liquids enriched in Pt, Pd, Au, As, Bi, Sb, and Te. These residual liquids are no longer associated with the pods. During subsequent alteration, pyrite replaced MSS/pyrrhotite, but this did not affect the platinum-group element contents of the pods.

  9. Behavior of catalyst and mineral matter in coal liquefaction; Sekitan ekika hannochu no kobusshitsu to shokubai no kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, K.; Wang, J.; Tomita, A. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science


    Mineral matter in coals is important in various senses for coal liquefaction. It is possible that the catalytic activity is affected by the interaction between catalyst and mineral matter. Iron-based catalyst forms pyrrhotite in the process of liquefaction, but the interaction between it and mineral matter is not known in detail. In this study, the interaction between mineral matter and catalyst and the selective reaction between them were investigated. Tanito Harum coal was used for this study. This coal contains a slight amount of siderite and jarosite besides pyrite as iron compounds. Liquefaction samples were obtained from the 1 t/d NEDOL process PSU. The solid deposits in the reactor mainly contained pyrrhotite and quartz. A slight amount of kaolinite was observed, and pyrite was little remained. It was found that the catalyst (pyrrhotite) often coexisted with quartz, clay and calcite. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Redox-freezing and nucleation of diamond via magnetite formation in the Earth's mantle. (United States)

    Jacob, Dorrit E; Piazolo, Sandra; Schreiber, Anja; Trimby, Patrick


    Diamonds and their inclusions are unique probes into the deep Earth, tracking the deep carbon cycle to >800 km. Understanding the mechanisms of carbon mobilization and freezing is a prerequisite for quantifying the fluxes of carbon in the deep Earth. Here we show direct evidence for the formation of diamond by redox reactions involving FeNi sulfides. Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction identifies an arrested redox reaction from pyrrhotite to magnetite included in diamond. The magnetite corona shows coherent epitaxy with relict pyrrhotite and diamond, indicating that diamond nucleated on magnetite. Furthermore, structures inherited from h-Fe3O4 define a phase transformation at depths of 320-330 km, the base of the Kaapvaal lithosphere. The oxidation of pyrrhotite to magnetite is an important trigger of diamond precipitation in the upper mantle, explaining the presence of these phases in diamonds.

  11. Redox-freezing and nucleation of diamond via magnetite formation in the Earth's mantle (United States)

    Jacob, Dorrit E.; Piazolo, Sandra; Schreiber, Anja; Trimby, Patrick


    Diamonds and their inclusions are unique probes into the deep Earth, tracking the deep carbon cycle to >800 km. Understanding the mechanisms of carbon mobilization and freezing is a prerequisite for quantifying the fluxes of carbon in the deep Earth. Here we show direct evidence for the formation of diamond by redox reactions involving FeNi sulfides. Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction identifies an arrested redox reaction from pyrrhotite to magnetite included in diamond. The magnetite corona shows coherent epitaxy with relict pyrrhotite and diamond, indicating that diamond nucleated on magnetite. Furthermore, structures inherited from h-Fe3O4 define a phase transformation at depths of 320-330 km, the base of the Kaapvaal lithosphere. The oxidation of pyrrhotite to magnetite is an important trigger of diamond precipitation in the upper mantle, explaining the presence of these phases in diamonds.

  12. Relationship between microstructures and grain-scale trace element distribution in komatiite-hosted magmatic sulphide ores (United States)

    Vukmanovic, Zoja; Reddy, Steven M.; Godel, Bélinda; Barnes, Stephen J.; Fiorentini, Marco L.; Barnes, Sarah-Jane; Kilburn, Matthew R.


    Komatiite-hosted nickel sulphides from the Yilgarn Craton (Australia) consist of two main sulphide phases: pyrrhotite (Fe7S8) and pentlandite ((Fe,Ni)9S8); two minor sulphide phases: chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) and pyrite (FeS2) and trace arsenides. Samples of massive sulphides from three deposits with diverse deformation and metamorphic histories (the Silver Swan, Perseverance and Flying Fox deposits) have been studied by electron backscatter diffraction and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry. These ore bodies were selected to investigate the relationship between microstructures and mineral trace element chemistry in three dominant sulphide species in each deposit. In all three samples, pyrrhotite preserves a strong evidence of crystal plasticity relative to both pentlandite and pyrite. The trace element composition of pyrrhotite shows significant variation in specific elements (Pb, Bi and Ag). This variation correlates spatially with intragrain pyrrhotite microstructures, such as low angle and twin boundaries. Minor signatures of crystal plasticity in pyrite and pentlandite occur in the form of rare low angle boundaries (pentlandite) and mild lattice misorientation (pyrite). Trace element compositions of pentlandite and pyrite show no correlation with microstructures. Variations in pyrrhotite are interpreted as a result of intragrain diffusion during the syn- and post-deformation history of the deposit. Intragrain diffusion can occur either due to bulk diffusion, dislocation-impurity pair diffusion, or by "pipe diffusion", i.e. along fast diffusion pathways at high and low angle, and twin boundaries. This contribution examines three different diffusion models and suggests that dislocation-impurity pair diffusion and pipe diffusion are the most likely processes behind increased trace element concentration along the microstructures in pyrrhotite. The same phenomenon is observed in samples from three

  13. Sulfide assemblages in granulite xenoliths from Hannuoba Basalt, Hebei Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiuhua Xu; Yuling Xie; Xuelei Chu; Jianming Liu; Qian Mao


    Granulite xenoliths are important samples for understanding the forming and evolution of the crust. The granulite xenoliths enclosed in Cenozoic basalt of Hannuoba, Hebei Province, China, contain four types of sulfide assemblages: isolate rotundity enclosed sulfides, intergranular sulfides between minerals, secondary sulfide inclusions ranging in linear, and fissure-filling sulfides.Electron microprobe analysis shows that the components of sulfides are Ni-poor pyrrhotite with the molar ratios of (Ni+Co+Cu)/Fe less than 0.2. The molar ratios of (Fe+Cu+Co+Ni)/S are less than 0.875 of normal pyrrhotite, and are less than those of mantle xenoliths, reflecting a sulfur-saturated environment. Pyrrhotite in various occurrences contains some Au and Ag, with the averages of 0.19wt%-0.22wt% Au and 0.01 wt%-0.02wt% Ag, showing the gold mineralization related to the granulitization of low crust. Ni, Co and Cu have a normal correlation with S in pyrrhotite, indicating that heavy metal elements have a same source similar to sulfur because of the degasification of upper mantle.

  14. The metal-rich portions of the phase system Cu-Fe-Pd-S at 100°c, 900°c and 725°c

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup-Møller, Sven; Makovicky, Emil; Barnes, Sarah-Jane


    , bornite, Fe1-xS and iss (intermediate solid solution, Cabri, 1973) and Pd4S. Compositional data were obtained for the associations bornite-alloy-melt, pyrrhotite-alloy-melt and for immiscible Cu-rich sulphide melts. Partition coefficients for all three metals were derived for the association alloy...

  15. The metal-rich portions of the phase system Cu-Fe-Pd-S at 1000 degrees C, 900 degrees C and 725 degrees C: implications for mineralization in the Skaergaard intrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup-Møller, Sven; Makovicky, E.; Barnes, S.J.


    coexists with Cu-Fe-Pd alloys, bornite, Fe1-xS and iss (intermediate solid Solution, Cabri, 1973) and Pd4S. Compositional data were obtained for the associations bornite-alloy-melt, pyrrhotite-alloy-melt and for immiscible Cu-rich sulphide melts. partition coefficients for all three metals were derived...

  16. X-Ray Diffraction Study of L2005 AG17 (IDPs) by Using SR (United States)

    Ohsumi, K. O.; Hagiya, K. H.; Zolensky, M. E.


    X-ray diffraction study revealed the existence of magnetite and new type of pyrrhotite with the chemical formula of Fe0.56S in L2005 AG17. Considering the total chemical formula of Fe0.83S, residual iron in amorphous state might exist in this sample. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. 我国赣中XS铜钨矿床金属矿物标型特征研究及其实际意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Typomorphic characteristics of ore minerals are discussed from a theoretical approach,examplified by studies on wolframite,chalcopyrite,pyrite,pyrrhotite,marmatite,molybdenite,arsenopyrite,and cassiterite from XS coppertungsten deposit Valuable information can be obtained on ore genesis from studies on typomorphic characteristics in terms of chemical composition,physical property,morphology and crystal structure.

  18. Kinetic studies of sulfide mineral oxidation and xanthate adsorption (United States)

    Mendiratta, Neeraj K.


    Sulfide minerals are a major source of metals; however, certain sulfide minerals, such as pyrite and pyrrhotite, are less desirable. Froth flotation is a commonly used separation technique, which requires the use of several reagents to float and depress different sulfide minerals. Xanthate, a thiol collector, has gained immense usage in sulfide minerals flotation. However, some sulfides are naturally hydrophobic and may float without a collector. Iron sulfides, such as pyrite and pyrrhotite, are few of the most abundant minerals, yet economically insignificant. Their existence with other sulfide minerals leads to an inefficient separation process as well as environmental problems, such as acid mine drainage during mining and processing and SO 2 emissions during smelting process. A part of the present study is focused on understanding their behavior, which leads to undesired flotation and difficulties in separation. The major reasons for the undesired flotation are attributed to the collectorless hydrophobicity and the activation with heavy metal ions. To better understand the collectorless hydrophobicity of pyrite, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) of freshly fractured pyrite electrodes was used to study the oxidation and reduction of the mineral. The EIS results showed that the rate of reaction increases with oxidation and reduction. At moderate oxidizing potentials, the rate of reaction is too slow to replenish hydrophilic iron species leaving hydrophobic sulfur species on the surface. However, at higher potentials, iron species are replaced fast enough to depress its flotation. Effects of pH and polishing were also explored using EIS. Besides collectorless hydrophobicity, the activation of pyrrhotite with nickel ions and interaction with xanthate ions makes the separation more difficult. DETA and SO2 are commonly used as pyrrhotite depressants; however, the mechanism is not very well understood. Contact angle measurements, cyclic voltammetry and Tafel

  19. Environmental boundary and formation mechanism of different types of H2S corrosion products on pipeline steel (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Hui-xin; Shi, Feng-xian; Yang, Jian-wei; Hu, Li-hua; Lu, Min-xu


    To establish an adequate thermodynamic model for the mechanism of formation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) corrosion products, theoretical and experimental studies were combined in this work. The corrosion products of API X60 pipeline steel formed under different H2S corrosion conditions were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. A thermodynamic model was developed to clarify the environmental boundaries for the formation and transformation of different products. Presumably, a dividing line with a negative slope existed between mackinawite and pyrrhotite. Using experimental data presented in this study combined with previously published results, we validated the model to predict the formation of mackinawite and pyrrhotite on the basis of the laws of thermodynamics. The established relationship is expected to support the investigation of the H2S corrosion mechanism in the oil and gas industry.

  20. Investigation of impact materials around Barringer Meteor Crater by SEM-EDX and micro-PIXE techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzonyi, I. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Department of Electrostatic Accelerators, H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/C (Hungary)], E-mail:; Szoeor, Gy.; Rozsa, P. [Department of Mineralogy and Geology, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1 (Hungary); Pelicon, P.; Simcic, J. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Microanalytical Center, Jamova 39, P.P. 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Cserhati, C.; Daroczi, L. [Department of Solid State Physics, University of Debrecen, H-4032 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/b (Hungary); Kiss, A.Z. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Department of Electrostatic Accelerators, H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/C (Hungary)


    Impact materials collected at the Barringer Meteor Crater have been characterized by SEM-EDX and micro-PIXE techniques. Fine textural and true elemental images were created. As a main feature silica-bearing shell and an S-Fe-Ni-Cu core could be distinguished. Three different types of S-Fe-Ni-Cu systems were identified such as chalcopyrite, pentlandite and pyrrhotite.

  1. Apport de la géophysique, de l'hydrogéochimie et de la modélisation du transfert en DMA : projet de réhabilitation de la mine abandonnée de Kettara (région de Marrakech, Maroc)



    The Kettara site (Morocco) is an abandoned pyrrhotite ore mine in a semi-arid environment. The site contains more than 3 million tons of mine waste that were deposited on the surface without concern for environmental consequences. Tailings were stockpiled in a pond, in a dyke, and in piles over an area of approximately 16 ha and have generated acid mine drainage (AMD) for more than 29 years. Investigation results show that the hydrochemistry of water samples is characterized by the relatively...

  2. Hard X-ray photoelectron and X-ray absorption spectroscopy characterization of oxidized surfaces of iron sulfides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhlin, Yuri, E-mail: [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of sciences, Akademgorodok, 50/24, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Tomashevich, Yevgeny [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of sciences, Akademgorodok, 50/24, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Vorobyev, Sergey [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of sciences, Akademgorodok, 50/24, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Siberian Federal University, Svobodny pr. 79, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 (Russian Federation); Saikova, Svetlana [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny pr. 79, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 (Russian Federation); Romanchenko, Alexander [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of sciences, Akademgorodok, 50/24, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Félix, Roberto [Renewable Energy, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Lise-Meitner-Campus, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany)


    Highlights: • Pyrite and pyrrhotite in-air abraded and etched in aqueous Fe{sup 3+} solution were studied. • HAXPES (2 keV-6 keV) and Fe K-, S K-edge XANES (TEY and PFY mode) were measured. • Outer “polysulfide”, strongly S-excessive layers are no more than 1–4 nm thick. • “Metal-depleted” layers depend on the treatment and differ for pyrite and pyrrhotite. • Extended nearly-stoichiometric “defective” underlayers were detected using TEY XANES. - Abstract: Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) using an excitation energy range of 2 keV to 6 keV in combination with Fe K- and S K-edge XANES, measured simultaneously in total electron (TEY) and partial fluorescence yield (PFY) modes, have been applied to study near-surface regions of natural polycrystalline pyrite FeS{sub 2} and pyrrhotite Fe{sub 1−x}S before and after etching treatments in an acidic ferric chloride solution. It was found that the following near-surface regions are formed owing to the preferential release of iron from oxidized metal sulfide lattices: (i) a thin, no more than 1–4 nm in depth, outer layer containing polysulfide species, (ii) a layer exhibiting less pronounced stoichiometry deviations and low, if any, concentrations of polysulfide, the composition and dimensions of which vary for pyrite and pyrrhotite and depend on the chemical treatment, and (iii) an extended almost stoichiometric underlayer yielding modified TEY XANES spectra, probably, due to a higher content of defects. We suggest that the extended layered structure should heavily affect the near-surface electronic properties, and processes involving the surface and interfacial charge transfer.

  3. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd Isotope Systematics of Shergottite NWA 856: Crystallization Age and Implications for Alteration of Hot Desert SNC Meteorites (United States)

    Brandon, A. D.; Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Wiesmann, H.


    Nakhlite NWA 998 was discovered in Algeria in 2001, and is unique among the six known members of this group of Martian meteorites in containing significant modal orthopyroxene. Initial petrologic and isotopic data were reported by Irving et al. This 456 gram stone consists mainly of sub-calcic augite with subordinate olivine and minor orthopyroxene, titanomagnetite, pyrrhotite, chlorapatite, and intercumulus An(sub 35) plagioclase. We report here preliminary results of radiogenic isotopic analyses conducted on fragmental material from the main mass.

  4. Sulfiding behavior of iron based coal liquefaction catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikenaga, N.; Taniguchi, H.; Watanabe, A.; Suzuki, T. [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    In order to understand the transformation mechanisms of iron-sulfur catalyst systems to pyrrhotite, the iron catalysts ({gamma}-FeOOH, {alpha}-FeOOH, Fe(CO){sub 5} and Fe{sub 3}(CO){sub 12}) and sulfur compounds (S and H{sub 2}S) were treated at 150-420{degree}C with or without an activated carbon, and then subjected to XRD and XPS analyses. Pyrrhotite (Fe{sub 1-x}S) was the major phase above 200{degree}C in the XRD profiles of all iron-sulfur catalyst systems. However, the formation of pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) from {gamma}-FeOOH and {gamma}-FeOOH on the catalyst surface was observed at 150-325{degree}C by XPS analyses. This result seems to indicate that active species (Fe{sub 1-x}S) would be transformed through FeS{sub 2} as an intermediate, but iron carbonyl complexes were directly transformed into pyrrhotite without the formation of FeS{sub 2}. 28 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Electrochemical oxidation of pyrrhotute in aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Wen-qing; LI Quan; QIU Guan-zhou; XU Ben-jun


    The anodic surface oxidation of natural pyrrhotite in 0.3 mol/L KCl and HCl solution (pH 4. 0) and 0.1 mol/L Na2 B4O7 solution (pH 9.18) respectively was investigated by using cyclic voltammetry, Tafel plot, and chronoamperometry. In 0.3 mol/L KCl and HCl solution (pH 4.0), at potential less than 0.5 V(vs SHE), the production of anodic oxidation on pyrrhotite surface can not maintain a stable phase to form a passive film. In 0. 1 mol/L Na2B4 O7 solution (pH 9.18), when the electrode potential increases to more than 0.5 V (vs SHE), part of S is oxidized to sulfate, making the passive film somewhat porous, but elemental S and metal oxidates Fe(OH)3 still remain on the electrode surface, and the passive film can not be broken down totally. According to PARCalc Tafel analysis,the corresponding corrosion current density (J0) is 5.34 μA/cm2 , which is also the exchange current density of the oxidation reaction on pyrrhotite electrode surface in 0. 1 mol/L Na2B4O7 solution (pH 9.18). The electrochemical dynamics equation of the oxidation was determined.

  6. Late Quaternary climatic forcing on the terrigenous supply in the northern South China Sea: Input from magnetic studies (United States)

    Chen, Quan; Kissel, Catherine; Liu, Zhifei


    The detrital component of marine sediment is a powerful recorder of paleoenvironmental changes in a marginal sea such as the South China Sea. This is in particular valid for the magnetic fraction that is one of the key parameters for paleoenvironmental studies in the South China Sea, although poorly used so far. We report here on the analysis of the magnetic properties of a 50 m-long sedimentary sequence retrieved from the northern South China Sea, on the continental slope off the Pearl River mouth. Magnetic minerals with different coercivities (magnetite, pyrrhotite, and hematite) are mixed. The variations in relative content of these magnetic minerals illustrate influences of various external forcing mechanisms at different timescales. The pyrrhotite content exhibits a long-term increase, which is also observed in illite + chlorite content, indicating a continuous enhancement of supply from Taiwan most likely related to active Taiwan orogeny. Glacial-interglacial fluctuations are characterized by more magnetite and pyrrhotite with coarser silt and magnetic grains during glacials than interglacials. This is attributed to sea-level changes with the enormous continental shelf exposed during glacials, in turn affecting the sediment transport distance and pathway. On a shorter timescale, larger hematite inputs in fine-grained sediments coincide with precession minima. We suggest that this periodic hematite supply change is related to the eolian dust deposited at the studied site in addition to the fluvial and oceanic transported materials.

  7. Studies in coal liquefaction with application to the SRC and related processes. Quarterly report, May-July 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guin, J. A.; Curtis, C. W.; Tarrer, A. R.


    This report discusses a kinetic investigation of the Fe-S-H/sub 2/ system conducted as an outgrowth of current research in the SRC-I (solvent refined coal) process to better understand the effects of naturally occurring iron sulfides in coal hydrogenation and hydrodesulfurization. A total of twelve closed system reactions were carried out in which 48 to 60 mesh pyrite, in the presence of hydrogen gas, underwent transformation to 1C hexagonal pyrrhotite. Reaction temperatures were 350/sup 0/C and 400/sup 0/C with four sample runs at temperature. Initial pressure of hydrogen gas was 1250 psig (8617 KPa). A comparison of the results for each reaction series was evaluated with time and temperature as variables. The transformation rate of pyrite to pyrrhotite was found to increase over the range of reaction temperatures with the 400/sup 0/C samples showing the greatest amount of transformation per unit time. For the 375/sup 0/C and 400/sup 0/C runs pyrrhotite formation decreased after approximately 15 minutes of reaction time due to (1) reduced availability of pyrite, and (2) resistance to diffusion in the topochemical product layer.

  8. Platinum-group element concentrations in pyrite from the Main Sulfide Zone of the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe (United States)

    Piña, R.; Gervilla, F.; Barnes, S.-J.; Oberthür, T.; Lunar, R.


    The Main Sulfide Zone (MSZ) of the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe hosts the world's second largest resource of platinum-group elements (PGE) after the Bushveld Complex in South Africa. The sulfide assemblage of the MSZ comprises pyrrhotite, pentlandite, chalcopyrite, and minor pyrite. Recently, several studies have observed in a number of Ni-Cu-PGE ore deposits that pyrite may host significant amounts of PGE, particularly Pt and Rh. In this study, we have determined PGE and other trace element contents in pyrite from the Hartley, Ngezi, Unki, and Mimosa mines of the Great Dyke by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Based on the textures and PGE contents, two types of pyrite can be differentiated. Py1 occurs as individual euhedral or subhedral grains or clusters of crystals mostly within chalcopyrite and pentlandite, in some cases in the form of symplectitic intergrowths, and is PGE rich (up to 99 ppm Pt and 61 ppm Rh; 1.7 to 47.1 ppm Ru, 0.1 to 7.8 ppm Os, and 1.2 to 20.2 ppm Ir). Py2 occurs as small individual euhedral or subhedral crystals within pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and less frequently within chalcopyrite and silicates and has low PGE contents (<0.11 ppm Pt, <0.34 ppm Rh, <2.5 ppm Ru, <0.37 ppm Ir, and <0.40 ppm Os). Py1 contains higher Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, and Pt contents than the associated pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and chalcopyrite, whereas Py2 has similar PGE contents as coexisting pyrrhotite and pentlandite. Based on the textural relationships, two different origins are attributed for each pyrite type. Py1 intergrowth with pentlandite and chalcopyrite is inferred to have formed by late, low temperature (<300 °C) decomposition of residual Ni-rich monosulfide solid solution, whereas Py2 is suggested to have formed by replacement of pyrrhotite and pentlandite caused by late magmatic/hydrothermal fluids.

  9. Thermomagnetic properties of vivianite nodules, Lake El'gygytgyn, Northeast Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Minyuk


    Full Text Available Vivianite, a hydrated iron phosphate, is abundant in sediments of El'gygytgyn Lake, located in the Anadyr Mountains of Central Chukotka, Northeastern Russia (67° 30' N; 172° 05' E. Magnetic measurements, including weight low-field AC magnetic susceptibility, field dependent magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis parameters, temperature dependence of the saturation magnetization, as well as susceptibility in different heating media provide ample information on vivianite. Electron-microprobe analyses, electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to identify diagnostic minerals. Vivianite nodules are abundant in both sediments of cold (anoxic and warm (oxic stages. Magnetic susceptibility of the nodules varies from 0.78 × 10−6 m3 kg−1 to 1.72 × 10−6 m3 kg−1 (average = 1.05 × 10−6 m3 kg−1 and is higher than the susceptibility of sediments from the cold intervals. Magnetic properties of vivianite are due to product of oxidation as well as sediment and mineral inclusions. Three types of curves of high temperature dependence susceptibility of vivianite indicate different degree of oxidation and inclusions in the nodules. Vivianite acts as a reductant and reduces hematite to magnetite and suppresses the goethite-hematite transition during heating. Heating vivianite and sulfur mixture stimulate the formation of monoclinic pyrrhotite. An additive of arsenic inhibits the formation of magnetite prior to its Curie temperature. Heating selective vivianite and pyrite mixtures produces formation of several different minerals – magnetite, monoclinic pyrrhotite, and hexagonal pyrrhotite, and make it difficult to interpret the thermomagnetic curves.

  10. High-temperature thermomagnetic properties of vivianite nodules, Lake El'gygytgyn, Northeast Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Minyuk


    Full Text Available Vivianite, a hydrated iron phosphate, is abundant in sediments of Lake El'gygytgyn, located in the Anadyr Mountains of central Chukotka, northeastern Russia (67°30′ N, 172°05′ E. Magnetic measurements, including mass-specific low-field AC magnetic susceptibility, field-dependent magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis parameters, temperature dependence of the induced magnetization, as well as susceptibility in different heating media, provide ample information on vivianite nodules. Electron microprobe analyses, electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to identify diagnostic minerals. Vivianite nodules are abundant in both sediments of cold (anoxic and warm (oxic stages. Magnetic susceptibility of the nodules varies from 0.78 × 10−6 m3 kg−1 to 1.72 × 10−6 m3 kg−1 (average = 1.05 × 10−6 m3 kg−1 and is higher than the susceptibility of sediments from the cold intervals. Magnetic properties of vivianite are due to the respective product of oxidation as well as sediment and mineral inclusions. Three types of curves for high-temperature dependent susceptibility of vivianite indicate different degrees of oxidation and inclusions in the nodules. Vivianite acts as a reductant and reduces hematite to magnetite and masks the goethite–hematite transition during heating. Heating vivianite and sulfur mixtures stimulates the formation of monoclinic pyrrhotite. An additive of arsenic inhibits the formation of magnetite prior to its Curie temperature. Heating selective vivianite and pyrite mixtures leads to formation of several different minerals – magnetite, monoclinic pyrrhotite, and hexagonal pyrrhotite, and makes it difficult to interpret the thermomagnetic curves.

  11. Sulfides and refractory organic matter at the surface of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: evidence from VIRTIS data and laboratory measurements (United States)

    Rousseau, Batiste; Érard, Stéphane; Beck, Pierre; Quirico, Eric; Schmitt, Bernard; Bonal, Lydie; Montes-Hernandez, German; Moroz, Lyuba; Kappel, David; Markus, Kathrin; Arnold, Gabriele; Ciarniello, Mauro; Raponi, Andrea; Longobardo, Andrea; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Filacchione, Gianrico; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Leyrat, Cedric; Rosetta VIRTIS Team


    From Aug. 2014 to Sept. 2016, Rosetta has been orbiting comet 67P and has obtained informations on the origin and evolution of comets. The imaging spectrometer VIRTIS collected reflectance spectra of the surface within the range 0.25-5.1 µm that revealed a low albedo and a homogeneous surface (Capaccioni et al., 2015; Ciarniello et al., 2015). The spectra are also characterized by red slopes in the visible and in the near infrared. These properties have been interpreted to be due to the presence of an organic polyaromatic material mixed with opaque minerals, presumably troilite-like sulfides according to the composition of presumed cometary grains (Quirico et al., 2016).In order to test this proposition, we have run a series of experimental measurements of granular mixtures of an analog of cometary polyaromatic organic matter (an immature coal) and different sulfides (pyrite, pyrrhotite and troilite). Bi-directional reflectance spectra were obtained at IPAG in the range 0.4-4 µm and under a range of viewing geometries. For the first time we are performing measurements on materials with sub-micrometer grains relevant to what is expected for cometary grains. Produced with a planetary grinder operating on colloidal solutions, these grains were characterized with SEM, X-ray diffraction and an electronic microprobe.The experiment confirms that the low albedo in the near infrared is controlled by the abundance of pyrrhotite or troilite, while pyrite is not a viable candidate. These sulfides also account very well for the red slopes in the visible and the near infrared ranges. Excellent match with VIRTIS spectra is obtained for coal+pyrrhotite mixtures with a pyrrhotite abundance ranging from 30 to 50 wt%. Although the cometary grains composition include silicates and other organic compounds (see IDPs and Wild2 samples analysis), these results offer another interpretation of the reddish nature of some small bodies' surfaces, which has been interpreted so far as the

  12. Trace-element and multi-isotope geochemistry of Late-Archean black shales in the Carajas iron-ore district, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabral, A. R.; Creaser, R. A.; Naegler, T.


    The 250-300-m-thick Carajas Formation in the Carajas mineral province, northern Brazil, consists of banded iron formation (including giant high-grade iron-ore deposits) and minor black shale, overlying a thick pile (2-3 km) of about 2.75-Ga-old metabasalt. Carbonaceous shale with pyrite-and locally...... pyrrhotite-rich patches from drillcore of the Serra Sul exploration project has up to 29 ppm Mo; iron-speciation analysis indicates essentially ferruginous and for some samples likely euxinic depositional conditions. Positive delta S-34-isotope ratios of TRIS are between +0.3 to +10.7 parts per thousand...

  13. The content of selenium in some sulphide minerals of Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vapirov Vladimir


    Full Text Available Fluorimetric method was used to determine the content of selenium in various forms of pyrite and pyrrhotite in some iron- pyrite deposits of Karelia. In the studied deposits, the average content of selenium in all the sulfide minerals is 1,23•10-3 % ± 1,1•10-3 % and it is comparable with the data received in other pyrite deposits . In the natural conditions, environmental pollution from sulfide minerals is unlikely and possible only during field development.

  14. Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic investigation of an exceptionally pristine sample from Mars (United States)

    Rochette, P.; Gattacceca, J.; Cournède, C.; Sautter, V.


    Unaltered samples from Mars are available as meteorites recovered right after their fall. Only 4 of them were available (the last one fell 50 yrs ago) until the recovery of a Martian meteorite fallen in Morocco in July 2010. We obtained a 1.8 g sample away from the fusion crust of this fall (named Tissint), to study its magnetic properties. Petrographic examination indicates the meteorite is an olivine-phyric shergottite, with pyrrhotite and chromite as the only identified potentially magnetic minerals. Rock magnetism is fully consistent with pyrrhotite-bearing shergottites [1], with a high coercivity of remanence (Mrs/Ms ≈0.4, Bcr of 80 mT, S ratio of -0.75, etc). Ms is about 0.15 Am2/kg, equivalent to 1 wt.% pyrrhotite. Micromagnetometric investigation should allow to identify the mineral phase responsible for remanence and solve the debate on chromite [2] versus pyrrhotite [1]. Magnetic anisotropy and NRM are directionally consistent in oriented subsamples. The meteorite shows no sign of remagnetization by magnet application (a customary practice among meteorite hunters). NRM is very hard with respect to alternating field demagnetization with a median destructive field of about 70 mT. Very low NRM/IRM derivative ratio (REM' integrated between 10 and 80 mT is about 2 10-4, the lowest ever measured in a meteorite) suggest NRM acquisition in very low ambient field (<1 µT). Moreover, the high coercivity of the NRM and the increasing REM' value with alternating field suggest that the NRM may be a shock-hardened magnetization (for instance a primary thermoremanent magnetization acquired in a crustal remanent field of a few µT, and later shocked in a similar field). Indeed this meteorite has suffered high shock pressure, as evidenced by amorphization of plagioclase and formation of numerous large melt pockets. [1] Rochette P et al. Meteorit. Planet. Sci, 40, 529-540 (2005) [2] Yu Y.J., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 250, 27-37 (2006)

  15. Magnetic properties of the remagnetized Middle-Ordovician limestones of the Ponón Trehué Formation (San Rafael Block, central-western Argentina): Insights into the Permian widespread Sanrafaelic overprint (United States)

    Fazzito, Sabrina Y.; Rapalini, Augusto E.


    The widespread Sanrafaelic remagnetization reset most of the early Cambrian to mid-Ordovician carbonate platform of the Argentine Precordillera and the calcareous units of the San Rafael Block. We conducted a detailed rock-magnetic study on the Middle-Ordovician limestones of the Ponón Trehué Formation at both limbs of a tight anticline exposed in the San Rafael Block (Mendoza province, central-western Argentina) that are carriers of a syntectonic magnetization of Permian age. We found that the magnetic overprint in the Ponón Trehué Formation is carried by both pyrrhotite and magnetite, with goethite and subordinate haematite likely related to weathering. Hysteresis parameters, frequency dependence of magnetic susceptibility, Cisowski and modified Lowrie-Fuller tests suggest the presence of ultrafine particles of chemical origin. Demagnetization of natural remanent magnetization and of three-axis isothermal remanence confirm pyrrhotite and magnetite as important contributors to the remanence. Both minerals carry the same magnetic syntectonic component suggesting a coeval or nearly coeval remanence acquisition and therefore mineral formation. This and the results of the magnetic fabric analyses indicate an authigenic origin of the magnetic minerals during folding associated with the Sanrafaelic tectonic phase (ca. 280 Ma). Although the chemically active (oxidizing?) fluids expelled from the orogen as it developed in the early Permian is a viable explanation for the Sanrafaelic remagnetization, the role of the nearly coeval magmatism in Precordillera and the San Rafael Block remains to be properly evaluated.

  16. Change in catalyst properties during coal liquefaction; Kokoritsu sekitan ekika shokubai no kaihatsu (Hanno no shinko ni tomonau shokubai seijo no henka). 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, T.; Sato, K.; Kaneko, T.; Shimasaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The purpose of this study is to prevent the deactivation of catalysts recycled in the 0.1 t/d bench scale unit (BSU). Catalysts recovered during reactions in the BSU and after reactions in the 5-liter autoclave were analyzed, to investigate the influences of the reaction condition on the property and activity of catalysts. Were used {gamma}-iron oxyhydroxide ({gamma}-FeOOH), {alpha}-iron oxyhydroxide ({alpha}-FeOOH), and natural pyrite (FeS2) as catalysts. At the S/Fe atomic ration of 1.2 under the BSU reaction condition, troilite was more easily formed from {gamma}-FeOOH compared with pyrite and {alpha}-FeOOH. As the reaction proceeded through the first, second, and third reactors, the crystal size increased, the pyrrhotite content decreased, and the troilite content increased. Deactivation due to the formation of troilite was irreversible. At the S/Fe of 3.0, however, both the formation of troilite and the crystal growth of pyrrhotite were not observed. It was found that the deactivation of catalysts can be remarkably suppressed. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Dating of Mesoproterozoic metamorphism in the Mount Isa and George Fisher Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag deposits, Australia, by paleomagnetism (United States)

    Kawasaki, K.; Symons, D. T.


    The Mount Isa Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag and George Fisher Zn-Pb-Ag black-shale-hosted deposits in Queensland, Australia, are in carbonaceous and dolomitic shales of the ~1655 Ma Urquhart Formation of the Mount Isa Group that exhibit greenschist facies metamorphism. Both deposits give lead model ages of ~1655 Ma. Ar-Ar biotite and Re-Os ages for the Mount Isa copper ore are 1523±3 and 1372±4 Ma, respectively. Excluding modern hematite, paleomagnetic and rock magnetic analyses of 333 specimens (28 sites) isolate a stable characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) in single- and pseudosingle-domain pyrrhotite for the Zn-Pb-Ag ore specimens and in pyrrhotite and/or titanomagnetite for the Cu ore. A negative paleomagnetic fold test shows that the ChRM postdates D3 deformation of the ~1595 to 1500 Ma Isan orogeny, yielding a Mesoproterozoic paleopole at ~1505 Ma on the northern Australian apparent polar wander path. The ~1505 Ma age is similar to the ~1523 Ma Ar-Ar age and it provides a minimum age for ore genesis of both deposits, as well as the age for peak greenschist metamorphism during the Isan orogeny in the surrounding Mount Isa inlier.

  18. An Atlas of extraterrestrial particles collected with NASA U-2 aircraft, 1974 - 1976 (United States)

    Brownlee, D. E.; Tomandl, D.; Blanchard, M. B.; Ferry, G. V.; Kyte, F.


    Extraterrestrial particles collected during U-2 flights in the stratosphere were divided into four groups: chondritic, iron-sulfur--nickel, mafic silicates, and others. The chondritic aggregates are typically composed of Fe, Mg, Si, C, S, Ca, and Ni. Detectable levels of He-4 implanted from the solar wind occur in some. Olivine, spinel, and possibly pyrrhotite and a hydrated layered-lattice silicate were identified. The chondritic ablation particles contain no sulfur and appear to have been melted. Magnetite, olivine, and pyroxene were identified. The iron-sulfur-nickel type particles resemble meteoritic iron sulfide with a small amount of nickel, and contain magnetite and troilite. The mafic silicate type particles are iron magnesium silicate grains with clumps of chondritic aggregate particles adhering to their surfaces. Olivine and possibly pyrrhotite and pyroxene were identified. Most of the iron-nickel type particles are spherules and include taenite and wustite. The other type particles include nickel-iron mounds on spheroidal glassy-like grains having chondritic-like elemental abundances.

  19. Geochemistry and Petrogenesis of the Wengeqi Mafic-Ultramafic Complex and Associated PGE Mineralization, Guyang County, Inner Mongolia, China (United States)

    Su, S.; Lesher, C.


    The Wengeqi complex in Guyang County, Inner Mongolia is one of several Paleozoic PGE-mineralized zoned mafic-ultramafic complexes along the north-central margin of the North China. The complex comprises pyroxenites, biotite pyroxenites, amphibole pyroxenites, gabbros, and amphibolites. Zircons extracted from pyroxenites yield a U-Pb SHRIMP age of 399 ± 4 Ma. Several 2-6m wide syngenetic websterite dikes contain 1-3 ppm total PGE and are dominated by pyrite- chalcopyrite-pyrrhotite-magnetite-(pentlandite) assemblages with minor sperrylite, sudburyite, and kotuskite. Textural relationships indicate that pyrite has replaced chalcopyrite and that magnetite has replaced pyrrhotite, suggesting alteration of an original of a S-rich oxidizing fluid. The mineralization is strongly enriched in Pd-Pt relative to Rh-Ru-Ir-Os, similar to that observed at New Rambler, Rathbun Lake, and Lac des Iles, but very different from the less fractionated compositions of magmatic PGE deposits. Textural, mineralogical, and geochemical relationships are inconsistent with retention of MSS in the source, fractional crystallization of chromite, or fractional crystallization of MSS, but are consistent with fluid-induced partial melting of sulfides and/or alteration by high-temperature (deuteric) hydrothermal fluids.

  20. Fe-Ni metal and sulfide minerals in CM chondrites: An indicator for thermal history (United States)

    Kimura, M.; Grossman, J.N.; Weisberg, M.K.


    CM chondrites were subjected to aqueous alteration and, in some cases, to secondary metamorphic heating. The effects of these processes vary widely, and have mainly been documented in silicate phases. Herein, we report the characteristic features of Fe-Ni metal and sulfide phases in 13 CM and 2 CM-related chondrites to explore the thermal history of these chondrites. The texture and compositional distribution of the metal in CM are different from those in unequilibrated ordinary and CO chondrites, but most have similarities to those in highly primitive chondrites, such as CH, CR, and Acfer 094. We classified the CM samples into three categories based on metal composition and sulfide texture. Fe-Ni metal in category A is kamacite to martensite. Category B is characterized by pyrrhotite grains always containing blebs or lamellae of pentlandite. Opaque mineral assemblages of category C are typically kamacite, Ni-Co-rich metal, and pyrrhotite. These categories are closely related to the degree of secondary heating and are not related to degree of the aqueous alteration. The characteristic features of the opaque minerals can be explained by secondary heating processes after aqueous alteration. Category A CM chondrites are unheated, whereas those in category B experienced small degrees of secondary heating. CMs in category C were subjected to the most severe secondary heating process. Thus, opaque minerals can provide constraints on the thermal history for CM chondrites. ?? The Meteoritical Society, 2011.

  1. Age and duration of the Mississippi Valley-type mineralizing fluid flow event in the Viburnum Trend, southeast Missouri, USA, determined from palaeomagnetism (United States)

    Symons, David T. A.; Lewchuk, Michael T.; Leach, D.L.


    This paper is included in the Special Publication entitled 'Dating and duration of fluid flow and fluid-rock interaction', edited by J. Parnell. The Viburnum Trend is a world-class Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) lead-zinc ore deposit in platform carbonates of the Upper Cambrian Bonneterre Dolomite in the midcontinent of the USA. Palaeomagnetic methods have been used to analyse 233 specimens from early octahedral (nine sites) and late-stage cubic (13 sites) galena ore from four mines along the c. 70 km north-south length of the Trend. The characteristic remanence is carried by single to pseudo-single domain pyrrhotite and magnetite. This is the first MVT deposit in which pyrrhotite is shown to be a remanence carrier and present in galena crystals. The remanence directions define an Early Permian mean age of 273 ?? 10 Ma for the ore-stage mineralization, a maximum duration for the mineralization event of 12 Ma, and a time difference of 5 Ma between the early octahedral and late cubic galena ore stages. The Early Permian age for the ore is consistent with models of ore genesis that invoke fluid flow from the Ouachita orogen during Ouachitan orogenesis.

  2. Hard X-ray photoelectron and X-ray absorption spectroscopy characterization of oxidized surfaces of iron sulfides (United States)

    Mikhlin, Yuri; Tomashevich, Yevgeny; Vorobyev, Sergey; Saikova, Svetlana; Romanchenko, Alexander; Félix, Roberto


    Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) using an excitation energy range of 2 keV to 6 keV in combination with Fe K- and S K-edge XANES, measured simultaneously in total electron (TEY) and partial fluorescence yield (PFY) modes, have been applied to study near-surface regions of natural polycrystalline pyrite FeS2 and pyrrhotite Fe1-xS before and after etching treatments in an acidic ferric chloride solution. It was found that the following near-surface regions are formed owing to the preferential release of iron from oxidized metal sulfide lattices: (i) a thin, no more than 1-4 nm in depth, outer layer containing polysulfide species, (ii) a layer exhibiting less pronounced stoichiometry deviations and low, if any, concentrations of polysulfide, the composition and dimensions of which vary for pyrite and pyrrhotite and depend on the chemical treatment, and (iii) an extended almost stoichiometric underlayer yielding modified TEY XANES spectra, probably, due to a higher content of defects. We suggest that the extended layered structure should heavily affect the near-surface electronic properties, and processes involving the surface and interfacial charge transfer.

  3. Mineral magnetic properties of surface sediments at Bei'anhe, Beijing, and its environmental significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HongQiang; ZHANG ShiHong; LI HaiYan


    A multiparameter investigation of surface sediments from the Bei'anhe section (Beljing) has been con-ducted using environmental magnetic approaches.The studied sedimentary sequence consists of pluvial and lacustrine silts and clay of the Holocene age.Magnetite,hematite and pyrrhotite were iden-tified as the dominant magnetic minerals.The mineral magnetic characteristics are considered to re-flect the Holocene paleoenvironmental processes of the studied area,which are different from the mineral magnetic properties of typical polluted sections reported in the Beijing area.The low-field magnetic susceptibility and saturated isothermal remanence magnetization of the section decrease gradually with increasing depth.This indicates that the concentration of magnetic minerals in the strata decreases down the section.Values of interparametric ratios,such as ARMISlRM,XARM/X and SIRM/X,gradually increase with increasing depth,which indicates a down-section decreasing trend in the magnetic grain size of the sediments.Pyrrhotite occurs below the depth of 22 cm,suggesting the ex-istence of redox interface.The magnetic variations of the Bei'anhe surface sediments might be con-trolled by two geological processes:reductive diagenesis and pedogenesis.Our findings may have provided a reference point for magnetic investigation of polluted surface sediments in the Beijing area.

  4. Bioflotation of sulfide minerals with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in relation to copper activation and surface oxidation. (United States)

    Pecina-Treviño, E T; Ramos-Escobedo, G T; Gallegos-Acevedo, P M; López-Saucedo, F J; Orrantia-Borunda, E


    Surface oxidation of sulfides and copper (Cu) activation are 2 of the main processes that determine the efficiency of flotation. The present study was developed with the intention to ascertain the role of the phenomena in the biomodification of sulfides by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans culture (cells and growth media) and their impact in bioflotation. Surface characteristics of chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and pyrrhotite, alone and in mixtures, after interaction with A. ferrooxidans were evaluated. Chalcopyrite floatability was increased substantially by biomodification, while bacteria depressed pyrrhotite floatability, favoring separation. The results showed that elemental sulfur concentration increased because of the oxidation generated by bacterial cells, the effect is intensified by the Fe(III) left in the culture and by galvanic contact. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans culture affects the Cu activation of sphalerite. The implications of elemental sulfur concentration and Cu activation of sphalerite are key factors that must be considered for the future development of sulfide bioflotation processes, since the depressive effect of cells could be counteracted by elemental sulfur generation.

  5. Magnetic signature of river sediments drained into the southern and eastern part of the South China Sea (Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, Luzon and Taiwan) (United States)

    Kissel, Catherine; Liu, Zhifei; Li, Jinhua; Wandres, Camille


    Magnetic properties of 22 river samples collected in the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, Luzon and Taiwan have been investigated in order to magnetically characterize the sediments drained and deposited into the South China Sea. The geological formations as well as the present climatic conditions are different from one region to another. Laboratory analyses include low-field magnetic susceptibility, anhysteretic (ARM) and isothermal (IRM) remanent magnetizations acquisition and decay, back-field acquisition, thermal demagnetization of three-axes IRM, hysteresis cycles and low-temperature magnetic measurements. The magnetic properties indicate that the sediments are a mixture of hematite, magnetite and pyrrhotite in different proportions depending on the region. Combined with results previously reported for the three main Asian rivers (Pearl, Red and Mekong rivers), the new data indicate that, in general, hematite-rich sediments are delivered to the southern basin of the South China Sea while the northern basin is fed with magnetite and pyrrhotite-rich sediments. In addition to this general picture, some variability is observed at smaller geographic scales. Indeed, the magnetic assemblages are closely related to the geology of the various catchments while clay minerals, previously reported for the same samples, are more representative of the climatic conditions under which the parent rocks have evolved within each catchment. The magnetic fraction, now well characterized in the main river sediments drained into the South China Sea, can be used as a tracer for changes in precipitation on land and in oceanic water mass transport and exchange.

  6. Determinations of Platinum-Group Element (PGE) Distributions Using Whole-rock, SEM, EMPA, Image Analysis, and LA-ICP-MS Techniques in the Kelly Lake Ni-Cu-PGE Deposit, Sudbury (United States)

    Huminicki, M. A.; Cabri, L.; Sylvester, P. J.; Tubrett, M. N.


    The Kelly Lake deposit is a Ni-Cu-PGE offset-style deposit that occurs at the south end of the Copper Cliff Offset (CCO), Sudbury. The deposit consists of four ore bodies (710, 720, 725, and 740) that were first identified in 1997 and contain a published 10.5 million tonnes of ore at 1.77% Ni, 1.34% Cu, and 3.6 g/tonne combined Pt + Pd + Au. The ore bodies have a sub-vertical orientation and plunge to the south. The CCO consists of an inclusion-and sulfide-poor marginal zone of quartz diorite (QD) and an inclusion- and sulfide-rich core of QD. The sulfide assemblage is similar to other deposits along the CCO, comprising pentlandite (Pn), pyrrhotite (Po), and chalcopyrite (Ccp) with minor pyrite (Py) and trace amounts of galena [PbS]. The platinum-group mineral assemblage consists of michenerite [(Pd,Pt)BiTe], sperrylite [PtAs2], and microinclusions of hollingworthite [(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsS] and ruarsite [RuAsS], which are associated with the bismuth-telluride, tsumoite [BiTe] and the sulfarsenide, cobaltite-gersdorfitte [(Co,Fe)AsS-NiAsS]. The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution of the platinum-group elements (PGE) within the Kelly Lake ores. Analyses were carried out using a combination of: 1) lead and nickel-sulfide fire-assay for whole rock PGE abundances; 2) scanning-electron-microscopy (SEM) image analysis, quantitative energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXS), and quantitative electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) to determine size, shape, location, association, and mineral chemistry of discrete platinum-group minerals; and 3) laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to determine low-level PGE contents in solid solution and as microinclusions within the sulfides and sulfarsenides. SEM, EPMA, and LA-ICP-MS results indicate that the PGE occur: 1) primarily as discrete PGM (sperrylite and michenerite), 2) in solid-solution in cobaltite-gersdorfitte, and 3) as micro-inclusions of hollingworthite and ruarsite in

  7. Heterogeneous arsenic enrichment in meta-sedimentary rocks in central Maine, United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shea, Beth, E-mail: [Department of Marine Science and Environmental Studies, University of San Diego, 5998 Alcala Park, San Diego, CA 92110 (United States); Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, 61 Route 9W, Palisades, NY 10964 (United States); Stransky, Megan; Leitheiser, Sara [Department of Marine Science and Environmental Studies, University of San Diego, 5998 Alcala Park, San Diego, CA 92110 (United States); Brock, Patrick [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Queens College, City University of New York, 65-30 Kissena Blvd., Flushing, NY 11367 (United States); Marvinney, Robert G. [Maine Geological Survey, 93 State House Station, Augusta, ME 04333 (United States); Zheng, Yan [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Queens College, City University of New York, 65-30 Kissena Blvd., Flushing, NY 11367 (United States); Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, 61 Route 9W, Palisades, NY 10964 (United States)


    Arsenic is enriched up to 28 times the average crustal abundance of 4.8 mg kg{sup −1} for meta-sedimentary rocks of two adjacent formations in central Maine, USA where groundwater in the bedrock aquifer frequently contains elevated As levels. The Waterville Formation contains higher arsenic concentrations (mean As 32.9 mg kg{sup −1}, median 12.1 mg kg{sup −1}, n = 38) than the neighboring Vassalboro Group (mean As 19.1 mg kg{sup −1}, median 6.0 mg kg{sup −1}, n = 38). The Waterville Formation is a pelitic meta-sedimentary unit with abundant pyrite either visible or observed by scanning electron microprobe. Concentrations of As and S are strongly correlated (r = 0.88, p < 0.05) in the low grade phyllite rocks, and arsenic is detected up to 1944 mg kg{sup −1} in pyrite measured by electron microprobe. In contrast, statistically significant (p < 0.05) correlations between concentrations of As and S are absent in the calcareous meta-sediments of the Vassalboro Group, consistent with the absence of arsenic-rich pyrite in the protolith. Metamorphism converts the arsenic-rich pyrite to arsenic-poor pyrrhotite (mean As 1 mg kg{sup −1}, n = 15) during de-sulfidation reactions: the resulting metamorphic rocks contain arsenic but little or no sulfur indicating that the arsenic is now in new mineral hosts. Secondary weathering products such as iron oxides may host As, yet the geochemical methods employed (oxidative and reductive leaching) do not conclusively indicate that arsenic is associated only with these. Instead, silicate minerals such as biotite and garnet are present in metamorphic zones where arsenic is enriched (up to 130.8 mg kg{sup −1} As) where S is 0%. Redistribution of already variable As in the protolith during metamorphism and contemporary water–rock interaction in the aquifers, all combine to contribute to a spatially heterogeneous groundwater arsenic distribution in bedrock aquifers. - Highlights: • Arsenic is enriched up to 138 mg kg

  8. Speciation of major and selected trace elements in IGCC fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriol Font; Xavier Querol; Frank E. Huggins; Jose M. Chimenos; Ana I. Fernandez; Silvia Burgos; Francisco Garcia Pena [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , Barcelona (Spain)


    The speciation of Ga, Ge, Ni, V, S and Fe in fly ash from IGCC power plant were investigated for possible further extraction process by combining conventional mineral and chemical analysis, leaching tests, wet sequential extraction, Moessbauer and XAFS spectroscopies. The results shown that Ge occurs mainly as water-soluble species, GeS and/or GeS{sub 2} and hexagonal GeO{sub 2}. Ga is present as an oxide, Ni occurs mainly as nickeline (NiAs), with minor proportions of Ni arsenates and vanadium as V(III) with minor amounts of V(IV) in the aluminosilicate glass matrix. Pyrrhotite and wurtzite-sphalerite are sulfide species containing Fe and Zn, but an important fraction of iron is also present in the aluminosilicate glass. These clear differences between the speciation of the above elements in this material and those reported for fly ash from conventional PC combustion. 15 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Speciation of Major and Selected Trace Elements in IGCC Fly Ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Font,O.; Querol, X.; Huggins, F.; Chimenos, J.; Fernandez, A.; Burgos, S.; Pena, F.


    The speciation of Ga, Ge, Ni, V, S and Fe in fly ash from IGCC power plant were investigated for possible further extraction process by combining conventional mineral and chemical analysis, leaching tests, wet sequential extraction, Moessbauer and XAFS spectroscopies. The results shown that Ge occurs mainly as water-soluble species, GeS and/or GeS2 and hexagonal GeO2. Ga is present as an oxide, Ni occurs mainly as nickeline (NiAs), with minor proportions of Ni arsenates and vanadium as V(III) with minor amounts of V(IV) in the aluminosilicate glass matrix. Pyrrhotite and wurtzite-sphalerite are sulfide species containing Fe and Zn, but an important fraction of iron is also present in the aluminosilicate glass. These clear differences between the speciation of the above elements in this material and those reported for fly ash from conventional PC combustion.

  10. Ore-bearing hydrothermal metasomatic processes in the Elbrus volcanic center, the northern Caucasus, Russia (United States)

    Gurbanov, A. G.; Bogatikov, O. A.; Dokuchaev, A. Ya.; Gazeev, V. M.; Abramov, S. S.; Groznova, E. O.; Shevchenko, A. V.


    Precaldera, caldera, and postcaldera cycles are recognized in the geological evolution of the Pleistocene-Holocene Elbrus volcanic center (EVC). During the caldera cycle, the magmatic activity was not intense, whereas hydrothermal metasomatic alteration of rocks was vigorous and extensive. The Kyukyurtli and Irik ore-magmatic systems have been revealed in the EVC, with the former being regarded as the more promising one. The ore mineralization in rocks of the caldera cycle comprises occurrences of magnetite, ilmenite, pyrite and pyrrhotite (including Ni-Co varieties), arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite, millerite, galena, and finely dispersed particles of native copper. Pyrite and pyrrhotite from volcanics of the caldera cycle and dacite of the Kyukyurtli extrusion are similar in composition and differ from these minerals of the postcaldera cycle, where pyrite and pyrrhotite are often enriched in Cu, Co, and Ni and millerite is noted as well. The composition of ore minerals indicates that the hydrothermal metasomatic alteration related to the evolution of the Kyukyurtli hydrothermal system was superimposed on rocks of the caldera cycle, whereas the late mineralization in rocks of the postcaldera cycle developed autonomously. The homogenization temperature of fluid inclusions in quartz and carbonate from crosscutting veinlets in the apical portion of the Kyukyurtli extrusion is 140-170°C and in quartz from geyserite, 120-150°C. The temperature of formation of the chalcopyrite-pyrite-pyrrhotite assemblage calculated using mineral geothermometers is 156 and 275°C in dacite from the middle and lower portions of the Malka lava flow and 190°C in dacite of the Kyukyurtli extrusion. The hydrothermal solutions that participated in metasomatic alteration of rocks pertaining to the Kyukyurtli ore-magmatic system (KOMS) and formed both secondary quartzite and geyserite were enriched in fluorine, as evidenced from the occurrence of F-bearing minerals-zharchikhite, ralstonite,

  11. Gold deposit styles and placer gold characterisation in northern and east-central Madagascar (United States)

    Pitfield, Peter E. J; Styles, Michael T.; Taylor, Cliff D.; Key, Roger M.; Bauer,; Ralison, A


    Microchemical characterisation of bedrock and placer gold grains from six gold districts within the Archaean domains and intervening Neoproterozoic Anaboriana-Manampotsy belt of northern and east-central Madagascar show few opaque inclusions (e.g pyrrhotite, Bi tellurides) but wide range of Ag contents (40wt%). Some districts exhibit multiple source populations of grains. The ‘greenstone belt’ terranes have an orogenic gold signature locally with an intrusion-related to epithermal overprint. Proterozoic metasediments with felsic to ultramafic bodies yield dominantly intrusion-related gold. A high proportion of secondary gold (<0.5wt% Ag) is related to recycling of paleoplacers and erosion of post-Gondwana planation surfaces and indicates that some mesothermal gold systems were already partially to wholly removed by erosion by the PermoTriassic.

  12. Microbial diversity at the moderate acidic stage in three different sulfidic mine tailings dumps generating acid mine drainage. (United States)

    Korehi, Hananeh; Blöthe, Marco; Schippers, Axel


    In freshly deposited sulfidic mine tailings the pH is alkaline or circumneutral. Due to pyrite or pyrrhotite oxidation the pH is dropping over time to pH values tailings are only scarcely studied. Here we investigated the microbial diversity via 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis in eight samples (pH range 3.2-6.5) from three different sulfidic mine tailings dumps in Botswana, Germany and Sweden. In total 701 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a divergent microbial community between the three sites and at different tailings depths. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were overall the most abundant phyla in the clone libraries. Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Nitrospira occurred less frequently. The found microbial communities were completely different to microbial communities in tailings at

  13. Palaeomagnetic, rock-magnetic and mineralogical investigations of metadolerites from Western Svalbard : A preliminary report (United States)

    Michalski, Krzysztof; Nejbert, Krzysztof; Domańska-Siuda, Justyna; Manby, Geoffrey


    A group of 42 independently oriented palaeomagnetic samples from 7 sites located in central part of the West Spitsbergen Thrust and Fault Belt has been investigated. The samples were collected from 5 distinct metadolerite sheets intruded into the Proterozoic - Lower Paleozoic metamorphic complex of Western Oscar II Land (Western Svalbard Caledonian Terrane - Harland, 1997 division). All analyzed metadolerite samples were metamorphosed under greenschist facies metamorphism. The metamorphic assemblage consist of hornblende, biotite, actinolite, chlorite, epidote, stilpnomelane, titanite, albite, and quartz. Calcite, associated with pyrrhotite, pyrite chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and covellite, that occurs as irregular intergrowths or thin veins, document high activity of H2O-CO2-rich fluids during metamorphism. Primary magmatic phases represented by clinopyroxene occur rarely, and only in thick metadolerite dykes. Accessory oxides change their mineralogical and chemical composition during metamorphism. In all examined samples primary Ti-magnetite and oxy-exsolved hematite break-down completely into titanite or have been dissolved. The ilmenite are also replaced by titanite, but in metadolerites at contact with host metapelites, slightly altered ilmenite grains with preserved hematite exsolution were documented. Basing on mineralogical observations it should be expected that metamorphic processes have almost completely reset the paleomagnetic data record from the time of dolerite crystallization. This stage can document only rare hematite oxy-exsolution preserved within ilmenite, and presumably small inclusion of magnetite still preserved within unaltered clinopyroxene. The paleomagnetic record of metamorphic stage is probably recorded by pyrrhotite, hematite, goethite, and late Ti-free magnetite that can grow during breakdown of pyrrhotite to pyrite (Ramdohr. 1980). The NRM (Natural Remanent Magnetisation) intensities of the palaeomagnetic samples exceed the minimum 10

  14. A Palaeoproterozoic multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq gold deposit, South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bell, Robin-Marie; Kolb, Jochen; Waight, Tod Earle


    closure in 2014, having produced 10.67 t of gold. This study uses a combination of field investigation, petrography and U/Pb zircon and titanite geochronology to define a multistage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq. A clinopyroxene-plagioclase-garnet(-sulphide) alteration zone (CPGZ) developed...... in the Nanortalik Peninsula, close to regional peak metamorphism and prior to gold-quartz vein formation. The ca. 1783–1762-Ma gold-quartz veins are hosted in reactivated shear zones with a hydrothermal alteration halo of biotite-arsenopyrite-sericite-actinolite-pyrrhotite(-chloriteplagioclase- löllingite......-tourmaline-titanite), which is best developed in areas of exceptionally high gold grades. Aplite dykes dated to ca. 1762 Ma cross-cut the gold-quartz veins, providing a minimum age for mineralisation. A hydrothermal calcite-titanite alteration assemblage is dated to ca. 1766 Ma; however, this alteration is highly isolated...

  15. Ash agglomeration during fluidized bed gasification of high sulphur content lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinov, V.; Marinov, S.P.; Lazarov, L.; Stefanova, M. (SRTI Energydesign, Sofia (Bulgaria))


    Intensive ash agglomeration has hampered the fluidized bed gasification of lignites from the Elhovo deposit (Bulgaria) containing 5.9 wt% sulphur in the dry state. Samples of slag and agglomerates from the pilot plant have been examined by means of chemical, X-ray analysis, IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Pyrrhotite (FeS) and wustite (FeO) have been established in the agglomerates, where junctions between ash particles have been found to consist of magnetite, spinel and garnet grains. The chemical reactions leading to garnet formation have been studied. Centres of sintering and centres of melting during the ash agglomeration process have been distinguished. The pyrite product, an eutectic of FeS and FeO melting at 924[degree]C, is assumed to be responsible for the cessation of lignite gasification with steam and air under pressure at a bed temperature of 930[degree]. 11 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Concrete-like till, a scientific and economic problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko Kvist


    Full Text Available In Finland, extremely compact and hard, concrete-like basal till, a type rare to the country, occurs in the district of Haukipudas on the coast of Northern Ostrobothnia. The cause of cementation is not its age but rather the composition of the underlying bedrock, which consists of pyrrhotite- and pyrite-bearing black schists. During intense erosion under the ice sheet, a large amount of materialderived from this was released into the overlying basal till. Rapid oxidation of sulphide grains in the till began as a consequence of uplift of the area above sea level and the lowering of the groundwater surface. Sulphide was oxidised to sulphate and ferrous iron became ferric, which precipitated as ferric hydroxide. As this initially water-rich gel-like ferric hydroxide formed, it enclosedthe till clasts and mineral grains. With water loss it hardened and cemented the till into a concrete-like mass.

  17. An electrochemical approach to oil reservoir souring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsland, S.D.; Dawe, R.A.; Kelsall, G.H. (Imperial Coll., London (GB). Dept. of Mineral Resources Engineering)


    The objective of this work was to establish the feasibility of using an Ag{sub 2}S/Ag ring electrode of a rotating ring-disc electrode system as a linear amperometric sensor for the local H{sub 2}S concentration generated by the combined chemical and electrochemical decomposition of a pyrrhotite (FeS{sub 1+x}) disc electrode. This enabled a more detailed investigation of the non-oxidative dissolution of 'FeS'. The results indicate that, provided iron sulphides are present in an oil reservoir, the decomposition of iron sulphides due to operator-imposed changes in the aqueous environment is a probable source of H{sub 2}S. (author).

  18. Transmission Electron Microscopy of Itokawa Regolith Grains (United States)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Berger, E. L.


    Introduction: In a remarkable engineering achievement, the JAXA space agency successfully recovered the Hayabusa space-craft in June 2010, following a non-optimal encounter and sur-face sampling mission to asteroid 25143 Itokawa. These are the first direct samples ever obtained and returned from the surface of an asteroid. The Hayabusa samples thus present a special op-portunity to directly investigate the evolution of asteroidal sur-faces, from the development of the regolith to the study of the effects of space weathering. Here we report on our preliminary TEM measurements on two Itokawa samples. Methods: We were allocated particles RA-QD02-0125 and RA-QD02-0211. Both particles were embedded in low viscosity epoxy and thin sections were prepared using ultramicrotomy. High resolution images and electron diffraction data were ob-tained using a JEOL 2500SE 200 kV field-emission scanning-transmission electron microscope. Quantitative maps and anal-yses were obtained using a Thermo thin-window energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectrometer. Results: Both particles are olivine-rich (Fo70) with µm-sized inclusions of FeS and have microstructurally complex rims. Par-ticle RA-QD02-0125 is rounded and has numerous sub-µm grains attached to its surface including FeS, albite, olivine, and rare melt droplets. Solar flare tracks have not been observed, but the particle is surrounded by a continuous 50 nm thick, stuctur-ally disordered rim that is compositionally similar to the core of the grain. One of the surface adhering grains is pyrrhotite show-ing a S-depleted rim (8-10 nm thick) with nanophase Fe metal grains (<5 nm) decorating the outermost surface. The pyrrhotite displays a complex superstructure in its core that is absent in the S-depleted rim. Particle RA-QD02-0211 contains solar flare particle tracks (2x109 cm-2) and shows a structurally disordered rim 100 nm thick. The track density corresponds to a surface exposure of 103-104 years based on the track production rate

  19. Geology, Mineral Deposit Model and Potential of the Suwar Cu-Ni Sulphide Prospect, Northwest Yemen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdulkarim M.; Al-Nagashi; Li Xujun


    The Suwar Cu-Ni sulphide prospect is very highly regarded for its potential to host a major nickel-copper sulphide deposit in Republic of Yemen, a mineral resource lacking country. The ore-hosting intrusion is a lopolith about 6km long and lkm wide and more than 300m deep. There are two types of Cu-Ni mineralizations in the prospect: primary massive chalcopyrite+ pyrrhotite+ pentlandite controlled by gravitational and structural traps while the secondary Cu-Ni mineralization is coarse grained and occur as veins, veinlets, fracture fill, blebs or associated with coarse, re-crystallized carbonate in shear zones and faults. The deposit type of the prospect is believed to be the one associated with the ultramafic component of a large, broadly differentiated noritic, gabbroid intrusive. It is suggested that the prospect and adjacent area possibly contain a similar world class Ni-Cu deposits as that in Jinchuan, China.

  20. Hydrothermal ore-forming processes in the light of studies in rock- buffered systems: I. Iron-copper-zinc-lead sulfide solubility relations (United States)

    Hemley, J.J.; Cygan, G.L.; Fein, J.B.; Robinson, G.R.; d'Angelo, W. M.


    Experimental studies, using cold-seal and extraction vessel techniques, were conducted on Fe, Pb, Zn, and Cu sulfide solubilities in chloride soultions at temperatures from 300?? to 700??C and pressures from 0.5 to 2 kbars. The solutions were buffered in pH by quartz monzonite and the pure potassium feldspar-muscovite-quartz assemblage and in fS2-fO2 largely by the assemblage pyrite-pyrrhotite-magnetite. Solubilities increase with increasing temperature and total chloride, and decrease with increasing pressure. The effect of increasing chloride concentration on solubility reflects primarily a shift to lower pH via the silicate buffer reactions. Similarity in behaviour with respect to the temperature and pressure of Fe, Zn, and Pb sulfide solubilities points to similarity in chloride speciation, and the neutral species appear to be dominant in the high-temperature region. -from Authors

  1. Co-pyrolysis of wood biomass and synthetic polymers mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharypov, V.I.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Kuznetsov, B.N.; Baryshnikov, S.V. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology SB RAS, K. Marx Str., Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russian Federation); Cebolla, V.L. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain); Weber, J.V.; Collura, S.; Finqueneisel, G.; Zimny, T. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications, Universite de Metz, IUT, rue V. Demange, 57500 Saint Avold (France)


    The pyrolysis in a hydrogen atmosphere of pine wood and synthetic polymers (polyethylene and polypropylene) mixtures was studied in a rotating autoclave. The effects of reaction temperature, wood/polymers mixture composition and catalysts, on the mixtures conversion into liquids and gases were established and discussed. The used catalysts were pyrrhotite and haematite materials activated by mechanochemical treatment. In the co-liquefaction processes the interaction between fragments of wood and polymers thermal decomposition took place. This results in non-additive increase of the wood/polymers conversion degree by 10-15wt.% and of the yield of distillate fractions by 14-19wt.%. Iron ore materials were found catalytically active in the process of hydropyrolysis of wood/polymers mixtures. By using these catalysts a significant increase of the distillable liquids amounts (by 14-21wt.%) and a sharp decrease of olefins and cycloparaffins content (by approximately two to three times) were observed. (author)

  2. Factors Influencing Conversion of Pyritic Sulfur in Coal by Microwave Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUI Jian-cai; XU Ming-hou; QIU Ji-hua; CHENG Rong


    The high sulfur coal from southwest of China was used to examine the influence of different factors such as irradiation time, particle size of coal, and leachant (Na2CO3, NaOH and CuCl2.2H2O)on the conversion rate of pyrite to pyrrhotite by microwave irradiation. Single factor experiment was performed firstly, then orthogonal test method was used to explore these factors. The result shows that the optimal treating conditions for the conversion are a treatment time of 3 min, a particle size from 0.086 mm to 0.102 mm, and a favorable leachant of sodium hydroxide. Under these conditions the conversion rate of pyrite can reach 45.7 %.

  3. Sulfide scaling in low enthalpy geothermal environments; A survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criaud, A.; Fouillac, C. (Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), 45 - Orleans (France))


    A review of the sulfide scaling phenomena in low-temperature environments is presented. While high-temperature fluids tend to deposit metal sulfides because of their high concentrations of dissolved metals and variations of temperature, pressure and fluid chemistry, low temperature media are characterized by very low metal content but much higher dissolved sulfide. In the case of the goethermal wells of the Paris Basin, detailed studies demonstrate that the relatively large concentrations of chloride and dissolved sulfide are responsible for corrosion and consequent formation of iron sulfide scale composed of mackinawite, pyrite and pyrrhotite. The effects of the exploitation schemes are far less important than the corrosion of the casings. The low-enthalpy fluids that do not originate from sedimentary aquifers (such as in Iceland and Bulgaria), have a limited corrosion potential, and the thin sulfide film that appears may prevent the progress of corrosion.

  4. Multiple hydrothermal and metamorphic events in the Kidd Creek volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit, Timmins, Ontario: evidence from tourmalines and chlorites (United States)

    Slack, J.F.; Coad, P.R.


    The tourmalines and chlorites record a series of multiple hydrothermal and metamorphic events. Paragenetic studies suggest that tourmaline was deposited during several discrete stages of mineralization, as evidence by brecciation and cross-cutting relationships. Most of the tourmalines have two concentric growth zones defined by different colours (green, brown, blue, yellow). Some tourmalines also display pale discordant rims that cross-cut and embay the inner growth zones and polycrystalline, multiple-extinction domains. Late sulphide veinlets (chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite) transect the inner growth zones and pale discordant rims of many crystals. The concentric growth zones are interpreted as primary features developed by the main ore-forming hydrothermal system, whereas the discordant rims, polycrystalline domains, and cross-cutting sulphide veinlets reflect post-ore metamorphic processes. Variations in mineral proportions and mineral chemistry within the deposit mainly depend on fluctuations in temperature, pH, water/rock ratios, and amounts of entrained seawater. -from Authors

  5. Magnetic properties related to thermal treatment of pyrite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Detailed rock magnetic experiments were conducted on high-purity natural crystalline pyrite and its products of thermal treatments in both argon and air atmospheres. In argon atmosphere (reducing environment), the pyrite is altered by heating to magnetite and pyrrhotite; the latter is stable in argon atmosphere, and has coercive force and coercivity of remanence of ~20 and ~30 mT, respectively. Whereas in air, the pyrite is ultimately oxidized to hematite. First order reversal curve (FORC) diagram of the end product shows that the remanence coercivity of hematite is up to ~1400 mT. The corresponding thermal transformation process of pyrite in air can be simply summarized as pyrite→ pyrrhotite→magnetite→hematite. These results are helpful for understanding of sedimentary magnetism, secondary chemical remanence and meteorolite magnetic properties.

  6. Magnetic properties related to thermal treatment of pyrite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lei; PAN YongXin; LI JinHua; QIN HuaFeng


    Detailed rock magnetic experiments were conducted on high-purity natural crystalline pyrite and its products of thermal treatments in both argon and air atmospheres. In argon atmosphere (reducing environment), the pyrite is altered by heating to magnetite and pyrrhotite; the latter is stable in argon atmosphere, and has coercive force and coercivity of remanence of ~20 and ~30 mT, respectively.Whereas in air, the pyrite is ultimately oxidized to hematite. First order reversal curve (FORC) diagram of the end product shows that the remanence coercivity of hematite is up to ~1400 mT. The corresponding thermal transformation process of pyrite in air can be simply summarized as pyrite→pyrrhotite→magnetite→hematite. These results are helpful for understanding of sedimentary magnetism, secondary chemical remanence and meteorolite magnetic properties.

  7. Formation of Archean batholith-hosted gold veins at the Lac Herbin deposit, Val-d'Or district, Canada: Mineralogical and fluid inclusion constraints (United States)

    Rezeau, Hervé; Moritz, Robert; Beaudoin, Georges


    The Lac Herbin deposit consists of a network of mineralized, parallel steep-reverse faults within the synvolcanic Bourlamaque granodiorite batholith at Val-d'Or in the Archean Abitibi greenstone belt. There are two related quartz-tourmaline-carbonate fault-fill vein sets in the faults, which consist of subvertical fault-fill veins associated with subhorizontal veins. The paragenetic sequence is characterized by a main vein filling ore stage including quartz, tourmaline, carbonate, and pyrite-hosted gold, chalcopyrite, tellurides, pyrrhotite, and cubanite inclusions. Most of the gold is located in fractures in deformed pyrite and quartz in equilibrium with chalcopyrite and carbonates, with local pyrrhotite, sphalerite, galena, cobaltite, pyrite, or tellurides. Petrography and microthermometry on quartz from the main vein filling ore stage reveal the presence of three unrelated fluid inclusion types: (1) gold-bearing aqueous-carbonic inclusions arranged in three-dimensional intragranular clusters in quartz crystals responsible for the main vein filling stage, (2) barren high-temperature, aqueous, moderately saline inclusions observed in healed fractures, postdating the aqueous-carbonic inclusions, and considered as a remobilizing agent of earlier precipitated gold in late fractures, and (3) barren low-temperature, aqueous, high saline inclusions in healed fractures, similar to the crustal brines reported throughout the Canadian Shield and considered to be unrelated to the gold mineralization. At the Lac Herbin deposit, the aqueous-carbonic inclusions are interpreted to have formed first and to represent the gold-bearing fluid, which were generated contemporaneous with regional greenschist facies metamorphism. In contrast, the high-temperature aqueous fluid dissolved gold from the main vein filling ore stage transported and reprecipitated it in late fractures during a subsequent local thermal event.

  8. Geomathematical characterisation of the mineralization indicators: a case study from Tincova magmatic intrusion (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Tudor


    Full Text Available Indicators of the hydrothermal mineralization in the Tincova Laramian intrusion were tested at the contact zone between the intrusive body and the metamorphic host rocks. The mineralization consists of Cu, Pb and Zn sulfides, arsenopyrite, pyrrhotite and pyrite in gangue of quartz, carbonates, feldspar, sericite or clay minerals, and includes areas of hydrothermal alteration or oxidation. Seventy-nine samples were analyzed and processed as two distinct populations. Geomathematical methods highlight the importance of factors such as the shape, sizes of the mineralized zones and geological processes involved in the ore genesis. Trend maps for Cu, Pb + Zn, and Ag interpolated by kriging method, show anomalous values of Cu along the edge of the intrusive body with the metamorphic country rocks, and Pb + Zn in a marginal area. Departing from the study of correlations between different variables, the factor analysis (R-mode highlights five factors that represent a sequence of geological processes: pneumatolytic phase (Sn, deposition of the association with arsenopyrite, pyrrhotite, pyrite, molybdenite (Ni, Co, Mo, formation of the Cu ± Ag + Bi sulfide mineralization, galena mineralization ± Au, hydrothermal alteration processes (addition of Ba, Sr, V. The dependence of Cu on other elements is performed by multiple linear regression, resulting an equation statistically tested by F-test, and interpreted as originating in a phase of the metallogenetic processes. The shape of the Cu-Mo mineralized stockwork from Vălişor Valley area has been studied on the basis of samples from drillings, Cu trend maps at three depth levels, and a three-dimensional model.

  9. Sulfur geochemistry and microbial sulfate reduction during low-temperature alteration of uplifted lower oceanic crust: Insights from ODP Hole 735B (United States)

    Alford, Susan E.; Alt, Jeffrey C.; Shanks, Wayne C.


    Sulfide petrography plus whole rock contents and isotope ratios of sulfur were measured in a 1.5 km section of oceanic gabbros in order to understand the geochemistry of sulfur cycling during low-temperature seawater alteration of the lower oceanic crust, and to test whether microbial effects may be present. Most samples have low SO4/ΣS values (≤ 0.15), have retained igneous globules of pyrrhotite ± chalcopyrite ± pentlandite, and host secondary aggregates of pyrrhotite and pyrite laths in smectite ± iron-oxyhydroxide ± magnetite ± calcite pseudomorphs of olivine and clinopyroxene. Compared to fresh gabbro containing 100–1800 ppm sulfur our data indicate an overall addition of sulfide to the lower crust. Selection of samples altered only at temperatures ≤ 110 °C constrains microbial sulfate reduction as the only viable mechanism for the observed sulfide addition, which may have been enabled by the production of H2 from oxidation of associated olivine and pyroxene. The wide range in δ34Ssulfide values (− 1.5 to + 16.3‰) and variable additions of sulfide are explained by variable εsulfate-sulfide under open system pathways, with a possible progression into closed system pathways. Some samples underwent oxidation related to seawater penetration along permeable fault horizons and have lost sulfur, have high SO4/ΣS (≥ 0.46) and variable δ34Ssulfide (0.7 to 16.9‰). Negative δ34Ssulfate–δ34Ssulfide values for the majority of samples indicate kinetic isotope fractionation during oxidation of sulfide minerals. Depth trends in sulfide–sulfur contents and sulfide mineral assemblages indicate a late-stage downward penetration of seawater into the lower 1 km of Hole 735B. Our results show that under appropriate temperature conditions, a subsurface biosphere can persist in the lower oceanic crust and alter its geochemistry.

  10. Laboratory SIP signatures associated with oxidation of disseminated metal sulfides (United States)

    Placencia-Gómez, Edmundo; Slater, Lee; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Binley, Andrew


    Oxidation of metal sulfide minerals is responsible for the generation of acidic waters rich in sulfate and metals. When associated with the oxidation of sulfide ore mine waste deposits the resulting pore water is called acid mine drainage (AMD); AMD is a known environmental problem that affects surface and ground waters. Characterization of oxidation processes in-situ is challenging, particularly at the field scale. Geophysical techniques, spectral induced polarization (SIP) in particular, may provide a means of such investigation. We performed laboratory experiments to assess the sensitivity of the SIP method to the oxidation mechanisms of common sulfide minerals found in mine waste deposits, i.e., pyrite and pyrrhotite, when the primary oxidant agent is dissolved oxygen. We found that SIP parameters, e.g., phase shift, the imaginary component of electrical conductivity and total chargeability, decrease as the time of exposure to oxidation and oxidation degree increase. This observation suggests that dissolution-depletion of the mineral surface reduces the capacitive properties and polarizability of the sulfide minerals. However, small increases in the phase shift and imaginary conductivity do occur during oxidation. These transient increases appear to correlate with increases of soluble oxidizing products, e.g., Fe2 + and Fe3 + in solution; precipitation of secondary minerals and the formation of a passivating layer to oxidation coating the mineral surface may also contribute to these increases. In contrast, the real component of electrical conductivity associated with electrolytic, electronic and interfacial conductance is sensitive to changes in the pore fluid chemistry as a result of the soluble oxidation products released (Fe2 + and Fe3 +), particularly for the case of pyrrhotite minerals.

  11. A study of the trace sulfide mineral assemblages in the Stillwater Complex, Montana, USA (United States)

    Aird, Hannah M.; Ferguson, Katherine M.; Lehrer, Malia L.; Boudreau, Alan E.


    The sulfide assemblages of the Stillwater Complex away from the well-studied ore zones are composed mainly of variable proportions of pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, pentlandite, and ±pyrite. Excluding vein assemblages and those affected by greenschist and lower temperature alteration, the majority can be classified into two broad assemblages, defined here as pristine (multiphase, often globular in shape) or volatile-bearing (multiphase, high-temperature, volatile-rich minerals such as biotite, hornblende, or an unmixed calcite-dolomite assemblage). The volatile-bearing assemblages are mainly found within and below the J-M reef, where native copper and sphalerite are also locally present. Pristine sulfides are found throughout the stratigraphy. Both groups can be affected by apparent S loss in the form of pyrite being converted to magnetite and chalcopyrite to a Cu-Fe-oxide (delafossite), with little to no silicate alteration. An upward trend from pentlandite-rich to pyrrhotite-rich to pyrite-rich assemblages is observed in the footwall rocks in upper GN-I, and the same trend repeats from just below the reef and continues into the overlying N-II and GN-II. Modeling suggests that the sulfide Ni in the Peridotite Zone is largely controlled by silicate Ni. When taken together, observations are most readily explained by the remobilization of selected elements by a high-temperature fluid with the apparent loss of S > Cu > Ni. This could concentrate ore metals by vapor refining, eventually producing a platinum group element-enriched sulfide ore zone, such as the J-M reef.

  12. Origin of magnetic highs at ultramafic hosted hydrothermal systems: Insights from the Yokoniwa site of Central Indian Ridge (United States)

    Fujii, Masakazu; Okino, Kyoko; Sato, Taichi; Sato, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kentaro


    High-resolution vector magnetic measurements were performed on an inactive ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal vent field, called Yokoniwa Hydrothermal Field (YHF), using a deep-sea manned submersible Shinkai6500 and an autonomous underwater vehicle r2D4. The YHF has developed at a non-transform offset massif of the Central Indian Ridge. Dead chimneys were widely observed around the YHF along with a very weak venting of low-temperature fluids so that hydrothermal activity of the YHF was almost finished. The distribution of crustal magnetization from the magnetic anomaly revealed that the YHF is associated with enhanced magnetization, as seen at the ultramafic-hosted Rainbow and Ashadze-1 hydrothermal sites of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The results of rock magnetic analysis on seafloor rock samples (including basalt, dolerite, gabbro, serpentinized peridotite, and hydrothermal sulfide) showed that only highly serpentinized peridotite carries high magnetic susceptibility and that the natural remanent magnetization intensity can explain the high magnetization of Yokoniwa. These observations reflect abundant and strongly magnetized magnetite grains within the highly serpentinized peridotite. Comparisons with the Rainbow and Ashadze-1 suggest that in ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal systems, strongly magnetized magnetite and pyrrhotite form during the progression of hydrothermal alteration of peridotite. After the completion of serpentinization and production of hydrogen, pyrrhotites convert into pyrite or nonmagnetic iron sulfides, which considerably reduces their levels of magnetization. Our results revealed origins of the magnetic high and the development of subsurface chemical processes in ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal systems. Furthermore, the results highlight the use of near-seafloor magnetic field measurements as a powerful tool for detecting and characterizing seafloor hydrothermal systems.

  13. Paleomagnetism of the Red Dog Zn-Pb massive sulfide deposit in northern Alaska (United States)

    Lewchuk, Michael T.; Leach, D.L.; Kelley, K.D.; Symons, David T. A.


    Paleomagnetic methods have isolated two ancient magnetizations in and around the Paleozoic shale-hosted Red Dog ore deposit in northern Alaska. A high-latitude, westerly magnetization carried by magnetite, termed characteristic remanent magnetization A, was found in rocks that have barite and/or substantial quartz replacement of barite. An intermediate- to low-latitude, southerly magnetization (characteristic remanent magnetization B) is carried by pyrrhotite and was found in rocks dominated by galena and sphalerite. The ages the two components are constrained by their relationship with geochemistry, radiometric age dating, and hypotheses for the Mesozoic tectonic history of the Brooks Range. Characteristic remanent magnetization A fails the fold test so it must postdate the end of Brookian orogenesis (??? 150 Ma). It is always found with replacement quartz that has a radiometric date (white mica from a vug, 39Ar/40Ar) of 126 Ma. The paleolatitude for characteristic remanent magnetization B is too shallow to be Mesozoic or younger, regardless of the model for the tectonic origin of northern Alaska, and must predate Brookian orogenesis. Geologic mapping suggests that most of the ore is syngenetic, formed at 330 to 340 Ma, and a radiometric date (Re-Os on pyrite) yields an age of 338 Ma. Since characteristic remanent magnetization B predates deformation, is found in mineralized rocks and is carried by pyrrhotite, it was probably acquired during the mineralizing process as well. The combined radiometric ages and paleomagnetic data sets can be best interpreted by assuming that northern Alaska was part of an accreted terrane that was translated northward by about 30?? into its current location relative to the rest of North America and then rotated counterclockwise by 50?? to 70??. This tectonic interpretation yields plausible magnetization ages for both characteristic remanent magnetization A and B. Geologic evidence, isotopic ages, and paleomagnetic data indicate

  14. The Fe removal through mineralogical phase transformation of pyrite by physicochemical method (United States)

    Kim, BongJu; Cho, Kanghee; Jo, JiYu; Bak, GeonYeong; Choi, NagChoul; Park*, Cheonyoung


    Gold is often associated with sulfide minerals (arsenopyrite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, galena) as ''invisible'' gold that is thought to consist either of submicrometer metallic particles or to be bound to sulfur in metal sulfide lattice. Pyrite is one of the major minerals accumulating gold in most ores, although a solubility of Au in nonarsenian pyrite is minor, and increased concentrations of gold are associated with arsenic content and iron deficiency. The objective of this study was to investigate the Fe removal through mineralogical phase transformation of pyrite by physical treatment (high frequency) and chemical leaching (ammonia solvent). The high frequency treatment experiment for the pyrite showed that (1) the pyrite phase was transformed pyrrhotite and magnetite, (2) mass loss of the sample by volatilization of included sulfur(S) in pyrite. The treated pyrite by high frequency was observed rim structure from photomicrograph result. Fe removal experiments for were performed under various conditions of high frequency exposure (10~60min), grain size (+140 mesh~-325mesh), sulfuric acid concentration (0.5~3.0M), ammonia sulfate concentration (1.7~6.8M), hydrogen peroxide concentration (0.5~3.0M). Increasing the high frequency exposure produced a positive effect on Fe removal in arsenopyrite. The highest percentage Fe removal of 95.53% was obtained under the following conditions by ammonia solvent: grain size = -325mesh, sulfuric acid concentration = 2.0M, ammonia sulfate concentration = 5.1M, hydrogen peroxide concentration = 1.0M. This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment(MOE) as "Advanced Technology Program for Environmental Industry".

  15. Microbial Sulfur Cycling in an Acid Mine Lake (United States)

    Bernier, L.; Warren, L. A.


    Geochemical dynamics of a tailings impacted lake in Northern Ontario were investigated over a three-year period, in which active pyrrhotite slurry disposal was initiated in year two. A strong seasonal trend of decreasing epilimnetic pH with significant diurnal acid production, pre-, during and post slurry deposition was observed with high rates observed compared to pre-slurry. Slurry deposition occurred at the surface of the lake and acted as a reaction stimulant for acid generation. Over the diurnal timescale investigated, the highest rates of acid production occurred not at the lake surface but within the metaliminetic region of the lake. This region was exemplified by strong decreasing oxygen gradients, and thus observed high rates of acid generation are more consistent with microbial pathways of sulfur oxidation than with abiotic, oxygen catalyzed pathways. Consistent with microbial catalysis, metalimnetic rates of acid generation were highest during June and July when microbial populations and metabolic rates were maximal. These results indicate that microbial oxidation of sulfur species play a major role in acid generation in this system. Further, observed rates of acid generation exceed those predicted by published abiotic rates of pyrrhotite oxidation, but are consistent with literature estimates of acid generation catalyzed by microbial activity. Acidithiobacilli accounted for up to 50% of the microbial community pre slurry, but were absent post slurry deposition. These results are the first to demonstrate quantitatively that microbial sulfur oxidation can play a predominant role in acid generation within mine tailings impacted systems. They further highlight the need to evaluate the more complex pathways by which microorganisms process sulfur as the conditions, controls and process rates differ from those observed for abiotic reactions.

  16. Energetics and kinetics of the prebiotic synthesis of simple organic acids and amino acids with the FeS-H2S/FeS2 redox couple as reductant (United States)

    Schoonen, M. A.; Xu, Y.; Bebie, J.


    The thermodynamics of the FeS-H2S/FeS2 redox couple and a select number of reactions critical to the synthesis of simple carboxylic acids and amino acids have been evaluated as a function of temperature. This thermodynamic evaluation shows that the reducing power of the FeS-H2S/FeS2 redox couple decreases drastically with temperature. By contrast the equilibria describing the reduction of CO2 and the formation of simple carboxylic acids and amino acids require an increasingly higher reducing power with temperature. Given these two opposite trends, the thermodynamic driving force for CO2 reduction and amino acid formation with the FeS-H2S/FeS2 redox couple as reductant diminishes with increasing temperature. An evaluation of the mechanism of CO2 reduction by the FeS-H2S/FeS2 couple suggests that the electron transfer from pyrrhotite to CO2 is hindered by a high activation energy, even though the overall reaction is thermodynamically favorable. By comparison the electron transfer from pyrrhotite to either CS2, CO, or HCOOH are far more facile. This theoretical analysis explains the results of experimental work by Keefe et al. (1995), Heinen and Lauwers (1996) and Huber and Wachtershauser (1997). The implication is that a reaction sequence involving the reduction of CO2 with the FeS-H2S/FeS2 couple as reductant is unlikely to initiate a proposed prebiotic carbon fixation cycle (Wachtershauser, 1988b; 1990b, 1990a, 1992, 1993).

  17. Paleomagnetism of the Puente Piedra Formation, Central Peru (United States)

    May, Steven R.; Butler, Robert F.


    Paleomagnetic samples were collected from 15 sites in the early Cretaceous Puente Piedra Formation near Lima, Peru. This formation consists of interbedded volcanic flows and marine sediments and represents the oldest known rocks of the Andean coastal province in this region. The Puente Piedra Formation is interpreted as a submarine volcanic arc assemblage which along with an overlying sequence of early Cretaceous clastic and carbonate rocks represents a terrane whose paleogeographic relationship with respect to the Peruvian miogeocline in pre-Albian time is unknown. Moderate to high coercivities, blocking temperatures below 320°C, and diagnostic strong-field thermomagnetic behavior indicate that pyrrhotite is the dominant magnetic phase in the Puente Piedra Formation. This pyrrhotite carries a stable CRM acquired during an event of copper mineralization associated with the intrusion of the Santa Rosa super-unit of the Coastal Batholith at about 90 ± 5 m.y. B.P. The tectonically uncorrected formation mean direction of: D = 343.2°, I = -28.6°, α 95 = 3.4° is statistically concordant in inclination but discordant in declination with respect to the expected direction calculated from the 90-m.y. reference pole for cratonic South America. The observed declination indicates approximately 20° of counterclockwise rotation of the Puente Piedra rocks since about 90 m.y. This is consistent with other paleomagnetic data from a larger crustal block which may indicate modest counterclockwise rotation during the Cenozoic associated with crustal shortening and thickening in the region of the Peru-Chile deflection.

  18. Martian low-temperature alteration materials in shock-melt pockets in Tissint: Constraints on their preservation in shergottite meteorites (United States)

    Kuchka, C. R.; Herd, C. D. K.; Walton, E. L.; Guan, Y.; Liu, Y.


    We apply an array of in situ analytical techniques, including electron and Raman microscopy, electron and ion probe microanalysis, and laser ablation mass spectrometry to the Tissint martian meteorite in order to find and elucidate a geochemical signature characteristic of low-temperature alteration at or near the martian surface. Tissint contains abundant shock-produced quench-crystallized melt pockets containing water in concentrations ranging from 73 to 1730 ppm; water content is positively correlated with Cl content. The isotopic composition of hydrogen in the shock-produced glass ranges from δD = 2559 to 4422‰. Water is derived from two distinct hydrogen reservoirs: the martian near-surface (>500‰) and the martian mantle (-100‰). In one shock melt pocket comprising texturally homogeneous vesiculated glass, the concentration of H in the shock melt decreases while simultaneously becoming enriched in D, attributable to the preferential loss of H over D to the vesicle while the pocket was still molten. While igneous sulfides are pyrrhotite in composition (Fe0.88-0.90S), the iron to sulfur ratios of spherules in shock melt pockets are elevated, up to Fe1.70S, which we attribute to shock-oxidation of igneous pyrrhotite and the formation of hematite at high temperature. The D- and Cl-enrichment, and higher oxidation of the pockets (as indicated by hematite) support a scenario in which alteration products formed within fractures or void spaces within the rock; the signature of these alteration products is preserved within shock melt (now glass) which formed upon collapse of these fractures and voids during impact shock. Thermal modeling of Tissint shock melt pockets using the HEAT program demonstrates that the shock melt pockets with the greatest potential to preserve a signature of aqueous alteration are small, isolated from other regions of shock melt, vesicle-free, and glassy.

  19. A study of the trace sulfide mineral assemblages in the Stillwater Complex, Montana, USA (United States)

    Aird, Hannah M.; Ferguson, Katherine M.; Lehrer, Malia L.; Boudreau, Alan E.


    The sulfide assemblages of the Stillwater Complex away from the well-studied ore zones are composed mainly of variable proportions of pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, pentlandite, and ±pyrite. Excluding vein assemblages and those affected by greenschist and lower temperature alteration, the majority can be classified into two broad assemblages, defined here as pristine (multiphase, often globular in shape) or volatile-bearing (multiphase, high-temperature, volatile-rich minerals such as biotite, hornblende, or an unmixed calcite-dolomite assemblage). The volatile-bearing assemblages are mainly found within and below the J-M reef, where native copper and sphalerite are also locally present. Pristine sulfides are found throughout the stratigraphy. Both groups can be affected by apparent S loss in the form of pyrite being converted to magnetite and chalcopyrite to a Cu-Fe-oxide (delafossite), with little to no silicate alteration. An upward trend from pentlandite-rich to pyrrhotite-rich to pyrite-rich assemblages is observed in the footwall rocks in upper GN-I, and the same trend repeats from just below the reef and continues into the overlying N-II and GN-II. Modeling suggests that the sulfide Ni in the Peridotite Zone is largely controlled by silicate Ni. When taken together, observations are most readily explained by the remobilization of selected elements by a high-temperature fluid with the apparent loss of S > Cu > Ni. This could concentrate ore metals by vapor refining, eventually producing a platinum group element-enriched sulfide ore zone, such as the J-M reef.

  20. Mars MOURA magnetometer demonstration for high-resolution mapping on terrestrial analogues (United States)

    Díaz-Michelena, Marina; Kilian, Rolf; Sanz, Ruy; Rios, Francisco; Baeza, Oscar


    Satellite-based magnetic measurements of Mars indicate complex and very strong magnetic anomalies, which led to an intensive and long-lasting discussion about their possible origin. To make some progress in the investigation of the origin of these anomalies the MOURA vector magnetometer was developed for in situ measurements on Mars. In this work we propose the utilisation of such an instrument for future planetary on-ground surveys. The proof of its suitability is seen through testing it on various terrestrial analogues characterised by the distinct magnetic anomalies of their basement rocks: (1) a magnetite body of EL Laco (up to +110 000 nT) and its transition to surrounding andesites ( Pali Aike volcanic field, in southern Chile, was characterised by very strong magnetic anomalies along the crater rim (up to +12 000 nT), controlled by the amount of single domain magnetites in the ground mass of the basalts. Due to their strong remanent signature, palaeo-declinations of the lavas and reorientations of collapsed blocks could be constrained by the vector data. (3) The Monturaqui meteorite crater (350 m diameter), in northern Chile, shows significant variations of its anomalies (from -2000 to > +6000 nT) in restricted areas of several square metres along its crater rim related to unexposed iron-bearing fragments of the impactor while its granitic and ignimbritic target rocks exhibit only very weak anomalies. (4) An area with several amphibolitic dykes, which cross-cut a Cretaceous granitoid in the southernmost Andes, where a decimetre-scale mapping was performed. In this case, pyrrhotite is the only magnetic carrier. It was formed during hydrothermal processes within the dykes. Very low (+40 to +120 nT) positive magnetic anomalies clearly depict the amount of 1-4 vol % pyrrhotite in these dykes, which is important as a mineralogical indicator as well as to detect associated gold and copper enrichment.

  1. Fluid-present melting of sulfide-bearing ocean-crust: Experimental constraints on the transport of sulfur from subducting slab to mantle wedge (United States)

    Jégo, Sébastien; Dasgupta, Rajdeep


    To constrain the sulfur enrichment of arc magma source-regions and the agent of sulfur transport from subducting slab to mantle wedge, here we report experimental measurements of sulfur content at sulfide saturation (SCSS) of slab-derived hydrous partial melts at 2.0 and 3.0 GPa and from 800 to 1050 °C, using Ni-NiO (NNO) and Co-CoO (CCO) external oxygen fugacity (fO2) buffers. A synthetic H2O-saturated MORB with 1 wt.% S (added as pyrite) was used as starting material. All experiments produced pyrrhotite- and fluid-saturated assemblages of silicate glass, clinopyroxene, garnet, quartz, and rutile (plus amphibole at 2 GPa/800 °C and phengite at 3 GPa/850 °C). The silicate partial melt composition evolves from rhyolitic to rhyodacitic compositions with increasing temperature and melting degree in equilibrium with an eclogitic residue, showing substantial decrease in SiO2 and Mg# and increase in FeOT, TiO2 and Na2O. At all temperatures melt sulfur concentrations are very low, with an average of 110 ± 50 ppm S, similar to previous measurements at lower pressures. Melt SCSS appears to be mainly controlled by the melt composition, the activity of water, aH2O and the sulfur fugacity, fS2 (calculated from the composition of pyrrhotite). Mass-balance calculations show that the proportion of bulk sulfur dissolved in the silicate melt is negligible (<0.005 wt.% of the bulk sulfur). In contrast, diminishing proportion of pyrrhotite with increasing temperature suggests that the fluid phase at equilibrium may contain as much as 10-15 wt.% S at ⩾1050 °C, and more than 40 wt.% of the bulk sulfur initially present in the slab may be transferred to the aqueous fluid. Our data also suggest that fluid/melt sulfur partitioning increases with increasing temperature, from ˜300 at 900 °C to ˜1200 at 1050 °C, whereas pressure appears to have less of an effect. With respect to fO2, no real difference of fluid/melt S partitioning, within data uncertainties, between NNO and CCO at

  2. Sulfur Speciation in the Martian Regolith Component in Shergottite Glasses (United States)

    Rao, M. N.; Nyquist, Laurence E.; Sutton, S.; Huth, J.


    We have shown that Gas-Rich Impact-Melt (GRIM) glasses in Shergotty, Zagami, and EET79001 (Lith A and Lith B) contain Martian regolith components that were molten during impact and quenched into glasses in voids of host rock materials based on neutron-capture isotopes, i.e., Sm-150 excesses and Sm-149 deficits in Sm, and Kr-80 excesses produced from Br [1, 2]. These GRIM glasses are rich in S-bearing secondary minerals [3.4]. Evidence for the occurrence of CaSO4 and S-rich aluminosilicates in these glasses is provided by CaO-SO3 and Al2O3-SO3 correlations, which are consistent with the finding of gypsum laths protruding from the molten glass in EET79001 (Lith A) [5]. However, in the case of GRIM glasses from EET79001 (Lith B), Shergotty and Zagami, we find a different set of secondary minerals that show a FeO-SO3 correlation (but no MgOSO3 correlation), instead of CaO-SO3 and Al2O3-SO3 correlations observed in Lith A. These results might indicate different fluidrock interactions near the shergottite source region on Mars. The speciation of sulfur in these salt assemblages was earlier studied by us using XANES techniques [6], where we found that Lith B predominantly contains Fe-sulfide globules (with some sulfate). On the other hand, Lith A showed predominantly Casulfite/ sulfate with some FeS. Furthermore, we found Fe to be present as Fe2+ indicating little oxidation, if any, in these glasses. To examine the sulfide-sulfate association in these glasses, we studied their Fe/Ni ratios with a view to find diagnostic clues for the source fluid. The Fe-sulfide mineral (Fe(0.93)Ni(0.3)S) in EET79001, Lith A is pyrrhotite [7, 8]. It yields an Fe/Ni ratio of 31. In Shergotty, pyrrhotite occurs with a molar ratio of Fe:S of 0.94 and a Ni abundance of 0.12% yielding a Fe/Ni ratio of approx.500 [8]. In this study, we determined a NiO content of approx.0.1% and FeO/NiO ratio of approx.420 in S-rich globules in #507 (EET79001, Lith B) sample using FE-SEM. In the same sample

  3. Geology of the world-class Kiaka polyphase gold deposit, West African Craton, Burkina Faso (United States)

    Fontaine, Arnaud; Eglinger, Aurélien; Ada, Koumangdiwè; André-Mayer, Anne-Sylvie; Reisberg, Laurie; Siebenaller, Luc; Le Mignot, Elodie; Ganne, Jérôme; Poujol, Marc


    The Kiaka gold deposit is a major resource in West Africa, with measured and indicated resources of 124 Mt at 1.09 g/t Au (3.9 Moz) and inferred resources of 27 Mt at 0.83 g/t Au (0.8 Moz). Located within the Manga-Fada N'Gourma greenstone and plutonic belt in south of the Burkina Faso, the deposit is hosted by a metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary sequence of lithic-, quartz-biotite metagreywackes, aluminosilicate-bearing metapelites and garnet-orthopyroxene-bearing schists and volcanic units. Structural observations indicate four local deformation events: DK1, DK2 and DK3 and DK4. Respectively, these events are linked to regional D1 E-W compression, D2 NW-SE compression and lastly, D3- and D4-related reactivations along D2 shear zones. The S2 foliation and D2 shear zones are developed during lower amphibolite facies metamorphism whereas retrogression occurs during D3-4 reactivations along these shear zones at upper greenschist facies conditions. The emplacement of a dioritic intrusion, dated at 2140 ± 7 Ma (Concordia U-Pb age on magmatic zircon), is interpreted to be contemporaneous with sinistral displacement along mineralized, NE-trending D2 shear zones. The intersection of these shears zones and the Markoye shear zone (dextral-reverse D1 and sinistral-reverse D2 reactivations) controlled the final geometry of the host rocks and the ore zones. Four subparallel elongated ore bodies are mainly hosted within D2-related shear zones and some are developed in an apparent axial plane of a F2 isoclinal fold. Detailed petrographic studies have identified two main types of hydrothermal alteration associated with two stages of gold mineralization. The stage (1) corresponds to replacement zones with biotite and clinozoisite during the D2 event associated with pyrrhotite ± pyrite, chalcopyrite (disseminated gold stage). The stage (2) occurs during reactivations of the D2-related auriferous shear zones (vein stage) and is characterized by diopside ± actinolite D3 veins and

  4. Framboidal and idiomorphic pyrite in the upper Maastrichtian sedimentary rocks at Gabal Oweina, Nile Valley, Egypt: Formation processes, oxidation products and genetic implications to the origin of framboidal pyrite (United States)

    Soliman, Mamdouh F.; El Goresy, Ahmed


    The upper Maastrichtian organic-rich sediments studied at Gabal Oweina, Egypt, are moderately enriched in syngenetic and diagenetic pyrite. Pyrite occurs mostly as layers or bands, group of lamina, lenses, diagenetic intercalated pockets, burrow fills and disseminated individual pyrite framboids and crystals within the host sediments. The pyritic thin bands and lamina consist mostly of unconsolidated to compact-oriented pyrite (oriented along the bedding planes) in gypsiferous-clayey matrix and less common as poorly oriented pyrite crystallites. In several cases, pyrite crystals of the latter type depict zoning, fracturing and micro-concretions. Pyritic burrow fills are composed mainly of pyrite, phosphatic ooids, microfossils, glauconitic grains, poorly graphitized carbon and native sulfur. Pyrite replaces minerals other than gypsum, sulfur or carbon. It also replaces microfossils thus turning some of the phosphatic ooids and microfossils to pyritized pseudomorphs. None of the studied phosphate ooids or framboids contains any mackinawite, pyrrhotite or greigite. Based on the microscopic and SEM observations of the micro-textures of disseminated pyrite found at Gabal Oweina section, four morphological forms of primary pyrite could be identified: (1) Grouped multiple-framboids; (2) Individual framboids; (3) Pyrite idiomorphic crystal overgrowths on framboids and (4) Single and aggregates of euhedral pyrite crystals. The multiple-framboid formation may have emerged from three successive processes: nucleation and growth of individual aggregates of the microcrystals to form combined micro-framboids (the growth of framboids); and followed by grouping of the several pyrite framboids. Direct pyrite nucleation (shell formation), crystallization, and aggregation processes might complete a single framboid. The disseminated single and aggregated euhedral pyrite crystals bear evidence indicating that their formation was via nucleation and growth of pyrite crystallites and

  5. Methane origin and oxygen-fugacity evolution of the Baogutu reduced porphyry Cu deposit in the West Junggar terrain, China (United States)

    Shen, Ping; Pan, HongDi


    Most porphyry copper deposits worldwide contain magnetite, hematite, and anhydrite in equilibrium with hypogene copper-iron sulfides (chalcopyrite, bornite) and have fluid inclusions with CO2 >> CH4 that are indicative of high fO2. In contrast, the Baogutu porphyry Cu deposit in the West Junggar terrain (Xinjiang, China) lacks hematite and anhydrite, contains abundant pyrrhotite and ilmenite in equilibrium with copper-iron sulfides (chalcopyrite), and has fluid inclusions with CH4 >> CO2 that are indicative of low fO2. The mineralized intrusive phases at Baogutu include the main-stage diorite stock and minor late-stage diorite porphyry dikes. The main-stage stock underwent fractional crystallization and country-rock assimilation-contamination, and consists of dominant diorite and minor gabbro and tonalite porphyry. The country rocks contain organic carbons (0.21-0.79 wt.%). The δ13CvPDB values of the whole rocks (-23.1 to -25.8 ‰) in the wall rocks suggest a sedimentary organic carbon source. The δ13CvPDB values of CH4 (-28.2 to -36.0 ‰) and CO2 (-6.8 to -20.0 ‰) in fluid inclusions require an organic source of external carbon and equilibration of their Δ13CCO2-CH4 values (8.2-25.0 ‰) at elevated temperatures (294-830 °C) suggesting a significant contribution of thermogenic CH4. Mineral composition data on the main-stage intrusions, such as clinopyroxene, hornblende, biotite, magnetite, ilmenite, sphene, apatite, and pyrrhotite, suggest that the primary magma at Baogutu was oxidized and became reduced after emplacement by contamination with country rocks. Mineral compositions and fluid inclusion gas compositions suggest that the redox state of the system evolved from log fO2 > FMQ + 1 in the magma stage, to log fO2 FMQ in the hydrothermal stage. Though oxidized magma was emplaced initially, assimilation-contamination of carbonaceous country rocks decreased its fO2 such that exsolved fluids contained abundant CH4 and deposited a reduced assemblage of

  6. The partitioning of sulfur and chlorine between andesite melts and magmatic volatiles and the exchange coefficients of major cations (United States)

    Zajacz, Zoltán; Candela, Philip A.; Piccoli, Philip M.; Sanchez-Valle, Carmen


    Andesite melts were equilibrated with an H-O-S-bearing volatile phase to determine the partition coefficients for S and Cl as a function of melt composition and oxygen fugacity. The experiments were conducted in rapid-quench MHC vessel assemblies at 200 MPa and 1000 °C, and over a range of imposed fO2 between NNO-1.2 and NNO+1.8. High fluid/melt mass ratios (∼15) were employed, allowing precise and accurate partition coefficients to be obtained by mass balance calculations. Chlorine exhibits Henrian behavior at ClO-0.5 activities typical for arc magmas, with D Cl volatile/melt = 1.36 ± 0.06 (1σ) below 0.2 wt.% Cl in the melt; at higher ClO-0.5 activities, D Cl volatile/melt increases linearly to 2.11 ± 0.02 at 1 wt.% Cl in the melt. In the volatile phase: FeCl2 ∼ NaCl > KCl ∼ HCl. The determination of cation exchange coefficients for major cations yielded: K K,Na volatile/melt = 1.23 ± 0.10 (1σ) and ∗K Fe,Na volatile/melt = D Fe volatile/melt / D Na volatile/melt = 1.08 ± 0.16 (1σ). Under these conditions, the concentration of HCl in the vapor is negatively correlated with the (Na + K)/(Al + Fe3+) ratio in the melt. Reduced sulfur (S2-) appears to obey Henry's law in andesite melt-volatile system at fH2S below pyrrhotite saturation. The partition coefficient for S at fO2 = NNO-0.5 correlates negatively with the FeO concentration in the melt, changing from 254 ± 25 at 4.0 wt.% FeO to 88 ± 6 at 7.5 wt.% FeO. Pyrrhotite saturation is reached when approximately 3.2 mol% S is present in the volatile phase at fO2 = NNO-0.5. At the sulfide/sulfate transition, the partition coefficient of S drops from 171 ± 23 to 21 ± 1 at a constant FeO content of ∼6 wt.% in the melt. At fO2 = NNO+1.8, anhydrite saturation is reached at ∼3.3 mol% S present in the volatile phase. Aqueous volatiles exsolving from intermediate to mafic magmas can efficiently extract S, and effect its transfer to sites of magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposit formation.

  7. Geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of the Yonghwa phoscorite-carbonatite complex, South Korea, and genetic implications (United States)

    Seo, Jieun; Choi, Seon-Gyu; Park, Jung-Woo; Whattam, Scott; Kim, Dong Woo; Ryu, In-Chang; Oh, Chang Whan


    The Yonghwa phoscorite-carbonatite complex occurs as an isolated individual body with an inclined pipe shape within the Precambrian Gyeonggi Massif, South Korea. The phoscorite consists mainly of olivine, apatite, magnetite, carbonates, amphibole, and phlogopite, and can be subdivided into two types, olivine-rich and apatite-rich. The carbonatite is composed of calcite, Mg-rich dolomite, Fe-rich dolomite, magnetite, apatite, and/or siderite. Intensive fenitization occurred along the boundary between the complex and the wall rocks of leucocratic banded gneiss and garnet-bearing metabasite. The paragenetic sequences of the phoscorite-carbonatite complex demonstrate that the early crystallization of silicate minerals was followed by the crystallization of carbonates as the carbonatitic melt cooled. Magnetite occurs within the complex, and the carbonatites have Fe contents that are higher than typical ferrocarbonatites, due to the high magnetite contents. The rare earth elements (REEs) in the phoscorites and carbonatites are weakly fractionated and show enrichments of LREEs and Nb relative to HREEs. Furthermore, the apatites reflect the fractionated trends of LREEs relative to HREEs. Phoscorite apatites are enriched in Sr and show substitutions between Ca and Sr. Mica chemistry reflects the evolutionary trend of Fe2 + and Mg2 + in the phoscorite-carbonatite melt without Al substitution. Micas exhibit high values of Mg# in the phoscorite-carbonatite complex, but lower values in fenites. Via thermodynamic analysis, the early stability fields of magnetite-pyrrhotite-graphite-carbonate assemblages indicate that the Yonghwa phoscorite and carbonatite crystallized under conditions of 600 °C, 2 kbar, and XCO2 = 0.2. Afterward, melts underwent an evolution to the late stability fields of magnetite-pyrite-pyrrhotite-ilmenite assemblages. The δ13C and δ18O isotopic compositions of carbonates in the Yonghwa phoscorite-carbonatite complex are - 8.2‰ to - 3.4‰ and 6.6 to 11

  8. Ore-forming mechanism for the Xiaoxinancha Au-rich Cu deposit in Yanbian,Jilin Province,China:Evidence from noble gas isotope geochemistry of fluid inclusions in minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KEISUKE; Nagao; HIROCHIKA; Sumino


    The Xiaoxinancha Au-rich copper deposit is one of important Au-Cu deposits along the continental margin in Eastern China. The deposit consists of two sections: the Beishan mine (North), composed of altered rocks with veinlet-dissemination sulfides and melnicovite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins, and the Nanshan mine (South), composed of pyrrhotite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins and pure sulfide veins. The isotope compositions of noble gases extracted from fluid inclusions in ore minerals, i.e. ratios of 3He/4He, 20Ne/22Ne and40Ar/36Ar are in the ranges of 4.45―0.08 Ra, 10.2―8.8 and 306―430, respectively. Fluid inclusions in minerals from the Nanshan mine have higher 3He/4He and 20Ne/22Ne ratios whereas those from the Beishan mine have lower 3He/4He ratios. The analysis of origin, and evolution of the ore fluids and its relations with the ore-forming stages and the ages of mineralization suggests that the initial hydrothermal fluids probably come from the melts generated by partial melting of oceanic crust with the participation of fluids from the mantle (mantle-plume type)/aesthenosphere. This also corresponds to the continental margin settings during the subduction of Izanagi ocaneic plate towards the palaeo-Asian continent (123―102 Ma). The veinlet-dissemination ore bodies of the Beishan mine were formed through replacement and crystallization of the mixed fluids generated by mixing of the ascending high-temperature boiling fluid with young crustal fluid whereas the melnicovite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins were formed subsequently by filling of the high-temperature ore fluid in fissures. Pyrrhotite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins in the Nanshan mine were formed by filling-deposition-crystallization of the moderate-temperature ore fluids and the pure sulfide veins were formed later by filling-deposition-crystallization of ore substance-rich fluids after boiling of the moderate-temperature ore fluids. The metallogenic dynamic processes can be summarized as

  9. Deciphering a multistage history affecting U-Cu(-Fe) mineralization in the Singhbhum Shear Zone, eastern India, using pyrite textures and compositions in the Turamdih U-Cu(-Fe) deposit (United States)

    Pal, Dipak C.; Barton, Mark D.; Sarangi, A. K.


    The ˜200-km-long intensely deformed Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ) in eastern India hosts India’s largest U and Cu deposits and related Fe mineralization. The SSZ separates an Archaean cratonic nucleus to the south from a Mesoproterozoic fold belt in the North and has a complex geologic history that obscures the origin of the contained iron-oxide-rich mineral deposits. This study investigates aspects of the history of mineralization in the SSZ by utilizing new petrographic and electron microprobe observations of pyrite textures and zoning in the Turamdih U-Cu(-Fe) deposit. Mineralization at Turamdih is hosted in intensively deformed quartz-chlorite schist. Sulfides and oxides include, in inferred order of development: (a) magmatic Fe(-Ti-Cr) oxide and Fe-Cu(-Ni) sulfide minerals inferred to be magmatic (?) in origin; followed by (b) uranium, Fe-oxide, and Fe-Cu(-Co) sulfide minerals that predate most or all ductile deformation, and are inferred to be of hydrothermal origin; and (c) Fe-Cu sulfides that were generated during and postdating ductile deformation. These features are associated with the formation of three compositionally and texturally distinct pyrites. Pyrite (type-A), typically in globular-semiglobular composite inclusions of pyrite plus chalcopyrite in magnetite, is characterized by very high Ni content (up to 30,700 ppm) and low Co to Ni ratios (0.01-0.61). The textural and compositional characteristics of associated chalcopyrite and rare pyrrhotite suggest that this pyrite could be linked to the magmatic event via selective replacement of magmatic pyrrhotite. Alternatively, this pyrite and associated sulfide inclusions might be cogenetic with hydrothermal Fe-oxide. Type-B pyrite that forms elongate grains and irregular relics and cores of pyrite with high Co contents (up to 23,630 ppm) and high Co to Ni ratios (7.2-140.9) are interpreted to be related to hydrothermal mineralization predating ductile deformation. A third generation of pyrite (type C

  10. First report on the occurrence of CO2-bearing fluid inclusions in the Meiduk porphyry copper deposit, Iran: implications for mineralisation processes in a continental collision setting (United States)

    Asadi, Sina; Moore, Farid; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Khosrojerdi, Majid


    Hydrothermal alteration of the Meiduk porphyry copper deposit, south of the Kerman Cenozoic magmatic arc and southeast of the central Iranian volcano-plutonic belt has resulted in three stages of mineralisation characterised by veins and veinlets. These are, from early to late: (1) quartz + K-feldspar + biotite + pyrite ± chalcopyrite ± pyrrhotite ± magnetite (early potassic alteration and type-A veins); (2) quartz + chalcopyrite + pyrite + bornite + pyrrhotite + K- -feldspar + biotite + magnetite (potassic-sericitic alteration and type-B veins); and (3) quartz + pyrite + chalcopyrite + sericite (sericitic alteration and type-C veins). Most ores were formed during stages 2 and 3. Three main types of fluid inclusions are distinguished based on petrographical, microthermometrical and laser Raman spectroscopy analyses, i.e. type I (three-phase aqueous inclusions), type II (three-phase liquid-carbonic inclusions) and type III (multi-phase solid inclusions). The fluid inclusions in quartz veins of the stages are mainly homogenised at 340-530°C (stage 1), 270-385°C (stage 2) and 214-350°C (stage 3), respectively, with salinities of 3.1-16 wt.% NaCl equivalent, 2.2-43 wt.% NaCl equivalent and 8.2-22.8 wt.% NaCl equivalent, respectively. The estimated trapping pressures are 97.9-123.6 MPa (3.7-4.6 km) in stage 1 and 62.5-86.1 MPa (2.3-3.1 km) in stage 2, respectively. These fluid inclusions are homogenised in different ways at similar temperatures, suggesting that fluid boiling took place in stages 2 and 3. The fluid system evolved from high-temperature, medium-salinity, high-pressure and CO2-rich to low-temperature, low-pressure, high-salinity and CO2-poor, with fluid boiling being the dominating mechanism, followed by input of meteoric water. CO2 escape may have been a factor in increasing activities of NaCl and S2- in the fluids, diminishing the oxidation of the fluids from stage 1 to 3. The result was precipitation of sulphides and trapping of multi-phase solid

  11. Mineralogical and Geochemical Characterization of the Kimmeria Intrusion-Related Deposit, Xanthi, NE Greece (United States)

    Theodoridou, Stella; Melfos, Vasilios; Voudouris, Panagiotis; Miskovic, Aleksandar


    Although intrusion-related systems have not been previously recognized in the European segment of the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt, the Rhodope metallogenic province of SE Balkan peninsula hosts numerous such occurrences. The Kimmeria hydrothermal system incorporates two styles of ore mineralization: i) a massive Au-bearing magnetite-pyrrhotite skarn and ii) a Mo-Cu-Bi-W quartz vein-hosted mineralization, both of which are related to the Oligocene Xanthi pluton (25.5±1.2 to 30±1 My, K-Ar in hornblende and biotite). The Xanthi pluton, consisting of I-type gabbros, monzonites and amphibole-biotite granodiorites, intrudes the basement gneisses, mica schists, amphibolites and marbles of the Southern Rhodope Core Complex; a dome that has gradually exhumed from Paleocene/mid Eocene to Miocene (starting between 65 and >42 to 10 My). The Xanthi pluton emplacement and the magmatically derived hydrothermal fluid circulation were controlled by two major regional structures: the low-angle Kavala-Xanthi-Komotini detachment fault and the Nestos thrust fault. The Kimmeria Au-Cu-Fe skarn mineralization features a well-preserved aureole at the contact between the granodiorite and the surrounding marbles. It consists of two paragenetic stages comprising magnetite and pyrrhotite-rich assemblages. Alteration minerals comprise chlorite and sericite. Bulk chemical analyses of the skarn mineralization revealed relatively high concentration of Cu (1 wt.%), Pb (288 ppm) and Zn (0.74 wt.%). The mineralization is also enriched in As (quartz formation for both mineralization types, at relatively low temperatures and probably from the same fluid. Oxygen isotopes values in calcite from the unmineralized marbles and ore specimens are scattered over a wide range from 12.1 to 41.7 ‰ (V-SMOW). They have relatively low carbon isotopic values (-4.8 to 2.1 ‰ V-PDB), indicative of a magmatic δ13C signature and a restricted isotopic exchange with hydrothermal fluids. Primary fluid inclusion studies

  12. Mineralogical and geochemical features of the Oleninskoe gold occurrence (Kola region, Russia) (United States)

    Galkin, N.; Gavrilenko, B.


    The Oleninskoe gold occurrence is situated within the Archean Kolmozero-Voron’ja suture structure. The host rocks are basalts and gabbro-diabases metamorphosed in the amphibolite facies. The mineralized zone is bordered in the west by a major fault intersecting the entire structure. The thickness of the zone is approximately 50 m, it strikes over 1.5 km, and dips to at least 100 m. The alteration processes in the rocks of the Oleninskoe occurrence are represented mainly by the silicification (thin quartz veinlet), biotitization, epidotization, diopsidization etc. Based on study of fissure systems in the host rocks, it is established that ore bodies tend to an intersection of disjunctive dislocations of the lower order represented by steep longitudinal and transversal fissures. Pyrrhotite-arsenopyrite mineralization of the Oleninskoe gold occurrence is of the streaky-disseminated type. It can be referred to low-sulfide gold-quartz formation. The major ore minerals are pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, native gold, electrum, native silver, chalcopyrite, blende, galena and silver sulphosalts. The primary gold-bearing mineral is arsenopyrite, in which early gold is emulsive. The size of gold grains varies from 0.001 mm up to 0.2 mm. Later gold is represented by veinlets in sulphides and silicates being 0.1 up to 0.5 mm in size. On the basis of 100 individual geochemical analyses, primary geochemical aureoles of Au, Ag and As were mapped. That allowed to reveal a pod-like shape and orientation of the ore bodies. The orientation of the ore bodies coincides spatially with crystallization and metamorphic schistosity of host rocks and corresponds to the general direct strike of the Archean Kolmozero-Voron’ja structure. It is noted according to the primary aureoles that the rocks with highest concentration of Au, Ag and As tend to the contact of gabbro-diabases and muscovite-quartz metasomatic rocks. The gold composition in the Archean Kolmozero-Voron’ja structure ranges from

  13. Experimental constraints on gold and silver solubility in iron sulfides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal' yanova, Galina [Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 3, Koptyuga, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Russia, 2, Pirogova, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Mikhlin, Yuri [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademgorodok, 50/24, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Kokh, Konstantin, E-mail: [Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 3, Koptyuga, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Russia, 2, Pirogova, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Siberian Physical–Technical Institute of Tomsk State University, 1, Novosobornaya, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Karmanov, Nick [Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 3, Koptyuga, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Seryotkin, Yurii [Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 3, Koptyuga, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Russia, 2, Pirogova, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)


    Experiments were performed to determine crystallization of Fe,S-melts (pyriti≿ and troilitic with molar ratio S/Fe ratios of 2 and 1, respectively) containing traces of gold and silver at (Ag/Au){sub wt} ratios varying from 10 to 0.1. The solid products were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), microprobe analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in order to reveal the concentration limits of “invisible” gold and silver in magmatic iron sulfides, and to determine the influence of sulfur on forms of precious metals in the Fe–S system with different Ag/Au ratios. Au–Ag phases do not form inclusions but instead concentrate on the grain boundaries in the synthetic pyrrhotite and troilite, while pyrite comprises micro- (1–5 μm) and macroinclusions of Au–Ag alloys and Au–Ag sulfides. In “pyriti≿” systems, the fineness of alloys increases from 650 to 970‰ and the composition of sulfides changes from acanthite (Ag{sub 2}S) to uytenbogaardtite (Ag{sub 3}AuS{sub 2}) and petrovskaite (AgAuS) as the Ag/Au ratio decreases. The concentrations of “invisible” precious metals revealed in troilite were 0.040 ± 0.013 wt.% Au and 0.079 ± 0.016 wt.% Ag. Measured concentrations in pyrite and pyrrhotite were <0.024 wt.% Au and <0.030 wt.% Ag. The surface layers of iron sulfides probed with XPS were enriched in the precious metals, and in silver relative to gold, especially in the systems with Fe/S = 1, probably, due to depletion of the metallic alloy surfaces with gold. Au- and Ag-bearing iron sulfides crystallized primarily from melts may be the source of redeposited phases in hydrothermal and hypergene processes. - Highlights: • The samples of Fe–S–Au–Ag system were synthesized. • Coupled solubility of gold and silver in iron sulfides was specified. • Ag–Au inclusions on surfaces of iron sulfides are likely to be enriched in silver. • Au–Ag sulfides can exist along with

  14. Sulfide oxidation and distribution of metals near abandoned copper mines in coastal environments, Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA (United States)

    Koski, R.A.; Munk, L.; Foster, A.L.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Stillings, L.L.


    The oxidation of sulfide-rich rocks, mostly leftover debris from Cu mining in the early 20th century, is contributing to metal contamination of local coastal environments in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Analyses of sulfide, water, sediment, precipitate and biological samples from the Beatson, Ellamar, and Threeman mine sites show that acidic surface waters generated from sulfide weathering are pathways for redistribution of environmentally important elements into and beyond the intertidal zone at each site. Volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits composed of pyrrhotite and (or) pyrite + chalcopyrite + sphalerite with subordinate galena, arsenopyrite, and cobaltite represent potent sources of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Co, Cd, and Hg. The resistance to oxidation among the major sulfides increases in the order pyrrhotite ??? sphalerite Hg (to 4100 ng/L) in the pore waters probably result from oxidation of sphalerite-rich rocks. The low-pH and high concentrations of dissolved Fe, Al, and SO4 are conducive to precipitation of interstitial jarosite in the intertidal gravels. Although pore waters from the intertidal zone at the Threeman mine site have circumneutral pH values, small amounts of dissolved Fe2+ in the pore waters are oxidized during mixing with seawater, resulting in precipitation of Fe-oxyhydroxide flocs along the beach-seawater interface. At the Beatson site, surface waters funneled through the underground mine workings and discharged across the waste dumps have near-neutral pH (6.7-7.3) and a relatively small base-metal load; however, these streams probably play a role in the physical transport of metalliferous particulates into intertidal and offshore areas during storm events. Somewhat more acidic fluids, to pH 5.3, occur in stagnant seeps and small streams emerging from the Beatson waste dumps. Amorphous Fe precipitates in stagnant waters at Beatson have high Cu (5.2 wt%) and Zn (2.3 wt%) concentrations that probably reflect adsorption onto the extremely high

  15. The study of indoor air pollution by means of magnetometry (United States)

    Jelenska, M.; Górka-Kostrubiec, B.; Król, E.


    The aim of this study is to establish what kind of outside pollution penetrate into indoor spaces. Here we report preliminary results of magnetic monitoring study of indoor air pollution by particulate matter (PM) measured inside flats and houses placed in different locations in Warsaw area. Indoor air pollution level was evaluated by measuring magnetic properties of dust taken from vacuum cleaners used in private flats. The dust samples were taken from about 180 locations in Warsaw distributed in such polluted places as city centre or communication lines with heavy traffic and in unpolluted suburb places. The locations were also distributed according to height above ground level. There were taken in flats situated from first to 16th floors. The basic magnetic parameters such us, χ mass magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis loop parameters: coercive force (Hc), coercivity of remanence (Hcr), saturation magnetization (Ms) and saturation remanent magnetization (Mrs or SIRM) and χfd frequency dependence of susceptibility, have been used to identify indoor pollution level and to characterize domain state and granulometry of magnetic minerals. Identification of magnetic minerals have been made by measuring decay curve of SIRM during heating to temperature of 700 °C. For chosen samples concentration of 20 elements were measured. The most frequent values of susceptibility of dust are between 50 and 150 10-8 m3/kg with the maximum around 100 10-8 m3/kg. Thermomagnetic analysis for dust differs from that for soil samples taken in the vicinity. SIRM(T) curves for dust show remanence loss at 320 °C and at 520- 540 °C. This is diagnostic for pyrrhotite and magnetite as dominant magnetic minerals. Some samples demonstrate loss of remanence at 160 °C and at temperature characteristic for magnetite. Soil samples do not show pyrrhotite presence or loss of remanence at 160 °C. Display of hysteresis parameters on Day-Dunlop plot indicates predominance of SD/MD grains with

  16. Insights on the injection mechanisms inferred from AMS fabrics of sand injectites in a turbiditic system, the exemple of Bevon area of the SE Basin (France). (United States)

    Robion, Philippe; Mehl, Caroline


    We propose to investigate the set up mechanisms of sands injection in the case of dykes injected in host marls of Aptian-Albian age in the Vocontian basin (SE France). Several models have been proposed for a downward injection of the dyke in the Bevons area and we guess that AMS fabric investigations can be used to infer the flow direction. 144 drill cores distributed on 14 sites were sampled, among which 8 sites in the injectites and 6 sites in the host rocks. The studied dykes are generally of a few decimeters thick and are setting up in both in vertical or oblique position with respect to the subhorizontal bedding of the host rocks. There were sampled from one side to the other in order to track the flow direction by identification of imbricated fabric. Magnetic mineralogy, i.e. unblocking temperature inferred from IRM 3 axes demagnetization, indicates that the ferromagnetics s.l. mineralogy is dominated by an assemblage of magnetite (unblocking temperature Tub=580°C) and pyrrhotite (Tub=325°C). Magnetic susceptibility is low, typical for siliciclastic rocks, ranging from 4x10-5 up to 1.7x10-4 SI. Degree of magnetic anisotropy is likely representative of AMS measurements in sedimentary rocks with weak values, below than 5 %. In marly host rocks magnetic mineralogy is dominated by pyrrhotite associated with magnetite and both the magnetic susceptibility and degree of anisotropy are slightly lower than for injectites. Regarding magnetic fabric axes distribution, despite some dispersion, the results show that minimum axes of AMS (K3) are parallel to the dyke plane, and maximum axes (K1) are roughly in horizontal position. In marly host rocks, the magnetic fabric is related to tectonic shortening. We interpret that the host rocks have recorded the regional tectonic imprint while the magnetic fabric of the injectites are related to early sedimentary processes. The mechanism of set up proposed to explain the magnetic fabric in the Bevon injectites is a step

  17. 温度对管线钢H2S/CO2腐蚀行为的影响%Effect of Temperature on H2S/CO2 Corrosion Behavior of Pipeline Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建炜; 章军; 曹建平; 陈晨; 张雷; 丁金慧; 路民旭


    Flowing solution environments containing H2S/CO2 were simulated in a high temperature and high pressure autoclave. Corrosion behavior of API-X60 pipeline steels was investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction methodology (XRD). Effects of temperature on corrosion rate and products were discussed. The results show that corrosion rate of X60 steel increases at the beginning and then decreases with temperature increasing, and localized corrosion turns into general corrosion obviously, but pitting is observed at high temperature. Mackinawite (FeS1-x) and FeS composite form as corrosion product in low-temperature condition, with temperature increasing the corrosion products were dominated by lamellar-type Mackinawite crystal and associated with a small amount of Pyrrhotite (Fe1-xS) crystal. However, Pyrrhotite crystal becomes more dominated at higher temperature region. Poor adhesion of corrosion scale leads to a lower covering rate at low temperature. Cathodic effects of scale promote the localized corrosion and a faster anode reaction rate and rapid development of pitting will be achieved without blocked effect.%利用高温高压反应釜模拟高含硫气田H2S/CO2共存环境,在流动溶液介质中进行腐蚀实验,辅以SEM和XRD,探讨了温度对API-X60管线钢H2S/CO2腐蚀行为的影响.结果表明:随温度的升高X60钢的腐蚀速率先升高后降低,腐蚀形态由局部腐蚀趋于全面腐蚀,高温区有点蚀倾向.低温区形成的腐蚀产物以马基诺矿型晶体(FeS1-X)和FeS单硫化物为主,随温度升高腐蚀产物以层片状马基诺矿型晶体为主,并出现少量磁黄铁矿型(Fe1-XS)晶体;高温区则以磁黄铁矿型晶体为主.低温区腐蚀产物附着力差导致其覆盖率降低,膜层脱落处的阳极反应速率由于膜层覆盖处的阴极效应而加快,使点蚀迅速发展.

  18. Neoproterozic Re-Os age of a sulfide inclusion in a superdeep diamond: Implications for mantle convection beneath Juina, Brazil (United States)

    Shirey, S. B.; Smit, K.; Nestola, F.; Steele, A.; Bulanova, G.; Smith, C. B.


    Diamonds from the Juina area Brazil have long been known for their sublithospheric or superdeep (e.g. from depths of 300-800 km) origins. These diamonds have yielded new information about high pressure mantle mineralogy, deep crustal recycling, diamond source fluids, and mantle transition zone water content. A type II (low N) diamond (sample J1) from the 93.1±1.5 myr old (Heaman 7IKC 1998 ) Collier 4 kimberlite was studied previously (Walter et al. Nature 2008; Bulanova et al. CMP 2010) as part of a larger suite of eclogitic-composition, inclusion-bearing type II Collier 4 diamonds with complex internal growth structure. Major and trace element analyses of mineral inclusions in these diamonds include Ca-Ti-Si perovskite, Ca-rich majoritic-garnet, clinopyroxene, olivine, jeffbenite, minerals with stoichiometries of CAS and K-hollandite phases, SiO2, FeO, native iron, low-Ni sulfides, and Ca-Mg-carbonate. The C isotopic compositions of the diamond hosts range from a δ13C of -25 to -5‰ ( J1 being -15‰). Collier 4 diamonds have been interpreted to crystallize from carbonatitic melts derived from the recycling of oceanic lithosphere at TransitionZone depths (Walter et al. Nature 2008; Bulanova et al. CMP 2010). A rare Fe-sulfide inclusion in the core of diamond J1 has been dated with the Re-Os system in order to provide age and compositional constraints on the proposed oceanic slab recycling. The rim of J1 contained inclusions of Ca-Ti-Si perovskite that yielded U-Pb age of 101±7 Ma and eclogitic (low Cr, high Ca) majorite that yielded formation pressures (Si - Al+Cr geobarometry) >8 GPa (Bulanova et al. CMP 2010). The Fe-sulfide analyzed was low Ni pyrrhotite determined to be Fe10S11 of a rare 11T polytype by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The 27 ug interior pyrrhotite had a high Re/Os (187Re/188Os = 854) typical of MORB (Re/Os ~100) and radiogenic Os isotopic composition (187Os/188Os = 8.50±1.38) that yields a 602±16 Ma model age relative to normal mantle

  19. Iron carbide as a source of carbon for graphite and diamond formation under lithospheric mantle P-T parameters (United States)

    Bataleva, Yuliya V.; Palyanov, Yuri N.; Borzdov, Yuri M.; Bayukov, Oleg A.; Zdrokov, Evgeniy V.


    Experimental modeling of natural carbide-involving reactions, implicated in the graphite and diamond formation and estimation of the iron carbide stability in the presence of S-bearing fluids, sulfide melts as well as mantle silicates and oxides, was performed using a multi-anvil high-pressure split-sphere apparatus. Experiments were carried out in the carbide-sulfur (Fe3C-S), carbide-sulfur-oxide (Fe3C-S-SiO2-MgO) and carbide-sulfide (Fe3C-FeS2) systems, at pressure of 6.3 GPa, temperatures in the range of 900-1600 °C and run time of 18-40 h. During the interaction of cohenite with S-rich reduced fluid or pyrite at 900-1100 °C, extraction of carbon from carbide was realized, resulting in the formation of graphite in assemblage with pyrrhotite and cohenite. At higher temperatures complete reaction of cohenite with newly-formed sulfide melt was found to produce metal-sulfide melt with dissolved carbon (Fe64S27C9 (1200 °C)-Fe54S40C6 (1500 °C), at.%), which acted as a crystallization medium for graphite (1200-1600 °C) and diamond growth on seeds (1300-1600 °C). Reactions of cohenite and oxides with S-rich reduced fluid resulted in the formation of graphite in assemblage with highly ferrous orthopyroxene and pyrrhotite (900-1100 °C) or in hypersthene formation, as well as graphite crystallization and diamond growth on seeds in the Fe-S-C melt (1200-1600 °C). We show that the main processes of carbide interaction with S-rich fluid or sulfide melt are recrystallization of cohenite (900-1100 °C), extraction of carbon and iron in the sulfide melt, and graphite formation and diamond growth in the metal-sulfide melt with dissolved carbon. Our results evidence that iron carbide can act as carbon source in the processes of natural graphite and diamond formation under reduced mantle conditions. We experimentally demonstrate that cohenite in natural environments can be partially consumed in the reactions with mantle silicates and oxides, and is absolutely unstable in

  20. Experimental research on comprehensive recovery of a refractory gold ore%某难选金矿综合回收试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新刚; 宋翔宇; 翟晓辰


    某难选金矿矿石中伴生有铜、铁等有价元素,为了充分利用矿产资源,对该矿石进行了选矿综合回收试验研究。其结果表明:通过采用活化剂 AS -2活化浮选铜、浮选尾矿细磨预处理—氰化浸金工艺,可获得铜品位14.32%、回收率58.64%的铜精矿,金总回收率达到83.12%;氰化尾矿采用磁选回收磁铁矿并浮选脱硫,可得到铁品位62%以上的磁铁矿精粉和硫品位28%以上的硫铁矿精粉。该工艺流程有效地回收了矿石中的有价金属元素。%The experimental research on comprehensive recovery of gold,copper and ferrum from a refractory gold ore is performed to make full use of resources.Experimental results show that the copper concentrate with the recovery of 58.64 % and the grade of 14.32 % can be produced when reagent AS -2 was used as activators;in this circum-stance,flotation tailings were further processed by using fine grinding pretreatment -cyanidation process,total gold re-covery rate reached 83.12 %;Magnetic separation was used to recover magnetite from cyanide tailings,and flotation was used for removing pyrrhotite from magnetite.Fe grade of magnetite concentrates was above 62 % and S grade of pyrrhotite concentrates was above 28 %,respectively.Thus,the valuable metallic elements of refractory gold ore are ef-fectively recycled.

  1. Magma evolution and volatile behaviour prior to and during the Plinian Lower Pumice 2 eruption, Santorini, Greece (United States)

    Gertisser, R.; Preece, K.; Keller, J.


    The Plinian Lower Pumice 2 (LP2) eruption (c. 180 ka) was the first major caldera-forming eruption of the Santorini volcanic complex (Greece). The eruption shows some striking similarities to the caldera-forming Late Bronze Age (Minoan) eruption in terms of field, petrological and geochemical characteristics of its eruptive products, which are discussed here to reveal the storage conditions of the LP2 magmas, pre-eruptive magmatic processes and the behaviour and degassing of volatiles prior to and during eruption. The LP2 eruption consists of four discrete eruption phases that produced pyroclastic fall and flow deposits of predominantly rhyodacitic composition [Druitt et al., 1999, Geol. Soc. Lond. Mem., 19]. A subordinate basaltic to andesitic juvenile component, represented by grey, quench-textured scoriae, occurs mainly in the Plinian airfall deposits of the first eruption phase. Petrological and geochemical data indicate that the main volume of rhyodacitic LP2 magma formed by fractionation of olivine, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, plagioclase, amphibole, Fe-Ti oxides, pyrrhotite and apatite from basaltic magma with compositional characteristics similar to the most mafic scoriae and assimilation of small amounts of crustal rocks. The magma was stored at mid-crustal levels, magmatic temperatures of 831 ± 12°C and an oxygen fugacity slightly above the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) oxygen buffer. Injection of c. 200°C hotter mafic magma into the rhyodacitic reservoir and subsequent mingling and minor hybridisation with the resident magma helped remobilising the rhyodacitic host magma and ultimately determined the observed compositional range of the erupted products. Melt inclusion data show that sulphur concentrations were reduced to less than 200 ppm in the rhyodacite, primarily due to partitioning of sulphur into a crystallising sulphide phase (pyrrhotite) during magmatic differentiation at oxygen fugacities around the FMQ oxygen buffer. Sulphur

  2. The Plinian Lower Pumice 2 eruption, Santorini, Greece: Magma evolution and volatile behaviour (United States)

    Gertisser, Ralf; Preece, Katie; Keller, Jörg


    The Plinian Lower Pumice 2 (LP2) eruption (172 ka) was one of the first major caldera-forming eruptions of the Santorini volcanic complex (Greece). The eruption shows some striking similarities to the caldera-forming Late Bronze Age (Minoan) eruption in terms of field, petrological and geochemical characteristics of its eruptive products, which are used to reveal the storage conditions of the LP2 magmas, pre-eruptive magmatic processes and the behaviour and degassing of volatiles prior to and during eruption. The LP2 eruption comprises four, predominantly rhyodacitic eruptive units (LP2-A, B, C, D). The lowermost unit of the Plinian LP2 deposits (LP2-A) consists of a basal phreatomagmatic bed (LP2-A1), which is overlain by three discrete pumice fall deposits (LP2-A2-1, A2-2, A3), the most prominent of which (LP2-A3) contains abundant, quench-textured scoriae that range in composition from basalt to basaltic andesite. The eruption proceeded with the deposition of pumice-rich pyroclastic flows (LP2-B) characterised by a lower, stratified and cross-bedded ignimbrite (LP2-B1) that may grade into a massive, non-welded ignimbrite (LP2-B2), a lithic-rich pumiceous breccia (LP2-C) and a co-ignimbrite lithic lag breccia (LP2-D). The main volume of rhyodacitic magma, which formed by fractionation of olivine, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, plagioclase, amphibole, Fe-Ti oxides, pyrrhotite and apatite from basaltic parental magmas and assimilation of crustal rocks, was held at mid-crustal levels (≤ 16 km depth), magmatic temperatures of 831 ± 12 °C and an oxygen fugacity slightly above the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) oxygen buffer. Injection of ˜ 200 °C hotter mafic magma into the rhyodacitic reservoir and subsequent mingling and minor hybridisation with the resident magma helped to remobilise the rhyodacitic host magma and determined the final compositional range of the erupted products. Melt inclusion data show that sulphur concentrations were reduced to < 270 ppm in

  3. The Effect of Sulfur Fugacity on Pt, Pd and Au in Magmatic-Hydrothermal Systems (United States)

    Bell, A.; Simon, A.


    We have constrained experimentally the effect of sulfur fugacity (fS2) and sulfide saturation on the fractionation and partitioning behavior of Pt, Pd and Au in a felsic silicate melt + sulfide crystal/melt + oxide + supercritical aqueous fluid phase + Pt + Pd + Au system. Experiments were performed at 800°C, 150 MPa, with oxygen fugacity (fO2) fixed at approximately the nickel + nickel oxide buffer (NNO). Sulfur fugacity in the experiments was varied five orders of magnitude from approximately logfS2 = 0 to logfS2 = -5 by using two different sulfide phase assemblages. Sulfide assemblage one consisted initially of chalcopyrite plus pyrrhotite and assemblage two consisted of chalcopyrite plus bornite. At run conditions, in both assemblages, pyrrhotite transformed compositionally to monosulfide solid solution (mss), chalcopyrite to intermediate solid solution (Iss), and in assemblage two chalcopyrite and bornite formed a sulfide melt. Run- product silicate glass (i.e., quenched silicate melt) and crystalline materials were analyzed by using both electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) for major elements and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for major and trace elements. The measured concentrations of Pt, Pd, and Au in quenched silicate melt in runs with logfS2 values ranging from approximately 0 to -5, do not exhibit any apparent dependence on the dissolved sulfur content of the melt. The measured Pt, Pd and Au concentrations in mss vary as a function of fS2. The measured Pt, Pd and Au concentrations in Iss do not appear to be dependent on fS2. The system variables fS2 and fO2, working in concert with each other, control the stable magmatic sulfide phase assemblage. Additionally, the system fS2 strongly influences the solubility of Pt, Pd, and Au as lattice bound components in some common crystalline magmatic sulfide phases. Both the stable magmatic sulfide phase assemblage and the solubility of Pt, Pd, and Au as constituents in

  4. Magnetic Investigations in the J-M Reef Section of the Stillwater Complex, Montana (United States)

    Wnukowski, J. D.; Ferre, E. C.; Butak, K. C.


    The Stillwater J-M reef, the only economic platinum deposit in the USA, consists of a 0.5 to 4 m-thick stratiform zone of platinum group element (PGE)-rich sulfides in a layered mafic intrusion. The origin of this reef, purely magmatic or related to late-stage magmatic fluids, remains ambiguous. I propose to test these two genetic hypotheses using rock magnetism. Fractional crystallization trends deduced from petrological models would produce a sharp increase in magnetite and pyrrhotite content near the solidus. In contrast, percolation of sulfur-rich fluids through a crystal mush would produce a gradual increase in magnetite and pyrrhotite up to a fluid permeability barrier. Continuous logging of the magnetic properties of drillcores, combined with petrographic observations, will allow to test these two models. Petrologic similarities between PGE reefs suggest that they share common physico-chemical origins, therefore, understanding the J-M reef genesis would have implications for other deposits such as the Bushveld Complex and the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe. The J-M reef formation has been explained by two alternative models: 1) magmatic model - magma replenishment causes thermal convection at the interface between two magmas, inducing PGE leaching by a sulfur-saturated magma, followed by precipitation of sulfide droplets; 2) fluid fluxing model - a sulfur-rich residual, late magmatic fluid migrates upward through the crystal mush leading to PGE concentration along a magmatic permeability barrier against the hanging wall. Both models account for the majority of geochemical and petrological observations and may not be fundamentally mutually exclusive. However, understanding the origin of PGE reefs would certainly benefit from new approaches. Preliminary data shows systematic inch-scale cycling variations of magnetic susceptibility (Km) in the hanging-wall that supports the magmatic model. The discovery of this magnetic cyclicity matters because this core does not

  5. Ore-forming mechanism for the Xiaoxinancha Au-rich Cu deposit in Yanbian, Jilin Province, China: Evidence from noble gas isotope geochemistry of fluid inclusions in minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN JingGui; ZHAO JunKang; CHEN JunQiang; KEISUKE Nagao; HIROCHiKA Sumino; SHEN Kun; MEN LanJing; CHEN Lei


    The Xiaoxinancha Au-rich copper deposit is one of important Au-Cu deposits along the continental margin in Eastern China. The deposit consists of two sections: the Beishan mine (North), composed of altered rocks with veinlet-dissemination sulfides and melnicovite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins, and the Nanshan mine (South), composed of pyrrhotite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins and pure sulfide veins. The isotope compositions of noble gases extracted from fluid inclusions in ore minerals, i.e. ratios of 3He/4He, 20Ne/22Ne and 40Ar/36Ar are in the ranges of 4.45-0.08 Ra, 10.2-8.8 and 306-430, respectively. Fluid inclusions in minerals from the Nanshan mine have higher 3He/4He and 20Ne/22Ne ratios whereas those from the Beishan mine have lower 3He/4He ratios. The analysis of origin, and evolution of the ore fluids and its relations with the ore-forming stages and the ages of mineralization suggests that the initial hydrothermal fluids probably come from the melts generated by partial melting of oceanic crust with the participation of fluids from the mantle (mantle-plume type)/aesthenosphere. This also corresponds to the continental margin settings during the subduction of Izanagi ocaneic plate towards the palaeo-Asian continent (123-102 Ma). The veinlet-dissemination ore bodies of the Beishan mine were formed through replacement and crystallization of the mixed fluids generated by mixing of the ascending high-temperature boiling fluid with young crustal fluid whereas the melnicovite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins were formed subsequently by filling of the high-temperature ore fluid in fissures. Pyrrhotite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins in the Nanshan mine were formed by filling-deposition- crystallization of the moderate-temperature ore fluids and the pure sulfide veins were formed later by filling-deposition-crystallization of ore substance-rich fluids after boiling of the moderate-temperature ore fluids. The metallogenic dynamic processes can be summarized as: (1

  6. The use of SEM/EDS method in mineralogical analysis of ordinary chondritic meteorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breda Mirtič


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersiveX-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS for determination of mineral phases according to their stoichiometry and assessment of mineral composition of ordinary chondritic meteorite. For the purposes of this study, H3 type ordinary chondritic meteorite Abbott was selected. SEM/EDS allows identification and characterisation of mineralphases, whose size is below the resolution of an optical microscope. Mineral phases in chondrules and interstitial matrix were located in backscattered electron (BSE mode and were assessed from atomic proportions of constituent elements, obtained by the EDS analysis. SEM/EDS analyses of mineral phases showed that Abbott meteorite is characterised by Fe-rich (Fe, Ni-alloy kamacite, Fe-sulphide troilite or pyrrhotite, chromite, Mg-rich olivine, orthopyroxene bronzite or hypersthene, clinopyroxene Al-diopside, acid plagioclase oligoclase, accessory mineral chlorapatite and secondary minerals Fe-hydroxides (goethite or lepidocrocite. Results of semi-quantitative analyses confirmed that most of analysed mineralphases conform well to stoichiometric minerals with minor deviations of oxygen from stoichiometric proportions. Comparison between mineral phases in chondrules and interstitial matrix was also performed, however it showed no significant differences in elemental composition.Differences in chemical composition between minerals in interstitial matrix and chondrules are sometimes too small to be discernedby the SEM/EDS, therefore knowledge of SEM/EDS capabilities is important for correct interpretation of chondrite formation.

  7. Crystallization of accessory phases in magmas by local saturation adjacent to phenocrysts (United States)

    Bacon, C.R.


    Accessory minerals commonly occur attached to or included in the major crystalline phases of felsic and some intermediate igneous rocks. Apatite is particularly common as inclusions, but Fe-Ti oxides, pyrrhotite, zircon, monazite, chevkinite and xenotime are also known from silicic rocks. Accessories may nucleate near the host crystal/ liquid interface as a result of local saturation owing to formation of a differentiated chemical boundary layer in which accessory mineral solubility would be lower than in the surrounding liquid. Differentiation of this boundary layer would be greatest adjacent to ferromagnesian phenocrysts, especially Fe-Ti oxides; it is with oxides that accessories are most commonly associated in rocks. A boundary layer may develop if the crystal grows more rapidly than diffusion can transport incorporated and rejected elements to and from the phenocryst. Diffusion must dominate over convection as a mode of mass transfer near the advancing crystal/liquid interface in order for a boundary layer to exist. Accumulation of essential structural constituent elements of accessory minerals owing to their slow diffusion in evolved silicate melt also may force local saturation, but this is not a process that applies to all cases. Local saturation is an attractive mechanism for enhancing fractionation during crystallization differentiation. If accessory minerals attached to or included in phenocrysts formed because of local saturation, their host phenocrysts must have grown rapidly when accessories nucleated in comparison to lifetimes of magma reservoirs. Some inconsistencies remain in a local saturation origin for accessory phases that cannot be evaluated without additional information. ?? 1989.

  8. Magnetic Susceptibility in Surface Sediments in the Southern South China Sea and Its Implication for Sub-sea Methane Venting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhong; Yan Wen; Tang Xianzan; Liu Jianguo; Chen Muhong; Yang Huaping


    In order to understand the characteristics of magnetic variability and their possible implication for sub-sea methane venting,magnetic susceptibility (MS) of 145 surface sediment samples from the southern South China Sea (SCS) was investigated.Magnetic particles extracted from 20 representative samples were also examined for their mineral,chemical compositions and micromorphology.Results indicate that MS values range between -7.73×10-8 and 45.06x10-8 m3/kg.The high MS zones occur at some hydrecarbon-bearing basins and along main tectonic zones,and low ones are distributed mainly within the river delta or along continental shelves.Iron concretions and manganese concretions are not main contributors for high MS values in sediments,while authigenic iron sulphide minerals are possibly responsible for the MS enhancement.This phenomenon is suspected to be produced by the reducing environment where the high upward venting methane beneath the seafloor reacts with seawater sulfate,resulting in seep precipitation of highly susceptible intermediate mineral pyrrhotite,greigite and paramagnetic pyrite.It suggests that MS variability is possibly one of the geochemical indicators for mapping sub-sea zones of methane venting in the southern SCS.

  9. High-resolution mineralogical and rock magnetic study of ferromagnetic phases in metabasites from Oscar II Land, Western Spitsbergen—towards reliable model linking mineralogical and palaeomagnetic data (United States)

    Burzyński, Mariusz; Michalski, Krzysztof; Nejbert, Krzysztof; Domańska-Siuda, Justyna; Manby, Geoffrey


    Typical 'whole rock' rock magnetic analyses are limited to the identification of the magnetic properties of the mixture of all ferromagnetic minerals within the samples. In this contribution standard 'whole rock' rock magnetic studies of two types of metabasites (metadolerites and metavolcanics) from the metamorphic Proterozoic-Lower Palaeozoic complex of Oscar II Land (Western Spitsbergen) are followed by separation of Fe-containing fractions and conducting magnetic analyses on Fe-containing separates. The main aim here is to determine if any ferromagnetic carriers of a palaeomagnetic signal preceding the Caledonian metamorphism persisted in the metabasites. A comprehensive set of applied methods has allowed for the precise identification of the ferromagnetic carriers and have revealed their textural context in the investigated rocks. The results of mineralogical and rock magnetic analyses of separates confirmed a dominance of low coercivity magnetite/maghemite and pyrrhotite in the metadolerites while in the metavolcanics the existence of magnetite/maghemite and hematite was highlighted. Our investigations support the hypothesis that Caledonian metamorphic remineralization has completely replaced the primary magmatic - Proterozoic/Lower Palaeozoic ferromagnetic minerals in the metadolerites. In the case of the metavolcanics, however, the existence of the ferromagnetic pre-Caledonian relicts cannot be excluded. Furthermore, this approach provided a unique opportunity for conducting rock magnetic experiments on natural mono-ferromagnetic fractions. The described methodologies and results of this study form a new approach that can be applied in further palaeomagnetic and petrographic studies of metamorphosed rock complexes of Svalbard.

  10. Widespread inclination shallowing in Permian and Triassic paleomagnetic data from Laurentia: Support from new paleomagnetic data from Middle Permian shallow intrusions in southern Illinois (USA) and virtual geomagnetic pole distributions (United States)

    Domeier, M.; Van Der Voo, R.; Denny, F.B.


    Recent paleomagnetic work has highlighted a common and shallow inclination bias in continental redbeds. The Permian and Triassic paleomagnetic records from Laurentia are almost entirely derived from such sedimentary rocks, so a pervasive inclination error will expectedly bias the apparent polar wander path of Laurentia in a significant way. The long-standing discrepancy between the apparent polar wander paths of Laurentia and Gondwana in Permian and Triassic time may be a consequence of such a widespread data-pathology. Here we present new Middle Permian paleomagnetic data from igneous rocks and a contact metamorphosed limestone from cratonic Laurentia. The exclusively reversed Middle Permian magnetization is hosted by low-Ti titanomagnetite and pyrrhotite and yields a paleomagnetic pole at 56.3??S, 302.9??E (A95=3.8, N=6). This pole, which is unaffected by inclination shallowing, suggests that a shallow inclination bias may indeed be present in the Laurentian records. To further consider this hypothesis, we conduct a virtual geomagnetic pole distribution analysis, comparing theoretical expectations of a statistical field model (TK03.GAD) against published data-sets. This exercise provides independent evidence that the Laurentian paleomagnetic data is widely biased, likely because of sedimentary inclination shallowing. We estimate the magnitude of this error from our model results and present and discuss several alternative corrections. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Estimation of temporal changes in oxidation rates of sulphides in copper mine tailings at Laver, Northern Sweden. (United States)

    Alakangas, Lena; Ohlander, Björn; Lundberg, Angela


    Tailings containing pyrrhotite were deposited in an impoundment at a copper mine at Laver, Northern Sweden, which operated between 1936 and 1946. Since then the oxidation of sulphides has acidified recipient water courses and contaminated them with metals. Measurements from surface water sampled in 1993, 2001 and 2004-05 from a brook into which the tailing impoundment drains indicate that the amounts of sulphide-associated elements such as Cu, S and Zn released into the brook have decreased over time, while pH has increased. The mass transport of S in the brook during 1993 and 2001 corresponded well with the amount of S estimated to be released from the tailings by oxidation. Secondary precipitates such as covellite and gypsum, which can trap sulphur, were shown in earlier studies to be present in only low amounts. The annual release of elements from the tailings was estimated from the volume of tailings assumed to oxidise each year, which depends on movement of the oxidation front with time. The results indicate that the oxidation rate in the tailings has decreased over time, which may be due to the increased distance over which oxygen needs to diffuse to reach unoxidised sulphide grains, or their cores, in the tailings.

  12. Reaction between H2, CO, and H2S over Fe,Ni metal in the solar nebula: Experimental evidence for the formation of sulfur-bearing organic molecules and sulfides (United States)

    Llorca, Jordi; Casanova, Ignasi


    Detailed laboratory studies have been carried out in order to simulate the interaction between nanometer-sized kamacite metal particles and different gas mixtures consisting of H2:H2S (250:0.1), H2:CO (250:1) and H2:CO:H2S (250:1:0.1) under nebular-type conditions (5x10-4 atm and 473 K). Reaction of H2+H2S with kamacite particles for 1000 h leads to the formation of pyrrhotite. Incorporation of CO into the gaseous reactant mixture results in the formation of both sulfide and carbide phases. At the same time, amorphous carbon is deposited onto the metal particles and organic molecules are evolved, namely hydrocarbons and thiols in the C1-C5 and C1-C2 range, respectively. Carbon deposition and production of organics are enhanced with respect to experiments performed with H2+CO, where a carbide phase is formed. There is no evidence for the existence of sulfur poisoning effects on the metal-catalysed hydrogenation of CO through Fischer-Tropsch-type reactions in nebular environments. In fact, it is experimentally demonstrated that sulfur-containing organic species could be synthesized by such reactions from nebular gas.

  13. Timescales and settings for alteration of chondritic meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krot, A N; Hutcheon, I D; Brearley, A J; Pravdivtseva, O V; Petaev, M I; Hohenberg, C M


    Most groups of chondritic meteorites experienced diverse styles of secondary alteration to various degrees that resulted in formation of hydrous and anhydrous minerals (e.g., phyllosilicates, magnetite, carbonates, ferrous olivine, hedenbergite, wollastonite, grossular, andradite, nepheline, sodalite, Fe,Ni-carbides, pentlandite, pyrrhotite, Ni-rich metal). Mineralogical, petrographic, and isotopic observations suggest that the alteration occurred in the presence of aqueous solutions under variable conditions (temperature, water/rock ratio, redox conditions, and fluid compositions) in an asteroidal setting, and, in many cases, was multistage. Although some alteration predated agglomeration of the final chondrite asteroidal bodies (i.e. was pre-accretionary), it seems highly unlikely that the alteration occurred in the solar nebula, nor in planetesimals of earlier generations. Short-lived isotope chronologies ({sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg, {sup 53}Mn-{sup 53}Cr, {sup 129}I-{sup 129}Xe) of the secondary minerals indicate that the alteration started within 1-2 Ma after formation of the Ca,Al-rich inclusions and lasted up to 15 Ma. These observations suggest that chondrite parent bodies must have accreted within the first 1-2 Ma after collapse of the protosolar molecular cloud and provide strong evidence for an early onset of aqueous activity on these bodies.

  14. Metal mobilization under alkaline conditions in ash-covered tailings. (United States)

    Lu, Jinmei; Alakangas, Lena; Wanhainen, Christina


    The aim of this study was to determine element mobilization and accumulation in mill tailings under alkaline conditions. The tailings were covered with 50 cm of fly ash, and above a sludge layer. The tailings were geochemically and mineralogically investigated. Sulfides, such as pyrrhotite, sphalerite and galena along with gangue minerals such as dolomite, calcite, micas, chlorite, epidote, Mn-pyroxene and rhodonite were identified in the unoxidized tailings. The dissolution of the fly ash layer resulted in a high pH (close to 12) in the underlying tailings. This, together with the presence of organic matter, increased the weathering of the tailings and mobilization of elements in the uppermost 47 cm of the tailings. All primary minerals were depleted, except quartz and feldspar which were covered by blurry secondary carbonates. Sulfide-associated elements such as Cd, Fe, Pb, S and Zn and silicate-associated elements such as Fe, Mg and Mn were released from the depletion zone and accumulated deeper down in the tailings where the pH decreased to circum-neutral. Sequential extraction suggests that Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, S and Zn were retained deeper down in the tailings and were mainly associated with the sulfide phase. Calcium, Cr, K and Ni released from the ash layer were accumulated in the uppermost depletion zone of the tailings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal. 2; Bisai sorui to sekitan no kyoekika hanno. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, C.; Matsui, T.; Otsuki, M.; Ikenaga, N.; Suzuki, T. [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    For the removal and recycle of CO2, a global warming gas, utilization of photosynthesis by micro algae is investigated. Formed micro algae are decomposed into CO2, H2O and CH4 again, which does not result in the permanent fixation. For the effective utilization of these micro algae, creation of petroleum alternate energy was tried through the co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal. Were investigated influences of the reaction temperature during the co-liquefaction and influences of catalysts, such as Fe(CO)5-S, Ru(CO)12, and Mo(CO)6-S, which are effective for the coal liquefaction. Micro algae, such as chlorella, spirulina, and littorale, and Yallourn brown coal were tested. It was found that co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal can be successfully proceeded under the same conditions as the liquefaction of coal. The oil yield obtained from the co-liquefaction in the presence of Fe(CO)5-S, an effective catalyst for coal liquefaction, agreed appropriately with the arithmetical mean value from separate liquefaction of coal and micro algae. It was suggested that pyrrhotite, an active species for coal liquefaction, was sufficiently formed by increasing the addition of sulfur. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Studies of structure change of iron sulfates and its catalysis; Ryusantetsukei shokubai no kozo henka to sono shokubai sayo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, E.; Horie, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nishijima, A. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan)


    Since a huge amount of coal containing inorganic ash is treated for the commercial hydroliquefaction process, cheap catalysts widely distributing on the earth with large reserves are desired rather than expensive catalysts. This paper describes the effects of addition of sulfur on the catalysis of iron sulfates during the hydroconversion of 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN). Reactions of 1-MN were conducted at the same charging amount of iron in the reaction system. Sulfur was directly added in the reaction system using ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) as precursor. Consequently, it was found that FeSO4 provides lower but similar catalytic activity to the synthetic pyrite catalyst prepared through the complex processes with the precise control. Thus, it was revealed that high performance pyrrhotite (Fe(1-x)S) catalyst can be prepared for the hydrogenation of aromatic-rings by adding solid sulfur into the reaction system using commercial reagent, FeSO4 as a precursor of the catalyst. 9 figs.

  17. On the occurrence of gold mineralizations in southeastern Ivory Coast (United States)

    Kadio, E.; Coulibaly, Y.; Allialy, M. E.; Kouamelan, A. N.; Pothin, K. B. K.


    Gold mineralizations are known to occur in the Paleoproterozoic (Birimian) formations of the Aboisso area, southeastern Ivory Coast. These formations, which have been structured during the Eburnean orogeny, mainly consist of volcanic, volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks intruded by granitic, basic and ultrabasic plutons. Exploration of these terranes has revealed numerous gold mineralizations, the most significant of which are located in the Aféma shear zone. Four distinct types of mineralizations can be distinguished based on the typology of the host rocks. These include mineralizations enclosed in highly silicified volcanic rocks (type 1), mineralizations closely related to intense silicification of metasedimentary rocks (type 2), mineralizations associated with silicified polygenic conglomerates (type 3), and mineralizations encountered in brecciated and silicified zones within a metadiorite sill (type 4). Gold is observed either as free gold, or in association with pyrite, arsenopyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, ±pyrrhotite, ±galena, ±anatase, ±monazite, ±magnetite. Gold and the various sulfides are mostly of hydrothermal epigenetic origin. The fact that the gold mineralizations occurs in brecciated and silicified zones around granitoid intrusions clearly indicates that post-magmatic hydrothermal activity and tectonics exerted a major control during the mineralization process.

  18. Recovery of Mn2+, Co2+ and Ni2+ from manganese nodules by redox leaching and solvent extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The recovery of Mn, Co and Ni from deep-sea manganese nodules was conducted by acid oxidative leaching and solvent extraction. The results indicate that pyrrhotite used during leaching can effectively facilitate the leaching out of manganese, cobalt and nickel. The leaching behaviors of Mn, Ni and Co were determined and the influences of temperature, leaching time and sulphuric acid concentration on leaching rate were also investigated. Co and Ni are precipitated from the leaching liquor by adding sodium sulfide into solution with agitation for 2 h at 50 ℃, and the manganese sulphate is obtained by concentrating the resulting solution.By re-dissolving the precipitates of cobalt and nickel, the separation of cobalt and nickel is performed using di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) for impurities elimination with 8 stages at organic-to-aqueous(O/A) volume ratio of 3:5, and 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (known as PC88A or P507) for cobalt extraction with 3 stages counter-current operations at O/A volume ratio of 2:3 followed by their scrubbings and strippings, respectively. The final maximum recovery rates for manganese, cobalt and nickel are 85%, 75% and 78%, respectively.

  19. Zinc bioleaching from an iron concentrate using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain from Hercules Mine of Coahuila, Mexico (United States)

    Núñez-Ramírez, Diola Marina; Solís-Soto, Aquiles; López-Miranda, Javier; Pereyra-Alférez, Benito; Rutiaga-Quiñónes, Miriam; Medina-Torres, Luis; Medrano-Roldán, Hiram


    The iron concentrate from Hercules Mine of Coahuila, Mexico, which mainly contained pyrite and pyrrhotite, was treated by the bioleaching process using native strain Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ( A. ferrooxidans) to determine the ability of these bacteria on the leaching of zinc. The native bacteria were isolated from the iron concentrate of the mine. The bioleaching experiments were carried out in shake flasks to analyze the effects of pH values, pulp density, and the ferrous sulfate concentration on the bioleaching process. The results obtained by microbial kinetic analyses for the evaluation of some aspects of zinc leaching show that the native bacteria A. ferrooxidans, which is enriched with a 9K Silverman medium under the optimum conditions of pH 2.0, 20 g/L pulp density, and 40 g/L FeSO4, increases the zinc extraction considerably observed by monitoring during15 d, i.e., the zinc concentration has a decrease of about 95% in the iron concentrate.

  20. Sulfide mineralization: Its role in chemical weathering of Mars (United States)

    Burns, Roger G.


    Pyrrhotite-pentlandite assemblages in mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks may have contributed significantly to the chemical weathering reactions that produced degradation products in the Martian regolith. By analogy with terrestrial processes, a model is proposed whereby supergene alteration of these primary Fe-Ni sulfides on Mars has generated secondary sulfides (e.g., pyrite) below the water table and produced acidic groundwater containing high concentrations of dissolved Fe, Ni and sulfate ions. The low pH solutions also initiated weathering reactions of igneous feldspars and ferromagnesian silicates to form clay silicate and ferric oxyhydroxide phases. Near-surface oxidation and hydrolysis of ferric sulfato- and hydroxo-complex ions and sols formed gossans above the water table consisting of poorly crystalline hydrated ferric sulfates (e.g., jarosite), oxides (ferrihydrite, goethite) and silica (opal). Underlying groundwater, now permafrost, contains hydroxo sulfato complexes of Fe, Al, Mg, Ni, etc., which may be stabilized in frozen acidic solutions beneath the surface of Mars. Sublimation of permafrost may replenish colloidal ferric oxides, sulfates and phyllosilicates during dust storms on Mars.

  1. Synthesis and Electrochemical Lithium Storage Behavior of Carbon Nanotubes Filled with Iron Sulfide Nanoparticles. (United States)

    Yu, Wan-Jing; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Lili; Hou, Peng-Xiang; Li, Feng; Zhang, Bao; Cheng, Hui-Ming


    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) filled with iron sulfide nanoparticles (NPs) are prepared by inserting sulfur and ferrocene into the hollow core of CNTs followed by heat treatment. It is found that pyrrhotite-11T iron sulfide (Fe-S) NPs with an average size of ≈15 nm are encapsulated in the tubular cavity of the CNTs (Fe-S@CNTs), and each particle is a single crystal. When used as the anode material of lithium-ion batteries, the Fe-S@CNT material exhibits excellent electrochemical lithium storage performance in terms of high reversible capacity, good cyclic stability, and desirable rate capability. In situ transmission electron microscopy studies show that the CNTs not only play an essential role in accommodating the volume expansion of the Fe-S NPs but also provide a fast transport path for Li ions. The results demonstrate that CNTs act as a unique nanocontainer and reactor that permit the loading and formation of electrochemically active materials with desirable electrochemical lithium storage performance. CNTs with their superior structural stability and Li-ion transfer kinetics are responsible for the improved rate capability and cycling performance of Fe-S NPs in CNTs.

  2. Sulfide-melt inclusions in mantle xenoliths from the Changbaishan district, Jilin province, China%中国吉林长白山地区地幔捕虏体中硫化物熔体包裹体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐九华; 谢玉玲


    Mantle xenoliths are common in the Cenozoic basalts of the Changbaishan District, Jilin Province, China. Sulfide assemblages in mantle minerals can be divided into three types: isolated sulfide grains, sulfide-melt inclusions and filling sulfides in fractures. Sulfide-melt inclusions occur as single-phase sulfides, sulfide-silicate melt, and CO2-sulfide-silicate melt inclusions.Isolated sulfide grains are mainly composed of pyrrhotite, but cubanite was found occasionally. Sulfide-melt inclusions are mainly composed of pentlandite and MSS, with small amounts of chalcopyrite and talnakhite. The calculated distribution coefficient KD3 for lherzolite are similar to that of mean experimental value. The bulk sulfides in lherzolite were in equilibrium with the enclosing minerals, indicating immiscible sulfide melts captured in partial melting of upper mantle. Sulfide in fractures has higher Ni/Fe and ( Fe + Ni)/Sthan those of sulfide melt inclusions. They might represent later metasomatizing fluids in the mantle. Ni/Fe and ( Fe + Ni)/S increase from isolated grains, sulfide inclusions to sulfides in fractures. These changes were not only affected by temperature and pressure, but by geochemistry of Ni, Fe and Cu, and sulfur fugacity as well.

  3. A mineral magnetic characterization of the Plio-Pleistocene fluvial infill of the Heidelberg Basin (Germany) (United States)

    Scheidt, Stephanie; Egli, Ramon; Frederichs, Thomas; Hambach, Ulrich; Rolf, Christian


    The Heidelberg Basin (Germany) hosts a quasi-continuous sedimentary sequence of primarily fluvial sediments with pedogenetic overprints and lacustrine intercalations. This unconsolidated succession has been shown to record a consistent magnetic polarity stratigraphy of the Quaternary and the late Neogene. Previous work has reported that sulphides and high-coercive minerals are the carriers of the remanent magnetization. Here, we provide the results of an extended mineral magnetic study that aims to disentangle the complex magnetic mineralogy. In addition, we assess the reliability of these minerals as carriers of palaeomagnetic signals. A major obstacle to the analysis of the drill cores was the large number of samples that were taken from a total core length of 1150 m. Rapid measurements on bulk samples provided only limited information on the magnetic mineralogy. In contrast, time-intensive methods such as first-order reversal curves (FORCs) or coercivity analyses, for example, yielded valuable information. The combined results of all the analyses consider the heterogeneous compositions of the sediments and indicate a varying palaeoenvironmental history. The Pliocene Iffezheim Formation was formed under alternating reducing and oxidizing conditions. Magnetite, maghemite, haematite and goethite are the predominant magnetic minerals. Sulphides were only preserved under specific conditions. The Pleistocene sediments reflect predominantly reducing conditions during sedimentation and diagenesis. Greigite, pyrite and most likely pyrrhotite have been shown to occur. Taken together, our work provides a detailed environmental magnetic record of the Plio-Pleistocene and elucidates the capabilities and limitations of rock magnetic studies performed on fluvial dominated sedimentary successions.

  4. Paleomagnetic age and tectonic constraints on the genesis of the giant Jinding Zn-Pb deposit, Yunnan, China (United States)

    Yalikun, Yaxiaer; Xue, Chunji; Symons, D. T. A.


    The Jinding Zn-Pb deposit is located in the Lanping-Simao basin, Yunnan, China. Paleomagnetic results are reported from the Beichang, Jiayashan, and Nanchang mineralization zones that are hosted in the Lower Cretaceous Jinxing and Upper Paleocene Yunlong Formations. The timing of formation of the Zn-Pb mineralization has not been previously defined but is geologically constrained to be younger than Upper Paleocene. Paleomagnetic analyses of 645 specimens from 42 sites using mostly thermal and then alternating field step demagnetization isolated a stable characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) for 29 mineralized sites. Step demagnetization and rock magnetic analyses of Zn and Pb concentrates and tailings show that the main remanence carriers are pyrrhotite and magnetite or low Ti titanomagnetite inclusions in sphalerite and galena. Randomly oriented ChRM directions for 18 clast specimens collected from site 40 provide a conglomerate test that shows that the clasts have not been remagnetized by a metamorphic event. A paleomagnetic fold test on the mineralized specimens is negative, showing that the mineralization is epigenetic because its ChRM substantially postdates the major thrust folding event that formed the dome structure of the Jinding deposit. Using extensive regional geologic and paleomagnetic data from other studies with the Jinding paleomagnetic data yields a mean age of 23 ± 3 Ma for the mineralization.

  5. Cu-Ni-PGE mineralization at Rometölväs, Koillismaa layered igneous complex, Finland (United States)

    Piispanen, R.; Tarkian, M.


    Sulphides, tellurides and sulpharsenides, with special reference to the platinum-group minerals (PGM), have been studied from a subeconomic Cu-Ni-PGE mineralization encountered within the Syöte section of the Lower Proterozoic (2.44 Ga) Koillismaa layered igneous complex (KLIC) in northern Finland using electron microprobe and ore-microscopical methods. The ore minerals occur partly as strata-bound patches and spots associated with spots of light-coloured secondary low-temperature silicates in the gabbronorite IV of the general igneous stratigraphic column of the complex and partly as a fine-grained impregnation in the penecontemporaneous basic sills and dykes. Among the PGM sperrylite, michenerite and a palladian bismuthian melonite have been encountered. The chemical composition is reported for these minerals as well as for the rest of the ore minerals (chalcopyrite, pentlandite, pyrrhotite, pyrite, sphalerite, cobaltite and hessite). It is concluded that volatile components played a significant role in the solution, transport and the final deposition of the sulphides and the PGM.

  6. Eddy currents in the anisotropy of out-of-phase magnetic susceptibility measurement - A model study (United States)

    Jezek, Josef; Hrouda, Frantisek


    Analytical solutions of Maxwell equations for eddy currents caused by AC field in a conductive sphere, known from 1950s, provide a general formula for magnetic susceptibility. It contains the parameters describing the sphere (its size, conductivity and permeability), surrounding medium (permeability) and the applied field (frequency). The formula is complex and without numerical evaluation it is difficult to distinguish the real (in-phase) and imaginary (out-of-phase) part of susceptibility. Representing all the parameters by only two, relative permeability (sphere vs. medium) and skin ratio (summarizing the effect of sphere size, conductivity and permeability, and frequency of the field), we derive approximate formulas for both phases and the phase angle. These are valid for a reasonable range of parameters (from rock magnetism point of view) and enable us to study their influence. The in-phase susceptibility depends very weakly on the fourth power of the skin ratio while the out-of-phase susceptibility depends more strongly on its second power. The coefficients of the dependence are expressed by means of relative permeability. The approximations of in-phase and out-of-phase susceptibilities provide a possibility to assess possible effects of eddy currents in rocks in case of low content of conductive minerals and solve problems of the type by which size one piece of a mineral in the measured sample can produce a phase shift that is observed by measurement. Examples of magnetite and pyrrhotite are given.

  7. Mid-IR Spectra of Refractory Minerals Relevant to Comets (United States)

    Jauhari, Shekeab


    On 4 July 2005 the Spitzer Space Telescope obtained mid-IR ( 5-40 µm) spectra of the ejecta from the hypervelocity impact of the Deep Impact projectile with comet 9P/Tempel 1. Spectral modeling demonstrates that there are abundant minerals present in the ejecta including Ca/Fe/Mg-rich silicates, carbonates, phyllosilicates, water ice, amorphous carbon, and sulfides [1]. However, precise mineralogical identifications are hampered by the lack of comprehensive 5 - 40 µm spectral measurements of the emissivity for a broad compositional range of these materials. Here, we present our initial results for 2 - 50 µm transmission spectra and absorption constants for materials relevant to comets, including pyrrhotite, pyrite, and several phyllosilicate (clay) minerals. Measuring the transmission of materials over the full spectral range sensitive by Spitzer requires grinding the minerals into submicron powders and then mixing them with KBr (for the 1-25 um region) and polyethylene (16-50 um region) to form pellets. Transmission measurements of sub-micron sulfides are particularly difficult to obtain because the minerals oxidize rapidly upon grinding and subsequent handling unless special care is taken. A detailed description of our sample preparation and measurement technique will be provided to assist other researchers in their attempts to acquire similar spectra. References: [1] Lisse, C.M. et al., Science 313, 635 - 640 (2006)

  8. Form of Occurrence and Distribution Law of Associated Gold(Silver)in Anhui Tongling Huashupo Copper Mine%安徽铜陵桦树坡铜矿床伴生金(银)赋存状态及分布规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈耀远; 周贵斌


    Huashupo copper ore deposit is controlled skam-type. By thin section authentication and electron probe microanalyais, the ore deposit's mineral species are not much, trace mineral species are much. They are mainly chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, pyrite, and gold and silver, native bismuth. The study of process mineralogy is made, and finds out the form of occurrence and process nature, providing reference for reasonably determining preparing process and conditions.%桦树坡铜矿床为一层控式矽卡岩型铜矿床,经光薄片鉴定及电子探针分析,该矿床主要矿物种类不多,而微量矿物种类较多,主要矿物有为黄铜矿、磁黄铁矿、黄铁矿,自然元素为金—银系列矿物及自然铋等.对该铜矿进行了工艺矿物学研究,重点查明了伴生金银的赋存状态及工艺性质.为伴生金银回收确定合理选矿工艺流程及条件提供依据.

  9. Ore Petrography Using Optical Image Analysis: Application to Zaruma-Portovelo Deposit (Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Berrezueta


    Full Text Available Optical image analysis (OIA supporting microscopic observation can be applied to improve ore mineral characterization of ore deposits, providing accurate and representative numerical support to petrographic studies, on the polished section scale. In this paper, we present an experimental application of an automated mineral quantification process on polished sections from Zaruma-Portovelo intermediate sulfidation epithermal deposit (Ecuador using multispectral and color images. Minerals under study were gold, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena, pyrite, pyrrhotite, bornite, hematite, chalcocite, pentlandite, covellite, tetrahedrite and native bismuth. The aim of the study was to quantify the ore minerals visible in polished section through OIA and, mainly, to show a detailed description of the methodology implemented. Automated ore identification and determination of geometric parameters predictive of geometallurgical behavior, such as grade, grain size or liberation, have been successfully performed. The results show that automated identification and quantification of ore mineral images are possible through multispectral and color image analysis. Therefore, the optical image analysis method could be a consistent automated mineralogical alternative to carry on detailed ore petrography.

  10. The nature and genesis of marginal Cu-PGE-Au sulphide mineralisation in Paleogene Macrodykes of the Kangerlussuaq region, East Greenland (United States)

    Holwell, David A.; Abraham-James, Thomas; Keays, Reid R.; Boyce, Adrian J.


    The Kangerlussuaq region of East Greenland hosts a variety of early Tertiary extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks related to continental break up and the passage of the ancestral Iceland plume. These intrusive bodies include a number of gabbroic macrodykes, two of which—the Miki Fjord Macrodyke, and the newly discovered Togeda Macrodyke—contain Cu-PGE-Au sulphide mineralisation along their margins. Sulphides occur as disseminated interstitial blebs and rounded globules of chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite with some Fe-Ti oxides and platinum-group minerals, comprising largely Pd bismuthides and tellurides. The globules are interpreted to have formed from fractionation of trapped droplets of an immiscible Cu- and Pd-rich sulphide melt and show geopetal indicators. Sulphur isotopes imply a local crustal source of S in these from pyritic sediments of the Kangerlussuaq Basin. Thus, generation of these sulphide occurrences was controlled by local country rock type. Low Ni/Cu and Pt/Pd ratios, also present in the Platinova reefs in the Skaergaard Intrusion, indicate that early fractionation of olivine may have depleted the magma of Ni and suggest the likely presence of a large magma chamber at depth. Xenoliths of Ni-rich olivine cumulates in the Miki Fjord Macrodyke may have been sourced from such a body. The location of thus far unidentified conduit or feeder zones to the macrodykes beneath the present day surface may represent potential targets for more massive sulphide orebodies.

  11. Regional tectonics, geology, magma chamber processes and mineralisation of the Jinchuan nickel-copper-PGE deposit, Gansu Province, China: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. (Mike Porter


    The Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion was injected into three interconnected sub-chambers, each containing a separate orebody. It essentially comprises an olivine-orthopyroxene-chromite cumulate, with interstitial orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, plagioclase and phlogopite, and is predominantly composed of lherzolite (∼80%, with an outer rim of olivine pyroxenite and cores of mineralised dunite. Mineralisation occurs as disseminated and net-textured sulphides, predominantly within the dunite, with lesser, PGE rich lenses, late massive sulphide accumulations, small copper rich pods and limited mineralised diopside skarn in wall rock marbles. The principal ore minerals are pyrrhotite (the dominant sulphide, pentlandite, chalcopyrite, cubanite, mackinawite and pyrite, with a variety of platinum group minerals and minor gold. The deposit underwent significant post-magmatic tremolite-actinolite, chlorite, serpentine and magnetite alteration. The volume of the Jinchuan intrusion accounts for <3% of the total parental magma required to generate the contained olivine and sulphide. It is postulated that mafic melt, intruded into the lower crust, hydraulically supported by density contrast buoyancy from below the Moho, ponded in a large staging chamber, where crystallisation and settling formed a lower sulphide rich mush. This mush was subsequently injected into nearby shallow dipping faults to form the Jinchuan intrusion.

  12. Corrosion Behavior of 110S Tube Steel in Environments of High H2S and CO2 Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI W en-fei; ZHOU Yan-jun; XUE Yan


    The corrosion behavior of the 110S tube steel in the environments of high H2 S and CO2 content was inves- tigated by using a high-temperature and high-pressure autoclave, and the corrosion products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X ray diffraction technique. The results showed that all of the corrosion products under the test conditions mainly consisted of different types of iron sulfides such as pyrrhotite of Fe0.95 S, mackinaw- ite of FeS0.9, Fe0. 985 S and FeS, and the absence of iron carbonate in the corrosion scales indicated that the corrosion process was controlled by H2S corrosion. The corrosion rate of the 110S steel decreased firstly and then increased with the rising of temperature. The minimum corrosion rate occurred at 110 ℃. When the H2 S partial pressure PH2s below 9 MPa, the corrosion rate declined with the increase of PH2s. While over 9 MPa, a higher PH2s resulted in a faster corrosion process. With the increasing of the CO2 partial pressure, the corrosion rate had an increasing trend. The morphologies of the corrosion scales had a good accordance with the corrosion rates.

  13. Fe-isotope fractionation in magmatic-hydrothermal mineral deposits: A case study from the Renison Sn-W deposit, Tasmania (United States)

    Wawryk, Christine M.; Foden, John D.


    We present 50 new iron isotopic analyses of source granite and mineral separates from the Renison tin deposit in western Tasmania. The aim of the study is to characterise the composition of minerals within a tin deposit associated with a reduced, S-type magma. We have analysed bulk samples of granite, and separates of pyrrhotite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, magnetite, chalcopyrite and siderite by multi-collector inductively coupled mass spectrometry. The isotopic compositions of mineral separates are consistent with theoretical predictions of equilibrium fractionation based on Mössbauer spectroscopy and other parametric calculations. Mineral-mineral pairs yield temperatures of formation that are in agreement with prior detailed fluid inclusion studies, but are spatially inconsistent with declining fluid temperatures with distance from the causative intrusion, limiting the use of Fe isotopes as a potential geothermometer, at least in this case. Comparison of our data with published data from other deposits clearly demonstrates that pyrite, magnetite and chalcopyrite from the hottest ore fluids (>300-400 °C) at Renison are isotopically heavier than minerals sampled from a deposit formed at similar temperatures, but associated with a more oxidised and less differentiated intrusion.

  14. Mesoproterozoic graphite deposits, New Jersey Highlands: Geologic and stable isotopic evidence for possible algal origins (United States)

    Volkert, R.A.


    Graphite deposits of Mesoproterozoic age are locally abundant in the eastern New Jersey Highlands, where they are hosted by sulphidic biotite-quartz-feldspar gneiss, metaquartzite, and anatectic pegmatite. Gneiss and metaquartzite represent a shallow marine shelf sequence of locally organic-rich sand and mud. Graphite from massive deposits within metaquartzite yielded ??13C values of -26 ?? 2??? (1??), and graphite from massive deposits within biotite-quartz-feldspar gneiss yielded ??13C values of -23 ??4???. Disseminated graphite from biotite-quartz-feldspar gneiss country rock was -22 ??3???, indistinguishable from the massive deposits hosted by the same lithology. Anatectic pegmatite is graphitic only where generated from graphite-bearing host rocks; one sample gave a ??13C value of -15???. The ??34S values of trace pyrrhotite are uniform within individual deposits, but vary from 0 to 9??? from one deposit to another. Apart from pegmatitic occurrences, evidence is lacking for long-range mobilization of carbon during Grenvillian orogenesis or post-Grenvillian tectonism. The field, petrographic, and isotope data suggest that massive graphite was formed by granulite-facies metamorphism of Proterozoic accumulations of sedimentary organic matter, possibly algal mats. Preservation of these accumulations in the sedimentary environment requires anoxic basin waters or rapid burial. Anoxia would also favour the accumulation of dissolved ferrous iron in basin waters, which may explain some of the metasediment-hosted massive magnetite deposits in the New Jersey Highlands. ?? 2000 NRC.

  15. The Viability of a Nonenzymatic Reductive Citric Acid Cycle Kinetics and Thermochemistry (United States)

    Ross, David S.


    The likelihood of a functioning nonenzymatic reductive citric acid cycle, recently proposed as the precursor to biosynthesis on early Earth, is examined on the basis of the kinetics and thermochemistry of the acetate → pyruvate → oxaloacetate → malate sequence. Using data derived from studies of the Pd-catalyzed phosphinate reduction of carbonyl functions it is shown that the rate of conversion of pyruvate to malate with that system would have been much too slow to have played a role in the early chemistry of life, while naturally occurring reduction systems such as the fayalite magnetite quartz and pyrrhotite pyrite magnetite mineral assemblages would have provided even slower conversions. It is also shown that the production of pyruvate from acetate is too highly endoergic to be driven by a naturally occurring energy source such as pyrophosphate. It is thus highly doubtful that the cycle can operate at suitable rates without enzymes, and most unlikely that it could have participated in the chemistry leading to life.

  16. Tellurium-bearing minerals in zoned sulfide chimneys from Cu-Zn massive sulfide deposits of the Urals, Russia (United States)

    Maslennikov, V. V.; Maslennikova, S. P.; Large, R. R.; Danyushevsky, L. V.; Herrington, R. J.; Stanley, C. J.


    Tellurium-bearing minerals are generally rare in chimney material from mafic and bimodal felsic volcanic hosted massive sulfide (VMS) deposits, but are abundant in chimneys of the Urals VMS deposits located within Silurian and Devonian bimodal mafic sequences. High physicochemical gradients during chimney growth result in a wide range of telluride and sulfoarsenide assemblages including a variety of Cu-Ag-Te-S and Ag-Pb-Bi-Te solid solution series and tellurium sulfosalts. A change in chimney types from Fe-Cu to Cu-Zn-Fe to Zn-Cu is accompanied by gradual replacement of abundant Fe-, Co, Bi-, and Pb- tellurides by Hg, Ag, Au-Ag telluride and galena-fahlore with native gold assemblages. Decreasing amounts of pyrite, both colloform and pseudomorphic after pyrrhotite, isocubanite ISS and chalcopyrite in the chimneys is coupled with increasing amounts of sphalerite, quatz, barite or talc contents. This trend represents a transition from low- to high sulphidation conditions, and it is observed across a range of the Urals deposits from bimodal mafic- to bimodal felsic-hosted types: Yaman-Kasy → Molodezhnoye → Uzelga → Valentorskoye → Oktyabrskoye → Alexandrinskoye → Tash-Tau → Jusa.

  17. The release of iron during coal combustion. Milestone report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility


    Iron plays an important role in the formation of both fly ash and deposits in many pulverized-coal-fired boilers. Several authors indicate that iron content is a significant indicator of the slagging propensity of a majority of US bituminous coals, in particular eastern bituminous coals. The pyritic iron content of these coals is shown to be a particularly relevant consideration. A series of investigations of iron release during combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile bituminous coal under combustion conditions ranging from oxidizing to inert. Experimental measurements are described in which, under selected conditions, major fractions of the iron in the coal are released within a 25 ms period immediately following coal devolatilization. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that the iron is released as a consequence of oxygen attack on porous pyrrhotite particles. Experimental testing of the proposed mechanism reveals that the release is dependent on the presence of both pyrite in the raw coal and oxygen in the gas phase, that slow preoxidation (weathering) of the pyrite significantly inhibits the iron release, and that iron loss increases as oxygen penetration of the particle increases. Each observation is consistent with the postulated mechanism.

  18. Chemical weathering on Mars - Thermodynamic stabilities of primary minerals /and their alteration products/ from mafic igneous rocks (United States)

    Gooding, J. L.


    Chemical weathering on Mars is examined theoretically from the standpoint of thermodynamic equilibrium between primary rock-forming minerals and the atmospheric gases O2, H2O, and CO2. The primary minerals considered are those common to mafic igneous rocks and include olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, magnetite, troilite, pyrrhotite, and apatite. The importance of kinetics and reaction mechanisms in controlling possible weathering processes on Mars is discussed within the limits of currently available data, and the possible influence of liquid water on Martian weathering processes is evaluated where appropriate. For gas-solid weathering of mafic igneous rocks at the Martian surface, it is concluded that upon attainment of thermodynamic equilibrium: (1) oxides and carbonates should dominate the mineral assemblage of weathering products; (2) hematite rather than goethite should be the stable mineral form of Fe (III); (3) FeSO4 or FeSO4.H2O could be the stable weathering product of iron sulfides in the absence of liquid water; and (4) kaolinite is apparently the only clay mineral that should be thermodynamically stable over all ranges of temperature and water-vapor abundance at the Martian surface.

  19. Mine waste disposal and managements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Young Wook; Min, Jeong Sik; Kwon, Kwang Soo; Kim, Ok Hwan; Kim, In Kee; Song, Won Kyong; Lee, Hyun Joo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)


    Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) is the product formed by the atmospheric oxidation of the relatively common pyrite and pyrrhotite. Waste rock dumps and tailings containing sulfide mineral have been reported at toxic materials producing ARD. Mining in sulphide bearing rock is one of activity which may lead to generation and release of ARD. ARD has had some major detrimental affects on mining areas. The purpose of this study was carried out to develop disposal method for preventing contamination of water and soil environment by waste rocks dump and tailings, which could discharge the acid drainage with high level of metals. Scope of this study was as following: environmental impacts by mine wastes, geochemical characteristics such as metal speciation, acid potential and paste pH of mine wastes, interpretation of occurrence of ARD underneath tailings impoundment, analysis of slope stability of tailings dam etc. The following procedures were used as part of ARD evaluation and prediction to determine the nature and quantities of soluble constituents that may be washed from mine wastes under natural precipitation: analysis of water and mine wastes, Acid-Base accounting, sequential extraction technique and measurement of lime requirement etc. In addition, computer modelling was applied for interpretation of slope stability od tailings dam. (author). 44 refs., 33 tabs., 86 figs.

  20. Dating of the Reocin MVT Deposit, Spain, by Paleomagnetism (United States)

    Symons, D. T.; Lewchuk, M. T.; Kawasaki, K.; Velasco, F.; Leach, D. L.


    Located in the Basque-Cantabrian basin of northernmost Spain, the Reocin mine exploited one of the worldfs largest known Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits (˜62 Mt at 8.7% Zn and 1.0% Pb) for >100 years. The sphalerite-galena and ferroan dolomite mineralization is in a karst system in 116±1 Ma Urgonian carbonates along the southeastern limb of the Santillana syncline that was formed by late Oligocene and mid Miocene pulses of the Pyrenean Orogeny. Paleomagnetic results from 22 sites (274 specimens) in ore-grade and marginal mineralization isolated a post-folding mid Miocene characteristic remanence (ChRM) direction. Mineral magnetics tests on mineralization, Zn concentrate and tailings show that the ChRM is carried both in sphalerite and ferroan dolomite by pyrrhotite mainly with minor magnetite. We suggest that the deposit was formed in the mid Miocene by fluids flowing from the Pyrenean highlands, ˜50 km SSW of Reocin, that scavenged the metals enroute to Reocin from the Paleozoic basement and/or Mesozoic clastic sediments below the deposit that were derived from the basement.

  1. CdTe detector based PIXE mapping of geological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, P.C., E-mail: [Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, EN10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Taborda, A. [Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, EN10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Oliveira, D.P.S. de [Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia (LNEG), Apartado 7586, 2611-901 Alfragide (Portugal); Reis, M.A. [Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, EN10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal)


    A sample collected from a borehole drilled approximately 10 km ESE of Bragança, Trás-os-Montes, was analysed by standard and high energy PIXE at both CTN (previous ITN) PIXE setups. The sample is a fine-grained metapyroxenite grading to coarse-grained in the base with disseminated sulphides and fine veinlets of pyrrhotite and pyrite. Matrix composition was obtained at the standard PIXE setup using a 1.25 MeV H{sup +} beam at three different spots. Medium and high Z elemental concentrations were then determined using the DT2fit and DT2simul codes (Reis et al., 2008, 2013 [1,2]), on the spectra obtained in the High Resolution and High Energy (HRHE)-PIXE setup (Chaves et al., 2013 [3]) by irradiation of the sample with a 3.8 MeV proton beam provided by the CTN 3 MV Tandetron accelerator. In this paper we present results, discuss detection limits of the method and the added value of the use of the CdTe detector in this context.

  2. Arsenic removal from water by iron-sulphide minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In bench-scaled experiments, iron-sulphide minerals, pyrite and pyrrhotite are used as adsorbents for arsenic removal from As-spiked water of As5+ and As3+ species. The adsorption rate, efficiency, As-adsorption stability and the associated pH conditions have been examined. Observations indicate that these iron-sulphide minerals are very efficient to adsorb arsenic from water for both As5+ and As3+ species. Similar to other studies, As3+-adsorption shows a slower rate than As3+. The stability of the adsorbed arsenic seems closely related to the pH values of the solution. A lower pH level commonly less than 4.0 is required to protect the adsorbed arsenic from serious oxidation and backward release. Fining of the mineral powders and shaking of the solution during adsorption enhance the adsorption efficiency and adsorption rate. For practical use of the method presented in this study, the waste produced should be managed with great care to keep it from redistribution over water system. A further study of the protection for the waste from oxidation on real water systems will greatly enhance the application of the strong ability of arsenic adsorption by these minerals, which is observed from this study.

  3. Field sludge characterization obtained from inner of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava, N.; Sosa, E.; Alamilla, J.L. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Integridad de Ductos, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152, San Bartolo Atepehuacan, C.P. 07730 (Mexico); Knigth, C. [PEMEX Refinacion, Avenida Marina Nacional 329, Edificio B-2, Piso 11, C.P. 11311 (Mexico); Contreras, A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Integridad de Ductos, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152, San Bartolo Atepehuacan, C.P. 07730 (Mexico)], E-mail:


    Physicochemical characterization of sludge obtained from refined hydrocarbons transmission pipeline was carried out through Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The Moessbauer and X-ray patterns indicate the presence of corrosion products composed of different iron oxide and sulfide phases. Hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), maghemite ({gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), magnetic and superparamagnetic goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH), pyrrhotite (Fe{sub 1-x}S), akaganeite ({beta}-FeOOH), and lepidocrocite ({gamma}-FeOOH) were identified as corrosion products in samples obtained from pipeline transporting Magna and Premium gasoline. For diesel transmission pipeline, hematite, magnetite, and magnetic goethite were identified. Corrosion products follow a simple reaction mechanism of steel dissolution in aerated aqueous media at a near-neutral pH. Chemical composition of the corrosion products depends on H{sub 2}O and sulfur inherent in fluids (traces). These results can be useful for decision-making with regard to pipeline corrosion control.

  4. Impact of mine tailings on surrounding soils and ground water: Case of Kettara old mine, Morocco (United States)

    El Amari, K.; Valera, P.; Hibti, M.; Pretti, S.; Marcello, A.; Essarraj, S.


    The old ochre-pyrrhotite mine of Kettara, near Marrakech (Morocco) ceased operating some 30 years ago but its excavations, plants, and tailings have been totally abandoned since then. Geochemical analyses of the soils, stream sediments and waters of the surrounding area were carried out to assess the pollution impact of this mining site. Tailing characterization showed the presence of sulphide primary minerals, as well as secondary ones containing among others (Fe, S, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr, Co, As, Se). In spite of the presence of theses pollutants in the Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) of Kettara, groundwater did not show significant levels of these metals probably related to the low ion circulation under the local dry climate with low annual rainfall that prevents metal ion circulation. The chemical analyses of soil and stream sediment samples included elements most of which are internationally considered as dangerous for human health (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, S, Se and Zn). Geochemical maps of these elements showed that Cr and Ni were linked to mafic intrusions of Kettara sector. Sulphur is linked to the mining activity and the others are related both to lithological outcrops and mining activity. However, the levels of these contaminants did not exceed Italian Standards of soil pollution.

  5. Stratigraphy and mineralogy of a carbonate-hosted gold deposit: Kings Mountain gold mine, NC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supplee, J.; Lapoint, D.; Feiss, P.G.


    The Kings Mountain Gold Mine, Cleveland Company, North Carolina, is unique in the Appalachians in that it is carbonate-hosted, with a distinctive ore mineralogy. The mine stratigraphy is upright, younging east to west. The basal unit is a volcanic to subvolcanic chlorite, feldspar, quartz-eye porphyry, cut by a silicic porphyry, interpreted as a shallow level intrusion. Above and gradational to the chloritic porphyry, unless separated by the intrusive silicic porphyry, is a sericitic, quartz-eye porphyry, probably a metatuff. A north-thinning, graphite schists is above the sericitic porphyry. Carbonates overlie the graphite schist except to the north where they are above the sericitic porphyry. The carbonates consist of basal and upper sequences separated by a sericite, quartz-eye schists (metatuff) which is capped by a chlorite-sericite-graphite schist. Mineralization occurs within each carbonate sequence. This is overlain by interbedded chlorite and graphite schists with two horizons of exhalative iron formation (I.F.). Above the I.F. is a thick sequence of sericitic chlorite schists (turbidites). The mineralized carbonates are pervasively silicified with a disseminated assemblage of pyrite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena, gold, altaite (PbTe), tetrahedrite, and pyrargyrite in quartz and dolomite +/- fluorite gangue. We suggest that the mineralization is associated with hydrothermal activity during emplacement of the silicic porphyry and following carbonate diagenesis. Mineralization was syn- or post-depositional with respect to the I.F.

  6. The viability of a nonenzymatic reductive citric acid cycle - Kinetics and thermochemistry (United States)

    Ross, D.S.


    The likelihood of a functioning nonenzymatic reductive citric acid cycle, recently proposed as the precursor to biosynthesis on early Earth, is examined on the basis of the kinetics and thermochemistry of the acetate ??? pyruvate ??? oxaloacetate ??? malate sequence. Using data derived from studies of the Pd-catalyzed phosphinate reduction of carbonyl functions it is shown that the rate of conversion of pyruvate to malate with that system would have been much too slow to have played a role in the early chemistry of life, while naturally occurring reduction systems such as the fayalite-magnetite-quartz and pyrrhotite-pyrite-magnetite mineral assemblages would have provided even slower conversions. It is also shown that the production of pyruvate from acetate is too highly endoergic to be driven by a naturally occurring energy source such as pyrophosphate. It is thus highly doubtful that the cycle can operate at suitable rates without enzymes, and most unlikely that it could have participated in the chemistry leading to life. ?? 2006 Springer Science + Business Media B.V.

  7. The viability of a nonenzymatic reductive citric acid cycle--kinetics and thermochemistry. (United States)

    Ross, David S


    The likelihood of a functioning nonenzymatic reductive citric acid cycle, recently proposed as the precursor to biosynthesis on early Earth, is examined on the basis of the kinetics and thermochemistry of the acetate --> pyruvate --> oxaloacetate --> malate sequence. Using data derived from studies of the Pd-catalyzed phosphinate reduction of carbonyl functions it is shown that the rate of conversion of pyruvate to malate with that system would have been much too slow to have played a role in the early chemistry of life, while naturally occurring reduction systems such as the fayalite-magnetite-quartz and pyrrhotite-pyrite-magnetite mineral assemblages would have provided even slower conversions. It is also shown that the production of pyruvate from acetate is too highly endoergic to be driven by a naturally occurring energy source such as pyrophosphate. It is thus highly doubtful that the cycle can operate at suitable rates without enzymes, and most unlikely that it could have participated in the chemistry leading to life.

  8. Hydrothermal Mineralization on the Mesoproterozoic Passive Continental Margins of China:A Case Study of the Langshan-Zha'ertaishan Belt, Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Runmin; ZHAI Yusheng


    , pyrite, pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite plot on both sides of the line for the mantle or between the lines for the mantle and lower crust in the lead isotope composition diagram; cobalt content of some pyrites samples is much higher than the nickel content (Co/Ni= 11.91-12.19).Some volcanic blocks and debris have been picked out from some pyritic and pyrrhotitic ores. All Zn-Pb-Cu-Fe sulfide orebodies in these deposits occur in the strata overlying metamorphic volcanic rocks in the only ore-bearing second formation. In the Jiashengpan deposit that lacks syn-sedimentary volcanic rocks in the host succession only Pb and Zn ores occur without Cu ore, but in the Dongshengmiao, Tanyaokou and Huogeqi deposits with syn-sedimentary volcanic rocks in the host succession Cu ores occur. This indicates a relatively higher ore-forming temperature. The process of synsedimentary volcanic eruption directly supplied some ore-forming elements, and resulted in secular geothermal anomaly favorable for the circulation of a submarine convective hydrothermal system, which accounts for the precipitation of deep mineralizing fluids exhaling into anoxidic basins along the syn-sedimentary fault system in the Langshan-Zha'ertai rift.The Dongshengmiao, Tanyaokou, and Huogeqi deposits hosted in the Langshan Group appear to be a transitional type of mineral deposit between SEDEX and VMS-types but with a bias towards SEDEX, while the Jiashengpan deposit hosted in the Zha'ertai Group is of a characteristic SEDEX type. This evidence, together with other new discoveries of Mesoproterozoic volcanic rocks and the features of lithogeny and metallogeny of the Bayun Obo deposit in the neighborhood emphasize the diversity, complexity and uniqueness of the Mesoproterozoic Langshan-Zha'ertai-Bayun Obo ore belt.

  9. Variations in the chemical and stable isotope composition of carbon and sulfur species during organic-rich sediment alteration: An experimental and theoretical study of hydrothermal activity at guaymas basin, gulf of california (United States)

    Seewald, Jeffrey S.; Seyfried, W.E.; Shanks, Wayne C.


    Organic-rich diatomaceous ooze was reacted with seawater and a Na-Ca-K-Cl fluid of seawater chlorinity at 325-400??C, 400-500 bars, and fluid/sediment mass ratios of 1.56-2.35 to constrain factors regulating the abundance and stable isotope composition of C and S species during hydrothermal alteration of sediment from Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. Alteration of inorganic and organic sedimentary components resulted in extensive exchange reactions, the release of abundant H2S, CO2, CH4, and Corganic, to solution, and recrystallization of the sediment to an assemblage containing albitic plagioclase, quartz, pyrrhotite, and calcite. The ??34Scdt values of dissolved H2S varied from -10.9 to +4.3??? during seawater-sediment interaction at 325 and 400??C and from -16.5 to -9.0??? during Na-Ca-K-Cl fluid-sediment interaction at 325 and 375??C. In the absence of seawater SO4, H2S is derived from both the transformation of pyrite to pyrrhotite and S released during the degradation of organic matter. In the presence of seawater SO4, reduction of SO4 contributes directly to H2S production. Sedimentary organic matter acts as the reducing agent during pyrite and SO4 reduction. Requisite acidity for the reduction of SO4 is provided by Mg fixation during early-stage sediment alteration and by albite and calcite formation in Mg-free solutions. Organically derived CH4 was characterized by ??13Cpdb values ranging between -20.8 and -23.1???, whereas ??13Cpdb values for dissolved Corganic ranged between -14.8 and -17.7%. Mass balance calculations indicate that ??13C values for organically derived CO2 were ??? - 14.8%. Residual solid sedimentary organic C showed small (??? 0.7???) depletions in 13C relative to the starting sediment. The experimental results are consistent with the isotopic and chemical composition of natural hydrothermal fluids and minerals at Guaymas Basin and permit us to better constrain sources and sinks for C and S species in subseafloor hydrothermal systems

  10. Metal deposit environmental pollution and its remediation%金属矿山环境污染及整治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许乃政; 陶于祥; 高南华


    The exploitation of metal deposit is for the utilization of natur al resour ces, but the exploitation produces heavy metal elements and acid mine drainage, which pollute soil-water ecosystem. Metal deposit environmental pollution origin ates from the oxidation and decomposition reaction of metal sulfides , particula rly pyrite(FeS2) and pyrrhotite (FeS).The oxidation of sulfides releases heavymetal ions and SO42-, the oxidation of pyrite and pyrrhotite produces Fe2+,Fe3+ and H+ in addition. Iron ions (Fe2+,Fe3+) production and pHvalue drop greatly accelerate the velocity of sulfides decomposition and of heavy metal ions precip itation. Bacterium activity can improve or catalyze the velocity of oxidation reaction ,accelerate hydrolysis and precipitation of heavy mental ions .Iron ,asa common element, its geochemical behavior affects the oxidation degree and velocity of sulfides; iron minerals ,as primary secondary minerals, their loadi ng minerals dominate precipitation of other heavy metal elements. A series of re mediation measures such as alkaline dosing trea tment, wetland treatment system, capping and isolation measures have been succe ss fully applied to control metal deposit environmental pollution .Finally , some advanced methods of treatments have been introduced.%金属矿床开采,一方面是开发利用自然资源,另一方面由于对土水 生态环 境释放重金属和酸性废水而破坏自然环境。金属矿山环境污染源于金属硫化物特别是黄铁矿 、磁黄铁矿的氧化分解。金属硫化物的氧化释放出重金属离子和SO42-,黄铁矿、 磁黄铁矿 的氧化还释放出Fe2+、Fe3+和H+,铁(Fe2+、Fe3+)的存 在和pH值的降低大大加速金属 硫化物的分解和重金属元素的沉淀。铁氧化细菌的活动可以提高或催化氧化反应的速度,加 速重金属的水解和沉淀。铁作为普遍存在的元素,其地球化学行为影响着金属硫化物氧化的 程度和

  11. Postmagmatic sulphur loss in the Skaergaard Intrusion: Implications for the formation of the Platinova Reef (United States)

    Andersen, Jens C. Ø.


    The stratabound Platinova Au-Pd Reef in the Skaergaard Intrusion is intimately linked to Cu-Fe sulphide minerals and occurs at a level that shows changes in the sulphur concentration and the Cu/S ratio. These features suggest that the reef is related to silicate-sulphide liquid immiscibility in the Skaergaard magma. However, although the evidence is strong, present day sulphur concentrations are too low to support such a model. The detailed knowledge of the shape, volume, and compositional relations of the Skaergaard lithologies allows for numerical modeling of sulphur and copper concentrations during fractionation of the magma. These data can be evaluated with the current models for sulphur saturation in iron-rich mafic magmas to assess the original sulphur concentrations, the extent of fractionation, the composition of sulphide liquids, and the extent of postmagmatic sulphur loss. Mass balance modeling yields initial copper and sulphur concentrations of 250 and 894 ppm for the parental magma to the Lower Zone a. Prior to sulphur saturation, Cu behaves as an incompatible element with a bulk partition coefficient in the cumulus material, DcumulusCu of 0.13 indicating some incorporation of Cu into mafic silicates (probably augite). Sulphur can be assumed to be perfectly incompatible in the cumulus minerals, although it will be included as a component of the interstitial liquid. These values yield sulphur saturation at around 635 ppm Cu and 2607 ppm S. Assuming the sulphur to originally be present as a mixture of monosulphide (MSS) and intermediate solid-solution sulphide (ISS), the primary sulphides in the cumulates would amount to 0.07 modal % through Lower and Middle Zones and 0.53 modal % on average through Upper Zone. The expected weight proportion of primary chalcopyrite / pyrrhotite evolves from 30 : 70 at the base of LZa through 26 : 74 at the level of the Platinova Reef to 18 : 82 at the Sandwich Horizon. The present-day bornite-magnetite mineral assemblage

  12. Variations in the chemical and stable isotope composition of carbon and sulfur species during organic-rich sediment alteration: An experimental and theoretical study of hydrothermal activity at guaymas basin, gulf of california (United States)

    Seewald, Jeffrey S.; Seyfried, William E., Jr.; Shanks, Wayne C., III


    Organic-rich diatomaceous ooze was reacted with seawater and a Na-Ca-K-Cl fluid of seawater chlorinity at 325-400°C, 400-500 bars, and fluid/sediment mass ratios of 1.56-2.35 to constrain factors regulating the abundance and stable isotope composition of C and S species during hydrothermal alteration of sediment from Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. Alteration of inorganic and organic sedimentary components resulted in extensive exchange reactions, the release of abundant H 2S, CO 2, CH 4, and C organic, to solution, and recrystallization of the sediment to an assemblage containing albitic plagioclase, quartz, pyrrhotite, and calcite. The δ 34S cdt values of dissolved H 2S varied from -10.9 to +4.3‰ during seawater-sediment interaction at 325 and 400°C and from -16.5 to -9.0‰ during Na-Ca-K-Cl fluid-sediment interaction at 325 and 375°C. In the absence of seawater SO 4, H 2S is derived from both the transformation of pyrite to pyrrhotite and S released during the degradation of organic matter. In the presence of seawater SO 4, reduction of SO 4 contributes directly to H 2S production. Sedimentary organic matter acts as the reducing agent during pyrite and SO 4 reduction. Requisite acidity for the reduction of SO 4 is provided by Mg fixation during early-stage sediment alteration and by albite and calcite formation in Mg-free solutions. Organically derived CH 4 was characterized by δ 13C pdb values ranging between -20.8 and -23.1‰, whereas δ 13C pdb values for dissolved C organic ranged between -14.8 and -17.7%. Mass balance calculations indicate that δ13C values for organically derived CO 2 were ≥ - 14.8%. Residual solid sedimentary organic C showed small (≤ 0.7‰) depletions in 13C relative to the starting sediment. The experimental results are consistent with the isotopic and chemical composition of natural hydrothermal fluids and minerals at Guaymas Basin and permit us to better constrain sources and sinks for C and S species in subseafloor

  13. Identification of greigite in lake sediments and its magnetic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU; Shouyun


    [1]Xue, B., Wang, S., Xia, W. et al., The uplift and environmental change of Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau in the past 0.9 Ma inferred from Core RM in Zoigê Basin, Science in China, Ser. D, 1998, 41(2): 165-170.[2]Hoffmann, V., Greigite (Fe3S4): magnetic properties and first domain observations, Phys. Earth Planet Inter., 1992, 70: 288-301.[3]Snowball, I., Thompson, R., A stable chemical remanence in Holocene sediments, J. Geophys. Res., 1990, 95: 4471-4479.[4]Dekkers, M. J., Magnetic properties of natural pyrrhotite, II: High- and low-temperature behaviour of Jrs and TRM as function of grain size, Phys. Earth Planet Inter., 1989, 57: 266-283.[5]Rochette, P., Fillion, G., Mattéi, J. L. et al., Magnetic transition at 30 - 234 K in pyrrhotite: insight into a widespread occurrence of this mineral in rocks, Earth Planet Sci. Lett., 1990, 98: 319-328.[6]McCabe, C., Channell, J. E. T., Late Paleozoic remagnetization in limestones of the Craven Basin (northern England) and the rock magnetic fingerprint of remagnetized sedimentary carbonates, J. Geophys. Res., 1994, 99: 4603-4612.[7]Snyder, R. L., Analytical profile fitting of X-ray powder diffraction profiles in Rietveld analysis, in The Rietveld Method (ed., R. A. Young), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995, 111-131.[8]Klug, H. P., Alexander, L. E., X-ray Diffraction Procedures for Polycrystalline and Amorphous Materials, New York: Illus. John Wiley & Sons, 1954, 97.[9]Diaz, I. J. C., Kirschvink, L., Magnetic domain state and coercivity predictions for biogenic greigite (Fe3S4): A comparison of theory with magnetosome observations, J. Geophys. Res., 1992, 97: 309-315.[10]Snowball, I., Thompson, R., The occurrence of greigite in sediments from Loch Lomond, J. Quatern. Sci., 1988, 3: 121-125.[11]Ariztegui, D., Dobson, J., Magnetic investigations of framboidal greigite formation; a record of anthropogenic environmental changes in eutrophic Lake St. Moritz, Switzerland, The

  14. Chalcophile element (Ni, Cu, PGE, and Au) variations in the Tamarack magmatic sulfide deposit in the Midcontinent Rift System: implications for dynamic ore-forming processes (United States)

    Taranovic, Valentina; Ripley, Edward M.; Li, Chusi; Rossell, Dean


    The Tamarack magmatic sulfide deposit is hosted by the Tamarack Intrusive Complex (1105.6 ± 1.2 Ma) in the Midcontinent Rift System. The most important sulfide mineralization in the Complex occurs in the northern part, which consists of two separate intrusive units: an early funnel-shaped layered peridotite body containing relatively fine-grained olivine (referred to as the FGO Intrusion) at the top, and a late gabbro-troctolite-peridotite dike-like body containing relatively coarse-grained olivine (referred to as the CGO Intrusion) at the bottom. Disseminated, net-textured, and massive sulfides occur in the base of the FGO Intrusion as well as in the upper part of the CGO Intrusion. The widest part of the CGO Intrusion also hosts a large semi-massive (net-textured) sulfide ore body locally surrounded by disseminated sulfide mineralization. Small massive sulfide veins occur in the footwall of the FGO Intrusion and in the wall rocks of the CGO dike. The sulfide mineralization is predominantly composed of pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and chalcopyrite, plus minor magnetite. Pyrrhotite containing the highest Ni and Co contents occurs in the FGO disseminated sulfides and in the CGO semi-massive sulfide ores, respectively. The most important platinum-group minerals associated with the base metal sulfides are sperrylite (PtAs2), sudburyite (PdSb), and michenerite (PdBiTe). Nickel shows a strong positive correlation with S in all types of sulfide mineralization, and Cu shows a strong positive correlation with S in the disseminated sulfide mineralization. At a given S content, the concentrations of Pt, Pd, and Au in the CGO disseminated sulfides are significantly higher than those in the FGO disseminated sulfides. The semi-massive sulfide ores are characterized by significantly higher IPGE (Ir, Os, Ru, and Rh) concentrations than most of the massive sulfide ores. With few exceptions, all of the various textural types of sulfide mineralization collectively show a good positive

  15. The evolution of the Waiotapu geothermal system, New Zealand, based on the chemical and isotopic composition of its fluids, minerals and rocks (United States)

    Hedenquist, Jeffrey W.; Browne, Patrick R. L.


    The Waiotapu geothermal system is hosted by silicic rocks of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Exploration drilling in the late 1950s down to 1100 m provided physical information on the system. Measured temperatures show a boiling profile to 295 °C, with shallow inversions, particularly in the north. Total discharge fluid samples were collected; the geothermometry and measured temperatures show that fluids derive mainly from a shallow (~400 m deep) reservoir at about 225°C. Petrologic study of drillcore samples recovered from seven wells reveals an alteration assemblage of quartz and albite + adularia, with a variable distribution of chlorite, pyrite, calcite, zeolites, epidote, pyrrhotite, sphene, leucoxene, apatite and minor base metal sulfides; white mica is a late overprint, particularly well developed at shallow depths. Surficial alteration of kaolin, cristobalite, alunite and smectite clays reflect alteration by acid sulfate, steam-heated waters. The activities of components in minerals (determined from microprobe analyses and composition-activity relations) and fluids (speciated to reservoir conditions) indicate equilibrium now exists between the fluids and white mica; the Na/K ratio of the fluid is being controlled by dissolution of albite and adularia, while its H 2/H 2S ratio is buffered by pyrite replacing pyrrhotite. The fluids are now slightly undersaturated with respect to calcite. The present deep fluids boil adiabatically from at least 300°C to 230°C; at depths of ≤500 m, this ascending chloride fluid is variably diluted by a steam-heated water (of zero chloride) that lies over, and occurs on the margin of, the system like a discontinuous umbrella; the steam-heated water is relatively CO 2-rich (≤0.1 m). The cooling at shallow levels by this mixing has shifted the alteration from albite-adularia stability to white mica stability; this shift is enhanced by the CO 2-rich nature of the diluent. Dilution of ascending chloride fluids by

  16. Late-Hercynian intrusion-related gold deposits: An integrated model on the Tighza polymetallic district, central Morocco (United States)

    Éric, Marcoux; Khadija, Nerci; Yannick, Branquet; Claire, Ramboz; Gilles, Ruffet; Jean-Jacques, Peucat; Ross, Stevenson; Michel, Jébrak


    Gold have been recently recognized in the Tighza (formerly Jebel Aouam) district, in the Hercynian belt of central Morocco. This district has long been known for its W mineralization, as well as major Pb-Ag-Zn, and minor Sb-Ba deposits, all geographically associated with late-Hercynian calc-alkaline magmatism. Gold mineralization in the district is mainly hosted by thick W-Au quartz veins located around the "Mine granite" small granitic plug. Within the veins, gold grade is highest (up to 70 g/t) close to the granite but rapidly decreases going outward from the granite, defining a perigranitic zoning. Anomalous gold grades have also been measured in hydrothermal skarn layers close to two other granitic plugs (Kaolin granite and Mispickel granite), associated with disseminated As-Fe sulfides. The paragenetic sequence for the W-Au quartz veins shows three stages: (1) an early oxidized stage with wolframite-scheelite associated with early quartz (Q1), (2) an intermediate Bi-As-Te-Mo-Au sulfide stage with loellingite, bismuth minerals and native gold with a later quartz (Q2), restricted to a narrow distance from the granite, and (3) a late lower temperature As-Cu-Zn-(Pb) stage with abundant massive pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite and sphalerite, locally forming independent veins ("pyrrhotite vein"). Both Q1 hyaline and Q2 saccharoidal gold-bearing quartz display aqua-carbonic fluids with minor H2S and Cu and an homogeneous composition (81 mole% H2O, 18 mole% CO2 and about 1 mole% NaCl). The trapping pressure is estimated to 1.5-2 kbar with temperature ranging from 300 to 350 °C. Q1 inclusions have exploded indicating an uplift of the Tighza block, that lead to saccharoidal Q2 quartz deposition with multiphase NaCl-saturated fluid inclusions. 40Ar/39Ar dating demonstrates that the "Mine granite", tungsten skarnoid, scheelite-molybdenite veins, and very likely gold-bearing veins are coeval, emplaced at 286 ± 1 Ma. Multiple and widespread metal sources are indicated by

  17. Chemical composition of glass and crystalline phases in coarse coal gasification ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.H. Matjie; Zhongsheng Li; Colin R. Ward; David French [Sasol Technology (Pty) Ltd., Sasolburg (South Africa)


    A procedure has been developed for determining the chemical composition and relative abundance of the amorphous or glassy material, as well as crystalline phases, present in coarse coal gasification ash, in order to assist in predicting the behaviour of the material in cement/brick/concrete applications. The procedure is based on a combination of quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD), chemical analysis and electron microprobe studies. XRD analysis indicates that the clinker samples contain a number of crystalline high temperature phases, including anorthite, mullite, cristobalite, quartz and diopside. Quantitative evaluation using Rietveld-based techniques has been used to determine the percentages of both the individual crystalline phases and the glass component. These data were then combined with the chemistry of the crystalline phases and the overall chemical composition of the ash to estimate the chemical composition of the glass phase, which is typically the most abundant component present in the different materials. Although there is some degree of scatter, comparison between the inferred glass composition from XRD and bulk chemistry and actual data on the glass composition using electron microprobe techniques suggest that the two approaches are broadly consistent. The microprobe further indicates that a range of compositions are present in the glassy and crystalline components of the ashes, including Si-Al-rich glass, metakaolin and Fe-Ca-Mg-Ti phases, as well as quartz, anorthite and an aluminophosphate material. Electron microprobe and XRD studies also show that pyrrhotite (FeS), representing a high temperature transformation product of pyrite, is present in some clinker and partially burnt carbonaceous shale samples. 27 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. The As removal from arsenopyrite-bearing mine waste by microwave (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Myung, Eun Ji; Hack Lim, Dae; Kim, Bong Ju; Park, Cheon Young


    Penalties incurred by miners for arsenic in concentrates have increased significantly because the removal and disposal of arsenic is difficult and costly for smelters and because the environmental challenges are increasing worldwide. Typically miners incur penalties on arsenic in concentrates above 0.2% As with smelter rejection limits of 0.5%. Therefore, finding an effective solution for removing As during primary mining activities is necessary to avoid penalty. The aim of this study was to investigate the As removal from mine waste using microwave process. The mine waste samples were characterized by chemical and XRD analysis. To determine of As removal from the microwave experiments, aqua regia digestion was performed according to Korean environmental standard method(KESM) and the As removal effect were evaluated using the standard EPA toxicity characteristic leaching procedure(TCLP, EPA 1311 method). The result of mineralogical character for mine waste using XRD was detected arsenopyrite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite and quartz. The chemical analysis of As, Pb, Zn contents in the mine waste measured 13,896.0, 896.1 and 1,054.6 mg/kg, respectively. The As removal of experiments was conducted to examine the effects of microwave exposure time(1~15min). The results showed that the As removal in mine waste (exposure time = 10min) was 92.90%, and the temperature of mine waste by microwave heating was 886℃. The TCLP leaching of treated mine waste by microwave measured values were below the EPA's current regulatory threshold(As, Pb, Zn : 5 mg/L). The optimum condition of microwave exposure for As removal from arsenopyrite-bearing mine waste was obtained at 800W, 2450MHz, 10min. Acknowledgment : This work was supported by the Energy and Resources Engineering Program Grant funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, Korea

  19. Studying microfungi-mineral interactions in sulphide-bearing waste-rock dumps: a 7 years survey in the Libiola mine, North-Eastern Italy (United States)

    Marescotti, P.; Cecchi, G.; Di Piazza, S.; Lucchetti, G.; Zotti, M.


    Sulphide-bearing waste-rock dumps represent complex geological systems characterised by high percentages of low-grade mineralisations and non-valuable sulphides (such as pyrite and pyrrhotite). The sulphide oxidation triggers acid mine drainage (AMD) processes and the release of several metals of environmental concern. The severe physicochemical properties of these metal-contaminated environments tend to inhibit soil forming processes and represent an important stress factor for the biotic communities by exerting a strong selective pressure. Some macro- and micro-fungi are pioneer and extremophile organisms, which may survive and tolerate high concentrations of toxic metals in contaminated environments. Many studies show the fungal capability to bioaccumulate, biosorb, and store in their cells a high concentration of ecotoxic metals. A 7 years multidisciplinary survey was carried out in the Libiola sulphide mine. The results evidenced that the waste rock dumps of the area are characterized by an extremely poor flora and a specific mycobiota, due to the soil acidity, high concentration of trace metals, and unavailability or paucity of nutrients and organic matter. Our studies allowed the complete mineralogical, geochemical, and mycological characterization of one of the biggest dumps of the mine. 30 microfungal vital strains were isolated in pure cultures and studied with molecular and morphological approach, for their identification. The results allowed the isolation of some rare and important extremophilic species. Penicillium was the most recurrent genus, together with Trichoderma and Cladosporium. In particular, Penicillium glandicola is a rare species previously isolated from cave or arid environments, whereas P. brevicompactum is one of the most important fungi for metal corrosion. Hence, some bioaccumulation tests allowed to select a Trichoderma harzianum strain efficient to uptake Cu and Ag from pyrite-bearing soils, highlighting its central role in fungal

  20. Minerales de mena del depósito epitermal de baja sulfuración Don Sixto, Mendoza Ore minerals from Don Sixto, a low sulfidation epithermal deposit from Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecilia Mugas Lobos


    Full Text Available El proyecto minero Don Sixto es un depósito epitermal de baja sulfuración de Au-Ag, ubicado en el bloque de San Rafael, en el SE de la provincia de Mendoza. En este depósito, cuyo recurso aurífero es próximo a las 900.000 onzas, se ha identificado una asociación de minerales de metales preciosos que incluye: uytenbogaardtita, stromeyerita, naumannita, acantita, polibasita, stützita y cervelleita. Estos minerales son escasos y se encuentran frecuentemente asociados a oro y plata de variable fineza, diseminados en vetas de cuarzo hidrotermal y en unidades volcánicas-piroclásticas de los Grupos Choiyoi y El Portillo. En este depósito se encuentra abundante pirita, con cantidades menores de arsenopirita, calcopirita, esfalerita, magnetita, hematita y, en forma subordinada, pirrotina, galena, marcasita, bornita y boulangerita, junto con calcosina, digenita y covellina. La presencia de uytenbogaardtita, stützita, cervelleita y polibasita constituye la primera mención de estos minerales para la provincia de Mendoza.The Don Sixto mining project is a low sulfidation Au-Ag deposit, with a gold resource close to 900,000 ounces, located in the San Rafael Massif, in the SE of Mendoza province. Recently, it was found a precious-metal mineral association including uy-tenbogaardtite, stromeyerite, naumannite, acanthite, polybasite, stützite and cervelleite. These minerals are scarce and are commonly related to gold and silver of variable fineness, disseminated in hydrothermal quartz veins and volcanic-pyroclastic rock units from the Choiyoi and El Portillo Group. The most common mineral is pyrite associated with subordinated arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, magnetite and hematite; lesser amounts of pyrrhotite, galena, marcasite, bornite, boulangerite, chalcocite, digenite and covellite were also recognized. This is the first mention in Mendoza province for uytenbogaardtite, stützite, cervelleite and polybasite.

  1. Advanced methods of identification of the natural remanent magnetization carriers in meta-basites from Oscar II Land, Western Spitsbergen (United States)

    Burzyński, Mariusz; Michalski, Krzysztof; Nejbert, Krzysztof; Manby, Geoffrey; Domańska-Siuda, Justyna


    In this study, several rock-magnetic experiments were applied to gain a better understanding of composition and origin of Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM) carriers in selected meta-dolerites and meta-volcanics of Oscar II Land (Western Spitsbergen). To rise the resolution of results, analyses were conducted on "Fe-containing" separated grains and they were combined with "whole-rock" mineralogical and rock-magnetic observations. Standard "whole- rock" magnetic studies were performed including: coercivity spectra measurements using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), SIRM (saturation isothermal remanent magnetization) measurements, the three component IRM (Isothermal Remanent Magnetisation) procedures (Lowrie 1990). Additionally, the above experiments were supported by examination of the thin sections (optical/SEM/BSE). After that, investigated meta-basites were subjected to separation process during which seven different groups of grains has been distinguished. Six of them revealed shape and parameters of hysteresis loop characteristic for ferromagnetic phases. Separated magnetic phases were again subjected to rock-magnetic (SIRM/Micromag VSM) and mineralogical (optical/SEM/BSE) analyses. The results point to the presence of low coercivity magnetite/maghemite and pyrrhotite in the meta-dolerites while in the meta-volcanics the occurrence of magnetite/maghemite and hematite was recorded. The results indicated that late to post-Caledonian ferromagnetic minerals are dominant in the studied meta-basites. The investigations also confirmed that Caledonian metamorphic remineralization has completely replaced primary magmatic - Proterozoic/Lower Palaeozoic ferromagnetic carriers in the meta-dolerites. The present study was funded by Leading National Research Centre (KNOW) received by the Centre for Polar Studies for the period 2014-2018 and NSC (Polish National Science Centre) grant number 2011/03/D/ST10/05193.

  2. Magnetite: What it reveals about the origin of the banded iron formations. [Abstract only (United States)

    Schwartz, D. E.; Mancinelli, R. L.; White, M. R.


    Magnetite, Fe3O4 is produced abiotically and biotically. Abiotically, magnetite is a late magmatic mineral and forms as a consequence of the cooling of iron rich magma. Biotically, magnetite is produced by several organisms, including magnetotactic bacteria. Hematite, Fe2O3, is also produced abiotically and biotically. Abiotically, hematite rarely occurs as a primary mineral in igneous rocks, but is common as an alteration product, fumarole deposit, and in some metamorphosed Fe-rich rocks. Biotically, hematite is produced by several types of microorganisms. Biologically-produced magnetite and hematite are formed under the control of the host organism, and consequently, have characteristics not found in abiotically produced magnetite and hematite crystals. To determine if the magnetite and hematite in the Banded Iron Formation was biologically or abiotically produced, the characteristics of biologically-produced magnetite and hematite (concentrated from Aquaspirillum magnetotacticum) and abiotically-produced magnetite and hematite obtained from Wards Scientific Supply Company, were compared with characteristics of magnetite and hematite concentrated from the Gunflint Banded Iron Formation (Ontario, Canada) using thermal and crystallographic analytical techniques. Whole rock analysis of the Gunflint Banded Iron Formation by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) revealed the presence of quartz, hematite, siderite and dolomite as the major minerals, and magnetite, greenalite, pyrite, pyrrhotite and apatite as the minor minerals. Analysis of a crude magnetic fraction of the Gunflint showed the minerals quartz, hematite, siderite, dolomite, and magnetite. Analysis of the crude magnetic fraction from Aquaspirillum magnetotacticum revealed organic compounds plus hematite and magnetite. The mineral identification and particle size distribution data obtained from the DTA along with XRD data indicate that the magnetite and hematite from the Gunflint

  3. Formation of "Chemically Pure" Magnetite from Mg-Fe-Carbonates Implications for the Exclusively Inorganic Origin of Magnetite and Sulfides in Martian Meteorite ALH84001 (United States)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, Douglas W.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Morris, R. V.; Trieman, A. H.; McKay, G. A.


    Magnetite and sulfides in the black rims of carbonate globules in Martian meteorite ALH84001 have been studied extensively because of the claim by McKay et al. that they are biogenic in origin. However, exclusively inorganic (abiotic) processes are able to account for the occurrence of carbonate-sulfide-magnetite assemblages in the meteorite. We have previously precipitated chemically zoned and sulfide-bearing carbonate globules analogous to those in ALH84001 (at less than or equal to 150 C) from multiple fluxes of variable-composition Ca-Mg-Fe-CO2-S-H2O solutions. Brief heating of precipitated globules to approx. 470 C produced magnetite and pyrrhotite within the globules by thermal decomposition of siderite and pyrite, respectively. We have also shown that morphology of magnetite formed by inorganic thermal decomposition of Fe-rich carbonate is similar to the morphology of so-called biogenic magnetite in the carbonate globules of ALH84001. Magnetite crystals in the rims of carbonate globules in ALH84001 are chemically pure [Note: "Chemically pure" is defined here as magnetite with Mg at levels comparable or lower than Mg detected by [8] in ALH84001 magnetite]. A debate continues on whether or not chemically pure magnetite can form by the thermal decomposition of mixed Mg-Fe-carbonates that have formed under abiotic conditions. Thomas-Keprta et al. argue that it is not possible to form Mg-free magnetite from Mg-Fe-carbonate based on thermodynamic data. We previously suggested that chemically pure magnetite could form by the thermal decomposition of relatively pure siderite in the outer rims of the globules. Mg-Fe-carbonates may also thermally decompose under conditions conducive for formation of chemically pure magnetite. In this paper we show through laboratory experiments that chemically pure magnetite can form by an inorganic process from mixed Mg-Fe-carbonates.

  4. Redox processes in subducting oceanic crust recorded by sulfide-bearing high-pressure rocks and veins (SW Tianshan, China) (United States)

    Li, Ji-Lei; Gao, Jun; Klemd, Reiner; John, Timm; Wang, Xin-Shui


    The oxidized nature of the sub-arc mantle and hence arc magmas is generally interpreted as a result of the migration of subduction-related oxidizing fluids or melts from the descending slab into the mantle wedge. This is of particular importance seeing that the oxidization state of sub-arc magmas seems to play a key role in the formations of arc-related ore deposits. However, direct constraints on the redox state of subducted oceanic crust are sparse. Here, we provide a detailed petrological investigation on sulfide- and oxide-bearing eclogites, blueschists, micaschists, eclogite-facies and retrograde veins from the Akeyazi high-pressure (HP) terrane (NW China) in order to gain insight into the redox processes recorded in a subducting oceanic slab. Sulfides in these rocks are mainly pyrite and minor pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, bornite, molybdenite, sphalerite and chalcocite, including exsolution textures of bornite-chalcopyrite intergrowth. Magnetite, ilmenite and pyrite occur as inclusions in garnet, whereas sulfides are dominant in the matrix. Large pyrite grains in the matrix contain inclusions of garnet, omphacite and other HP index minerals. However, magnetite replacing pyrite textures are commonly observed in the retrograded samples. The eclogite-facies and retrograde veins display two fluid events, which are characterized by an early sulfide-bearing and a later magnetite-bearing mineral assemblage, respectively. Textural and petrological evidences show that the sulfides were mainly formed during HP metamorphism. Mineral assemblage transitions reveal that the relative oxygen fugacity of subducted oceanic crust decreases slightly with increasing depths. However, according to oxygen mass balance calculations, based on the oxygen molar quantities ( nO2), the redox conditions remain constant during HP metamorphism. At shallow levels (arc mantle melts.

  5. Sulfur and oxygen isotopic systematics of the 1982 eruptions of El Chichón Volcano, Chiapas, Mexico (United States)

    Rye, R.O.; Luhr, J.F.; Wasserman, M.D.


    Thermometers based on sulfur and oxygen isotopic compositions of anhydrite, pyrrhotite, titanomagnetite, and plagioclase crystals from fresh pumices of the 1982 eruptions of El Chichón Volcano indicate a pre-eruption temperature of 810 ± 40°C, confirming textural evidence that the anhydrite precipitated directly from the melt. The isotopic composition of sulfate leached from fresh ashfall samples shows it to be a mixture of anhydrite microphenocrysts and adsorbed sulfate derived from oxidized sulfur (SO2) in the eruption plume. The leachate data show no evidence for rapid oxidation of significant amounts of H2S in the eruption cloud even though the fugacity ratio of H2S/SO2 in the gas phase of the magma was >400. This may indicate kinetic inhibition of H2S to SO2 conversion in the eruption cloud. Prior to eruption, the magma contained an estimated 2.6 wt. % sulfur (as SO3). The estimated δ 34S of the bulk magma is 5.8‰. Such a high value may reflect assimilation of 34S-enriched evaporites or the prior loss of 34S-depleted H2S to a fluid or gas phase during formation of a small prophyry-type hydrothermal system or ore deposit. In either case, the original magma must have been very sulfur rich. It is likely that the initial high sulfur content of the magma and at least some of its 34S enrichment reflects involvement of subducted volcanogenic massive sulfides deposits during Benioff-zone partial melting. Isotopic data on mineralized, accidental lithic fragments support the possible development of a porphyry-type system at El Chichón.

  6. Sulfur and oxygen isotopic systematics of the 1982 eruptions of El Chichón Volcano, Chiapas, Mexico (United States)

    Rye, R. O.; Luhr, J. F.; Wasserman, M. D.


    Thermometers based on sulfur and oxygen isotopic compositions of anhydrite, pyrrhotite, titanomagnetite, and plagioclase crystals from fresh pumices of the 1982 eruptions of El Chichón Volcano indicate a pre-eruption temperature of 810 ± 40°C, confirming textural evidence that the anhydrite precipitated directly from the melt. The isotopic composition of sulfate leached from fresh ashfall samples shows it to be a mixture of anhydrite microphenocrysts and adsorbed sulfate derived from oxidized sulfur (SO 2) in the eruption plume. The leachate data show no evidence for rapid oxidation of significant amounts of H 2S in the eruption cloud even though the fugacity ratio of H 2S/SO 2 in the gas phase of the magma was >400. This may indicate kinetic inhibition of H 2S to SO 2 conversion in the eruption cloud. Prior to eruption, the magma contained an estimated 2.6 wt. % sulfur (as SO 3). The estimated δ 34S of the bulk magma is 5.8‰. Such a high value may reflect assimilation of 34S-enriched evaporites or the prior loss of 34S-depleted H 2S to a fluid or gas phase during formation of a small prophyry-type hydrothermal system or ore deposit. In either case, the original magma must have been very sulfur rich. It is likely that the initial high sulfur content of the magma and at least some of its 34S enrichment reflects involvement of subducted volcanogenic massive sulfides deposits during Benioff-zone partial melting. Isotopic data on mineralized, accidental lithic fragments support the possible development of a porphyry-type system at El Chichón.

  7. The Chicxulub impact structure: What does the Yaxcopoil-1 drill core reveal? (United States)

    Elbra, T.


    The Chicxulub impact structure, one of the largest impact structures on Earth, was formed 65 Ma by hypervelocity impact which led to the large mass-extinction at K-Pg boundary. This well preserved but buried structure has undergone numerous drillings and studies aimed to understand the formation mechanism, structure and age of the crater. The Yaxcopoil-1 (Yax-1) drill core, located in the southern sector of the Chicxulub crater, in the outer part of an annular trough, 62 km from the crater center, was drilled by ICDP in 2001-2002. Petrophysical, rock- and paleomagnetic studies of Yax-1 (Elbra and Pesonen, 2011) showed that physical properties characterize the various lithological units. Dependence on mineral composition rather than fabric was observed in pre-impact lithologies contrarily to the post-impact and impact rocks where the physical properties were dominated by porosity and reflected, in case of impactites, the impact formation mechanism with its numerous features resulting from melting, brecciation and fracturing. Furthermore, while the pre- and post-impact lithologies in Yax-1 are mostly dia- or paramagnetic, the impactite units indicated enhanced magnetizations and the presence of ferromagnetic, probably hydrothermally deposited magnetite and pyrrhotite. The sharp contrast of the impactites to the target and to post-impact lithologies allowed establishing the contact (especially the K-Pg boundary) between. The anisotropy, shape and orientation of the magnetic fraction illustrated the fabric randomization and showed the influence of impact-related redeposition and hydrothermal activity. The paleomagnetic data suggested that the Chicxulub impact occurred during the reverse polarity geomagnetic chron 29R, which is in agreement with the isotopic dates of the Chicxulub impact as well as with expected K-Pg boundary polarity. Reference Elbra, T. and Pesonen, L.J., 2011. Physical properties of the Yaxcopoil-1 deep drill core, Chicxulub impact structure, Mexico

  8. Nephelinite lavas at early stage of rift initiation (Hanang volcano, North Tanzanian Divergence) (United States)

    Baudouin, Céline; Parat, Fleurice; Denis, Carole M. M.; Mangasini, Fredrik


    North Tanzanian Divergence is the first stage of continental break-up of East African Rift (alkaline lavas with zoned clinopyroxene, nepheline, andradite-schorlomite, titanite, apatite, and pyrrhotite. Lavas are low MgO-nephelinite with low Mg# and high silica content (Mg# = 22.4-35.2, SiO2 = 44.2-46.7 wt%, respectively), high incompatible element concentrations (e.g. REE, Ba, Sr) and display Nb-Ta fractionation (Nb/Ta = 36-61). Major elements of whole rock are consistent with magmatic differentiation by fractional crystallization from a parental melt with melilititic composition. Although fractional crystallization occurred at 9-12 km and can be considered as an important process leading to nephelinite magma, the complex zonation of cpx (e.g. abrupt change of Mg#, Nb/Ta, and H2O) and trace element patterns of nephelinites recorded magmatic differentiation involving open system with carbonate-silicate immiscibility and primary melilititic melt replenishment. The low water content of clinopyroxene (3-25 ppm wt. H2O) indicates that at least 0.3 wt% H2O was present at depth during carbonate-rich nephelinite crystallization at 340-640 MPa and 1050-1100 °C. Mg-poor nephelinites from Hanang represent an early stage of the evolution path towards carbonatitic magmatism as observed in Oldoinyo Lengai. Paragenesis and geochemistry of Hanang nephelinites require the presence of CO2-rich melilititic liquid in the southern part of North Tanzanian Divergence and carbonate-rich melt percolations after deep partial melting of CO2-rich oxidized mantle source.

  9. Depósitos epitermales de baja sulfuración ricos en sulfuros de metales base, distrito aurífero La Carolina, San Luis, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallard-Esquivel María Cecilia


    Full Text Available Low-sulfidation epithermal base-metal sulfide-rich deposits, La Carolina gold-bearing district,San Luis, Argentina. La Carolina gold-bearing district is located at the western end of the Metallogenetic Belt of San Luis, which is spatially and genetically related to the mesosilicic volcanism of mio-pliocene age. The volcanic arc experienced an eastward migration, due to the flattening of the Nazca plate in the segment 27°-33°S, known as the Pampean flat-slab. At La Carolina, the volcanic activity occurred between 8.2 and 6.3 Ma. It encompasses lavas and pyroclastics of andesitic, dacitic, latitic and trachytic composition. The mesosilicic magmas belong to normal to high-k calc-alkaline and shoshonitic suites. Structural analysis shows that previous structures have strongly controlled the emplacement of volcanic rocks and related mineral deposits at La Carolina allowing to define a pullapart.In this gold-bearing district there are eigth small mineralized prospects. The mineralogy consists of pyrite, arsenic rich pyrite, galena, sphalerite, marcasite, melnikovite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, tennantitetetrahedrite, digenite, covellite, bornite, pyrargiryte, hessite, silvanite, pearceite, argirodite, gold, silver, greigite, boulangerite, jamesonite and electrum. The gangue consists of quartz, calcite, chalcedony and minor adularia.The hydrothermal alteration is widespread and comprise phyllic and argillic mineral assemblages characterized by sericite, illite, interstratified I/S, and silicic; propylitic alteration is also present as an outer halo. Fluid inclusions studies show that the formation temperatures range between 230º to 330º C. Boiling and mixing with meteoric water led to mineral precipitation. Based on the mineralogy, textures, hydrothermal alteration, formation temperatures,fluid chemistry and prospective geochemistry the mineralizations have been classified as low-sulfidation epithermal base-metal sulfide-rich deposits.

  10. Magmatic (silicates/saline/sulfur-rich/CO2) immiscibility and zirconium and rare-earth element enrichment from alkaline magma chamber margins : Evidence from Ponza Island, Pontine Archipelago, Italy (United States)

    Belkin, H.E.; de Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Torok, K.


    Fluid inclusions were measured from a feldspathoid-bearing syenite xenolith entrained in trachyte from Ponza, one of the islands of the Pontine Archipelago, located in the Gulf of Gaeta, Italy. The feldspathoid-bearing syenite consists mainly of potassium feldspar, clinopyroxene, amphibole, biotite, titanite, manganoan magnetite, apatite with minor nosean, Na-rich feldspar, pyrrhotite, and rare cheralite. Baddeleyite and zirkelite occur associated with manganoan magnetite. Detailed electron-microprobe analysis reveals enrichments in REE, Y, Nb, U, Th as well as Cl and F in appropriate phases. Fluid inclusions observed in potassium feldspar are either silicate-melt or aqueous inclusions. The aqueous inclusions can be further classified as. (1) one-phase vapor, (2) two-phase (V + L) inclusions, vapor-rich inclusions with a small amount of CO2 in most cases; homogenization of the inclusions always occurred in the vapor phase between 359 and 424??C, salinities vary from 2.9 to 8.5 wt. % NaCl equivalent; and. (3) three-phase and multiphase inclusions (hypersaline/sulfur-rich aqueous inclusions sometimes with up to 8 or more solid phases). Daughter minerals dissolve on heating before vapor/liquid homogenization. Standardless quantitative scanning electron microscope X-ray fluorescence analysis has tentatively identified the following chloride and sulfate daughter crystals; halite, sylvite, glauberite. arcanite, anhydrite, and thenardite. Melting of the daughter crystals occurs between 459 and 536??C (54 to 65 wt. % NaCI equivalent) whereas total homogenization is between 640 and 755??C. The occurrence of silicate-melt inclusions and high-temperature, solute-rich aqueous inclusions suggests that the druse or miarolitic texture of the xenolith is late-stage magmatic. The xenolith from Ponza represents a portion of the peripheral magma chamber wall that has recorded the magmatic/hydrothermal transition and the passage of high solute fluids enriched in chlorides, sulfur, and

  11. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion characteristics of the Skrytoe reduced-type W skarn and stockwork deposit, Sikhote-Alin, Russia (United States)

    Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey G.


    The Skrytoe deposit (>145 Kt WO3, average grade 0.449% WO3) in the Sikhote-Alin orogenic system (Eastern Russia) is situated in a metallogenic belt of W, Sn-W, Au, and Au-W deposits formed in a late to post-collisional tectonic environment after cessation of active subduction. It is localized within a mineralized district of reduced-type skarn W and veined Au (±W) deposits and occurrences related to the Early Cretaceous ilmenite-series plutonic suite. The deposit incorporates large stockworks of scheelite-bearing veinlets related to propylitic (amphibole, chlorite, quartz) and phyllic (quartz, sericite, albite, apatite, and carbonate) hydrothermal alteration. The stockwork cuts flat-lying mafic volcanic rocks and limestone partially replaced by pyroxene skarn that host the major W orebodies. Scheelite is associated with pyrrhotite and/or arsenopyrite, with minor chalcopyrite and other sulfide minerals; the late phyllic stage assemblages hosts Bi and Au mineralization. The fluid evolution included low-salinity moderate-temperature, moderate-pressure (˜370-390 °C, ˜800 bars) methane-dominated carbonic-aqueous fluids that formed post-skarn propylitic alteration assemblages. Then, at the phyllic stage, there has been an evolution from methane-dominated, moderate-temperature (330-360 °C), low-salinity (hydrothermal fluids. This is consistent with the development of larger, longer crystallizing crustal intermediate to felsic magma chambers in the late to post-collisional tectonic environment, with their protracted magmatic evolution advancing magmatic differentiation and partitioning of W into magmatic-hydrothermal fluid. The dominating role of the crustal-derived magmatic water, sulfur, and carbon appears to be an important feature of reduced W skarn deposits related to ilmenite-series granitoids.

  12. Geological and geochemical studies of the Shujiadian porphyry Cu deposit, Anhui Province, Eastern China: Implications for ore genesis (United States)

    Wang, Shiwei; Zhou, Taofa; Yuan, Feng; Fan, Yu; White, Noel C.; Lin, Fengjie


    Most porphyry deposits in the world occur in magmatic arc settings and are related to subduction of oceanic plates. A small proportion of porphyry deposits occur in intracontinental settings, however they are still poorly understood. Shujiadian, a newly-discovered porphyry Cu deposit, is located in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt and belongs to the intracontinental class. The deposit has classic alteration zones defined by a core of potassic alteration and local Ca-silicate alteration, which is overprinted by a feldspar-destructive alteration zone and cut by veins containing epidote and chlorite. Wallrocks of the deposit are unreactive quartz-rich sedimentary rocks. Three main paragenetic stages have been recognized based on petrographic observations; silicate stage, quartz-sulfide stage, and sulfide-carbonate stage. Quartz + pyrite + chalcopyrite ± molybdenite veins, and quartz + chalcopyrite + pyrite veins of the quartz-sulfide stage contribute most of the copper, and chalcopyrite + chlorite ± pyrite ± pyrrhotite ± quartz ± illite veins of the sulfide-carbonate stage also contribute part of the copper; all the mineralized veins are associated with feldspar-destructive alteration. Investigations on the fluid inclusions in Shujiadian indicate that the ore-forming fluids had four evolutionary episodes: immiscibility and overpressure in the silicate stage, boiling in the quartz-sulfide stage and mixing with meteoric water in the sulfide-carbonate stage. Sulfur and strontium isotope studies suggest that ore metals were mainly derived from magmatic-hydrothermal fluids, and combined with our study of fluid inclusions, we infer that decompression, changes in oxygen fugacity and sulfur content were the main factors that caused Cu precipitation. Compared with porphyry deposits in magmatic arc settings, there are some differences in the ore-bearing rock, alteration, and the composition of ore-forming fluids.

  13. Structural, mineralogical and geochemical constraints on the atypical komatiite-hosted Turret deposit in the Agnew-Mt. White district, Western Australia (United States)

    Voute, F.; Thébaud, N.


    In the Norseman-Wiluna belt, Yilgarn Craton, the Agnew-Mt. White district is the host of many gold deposits. Located in the hinge of the regional Lawlers anticline, the Turret gold deposit is structurally controlled by the Table Hill shear zone that transects the Agnew Ultramafic unit. Geochemistry, coupled with petrographic data, allowed the delineation of the paragenetic sequence associated with gold mineralisation and include (1) a pervasive talc-carbonate alteration assemblage, (2) a pre-mineralisation stage associated with pervasive arsenopyrite + chalcopyrite + pyrrhotite + pyrite alteration, followed by (3) a late deformation event along a dilatational segment of the main Table Hill shear zone, leading to the formation of a breccia hosting a Cu-Bi-Mo-Au (± Ag ± Zn ± Te ± W) metal assemblage. The presence of Au-Ag-Cu alloys, native bismuth, chalcopyrite and other Bi-Te-S phases in the mineralisation stage suggest that gold may have been scavenged from the hydrothermal fluids by composite Bi-Te-Cu-Au-Ag-S liquids or melts. Using this mineral paragenetic sequence, together with mineralogical re-equilibration textures observed, we show that the gold deposition at Turret occurred over a temperature range approximately between c. 350 and 270 °C. This temperature range, together with the structural control and typical mesothermal alteration pattern including carbonate-chlorite alteration, shows that the Turret deposit shares common characteristics with the orogenic gold deposit class. However, the metal association of Cu, Au, Bi, and Mo, the quartz-poor, and high copper-sulphide content (up to 15 %) are characteristics that depart from the typical orogenic gold deposit mineralogy. Through comparison with similar deposits in the Yilgarn Craton and worldwide, we propose that the Turret deposit represents an example of a porphyry-derived Au-Cu-Bi-Mo deposit.

  14. Hydrothermal processes in partially serpentinized peridotites from Costa Rica: evidence from native copper and complex sulfide assemblages (United States)

    Schwarzenbach, Esther M.; Gazel, Esteban; Caddick, Mark J.


    Native metals and metal alloys are common in serpentinized ultramafic rocks, generally representing the redox and sulfur conditions during serpentinization. Variably serpentinized peridotites from the Santa Elena Ophiolite in Costa Rica contain an unusual assemblage of Cu-bearing sulfides and native copper. The opaque mineral assemblage consists of pentlandite, magnetite, awaruite, pyrrhotite, heazlewoodite, violarite, smythite and copper-bearing sulfides (Cu-pentlandite, sugakiite [Cu(Fe,Ni)8S8], samaniite [Cu2(Fe,Ni)7S8], chalcopyrite, chalcocite, bornite and cubanite), native copper and copper-iron-nickel alloys. Using detailed mineralogical examination, electron microprobe analyses, bulk rock major and trace element geochemistry, and thermodynamic calculations, we discuss two models to explain the formation of the Cu-bearing mineral assemblages: (1) they formed through desulfurization of primary sulfides due to highly reducing and sulfur-depleted conditions during serpentinization or (2) they formed through interaction with a Cu-bearing, higher temperature fluid (350-400 °C) postdating serpentinization, similar to processes in active high-temperature peridotite-hosted hydrothermal systems such as Rainbow and Logatchev. As mass balance calculations cannot entirely explain the extent of the native copper by desulfurization of primary sulfides, we propose that the native copper and Cu sulfides formed by local addition of a hydrothermal fluid that likely interacted with adjacent mafic sequences. We suggest that the peridotites today exposed on Santa Elena preserve the lower section of an ancient hydrothermal system, where conditions were highly reducing and water-rock ratios very low. Thus, the preserved mineral textures and assemblages give a unique insight into hydrothermal processes occurring at depth in peridotite-hosted hydrothermal systems.

  15. Remnant colloform pyrite at the haile gold deposit, South Carolina: A textural key to genesis (United States)

    Foley, N.; Ayuso, R.A.; Seal, R.R.


    Auriferous iron sulfide-bearing deposits of the Carolina slate belt have distinctive mineralogical and textural features-traits that provide a basis to construct models of ore deposition. Our identification of paragenetically early types of pyrite, especially remnant colloform, crustiform, and layered growth textures of pyrite containing electrum and pyrrhotite, establishes unequivocally that gold mineralization was coeval with deposition of host rocks and not solely related to Paleozoic tectonic events. Ore horizons at the Haile deposit, South Carolina, contain many remnants of early pyrite: (1) fine-grained cubic pyrite disseminated along bedding; (2) fine- grained spongy, rounded masses of pyrite that may envelop or drape over pyrite cubes; (3) fragments of botryoidally and crustiform layered pyrite, and (4) pyritic infilling of vesicles and pumice. Detailed mineral chemistry by petrography, microprobe, SEM, and EDS analysis of replaced pumice and colloform structures containing both arsenic compositional banding and electrum points to coeval deposition of gold and the volcanic host rocks and, thus, confirms a syngenetic origin for the gold deposits. Early pyrite textures are present in other major deposits of the Carolina slate belt, such as Ridgeway and Barite Hill, and these provide strong evidence for models whereby the sulfide ores formed prior to tectonism. The role of Paleozoic metamorphism was to remobilize and concentrate gold and other minerals in structurally prepared sites. Recognizing the significance of paragenetically early pyrite and gold textures can play an important role in distinguishing sulfide ores that form in volcanic and sedimentary environments from those formed solely by metamorphic processes. Exploration strategies applied to the Carolina slate belt and correlative rocks in the eastern United States in the Avalonian basement will benefit from using syngenetic models for gold mineralization.

  16. Mineralogy and geochemistry of Bobov Dol coals, Bulgaria

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    Vassilev, S.V.; Yossifova, M.G.; Vassileva, C.G. (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. of Applied Mineralogy)


    The mineralogy, elemental composition and modes of occurrence of 49 elements in nine composite samples of Bobov Dol high-ash coals were studied by optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and chemical analysis. The major minerals were quartz, kaolinite, illite, plagioclase and K-feldspar and the minor minerals and phases were pyrite, marcasite, siderite, calcite, dolomite, gypsum, muscovite, montmorillonite and volcanic glass. The accessory minerals include a wide variety of minerals, such as galena, pyrrhotite, magnetite, hematite, goethite, chromite, rutile, anatase, corundum, gibbsite, biotite, chlorite, zircon, enstatite, garnet, jarosite, alunite, barite, polyhalite, aragonite, ankerite, witherite, apatite, halite and sylvite. The modes of occurrence and some genetic peculiarities of the above-mentioned minerals are described. Thirty-three elements occurred in concentrations higher than the respective Clarke values; especially S, Rb, Nb, Hf, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ti and U. The concentration trends and modes of occurrence of the trace elements are also discussed. In decreasing order of significance, the trace elements probably occur as element-organic compounds, as impurities in the mineral constituents, as major components in the minerals, as major and impurity components in the inorganic amorphous constituents, and in the fluid constituents. The Bobov Dol coals have undergone complex syngetenic, diagenetic and epigenetic mineralization processes associated with hydrothermal and volcanic activities. These processes were also accompanied by intensive tectonic movements, and possibly, by a later change from continental to marine sedimentation in the area after burial of the coal. 38 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs., 5 plates.

  17. The Chineysky gabbronorite-anorthosite layered massif (NorthernTransbaikalia, Russia): its structure, Fe-Ti-V and Cu-PGE deposits, and parental magma composition (United States)

    Gongalsky, Bronislav I.; Krivolutskaya, Nadezhda A.; Ariskin, Alexey A.; Nikolaev, George S.


    The 1858 ± 17 Ma Chineysky layered anorthosite-gabbronorite massif is located in the southern part of the Siberian platform, within the Kodaro-Udokan metallogenic province of Northern Transbaikalia. The Chineysky Massif outcrops over approximately 130 km2 and contains Russia's largest V ore resources, hosted within titanomagnetite-rich layers, concentrated in the Magnitny and Etyrko deposits. The titanomagnetite ore reserves were estimated at 2 billion tons with 30 % Fe and 10 % TiO2 on average. In addition, two large Cu-PGE deposits—Rudny and Kontactovy—are hosted in the contact rocks between the intrusion and the sandstone floor rocks. A distinctive feature of the Chineysky sulfide ore is their Cu-enriched composition with much lesser amounts of nickel and cobalt (Cu/Ni/Co 76:7:1). The sulfide ore contains up to 355 ppm PGE and 30 ppm Au + Ag. Three types of sulfide mineralization have been distinguished: (1) endo-contact disseminated sulfides within gabbronorite, (2) exo-contact impregnations in sandstone, and (3) veins of massive sulfides in the exo-contact sandstone. The ore consists predominantly of chalcopyrite, with less abundant pentlandite, pyrrhotite, Co-Ni arsenides and sulfoarsenides, linneite-group minerals, sphalerite, cubanite, and millerite. In addition, many rare minerals were recognized in the ores, including PGM (sperrylite, michenerite, merenskyite, etc.). Using the latest version of the COMAGMAT-5 program, the parental magma temperature ( 1150 °C), its composition ( 55 wt.% SiO2, 5.8 % MgO), and the most primitive olivine (Fo77) and plagioclase (An69) compositions were calculated. According to the model, titanomagnetite starts to crystallize at T < 1133 °C (fO2 = NNO + 0.5), triggering sulfide liquid immiscibility when the silicate magma had 0.15 to 0.1 wt.% S.

  18. Assessing sulfur redox state and distribution in abyssal serpentinites using XANES spectroscopy (United States)

    Debret, Baptiste; Andreani, Muriel; Delacour, Adélie; Rouméjon, Stéphane; Trcera, Nicolas; Williams, Helen


    Sulfur is one of the main redox sensitive and volatile elements involved in chemical transfers between earth surface and the deep mantle. At mid-oceanic ridges, sulfur cycle is highly influenced by serpentinite formation which acts as a sink of sulfur under various oxidation states (S2-, S-, S0 and S6+). Sulfur sequestration in serpentinites is usually attributed to the crystallization of secondary minerals, such as sulfides (e.g. pyrite, pyrrhotite) or sulfates (e.g. anhydrite). However, the role of serpentine minerals as potential sulfur carriers is not constrained. We investigate the distribution and redox state of sulfur at micro-scale combining in situ spectroscopic (X-ray absorption near-edge structure: XANES) and geochemical (SIMS) measurements in abyssal serpentinites from the SWIR (South West Indian Ridge), the Rainbow and the MARK (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Kane Fracture Zone) areas. These serpentinites are formed in different tectono-metamorphic settings and provide a meaningful database to understand the fate of sulfur during seafloor serpentinization. XANES spectra of serpentinite powders show that the sulfur budget of the studied samples is dominated by oxidized sulfur (S6+ / ∑ S = 0.6- 1) although sulfate micro-phases, such as barite and anhydrite, are absent. Indeed, μ-XANES analyses of mesh, bastite and antigorite veins in thin sections and of serpentine grains rather suggest the presence of S6+ ions incorporated into serpentine minerals. The structural incorporation of S in serpentine minerals is also supported by X-ray fluorescence mapping revealing large areas (1600 μm2) of serpentinite where S is homogeneously distributed. Our observations show that serpentine minerals can incorporate high S concentrations, from 140 to 1350 ppm, and that this can account for 60 to 100% of the sulfur budget of abyssal serpentinites. Serpentine minerals thus play an important role in S exchanges between the hydrosphere and the mantle at mid-oceanic ridges and may

  19. Detrital magnetite and chromite in Jack Hills quartzite cobbles: Further evidence for the preservation of primary magnetizations and new insights into sediment provenance (United States)

    Dare, Matthew S.; Tarduno, John A.; Bono, Richard K.; Cottrell, Rory D.; Beard, James S.; Kodama, Kenneth P.


    The magnetization of zircons from sedimentary rocks of the Jack Hills (Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia) provide evidence for a Hadean to Paleoarchean geodynamo, 4.0 to 4.2 billion years old. These magnetizations pass a microconglomerate test, attesting to the fidelity of Jack Hills zircons as recorders of these most ancient magnetic signals. The lack of pervasive remagnetization of the Jack Hills is also documented through a positive conglomerate test conducted on cobble-sized clasts. A key element of the latter test is the preservation of a high unblocking temperature magnetization that can survive peak metamorphic temperatures. Rock magnetic studies suggest the mineral carrier is magnetite. Herein, we investigate the magnetic mineral carriers in cobble samples through scanning electron microscope and microprobe analyses, conduct an inter-laboratory paleomagnetic study to evaluate sensitivities required to evaluate the weak magnetizations carried by the Jack Hills sediments, and assess provenance information constrained by the opaque minerals. These data confirm magnetite as a detrital phase and the presence of high unblocking temperature magnetizations, further supporting the posit that the Jack Hills sediments can preserve primary magnetic signatures. We note that some of these magnetizations are near the measurement resolution of standard cryogenic magnetometers and thus exacting laboratory procedures are required to uncover these signals. In addition to magnetite, the cobbles contain an assemblage of Mg poor Cr-Fe chromites, Ni-sulfides and pyrrhotite that suggest a source in a layered intrusion different from the granitoid source of the zircons. Any Hadean rock fragment in these sediments, if present, remains elusive.

  20. A New Genetic Type of Gold Deposits-Meso-Epithermal Carbonate-Type Gold Deposits as Exemplified by the Baguamiao Suprlarge Gold Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Gold deposits of the meso-epithermal carbonate type were first proposed based on the study of the Baguamiao gold deposit.This new type of gold deposits has many unique characteristics as follows:(1)Obviously strata-bound.The gold deposits are hosted in Middle Devonian turbidite formations;(2)Structrually controlled.Struc-ture is an important factor leading to metallogenesis of this type of gold deposits.The shape and distribution of orebodies are controlled by byittle-ductile shear zones;(3)Multi-stage wall-rock alteration.According to the characteristics of mineral assemblage,gold mineralization can be classified into three stages in association with various wall-rock al-terations.Wall-rock alterations closely genetically related to the gold mineralization are ankerization ,silicification,pyrrhotization and pyritization ;(4)Mineral compositions of the orebodies are mainly pyrrhotite,pyrite,marcasitolite,chalcopyrite,quartz,ankerite,and sericite.Gold mineralization is associated closely in space and time with iron sulfides;(5)Rare elements and REE in ores are low in contents relative to those of the crust.Au content varies from 1.91g/t to 11.15g/t ,averaging 5.5g/t;(6)Studies of sulfur,hydrogen,oxygen and carbon isotopes in main gangue minerals (quartz and ankerite)indicate that fluids and ore-forming materials came from deep-seated sources;(7)Three types of inclusions are recognized in terms of their composition and the vapor amounts of inclusions.The homogenization temperatures of inclusions range from 210℃to 310℃,averaging 230℃,showing that this type of gold deposits belongs to the meso-epithermal type;(8)Metallogenic age of this type of gold deposits is similar to that of the collision between the Yangtze Plate and the North China Plate,indicating that gold deposits of this type are genetically related to continental-margin plate activity.

  1. Studying Iron Mineralogy to Understand Redox Conditions in the Mesoproterozoic Belt Basin, USA Using Complementary Microscopic, Spectroscopic, and Magnetic Techniques (United States)

    Slotznick, S. P.; Webb, S.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Fischer, W. W.


    Observations of iron chemistry and mineralogy over time provide a valuable tool for studying paleoenvironments, but questions still remain as to the redox character of Proterozoic basins after the rise of oxygen. To evaluate the mechanisms of iron mineralization in Proterozoic samples, we developed an approach that pairs the microscale textural techniques of light microscopy, magnetic scanning microscopy, and (synchrotron-based) microprobe x-ray spectroscopy with sensitive bulk rock magnetic experiments. Samples were collected from stratigraphic sections across the ~1.4 Ga lower Belt Group, Belt Supergroup, MT and ID, USA with a focus on excellently preserved sedimentary rocks, but also including those altered by a variety of diagenetic, metamorphic, and metasomatic events. Results show that even in the best-preserved parts of the Belt Basin, late diagenetic and/or metasomatic fluids affected (in some cases very mildly) the primary iron phases as evidenced by prevalent post-depositional alterations such as rare base metal sulfides. In more heavily altered rocks, the appearance of pyrrhotite and other minerals signaled transformations in iron mineralogy through metamorphism and metasomatism. Despite these secondary phases crystallizing in an open fluid-rich system, primary records of redox chemistry were preserved in the recrystallized early diagenetic framboidal pyrite and (sub)micron-sized detrital magnetite grains. Detrital magnetite is not the most abundant iron-bearing phase in any of the samples (typically <0.01 wt%), but is widely observed in both proximal and deeper basin facies, illustrating an important detrital flux of iron to the basin and a highly reactive iron source for early diagenetic pyrite. Based on our analyses, we interpret the shallow waters of the Belt Basin to be oxic with sulfidic pore fluids and deeper waters in parts of the basin as likely euxinic, consistent with the results of some bulk geochemical proxies. This redox reconstruction also

  2. Paleomagnetism of the Velez Rubio Dykes: Implications for transport directions in a collapsing orogen (Betic Cordillera, southern Spain) (United States)

    Platzman, E. S.; Platt, J. P.


    Palaeomagnetic and structural analysis of a suite of altered Neogene mafic dykes intruded into the Alpujarride allochthon in the Internal Zone of the Betic Cordillera demonstrate that between 32-62° clockwise vertical-axis rotation occurred after the major extensional event on the adjacent Malaguide Alpujarride. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements show that the dykes are virtually free of a penetrative magnetic fabric associated with this deformational event. Results of demagnetization experiments show that the remanence in many of the dykes is composed of one to three components. The lowest temperature component is usually in the direction of the present earth's magnetic field and is interpreted as a viscous overprint. The intermediate temperature component is carried by pyrrhotite and frequently has a direction identical to the high temperature remanence fraction. The high temperature component, which demagnetizes at the curie point of magnetite (575 °C), has an average declination of 242° and an inclination of -19°. Lack of a well-defined magnetic fabric coupled with a shallow inclination suggests that these dykes have rotated about a horizontal as well as a vertical axis. Rotation of approximately 57° about a horizontal NNE-trending axis, normal to the dykes, brings the inclination into statistical agreement with the expected inclination for the Oligocene. This rotation leaves the dykes in a near-vertical orientation, decreases the declination anomaly to 32° and brings the foliation in the surrounding schists approximately horizontal. We suggest that the regional foliation may have been sub-horizontal at the time of dyke emplacement, probably as a result of the phase of late-orogenic extension. The regional stretching lineation and hence transport direction associated with the extensional event was originally oriented NNE. sub-parallel to the finite extension directions obtained further to the west implying a large component of radial

  3. Sulfide oxidation as a process for the formation of copper-rich magmatic sulfides (United States)

    Wohlgemuth-Ueberwasser, Cora C.; Fonseca, Raúl O. C.; Ballhaus, Chris; Berndt, Jasper


    Typical magmatic sulfides are dominated by pyrrhotite and pentlandite with minor chalcopyrite, and the bulk atomic Cu/Fe ratio of these sulfides is typically less than unity. However, there are rare magmatic sulfide occurrences that are dominated by Cu-rich sulfides (e.g., bornite, digenite, and chalcopyrite, sometimes coexisting with metallic Cu) with atomic Cu/Fe as high as 5. Typically, these types of sulfide assemblages occur in the upper parts of moderately to highly fractionated layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions, a well-known example being the Pd/Au reef in the Upper Middle Zone of the Skaergaard intrusion. Processes proposed to explain why these sulfides are so unusually rich in Cu include fractional crystallization of Fe/(Ni) monosulfide and infiltration of postmagmatic Cu-rich fluids. In this contribution, we explore and experimentally evaluate a third possibility: that Cu-rich magmatic sulfides may be the result of magmatic oxidation. FeS-dominated Ni/Cu-bearing sulfides were equilibrated at variable oxygen fugacities in both open and closed system. Our results show that the Cu/Fe ratio of the sulfide melt increases as a function of oxygen fugacity due to the preferential conversion of FeS into FeO and FeO1.5, and the resistance of Cu2S to being converted into an oxide component even at oxygen fugacities characteristic of the sulfide/sulfate transition (above FMQ + 1). This phenomenon will lead to an increase in the metal/S ratio of a sulfide liquid and will also depress its liquidus temperature. As such, any modeling of the sulfide liquid line of descent in magmatic sulfide complexes needs to address this issue.

  4. Platinum-group mineralization at the margin of the Skaergaard intrusion, East Greenland (United States)

    Andersen, Jens C. Ø.; Rollinson, Gavyn K.; McDonald, Iain; Tegner, Christian; Lesher, Charles E.


    Two occurrences of platinum-group elements (PGEs) along the northern margin of the Skaergaard intrusion include a sulfide-bearing gabbro with slightly less than 1 ppm PGE + Au and a clinopyroxene-actinolite-plagioclase-biotite-ilmenite schist with 16 vol% sulfide and 1.8 ppm PGE + Au. Both have assemblages of pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and chalcopyrite typical for orthomagmatic sulfides. Matching platinum-group mineral assemblages with sperrylite (PtAs2), kotulskite (Pd(Bi,Te)1-2), froodite (PdBi2), michenerite (PdBiTe), and electrum (Au,Ag) suggest a common origin. Petrological and geochemical similarities suggest that the occurrences are related to the Skaergaard intrusion. The Marginal Border Series locally displays Ni depletion consistent with sulfide fractionation, and the PGE fractionation trends of the occurrences are systematically enriched by 10-50 times over the chilled margin. The PGE can be explained by sulfide-silicate immiscibility in the Skaergaard magma with R factors of 110-220. Nickel depletion in olivine suggests that the process occurred within the host cumulate, and the low R factors require little sulfide mobility. The sulfide assemblages are different to the chalcopyrite-bornite-digenite assemblage found in the Skaergaard Layered Series and Platinova Reef. These differences can be explained by the early formation of sulfide melt, while magmatic differentiation or sulfur loss caused the unusual sulfide assemblage within the Layered Series. The PGEs indicate that the sulfides formed from the Skaergaard magma. The sulfides and PGEs could not have formed from the nearby Watkins Fjord wehrlite intrusion, which is nearly barren in sulfide. We suggest that silicate-sulfide immiscibility led to PGE concentration where the Skaergaard magma became contaminated with material from the Archean basement.

  5. Bi-sulphotellurides associated with Pb - Bi - (Sb ± Ag, Cu, Fe) sulphosalts: an example from the Stan Terg deposit in Kosovo (United States)

    Kołodziejczyk, Joanna; Pršek, Jaroslav; Voudouris, Panagiotis Ch.; Melfos, Vasilios


    New mineralogical and mineral-chemical data from the Stan Terg deposit, Kosovo, revealed the presence of abundant Bi-sulphotellurides associated with Bi- and Sb-sulphosalts and galena in pyrite-pyrrhotite-rich skarn-free ore bodies (ores without skarn minerals). The Bi-bearing association comprises Bi-sulphotellurides (joséite-A, joséite-B, unnamed phase A with a chemical formula close to (Bi,Pb)2(TeS)2, unnamed phase B with a chemical composition close to (Bi,Pb)2.5Te1.5S1.5), ikunolite, cosalite, Sb-lillianite, members of the kobellite series and Bi-jamesonite. Compositional trends of the Bi-sulphotellurides suggest lattice-scale incorporation of Bi-(Pb)-rich module and/or admixture with submicroscopic PbS layers in modulated structures, or complicated Bi-Te substitution. Cosalite is characterized by high Sb (max. 3.94 apfu), and low Cu and Ag (up to 0.72 apfu of Cu+Ag). Jamesonite from this mineralization has elevated Bi content, from 0.85 to 2.30 apfu. The negligible content of Au and Ag in the Bi-sulphotellurides, the low content of Ag in Bi-sulphosalts, together with the lack of Au-Ag bearing phases in the mineralization, indicate either ore deposition from fluid(s) depleted in precious metals, or physico-chemical conditions of ore formation preventing Au and Ag precipitation at the deposit site. The temperature of initial mineralization may have exceeded 400 °C as suggested by the lamellar exsolution textures observed in lillianite, which indicate breakdown textures from decomposition of high-temperature initial crystals. Non-stoichiometric phases among the Bi-sulphosalts and sulphotellurides studied at Stan Terg reflect modulated growth processes in a metasomatic environment.

  6. Anisotropy of out-of-phase magnetic susceptibility of rocks as a tool for direct determination of magnetic subfabrics of some minerals: an introductory study (United States)

    Hrouda, František; Chadima, Martin; Ježek, Josef; Pokorný, Jiří


    The magnetic susceptibility measured in alternating field can in general be resolved into a component that is in-phase with the applied field and a component that is out-of-phase. While in non-conductive diamagnetic, paramagnetic and many ferromagnetic materials the phase is effectively zero, in some ferromagnetic minerals, such as pyrrhotite, hematite, titanomagnetite or small magnetically viscous grains of magnetite, it is clearly non-zero. The anisotropy of out-of-phase susceptibility (opAMS) can then be used as a tool for the direct determination of the magnetic subfabrics of the minerals with non-zero phase. The error in determination of out-of-phase susceptibility non-linearly increases with decreasing phase angle. This may result in imprecise determination of the opAMS in specimens with very low phase angle. The degree of opAMS is higher than that of ipAMS, which may in contrast result in slightly increasing precision n the opAMS determination. It is highly recommended to inspect the results of the statistical tests of each specimen and to exclude the specimens whose opAMS is determined with insufficient precision from further processing. In rocks, whose magnetism is dominated by the mineral with non-zero out-of-phase susceptibility, the principal directions of the opAMS and ipAMS are virtually coaxial, while the degree of opAMS is higher than that of ipAMS. In some specific cases, the opAMS provides us with similar data to those provided by anisotropies of low-field dependent susceptibility and frequency-dependent susceptibility. The advantage of the opAMS compared to the other two anisotropies is its simultaneous measurement with the ipAMS during one measuring process, while the other two anisotropies require the AMS measurements in several fields or at least at two operating frequencies.

  7. Use of microbes for cost reduction of metal removal from metals and mining industry waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, R.R.H. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Division for Environmental Science & Engineering


    Acid-rock drainage (ARD) - also known as acid-mine drainage (AMD) - results from the exposure of sulfide minerals, particularly pyritic and pyrrhotitic minerals, to atmospheric oxygen and water. Recent developments and improvements have resulted in construction of bioreactors that have a smaller footprint, and treat the metals and acidity more effectively. Many studies have demonstrated that the primary removal mechanisms for the metals are sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). These microbes facilitate the conversion of sulphate to sulphide. The sulphides react with metals to precipitate them as metal sulfides, many of which are stable in the anaerobic conditions of the treatment system. Plants have been shown to remove metals by uptake or oxidative precipitation near the roots. Plants seem to account for only a small percentage of the metal removal capacity of the wetland treatment systems. Adsorption of metals to the organic substrates of the treatment systems can result in metal removal, but adsorption capacity is saturated in short periods of time. The SRB are obligate anaerobes which prefer conditions between pH 5 and 8. Thus, the input water characteristics could impact the efficiency and life expectancy of the treatment systems. The most important characteristic of input waters seems to be pH. Oxyanions such as chromate and arsenate can be removed using the wetland treatment system (passive bioreactor) technology. Arsenic is removed as an arsenic sulfide compound and chromate is reduced to Cr(III) and precipitated as a hydroxide. The passive bioreactor - wetland treatment system offers a less expensive alternative to the conventional chemical precipitation technologies. There still are problems of system hydraulics and useful life to be addressed.

  8. A Palaeoproterozoic multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq gold deposit, South Greenland (United States)

    Bell, Robin-Marie; Kolb, Jochen; Waight, Tod Earle; Bagas, Leon; Thomsen, Tonny B.


    Nalunaq is an orogenic, high gold grade deposit situated on the Nanortalik Peninsula, South Greenland. Mineralisation is hosted in shear zone-controlled quartz veins, located in fine- and medium-grained amphibolite. The deposit was the site of Greenland's only operating metalliferous mine until its closure in 2014, having produced 10.67 t of gold. This study uses a combination of field investigation, petrography and U/Pb zircon and titanite geochronology to define a multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq. A clinopyroxene-plagioclase-garnet(-sulphide) alteration zone (CPGZ) developed in the Nanortalik Peninsula, close to regional peak metamorphism and prior to gold-quartz vein formation. The ca. 1783-1762-Ma gold-quartz veins are hosted in reactivated shear zones with a hydrothermal alteration halo of biotite-arsenopyrite-sericite-actinolite-pyrrhotite(-chlorite-plagioclase-löllingite-tourmaline-titanite), which is best developed in areas of exceptionally high gold grades. Aplite dykes dated to ca. 1762 Ma cross-cut the gold-quartz veins, providing a minimum age for mineralisation. A hydrothermal calcite-titanite alteration assemblage is dated to ca. 1766 Ma; however, this alteration is highly isolated, and as a result, its field relationships are poorly constrained. The hydrothermal alteration and mineralisation is cut by several generations of ca. 1745-Ma biotite granodiorite accompanied by brittle deformation. A ca. 1745-Ma lower greenschist facies hydrothermal epidote-calcite-zoisite alteration assemblage with numerous accessory minerals forms halos surrounding the late-stage fractures. The contrasting hydrothermal alteration styles at Nalunaq indicate a complex history of exhumation from amphibolite facies conditions to lower greenschist facies conditions in an orogenic belt which resembles modern Phanerozoic orogens.

  9. Comparison of the native antimony-bearing Paiting gold deposit, Guizhou Province, China, with Carlin-type gold deposits, Nevada, USA (United States)

    Xie, Zhuo-Jun; Xia, Yong; Cline, Jean S.; Yan, Bao-Wen; Wang, Ze-Peng; Tan, Qin-Ping; Wei, Dong-Tian


    The Paiting gold deposit, Guizhou Province, China, has been regarded as a Carlin-type gold deposit by several researchers. Alteration and ore-related minerals from the Paiting deposit were examined, and results were compared with the Cortez Hills Carlin-type gold deposit, Nevada, USA. Similarities include the structural and stratigraphic controls on the orebodies in both deposits and the occurrence of invisible gold ionically bound in arsenian pyrite. Significant differences include the following: (1) The gold-bearing mineral in Nevada is arsenian pyrite. However, gold-bearing minerals in the Paiting deposit include arsenopyrite, arsenian pyrite, and trace pyrrhotite. Also, euhedral or subhedral gold-bearing arsenian pyrite at Paiting contains significantly less As, Cu, and Hg than gold-bearing pyrite from Nevada. (2) Alteration in the Paiting deposit displays significantly less decarbonatization. Instead, dolomite precipitation, which has not been described in Nevada deposits, is associated with deposition of gold-bearing sulfide minerals. (3) Stibnite and minor native antimony typify Paiting late-ore-stage minerals, whereas in Nevada, realgar, orpiment, and calcite are common late-ore-stage minerals. Precipitation of native antimony in the Paiting deposit reflects the evolution of a late-ore fluid with unusually low sulfur and oxygen fugacities. Some characteristics of the Paiting gold deposit, including formation of ore-stage dolomite and precipitation from CO2-rich ore fluids at temperatures in excess of 250 °C, are more typical of orogenic deposits than Nevada Carlin deposits. The presence of similarities in the Paiting deposit to both Carlin type and orogenic deposits is consistent with formation conditions intermediate to those typical of Carlin type and orogenic systems.

  10. Multiscale characterization of pyritized plant tissues in blueschist facies metamorphic rocks (United States)

    Bernard, Sylvain; Benzerara, Karim; Beyssac, Olivier; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.


    Pyritized plant tissues with well-preserved morphology were studied in rocks from Vanoise (western Alps, France) that experienced high-pressure, low-temperature metamorphic conditions in the blueschist facies during the Alpine orogeny. Organic and inorganic phases composing these fossils were characterized down to the nanometer scale by Raman microspectroscopy, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The graphitic but disordered organic matter composing these fossils is chemically and structurally homogeneous and mostly contains aromatic functional groups. Its original chemistry remains undefined likely because it was significantly transformed by diagenetic processes and/or thermal degradation during metamorphism. Various mineral phases are closely associated with this organic matter, including sulphides such as pyrite and pyrrhotite, carbonates such as ankerite and calcite, and iron oxides. A tentative time sequence of formation of these diverse mineral phases relative to organic matter decay is proposed. The absence of traces of organic matter sulphurization, the pervasive pyritization of the vascular tissues and the presence of ankerite suggest that the depositional/diagenetic environment of these metasediments was likely rich in reactive iron. Fe-sulphides and ankerite likely precipitated early and might have promoted the preservation of the fossilized biological soft tissues by providing mechanical resistance to compaction during diagenesis and subsequent metamorphism. In contrast, iron oxides which form rims of 100-nm in thickness at the interface between organic matter and Fe-sulphides may result from metamorphic processes. This study illustrates that it may be possible in some instances to deconvolve metamorphic from diagenetic imprints and opens new avenues to better constrain processes that may allow the preservation of organic fossils during diagenesis and metamorphism.

  11. Estudio geológico-estructural de las mineralizaciones de arsenopirita de Viandar de la Vera (Sierra de Gredos. Cáceres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luque del Villar, F. J.


    Full Text Available A structural and mineralogical study of a group of arsenopyrite-bearing hydrothermal dikes located in the central area of the Sierra de Gredos has been carried out. These mineralizations indicate a dominance of the high-temperature associations (arsenopyrite, pyrite and pyrrhotite over the lower temperature ones. Four deformational stages evolving from mainly ductile to brittle regimes have been identified. A single phase of progressive deformation generated structures progressively smaller in size, with an E-W-oriented/horizontal maximum finite shortening axis. This study emphasizes the relationships between deformative processes and mineralization evolution in the sense that this evolution appears to be strongly inf!uenced by the size and character of the tectonic structures.Se ha realizado un estudio geológico-estructural y mineralógico de un grupo de diques hidrotermales con arsenopirita, localizados en el sector central de la Sierra de Gredos. Dichas mineralizaciones muestran un mayor desarrollo de las asociaciones de alta temperatura (arsenopirita, pirita y pirrotina sobre las de temperatura intermedia y baja. Estructuralmente. es posible diferenciar cuatro etapas deformativas que evolucionan desde comportamientos predominantemente dúctiles a marcadamente frágiles. Las estructuras generadas en estas etapas son de escala sucesivamente menor y corresponden a una misma fase de deformación progresiva, cuyo eje de máximo acortamiento finito es horizontal y de dirección E-W. Sobre la base de los datos obtenidos se han establecido las relaciones existentes entre los procesos deformativos y el desarrollo de la mineralización, que se ve condicionado por la naturaleza y escalas de las estructuras tectónicas resultantes.

  12. A metamorphic mineral source for tungsten in the turbidite-hosted orogenic gold deposits of the Otago Schist, New Zealand (United States)

    Cave, Ben J.; Pitcairn, Iain K.; Craw, Dave; Large, Ross R.; Thompson, Jay M.; Johnson, Sean C.


    The orogenic gold deposits of the Otago Schist, New Zealand, are enriched in a variety of trace elements including Au, As, Ag, Hg, W and Sb. We combine laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) traverses and images to show that detrital rutile is the most important host mineral for W in the subgreenschist facies rocks. Furthermore, the prograde metamorphic recrystallisation of detrital rutile to titanite releases significant amounts of W (potentially 0.41 g/tonne of rock). Scheelite development closely follows the progression of this W-liberating reaction. Scheelite micrograins form early within the fabric of the rock evolving to locally and regionally sourced scheelite-bearing veins. Scheelite from syn-metamorphic veins at Fiddlers Flat and Lake Hāwea shows distinct differences in composition compared with scheelite from late-metamorphic veins at the Macraes Mine, the latter of which is enriched in REEs, Y and Sr. We suggest that the scheelite at Macraes became enriched due to the liberation of these elements during alteration of the Ca-silicate minerals epidote and titanite by the ore-forming fluid. These results are supportive of recent models for orogenic gold mineralisation in the Otago Schist, whereby prograde metamorphic recrystallisation of diagenetic or detrital metal-rich mineral phases (pyrite to pyrrhotite: Au, As, Ag, Hg and Sb; rutile to titanite: W) releases significant amounts of metals into the concurrently developing metamorphic fluids that can be subsequently focussed into regional structures and form significant tungsten-bearing orogenic gold deposits.

  13. Water-rich and volatile-undersaturated magmas at Hekla volcano, Iceland (United States)

    Lucic, Gregor; Berg, Anne-Sophie; Stix, John


    Olivine-hosted melt inclusions from four eruptions at Hekla volcano in Iceland were analyzed for their dissolved H2O, CO2, S, and Cl contents. A positive correlation among the repose interval, magmatic evolution, and volatile contents of magmas is revealed. H2O is the dominant volatile species; it behaves as an incompatible component, increasing in concentration over time as a result of fractional crystallization in the magma. The full suite of H2O contents ranges from a low of 0.80 wt % in basaltic andesites to a maximum of 5.67 wt % in rhyolites. Decreasing H2O/K2O at fixed major element compositions suggests that syneruptive degassing reduces H2O contents significantly. Hekla magmas are CO2 poor, with very low concentrations present only in the most evolved compositions (˜20-30 ppm or less). The decrease in S content from basaltic andesite to rhyolite demonstrates that sulfide saturation is attained when the melt composition reaches basaltic andesite, resulting in the precipitation of pyrrhotite. Low CO2/Nb ratios suggest that vapor saturation is most likely reached during an early period of cooling and solidification in the crust. Fresh injections of mafic magma interact with previously solidified intrusives, producing new melts that are volatile undersaturated. Vapor saturation pressures obtained using the most volatile-rich melt inclusions suggest the presence of a magma chamber at a minimum depth of ˜7 km. This is in agreement with geophysical observations from recent small-volume eruptions, but given the possibility of volatile-undersaturated melts, some of the magmas may reside at greater depths.

  14. High-Resolution Magnetostratigraphic and Rock Magnetic Cyclo-stratigraphic Study of the Eocene Arguis Formation, Spanish Pyrenees (United States)

    Kodama, K. P.; Anastasio, D. J.; Pares, J.; Newton, M. `


    In order to provide a high-resolution chronostratigraphic record, an 800 meter section of the Arguis Formation, an Eocene marine flysch deposited in the Jaca Basin of the Spanish Pyrenees was sampled for magnetostratigraphy and rock magnetic cyclo-stratigraphy. Oriented cores were collected to refine a previously determined magnetostratigraphy. Their paleomagnetic analysis shows that the oldest 600 meters of the Arguis Formation spans chrons C18n.1n to C17n.2n or about two million years. For 300 m of the section 395 un- oriented hand samples were collected for rock magnetic cyclo-stratigraphy at a 75 cm sampling interval (about every 4 kyr) in order to resolve the precessional index. Anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) was measured for each sample to construct a ferromagnetic mineral concentration time series. Spectral analysis of the ARM time series, calibrated by the magnetostratigraphically-determined chron boundaries, shows periodicities consistent with astronomical forcing at Milankovitch frequencies. Decompaction of the time series using a newly developed rock magnetic technique removed the effects of differential compaction and improved the resolution of Milankovitch power. The time series was bandpass filtered and tuned to the precessional index using the La2004 orbital model. The precessional tuning improves spectral power at all orbital frequencies. Primary detrital magnetite controls the ARM signal with minor contributions from secondary authigenic pyrrhotite. The ferromagnetic mineral concentrations are most likely caused by climate-driven source area, runoff or aridity variations. They provide a high resolution (precessional scale) chronostratigraphic record that allows a detailed deformation rate study of a nearby growth fold.

  15. Hydrogen isotope exchange between n-alkanes and water under hydrothermal conditions (United States)

    Reeves, Eoghan P.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.; Sylva, Sean P.


    To investigate the extent of hydrogen isotope (2H and 1H) exchange between hydrocarbons and water under hydrothermal conditions, we performed experiments heating C1-C5n-alkanes in aqueous solutions of varying initial 2H/1H ratios in the presence of a pyrite-pyrrhotite-magnetite redox buffer at 323 °C and 35-36 MPa. Extensive and reversible incorporation of water-derived hydrogen into C2-C5n-alkanes was observed on timescales of months. In contrast, comparatively minor exchange was observed for CH4. Isotopic exchange is facilitated by reversible equilibration of n-alkanes and their corresponding n-alkenes with H2 derived from the disproportionation of water. Rates of δ2H variation in C3+n-alkanes decreased with time, a trend that is consistent with an asymptotic approach to steady state isotopic compositions regulated by alkane-water isotopic equilibrium. Substantially slower δ2H variation was observed for ethane relative to C3-C5n-alkanes, suggesting that the greater stability of C3+ alkenes and isomerization reactions may dramatically enhance rates of 2H/1H exchange in C3+n-alkanes. Thus, in reducing aqueous environments, reversible reaction of alkanes and their corresponding alkenes facilitates rapid 2H/1H exchange between water and alkyl-bound hydrogen on relatively short geological timescales at elevated temperatures and pressures. The proximity of some thermogenic and purported abiogenic alkane δ2H values to those predicted for equilibrium 2H/1H fractionation with ambient water suggests that this process may regulate the δ2H signatures of some naturally occurring hydrocarbons.

  16. Micro-scale Complexity in Iron-Sulfide Phases in Precambrian Sedimentary Rocks Determined by Synchrotron Microprobe Spectroscopy (United States)

    Webb, S.; Johnson, J. E.; Slotznick, S. P.; Roach, C.; Fischer, W. W.


    The record of sedimentary pyrite forms the foundation for most isotope records working to define the coupled evolution and behavior of the ancient iron and sulfur cycles. In order to assess the strengths and limitations of records derived from pyrite-rich rocks (e.g. iron speciation, sulfur isotope ratios), we need to understand more about the processes that form and alter sedimentary pyrite. From samples of the Archean/early Proterozoic Transvaal and middle Proterozoic Belt Supergroups, petrography reveals that what might operationally be called sedimentary pyrite has complex textures that hint at a rich process history of sulfur mineralization. A common limitation of virtually all proxy measurements employed to date is that they operate on 'bulk' samples, typically gram-sized or larger pieces. As such, they lose the ability to relate geochemistry to petrography at the scale of mineral grains. Many of the sedimentary pyrites in the Transvaal Supergroup exhibit complex redox and electronic structures of S and Fe, with crystals of pyrite, pyrrhotite, and sulfate-bearing minerals throughout. Parallel application of multiple techniques on the same samples across micron bases spatial scales, provide an opportunity to diagnose issues resulting from post-depositional alteration of sedimentary rocks. We have integrated light and electron microscopy for petrography, electron microprobe and synchrotron XRF for elemental composition, synchrotron X-ray spectroscopy for redox and chemical state, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for isotopic composition. The coupling of these tools allows in essence "images" of the proxy data at the micrometer scale, giving a wide array of textural and mineralogical information designed to inform and untangle the complicated histories of these early Precambrian rocks.

  17. A Palaeoproterozoic multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq gold deposit, South Greenland (United States)

    Bell, Robin-Marie; Kolb, Jochen; Waight, Tod Earle; Bagas, Leon; Thomsen, Tonny B.


    Nalunaq is an orogenic, high gold grade deposit situated on the Nanortalik Peninsula, South Greenland. Mineralisation is hosted in shear zone-controlled quartz veins, located in fine- and medium-grained amphibolite. The deposit was the site of Greenland's only operating metalliferous mine until its closure in 2014, having produced 10.67 t of gold. This study uses a combination of field investigation, petrography and U/Pb zircon and titanite geochronology to define a multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq. A clinopyroxene-plagioclase-garnet(-sulphide) alteration zone (CPGZ) developed in the Nanortalik Peninsula, close to regional peak metamorphism and prior to gold-quartz vein formation. The ca. 1783-1762-Ma gold-quartz veins are hosted in reactivated shear zones with a hydrothermal alteration halo of biotite-arsenopyrite-sericite-actinolite-pyrrhotite(-chlorite-plagioclase-löllingite-tourmaline-titanite), which is best developed in areas of exceptionally high gold grades. Aplite dykes dated to ca. 1762 Ma cross-cut the gold-quartz veins, providing a minimum age for mineralisation. A hydrothermal calcite-titanite alteration assemblage is dated to ca. 1766 Ma; however, this alteration is highly isolated, and as a result, its field relationships are poorly constrained. The hydrothermal alteration and mineralisation is cut by several generations of ca. 1745-Ma biotite granodiorite accompanied by brittle deformation. A ca. 1745-Ma lower greenschist facies hydrothermal epidote-calcite-zoisite alteration assemblage with numerous accessory minerals forms halos surrounding the late-stage fractures. The contrasting hydrothermal alteration styles at Nalunaq indicate a complex history of exhumation from amphibolite facies conditions to lower greenschist facies conditions in an orogenic belt which resembles modern Phanerozoic orogens.

  18. Petrographic and geochemical comparisons between the lower crystalline basement-derived section and the granite megablock and amphibolite megablock of the Eyreville-B core, Chesapeake Bay impact structure (United States)

    Townsend, Gabrielle N.; Gibson, Roger L.; Horton, J. Wright; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Schmitt, Ralf T.; Bartosova, Katerina


    The Eyreville B core from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure, Virginia, USA, contains a lower basement-derived section (1551.19 m to 1766.32 m deep) and two megablocks of dominantly (1) amphibolite (1376.38 m to 1389.35 m deep) and (2) granite (1095.74 m to 1371.11 m deep), which are separated by an impactite succession. Metasedimentary rocks (muscovite-quartz-plagioclase-biotite-graphite ± fibrolite ± garnet ± tourmaline ± pyrite ± rutile ± pyrrhotite mica schist, hornblende-plagioclase-epidote-biotite-K-feldspar-quartz-titanite-calcite amphibolite, and vesuvianite-plagioclase-quartz-epidote calc-silicate rock) are dominant in the upper part of the lower basement-derived section, and they are intruded by pegmatitic to coarse-grained granite (K-feldspar-plagioclase-quartz-muscovite ± biotite ± garnet) that increases in volume proportion downward. The granite megablock contains both gneissic and weakly or nonfoliated biotite granite varieties (K-feldspar-quartz-plagioclase-biotite ± muscovite ± pyrite), with small schist xenoliths consisting of biotite-plagioclase-quartz ± epidote ± amphibole. The lower basement-derived section and both megablocks exhibit similar middle- to upper-amphibolite-facies metamorphic grades that suggest they might represent parts of a single terrane. However, the mica schists in the lower basement-derived sequence and in the megablock xenoliths show differences in both mineralogy and whole-rock chemistry that suggest a more mafic source for the xenoliths. Similarly, the mineralogy of the amphibolite in the lower basement-derived section and its association with calc-silicate rock suggest a sedimentary protolith, whereas the bulk-rock and mineral chemistry of the megablock amphibolite indicate an igneous protolith. The lower basement-derived granite also shows bulk chemical and mineralogical differences from the megablock gneissic and biotite granites.

  19. Fate of Fe, As in Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) was created Disused Metal Mine (United States)

    Yu, H.; Kang, D. H.; Kim, S. J.; So, Y.


    This study is a natural reduction of Fe and As in AMD. AMD is produced by oxidation of pyrite, the iron, the sulfate mineral dissolution action. It is generated by the sulfide minerals, water, oxygen, the reaction of microorganisms in the underground. AMD is low pH due to dissolved minerals in the mine are different kinds of heavy metals will leach. If the flow out of mines and react with dissolved oxygen (DO) is increased, due to oxidation and microbiological activity of the Fe it is precipitated biomat is produced. This study area is Ilgwng disused mines in the Republic of Korea Busan Gijanggun. March to September 2010 taken by the AMD and biomat analyze Fe and As. The main mineral is Chalcopyrite (Cu2Fe2S4), Arsenopyrite (FeAsS), Pyrite (FeS2), Pyrrhotite (Fe1-xS), Sphalerite (ZnS), Galena (PbS), Scheelite (CaWO4), Wolframite ((Fe, Mn)WO4) and the like. Analysis of the AMD of underground pH 2.4~2.8, DO 1.3~4.8mg/L, Fe 474.3~178.8mg/L, As 0~3.2mg/L. Analysis AMD of the flow out of mine pH 2.3~2.9, DO 6.7~9.5mg/L, Fe 81.9~438.7L, As 0~2.8mg/L. The content of Fe in the biomat is 244.242mg/kg, the content of As is 5647mg/kg in the adsorption reaction of the Fe. AMD of disused metal mine mineral leaching occur in a reducing environment, in an oxidizing environment it caused precipitation and adsorption reactions.

  20. Rock magnetic property of gravity core CSH1 from the northern Okinawa Trough and the effect of early diagenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Detailed rock magnetic investigations were undertaken at 2~4 cm interval for the gravity core CSH1 (with a length of 17.36 m) from the northern Okinawa Trough. Time-scale of the core was constructed by two characteristic tephras and foraminferal assemblages, indicating an age of 50 ka for the bottom of the core. Except for three tephras and abrupt decrease in surface, there are little changes in all kinds of rock magnetic parameters that can be correlated to the climate change for the last 50 ka. Different from the common sediments, most S-ratios (S equals the negative ratio of IRM-0.3T to SIRM, which is an indicator of low coercivity content)of the sediments are smaller than 0.9, which implies a substantial amount of magnetic minerals with high coercivity. The existence of iron sulphide (greigite or pyrrhotite) is revealed by representative susceptibility-temperature curves showing 200~350 ℃ Curie temperature in addition to 580 ℃ of magnetite, and also by awful smell during heating and dark heating products. Both the occurrence of authigenic iron sulphide and quick decrease of magnetic parameters near the surface clearly show that sediments from Core CSH1 have undergone early diagenesis. The featureless magnetic changes of the whole core except for three tephras mean that the post-depositonal alteration is so strong that most original signals have been destroyed. For the same reason, the organic matter in sediment and sulphate in pore water must have been consumed along with dissolution, precipitation of iron and manganese happening sequencially during the redox reaction series. Great caution must be taken when using these altered chemical parameters for the interpretation of climatic changes.

  1. Paleomagnetism of the ~1.1 Ga Baraga-Marquette dykes (Michigan, USA) (United States)

    Piispa, E. J.; Foucher, M. S.; Chmielewski, J. A.; Smirnov, A. V.; Pesonen, L. J.


    We present new detailed paleomagnetic and rock magnetic results from ~50 dykes exposed in the Baraga-Marquette (BM) area of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan (USA). The dyke intrusion was associated with the development of the ~1.1 Ga North American Mid-Continent Rift (MCR) system. Most rocks representing the early stage of MCR are characterized by steep reversed directions of the characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM), whereas the rocks from the main stage of MCR generally yield shallower normal polarity ChRM directions. Rock magnetic experiments show that the principal magnetic carrier in the BM dykes is single-domain to pseudosingle-domain magnetite or low-Ti titanomagnetite with minor occurrences of hematite, maghemite, or pyrrhotite in some dykes. The majority of BM dykes yielded steep reversed-polarity directions of ChRM indicating that they belong to the early stage of MCR development. The corresponding paleomagnetic pole plots close to the apex of the so called "Logan Loop", a segment of the Apparent Polar Wander Path (APWP) for the North American continent for ~1000-1200 Ma. Several BM dykes yielded steep normal-polarity ChRM directions, significantly different from the direction exhibited by the normally magnetized MCR sequences. This may indicate that these dykes are older than the reversed polarity dykes. In addition, a single mafic dyke from the Baraga basin with a recently published U/Pb age of 1120±4 Ma resulted in a shallow normal ChRM direction. The implications of our new paleomagnetic results for the North American APWP and the evolution of MCR will be discussed.

  2. Heterogeneous arsenic enrichment in meta-sedimentary rocks in central Maine, United States (United States)

    O’Shea, Beth; Stransky, Megan; Leitheiser, Sara; Brock, Patrick; Marvinney, Robert G.; Zheng, Yan


    Arsenic is enriched up to 28 times the average crustal abundance of 4.8 mg kg−1 for meta-sedimentary rocks of two adjacent formations in central Maine, USA where groundwater in the bedrock aquifer frequently contains elevated As levels. The Waterville Formation contains higher arsenic concentrations (mean As 32.9 mg kg−1, median 12.1 mg kg−1, n=36) than the neighboring Vassalboro Group (mean As 19.1 mg kg−1, median 6.0 mg kg−1, n=36). The Waterville Formation is a pelitic meta-sedimentary unit with abundant pyrite either visible or observed by scanning electron microprobe. Concentrations of As and S are strongly correlated (r=0.88, p<0.05) in the low grade phyllite rocks, and arsenic is detected up to 1,944 mg kg−1 in pyrite measured by electron microprobe. In contrast, statistically significant (p<0.05) correlations between concentrations of As and S are absent in the calcareous meta-sediments of the Vassalboro Group, consistent with the absence of arsenic-rich pyrite in the protolith. Metamorphism converts the arsenic-rich pyrite to arsenic-poor pyrrhotite (mean As 1 mg kg−1, n=15) during de-sulfidation reactions: the resulting metamorphic rocks contain arsenic but little or no sulfur indicating that the arsenic is now in new mineral hosts. Secondary weathering products such as iron oxides may host As, yet the geochemical methods employed (oxidative and reductive leaching) do not conclusively indicate that arsenic is associated only with these. Instead, silicate minerals such as biotite and garnet are present in metamorphic zones where arsenic is enriched (up to 130.8 mg kg−1 As) where S is 0%. Redistribution of already variable As in the protolith during metamorphism and contemporary water-rock interaction in the aquifers, all combine to contribute to a spatially heterogeneous groundwater arsenic distribution in bedrock aquifers. PMID:24861530

  3. Natural minerals and synthetic materials for sorption of radioactive anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Mun Ja; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kim, Seung Soo


    Technetium-99 and iodine-129 are fission products with long half-lives, and exist as highly soluble anionic species. Studies on natural and synthetic materials sorbing TcO{sub 4} and/or I have been performed by several researchers. The application of these materials as an additive in the high-level waste disposal has been considered. The iron- or sulfide-containing minerals such as metal iron, iron powder, stibnite and pyrrhotite show a high capacity for TcO{sub 4} sorption. And the small amounts of activated carbon are reported to have high distribution coefficients recently. In the iodine sorption studies, sulfide-, copper-, lead- or mercury-containing minerals can be a candidate. Pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, Cu{sub 2}S and CuS reveal a high capacity for I sorption. The synthetic materials were found to have high sorption capacity and compensate the defects of natural minerals, which contain hydrous oxides such as zirconium oxide, aluminium oxide and mercarbide. The mercarbide has the high distribution coefficients for the sorption of TcO{sub 4} and I. Recently it was proposed that the synthetic clay, hydrotalcite, could be useful for the fixation of anion. However, to determine the applicability of those natural and synthetic materials as an additive to a buffer or backfill material for sorption of TcO{sub 4} and/or I, the sorption behavior of the anions on those materials under the repository conditions should be identified. (author). 32 refs., 21 tabs., 10 figs

  4. Genetic constraints from paleomagnetic dating for the Aliva zinc-lead deposit, Picos de Europa Unit, northern Spain (United States)

    Symons, David T. A.; Tornos, Fernando; Kawasaki, Kazuo; Velasco, Francisco; Rosales, Idoia


    Aliva has been the most productive Zn-Pb mine in the Picos de Europa Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) district of Spain's Cantabrian Zone. The mineralisation is hosted in a Variscan thrust sheet by strata of the Late Carboniferous (~309 ± 3 Ma) Picos de Europa limestone-shale formation. Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic analyses of 194 specimens from 23 sites show that the sphalerite-galena-dolomite ore carries a stable characteristic remanent magnetisation (ChRM) in magnetite-titanomagnetite with minor pyrrhotite. Uncorrected for bedding tilt, the ChRM's direction is declination ( D) = 347.2°, inclination ( I) = 61.8° ( N = 20 sites, k = 75.4, α 95 = 4.3°). A negative paleomagnetic fold test shows that the MVT mineralisation is in one or more carbonate olistoliths of the Picos de Europa Formation in shales of the overlying Late Carboniferous Lebeña Formation and that the ChRM entirely postdates Variscan orogenic deformation. No plausible tilt correction of the ChRM's paleopole supports a previously proposed late Variscan (Permian-Triassic) age for the genesis of the MVT mineralisation at Aliva. The paleopole does support an age of 112 ± 8 Ma for the hydrothermal dolomitisation and MVT mineralisation event with a subsequent increase in bedding tilt by ~10° NNE during the Oligocene-Miocene Pyrenean (Alpine) Orogeny. The 112 ± 8 Ma Aptian-Albian age ties ore genesis to the 35° ± 2 counterclockwise rotation of the Iberian peninsula relative to stable Europe and strongly favours an origin in the rift's flank associated with rift hydrothermal activity.

  5. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion characteristics of the Skrytoe reduced-type W skarn and stockwork deposit, Sikhote-Alin, Russia (United States)

    Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey G.


    The Skrytoe deposit (>145 Kt WO3, average grade 0.449% WO3) in the Sikhote-Alin orogenic system (Eastern Russia) is situated in a metallogenic belt of W, Sn-W, Au, and Au-W deposits formed in a late to post-collisional tectonic environment after cessation of active subduction. It is localized within a mineralized district of reduced-type skarn W and veined Au (±W) deposits and occurrences related to the Early Cretaceous ilmenite-series plutonic suite. The deposit incorporates large stockworks of scheelite-bearing veinlets related to propylitic (amphibole, chlorite, quartz) and phyllic (quartz, sericite, albite, apatite, and carbonate) hydrothermal alteration. The stockwork cuts flat-lying mafic volcanic rocks and limestone partially replaced by pyroxene skarn that host the major W orebodies. Scheelite is associated with pyrrhotite and/or arsenopyrite, with minor chalcopyrite and other sulfide minerals; the late phyllic stage assemblages hosts Bi and Au mineralization. The fluid evolution included low-salinity moderate-temperature, moderate-pressure (˜370-390 °C, ˜800 bars) methane-dominated carbonic-aqueous fluids that formed post-skarn propylitic alteration assemblages. Then, at the phyllic stage, there has been an evolution from methane-dominated, moderate-temperature (330-360 °C), low-salinity (water (δ18OH2O = +7.4 to +7.7 ‰), and dominantly crustal-derived source of sulfur (δ34S = -4.6 to -2.9 ‰) in the hydrothermal fluids. This is consistent with the development of larger, longer crystallizing crustal intermediate to felsic magma chambers in the late to post-collisional tectonic environment, with their protracted magmatic evolution advancing magmatic differentiation and partitioning of W into magmatic-hydrothermal fluid. The dominating role of the crustal-derived magmatic water, sulfur, and carbon appears to be an important feature of reduced W skarn deposits related to ilmenite-series granitoids.

  6. Seismic and magnetic susceptibility anisotropy of middle-lower continental crust: Insights for their potential relationship from a study of intrusive rocks from the Serre Massif (Calabria, southern Italy) (United States)

    Punturo, Rosalda; Mamtani, Manish A.; Fazio, Eugenio; Occhipinti, Roberta; Renjith, A. R.; Cirrincione, Rosolino


    We investigated the relationships between fabric, seismic and magnetic anisotropy on lithotypes representative of a continental crust exposed in the Serre Massif (Southern Italy). In particular, from five granitoids and one metagabbro, cubes were cut according to the fabric elements and seismic properties up to 400 MPa confining pressure were measured with a triaxial multi-anvil apparatus; we also calculated the elastic properties based on the mineral content and composition. In granitoids, measured average compressional wave velocity (Vp) of the fracture-free aggregate at 400 MPa is 6.2 km/s, whereas average shear wave velocity (Vs) is 3.6 km/s, with Poisson's ratio ranging from 0.240 to 0.257, related to the modal proportions of quartz. In metagabbro, average Vp and Vs at 400 MPa are 6.9 km/s and 3.7 km/s, respectively. Results showed that intrinsic velocity distribution, after microcracks closure, depends on progressive alignment of anisotropic minerals such as biotite, amphibole and pyroxene, with maxima velocities localized within the foliation plane. Mean magnetic susceptibility, Km, of the granitic rocks is units, indicating that paramagnetic minerals such as biotite and amphibole control the intensity of magnetic anisotropy. Comparison of seismic and magnetic anisotropies highlighted the different role of constituting minerals over the petrophysical properties. Moreover, a positive correlation between seismic and magnetic anisotropy has been recognized, indicating that biotite and amphibole contribute to the petrophysical and textural anisotropy in the middle crust. Conversely, in metagabbro, the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is controlled by magnetite and pyrrhotite although these form < 10% of the rock, which dominantly comprises paramagnetic minerals such as biotite and orthopyroxene. Unlike granitoids, in metagabbro the petrophysical properties are controlled by the paramagnetic minerals, while the magnetic anisotropy is controlled by the

  7. Phase Stability and Stoichiometry in Thin Film Iron Pyrite: Impact on Electronic Transport Properties. (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Scott, Tom; Socha, Tyler; Nielsen, David; Manno, Michael; Johnson, Melissa; Yan, Yuqi; Losovyj, Yaroslav; Dowben, Peter; Aydil, Eray S; Leighton, Chris


    The use of pyrite FeS2 as an earth-abundant, low-cost, nontoxic thin film photovoltaic hinges on improved understanding and control of certain physical and chemical properties. Phase stability, phase purity, stoichiometry, and defects, are central in this respect, as they are frequently implicated in poor solar cell performance. Here, phase-pure polycrystalline pyrite FeS2 films, synthesized by ex situ sulfidation, are subject to systematic reduction by vacuum annealing (to 550 °C) to assess phase stability, stoichiometry evolution, and their impact on transport. Bulk probes reveal the onset of pyrrhotite (Fe(1-δ)S) around 400 °C, rapidly evolving into the majority phase by 425 °C. This is supported by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on (001) crystals, revealing surface Fe(1-δ)S formation as low as 160 °C, with rapid growth near 400 °C. The impact on transport is dramatic, with Fe(1-δ)S minority phases leading to a crossover from diffusive transport to hopping (due to conductive Fe(1-δ)S nanoregions in an FeS2 matrix), followed by metallicity when Fe(1-δ)S dominates. Notably, the crossover to hopping leads to an inversion of the sign, and a large decrease in magnitude of the Hall coefficient. By tracking resistivity, magnetotransport, magnetization, and structural/chemical parameters vs annealing, we provide a detailed picture of the evolution in properties with stoichiometry. A strong propensity for S-deficient minority phase formation is found, with no wide window where S vacancies control the FeS2 carrier density. These findings have important implications for FeS2 solar cell development, emphasizing the need for (a) nanoscale chemical homogeneity, and (b) caution in interpreting carrier types and densities.

  8. Gold deposits in the late Archaean Nzega-Igunga greenstone belt, central plateau of tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feiss, P.G.; Siyomana, S.


    2.2 m oz of gold have been produced, since 1935, from late Archaean (2480-2740 Ma) greenstone belts of the Central Plateau, Tanzania. North and east of Nzega (4/sup 0/12'S, 3/sup 0/11'E), 18% of the exposed basement, mainly Dodoman schists and granites, consists of metavolcanics and metasediments of the Nyanzian and Kavirondian Series. Four styles of mineralization are observed. 1. Stratabound quartz-gold veins with minor sulfides. Host rocks are quartz porphyry, banded iron formation (BIF), magnetite quartzite, and dense, cherty jasperite at the Sekenke and Canuck mines. The Canuck veins are on strike from BIF's in quartz-eye porphyry of the Igusule Hills. 2. Stratabound, disseminated gold in coarse-grained, crowded feldspar porphyry with lithic fragments and minor pyrite. At Bulangamilwa, the porphyry is conformable with Nyanzian-aged submarine (.) greenstone, volcanic sediment, felsic volcanics, and sericite phyllite. The deposits are on strike with BIF of the Wella Hills, which contains massive sulfide with up to 15% Pb+Zn. 3. Disseminated gold in quartz-albite metasomes in Nyanzian greenstones. At Kirondatal, alteration is associated with alaskites and feldspar porphyry dikes traceable several hundred meters into post-Dodoman diorite porphyry. Gold is with pyrite, arsenopyrite, pyrrhotite, minor chalcopyrite, and sphalerite as well as tourmalinite and silica-cemented breccias. 4. Basal Kavirondian placers in metaconglomerates containing cobbles and boulders of Dodoman and Nyanzian rocks several hundred meters up-section from the stratabound, disseminated mineralization at Bulangamilwa.

  9. Magnetotelluric evidence for massive sulphide mineralization in intruded sediments of the outer Vøring Basin, mid-Norway (United States)

    Corseri, Romain; Senger, Kim; Selway, Kate; Abdelmalak, Mohamed Mansour; Planke, Sverre; Jerram, Dougal A.


    A highly conductive body (0.1-0.8 Ω·m) is identified at mid-crustal depth (8-13 km) in the north Gjallar Ridge from magnetotelluric (MT) data and further investigated in light of other remote-sensing geophysical data (seismic reflection, gravity, aeromagnetic). A commercial 3D controlled-source electromagnetic survey was conducted in the Vøring Basin in 2014 and, although primarily designed for hydrocarbon exploration, good quality MT data were extracted at periods ranging from 100 to 103 s. Dimensionality analysis indicates clear 1D to 2D characteristics in the MT data. 2D inversion was carried out on four profiles (totalling 94 km) oriented perpendicular to the electromagnetic strike and one profile along strike ( 45 km), using a 1D subset of the data. All inversions converged quickly to RMS values close to unity and display a very good agreement with borehole resistivity data from well 6705/10-1 located in the survey area. A striking feature on all profiles is a highly conductive (0.1-0.8 Ω·m) body at 8-13 km depth. To explain the prominent conductive anomaly, integration of geophysical data favours the hypothesis of electrical conduction across well-connected mineral network in pre-Cretaceous sediments. Seismic interpretation suggests a link between the conductor and intruded sedimentary successions below a detachment level and associated low-angle faults. In the Vøring Basin, low magnetic signal and temperature at the conductor's depth indicate that such thick mineral deposits could display non-magnetic behaviour while occurring well below the magnetite Curie isotherm ( 585 °C). Natural occurrences and magnetic properties of common iron-sulphide minerals favour a geological interpretation of mid-crustal conductivity as thick pyrrhotite deposits formed in intrusion's contact metamorphic aureoles.

  10. Environmental Properties of Minerals and Contaminants Purified by the Mineralogical Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Anhuai


    The investigation of the environmental properties of minerals, i.e., environmental mineralogy, is a branch of science dealing with interactions between natural minerals and spheres of the Earth surface as well as a reflection of global change, prevention of ecological destruction, participation in biomineralogy, and remediation of environmental pollution.Pollutant treatment by natural minerals is based on the natural law and reflects natural self-purification functions in the inorganic world, similar to that of the organic world - a biological treatment. A series of case studies related to natural selfpurification. which were mostly completed by our group, are discussed in this paper. In natural cryptomelane there is a larger pseudotetragonal tunnel than that formed by [MnO6] octahedral double chains, with an aperture of 0.462-0.466 nm2,filled with K cations. Cryptomelane might be a real naturally-occurring mineral of the active octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2). CrVI-bearing wastewater can be treated by natural pyrrhotite, which is used as a reductant to reduce Crw and as a precipitant to precipitate CrⅢ simultaneously. Batch experiments were conducted using the CTMAB-Montmorillonite as an adsorbent for aromatic contaminants (phenol, aniline, benzene, toluene and xylenes), which are detected frequently in the leaching water from municipal waste deposits around China. The CTMAB modification has proved very effective to enhance the adsorption capacity of the sorbent. Expansion of vermiculite develops loose interior structures, such as pores or cracks, inside briquettes, and thus brings enough oxygen for combustion and the sulfation reaction. Effective combustion of the original carbon reduces the amount of dust in the fly ash.

  11. Space science applications for conducting polymer particles: synthetic mimics for cosmic dust and micrometeorites. (United States)

    Fielding, Lee A; Hillier, Jon K; Burchell, Mark J; Armes, Steven P


    Over the last decade or so, a range of polypyrrole-based particles have been designed and evaluated for space science applications. This electrically conductive polymer enables such particles to efficiently acquire surface charge, which in turn allows their acceleration up to the hypervelocity regime (>1 km s(-1)) using a Van de Graaff accelerator. Either organic latex (e.g. polystyrene or poly(methyl methacrylate)) or various inorganic materials (such as silica, olivine or pyrrhotite) can be coated with polypyrrole; these core-shell particles are useful mimics for understanding the hypervelocity impact ionisation behaviour of micro-meteorites (a.k.a. cosmic dust). Impacts on metal targets at relatively low hypervelocities (10 km s(-1)) generate predominately atomic species, since many more chemical bonds are cleaved if the particles impinge with higher kinetic energy. Such fundamental studies are relevant to the calibration of the cosmic dust analyser (CDA) onboard the Cassini spacecraft, which was designed to determine the chemical composition of Saturn's dust rings. Inspired by volcanism observed for one of the Jupiter's moons (Io), polypyrrole-coated sulfur-rich latexes have also been designed to help space scientists understand ionisation spectra originating from sulfur-rich dust particles. Finally, relatively large (20 μm diameter) polypyrrole-coated polystyrene latexes have proven to be useful for understanding the extent of thermal ablation of organic projectiles when fired at ultralow density aerogel targets at up to 6.1 km s(-1) using a Light Gas Gun. In this case, the sacrificial polypyrrole overlayer simply provides a sensitive spectroscopic signature (rather than a conductive overlayer), and the scientific findings have important implications for the detection of organic dust grains during the Stardust space mission.

  12. Advances in EBSD and EBSD/EDS integration for the characterization of mineralogical samples (United States)

    Palasse, L.; Goran, D.; Schwager, T.


    (<10 nm) of this technique compared to conventional EBSD. EBSD phase map of an oxide gabbro collected by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 304/305, U1309D. phases: clinopyroxene, clinohypersthene, magnetite, ilmenite, tremolite, plagioclase, quartz, pyrrhotite, apatite, clinochlore. Sample courtesy: Dr. Angela Halfpenny, CSIRO Perth, Australia.

  13. Determination of iron sulphides in roofing slates from the north west of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Guinea, J.


    Full Text Available The most important production of roofing slates in the world is quarried from the Ordovician formations of the Truchas Syncline, which have the largest amount of working quarries. Roofing slates, sometimes, have crystallized iron sulphides such as pyrite, pyrrhotite and other minerals. These iron sulphides oxidise and stain the tiles when are exposed to atmospheric conditions, so much oxidized how much more inclined is the roof. Galician quarrymen distinguish between harmless pyrite (i.e., resistant cubes of pyrite and damaging pyrite (i.e., other alterable metallic minerals such as pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, marcasite and arsenopyirite. An improved identification method is proposed using both methods (a chemical element ratios of samples under electron microprobes and (b quantitative determination of the iron sulphides in the slate measuring the oxidized areas by digital camera. The analysed Fe/S ratios, in an XY plot, of seventy metallic samples, define three separated zones: pyrite, pyrrhotite and iron oxi-hydroxides. Quantitative determination of iron sulphides in the slate tile were performed by sinking the tile horizontally for six hours in oxygen peroxide (3% diluted and capturing the oxidation areas with a magnetic camera and analysing the bitmap images with Sigma-Scan 5 software. The proposed method is faster than the Spanish UNE norm (UNE-EN- 12326-2 Sept.2000, which requires thermal strike cycles for a month. The necessary use of heavy analytical equipment such as electron microprobes can be facilitated by installing it in the Slate Technological Centre of Sobradelo de Valdeorras (Orense or by using a simple optical stereoscopic zoom microscope to classify the iron minerals.

    Las formaciones ordovícicas del Sinclinal de Duchas concentran la mayor producción mundial de pizarra para cubiertas y el mayor número de canteras en producción. Las pizarras para cubiertas muchas veces contienen sulfuros de hierro cristalizados en forma

  14. Geological setting of the Paleoproterozoic Rosebel gold district, Guiana Shield, Suriname (United States)

    Daoust, Caroline; Voicu, Gabriel; Brisson, Harold; Gauthier, Michel


    The Rosebel gold district is hosted in a Paleoproterozoic greenstone belt of the Guiana Shield and has many characteristics that enable classification of the ores as an orogenic gold deposit. Host rocks have undergone several phases of deformation. However, gold deposition occurred late in the structural history of the belt, and is considered part of a late regional metallogenic event with respect to the geotectonic evolution of the Guiana Shield. Economic gold mineralization is hosted in felsic to mafic volcanic rocks and two sedimentary successions that are differentiated into turbiditic and arenitic depositional packages. The detailed lithostratigraphic characterization and the geochemistry enable the correlation of the local rock types with the Paramaka, the Armina, and the Rosebel formations respectively. The Rosebel district comprises eight discrete gold deposits distributed along two major structures. The northernmost structure is a sub-vertical WNW-ESE shear zone that preserves evidence of dextral strike-slip followed by normal faulting. The southern structure is an east-west reverse fault along which gold deposits are mainly hosted in the footwall. Gold mineralization is associated with quartz vein arrays developed along pre-existing structural heterogeneities, such as stratigraphic contacts and fold hinges. Four main sets of veins are recognized in the district: shear veins, north-south tension veins, stacks of north-dipping tension veins, and anticline-hosted tension veins. Mineralized quartz veins are typically associated with a wallrock alteration assemblage comprising sericite, chlorite, carbonate, tourmaline, pyrite, pyrrhotite, and plagioclase. The presence of a WNW-ESE dextral strike-slip structure, an east-west reverse fault, and north-south tension veins are consistent with the formation of a Riedel system during a simple shear event. All vein sets cut deformed sedimentary rocks that were deposited in a pull-apart basin, which together with their

  15. Laboratory Measurements of Synthetic Pyroxenes and their Mixtures with Iron Sulfides as Inorganic Refractory Analogues for Rosetta/VIRTIS' Surface Composition Analysis of 67P/CG (United States)

    Markus, Kathrin; Arnold, Gabriele; Moroz, Ljuba; Henckel, Daniela; Kappel, David; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Filacchione, Gianrico; Schmitt, Bernard; Tosi, Federico; Érard, Stéphane; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Leyrat, Cedric; VIRTIS Team


    The Visible and InfraRed Thermal Imaging Spectrometer VIRTIS on board Rosetta provided 0.25-5.1 µm spectra of 67P/CG's surface (Capaccioni et al., 2015). Thermally corrected reflectance spectra display a low albedo of 0.06 at 0.65 µm, different red VIS and IR spectral slopes, and a broad 3.2 µm band. This absorption feature is due to refractory surface constituents attributed to organic components, but other refractory constituents influence albedo and spectral slopes. Possible contributions of inorganic components to spectral characteristics and spectral variations across the surface should be understood based on laboratory studies and spectral modeling. Although a wide range of silicate compositions was found in "cometary" anhydrous IDPs and cometary dust, Mg-rich crystalline mafic minerals are dominant silicate components. A large fraction of silicate grains are Fe-free enstatites and forsterites that are not found in terrestrial rocks but can be synthesized in order to provide a basis for laboratory studies and comparison with VIRTIS data. We report the results of the synthesis, analyses, and spectral reflectance measurements of Fe-free low-Ca pyroxenes (ortho- and clinoenstatites). These minerals are generally very bright and almost spectrally featureless. However, even trace amounts of Fe-ions produce a significant decrease in the near-UV reflectance and hence can contribute to slope variations. Iron sulfides (troilite, pyrrhotite) are among the most plausible phases responsible for the low reflectance of 67P's surface from the VIS to the NIR. The darkening efficiency of these opaque phases is strongly particle-size dependent. Here we present a series of reflectance spectra of fine-grained synthetic enstatite powders mixed in various proportions with iron sulfide powders. The influence of dark sulfides on reflectance in the near-UV to near-IR spectral ranges is investigated. This study can contribute to understand the shape of reflectance spectra of 67P

  16. Reflectance spectroscopy of natural organic solids, iron sulfides and their mixtures as refractory analogues for Rosetta/VIRTIS' surface composition analysis of 67P/CG (United States)

    Moroz, Lyuba V.; Markus, Kathrin; Arnold, Gabriele; Henckel, Daniela; Kappel, David; Schade, Ulrich; Rousseau, Batiste; Quirico, Eric; Schmitt, Bernard; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Filacchione, Gianrico; Érard, Stéphane; Leyrat, Cedric; VIRTIS Team


    Analysis of 0.25-5 µm reflectance spectra provided by the Visible and InfraRed Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS) onboard Rosetta orbiter revealed that the surface of 67P/CG is dark from the near-UV to the IR and is enriched in refractory phases such as organic and opaque components. The broadness and complexity of the ubiquitous absorption feature around 3.2 µm suggest a variety of cometary organic constituents. For example, complex hydrocarbons (aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic) can contribute to the feature between 3.3 and 3.5 µm and to the low reflectance of the surface in the visible. Here we present the 0.25-5 µm reflectance spectra of well-characterized terrestrial hydrocarbon materials (solid oil bitumens, coals) and discuss their relevance as spectral analogues for a hydrocarbon part of 67P/CG's complex organics. However, the expected low degree of thermal processing of cometary hydrocarbons (high (H+O+N+S)/C ratios and low carbon aromaticities) suggests high IR reflectance, intense 3.3-3.5 µm absorption bands and steep red IR slopes that are not observed in the VIRTIS spectra. Fine-grained opaque refractory phases (e.g., iron sulfides, Fe-Ni alloys) intimately mixed with other surface components are likely responsible for the low IR reflectance and low intensities of absorption bands in the VIRTIS spectra of the 67P/CG surface. In particular, iron sulfides are common constituents of cometary dust, "cometary" chondritic IDPs, and efficient darkening agents in primitive carbonaceous chondrites. Their effect on reflectance spectra of an intimate mixture is strongly affected by grain size. We report and discuss the 0.25-5 µm reflectance spectra of iron sulfides (meteoritic troilite and several terrestrial pyrrhotites) ground and sieved to various particle sizes. In addition, we present reflectance spectra of several intimate mixtures of powdered iron sulfides and solid oil bitumens. Based on the reported laboratory data, we discuss the ability of

  17. Biodegradation reduces magnetization in oil bearing rocks: magnetization results of a combined chemical and magnetic study (United States)

    Emmerton, S.; Muxworthy, A. R.; Sephton, M. A.; Williams, W.


    A relationship between hydrocarbons and their magnetic signatures has been alluded to for decades but this is the first study to combine geochemical and magnetic data. We report an extended study that identifies a definitive connection between magnetic mineralogy and biodegradation within oil-bearing rocks. Samples from Colombia, Canada Indonesia and the UK were collected and magnetically characterized. A negative linear regression in log space between magnetic susceptibility and the percentage of extractable organic matter was observed for individual reservoirs. To determine if this relationship is due to the activity of bacteria or migration of the oil, the percentage of oil components; aliphatic, aromatics, polars and resins and the biodegradation state of the samples were compared to the magnetic susceptibility and magnetic mineralogy of the samples. Geochemical biomarker data revealed that all oil samples were derived from mature type-II kerogen, which was deposited in oxygen-poor environments allowing for an investigation into biodegradation variations. Biodegradation is the decrease of oil quality through the conversion of aliphatic hydrocarbons to polar constituents mainly through the activity of bacteria. A distinct decrease in magnetic susceptibility was correlated to decreasing oil quality (loss of aliphatic hydrocarbons, more biodegraded), which cannot be rejected at 99% confidence. Further magnetic characterization revealed that the high quality, low biodegradation oils from Colombia have a higher magnetic susceptibility (10-3-10-4 m3kg-1) and are dominated by pseudo-single domain grains of magnetite. The lower quality oils i.e., the UK, Canadian and Indonesian samples, displayed decreased magnetic susceptibility (10-5-10-6 m3kg-1) and pseudo-single domain to multidomain grains of magnetite and hematite. Magnetite and pyrrhotite framboidal material were found in all but the Canadian samples. Therefore, with decreasing oil quality there is a progressive

  18. Genesis of ilmenite-series I-type granitoids at the Baogutu reduced porphyry Cu deposit, western Junggar, NW-China (United States)

    Cao, MingJian; Qin, KeZhang; Li, GuangMing; Evans, Noreen J.; Hollings, Pete; Jin, LuYing


    The Baogutu porphyry Cu deposit is a typical reduced porphyry Cu deposit, likely related to ilmenite-series I-type granitoids. However, the nature of the granitoids (ilmenite-series or magnetite-series) and the genesis of the Baogutu deposit are still under debate. In order to resolve these issues, whole-rock magnetic susceptibility, geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic, zircon U-Pb dating and Hf-O isotopic compositions were carried out. Three different intrusive phases are recognized within the deposit, from oldest to youngest, they are diorite with trace gabbro, diorite-granodiorite porphyry, and hornblende diorite porphyry, all of which were emplaced in the Late Carboniferous (320-306 Ma) and show a metaluminous, calc-alkaline I-type granitoid character with typical supra-subduction zone geochemical affinities. The intrusions are characterized by widespread primary pyrrhotite without anhydrite and hematite, dominant ilmenite over magnetite, low whole rock magnetic susceptibility (< 1 × 10- 4 emu g- 1 oe- 1 or < 3 × 10- 3 SI unit) and low whole rock Fe2O3/FeO ratios (< 0.4), indicating that the granitoids are ilmenite- rather than magnetite-series I-type granitoids. Whole rock Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions show limited variation but slightly enriched characteristics with (87Sr/86Sr)i values of 0.70357-0.70404, εNd (t) of + 6.3 to + 7.8, 206Pb/204Pb of 18.20-19.54 and 208Pb/204Pb of 37.97-39.55. Zircon Hf-O isotopic compositions show εHf (t) values of + 10.7 to + 15.8 and δ18O of 5.3-7.4‰. Zircon and apatite saturation thermometries yield temperatures of 720 to 920 °C with relatively higher temperatures for the porphyries than for the diorite. Limited variations in Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf-O isotopic compositions and extremely young whole rock T2DM (Nd) (430 to 570 Ma) and zircon TDMC (Hf) (310 to 640 Ma) do not indicate significant crustal contamination during magma ascent or emplacement. Rather the Baogutu ilmenite-series I-type granitoids were probably formed by

  19. Gold deposition on pyrite and the common sulfide minerals: An STM/STS and SR-XPS study of surface reactions and Au nanoparticles (United States)

    Mikhlin, Yuri L.; Romanchenko, Alexander S.


    Gold species spontaneously deposited on pyrite and chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, galena, sphalerite from HAuCl 4 solutions at room temperature, as well as the state of the reacted mineral surfaces have been characterized using synchrotron radiation X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SR-XPS), scanning tunneling microscopy and tunneling spectroscopy (STM/STS). The deposition of silver from 10 -4 M AgNO 3 has been examined for comparison. Gold precipitates as metallic nanoparticles (NPs) from about 3 nm to 30 nm in diameter, which tends to aggregate forming larger particles, especially on pyrite. The Au 4f binding energies increase up to 1 eV with decreasing size of individual Au 0 NPs, probably due to the temporal charging in the final state. Concurrently, a positive correlation between the tunneling current and the particle size was found in STS. Both these size effects were observed for unusually large, up to 20 nm Au particles. In contrast, silver deposited on the minerals as nanoparticles of semiconducting sulfide showed no shifts of photoelectron lines and different tunneling spectra. The quantity of gold deposited on pyrite and other minerals increased with time; it was lower for fracture surfaces and it grew if minerals were moderately pre-oxidized, while the preliminary leaching in Fe(III)-bearing media inhibited the following Au deposition. After the contact of polished minerals with 10 -4 M AuCl4- solution (pH 1.5) for 10 min, the gold uptake changed in the order CuFeS 2 > ZnS > PbS > FeAsS > FeS 2 > Fe 7S 8. It was noticed that the open circuit (mixed) potentials of the minerals varied in approximately the same order, excepting chalcopyrite. We concluded that the potentials of minerals were largely determined by Fe(II)/Fe(III) couple, whereas the reduction of gold complexes had a minor effect. As a result, the deposition of gold, although it proceeded via the electrochemical mechanism, increased with decreasing potential. This suggests, in particular, that the

  20. Assessment of hydrothermal processes associated with Proterozoic mineral systems in Finland using self-organizing maps. (United States)

    Lerssi, J.; Sorjonen-Ward, P.; Fraser, S. J.; Ruotsalainen, A.


    An increasingly urgent challenge in mineral system analysis is to extract relevant information from diverse datasets, and to effectively discriminate between "hydrothermal noise" and alteration and structures that may relate to significant mineralization potential. The interpretation of geophysical data is notorious for the problem of ambiguity in defining source dimensions and geometry. An additional issue, which also applies to geochemical and hyperspectral datasets, in terrain that has been overprinted by several tectonic, metamorphic and hydrothermal events, is that while anomalies represent the sum of geological processes affecting an area, we are usually interesting in extracting the signals diagnostic of a mineralizing event. Spatial analysis using weights of evidence, fuzzy logic and neural networks have been widely applied to mineral prospectivity assessment in recent years. Here however, we present an alternative, albeit complementary approach, based on the concept of self-organizing maps [1], in which natural patterns in large, unstructured datasets are derived, correlated and readily visualized, provides an alternative approach to analysis of geophysical and geochemical anomalies and integration with other geological data. We have applied SiroSOM software to airborne and ground magnetic, EM and radiometric data for two mutually adjacent areas in eastern Finland that have superficially similar structural architecture and geophysical expression, yet differ significantly in terms of mineral system character: (1) the Outokumpu Cu-Co-Zn-Ni system, hosted by metamorphosed serpentinites and their hydrothermal derivatives, which are usually highly magnetic due to both magnetite and pyrrhotite; (2) the Hammaslahti Cu-Zn system, hosted by coarse-clastic turbidites intercalated with mafic volcanics and graphitic pelites having characteristically intense magnetic and EM responses. Although the initial stage of the analysis is unsupervised, ongoing iteration and

  1. Multistage gold mineralization in the Wa-Lawra greenstone belt, NW Ghana: The Bepkong deposit (United States)

    Amponsah, Prince Ofori; Salvi, Stefano; Didier, Béziat; Baratoux, Lenka; Siebenaller, Luc; Jessell, Mark; Nude, Prosper Mackenzie; Gyawu, Eugene Adubofour


    The Bepkong gold deposit is one of several gold camps in the Paleoproterozoic Wa-Lawra greenstone belt in northwest Ghana. These deposits lay along the Kunche-Atikpi shear zone, which is part of the larger transcurrent Jirapa shear zone. The formation of these shear zones can be attributed to the general ESE-WNW major shortening that took place in the Wa-Lawra belt. Gold mineralization in the Bepkong deposit mainly occurs within graphitic shales and volcaniclastic rocks. The ore consists of four N-S trending lenticular bodies, plunging steeply to the south, that are lithologically and structurally controlled. Their shape and thickness are variable, though a general strike length of 560 m and an overall thickness of 300 m can be defined. An alteration mineral assemblage characterises the ore, and consists of chlorite-calcite-sericite-quartz-arsenopyrite-pyrite. Pyrite, as distinct from arsenopyrite, is not limited to the altered rocks and occurs throughout the area. At Bepkong, gold is associated with arsenopyrite and pyrite, which occur disseminated in the mineralized wall rock, flanking Type-1 quartz veins, or within fractures crossing these veins. Textural observations indicate the early formation of abundant arsenopyrite, followed by pyrite, with chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite and pyrrhotite occurring as inclusions within pyrite and altered arsenopyrite. Detailed petrography, coupled with SEM, LA-ICP-MS and EMP analyses, indicate that gold in the Bepkong deposit occurs in three distinct forms: (i) invisible gold, mostly in arsenopyrite (ii); visible gold as micron-size grains within fractures and altered rims of arsenopyrite, as well as at the interface of sulphide grains; (iii) free visible gold in fractures in quartz veins and their selvages. We interpret the invisible gold to have co-precipitated with the early-formed arsenopyrite. The small visible gold grains observed within the sulphide interfaces, altered arsenopyrite, fractures and grain boundaries

  2. Minerals of Fe in the oxidation zone of massive sulfide ore in the South Pechenga structure zone, Kola region: Identification by the Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kompanchenko A. A.


    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the study of iron-bearing minerals formed in the oxidation zone of massive sulfide ores. The minerals are represented by two groups: oxides, i. e. goethite and lepidocrocite, and sulfates, i. e. melanterite and rozenit. Mineral identification has been produced by Raman spectroscopy, these data have been confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The resulting Raman spectra have been compared with the spectra of the known database and the results of previous studies of these minerals. Goethite and lepidocrocite are polymorphic modifications formed under the specific conditions by the influence of special solutions. Goethite has diagnostic bands at 243 cm–1, 300 cm–1, 391 cm–1, 480 cm–1, 552 cm–1, 681 cm–1 , and 995 cm–1, diagnostic bands of lepidocrocite – 252 cm–1, 381 cm–1, 528 cm–1, and 652 cm–1. Discovered small crystals in the lepidocrocite veins have been diagnosed as magnetite, with diagnostic bands at 678 cm–1, 549 cm–1 , and 316 cm–1. Goethite and lepidocrocite are formed on the surface of a complex pyrrhotite-marcasite aggregate with "bird's-eye" structure. The presence of pyrite and marcasite is confirmed by Raman spectrum which has pyrite bands (343 cm–1 and 403 cm–1 and marcasite bands (323 cm–1 and 386 cm–1. Melanterite and rozenite are formed under the influence of surface water on sulfide ores or other readily degradable iron-bearing minerals, as well as in confined spaces with high humidity. Raman spectra of these minerals well differ from each other allowing them reliably diagnose. There are sulfate anion [SO4]2– vibrations in the range of 990–1010 cm–1, and vibrations of the H–O–H in the range of 3 000–4000 cm–1 and 1 500–1700 cm–1 on the spectra. As a result of the research the authors can certainly confirm that Raman spectroscopy can be used as a reliable method for mineral identification

  3. Role of evaporitic sulfates in iron skarn mineralization: a fluid inclusion and sulfur isotope study from the Xishimen deposit, Handan-Xingtai district, North China Craton (United States)

    Wen, Guang; Bi, Shi-Jian; Li, Jian-Wei


    The Xishimen iron skarn deposit in the Handan-Xingtai district, North China Craton, contains 256 Mt @ 43 % Fe (up to 65 %). The mineralization is dominated by massive magnetite ore along the contact zone between the early Cretaceous Xishimen diorite stock and middle Ordovician dolomite and dolomitic limestones with numerous intercalations of evaporitic beds. Minor lenticular magnetite-dominated bodies also occur in the carbonate rocks proximal to the diorite stock. Hydrothermal alteration is characterized by extensive albitization within the diorite stock and extreme development of magnesian skarn along the contact zone consisting of diopside, forsterite, serpentine, tremolite, phlogopite, and talc. Magmatic quartz and amphibole from the diorite and hydrothermal diopside from the skarns contain abundant primary or pseudosecondary fluid inclusions, most of which have multiple daughter minerals dominated by halite, sylvite, and opaque phases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser Raman spectrometry confirm that pyrrhotite is the predominant opaque phase in most fluid inclusions, in both the magmatic and skarn minerals. These fluid inclusions have total homogenization temperatures of 416-620 °C and calculated salinities of 42.4-74.5 wt% NaCl equiv. The fluid inclusion data thus document a high-temperature, high-salinity, ferrous iron-rich, reducing fluid exsolved from a cooling magma likely represented by the Xishimen diorite stock. Pyrite from the iron ore has δ34S values ranging from 14.0 to 18.6 ‰, which are significantly higher than typical magmatic values (δ34S = 0 ± 5 ‰). The sulfur isotope data thus indicate an external source for the sulfur, most likely from the evaporitic beds in the Ordovician carbonate sequences that have δ34S values of 24 to 29 ‰. We suggest that sulfates from the evaporitic beds have played a critically important role by oxidizing ferrous iron in the magmatic-hydrothermal fluid, leading to precipitation of massive

  4. Petrological and geochemical features of the early Paleozoic granitic gneisses and iron ores in the Tianhu iron deposit, Eastern Tianshan, NW China: Implications for ore genesis (United States)

    Zheng, Jiahao; Mao, Jingwen; Yang, Fuquan; Chai, Fengmei; Shen, Ping


    This paper reports whole-rock geochemical, zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data for ore-hosted granitic gneisses, mineral compositions of oxides, and sulfur isotopic data for sulfides in iron ores from the Tianhu deposit, central part of the Eastern Tianshan. Our results can provide crucial constraints on the genesis of granitic gneisses and early Paleozoic tectonic setting of the Eastern Tianshan. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating on magmatic zircons yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 463 to 438 Ma, interpreted as the crystallization ages of the granitic protoliths and the formation ages of the Tianhu Group. Zircon U-Pb age of ore-hosted granitic gneiss (ca. 459 Ma) can provide reliable constrains on upper limit for iron mineralization age in the Tianhu deposit. Geochemical characteristics suggest that the protoliths of the Tianhu granitic gneisses are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous high-K calc-alkaline granitic rocks, exhibiting typical subduction-related features such as strong enrichment in LREE and LILE and depletion in HFSE. Zircon Hf isotopic compositions show a positive trend from 463 to 438 Ma, indicating that 460 Ma magmas came from both ancient and juvenile sources, whereas 438 Ma magmas involved more juvenile material. Some early Paleozoic granitoids were recently identified in the Eastern Tianshan with the ages between ca. 475 and ca. 425 Ma. The formation of these early Paleozoic granitoids was in response to subduction processes, suggesting that subduction of Junggar Ocean probably began in the Early Ordovician and lasted until Late Silurian. Pyrite and pyrrhotite in iron ores have δ34SCDT values from + 4.6 to + 15.7‰, which are consistent with the marine source, but inconsistent with the magmatic source or those involved evaporites in skarn iron deposit. Geological, geochemical, and isotopic data suggest that the Tianhu iron ores were formed by volcano-sedimentary processes in a subduction environment during the early Paleozoic time, and Tianhu is a

  5. Megacrysts in the Cenozoic basalt of the Tuoyun Basin,Southwest Tianshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) YongJun; LUO ZhaoHua; REN ZhongBao; LIANG Tao


    Abundant megacrysts of clinopyroxene, amphibole, anorthoclase, and phlogopite are found together with deep-seated xenoliths in the Cenozoic basalt of the Tuoyun Basin, Southwest Tianshan. The megacrysts are mainly in the cone sheet formed at the early stage of the volcanic activity. Clinopyroxene megacrysts are located in the lower part of the profile, with amphibole and phlogopite megacrysts in the middle part and anorthoclase megacrysts in the upper part. The crystal integrity, absence of deformation fabric and their relation to the host basalt suggest that they were crystallized from the host magma and quickly transported to the surface. The mineralogical studies imply that the clinopyroxene megacrysts are of Al-augite with higher Al2O3 (>9%). Amphibole megacrysts are kaersutite rich in TiO2 (>4.5%). Sulfide inclusions such as pyrrhotite occur in some clinopyroxene and amphibole megacrysts. Thermodynamic calculations reveal that pyroxene megacrysts formed under the temperature of 1185.85―1199.85℃ and the pressure between 1.53 and 1.64 Gpa comparable to the crust-mantle boundary and amphibole megacrysts crystallized under the pressure of around 0.85 Gpa, temperature about 1000℃ comparable to the depth of 30 km. Anorthoclase megacrysts crystallized under the pressure between 0.8―1 Gpa,temperature about 900℃.The absence of Ti-rich inclusions such as rutile can be considered as an evidence of quick magma ascending. The P-T conditions estimated via pyroxene megacrysts and phenocrysts compose a P-T path with a steep slope. It can be considered as another evidence of quick magma ascending. However, the estimated temperatures for amphibole megacrysts are markedly lower than those for pyroxene megacrysts given the same pressure. It probably shows that the amphiboles have crystallized at the vanguard of magma and under the volatile-rich condition. Thus, we can conclude that the Cenozoic basalts are produced in an extensional tectonic setting and the

  6. Geochemical and fluid zonation in the skarn environment at the tomboy-minnie gold deposits, Lander County, Nevada (United States)

    Theodore, T.G.; Howe, S.S.; Blake, D.W.; Wotruba, P.R.


    The Tomboy-Minnie gold deposits are related to the middle Tertiary porphyry copper system centered at Copper Canyon. Gold-silver ores in the deposits occur mostly in a pyrrhotite- and pyrite-rich basal 30-m-thick sequence of altered calcareous conglomerate belonging to the Middle Pennsylvanian Battle Formation. The entire mineralized system contained at least 3.3 million troy oz gold before large-scale mining operations began. Alteration in the Tomboy-Minnie deposits includes actinolite- and chlorite-dominant assemblages, in marked contrast to the skarn, potassic, and phyllic assemblages characterizing the copper-gold-silver deposits of the system. Introduction of gold occurred penecontemporaneously with replacement of early diopside-alteration assemblages by actinolite and chlorite. Metals are zoned strongly in the Copper Canyon system: the West and East ore bodies occur in a copper-gold-silver zone that is followed outward by a gold-silver zone which includes the Tomboy deposit and in turn, is succeeded by a lead-zinc-silver zone. Locations of drill holes that have Au/Ag assay ratios of ??? 1 clearly outline the Tomboy-Minnie deposits within an area of rocks with Au/Ag ratios of ??? 0.5. Fluid-inclusion studies suggest wide variations in temperature and chemistry prevailed in the fluids associated with mineralization at the Tomboy. Early fluids associated with diopsidequartz assemblages probably were dominantly CaCl2-rich brines and were boiling at temperatures higher than 500??C. These fluids were progressively enriched in sodium and potassium over time, and during the hydrosilicate stages, temperatures probably ranged from 320 to 500??C at the time actinolite formed, and from 220 to 320??C at the time chlorite was dominant. Sulfur isotopic data suggest that sulfur, mostly from a magmatic or deep-seated crustal source, was transported by hydrothermal fluids as aqueous H2S with a ?? 34S of about 4 ?? 1??? to the West, East, and Tomboy deposits. ?? 1986.

  7. Role of evaporitic sulfates in iron skarn mineralization: a fluid inclusion and sulfur isotope study from the Xishimen deposit, Handan-Xingtai district, North China Craton (United States)

    Wen, Guang; Bi, Shi-Jian; Li, Jian-Wei


    The Xishimen iron skarn deposit in the Handan-Xingtai district, North China Craton, contains 256 Mt @ 43 % Fe (up to 65 %). The mineralization is dominated by massive magnetite ore along the contact zone between the early Cretaceous Xishimen diorite stock and middle Ordovician dolomite and dolomitic limestones with numerous intercalations of evaporitic beds. Minor lenticular magnetite-dominated bodies also occur in the carbonate rocks proximal to the diorite stock. Hydrothermal alteration is characterized by extensive albitization within the diorite stock and extreme development of magnesian skarn along the contact zone consisting of diopside, forsterite, serpentine, tremolite, phlogopite, and talc. Magmatic quartz and amphibole from the diorite and hydrothermal diopside from the skarns contain abundant primary or pseudosecondary fluid inclusions, most of which have multiple daughter minerals dominated by halite, sylvite, and opaque phases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser Raman spectrometry confirm that pyrrhotite is the predominant opaque phase in most fluid inclusions, in both the magmatic and skarn minerals. These fluid inclusions have total homogenization temperatures of 416-620 °C and calculated salinities of 42.4-74.5 wt% NaCl equiv. The fluid inclusion data thus document a high-temperature, high-salinity, ferrous iron-rich, reducing fluid exsolved from a cooling magma likely represented by the Xishimen diorite stock. Pyrite from the iron ore has δ34S values ranging from 14.0 to 18.6 ‰, which are significantly higher than typical magmatic values (δ34S = 0 ± 5 ‰). The sulfur isotope data thus indicate an external source for the sulfur, most likely from the evaporitic beds in the Ordovician carbonate sequences that have δ34S values of 24 to 29 ‰. We suggest that sulfates from the evaporitic beds have played a critically important role by oxidizing ferrous iron in the magmatic-hydrothermal fluid, leading to precipitation of massive

  8. Two-phase characteristics of the feeding fluid of Cerro Prieto IV wells (Mexico) obtained by gas equilibrium; Caracteristicas bifasicas del fluido de alimentacion de pozos de Cerro Prieto IV (Mexico), obtenidas por equilibrio gaseoso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan-Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano-Gomez, Victor Manuel; Portugal-Marin, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Mexico); De Leon-Vivar, Jesus [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, B.C (Mexico)


    The gas composition of fluids produced by CP IV geothermal wells from the Cerro Prieto field was studied in order to identify different types of fluids entering the wells by estimating their temperature and excess steam. A method based on the Fischer Tropsch reaction and H2S equilibrium with pyrite-pyrrhotite as mineral buffer (FTHSH3) was used. The results for the reservoir natural state indicated the presence of fluids with heterogeneous reservoir temperature (between 275 and 310 degrees Celsius) and excess steam values, which were found from negative (boiled liquid that has lost steam when flowing to the well) to one (steam phase with zero liquid saturation). The study for individual wells in which boiling processes were identified, showed that through time, the feeding fluids consist of a two-phase mixture with different liquid/steam proportions. Also, the results suggested that a steam phase could occur at CP IV which is added to the feeding fluid, depending on the operation conditions of the wells. The origin of this steam could be the boiling of the deeper liquid due to a pressure drop. [Spanish] Se estudio la composicion gaseosa de los fluidos producidos por pozos geotermicos del sector CP IV del campo de Cerro Prieto para tratar de distinguir aportes de fluidos diferentes mediante la estimacion de su temperatura de yacimiento y del exceso de vapor. Se utilizo un metodo de equilibrio gaseoso basado en la reaccion de Fischer Tropsch y el equilibrio combinado pirita-pirrotita (FT-HSH3). Los resultados obtenidos indican que en el estado inicial del yacimiento existen fluidos que muestran heterogeneidad en los valores de temperatura de yacimiento (entre 275 y 310 grados Celsius), asi como en el exceso de vapor con valores desde negativos (liquido que despues de ebullir ha perdido vapor en su trayecto hacia el pozo) hasta uno (vapor con cero saturacion de liquido). El estudio individual de los pozos con fenomenos de ebullicion muestra que a traves del tiempo

  9. Identification of massive sulphide targets using the galvanic source EM signal from a sub-audio magnetic survey at the Far South project, Western Australia (United States)

    Card, Daniel; Wallace, Yvonne; Peters, Bill


    The Far South project is located 5 km south along strike from the Deep South mine, where gold mineralisation is commonly associated with semi-massive pyrrhotite and pyrite. Data from a sub-audio magnetic (SAM) survey, set up in galvanic configuration, were acquired over the project principally to map stratigraphy and structure using the on-time magnetometric conductivity (MMC) and total magnetic intensity (TMI) responses. The off-time galvanic source electromagnetic (GSEM) data were subsequently extracted from the raw data and four late-time anomalous responses were identified. Two of these responses are strong late-time anomalies up to 350 m in strike length, clearly visible in the 60 ms time gate, and the remaining two are weaker mid-time, subtler and less diagnostic responses. Modelling of the GSEM responses was attempted using conventional electromagnetic (EM) modelling techniques, where certain assumptions had to be made for the survey geometry and current path. The assumed current path has an effect on the coupling of the inducing current with the target, so in order to validate the assumptions and GSEM modelling results, follow-up moving-loop and fixed-loop electromagnetic (MLEM and FLEM) surveys were required. These surveys confirmed well-defined conductive responses over all four follow-up areas. Modelling of the GSEM data over the two strongest anomalies is in good agreement with modelling of the MLEM/FLEM data. Modelling at a third target showed some similarity to results obtained by modelling the follow-up EM survey data, and one target was not defined clearly enough in the GSEM data to allow modelling and had to be modelled solely on the follow-up FLEM data. The results of these efforts confirm the ability to identify and produce a reasonably useful model of strong conductive targets from SAM GSEM data, indicating that the rapid acquisition SAM system is an effective tool for quick reconnaissance in sulphide exploration. Subsequent drilling identified

  10. Sulphide mineralization and wall-rock alteration in ophiolites and modern oceanic spreading centres (United States)

    Koski, R.A.


    m wide and 5m high, occur over actively discharging vents on the East Pacific Rise, and many of these deposits serve as the base for narrow chimneys and spires of equal or greater height. Sulphides on the Juan de Fuca Ridge appear to form more widespread blanket deposits in the shallow axial-valley depression. The largest deposit found to date, along the axial ridge of the Galapagos Spreading Centre, has a tabular form and a length of 1000 m, a width of 200 m, and a height of 30 m. The sulphide assemblage in both massive and vein mineralization in Cyprus type deposits is characteristically simple: abundant pyrite or, less commonly, pyrrhotite accompanied by minor marcasite, chalcopyrite

  11. Mineralogical, IR-spectral and geochemical monitoring of hydrothermal alteration in a deformed and metamorphosed Jurassic VMS deposit at Arroyo Rojo, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina (United States)

    Biel, C.; Subías, I.; Acevedo, R. D.; Yusta, I.; Velasco, F.


    The Arroyo Rojo Zn-Pb-Cu volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit is the main deposit of the Fin del Mundo District in the Fuegian Andes, Argentina. This deposit is hosted by a Middle Jurassic volcanic and volcanoclastic sequence forming the Lemaire Formation. The latter consists, from the base up, of the following: rhyolitic and dacitic porphyritic rocks, ignimbrite, tuff, and flow. It is underlain by a pre-Jurassic basement and overlain by the hyaloclastic andesites of the Yahgán Formation. The Arroyo Rojo consists of stacked lenticular lenses that are associated with disseminated mineralization in both the footwall and the hanging wall. The internal structure of the ore lenses is marked by the occurrence of massive, semi-massive and banded facies, along with stringer and brecciated zones and minor ore disseminations. The mineral assemblage comprises mainly pyrite and sphalerite, with minor amounts of galena and chalcopyrite and rare pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, tetrahedrite and bournonite. The ores and the volcanic host rocks have metamorphosed to greenschist facies and were overprinted by a penetrative tectonic foliation, which led to the development of mylonitic, and cataclastic textures, recrystallization and remobilization. Primary depositional characteristics and regional and hydrothermal alteration patterns were preserved despite deformation and metamorphism. Therefore, primary banding was preserved between facies boundaries. In addition, some remnants of magmatic origin are recognizable in preserved phenocrysts and volcaniclastic phenoclasts. Most of the volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the host sequence show a rhyolitic to rhyo-dacitic composition. Regional seafloor alteration, characterized by the presence of clinozoisite, Fe-chlorite and titanite, along with quartz and albite, is partially obliterated by hydrothermal alteration. The hydrothermal alteration is stratabound with the following assemblages, which developed from the base to top: (1) Quartz

  12. Potential risk assessment in stream sediments, soils and waters after remediation in an abandoned W>Sn mine (NE Portugal). (United States)

    Antunes, I M H R; Gomes, M E P; Neiva, A M R; Carvalho, P C S; Santos, A C T


    The mining complex of Murçós belongs to the Terras de Cavaleiros Geopark, located in Trás-os-Montes region, northeast Portugal. A stockwork of NW-SE-trending W>Sn quartz veins intruded Silurian metamorphic rocks and a Variscan biotite granite. The mineralized veins contain mainly quartz, cassiterite, wolframite, scheelite, arsenopyrite, pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena, rare pyrrhotite, stannite, native bismuth and also later bismuthinite, matildite, joseite, roosveltite, anglesite, scorodite, zavaritskite and covellite. The exploitation produced 335t of a concentrate with 70% of W and 150t of another concentrate with 70% of Sn between 1948 and 1976. The exploitation took place mainly in four open pit mines as well as underground. Three lakes were left in the area. Remediation processes of confination and control of tailings and rejected materials and phytoremediation with macrophytes from three lakes were carried out between 2005 and 2007. Stream sediments, soils and water samples were collected in 2008 and 2009, after the remediation process. Most stream sediments showed deficiency or minimum enrichment for metals. The sequential enrichment factor in stream sediments W>Bi>As>U>Cd>Sn=Ag>Cu>Sb>Pb>Be>Zn is mainly associated with the W>Sn mineralizations. Stream sediments receiving drainage of a mine dump were found to be significantly to extremely enriched with W, while stream sediments and soils were found to be contaminated with As. Two soil samples collected around mine dumps and an open pit lake were also found to be contaminated with U. The waters from the Murçós W>Sn mine area were acidic to neutral. After the remediation, the surface waters were contaminated with F(-), Al, As, Mn and Ni and must not be used for human consumption, while open pit lake waters must also not be used for agriculture because of contamination with F(-), Al, Mn and Ni. In most waters, the As occurred as As (III), which is toxic and is easily mobilized in the drainage

  13. Mineralogical and geochemical behavior of mill tailing material produced from lead-zinc skarn mineralization, Hanover, Grant County, New Mexico, USA (United States)

    Walder, I. F.; Chavez, W. X.


    Mineral extraction and processing, especially metal mining, produces crushed and milled waste; such material, exposed to weathering, poses the potential threat of environmental contamination. In this study, mill tailings from inactive Pb-Zn mines in New Mexico, southwest USA, have been examined for their potential environmental impacts by means of detailed mineralogical and geochemical characterization. The principal ore minerals remaining in the tailings material are sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and very minor galena, smithsonite, and cerrusite, accompanied by the gangue minerals pyrite, pyrrhotite, magnetite, hematite, garnet, pyroxene, quartz, and calcite. White precipitate occurring on tailings surfaces is composed of gypsum and hydrated magnesium sulfates. Pyrite is mostly unaltered or shows only micron-scale rims of oxidation (goethite/hematite) in some surface samples. This iron oxide rim on pyrite is the only indication of weathering-derived minerals found by microscopy. There are variations in element concentrations with depth that reflect primary variations through time as the tailings ponds were filled. Cadmium and Zn concentrations increase with depth and Ag and Pb are low for the uppermost core samples, while Cu, Ni, and Co concentrations are generally high for the uppermost core samples. These elemental distributions indicate that little or no leaching has taken place since emplacement of the tailings because no accumulation or enrichment of these metals is observed in Hanover tailings, even in reducing portions of tailings piles. Element concentrations of surface samples surrounding the tailings reflect underlying mineralized zones rather than tailings-derived soil contamination. We observed no successive decreasing metal concentrations in prevalent wind directions away from the tailings. Stream sediment samples from Hanover Creek have somewhat elevated Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in areas that receive sediments from erosion of the tailings. However

  14. Magnetic anisotropy of Silurian organic-rich shale rocks and calcareous concretions from Northern Poland (United States)

    Niezabitowska, Dominika; Szaniawski, Rafał


    The research has been performed on Wenlockian shales of Pelplin formation from the Pomerania region located in Northern Poland. These organic-rich marine shales were deposited on the western shelf of the Baltica paleo-continent and currently they constitute the cover of East European Platform. The studied shales lie almost completely flat without signs of tectonic deformations. Rock magnetic studies were carried out with the aim of recognizing ferro- and paramagnetic minerals in shales and thus fully understanding the origin of the magnetic anisotropy. The typical dark shales and spherical calcareous concretions from two boreholes were sampled. Based on deflection of shales beds bordered with a concretions, we deduce that such concretions were formed in the early stage of diagenesis, before the final compaction and lithification of surrounding shales. We obtained similar rockmagnetic results for both of rock types. The results of thermal variation of magnetic susceptibility and hysteresis loops show that the magnetic susceptibility is mainly controlled by paramagnetic minerals, due to domination of phyllosilicate minerals, with a smaller impact of ferromagnetic phase. The results of the hysteresis studies documented the domination of low coercivity ferromagnetic minerals, that is magnetite and pyrrhotite. The deposition alignment of flocculated phyllosilicates and further compaction determine distinct bedding parallel foliation of the AMS (Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility) in the both drill cores. In one of the drill core the maximal AMS axes are almost randomly distributed in the bedding plane and show only a weak tendency for grouping. In the second drill core the magnetic lineation is better defined. In the case of concretions the bedding parallel magnetic foliation is also evident but it is much weaker than in shales. In turn, the magnetic lineation in the both drill cores is well developed and the maximal AMS axes are well grouped. In both of the cores

  15. Oxidação de sulfetos de níquel com microorganismos mesófilos Nickel sulphide oxidation by mesophile bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Rodrigo Gomes Santos


    Full Text Available A oxidação de sulfetos metálicos tem sido associada à drenagem ácida de mina, um dos maiores problemas ambientais na mineração. Uma das formas de se acelerar a oxidação desses sulfetos é a biolixivação, na qual o crescimento desses microorganismos é favorecido. Foi estudada, nesse trabalho, a oxidação de um concentrado sulfetado complexo de pentlandita/pirrotita utilizando bactérias mesófilas. Foram avaliados os efeitos do pH e do percentual de sólidos sobre a extração do níquel. Os resultados indicaram que a biolixiviação pode ser uma alternativa viável ao processamento de sulfetos complexos de ferro e de níquel, uma vez que foram obtidos percentuais de extração acima de 60%. O pH possui pequena influência nos percentuais de extração obtidos, sendo o valor ideal igual a 2,0. Sua influência parece estar ligada, principalmente, à regulação da atividade bacteriana. Percentuais de sólidos elevados (aproximadamente de 10% podem ser praticados, sem apresentarem diferenças significativas na extração final de níquel, pois a transferência gasosa no sistema é pouco comprometida. Dessa forma, o fator limitante da atividade bacteriana, em percentuais elevados de sólidos, é a disponibilidade de dióxido de carbono.Metallic sulphide oxidation has been associated to the generation of acid mine drainage, one of the most import environmental issues in the mining industry. Bioleaching can be applied to accelerate sulphide oxidation, ceasing these impacts. This work sought to study the biooxidation of a complex nickel-iron sulphide (pentlandite and pyrrhotite using acidophile iron-oxidizing bacteria. The effects of pH and solids concentration on the extraction of nickel were evaluated. A high nickel extraction (around 60% can be achieved confirming the feasibility of nickel sulphide bioleaching. The pH has a negligible effect on nickel extraction being pH 2.0 the best value. Nickel dissolution can be achieved at high

  16. Gold mineralisation and orogenic metamorphism in the Lena province of Siberia as assessed from Chertovo Koryto and Sukhoi Log deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A. Yudovskaya


    Full Text Available The Chertovo Koryto gold deposit (80 t Au at 1.84 g/t in the Lena world-class province, Siberia, is hosted in a metamorphosed sequence of the Paleoproterozoic Mikhailovsk Formation that comprises the oldest black shale strata of the Baikal-Patom region. The mineralisation is confined to the thrust zone complicated with a conjugate anticline fold, zones of shearing and dislocation. The structural position of the mineralisation is similar to that at the giant Sukhoi Log deposit in the neighbouring Mama-Bodaibo zone. In the latter, the isotope age data suggest that Khomolkho black shales, hosts to Sukhoi Log mineralisation, are of Ediacaran age and underwent prograde metamorphism during early Paleozoic. The geochemical composition of the terrigenous rocks that host Sukhoi Log, Chertovo Koryto, and a number of other deposits at the various stratigraphic levels throughout the Proterozoic sequence have much in common. They do not show elevated metal contents above the common black shale abundances, except for Au and As, which is at variance with the accepted view on diagenetic enrichment of black shales in the Lena province. The occurrence of sagenitic rutile in quartz and chlorite pseudomorphs after biotite and other petrographic observations provide evidence on a retrograde nature of the metamorphic mineral assemblages in the Mikhailovsk rocks. The sulphides are pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite with very minor pyrite at Chertovo Koryto, whereas pyrite is the predominant sulphide in the Sukhoi Log ore. Fluid inclusion data on both deposits emphasise a high-temperature nature of the mineralisation albeit revealing great contrast in the fluid composition. Sukhoi Log mineralisation was formed at mixing between low-salinity aqueous solutions and dense gaseous carbonic fluids, which facilitated effective gold scavenging and precipitation, as demonstrated by thermodynamic simulation. The precursory devolatilisation of the Mikhailovsk sediments at the prograde

  17. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion study of the Kuru-Tegerek Au-Cu-Mo skarn deposit in the Middle Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan (United States)

    Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey; Dvurechenskaya, Svetlana


    The Kuru-Tegerek Cu-Au-Mo deposit is situated in a system of Late Carboniferous subduction-related magmatic arcs of the Middle Tien Shan, which together constitute a metallogenic belt of Cu-Au-Mo (±W) porphyry, with local skarns, deposits. The deposit is related to magnetite-series gabbro-diorite to tonalite intrusion. It contains prograde magnesian and calcic skarns with abundant magnetite, associated with gabbro-diorite, and retrograde skarn with Cu mineralization, formed after intrusion of tonalite. Subsequent propylitic alteration introduced abundant chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite, and native Au culminating in zones overprinting magnetite and garnet skarn. Later quartz-muscovite-carbonate veins, formed after intrusion of late mafic quartz monzogabbro dikes, contain chalcopyrite, pyrite, arsenopyrite and other sulfides and sulfosalts, tellurides, and native Au. The earliest retrograde skarn garnet contains gaseous low-salinity (1.7-3.4 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluid inclusions homogenizing at 460-500 °C into vapor, indicating that the early fluid released from crystallizing magma was a low-density vapor. It was followed by more saline (4.0-5.0 wt.% NaCl eq.), high-temperature (400-440 °C) aqueous fluid, as fluid release from the magma progressed. Boiling of this fluid at temperatures of 420 to 370 °C and a pressure of 350-300 bar produced a low-salinity (0.6-1.2 wt.% NaCl eq.), essentially gaseous, and high-salinity (from 39 to 31 wt.% NaCl eq.) brine, with possible metal (including Cu) partitioning into both gaseous and aqueous-saline phases. Boiling was coeval with sulfide deposition in the retrograde skarn. The latest episode of the retrograde skarn stage included direct separation of saline ( 40-42 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluid from crystallizing magma. The separation of saline ( 40 to 14 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluids from a crystallizing magmatic melt continued during the propylitic stage, when fluid cooling from 370 to 320 °C, together with decreasing fO2, caused Cu and especially

  18. Synthesis of akaganeite in the presence of sulfate: Implications for akaganeite formation in Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars (United States)

    Peretyazhko, T. S.; Fox, A.; Sutter, B.; Niles, P. B.; Adams, M.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.


    Akaganeite, a Cl-bearing Fe(III) (hydr)oxide, has been recently discovered in Yellowknife Bay in Gale crater on Mars by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity Rover. Akaganeite was associated with sulfate and sulfide minerals at Yellowknife Bay indicating that sulfate ions could be present in solution during akaganeite formation. The mechanism and conditions of akaganeite formation in the Yellowknife Bay mudstone are unknown. We investigated formation of akaganeite through hydrolysis of ferric chloride solution in the presence of 0, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 M sulfate and at initial pH of 1.5, 2 and 4 at 90 °C. Mineralogy of the precipitated Fe(III) phases was characterized by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The precipitates were also acid digested to determine total sulfate and chloride contents. Akaganeite and natrojarosite formed at initial solution pH of 1.5; akaganeite, goethite and natrojarosite precipitated in initial pH 2 solutions and goethite, hematite and 2-line ferrihydrite precipitated at initial solution pH of 4. Sulfate addition did not inhibit akaganeite formation. Increasing initial solution sulfate concentrations resulted in increasing sulfate to chloride ratio in the precipitated akaganeite. Infrared spectroscopy revealed akaganeite bands at ∼2 μm (H2O combination band) and at ∼2.46 μm (OH combination band). The H2O combination band position linearly correlated with total chloride content in akaganeite. Overall, laboratory studies demonstrated formation of akaganeite at initial sulfate concentration ⩽0.2 M (sulfate to chloride molar ratio ⩽0.3) and pH ⩽ 2, implying that those conditions might prevail (perhaps as micro-environments) during akaganeite formation in Yellowknife Bay mudstone. The occurrence of Fe(II) sulfides (pyrite and pyrrhotite) in Yellowknife Bay mudstone is a potential acidity source. Dissolution of sulfide minerals might occur under localized oxidizing water-limiting Cl-rich conditions creating

  19. Biogenic iron oxyhydroxide formation at mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal vents: Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toner, Brandy M.; Santelli, Cara M.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Wirth, Richard; Chan, Clara S.; McCollom, Thomas; Bach, Wolfgang; Edwards, Katrina J.


    Here we examine Fe speciation within Fe-encrusted biofilms formed during 2-month seafloor incubations of sulfide mineral assemblages at the Main Endeavor Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The biofilms were distributed heterogeneously across the surface of the incubated sulfide and composed primarily of particles with a twisted stalk morphology resembling those produced by some aerobic Fe-oxidizing microorganisms. Our objectives were to determine the form of biofilm-associated Fe, and identify the sulfide minerals associated with microbial growth. We used micro-focused synchrotron-radiation X-ray fluorescence mapping (mu XRF), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (mu EXAFS), and X-ray diffraction (mu XRD) in conjunction with focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning, and highresolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The chemical and mineralogical composition of an Fe-encrusted biofilm was queried at different spatial scales, and the spatial relationship between primary sulfide and secondary oxyhydroxide minerals was resolved. The Fe-encrusted biofilms formed preferentially at pyrrhotite-rich (Fe1-xS, 0<_ x<_ 0.2) regions of the incubated chimney sulfide. At the nanometer spatial scale, particles within the biofilm exhibiting lattice fringing and diffraction patterns consistent with 2-line ferrihydrite were identified infrequently. At the micron spatial scale, Fe mu EXAFS spectroscopy and mu XRD measurements indicate that the dominant form of biofilm Fe is a short-range ordered Fe oxyhydroxide characterized by pervasive edge-sharing Fe-O6 octahedral linkages. Double corner-sharing Fe-O6 linkages, which are common to Fe oxyhydroxide mineral structures of 2-line ferrihydrite, 6-line ferrihydrite, and goethite, were not detected in the biogenic iron oxyhydroxide (BIO). The suspended development of the BIO mineral structure is consistent with Fe(III) hydrolysis and polymerization in the presence of high concentrations of Fe-complexing ligands. We hypothesize that

  20. The magnetic low of central Europe: analysis and interpretation by a multi scale approach. (United States)

    Milano, Maurizio; Fedi, Maurizio


    The objective of this work is an interpretation of the European magnetic low (EML) which is the main magnetic anomaly characterizing the magnetic field of central Europe at high-altitude, extending from the eastern France to Poland and placed above the main geological boundary of Europe, the Trans European Suture Zone (TESZ), that separates the western and thinner Paleozoic platform from the eastern and thicker Precambrian platform. In particular, the EML has a relative magnetic high north-east of it, showing a reverse dipolar behavior that many authors tried to interpret in past also by high-altitude satellite exploration. We used an aeromagnetic dataset and employed a level-to-level upward continuation from 1 km up to 200 km, following a multiscale approach thanks to which the anomalies generated by sources placed at different depths can be discriminated. Low-altitude magnetic maps show a complex pattern of high-frequency anomalies up to an altitude of 50 km; then, increasing the altitude up to 200 km, the field simplifies gradually. In order to interpret the anomalies we generated the maps of the total gradient (|T|) of the field at each upward continued altitude, thanks to its property in localizing in a very simple way the edges of the sources and their horizontal position without specifying a priori information about source parameters. From the total gradient maps at low altitude we obtained information about the position of shallow and localized sources producing patterns of small anomalies. In central Europe, most of them have a reverse dipolar behavior, being related probably to metasedimentary rocks in the upper crust containing pyrrhotite and a strong remament component. At higher altitude the total gradient maps has been useful to give a more complex explanation of the EML taking in consideration the results obtained in previous studies. The maps at 150-200 km show that the maximum amplitude of |T| is exactly localized along the TESZ in the NW

  1. Adopting Biophysics Methods in Pursuit of Biogeophysical Research: Advancing the measurement and modeling of electrical signatures of microbe-mineral transformations impacting contaminant transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prodan, Camelia [NJIT


    measurements were made on different concentrations of pyrrhotite particles suspended in agar. Results show a decrease in dielectric permittivity as a function of frequency for biotic minerals and an opposite trend is observed for abiotic minerals. Our results suggest that dielectric spectroscopy offers a noninvasive and fast approach for distinguishing between abiotic and biotic mineral precipitates.

  2. FINAL REPORT: Adopting Biophysics Methods in Pursuit of Biogeophysical Research: Advancing the Measurement and Modeling of Electrical Signatures of Microbe-Mineral Transformations Impacting Contaminant Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    measurements were made on different concentrations of pyrrhotite particles suspended in agar. Results show a decrease in dielectric permittivity as a function of frequency for biotic minerals and an opposite trend is observed for abiotic minerals. Our results suggest that dielectric spectroscopy offers a noninvasive and fast approach for distinguishing between abiotic and biotic mineral precipitates.

  3. Characteristics of SIP Response for Rock Specimens in the Gagok Skarn Deposit, Korea (United States)

    Kim, C.; Mi Kyung, P.; Park, S.; Shin, S.


    Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) method was conducted to develop mineral exploration technique in the Gagok skarn deposit, Korea. The Gagok mine was once abandoned and recently reopened. The Gagok stratabound skarn deposit is originated from the Cretaceous granite intrusion into the Paleozoic limestone and slate formations. The ore minerals of the Gagok deposit include sulfide minerals such as sphalerite, pyrrhotite, galena, chalcopyrite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, etc. The characteristics of SIP response for the rock specimens were examined to re-evaluate mineral resources. Total 104 rock specimens were obtained from the mine shafts at the various elevations, and were modified in cylindrical shape for the measurement of SIP response, along with other physical properties such as porosity, density, DC electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, and seismic velocity. The SIP measurement system consists of electrical current transmitter and receiver (model GDP-32 system, Zonge Co. USA), and measures amplitude for resistivity, and phase at 14 steps of frequencies ranging from 0.125 to 1,024 Hz. The results of the SIP measurement shows that the rock specimens from ore bodies accompanied with sulfide minerals such as sphalerite and pyrite produce large phase differences with frequencies applied. The results also show that the rock specimens at the lower elevation of the mine shaft have stronger SIP response and mineralization. The rock specimens with large phase differences of strong SIP response were classified into three phase curve types, based on the range of critical frequency from the SIP measurement. (1) Curve type 1: critical frequency of less than 1 Hz with decreasing phase curve (2) Curve type 2: critical frequency of 1 to 10 Hz with bell shape, (3) Curve type 3: critical frequency of larger than 10 Hz with mixture of curve type 1 and 2. It is believed that the graphitic components and sulfide minerals such as sphalerite and pyrite are dominant in the rock

  4. Sulfur, sulfides, oxides and organic matter aggregated in submarine hydrothermal plumes at 9°50‧N East Pacific Rise (United States)

    Breier, J. A.; Toner, B. M.; Fakra, S. C.; Marcus, M. A.; White, S. N.; Thurnherr, A. M.; German, C. R.


    Deep-sea hydrothermal plume particles are known to sequester seawater trace elements and influence ocean-scale biogeochemical budgets. The relative importance of biotic versus abiotic oxidation-reduction and other particle-forming reaction, however, and the mechanisms of seawater trace element sequestration remain unknown. Suspended particulate material was collected from a non-buoyant hydrothermal plume by in situ filtration at 9°50‧N East Pacific Rise during a 3-day, 24 sample, time-series. Twenty-three samples were digested for total elemental analysis. One representative sample was selected for particle-by-particle geochemical analyses including elemental composition by X-ray fluorescence, speciation of Fe, S, and C by 1s X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Consistent with past studies, positive linear correlations were observed for P, V, As, and Cr with Fe in the bulk chemistry. Arsenic was associated with both Fe oxyhydroxides and sulfides but not uniformly distributed among either mineral type. Particle aggregation was common. Aggregates were composed of minerals embedded in an organic matrix; the minerals ranged from 10 μm in diameter. The speciation of major mineral forming elements (Fe, Mn, S) was complex. Over 20 different minerals were observed, nine of which were either unpredicted by thermodynamic modeling or had no close match in the thermodynamic database. Sulfur-bearing phases consisted of polysulfides (S6, S8), and metal sulfides (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn). Four dominant species, Fe oxyhydroxide, Fe monosulfide, pyrrhotite, and pyrite, accounted for >80% of the Fe present. Particulate Mn was prevalent in both oxidized and reduced minerals. The organic matrix was: (1) always associated with minerals, (2) composed of biomolecules, and (3) rich in S. Possible sources of this S-rich organic matter include entrained near vent biomass and in situ production by S-oxidizing microorganisms. These results indicate that

  5. Novel Microbial Assemblages Dominate Weathered Sulfide-Bearing Rock from Copper-Nickel Deposits in the Duluth Complex, Minnesota, USA. (United States)

    Jones, Daniel S; Lapakko, Kim A; Wenz, Zachary J; Olson, Michael C; Roepke, Elizabeth W; Sadowsky, Michael J; Novak, Paige J; Bailey, Jake V


    The Duluth Complex in northeastern Minnesota hosts economically significant deposits of copper, nickel, and platinum group elements (PGEs). The primary sulfide mineralogy of these deposits includes the minerals pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, pentlandite, and cubanite, and weathering experiments show that most sulfide-bearing rock from the Duluth Complex generates moderately acidic leachate (pH 4 to 6). Microorganisms are important catalysts for metal sulfide oxidation and could influence the quality of water from mines in the Duluth Complex. Nevertheless, compared with that of extremely acidic environments, much less is known about the microbial ecology of moderately acidic sulfide-bearing mine waste, and so existing information may have little relevance to those microorganisms catalyzing oxidation reactions in the Duluth Complex. Here, we characterized the microbial communities in decade-long weathering experiments (kinetic tests) conducted on crushed rock and tailings from the Duluth Complex. Analyses of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts showed that differences among microbial communities correspond to pH, rock type, and experimental treatment. Moreover, microbial communities from the weathered Duluth Complex rock were dominated by taxa that are not typically associated with acidic mine waste. The most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were from the genera Meiothermus and Sulfuriferula, as well as from diverse clades of uncultivated Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria Specific taxa, including putative sulfur-oxidizing Sulfuriferula spp., appeared to be primarily associated with Duluth Complex rock, but not pyrite-bearing rocks subjected to the same experimental treatment. We discuss the implications of these results for the microbial ecology of moderately acidic mine waste with low sulfide content, as well as for kinetic testing of mine waste.IMPORTANCE Economic sulfide mineral deposits in the Duluth Complex may represent the largest undeveloped

  6. Concentration Tests for a High Silicon Copper-sulfur Mine%某高硅铜硫矿石分选试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁发添; 冯忠伟


    广西某高硫铜矿石中滑石等易浮硅质矿物含量高,现场采用弱磁选-浮铜-浮硫工艺流程进行分选,除弱磁选能较好地刚收磁黄铁矿外,黄铜矿浮选和黄铁矿浮选均因易浮硅质矿物的干扰而难以获得合格精矿.为此,在大量探索试验的基础上,采用弱磁选-黄铜矿和硅质矿物混合浮选-混浮精矿铜硅摇床分离-混浮尾矿浮黄铁矿的工艺流程处理该矿石,获得了磁选硫精矿硫品位和回收率分别为38.69%和64.48%,浮选硫精矿硫品位和网收率分别为44.57%和30.99%,铜精矿铜品位和回收率分别为13.87%和63.89%的良好试验指标,有效地综合回收了铜、硫矿物.%A certain high-sulfur copper ore in Guangxi contains high content of easy floating siliceous mineral,such as talc. The process of low intensity magnetic separation-copper floating-sulfur floating is carried out on the field. There,except for pyrrhotite well recovered by weak magnetic separation,it is difficult to obtain the qualified concentrate from flotation of chalcopyrite and pyrite due to the interference of silica minerals. Based on a large number of tests ,the process of low intensity magnetic separation-mixing flotation of chalcopyrite and siliceous minerals-shaking table separation for mixing flotation of silicon and copper concentrate - mixing flotation of pyrite from tailings is adopted to treat this ore. By this way,sulfur concentrate with S grade and recovery of 38.69% and 64. 48% by magnetic separation,and 44. 57% and 30. 99% by flotation,and copper concentrate with Cu grade and recovery of 13.87% and 63. 89% are realized respectively. So the copper and sulfur minerals can be effectively recovered.

  7. 哈西亚图金矿选矿综合回收利用研究%Research on Comprehensive Recovery and Utilization of Gold Ore in Haxiyatu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代岩; 刘江峰; 朱建鹏


    The gold ore associated in Haxiyatu iron-polymetallic deposit has reached medium-scale,which can greatly improve the economic efficiency of the iron-polymetallic deposit.Research on comprehensive recovery and utilization method of gold ore is very important.The gold ore belongs to the sulfide skarn type,with the natural type belonging to the mixed ore.The metal minerals in the ore are dominated by magnetite,pyrrhotite and pyrite,and noble metal minerals are native gold and electrum.Through the experiment,the flotation process scheme is recommended that“gold flotation,tailings magnetic iron and iron concentrate flotation sulfur”.Leaching process scheme is recommended that“all sliming cyanidation carbon leaching,tailings magnetic separation iron and iron concentrate flotation sulfur”.According to the test results,the process by all sliming cyanidation carbon leaching and magnetic iron(remove sulfur by floating) can obtain better effect.%哈西亚图铁多金属矿床中共生的金矿规模已达中型,可大大提高该矿床的经济效益,对金矿综合回收利用方法的研究显得尤为重要。矿石工艺类型为中硫化物矽卡岩型金矿石,矿石自然类型属混合矿。矿石中主要金属矿物为磁铁矿、磁黄铁矿和黄铁矿,贵金属矿物为自然金和银金矿。通过试验研究,浮选工艺推荐“浮选金—尾矿磁选铁—铁精矿浮硫”方案,浸出工艺推荐“全泥氰化炭浸提金—尾渣磁选铁—铁精矿浮硫”方案。试验结果表明,采用全泥氰化炭浸—磁选铁(浮选除硫)工艺处理哈西亚图金矿石效果最佳。

  8. Experimental study of gold redistribution during the process of shock-wave stress (United States)

    Verkhovtseva, N.; Zhmodik, S.; Chikov, B.; Airijants, E.; Nemirovskaya, N.


    The redistribution of gold during the process of shock-wave stress (shock metamorphism) was studied with use of radionuclide 195Au (half-life is 185 days). Conditions of the experiment were the following: pyrite (Ozerninskoe deposit) and quartz (Brasil) (fraction is 0.25-1 mm) were mixed in proportion Q/Py=1.75. Previously gold was sorbed on pyrite under pH=5. The mixture was dried and put into steel container (120x20 mm). The Au concentration in pyrite was 5 ppm, in mixture was 2.85 ppm. Ammonite was used as the explosive. Spatial distribution and relative concentrations of Au in sections were detected by beta-autoradiography method with use of nuclear emulsions such as MR and AF. As a result of experiments conducted (P>10-15 GPa and T>1700°C) the column of rock with vertical and horizontal change of mineral composition, physical properties and Au concentrations was formed. There are 4 zones in horizontal direction: melt of Q is in the central part of the column, the zone of Q (0.1-0.2 mm) with planar elements is the second zone, the third one is the zone of quartz-pyrrhotite aggregate (h=1-1.1 mm) and the last one is the zone of Py-Q cataclasite. As results of the made experiments it was determined that large body of Au was transformed to gas phase and was precipitated as diffused form of Au. Au was precipitated on all minerals of the mixture (quartz, pyrite). Container's walls didn't concentrate Au. Maximal gold concentration was detected in siliceous melt. Au was redistributed with increase of concentrations 3.5-4 times in direction of pressure increase (towards to bottom of the container). In horizontal direction the distribution has "wave" character with decreasing of concentrations near walls of the container. This work was supported by RFBR (1 03-05- 64252 and 1 03-05-64563).

  9. Micro-analyses of Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) and Micrometeorites (MMs): Implications for sample return missions to undifferentiated protoplanets (United States)

    Rietmeijer, F.

    The good news is that the original, typically non-chondritic, presolar dust had an extremely simple mineralogy of predominantly Mg-rich olivines and -pyroxenes, pyrrhotite (Fe7 S8 ), Fe-o xides and Fe,Ni-metal. This unique property is preserved in the least modified protoplanets for in situ sampling (e.g. STARDUST, MUSES-C) and in their debris in the form of stratospheric IDPs and MMs. The corollary is that mineralogical complexity in all extraterrestrial materials is an evolved secondary property. The earliest stages of solar system evolution were defined by hierarchical dust accretion whereby the accreting dust was recycled prior to the formation of the final surviving protoplanets. This recycling concentrated initially minor elements so they could form new minerals , e.g. alkali-feldspars and plagioclase. The least- modified protoplanets are comet nuclei, i.e. random mixtures of rubble piles and dirty snowballs, and the icy (ultra)carbonaceous asteroids. Second best are the dormant, extinct and rare active comet nuclei among the near-Earth asteroids that are relatively easy to access by sample return missions. Third are the anhydrous CO/CV carbonaceous chondrites and the low metamorphic grade, unequilibrated ordinary chondrites from the main asteroid belt. Lithification of the original rubble piles in these asteroids erased all structural properties but not the mineralogy and chemistry of the accreted entities, i.e. matrix, chondrules and CAIs.Consequently , returned samples of small chips, fragments or powders from the surface of undifferentiated protoplanets will amply suffice for a full mineralogical and chemical characterization of these small bodies, including modifications from interactions with the space environment, e.g. space weathering, regolith formation and the black mantle on icy-protoplanets. Major improvements in the sensitivity of available micro-analytical tools means that in situ acquired samples can be analyzed at scales of individual, n m-s i

  10. Magnetic petrology of ultramafic rocks and metabasites along the Lanterman-Mariner suture (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica) (United States)

    Strada, Eleonora; Lurcock, Pontus Conrad; Palmeri, Rosaria; Florindo, Fabio; Talarico, Franco Maria


    This study focuses on the integration between rock magnetism and metamorphic petrology of ultramafic rocks and metabasites, variably metamorphosed under UHP, eclogite or HP amphibolite facies peak conditions, and cropping out along the Lanterman-Mariner suture (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica) in three different areas: the Lanterman Range, the Salamander Range and the Dessent Ridge. The outcrops along the Lanterman-Mariner suture provide a unique opportunity to define the relationships between magnetic properties and metamorphic evolution, in a wide P-T range, of ultramafic rocks and metabasites in the paleo-Pacific margin of Gondwana, an area which is well-studied from a petrological and structural point of view but lacking a rock magnetic study. To characterize the magnetic properties of these rocks, we performed a set of rock magnetic analyses (low-field magnetic susceptibility, natural remanence, thermomagnetic curves and hysteresis loops). We then characterized the minero-petrographical and compositional features of opaque minerals on selected samples using both the optical microscope and the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The samples display a remarkable heterogeneity in the studied magnetic properties depending on both type and abundance of the carriers of magnetization (Fe-Ti oxides and sulphides). Independently of the degree of retrogression and lithology (eclogites, retrogressed eclogites, pirossenites and amphibolites), several samples contain variable amounts of both magnetite and pyrrhotite, while others show only magnetite as the main ferromagnetic mineral. The remaining samples mainly consist of paramagnetic minerals and may display small amounts of magnetite. Based on the microstructural evidence, more than one generation of ferromagnetic minerals may occur in retrogressed UHP ultramafic rocks and eclogites. These new data and interpretations are essential 1) to characterize and to verify primary and secondary oxide and sulphide

  11. Multiple sulphur and lead sources recorded in hydrothermal exhalites associated with the Lemarchant volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit, central Newfoundland, Canada (United States)

    Lode, Stefanie; Piercey, Stephen J.; Layne, Graham D.; Piercey, Glenn; Cloutier, Jonathan


    Metalliferous sedimentary rocks (mudstones, exhalites) associated with the Cambrian precious metal-bearing Lemarchant Zn-Pb-Cu-Au-Ag-Ba volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) deposit, Tally Pond volcanic belt, precipitated both before and after VMS mineralization. Sulphur and Pb isotopic studies of sulphides within the Lemarchant exhalites provide insight into the sources of S and Pb in the exhalites as a function of paragenesis and evolution of the deposit and subsequent post-depositional modification. In situ S isotope microanalyses of polymetallic sulphides (euhedral and framboidal pyrite, anhedral chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, galena and euhedral arsenopyrite) by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) yielded δ34S values ranging from -38.8 to +14.4 ‰, with an average of ˜ -12.8 ‰. The δ34S systematics indicate sulphur was predominantly biogenically derived via microbial/biogenic sulphate reduction of seawater sulphate, microbial sulphide oxidation and microbial disproportionation of intermediate S compounds. These biogenic processes are coupled and occur within layers of microbial mats consisting of different bacterial/archaeal species, i.e., sulphate reducers, sulphide oxidizers and those that disproportionate sulphur compounds. Inorganic processes or sources (i.e., thermochemical sulphate reduction of seawater sulphate, leached or direct igneous sulphur) also contributed to the S budget in the hydrothermal exhalites and are more pronounced in exhalites that are immediately associated with massive sulphides. Galena Pb isotopic compositions by SIMS microanalysis suggest derivation of Pb from underlying crustal basement (felsic volcanic rocks of Sandy Brook Group), whereas less radiogenic Pb derived from juvenile sources leached from mafic volcanic rocks of the Sandy Brook Group and/or Tally Pond group. This requires that the hydrothermal fluids interacted with juvenile and evolved crust during hydrothermal circulation, which is consistent with the existing

  12. Geochemistry, Petrology, and Provenance of Magnetite-Rich Ortaklar Cu Deposit Hosting Basalts from Koçali Complex, Gaziantep, Turkey (United States)

    Yun, E.; Lee, I.; Kang, J.; Dönmez, C.; Yildirim, N.


    Magnetite-rich Cyprus type VMS deposit has been recently discovered from the Ortaklar-Gaziantep region within Koçali complex, SE Turkey. Magnetite rich sulfide ore bodies are in close contact with underlying footwall spilitic basalts. These basalts are part of Koçali mélange, which represents an accreted oceanic complex during closing of southern Neotethys. These extrusives are low-K, low alkali tholeiites with Ca rich, partially sericitized plagioclase subophitically enclosed by augite with disseminated Fe-Ti oxides and pyrite. Mineral crystallization sequence of plagioclase followed by augite and opaque is typical of MORB. Major and trace element analyses for least altered basalts based on LOI (1.5~3.6 wt%), Ce/Ce* (0.9~1.1) exhibit limited range of element abundances. Low Mg# (59~60) suggests that basalts were derived from moderately evolved magma with fractional crystallization. HFSE (Th, Nb, Hf, Zr) were used for tectonic discrimination and basalts were plotted within MORB end spectrum, near MORB-IAT boundary. N-MORB normalized La to Lu ranges from 0.4 to 0.9 times N-MORB with LREE depletion [(La/Sm)N = 0.58~0.67] and flat HREE [(Tb/Lu)N = 0.95~1.05]. Chondrite normalized REE patterns resemble those of N-MORB but characterized by severe LREE depletion [(La/Sm)CN = 0.35~0.45]. LREE depletion coupled with high Sm/Nd (0.36~0.43), high CaO/Na2O (5.0~6.2) and low Nb/Yb (0.23~0.39) suggest depleted N-MORB composition derived from the refractory mantle source. Analyzed basalts are similar to those found from other rift (Costa Rica Rift Hole 504b) and intra-transform fault (Siqueiros transform). Magnetite emplacement occurring close to the ore-host boundary and lack of pyrrhotite from hosting basalts imply an involvement of oxidized hydrothermal fluids. Basalts probably have formed by late stage, partial melting of the refractory mantle at low pressure, shallow depth, and H2O rich environment. Possible source of mantle heterogeneity can be identified by isotope

  13. Geology, alteration, and lithogeochemistry of the Hood volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits, Nunavut, Canada (United States)

    Mills, Hannah K.; Piercey, Stephen J.; Toole, Trish


    The Hood volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits are hosted by the ~2.68 Ga Amooga Booga volcanic belt (ABVB) in the northwestern Archaen Slave Craton and consist of three deposits (Hood 10, 41, and 41A) and three occurrences (46, 461, and 462). The mineralized zones consist of massive to semi-massive pyrrhotite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and galena hosted predominantly by felsic volcanic flows within the predominantly mafic ABVB. The mineralized lenses occur at different stratigraphic levels and have textural, alteration, and stratigraphic features consistent with formation via subseafloor replacement. The felsic volcanic rocks in the Hood deposits can be subdivided into groups based on immobile trace element geochemistry. The main felsic types (A and B) are petrographically indistinguishable. Type A has higher high field strength element (HSFE) and rare earth element (REE) contents than type B, suggesting a higher temperature of formation. Type A rocks also have higher Nb/Ta values indicative of a greater mantle input in their genesis compared to type B rocks. Mineralization is more closely associated with type A than type B rocks. The two mafic volcanic rock types previously identified in the ABVB, type I and type II, both occur within the Hood deposits. The type II mafic group is interpreted to be the result of variable crustal contamination of type I magma. The volcanic rocks of the ABVB are interpreted to have formed in a continental margin arc/back-arc setting. The genesis of these magmatic suites involved magmatic underplating and emplacement through pre-existing sialic basement that resulted in crustal melting, mantle-crust mixing, and contamination leading to the aforementioned geochemical features in both mafic and felsic suites. This type of extensional tectonic environment was likely associated with high heat flow and is similar to global VMS environments proximal to extending continental margins (e.g., Sturgeon Lake, Bathurst, and

  14. Open-system behaviour of magmatic fluid phase and transport of copper in arc magmas at Krakatau and Batur volcanoes, Indonesia (United States)

    Agangi, Andrea; Reddy, Steven M.


    The Sunda arc of Indonesia is an excellent example of how volcanic processes at convergent plate margins affect the distribution of metals and control the distribution of ore deposits. In this paper, we report microtextural observations and microanalytical data (SEM-EDS and LA-ICP-MS) of silicate and sulfide melt inclusions from fresh samples of volcanic rocks from the 2008 eruption of Mt. Krakatau and 1963 eruption of Mt. Batur, Sunda arc, Indonesia that bear implications on the concentration and transport of Cu and other chalcophile elements in mafic-intermediate magmas in arc settings. These multi-phase inclusions contain glass, amphibole and plagioclase, together with co-trapped apatite, magnetite, sulfides and lobed, drop-like Fe-oxide. We observed two stages of sulfide formation: 1) early-formed sulfide globules (pyrrhotite and intermediate solid solution), which derived from an immiscible sulfide melt and only occur as inclusions in phenocrysts; and 2) late-formed, irregular Cu-rich sulfides (intermediate solid solution to bornite), which were deposited in the presence of an aqueous fluid, and are contained as fluid phase precipitates in vapour bubbles of melt inclusions and in vesicles, as well as finely dispersed grains in the groundmass. Microtextural observations and X-ray elemental maps show that interaction between sulfide globules and aqueous fluid resulted in partial oxidation and transfer of Cu between the fluid and the sulfide phase. A compilation of whole-rock analyses from the Sunda arc indicates that Cu reaches 250-300 ppm in mafic samples (SiO2 ≤ 52 wt.%), and then suddenly drops with progressive fractionation to MS analyses of whole multi-phase melt inclusions hosted in olivine, pyroxene and plagioclase indicate variable Cu and S contents (Cu up to 6000 ppm), which do not correlate with fractionation indicators (e.g. SiO2, MgO, Rb), consistent with co-trapping of Cusbnd S phases with silicate melt. The highest Cu concentrations, Cu/S and

  15. Induced Polarization Surveying for Acid Rock Screening in Highway Design (United States)

    Butler, K. E.; Al, T.; Bishop, T.


    Highway and pipeline construction agencies have become increasingly vigilant in their efforts to avoid cutting through sulphide-bearing bedrock that has potential to produce acid rock drainage. Blasting and fragmentation of such rock increases the surface area available for sulphide oxidation and hence increases the risk of acid rock drainage unless the rock contains enough natural buffering capacity to neutralize the pH. In December, 2001, the New Brunswick Department of Transportation (NBOT) sponsored a field trial of geophysical surveying in order to assess its suitability as a screening tool for locating near-surface sulphides along proposed highway alignments. The goal was to develop a protocol that would allow existing programs of drilling and geochemical testing to be targeted more effectively, and provide design engineers with the information needed to reduce rock cuts where necessary and dispose of blasted material in a responsible fashion. Induced polarization (IP) was chosen as the primary geophysical method given its ability to detect low-grade disseminated mineralization. The survey was conducted in dipole-dipole mode using an exploration-style time domain IP system, dipoles 8 to 25 m in length, and six potential dipoles for each current dipole location (i.e. n = 1 - 6). Supplementary information was provided by resistivity and VLF-EM surveys sensitive to lateral changes in electrical conductivity, and by magnetic field surveying chosen for its sensitivity to the magnetic susceptibility of pyrrhotite. Geological and geochemical analyses of samples taken from several IP anomalies located along 4.3 line-km of proposed highway confirmed the effectiveness of the screening technique. IP pseudosections from a region of metamorphosed shales and volcaniclastic rocks identified discrete, well-defined mineralized zones. Stronger, overlapping, and more laterally extensive IP anomalies were observed over a section of graphitic and sulphide-bearing metasedimentary

  16. An abrupt change in the magmatic source of rhyolite volcanism in Long Valley, CA recorded by pre-eruptive oxygen fugacities of the Early Rhyolites (Obsidians): evidence of transition from subduction-modified lithosphere to asthenosphere (United States)

    Waters, L.; Lange, R. A.


    Detailed mapping of the Long Valley (CA) region (Hildreth, 2004) reveals that the eruption of the Late Bishop Tuff (LBT) is followed by eruption of the Early Rhyolites (ER), which are obsidian lavas. The obsidians are paradoxical, as they erupted effusively, contain multiple phases (some of which vary in composition), and yet, they are crystal-poor. The obsidians are saturated in ≥7 phases (plagioclase + orthopyroxene + ilmenite + titanomagnetite + biotite + apatite + zircon ± pyrrhotite). Plagioclase and orthopyroxene crystals have rounded edges accompanying euhedral margins, and large (>200µm) ilmenites have swallow-tail growth. Plagioclase and orthopyroxene span a compositional range between An20-45 and En43-58, respectively, and phase equilibrium experiments confirm that these are phenocrysts, despite their complex textures. Pre-eruptive temperatures and fO2 values are calculated applying Fe-Ti oxide thermometry to all possible oxide pairs and range from 724-861°C and ∆NNO -0.3 to -0.9, respectively. Application of the plagioclase hygrometer to crystals in ER obsidians reveals pre-eruptive H2O contents of 3-5wt%. We propose that mineral compositions and textures within the ER obsidians record rapid growth due to degassing-induced crystallization of a superheated melt. Superheating is required to explain the origin of the ER lavas as it eliminates nucleation sites, requiring crystallization to occur on nuclei that form during degassing enabling effusive eruption of crystal-poor lavas. The ER obsidians differ from the LBT in their crystallinities (12%), phenocryst phases (e.g., sanidine is absent in ER obsidians), plagioclase compositions (An20-45 vs. An20-29), and fO2 values (∆NNO obsidians formed as partial melts of a mixed lithology, consisting of pre-existing crust and an additional component with low fO2. We propose that the reduced component in the ER source is aesthenospheric basalt, which suggests that a transition in mantle source, from

  17. Stable isotope and petrologic evidence for open-system degassing during the climactic and pre-climactic eruptions of Mt. Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon (United States)

    Mandeville, C.W.; Webster, J.D.; Tappen, C.; Taylor, B.E.; Timbal, A.; Sasaki, A.; Hauri, E.; Bacon, C.R.


    Evaluation of the extent of volatile element recycling in convergent margin volcanism requires delineating likely source(s) of magmatic volatiles through stable isotopic characterization of sulfur, hydrogen and oxygen in erupted tephra with appropriate assessment of modification by degassing. The climactic eruption of Mt. Mazama ejected approximately 50 km3 of rhyodacitic magma into the atmosphere and resulted in formation of a 10-km diameter caldera now occupied by Crater Lake, Oregon (lat. 43??N, long. 122??W). Isotopic compositions of whole-rocks, matrix glasses and minerals from Mt. Mazama climactic, pre-climactic and postcaldera tephra were determined to identify the likely source(s) of H2O and S. Integration of stable isotopic data with petrologic data from melt inclusions has allowed for estimation of pre-eruptive dissolved volatile concentrations and placed constraints on the extent, conditions and style of degassing. Sulfur isotope analyses of climactic rhyodacitic whole rocks yield ??34S values of 2.8-14.8??? with corresponding matrix glass values of 2.4-13.2???. ??34S tends to increase with stratigraphic height through climactic eruptive units, consistent with open-system degassing. Dissolved sulfur concentrations in melt inclusions (MIs) from pre-climactic and climactic rhyodacitic pumices varies from 80 to 330 ppm, with highest concentrations in inclusions with 4.8-5.2 wt% H2O (by FTIR). Up to 50% of the initial S may have been lost through pre-eruptive degassing at depths of 4-5 km. Ion microprobe analyses of pyrrhotite in climactic rhyodacitic tephra and andesitic scoria indicate a range in ??34S from -0.4??? to 5.8??? and from -0.1??? to 3.5???, respectively. Initial ??34S values of rhyodacitic and andesitic magmas were likely near the mantle value of 0???. Hydrogen isotope (??D) and total H2O analyses of rhyodacitic obsidian (and vitrophyre) from the climactic fall deposit yielded values ??f -103 to -53??? and 0.23-1.74 wt%, respectively. Values of

  18. Sumpor u ugljenu (Sulphur in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.


    Full Text Available The presence of sulphur in coal possesses important environmetal problems in its usage. The sulphur dioxide (S02 emissions produced during coal combustion account for a significant proportion of the total global output of anthropogenic SO2. The extent of sulphur separation depends on several variables such as the form of sulphur in coal, intimacy of contact between minerals and the products of devolatilization. The total sulphur in coal varies in the range of 0.2 - 11 wt %, although in most cases it is beetwen 1 and 3 wt %. Sulphur occurs in a variety of both inorganic and organic forms. Inorganic sulphur is found mainly as iron pyrite, marcasite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite, galena, chalcopirite and as sulphates (rarely exceeds w = 0,1 %. Organic sulphur is found in aromatic rings and aliphatic functionalities usually as mercaptans, aliphatic and aryl sulfides, disulfides and thiophenes. Organic and pyritic sulphur quantities depend on coal rank. Higher rank coals tend to have a high proportion of labile sulphur. All the organic sulphur is bivalent and it is spread throughout the organic coal matrix. Sulphur occurs in all the macerals and most minerals. Vitrinite contains the major part of organic sulphur and metals. Elemental sulphur is produced during coal weathering. The depolymerization methods as pyrolysis and hydrogenation are very drastic methods wich change the structure of the coal and the sulphur groups. In the case of pyrolysis, high levels of desulphurization, in chars and additional production of liquid hydrocarbon can be achieved. Thiophenes and sulphides were the major sulphur components of tars from coal pyrolysis. Hyrdogen sulphide and the lower mercaptans and sulphides were found in the volatile matters. Hydrogen sulphide and thiophenes are practically the only sulphur products of coal hydrogenation. H2S is produced in char hydrodesulphurization. A number of options are available for reducing sulphur emissions including the

  19. Composition and evolution of lithosphere beneath the Carpathian Pannonian Region: a review (United States)

    Szabó, C.; Falus, Gy.; Zajacz, Z.; Kovács, I.; Bali, E.


    , however, and is more common than phlogopite. Most metasomatized peridotites show chemical and (sometimes) textural evidence for re-equilibration between metasomatic and non-metasomatic phases. However, amphiboles in pyroxenites are sometimes enriched in K, Fe and LREE. The presence of partially crystallized melt pockets (related to amphiboles and clinopyroxenes) in both peridotites and pyroxenites is an indication of decompression melting and, rarely, incipient partial melting triggered by migrating hydrous melts or fluids. Metasomatic contaminants may be ascribed to contemporaneous subduction beneath the Carpathian-Pannonian Region between the Eocene and Miocene. Sulfide inclusions are more abundant in protogranular and porphyroclastic xenoliths relative to equigranular types. In mantle lithologies, sulfide bleb compositions vary between pentlandite and pyrrhotite correlating with the chemistry and texture of the host xenoliths. While sulfides in peridotites are relatively rich in Ni, those in clinopyroxene-rich xenoliths are notably Fe-rich.

  20. A comparison of selected Precambrian Brazilian chromitites: Chromite, PGE-PGM, and Re/Os as parental source indicators (United States)

    Girardi, V. A. V.; Ferrario, A.; Correia, C. T.; Diella, V.


    Mineralogical and geochemical studies were carried out in chromitites belonging to the mafic-ultramafic bodies of Niquelândia, Luanga, and Campo Formoso, which are, respectively, included in the Goiás Massif and the Amazon and São Francisco cratons. The main platinum-group minerals (PGM) included or associated with chromite grains are laurite in Niquelândia and Campo Formoso and sperrylite and braggite in Luanga. The most common primary base metal sulfides (BMS) are pentlandite, chalcopyrite, and minor pyrrhotite. Also present are base metal alloys (BMA), such as awaruite, and the BMS millerite, pyrite, and copper as secondary mineral phases linked to later alteration process. The Luanga chromites display the lowest Cr 2O 3/Al 2O 3 and Cr 2O 3/FeO t ratios. The chondrite-normalized profiles are strongly enriched in the platinum PGE subgroup (PPGE, Pt, Pd, Rh). The average Pd/Ir ratio (24.2) and 187Os/ 188Os values (0.17869-0.18584) are very high. Niquelândia chromites have higher Cr 2O 3/Al 2O 3 and Cr 2O 3/FeO t ratios than Luanga. Its PGE contents are low and chondrite-normalized profiles depleted, mainly in the PPGE subgroup. The average Pd/Ir ratio (0.45) and 187Os/ 188Os values (0.12598-0.12777) are low. Campo Formoso chromites have the highest Cr 2O 3/Al 2O 3 and Cr 2O 3/FeO t ratios; its average Pd/Ir ratio (0.72) and chondrite-normalized profiles (except the pronounced Ru spike) are closer to those of Niquelândia. The remarkable differences in terms of chromite bulk-composition, PGE contents and patterns, Pd/Ir ratios, and 187Os/ 188Os values associated with probable distinctions in the inferred geochemical compositions of the respective parental magmas indicate that the Luanga and Niquelândia complexes originated from distinct parental sources. Geochemical and isotopic features indicate that Luanga chromitites and associated rocks are consistent with a parental magma, either originated from an enriched mantle reservoir or strongly contaminated

  1. Reduced carbonic fluid at magmatic PT conditions: new experimental data. (United States)

    Simakin, Alexander; Salova, Tamara; Rinat, Gabitov; Sergey, Isaenko


    We study properties of the dry fluid of C-O-S composition at P=2000 bar and T=900-1000oC. Dry carbonic fluid was generated at the thermal decomposition of FeCO3 and (Fe,Mg)CO3. At the decomposition of pure FeCO3 assemblages of Wus-Mt and pure Mt was recognized. Wus-Mt corresponds to the fO2 on the level around QFM-2. Native carbon was formed from the fluid when CO concentration was above constrained by CCO buffer. Generated fluid was trapped as the bubbles within welded albite glass matrix. Micro-Raman study yields around 15 vol.% of CO in the mixture with CO2. The glass trap composition was interpreted to estimate the minimum solubilities of different elements in the studied fluid: Pt - 15 ppm, Mn - 262 ppm, P - 4100 ppm, Ce -22 ppm, S- 3400 ppm, Sr - 3300 ppm (Simakin et al., 2016). We add sulfur to the system in the form of FeS2, thermally decomposing after carbonates. Fluid interaction with platinum capsule walls to form PtS leads to the fast removal of sulfur. Analysis of the interaction products provides preliminary estimate of the Pt solubility. We observe transformation of magnetite to FeS at the reaction with COS. Pyrrhotite formed from oxide contains in average 1.5 wt.% of Pt. Assuming that at the reaction 1/3Fe3O4+COS+1/3CO = FeS +CO2 all dissolved in the fluid platinum was incorporated into the sulfide we get minimum Pt solubility of about 5000 ppm. To capture fluid composition we perform experiments in the Au capsules with sodium-silicate glass trap. Micro-Raman shows that presence of water in sodium-silicate leads to the partial COS decomposition to thiols and H2S, however, COS still was prevailing form of sulfur in the fluid as predicted theoretically (Simakin, 2014). Transport of siderophile (Ni, Cr, PGE, Au), LILE (Ba, Cs, Rb, Sr), LREE and chalcophile (Ag, Zn, Cu) elements by the dry fluid of C-O-S composition can be decisive during the formation of different volcanic aerosol phases. Study was partially supported by RFBR-DFG grant # 16

  2. Iron Sulfide Minerals in Black Sea Sediments (United States)

    Franke, Christine; Robin, Eric; Henkel, Susann; Courtin-Nomade, Alexandra; Bleil, Ulrich


    This study presents a mutidisciplinary geochemical and environmental magnetic approach, integrating advanced mineralogical techniques to better understand the physicochemical syn-sedimentary and post-depositional processes in the anoxic sediments from the northwestern Black Sea. The investigated gravity core GC 214 was retrieved in 2007 during RV METEOR cruise M72/1 west of the Crimean Peninsula in a water depth of 1686 mbsf. Geochemical analyses of the pore water and solid phase indicate non-steady state sedimentation. The oxygen-depleted water column conditions, anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), and related microbial-driven sulfate reduction favor a highly complex iron sulfide mineral assemblage in the sediment column. The detailed magnetic susceptibility and remanence measurements indicate an irregularly stratified depth profile showing intervals of particularly high values. Further environmental magnetic analyses of hysteresis loops depict strongly elevated coercivity values for those depth horizons, suggesting metastable ferrimagnetic greigite (Fe3S4) as the main magnetic carrier phase. Automated chemical classification (ACC), using electron dispersive spectrometer (EDS) attached to a JEOL 840 scanning electron microscope (SEM) on dispersed particle samples permitted the absolutequantification of the various present iron mineral phases with depth, identified as greigite (Fe3S4), pyrrhotite (Fe7S8), pyrite (FeS2), and monosulfides (FeS), such as troilite or markasite. The statistically stable ACC analyses were carried out on magnetic extracts and density separates to be able to calculate budgets between the different present iron sulfides. We also obtained excellent correlations between the different iron sulfide concentrations and the magnetic signal, which open the possibility to link the absolute particle concentrations to the magnetic signal. Additional synchrotron based micro-XRD analyses on polished sections yield inside into the details of the

  3. Upper mantle fluids involved in diamond formation and mantle metasomatism (United States)

    Sverjensky, D. A.


    Diamond formation coupled with metasomatic reactions involving the interaction of fluids with silicate host rocks provides important clues about the deep carbon cycle. However, quantitative modeling of diamond formation with silicate rock metasomatism has not been possible. Here the Deep Water (DEW) model [1] was used to generate equilibrium constants for irreversible chemical mass transfer calculations monitoring evolving fluid chemistry during diamond formation and coupled silicate reactions. Conceptual models for diamond formation in two environments were constructed for the purpose of illustrating the role of pH in diamond-forming systems. For cratonic diamonds, fluid at 900°C and 5.0 GPa was derived in equilibrium with a carbonated mafic part of a subducting slab consisting of pure diopside, enstatite, pyrope, phlogopite, magnesite, diamond and pyrite. The fluid was assumed to infiltrate and react at constant T and P with a model metasedimentary eclogite (jadeite, pyrope, kyanite and coesite). Abundant diamond was predicted to precipitate as reactant silicate minerals were destroyed and secondary pyrope, jadeite and kyanite were precipitated, which could represent the solid inclusions in natural diamonds. The final fluid chemistry was extremely enriched in Si and depleted in Ca relative to the initial fluid, consistent with the worldwide fluid inclusion trend from carbonatitic fluid to silicic fluid. The logfO2 changed by only 0.2, whereas pH continuously decreased as reaction with jadeite and kyanite and precipitation of secondary pyrope removed Mg2+ and added H+ to the fluid. Most of the carbon precipitated as diamond was derived from decreasing concentrations of formate and propionate. In the UHPM scenario, fluid at 600°C and 5.0 GPa in carbonated peridotite (forsterite, antigorite, clinochlore, magnesite, and pyrrhotite) in a subducting slab was assumed to infiltrate and react at constant T and P with a different model metasedimentary eclogite (jadeite

  4. Geology, Distribution and Classification of Gold Deposits in the Western Qinling Belt, Central China%西秦岭地区造山型与卡林型金矿床

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Gold deposits of the western Qinling belt comprising Carlin-typeand orogenic type gold deposits. Carlin-like gold deposits are abundant (1) along a westward extension of the southern zone defined by a window of early Paleozoic clastic rocks extending into the basin to the west and (2) within the easternmost margin of the basinal rocks, south of the extension, and in adjacent cover rocks of the Yangtze craton. Triassic and Early Jurassic synkinematic granitoids are widespread across the central and southern zones, as well as in the Songpan-Ganzi basin and northern margin of the Yangtze craton.Orogenic lode gold deposits sited along brittle-ductile shear zones occur throughout the central zone within greenschist-facies, highly-deformed, Devonian and younger clastic rocks. Mainly coarse-grained gold, along with pyrite, pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, and minor base metal sulfides, occur in networks of quartz veinlets, brecciated wallrock, and disseminated in altered wallrock. Isotopic dates suggest that the deposits formed during the Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic as the leading edge of the Yangtze craton was thrust beneath rocks of the western Qinling belt.Both Carlin-and orogenic types of gold deposits formed during extensional period of post-orogenesis, aged mainly from 210-180 Ma.%西秦岭金矿床分为卡林型和造山型两类。卡林型金矿床麇集于南秦岭和松潘—甘孜造山带的东北部。三叠纪和早侏罗世的同构造花岗闪长岩广泛分布于西秦岭中部和南部、松潘—甘孜盆地以及扬子克拉通边缘。造山型脉状金矿床主要分布于西秦岭造山带中的脆韧性剪切带内。大部分粗粒金主要赋存在网格状石英细脉和角砾状围岩中的黄铁矿、磁黄铁矿、毒砂和少量贱金属硫化物中和以分散状分布在蚀变围岩中。同位素资料表明晚三叠世-中侏罗世与扬子克拉通俯冲有关的作用控制了造山型金矿床的形成。

  5. Geological and geophysical characteristics of massive sulphide deposits: A case study of the Lirhanda massive sulphide deposit of Western Kenya (United States)

    Dindi, E.; Maneno, J. B. J.


    An integrated geophysical ground survey was conducted on an airborne electromagnetic (EM) anomaly located in Kakamega forest of Western Kenya. The purpose of the study was to establish the existence of massive sulphides and identify suitable optimal geophysical method(s) for the investigation of similar anomalies. The study was also expected to provide information on the geological and geophysical characteristics of the deposit. Field work involved electromagnetic methods: Vertical Loop (VLEM), Horizontal Loop (HLEM), TURAM EM and potential field methods: gravity and magnetics. Geochemical sampling was carried out concurrently with the geophysical survey. All the geophysical methods used yielded good responses. Several conductors conforming to the strike of the geology were identified. TURAM EM provided a higher resolution of the conductors compared to VLEM and HLEM. The conductors were found to be associated with positive gravity anomalies supporting the presence of bodies of higher density than the horst rock. Only the western section (west of 625W) of the grid is associated with strong magnetic anomalies. East of 625W strong EM and gravity anomalies persist but magnetic anomalies are weak. This may reflect variation in the mineral composition of the conductors from magnetic to non-magnetic. Geochemical data indicates strong copper anomalies (upto 300 ppm) over sections of the grid and relatively strong zinc (upto 200 ppm) and lead (upto 100 ppm) anomalies. There is a positive correlation between the location of the conductors as predicted by TURAM EM and the copper and zinc anomalies. A test drill hole proposed on the basis of the geophysical results of this study struck massive sulphides at a depth of 30m still within the weathered rock zone. Unfortunately, the drilling was stopped before the sulphides could be penetrated. The drill core revealed massive sulphide rich in pyrite and pyrrhotite. An attempt has been made to compare characteristics of the Lirhanda

  6. Gold mineralisation and orogenic metamorphism in the Lena province of Siberia as assessed from Chertovo Koryto and Sukhoi Log deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marina A. Yudovskaya; Vadim V. Distler; Vsevolod Yu. Prokofiev; Nickolay N. Akinfiev


    The Chertovo Koryto gold deposit (80 t Au at 1.84 g/t) in the Lena world-class province, Siberia, is hosted in a metamorphosed sequence of the Paleoproterozoic Mikhailovsk Formation that comprises the oldest black shale strata of the Baikal-Patom region. The mineralisation is confined to the thrust zone complicated with a conjugate anticline fold, zones of shearing and dislocation. The structural position of the mineralisation is similar to that at the giant Sukhoi Log deposit in the neighbouring Mama-Bodaibo zone. In the latter, the isotope age data suggest that Khomolkho black shales, hosts to Sukhoi Log mineralisation, are of Ediacaran age and underwent prograde metamorphism during early Paleozoic. The geochemical composition of the terrigenous rocks that host Sukhoi Log, Chertovo Koryto, and a number of other deposits at the various stratigraphic levels throughout the Proterozoic sequence have much in common. They do not show elevated metal contents above the common black shale abundances, except for Au and As, which is at variance with the accepted view on diagenetic enrichment of black shales in the Lena province. The occurrence of sagenitic rutile in quartz and chlorite pseudomorphs after biotite and other petrographic observations provide evidence on a retrograde nature of the metamorphic mineral assemblages in the Mikhailovsk rocks. The sulphides are pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite with very minor pyrite at Chertovo Koryto, whereas pyrite is the predominant sulphide in the Sukhoi Log ore. Fluid inclusion data on both deposits emphasise a high-temperature nature of the mineralisation albeit revealing great contrast in the fluid composition. Sukhoi Log mineralisation was formed at mixing be-tween low-salinity aqueous solutions and dense gaseous carbonic fluids, which facilitated effective gold scavenging and precipitation, as demonstrated by thermodynamic simulation. The precursory devola-tilisation of the Mikhailovsk sediments at the prograde stage results in

  7. Mineralogy of the Santa Fe Tin deposit, Bolivia (United States)

    Jiménez-Franco, Abigail; Alfonso, Pura; Canet, Carles; Garcia-Valles, Maite; Elvys Trujillo, Juan


    Santa Fe is a Sn-Zn-Pb-Ag ore deposit located in the Oruro district, Central Andean Tin Belt, Bolivia. Mineralization occurs in veins and disseminations. It is hosted in Silurian shales and greywackes. The sedimentary sequence is folded and unconformably covered by a volcanic complex of the Morococala Formation, mainly constituted by tuffs of Miocene age. A wide Nº40 shear zone and two systems of fracture are developed. A Nº40 fracture system, dipping 60ºW, which hosts Sn and Zn minerals, and other in the same direction but dipping 75ºE, which is related to Zn-Pb-Ag veins. The mineralization is associated to intrusive felsic magmatism. Although there are not intrusive rocks in Santa Fe, a dyke and the felsic San Pablo stock occur at a distance of about 10 km. In the present work we describe the geology and mineralogy of the Santa Fe deposit. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe analyses were used to characterize the minerals. Veins are filled with quartz and an ore mineral assemblage of cassiterite, sulfides and sulfosalts. Cassiterite constitutes the earliest formed mineralization. Preliminar microprobe analyses indicate that it is nearly pure, with negligible contents in Nb and Ta. Rutile occurs as a late phase associated with a late generation of cassiterite. It forms thin neddle-like crystals. In addition, Sn is also present in sulfides as stannite, stannoidite and kësterite. Other sulfides are pyrrhotite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, galena, sphalerite, marchasite and argentite. Bismuthinite and berndite are found nin trace amounts. Sulfosalts include tetrahedrite, myarhyrite, boulangerite, jamesonite, franckeite, zinckenite, cilindrite and andorite. Associated with the mineralization, several phosphate minerals are found filling cavities and small fractures. The most abundant are monacite (Ce,La,Nd,Th)PO4 and plumbogummite (PbAl3(PO4)2(OH)5•(H2O)). Crandallite CaAl3(PO4)2(OH)5•(H2O) and vivianite (Fe3+(PO4)2•8(H2O)) also

  8. Regional tectonics, geology, magma chamber processes and mineralisation of the Jinchuan nickel-copper-PGE deposit, Gansu Province, China:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.M. Mike Porter


    The Jinchuan Ni-Cu-PGE deposit (>500 Mt@1.2%Ni, 0.7%Cu, w0.4 g/t PGE), one of the largest magmatic sulphide deposits in the world, is located within the westernmost terrane of the North China Craton. It is hosted within the 6.5 km long, Neoproterozoic (w0.83 Ga) Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion, emplaced as a sill-like body into a Palaeoproterozoic suite of gneisses, migmatites, marbles and amphibolites, below an active intracratonic rift. The parental magma was high-Mg basalt, generated through melting of sub-crustal lithospheric mantle by a mantle plume during the initiation of Rodinia supercontinent breakup. The lower Palaeozoic collision of the exotic Qilian Block with the breakup-related southern margin of the craton accreted a subduction complex, and emplaced voluminous granitic intrusions and foreland basin sequences within the craton, to as far north as Jinchuan. During the Cainozoic, allochthonous lower Palaeozoic rocks were thrust up to 300 km to the northeast over cratonic basement, to within 25 km of the Jinchuan deposit. The Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion was injected into three interconnected sub-chambers, each containing a separate orebody. It essentially comprises an olivine-orthopyroxene-chromite cumulate, with interstitial orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, plagioclase and phlogopite, and is predominantly composed of lherzolite (w80%), with an outer rim of olivine pyroxenite and cores of mineralised dunite. Mineralisation occurs as disseminated and net-textured sulphides, predominantly within the dunite, with lesser, PGE rich lenses, late massive sulphide accumulations, small copper rich pods and limited mineralised diopside skarn in wall rock marbles. The principal ore minerals are pyrrhotite (the dominant sulphide), pentlandite, chalcopyrite, cubanite, mackinawite and pyrite, with a variety of platinum group minerals and minor gold. The deposit underwent significant post-magmatic tremolite-actinolite, chlorite, serpentine and magnetite alteration. The

  9. Dovyrenite Ca6Zr[Si2O7]2(OH)4 - A New Mineral from Skarned Carbonate Xenoliths in Basic-Ultrabasic Rocks of the Ioko-Dovyren Massif, Northern Baikal Region, Russia (United States)

    Galuskin, Evgeny V.; Pertsev, Nikolai N.; Armbruster, Thomas; Kadiyski, Milen; Zadov, Aleksander E.; Galuskina, Irina O.; Dzierżanowski, Piotr; Wrzalik, Roman; Kislov, Evgeny V.


    Dovyrenite, simplified formula Ca6Zr[Si2O7]2(OH)4, occurs as an accessory mineral in vein skarns developed in carbonate xenoliths in subvolcanic layered plagiodunite-troctolite series in the Ioko-Dovyren Massif of Proterozoic age, Northern Baikal Region, Buryatia, Russia. Dovyrenite is a late mineral of altered pyroxene and melilite-monticellite skarns. Associated minerals are Zr-bearing phases: fassaitic pyroxene, perovskite and hydrogarnets; and also monticellite, vesuvianite, diopside, foshagite, brucite, calzirtite, tazheranite, baghdadite, apatite, calcite, native bismuth, sphalerite, selenian galena, clausthalite, safflorite, rammelsbergite, pyrrhotite, pentlandite, valleriite, laitakarite, nickeline, nickel-skutterudite. The average structure of dovyrenite is orthorhombic, space group Pnnm, with subcell parameters A = 5.666(16) Å, B = 18.844(5) Å, C = 3.728(11) Å, V = 398.0(2) Å3 and Z = 1. Dovyrenite shows a new type of modular structure with stacking of the tobermorite-like and the rosenbuschite-like layers parallel to (010). Single-crystal structural data point to an incompletely occupied Ca(2) site from the rosenbuschite module which is confirmed by microprobe analyses: ZrO2 16.47, SiO2 32.83, TiO2 0.14, HfO2 0.16, Cr2O3 0.01, CaO 43.87, FeO 0.25, MgO 0.13, MnO 0.02, Nb2O3 0.03; total 99.38 wt% with calculated H2O. The empirical formula is (Ca5.73Fe0.03Mg0.02)σ5.78(Zr0.98Hf0.01Ti0.01)σ1Si4(O13.56OH0.44)σ14(OH)4. The presence of two types of OH group in the dovyrenite structure is corroborated by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. Dovyrenite is an optically positive biaxial mineral: α 1.659(2), β 1.660(2); γ 1.676(2); 2Vz 30(5)° (measured), 28° (calculated). The coexistence of monticellite, foshagite and dovyrenite points to a narrow interval of crystallization 560-630°C under subvolcanic conditions (P < 108 Pa).

  10. Aqueous geochemistry of low molecular weight hydrocarbons at elevated temperatures and pressures: constraints from mineral buffered laboratory experiments (United States)

    Seewald, Jeffrey S.


    Organic matter, water, and minerals coexist at elevated temperatures and pressures in sedimentary basins and participate in a wide range of geochemical processes that includes the generation of oil and natural gas. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted at 300 to 350°C and 350 bars to examine chemical interactions involving low molecular weight aqueous hydrocarbons with water and Fe-bearing minerals under hydrothermal conditions. Mineral buffers composed of hematite-magnetite-pyrite, hematite-magnetite, and pyrite-pyrrhotite-magnetite were added to each experiment to fix the redox state of the fluid and the activity of reduced sulfur species. During each experiment the chemical system was externally modified by addition of ethene, ethane, propene, 1-butene, or n-heptane, and variations in the abundance of aqueous organic species were monitored as a function of time and temperature. Results of the experiments indicate that decomposition of aqueous n-alkanes proceeds through a series of oxidation and hydration reactions that sequentially produce alkenes, alcohols, ketones, and organic acids as reaction intermediaries. Organic acids subsequently undergo decarboxylation and/or oxidation reactions to form carbon dioxide and shorter chain saturated hydrocarbons. This alteration assemblage is compositionally distinct from that produced by thermal cracking under anhydrous conditions, indicating that the presence of water and minerals provide alternative reaction pathways for the decomposition of hydrocarbons. The rate of hydrocarbon oxidation decreases substantially under reducing conditions and in the absence of catalytically active aqueous sulfur species. These results represent compelling evidence that the stability of aqueous hydrocarbons at elevated temperatures in natural environments is not a simple function of time and temperature alone. Under the appropriate geochemical conditions, stepwise oxidation represents a mechanism for the decomposition of low

  11. The Ksar Ghilane 002 shergottite—The 100th registered Martian meteorite fragment (United States)

    Llorca, Jordi; Roszjar, Julia; Cartwright, Julia A.; Bischoff, Addi; Ott, Ulrich; Pack, Andreas; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fimiani, Leticia; Ludwig, Peter; Casado, José V.; Allepuz, David


    We report on the discovery of a new shergottite from Tunisia, Ksar Ghilane (KG) 002. This single stone, weighing 538 g, is a coarse-grained basaltic shergottite, mainly composed of maskelynitized plagioclase (approximately 52 vol%) and pyroxene (approximately 37 vol%). It also contains Fe-rich olivine (approximately 4.5 vol%), large Ca-phosphates, including both merrillites and Cl-apatites (approximately 3.4 vol%), minor amounts of silica or SiO2-normative K-rich glass, pyrrhotite, Ti-magnetite, ilmenite, and accessory baddeleyite. The largest crystals of pyroxene and plagioclase reach sizes of approximately 4 to 5 mm. Pyroxenes (Fs26-96En5-50Wo2-41). They typically range from cores of about Fs29En41Wo30 to rims of about Fs68En14Wo17. Maskelynite is Ab41-49An39-58Or1-7 in composition, but some can be as anorthitic as An93. Olivine (Fa91-96) occurs mainly within symplectitic intergrowths, in paragenesis with ilmenite, or at neighboring areas of symplectites. KG 002 is heavily shocked (S5) as indicated by mosaic extinction of pyroxenes, maskelynitized plagioclase, the occurrence of localized shock melt glass pockets, and low radiogenic He concentration. Oxygen isotopes confirm that it is a normal member of the SNC suite. KG 002 is slightly depleted in LREE and shows a positive Eu anomaly, providing evidence for complex magma genesis and mantle processes on Mars. Noble gases with a composition thought to be characteristic for Martian interior is a dominant component. Measurements of 10Be, 26Al, and 53Mn and comparison with Monte Carlo calculations of production rates indicate that KG 002 has been exposed to cosmic rays most likely as a single meteoroid body of 35-65 cm radius. KG 002 strongly resembles Los Angeles and NWA 2800 basaltic shergottites in element composition, petrography, and mineral chemistry, suggesting a possible launch-pairing. The similar CRE ages of KG 002 and Los Angeles may suggest an ejection event at approximately 3.0 Ma.

  12. The chemical conditions of the late Archean Hamersley basin inferred from whole rock and pyrite geochemistry with Δ33S and δ34S isotope analyses (United States)

    Gregory, Daniel D.; Large, Ross R.; Halpin, Jacqueline A.; Steadman, Jeffery A.; Hickman, Arthur H.; Ireland, Trevor R.; Holden, Peter


    The well-preserved late Archean sedimentary rocks of the Fortescue and Hamersley Basins in Western Australia offer fascinating insights into early earth ocean chemistry prior to the Great Oxidation Event (GOE). In this study, we use a combination of whole rock geochemistry, LA-ICPMS trace element analysis of sedimentary pyrite and pyrrhotite and SHRIMP-SI sulfur isotope analyses to elucidate the chemical changes in these sedimentary rocks. These proxies are used to examine chemical conditions of the ocean during the late Archean. Two to three periods of oxygen enrichment prior to the deposition of banded iron formations (BIF) can be identified. One minor stage of general increase in whole rock enrichment factors and trace element content of pyrite is observed up stratigraphy in the Jeerinah Formation, Fortescue Basin and a more substantial stage is present in the Paraburdoo and Bee Gorge Members of the Wittenoom Formation, Hamersley Basin. Some of the trace element enrichments indicate organic matter burial flux (Ni, Cr, Zn, Co and Cu) which suggests an increase in biological productivity. If the increased biological activity reflects an increase in cyanobacteria activity then an associated increase in oxygen is likely to have occurred during the deposition of the Bee Gorge Member. An increase in atmospheric oxygen would result in continental weathering of sulfide and other minerals, increasing the trace element content of the water column via erosion and avoiding excessive depletion of trace elements due to drawdown in seawater. Since some of these trace elements may also be limiting nutrients (such as Mo and Se) for the cyanobacteria, the degree of biological productivity may have further increased due to the increasing amount of trace elements introduced by oxygenation in a positive feedback loop. These periods of increased productivity and oxygen rise stopped prior to the onset of BIF deposition in the Hamersley Basin. This may be due to the ocean reaching an

  13. Secondary Magnetization of ZEBRA Dolomites in the Basin and Range Province of Eastern Nevada (United States)

    Elmore, R. D.; Dulin, S. A.


    magnetite and pyrrhotite components which are currently under investigation. The Alamo Breccia may have acted as a conduit for multiple hydrothermal fluid events throughout its history.

  14. 印度尼西亚西加里曼丹省吉打邦县马拉乌铅锌矿床地质特征%Geologic characteristics of the Marau lead-Zinc ore deposit in Ketapang of Kalimantan Province,Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚仲友; 杨献忠; 赵牧华; 袁平峰


    The Marau deposit is a newly discovered lead-zinc ore deposit in Ketapang of Kalimantan Province in Indonesia.The deposit is distinctly controlled by fissures in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic volcanics.The hanging wall of the deposit is formed of pyritized carbargilites,and the bottom wall of chalcedonized silicalites.The ore bodies show pinnate,vein and lenticular shapes.The main wall rock alterations of the deposit are silication,argillization and chloritization.The mineral assemblages are complex and are composed of galena,sphalerite,pyrite,pyrrhotite,chalcopyrite,bornite,stibnite,gold,electrum and argentite.Basing on the analyses of mineral assemblages and chemical compositions of ores,it is clarified that the ore bodies obviously show a zonation in both horizontal and vertical directions,indicating that the formation of the deposit is related to the hydrothermal alteration,caused by intrusion(injection) of subvolcanic rocks,and the hydrothermal solution is derived from late calc-alkaline volcanic rock formations.%马拉乌铅锌矿床为印度尼西亚西加里曼丹(Kalimantan)省吉打邦县近年来发现的铅锌银矿床。该矿矿体顶板为黄铁矿化含碳质泥砂岩,矿体底板为玉髓状硅质岩。矿体呈侧羽状、脉状及透镜状。矿区通常发育的蚀变有硅化、泥化和绿泥石化等。主要矿物组合有方铅矿、闪锌矿、黄铁矿、磁黄铁矿、黄铜矿、斑铜矿、辉锑矿以及自然金、银金矿、辉银矿等,通过对矿石组构等综合分析,表明该矿床的成因是岩浆期后热液充填交代矿床。

  15. Experimental determination of Fe isotope fractionation between liquid metal, silicate and sulfide at high pressures and temperatures (United States)

    Williams, H. M.; Wood, B. J.; Halliday, A. N.


    There is evidence for significant equilibrium Fe isotope fractionation (≤0.26‰/amu) between metal and troilite (FeS) in iron meteorites (Williams et al., EPSL (250) 2006) and a smaller fractionation (Gessmann and Wood, EPSL (200) 2002; Wood et al., EPSL (in revision) 2007). Metal, sulfide and silicate fractions were separated from mounted and sectioned experimental charges using a computer-controlled micromill (New Wave-Merchantek). Sample dissolution, Fe purification and isotopic analysis followed established procedures (Williams et al., EPSL (235) 2005). In agreement with another preliminary high-pressure experimental study (Poitrasson and Roskosz, LPSC XXXVIII 2007) we find no appreciable fractionation between liquid iron metal and basaltic melt. However, there is a resolvable Fe isotope fractionation between silicate melt and Fe-S alloy which ranges from 0.12±0.04 to 0.15±0.04‰/amu for separate experiments (errors are propagated based on the 2 SD errors of replicate analyses). The Fe isotope compositions of coexisting phases from these experiments define a positive linear relationship with a slope that is, within error, equal to unity, implying isotopic equilibrium. No relationship between apparent fractionation factor and pressure or temperature is detectable within the range covered by the experiments. The fractionation factors determined from our experiments overlap with the average equilibrium fractionation factor obtained between silicate melt and pyrrhotite (Fe1-xS) of 0.18±0.02‰/amu at 0.5GPa and 1114-1274K (Schuessler et al., GCA (71) 2007) and are also broadly consistent with silicate-FeS fractionation factors inferred indirectly from iron meteorites and pallasites which range from ~0.16 to 0.24‰/amu. Taken together these observations suggest that resolvable stable isotope fractionation between Fe-S alloys and silicate melts can take place at extreme pressure and temperature conditions and that isotopically light Fe can be sequestered into

  16. Integrated Geophysical Measurements for Bioremediation Monitoring: Combining Spectral Induced Polarization, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Kristina [Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Slater, Lee [Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitris [Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Williams, Kenneth H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division


    were collected on columns of Rifle sediments during acetate amendment. The laboratory experiments were designed to simulate the field experiments; changes in geophysical signals were expected to correlate with changes in redox conditions and iron speciation. Field MS logging measurements revealed vertically stratified magnetic mineralization, likely the result of detrital magnetic fraction within the bulk alluvium. Little to no change was observed in the MS data suggesting negligible production of magnetic phases (e.g. magnetite, pyrrhotite) as a result of sulfidogenesis. Borehole NMR measurements contained high levels of noise contamination requiring significant signal processing, and analysis suggests that any changes may be difficult to differentiate from simultaneous changes in water content. Laboratory MS and NMR measurements remained relatively stable throughout the course of the acetate amendment experiment, consistent with field measurements. However, SIP measurements changed during the acetate amendment associated with the formation of iron-sulfide mineral phases; a finding that is consistent with chemical analysis of the solid phase materials in the columns.

  17. Rock magnetic and paleomagnetic study of the Keurusselkä impact structure, central Finland (United States)

    Raiskila, Selen; Salminen, Johanna; Elbra, Tiiu; Pesonen, Lauri J.


    There are 31 proven impact structures in Fennoscandia—one of the most densely crater-populated areas of the Earth. The recently discovered Keurusselkä impact structure (62°08' N, 24°37' E) is located within the Central Finland Granitoid Complex, which formed 1890-1860 Ma ago during the Svecofennian orogeny. It is a deeply eroded complex crater that yields in situ shatter cones with evidence of shock metamorphism, e.g., planar deformation features in quartz. New petrophysical and rock magnetic results of shocked and unshocked target rocks of various lithologies combined with paleomagnetic studies are presented. The suggested central uplift with shatter cones is characterized by increased magnetization and susceptibility. The presence of magnetite and pyrrhotite was observed as carriers for the remanent magnetization. Four different remanent magnetization directions were isolated: (1) a characteristic Svecofennian target rock component A with a mean direction of D = 334.8°, I = 45.6°, α95 = 14.9° yielding a pole (Plat = 51.1°, Plon = 241.9°, A95 = 15.1°), (2) component B, D = 42.4°, I = 64.1°, α95 = 8.4° yielding a pole (Plat = 61.0°, Plon = 129.1°, A95 = 10.6°), (3) component C (D = 159.5°, I = 65.4°, α95 = 10.7°) yielding a pole (Plat = 21.0°, Plon = 39.3°, A95 = 15.6°), and (4) component E (D = 275.5°, I = 62.0°, α95 = 14.4°) yielding a pole (Plat = 39.7°, Plon = 314.3°, A95 = 19.7°). Components C and E are considered much younger, possibly Neoproterozoic overprints, compared with the components A and B. The pole of component B corresponds with the 1120 Ma pole of Salla diabase dyke and is in agreement with the 40Ar/39Ar age of 1140 Ma from a pseudotachylitic breccia vein in a central part of the structure. Therefore, component B could be related to the impact, and thus represent the impact age.

  18. Formation of unequilibrated R chondrite chondrules and opaque phases (United States)

    Miller, K. E.; Lauretta, D. S.; Connolly, H. C.; Berger, E. L.; Nagashima, K.; Domanik, K.


    Sulfide assemblages are commonly found in chondritic meteorites as small inclusions in the matrix or in association with chondrules. These assemblages are widely hypothesized to form through pre-accretionary corrosion of metal by H2S gas or through parent body processes. We report here on two unequilibrated R chondrite samples that contain large, chondrule-sized sulfide nodules in the matrix. Both samples are from Mount Prestrud (PRE) 95404. Chemical maps and spot and broad-beam electron microprobe analyses (EMPA) were used to assess the distribution, stoichiometry, and bulk composition of sulfide nodules and silicate chondrules in the clasts. Oxygen isotope data were collected via secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to assess the relationship of chondrules to other chondrite groups. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam (FIB), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses were used to assess fine-scale features and identify crystal structures in sulfide assemblages. Thermodynamic models were used to assess the temperature, sulfur fugacity (fS2), total pressure, dust-to-gas ratio, and oxygen fugacity (fO2) conditions during sulfide nodule and chondrule formation. The unequilibrated clasts include a mixture of type I and type II chondrules, as well as non-porphyritic chondrules. Chondrule oxygen isotopes overlap with ordinary-chondrite chondrules. Sulfide nodules average 200 μm in diameter, have rounded shapes, and are primarily composed of pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and magnetite. Some are deformed around chondrules in a petrologic relationship similar in appearance to compound chondrules. Both nodules and sulfides in chondrules include phosphate inclusions and Cu-rich lamellae, which suggests a genetic relationship between sulfides in chondrules and in the matrix. Ni/Co ratios for matrix and chondrule sulfides are solar, while Fe and Ni are non-solar and inversely related. We hypothesize that sulfide nodules formed via pre-accretionary melt

  19. Sulfide mineralization associated with arc magmatism in the Qilian Block, western China: zircon U-Pb age and Sr-Nd-Os-S isotope constraints from the Yulonggou and Yaqu gabbroic intrusions (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao-Wei; Li, Wen-Yuan; Gao, Yong-Bao; Li, Chusi; Ripley, Edward M.; Kamo, Sandra


    The sulfide-bearing Yulonggou and Yaqu mafic intrusions are located in the southern margin of the Qilian Block, Qinghai Province, western China. They are small dike-like bodies mainly composed of gabbros and diorites. Disseminated sulfides (pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and chalcopyrite) are present as concordant lenses within the intrusions. Precise CA-ID-TIMS zircon U-Pb dating yields the crystallization ages of 443.39 ± 0.42 and 440.74 ± 0.33 Ma for the Yulonggou and Yaqu intrusions, respectively. Whole rock samples from both intrusions show light rare earth element (REE) enrichments relative to heavy REE and pronounced negative Nb-Ta anomalies relative to Th and La, which are consistent with the products of arc basaltic magmatism. The Yulonggou intrusion has negative ɛ Nd values from -5.7 to -7.7 and elevated (87Sr/86Sr) i ratios from 0.711 to 0.714. In contrast, the Yaqu intrusion has higher ɛ Nd values from -4.1 to +8.4 and lower (87Sr/86Sr) i ratios from 0.705 to 0.710. The δ34S values of sulfide separates from the Yulonggou and Yaqu deposits vary from 0.8 to 2.4 ‰ and from 2 to 4.3 ‰, respectively. The γ Os values of sulfide separates from the Yulonggou and Yaqu deposits vary between 80 and 123 and between 963 and 1,191, respectively. Higher γ Os values coupled with higher δ34S values for the Yaqu deposit relative to the Yulonggou deposit indicate that external sulfur played a bigger role in sulfide mineralization in the Yaqu intrusion than in the Yulonggou intrusion. Mixing calculations using Sr-Nd isotope data show that contamination with siliceous crustal materials is more pronounced in the Yulonggou intrusion (up to 20 wt%) than in the Yaqu intrusion (market condition due to small sizes and low Ni grades, which can be explained by late-stage sulfide saturation after extensive olivine fractional crystallization from the magmas. Based on these observations, we suggest a shift of focus for Ni exploration in the region from mafic/gabbroic intrusions

  20. Reactivity of organic-rich sediment in seawater at 350°c, 500 bars: experimental and theoretical constraints and implications for the guaymas basin hydrothermal system (United States)

    Thornton, Edward C.; Seyfried, W. E., Jr.


    Hydrothermal alteration of organic-rich diatomaceous sediment by seawater was modelled experimentally at 350°C, 500 bars and seawater/sediment mass ratio of 3. The experiment was performed to assess the effect of organic matter reactivity on solution speciation and sediment alteration processes at an elevated temperature and pressure and provide requisite data to better understand the chemistry of hydrothermal fluids issuing from vents in the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. Seawater chemistry changed greatly during the experiment. In particular, Na, Mg and SO 4 decreased, while ∑ CO 2, ∑ NH 3, ∑ H 2S, SiO 2, Ca, K, H 2, CH 4 and heavy and base metals increased. Moreover, owing to the thermal alteration of sediment organic matter, organic acids, phenolic derivatives and phthlate were released to solution. Examination of solid alteration products revealed the effects of extensive dissolution and precipitation processes characterized by total elimination of diatoms and formation of cristobalite, quartz (?), pyrite, pyrrhotite, mixed layer chlorite/smectite and calcite. Plagioclase feldspar (An 40) recrystallized to a more albitic form owing to Na fixation and Ca cycling to calcite. A graphitic residue was also present in the products of the experiment. Mg and Na fixation reactions during the experiment generated significant H +, although the pH measured at 25°C was approximately 6.2. SO 4 reduction and thermal alteration and dissolution of organics, however, consume H + and are chiefly responsible for the near neutral pH for the overall reaction. Speciation calculations including ammine and acetate protonation reactions give a pH at experimental conditions of approximately 5.1, while mineral solubility relations involving virtually all alteration phases require a pH of 5.57 to 5.94. A near neutral pH at experimental conditions constrains the mobility of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Ni, which existed in solution as chloro-complexes. Dissolved concentrations of Pb and

  1. Looking for Martian True Polar Wander in mutually oriented slices of ALH84001 (United States)

    Buz, J.; Murphy, T. G.; Kirschvink, J. L.


    True polar wander (TPW) on Mars has been hypothesized based on a variety of observations including geoid instability [1], locations of apparent polar deposits [2], and locations of magnetic anomalies [3, 4]. A proposed driving force for TPW is redistribution of mass on the surface of the planet such as by extensive volcanism events [5]. The majority of TPW modeling research has been using orbital datasets and modeling. However, laboratory analyses of Martian samples should also be conducted to test for Martian TPW. The Martian meteorite, ALH84001, is a prime sample for observing Martian TPW because of its preservation of thermal remanent magnetization from Mars [6]. Previous work on the sample has demonstrated that the interior of the meteorite was not heated above 40 C during transport from Mars to Earth and that there is a heterogeneous magnetization within the meteorite [7]. Within the meteorite are a series of fracture-filling carbonate blebs which contain magnetite and pyrrhotite with original remanence. These carbonates are presumed to have precipitated onto the meteorite [8]. We have divided a fracture-containing portion of the meteorite into three sets of sequential, mutually oriented slices. Using an ultra-high resolution scanning SQuID magnetometer we are able to visualize the magnetization within each slice. We are able to model each magnetic scan as a series of discrete dipoles using a modification from Lima and Weiss [9]. Our results demonstrate that within one of our slice sequences the dipoles lie along a great circle path. Dipoles lying along an arc in a stereographic projection can be interpreted as resulting from TPW if there is a significant amount of time from start to end of magnetization. Our ongoing work includes continued analysis and scanning of our slices as well as statistical tests for confirming if the dipoles lie along an arc. [1] Sprenke, KF et al. 2005 Icarus 174(2) 486-9 [2] Perron, JT et al. 2007 Nature 447(7146) 840-3 [3

  2. A conspicuous clay ovoid in Nakhla: evidence for subsurface hydrothermal alteration on Mars with implications for astrobiology. (United States)

    Chatzitheodoridis, Elias; Haigh, Sarah; Lyon, Ian


    Abstract A conspicuous biomorphic ovoid structure has been discovered in the Nakhla martian meteorite, made of nanocrystalline iron-rich saponitic clay and amorphous material. The ovoid is indigenous to Nakhla and occurs within a late-formed amorphous mesostasis region of rhyolitic composition that is interstitial to two clinopyroxene grains with Al-rich rims, and contains acicular apatite crystals, olivine, sulfides, Ti-rich magnetite, and a new mineral of the rhoenite group. To infer the origin of the ovoid, a large set of analytical tools was employed, including scanning electron microscopy and backscattered electron imaging, wavelength-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray mapping, Raman spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis, high-resolution transmission electron microscope imaging, and atomic force microscope topographic mapping. The concentric wall of the ovoid surrounds an originally hollow volume and exhibits internal layering of contrasting nanotextures but uniform chemical composition, and likely inherited its overall shape from a preexisting vesicle in the mesostasis glass. A final fibrous layer of Fe-rich phases blankets the interior surfaces of the ovoid wall structure. There is evidence that the parent rock of Nakhla has undergone a shock event from a nearby bolide impact that melted the rims of pyroxene and the interstitial matter and initiated an igneous hydrothermal system of rapidly cooling fluids, which were progressively mixed with fluids from the melted permafrost. Sharp temperature gradients were responsible for the crystallization of Al-rich clinopyroxene rims, rhoenite, acicular apatites, and the quenching of the mesostasis glass and the vesicle. During the formation of the ovoid structure, episodic fluid infiltration events resulted in the precipitation of saponite rinds around the vesicle walls, altered pyrrhotite to marcasite, and then isolated the ovoid wall structure from the rest of the system by depositing a

  3. Paleomagnetic study on the Triassic rocks from the Lhasa Terrane, Tibet, and its paleogeographic implications (United States)

    Zhou, Yanan; Cheng, Xin; Yu, Lei; Yang, Xingfeng; Su, Hailun; Peng, Ximing; Xue, Yongkang; Li, Yangyang; Ye, Yakun; Zhang, Jin; Li, Yuyu; Wu, Hanning


    We present paleomagnetic results from the newly discovered Early-Middle and Late Triassic marine sediments of the Lhasa Terrane. Orientated samples were collected from 32 sites (330 samples) on the north side of the Dibu Co Lake (84.7°E, 30.9°N), Coqên County, in the western region of the Lhasa terrane. Rock magnetic data revealed that most of the samples were dominated by magnetite and/or pyrrhotite. The stepwise demagnetization curves illustrated three-components: a low temperature component (Component A) near the present-day field (PDF), a secondary remanent magnetization (Component B) that may be from the Cretaceous Period, and a high-temperature component (Component C). The Component C were isolated from the Early-Middle Triassic rocks in 8 sites (47 specimens) and from the Late Triassic rocks in 6 sites (37 specimens). The Component C of the Early-Middle Triassic rocks passed a reversal test (B class, 95% confidence level) and a fold test (99% confidence level), that of the Late Triassic rocks passed a fold test (95% confidence level). The corresponding paleopoles for the Early-Middle and Late Triassic periods of the Lhasa Terrane were at 18.9°N, 208.4°E with A95 = 3.9° and 19.6°N, 211.8°E with A95 = 10.7°, respectively. We suggest that the Lhasa Terrane maintained a relative stable latitude (16.5 ± 3.9°S and 18.4 ± 10.7°S) in the southern hemisphere during the Triassic Period before moving northwards and amalgamating with the main body of Eurasia. The Qiangtang and Lhasa terranes, which were located at the mid-low latitudes of the southern hemisphere, might have been isolated between Eurasia and Gondwanaland since the Early Triassic Period. The Meso-Tethys, potentially represented by the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone (BNS) between the Lhasa and Qiangtang terranes, opened up in the Early-Middle Triassic Period and expanded during the entire course of the Triassic Period.

  4. Magnetostratigraphy and 39Ar/40Ar studies of the Lana'i Long Volcanic Sequence (ca. 1.606+/-0.063 Ma), Hawaii, USA (United States)

    Herrero-Bervera, E.; Jicha, B.; Valet, J.


    Previous published work on Lanai indicated that the volcano was formed mainly during the Matuyama Chron (Herrero-Bervera et al., 2000). In order to constrain further the timing of the active phases of the Lanai volcano, we conducted a paleomagnetic and rock magnetic study involving a ~500-m vertical thick sequence of lava flows that were erupted between 0.76+/-0.66 Ma and 1.6+/-0.09 Ma according to previous K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating (Leonhardt et al., 2009). Low-field susceptibility versus temperature (k-T) and SIRM experiments performed on a dozen flows indicate that magnetite dominates the remanent magnetization (575°C). In a few cases, a low-temperature mineral phase (300-400°C) could reflect the presence of titanomagnetite with low Ti content, but the presence of maghemite or pyrrhotite cannot be completely excluded. Additional investigations are in progress on this matter. All specimens were step-wise demagnetized by alternating fields from 5 to 100 mT. Companion specimens from the same samples were demagnetized at 15 temperature steps. The demagnetization diagrams obtained with each technique showed a stable direction of remanence. In all cases, the characteristic (ChRM) component was clearly defined from at least seven successive directions isolated during step-wise demagnetization. The succession of the mean directions calculated for each lava flow reveals the existence of at least one polarity interval. Based on radiometric dates, they were assigned to the Gilsa, "excursion" (1.606+/-0.063 Ma). Thus, the present results, along with the radiometric ages of the lavas, indicate that the tholeiitic flows that formed the Lanai volcano were erupted over a short time period, and only during the Matuyama Chron (0.780-2.58 Ma). No eruptions have occurred during the Brunhes Chron (0.78 Ma) as previously indicated from K-Ar data on lavas in the Maunalei Gulch. The excursional VGPs from the onset of the Gilsa excursion recorded on Lanai are situated near the

  5. Geochronology Research and Its Significance for Mo-W Polymetallic Deposit of Dabao Mountain in Northern Guangdong province%粤北大宝山钼钨多金属矿床年代学研究及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜国民; 梅玉萍; 蔡红; 罗俊华


    Through the precise dating measuring of the pyrite and quartz minerals in different types of Mo-W polymetallic deposits in Dabao mountain, northern Guangdong province with Rb-Sr isochron method, the age of the pyrite in laminated ores is yielded 168±5Ma (95% reliability), the age of quartz minerals in quartz-molybdenite veins is yielded 164±3 Ma (95% reliability), and the age of quartz minerals in pyrite- quartz lodes is yielded 162±4 Ma (95% reliability) respectively. The results showed that the Cu-Pb-Zn ores and the Mo-W minerals of Dabao polymetallic deposit were formed at 168 - 162 Ma. The results also agreed with former studies that the pyrrhotite minerals formation time was between 165±1 Ma by Re-Os dating method. In consideration of the obviously coupled relationships of the formation time and space between the Cu-Pb-Zn and Mo-W minerals and the secondary dacite and granodiorite porphyry, it showed that the min- eralization of the deposit was related to the early magmatic activities of Yanshan movement in these areas.%本文对大宝山钼钨多金属矿床中不同类型矿石中黄铁矿及石英矿物用Rb-Sr等时线法进行了精细测定,分别获得层纹状矿石中黄铁矿的年龄为168±5Ma(95%可信度),辉钼矿石英脉中石英矿物年龄为164+3Ma(95%可信度)和黄铁矿石英脉中石英矿物年龄为162±4Ma(95%可信度),测定结果表明,大宝山铝钨多金属矿床铜铅锌和钼钨成矿阶段形成的时间在168~162Ma之间。本研究所获得的结果也与前人所获得的层状铜铅锌矿石和脉状矿石中辉钼矿的Re-Os模式年龄为165+1Ma一致。鉴于铜铅锌和钼钨矿床在形成时间和空间上与次英安斑岩和花岗闪长斑岩具有明显的耦合关系,据此表明,其成矿作用主要与区内燕山早期岩浆活动有关。

  6. Anoxic and Oxic Oxidation of Rocks Containing Fe(II)Mg-Silicates and Fe(II)-Monosulfides as Source of Fe(III)-Minerals and Hydrogen. Geobiotropy. (United States)

    Bassez, Marie-Paule


    In this article, anoxic and oxic hydrolyses of rocks containing Fe (II) Mg-silicates and Fe (II)-monosulfides are analyzed at 25 °C and 250-350 °C. A table of the products is drawn. It is shown that magnetite and hydrogen can be produced during low-temperature (25 °C) anoxic hydrolysis/oxidation of ferrous silicates and during high-temperature (250 °C) anoxic hydrolysis/oxidation of ferrous monosulfides. The high-T (350 °C) anoxic hydrolysis of ferrous silicates leads mainly to ferric oxides/hydroxides such as the hydroxide ferric trihydroxide, the oxide hydroxide goethite/lepidocrocite and the oxide hematite, and to Fe(III)-phyllosilicates. Magnetite is not a primary product. While the low-T (25 °C) anoxic hydrolysis of ferrous monosulfides leads to pyrite. Thermodynamic functions are calculated for elementary reactions of hydrolysis and carbonation of olivine and pyroxene and E-pH diagrams are analyzed. It is shown that the hydrolysis of the iron endmember is endothermic and can proceed within the exothermic hydrolysis of the magnesium endmember and also within the exothermic reactions of carbonations. The distinction between three products of the iron hydrolysis, magnetite, goethite and hematite is determined with E-pH diagrams. The hydrolysis/oxidation of the sulfides mackinawite/troilite/pyrrhotite is highly endothermic but can proceed within the heat produced by the exothermic hydrolyses and carbonations of ferromagnesian silicates and also by other sources such as magma, hydrothermal sources, impacts. These theoretical results are confirmed by the products observed in several related laboratory experiments. The case of radiolyzed water is studied. It is shown that magnetite and ferric oxides/hydroxides such as ferric trihydroxide, goethite/lepidocrocite and hematite are formed in oxic hydrolysis of ferromagnesian silicates at 25 °C and 350 °C. Oxic oxidation of ferrous monosulfides at 25 °C leads mainly to pyrite and ferric oxides/hydroxides such as

  7. The Patagonian Orocline: Paleomagnetic evidence of a large counter-clockwise rotation during the closure of the Rocas Verdes basin. (United States)

    Poblete, Fernando; Roperch, Pierrick; Herve, Francisco; Ramirez, Cristobal; Arriagada, Cesar


    The southernmost Andes of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego present a prominent arc-shaped structure, the Patagonian Orocline. Despite the fact that this major structure was already described by Alfred Wegener in his famous textbook in 1929, few paleomagnetic studies have been attempted to describe the rotations associated with the formation of the Patagonian Orocline. In this study we present a paleomagnetic and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) study from more than 130 sites obtained from the Ultima Esperanza region (NS structures at ~51°S) to Península Hardy, south of the Beagle Channel at ~55°S. 45 sites were sampled in early-cretaceous gabbros (gabbro complex), mid-cretaceous tonalites and granodiorites (Canal Beagle group) and Paleocene intrusive rocks (Seno Año Nuevo group) from the South Patagonian batholith, 4 sites from the late Jurassic Hardy formation, a volcanic succession outcropping in Hardy Peninsula and Stewart Island, 9 sites were drilled in the lower cretaceous sedimentary infill of the Rocas Verdes Basin, 3 sites from the Tortuga ophiolite, a quasi-oceanic crust related to the opening of the Rocas Verdes basin. 80 sites were sampled in Cretaceous to Miocene sedimentary rocks from the Magallanes fold and thrust belt and Magallanes Basin. Characteristic Remanent Magnetizations (ChRMs) obtained from the Rocas Verdes Basin tectonic province correspond to secondary magnetizations postdating the early phase of folding. Pyrrhotite is the main magnetic carrier in some of these sites. ChRMs from the South Patagonian Batholith correspond to a primary magnetization. These rocks record about 90° counterclockwise rotations south of the Beagle channel. Few sites from sediments of the Magallanes fold and thrust belt have stable ChRM. The available paleomagnetic results show that no rotation has occurred in the Provincia of Ultima Esperanza (51.5°S), at least, for the last 60 Ma. In the southern part of Provincia de Magallanes and Tierra del Fuego

  8. Application of magnetic, geochemical and micro-morphological methods in environmental studies of urban pollution generated by road traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucko, M.


    -exhaust emissions) and/or grain size of the accumulated particles (large active surface of ultrafine particles). Significant correlations were found between magnetic susceptibility and the concentration of selected heavy metals in the case of moss bags exposed to road traffic. Low-coercivity magnetite was identified as a major magnetic phase in all studied roadside collectors (soil, snow, moss bags and lichens). However, magnetic minerals such as titanomagnetite, ilmenite, pyrite and pyrrhotite were also observed in the studied samples. The identified magnetite particles are mostly pseudo-single-domain (PSD) with a predominant MD fraction (>10 {mu}m). The ultrafine iron oxides (>10 nm) were found in road dust extracted from roadside snow. Large magnetic particles mostly originate from nonexhaust emissions, while ultrafine particles originate from exhaust emissions. The examined road dust contains two types of anthropogenic particles: (1) angular/aggregate particles composed of various elements (diameter {approx}1-300 {mu}m); (2) spherules ( {approx}1-100 {mu}m) mostly composed of iron. The first type of particles originates from non-exhaust emissions such as the abrasion of vehicle components, road surface and winter road maintenance. The spherule-shaped particles are products of combustion processes e.g. combustion of coal in nearby power plants and/or fuel in vehicle engines. This thesis demonstrates that snow is an efficient collector of anthropogenic particles, since it can accumulate and preserve the pollutants for several months (until the late stages of melting). Furthermore, it provides more information about spatial and temporal distribution of traffic-generated magnetic particles than soil. Since the interpretation of data obtained from magnetic measurements of soil is problematic (due to its complexity), this suggests the application of alternative collectors of anthropogenic magnetic particulates (e.g. snow and moss bags). Moss bags and lichens are well suited for

  9. The geology of the Morro Velho gold deposit in the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil (United States)

    Vial, Diogenes Scipioni; DeWitt, Ed; Lobato, Lydia Maria; Thorman, Charles H.


    The Morro Velho gold deposit, Quadrilátero Ferrífero region, Minas Gerais, Brazil, is hosted by rocks at the base of the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt. The deposit occurs within a thick carbonaceous phyllite package, containing intercalations of felsic and intermediate volcaniclastic rocks and dolomites. Considering the temporal and spatial association of the deposit with the Rio das Velhas orogeny, and location in close proximity to a major NNW-trending fault zone, it can be classified as an orogenic gold deposit. Hydrothermal activity was characterized by intense enrichment in alteration zones of carbonates, sulfides, chlorite, white mica±biotite, albite and quartz, as described in other Archean lode-type gold ores. Two types of ore occur in the deposit: dark gray quartz veins and sulfide-rich gold orebodies. The sulfide-rich orebodies range from disseminated concentrations of sulfide minerals to massive sulfide bodies. The sulfide assemblage comprises (by volume), on average, 74% pyrrhotite, 17% arsenopyrite, 8% pyrite and 1% chalcopyrite. The orebodies have a long axis parallel to the local stretching lineation, with continuity down the plunge of fold axis for at least 4.8 km. The group of rocks hosting the Morro Velho gold mineralization is locally referred to as lapa seca. These were isoclinally folded and metamorphosed prior to gold mineralization. The lapa seca and the orebodies it hosts are distributed in five main tight folds related to F1 (the best examples are the X, Main and South orebodies, in level 25), which are disrupted by NE- to E-striking shear zones. Textural features indicate that the sulfide mineralization postdated regional peak metamorphism, and that the massive sulfide ore has subsequently been neither metamorphosed nor deformed. Lead isotope ratios indicate a model age of 2.82 ± 0.05 Ga for both sulfide and gold mineralization. The lapa seca are interpreted as the results of a pre-gold alteration process and may be

  10. Genetic Pd, Pt, Au, Ag, and Rh mineralogy in Noril'sk sulfide ores (United States)

    Spiridonov, E. M.; Kulagov, E. A.; Serova, A. A.; Kulikova, I. M.; Korotaeva, N. N.; Sereda, E. V.; Tushentsova, I. N.; Belyakov, S. N.; Zhukov, N. N.


    The undeformed ore-bearing intrusions of the Noril'sk ore field (NOF) cut through volcanic rocks of the Late Permian-Early Triassic trap association folded in brachysynclines. Due to the nonuniform load on the roof of intrusive bodies, most sulfide melts were squeezed, up to the tops of ore-bearing intrusions; readily fusible Ni-Fe-Cu sulfide melts were almost completely squeezed. In our opinion, not only one but two stages of mineralization developed at the Noril'sk deposits: (i) syntrap magmatic and (ii) epigenetic post-trap metamorphic-hydrothermal. All platinum-group minerals (PGM) and minerals of gold are metasomatic in the Noril'sk ores. They replaced sulfide solid solutions and exsolution structures. All types of PGM and Au minerals occur in the ores, varying in composition from pyrrhotite to chalcopyrite, talnakhite, mooihoekite, and rich in galena; they are localized in the inner and outer contact zones and differ only in the quantitative proportions of ore minerals. The aureoles of PGM and Au-Ag minerals are wider than the contours of sulfide bodies and coincide with halos of fluid impact on orebodies and adjacent host rocks. The pneumatolytic PGM and Au-Ag minerals are correlated in abundance with the dimensions of sulfide bodies. Their amounts are maximal in veins of late fusible ore composed of eutectic PbS ss and iss intergrowths, as well as at their contacts. The Pd and Pt contents in eutectic sulfide ores of NOF are the world's highest. In the process of noble-metal mineral formation, the fluids supply Pd, Pt, Au, As, Sb, Sn, Bi, and a part of Te, whereas Fe, Ni, Cu, Pb, Ag, Rh, a part of Te and Pd are leached from the replaced sulfide minerals. The pneumatolytic PGM of the early stage comprises Pd and Pt intermetallic compounds enriched in Au along with Pd-Pt-Fe-Ni-Cu-Sn-Pb(As) and (Pd,Pt,Au)(Sn,Sb,Bi,Te,As) solid solutions. Pneumatolytic PGM and Au minerals of the middle stage are products of solid-phase transformation and recrystallization of

  11. Spatial and temporal zoning of hydrothermal alteration and mineralization in the Sossego iron oxide-copper-gold deposit, Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil: Paragenesis and stable isotope constraints (United States)

    Monteiro, Lena V.S.; Xavier, R.P.; Carvalho, E.R.; Hitzman, M.W.; Johnson, C.A.; Souza, Filho C.R.; Torresi, I.


    subsidiary siegenite, and millerite. Pyrrhotite and pyrite are minor constituents of ore in the Sequerinho orebodies while pyrite is relatively abundant in the Sossego–Curral bodies. Oxygen isotope partitioning between mineral pairs constrains temperatures in the deposit spatially and through time. In the Sequeirinho orebody, the early sodic–calcic alteration stage was characterized by temperatures exceeding 500°C and δ18OH2O values for the alteration fluid of 6.9 ± 0.9‰. Temperature declines outward and upward from the zone of most intense alteration. Paragenetically later copper–gold mineralization displays markedly lower temperatures (<300°C) and was characterized by the introduction of 18O-depleted hydrothermal fluids −1.8 ± 3.4‰. The calculated δDH2O and δ18OH2O values suggest that the fluids that formed the early calcic–sodic alteration assemblage were of formational/metamorphic or magmatic origin. The decrease of δ18OH2O values through time may reflect influx of surficially derived waters during later alteration and mineralization events. Influx of such fluids could be related to episodic fluid overpressure, resulting in dilution and cooling of the metalliferous fluid, causing deposition of metals transported as metal chloride complexes.

  12. Fe and S redox states during serpentinite dehydration in subduction settings (United States)

    Merkulova, Margarita; Munoz, Manuel; Vidal, Olivier; Brunet, Fabrice


    present highly oxidizing properties. At higher P-T conditions, higher amounts of water are released with minor oxygen release. In addition, sulfur is shown to be progressively reduced at temperature 450-500°C due to pyrite to pyrrhotite transition. The reaction of pyrite reduction was observed to happen with sequestration of Fe from silicates and a release of oxygen. Effectively, the presence of sulphides in serpentinites contribute additional oxygen to the fluid, whereas the release of S may be negligible. The detailed study of the evolution of redox conditions during serpentinite dehydration in subduction zones will help constraining, 1) the behavior and mobility, from slab to the upper mantle, of elements of economical interest, as well as 2) the global geochemical cycling of elements. References: 1. Hacker et al. (2003) J. Geophys. Res. 108, article number 2029. 2. Ulmer & Trommsdorff (1995) Science 268, 858-861. 3. Debret et al. (2014) EPSL 400, 206-218. 4. Alt et al. (2013) Lithos 178, 40-54. 5. Pokrovski & Dubrovinsky (2011) Science 331, 1052-1056.

  13. Ecological response of benthic foraminifera to the acid drainage from mine areas. An example from the Gromolo torrent mouth (Eastern Ligurian Sea, Italy) (United States)

    Bergamin, Luisa; Capello, Marco; Carbone, Cristina; Magno, Maria Celia; Consani, Sirio; Cutroneo, Laura; Ferraro, Luciana; Pierfranceschi, Giancarlo; Romano, Elena


    Benthic foraminiferal assemblages react in short time to natural and anthropogenic environmental changes and, for this, they are considered as reliable indicators of environmental quality. An interesting application of these indicators is the study of their response to environmental changes in coastal marine areas, affected by dismissed mines and dump areas. The Libiola Fe-Cu sulphide mine was intensively exploited in 19th and 20th centuries, and the activity ended in 1962. The sulphide mineral assemblages consist of pyrite and chalcopyrite, with minor sphalerite and pyrrhotite, in a gangue of quartz and chlorite. The sulphide ore occurs within the Jurassic ophiolites of the Northern Apennines which were subjected to metamorphic and tectonic processes during the subsequent Apennine orogenesis. Waters circulating in the Libiola mine area, and discharging in the adjacent streams and creeks, are strongly polluted due to the diffuse occurrence of Acid Mine Drainage processes. The Gromolo torrent collects these acidic waters enriched of heavy metals which flow into Ligurian Sea. The study area is characterised by a shelf with a gentle slope, mainly constituted by sediment supplied by Entella torrent. The general circulation has trend from East to West and the coastal drift is generally eastwards. A total of 15 marine sediment samples (upper 2 cm) were collected by means of Van Veen grab in the coastal zone close to the Gromolo mouth and analyzed for living (rose Bengal stained) and dead benthic foraminifera, together with grain size, metals and trace elements, and metal fractioning. Quantitative foraminiferal parameters, like as abundance, species diversity, heterogeneity and assemblage composition, were determined and evaluated for environmental purpose. Additionally, possible increase above the natural background level of deformed specimens was considered as indicative of metal contamination. The grain-size analyses highlighted mainly sandy sediments, characterized by

  14. Structure, alteration, and geochemistry of the Charlotte quartz vein stockwork, Mt Charlotte gold mine, Kalgoorlie, Australia: time constraints, down-plunge zonation, and fluid source (United States)

    Mueller, Andreas G.


    The Kalgoorlie district in the Archean Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, comprises two world-class gold deposits: Mt Charlotte (144 t Au produced to 2013) in the northwest and the Golden Mile (1,670 t Au) in the southeast. Both occur in a folded greenschist-facies gabbro sill adjacent to the Golden Mile Fault (D2) in propylitic alteration associated with porphyry dikes. At Mt Charlotte, a shear array of fault-fill veins within the Golden Mile Fault indicates sinistral strike-slip during Golden Mile-type pyrite-telluride mineralization. The pipe-shaped Charlotte quartz vein stockwork, mined in bulk more than 1 km down plunge, is separated in time by barren D3 thrusts from Golden Mile mineralization and alteration, and occurs between two dextral strike-slip faults (D4). Movement on these faults generated an organized network of extension and shear fractures opened during the subsequent infiltration of high-pressure H2S-rich fluid at 2,655 ± 13 Ma (U-Pb xenotime). Gold was deposited during wall rock sulphidation in overlapping vein selvages zoned from deep albite-pyrrhotite (3 g/t Au) to upper muscovite-pyrite assemblages (5 g/t Au bulk grade). Chlorite and fluid inclusion thermometry indicate that this kilometre-scale zonation is due to fluid cooling from 410-440 °C at the base to 350-360 °C at the top of the orebody, while the greenstone terrane remained at 250 °C ambient temperature and at 300 MPa lithostatic pressure. The opened fractures filled with barren quartz and scheelite during the retrograde stage (300 °C) of the hydrothermal event. During fracture sealing, fluid flux was periodically restricted at the lower D3 thrust. Cycles of high and low up-flow, represented by juvenile H2O-CO2 and evolved H2O-CO2-CH4 fluid, respectively, are recorded by the REE and Sr isotope compositions of scheelite oscillatory zones. The temperature gradient measured in the vein stockwork points to a hot (>600 °C) fluid source 2-4 km below the mine workings, and several

  15. Hydrothermal Evolution of the Giant Cenozoic Kadjaran porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, Tethyan metallogenic belt, Armenia, Lesser Caucasus: mineral paragenetic, cathodoluminescence and fluid inclusion constraints (United States)

    Hovakimyan, Samvel; Moritz, Robert; Tayan, Rodrik; Rezeau, Hervé


    The Lesser Caucasus belongs to the Central segment of the Tethyan metallogenic belt and it is a key area to understand the metallogenic evolution between the Western & Central parts of the Tethyan belt and its extension into Iran. Zangezur is the most important mineral district in the southernmost Lesser Caucasus. It is a component of the South Armenian block, and it was generated during the convergence and collision of the southern margin of the Eurasian plate and the northern margin of the Arabian plate, and terranes of Gondwana origin (Moritz et al., in press). The Zangezur ore district consists of the Tertiary Meghri-Ordubad composite pluton, which is characterized by a long-lasting Eocene to Pliocene magmatic, tectonic and metallogenic evolution. It hosts major porphyries Cu-Mo and epithermal Au - polymetallic deposits and occurrences, including the giant world class Kadjaran porphyry Cu-Mo deposit (2244 Mt reserves, 0.3% Cu, 0.05% Mo and 0.02 g/t Au). The Kadjaran deposit is hosted by a monzonite intrusion (31.83±0.02Ma; Moritz et al., in press). Detailed field studies of the porphyry stockwork and veins of the different mineralization stages, their crosscutting and displacement relationships and the age relationship between different paragenetic mineral associations were the criteria for distinction of the main stages of porphyry mineralization at the Kadjaran deposit. The economic stages being: quartz- molybdenite, quartz-molybdenite-chalcopyrite, and quartz-chalcopyrite. The main paragenetic association of the Kadjaran porphyry deposit includes pyrite, molybdenite, chalcopyrite, bornite, chalcocite, pyrrhotite, covellite, sphalerite, and galena. Recent field observations in the Kadjaran open pit revealed the presence of epithermal veins with late vuggy silica and advanced argillic alteration in the north-eastern and eastern parts of the deposit. They are distributed as separate veins and have also been recognized in re-opened porphyry veins and in

  16. Paragenesis and chemistry of multistage tourmaline formation in the sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, British Columbia (United States)

    Jiang, S.-Y.; Palmer, M.R.; Slack, J.F.; Shaw, D.R.


    Detailed petrographic study, scanning electron microscope imaging, and electron microprobe analyses of tourmalines from the Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag massive sulfide deposit (British Columbia, Canada) document multiple paragenetic stages and large compositional variations. The tourmalines mainly belong to two common solid-solution series: dravite-schorl and dravite-uvite. Ca- and Fe-rich feruvite and alkali-deficient tourmalines are present locally. Products of tourmaline-forming stages include (from oldest to youngest): (1) rare Fe-rich dravite-schorl within black tourmalinite clasts in footwall fragmental rocks; (2) widespread Mg-rich, very fine grained, felted dravite in the footwall (the main type of tourmaline in the footwall tourmalinite pipe); (3) recrystallized, Fe-rich dravite-schorl (locally Ca-Fe feruvite) in the tourmalinite pipe, which preferentially occurs near postore gabbroic intrusions; (4) Mg-rich dravite or uvite associated with chlorite-pyrrhotite and chlorite-albite-pyrite-altered rocks in the shallow footwall and hanging wall; (5) discrete Mg-rich tourmaline grains associated with chlorite and discordant Mg-rich tourmaline rims which occur on disseminated Fe-rich schorl in the bedded Pb-Zn-Ag ores. The timing of rare Fe-rich schorl in the bedded ores is uncertain, but it most likely occurred during or between stages 2 and 3. The different paragenetic stages and their respective tourmaline compositions are interpreted in terms of a multistage evolution involving contributions from: (1) variable mixtures of synsedimentary, Fe-rich hydrothermal fluids and entrained seawater; (2) postore, Fe-rich, gabbro-related hydrothermal fluids; and (3) postore metamorphic reactions. Early synsedimentary, Fe-rich hydrothermal fluids which contained little or no entrained seawater formed Fe-rich black tourmalinite clasts locally in the footwall. The major type of tourmaline in the footwall tourmalinite pipe is Mg rich, recording seawater entrainment under high water

  17. Geology of the Alaska-Juneau lode system, Alaska (United States)

    Twenhofel, William Stephens


    inches to 3 feet wide and extending along their strike and dip for several tens to hundreds of feet. In addition to quartz, the only other vein gangue mineral is ankerite. It occurs in small amounts along the borders of the quartz veins. Metallic vein minerals, in addition to native gold, are, in order of decreasing abundance, pyrrhotite, galena, sphalerite, and arsenopyrite. In the aggregate the metallic minerals comprise only 1 to 2 percent of the total amount of vein material. The wall rock, particularly the meta-gabbro, was profoundly altered by the vein-forming processes. The principal effects on the meta-gabbro were the addition of large amounts of soda, potash, titanium, carbon dioxide, and phosphorous, and the removal of considerable quantities of iron, magnesia, lime, and combined water. Silica also may have been decreased. The mineralogical changes involved in the alteration were the development of biotite and ankerite at the expense of original hornblende and feldspar, resulting in a brown-colored biotite- and ankerite-rich rock. The slates are relatively unaffected by the vein-forming processes. Because of their small size, relatively low grade, and discontinuity, no attempt has been made to mine any individual vein. The prevailing practice has been to mine large blocks of ground by a system of modified block-caving, followed by hand sorting to remove the barren country rock from the gold-bearing quartz prior to milling.

  18. 镍火法冶炼废渣中钴、镍回收的研究进展%Progress on recovery of cobalt and nickel from waste slag of the nickel pyrometallurgy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄斐荣; 廖亚龙; 周娟; 李冰洁


    The comprehensive methods of recycling valuable metal resources such as cobalt and nickel from waste slag produced in the nickel smelter were reviewed. Mineralogical characteristics of typical waste slag and research status on the reclamation of valuable metals,cobalt and nickel in particular from the slag were introduced. Advantages and limitations of the main methods were analyzed and discussed. Furthermore,the research direction and trend were predicted. And it was pointed out that although the purpose of enriching cobalt and nickel can be realized economically by ore dressing method,the drawback of narrow raw material application scope is obvious. The defects of gaseous pollutant emission and high energy consumption exist in pyrometallurgical process. While the reaction velocity of bioleaching process is low, the characteristics of simple process,low investment and etc, can make it a promising research direction full of development prospect. High pressure oxidative acid leaching(HPOAL) is considered to be environmentally friendly and suitable for extracting cobalt and nickel from the slag because of high recovery of nickel and cobalt without hazardous materials being produced in the process. The slag is treated by HPOAL after slow-cooling,roasting and or reduction pretreatment,and alternative materials of sulfuric acid like pyrrhotite tailing containing certain quantity of nickel and other metals as leaching agents during this process. This can be the developing trend of HPOAL.%综述了镍火法冶炼废渣中钴、镍等有价金属资源综合回收技术。通过回顾镍火法冶炼过程中产生的典型废渣的物相研究以及渣中钴、镍等有价金属回收的研究现状,分析和讨论了主要处理镍冶炼废渣工艺的优势及存在的缺陷,展望了研究方向和趋势。指出选矿法尽管能够经济地实现钴、镍富集的目的,但存在原料适用范围狭窄的局限性;火法处理工艺存在能

  19. Metales base y preciosos en Las Águilas, sierra de San Luis: mineralogía, génesis y evolución Precious and base metals in Las Águilas, Sierra de San Luis: Mineralogy, genesis and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ferracutti


    Full Text Available El cuerpo máfico-ultramáfico Las Águilas aflorante en las sierras de San Luis es portador de una mineralización de sulfuros que consiste esencialmente de pirrotina, pentlandita y calcopirita con participación subordinada de minerales del grupo del platino (MGP. Los resultados dados a conocer aquí fueron obtenidos a partir del estudio de muestras provenientes de los testigos de las perforaciones realizadas por la Dirección General de Fabricaciones Militares en la década del 70-80. Dicha mineralización evidencia texturas de tipo intersticial o "net texture"-textura nodular, diseminada y relleno masivo de venillas, según la relación existente entre los sulfuros y la roca hospedante, la cual se presenta principalmente en los niveles de rocas ultramáficas con minerales del grupo del espinelo. La mineralización se habría originado entre los 600-700° C a partir de la solución sólida de monosulfuro, reconociéndose una componente de mineralización magmática primaria (Po1+Ccp1 +Pn±MGP±Cub afectada por una importante removilización (Po2+Ccp2+Pn±MGP±Py±Mck. Aunque no se determinaron diferencias químicas entre los sulfuros identificados en ambos tipos de mineralización, las diferenciación de ambos tipos es indicada por evidencias de tipo textural, el predominio de MGP asociados a los metales base removilizados y el hecho que los MGP se presentan en los bordes de los sulfuros, asociados a minerales del grupo de la serpentina y en los bordes de alteración de los espinelos.Las Águilas mafic-ultramafic body is located in the Sierras of San Luis and carries a sulfide mineralization of pyrrhotite, pentlandite and chalcopyrite with accessory platinum group minerals (PGM. The results presented in this contribution were obtained from drill core samples made by the Dirección General de Fabricaciones Militares in the 70's and 80's. The mineralization occurs in the ultramafic rocks, associated to spinels levels and shows the following

  20. Cataclastic flow kinematics inferred from magnetic fabrics at the Heart Mountain Detachment, Wyoming (United States)

    Heij, Gerhard W.

    The Heart Mountain Detachment (HMD) in Wyoming constitutes one of the largest known rock slides (3400 km2) on Earth. This detachment took place along the stratigraphic boundary between the Bighorn Dolomite at the hanging-wall and the Snowy Range Formation at the footwall. The slide resulted in the formation of an up to 3 m-thick carbonate ultracataclasite (CUC) at the base of the slide. The origin of the CUC and the nature of the triggering mechanism responsible for the initiation of the catastrophic movement have long been controversial. The most widely accepted theory is a mid-Eocene eruption in the Absaroka volcanic province that triggered rupture and subsequent detachment of Paleozoic rocks. Rapid sliding was facilitated by basal fluidization generated by thermo-mechanical decomposition of carbonate rocks. Here I present a proof of concept study addressing the question of the consistent magnetic fabrics observed in the CUC, as well as new observations indicating the discovery of mineral grains of volcanic origin within the CUC. Additionally, some constraints are placed on the thermo-chemical conditions operating at the base of this catastrophic landslide. Overall, the CUC displays an average magnetic susceptibility one order of magnitude higher (1803 . -6 [SI]) than the overlying Bighorn Dolomite (148 . -6 [SI]) and underlying Snowy Range Fm (636 . -6 [SI]). Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data, field observations and microstructural analysis suggest that ferromagnetic (s.l) minerals in the CUC originate from the Bighorn Dolomite, the Tertiary volcanics and synkinematic thermal decomposition of pyrite into pyrrhotite and magnetite. Thermomagnetic investigations revealed a Curie temperature of 525°C which suggests that magnetite is the dominant magnetic carrier mineral in the CUC. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy analyses confirm that this magnetite has a relatively low ulvospinel content. Magnetic hysteresis properties point to an average pseudo

  1. Decline of a Hydrothermal Vent Field - Escanaba Trough 12 Years Later (United States)

    Zierenberg, R. A.; Clague, D. A.; Davis, A. S.; Lilley, M. D.; McClain, J. S.; Olson, E. S.; Ross, S. L.; Von Damm, K. L.


    Hydrothermal venting was discovered in Escanaba Trough, the southern sediment-covered portion of the Gorda Ridge, in 1988. Large pyrrhotite-rich massive sulfide mounds are abundant at each of the volcanic/intrusive centers that have been investigated in Escanaba Trough, but the only area of known hydrothermal venting is the NESCA site along the ridge axis at 41\\deg N. Hydrothermal fluids venting at 217\\deg C and 108\\deg C were sampled in 1988 on two sulfide mounds separated by about 275 m. The end-member fluid compositions were indistinguishable within analytical errors. Several sulfide mounds were observed in 1988 which had diffusely venting low temperature (holes were drilled in the NESCA area in 1996 on ODP Leg 169, including Hole 1036I that penetrated to basaltic basement at 405 m below sea floor (mbsf). Surveys of the area using the drill string camera located only one area of active venting at the same mound where 217\\deg C vent fluids were sampled from two active vents in 1988. Drill hole 1036A was spudded between the two active vents on this sulfide mound (approximately 4 and 8 m away) and penetrated to 115 mbsf. The NESCA site was revisited in 2000 using MBARI's R/V Western Flyer and ROV Tiburon. The hydrothermal vents appeared essentially identical to observations made from the drill string camera in 1996 despite the presence of a drill hole within meters of the two vents. The maximum vent temperature measured in 2000 was 212\\deg C. Fluid samples have major element and isotopic compositions very similar to those collected in 1988. The vent fluids have higher methane ( ~19 mmol/kg) than those from the geologically similar Middle Valley vent field, but lower values than those at Guaymas Basin. Drill hole 1036A was weakly venting, but the diffuse hydrothermal fluids could not be sampled with the equipment available. The walls of the drill hole were colonized by palm worms, limpets, and snails. Four other drill holes showed no hydrothermal flow nor

  2. Interior of Titan: 2-Layer or 3-Layer and Does It Matter? (United States)

    McKinnon, W. B.; Bland, M. T.


    Cassini gravity data for Titan is consistent with a hydrostatic interior and implies an incomplete separation of rock from ice. Simple 2-layer models of the interior have been proposed, in which Titan possesses a "core" and an "ice" layer. In the following, this ice layer should be understood to itself likely consist of higher and lower pressure phases of ice (and/or clathrate) separated by an internal ocean. This is not the "layering" in question in the title; here we address the gross structure of Titan, and what this might tell us about the accretion, evolution, and bombardment history of large icy satellites. Two-layer models face fundamental difficulties. If the "core" is a rock-ice mixture, its average density is ≈2500-2600 kg/m3 (to match Titan's moment-of-inertia [MOI]), and the silicate volume fraction implied may be too high to permit ice-mediated convection and efficient heat transport from the interior. Alternately, if the core is assumed to be a low-density carbonaceous rock, it must be iron deficient (non-solar) and hydrated. We have reexamined models of solar-composition rock for the outer solar system, and guided by high-pressure (multi-GPa) experiments, constructed an appropriate mineralogy based on up-to-date solar abundances (NCFMASNiSu system) and a maximum degree of hydroxylation and carbonation. In order of decreasing abundance, this rock model consists of iron-bearing antigorite, pyrrhotite, calcite, natrite, diaspore, and millerite, minerals stable at Titan core pressures and moderate temperatures. The STP density is 3,000 kg/m3, and is predominantly antigorite (74%) with appreciable sulfide (18%), but no iron metal or magnetite. No simple 2-layer model of Titan can be constructed with this rock that matches Titan's density and MOI. (And such rock as part of a rock-ice "core" guarantees that the rock volume fraction would exceed the critical value (~60%) where the viscosity of the mixture is controlled by a close-packed rock framework. Ice

  3. Mesozoic Magmatism and Base-Metal Mineralization in the Fortymile Mining District, Eastern Alaska - Initial Results of Petrographic, Geochemical, and Isotopic Studies in the Mount Veta Area (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Slack, John F.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Mortensen, James K.


    -bearing Zn skarn. Cu-Zn-Pb-Ag-Au showings at the Oscar pros-pect occur in marble-hosted magnetite and pyrrhotite skarn that is spatially related to the stocks, dikes, and sills of the Early Jurassic syenite of Mount Veta. Mineralized rocks at the Eva Creek Ag-Zn-Pb-Cu prospect are within 1.5 km of the Mount Veta pluton, which is epidotized and locally altered along its contact with metamorphosed country rock east of the prospect. We report five new sulfide Pb-isotopic analyses from the LWM, Oscar, and Eva Creek prospects and compare these sulfide Pb-isotopic ratios with those for sulfides from nearby deposits and prospects in the Yukon-Tanana Upland and with feldspar Pb-isotopic ratios for Mesozoic plutons in the region. Disparities between the Pb-isotopic ratios for sulfides and igneous feldspars are consistent with a carbonate-replacement model for both the LWM and Eva Creek prospects. The presence in the Fortymile district of base-metal sulfides within both calc-silicate-rich skarns and the calc-silicate-free carbonate replacement deposits may reflect multistage mineralization by magmatic-hydrothermal systems during the emplacement of two or more magmatically unrelated igneous intrusions. Alternatively, all of the mineralized occurrences could be products of one regionally zoned system that formed during the intrusion of a single pluton. In addition to the likely origin of some of the base-metal occurrences by intrusion-related hydrothermal fluids, proximity of the LWM prospect to the northeast-striking, high-angle Kechumstuk Fault suggests that fluid flow along the fault also played an important role during carbonate-replacement mineralization.

  4. Geology and Metal Contents of the Ruttan volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit, northern Manitoba, Canada (United States)

    Barrie, C. Tucker.; Taylor, Craig; Ames, Doreen E.


    hanging wall rocks are characterized by sericite ± gahnite alteration, which is restricted to within approximately 75 m of the uppermost lenses. Additional gangue minerals are anhydrite and carbonate minerals (siderite, dolomite, ankerite, and calcite), as well as chlorite, sericite, biotite, talc, and quartz. Carbonate (excluding siderite), potassium feldspar, silicification and epidotization are common distal alteration zones in the footwall to the Mine Sequence several kilometers to the northeast. There are three principal groups of massive sulfide lenses; the East lenses, the West lenses, and the Western Anomaly lenses to the far west. In general, Cu is relatively enriched at the stratigraphic base and in the center of the deposit, whereas Zn is enriched upsection and at the outer margins. Some of the Zn-rich ore exhibits primary mineralogical layering. Parts of the West and Western Anomaly lenses show two layers with Cu-rich bases and Zn-rich tops. The massive sulfide is typically 10-40-m thick; one area along the margin of the main lenses is over 130-m thick and may represent deposition adjacent to a syn-depositional fault. The main sulfide phases are pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and galena, with tetrahedrite as the most abundant trace phase. Gahnite is ubiquitous in the chlorite-rich assemblages adjacent to the ore lenses. The average base, precious and trace metal contents estimated from Cu and Zn concentrates, and from millhead grades and recoveries. Metals easily transported as chloride and bisulfide complexes in hydrothermal fluids including: Pb, Ag, In, Cu, Cd, Au, and Zn are enriched by 1.5-2.5 orders of magnitude in comparison to the bulk continental crust. Other elements such as Sn, Mo, and As are at near-crustal concentrations, whereas Mn, Ga, and Co are significantly depleted in comparison to the crust. Calculated metal concentrations in the average hydrothermal fluid based on the average metal contents are comparable to, or higher than

  5. An internally consistent inverse model to calculate ridge-axis hydrothermal fluxes (United States)

    Coogan, L. A.; Dosso, S.


    Fluid and chemical fluxes from high-temperature, on-axis, hydrothermal systems at mid-ocean ridges have been estimated in a number of ways. These generally use simple mass balances based on either vent fluid compositions or the compositions of altered sheeted dikes. Here we combine these approaches in an internally consistent model. Seawater is assumed to enter the crust and react with the sheeted dike complex at high temperatures. Major element fluxes for both the rock and fluid are calculated from balanced stoichiometric reactions. These reactions include end-member components of the minerals plagioclase, pyroxene, amphibole, chlorite and epidote along with pure anhydrite, quartz, pyrite, pyrrhotite, titanite, magnetite, ilmenite and ulvospinel and the fluid species H2O, Mg2+, Ca2+, Fe2+, Na+, Si4+, H2S, H+ and H2. Trace element abundances (Li, B, K, Rb, Cs, Sr, Ba, U, Tl, Mn, Cu, Zn, Co, Ni, Pb and Os) and isotopic ratios (Li, B, O, Sr, Tl, Os) are calculated from simple mass balance of a fluid-rock reaction. A fraction of the Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, Ni, Os and Mn in the fluid after fluid-rock reaction is allowed to precipitate during discharge before the fluid reaches the seafloor. S-isotopes are tied to mineralogical reactions involving S-bearing phases. The free parameters in the model are the amounts of each mineralogical reaction that occurs, the amounts of the metals precipitated during discharge, and the water-to-rock ratio. These model parameters, and their uncertainties, are constrained by: (i) mineral abundances and mineral major element compositions in altered dikes from ODP Hole 504B and the Pito and Hess Deep tectonic windows (EPR crust); (ii) changes in dike bulk-rock trace element and isotopic compositions from these locations relative to fresh MORB glass compositions; and (iii) published vent fluid compositions from basalt-hosted high-temperature ridge axis hydrothermal systems. Using a numerical inversion algorithm, the probability density of different

  6. 高镁型低品位硫化镍矿浸出工艺及机理%Leaching process and mechanism of high magnesium low­grade nickel sulfide ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣伟; 胡文韬; 李浩然; 冯雅丽


    The leaching process and mechanism of high magnesium low grade nickel sulphide ore were studied by ammonium sulfate roasting-water leaching-bacterial leaching technology, and the mineral transformation mechanism was also researched. The results show that the leaching rates of Ni, Cu, Mg and Fe are 93.24%, 92.07%, 62.67% and 63.39%, respectively. The roasting and bacterial leaching processes are selective for minerals. The serpentine with high iron content is easy to react with ammonium sulfate in the roasting process. Iron element in serpentine generates anhydrous ammonium alum. Magnesium element in serpentine generates (NH4)2Mg2(SO4)3 and forsterite, which dissolve into the solution in the process of water and bacterial leaching with olivine in the ore. The serpentine with low iron content basically does not change in the process, only a small amount of iron element is leached in the bacterial leaching process, while magnesium is not easy to be leached and finally left in bacterial leaching slag. Copper and nickel sulfide minerals react with ammonium sulfate to form sulfate, which dissolve in solution in the water and bacterial leaching process. Pyrrhotite generates hematite in the roasting process, little part of which is leached in the water and bacterial leaching process. The remaining part is left in the bacterial leaching residue, resulting in the loss of iron oxide.%采用硫酸铵焙烧-水浸出-细菌浸出处理工艺,研究高镁型低品位硫化镍矿的浸出工艺路线及矿物的转化机理。结果表明:镍、铜、镁和铁的浸出率分别可达93.24%、92.07%、62.67%和63.39%;焙烧和细菌浸出对矿物都有选择性,焙烧过程中含铁较高的蛇纹石易与硫酸铵相作用,铁元素生成无水铁铵矾,镁元素生成(NH4)2Mg2(SO4)3和镁橄榄石,和原矿中的橄榄石一起在水浸、细菌浸出过程中溶解进入溶液。含铁量较低的蛇纹石在焙烧、水浸过程中基本不发生变化,只有

  7. Re-Os isotopic age dating of molybdenite separates from Hashitu Mo deposit in Linxi County of Inner Mongolia and its geological significance%内蒙古林西县哈什吐钼矿床辉钼矿铼-锇年龄及其地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张可; 聂凤军; 侯万荣; 李超; 刘勇


    Located in the eastern part of the southern Da Hinggan Ling Late Paleozoic orogenic belt between the Silas Wood Aaron River and the Erlian-Hegenshan structure zone, the newly discovered Hashitu ore deposit is a medium-size porphyry molybdeoum deposit occurring in east-central Inner Mongolian. The Hashitu granite porphyry and biotite granite were emplaced in the widespread Quaternary sedimentary sequence in the Hashitu mineralized area. The granite porphyry intruded into the biotite granite in a slightly later period, and the two granite intrusions made up a Yanshanian complex. The Mo mineralization occurred entirely in the two types of Mesozoic granitic intrusive rocks in stratiform, lenticular and chambered forms at large steep angles. The metallic minerals of the ores from Hashitu are mainly molybdenite and subordinate, pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite and galena, whereas the gangue mineral assemblage consists of mainly quartz, sericite and subordinately chlorite, epidote, fluorite and feldspar. Re-Os isotopic age dating of ten molybdenite separates from No. 1 Mo ore body yielded an isochron age of (148.8 ± 1.6) Ma and model ages ranging from (147.0 ± 2.2) Ma to (149.5 ± 2.3) Ma with an average of (148.22 ± 0.67) Ma. As the age is in agreement with field geological evidence, the authors hold that the molybdenum was concentrated from the Mo-bearing hydrothermal fluid after the intrusion of the granite porphyry and biotite granite during the Late Jurassic period. The Re content of molybdenite is (652~2 055) × 10-9, averaging 1 284 × 10-9. The content of Re in the Hashitu Mo deposit in comparison with the Re values of other molybdenum-bearing deposits indicates that the ore-forming materials of the Hashitu Mo deposit might have been derived mainly from the crustal source.%内蒙古哈什吐矿床是新发现的钼矿床.为进一步查明哈什吐钼矿床的形成时间,首次对主要钼矿体的10件辉钼矿样品进行铼-锇同位素分

  8. Metasomatism and ore formation at contacts of dolerite with saliferous rocks in the sedimentary cover of the southern Siberian platform (United States)

    Mazurov, M. P.; Grishina, S. N.; Istomin, V. E.; Titov, A. T.


    The data on the mineral composition and crystallization conditions of magnesian skarn and magnetite ore at contacts of dolerite with rock salt and dolomite in ore-bearing volcanic—tectonic structures of the Angara—Ilim type have been integrated and systematized. Optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, electron paramagnetic resonance, Raman and IR spectroscopy, and methods of mineralogical thermometry were used for studying minerals and inclusions contained therein. The most diverse products of metasomatic reactions are found in the vicinity of a shallow-seated magma chamber that was formed in Lower Cambrian carbonate and saliferous rocks under a screen of terrigenous sequences. Conformable lodes of spinel-forsterite skarn and calciphyre impregnated with magnesian magnetite replaced dolomite near the central magma conduit and apical portions of igneous bodies. At the postmagmatic stage, the following mineral assemblages were formed at contacts of dolerite with dolomite: (1) spinel + fassaite + forsterite + magnetite (T = 820-740°C), (2) phlogopite + titanite + pargasite + magnetite (T = 600 500°C), And (3) clinochlore + serpentine + pyrrhotite (T = 450°C and lower). Rock salt is transformed at the contact into halitite as an analogue of calciphyre. The specific features of sedimentary, contact-metasomatic, and hydrothermal generations of halite have been established. The primary sedimentary halite contains solid inclusions of sylvite, carnallite, anhydrite, polyhalite, quartz, astrakhanite, and antarcticite; nitrogen, methane, and complex hydrocarbons have been detected in gas inclusions; and the liquid inclusions are largely aqueous, with local hydrocarbon films. The contact-metasomatic halite is distinguished by a fine-grained structure and the occurrence of anhydrous salt phases (CaCl2 · KCl, CaCl2, nMgCl2 · mCaCl2) and high-density gases (CO2, H2S, N2, CH4, etc.) as inclusions. The low

  9. Metallogeny of The Sierra de Guanajuato Range, Central México (United States)

    Pedro F., Z. D.


    The Sierra de Guanajuato Range (SGR), trending N315° at Central México, is an orographic feature extending over a distance of 80 km. SGR comprises three well defined lithostratigraphic units: (1) a cretaceous basement including an arc-derived terrane named Guanajuato Arc (GA) made of gabbro, diorite and basaltic pillowed lava, and volcano-sedimentary rocks belonging to Arperos fore-arc basin which are geochemically anomalous in Au (0.15 ppm), Ag (3 ppm), Cu (40 ppm), Pb (50 ppm) and Zn (15 ppm); (2) Early Tertiary intrusive rocks, e.g., Comanja Granite which is affected by the presence of tourmalinized (schörl) aplito-pegmatite dykes mineralized with rare earths elements, and (3) Eocene redbeds (1,500-2000 m) and Oligocene-Miocene volcanics cover. The metallogeny of the SGR shows a multiple origin in time and space: volcano-sedimentary, granitic and volcanic, being possible to define three metallogenic epochs: cretaceous, paleocene and oligocene. Cretaceous epoch includes: (a) volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits (VMS) of bimodal-siliclastic type belonging to León-Guanajuato district; wallrock of VMS is made of felsic-internediate volcanics and black argillite; at Los Gavilanes deposit paragenesis is next: chalcopyrite > sphalerite > galena, pyrite > pyrrhotite > marcasite; grade is as follows: Au: .02-.07 g/t; Ag: 157-18.5 g/t; Cu: 2.24-0.81%, Pb: 4.16-0.03%; Zn: 10.35-3.02 %; (b) lens-shaped stratiform bodies of massive pyrite (i. ex., San Ignacio prospect; ˜ 4,000 ton) of exhalative-sedimentary origin with chalcopyrite and sphalerite microveins. Paleocene epoch includes both quartz-cordierite-sanidine veins and replacement bodies of hydrothermal metamorphic filliation (W +Se-Bi, Pb, Zn, Cu), and pyrometasomatic bodies [Cu, Pb, Zn (Ag), W] which genetically are linked to Comanja Granite emplacement. The wallrock at El Maguey mine (35,000 ton; 0.6% WO3) is made of hornfel and the vein (1.8-3.2m width) has a banding structure made of : \\{quartz & K

  10. Geochronology, fluid inclusions and isotopic characteristics of the Chaganbulagen Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, Inner Mongolia, China (United States)

    Li, Tiegang; Wu, Guang; Liu, Jun; Wang, Guorui; Hu, Yanqing; Zhang, Yunfu; Luo, Dafeng; Mao, Zhihao; Xu, Bei


    The large Chaganbulagen Pb-Zn-Ag deposit is located in the Derbugan metallogenic belt of the northern Great Xing'an Range. The vein-style orebodies of the deposit occur in the NWW-trending fault zones. The ore-forming process at the deposit can be divided into three stages: an early quartz-pyrite-arsenopyrite-pyrrhotite-sphalerite-galena-chalcopyrite stage, a middle quartz-carbonate-pyrite-sphalerite-galena-silver-bearing minerals stage, and a late quartz-carbonate-pyrite stage. The sericite sample yielded a 40Ar -39Ar plateau age of 138 ± 1 Ma and an isochron age of 137 ± 3 Ma, and the zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age of monzogranite porphyry was 143 ± 2 Ma, indicating that the ages of mineralization and monzogranite porphyry in the Chaganbulagen deposit should be the Early Cretaceous, and that the mineralization should be slightly later than the intrusion of monzogranite porphyry. There are only liquid inclusions in quartz veins of the Chaganbulagen deposit. Homogenization temperatures, densities, and salinities of the fluid inclusions from the early stage are 261-340 °C, 0.65-0.81 g/cm3, and 0.7-6.3 wt.% NaCl eqv., respectively. Fluid inclusions of the middle stage have homogenization temperatures, densities, and salinities of 209-265 °C, 0.75-0.86 g/cm3, and 0.5-5.7 wt.% NaCl eqv., respectively. For fluid inclusions of the late stage, their homogenization temperatures, densities, and salinities are 173-219 °C, 0.85-0.91 g/cm3, and 0.4-2.7 wt.% NaCl eqv., respectively. The ore-forming fluids of the deposit are generally characterized by moderate temperature and low salinity and density, and belong to an H2O-NaCl ± CO2 ± CH4 system. The δ18Owater values calculated for ore-bearing quartz vary from - 17.9‰ to - 10.8‰, and the δDV-SMOW values from bulk extraction of fluid inclusion waters vary from - 166‰ to - 127‰, suggesting that the ore-forming fluids consist dominantly of meteoric water. The δ34SV-CDT values range from 1.4‰ to 4.1‰. The 206Pb/204

  11. The thermal and chemical evolution of hydrothermal vent fluids in shale hosted massive sulphide (SHMS) systems from the MacMillan Pass district (Yukon, Canada) (United States)

    Magnall, J. M.; Gleeson, S. A.; Blamey, N. J. F.; Paradis, S.; Luo, Y.


    At Macmillan Pass (YT, Canada), the hydrothermal vent complexes beneath two shale-hosted massive sulphide (SHMS) deposits (Tom, Jason) are well preserved within Late Devonian strata. These deposits provide a unique opportunity to constrain key geochemical parameters (temperature, salinity, pH, fO2, ΣS) that are critical for metal transport and deposition in SHMS systems, and to evaluate the interaction between hydrothermal fluids and the mudstone host rock. This has been achieved using a combination of detailed petrography, isotopic techniques (δ34S, δ13C and δ18O values), carbonate rare earth element analysis (LA-ICP-MS), fluid inclusion analysis (microthermometry, gas analysis via incremental crush fast scan mass spectrometry), and thermodynamic modelling. Two main paragenetic stages are preserved in both vent complexes: Stage 1 comprises pervasive ankerite alteration of the organic-rich mudstone host rock and crosscutting stockwork ankerite veining (±pyrobitumen, pyrite and quartz) and; Stage 2 consists of main stage massive sulphide (galena-pyrrhotite-pyrite ± chalcopyrite-sphalerite) and siderite (±quartz and barytocalcite) mineralisation. Co-variation of δ18O and δ13C values in ankerite can be described by temperature dependent fractionation and fluid rock interaction. Together with fluid inclusion microthermometry, this provides evidence of a steep thermal gradient (from 300 to ∼100 °C) over approximately 15 m stratigraphic depth, temporally and spatially constrained within the paragenesis of both vent complexes and developed under shallow lithostatic (28), characteristic of diagenetic fluids, are coupled with positive europium anomalies and variable light REE depletion, which are more consistent with chloride complexation in hot (>250 °C) hydrothermal fluids. In this shallow sub-seafloor setting, thermal alteration of organic carbon in the immature, chemically reactive mudstones also had an important role in the evolution of fluid chemistry

  12. 甘肃龙尾沟斑岩型铜(钨)矿床成矿特征及形成环境%Geological Characteristics and Metallogenic Environment of the Longweigou Porphyry Copper(tungsten) Deposit,Gansu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾群子; 马云海; 全守村; 王建军; 肖朝阳; 李金超


    龙尾沟铜(钨)矿床是祁连山地区新近发现的一处斑岩型矿床,其评价及研究对祁连山地区铜矿勘查具有重要的指导和借鉴作用.本文通过对含矿斑岩年代学及地球化学、矿体产出特征及矿石物质组成、围岩蚀变等进行了系统研究,结果表明,花岗闪长斑岩形成年龄为358.7 Ma;矿体呈似层状、透镜状和脉状产出,主要产于高钾碱性系列斑岩体内,并受近南北向构造控制;矿石矿物主要为黄铜矿、黄铁矿、磁黄铁矿、白钨矿,呈细脉一浸染状、浸染状产出;矿化以富铜、钨、金贫钼为特征;与成矿关系密切的围岩蚀变主要为绢英岩化,次为钾硅酸盐化和硅化;矿床成矿时代为海西早期,形成于陆内造山伸展环境.从成矿背景分析认为祁连山地区陆内造山环境所形成的斑岩型铜矿具有良好的找矿前景.%The Longweigou porphyry copper( tungsten) deposit, a newly found deposit, lies in the Oulongbuluke uplift belt of the Qilian orogenic belt. The evaluation and research of the Longweigou copperCtungsten) ore deposit will present important guidance and reference for copper exploration in the Qilian Mountain area. The chronology and the geochemistry of the ore-bearing porphyry deposit were studied and the occurrence features of the deposit, the components of gold mineral and the alteration of the wall rock were investigated. Results showed that the formation age of the granodiorite porphyry is 358. 7Ma; and that the ore-body, which has occurrences of stratiform or lenticular or vein, occurs mainly in the high potassium alkali series porphyry and is controlled by NS structures; and that chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, and scheelite are main ore minerals, which have veinlet-disseminated and disseminated structures; and that mineralization is characterized by enriching copper, tungsten and gold and depleting molybdenum; and that the mineralization related wall-rock alterations are

  13. 安徽某金铅锌硫化矿选矿新工艺试验研究%Experimental Study on a New Mineral Processing Technology for a Gold -Lead-Zinc Sulfide Ore in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯章标; 俞献林; 陈江安


    For a gold-lead-zinc complex polymetallic sulfide ore in Anhui has a problem such as the low ore dressing indexes,the dosage of reagent system is complex and big.The mineral composition and ore characteristic of raw-ore is analyzed and a large number of exploratory experiments is explored.The last put forward the principle of process to deal with the ore by magnetic separation removal of pyrrhotite,gold-lead bulk flotation,gold-lead separation flotation,activation of tailings flotation zinc.By closed circuit texts can obtain the good indicators,and the gold concent rate with the Au grade of 43.67×10-6 and recovery rate of 46.11%;lead concentrate with the Au grade of 162.00×10-6 and recovery rate of 35.39%, Pb grade of 38.53% and recovery rate of 72.24%,the accumulation of the gold recovery rate is 81.50%;zinc concent rate with the Zn grade of 42.76% and recovery rate of 67.46%.This new method has a better index than the traditional process,as it can not only improve dressing indexes,but reduce a lot reagents dosage.%针对安徽某金铅锌复杂多金属硫化矿选矿指标较低、药剂制度复杂且用量大等问题,分析了原矿的矿物组成及矿石性质,并开展了大量探索性试验,最后提出采用磁选脱除磁黄铁矿—金铅混合浮选—金铅分离浮选—尾矿活化选锌的原则流程处理该矿石。结果显示:闭路试验可获得金含量为43.68×10-6,回收率为46.12%的金精矿;铅精矿中金含量为162.00×10-6,回收率为35.39%,铅含量为38.53%,回收率为72.24%,金的累积回收率达81.51%;锌精矿中锌含量为42.79%,回收率为67.51%。与原有选矿工艺相比,新工艺不仅提高了选矿指标还大幅减少了药剂用量。

  14. 我国W区超镁铁-镁铁杂岩体钯、铂元素地球化学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The ultramafic-mafic complex at W district, China, is composed of clinopyroxenite, hornblendite, gabbro and a variety of vein rocks. Three facies can be recognized in the clinopyroxenite body, i.e., the olivine-clinopyroxenite (lower part), diopsidite (the intermediate part) and the hornblende clinopyroxenite (the upper part)facies. In general, the concentration of palladium and platinum decreases with increasing silica content of the rocks. In the clinopyroxenite body the two elements are enriched in the diopsidite facies, which has the highest Mg/Fe ratio. Palladium and platinum contents of the vein rocks are comparable to that of their host rocks,auggesting a possible extraction of these metals from the latter. Palladium and platinum are present mainly as individual minerals in rocks and ore bodies and occur only in small amounts in sulfides as isomorphous impurities.Among the mineral phase, platinum occurs mostly as arsenide, while tellride, and particularly anthnonide, or any combination of bismuthide, telluride, and antimomde,are the principal mode of occurrence of palladium. All of these minerals are found intimately intergrown with pyrrhotite. In the magmatie stage, differentiation of palladium and platinum took place, accompanied by an increase in Pd/Pt ratio with increasing rock acidity in the complex.Pd/Pt ratios of vein rocks are higher than that of host rocks injected by them,indicating that decreasing temperature may be more favorable.for palladium enrich-ment than platinum. Within the mineralized zone, Pd/Pt ratio increases from foot wall to hanging wail and, within the ore body, is characterized by a distribution pattern which displays a higher value in the center and lowers down towards both ends laterally and vertically. It is thus clear from these observations that palladium is much more mobile at elevated temperatures and significant precipitaion can only be expected during cooling. Under supergene conditions, palladium is more active than

  15. Mineralogical, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope constraints on mechanisms of ore deposition at the Samgwang mine (Republic of Korea)—a mesothermal, vein-hosted gold-silver deposit (United States)

    Yoo, Bong Chul; Lee, Hyun Koo; White, Noel C.


    The Samgwang mine is located in the Cheongyang gold district (Cheonan Metallogenic Province) of the Republic of Korea. It consists of eight massive, gold-bearing quartz veins that filled NE- and NW-striking fractures along fault zones in Precambrian granitic gneiss of the Gyeonggi massif. Their mineralogy and paragenesis allow two separate vein-forming episodes to be recognized, temporally separated by a major faulting event. The ore minerals occur in quartz and calcite of stage I, associated with fracturing and healing of veins. Hydrothermal wall-rock alteration minerals of stage I include Fe-rich chlorite (Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratios 0.74-0.81), muscovite, illite, K-feldspar, and minor arsenopyrite, pyrite, and carbonates. Sulfide minerals deposited along with electrum during this stage include arsenopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite, marcasite, chalcopyrite, galena, argentite, pyrargyrite, and argentian tetrahedrite. Only calcite was deposited during stage II. Fluid inclusions in quartz contain three main types of C-O-H fluids: CO2-rich, CO2-H2O, and aqueous inclusions. Quartz veins related to early sulfides in stage I were deposited from H2O-NaCl-CO2 fluids (1,500-5,000 bar, average 3,200) with T htotal values of 200°C to 383°C and salinities less than about 7 wt.% NaCl equiv. Late sulfide deposition was related to H2O-NaCl fluids (140-1,300 bar, average 700) with T htotal values of 110°C to 385°C and salinities less than about 11 wt.% NaCl equiv. These fluids either evolved through immiscibility of H2O-NaCl-CO2 fluids as a result of a decrease in fluid pressure, or through mixing with deeply circulated meteoric waters as a result of uplift or unloading during mineralization, or both. Measured and calculated sulfur isotope compositions (δ34SH2S = 1.5 to 4.8‰) of hydrothermal fluids from the stage I quartz veins indicate that ore sulfur was derived mainly from a magmatic source. The calculated and measured oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions (δ18OH2O

  16. Platinum-group minerals in the LG and MG chromitites of the eastern Bushveld Complex, South Africa (United States)

    Oberthür, Thomas; Junge, Malte; Rudashevsky, Nikolay; de Meyer, Eveline; Gutter, Paul


    The chromitites of the Bushveld Complex in South Africa contain vast resources of platinum-group elements (PGE); however, except for the economic upper group (UG)-2 chromitite seam, information on the distribution of the PGE in the ores and on the mineralogical nature, assemblages, and proportions of platinum-group minerals (PGM) is essentially missing. In the present geochemical and mineralogical study, PGE concentrates originating from the lower group (LG)-6 and middle group (MG)-1/2 chromitites were investigated with the intention to fill this gap of knowledge. Chondrite-normalized PGE patterns of bulk rock and concentrates are characterized by a positive slope from Os to Rh, a slight drop to Pt, and an increase to Pd again. The pronounced similarities of the PGE patterns indicate similar primary processes of PGE concentration in the chromitites, namely "sulfide control" of the PGE mineralization, i.e., co-precipitation of chromite and sulfide. Further, the primary control of PGE concentration in chromitites appears to be dual in character: (i) base-level concentrations of IPGE (up to ˜500 ppb) hosted within chromite and (ii) co-precipitation of chromite and sulfide, the latter containing virtually the entire remaining PGE budget. Sulfides (chalcopyrite, pentlandite, and pyrite; pyrrhotite is largely missing) are scarce within the chromitites and occur mainly interstitial to chromite grains. Pd and Rh contents in pentlandite are low and erratic. Essentially, the whole PGE inventory of the ores occurs in the form of discrete PGM. The PGM are almost always associated with sulfides. The dominant PGM are various Pt-Pd-Rh sulfides (cooperite/braggite [(Pt,Pd)S] and malanite/cuprorhodsite [CuPt2S4]/[CuRh2S4]), laurite [RuS2], the main carrier of the IPGE (Os, Ir, Ru), sulfarsenides [(Rh,Pt,Ir)AsS], sperrylite [PtAs2], Pt-Fe alloys, and a large variety of mainly Pd-rich PGM. The LG and MG chromitites have many characteristics in common and define a general, "typical

  17. Interaction among minerals, organics and water in comets: insights from Antarctic micrometeorites (United States)

    Nagahara, Hiroko; Noguchi, Takaaki; Yabuta, Hikaru; Itoh, Shoichi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Mitsunari, Takuya; Okubo, Aya; Okazaki, Ryuji; Nakamura, Tomoki; Tachibana, Shogo; Terada, Kentaro; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Imae, Naoya; Kimura, Makoto


    The evolution and interaction of inorganic materials and organic materials are one of the crucial issues of space science, which is also a main topic of current planetary missions. In order to clarify the early stage of evo-lution of primitive materials in the solar system, we have carried out a comprehensive study on micrometeorites collected from the Antarctica virgin snow with SEM, TEM, Carbon-, N-, and O-XANES, and SIMS. On the basis of observation, we estimate the primary materials and the sequence of aqueous reaction in the inorganic and organic materials. The most primitive materials are GEMS (amorphous silicate with Fe-metal and sulfide), small olivine and low-Ca pyroxene, and pyrrhotite, which are embedded in organic materials. The or-ganic materials are macromolecules being rich in C=O groups with subordinate amount of C≡N and/or C=N-C groups, and they accompany D and 15N enrichments. Due to the heavy hydrogen and nitrogen isotopic composi-tions, the organics are estimated to be originated at very low temperature in the molecular cloud or a prestellar environment, which also generated various organic molecules. The aqueous alteration reaction started at first in organic materials, where N-heterocycle, δD, and δ15N are lost and the organics become aromatic-rich. GEMS altered next, where metallic Fe dissolved into water to form Fe-rich saponite remaining Mg-rich amorphous silicate (Stage I). The aromaticity of the organics increases, and the chemical nature of organics becomes close to insoluble organic materials in primitive chondrites. Then, sulfide in GEMS, small olivine and low-Ca pyroxene grains, and Fe-rich saponite react with water to form Mg-rich saponite and Fe-hydroxide (Stage II). Sulfur may have been incorporated into phyllosilicate and/or organics or flew away. Finally, heterogeneous phyllosilicates at Stage II were homogenized to be Mg-rich saponite with formation of carbonate and loss of organics (Stage III). Carbon to form carbonate were

  18. Chemical and Isotopic Characterization of Waters in Rio Tinto, Spain, Shows Possible Origin of the Blueberry Haematite Nodules in Meridiani Planum, Mars (United States)

    Coleman, M. L.; Hubbard, C. G.; Mielke, R. E.; Black, S.


    Meridiani Planum sediments formed in an acid environment and include jarosite and other evaporitic sulfate minerals. Nodular spheroidal concretions appear to have grown in situ and are predominantly hematite. The source of the Rio Tinto, S. Spain, drains an area of extensive sulfide mineralization and is dominated by acid mine drainage processes. The system is not a Mars analog but potentially similar processes of sulfide oxidation produce sulfate rich waters which feed into the river and precipitate a large range of evaporitic sulfates including jarosite. Iron oxide minerals associated with the evaporites are either dispersed or bedded but not nodular. The water compositions appear to be mixtures of a few discreet end-members: the two most significant occur in undiluted form as inputs to the river and are relevant to many such systems. They both have all sulfur totally oxidized as sulfate. The first is a bright red water, pH ~1.5, Fe/S 0.5 and 23 g/L iron which is greater than 95% Fe3+. Its sulfate oxygen isotope composition is +2‰SMOW and about +7‰, relative to the water O isotope composition. These data indicate pyrite oxidation by Fe3+ with O in sulfate coming mainly from water. The second end-member is a pale green water, pH ~0.7, Fe/S 0.7, 50 g/L iron present mainly as Fe2+ and O isotope composition of sulfate about +6‰SMOW , about +12.5‰ relative to the water O value. Oxygen in sulfate comes mainly from atmospheric oxygen resulting from pyrite oxidation by molecular oxygen dissolved in water. Although the Rio Tinto system reactions probably are microbiologically mediated (relevant genera have been identified there) similar processes could occur abiotically but more slowly. Meridiani Planum sediments and nodules can be described by a plausible set of similar end-member processes. The primary source of sulfate is oxidation of sulfides present in basalt (pyrite, FeS2 or pyrrhotite, FeS) and weathering would have produced oxidized sulfate rich solutions

  19. Sulfide Mineralization In The Marble Bar Greenstone Belt Around Mount Edger Batholith, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia (United States)

    Kitazono, S.; Nedachi, M.; Taguchi, S.


    similar features, although the absolute values are slightly different. These data suggest that the clastic sediments had been delivered mainly from the volcanic rocks. The C isotopic ratios of organic carbon in the black shale are from -26 to -30 permil, which implies the activity of bacteria. Horizontal veins are often recognized in the clastic sediments, and are composed of quartz, calcite, sphalerite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite. The C isotopic ratios of vein carbonates are from -4.6 to -5.2 permil. The S isotopic ratios of sulfide minerals are concentrated from -1.5 to +0.9 permil. The quartz and calcite veins which are 10 cm in maximal diameter run through the sediment rock. The homogenization temperature of fluid inclusion ranges from 150 to 250 degree with the average of about 200 degree centigrade which concludes well with metamorphic grade, suggesting the origin of metamorphism. The fluid is composed of H2O, CO2, CH4 and C, those constituents seem to reflect the characteristic environments of early Earth, which differ from the accretional material of Phanerozoic, suggesting different tectonic circumstance.

  20. LEW 88516: A Meteorite Compositionally Close to the "Martian Mantle" (United States)

    Dreibus, G.; Jochum, K. H.; Palme, H.; Spettel, B.; Wlotzka, F.; Wanke, H.


    Several samples from a total of 250 mg of the recently discovered Antarctic shergottite LEW 88516 were analysed for major and trace elements by neutron activation techniques, SSMS, and a carbon-sulfur analyser. Results are presented in Table 1, together with data on ALHA 77005 (Wanke et al., 1976). This and earlier results (Boynton et al., 1992; Lindstrom et al.,1992) show the close compositional similarity of Lew 88516 to ALHA 77005. A major difference between the two shergottites is the much lower iodine content of the ALHA 77005 meteorite. The absence of similar variations in Br and Cl confirms earlier suggestions of an Antarctic source for the I excess. In a Mg/Si vs. Al/Si diagram (Fig. 1) the LEW 88516 meteorite plots at the intersection of a Shergotty parent (SPB) body fractionation trend and a line connecting enstatite chondrites and CM chondrites. The position of LEW 88516 and also of ALHA 77005 in the vicinity of ordinary chondrites is indicative of their relatively primitive composition. Lithophile trace elements show some enhancement of Sc and V over heavy REE and depletion of light REE, suggesting either a residual character for the two meteorites or assimilation of a cumulate phase during their formation. Comparatively high Ni and Co also reflect the more mafic character of the two meteorites. The present analysis and the earlier data on ALHA 77005 unambiguously demonstrate the presence of Ir in an abundance range typical for the terrestrial upper mantle. A similar Ir level was found in Chassigny, but the more fractionated Shergotty has 100 times lower Ir contents. The presence of Ir in the martian mantle samples may be the result of sulfide-silicate equilibration. The sulfides in Lew 88516 are small pyrrhotite grains (5-30 micron, 52 atom% S) and occur often together with ilmenite, at grain boundaries of the major silicate minerals. Sulfides contain an average of 1.8% Ni. However, the major fraction of Ni must reside in oxides and/or silicates as the

  1. Evaluating crustal contributions to enriched shergottites from the petrology, trace elements, and Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotope systematics of Northwest Africa 856 (United States)

    Ferdous, J.; Brandon, A. D.; Peslier, A. H.; Pirotte, Z.


    The origin of the incompatible trace element (ITE) characteristics of enriched shergottites has been critical for examining two contradicting scenarios to explain how these Martian meteorites form. The first scenario is that it reflects ITE enrichment in an early-formed mantle reservoir whereas the second scenario attributes it to assimilation of ancient Martian crust (∼4-4.5 Ga) by ITE-depleted magmas. Strongly differentiated shergottite magmas may yield added constraints for determining which scenario can best explain this signature in enriched shergottites. The meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 856 is a basaltic shergottite that, unlike many enriched shergottites, lacks olivine and has undergone extensive differentiation from more primitive parent magma. In similarity to other basaltic shergottites, NWA 856 is comprised primarily of compositionally zoned clinopyroxenes (45% pigeonite and 23% augite), maskelynite (23%) and accessory minerals such as ulvöspinel, merrillite, Cl-apatite, ilmenite, pyrrhotite, baddeleyite and silica polymorph. The CI-chondrite normalized rare earth element (REE) abundance patterns for its maskelynite, phosphates, and its whole rock are flat with corresponding light-REE depletions in clinopyroxenes. The 87Rb-87Sr and 147Sm-143Nd internal isochron ages are 162 ± 14 (all errors are ±2σ) Ma and 162.7 ± 5.5 Ma, respectively, with an initial εNdI = -6.6 ± 0.2. The Rb-Sr isotope systematics are affected by terrestrial alteration resulting in larger scatter and a less precise internal isochron age. The whole rock composition is used in MELTS simulations to model equilibrium and fractional crystallization sequences to compare with the crystallization sequence from textural observations and to the mineral compositions. These models constrain the depth of initial crystallization to a pressure range of 0.4-0.5 GPa (equivalent to 34-42 km) in anhydrous conditions at the Fayalite-Magnetite-Quartz buffer, and consistently reproduce the

  2. Characteristics of polymetallic ore-forming fluid and metallogenesis of the Xiangshan ore-field in Jiangxi%江西相山矿田多金属成矿流体特征与成矿作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂江涛; 李子颖; 王健; 郭建


    Fluid inclusions of polymetallic mineralization in the Xiangshan uranium orefield were studied for the first time in this pa⁃per. A large number of polymetallic mineralizations were discovered recently with the deepening of geological exploration in the Xiangshan uranium orefield and the implementation of uranium scientific deep drilling. Based on studying petrography, microther⁃mometry, pressure of ore-forming processes, composition and metallogenic depth of fluid inclusions as well as sulfur, carbon, oxygen isotopic composition, the authors hold that the lead and zinc ore-forming temperatures are mainly concentrated on 230~300℃, the metallogenic pressures are concentrated on 12~51MPa, and the salinities are concentrated on 4%~12%NaCleqv. The fluid inclusions are enriched in CO2 and to a lesser extent in CH4 and N2. The mineral assemblage is mainly sphalerite+gelenite+pyrite. The cop⁃per ore-forming temperatures are mainly concentrated on 320~380℃,metallogenic pressures on 33~95MPa , and salinities on 4%~12%NaCleqv. The fluid inclusions are enriched in CO2 and to a lesser extent in CH4 and N2. The mineral assemblage is mainly chal⁃copyrite+pyrrhotite+arsenikstein. All these data indicate that ore-forming fluids were characterized by medium-high temperature, high pressure, medium-high salinity, low oxygen fugacity and high content of CO 2. The lead, zinc, copper and uranium ore-form⁃ing fluids were characterized by deep source, but there were obvious different in stage, space, alteration and fluid inclusion characteris⁃tics of lead, zinc, copper and uranium mineralization, so they were formed in different ore-forming stages and occurred in different separate hydrothermal mineralization processes in early-middle Cretaceous in South China.%随着相山铀矿矿田勘探深度的增加和铀矿科学深钻的实施,在矿田内揭露了大量多金属矿化,流体包裹体和地球化学研究表明,铅锌矿成矿期温度集中在230~300

  3. The Russell gold deposit, Carolina Slate Belt, North Carolina (United States)

    Klein, T.L.; Cunningham, C.G.; Logan, M.A.V.; Seal, R.R.


    present in thin massive sulfide layers parallel to bedding and intergrown with pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and sparse arsenopyrite. Stage 2, secondary pyrite, is present as euhedral, idiomorphic rims on spongy pyrite and as veinlets that parallel the regional foliation. Stage 1 pyrite was deposited syngenetically or diagenetically during or soon after sedimentation. Stage 2 pyrite overgrowths and veins resulted from recrystallization or remobilization of stage 1 pyrite, probably during deformation related to Ordovician regional metamorphism. It is proposed that the spongy texture of the stage 1 pyrite represents nucleation and growth of pyrite on organic matter, possibly of bacterial origin. Other textures, such as geometric voids in spongy pyrite, As-rich zones surrounding central voids, 60-??m ring structures composed of spongy pyrite, and layers of spongy pyrite interlayered with bedding laminations, also appear to indicate replacement of organic matter by pyrite. Stage 1 pyrite contains up to 0.06 wt percent gold. The ??34S values of pyrite in and near pyritic ore (3.5-4.5???), in the rhyolite dome (5.1-5.4???) and in the Tillery Formation (5.9-6.2???) are interpreted to reflect mixing of sulfur derived from igneous and seawater sources. Whole-rock ??18O values of nearby unaltered mudstone are about 11 per mil whereas those from altered mudstone at the deposit are 7.4 to 10.6 per mil. The lower ?? 18O values are interpreted to indicate possible high-temperature exchange between relatively low ??18O hydrothermal fluids and the wall rocks. Gold, As, K, and Mo are enriched relative to the regional background in both the ore zones and in pyrite veins and disseminations in the nearby rhyolite dome, suggesting a possible genetic link between the rhyolitic volcanism and the gold mineralization. ?? 2007 Society of Economic Geologists, Inc.

  4. The giant Kalgoorlie Gold Field revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noreen Mary Vielreicher; David Ian Groves; Neal Jesse McNaughton


    The Neoarchaean Kalgoorlie Gold Field contains the giant Golden Mile and world-class Mt Charlotte deposits, which have been the subject of much research for over 100 years. The Golden Mile deposit is a complex array of ductile to brittle vein and breccia lodes that are predominantly hosted in the highly-fractionated Golden Mile Dolerite sill. The Fimiston lodes comprise an array of narrow lodes that evolved broadly syn- to late-formation of the regional D2 NW-trending foliation. The lodes are charac-terized by pyrite veinlets and disseminations, quartz veinlets and breccias, and banded quartz-carbonate veins with sericite, carbonate, and pyrite-dominated alteration. Bonanza Green-Leader, or Oroya-style, lodes, with grades in excess of 1000 g/t Au, are similar to the Fimiston-style lodes, but are character-ized by abundant visible gold, native tellurium and more abundant telluride minerals within roscoelite-bearing alteration zones. The arguably structurally younger Mt Charlotte-style lodes are characterized by a pipe-shaped, coarse-grained quartz, carbonate and scheelite vein-stockwork with distinct vertically-zoned, carbonate-sericite-albite-pyrite ? pyrrhotite dominant alteration assemblages around veins within Unit 8 of the Golden Mile dolerite and porphyry dykes. The network of steep-and gently-dipping extension and shear fracture-fill veins are associated with NE-trending fault sets that cross cut the regional NW-trend. The deposit area is intruded by swarms of porphyry dykes, including syn-volcanic mafic dykes, early and volumetrically most significant c. 2.67 Ga feldspar-phyric porphyry dykes, as well as later c. 2.66‒2.65 Ga calc-alkaline hornblende-phyric dykes associated with younger c. 2.65‒2.64 Ga lamprophyre dykes. All post-volcanic dykes have similar orientations to the Fimiston lodes. The feldspar dykes are clearly overprinted by all styles of mineralization, although the relationship between hornblende-phyric and lamprophyre dykes and gold

  5. P, T, X magma storage conditions of the dominantly silicic explosive eruptions from Santorini volcano (Aegean Arc, Greece) (United States)

    Cadoux, A.; Druitt, T. H.; Deloule, E.; Scaillet, B.


    It has been increasingly recognized that dramatic changes in magma storage conditions can occur over very short periods of time at a single volcano and might be in close relationships with stress variations imposed on the crustal plumbing by the overlying volcano as it changes shape and volume over time. The Santorini volcano (South Aegean Arc) is an ideal target to unravel these potential relationships as its history is marked by alternating episodes of edifice construction and caldera collapses and the chronostratigraphy is well constrained. We focused our study on the products of the four major, dominantly silicic, explosive eruptions of Santorini: the Lower Pumice 1 and 2 (200 to 180 ka; 1st explosive cycle) and, the Cape Riva and the Minoan (~ 21 to 3 ka, 2nd explosive cycle). In order to precisely define the P, T, fO2, X (X for volatiles) storage conditions of the silicic magmas prior to these eruptions, we carried out a detailed micro-petrological and geochemical study on natural samples combined with an experimental work. The selected silicic components of the four eruptions are dacite to rhyodacite (SiO2 = 67-70 wt.%) with similar mineral paragenesis (plagioclase, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, ilmenite, magnetite, apatite ± pyrrhotite) and crystallinity < 20%. High resolution BSE images of plagioclase and pyroxene phenocrysts and EMPA profiles reveal a complex crystallization history. Plagioclases display fine-scale oscillatory normal zoning, resorbtion zones where melt inclusions (MI) of rhyolitic compositions were trapped, and An-rich sieved cores. Clinopyroxenes also show zoning patterns and include rhyolitic MI. Both interstitial glass and MI are Cl-rich (~3000 ppm) while F and S are less abundant (F ≤ 700 ppm, S ≤ 100 ppm). Determination of H2O contents by SIMS is in progress at the CRPG-Nancy (previous measurements from the literature gave ~ 5 wt.% H2O in the Minoan rhyodacite and ~4 wt.% in the Lower Pumice 2). Ilmenite-magnetite geothermometry

  6. Isotopic age dating of the alkaline intrusive complex and its related molybdenum polymetallic deposit at Hekanzi, western Liaoning Province%辽西河坎子碱性侵入杂岩体及钼多金属矿床同位素年代学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇; 聂凤军; 方俊钦


    The newly discovered Hekanzi deposit is a medium-size porphyry molybdenum deposit in western Liaoning Province. Intrusive complexes are widely distributed in the study area, with the Mesozoic alkaline and calc-alka-line rocks being the most developed alkaline rocks. They intruded into the Precambrian and Paleozoic volcanic-sedimentary rocks in the forms of batholiths, stocks, and dykes. Alkaline intrusive rocks are mainly miascite, alkaline syenite and alkaline diabase. The calc-alkaline rocks are mainly granite porphyry, granodiorite, biotite granite and K-feldspar granite. Isotopic ages of the Hekanzi alkaline granite and its related Mo polymetallic deposit have been determined. The rock-forming age of the biotite-orthoclase granite is (235.3 ± 1.0) Ma with MSWD value of 0.68. Re-Os isotopic data of six molybdenite separates define a correlation line corresponding to an age of (224.0 ?1.3) Ma with MSWD value of 0.72. The metallic minerals in the ore are pyrite, chalcopy-rite, molybdenite, pyrrhotite, marcasite and a little scheetine. Gangue minerals are mainly calcite, fluorite, garnet, serpentine, peridotite, dolomite, feldspar, plagioclase and quartz. The NE-trending, NS-trending and NW-trending fault zones are widely distributed in the alkaline intrusive complex and its related molybdenum polymetallic deposit at Hekanzi.%对辽西河坎子地区与碱性杂岩体相关的钼多金属矿床进行了同位素年代学研究.所获黑云母正长花岗岩锆石LA-ICP-MS U-Pb同位素加权平均年龄为(235.3±1.0) Ma,MSWD值为0.68;河坎子钼多金属矿床内辉钼矿的Re-Os同位素等时线年龄为(224.0±1.3) Ma,MSWD值为0.72.碱性杂岩体与相关的钼多金属矿床具有密切的空间关系,两者的形成时间亦比较接近,据此可推测,河坎子碱性杂岩体与相关的钼多金属矿床均为印支期构造-岩浆作用及流体活动的产物.印支期内频繁的岩浆-热液活动为该地区内钼、铜、金多金属元素的活

  7. The record of the Amazon craton in two supercontinents: Paleomagnetic and geological constraints for Mesoproterozoic to Paleozoic times (United States)

    Tohver, E.


    may record the Rodinia break- up. These sediments comprise, from bottom to top, a >10 km thick package of clastic sediments (Cuiabá Gp.) that is unconformably overlain by the 3-4 km thick sediments of the Alto Paraguai Gp. This latter group contains a lithological sequence associated with a Snowball Earth episode, i.e. minor banded iron formation, glacial diamictites, and overlying cap carbonates, reported to be of Marinoan age. Paleomagnetic study of bituminous limestones in the cap carbonate reveals the presence of a post-folding remagnetization carried by magnetite or pyrrhotite. The paleomagnetic direction from this secondary component in flat-lying sediments overlaps the 525 Ma pole position reported by Trindade et al (EPSL, 2006) from the Itabaiana dykes, suggesting that the remagnetization was acquired at this time. However, the declination of this remagnetized component varies systematically with the strike of the Paraguai fold-and-thrust belt. Thus, the curvature of the Paraguai belt is a secondary feature, acquired during the collision of the Amazon craton with the São Francisco-Congo craton and other elements of central Gondwana. Paleomagnetically, the deformation related to this collision is constrained to have occurred sometime after mid-Cambrian times.

  8. Destruction and Sequestration of H2O on Mars (United States)

    Clark, Benton


    minerals which are candidates for oxidation by reaction with H2O. The FeO in mafic minerals (e.g., olivines and pyroxenes) can cause net destruction of H2O by weathering to magnetite or various ferric oxides. Each atom of Fe2+ will destroy 0.5 molecules of H2O when oxidized to the Fe3+ state. Although this ratio is relatively small, ferrous minerals are widespread. Some alteration forms are oxyhydroxides, such as goethite, which destroy H2O to extract -OH. The most potent destroyer of H2O would be forms of igneous FeSx (e.g., pyrite and pyrrhotite), which when fully oxidized and hydrated not only consume large quantities of H2O but also lower the pH so drastically that only acidophiles could survive. Mars is close to the asteroid belt. Accretion of asteroidal material brings quantities of metallic Fe, FeS (troilite), and also significant amount of carbonaceous material, the bulk of which is macromolecular in forms, as ~ CH0.5. The martian soil should contain several percent of meteoritic material but today has only ppm levels of any organics, indicating conversion to CO2 (in the atmosphere, or carbonates) via destruction of H2O. This work will quantitatively evaluate these powerful processes which adversely affect the availability of H2O to support biological activity on Mars.

  9. The analysis of forms of sulfur in ancient sediments and sedimentary rocks: comments and cautions (United States)

    Rice, C.A.; Tuttle, M.L.; Reynolds, R.L.


    Assumptions commonly made during analysis of the amount of monosulfides [acid-volatile sulfides (AVS)] and disulfides in modern sediments, may not be valid for ancient sedimentary rocks. It is known that ferric iron can oxidize H2S during AVS analysis unless a reducing agent such as stannous chloride is added to the treatment. In addition, some monosulfides such as greigite and pyrrhotite require heat during the AVS analysis in order to dissolve completely. However, the use of heat and/or stannous chloride in the AVS treatment may partially dissolve disulfides and it is generally recommended that stannous chloride not be used in the AVS treatment for modern sediments. Most of the monosulfides are assumed to be recovered as AVS without the addition of stannous chloride. This study investigates the recovery of monosulfides during sulfur speciation analysis with application to ancient sedimentary rocks. Sulfur in samples containing naturally occurring greigite and mackinawite or pyrite was measured using variations of a common sulfur-speciation scheme. The sulfur-speciation scheme analyzes for monosulfide sulfur, disulfide sulfur, elemental sulfur, inorganic sulfate and organically bound sulfur. The effects of heat, stannous chloride and ferric iron on the amounts of acid-volatile sulfide and disulfide recovered during treatment for AVS were investigated. Isotopic compositions of the recovered sulfur species along with yields from an extended sulfur-speciation scheme were used to quantify the effects. Hot 6 N HCl AVS treatment recovers > 60% of the monosulfides as AVS in samples containing pure greigite and mackinawite. The remaining monosulfide sulfur is recovered in a subsequent elemental sulfur extraction. Hot 6 N HCl plus stannous chloride recovers 100% of the monosulfides as AVS. The addition of ferric iron to pure greigite and mackinawite samples during AVS treatment without stannous chloride decreased the amount of monosulfides recovered as AVS and, if present

  10. Role of Sulfur Vapor on PGE-Fractionation Processes in Cu-Ni Deposits: Experimental Study by ICP-MS Laser Ablation (United States)

    Peregoedova, A.; Barnes, S.; Baker, D. R.


    We have investigated the transport of platinum-group elements (PGE) and base-metals (BM) by S-vapor in the systems Fe-S-PGE and Fe-Ni-Cu-PGE-S at 1 atm pressure, 1000° C and 1100° C. Open-system, with respect to the gas-phase, conditions were set up using the tube-in-tube technique. A S-rich donor, (Fe,Ni,Cu)1-xS of variable BM ratio, was doped with 2000 ppm of each PGE. A S-poor pyrrhotite (Po) was used as the PGE receiver. The metal/S ratio of the system was varied by changing the donor/receiver ratio to assess whether the metals were transported as S-species or metals. In the system Fe-S-PGE the run products were receiver Po and donor Po containing exsolutions of individual PGE phases (PGM). In the system Fe-Cu-Ni-S-PGE the run products were receiver Po and a donor association composed of monosulfide solid-solution ± Cu-rich sulfide melt ± PGM. The final compositions of both PGE receivers and donors were determined by electron microprobe at McGill University for the major PGE, BM and S, and by ICP-MS-LA at the University of Quebec in Chicoutimi for trace PGE. The detection limit for all PGE is in the 10 to 30 ppb range. The receiver Po contained significant quantities of transported Pt and Pd (PPGE), Os and Au, but little Ir, Ru and Rh (IPGE). In addition, a much higher quantity of Ni was transported trough the vapor-phase (700 ppm to 11300 ppm) compared to Cu (1000 ppm). There is a dependence of the amount of Ni and PPGE transported on the metal/S ratio of the system. This suggests that Ni and the PPGE were transported as BM sulfide species whereas Cu and the IPGE were transported as metals. In experiments where no Cu-rich sulfide liquid formed, Pt (12-38 ppm) was slightly better transported than Pd (7-27 ppm), while in the presence of a sulfide liquid Pd (48-69 ppm) appears to be more effectively transported than Pt (31-44 ppm). In most natural examples where mobilization of PGE has been suggested, the remobilized material is enriched in Cu, Pd and to a

  11. Possible genetic link between I-type granite and orogenic gold deposits in Egypt (metamorphic-magmatic interaction?) (United States)

    Abd El Monsef, Mohamed


    The orogenic gold deposits are a distinctive type of deposits that revealed unique temporal and spatial association with an orogeny. Where, the system of gold veins and related ore minerals was confined to hydrothermal solutions formed during compressional to transpressional deformation processes at convergent plate margins in accretionary and collisional orogens, with the respect to ongoing deep-crustal, subduction-related thermal processes. In Egypt, most of vein-type and dyke-type gold mineralization are restricted to granitic rocks or at least near of granitic intrusion that seems to have had an important influence on gold mineralization. Shear zone-related, mesothermal gold deposits of Fatira and Gidami mines in the northern Eastern Desert of Egypt are found within granitic bodies or at the contact between granites and metavolcanic rocks. The hosting-granitic rocks in Fatira and Gidami areas are mainly of granodioritic composition (I-Type granite) which is related to calc-alkaline magmatic series. However, Fatira granitoids were developed within island arc tectonic settings related to mature island arc system (Late-orogenic stage), at relatively low temperature (around 660° C) and medium pressure between (5 - 10 Kbar). On the other hand, Gidami granitoids were developed during the collision stage in continental arc regime related to active continental margin (Syn-orogeny), which were crystallized at relatively high temperature (700-720° C) and low pressure (around 0.1 Kbar). The ore mineralogy includes pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, covellite, ilmenite, goethite ± pyrrhotite ± pentlandite ± galena ± molybdenite. Native gold is detected only in Gidami mineralization as small inclusions within pyrite and goethite or as tiny grains scattered within quartz vein (in close proximity to the sulfides). In Fatira deposits, it is detected only by microprobe analysis within the crystal lattice of pyrite and jarosite. Fluid inclusions study for the mineralized

  12. Using NMR, SIP, and MS measurements for monitoring subsurface biogeochemical reactions at the Rifle IFRC site (United States)

    Rosier, C. L.; Keating, K.; Williams, K. H.; Robbins, M.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Grunewald, E.; Walsh, D. O.


    The Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site is located on a former uranium ore-processing facility in Rifle, Colorado (USA). Although removal of tailings and contaminated surface materials was completed in 1996, residual uranium contamination of groundwater and subsurface sediments remains. Since 2002, research at the site has primarily focused on quantifying uranium mobility associated with stimulated and natural biogeochemical processes. Uranium mobility at the Rifle IFRC site is typically quantified through direct sampling of groundwater; however, direct sampling does not provide information about the solid phase material outside of the borehole and continuous measurements are not always possible due to multiple constraints. Geophysical methods have been suggested as a minimally invasive alternative approach for long term monitoring of biogeochemical reactions associated with uranium remediation. In this study, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), spectral induced polarization (SIP), and magnetic susceptibility (MS) are considered as potential geophysical methods for monitoring the biogeochemical reactions occurring at the Rifle IFRC site. Additionally, a pilot field study using an NMR borehole-logging tool was carried out at the Rifle IFRC site. These methods are sensitive to changes in the chemical and physical subsurface properties that occur as a result of bioremediation efforts; specifically, changes in the redox state and chemical form of iron, production of iron sulfide minerals, production of the magnetic mineral magnetite, and associated changes in the pore geometry. Laboratory experiments consisted of monitoring changes in the NMR, SIP and MS response of an acetate-amended columns packed with sediments from the Rifle IFRC site over the course of two months. The MS values remained relatively stable throughout the course of the experiment suggesting negligible production of magnetic phases (e.g. magnetite, pyrrhotite) as a result of enhanced

  13. Geological and Geochemical Characteristics of the Zhulazhaga Gold Deposit in Inner Mongolia,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Sihong; NIE Fengjun


    Located in Alxa Zuoqi (Left Banner) of Inner Mongolia, China, the Zhulazhaga gold deposit is the first largescale gold deposit that was found in the middle-upper Proterozoic strata along the north margin of the North China craton in recent years. It was discovered by the No. 1 Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration Party of Inner Mongolia as a result of prospecting a geochemical anomaly. By now, over 50 tonnes of gold has been defined, with an average Au grade of 4 g/t. The ore bodies occur in the first lithological unit of the Mesoproterozoic Zhulazhagamaodao Formation (MZF), which is composed mainly of epimetamorphic sandstone and siltstone and partly of volcanic rocks. With high concentration of gold,the first lithological unit of the MZF became the source bed for the late-stage ore formation. Controlled by the interstratal fracture zones, the ore bodies mostly appear along the bedding with occurrence similar to that of the strata. The primitive ore types are predominantly the altered rock type with minor ore belonging to the quartz veins type. There are also some oxidized ore near the surface. The metallic minerals are composed mainly of pyrite, pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite with minor chalcopyrite, galena and limonite. Most gold minerals appear as native gold and electrum. Hydrothermal alterations associated with the ore formation are actinolitization, silicatization, sulfidation and carbonation.A total of 100 two-phase H20-rich and 7 three-phase daughter crystal-bearing inclusions were measured in seven goldbearing quartz samples from the Zhulazhaga gold deposit. The homogenization temperatures of the two-phase H2O-rich inclusions range from 155 to 401℃, with an average temperature of 284℃ and bimodal distributions from 240 to 260℃ and 300 to 320℃ respectively. The salinities of the two-phase H20-rich inclusions vary from 9.22wt% to 24.30wt% NaCl equiv, with a mode between 23 wt% and 24wt% NaCl equiv. Comparatively, the homogenization temperatures of

  14. An experimental study on the geochemical behavior of highly siderophile elements (HSE) and metalloids (As, Se, Sb, Te, Bi) in a mss-iss-pyrite system at 650 °C: A possible magmatic origin for Co-HSE-bearing pyrite and the role of metalloid-rich phases in the fractionation of HSE (United States)

    Cafagna, Fabio; Jugo, Pedro J.


    Pyrite, the most abundant sulfide in the Earth's crust, is an accessory mineral in several magmatic sulfide deposits. Although most pyrite is hydrothermal, previous experimental studies have shown that pyrite can also have a primary magmatic origin, by exsolving from monosulfide solid solution (mss) during cooling of a sulfide melt, if sulfur fugacity is sufficiently high. Pyrite from some localities has significant amounts of Co, and complex zonation in some low-melting-point chalcophile elements (LMCE), such as As, Se, Sb, Te, Bi (henceforth referred to as metalloids) and some platinum-group elements (PGE: Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt). However, the origin of such pyrite and the causes of zonation are not clear. Because the distribution of some of these elements is heterogeneous and seems to be developed in concentric zones, the zonation has been interpreted to represent growth stages, some of them secondary and caused partly by hydrothermal fluids. Better constraints on the origin of Co-PGE-bearing pyrite could help unravel the geochemical processes affecting the sulfide assemblages in which it is found; thus, an experimental study was undertaken to characterize pyrite formation in magmatic sulfide environments and its relationship with metalloids and highly siderophile elements (HSE: PGE, Re, Au). Natural pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, pentlandite and elemental S were mixed and doped with approximately 50 ppm of each HSE. A mixture of metalloids was added at 0.2 wt.% or 3 wt.% to aliquots of sulfide mixtures. Starting materials were sealed in evacuated silica tubes and fused at 1200 °C. The temperature was subsequently reduced to 750 °C (at 60 °C/h), then to 650 °C (at 0.5 °C/h) to produce relatively large euhedral pyrite crystals, then quenched. The experiments were analyzed using reflected light, SEM, EPMA and LA-ICP-MS. Experimental products contained euhedral pyrite, mss, intermediate solid solution (iss) and metalloid-rich phases, interpreted as quench product

  15. Utilisation of X-Ray computed microtomography for evaluation of iron sulphide distribution in roofing slate (United States)

    Souček, Kamil; Daněk, Tomáš; Vavro, Martin; Botula, Jiří


    Roofing slate represents a traditional natural stone used for centuries for roofing and other construction applications in various types of buildings. Quality roofing slate must be primarily splittable into large, thin and waterproof tiles. In addition, it must be stable in colour and resistant against weathering. The abundance of mineral phases that weather easily or minerals that are long-term unstable has the effect of reducing the durability of slates in exterior conditions. One of the most problematic rock components, which are in a larger or smaller extent present in almost all slates, are iron sulphides, such as pyrite, marcasite or pyrrhotite. Under common atmospheric conditions, these minerals tend to oxidise, which leads to the formation of limonite and sulphuric acid. As a consequence of the origin of red-brown Fe oxyhydroxides, the undesirable colour changes of the slate may occur. But the most serious problem which occurs during this process is the changes in volume. This can cause disintegration of slate depending on the form of the iron sulphide occurrence. The content and size distribution of iron sulphides in roofing slate is normally determined using the microscopic analysis in transmitted light, combined with the observation in reflected light. For quantitative determination of iron sulphides in slate, the X-Ray powder diffraction is also often used. The results of the microscopic and X-Ray analyses need to be mutually compared and should not differ fundamentally. This paper is focused on the assessing the possibility of application of the X-Ray computed microtomography (CT) as a new complementary technique enabling the analysis of content and size (volume) distribution of iron sulphides in roofing slate. The X-Ray CT study was conducted using an XT H 225 ST industrial micro-tomographic system made by Nikon Metrology NV. Studied samples were reconstructed using the CT Pro 3D software (Nikon Metrology NV). The visualisation and analysis software

  16. The geological condition and criteria for Dalong Mo-W deposit prospecting in Hahaigang,Tibet Autonomous Region%西藏哈海岗达龙钼钨矿床找矿地质条件及找矿标志

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙广沅; 赵俊宏; 覃鹏; 杨英; 姜海


    In the Dalong molybdenum-tungsten deposit,the shallow metamorphic sandstone and slate inter-layer of upper Permian Pangna Formation is the main ore-bearing horizon.Skarn filling structural fracture is the host rock of tungsten ore.Structural superimposed parts in Dalong anticline and Dalong fracture are the main ore-controlling structures.The Himalayan period complex rock body provides main ore sources and heat source for mineralization.The cooperative factors mentioned above have supplied necessary geological conditions for tungsten mineralization.Skarn type scheelite ores are often paragenesis with impregnated chal-copyrite and pyrrhotite.The wall-rock alterations are universal,and the alteration can be divided from the center of tungsten body to the outside as:skarnization→ pyrrhotization→ silicification;impregnated pyritiza-tion→ chloritization;epidotization→ carbonation;film like pyritization→sericitization→ kaolination.Indus-trial orebody appeared in the center of secondary halo anomaly concentration of Cu,Mo,W.Low resistivity and high polarization showed in transient electromagnetics and induced electric intermediate gradient method are mineralizedanomalies.%达龙钼钨矿床,上二叠系旁那组浅变质砂岩与板岩互层是主要的赋矿层位;构造裂隙填充的矽卡岩是钨矿体的赋矿岩石;达龙背斜与达龙断裂的构造叠加部位是主要的控矿构造;喜山期的复式杂岩体是成矿的主要矿源体及热源体。这些因素相互作用、相互配合,为矿床的形成提供了必要的地质条件。矽卡岩型白钨矿石常与浸染状黄铜矿、磁黄铁矿共生;围岩蚀变发育、并具分带性,以钨矿体为中心,向外依次为矽卡岩化→磁黄铁矿化→硅化、浸染状黄铁矿化→绿泥石化、绿帘石化→碳酸盐化、薄膜状黄铁矿化→绢云母化、高岭土化。在C u、Mo、W的次生晕异常浓集中心均有工业矿体出现。瞬变电磁与激

  17. A preliminary interpretation of gas composition in the CP IV sector wells, Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor M; Portugal Marin, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail:; Perez Hernandez, Alfredo; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Marco Helio; Leon Vivar, Jesus de [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General Cerro Prieto, B.C. (Mexico)


    To increase the electrical generation capacity of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field from 620 MW to 720 MW, the Cerro Prieto IV (CP IV) sector of the field was developed in the NE portion of the exploited field. Fourteen new wells have been drilled there since 2000. The wells in CP IV zone produce two-phase fluids at wellhead with heterogeneous steam fraction characteristics: at the central zone and towards the NW, the wells are liquid-dominated while those towards the E and S produce a relatively high steam fraction. This work studies the gas compositions of produced fluids to obtain reservoir parameters such as temperature and steam fraction and identify different sources of fluids in the wells. A method was used based on the Fischer Tropsch reaction and H{sub 2}S equilibria with pyrite-pyrrhotite as a mineral buffer (FT-HSH3). The results for the natural state showed the presence of fluids with reservoir temperatures from 275 to 310 degrees Celsius and excess steam values from -1 to 50%. Data are aligned in a FT-HSH3 trend, suggesting that the well discharges consist of a mixture in different proportions of the two end members. One seems to be a liquid with a temperature of over 300 degrees Celsius with negative or negligible excess steam. The other seems to be a two-phase fluid with a temperature of about 275 degrees Celsius and an excess steam fraction of about 0.5. According to the data for single wells and depending on the production conditions of the wells, reservoir fluid mixtures could occur in different proportions of liquid and steam. Data for 2005 that included wells drilled after 2000 suggest the presence of a steam phase in the reservoir. The steam could be generated with the boiling of deep reservoir fluid from a pressure drop. The mixing trend obtained for the natural state was also seen for 2005 data but lower temperatures (from 265 to 295 degrees Celsius) were obtained compared with those for natural conditions. The entry of lower

  18. Sidescan Sonar Imagery of the Escanaba Trough, Southern Gorda Ridge, Offshore Northern California (United States)

    Ross, Stephanie L.; Zierenberg, Robert A.


    This map features sidescan imagery of the northern Escanaba (NESCA) site at the Escanaba Trough, southern Gorda Ridge, offshore northern California. The Escanaba Trough, a largely sediment-covered seafloor spreading center, contains at least six large massive sulfide deposits. It is a slow spreading center (2.5 cm/yr) with axial depths locally exceeding 3,300 m. Discrete igneous centers occur at 5- to 10-km intervals along this slow-spreading ridge. Basaltic magma intrudes the sediment fill of the axial valley, creating uplifted sediment hills, and, in some areas, erupts onto the sea floor. Large massive sulfide deposits occur along the margins of the uplifted sediment hills. The only active hydrothermal system is located on Central Hill where 220 deg C fluids construct anhydrite chimneys on pyrrhotite-rich massive sulfide mounds (Campbell and others, 1994). Central Hill is bounded by both ridge-parallel basement faults and a concentric set of faults that rim the top of the hill and may be associated with sill intrusion. Central Hill was one of the primary drill sites for Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 169. The sidescan sonar data (mosaics A, B, C, D) were collected aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) research vessel Discoverer in the summer of 1996 with a 60-kHz system towed 100 to 200 m above the sea floor. Major faults and contacts are interpreted from the sidescan mosaics and 4.5-kHz seismic profiles collected simultaneously, as well as from previously conducted camera transects and submersible dives. The seismic profiles (lines 9, 11, 13) provide high-resolution subbottom structure and stratigraphy to a depth of about 50 m. In the sidescan images (mosaics A, B, C, D), bright areas denote high-energy returns from hard reflectors such as volcanic flows, sulfide deposits, or seafloor scarps. Dark areas denote low-energy returns and generally signify relatively undisturbed surface sediment. The grid lines mark one-minute intervals

  19. Geology, Ore-microscopy and Fluid inclusion study on Auriferous Quartz Veins at the Gidami Gold Mine, Eastern Desert of Egypt (United States)

    Abd El Monsef, Mohamed; Salem, Ibrahim; Slobodnik, Marek


    The gold deposits are represented by auriferous quartz veins and aplitic dykes that are cutting through granitic rocks. The main lode of gold is confined to two principal veins occupying fracture zones and fissures. The main auriferous vein is striking mainly NNW-SSE with dipping 85° NE, it extends up to 450 m with an average thickness 120 cm. The second vein is striking NW-SE and dipping 60° E, it extends for 150 m with an average thickness 35 cm. The gold bearing veins are made up of fine grained quartz that is always massive, milky-white with reddish or greenish tint. They commonly include vugs, some of them are occasionally filled with iron oxides, carbonate and clay minerals. Sometimes the quartz veins enclose remnants of altered wall rock materials as an indication for the metamorphic or syntectonic nature of the veins. Brecciation, comb layering, swelling and nodules manganese dendrites are usually detected. The microscopic examination for thin and polished sections of auriferous quartz veins revealed that quartz and calcite are the predominant minerals commonly associated with accessory minerals (fluorite, apatite, zircon, muscovite and sericite). Ore mineral assemblage is found as disseminated sulfide minerals (pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, molybdenite, pyrrhotite covellite, galena and pentlandite). Ilmenite and goethite are the main iron oxide mineral phases. Gold most commonly occurs as small inclusions within pyrite or goethite. Gold also occurs as tiny grains scattered within quartz vein (in close proximity to the sulfides) or as disseminated grains in the altered wall rocks. Hydrothermal alteration includes silicification, kaolinitization, sericitisation, carbonatisation confined to a delicate set of veins. Petrography and microthermometry of fluid inclusions revealed that the majority of inclusions are of primary/pseudosecondary nature that occur in clusters and along growth zones or along intra-granular planar trails (pseudosecondary

  20. Geochemical Characterization of Mine Waste, Mine Drainage, and Stream Sediments at the Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site, Orange County, Vermont (United States)

    Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Kiah, Richard G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Adams, Monique; Anthony, Michael W.; Briggs, Paul H.; Jackson, John C.


    The Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site in the Vermont copper belt consists of the abandoned Smith, Eureka, and Union mines, all of which exploited Besshi-type massive sulfide deposits. The site was listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List in 2004 due to aquatic ecosystem impacts. This study was intended to be a precursor to a formal remedial investigation by the USEPA, and it focused on the characterization of mine waste, mine drainage, and stream sediments. A related study investigated the effects of the mine drainage on downstream surface waters. The potential for mine waste and drainage to have an adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems, on drinking- water supplies, and to human health was assessed on the basis of mineralogy, chemical concentrations, acid generation, and potential for metals to be leached from mine waste and soils. The results were compared to those from analyses of other Vermont copper belt Superfund sites, the Elizabeth Mine and Ely Copper Mine, to evaluate if the waste material at the Pike Hill Copper Mine was sufficiently similar to that of the other mine sites that USEPA can streamline the evaluation of remediation technologies. Mine-waste samples consisted of oxidized and unoxidized sulfidic ore and waste rock, and flotation-mill tailings. These samples contained as much as 16 weight percent sulfides that included chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, and sphalerite. During oxidation, sulfides weather and may release potentially toxic trace elements and may produce acid. In addition, soluble efflorescent sulfate salts were identified at the mines; during rain events, the dissolution of these salts contributes acid and metals to receiving waters. Mine waste contained concentrations of cadmium, copper, and iron that exceeded USEPA Preliminary Remediation Goals. The concentrations of selenium in mine waste were higher than the average composition of eastern United States soils. Most mine waste was

  1. The Voisey's Bay Ni-Cu-Co Sulfide Deposit,Labrador,Canada:Emplacement of Silicate and Sulfide-Laden Magmas into Spaces Created within a Structural Corridor%The Voisey's Bay Ni-Cu-Co Sulfide Deposit,Labrador, Canada: Emplacement of Silicate and Sulfide-Laden Magmas into Spaces Created within a Structural Corridor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter C.Lightfoot; Dawn Evans-Lamswood; Robert Wheeler


    ,development of barren olivine gabbro,and by a change from typically massive sulfides and breccias sulfides into more typical variable-textured troctolites with heavy to weak disseminated sulfide.Sulfides hosted in the feeder dyke tend to have low metal tenors ([Ni] 100=2.5%-3.5 %) ; sulfides in Eastern Deeps massive and breccia ores have intermediate Ni tenors ([Ni] 100 =3.5%-4%) and disseminated sulfides in overlying rocks have high Ni tenors ([Ni] 100=4%-8%).Conduit-hosted mineralization and mineral zones in the paragneiss adjacent to the Reid Brook Deposit tendto have lower Ni tenor than the Ovoid and Eastern Deeps Deposits.The tenor of mineral hosted in thecountry rock gneisses tends to be the same as that developed in the conduit; the injection of the sulfide in-to the country rocks likely occurred before formation of monosulfide solid solution.The Ovoid Deposit ischaracterized by coarse-grained loop-textured ores consisting of 10cm-2m sized pyrrhotite crystals sepera-ted by chalcopyrite and pentlandite.A small lens of massive cubanite surrounded by more magnetite-richsulfide assemblages represents what appears to be the product of in-situ sulfide fractionation.Detailed exploration in the area between the Reid Brook Zone and the Eastern Deeps has shown thatthese intrusions and ore deposits are connected by a branched dyke and chamber system in a major west-east fault zone.The Eastern Deeps chamber may be controlled by graben-like fault structures,and themarginal structures appear to have controlled dykes which connect the chambers at different levels in thecrust.The geological relationships in the intrusion are consistent with emplacement of the silicate and sul-fide laden magma from a deeper sub-chamber (possibly a deep eastward extension of the Western DeepsIntrusion where S-saturation was initially achieved).The silicate and sulfide magmas were likely emplacedthrough this conduit into the Eastern Deeps intrusion as a number of different fragment laden pulses

  2. Fluid inclusion and sulfur stable isotope evidence for the origin of the Ahangran Pb-Ag deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Maanijou


    Full Text Available Introduction The Ahangaran Pb-Ag deposit is located in the Hamedan province, west Iran, 25 km southeast of the city of Malayer . . The deposit lies in the strongly folded Sanandaj-Sirjan tectonic zone, in which the ore bodies occur as thin lenses and layers. The host rocks of the deposit are Early Cretaceous carbonates and sandstones that are unconformably underlain by Jurassic rocks. Ore minerals include galena, pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite and supergene iron oxide minerals. Gangue minerals consist of barite, dolomite, chlorite, calcite and quartz. The mineralization occurs as open-space fillings, veins, veinlets, disseminations, and massive replacements. Alteration consists of silicification, sericitization, and dolomitization. In this study, we carried out studies of mineralogy, microthermometry of fluid inclusions and sulfur isotopes to determine the source of sulfur and the physico-chemical conditions of formation. Materials and methods Seventy samples of different host rocks, alteration, and mineralization were collected from surface outcrops and different tunnels. Twenty of the samples were prepared for mineralogical studies at Tarbiat Modarres University in Tehran and 25 for petrological studies at the University of Bu-Ali Sina. Fluid-inclusion studies were done on 5 samples of quartz and calcite at Pouya Zamin Azin Company in Tehran using a Linkam THM 600 model heating-freezing stage (with a range of -196 to 480ºC. The accuracy and precision of the homogenization measurements are about ±1°C. Salinity estimates were determined from the last melting temperatures of ice, utilizing the equations by Bodnar and Vityk (1994 and for CO2 fluids using equations by Chen (1972. Nine samples of sulfides and barite were crushed and separated by handpicking under binocular microscope and powdered with agate mortar and pestle. About one gram of each sample was sent to the Stable Isotope and ICP/MS Laboratory of Queen’s University, Canada for

  3. Spurrite, tilleyite and associated minerals in the exoskarn zone from Cornet Hill (Metaliferi Massif, Apuseni Mountains, Romania) (United States)

    Marincea, S.; Dumitras, D. G.; Calin, N.; Anason, A. M.; Fransolet, A. M.; Hatert, F.


    The high-temperature skarn occurrence from Cornet Hill (Apuseni Mountains, Romania) is known as one of the rare occurrences of spurrite and tilleyite worldwide. Both minerals concentrate in the outer skarn zone, corresponding to the exoskarn, at the contact of a monzodiorite - quartz monzonite body, of Upper Cretaceous age, with Tithonic - Kimmeridgian reef limestones. The skarn from Cornet Hill is clearly zoned. The zoning is, from the outer to the inner part of the metasomatic area: calcite (marble) / tilleyite / spurrite / wollastonite + gehlenite + vesuvianite / wollastonite - grossular / quartz monzonite. The mineral assemblage identified so far includes gehlenite, spurrite, tilleyite, diopside, grossular, titanian andradite, magnetite, monticellite, wollastonite, perovskite, vesuvianite, afwillite, fukalite, ellestadite-(OH), calcite, aragonite, pyrrhotite, scawtite, thaumasite, clinochlore, chrysotile, hibschite, xonotlite, thomsonite, gismondine, plombièrite, tobermorite, riversideite, portlandite, allophane. Spurrite composes 90-95 of the rock volume of the inner exoskarn zone, where it forms practically monomineralic masses of grayish blue to pale gray color associated with perovskite, grossular, scarce tilleyite and wollastonite, and secondary afwillite, ellestadite-OH, fukalite and thaumasite. Some of the larger patches of spurrite are, however, cross cut by microveins containing scawtite, plombièrite, tobermorite, calcite and secondary aragonite. The mean unit-cell parameters, obtained as average of seven sets of data refined on the basis of X-ray powder patterns, are a 10.496(15), b 6.719(8), c 14.182(18) Å and ? 101.38(4)°. The average crystal-chemical formula, established on the basis of 23 point analyses is: (Ca5.012Mg0.002Fe2+0.002Na0.011K0.001)(Si1.990Ti0.002)O8(CO3)0.995. Tilleyite represents the main constituent of the outer exoskarn zone. It occurs as monomineralic grey-bluish "orbicules" up to 5 cm2 in size, generally rimmed by scawtite

  4. Geology and mineralogy of the Au-As (Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu-Sb polymetallic deposit of Valiña-Azúmara (Lugo, NW Spain

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    Martínez-Abad, I.


    Full Text Available Valiña-Azúmara is a polymetallic Au-As (Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu-Sb deposit, located in the province of Lugo (NW Spain, that was mined for arsenic at the beginning of the 20th century. The mineralization is hosted in a Variscan thrust fault with a dip direction of N247-261ºE, and N-S and NE-SW Late-Variscan faults. These structures are hosted in black slates, Cambrian in age. To a lesser extent, the mineralization also occurs disseminated within narrow, weakly silicified and sericited selvages. Mineralization is divided into two hypogene stages. The first consists of quartz, calcite, rutile, sericite, arsenopyrite and pyrite. Two types of pyrite (Py-I and Py-II are defined according to their chemical and textural characteristics. Py-II occurs as overgrowth of previous Py-I crystals. Py-II is As-rich (≤1.7 wt.% and often contains traces of Te, Zn, Cu, Bi, Sb and Au. The mineralized drill core sections show a significant correlation between Au and As. This is due to Au occurring as invisible Au within the Py-II grains, with contents of up to 176 ppm. The Au/As ratios of Py-II indicate that Au was deposited as Au1+, as solid solution within the pyrite structure. The second stage of mineralization is enriched in Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu-Sb, replacing the first stage, and consists of quartz, calcite, chlorite, sphalerite, jamesonite, Ag-rich tetrahedrite, freibergite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite and galena. Although jamesonite shows traces of Ag, the Cu-Ag sulfosalts are the main carriers of the Ag mineralization in the deposit, with contents that vary from 13.7 to 23.9 wt.% of Ag. In the most superficial levels of the area, secondary Fe oxide and hydroxide, scorodite and anglesite developed due to the oxidation of the ore.Valiña-Azúmara es un yacimiento filoniano de Au-As (Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu-Sb situado en la provincia de Lugo (NO España, que fue explotado por arsénico a principios del siglo XX. La mineralización se encuentra encajada en un cabalgamiento Varisco de direcci

  5. Dark Clasts in the ACFER 059/El Djouf 001 Meteorite (CR) from the Sahara: Implications for their Origins (United States)

    Endress, M.; Keil, K.; Bischoff, A.


    Introduction: Dark clasts (DC) occur in almost all known chondrite groups. They have been interpreted mostly as matrix or C1 and C2 chondritic material. Weisberg et al. (1991) recently described DCs in six samples of the CR2 chondrite group. Here we focus on DCs in the paired samples of the Acfer/El Djouf meteorite (Bischoff et al., 1992). Thirty-six DCs in 12 polished thin sections were studied. Results: DCs occur in all investigated thin sections with an average of 50 DCs in each and make up 2.4 to 3.7 vol%. DCs are mostly irregularly shaped and up to 2.4 mm in maximum dimension, with most ranging between 200 and 400 micrometers. They have sharp boundaries to the surrounding matrix of the host meteorite in reflected light as well as in backscatter images of an SEM. Some DCs are light to dark brownish, others are opaque in transmitted light. Both types are heavily fractured and contain only a negligible abundance of weathering products. DCs have abundant fine-grained matrix including chondrule fragments, mineral fragments and, frequently, phyllosilicate clusters. The abundances of these components vary greatly among the DC. Only one CAI and two microchondrules in DCs were detected. Chondrule fragments are mostly relics of former porphyritic chondrules (PO, POP, PP); olivine and pyroxene compositions are Fa1-47 and Fs3-25, respectively. Some olivines show high MnO contents up to 3 wt%. Major components in the matrix of DCs are magnetite, pyrrhotite and pentlandite. Magnetite grains are up to 25 micrometers in size and show the typical features of magnetite from CI chondrites: spherules, framboids and platelets. The sulfides constitute an average of 1 vol% and occur mostly as large laths up to 50 micrometers long. Accessory phases throughout the matrix in DCs are spinel, carbonate (ankerite-like), phosphate, ilmenite, schreibersite and Fe, Ni. Two Os,Mo,Ir-rich particles were detected. The bulk compositions of individual DCs vary, probably due to different

  6. Geoquímica de los procesos de alteración hidrotermal en la mineralización de Sb de Mari Rosa (zona Centro Ibérica

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    Lillo, J.


    Full Text Available The Central Iberian Zone of the Hesperian Massif hosts a series of late Hercynian veintype Sb deposits. One of them is the Mari Rosa mineralization, hosted by metagreywackes and slates belonging to the so-called Schist-Greywacke Complex (Upper Precambrian. The mineralization is characterized by a complex paragenesis comprising arsenopyrite-(pyrite, stibnite-gold and pyrite-pyrrhotite-galena-sphalerite-chalcopyrite-tetrahedrite-boulangeritestibnite. Of these only the second episode was of importance and gave rise to the main mineralized bodies of the deposito Two types of veins can be defined in Mari Rosa: Vp, showing pinch and swell structures parallel to the main foliation planes (S2, and Vo, massive lensoid-shaped bodies of gold bearing stibnite postdating the Vp veins and cross-cutting S2. Hydrothermal alteration consists oí a mild sericitization, chloritization and carbonatization oí the metasedimentary rocks around the veins. Due to the mineralogy oí the hostrocks (muscovite, chlorite, quartz, these alteration facies are not easily recognizable. However, the study of chemical changes around the veins allow a clear characterization of the hydrotermal processes. !hus, a remarkable increase in the ratio K2O/Na2O (from 1.2 in the regional rocks to 5.1 lfi the Vp contact rocks and a decrease in the ratio SiO2/volatiles (írom 27.4 in the regional rocks to 13.5 in the Vp contact rocks can be used as clear-cut indicators of the extension and magnitude of the hydrothermal alteration. Other changes included increases lfi. Sb (between 5,000 and 10,000 times the regional background, Mo (up to 60 times the regional background and Au (values oí up to 32 ppm around the veins. Besides, a high positive correlation between Sb and Mo is observed (R = 1 in the veins and R = 0.9 in the host rocks. The isotopic signature of stibnite and pyrite (average δ34S of 0.3‰ and -3.9‰, respectively is close to the typical values of magmatic sulphur. This

  7. Generation of high reactive fluids by rapid clinopyroxene-seawater interaction: An experimental study at 425 °C, 40 and 100 MPa (United States)

    Beermann, Oliver; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Schächinger, Steffen; Arzi, Lisa; Holzheid, Astrid


    experiments significant amounts (~10-20 rel. %) of secondary mineral phases, i.e. talc, the serpentine-group minerals lizardite, antigorite, and chrysotile, and minor abundances of pyrrhotite and pentlandite were formed primarily on Cpx even after short run durations of 3 hours. Our results show that intense leaching of Ca, REEs, transition and trace metals only occurred with Cpx and only in the seawater experiments. Leaching was caused by rapid precipitation of the intitial seawater Mg (1400 ppm) on Cpx, which generated HCl(aq) with pH (25 °C) hydrothermalism, as it is evident from MAR 5° S fluids. This kind of hydrothermalism is expected to be not uncommon in particular at the slow-spreading MAR [9], and the high element fluxes here, most probably caused by seawater-pyroxene interactions, should be taken into account when modelling global chemical fluxes of MOR hydrothermalism. References: [1] German C. R., Thurnherr A. M., Knoery J., Charlou J.-L., Jean-Babtiste P., and Edmonds H. N. (2010) Deep Sea Res. 157, 518-527. [2] Schmidt K., Garbe-Schönberg D., Bau M., and Koschinsky A. (2010) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 4058-4077. [3] Saito M. A., Noble A. E., Tagliabue A., Goepfert T. G., Lamborg C. H., and Jenkins W. J. (2013) Nat. Geosci. 5, 775-779. [4] German C. R., Bennett S. A., Connelly D. P., Evans A. J., Murton B. J., Parson L. M., Prien R. D., Ramirez-Llodra E., Jakuba M., Shank T. M., Yoerger D. R., Baker E. T., Walker S. L., and Nakamura K. (2008) Earth. Planet. Sci. Lett. 273, 332-344. [5] Haase K. M., Petersen S., Koschinsky A., and M64/1, M68/1 Scient. Parties (2007) Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 8, Q11002, doi: 10.1029/2006GC001509. [6] Koschinsky A., Garbe-Schönberg D., Sander S., Schmidt K., Gennerich H. H., and Strauss H. (2008) Geology 36, 615-618. [7] Elderfield H. and Schultz A. (1996) Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 24, 191-224. [8] German C. R., Thurnherr A. M., Knoery J., Charlou J.-L., Jean-Baptiste P., and Edmonds H. N. (2010) Deep Sea Res. 157, 518

  8. 内蒙古道伦达坝铜多金属矿床微量元素地球化学特征%Geochemsitry Characteristic of Trace Element in Daolundaba Copper-polymetallic Deposit of Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    要梅娟; 刘家军; 翟德高; 王建平; 邢永亮


    The Daolundaba copper-polymetallic deposit in Inner Mongolia is located in the west side of southern Da Hinggan Mountains. Ore bodies are mainly formed in the contact zone of silty slate and biotite granite. Geochemistry of rare earth element (REE) and trace element was studied for the formation and magmatite of deposit. The results showed that mass fraction of REE was (18. 09-532. 08) ×10-6 with an average of 235. 60×10-6; the mass fraction of REE in pyrrhotite was lowest, and that of siliceous sandstone was highest; ratio of mass fractions of light REE (LREE) and heavy REE (HREE) was 7. 02-12. 53 with an average of 9. 95; Eu anomaly was 0. 22-0. 72 with an average of 0. 42, and was obviously negative; Ce anomaly was 0. 97-1. 07with an average of 1. 02, and was not obvious; ratio of mass fractions of La and Yb with chondrite standardization (w(La)N/w(Yb)N) was 6. 57-18. 72 with an average of 10. 61, and the curve was significantly right-leaned; ratio of mass fractions of La and Sm with chondrite standardization (w(La)N/w(Sm)N) and that of Gd and Yb (w(Gd)N/w( Yb)N) were 2. 87-4. 12 and 1. 48-2. 46, respectively, and the differentiation of LREE was stronger than that of HREE; concentration coefficients of important metallogenic elements including Sn, Cu and Ag were very high. The observation of ore mineral assemblage and the study on mineral chemistry suggested that Permian construction was the main source of ore in deposit, the ore concentration was genetically related to intermediate-acidic intrusion including biotite granite; siliceous sandstone was favorable to trap metallogenic material, and the contact zone was important for mineralization and prospecting.%内蒙古道伦达坝铜多金属矿床位于大兴安岭南段西坡,矿体主要产于粉砂质板岩与黑云母花岗岩的接触带.对该矿床的地层和岩浆岩进行了稀土元素和微量元素地球化学研究.结果表明:稀土元素质量分数为(18.09~532.08)×10-6,平均为235.60

  9. Mineralization process of the Kafang tin-copper deposit in the Gejiu district, Yunnan Province: Constraints from fluid inclusion%云南个旧卡房矿田锡-铜矿床成矿作用过程探讨:成矿流体约束

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟; 毛景文; 程彦博; 李肖龙


    mineralization in the deposit can be divided into three stages, I. E. Quartz-pyrrhotite-chalcopyrite stage ( I ), quartz-calcite-chalcopyrite-pyrite stage (Ⅱa) and quartz-calcite stage ( Ⅱb). The ore-forming fluids of the three stages physical-chemically changed from moderate-high temperature (363. 9°C in average) , moderate salinity (20. 18% NaCleqv in average) and low density (0. 854g/ cm3 in average) via moderate temperature (283. 2°C in average), moderate-low salinity (12.59% NaCleqv in average) and low density (0. 863g/cm3 in average) to low temperature ( 185. 0°C in average) , low salinity ( 11. 97% NaCleqv in average) and low density (1. 001g/cm3 in average). The Laser Raman data of the ore-forming fluid inclusions shows that it is rich of H2O, CH4 in gas phase, and H2O, CO32~ in liquid phase. Hydrogen isotope analysis and oxygen isotope analysis (δDH2O, lies between - 98%c ~ -19%;δ818OH2O lies between -0. 82%o ~7.09%o) show that the ore-forming fluid dominated by magmatic water in the early stage, but in late stage, it could be produced by mixing magmatic and meteoric water. The compositions of sulfur isotope show that sulfur of stratiform-like ore-body (δ34S lies between -0. 86%o ~3. 8%o) was derived from Triassic basalt lava. Both Triassic basalt lava and Yanshanian granite provide sulfur for the ore-forming process (S^S lies between -3. 2%c ~6. 2%c).

  10. Mineral Composition, Geochemistry of the Yangla Copper Deposit in Yunnan and Their Geological Significances%云南羊拉铜矿床矿物组成、地球化学特征及其地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨喜安; 刘家军; 韩思宇; 汪欢; 罗诚; 刘月东; 翟德高


    云南羊拉铜矿床位于金沙江构造带中部,是三江地区一个十分典型的大型铜矿床.羊拉铜矿床的金属矿物为黄铜矿、黄铁矿、磁黄铁矿、方铅矿、自然铋、辉铋矿、毒砂、辉砷钴矿、辉钼矿等,根据金属矿物的共生组合,推测羊拉铜矿床为中高温热液矿床.羊拉铜矿床与羊拉花岗闪长岩体具有密切的成因联系,通过对羊拉铜矿床铜矿石稀土元素、微量元素的分布特征和羊拉花岗闪长岩的对比及S、Pb同位素组成的研究,表明成矿物质主要来源于地幔,部分来源于岩浆.早二叠世晚期金沙江洋盆向西俯冲形成了一系列逆断层.同时,金沙江洋盆向西低角度俯冲导致下地壳部分熔融,引发大规模的火山岩浆作用.在晚三叠世早期,构造背景由挤压环境到伸展环境的转折期,这些逆断层具有张性的特点,为后期的成矿热液提供了有利的容矿构造.持续上升的岩浆为地幔楔内的成矿流体提供了通道,岩浆内的部分成矿流体进入羊拉花岗闪长岩体附近的逆断层富集成矿.%The Yangla copper deposit, situated in the middle section of Jinshajiang tectonic belt between Zhongza-Zhongdian plate and Changdu-Simao plate, is a representative and giant copper deposit that has been discovered in Jinshajiang-Lancangjiang-Nujiang region in recent years. Metalliferous minerals consist of chal-copyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, galena, bismuth, bismuthinite, arsenopyrite, cobaltite and molybdenite. Based on the mineral association, the paper infers that the deposit is a medium to high temperature hydrothermal deposit. There is a coupled relationship between Yangla granodiorite and copper mineralization in the Yangla copper deposit. A comparison of the REE and trace element compositions of the copper ores with those of the Yangla granodiorite, and S, Pb isotopic composition of the Yangla copper deposit indicate that the ore-forming fluids are derived mainly from

  11. The compositionally zoned eruption of 1912 in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Katmai National Park, Alaska (United States)

    Hildreth, Wes


    On June 6-8, 1912, ˜ 15 km 3 of magma erupted from the Novarupta caldera at the head of the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS), producing ˜ 20 km 3 of air-fall tephra and 11-15 km 3 of ash-flow tuff within ˜ 60 hours. Three discrete periods of ash-fall at Kodiak correlate, respectively, with Plinian tephra layers designated A, CD, and FG by Curtis (1968) in the VTTS. The ash-flow sequence overlapped with but outlasted pumice fall A, terminating within 20 hours of the initial outbreak and prior to pumice fall C. Layers E and H consist mostly of vitric dust that settled during lulls, and Layer B is the feather edge of the ash flow. The fall units filled and obscured the caldera, but arcuate and radial fissures outline a 6-km 2 depression. The Novarupta lava dome and its ejecta ring were emplaced later within the depression. At Mt. Katmai, 10 km east of the 1912 vent, a 600-m-deep caldera of similar area also collapsed at about this time, probably owing to hydraulic connection with the venting magma system; but all known ejecta are thought to have erupted at Novarupta. Mingling of three distinctive magmas during the eruption produced an abundance of banded pumice, and mechanical mixing of chilled ejecta resulted in deposits with a wide range of bulk composition. Pumice in the initial fall unit (A) is 100% rhyolite, but fall units atop the ash flow are > 98% dacite; black andesitic scoria is common only in the ash flows and in near-vent air-fall tephra. Pumice counts show the first half of the ash-flow deposit to be 91-98% rhyolite, but progressive increases of dacite and andesite eventually reduced the rhyolitic component to 20 km to the lowermost VTTS, and deposited 1-8 m of debris there. Rhyolitic ejecta contain only 1-2% phenocrysts but andesite and dacite have 30-45%. Quartz is present and augite absent only in the rhyolite, but all ejecta contain plagioclase, orthopyroxene, titanomagnetite, ilmenite, apatite, and pyrrhotite; rare olivine occurs in the

  12. Sulfide mineralization in ultramafic rocks of the Faryab ophiolite complex, southern Kerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Rajabzadeh


    melting of the upper mantle. Sulfide mineralization in the complex is confined to cumulate rocks in northern part of ophiolite column. The mineralization is olivine-rich clinopyroxene and wehrlite. Petrographic investigation of sulfides in host ultramafics indicated two sulfide generations. In the first generation, primary magmatic sulfides occurred as interstitial disseminations, generally as anhedral grains. In the second generation, sulfides formed as veinlets along host rock fractures. The primary sulfides include pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and secondary digenite and pyrite. The primary sulfide content increases with increasing size and amount of clinopyroxene in host rocks. Associated chromian spinels in host ultramafics display disseminated and massive textures. Discussion Generally, mineralization in ophiolites is controlled by two major steps: a partial melting of upper mantle rocks and b crystal fractionation in a magma chamber (Rajabzadeh and Moosavinasab, 2013. The chemical compositions of the analyzed minerals were then used in estimating the conditions in these two steps. The composition of chromian spinel corresponds to chromite of boninitic melts formed in supra-subduction zone environments. Boninitic melts are produced at high degrees of partial melting of mantle peridotites in the presence of water (Edwards et al., 2002. Silicates of the host rocks are mainly clinopyroxene (diopside and augite of the composition Wo47.50 En45.48 Fs3.4, olivine Fo92 and orthopyroxene (enstatite - bronzite of En85 to En88. The main host ultramafic rocks of sulfides are wehrlite and clinopyroxenite, indicating that the sulfide saturation occurred during magmatic evolution of these rocks. This suggests that sulfide mineralization will occur in the northern part the ophiolite. The sulfide grains are anhedral, amoeboidal in shape, and appeared as disseminated interstitial phases, indicating that they were trapped as liquid phases during increase in sulfur fugacity and decrease in


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, M.


    This document updates the Eh-pH transitions from grout aging simulations and the plutonium waste release model of Denham (2007, Rev. 1) based on new data. New thermodynamic data for cementitious minerals are used for the grout simulations. Newer thermodynamic data, recommended by plutonium experts (Plutonium Solubility Peer Review Report, LA-UR-12-00079), are used to estimate solubilities of plutonium at various pore water compositions expected during grout aging. In addition, a new grout formula is used in the grout aging simulations and apparent solubilities of coprecipitated plutonium are estimated using data from analysis of Tank 18 residual waste. The conceptual model of waste release and the grout aging simulations are done in a manner similar to that of Denham (2007, Rev. 1). It is assumed that the pore fluid composition passing from the tank grout into the residual waste layer controls the solubility, and hence the waste release concentration of plutonium. Pore volumes of infiltrating fluid of an assumed composition are reacted with a hypothetical grout block using The Geochemist's Workbench{reg_sign} and changes in pore fluid chemistry correspond to the number of pore fluid volumes reacted. As in the earlier document, this results in three states of grout pore fluid composition throughout the simulation period that are termed Reduced Region II, Oxidized Region II, and Oxidized Region III. The one major difference from the earlier document is that pyrite is used to account for reducing capacity of the tank grout rather than pyrrhotite. This poises Eh at -0.47 volts during Reduced Region II. The major transitions in pore fluid composition are shown. Plutonium solubilities are estimated for discrete PuO2(am,hyd) particles and for plutonium coprecipitated with iron phases in the residual waste. Thermodynamic data for plutonium from the Nuclear Energy Agency are used to estimate the solubilities of the discrete particles for the three stages of pore fluid

  14. Chatkalita, nekrasovita y otros minerales del grupo de la estannita de Veta María Eugenia, Cerro Atajo, Catamarca Chatkalita, nekrasovita y otros minerales del grupo de la estannita de veta María Eugenia, Cerro Atajo, Catamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Márquez-Zavalía


    todos estos minerales es similar a las de watanabeíta; en ninguno de ellos se observaron evidencias de clivaje, maclas o reflejos internos.The association of tin minerals integrated by: chatkalite Cu6Fe2+Sn2S8, nekrasovite Cu26V2(Sn,As,Sb6S32, colusite Cu26V2(As,Sn,Sb6S32, kësterite Cu2(Zn,FeSnS4 and stannoidite Cu8(Fe,Zn3Sn2S12 was found at veta María Eugenia, Cerro Atajo, Catamarca. These minerals are included in watanabeite and accompanied by pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, bornite and galena as the main minerals, and aikinite, enargite, luzonite, marcasite, arsenopyrite and pyrrhotite as accessory minerals. Chatkalite is light pink with a delicate orange hue, birreflectant and anisotropic with brown polarization colours, occurs as irregular aggregates up to 40 µm, associated to kësterite and stannoidite; its chemical composition (wt.% range is: S=29.76-30.37, Fe=4.53-7.92, Cu=39.13-43.21, Zn=0.75-5.53, As=0.19-2.42, Sn=15.27-20.50 and Sb=0.00-0.32. Nekrasovite is isotropic, brown with a violet-pink hue; it is associated with stannoidite, and its chemical composition range is: S=30.29-30.63, Fe=3.41-4.75, Cu=44.26- 45.70, Zn=0.56-1.00, As=4.18-4.71, Sn=12.53-13.64 and Sb=0.71-0.77. Colusite is yellowish-brown, isotropic, occurs as irregular patches and discontinue ribbons in tennantite and its chemical composition range is: S=30.59-30.74, Fe=2.18-3.58, Cu=47.22-48.13, Zn=0.21-0.64, As=6.38-6.61, Sn=9.04-9.33 and Sb=0.49-1.66. Kësterite is greyish-brown, with a weak birreflectance and brown polarization colours and sometimes is surrounded by chatkalite; its chemical composition range is: S=28.68-29.14, Fe=1.98-2.14, Cu=31.06-32.51, Zn=9.03-11.57 and Sn=26.39-27.03. Stannoidite is brown, pleochroic (pinkish-brown to greyish-brown, anisotropic, with brown and yellowish-brown polarization colours; it occurs as irregular patches or as bands bordering tennantite. Its chemical composition range is: S=29.11-29.83, Fe=8.45-10.30, Cu=38.05-41.01, Zn=3