WorldWideScience

Sample records for pyrone compounds prevent

  1. Tricyclic pyrone compounds prevent aggregation and reverse cellular phenotypes caused by expression of mutant huntingtin protein in striatal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMurray Cynthia T

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington's disease (HD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion mutation in the coding region of a novel gene. The mechanism of HD is unknown. Most data suggest that polyglutamine-mediated aggregation associated with expression of mutant huntingtin protein (mhtt contributes to the pathology. However, recent studies have identified early cellular dysfunctions that preclude aggregate formation. Suppression of aggregation is accepted as one of the markers of successful therapeutic approaches. Previously, we demonstrated that tricyclic pyrone (TP compounds efficiently inhibited formation of amyloid-β (Aβ aggregates in cell and mouse models representing Alzheimer's Disease (AD. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether TP compounds could prevent aggregation and restore early cellular defects in primary embryonic striatal neurons from animal model representing HD. Results TP compounds effectively inhibit aggregation caused by mhtt in neurons and glial cells. Treatment with TP compounds also alleviated cholesterol accumulation and restored clathrin-independent endocytosis in HD neurons. Conclusion We have found that TP compounds not only blocked mhtt-induced aggregation, but also alleviated early cellular dysfunctions that preclude aggregate formation. Our data suggest TP molecules may be used as lead compounds for prevention or treatment of multiple neurodegenerative diseases including HD and AD.

  2. Response of Substituted Indoleacetic Acids in the Indolo-alpha-pyrone Fluorescence Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen; Böttger, M.; Kaiser, P.

    1978-01-01

    .-pyrones. Other halogenated indoleacetic acids show between zero and 60% of the fluorescence of IAA. Apparently the concentration of IAA cannot be determined in crude extracts in the presence of 4-chloro- or 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid, because separate determinations of each of these compounds are not possible......The method of indolo-.alpha.-pyrone fluorescence-determination of IAA was investigated to study possible interference from 4-chloro-indoleacetic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, which occur naturally. Both compounds show about 40% of the fluorescence of IAA after conversion into their .alpha...

  3. Two new alpha-pyrones and other components from the cladodes of Opuntia dillenii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ying Kun; Zhao, Yan Yan; Dou, De Qiang; Xu, Bi Xia; Liu, Ke

    2007-06-01

    The aqueous ethanolic extract from the fresh cladodes of Opuntia dillenii HAW. was found to show anti-inflammatory activity. Two new alpha-pyrones, named opuntioside II (1) and opuntioside III (2), were isolated from the extract together with six known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence.

  4. Corrosion Preventive Compounds Lifetime Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Stephanie M.; Kammerer, Catherine C.; Copp, Tracy L.

    2007-01-01

    Lifetime Testing of Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) was performed to quantify performance in the various environments to which the Space Shuttle Orbiter is exposed during a flight cycle. Three CPCs are approved for use on the Orbiter: RD Calcium Grease, Dinitrol AV-30, and Braycote 601 EF. These CPCs have been rigorously tested to prove that they mitigate corrosion in typical environments, but little information is available on how they perform in the unique combination of the coastal environment at the launch pad, the vacuum of low-earth orbit, and the extreme heat of reentry. Currently, there is no lifetime or reapplication schedule established for these compounds that is based on this combination of environmental conditions. Aluminum 2024 coupons were coated with the three CPCs and exposed to conditions that simulate the environments to which the Orbiter is exposed. Uncoated Aluminum 2024 coupons were exposed to the environmental conditions as a control. Visual inspection and Electro- Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) were performed on the samples in order to determine the effectiveness of the CPCs. The samples were processed through five mission life cycles or until the visual inspection revealed the initiation of corrosion and EIS indicated severe degradation of the coating.

  5. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 3-amino-2-pyrones as selective cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Ping Chu; Qing-Fa Zhou; Shen Zhao; Fei-Fei Ge; Mian Fu; Jia-Peng Chen; Tao Lu

    2013-01-01

    A group of 3-amino-2-pyrones were synthesized and their biological activities were evaluated for inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX) activity.This study has led to the identification of COX-1-selective inhibitors.Among the tested compounds,the compound 5j exhibited the most potent COX-1 inhibitory activity (IC50 =19.32 μg/mL) and COX-1 selectivity index (SI =41.98).

  6. Structure-based design of HIV protease inhibitors: 5,6-dihydro-4-hydroxy-2-pyrones as effective, nonpeptidic inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaisrivongs, S; Romero, D L; Tommasi, R A; Janakiraman, M N; Strohbach, J W; Turner, S R; Biles, C; Morge, R R; Johnson, P D; Aristoff, P A; Tomich, P K; Lynn, J C; Horng, M M; Chong, K T; Hinshaw, R R; Howe, W J; Finzel, B C; Watenpaugh, K D

    1996-11-08

    From a broad screening program, the 4-hydroxycoumarin phenprocoumon (I) was previously identified as a lead template with HIV protease inhibitory activity. The crystal structure of phenprocoumon/HIV protease complex initiated a structure-based design effort that initially identified the 4-hydroxy-2-pyrone U-96988 (II) as a first-generation clinical candidate for the potential treatment of HIV infection. Based upon the crystal structure of the 4-hydroxy-2-pyrone III/HIV protease complex, a series of analogues incorporating a 5,6-dihydro-4-hydroxy-2-pyrone template were studied. It was recognized that in addition to having the required pharmacophore (the 4-hydroxy group with hydrogen-bonding interaction with the two catalytic aspartic acid residues and the lactone moiety replacing the ubiquitous water molecule in the active site), these 5,6-dihydro-4-hydroxy-2-pyrones incorporated side chains at the C-6 position that appropriately extended into the S1' and S2' subsites of the enzyme active site. The crystal structures of a number of representative 5,6-dihydro-4-hydroxy-2-pyrones complexed with the HIV protease were also determined to provide better understanding of the interaction between the enzyme and these inhibitors to aid the structure-based drug design effort. The crystal structures of the ligands in the enzyme active site did not always agree with the conformations expected from experience with previous pyrone inhibitors. This is likely due to the increased flexibility of the dihydropyrone ring. From this study, compound XIX exhibited reasonably high enzyme inhibitory activity (Ki = 15 nM) and showed antiviral activity (IC50 = 5 microM) in the cell-culture assay. This result provided a research direction which led to the discovery of active 5,6-dihydro-4-hydroxy-2-pyrones as potential agents for the treatment of HIV infection.

  7. Bis-naphtho-γ-pyrones from Fungi and Their Bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqiong Lu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bis-naphtho-γ-pyrones are an important group of aromatic polyketides derived from fungi. They have a variety of biological activities including cytotoxic, antitumor, antimicrobial, tyrosine kinase and HIV-1 integrase inhibition properties, demonstrating their potential applications in medicine and agriculture. At least 59 bis-naphtho-γ-pyrones from fungi have been reported in the past few decades. This mini-review aims to briefly summarize their occurrence, biosynthesis, and structure, as well as their biological activities. Some considerations regarding to synthesis, production, and medicinal and agricultural applications of bis-naphtho-γ-pyrones are also discussed.

  8. Fungal naphtho-γ-pyrones: Potent antibiotics for drug-resistant microbial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan; Tian, Jun; Chen, Xintao; Sun, Weiguang; Zhu, Hucheng; Li, Qin; Lei, Liang; Yao, Guangmin; Xue, Yongbo; Wang, Jianping; Li, Hua; Zhang, Yonghui

    2016-04-11

    Four naphtho-γ-pyrones (fonsecinones A and C and aurasperones A and E) were identified as potential antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in an in vitro antibacterial screen of 218 fungal metabolites. Fonsecinone A (2) exhibited the most potent antibacterial activity, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 4.26, 17.04, and 4.26 μg/mL against ESBL-producing E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and E. faecalis, respectively. The inhibitory effects of fonsecinones A (2) and C (3) against E. coli and ESBL-producing E. coli were comparable to those of amikacin. Molecular docking-based target identification of naphtho-γ-pyrones 1-8 revealed bacterial enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI) as an antibacterial target, which was further validated by FabI affinity and inhibition assays. Fonsecinones A (2) and C (3) and aurasperones A (6) and E (7) bound FabI specifically and produced concentration-dependent inhibition effects. This work is the first report of anti-drug-resistant bacterial activities of naphtho-γ-pyrones 1-8 and their possible antibacterial mechanism of action and provides an example of the successful application of in silico methods for drug target identification and validation and the identification of new lead antibiotic compounds against drug-resistant pathogens.

  9. Constituents with radical scavenging effect from Opuntia dillenii: structures of new alpha-pyrones and flavonol glycoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yingkun; Chen, Yingjie; Pei, Yupin; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2002-11-01

    The aqueous ethanolic extract from the fresh stems of Opuntia dillenii HAW. showed potent radical scanvenging activity. Three new compounds, opuntioside I, 4-ethoxyl-6-hydroxymethyl-alpha-pyrone, and kaempferol 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the extract. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence and the radical scavenging effects of principal constituents were examined.

  10. Gombapyrones E and F, New α-Pyrone Polyenes Produced by Streptomyces sp. KMC-002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Ro Lee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Microorganism-derived polyene polyketides have been shown to display a variety of biological activities and have attracted great interest due to their structurally intriguing chemical diversity. Two new polyenes were isolated from a culture broth of Streptomyces sp. KMC-002 obtained from a soil sample in an abandoned mine. The structures of these compounds were determined to be α-pyrone-containing polyene analogues through analyses of HRFABMS, UV and NMR data, and were named Gombapyrones E (1 and F (2. Gombapyrone E (1 showed antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus hirae, Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA.

  11. Recent Advances in the Synthesis of 2-Pyrones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Seok Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present review summarizes the recent progresses in the synthesis of 2-pyrones and the application to the synthesis of marine natural products. Especially, much attention was placed on the transition metal catalyzed synthetic methodologies in this review.

  12. PYRONES: pyro-modeling and evacuation simulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellos, Tassos; Doulgerakis, Adam; Georgiou, Eftichia; Kountouriotis, Vassilios I.; Paterakis, Manolis; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.; Pappou, Theodora; Vrahliotis, Socrates I.; Rekouniotis, Thrasos; Protopsaltis, Byron; Rozenberg, Ofir; Livneh, Ofer

    2016-05-01

    Structural fires continue to pose a great threat towards human life and property. Due to the complexity and non-deterministic characteristics of a building fire disaster, it is not a straightforward task to assess the effectiveness of fire protection measures embedded in the building design, planned evacuation strategies and potential modes of response for mitigating the fire's consequences. Additionally, there is a lack of means that realistically and accurately recreate the conditions of building fire disasters for the purpose of training personnel in order to be sufficiently prepared when vis-a-vis with such an environment. The propagation of fire within a building, the diffusion of its volatile products, the behavior of the occupants and the sustained injuries not only exhibit non-linear behaviors as individual phenomena, but are also intertwined in a web of co-dependencies. The PYRONES system has been developed to address all these aspects through a comprehensive approach that relies on accurate and realistic computer simulations of the individual phenomena and their interactions. PYRONES offers innovative tools and services to strategically targeted niches in two market domains. In the domain of building design and engineering, PYRONES is seamlessly integrated within existing engineering Building Information Modelling (BIM) workflows and serves as a building performance assessment platform, able to evaluate fire protection systems. On another front, PYRONES penetrates the building security management market, serving as a holistic training platform for specialists in evacuation strategy planning, firefighters and first responders, both at a Command and Control and at an individual trainee level.

  13. A New Pyrone Derivative from Fungus Cephalosporium sp. AL031

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A novel pyrone derivative was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of a culture broth of a strain of the fungus Cephalosporium sp. AL031. Its structure was characterized as 7-hydroxy-9-methoxyl-10-methyl-2H, 4aH, 6H, 10bH-pyrano[5, 6-c][2]benzopyran-2, 6-dione by spectroscopic analysis including IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectra.

  14. Strategies for preventing occupational exposure to potent compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Dean M; Coler, Angela B; Nieusma, Joe L

    2011-02-01

    Occupational exposure to active pharmaceutical ingredients in a manufacturing or laboratory environmental can cause unintended health effects in workers handling these compounds. Occupational health professionals in the pharmaceutical industry have responded to this hazard recognition by employing strategies for the risk evaluation and management of potent APIs, otherwise known by the term 'potent compounds'. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the necessary strategy components for preventing occupational exposure to potent compounds.

  15. Inhibition of Alzheimer's amyloid toxicity with a tricyclic pyrone molecule in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyun-Seok; Rana, Sandeep; Barrigan, Lydia; Shi, Aibin; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Feimeng; Jin, Lee-Way; Hua, Duy H

    2009-02-01

    Small beta-amyloid (Abeta) 1-42 aggregates are toxic to neurons and may be the primary toxic species in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods to reduce the level of Abeta, prevent Abeta aggregation, and eliminate existing Abeta aggregates have been proposed for treatment of AD. A tricyclic pyrone named CP2 is found to prevent cell death associated with Abeta oligomers. We studied the possible mechanisms of neuroprotection by CP2. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy shows a direct binding of CP2 with Abeta42 oligomer. Circular dichroism spectroscopy reveals monomeric Abeta42 peptide remains as a random coil/alpha-helix structure in the presence of CP2 over 48 h. Atomic force microscopy studies show CP2 exhibits similar ability to inhibit Abeta42 aggregation as that of Congo red and curcumin. Atomic force microscopy closed-fluid cell study demonstrates that CP2 disaggregates Abeta42 oligomers and protofibrils. CP2 also blocks Abeta fibrillations using a protein quantification method. Treatment of 5x familial Alzheimer's disease mice, a robust Abeta42-producing animal model of AD, with a 2-week course of CP2 resulted in 40% and 50% decreases in non-fibrillar and fibrillar Abeta species, respectively. Our results suggest that CP2 might be beneficial to AD patients by preventing Abeta aggregation and disaggregating existing Abeta oligomers and protofibrils.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and photophysical studies of -triazolomethyl-bridged porphyrin-benzo--pyrone dyads

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dileep Kumar Singh; Mahendra Nath

    2016-04-01

    A new series of zinc(II) -triazolomethyl-bridged porphyrin-benzo--pyrone dyads have been synthesized in appreciable yields through a copper(I)-catalyzed “click” reaction of zinc(II) 2-azidomethyl-5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin with various benzo--pyronoalkynes. These novel zinc(II) porphyrin-benzo--pyrone dyads successfully underwent demetallation in the presence of concentrated hydrochloric acid in chloroform at 25°C to form the corresponding free-base porphyrin analogues in good yields. The newly synthesized products were characterized on the basis of spectral data and evaluated for their electronic absorption and fluorescence properties. Some of these molecules have shown a significant intramolecular energy transfer between the benzo--pyrone and porphyrin subunits.

  17. 1, 4-Pyrone Effects on O-H Bond Dissociation Energies of Catechols in Flavonoids: A Density Functional Theory Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Through B3LYP/6-31G** calculations, the 1, 4-pyrone effects on O-H bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of catechols in rings A or B of flavonoids were investigated. For the catechol in ring A, although 1, 4-pyrone enlarged the conjugation system, its electron-withdrawing property increased the O-H BDE 3 ( 4.184 kJ/mol compared with that of catechol. However, for the catechol in ring B, 1, 4-pyrone was poorly conjugated with the moiety, and therefore, had little effect on the O-H BDE.

  18. Ruthenium-catalyzed decarbonylative addition reaction of anhydrides with alkynes: a facile synthesis of isocoumarins and α-pyrones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Rashmi; Shekarrao, Kommuri; Gogoi, Sanjib; Boruah, Romesh C

    2015-06-21

    A novel ruthenium catalyzed straightforward and efficient synthesis of isocoumarin and α-pyrone derivatives has been accomplished by the decarbonylative addition reaction of anhydrides with alkynes under thermal conditions.

  19. Tipranavir (PNU-140690): a potent, orally bioavailable nonpeptidic HIV protease inhibitor of the 5,6-dihydro-4-hydroxy-2-pyrone sulfonamide class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, S R; Strohbach, J W; Tommasi, R A; Aristoff, P A; Johnson, P D; Skulnick, H I; Dolak, L A; Seest, E P; Tomich, P K; Bohanon, M J; Horng, M M; Lynn, J C; Chong, K T; Hinshaw, R R; Watenpaugh, K D; Janakiraman, M N; Thaisrivongs, S

    1998-08-27

    A broad screening program previously identified phenprocoumon (1) as a small molecule template for inhibition of HIV protease. Subsequent modification of this lead through iterative cycles of structure-based design led to the activity enhancements of pyrone and dihydropyrone ring systems (II and V) and amide-based substitution (III). Incorporation of sulfonamide substitution within the dihydropyrone template provided a series of highly potent HIV protease inhibitors, with structure-activity relationships described in this paper. Crystallographic studies provided further information on important binding interactions responsible for high enzymatic binding. These studies culminated in compound VI, which inhibits HIV protease with a Ki value of 8 pM and shows an IC90 value of 100 nM in antiviral cell culture. Clinical trials of this compound (PNU-140690, Tipranavir) for treatment of HIV infection are currently underway.

  20. Advanced mutasynthesis studies on the natural α-pyrone antibiotic myxopyronin from Myxococcus fulvus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahner, J Henning; Sucipto, Hilda; Wenzel, Silke C; Groh, Matthias; Hartmann, Rolf W; Müller, Rolf

    2015-04-13

    Myxopyronin is a natural α-pyrone antibiotic from the soil bacterium Myxococcus fulvus Mx f50. Myxopyronin inhibits bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) by binding to a part of the enzyme not targeted by the clinically used rifamycins. This mode of action makes myxopyronins promising molecules for the development of novel broad-spectrum antibacterials. We describe the derivatization of myxopyronins by an advanced mutasynthesis approach as a first step towards this goal. Site-directed mutagenesis of the biosynthetic machinery was used to block myxopyronin biosynthesis at different stages. The resulting mutants were fed with diverse precursors that mimic the biosynthetic intermediates to restore production. Mutasynthon incorporation and production of novel myxopyronin derivatives were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. This work sets the stage for accessing numerous myxopyronin derivatives, thus significantly expanding the chemical space of f α-pyrone antibiotics. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Fungal naphtho-γ-pyrones: Potent antibiotics for drug-resistant microbial pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Yan He; Jun Tian; Xintao Chen; Weiguang Sun; Hucheng Zhu; Qin Li; Liang Lei; Guangmin Yao; Yongbo Xue; Jianping Wang; Hua Li; Yonghui Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Four naphtho-γ-pyrones (fonsecinones A and C and aurasperones A and E) were identified as potential antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in an in vitro antibacterial screen of 218 fungal metabolites. Fonsecinone A (2) exhibited the most potent antibacterial activity, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 4.26, 17.04,...

  2. Organosulfur compounds from alliaceae in the prevention of human pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapiero, Haim; Townsend, Danyelle M; Tew, Kenneth D

    2004-04-01

    A strong association between elevated plasma low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) and the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been established. Oxidation of LDL (Ox-LDL) promotes vascular dysfunction, enhances the production and release of inflammatory mediators such as reactive oxygen species and contribute to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. In addition, Ox-LDL enhances the production and release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-6, arachidonic acid metabolites and nitric oxide (NO) that are responsible for various human pathologies including cancer. Organosulfur compounds (OSC) from alliaceae modulate the glutathione (GSH) redox cycle and inhibits NFkappa-B activation in human T cells. Furthermore, OSC bioactivities include antioxidant, antibacterial, anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic, immunostimulatory, and liver protection potential.

  3. Penicyrones A and B, an epimeric pair of α-pyrone-type polyketides produced by the marine-derived Penicillium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Ying-Yue; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota; Ukai, Kazuyo; Namikoshi, Michio

    2016-01-01

    Two polyketides containing an α-pyrone unit, named penicyrones A (1) and B (2), were isolated from a culture broth of the marine-derived Penicillium sp. TPU1271 together with nine known compounds: verrucosidin (3), fructigenine A (4), verrucofortine (5), cyclo-(L-Trp-L-Phe) (6), cyclopenol (7), cyclopenin (8), penipratynolene (9), aspterric acid (10) and viridicatol (11). The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by analyzing the spectroscopic data of 1, 2 and their O-acetyl derivatives (1a and 2a). Compounds 1 and 2 were epimers of each other at the C-9 position. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were assigned on the basis of NOESY data for 1, 2, 1a and 2a, a conformational analysis and the identity of the biogenetic pathway with verrucosidin (3). The planar structure of penicyrones was found in the SciFinder as a compound in the commercial chemical libraries; however, the stereostructure and spectroscopic data were not available. Therefore, this is the first study on the isolation and structure elucidation, including the absolute configurations, of penicyrones A (1) and B (2) as fungal metabolites. Compound 3 exhibited growth inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis at 40 μg per disc (inhibition zone of 11 mm). This is the first study to demonstrate that verrucosidin (3) exhibited anti-mycobacterial activity.

  4. Natural Phenolic Compounds as Therapeutic and Preventive Agents for Cerebral Amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masahito; Ono, Kenjiro; Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Noguchi-Shinohara, Moeko

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that diets rich in phenolic compounds may have preventive effects on the development of dementia or Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the effects of natural phenolic compounds, such as myricetin (Myr), rosmarinic acid (RA), ferulic acid (FA), curcumin (Cur) and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) on the aggregation of amyloid β-protein (Aβ), using in vitro and in vivo models of cerebral Aβ amyloidosis. The in vitro studies revealed that these phenolic compounds efficiently inhibit oligomerization as well as fibril formation of Aβ through differential binding, whilst reducing Aβ oligomer-induced synaptic and neuronal toxicity. Furthermore, a transgenic mouse model fed orally with such phenolic compounds showed significant reduction of soluble Aβ oligomers as well as of insoluble Aβ deposition in the brain. These data, together with an updated review of the literature, indicate that natural phenolic compounds have anti-amyloidogenic effects on Aβ in addition to well-known anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, hence suggesting their potential as therapeutic and/or preventive agents for cerebral Aβ amyloidosis, including AD and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Well-designed clinical trials or preventive interventions with natural phenolic compounds are necessary to establish their efficacy as disease-modifying agents.

  5. AMPK as a New Attractive Therapeutic Target for Disease Prevention: The Role of Dietary Compounds AMPK and Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Giampieri, Francesca; Alvarez Suarez, Josè; Mazzoni, Luca; Y Forbes Hernandez, Tamara; Quiles, Josè L; Bullon, Pedro; Battino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    AMPK is a serine/threonine protein kinase that has the function of maintaining the balance between ATP production and consumption in most eukaryotic cells. It plays a relevant role in regulating cellular metabolism, preserving cellular energy homeostasis, and is involved in many other cellular processes as well as metabolic ones, including cell cycle regulation and endothelial and vascular relaxation. Recently, the effects of naturally occurring compounds able to prevent and treat diseases through AMPK activation have attracted the attention of many researchers. Among such compounds, flavonoids found in natural sources, like quercetin, genistein, epigallocatechins, resveratrol, have been proposed as AMPK activators. This review summarizes and updates the most recent findings concerning the mechanisms through which different dietary compounds, from plant foods, affect the AMPK pathway in healthy and pathological in vitro and in vivo models, paying particular attention to molecular mechanisms involved in diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and cancer.

  6. Electrophilic warhead-based design of compounds preventing NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent pyroptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Mattia; Garella, Davide; Di Stilo, Antonella; Borretto, Emily; Stevanato, Livio; Giorgis, Marta; Marini, Elisabetta; Fantozzi, Roberto; Miglio, Gianluca; Bertinaria, Massimo

    2014-12-26

    Pyroptosis is a caspase-1-dependent pro-inflammatory form of programmed cell death implicated in the pathogenesis of autoinflammatory diseases as well as in disorders characterized by excessive cell death and inflammation. Activation of NLRP3 inflammasome is a key event in the pyroptotic cascade. In this study, we describe the synthesis and chemical tuning of α,β-unsaturated electrophilic warheads toward the development of antipyroptotic compounds. Their pharmacological evaluation and structure-activity relationships are also described. Compound 9 was selected as a model of this series, and it proved to be a reactive Michael acceptor, irreversibly trapping thiol nucleophiles, which prevented both ATP- and nigericin-triggered pyroptosis of human THP-1 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, 9 and other structurally related compounds, inhibited caspase-1 and NLRP3 ATPase activities. Our findings can contribute to the development of covalent, multitarget antipyroptotic compounds targeting molecular components of the NLRP3 inflammasome regulatory pathway.

  7. The Combination of Three Natural Compounds Effectively Prevented Lung Carcinogenesis by Optimal Wound Healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linxin Liu

    Full Text Available The tumor stroma has been described as "normal wound healing gone awry". We explored whether the restoration of a wound healing-like microenvironment may facilitate tumor healing. Firstly, we screened three natural compounds (shikonin, notoginsenoside R1 and aconitine from wound healing agents and evaluated the efficacies of wound healing microenvironment for limiting single agent-elicited carcinogenesis and two-stage carcinogenesis. The results showed that three compounds used alone could promote wound healing but had unfavorable efficacy to exert wound healing, and that the combination of three compounds made up treatment disadvantage of a single compound in wound healing and led to optimal wound healing. Although individual treatment with these agents may prevent cancer, they were not effective for the treatment of established tumors. However, combination treatment with these three compounds almost completely prevented urethane-induced lung carcinogenesis and reduced tumor burden. Different from previous studies, we found that urethane-induced lung carcinogenesis was associated with lung injury independent of pulmonary inflammation. LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation did not increase lung carcinogenesis, whereas decreased pulmonary inflammation by macrophage depletion promoted lung carcinogenesis. In addition, urethane damaged wound healing in skin excision wound model, reversed lung carcinogenic efficacy by the combination of three compounds was consistent with skin wound healing. Further, the combination of these three agents reduced the number of lung cancer stem cells (CSCs by inducing cell differentiation, restoration of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC and blockade of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT. Our results suggest that restoration of a wound healing microenvironment represents an effective strategy for cancer prevention.

  8. Expression profiling of colon cancer cell lines and colon biopsies: Towards a screening system for potential cancer-preventive compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erk, van M.J.; Krul, C.A.M.; Caldenhoven, E.; Stierum, R.H.; Peters, W.H.; Woutersen, R.A.; Ommen, van B.

    2005-01-01

    Interest in mechanisms of colon cancer prevention by food compounds is strong and research in this area is often performed with cultured colon cancer cells. In order to assess utility for screening of potential cancer-preventive (food) compounds, expression profiles of 14 human cell lines derived

  9. Expression profiling of colon cancer cell lines and colon biopsies: towards a screening system for potential cancer-preventive compounds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erk, M.J. van; Krul, C.A.; Caldenhoven, E.; Stierum, R.H.; Peters, W.H.M.; Woutersen, R.A.; Ommen, B.

    2005-01-01

    Interest in mechanisms of colon cancer prevention by food compounds is strong and research in this area is often performed with cultured colon cancer cells. In order to assess utility for screening of potential cancer-preventive (food) compounds, expression profiles of 14 human cell lines derived

  10. Expression profiling of colon cancer cell lines and colon biopsies: Towards a screening system for potential cancer-preventive compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erk, van M.J.; Krul, C.A.M.; Caldenhoven, E.; Stierum, R.H.; Peters, W.H.; Woutersen, R.A.; Ommen, van B.

    2005-01-01

    Interest in mechanisms of colon cancer prevention by food compounds is strong and research in this area is often performed with cultured colon cancer cells. In order to assess utility for screening of potential cancer-preventive (food) compounds, expression profiles of 14 human cell lines derived fr

  11. Expression profiling of colon cancer cell lines and colon biopsies: towards a screening system for potential cancer-preventive compounds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erk, M.J. van; Krul, C.A.; Caldenhoven, E.; Stierum, R.H.; Peters, W.H.M.; Woutersen, R.A.; Ommen, B.

    2005-01-01

    Interest in mechanisms of colon cancer prevention by food compounds is strong and research in this area is often performed with cultured colon cancer cells. In order to assess utility for screening of potential cancer-preventive (food) compounds, expression profiles of 14 human cell lines derived fr

  12. One-step separation and purification of two chromones and one pyrone from Aloe barbadensis Miller: a comparison between reversed-phase flash chromatography and high-speed counter current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jia-Sheng; Wan, Jin-Zhi; Ding, Wen-Jing; Wu, Xiao-Fang; Xie, Zhi-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Chromones and pyrones are the major secondary metabolites of Aloe barbadensis Miller. As they are minor components of the plant, an efficient purification procedure for them is of great importance for promoting their pharmacological studies. To develop efficient methods for one-step separation and purification of two chromones (5-((S)-2'-oxo-4'-hydroxypentyl)-2-hydroxymethylchromone (1) and 5-((4E)-2'-oxo-pentenyl)-2-hydroxymethylchromone (3)) and one pyrone (aloenin aglycone (2)) from A. barbadensis via reversed-phase flash chromatography (RP-FC) and high-speed counter current chromatography (HSCCC). The RP-FC separation was performed using methanol:water (26:74, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 20 mL/min. A solvent system composed of dichloromethane:methanol:water (3:1.5:1, v/v/v) was used for the HSCCC separation, at a flow rate of 2.0 mL/min. A one-step RP-FC operation within 110 min was successfully used for the purification of compounds 1 (27.9 mg, 96.5%), 2 (32.4 mg, 98.2%) and 3 (4.1 mg, 99.0%) from 129 mg of crude sample, and a one-step HSCCC separation within 95 min was successfully implemented for the purification of compounds 1 (31.1 mg, 97.6%), 2 (35.8 mg, 96.7%) and 3 (2.7 mg, 98.1%) from 134 mg of crude sample. The developed procedures were efficient, with low cost and high yield, which would afford sufficient amounts of high-purity compounds for chromatographic purposes and pharmacological activity screening. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Phenolic compounds prevent the oligomerization of α-synuclein and reduce synaptic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ryoichi; Ono, Kenjiro; Takamura, Yusaku; Mizuguchi, Mineyuki; Ikeda, Tokuhei; Nishijo, Hisao; Yamada, Masahito

    2015-09-01

    Lewy bodies, mainly composed of α-synuclein (αS), are pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Epidemiological studies showed that green tea consumption or habitual intake of phenolic compounds reduced Parkinson's disease risk. We previously reported that phenolic compounds inhibited αS fibrillation and destabilized preformed αS fibrils. Cumulative evidence suggests that low-order αS oligomers are neurotoxic and critical species in the pathogenesis of α-synucleinopathies. To develop disease modifying therapies for α-synucleinopathies, we examined effects of phenolic compounds (myricetin (Myr), curcumin, rosmarinic acid (RA), nordihydroguaiaretic acid, and ferulic acid) on αS oligomerization. Using methods such as photo-induced cross-linking of unmodified proteins, circular dichroism spectroscopy, the electron microscope, and the atomic force microscope, we showed that Myr and RA inhibited αS oligomerization and secondary structure conversion. The nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that Myr directly bound to the N-terminal region of αS, whereas direct binding of RA to monomeric αS was not detected. Electrophysiological assays for long-term potentiation in mouse hippocampal slices revealed that Myr and RA ameliorated αS synaptic toxicity by inhibition of αS oligomerization. These results suggest that Myr and RA prevent the αS aggregation process, reducing the neurotoxicity of αS oligomers. To develop disease modifying therapies for α-synucleinopathies, we examined effects of phenolic compounds on α-synuclein (αS) oligomerization. Phenolic compounds, especially Myricetin (Myr) and Rosmarinic acid (RA), inhibited αS oligomerization and secondary structure conversion. Myr and RA ameliorated αS synaptic toxicity on the experiment of long-term potentiation. Our results suggest that Myr and RA prevent αS aggregation process and reduce the neurotoxicity of αS oligomers. Phenolic compounds are good

  14. LAP6/POLYKETIDE SYNTHASE A and LAP5/POLYKETIDE SYNTHASE B Encode Hydroxyalkyl α-Pyrone Synthases Required for Pollen Development and Sporopollenin Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Soo; Grienenberger, Etienne; Lallemand, Benjamin; Colpitts, Che C.; Kim, Sun Young; Souza, Clarice de Azevedo; Geoffroy, Pierrette; Heintz, Dimitri; Krahn, Daniel; Kaiser, Markus; Kombrink, Erich; Heitz, Thierry; Suh, Dae-Yeon; Legrand, Michel; Douglas, Carl J.

    2010-01-01

    Plant type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) catalyze the condensation of malonyl-CoA units with various CoA ester starter molecules to generate a diverse array of natural products. The fatty acyl-CoA esters synthesized by Arabidopsis thaliana ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE5 (ACOS5) are key intermediates in the biosynthesis of sporopollenin, the major constituent of exine in the outer pollen wall. By coexpression analysis, we identified two Arabidopsis PKS genes, POLYKETIDE SYNTHASE A (PKSA) and PKSB (also known as LAP6 and LAP5, respectively) that are tightly coexpressed with ACOS5. Recombinant PKSA and PKSB proteins generated tri-and tetraketide α-pyrone compounds in vitro from a broad range of potential ACOS5-generated fatty acyl-CoA starter substrates by condensation with malonyl-CoA. Furthermore, substrate preference profile and kinetic analyses strongly suggested that in planta substrates for both enzymes are midchain- and ω-hydroxylated fatty acyl-CoAs (e.g., 12-hydroxyoctadecanoyl-CoA and 16-hydroxyhexadecanoyl-CoA), which are the products of sequential actions of anther-specific fatty acid hydroxylases and acyl-CoA synthetase. PKSA and PKSB are specifically and transiently expressed in tapetal cells during microspore development in Arabidopsis anthers. Mutants compromised in expression of the PKS genes displayed pollen exine layer defects, and a double pksa pksb mutant was completely male sterile, with no apparent exine. These results show that hydroxylated α-pyrone polyketide compounds generated by the sequential action of ACOS5 and PKSA/B are potential and previously unknown sporopollenin precursors. PMID:21193570

  15. Promising Potential of Dietary (Poly)Phenolic Compounds in the Prevention and Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Tania R; Alves, Marco G; Casal, Susana; Oliveira, Pedro F; Silva, Branca M

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is reaching alarming proportions worldwide, particularly because it is increasingly affecting younger people. This reflects the sedentary lifestyle and inappropriate dietary habits, especially due to the advent of processed foods in modern societies. Thus, unsurprisingly, the first medical recommendation to patients with clinically evident DM is the alteration in their eating behaviour, particularly regarding carbohydrates and total energy intake. Despite individual and cultural preferences, human diet makes available a large amount of phytochemicals with therapeutic potential. Phenolic compounds are the most abundant class of phytochemicals in edible plants, fruits and beverages. These compounds have strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities that have been associated with specific features of their chemical structure. Among others, such properties make them promising antidiabetic agents and several mechanisms of action have already been proposed. Herein, we discuss the recent findings on the potential of dietary phenolic compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of (pre)diabetes, and associated complications. A broad range of studies supports the innate potential of phenolic compounds to protect against DM-associated deleterious effects. Their antidiabetic activity has been demonstrated by: i) regulation of carbohydrate metabolism; ii) improvement of glucose uptake; iii) protection of pancreatic β-cells; iv) enhancement of insulin action and v) regulation of crucial signalling pathways to cell homeostasis. Dietary phenolic compounds constitute an easy, safe and cost-effective way to combat the worrying scenario of DM. The interesting particularities of phenolic compounds reinforce the implementation of a (poly)phenolic-rich nutritional regime, not only for (pre)diabetic patients, but also for non-diabetic people. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Venus Flytrap (Dionaea muscipula Solander ex Ellis) Contains Powerful Compounds that Prevent and Cure Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaascht, François; Dicato, Mario; Diederich, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Chemoprevention uses natural or synthetic molecules without toxic effects to prevent and/or block emergence and development of diseases including cancer. Many of these natural molecules modulate mitogenic signals involved in cell survival, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, angiogenesis, or on processes involved in the development of metastases occur naturally, especially in fruits and vegetables bur also in non-comestible plants. Carnivorous plants including the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula Solander ex Ellis) are much less investigated, but appear to contain a wealth of potent bioactive secondary metabolites. Aim of this review is to give insight into molecular mechanisms triggered by compounds isolated from these interesting plants with either therapeutic or chemopreventive potential.

  17. Efficacy of Crude Extract of Antifungal Compounds Produced from Bacillus subtilis on Prevention of Anthracnose Disease in Dendrobium Orchid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjaphorn Prapagdee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of crude extracts of antifungal compounds produced from Bacillus subtilis SSE4 against plant fungal pathogen; Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Antifungal compounds in culture filtrate were extracted by ethyl acetate, hexane or dichloromethane and assessed for their efficacy to inhibit the growth of C. gloeosporioides on agar plates and for prevention of anthracnose disease in Dendrobium. The results showed that crude extracts of antifungal compounds extracted by all solvents were able to inhibit the growth of C. gloeosporioides. However, antifungal compounds extracted by ethyl acetate and hexane showed higher percentages of fungal growth inhibition than that of antifungal compounds extracted by dichloromethane. In addition, the application of crude extract of antifungal compounds extracted by ethyl acetate showed higher efficacy on prevention of anthracnose development in orchid leaves than that of crude hexane extract of antifungal compounds. The efficacy of crude ethyl acetate extracts of antifungal compounds on anthracnose prevention was similar to that of chemical fungicide application. These results indicated that antifungal compounds extracted by ethyl acetate as biofungicide could replace chemical fungicides for orchid cultivation.

  18. Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula Solander ex Ellis contains powerful compounds that prevent and cure cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois eGaascht

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemoprevention uses natural or synthetic molecules without toxic effects to prevent and/or block emergence and development of diseases including cancer. Many of these natural molecules modulate mitogenic signals involved in cell survival, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, angiogenesis or on processes involved in the development of metastases occur naturally, especially in fruits and vegetables bur also in non-comestible plants.Carnivorous plants including the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula Solander ex Ellis are much less investigated, but appear to contain a wealth of potent bioactive secondary metabolites.Aim of this review is to give insight into molecular mechanisms triggered by compounds isolated from these interesting plants with either therapeutic or chemopreventive potential.

  19. Novel hydrogen sulfide-releasing compound, S-propargyl-cysteine, prevents STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Xin [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Li, Xinghui [Departments of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Shanghai College of Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ma, Fenfen; Luo, Shanshan [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ge, Ruowen [Departmentof Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Zhu, Yizhun, E-mail: zhuyz@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Departmentof Pharmacology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2016-05-13

    In this work, we demonstrated for the first time that S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC, also named as ZYZ-802), a novel hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S)-releasing compound, had renoprotective effects on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic kidney injury. SPRC treatment significantly reduced the level of creatinine, kidney to body weight ratio and in particular, markedly decreased 24-h urine microalbuminuria excretion. SPRC suppressed the mRNA expression of fibronectin and type IV collagen. In vitro, SPRC inhibited mesangial cells over-proliferation and hypertrophy induced by high glucose. Additionally, SPRC attenuated inflammation in diabetic kidneys. SPRC also reduced transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) signaling and expression of phosphorylated Smad3 (p-Smad3) pathway. Moreover, SPRC inhibited phosphorylation of ERK, p38 protein. Taken together, SPRC was demonstrated to be a potential therapeutic candidate to suppress diabetic nephropathy. - Highlights: • We synthesized a novel hydrogen sulfide-releasing compound, S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC). • SPRC was preliminarily demonstrated to prevent STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy (DN). • SPRC may exert potential therapeutic candidate to suppress DN.

  20. Biologically active vitamin B12 compounds in foods for preventing deficiency among vegetarians and elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Tanioka, Yuri; Bito, Tomohiro

    2013-07-17

    The usual dietary sources of vitamin B12 are animal-source based foods, including meat, milk, eggs, fish, and shellfish, although a few plant-based foods such as certain types of dried lavers (nori) and mushrooms contain substantial and considerable amounts of vitamin B12, respectively. Unexpectedly, detailed characterization of vitamin B12 compounds in foods reveals the presence of various corrinoids that are inactive in humans. The majority of edible blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) and certain edible shellfish predominately contain an inactive corrinoid known as pseudovitamin B12. Various factors affect the bioactivity of vitamin B12 in foods. For example, vitamin B12 is partially degraded and loses its biological activity during cooking and storage of foods. The intrinsic factor-mediated gastrointestinal absorption system in humans has evolved to selectively absorb active vitamin B12 from naturally occurring vitamin B12 compounds, including its degradation products and inactive corrinoids that are present in daily meal foods. The objective of this review is to present up-to-date information on various factors that can affect the bioactivity of vitamin B12 in foods. To prevent vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians and elderly subjects, it is necessary to identify plant-source foods that contain high levels of bioactive vitamin B12 and, in conjunction, to prepare the use of crystalline vitamin B12-fortified foods.

  1. Inhibition of sodium current by taurine magnesium coordination compound prevents cesium chloride-induced arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yongqiang; Wen, Ke; Wu, Yanna; Kang, Yi; Lou, Jianshi

    2012-05-01

    The mechanism(s) by which taurine magnesium coordination compound (TMCC) inhibits experimental arrhythmias remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of TMCC against cesium chloride-induced arrhythmia in the rabbit heart and find whether the antiarrhythmic activity is related to inhibition of sodium current. Early afterdepolarization was induced by 1.5 mM cesium chloride (1 ml kg(-1)) through intravenous injection. The monophasic action potentials (MAP) and electrocardiograms were simultaneously recorded. The effect of TMCC on functional refractory periods (FRPs) in the left atrium was also observed in vitro. Arrhythmias onset was significantly retarded by TMCC. The number of ventricular premature contractions and incidence of monophasic ventricular tachycardia and polyphasic ventricular tachycardia in 10 min were decreased by TMCC. These effects can be abolished by veratridine (10 μg kg(-1)). MAP duration at 90% repolarization was significantly prolonged by TMCC, which can be prolonged even longer by veratridine (10 μg kg(-1)). In vitro experiments showed that FRPs was prolonged by TMCC which can be cancelled by veratridine (10 μg kg(-1)). TMCC prevents cesium chloride-induced arrhythmias, and inhibition of sodium current, in part, contributes to the antiarrhythmic effect of TMCC.

  2. Plant Cell Cancer: May Natural Phenolic Compounds Prevent Onset and Development of Plant Cell Malignancy? A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, Hassan; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Mansouri, Kamran; Mohammadzadeh, Sara; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2016-08-23

    Phenolic compounds (PCs) are known as a chemically diverse category of secondary and reactive metabolites which are produced in plants via the shikimate-phenylpropanoid pathways. These compounds-ubiquitous in plants-are an essential part of the human diet, and are of considerable interest due to their antioxidant properties. Phenolic compounds are essential for plant functions, because they are involved in oxidative stress reactions, defensive systems, growth, and development. A large body of cellular and animal evidence carried out in recent decades has confirmed the anticancer role of PCs. Phytohormones-especially auxins and cytokinins-are key contributors to uncontrolled growth and tumor formation. Phenolic compounds can prevent plant growth by the endogenous regulation of auxin transport and enzymatic performance, resulting in the prevention of tumorigenesis. To conclude, polyphenols can reduce plant over-growth rate and the development of tumors in plant cells by regulating phytohormones. Future mechanistic studies are necessary to reveal intracellular transcription and transduction agents associated with the preventive role of phenolics versus plant pathological malignancy cascades.

  3. Compound C prevents the unfolded protein response during glucose deprivation through a mechanism independent of AMPK and BMP signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakae Saito

    Full Text Available Inhibiting the unfolded protein response (UPR can be a therapeutic approach, especially for targeting the tumor microenvironment. Here, we show that compound C (also known as dorsomorphin, a small-molecule inhibitor of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling, inhibit the UPR-induced transcription program depending on the glucose deprivation conditions. We found that compound C prevented UPR marker glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78 accumulation and exerted enhanced cytotoxicity during glucose deprivation. Gene expression profiling, together with biochemical analysis, revealed that compound C had a unique mode of action to suppress the transcriptional activation of UPR-targeted genes, as compared with the classic UPR inhibitors versipelostatin and biguanides. Surprisingly, the UPR-inhibiting activity of compound C was not associated with either AMPK or BMP signaling inhibition. We further found that combination treatments of compound C and the classic UPR inhibitors resulted in synergistic cell death with UPR suppression during glucose deprivation. Our findings demonstrate that compound C could be a unique tool for developing a UPR-targeted antitumor therapy.

  4. One compound of saponins from Disocorea zingiberensis protected against experimental acute pancreatitis by preventing mitochondria-mediated necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Wen, Li; Shen, Yan; Shi, Na; Xing, Zhihua; Xia, Qing; Niu, Hai; Huang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a painful inflammatory disorder of the exocrine pancreas, ranking as the most common gastrointestinal reasons for hospitalization with no specific therapy currently. Diosgenyl saponins extracted from natural products and diosgenin or its derivatives have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects in various diseases. However, the therapeutic effects of diosgenyl saponins from Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright in AP have not yet been determined. Five compounds were extracted and screened for taurocholate-induced necrosis in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Particularly, 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-3β, 22α, 26-trihydroxy-25(R)-furosta-5-en-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (compound 1) exhibited the best protective effects with no toxicity observed. Next, we showed compound 1 concentration-dependently inhibited necrotic cell death pathway activation and 2.5 mM compound 1 also prevented the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, adenosine triphosphate production, and reactive oxygen species generation in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Finally, we showed compound 1 protected against three clinically representative murine models of AP and significantly improved pancreatitis-associated acute lung injury. These data provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that one compound of diosgenyl saponins can be potential treatment for AP. This study suggests natural saponins may serve as fruitful sources for exploring/identifying potential therapies for inflammatory diseases. PMID:27779235

  5. Characterization of a polyketide synthase in Aspergillus niger whose product is a precursor for both dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin and naphtho-γ-pyrone.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Yi Ming; Meyer, Kristen M; Praseuth, Michael; Baker, Scott E; Bruno, Kenneth S; Wang, Clay C

    2010-12-06

    The genome sequencing of the fungus Aspergillus niger, an industrial workhorse, uncovered a large cache of genes encoding enzymes thought to be involved in the production of secondary metabolites yet to be identified. Identification and structural characterization of many of these predicted secondary metabolites are hampered by their low concentration relative to the known A. niger metabolites such as the naphtho-γ-pyrone family of polyketides. We deleted a nonreducing PKS gene in A. niger strain ATCC 11414, a daughter strain of A. niger ATCC strain 1015 whose genome was sequenced by the DOE Joint Genome Institute. This PKS encoding gene is a predicted ortholog of alb1 from Aspergillus fumigatus which is responsible for production of YWA1, a precursor of fungal DHN melanin. Our results show that the A. niger alb1 PKS is responsible for the production of the polyketide precursor for DHN melanin biosynthesis. Deletion of alb1 elimnates the production of major metabolites, naphtho-γ-pyrones. The generation of an A. niger strain devoid of naphtho-γ-pyrones will greatly facilitate the elucidation of cryptic biosynthetic pathways in this organism.

  6. In vitro antitrypanosomal activity of some phenolic compounds from propolis and lactones from Fijian Kawa (Piper methysticum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoguro, Kazuhiko; Iwatsuki, Masato; Ishiyama, Aki; Namatame, Miyuki; Nishihara-Tsukashima, Aki; Kiyohara, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Asakawa, Yoshinori; Omura, Satoshi; Yamada, Haruki

    2012-07-01

    During our search to discover new antitrypanosomal compounds, eight known plant compounds (three phenolic compounds and five kawa lactones) were evaluated for in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Among them, we found two phenolic compounds and three kawa lactones possessing an α-pyrone influenced antitrypanosomal property. In particular, β-phenethyl caffeate, farnesyl caffeate and dihydrokawain exhibited high or moderate selective and potent antitrypanosomal activity in vitro. We detail here the antitrypanosomal activity and cytotoxicities of the compounds, in comparison with two commonly used antitrypanosomal drugs (eflornithine and suramin). Our findings represent the first report of the promising trypanocidal activity of these compounds.

  7. An update on dietary phenolic compounds in the prevention and management of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosillo, María Angeles; Alarcón-de-la-Lastra, Catalina; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina

    2016-07-13

    Certain nutritional components influence the cellular metabolism and interfere in the pathological inflammatory process, so that they may act as a coadjuvant in the treatment of many chronic inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Particularly, a wide range of evidence has demonstrated the beneficial roles of dietary phenolic compounds in RA because of their ability to modulate pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory pathways reducing the onset of arthritic disease progression. These natural phenolic compounds can modulate both the action and the production of inflammatory mediators either directly or indirectly by modulating the action of other molecules involved in RA pathology. Subsequently, the purpose of this article is to review the main in vitro and in vivo studies in RA, which have documented interesting insights into the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties of dietary phenolic compounds focusing on their molecular action mechanisms involved in RA. The observations reported above are promising and suggest that the dietary phenolic compounds may influence the course of RA, ameliorating the RA symptoms and downregulating the inflammation at the molecular level; however, most of the studies conducted to date have been preclinical. Thus, future studies should therefore focus more on understanding the efficacy of these phenolic compounds in humans and bringing them to the forefront of the treatment of chronic human diseases.

  8. New pyrone and quinoline alkaloid from Almeidea rubra and their trypanocidal activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrozin, Alessandra R.P.; Mafezoli, Jair; Vieira, Paulo C.; Fernandes, Joao B.; Silva, M. Fatima das G.F. da [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: paulo@dq.ufscar.br; Ellena, Javier A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Albuquerque, Sergio de [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas, Bromatologicas

    2005-05-15

    The investigation of the ethyl acetate fraction of methanol extract from leaves of Almeidea rubra A. St.-Hil. (Rutaceae) afforded two new compounds 4-methoxy-6-[2-(methylamino)phenyl]-2Hpyran- 2-one and rel-(7R,8R)-8-[(E)-3-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-butenyl]-4,8-dimethoxy-5,6,7,8- tetrahydrofuro[2,3-b]quinoline-7-yl acetate, along with the known compounds arborinine, N-methyl- 1-hydroxy-3-methoxyacridone, skimmianine, kokusagine, isodutaduprine, isoskimmianine, and isokokusagine. Their structures were established based on their spectral data, and for the new compounds these data are described herein. Additionally, these compounds were assayed on the tripomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi showing moderate trypanocidal activity. (author)

  9. Biological Degradation of Some Organic Compounds Enrolled in Paper Industry—A Pollution Prevention Approach 

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RIFAATABDELWAHAAB

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of the elimination and the "ultimate" biodegradation by aerobic microorganisms of some organic compounds commonly used in paper manufacturing technology was investigated.Biodegradation lines of nine orgainc compounds were determined as percentage removal of chemical oxygen demand(COD) over 7 days incubation.The results of the biodegradable,while others rank from fairly to even non-biodegradable.Significant biodegradation results were recorder for anticoating ester(95.0%),basoplast 200D(85.3%) and basoplast PR 8050(87.6%),A bleaching agent(formamidin-sulfinic acid),ukanol BAS and solidurit KM demonstrate moderate biodegradation results of 62.1%,76.2% and 69.8%,respectively,Poor biodegradation results for Hedifix M/35(12.7%),basazol orange(34.9%)and basazol brown(29.0%) were recorded,Accordingly,appropriate precaution should be taken into consideration when using these compounds for industrial applications.

  10. [Prevention of the eruption of an upper later incisor by a compound odontoma. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlcek, Daniel; Reichart, Peter A; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Sleiter, Roberto; Bornstein, Michael M

    2012-01-01

    Odontomas are the most common odontogenic tumours. They are considered as hamartomas - a local tissue malformation without autonomous growth potential - and are non-neoplastic. Clinically and histopathologically, compound and complex odontomas can be differentiated. Compound odontomas consist of a varying number of tooth-like structures and histology show dental tissues in an orderly pattern. Most often compound odontomas are diagnosed in young patients in the anterior maxilla. Patients are rarely complaining of symptoms and they are usually diagnosed during routine radiographic examinations or due to late eruption of permanent or persistence of deciduous teeth. The following case report presents a disturbed eruption of a lateral right incisor of the maxilla in a 8-year old female patient. Clinical, radiological and histopathological characteristics of this lesion will be discussed as well as therapy and follow-up.

  11. Non-Nutrient, Naturally Occurring Phenolic Compounds with Antioxidant Activity for the Prevention and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Varela-López

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main factors able to explain the pathophysiological mechanism of inflammatory conditions that occur in periodontal disease is oxidative stress. Given the emerging understanding of this relationship, host-modulatory therapies using antioxidants could be interesting to prevent or slow the breakdown of soft and hard periodontal tissues. In this context, non-nutrient phenolic compounds of various foods and plants have received considerable attention in the last decade. Here, studies focusing on the relationship between different compounds of this type with periodontal disease have been collected. Among them, thymoquinone, coenzyme Q (CoQ, mangiferin, resveratrol, verbascoside and some flavonoids have shown to prevent or ameliorate periodontal tissues damage in animal models. However evidence regarding this effect in humans is poor and only limited to topical treatments with CoQ and catechins. Along with animal experiments, in vitro studies indicate that possible mechanisms by which these compounds might exert their protective effects include antioxidative properties, oxygen and nitrogen scavenging abilities, and also inhibitory effects on cell signaling cascades related to inflammatory processes which have an effect on RNS or ROS production as well as on antioxidant defense systems.

  12. Drug resistance of bacterial dental biofilm and the potential use of natural compounds as alternative for prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouidhi, Bochra; Al Qurashi, Yasir Mohammed A; Chaieb, Kamel

    2015-03-01

    Oral diseases, such as dental caries and periodontal disease are directly linked with the ability of bacteria to form biofilm. The development of dental caries involves acidogenic and aciduric Gram-positive bacteria colonizing the supragingival biofilm (Streptococcus, Lactobacillus and Actinomycetes). Periodontal diseases have been linked to anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria forming a subgingival plaque (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus, Prevotella and Fusobacterium). Cells embedded in biofilm are up to 1000-fold more resistant to antibiotics compared to their planctonic ones. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain biofilms drug resistance. Given the increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics currently used in dentistry, a great importance is given to natural compounds for the prevention of oral bacterial growth, adhesion and colonization. Over the past decade, interest in drugs derived from medicinal plants has markedly increased. It has been well documented that medicinal plants and natural compounds confer considerable antibacterial activity against various microorganisms including cariogenic and periodontal pathogens. This paper provides a review of the literature focusing on the studies on (i) biofilm in the oral cavity, (ii) drug resistance of bacterial biofilm and (iii) the potential use of plant extracts, essential oils and natural compounds as biofilm preventive agents in dentistry, involving their origin and their mechanism of biofilm inhibition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Natural compounds in the human diet and their ability to bind mutagens prevents DNA-mutagen intercalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osowski, Adam; Pietrzak, Monika; Wieczorek, Zbigniew; Wieczorek, Jolanta

    2010-01-01

    Human diet may contain many mutagenic or carcinogenic aromatic compounds as well as some beneficial physiologically active dietary components, especially plant food phytochemicals, which act as mutagenesis or carcinogenesis inhibitors. This study compared the binding properties of natural compounds in the human diet (caffeine, theophylline, theobromine, and resveratrol) with a water-soluble derivative of chlorophyll to bind to acridine orange, a known mutagen. An analysis was conducted to determine which substances were effective binding agents and may thus be useful in prevention of chemical-induced mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. Data indicated that in order to bind 50% of the mutagen in a complex, less than twice the concentration of chlorophyllin was needed, the resveratrol concentration was 20-fold higher, while a 1000-fold or even 10,000-fold excess of xanthines were required to bind acridine orange.

  14. Preventing and Treating Actions of Compound Lian Zhu Capsule on Micrangium Lesions in Diabetic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Wenzhuo; Gong Haimin; Wang Jiafu; Ding Yi; Liu Tongmei; Wang Jianying; Li Yueqing

    2005-01-01

    Tissue culture, biochemical techniques and radioimmunoassay were used to study the effects of Compound sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb), urinary protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, aldose reductase (AR) activity and 3H-TdR incorporation rate in the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) were significantly higher, and plasma NO content in the diabetes mellitus (DM) group were significantly lower than those in the normal control group (both P<0.05). The above indexes in the Chinese medicine (TCM)treatment group were improved significantly as compared with the DM group, with no significantly differences, except urine volume and urinary protein, as compared with the normal control group. It is suggested that Compound Lian Zhu Capsules can significantly alleviate the complicated lesions of the micrangium in diabetic rats.

  15. Natural Compounds from Saffron and Bear Bile Prevent Vision Loss and Retinal Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernández-Sánchez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available All retinal disorders, regardless of their aetiology, involve the activation of oxidative stress and apoptosis pathways. The administration of neuroprotective factors is crucial in all phases of the pathology, even when vision has been completely lost. The retina is one of the most susceptible tissues to reactive oxygen species damage. On the other hand, proper development and functioning of the retina requires a precise balance between the processes of proliferation, differentiation and programmed cell death. The life-or-death decision seems to be the result of a complex balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic signals. It has been recently shown the efficacy of natural products to slow retinal degenerative process through different pathways. In this review, we assess the neuroprotective effect of two compounds used in the ancient pharmacopoeia. On one hand, it has been demonstrated that administration of the saffron constituent safranal to P23H rats, an animal model of retinitis pigmentosa, preserves photoreceptor morphology and number, the capillary network and the visual response. On the other hand, it has been shown that systemic administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA, the major component of bear bile, to P23H rats preserves cone and rod structure and function, together with their contact with postsynaptic neurons. The neuroprotective effects of safranal and TUDCA make these compounds potentially useful for therapeutic applications in retinal degenerative diseases.

  16. Study on Effect of Compound Salvia Pellet in Preventing Atrial Fibrillation with Left Atrial Thrombosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连耀植; 李玉光; 张汉灵; 张元春; 闫纯英; 林建才; 许瑞敏; 张钰; 郑宝群; 麦芒

    2004-01-01

    Atrialarrhythmia,fibrillation (AF) is a kind of common arrhythmia which, besides affecting cardiac function, has another serious outcome, that is, it is easy to form atrial thrombosis and induce thrombus/embolus, especially cerebral embolus. The incidence of left atrial thrombosis (LAT) could reach 25%—30%, the incidence of embolic complication per year could reach 2. 98%-6.30%, even 20% or more. To prevent thrombosis so as to lower the incidence of cerebral stroke and other embolic complications has been so far the focal point of AF treatment.

  17. Study on Effect of Compound Salvia Pellet in Preventing Atrial Fibrillation with Left Atrial Thrombosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连耀植; 李玉光; 张汉灵; 张元春; 闫纯英; 林建才; 许端敏; 张钰; 郑宝群; 麦芒

    2004-01-01

    @@ Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a kind of common arrhythmia, which, besides affecting cardiac function, has another serious outcome, that is, it is easy to form atrial thrombosis and induce thrombus/embolus, especially cerebral embolus.The incidence of left atrial thrombosis (LAT)could reach 25%-30%(1), the incidence of embolic complication per year could reach 2. 98%-6.30%, even 20% or more(2,3). To prevent thrombosis so as to lower the incidence of cerebral stroke and other embolic complications has been so far the focal point of AF treatment.

  18. SIRT1 Activating Compounds Reduce Oxidative Stress and Prevent Cell Death in Neuronal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reas S Khan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Activation of SIRT1, an NAD+-dependent deacetylase, prevents retinal ganglion cell (RGC loss in optic neuritis, an inflammatory demyelinating optic nerve disease. While SIRT1 deacetylates numerous protein targets, downstream mechanisms of SIRT1 activation mediating this neuroprotective effect are unknown. SIRT1 increases mitochondrial function and reduces oxidative stress in muscle and other cells, and oxidative stress occurs in neuronal degeneration. We examined whether SIRT1 activators reduce oxidative stress and promote mitochondrial function in neuronal cells. Oxidative stress, marked by reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation, was induced in RGC-5 cells by serum deprivation, or addition of doxorubicin or hydrogen peroxide, and resulted in significant cell loss. SIRT1 activators resveratrol and SRTAW04 reduced ROS levels, and promoted cell survival in RGC-5 cells as well as primary RGC cultures. Effects were blocked by SIRT1 siRNA. SIRT1 activators also increased expression of succinate dehydrogenase, a mitochondrial enzyme, and promoted deacetylation of PGC-1α, a co-enzyme involved in mitochondrial function. Results show SIRT1 activators prevent cell loss by reducing oxidative stress and promoting mitochondrial function in a neuronal cell line. Results suggest SIRT1 activators can mediate neuroprotective effects during optic neuritis by these mechanisms, and they have the potential to preserve neurons in other neurodegenerative diseases that involve oxidative stress.

  19. Potential Role of Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds in the Prevention of Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Rodríguez-Morató

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD has been associated with a reduced incidence of neurodegenerative diseases and better cognitive performance. Virgin olive oil, the main source of lipids in the MD, is rich in minor phenolic components, particularly hydroxytyrosol (HT. HT potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions have attracted researchers’ attention and may contribute to neuroprotective effects credited to MD. In this review HT bioavailability and pharmacokinetics are presented prior to discussing health beneficial effects. In vitro and in vivo neuroprotective effects together with its multiple mechanisms of action are reviewed. Other microconstituents of olive oil are also considered due to their potential neuroprotective effects (oleocanthal, triterpenic acids. Finally, we discuss the potential role of HT as a therapeutic tool in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. Rutin and quercetin, bioactive compounds from tartary buckwheat, prevent liver inflammatory injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Chen; Shen, Siou-Ru; Lai, Ying-Jang; Wu, She-Ching

    2013-04-30

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) is a healthy and nutritionally important food item. In this study, we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of 75% ethanol extracts from tartary buckwheat (EEB) against ethanol- and carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage. EEB were administered to C57BL/6 mice (ethanol induction) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (CCl(4) induction) for 4 and 8 consecutive weeks, respectively. The major active compounds, rutin and quercetin, were also administered to ethanol- and CCl(4)-induced animals. EEB inhibited increase in serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in the ethanol- and CCl(4)-induced animals; similar effects were found after rutin and quercetin administration. Moreover, EEB elevated the antioxidant enzyme activities, including those of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and inhibited the levels of hepatic inflammation in the ethanol- and CCl(4)-treated animals. This study suggests that EEB exerts hepatoprotection via promoting anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties against oxidative liver damage.

  1. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  2. Pd/C-mediated synthesis of α-pyrone fused with a five-membered nitrogen heteroaryl ring: A new route to pyrano[4,3-c]pyrazol-4(1H-ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhilli Rao Gorja

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Pd/C-mediated alkynylation of 5-iodo-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid, involving the first regioselective construction of α-pyrone ring on a pyrazol moiety via tandem coupling–cyclization process, has been developed to afford pyrano[4,3-c]pyrazol-4(1H-one in a single pot.

  3. Synthesis of 6-Substituted 2-Pyrones Starting from Renewable Resources: Total Synthesis of Sibirinone, (E)-6-(Pent-1-en-1-yl)-2H-pyran-2-one, and (E)-6-(Hept-1-en-1-yl)-2H-pyran-2-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobler, Daniel; Reiser, Oliver

    2016-11-04

    An atom-economic reaction sequence to 6-substituted 2-pyrones was developed starting from furfuryl alcohol, a renewable resource made from bran or bagasse, and aldehydes, utilizing a thermal rearrangement of cyclopentadienone epoxides as key step. Derivatives bearing a hydroxyalkyl side chain could be enzymatically resolved, providing access to enantiomerically pure 2-pyrones, or converted to alkenyl-substituted 2-pyrones such as naturally occurring sibirinone, (E)-6-(pent-1-en-1-yl)-2H-pyran-2-one, and (E)-6-(hept-1-en-1-yl)-2H-pyran-2-one.

  4. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  5. Alliin, a Garlic (Allium sativum Compound, Prevents LPS-Induced Inflammation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saray Quintero-Fabián

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. has been used to alleviate a variety of health problems due to its high content of organosulfur compounds and antioxidant activity. The main active component is alliin (S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide, a potent antioxidant with cardioprotective and neuroprotective actions. In addition, it helps to decrease serum levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and uric acid, as well as insulin resistance, and reduces cytokine levels. However its potential anti-inflammatory effect is unknown. We examined the effects of alliin in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes by RT-PCR, Western blot, and microarrays analysis of 22,000 genes. Incubation of cells for 24 h with 100 μmol/L alliin prevented the increase in the expression of proinflammatory genes, IL-6, MCP-1, and Egr-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to 100 ng/mL LPS for 1 h. Interestingly, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which is involved in LPS-induced inflammation in adipocytes, was decreased following alliin treatment. Furthermore, the gene expression profile by microarrays evidentiate an upregulation of genes involved in immune response and downregulation of genes related with cancer. The present results have shown that alliin is able to suppress the LPS inflammatory signals by generating an anti-inflammatory gene expression profile and by modifying adipocyte metabolic profile.

  6. Multitargeted prevention and therapy of cancer by diallyl trisulfide and related Allium vegetable-derived organosulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powolny, Anna A; Singh, Shivendra V

    2008-10-08

    Allium vegetables, such as garlic, have been used for medicinal purposes throughout the recorded history. The known health benefits of Allium vegetables constituents include cardiovascular effects, improvement of the immune function, lowering of blood glucose level, radioprotection, protection against microbial infections, and anti-cancer effects. Initial evidence for the anti-cancer effect of Allium vegetables was provided by population-based case-control studies. Subsequent laboratory studies showed that the Allium vegetable constituents, such as diallyl disulfide, S-allylcysteine, and ajoene can not only offer protection against chemically induced cancer in animal models by altering carcinogen metabolism, but also suppress growth of cancer cells in culture and in vivo by causing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction. Suppression of angiogenesis and experimental metastasis by Allium constituents has also been reported. Defining the mechanism by which sulfur compounds derived from Allium vegetables inhibit cancer cell growth has been the topic of intense research in the last two decades. Some Allium vegetable constituents have also entered clinical trials to assess their safety and anti-cancer efficacy. This article summarizes preclinical and limited clinical data to warrant further clinical evaluation of Allium vegetable constituents for prevention and therapy of human cancers.

  7. Phenolic compounds from Anaphalis aureo-punctata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yan-Qi; LOU Ning; LI Yu

    2003-01-01

    @@ From the ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Anaphalis aureo-punctata, a new acylated flavonoid glycoside 3-O-kaempferol-3-O-acetyl-6-O-(p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), and five known phenolic compounds 3-O-kaempferol-6- O- ( p-coumaroyl )-β-D-glucopyranoside ( 2 ), kaempferol-3- O-β-D-glucopyranoside 3,6-(4′-hydroxystyryl)-4-methoxy-2-pyrone (4), 2H-pyran-2-one, 6-[ 2-( 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy ) phenyl ) ethenyl ]-4-methoxy-( E ) (5) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic hexacosyl ester (6) were isolated. Their structures were established by spectral methods (UV, IR, MS, 1D, 2D-NMR). The flavonoid glycosides, 1, 2 and 3 showed markedly inhibited oxidative DNA strand breaks induced by Fenton reaction and NADH/PMS in a concentration-dependent manner.

  8. Thymoquinone, the Nigella sativa Bioactive Compound, Prevents Circulatory Oxidative Stress Caused by 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine in Erythrocyte during Colon Postinitiation Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanene Jrah Harzallah

    2012-01-01

    Rats exposed to DMH showed an increase of malondialdehyde and conjugated diene levels, and an augmentation of enzyme activities like catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities was also noted. The TQ pretreatment restored the parameters cited above to near-normal values. However, the posttreatment shows an activity similar as that presented by DMH. Therefore, our investigation revealed that TQ was a useful compound preventing DMH-induced erythrocyte damages.

  9. Compound C prevents Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α protein stabilization by regulating the cellular oxygen availability via interaction with Mitochondrial Complex I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen Thilo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The transcription factor Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α is a master regulator of the cellular response to low oxygen concentration. Compound C, an inhibitor of AMP-activated kinase, has been reported to inhibit hypoxia dependent Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α activation via a mechanism that is independent of AMP-activated kinase but dependent on its interaction with the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The objective of this study is to characterize the interaction of Compound C with the mitochondrial electron transport chain and to determine the mechanism through which the drug influences the stability of the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α protein. We found that Compound C functions as an inhibitor of complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain as demonstrated by its effect on mitochondrial respiration. It also prevents hypoxia-induced Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α stabilization in a dose dependent manner. In addition, Compound C does not have significant effects on reactive oxygen species production from complex I via both forward and reverse electron flux. This study provides evidence that similar to other mitochondrial electron transport chain inhibitors, Compound C regulates Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α stability by controlling the cellular oxygen concentration.

  10. Kinetics of Glycoxidation of Bovine Serum Albumin by Methylglyoxal and Glyoxal and its Prevention by Various Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Sadowska-Bartosz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare several methods for measurement of bovine serum albumin (BSA modification by glycoxidation with reactive dicarbonyl compounds (methylglyoxal ‒ MGO and glyoxal ‒ GO, for studies of the kinetics of this process and to compare the effects of 19 selected compounds on BSA glycation by the aldehydes. The results confirm the higher reactivity of MGO with respect to GO and point to the usefulness of AGE, dityrosine and N′-formylkynurenine fluorescence for monitoring glycation and evaluation of protection against glycation. Different extent of protection against glycation induced by MGO and GO was found for many compounds, probably reflecting effects on various stages of the glycation process. Polyphenols (genistein, naringin and ellagic acid were found to protect against aldehyde-induced glycation; 1-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid was also an effective protector.

  11. The Extract of Aster Koraiensis Prevents Retinal Pericyte Apoptosis in Diabetic Rats and Its Active Compound, Chlorogenic Acid Inhibits AGE Formation and AGE/RAGE Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Retinal capillary cell loss is a hallmark of early diabetic retinal changes. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs are believed to contribute to retinal microvascular cell loss in diabetic retinopathy. In this study, the protective effects of Aster koraiensis extract (AKE against damage to retinal vascular cells were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. To examine this issue further, AGE accumulation, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were investigated using retinal trypsin digests from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In the diabetic rats, TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling-positive retinal microvascular cells were markedly increased. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that AGEs were accumulated within the retinal microvascular cells, and this accumulation paralleled the activation of NF-κB and the expression of iNOS in the diabetic rats. However, AKE prevented retinal microvascular cell apoptosis through the inhibition of AGE accumulation and NF-κB activation. Moreover, to determine the active compounds of AKE, two major compounds, chlorogenic acid and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, were tested in an in vitro assay. Among these compounds, chlorogenic acid significantly reduced AGE formation as well as AGE/RAGE (receptor for AGEs binding activity. These results suggest that AKE, particularly chlorogenic acid, is useful in inhibiting AGE accumulation in retinal vessels and exerts a preventive effect against the injuries of diabetic retinal vascular cells.

  12. Asperpyrone-Type Bis-Naphtho-γ-Pyrones with COX-2–Inhibitory Activities from Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bis-naphtho-γ-pyrones (BNPs are an important group of aromatic polyketides derived from fungi, and asperpyrone-type BNPs are produced primarily by Aspergillus species. The fungal strain Aspergillus niger SCSIO Jcsw6F30, isolated from a marine alga, Sargassum sp., and identified according to its morphological traits and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS region sequence, was studied for BNPs secondary metabolisms. After HPLC/MS analysis of crude extract of the fermentation broth, 11 asperpyrone-type BNPs were obtained directly and quickly by chromatographic separation in the extract, and those isolated asperpyrone-type BNPs were structurally identified by NMR and MS analyses. All of the BNPs showed weak cytotoxicities against 10 human tumor cells (IC50 > 30 μM. However, three of them, aurasperone F (3, aurasperone C (6 and asperpyrone A (8, exhibited obvious COX-2–inhibitory activities, with the IC50 values being 11.1, 4.2, and 6.4 μM, respectively. This is the first time the COX-2–inhibitory activities of BNPs have been reported.

  13. Prevention of diabetic nephropathy by compound 21, selective agonist of angiotensin type 2 receptors, in Zucker diabetic fatty rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castoldi, Giovanna; di Gioia, Cira Rt; Bombardi, Camila

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of compound 21 (C21), selective AT2 receptor agonist, in diabetic nephropathy and the potential additive effect of C21, when associated to losartan treatment, on the development of albuminuria and renal fibrosis in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. The ...

  14. Preventive activity of olive oil phenolic compounds on alkene epoxides induced oxidative DNA damage on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuccelli, Raffaela; Sepporta, Maria Vittoria; Rosignoli, Patrizia; Morozzi, Guido; Servili, Maurizio; Fabiani, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of epoxides of styrene (styrene-7,8-oxide; SO) and 1,3-butadiene (3,4-epoxy-1-butene; 1,2:3,4:-diepoxybutane) to cause oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and whether a complex mixture of olive oil phenols (OOPE) could prevent these effects. The DNA damage was measured by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE; comet assay). We found that the DNA damage induced by alkene epoxides could be prevented by N-acetyl-cysteine (10 mM) and catalase (100 U/ml). Alkene epoxides caused a significant (P DNA glycosylase (FPG)- and Endonuclease III (ENDO III)-sensitive sites in PBMCs, demonstrating the presence of oxidized bases. OOPE (1 μg of total phenols/ml) was able to prevent the alkene epoxide induced DNA damage both after 2 and 24 h of incubation. In addition, OOPE completely inhibited the SO-induced intracellular peroxide accumulation in PBMCs and prevented the oxidative DNA damage induced by SO, as evidenced by the disappearance of both FPG- and ENDO III-sensitive sites. This is the first study demonstrating the ability of OOPE to prevent the DNA damage induced by alkene epoxides providing additional information about the chemopreventive properties of olive oil.

  15. Reactions of 3-Formylchromone with Active Methylene and Methyl Compounds and Some Subsequent Reactions of the Resulting Condensation Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lácova

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This review presents a survey of the condensations of 3-formylchromone with various active methylene and methyl compounds, e.g. malonic or barbituric acid derivatives, five-membered heterocycles, etc. The utilisation of the condensation products for the synthesis of different heterocyclic systems, which is based on the ability of the γ-pyrone ring to be opened by the nucleophilic attack is also reviewed. Finally, the applications of microwave irradiation as an unconventional method of reaction activation in the synthesis of condensation products is described and the biological activity of some chromone derivatives is noted.

  16. Multipurpose Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  17. Pharmacological modulation of gap junction function with the novel compound rotigaptide: a promising new principle for prevention of arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjølbye, Anne Louise; Haugan, Ketil; Hennan, James K; Petersen, Jørgen S

    2007-10-01

    Existing anti-arrhythmic therapy is hampered by lack of efficacy and unacceptable side effects. Thus, ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation remains the strongest predictor of in-hospital mortality in patients with myocardial infarction. In atrial fibrillation, rhythm control with conventional ion channel blockers provide no therapeutic benefit relative to rate control. Several lines of research indicate that impaired gap junctional cell-to-cell coupling between neighbouring cardiomyocytes is critical for the development of cardiac re-entry arrhythmias. Rotigaptide is the first drug that has been developed to prevent arrhythmias by re-establishing gap junctional intercellular communication. During conditions with acute cardiac ischaemia, rotigaptide effectively prevents induction of both ventricular and atrial tachyarrhythmia. Moreover, rotigaptide effectively prevents ischaemia reperfusion arrhythmias. At the cellular level, rotigaptide inhibits ischaemia-induced dephosphorylation of Ser297 and Ser368, which is considered important for the gating of connexin43 gap junction channels. No drug-related toxicity has been demonstrated at plasma concentrations 77,000 times above therapeutic concentrations. In rats and dogs, rotigaptide reduces infarct size following myocardial infarction. A series of phase I trials has been completed in which rotigaptide has been administered intravenously to ~200 healthy persons. No drug-related side effects have been demonstrated in healthy human beings. Clinical safety, tolerability and efficacy in patients with heart disease are being evaluated in ongoing clinical trials. Rotigaptide represents a pioneering pharmacological principle with a highly favourable preclinical and clinical safety profile, which makes this molecule a promising drug candidate for the prevention of cardiac arrhythmias.

  18. Experimental and epidemiological evidence on non-organ specific cancer preventive effect of Korean ginseng and identification of active compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, T.-K

    2003-03-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has been the most highly recognized medicinal herb in the Orient. The prolonged administration of red ginseng extract significantly inhibits the incidence of hepatoma and also proliferation of pulmonary tumors induced by aflatoxin B{sub 1} and urethane. Statistically significant anticarcinogenic effects were in aged or heat treated extracts of ginseng and red ginseng made by steaming in a 9 weeks medium-term anticarcinogenicity test using benzo[a]pyrene. In case-control studies, odds ratios (OR) of the cancer of lip, oral cavity and pharynx, larynx, lung, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, ovary, and colorectum were significantly reduced. As to the type of ginseng, the ORs for cancer were reduced in user of fresh ginseng extract intakers, white ginseng extract, white ginseng powder, and red ginseng. In a cohort study with 5 years follow-up conducted in a ginseng cultivation area, ginseng users had a decreased relative risk (RR) compared with non-users. The relative risks (RRs) of ginseng users were decreased in gastric cancer and lung cancer. These findings strongly suggest that Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer cultivated in Korea has non-organ specific cancer preventive effects against various cancers. To investigate the active components for cancer prevention, several fractions of fresh and red ginseng and four semi-synthetic ginsenoside Rh{sub 1}, Rh{sub 2}, Rg{sub 3} and Rg{sub 5}, the major saponin components in red ginseng, were prepared among the ginsenosides. By using Yun's model, Rg{sub 3} and Rg{sub 5} showed statistically significant reduction of lung tumor incidence and Rh{sub 2} had a tendency to decrease the incidence. In conclusion, these results strongly suggested that Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer cultivated in Korea is a non-organ specific cancer preventive against human cancers and also indicated that the anticarcinogenicity or human cancer preventive effect of Panax ginseng is due to ginsenoside Rg{sub 3}, Rg{sub 5} and Rh

  19. Vitamin C Compound Mixtures Prevent Ozone-Induced Oxidative Damage in Human Keratinocytes as Initial Assessment of Pollution Protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Valacchi

    Full Text Available One of the main functions of cutaneous tissues is to protect our body from the outdoor insults. Ozone (O3 is among the most toxic stressors to which we are continuously exposed and because of its critical location, the skin is one of the most susceptible tissues to the oxidative damaging effect of O3. O3 is not able to penetrate the skin, and although it is not a radical per se, the damage is mainly a consequence of its ability to induce oxidative stress via the formation of lipid peroxidation products.In this study we investigated the protective effect of defined "antioxidant" mixtures against O3 induced oxidative stress damage in human keratinocytes and understand their underlying mechanism of action.Results showed that the mixtures tested were able to protect human keratinocytes from O3-induced cytotoxicity, inhibition of cellular proliferation, decrease the formation of HNE protein adducts, ROS, and carbonyls levels. Furthermore, we have observed the decreased activation of the redox sensitive transcription factor NF-kB, which is involved in transcribing pro-inflammatory cytokines and therefore constitutes one of the main players associated with O3 induced skin inflammation. Cells exposed to O3 demonstrated a dose dependent increase in p65 subunit nuclear expression as a marker of NF-kB activation, while pre-treatment with the mixtures abolished NF-kB nuclear translocation. In addition, a significant activation of Nrf2 in keratinocytes treated with the mixtures was also observed.Overall this study was able to demonstrate a protective effect of the tested compounds versus O3-induced cell damage in human keratinocytes. Pre-treatment with the tested compounds significantly reduced the oxidative damage induced by O3 exposure and this protective effect was correlated to the abolishment of NF-kB nuclear translocation, as well as activation of Nrf2 nuclear translocation activating the downstream defence enzymes involved in cellular detoxification

  20. NP031112, a thiadiazolidinone compound, prevents inflammation and neurodegeneration under excitotoxic conditions: potential therapeutic role in brain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Medina, Rosario; Cortes-Canteli, Marta; Sanchez-Galiano, Susana; Morales-Garcia, Jose A; Martinez, Ana; Santos, Angel; Perez-Castillo, Ana

    2007-05-23

    Inflammation and neurodegeneration coexist in many acute damage and chronic CNS disorders (e.g., stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease). A well characterized animal model of brain damage involves administration of kainic acid, which causes limbic seizure activity and subsequent neuronal death, especially in the CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cells and interneurons in the hilus of the hippocampus. Our previous work demonstrated a potent anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effect of two thiadiazolidinones compounds, NP00111 (2,4-dibenzyl-[1,2,4]thiadiazolidine-3,5-dione) and NP01138 (2-ethyl-4-phenyl-[1,2,4]thiadiazolidine-3,5-dione), in primary cultures of cortical neurons, astrocytes, and microglia. Here, we show that injection of NP031112, a more potent thiadiazolidinone derivative, into the rat hippocampus dramatically reduces kainic acid-induced inflammation, as measured by edema formation using T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and glial activation and has a neuroprotective effect in the damaged areas of the hippocampus. Last, NP031112-induced neuroprotection, both in vitro and in vivo, was substantially attenuated by cotreatment with GW9662 (2-chloro-5-nitrobenzanilide), a known antagonist of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, suggesting that the effects of NP031112 can be mediated through activation of this receptor. As such, these findings identify NP031112 as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  1. Analgesic Potential of Opuntia dillenii and Its Compounds Opuntiol and Opuntioside Against Pain Models in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faheema Siddiqui

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia dillenii (Nagphana traditionally used against inflammation and also possess analgesic effect. Thus in the present study analgesic properties of O. dillenii cladode methanol extract, its fractions obtained via vacuum liquid chromatography along with isolated α-pyrones, opuntiol and its glucoside, opuntioside were analyzed. The acetic acid-induced writhes were reduced by O. dillenii test agents with opuntioside being most effective (IC 50 26 ± 0.9 mg/kg and equipotent to diclofenac and β-sitosterol. Consistently, it also elicited most potent effect (IC 50: 28 ± 1.1 and 24 ± 1.2 mg/kg during early and late phases of formalin-induced paw licking, producing effect similar to diclofenac and indomethacin. It was also most effective in hot plate test. Naloxone (opioid antagonist reversed the analgesic effects of extract and fractions but failed to antagonize the opuntiol and opuntioside analgesic effects. In conclusion, edible O. dillenii extract, its fractions, opuntiol and opuntioside reduced peripheral and centrally mediated pain via opioid dependent and independent systems. Among them opuntioside emerged as most effective analgesic possibly due to the presence of glucose moiety at position 7 of its α-pyrone ring. This is the first report of opuntiol and opuntioside analgesic effect which may serve as lead compounds in designing of new analgesics.

  2. Efficacy and Safety of Danshen Compound Tablets in Preventing Thalidomide-Associated Thromboembolism in Patients with Multiple Myeloma: A Multicenter Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qing-song; Chen, Lin; Mi, Rui-hua; Ai, Hao; Yin, Jun-jie; Liu, Xiao-juan; Wei, Xu-dong

    2016-01-01

    Background Currently available antithrombotic prophylaxis is not perfectly reliable in elderly patients. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Compound Danshen Tablet (CDT) in preventing thromboembolism in multiple myeloma (MM) patients treated with thalidomide-based regimens. Material/Methods MM patients treated with thalidomide-based regimens were retrospectively reviewed between January 2008 and March 2015. Patients were categorized into 3 cohorts based on thromboembolic prophylaxis used: CDT, Warfarin Tablet, and no prophylaxis. Venous thromboembolism (VTE), other adverse effects (AEs), and the changes of D-dimer and fibrinogen levels were monitored. Results Seven out of 313 MM patients (2.24%) developed venous thrombosis events (VTE) in this retrospective study, all clustering in the no prophylaxis cohort. Three patients of the Warfarin cohort (3.19%) experienced hemorrhage. Neither VTE events nor serious AEs were observed in the CDT cohort. Following Compound Danshen or Warfarin treatment for 3 months, the D-dimer and fibrinogen levels (in particular the D-dimer level) (all Pthalidomide-based regimens, and is well tolerated in long-term use. PMID:27760978

  3. A hyaluronic acid-based compound inhibits fibroblast senescence induced by oxidative stress in vitro and prevents oral mucositis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Nicola; Vicidomini, Antonio; McCullough, Michael; Gambardella, Antonio; Hassona, Yazan; Prime, Stephen S; Colella, Giuseppe

    2015-07-01

    Virtually all patients receiving radio- and chemotherapy for cancer develop oral mucositis, a severe and highly debilitating condition. The onset of mucositis is thought to involve the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the submucosa. Here we investigated a possible protective effect of a commercial formulation of hyaluronic acid (HA) enriched with amino acids (Mucosamin(®)) against the damage induced by oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo. Transient exposure of normal human oral fibroblasts to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) led to irreversible senescence, as demonstrated by sustained increase in the levels of p16(INK4A) and SA-βGal. Conditioned media from senescent fibroblasts induced detrimental effects on keratinocytes, as shown by reduced metabolic activity and migration capability. Pre-treatment with Mucosamin(®) prevented H(2)O(2) -induced, but not TGF-β-induced, fibroblast senescence with a concomitant reduction of fibroblast-induced loss of keratinocyte vitality and functional activity. Finally, data from a case-series of patients undergoing radio/chemotherapy strongly suggested that prophylactic use of the hyaluronic acid-based compound in the form of a spray may be effective in preventing the onset of oral mucositis.

  4. The latissimus dorsi-groin-lymph node compound flap: A comprehensive technique with three features including skin coverage, restoration of motor function, and prevention of upper limb lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli, Fabio; Orfaniotis, Georgios; Lazzeri, Davide; Lim, Seong Yoon; Kiranantawat, Kidakorn; Chen, Pei-Yu; Ciudad, Pedro; Chilgar, Ram M; Sapountzis, Stamatis; Sacak, Bulent; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2016-11-01

    Reconstruction of complex upper extremity defects requires a need for multiple tissue components. The supercharged latissimus dorsi (LD)-groin compound flap is an option that can provide a large skin paddle with simultaneous functional muscle transfer. It is necessary to supercharge the flap with the superficial circumflex iliac pedicle to ensure the viability of its groin extension. In this report, we present a case of a supercharged LD-groin flap in combination with vascularized inguinal lymph nodes, which was used for upper limb reconstruction in a young male patient, following excision of high-grade liposarcoma. Resection resulted in a 28 cm × 15 cm skin defect extending from the upper arm to the proximal forearm, also involving the triceps muscle, a segment of the ulnar nerve and the axillary lymph nodes. Restoration of triceps function was achieved with transfer of the innervated LD muscle. Part of the ulnar nerve was resected and repaired with sural nerve grafts. Post-operatively, the flap survived fully with no partial necrosis, and no complications at both the recipient and donor sites. At 1-year follow up, the patient had a well-healed wound with good elbow extension (against resistance), no tumor recurrence, and no signs of lymphedema. We believe this comprehensive approach may represent a valuable technique, for not only the oncological reconstruction of upper extremity, but also for the prevention of lymphedema. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 36:689-694, 2016.

  5. Synergetic downregulation of 67 kDa laminin receptor by the green tea (Camellia sinensis secondary plant compound epigallocatechin gallate: a new gateway in metastasis prevention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Jakob

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In traditional Chinese medicine, green tea is considered to have a life-prolonging effect, possibly as a result of its rich content of antioxidant tea polyphenols, and hence has the potential to prevent cancer. This study investigated the role of the major tea secondary plant compound epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG for its inhibitory effects on the metastasis-associated 67 kDa laminin receptor (67LR. Methods To clarify the impact of EGCG on siRNA-silenced expression of 67LR, we applied an adenoviral-based intestinal in vitro knockdown model, porcine IPEC-J2 cells. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze 67LR gene expression following treatment with physiological and pharmacological concentrations of EGCG (1.0 g/l, 0.1 g/l, 0.02 g/l and 0.002 g/l. Results We report co-regulation of EGCG and 67LR, which is known to be an EGCG receptor. siRNA selectively and highly significantly suppressed expression of 67LR under the impact of EGCG in a synergetic manner. Conclusions Our findings suggest that 67LR expression is regulated by EGCG via a negative feedback loop. The explicit occurrence of this effect in synergy with a small RNA pathway and a plant-derived drug reveals a new mode of action. Our findings may help to provide insights into the many unsolved health-promoting activities of other natural pharmaceuticals.

  6. High-Content Positional Biosensor Screening Assay for Compounds to Prevent or Disrupt Androgen Receptor and Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 2 Protein–Protein Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yun; Shun, Tong Ying; Strock, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The androgen receptor–transcriptional intermediary factor 2 (AR-TIF2) positional protein–protein interaction (PPI) biosensor assay described herein combines physiologically relevant cell-based assays with the specificity of binding assays by incorporating structural information of AR and TIF2 functional domains along with intracellular targeting sequences and fluorescent reporters. Expression of the AR-red fluorescent protein (RFP) “prey” and TIF2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) “bait” components of the biosensor was directed by recombinant adenovirus constructs that expressed the ligand binding and activation function 2 surface domains of AR fused to RFP with nuclear localization and nuclear export sequences, and three α-helical LXXLL motifs from TIF2 fused to GFP and an HIV Rev nucleolar targeting sequence. In unstimulated cells, AR-RFP was localized predominantly to the cytoplasm and TIF2-GFP was localized to nucleoli. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment induced AR-RFP translocation into the nucleus where the PPIs between AR and TIF2 resulted in the colocalization of both biosensors within the nucleolus. We adapted the translocation enhanced image analysis module to quantify the colocalization of the AR-RFP and TIF2-GFP biosensors in images acquired on the ImageXpress platform. DHT induced a concentration-dependent AR-TIF2 colocalization and produced a characteristic condensed punctate AR-RFP PPI nucleolar distribution pattern. The heat-shock protein 90 inhibitor 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) and antiandrogens flutamide and bicalutamide inhibited DHT-induced AR-TIF2 PPI formation with 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50s) of 88.5±12.5 nM, 7.6±2.4 μM, and 1.6±0.4 μM, respectively. Images of the AR-RFP distribution phenotype allowed us to distinguish between 17-AAG and flutamide, which prevented AR translocation, and bicalutamide, which blocked AR-TIF2 PPIs. We screened the Library of Pharmacologically Active

  7. High-content positional biosensor screening assay for compounds to prevent or disrupt androgen receptor and transcriptional intermediary factor 2 protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yun; Shun, Tong Ying; Strock, Christopher J; Johnston, Paul A

    2014-09-01

    The androgen receptor-transcriptional intermediary factor 2 (AR-TIF2) positional protein-protein interaction (PPI) biosensor assay described herein combines physiologically relevant cell-based assays with the specificity of binding assays by incorporating structural information of AR and TIF2 functional domains along with intracellular targeting sequences and fluorescent reporters. Expression of the AR-red fluorescent protein (RFP) "prey" and TIF2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) "bait" components of the biosensor was directed by recombinant adenovirus constructs that expressed the ligand binding and activation function 2 surface domains of AR fused to RFP with nuclear localization and nuclear export sequences, and three α-helical LXXLL motifs from TIF2 fused to GFP and an HIV Rev nucleolar targeting sequence. In unstimulated cells, AR-RFP was localized predominantly to the cytoplasm and TIF2-GFP was localized to nucleoli. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment induced AR-RFP translocation into the nucleus where the PPIs between AR and TIF2 resulted in the colocalization of both biosensors within the nucleolus. We adapted the translocation enhanced image analysis module to quantify the colocalization of the AR-RFP and TIF2-GFP biosensors in images acquired on the ImageXpress platform. DHT induced a concentration-dependent AR-TIF2 colocalization and produced a characteristic condensed punctate AR-RFP PPI nucleolar distribution pattern. The heat-shock protein 90 inhibitor 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) and antiandrogens flutamide and bicalutamide inhibited DHT-induced AR-TIF2 PPI formation with 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50s) of 88.5±12.5 nM, 7.6±2.4 μM, and 1.6±0.4 μM, respectively. Images of the AR-RFP distribution phenotype allowed us to distinguish between 17-AAG and flutamide, which prevented AR translocation, and bicalutamide, which blocked AR-TIF2 PPIs. We screened the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC) set

  8. Synthesis of 6-Trimethylsilyl-a-pyrone from 2,6-Bis(trimethylsilyl)-pyran via Mild Aerobic Oxidation%氧气氧化2,6-二-(三甲基硅基)吡喃为6-三甲基硅基-α-吡喃酮

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周德军; Matsuya Yuji

    2013-01-01

    In this study,an effective and mild method for the synthesis of 6-trimethylsilyl-α-pyrone was successfully developed. 6-Trimethylsilyl-α-pyrone,a very important intermediate in organic synthesis,was mildly synthesized from pyrane derivative via an aerobic oxidation at room temperature,without any solvents and catalysts. Furthermore,the possible mechanism of the reaction was proposed.%开发出一种合成6-三甲基硅基α-吡喃酮的有效方法.在无溶剂无任何催化剂的氧气气氛中,室温条件下温和地将2,6-二-(三甲基硅基)吡喃通过氧化反应转化成6-三甲基硅基α-吡喃酮,并且给出了该反应可能的机理.

  9. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate and related phenol compounds redirect the amyloidogenic aggregation pathway of ataxin-3 towards non-toxic aggregates and prevent toxicity in neural cells and Caenorhabditis elegans animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, Cristina; Pellistri, Francesca; Natalello, Antonino; Vertemara, Jacopo; Bonanomi, Marcella; Gatta, Elena; Penco, Amanda; Relini, Annalisa; De Gioia, Luca; Airoldi, Cristina; Regonesi, Maria E; Tortora, Paolo

    2017-09-01

    The protein ataxin-3 (ATX3) triggers an amyloid-related neurodegenerative disease when its polyglutamine stretch is expanded beyond a critical threshold. We formerly demonstrated that the polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) could redirect amyloid aggregation of a full-length, expanded ATX3 (ATX3-Q55) towards non-toxic, soluble, SDS-resistant aggregates. Here, we have characterized other related phenol compounds, although smaller in size, i.e. (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGC), and gallic acid (GA). We analysed the aggregation pattern of ATX3-Q55 and of the N-terminal globular Josephin domain (JD) by assessing the time course of the soluble protein, as well its structural features by FTIR and AFM, in the presence and the absence of the mentioned compounds. All of them redirected the aggregation pattern towards soluble, SDS-resistant aggregates. They also prevented the appearance of ordered side-chain hydrogen bonding in ATX3-Q55, which is the hallmark of polyQ-related amyloids. Molecular docking analyses on the JD highlighted three interacting regions, including the central, aggregation-prone one. All three compounds bound to each of them, although with different patterns. This might account for their capability to prevent amyloidogenesis. Saturation transfer difference NMR experiments also confirmed EGCG and EGC binding to monomeric JD. ATX3-Q55 pre-incubation with any of the three compounds prevented its calcium-influx-mediated cytotoxicity towards neural cells. Finally, all the phenols significantly reduced toxicity in a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strain expressing an expanded ATX3. Overall, our results show that the three polyphenols act in a substantially similar manner. GA, however, might be more suitable for antiamyloid treatments due to its simpler structure and higher chemical stability. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Date (Phoenix dactylifera Polyphenolics and Other Bioactive Compounds: A Traditional Islamic Remedy’s Potential in Prevention of Cell Damage, Cancer Therapeutics and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi R. Yasin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This review analyzes current studies of the therapeutic effects of Phoenix dactylifera, or date palm fruit, on the physiologic system. Specifically, we sought to summarize the effects of its application in preventing cell damage, improving cancer therapeutics and reducing damage caused by conventional chemotherapy. Phoenix dactylifera exhibits potent anti-oxidative properties both in vitro and in vivo. This allows the fruit to prevent depletion of intrinsic protection from oxidative cell damage and assist these defense systems in reducing cell damage. Macroscopically, this mechanism may be relevant to the prevention of various adverse drug events common to chemotherapy including hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, gastrotoxicity, and peripheral neuropathy. While such effects have only been studied in small animal systems, research suggests a potential application to more complex mammalian systems and perhaps a solution to some problems of chemotherapy in hepato-compromised and nephro-compromised patients.

  11. Bioprospecting of Novel and Bioactive Compounds from Marine Actinomycetes Isolated from South China Sea Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Song, Fuhang

    2017-09-16

    Marine actinomycetes are less investigated compared to terrestrial strains as potential sources of natural products. To date, few investigations have been performed on culturable actinomycetes associated with South China Sea sediments. In the present study, twenty-eight actinomycetes were recovered from South China Sea sediments after dereplication by traditional culture-dependent method. The 16S rRNA gene sequences analyses revealed that these strains related to five families and seven genera. Twelve representative strains possessed at least one of the biosynthetic genes coding for polyketide synthase I, II, and nonribosomal peptide synthetase. Four strains had anti-Mycobacterium phlei activities and five strains had activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. 10 L-scale fermentation of strains Salinispora sp. NHF45, Nocardiopsis sp. NHF48, and Streptomyces sp. NHF86 were carried out for novel and bioactive compounds discovery. Finally, we obtained a novel α-pyrone compound from marine Nocardiopsis sp. NHF48, an analogue of paulomenol from marine Streptomyces sp. NHF86 and a new source of rifamycin B, produced by Salinispora sp. NHF45. The present study concluded that marine actinomycetes, which we isolated from South China Sea sediments, will be a suitable source for the development of novel and bioactive compounds.

  12. Bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate binds pro-inflammatory bacterial compounds and prevents immune activation in an intestinal co-culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detzel, Christopher J; Horgan, Alan; Henderson, Abigail L; Petschow, Bryon W; Warner, Christopher D; Maas, Kenneth J; Weaver, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal barrier dysfunction is associated with chronic gastrointestinal tract inflammation and diseases such as IBD and IBS. Serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate (SBI) is a specially formulated protein preparation (>90%) for oral administration. The composition of SBI is greater than 60% immunoglobulin including contributions from IgG, IgA, and IgM. Immunoglobulin within the lumen of the gut has been recognized to have anti-inflammatory properties and is involved in maintaining gut homeostasis. The binding of common intestinal antigens (LPS and Lipid A) and the ligand Pam3CSK4, by IgG, IgA, and IgM in SBI was shown using a modified ELISA technique. Each of these antigens stimulated IL-8 and TNF-α cytokine production by THP-1 monocytes. Immune exclusion occurred as SBI (≤50 mg/mL) bound free antigen in a dose dependent manner that inhibited cytokine production by THP-1 monocytes in response to 10 ng/mL LPS or 200 ng/mL Lipid A. Conversely, Pam3CSK4 stimulation of THP-1 monocytes was unaffected by SBI/antigen binding. A co-culture model of the intestinal epithelium consisted of a C2BBe1 monolayer separating an apical compartment from a basal compartment containing THP-1 monocytes. The C2BBe1 monolayer was permeabilized with dimethyl palmitoyl ammonio propanesulfonate (PPS) to simulate a damaged epithelial barrier. Results indicate that Pam3CSK4 was able to translocate across the PPS-damaged C2BBe1 monolayer. However, binding of Pam3CSK4 by immunoglobulins in SBI prevented Pam3CSK4 translocation across the damaged C2BBe1 barrier. These results demonstrated steric exclusion of antigen by SBI which prevented apical to basal translocation of antigen due to changes in the physical properties of Pam3CSK4, most likely as a result of immunoglobulin binding. This study demonstrates that immunoglobulins in SBI can reduce antigen-associated inflammation through immune and steric exclusion mechanisms and furthers the mechanistic understanding of how SBI

  13. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase pathway induces apoptosis and prevents Epstein Barr virus reactivation in Raji cells exposed to lytic cycle inducing compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Renzo Livia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background EBV lytic cycle activators, such as phorbol esters, anti-immunoglobulin, transforming growth factor β (TGFβ, sodium butyrate, induce apoptosis in EBV-negative but not in EBV-positive Burkitt's lymphoma (BL cells. To investigate the molecular mechanisms allowing EBV-infected cells to be protected, we examined the expression of viral and cellular antiapoptotic proteins as well as the activation of signal transduction pathways in BL-derived Raji cells exposed to lytic cycle inducing agents. Results Our data show that, following EBV activation, the latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1 and the cellular anti-apoptotic proteins MCL-1 and BCL-2 were quickly up-regulated and that Raji cells remained viable even when exposed simultaneously to P(BU2, sodium butyrate and TGFβ. We report here that inhibition of p38 pathway, during EBV activation, led to a three fold increment of apoptosis and largely prevented lytic gene expression. Conclusion These findings indicate that, during the switch from the latent to the lytic phase of EBV infection, p38 MAPK phosphorylation plays a key role both for protecting the host cells from apoptosis as well as for inducing viral reactivation. Because Raji cells are defective for late antigens expression, we hypothesize that the increment of LMP1 gene expression in the early phases of EBV lytic cycle might contribute to the survival of the EBV-positive cells.

  14. Effect of Compound Chinese Medicine Preparations on Preventing Early Weaned Stress Syndrome of Piglets%复方中药制剂防制仔猪早期断奶应激综合症的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴金节; 章孝荣; 王勇; 刘有水; 蔡良清

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effectiveness of compound Chinese medicine preparations on preventing early weaned stress syndrome of piglets. Forty-eight 21-day-old pigs from 6 litters were randomly divided into two groups, each group consisted of 24 piglets and 4 piglets were from each litter. At 21 day of age, the piglets in group I were infused orally with 20 ml of decoction of Chinese herbal medicine and the piglets in group Ⅱ with 20 ml of cold boiled water, and one time daily for 7 days. All piglets were weaned on 24th day. The results indicated that the compound Chinese medicine preparations could promote the weaned piglets growth, decrease diarrhea rate, increase PHA T-lymphocyte proliferation rate and macrophage activity, and effectively prevent early weaned stress syndrome of piglets.%本试验旨在研究复方中药制剂防制仔猪早期断奶应激综合症的效果。6窝21日龄仔猪48头,随机分成2组,每组24头,每窝4头。I组仔猪21日龄时口服20ml中药制剂,II组仔猪口服20ml冷开水,每天1次,连服7d。所有试验仔猪均于24日龄时断奶。结果表明,该中药制剂能促进断奶仔猪生长,降低腹泻率,提高PHA T-淋巴细胞转化率及白细胞吞噬功能,可有效地防制仔猪早期断奶应激综合症。

  15. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Wertsching, Alan K.; Orme, Christopher J.; Luther, Thomas A.; Jones, Michael G.

    2010-08-10

    A PBI compound that includes imidazole nitrogens, at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2--, where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The PBI compound may exhibit similar thermal properties in comparison to the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may exhibit a solubility in an organic solvent greater than the solubility of the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may occur at about room temperature and/or at about atmospheric pressure. Substituting may use at least five equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted or, preferably, about fifteen equivalents.

  16. Mycobacterial F420H2-Dependent Reductases Promiscuously Reduce Diverse Compounds through a Common Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Greening

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available An unusual aspect of actinobacterial metabolism is the use of the redox cofactor F420. Studies have shown that actinobacterial F420H2-dependent reductases promiscuously hydrogenate diverse organic compounds in biodegradative and biosynthetic processes. These enzymes therefore represent promising candidates for next-generation industrial biocatalysts. In this work, we undertook the first broad survey of these enzymes as potential industrial biocatalysts by exploring the extent, as well as mechanistic and structural bases, of their substrate promiscuity. We expressed and purified 11 enzymes from seven subgroups of the flavin/deazaflavin oxidoreductase (FDOR superfamily (A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, B3, B4 from the model soil actinobacterium Mycobacterium smegmatis. These enzymes reduced compounds from six chemical classes, including fundamental monocycles such as a cyclohexenone, a dihydropyran, and pyrones, as well as more complex quinone, coumarin, and arylmethane compounds. Substrate range and reduction rates varied between the enzymes, with the A1, A3, and B1 groups exhibiting greatest promiscuity. Molecular docking studies suggested that structurally diverse compounds are accommodated in the large substrate-binding pocket of the most promiscuous FDOR through hydrophobic interactions with conserved aromatic residues and the isoalloxazine headgroup of F420H2. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS analysis of derivatized reaction products showed reduction occurred through a common mechanism involving hydride transfer from F420H- to the electron-deficient alkene groups of substrates. Reduction occurs when the hydride donor (C5 of F420H- is proximal to the acceptor (electrophilic alkene of the substrate. These findings suggest that engineered actinobacterial F420H2-dependent reductases are promising novel biocatalysts for the facile transformation of a wide range of α,β-unsaturated compounds.

  17. Effects of compound piracetam in preventing osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats%复方脑复康预防大鼠去卵巢后骨质疏松的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄健萍; 林思恩; 吴玲芝; 崔燎; 吴铁

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨复方脑复康防治去卵巢后骨质疏松的效果.方法:4月龄Sprague-dawley (SD)雌性大鼠38只随机分为5组:基础组,6只,于实验前取材;假手术组,8只,给予生理盐水灌胃;去卵巢组,8只,去卵巢后给予生理盐水灌胃;已烯雌酚组,8只,去卵巢后给予已烯雌酚30 μg/(kg·d)灌胃;复方脑复康组,8只,去卵巢后给予吡拉西坦432mg/(kg·d)和司坦唑醇0.54mg/(kg·d)灌胃.连续灌胃90d后,处死大鼠并取左胫骨包埋、切片、染色后作静态和动态骨组织形态计量学测定.结果:与假手术组相比,去卵巢组骨小梁面积百分数(%Tb.Ar)、骨小梁厚度(Tb.Th)、骨小梁数目(Tb.N)和标记周长百分数(%L.Pm)均显著降低(P<0.01),骨小梁分离度(Tb.Sp)增加(均P<0.01);每毫米破骨细胞数目(Oc.N)和破骨细胞周长百分数(%Oc.Pm)均显著增加(P<0.01);骨形成率(BFR/BV)增加(P<0.05).与去卵巢组相比,已烯雌酚及复方脑复康都可使%Tb.Ar显著增加(均P<0.01),Tb.N显著增加(均P<0.01),Tb.Th增加(P>0.05,P<0.05);并使Tb.Sp显著降低(均P<0.01);使Oc.N和%Oc.Pm显著减少(均P<0.01).与已烯雌酚组相比,复方脑复康可以使胫骨骨小梁Tb.Th和%L.Pm增加(均P<0.05).结论:复方脑复康可以预防大鼠去卵巢后骨质疏松,其作用效应与雌激素相当,作用机制可能与复方脑复康促进骨形成,抑制骨吸收有关.%Objective:To examine the effects of compound piracetam(P-S) in preventing cancellous bone loss in ovariectomized (ovx) rats. Methods:Thirty eight female Sprague-dawley rats of four months old were randomly divided into five groups: the basal control (BAS,n=6),sham+saline(SHAM,n=8),ovx+saline(OVX,n=8),ovx +diethylstilbestrol 30 μg/(kg·d) (0VX+DES,n=8),and ovx+ Piracetam 432 mg/(kg·d)+ stanozolol 0.54 mg/(kg·d)(OVX+P-S,n=8). Rats were treated by oral gavage for 90 days.The basal control were sacrificed at day 0; other groups were killed

  18. Preventing stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroke - prevention; CVA - prevention; cerebral vascular accident - prevention; TIA - prevention, transient ischemic attack - prevention ... something that increases your chance of having a stroke. You cannot change some risk factors for stroke. ...

  19. Intermetallic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagiwa, Y.; Matsuura, Y.; Kimura, K.

    2014-06-01

    We have focused on the binary narrow-bandgap intermetallic compounds FeGa3 and RuGa3 as thermoelectric materials. Their crystal structure is FeGa3-type (tetragonal, P42/ mnm) with 16 atoms per unit cell. Despite their simple crystal structure, their room temperature thermal conductivity is in the range 4-5-W-m-1-K-1. Both compounds have narrow-bandgaps of approximately 0.3-eV near the Fermi level. Because their Seebeck coefficients are quite large negative values in the range 350-FeGa3 and RuGa3 as n and p-type materials. The dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, was significantly improved by substitution of Sn for Ga in FeGa3 (electron-doping) and by substitution of Zn for Ga in RuGa3 (hole-doping), mainly as a result of optimization of the electronic part, S 2 σ.

  20. Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankland, Kenneth

    For many years, powder X-ray diffraction was used primarily as a fingerprinting method for phase identification in the context of molecular organic materials. In the early 1990s, with only a few notable exceptions, structures of even moderate complexity were not solvable from PXRD data alone. Global optimisation methods and highly-modified direct methods have transformed this situation by specifically exploiting some well-known properties of molecular compounds. This chapter will consider some of these properties.

  1. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas have been extensively reported in the dental literature, and the term refers to tumors of odontogenic origin. Though the exact etiology is still unknown, the postulated causes include: local trauma, infection, inheritance and genetic mutation. The majority of the lesions are asymptomatic; however, may be accompanied with pain and swelling as secondary complaints in some cases. Here, we report a case of a compound odontome in a 14 year old patient.

  2. 复方谷氨酰胺联合益生菌预防氟尿嘧啶化疗相关腹泻%Compound Glutamine with Probiotics in Prevention of Fluorouracil Chemotherapy Associated Diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周琦

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析复方谷氨酰胺联合益生菌对氟尿嘧啶化疗相关腹泻的预防作用。方法收集62例应用氟尿嘧啶化疗患者相关资料,其中试验组31例口服复方谷氨酰胺胶囊及复方嗜酸乳杆菌片进行预处理,对照组31例不做预处理。观察两组患者的腹泻发生情况,进行统计学分析。结果试验组患者共化疗128个周期,40个周期(31.25%)发生腹泻,其中10个周期(4.50%)发生Ⅲ~Ⅳ级腹泻;对照组共化疗92个周期,43个周期(46.74%)发生腹泻,其中16个周期(17.39%)发生Ⅲ~Ⅳ级腹泻。两组患者化疗周期中发生腹泻周期比例差异有统计学意义(=5.47,P=0.022),Ⅲ~Ⅳ级腹泻周期比例差异有统计学意义(=4.71,P=0.031)。两组腹泻患者的处理中,除复方苯乙哌啶片(=0.53,P=0.520),试验组需要应用治疗腹泻的药物洛哌丁胺(=5.62,P=0.021),奥曲肽(=4.27,P=0.037),抗生素(=5.26,P=0.023)较对照组差异均有统计学意义。结论应用复方谷氨酰胺联合益生菌进行预处理可以减少氟尿嘧啶相关性腹泻的发生率及合并用药。%Objective To evaluate the efficacy of compound glutamine combined with probiotics in prevention of fluorou-racil chemotherapy associated diarrhea. Methods The related information of 62 patients who received fluorouracil chemotherapy were collected. 31 cases in the treatment group were received oral compound glutamine capsule and compound lactobacillus aci-dophilus preprocessingly,while the other 31 cases in the control group did none preprocessing. Observe the diarrhea occurrence in two groups and analyze statistically. Results Patients in the experimental group received 128 cycles of chemotherapy,diarrhea was found in 40 cycles(31. 25%) andⅢ ~ Ⅳdiarrhea occurred in 10 cycles(4. 50%). Patients in the control group received a total of 92 cycles of chemotherapy, diarrhea was found in 43 cycles ( 46. 74%) and Ⅲ ~ Ⅳ diarrhea occurred in l6

  3. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  4. Application of macromolecular compound and drug biological barrier in preventing tendon adhesion%高分子化合物及药物薄膜屏障在预防肌腱损伤中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the mechanisms of chitosan, absorbable membrane, and hyaluric acid in preventing adhesion following tendon injury. METHODS: The Chinese Journal Full-text Database, as well as Pubmed database, were retrieved with key words of tendon adhesion, high polymer biological barrier, several Ding keeps out, absorbability antiseize continually membrane, and hyaluric acid. The quality, as well as inflammatory reaction surrounding tensions were served as evaluate indexes, accordingly, the English and Chinese papers regarding mechanisms of chitosan, absorbable membrane, and hyaluric acid in preventing tendon adhesion were included. Studies concerning other biomaterials were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 223 papers were obtained by initial search with computer. According to inclusion criteria, the related papers were analyzed. Adhesion formation associated with tendon surgery is a widespread problem. Tendon healing was classically considered to occur through extrinsic and intrinsic healing, in which the extrinsic healing was closely associated with the formation of adhesion or scar, so if we can accelerate proliferation of granulation tissue, inhibit the extrinsic healing of the tendon, the purpose of preventing tendon adhesion formation could be achieved. As a result, macromolecular compound and drug biology barrier were widely used. CONCLUSION: High polymer biological barrier can relieve tendon adhesion by its barrier function and pharmacologic action to regulate healing mechanisms.%目的:探讨几丁搪、可吸收性防粘连膜、透明质酸3种高分子生物屏障材料对肌腱损伤导致的肌腱粘连的预防机制和作用原理.方法:以肌腱粘连,高分子生物屏障,几丁搪,可吸收性防粘连膜,透明质酸为检索词,检索中国期刊全文数据库(1999-01/2009-06),以tendon adhesion,high polymer biology barrier,several Ding keeps out,absorbability antiseize continually membrane,hyaluric acid

  5. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much

  6. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much i

  7. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much i

  8. Analysis of phenolic compounds for poultry feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds have generated significant interest recently as feed additives that can impart bioactive characteristics such as anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-fungal properties to a feed formulation [1-2]. Such natural compounds may offer some preventive benefit to the routine administra...

  9. Injury Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visits Prevent Poison! ACEP Observes 50th National Poison Prevention Week Small, Shiny and Dangerous: ACEP Puts the Spotlight on Children Swallowing Objects Like Magnets, Coins or Batteries School & Sports Injuries Safety Helmets Save Lives, Prevent Traumatic Brain Injury ...

  10. Prevent Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Roles Kids Play Other Types of Aggressive Behavior CYBER BULLYING What is Cyberbullying? Prevent Cyberbullying Report Cyberbullying WHO ... More Than a Bystander GET HELP NOW Home > Cyber Bullying > Prevent Cyberbullying CYBER BULLYING What is Cyberbullying? Prevent ...

  11. Rape prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. Updated June 4, 2015. www.cdc.gov/ ...

  12. Dengue Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This photograph ... medications to treat a dengue infection. This makes prevention the most important step, and prevention means avoiding ...

  13. Production of Valuable Lipophilic Compounds by Using Three Types of Interface Bioprocesses: Solid-Liquid Interface Bioreactor, Liquid-Liquid Interface Bioreactor, and Extractive Liquid-Surface Immobilization System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Shinobu

    2017-01-01

    Bioconversions such as enzymatic and microbial transformations are attractive alternatives to organic synthesis because of practical advantages such as resource conservation, energy efficiency, and environmentally harmonic properties. In addition, the production of secondary metabolites through microbial fermentation is also useful for manufacturing pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals, and aroma compounds. For microbial production of useful chemicals, the authors have developed three unique interfacial bioprocesses: a solid-liquid interface bioreactor (S/L-IBR), a liquid-liquid interface bioreactor (L/L-IBR), and an extractive liquid-surface immobilization (Ext-LSI) system. The S/L-IBR comprises a hydrophobic organic solvent (upper phase), a microbial film (middle phase), and a hydrophilic gel such as an agar plate (lower phase); the L/L-IBR and the Ext-LSI consist of a hydrophobic organic solvent (upper phase), a fungal mat with ballooned microspheres (middle phase), and a liquid medium (lower phase). All three systems have unique and practically important characteristics such as utilization of living cells, high concentration of lipophilic substrates/products in an organic phase, no requirement for aeration and agitation, efficient supply of oxygen, easy recovery of product, high regio- and stereoselectivity, and wide versatility. This paper reviews the principle, construction, characteristics, and application of these interfacial systems for producing lipophilic compounds such as useful aroma compounds, citronellol-related compounds, β-caryophyllene oxide, and 6-penty-α-pyrone.

  14. 复方磺胺甲恶唑对肾移植后卡氏肺孢子虫肺炎的预防作用%Prevention effect of compound sulfamethoxazole on pneumocystis carinii pneumonia after kidney transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈统清; 林敏娃; 孔耀中; 卢结文; 练桂英; 叶佩仪

    2011-01-01

    背景:卡氏肺孢子虫肺炎是由卡氏肺孢子虫寄生于肺部引起的一种严重的致命性肺炎.复方磺胺甲恶唑是目前用于治疗卡氏肺孢子虫肺炎的一线药物,治疗量往往有明显的不良反应,小剂量预防用药临床疗效及毒副作用尚不清楚.目的:观察复方磺胺甲恶唑对肾移植后卡氏肺孢子虫肺炎的预防效果.方法:选择肾移植后1个月且无复方磺胺甲恶唑过敏者.肾移植后1个月至半年或1年常规服用复方磺胺甲恶唑(0.48 g/d).观察移植肝肾功能,感染情况,药物不良反应.结果与结论:2006年起,随访125例肾移植术后早期患者,73例术后1个月起常规服用复方磺胺甲恶唑(0.48 g/d)至术后半年者,1例停药4个月后感染卡氏肺孢子虫肺炎死亡,47例服用复方磺胺甲恶唑(0.48 g/d)至术后1年者,无感染卡氏肺孢子虫肺炎者,5例因复方磺胺甲恶唑过敏或医从性差未服用复方磺胺甲恶唑者,2例分别在术后4,5个月感染卡氏肺孢子虫肺炎,1例死亡.结果提示,肾移植术后1个月至1年常规服用复方磺胺甲恶唑(0.48 g/d),可有效预防卡氏肺孢子虫肺炎,临床无明显不良反应.%BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is a kind of lethal pneumonia caused by pneumocystis carinii (PC) which is parasitize lung. Sulfamethoxazole is a first-line drug for PCP treatment, while there is obvious side effect when using therapeutic dose. The efficacy and side effect of small dose of SMZ is unclear.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of small dose of compound sulfamethoxazole (SMZco) for prevention of PCP after kidney transplantation.METHODS: Patients who were taken kidney transplantation for just one month and not sensitive to SMZco were selected. All the participants took SMZco (0.48 g/d) for half a year to one year. The graft and liver function, infection situation and side effects were surveyed.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We finally enrolled 125 patients in which 73

  15. Co-culturing of Pichia guilliermondii enhanced volatile flavor compound formation by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii in the model system of Thai soy sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wah, Thin Thin; Walaisri, Supawan; Assavanig, Apinya; Niamsiri, Nuttawee; Lertsiri, Sittiwat

    2013-01-01

    The roles of salt-tolerant yeasts such as Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Candida versatilis, and Candida etchellsii in the production of volatile flavor compounds (VFCs) in soy sauce fermentation have been well documented. However, the knowledge of VFC production by other salt-tolerant yeasts is still limited. In this work, the roles of Z. rouxii and Pichia guilliermondii strains in VFC production were investigated in moromi medium as a model system for soy sauce fermentation. Inoculation of a single culture of either Z. rouxii or P. guilliermondii as well as co-cultures of these two yeasts into moromi medium showed increased numbers of viable yeast at around 0.7 to 1.9 log CFU/mL after 7days of cultivation at 30°C. During cultivation, both single and co-cultures displayed survival over a 7-day time period, compared with the controls (no culture added). Overall, yeast inoculation enhanced the production of VFCs in the moromi media with higher amounts of ethanol, alcohols, furanones, esters, aldehyde, acid, pyrone and phenols, known as important characteristic flavor compounds in soy sauce. Moreover, the co-culture produced more alcohols, furanones, esters, maltol and benzoic acid than the single culture of Z. rouxii.

  16. Prevention of cisplatin nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayati Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin has a well-established role in the treatment of broad spectrum of malignancies; however its use is limited because of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity (CIN which can be progressive in more than 50% of cases. The most important risk factors for CIN include higher doses of cisplatin, previous cisplatin chemotherapy, underlying kidney damage and concurrent treatment with other potential nephrotoxin agents, such as aminoglycosides, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, or iodinated contrast media. Different strategies have been offered to diminish or prevent nephrotoxicity of cisplatin. The standard approach for prevention of CIN is the administration of lower doses of cisplatin in combination with full intravenous hydration prior and after cisplatin administration. Cisplatin-induced oxidative stress in the kidney may be prevented by natural antioxidant compounds. The results of this review show that many strategies for prevention of CIN exist, however, attention to the administration of these agent for CIN is necessary.

  17. Choking Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find a Pediatrician Newsletters Symptom Checker Apps E-Magazine Webinars Our Mission Our ... Prevention Page Content Article Body Choking can be prevented. Food accounts for over 50% of choking episodes. Be ...

  18. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention Immunizations All Around At Home At Play On ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help ...

  19. HIV Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS Prevention Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... All Is abstinence the only 100% effective HIV prevention option? Yes. Abstinence means not having oral, vaginal, ...

  20. The application of dezocine in preventing opioids induced hyperalgesia on patients with compound fentanyl anaesthesia%地佐辛在预防瑞芬太尼复合麻醉患者术后痛觉过敏中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋芬

    2014-01-01

    Objective to analysis the clinical value of dezocine in preventing opioids induced hyperalgesia after compound fentanyl anaesthesia. Methods We selected 74 cases of patients from december 2011 to June 2013 with compound fentanyl anaesthesia, according to the press numeric table,they were randomly divided into observation group (37 cases) and control group (37 cases). control group was given 0.1 mg/kg dezocine to prevent; observation group was given 0.2 mg/kg dezocine to prevent.observe the effect of the two groups. Results The VAS pain score of the observation group was significantly lower than the control group (P 0.05). Conclusion the application of dezocine in preventing opioids induced hyperalgesia on patients with compound fentanyl anaesthesia has exact effect, the recommended dose of 0.2 mg/kg was more significant.%目的:分析瑞芬太尼复合麻醉术后痛觉过敏预防中应用地佐辛的临床价值。方法我们选取2011年12月至2013年6月行瑞芬太尼复合麻醉术患者74例,将其按数字随机表法分为观察组(37例)与对照组(37例)。对照组给予0.1mg/kg 地佐辛进行预防;观察组给予0.2mg/kg 地佐辛进行预防,将两组患者预防术后痛觉过敏效果进行比较。结果观察组患者 Vas 疼痛评分明显低于对照组(P <0.05),具有统计学意义。术后苏醒和拔管时间则无显著差异(P >0.05)。结论瑞芬太尼复合麻醉术后痛觉过敏预防中应用地佐辛效果确切,推荐剂量为0.2mg/kg,效果更显著。

  1. Antimicrobial compounds in tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Alison M

    2013-12-01

    The tear film coats the cornea and conjunctiva and serves several important functions. It provides lubrication, prevents drying of the ocular surface epithelia, helps provide a smooth surface for refracting light, supplies oxygen and is an important component of the innate defense system of the eye providing protection against a range of potential pathogens. This review describes both classic antimicrobial compounds found in tears such as lysozyme and some more recently identified such as members of the cationic antimicrobial peptide family and surfactant protein-D as well as potential new candidate molecules that may contribute to antimicrobial protection. As is readily evident from the literature review herein, tears, like all mucosal fluids, contain a plethora of molecules with known antimicrobial effects. That all of these are active in vivo is debatable as many are present in low concentrations, may be influenced by other tear components such as the ionic environment, and antimicrobial action may be only one of several activities ascribed to the molecule. However, there are many studies showing synergistic/additive interactions between several of the tear antimicrobials and it is highly likely that cooperativity between molecules is the primary way tears are able to afford significant antimicrobial protection to the ocular surface in vivo. In addition to effects on pathogen growth and survival some tear components prevent epithelial cell invasion and promote the epithelial expression of innate defense molecules. Given the protective role of tears a number of scenarios can be envisaged that may affect the amount and/or activity of tear antimicrobials and hence compromise tear immunity. Two such situations, dry eye disease and contact lens wear, are discussed here.

  2. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much in their content. The external fractions of the grain, the bran and specially the aleurone, are the richest. We observed that processing the bran in whole-grain breads increased three times the leve...

  3. Prevention Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Tips Post-Exposure Treatment  Blood Tests and Diagnosis Hepatitis B Blood Tests Understanding Your Hepatitis B Test Results ... acupuncture Home About Us Quick Links What Is Hepatitis B? Prevention & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Resources & Support Research & Programs News & Events ...

  4. Preventive Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozwiak, Dick

    1998-01-01

    Argues the importance of regularly inspecting thermoplastic roofs to avoid costly repairs. Preventive measures such as access restriction and the use of protective mats and pads to prevent third-party accidents are discussed as is the importance of checking for drain blockages. (GR)

  5. Environmental Friendly Coatings and Corrosion Prevention For Flight Hardware Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz

    2014-01-01

    Identify, test and develop qualification criteria for environmentally friendly corrosion protective coatings and corrosion preventative compounds (CPC's) for flight hardware an ground support equipment.

  6. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Share Volatile Organic Compounds' Impact on Indoor Air Quality On this page: Introduction Sources Health Effects Levels in Homes Steps to Reduce Exposure Standards or Guidelines Additional Resources Introduction Volatile organic compounds ( ...

  7. Reissert compound of bisbenzimidazole

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    A Reissert compound of bisbenzimidazole can be formed by first reacting benzimidazole with an aliphatic diacid chloride to form bisbenzimidazole and then reacting the bisbenzimidazole with an aliphatic acid chloride and cyanide to form the Reissert compound thereof.

  8. 枳子、葛根花和苦参混合药物对小鼠急性酒精中毒的防治作用%Prevention and Cure of Acute Alcohol Intoxica-tion in Mice by Administration of Compound of Japanese Raisintree Fruit, Lobed Kudzuvine Flower Bud and Lightyellow Sophora Root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔玲; 李杰; 张秀珍

    2014-01-01

    Objective We aimed to investigate the preventive and therapeutical effect of compound of traditional Chinese drugs (Japanese raisintree fruit, lobed kudzuvine flower bud and lightyel ow sophora root) on acute alcohol intoxication in mice. [Method] Acute alcohol intoxication was induced by administering alcohol to mice. Three different doses (low, middle and high) of compound of traditional Chinese drugs were administered to mice before and after administering alcohol respectively to investigate the preventive and therapeutical effect of drugs on acute alcohol intox-ication through doing statistical analysis about drunk mice and their sleeping time. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and triglyc-erides (TG) in liver was also determined to investigate the protective effect of drugs on liver. [Result] The efficacy of compound of traditional Chinese drugs on acute al-cohol intoxication was dose-dependent. High-dose administration decreased the number of drunk mice significantly compared with control group; middle- and high-dose administration reduced the sleeping time of drunk mice and the concentration of MDA and TG in liver tissue; three doses al increased the concentration of GSH. [Conclusion] The compound of Japanese raisintree fruit, lobed kudzuvine flower bud and lightyel ow sophora root had preventive and therapeutical effect on hangover, and it also had certain preventive and therapeutical effect on liver damage caused by alcohol.%[目的]探讨中药枳子、葛根花和苦参混合药物对小鼠急性酒精中毒的防治作用。[方法]采用酒精灌胃法建立小鼠急性酒精中毒模型,灌喂低、中、高3种剂量的药物,进行先药后酒的预防醉酒和先酒后药的治疗醉酒试验,统计醉酒小鼠数目和小鼠睡眠时间,并通过检测小鼠肝组织中的丙二醛( MDA)、还原型谷胱甘肽(GSH)及血清甘油三酯(TG)的含量,研究药物对小鼠肝的保护作用

  9. Preventive analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jørgen B; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    findings: The nature of central sensitization during acute and chronic postsurgical pain share common features, and there may be interactions between acute and persistent postoperative pain. The term ‘pre-emptive analgesia’ should be abandoned and replaced by the term ‘preventive analgesia’. Recent studies......This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent...... of preventive analgesia for persistent postoperative pain are promising. However, clinicians must be aware of the demands for improved design of their clinical studies in order to get more conclusive answers regarding the different avenues for intervention. Summary: The concept of preventive analgesia is still...

  10. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  11. HIV Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  12. Simultaneous qualitative and quantitative determination of phenolic compounds in Aloe barbadensis Mill by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-ion trap-time-of-flight and high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaofang; Ding, Wenjing; Zhong, Jiasheng; Wan, Jinzhi; Xie, Zhiyong

    2013-06-01

    An effective and comprehensive method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of phenolic compounds in the dried exudate of Aloe barbadensis Mill by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-ion trap-time-of-flight (LCMS-IT-TOF) and high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Qualitative analysis of all the compounds presented in A. barbadensis Mill was performed on LCMS-IT-TOF, and the diagnostic fragmentation patterns of different types of phenolic compounds (chromones, phenyl pyrones, naphthalene derivative, anthrones and anthraquinones) were discussed on the basis of ESI-IT-TOF MS of components in A. barbadensis Mill and eleven authentic standards. Under the optimal HPLC-DAD chromatographic conditions, quantification of 11 typical phenolic compounds in 15 batches of A. barbadensis Mill was achieved on an Agilent TC-C18 column using gradient elution with a solvent system of methanol and water at a flow rate of 1.0mLmin(-1) and detected at 230nm. All calibration curves exhibited good linear relationship (r(2)>0.9991). The relative standard deviation values for intraday precision were less than 2% with accuracies between 98.21% and 104.57%. The recoveries of the eleven analytes ranged from 97.53 to 105.00% with RSDs less than 2%. This is the first simultaneous characterization and quantitative determination of multiple phenolic compounds in A. barbadensis Mill from locally grown cultivars in China by LCMS-IT-TOF and HPLC-DAD, which can be applied to standardize the quality of A. barbadensis Mill and the future design of nutraceutical and cosmetic preparations.

  13. Saturn's Stratospheric Oxygen Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Paul N.; Delgado Díaz, Héctor E.; Bjoraker, Gordon; Hesman, Brigette; Achterberg, Richard

    2016-10-01

    There are three known oxygenated species present in Saturn's upper atmosphere: H2O, CO and CO2. The ultimate source of the water must be external to Saturn as Saturn's cold tropopause effectively prevents any internal water from reaching the upper atmosphere. The carbon monoxide and dioxide source(s) could be internal, external, produced by the photochemical interaction of water with Saturn's stratospheric hydrocarbons or some combination of all of these. At this point it is not clear what the external source(s) are.Cassini's Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) has detected emission lines of H2O and CO2 (Hesman et al., DPS 2015, 311.16 & Abbas et al. 2013, Ap. J. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/776/2/73) on Saturn. CIRS also retrieves the temperature of the stratosphere using CH4 lines at 7.7 microns. Using CIRS retrieved temperatures, the mole fraction of H2O at the 0.5-5 mbar level can be retrieved and the CO2 mole fraction at ~1-10 mbar. Coupled with ground based observations of CO (Cavalié et al., 2010, A&A, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200912909) these observations provide a complete oxygen compound data set to test photochemical models.Preliminary results will be presented with an emphasis on upper limit analysis to determine the percentage of stratospheric CO and CO2 that can be produced photochemically from CIRS observational constraints on the H2O profile.

  14. Trypanocidal activity of coumarins and styryl-2-pyrones from Polygala sabulosa A.W. Bennett (Polygalaceae Atividade tripanocida de cumarinas e estiril-2-pironas de Polygala sabulosa A.W. Bennett (Polygalaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir G. Pizzolatti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity of fractions and compounds obtained from Polygala sabulosa against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote, blood trypomastigote and amastigote forms were evaluated in vitro. Dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions showed a strong trypanocidal activity on epimastigotes (IC50 A bioatividade das frações e compostos obtidos de Polygala sabulosa contra as formas epimastigota, tripomastigota sanguínea e amastigota de Trypanosoma cruzi foram avaliadas in vitro. Frações diclorometano e acetato de etila mostraram potente atividade tripanocida sob as formas epimastigotas (IC50 < 10,4 µg/mL. Análises por cromatografia em camada delgada destas frações confirmaram a presença de compostos previamente descritos (dihidroestiril-2-pironas, estiril-2-pironas e 6-metoxi-7-preniloxicumarina. Após o fracionamento da fração diclorometano por cromatografia em coluna, obteve-se o composto α-espinasterol e da fração acetato de etila obtiveram-se os compostos apigenina, quercetina e uma quercetina-3- O-glicosídeo, todos descritos pela primeira vez para o gênero Polygala. 4-metoxi-6-(11,12-metilenodioxi-14-metoxidihidroestiril-2-pirona, 4-metoxi-6-(11,12-dimetoxi-14-metoxiestiril-2-pirona, 6-metoxi-7-preniloxicumarina e quercetina-3- O-glicosídeo mostraram fraca atividade contra a forma tripomastigota sanguínea (IC50 < 1008,6 µg/mL. A cumarina prenilada foi o composto mais ativo contra ambas as formas epimastigota e tripomastigota, com IC50 10,5 e 88,2 µg/mL, respectivamente. A atividade hemolítica e a toxicidade celular de cada composto foram também avaliadas. Além disso, 4-metoxi-6-(11,12-metilenodioxi-14-metoxidihidroestiril-2-pirona e 6-metoxi-7-preniloxicumarina reduziram em quatro vezes a infecção em ratos por Vero Cells nas concentrações de 100 e 50 µg/mL respectivamente. Esses resultados mostram, pela primeira vez, a atividade de compostos de P. sabulosa contra T. cruzi.

  15. Automated compound classification using a chemical ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobach Claudia

    2012-12-01

    logic allows to translate chemistry expert knowledge into a computer interpretable form, preventing erroneous compound assignments and allowing automatic compound classification. The automated assignment of compounds in databases, compound structure files or text documents to their related ontology classes is possible through the integration with a chemical structure search engine. As an application example, the annotation of chemical structure files with a prototypic ontology is demonstrated.

  16. Chemoinformatics-assisted development of new anti-biofilm compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dürig, Anna; Kouskoumvekaki, Irene; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2010-01-01

    of compounds with similar characteristics. One of these, esculetin, proved to be more efficient in preventing biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus. From esculetin a 3rd-generation list of compounds was predicted. One of them, fisetin, was even better to abolish biofilm formation than the two parent...... compounds. Fisetin dramatically inhibited biofilm formation of both S. aureus and S. dysgalactiae. The compounds did not affect planktonic growth in concentrations where they affected biofilm formation and appeared to be specific antagonists of biofilms. Arguably, since all three compounds are natural...

  17. Botanical Compounds: Effects on Major Eye Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan-Phat Huynh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Botanical compounds have been widely used throughout history as cures for various diseases and ailments. Many of these compounds exhibit strong antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. These are also common damaging mechanisms apparent in several ocular diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, cataract, and retinitis pigmentosa. In recent years, there have been many epidemiological and clinical studies that have demonstrated the beneficial effects of plant-derived compounds, such as curcumin, lutein and zeaxanthin, danshen, ginseng, and many more, on these ocular pathologies. Studies in cell cultures and animal models showed promising results for their uses in eye diseases. While there are many apparent significant correlations, further investigation is needed to uncover the mechanistic pathways of these botanical compounds in order to reach widespread pharmaceutical use and provide noninvasive alternatives for prevention and treatments of the major eye diseases.

  18. Ecotoxicology of organofluorous compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Margaret B; Loi, Eva I H; Kwok, Karen Y; Lam, Paul K S

    2012-01-01

    Organofluorous compounds have been developed for myriad purposes in a variety of fields, including manufacturing, industry, agriculture, and medicine. The widespread use and application of these compounds has led to increasing concern about their potential ecological toxicity, particularly because of the stability of the C-F bond, which can result in chemical persistence in the environment. This chapter reviews the chemical properties and ecotoxicology of four groups of organofluorous compounds: fluorinated refrigerants and propellants, per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), fluorinated pesticides, and fluoroquinolone antibiotics. These groups vary in their environmental fate and partitioning, but each raises concern in terms of ecological risk on both the regional and global scale, particularly those compounds with long environmental half-lives. Further research on the occurrence and toxicities of many of these compounds is needed for a more comprehensive understanding of their ecological effects.

  19. Prevent Pneumonia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-06

    CDC’s Matthew Westercamp explains what pneumonia is, its symptoms, and how to prevent it.  Created: 8/6/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Respiratory Diseases Branch (RDB).   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  20. Bullying Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the milestone project is to focus on bridging the gap of bullying and classroom instruction methods. There has to be a defined expectations and level of accountability that has to be defined when supporting and implementing a plan linked to bullying prevention. All individuals involved in the student's learning have to be aware of…

  1. NATURAL POLYACETYLENE COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Konovalov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyacetylenes (polyynes are compounds which contain two or more triple bonds in its structure. About 2 000 different polyacetylenes and biogenetically related substances were identified in 24 families of higher plants. However, most of these compounds were found in seven families of flowering plants: Apiaceae (Umbelliferae, Araliaceae, Asteraceae (Compositae, Campanulaceae, Olacaceae, Pittosporaceae and Santalaceae. Polyacetylenes are relatively unstable, chemically and biologically active compounds, and present in fungi, microorganisms, marine invertebrates and other organisms except for plants. Acetylenes form distinct specialized group of chemically active natural compounds, which are biosynthesized in plants of unsaturated fatty acids. In addition to widespread aliphatic polyacetylenes thiophenes dithiacyclohexadienes (thiarubrines, thioethers, sulphoxides, sulphones, alkamides, chlorohydrins, lactones, spiroacetal enol ethers, furans, pyrans, tetrahydropyrans, isocoumarins, aromatic acetylenes were also found in plant species. Polyacetylenes are localized in different plant organs, and can be found both individually and as a compound with carbohydrates, terpene, phenolic and other compounds. Many polyacetylenes are found in the composition of the essential oils of plants and it confirms their strongly marked ecological functions. From biological point of view these compounds are often synthesized by plants as toxic or bitter antifeedants, allelopathic compounds, phytoalexins or broadly antibiotic components. Polyynes are strong photosensitizers. They exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant, anti-bacterial, antituberculosis, anti-fungal, anti-viral, neuroprotective and neurotoxic activity. Immunostimulatory influence associated with certain allergenicity of some of these substances was established. Therefore, without a doubt polyacetylenes are of interest for the modern pharmacy and medicine.

  2. Determination of phenolic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, G.K.J.; Suatoni, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Details are given of a procedure for separation and identification of phenolic compounds in aqueous solution by high-performance liquid chromatography. It can also be applied to non-aqueous samples after preliminary isolation of a polar fraction containing the phenolic compounds.

  3. Preventing suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, William H

    2010-03-01

    About 35,000 people commit suicide every year in the United States. Almost all are seriously, but treatably, mentally ill. Most come to the attention of a physician, in an emergency room, primary practice setting, or psychiatric hospital or office, during the days, weeks or months before they die. Since 1995, suicide has been the second most commonly reported of all Joint Commission hospital sentinel events (not just psychiatric events). Suicide is involved in the majority of psychiatric malpractice lawsuits. It takes life from patients, parents from children, children from families, and valuable people from society. Suicide is a terrible way to lose a relative or friend, leaving much greater damage than most natural or accidental death. This paper discusses four points to be considered by those who want to improve this situation: 1) Suicide is rarely "voluntary" in any clinical sense of the term; 2) A great many suicides are preventable once a clinician becomes involved; 3) Suicide is worth preventing; 4) There are practical approaches to prevention that work.

  4. Preventing thermolysis: precursor design for volatile copper compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Jason P; Kurek, Agnieszka; Pallister, Peter J; Sirianni, Eric R; Yap, Glenn P A; Barry, Seán T

    2012-10-28

    A copper(I) iminopyrrolidinate was synthesized and evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), solution based (1)H NMR studies and surface chemistry to determine its thermal stability and decomposition mechanism. Copper(I) tert-butyl-imino-2,2-dimethylpyrrolidinate (1) demonstrated superior thermal stability and showed negligible decomposition in TGA experiments up to 300 °C as well as no decomposition in solutions at 165 °C over 3 weeks.

  5. Approved Corrosion Prevention Compound for Helicopter Avionics & Tactical Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    International Airlines British Airways , Lufthansa, Air France, El Al, JAL, Qantas , Island Air, Avianca Air, etc.... • Northrop-Grumman • Lockheed-Martin...2009 U.S. Army Corrosion Summit, 3-5 Feb, Clearwater Beach, FL 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...Raytheon/Beech • Cessna • Embraier Airlines • Domestic Airlines Southwest, AA, US Airways , Delta, United, Air Tran, Jet Blue, Alaska Air, etc

  6. Corrosion Preventative Compounds (CPCs) Effect on Aircraft Electrical Wiring Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Electrical Wiring Components TR285HN301 Final Report Revision: - • Fretting research project was performed on nano -miniature connectors...CPCs, including gold plated edge card connectors, electrical connectors, tin plated pins, nano -miniature connectors. Current Air Force and NAVAIR...early 1980’s on many Navy aircraft. The Navy’s standard wire type. M5086/2-20 c Polyvinyl chloride, polyamide jacket, glass fiber braid ( PVC /glass

  7. Identification of Antioxidant Compounds Structure Large-Leafed Mangrove Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Sudirman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are compounds that can inhibit or prevent the oxidation of the easily oxidized substrate.One of the plants as a potential source of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity is large-leafedmangrove (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. This plant is commonly found in the Pacific region of Southeast Asia,Ryukyu Islands, Micronesia and Polynesia (Samoa to subtropical regions of Australia and has been usedby the society. This study aimed to determine the bioactive compounds structure of large-leafed mangrovehas the highest antioxidant activity. The compound structure prediction was done by Nuclear MagneticResonance (NMR. The compound structure in the selected antioxidant fractions are flavonol, glikosilfalvonand flavon. Those three compounds are flavonoid compound which has a great role as the one that hasantioxidant activity in large-leafed mangrove fruit.

  8. Cholera Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... name="commit" type="submit" value="Submit" /> Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevention of ... of cholera and other diarrheal disease prevention. Prevention Control Topics Six Basic Cholera Prevention Messages I nfection ...

  9. Analgesic Potential of Opuntia dillenii and Its Compounds Opuntiol and Opuntioside Against Pain Models in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Faheema Siddiqui; Lubna Abidi; Lubna; Ching Fidelis Poh; Sabira Naqvi; Shaheen Faizi; Ahsana Dar Farooq

    2016-01-01

    Opuntia dillenii (Nagphana) traditionally used against inflammation and also possess analgesic effect. Thus in the present study analgesic properties of O. dillenii cladode methanol extract, its fractions obtained via vacuum liquid chromatography along with isolated α-pyrones, opuntiol and its glucoside, opuntioside were analyzed. The acetic acid-induced writhes were reduced by O. dillenii test agents with opuntioside being most effective (IC 50 26 ± 0.9 mg/kg) and equipotent to diclofenac an...

  10. MEA 86 Compound data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data file contains the full raw parameter data for the 86 compounds tested in the developmental MEA assay, as well as Area Under the Curve (AUC) calculations...

  11. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

  12. Heart testing compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Goodman, M.M.

    1983-06-29

    The compound 15-(p-(/sup 125/I)-iodophenyl)-6-tellurapentadecanoic acid is disclosed as a myocardial imaging agent having rapid and pronounced uptake, prolonged myocardial retention, and low in vivo deiodination.

  13. Polynitramino compounds outperform PETN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Young-Hyuk; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2010-01-07

    New polynitramino compounds were synthesized and fully characterized using IR and multinuclear ((1)H, (13)C, (15)N) NMR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis as well as single-crystal X-ray diffraction.

  14. Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    General Techniques for Combustion of Liquid/Soli. Organic Compounds by Oxygen Bomb Calorimetry by Arthur J. Head, William D. Good, and Ccrnelius...Mosselman, Chap. 8; Combustion of Liquid/Solid Organic Compounds with Non-Metallic Hetero-Atoms by Arthur J. Head and William D. Good, Chap. 9; in...0 Box 95085 Washington, DC 20234 Los Angeles, CA 90045 National Bureau of Standards CINDAS Chemical Thermodynamics Division Purdue University

  15. Compound composite odontoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, G; Bavle, Radhika M; Singh, Manish Kumar; Prasad, Sahana N

    2016-01-01

    The term odontoma has been used as a descriptor for any tumor of odontogenic origin. It is a growth in which both epithelial and mesenchymal cells exhibits complete differentiation. Odontomas are considered as hamartomas rather than true neoplasm. They are usually discovered on routine radiographic examination. Odontomas, according to the World Health Organization, are classified into complex odontoma and compound odontomas. The present paper reports a case of compound composite odontomas.

  16. Compound composite odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Girish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The term odontoma has been used as a descriptor for any tumor of odontogenic origin. It is a growth in which both epithelial and mesenchymal cells exhibits complete differentiation. Odontomas are considered as hamartomas rather than true neoplasm. They are usually discovered on routine radiographic examination. Odontomas, according to the World Health Organization, are classified into complex odontoma and compound odontomas. The present paper reports a case of compound composite odontomas.

  17. Chemistry of peroxide compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volnov, I. I.

    1981-01-01

    The history of Soviet research from 1866 to 1967 on peroxide compounds is reviewed. This research dealt mainly with peroxide kinetics, reactivity and characteristics, peroxide production processes, and more recently with superoxides and ozonides and emphasis on the higher oxides of group 1 and 2 elements. Solid state fluidized bed synthesis and production of high purity products based on the relative solubilities of the initial, intermediate, and final compounds and elements in liquid ammonia are discussed.

  18. Protective Effects of Dimedone Pyrone on Podocytes in Rats with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    another with familial clustering, suggesting that genetic factors play an important role [6]. The expensiveness of renal replacement therapy ... rats. During fasting alloxan was injected through tail veins at a dose of 42 mg/kg of body weight to.

  19. Phenolic Molding Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Koji; Charles, Ted; de Keyser, Hendrik

    Phenolic Molding Compounds continue to exhibit well balanced properties such as heat resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability, and creep resistance. They are widely applied in electrical, appliance, small engine, commutator, and automotive applications. As the focus of the automotive industry is weight reduction for greater fuel efficiency, phenolic molding compounds become appealing alternatives to metals. Current market volumes and trends, formulation components and its impact on properties, and a review of common manufacturing methods are presented. Molding processes as well as unique advanced techniques such as high temperature molding, live sprue, and injection/compression technique provide additional benefits in improving the performance characterisitics of phenolic molding compounds. Of special interest are descriptions of some of the latest innovations in automotive components, such as the phenolic intake manifold and valve block for dual clutch transmissions. The chapter also characterizes the most recent developments in new materials, including long glass phenolic molding compounds and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic molding compounds exhibiting a 10-20-fold increase in Charpy impact strength when compared to short fiber filled materials. The role of fatigue testing and fatigue fracture behavior presents some insight into long-term reliability and durability of glass-filled phenolic molding compounds. A section on new technology outlines the important factors to consider in modeling phenolic parts by finite element analysis and flow simulation.

  20. Prevention of urological cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Ansari

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Many urological cancers like prostate and bladder have protracted course and maybe ideal for chemoprevention strategies. This article reviews the biol-ogy, epidemiology and possible preventive strategies for the various urological cancers. Methods: The author reviewed the relevant articles published in the last 20 years and studied the biology of the various urological cancers. An attempt is made to identify the various dietary, nutritional and occupation-related factors implicated in the onset and progression of various urological cancers. The various interventions and clinical trial results are described to prove the relevance of these factors. Results: Epidemiological reports provide the strongest evidence of protective role for dietary agents in cancer of prostate, bladder and kidney. Cancers of prostate and blad-der are uniquely suitable for chemopreventive strategies. For prostate cancer strong evidence exists for a preven-tive effect of reduced fat intake, vitamin E, selenium, lycopene and soya proteins. Vitamin A administration shows a strong inverse relation to bladder cancer. Better prevention is seen with combination of high doses of vita-mins A, C, E and B6. High-energy intake is related to the higher incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC. While vitamins D and E supplementation has resulted in lower incidence of RCC. Conclusions: Numerous studies implicate dietary and nutritional factors in the onset and progression of various urological cancers. Hence, it is possible that bioactive compounds (anti-oxidants like vits. A, D, C, and E, min-erals like selenium and carotenoids like lycopene along with reduction of animal fat in diet can be a part of pre-ventive strategies for various urological cancers.

  1. Growing Single Crystals of Compound Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Robert J.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.; Frazier, Donald O.

    1987-01-01

    Defect reduced by preventing melt/furnace contact and suppressing convention. Large crystals of compound semiconductors with few defects grown by proposed new method. Such materials as gallium arsenide and cadmium telluride produced, with quality suitable for very-large-scale integrated circuits or for large focal-plane arrays of photodetectors. Method used on small scale in Earth gravity, but needs microgravity to provide crystals large enough for industrial use.

  2. 预防种植牙术后感染抗菌药物与复方含漱液的应用研究%Clinical effect of antibiotics combined with compound gargle on prevention of postoperative infections in patients undergoing dental implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雨顺; 吕瑾茹; 李慧萍

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨抗菌药物联合复方含漱液预防种植牙术后感染临床效果,以期丰富临床治疗水平,降低术后感染率。方法随机选取2010年3月-2013年3月70例需种植牙患者研究对象,平均分为观察组与对照组,每组各35例;两组患者均常规种植牙手术治疗,观察组患者预防性应用抗菌药物和复方含漱液,对照组患者未使用抗菌药物及复方含漱液;观察两组患者治疗后临床效果。结果对照组患者治疗显效率54.29%、总有效率82.86%,观察组显效率68.57%、总有效率94.29%;对照组无疼痛占31.42%、发生Ⅱ、Ⅲ度疼痛占34.29%,观察组无疼痛占率57.15%,Ⅱ、Ⅲ度疼痛占11.43%;对照组感染率为14.29%,观察组为2.86%,两组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论抗菌药物联合复方含漱液可降低种植牙术后感染发生率,且可缓解疼痛程度,提高临床效果。%OBJECTIVE To explore the clinical effect of antibiotics combined with compound gargle on prevention of postoperative infections in patients undergoing dental implantation so as to enrich the clinical treatment and reduce the incidence of the postoperative infections .METHODS A total of 70 patients who needed to receive the dental implantation from Mar 2010 to Mar 2013 were recruited as the study objects and divided into the observation group and the control group ,with 35 cases in each .Both groups received the conventional dental implantation ,the ob‐servation group was treated with antibiotic prophylaxis combined with compound gargle ,while the control group was not treated with antibiotics or compound gargle ;the clinical effects were observed and compared between the two groups of patients .RESULTS The effective rate of treatment of the control group was 54 .29% ,the observa‐tion group 68 .57% ;the total effective rate of the control group was 82 .86% ,the observation

  3. [Platinum compounds: metabolism, toxicity and supportive strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipp, H P; Hartmann, J T

    2005-02-09

    Although the leading platinum compounds, cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin, share some structural similarities, there are marked differences between them in therapeutic uses, pharmacokinetics, and adverse effects profiles. Compared with cisplatin, carboplatin has inferior efficacy in germ-cell tumors, head and neck cancers, and bladder and esophageal carcinomas, whereas the two drugs appear to have comparable efficacy in ovarian cancer, extensive small-cell lung cancers (SCLC), and advanced non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Oxaliplatin belongs to the group of diaminocyclohexane (DACH) platinum compounds. It is the first platinum-based drug that has marked efficacy in colorectal cancer when given in combination with 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid. Nedaplatin has been registered in Japan, whereas other derivatives, like JM216 (which is the only orally available platinum derivative), ZD0473, BBR3464, and SPI-77 (a liposomal formulation of cisplatin), are still under investigation. The adverse effects of platinum compounds are reviewed together with possible prevention strategies.

  4. Highly trifluoromethylated platinum compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Salvador, Sonia; Forniés, Juan; Martín, Antonio; Menjón, Babil

    2011-07-11

    The homoleptic, square-planar organoplatinum(II) compound [NBu(4)](2) [Pt(CF(3))(4)] (1) undergoes oxidative addition of CF(3) I under mild conditions to give rise to the octahedral organoplatinum(IV) complex [NBu(4)](2) [Pt(CF(3))(5)I] (2). This highly trifluoromethylated species reacts with Ag(+) salts of weakly coordinating anions in Me(2)CO under a wet-air stream to afford the aquo derivative [NBu(4)][Pt(CF(3))(5) (OH(2))] (4) in around 75% yield. When the reaction of 2 with the same Ag(+) salts is carried out in MeCN, the solvento compound [NBu(4) ][Pt(CF(3))(5)(NCMe)] (5) is obtained in around 80% yield. The aquo ligand in 4 as well as the MeCN ligand in 5 are labile and can be cleanly replaced by neutral and anionic ligands to furnish a series of pentakis(trifluoromethyl)platinate(IV) compounds with formulae [NBu(4)][Pt(CF(3))(5) (L)] (L=CO (6), pyridine (py; 7), tetrahydrothiophene (tht; 8)) and [NBu(4)](2) [Pt(CF(3))(5)X] (X=Cl (9), Br (10)). The unusual carbonyl-platinum(IV) derivative [NBu(4)][Pt(CF(3))(5) (CO)] (6) is thermally stable and has a ν(CO) of 2194 cm(-1). The crystal structures of 2⋅CH(2)Cl(2), 5, [PPh(4) ][Pt(CF(3))(5)(CO)] (6'), and 7 have been established by X-ray diffraction methods. Compound 2 has shown itself to be a convenient entry to the chemistry of highly trifluoromethylated platinum compounds. To the best of our knowledge, compounds 2 and 4-10 are the organoelement compounds with the highest CF(3) content to have been isolated and adequately characterized to date.

  5. Nomenclature of chemical compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Kaczmarek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the mechanisms of the inorganic chemistry nomenclature formation in French language. It shows the structure and the way of presenting the names of chemical compounds either descriptively or by giving the structural formulas’ characteristics, their transcription and order of reading the letters. The text specifies the rules of naming a chemical compound, according to the criteria of IUPAC (Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, the organisation responsible for digesting the chemical nomenclature. The article contains the transcription chart and the manner of reading the structural formula, also called latero-numerical. Additionally, there is information conceming the usage of the common names given, still remaining in use next to the names compatible with those of IUPAC. Particular types of chemical compounds have served as models for description of other nomenclature formation rules from the simplest structures to the complicated compound ones. A short summary presents the relations and similarities between the names of particular types of chemical compounds.

  6. Flavour Compounds in Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravasio, Davide Antonio

    Fungi produce a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during their primary or secondary metabolism and with a wide range of functions. The main focus of this research work has been put on flavour molecules that are produced during fermentation processes, mainly esters and alcohols derived...... region is directly regulated by the ScAro80 transcription factor. This interaction has been used to create a lacZ-reporter system to correlate the formation of two volatile compounds, 2- phenylethanol and 2-phenylethyl acetate in yeast with ARO9 expression levels. This indirect genetic assay also....... This resulted in the identification of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Pichia kluyveri as high producers of esters fruity compounds, which contribute to enhance the complexity of wine and beer product. In addition the strain Debaromyces subglobosus showed high yields of aldehydes and fruity ketones, which...

  7. Compound semiconductor device physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    This book provides one of the most rigorous treatments of compound semiconductor device physics yet published. A complete understanding of modern devices requires a working knowledge of low-dimensional physics, the use of statistical methods, and the use of one-, two-, and three-dimensional analytical and numerical analysis techniques. With its systematic and detailed**discussion of these topics, this book is ideal for both the researcher and the student. Although the emphasis of this text is on compound semiconductor devices, many of the principles discussed will also be useful to those inter

  8. Excretion of biliary compounds during intrauterine life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Rocio IR; Marin, Jose JG; Serrano, Maria A

    2009-01-01

    In adults, the hepatobiliary system, together with the kidney, constitute the main routes for the elimination of several endogenous and xenobiotic compounds into bile and urine, respectively. However, during intrauterine life the biliary route of excretion for cholephilic compounds, such as bile acids and biliary pigments, is very poor. Although very early in pregnancy the fetal liver produces bile acids, bilirubin and biliverdin, these compounds cannot be efficiently eliminated by the fetal hepatobiliary system, owing to the immaturity of the excretory machinery in the fetal liver. Therefore, the potentially harmful accumulation of cholephilic compounds in the fetus is prevented by their elimination across the placenta. Owing to the presence of detoxifying enzymes and specific transport systems at different locations of the placental barrier, such as the endothelial cells of chorionic vessels and trophoblast cells, this organ plays an important role in the hepatobiliary-like function during intrauterine life. The relevance of this excretory function in normal fetal physiology is evident in situations where high concentrations of biliary compounds are accumulated in the mother. This may result in oxidative stress and apoptosis, mainly in the placenta and fetal liver, which might affect normal fetal development and challenge the fate of the pregnancy. The present article reviews current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the hepatobiliary function of the fetal-placental unit and the repercussions of several pathological conditions on this tandem. PMID:19230042

  9. 复方氯己定联合苦丁茶对呼吸机相关性肺炎口腔的护理效果%Effect of the compound of chlorhexidine and"Kuding"tea on the oral hygiene and prevention of ventilator -associated pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李磊

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨复方氯己定联合苦丁茶对机械通气患者预防呼吸机相关性肺炎口腔的护理效果。方法选取机械通气患者162例,随机分为A组、B组、C组。 A组患者采用复方氯己定擦洗联合苦丁茶冲洗,B组患者采用复方氯己定擦洗,C组患者采用苦丁茶冲洗。连续7d观察三组患者口腔霉菌、口臭、口腔溃疡、咽部和气管内细菌定植数、VAP的发生率,不良反应、口腔护理效果。结果口咽部细菌定植发生率A组患者明显低于B组(P<0.05),A组和B组均明显低于C组(均P<0.05);VAP发生率A组患者明显低于B组( P<0.05),A组和B组均明显低于C组(均P<0.05);牙齿、舌苔发黄等发生率A组和C组均明显低于B组(均P<0.05),A组患者明显低于C组(P<0.05)。结论采用复方氯己定冲洗、擦洗联合苦丁茶液冲洗对VAP患者进行口腔护理可以起到很好地抗菌消炎作用,降低VAP的发生率。%Objective To study the clinical effect of the compound comprising chlorhexidine and "Kuding"tea ( Folium Ilicis Latifoliae) in preventing patients who are connected to ventilator machines from contracting ventilator -associated pneumonia ( VAP) .Methods A total of 162 patients who were on ventilator machines were divided randomly into three groups , A, B, and C.Group A used a compound of chlorhexidine and "Kuding"tea ( Folium Ilicis Latifoliae ) for oral washing; Group B used chlorhexidine for oral washing;Group C used"Kuding"tea ( Folium Ilicis Latifoliae ) for oral washing.The effect on the oral hygiene of the patients were observed.Results The incidence of bacterial colonization in the pharynx oralis and trachea , VAP, and adverse effect of the oral cavity in group A patients were lower than that of group B and group C.Conclusions Using the compound of chlorhexidine and "Kuding"tea ( Folium Ilicis Latifoli-ae) for oral washing is better than using chlorhexidine or "Kuding

  10. Potential of RNA aptamers in the prevention of HIV-1 subtype C infections

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    London, GM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Compounds that have been used to prevent human immunodeficiency virus type-I (HIV-1) infections include synthetic chemicals, plant extras and monoclonal antibodies. Although most of these compounds have potent antiviral activity, they often fail...

  11. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Suicide Prevention We Can All Prevent Suicide Mental Health & Suicide Prevention Glossary Stories of Hope and Recovery Get Involved Participate Social Media Hub Promote National Suicide Prevention Month Providers & Professionals ...

  12. Aminopropyl thiophene compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1990-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals useful in brain imaging comprising radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives. The compounds are 5-halo-thiophene-2-isopropyl amines able to cross the blood-brain barrier and be retained for a sufficient length of time to allow the evaluation of regional blood flow by radioimaging of the brain.

  13. Toxicology of perfluorinated compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, Thorsten [Hessian State Laboratory, Wiesbaden (Germany); Mattern, Daniela; Brunn, Hubertus [Hessian State Laboratory, Giessen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Perfluorinated compounds [PFCs] have found a wide use in industrial products and processes and in a vast array of consumer products. PFCs are molecules made up of carbon chains to which fluorine atoms are bound. Due to the strength of the carbon/fluorine bond, the molecules are chemically very stable and are highly resistant to biological degradation; therefore, they belong to a class of compounds that tend to persist in the environment. These compounds can bioaccumulate and also undergo biomagnification. Within the class of PFC chemicals, perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorosulphonic acid are generally considered reference substances. Meanwhile, PFCs can be detected almost ubiquitously, e.g., in water, plants, different kinds of foodstuffs, in animals such as fish, birds, in mammals, as well as in human breast milk and blood. PFCs are proposed as a new class of 'persistent organic pollutants'. Numerous publications allude to the negative effects of PFCs on human health. The following review describes both external and internal exposures to PFCs, the toxicokinetics (uptake, distribution, metabolism, excretion), and the toxicodynamics (acute toxicity, subacute and subchronic toxicities, chronic toxicity including carcinogenesis, genotoxicity and epigenetic effects, reproductive and developmental toxicities, neurotoxicity, effects on the endocrine system, immunotoxicity and potential modes of action, combinational effects, and epidemiological studies on perfluorinated compounds). (orig.)

  14. NATURAL POLYACETYLENE COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Nasukhova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the review of the initial stage of researches of natural polyacetylene compounds is resulted. The high reactionary ability leading to fast oxidation and degradation of these compounds, especially at influence of Uf-light, oxygen of air, pH and other factors, has caused the serious difficulties connected with an establishment of structure and studying of their physical and chemical properties. Therefore the greatest quantity of works of this stage is connected with studying of essential oils of plants from families Apiaceae, Araliaceae, Asteraceae, Campanulaceae, Olacaceae, Pittosporaceae and Santalaceae where have been found out, basically, diacetylene compounds. About development of physical and chemical methods of the analysis of possibility of similar researches have considerably extended. More than 2000 polyacetylenes are known today, from them more than 1100 are found out in plants fam. Asteraceae. Revolution in the field of molecular biology has allowed to study processes of biosynthesis of these compounds intensively.

  15. Computing compound distributions faster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. den Iseger; M.A.J. Smith; R. Dekker (Rommert)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe use of Panjer's algorithm has meanwhile become a widespread standard technique for actuaries (Kuon et al., 1955). Panjer's recursion formula is used for the evaluation of compound distributions and can be applied to life and general insurance problems. The discrete version of Panjer'

  16. Flavour Compounds in Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravasio, Davide Antonio

    Fungi produce a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during their primary or secondary metabolism and with a wide range of functions. The main focus of this research work has been put on flavour molecules that are produced during fermentation processes, mainly esters and alcohols derived...

  17. Fun with Ionic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logerwell, Mollianne G.; Sterling, Donna R.

    2007-01-01

    Ionic bonding is a fundamental topic in high school chemistry, yet it continues to be a concept that students struggle to understand. Even if they understand atomic structure and ion formation, it can be difficult for students to visualize how ions fit together to form compounds. This article describes several engaging activities that help…

  18. Organic compounds inhibiting S. epidermidis adhesion and biofilm formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Zhiqiang [Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Dk-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology of Ministry of Education and Public Health, Institute of Medical Microbiology and Institutes of Biomedical Science, Shanghai Medical School of Fudan University, Yi Xue Yuan Road 138, Shanghai 200032 (China); Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, 86 Jonathan Lucas Street, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Zhang, Jingdong; Hu, Yifan; Chi, Qijin [Department of Chemistry, Building 207, NanoDTU, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Mortensen, Ninell P. [Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Dk-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Department of Biochemistry and Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37932 (United States); Qu, Di [Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology of Ministry of Education and Public Health, Institute of Medical Microbiology and Institutes of Biomedical Science, Shanghai Medical School of Fudan University, Yi Xue Yuan Road 138, Shanghai 200032 (China); Molin, Soren [Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Dk-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Ulstrup, Jens, E-mail: ju@kemi.dtu.dk [Department of Chemistry, Building 207, NanoDTU, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2009-07-15

    The formation of biofilms on surfaces of indwelling medical devices is a serious medical problem. Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common pathogen found to colonize implanted devices and as a biofilm is more resistant to the host immune system as well as to antibiotic treatments. Combating S. epidermidis infections by preventing or eradicating biofilm formation of the bacterium is therefore a medically important challenge. We report here a study of biofilm formation of S. epidermidis on solid surfaces using a combination of confocal laser scanning (CLSM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in both air and aqueous environments. We have investigated the inhibitory effects of surfaces treated with four organic compounds, two benzoate derivatives denoted as compound 59 and 75 and two carboxamide derivatives denoted as compound 47 and 73, on S. epidermidis adhesion and biofilm formation. All four compounds evoke significant inhibitory effects on the formation of S. epidermidis biofilms with compounds 47 and 73 being most effective. None of the compounds were found to inhibit growth of S. epidermidis in liquid cultures. Bacteria attached to the substrate when exposed to the compounds were not affected indicating that these compounds inhibit initial adhesion. These results suggest a pretreatment for medically implanted surfaces that can prevent the biofilm formation and reduce infection.

  19. Toxicity of dipyridyl compounds and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenggang; Crooks, Peter A; Wei, Xiaochen; de Leon, Jose

    2004-01-01

    Five dipyridyl isomers, 2,2'-, 2,3'-, 2,4'-, 3,3'-, and 4,4'-dipyridyl, are products resulting from the pyrolytic degradation of tobacco products and degradation of the herbicide paraquat, and therefore may be present in the environment. In this article, the toxicological properties of these dipyridyl isomers in humans and animals are reviewed. Epidemiological studies suggest that cancerous skin lesions in workers involved in the manufacturing of paraquat may be associated with exposure to dipyridyl compounds. Experimental animal studies suggest that dipyridyl isomers may have several toxicological effects. Three of the dipyridyl isomers (the 2,2', 2,4', and 4,4' isomers) appear to be inducers of some metabolic enzymes. The 2,2'-dipyridyl isomer, an iron chelator, appears to influence vasospasm in primate models of stroke. The cytotoxic effects of 2,2'-dipyridyl on several leukemia cell lines have been reported, and a potent teratogenic effect of 2,2'-dipyridyl has been observed in rats. Based on the results of paraquat studies in experimental animal models, it has been proposed that paraquat may have deleterious effects on dopaminergic neurons. These findings support the epidemiological evidence that paraquat exposure may be associated with the development of Parkinson's disease. Studies designed to determine an association between paraquat exposure and Parkinson's disease are complicated by the possibility that metabolic changes may influence the neurotoxicity of paraquat and/or its metabolites. Preliminary unpublished data in mice show that 300-mg/kg doses of 2,2'-dipyridyl are neurotoxic, and 300-mg/kg doses of 2,4'- and 4,4'-dipyridyls are lethal. These results are consistent with earlier studies in Sherman rats using high 2,2'- and 4,4'-dipyridyl doses. New studies are needed to further explore the toxicological properties of dipyridyls and their potential public health impact.

  20. Chemistry and Functionality of Bioactive Compounds Present in Persimmon

    OpenAIRE

    Shazia Yaqub; Umar Farooq; Afshan Shafi; Kashif Akram; Mian Anjum Murtaza; Tusneem Kausar; Farzana Siddique

    2016-01-01

    Extensive research has related the consumption of persimmon with the reduced risk of various diseases and particularly highlighted the presence of bioactive phenolic compounds for their therapeutic properties. Major phenolic compounds present in persimmon are ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and gallic acid. β-Cryptoxanthin, lycopene, β-carotene, zeaxanthin, and lutein are important carotenoids having antioxidant potential. They are important to prevent oxidation of low-density lipoproteins, sa...

  1. Role of phenolic compounds in peptic ulcer: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha Sumbul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulcer is the most common gastrointestinal tract (GIT disorder in clinical practice, which affects approximately 5-10% of the people during their life. The use of herbal drugs for the prevention and treatment of various diseases is constantly developing throughout the world. This is particularly true with regard to phenolic compounds that probably constitute the largest group of plants secondary metabolites. Phenolic compounds have attracted special attention due to their health-promoting characteristics. In the past ten years a large number of the studies have been carried out on the effects of phenolic compounds on human health. Many studies have been carried out that strongly support the contribution of polyphenols to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, osteoporosis, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes mellitus, and suggest a role in the prevention of peptic ulcer. Polyphenols display a number of pharmacological properties in the GIT area, acting as antisecretory, cytoprotective, and antioxidant agents. The antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds have been widely studied, but it has become clear that their mechanisms of action go beyond the modulation of oxidative stress. Various polyphenolic compounds have been reported for their anti-ulcerogenic activity with a good level of gastric protection. Besides their action as gastroprotective, these phenolic compounds can be an alternative for the treatment of gastric ulcers. Therefore, considering the important role of polyphenolic compounds in the prevention or reduction of gastric lesions induced by different ulcerogenic agents, in this review, we have summarized the literature on some potent antiulcer plants, such as, Oroxylum indicum, Zingiber officinale, Olea europaea L., Foeniculum vulgare, Alchornea glandulosa, Tephrosia purpurea, and so on, containing phenolic compounds, namely, baicalein, cinnamic acid, oleuropein, rutin, quercetin, and tephrosin

  2. Role of phenolic compounds in peptic ulcer: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumbul, Sabiha; Ahmad, Mohd Aftab; Mohd, Asif; Mohd, Akhtar

    2011-07-01

    Peptic ulcer is the most common gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorder in clinical practice, which affects approximately 5-10% of the people during their life. The use of herbal drugs for the prevention and treatment of various diseases is constantly developing throughout the world. This is particularly true with regard to phenolic compounds that probably constitute the largest group of plants secondary metabolites. Phenolic compounds have attracted special attention due to their health-promoting characteristics. In the past ten years a large number of the studies have been carried out on the effects of phenolic compounds on human health. Many studies have been carried out that strongly support the contribution of polyphenols to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, osteoporosis, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes mellitus, and suggest a role in the prevention of peptic ulcer. Polyphenols display a number of pharmacological properties in the GIT area, acting as antisecretory, cytoprotective, and antioxidant agents. The antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds have been widely studied, but it has become clear that their mechanisms of action go beyond the modulation of oxidative stress. Various polyphenolic compounds have been reported for their anti-ulcerogenic activity with a good level of gastric protection. Besides their action as gastroprotective, these phenolic compounds can be an alternative for the treatment of gastric ulcers. Therefore, considering the important role of polyphenolic compounds in the prevention or reduction of gastric lesions induced by different ulcerogenic agents, in this review, we have summarized the literature on some potent antiulcer plants, such as, Oroxylum indicum, Zingiber officinale, Olea europaea L., Foeniculum vulgare, Alchornea glandulosa, Tephrosia purpurea, and so on, containing phenolic compounds, namely, baicalein, cinnamic acid, oleuropein, rutin, quercetin, and tephrosin, respectively, as active

  3. Erupted compound odontome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekar S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are considered to be hamartomas rather than a true neoplasm. They consist chiefly of enamel and dentin, with variable amount of pulp and cementum when fully developed. They are generally asymptomatic and are included under the benign calcified odontogenic tumors. They are usually discovered on routine radiographic examination. Eruption of an odontoma in the oral cavity is rare. Peripheral compound odontomas arise extraosseously and have a tendency to exfoliate. In this article we are reporting a case of a 15-year-old girl with peripheral compound odontoma, with a single rudimentary tooth-like structure in the mandibular right second molar region, which is about to be exfoliated. Its eruption in the oral cavity and location in the mandibular posterior region is associated with aplasia of the mandibular right second molar, making it an interesting case for reporting.

  4. Compound semiconductor device modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Compound semiconductor devices form the foundation of solid-state microwave and optoelectronic technologies used in many modern communication systems. In common with their low frequency counterparts, these devices are often represented using equivalent circuit models, but it is often necessary to resort to physical models in order to gain insight into the detailed operation of compound semiconductor devices. Many of the earliest physical models were indeed developed to understand the 'unusual' phenomena which occur at high frequencies. Such was the case with the Gunn and IMPATI diodes, which led to an increased interest in using numerical simulation methods. Contemporary devices often have feature sizes so small that they no longer operate within the familiar traditional framework, and hot electron or even quantum­ mechanical models are required. The need for accurate and efficient models suitable for computer aided design has increased with the demand for a wider range of integrated devices for operation at...

  5. Process for compound transformation

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-12-29

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of using a catalytic system to chemically transform a compound (e.g., a hydrocarbon). In an embodiment, the method does not employ grafting the catalyst prior to catalysis. In particular, embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a process of hydrocarbon (e.g., C1 to C20 hydrocarbon) metathesis (e.g., alkane, olefin, or alkyne metathesis) transformation, where the process can be conducted without employing grafting prior to catalysis.

  6. Biodegradation of Organofluorine Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) XX-02-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Mar 2011 – Sep...compounds as sole carbon sources for growth, which was confirmed on two substrates: benzoyl fluoride and 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane...Subsequent measurements of defluorination rates showed that benzoyl fluoride defluorinated very rapidly; therefore, the growth observed was probably

  7. Toxicity of platinum compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Jörg Thomas; Lipp, Hans-Peter

    2003-06-01

    Since the introduction of platinum-based combination chemotherapy, particularly cisplatin, the outcome of the treatment of many solid tumours has changed. The leading platinum compounds in cancer chemotherapy are cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin. They share some structural similarities; however, there are marked differences between them in therapeutic use, pharmacokinetics and adverse effects profiles [1-4]. Compared to cisplatin, carboplatin has inferior efficacy in germ-cell tumour, head and neck cancer and bladder and oesophageal carcinoma, whereas both drugs seem to have comparable efficacy in advanced non-small cell and small cell lung cancer as well as ovarian cancer [5-7]. Oxaliplatin belongs to the group of diaminocyclohexane platinum compounds. It is the first platinum-based drug that has marked efficacy in colorectal cancer when given in combination with 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid [8,9]. Other platinum compounds such as oral JM216, ZD0473, BBR3464 and SPI-77, which is a pegylated liposomal formulation of cisplatin, are still under investigation [10-13], whereas nedaplatin has been approved in Japan for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer and other solid tumours. This review focuses on cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin.

  8. Toxic compounds in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food.

  9. Light metal compound casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Konrad; J.; M.; PAPIS; Joerg; F.; LOEFFLER; Peter; J.; UGGOWITZER

    2009-01-01

    Compound casting’simplifies joining processes by directly casting a metallic melt onto a solid metal substrate. A continuously metallurgic transition is very important for industrial applications, such as joint structures of spaceframe constructions in transport industry. In this project, ‘compound casting’ of light metals is investigated, aiming at weight-saving. The substrate used is a wrought aluminium alloy of type AA5xxx, containing magnesium as main alloying element. The melts are aluminium alloys, containing various alloying elements (Cu, Si, Zn), and magnesium. By replacing the natural oxygen layer with a zinc layer, the inherent wetting difficulties were avoided, and compounds with flawless interfaces were successfully produced (no contraction defects, cracks or oxides). Electron microscopy and EDX investigations as well as optical micrographs of the interfacial areas revealed their continu- ously metallic constitution. Diffusion of alloying elements leads to heat-treatable microstructures in the vicinity of the joining interfaces in Al-Al couples. This permits significant variability of mechanical properties. Without significantly cutting down on wettability, the formation of low-melting intermetallic phases (Al3Mg2 and Al12Mg17 IMPs) at the interface of Al-Mg couples was avoided by applying a protective coating to the substrate.

  10. Light metal compound casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Konrad J.M.PAPIS; Joerg F.LOEFFLER; Peter J.UGGOWITZER

    2009-01-01

    'Compound casting'simplifies joining processes by directly casting a metallic melt onto a solid metal substrate. A continuously metallurgic transition is very important for industrial applications, such as joint structures of spaceframe constructions in transport industry. In this project, 'compound casting' of light metals is investigated, aiming at weight-saving. The substrate used is a wrought aluminium alloy of type AA5xxx, containing magnesium as main alloying element. The melts are aluminium alloys, containing various alloying elements (Cu, Si, Zn), and magnesium. By replacing the natural oxygen layer with a zinc layer, the inherent wetting difficulties were avoided, and compounds with flawless interfaces were successfully produced (no contraction defects, cracks or oxides). Electron microscopy and EDX investigations as well as optical micrographs of the interfacial areas revealed their continu-ously metallic constitution. Diffusion of alloying elements leads to heat-treatable microstructures in the vicinity of the joining interfaces in Al-Al couples. This permits significant variability of mechanical properties. Without significantly cutting down on wettability, the formation of low-melting intermetallic phases (Al3Mg2 and AI12Mg17 IMPs) at the interface of Al-Mg couples was avoided by applying a protec-tive coating to the substrate.

  11. Antifungal Compounds from Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia K. Shishido

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders.

  12. atmospheric volatile organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Koss

    2016-07-01

    organic compounds (VOCs that cannot be ionized with H3O+ ions (e.g., in a PTR-MS or H3O+ CIMS instrument. Here we describe the adaptation of a high-resolution time-of-flight H3O+ CIMS instrument to use NO+ primary ion chemistry. We evaluate the NO+ technique with respect to compound specificity, sensitivity, and VOC species measured compared to H3O+. The evaluation is established by a series of experiments including laboratory investigation using a gas-chromatography (GC interface, in situ measurement of urban air using a GC interface, and direct in situ measurement of urban air. The main findings are that (1 NO+ is useful for isomerically resolved measurements of carbonyl species; (2 NO+ can achieve sensitive detection of small (C4–C8 branched alkanes but is not unambiguous for most; and (3 compound-specific measurement of some alkanes, especially isopentane, methylpentane, and high-mass (C12–C15 n-alkanes, is possible with NO+. We also demonstrate fast in situ chemically specific measurements of C12 to C15 alkanes in ambient air.

  13. Antifungal compounds from cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishido, Tânia K; Humisto, Anu; Jokela, Jouni; Liu, Liwei; Wahlsten, Matti; Tamrakar, Anisha; Fewer, David P; Permi, Perttu; Andreote, Ana P D; Fiore, Marli F; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2015-04-13

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders.

  14. Environmental Friendly Coatings & Corrosion Prevention for Flight Hardware Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has undertaken a study to find environmentally friendly alternatives for the petroleum and solvent-based corrosion-preventive compounds...

  15. Excretion of biliary compounds during intrauterine life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rocio IR Macias; Jose JG Marin; Maria A Serrano

    2009-01-01

    In adults, the hepatobiliary system, together with thekidney, constitute the main routes for the eliminationof several endogenous and xenobiotic compounds intobile and urine, respectively. However, during intrauterinelife the biliary route of excretion for cholephiliccompounds, such as bile acids and biliary pigments, isvery poor. Although very early in pregnancy the fetal liver produces bile acids, bilirubin and biliverdin, these compounds cannot be efficiently eliminated by the fetal hepatobiliary system, owing to the immaturity of the excretory machinery in the fetal liver. Therefore, the potentially harmful accumulation of cholephilic compounds in the fetus is prevented by their elimination across the placenta. Owing to the presence of detoxifying enzymes and specific transport systems at different locations of the placental barrier, such as the endothelial cells of chorionic vessels and trophoblast cells, this organ plays an important role in the hepatobiliary-like function during intrauterine life. The relevance of this excretory function in normal fetal physiology is evident in situations where high concentrations of biliary compounds are accumulated in the mother. This may result in oxidative stress and apoptosis, mainly in the placenta and fetal liver, which might affect normal fetal development and challenge the fate of the pregnancy. The present article reviews current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the hepatobiliary function of the fetal-placental unit and the repercussions of several pathological conditions on this tandem.

  16. Xenobiotic organic compounds in wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Baun, Anders; Henze, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    Information regarding the contents of xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) in wastewater is limited, but it has been shown that at least 900 different compounds / compound groups could potentially be present in grey wastewater. Analyses of Danish grey wastewater revealed the presence of several...... hundred of XOCs, among them mainly originating from hygiene products: chlorophenols, detergents and phthalates. Several compounds not deriving from hygiene products were also identified e.g. flame-retardants and drugs. A environmental hazard identification showed that a large number of compounds with high...... aquatic toxicity were present and that data for environmental fate could only be retrieved for about half of the compounds....

  17. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Types of Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrovankova, Sona; Sumczynski, Daniela; Mlcek, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde; Sochor, Jiri

    2015-10-16

    Berries, especially members of several families, such as Rosaceae (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry), and Ericaceae (blueberry, cranberry), belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds (BAC). They have delicious taste and flavor, have economic importance, and because of the antioxidant properties of BAC, they are of great interest also for nutritionists and food technologists due to the opportunity to use BAC as functional foods ingredients. The bioactive compounds in berries contain mainly phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, and tannins) and ascorbic acid. These compounds, either individually or combined, are responsible for various health benefits of berries, such as prevention of inflammation disorders, cardiovascular diseases, or protective effects to lower the risk of various cancers. In this review bioactive compounds of commonly consumed berries are described, as well as the factors influencing their antioxidant capacity and their health benefits.

  18. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Types of Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Skrovankova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Berries, especially members of several families, such as Rosaceae (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, and Ericaceae (blueberry, cranberry, belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds (BAC. They have delicious taste and flavor, have economic importance, and because of the antioxidant properties of BAC, they are of great interest also for nutritionists and food technologists due to the opportunity to use BAC as functional foods ingredients. The bioactive compounds in berries contain mainly phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, and tannins and ascorbic acid. These compounds, either individually or combined, are responsible for various health benefits of berries, such as prevention of inflammation disorders, cardiovascular diseases, or protective effects to lower the risk of various cancers. In this review bioactive compounds of commonly consumed berries are described, as well as the factors influencing their antioxidant capacity and their health benefits.

  19. Offset Compound Gear Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  20. Rubber compounding and processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info John_2014_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 886 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name John_2014_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859...-1 Handbook of Green Materials Processing Technologies, Properties and Applications Chapter 15 RUBBER COMPOUNDING AND PROCESSING MAYA JACOB JOHN1,2 1CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing, Polymers and Composites Competence Area, P.O. Box 1124...

  1. Oligosilanylated Antimony Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    By reactions of magnesium oligosilanides with SbCl3, a number of oligosilanylated antimony compounds were obtained. When oligosilanyl dianions were used, either the expected cyclic disilylated halostibine was obtained or alternatively the formation of a distibine was observed. Deliberate formation of the distibine from the disilylated halostibine was achieved by reductive coupling with C8K. Computational studies of Sb–Sb bond energies, barriers of pyramidal inversion at Sb, and the conformational behavior of distibines provided insight for the understanding of the spectroscopic properties. PMID:25937691

  2. Special Risks of Pharmacy Compounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed The Special Risks of Pharmacy Compounding Get Consumer Updates by E-mail Consumer ... page: A Troubling Trend What You Can Do Pharmacy compounding is a practice in which a licensed ...

  3. Rodent repellents: Preparation and properties of thiouronium compounds and cyclic imides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellack, E.; DeWitt, J.B.

    1954-01-01

    Syntheses and bioassays of cyclic imides and thiouronium compounds were carried out as part of a search for materials capable of preventing rodent damage to packaged commodities. Previous studies had shown that repellent activity was associated with functional groups containing nitrogen and sulfur, and was enhanced by the presence of ionic linkages. Twenty-seven thiouronium compounds and 40 imides, including 1 0 compounds not described previously, were prepared for these tests. Ten imides and 26 thiouronium compounds were repellent under the conditions of test. Information obtained in these studies will be utilized in the development and selection of more effective materials for prevention of rodent damage to foods and other commodities.

  4. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease ...

  5. Risk Factors and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and free of ... as possible. Share: The Normal Heart Risk Factors & Prevention Heart Diseases & Disorders Substances & Heart Rhythm Disorders Symptoms & ...

  6. Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Cervical Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Cervical Cancer Cervical cancer is a disease in which malignant ( ...

  7. Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? ... prevent cancer are being studied. General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  8. High temperature superconducting compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Allen M.

    1992-11-01

    The major accomplishment of this grant has been to develop techniques for the in situ preparation of high-Tc superconducting films involving the use of ozone-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The techniques are generalizable to the growth of trilayer and multilayer structures. Films of both the DyBa2Cu3O(7-x) and YBa2Cu3O(7-x) compounds as well as the La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 compound have been grown on the usual substrates, SrTiO3, YSZ, MgO, and LaAlO3, as well as on Si substrates without any buffer layer. A bolometer has been fabricated on a thermally isolated SiN substrate coated with YSZ, an effort carried out in collaboration with Honeywell Inc. The deposition process facilitates the fabrication of very thin and transparent films creating new opportunities for the study of superconductor-insulator transitions and the investigation of photo-doping with carriers of high temperature superconductors. In addition to a thin film technology, a patterning technology has been developed. Trilayer structures have been developed for FET devices and tunneling junctions. Other work includes the measurement of the magnetic properties of bulk single crystal high temperature superconductors, and in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, measurement of electric transport properties of T1-based high-Tc films.

  9. Optimizing Synthetic Aperture Compound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Munk; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-01-01

    Spatial compound images are constructed from synthetic aperture data acquired using a linear phased-array transducer. Compound images of wires, tissue, and cysts are created using a method, which allows both transmit and receive compounding without any loss in temporal resolution. Similarly to co...

  10. Semiconducting III-V compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hilsum, C; Henisch, Heinz R

    1961-01-01

    Semiconducting III-V Compounds deals with the properties of III-V compounds as a family of semiconducting crystals and relates these compounds to the monatomic semiconductors silicon and germanium. Emphasis is placed on physical processes that are peculiar to III-V compounds, particularly those that combine boron, aluminum, gallium, and indium with phosphorus, arsenic, and antimony (for example, indium antimonide, indium arsenide, gallium antimonide, and gallium arsenide).Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an assessment of the crystal structure and binding of III-V compounds, f

  11. Synthetic Aperture Compound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Munk

    Medical ultrasound imaging is used for many purposes, e.g. for localizing and classifying cysts, lesions, and other processes. Almost any mass is first observed using B-mode imaging and later classified using e.g. color flow, strain, or attenuation imaging. It is therefore important that the B....... The method is investigated using simulations and through measurements using both phased array and convex array transducers. The images all show an improved contrast compared to images without compounding, and by construction, imaging using an improved frame rate is possible. Using a phased array transducer...... and the limiting factor is the amount of memory IO resources available. An equally high demand for memory throughput is found in the computer gaming industry, where a large part of the processing takes place on the graphics processing unit (GPU). Using the GPU, a framework for synthetic aperture imaging...

  12. Lichen compounds restrain lichen feeding by bank voles (Myodes glareolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybakken, Line; Helmersen, Anne-Marit; Gauslaa, Yngvar; Selås, Vidar

    2010-03-01

    Some lichen compounds are known to deter feeding by invertebrate herbivores. We attempted to quantify the deterring efficiency of lichen compounds against a generalist vertebrate, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). In two separate experiments, caged bank voles had the choice to feed on lichens with natural or reduced concentrations of secondary compounds. We rinsed air-dry intact lichens in 100% acetone to remove extracellular compounds non-destructively. In the first experiment, pairs of control and rinsed lichen thalli were hydrated and offered to the bank voles. Because the lichens desiccated fast, we ran a second experiment with pairs of ground control and compound-deficient thalli, each mixed with water to porridge. Eight and six lichen species were tested in the first and second experiment, respectively. In the first, bank voles preferred compound-deficient thalli of Cladonia stellaris and Lobaria pulmonaria, but did not discriminate between the other thallus pairs. This was likely a result of deterring levels of usnic and stictic acid in the control thalli. When lichens were served as porridge, significant preference was found for acetone-rinsed pieces of Cladonia arbuscula, C. rangiferina, Platismatia glauca, and Evernia prunastri. The increased preference was caused mainly by lower consumption of control thalli. Grinding and mixing of thallus structures prevented bank voles from selecting thallus parts with lower concentration of secondary compounds and/or strengthened their deterring capacity. We conclude that some lichen secondary compounds deter feeding by bank voles.

  13. 生物农药和生化复配制剂防治设施秋番茄温室白粉虱效果研究%Prevention and Treatment Effect of Biopesticide and Biochemical Compounded Preparation on Autumn Tomato Greenhouse Whitefly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭昌家; 白体坤; 丁攀; 冯礼斌; 朱成; 杨宇衡; 刘怡欣; 陈丹

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce the occurrence of autumn tomato greenhouse whitefly, cut down the chemical pesticide consumption and residue, and prevent environmental pollution, the methods of forecasting, randomized block design and statistical analysis were used in field efficacy tests of biopesticide avermectins+Gibberellin-heteroauxin-brassinolide (GHB), matrine + GHB and biochemical compounded preparation emamectin benzoate + GHB to investigate their control effects on whitefly. The results showed that when the occurrence of autumn tomato greenhouse whitefly was serious, 1.8%avermectins EC 375 g+GHB WP 600 g, 1.5%matrine SL 4500 mL+GHB WP 600 g and 5.7%emamectin benzoate SG 450 g+GHB WP 600 g per hectare were applied 4 times, once in 7 days, the control effects on the 10th , 17th , 26th and 35th day were 81%, 83%, 85%and 81%. After 10 and 17 days of application, the control effects of emamectin benzoate+GHB and avermectins + GHB, matrine + GHB were not significant, while the control effect of avermectins + GHB was significantly higher than that of matrine + GHB. These results indicated that avermectins + GHB, matrine +GHB and emamectin benzoate+GHB were the ideal biopesticides, which could be used not only for controlling autumn tomato greenhouse whitefly, but also for realizing modern, pollution- free, green and organic agricultural production.%为减轻设施秋番茄温室白粉虱发生危害,减少化学农药用量、残留和环境污染,采用测报调查、随机区组设计和统计分析等方法,开展了生物农药阿维菌素+赤·吲乙·芸苔(碧护)和苦参碱+碧护与生化复配制剂甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐(甲维盐)+碧护防治设施秋番茄温室白粉虱农药田间药效试验。结果表明:在温室大棚秋季番茄白粉虱发生较重情况下,每公顷用1.8%阿维菌素EC 375 g+碧护600 g、1.5%苦参碱SL 4500 mL+碧护600 g和生化复配制剂5.7%甲维盐SG 450 g+碧护600 g,7天施药1

  14. Prevention and Control of Cryptosporidiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Address Submit Button What's this? Parasites Home Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevention & Control Topics Prevention & Control - General Public Prevention & Control - ...

  15. 用基因芯片筛选参芪复方保护糖尿病骨骼肌的相关基因%Gene Chip Screening of Related Genes of Shenqi Compound Recipe in Preventing Diabetic Skeletal Muscle Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海燕; 高泓; 郭保根; 周飞; 谢春光

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation of diabetic skeletal muscle disease with macroangiopathy, and to explore the related genes of Shenqi Compound Recipe (SCR) in preventing and treating diabetic skeletal muscle disease by using gene chip technique, thus to reveal the molecular mechanism. Methods KKAy mice were fed with water containing nitri oxide synthase inhibitor of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester ( L-NAME) and high fat diet to induce the macroangiopathy complicated with type 2 diabetes. The experimental animals were divided into normal c57BL/GJ group, KKAy group, model group, SCR group (in the dosage of 14.4 g·kg-1·d-1) and rosiglitazone group ( in the dosage of 1.33 mg·kg-1·d-1) , 15 in each group. The medication groups were administered the corresponding agents for 8 consecutive weeks just as the modeling began. During the experiment period, blood glucose was monitored. At the end of the experiment, the abdominal aorta and skeletal muscle of mice were taken out for the observation of morphological changes, and differentially expressed genes of skeletal muscle between SCR group and model group, and between model group and KKAy group were detected by gene chip technique. Results SCR had an effect on relieving the atrophy, edema, fracture, and inflammatory changes in the skeletal muscle. There were 198 genes differentially expressed between model group and KKAy group, including 119 up-regulated genes and 79 down-regulated genes. There were 70 genes differentially expressed between SCR group and model group, including 33 up-regulated genes and 37 down-regulated genes. In the two comparison groups, 7 genes ( Celsr2, Rilpl1, Dlx6as, 2010004M13Rik, Anapc13, Gm6097, Ddx39b) showed reversed differential expression. Conclusion Diabetic skeletal muscle disease is associated with macroangiopathy. SCR has preventive effect on diabetic skeletal muscle lesion, and the mechanism may be related to the regulation of Celsr2, Rilpl1, Dlx6as, 2010004M13Rik, Anapc13, Gm

  16. [Prevention of dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakami, Katsuya

    2016-03-01

    The dementia prevention consists of three steps, primary prevention of dementia is to prevent from normal and mild cognitive impairment to dementia, secondary prevention is early detection and early treatment of dementia, and tertiary prevention is three stages of progress prevention of dementia. Primary prevention of dementia had been considered impossible until recently, but potential scientific evidence has been shown recently. The fact that 4.62 million people are person with dementia and 400 million people are person with mild cognitive impairment are considered to be urgent problem and we must intend to perform dementia prevention from primary to tertiary prevention thoroughly. We perform dementia screening using touch panel type computer and we recommend person with mild cognitive impairment to join dementia prevention classroom. Therefore, we can prevent progression from mild cognitive impairment to dementia (primary prevention). Early diagnosis and introduction to the specialized medical institution are needed if you find early stage of dementia and treat early (secondary prevention). To prevent progression by the appropriate drug treatment and care for dementia is required (tertiary prevention).

  17. Biotransformation and bioconversion of phenolic compounds obtainment: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira Junior, Jose Valdo; Teixeira, Camilo Barroso; Macedo, Gabriela Alves

    2015-03-01

    Phenolic compounds have recently been recognized for their influence on human metabolism, acting in the prevention of some chronic diseases as well as proving to be important antioxidants in food. Nevertheless, the extraction and concentration processes are usually carried out by organic solvent extraction from natural sources and can generate some drawbacks like phenolic compound degradation, lengthy process times and low yields. As a solution, some eco-friendly technologies, including solid-state fermentation (SSF) or enzymatic-assisted reaction, have been proposed as alternative processes. This article reviews the extraction of phenolic compounds from agro-industrial co-products by solid-state fermentation, even as friendly enzyme-assisted extractions. It also discusses the characteristics of each bioprocess system and the variables that affect product formation, as well as the range of substrates, microorganisms and enzymes that can be useful for the production of bioactive phenolic compounds.

  18. Vasodilator Compounds Derived from Plants and Their Mechanisms of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Luna-Vázquez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reviews vasodilator compounds isolated from plants that were reported in the past 22 years (1990 to 2012 and the different mechanisms of action involved in their vasodilator effects. The search for reports was conducted in a comprehensive manner, intending to encompass those metabolites with a vasodilator effect whose mechanism of action involved both vascular endothelium and arterial smooth muscle. The results obtained from our bibliographic search showed that over half of the isolated compounds have a mechanism of action involving the endothelium. Most of these bioactive metabolites cause vasodilation either by activating the nitric oxide/cGMP pathway or by blocking voltage-dependent calcium channels. Moreover, it was found that many compounds induced vasodilation by more than one mechanism. This review confirms that secondary metabolites, which include a significant group of compounds with extensive chemical diversity, are a valuable source of new pharmaceuticals useful for the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Potential therapeutic effects of functionally active compounds isolated from garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hyung-Mun; Ban, Jung Ok; Park, Kyung-Ran; Lee, Chong Kil; Jeong, Heon-Sang; Han, Sang Bae; Hong, Jin Tae

    2014-05-01

    The medicinal properties of functionally active organosulfur compounds such as allin, diallyl disulfide, S-allylmercaptocysteine, and S-trityl-L-cysteine isolated from garlic have received great attention from a large number of investigators who have studied their pharmacological effects for the treatment of various diseases. These organosulfur compounds are able to prevent for development of cancer, cardiovascular, neurological, and liver diseases as well as allergy and arthritis. There have been also many reports on toxicities and pharmacokinetics of these compounds. The aim of this study is to review a variety of experimental and clinical reports, and describe the effectiveness, toxicities and pharmacokinetics, and possible mechanisms of pharmaceutical actions of functionally active compounds isolated from garlic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Public chemical compound databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Anthony J

    2008-05-01

    The internet has rapidly become the first port of call for all information searches. The increasing array of chemistry-related resources that are now available provides chemists with a direct path to the information that was previously accessed via library services and was limited by commercial and costly resources. The diversity of the information that can be accessed online is expanding at a dramatic rate, and the support for publicly available resources offers significant opportunities in terms of the benefits to science and society. While the data online do not generally meet the quality standards of manually curated sources, there are efforts underway to gather scientists together and 'crowdsource' an improvement in the quality of the available data. This review discusses the types of public compound databases that are available online and provides a series of examples. Focus is also given to the benefits and disruptions associated with the increased availability of such data and the integration of technologies to data mine this information.

  1. Tin compounds and insect fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butovskiy, R.O.

    1985-03-01

    A review of the literature of tin compounds serving as pesticides has resulted in the identification of 11 widely used compounds, both organic and inorganic, with largely fungicidal activity. Organotin compounds seem to be limited in use to the control of insect pests, with the majority of the compounds consisting of Sn(IV) and falling into the following four categories: R/sub 4/Sn, R/sub 3/SNX, R/sub 2/SnX/sub 2/, and RSnX/sub 3/, where R = aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbon radicals, and X = organic or inorganic substituent. The insecticidal activity of these compounds appears to rest on inhibition of ATPase and uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. As a result, these compounds act as larvicides, ovicides and imagocides. 77 references.

  2. Sesquiterpene compounds from Inula viscosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Gianfranco; La Rocca, Salvatore; Passannanti, Salvatore; Paternostro, Maria Pia

    2007-07-20

    Two new compounds, 2,5-dihydroxyisocostic acid and 2,3-dihydroxycostic acid together with three known sesquiterpene compounds, Isocostic acid, Carabrone and Tomentosin, have been isolated from the acetone extract of Inula viscosa (L.) Aiton. The structures of all new compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods, in particular 1D and 2D (1)H- and (13)C-NMR. The (13)C-NMR spectra of Isocostic acid and of Tomentosin are reported here for the first time.

  3. Potential Risks of Pharmacy Compounding

    OpenAIRE

    Gudeman, Jennifer; Jozwiakowski, Michael; Chollet, John; Randell, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacy compounding involves the preparation of customized medications that are not commercially available for individual patients with specialized medical needs. Traditional pharmacy compounding is appropriate when done on a small scale by pharmacists who prepare the medication based on an individual prescription. However, the regulatory oversight of pharmacy compounding is significantly less rigorous than that required for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs; as such, compoun...

  4. Synthesis of δ-lactonic pheromones ofXylocopa hirsutissima andVespa orientalis and an allomone of some ants of genusCamponotus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacardit, R; Moreno-Mañas, M

    1983-06-01

    Simple preparations ofcis-3,6-dimethyltetrahydro-2-pyrone, VII,6-n-undecyltetrahydro-2-pyrone, XVIIb, and 6-n-pentyl-5,6-dihydro-2-pyrone, XVIa, have been achieved. Products VII and XVIIb, respectively, are the major constituent of the pheromonal blend of a carpenter bee (Xylocopa hirsutissima) and the pheromone of the queens of the Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis). The lactone XVIa is a suspected defensive allomone in two species of formicine ants of the genusCamponotus. All three compounds have been prepared from dehydroacetic acid, I, a cheap and industrially available starting material.

  5. Natural compounds with herbicidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Montemurro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Research about phytotoxic activity of natural compounds could lead both to find new herbicidal active ingredients and to plan environmental friendly weed control strategies. Particularly, living organisms could be a source of compounds that are impossible, for their complexity, to synthesize artificially. More over, they could have alternative sites of action respect to the known chemical herbicides and, due to their origin, they should be more environmental safe. Many living organism, such as bacteria, fungi, insects, lichens and plants, are able to produce bioactive compounds. They generally are secondary metabolites or simply waste molecules. In this paper we make a review about these compounds, highlighting potential and constraints.

  6. Transition Metal Compounds Towards Holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Dieckmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We have successfully proposed the application of transition metal compounds in holographic recording media. Such compounds feature an ultra-fast light-induced linkage isomerization of the transition-metal–ligand bond with switching times in the sub-picosecond regime and lifetimes from microseconds up to hours at room temperature. This article highlights the photofunctionality of two of the most promising transition metal compounds and the photophysical mechanisms that are underlying the hologram recording. We present the latest progress with respect to the key measures of holographic media assembled from transition metal compounds, the molecular embedding in a dielectric matrix and their impressive potential for modern holographic applications.

  7. Effect of substrates and intermediate compounds on foaming in manure digestion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe, Kanokwan; Kougias, Panagiotis; Pacheco, F.

    2012-01-01

    Manure contains several compounds that can potentially cause foaming during anaerobic digestion. Understanding the effect of substrates and intermediate compounds on foaming tendency and stability could facilitate strategies for foaming prevention and recovery of the process. In this study, the e......-oleate or gelatine were considered to be the main potential foaming problem....

  8. Reflections on preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Olli S

    2014-10-01

    Having thought much about medicine in my career-long effort to understand it and the research for its advancement, I have come to views rather different form the now-prevailing ones in respect to what preventive medicine is about; what epidemiology is in relation to preventive medicine; what distinguishes preventive medicine in preventive healthcare at large; the relation of preventive medicine to public health; the concept of health promotion; and also the core principles of preventive medicine. All of these views I set forth in this article, for the readers' critical reflection.

  9. Development of novel antibiofouling materials from natural phenol compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelikani, Rahul; Kim, Dong Shik

    2007-03-01

    Biofilms consist of a gelatinous matrix formed on a solid surface by microbial organisms.Biofilm is caused due to the adhesion of microbes to solid surfaces with production of extracellular polymers and the process of the biofilm formation is reffered to as biofouling.Biofouling causes serious problems in chemical, medical and pharmaceutical industries.Although there have been some antibiofouling materials developed over the years,no plausible results have been found yet.Natural polyphenolic compounds like flavanoids,cathechins have strong antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.Recently,apocynin,a phenol derivative,was polymerized to form oligomers,which can regulate intracellular pathways in cancer cells preventing cell proliferation and migration.These natural phenolic compounds have never been applied to solid surfaces to prevent biofouling.It is thought that probably because of the difficulty to crosslink them to form a stable coating.In this study,some novel polyphenolic compounds synthesized using enzymatic technique from cashew nut shell liquid,a cheap and renewable byproduct of the cashew industry are used as coating materials to prevent biofouling.The interaction of these materials with microbes preventing fouling on surfaces and the chemico-physical properties of the materials causing the antibiofouling effect will be discussed.It is critical to understand the antibiofouling mechanism of these materials for better design and application in various fields.

  10. II-VI semiconductor compounds

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    For condensed matter physicists and electronic engineers, this volume deals with aspects of II-VI semiconductor compounds. Areas covered include devices and applications of II-VI compounds; Co-based II-IV semi-magnetic semiconductors; and electronic structure of strained II-VI superlattices.

  11. Electrochemical reactions of organosilicon compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouikov, Vyacheslav V.

    1997-06-01

    Data on the processes of electrochemical reduction and oxidation of organosilicon compounds of various classes as well as on the interaction of these compounds with electrically generated reagents are generalised and surveyed systematically. The electrochemical reactivity of organic derivatives of silicon is considered taking into account their structures and reaction conditions. The bibliography includes 245 references.

  12. Testing of Experimental Antileishmanial Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-19

    administrative and clerical assistance and Ms. Barbara L. Harris, Laboratory Technician II, for technical assistance with this study. Their efforts are appreciated...braziliensis) leishmaniasis . Although several new compounds have been identified with activity against L. (V.) braziliensis, none have shown adequate promise...to warrant initiation of clinical trials. However, among the most promising active compounds found against visceral leishmaniasis during these

  13. Cytotoxic Compounds from Zanthoxylum Americanum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Four pyranocoumarins: dipetaline, alloxanthoxyletin, xanthoxyletin, and xanthyletin, and two lignans: sesamin and asarinin were isolated from the northern prickly ash, Zanthoxylum americanum. To varying degrees, all six compounds inhibited the incorporation of tritiated thymidine into human leukemia (HL-60) cells and the inhibitory effect was dependent on the structures of the isolated compounds.

  14. Process for demethylating dimethylsulfonium compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, Theo; van der Maarel, Marc

    1998-01-01

    PCT No. PCT/EP94/01640 Sec. 371 Date Nov. 14, 1995 Sec. 102(e) Date Nov. 14, 1995 PCT Filed May 16, 1994 PCT Pub. No. WO94/26918 PCT Pub. Date Nov. 24, 1994Process for preparing S-methylmercapto and mercapto compounds comprising the step of demethylating a dimethylsulfonium compound of formula I to

  15. Assimilation of Unusual Carbon Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelhoven, Wouter J.

    Yeast taxa traditionally are distinguished by growth tests on several sugars and organic acids. During the last decades it became apparent that many yeast species assimilate a much greater variety of naturally occurring carbon compounds as sole source of carbon and energy. These abilities are indicative of a greater role of yeasts in the carbon cycle than previously assumed. Especially in acidic soils and other habitats, yeasts may play a role in the degradation of carbon compounds. Such compounds include purines like uric acid and adenine, aliphatic amines, diamines and hydroxyamines, phenolics and other benzene compounds and polysaccharides. Assimilation of purines and amines is a feature of many ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. However, benzene compounds are degraded by only a few ascomycetous yeasts (e.g. the Stephanoascus/ Blastobotrys clade and black yeastlike fungi) but by many basidiomycetes, e.g. Filobasidiales, Trichosporonales, red yeasts producing ballistoconidia and related species, but not by Tremellales. Assimilation of polysaccharides is wide-spread among basidiomycetes

  16. Bilayer Effects of Antimalarial Compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole B Ramsey

    Full Text Available Because of the perpetual development of resistance to current therapies for malaria, the Medicines for Malaria Venture developed the Malaria Box to facilitate the drug development process. We tested the 80 most potent compounds from the box for bilayer-mediated effects on membrane protein conformational changes (a measure of likely toxicity in a gramicidin-based stopped flow fluorescence assay. Among the Malaria Box compounds tested, four compounds altered membrane properties (p< 0.05; MMV007384 stood out as a potent bilayer-perturbing compound that is toxic in many cell-based assays, suggesting that testing for membrane perturbation could help identify toxic compounds. In any case, MMV007384 should be approached with caution, if at all.

  17. Complex chemistry with complex compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichler Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years gas-phase chemical studies assisted by physical pre-separation allowed for the investigation of fragile single molecular species by gas-phase chromatography. The latest success with the heaviest group 6 transactinide seaborgium is highlighted. The formation of a very volatile hexacarbonyl compound Sg(CO6 was observed similarly to its lighter homologues molybdenum and tungsten. The interactions of these gaseous carbonyl complex compounds with quartz surfaces were investigated by thermochromatography. Second-generation experiments are under way to investigate the intramolecular bond between the central metal atom of the complexes and the ligands addressing the influence of relativistic effects in the heaviest compounds. Our contribution comprises some aspects of the ongoing challenging experiments as well as an outlook towards other interesting compounds related to volatile complex compounds in the gas phase.

  18. Garlic and onions: their cancer prevention properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Holly L; Ross, Sharon A; Milner, John A

    2015-03-01

    The Allium genus includes garlic, onions, shallots, leeks, and chives. These vegetables are popular in cuisines worldwide and are valued for their potential medicinal properties. Epidemiologic studies, while limited in their abilities to assess Allium consumption, indicate some associations of Allium vegetable consumption with decreased risk of cancer, particularly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Limited intervention studies have been conducted to support these associations. The majority of supportive evidence on Allium vegetables cancer-preventive effects comes from mechanistic studies. These studies highlight potential mechanisms of individual sulfur-containing compounds and of various preparations and extracts of these vegetables, including decreased bioactivation of carcinogens, antimicrobial activities, and redox modification. Allium vegetables and their components have effects at each stage of carcinogenesis and affect many biologic processes that modify cancer risk. This review discusses the cancer-preventive effects of Allium vegetables, particularly garlic and onions, and their bioactive sulfur compounds and highlights research gaps. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Cancer treatment - preventing infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation - preventing infection; Bone marrow transplant - preventing infection; Cancer treatment - immunosuppression ... this is a short-lived side effect of cancer treatment. Your provider may give you medicines to help ...

  20. Preventing Diabetes Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Preventing Diabetes Problems View or Print All Sections Heart Disease & ... prevent or delay sexual and urologic problems. Depression & Diabetes Depression is common among people with a chronic, ...

  1. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Initiatives Best Practices Our Network Media Resources National Suicide Prevention Lifeline We can all help prevent suicide. ... About The Lifeline Anyone could be struggling with suicide. Find more specific resources below. I'm Struggling ...

  2. Can Vaginitis Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the treatments? Are there complications? Does it affect pregnancy? How is it prevented? NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Can vaginitis be prevented? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content These steps can ...

  3. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  4. Men's Health: Violence Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Violence prevention for men Get help for violence in your ... help. Return to top More information on Violence prevention for men Explore other publications and websites Are ...

  5. Prevent Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professional printing [PDF-1.5MB] Cancer Home “Prevent Cervical Cancer” Infographic Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevent Cervical Cancer with the Right Test at the Right Time ...

  6. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Stomach Cancer Key Points Stomach (gastric) cancer is a ...

  7. Preventing cervical cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevention of disease. Disease prevention strategies can be categorised into primary ... decrease drastically. These may include measures like education about safe sexual practices ... In many First-World countries the introduction of the ...

  8. Home Injury Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fax mgfa@myasthenia.org • www.myasthenia.org HOME INJURY PREVENTION Home Injur y Prevention A helpful guide for patients and their caregivers. www.myasthenia.org General cont’d. •Be alert ...

  9. Prevent Bite Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children > Health Issues > Conditions > Prevention > Prevent Bite Wounds ... animals or other humans. Consider the following statistics: there are about 4.5 million dog bites reported annually in the United States, along ...

  10. Traditional preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient...

  11. High Blood Cholesterol Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program Prevention and Management of High LDL Cholesterol: What You Can Do Recommend on ... like eating a healthy diet, can help prevent high cholesterol. High low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol increases ...

  12. Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention On This Page What are free radicals, and ... nine trials are summarized below. Linxian General Population Nutrition Intervention Trial : This trial was the first large- ...

  13. Jet lag prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000719.htm Jet lag prevention To use the sharing features on this page, ... Headache Irritability Stomach upset Sore muscles Tips for Prevention Before your trip: Get plenty of rest, eat ...

  14. CANCER CAN BE PREVENTED

    OpenAIRE

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-01-01

    Life style factors are contributing significantly in cancer prevention. With the intake of proper and balanced diet ,cancer prevention is possible. Many foods are associated either with incidence or prevention of cancer. Plant based foods like fresh fruits, vegetables and whole grains rich in fiber, b-carotene, vitamins and antioxidants can prevent cancer. Fiber rich foods increase bowel movement, decreasing the absorption of cholesterol. Pumpkin, carrots contain b-carotenes. Leafy vegetables...

  15. clinic observation of compound recombinant human interleukin-11 solution in prevention and treatment of radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis reaction in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma%重组人白介素-11在防治鼻咽癌放射性口腔粘膜炎的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝余钒; 张绪慧; 汤新跃

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the efficacy of recombinant human interleukin-11 ( IL-11) in treatment of oral mucositis related with nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC) radiotherapy.Methods 58 cases (from Mar 2013 to Dec 2014) with NPC were randomly divided into the observation group (recombinant human interleukin -11 group n = 30) and the control group (nomal saline group n = 28) . The patients were given conventional treatment if oral mucositis grade were II –IV.Results 1.The incidences of grade I were 46.7% , 3.60% and the incidences of grade III were 16.7%, 42.8% in the observation group and control group respectively(P < 0. 05) .2. in the observation group, the rate of radioactive mucositis at 20Gy and 30Gy was 33.3% and 63.4% respectively, which in the control group was 78.5% and 21.5% respectively(P < 0. 05). 3. The median time of occurrence on radiation mucositis in the observation group and in the control group was 18 and 11days respectively (P < 0. 05). 4. The mean time for radioactive oral mucositis of grade III lasting in the observation group and in the control group was 8.2 and 11.4 days respectively(P < 0. 05).Conclusions Compound recombinant human interleukin-11 solution is effective to prevent and treat the radiotherapy - induced oral mucositis reaction. It has no side effects. So it is valuable for clinical application.%目的:观察重组人白介素-11( IL-11)在防治鼻咽癌放射治疗相关性口腔粘膜炎的疗效。方法选取2013年3月~2014年12月在我院肿瘤科就诊的鼻咽癌患者58例,随机分为重组人白介素-11组(n=30)及生理盐水组(n=28),从放疗第一天开始至放疗,当两组患者出现II级及以上口腔粘膜炎时予常规对症处理。观察两组黏膜炎发生率,发生时间,反应程度及不了反应等。结果1.重组人白介素-11组和对照组I级与III级粘膜炎发生率分别为46.7%和3.60%,16.7%和42.8%(P<0.05);2.在照射剂量达20Gy及30Gy时,白介素-11组口腔

  16. Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Wine: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Archela

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the main constituents in wines is the phenolic compounds that comprise the phenolic acids, flavonoids, lignans and stilbenes. Those have an important paper on the wines properties like flavor, appearance, astringent and antimicrobial properties. Moreover, phenolics have been extensively study in having antioxidant properties that may help in the prevention of disease like certain types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, strokes and other diseases related to aging. So is important the development of the phenolic compounds determination methods to be more selective, fast and easy operation. This paper brings a review of the methods employed on phenolics determination until this year.

  17. Prevention IS Care

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-03-26

    This podcast provides an overview of the Prevention IS Care campaign, which provides HIV prevention tools for medical care providers to use on a daily basis with patients who are living with HIV.  Created: 3/26/2009 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/26/2009.

  18. Sustainability of prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, J D; Clayton, R

    2000-01-01

    This paper outlines the guidelines for sustaining prevention and makes suggestions for getting from the field's current status to greater levels of permanence for prevention. The paper begins by reviewing the status of prevention, then focuses on major considerations for achieving sustainability, including two processes of institutionalization, comprehensive programming and professionalism.

  19. Chickenpox Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Multimedia Related Links Medline Plus Healthfinder.gov Shingles Prevention & Treatment Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... by Your Doctor Español: Prevención y tratamiento Prevention The best way to prevent chickenpox is to ...

  20. Preventive Medicine Redefined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, George

    1981-01-01

    Departments of preventive medicine can survive through unity, which can be achieved through majority agreement on a new and specific definition of preventive medicine. A definition is proposed that is based on a review and analysis of recent progress in the prevention of the major causes of mortality. (MLW)

  1. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  2. Membrane rejection of nitrogen compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Rejection characteristics of nitrogen compounds were examined for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and low-pressure reverse osmosis membranes. The rejection of nitrogen compounds is explained by integrating experimental results with calculations using the extended Nernst-Planck model coupled with a steric hindrance model. The molecular weight and chemical structure of nitrogen compounds appear to be less important in determining rejection than electrostatic properties. The rejection is greatest when the Donnan potential exceeds 0.05 V or when the ratio of the solute radius to the pore radius is greater than 0.8. The transport of solute in the pore is dominated by diffusion, although convective transport is significant for organic nitrogen compounds. Electromigration contributes negligibly to the overall solute transport in the membrane. Urea, a small organic compound, has lower rejection than ionic compounds such as ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite, indicating the critical role of electrostatic interaction in rejection. This suggests that better treatment efficiency for organic nitrogen compounds can be obtained after ammonification of urea.

  3. The demise of compound houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jørgen; Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    and the neighbourhood unity is a challenge for urban planners. However they represent good value for money, cost little to build, suit traditional inheritence patterns, allow independent life at low cost and allow sharing of services with a finite and known group (albeit within a potential conflictive domain). Compound...... of compound housing and analyses the advantages and disadvantages of life within such housing in Kumasi. Issues of privacy, image and communal life are usually cited by occupants dissatiesfied with life in compound houses, and the difficulty of extending them without spoiling the open spaces...

  4. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Michael S.

    1995-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS.TM., LEXAN.TM., LUCITE.TM., polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  5. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowell, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains colloidal silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{sup TM}, LEXAN{sup TM}, LUCITE{sup TM}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  6. Prevention Of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is an important cause for neurological morbidity and mortality. Prevention of ischemic stroke involves identification and prevention of risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy. Risk factors have been classified as modifiable and non-modifiable; control of modifiable factors should prevent stroke occurrence. Stroke prevention has been described at three levels: primary, secondary and tertiary. Prolonged hypertension increases an individual′s risk for developing fatal or nonfatal stroke by three times and its control has been shown to prevent stroke. Diabetes mellitus is an important cause for microangiopathy and predisposes to stroke. Statin trials have shown significant reduction in stroke in those who were treated with statins. Stroke risk can be reduced by avoiding tobacco use, control of obesity and avoiding sedentary life style. Anti platelet medications are effective for secondary prevention of stroke. Educating society regarding modifiable risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy form the cornerstone for the prevention of stroke.

  7. Chemopreventive compounds--view from the other side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodek, P; Krízková, J; Burdová, K; Sulc, M; Kizek, R; Hudecek, J; Stiborová, M

    2009-06-15

    Increasing attention is being paid to the possibility of applying chemopreventive agents for the protection of individuals from cancer risk. The beneficial potential of chemoprotective compounds is usually well documented by extensive experimental data. To assure the desired effect, these compounds are frequently concentrated to produce dietary supplements for human use. The additive and synergistic effects of other food constituents are, however, frequently ignored. Even natural chemopreventive compounds have to be considered as xenobiotics. Thus, as much attention has to be paid to their testing prior to their wide application as is usual in drug development for human treatment. Unfortunately, much of the research in this area is solely based on simplified in vitro systems that cannot take into account the complexity of biotransformation processes, e.g. chemopreventive compound-drug interaction, effect on metabolism of endogenic compounds. Hence, the predicted chemopreventive potential is not attained in respect of cancer prevention; moreover, the administration of high doses of chemopreventive compounds might be even detrimental for the human health.

  8. Effect of natural compounds on insulin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Paolo; Caselli, Anna; Camici, Guido; Cirri, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Results of several epidemiological studies have indicated that diabetes mellitus will become a global epidemic in the next decades, being more than 400 million the human subjects in the world affected by this disease in the 2030. Most of these subjects will be affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) whose diffusion is mainly related to excessive caloric upload, sedentary life and obesity. Typically, the treatment for T2DM is diet, weight control, physical activity or hypoglycaemic and/or lipid-lowering drugs. Unfortunately, these drugs often show low effectiveness or adverse side effects, thereby forcing patient to discontinue medical treatment. Nevertheless traditional medicine suggests the use of several formulations or medicinal foods to treat T2DM. Most of them are characterized by safety, low cost, effectiveness, and good availability. Before the advent of modern pharmacology, these remedies were used to treat diabetes and obesity or prevent their onset. Today, we know that their effectiveness is due to the presence of several bioactive compounds able to influence insulin signaling pathway and cellular metabolism. In the last decades, many efforts have been carried out to clarify their action mechanism. Here we provide a classification of the natural compounds that stimulate the insulin pathway, highlighting their effectiveness in controlling glycaemia on diabetic animal models or improving insulin signaling in cellular systems.

  9. Enzyme catalytic nitration of aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Mingming; Wang, Kun; Dong, Runan; Gao, Haijun

    2015-06-01

    Nitroaromatic compounds are important intermediates in organic synthesis. The classic method used to synthesize them is chemical nitration, which involves the use of nitric acid diluted in water or acetic acid, both harmful to the environment. With the development of green chemistry, environmental friendly enzyme catalysis is increasingly employed in chemical processes. In this work, we adopted a non-aqueous horseradish peroxidase (HRP)/NaNO2/H2O2 reaction system to study the structural characteristics of aromatic compounds potentially nitrated by enzyme catalysis, as well as the relationship between the charges on carbon atoms in benzene ring and the nitro product distribution. Investigation of various reaction parameters showed that mild reaction conditions (ambient temperature and neutral pH), plus appropriate use of H2O2 and NaNO2 could prevent inactivation of HRP and polymerization of the substrates. Compared to aqueous-organic co-solvent reaction media, the aqueous-organic two-liquid phase system had great advantages in increasing the dissolved concentration of substrate and alleviating substrate inhibition. Analysis of the aromatic compounds' structural characteristics indicated that substrates containing substituents of NH2 or OH were readily catalyzed. Furthermore, analysis of the relationship between natural bond orbital (NBO) charges on carbon atoms in benzene ring, as calculated by the density functional method, and the nitro product distribution characteristics, demonstrated that the favored nitration sites were the ortho and para positions of substituents in benzene ring, similar to the selectivity of chemical nitration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. First flush of dissolved compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, P.; Holzer, P.; Huisman, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    In a crude conceptual approach it is commonly assumed that in a combined sewer system the concentration of dissolved compounds is diluted by an increasing flow rate due to rainwater inflow. However, theory of hydraulics suggests that these compounds are influenced by hydrodynamic effects....... It is known that since the wave celerity is higher than the flow velocity of the water, the increase of flow rate induced through rain runoff is recognised earlier at a certain downstream section of the combined sewer than the concentration increase of typical rain-water compounds originating from surface...... wash-off. This description implies that the wave front is formed from the fluid that was present in the sewer before the Bow rare increased, that is the sewage! By means of measurements and numerical simulations, it is shown that this effect may cause a significant impact of dissolved compounds...

  11. Optimization of compound gear pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾振辉

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces the performances of compound gear pump. Based on the target of having the smallest mass per unit volume, the paper established a mathematical model of optimization, and obtained the results of optimization of the pump.

  12. Multi-angle compound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Søren Kragh; Wilhjelm, Jens Erik; Sillesen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    to conventional B-mode imaging MACI offers better defined tissue boundaries and lower variance of the speckle pattern, resulting in an image with reduced random variations. Design and implementation of a compound imaging system is described, images of rubber tubes and porcine aorta are shown and effects......This paper reports on a scanning technique, denoted multi-angle compound imaging (MACI), using spatial compounding. The MACI method also contains elements of frequency compounding, as the transmit frequency is lowered for the highest beam angles in order to reduce grating lobes. Compared...... on visualization are discussed. The speckle reduction is analyzed numerically and the results are found to be in excellent agreement with existing theory. An investigation of detectability of low-contrast lesions shows significant improvements compared to conventional imaging. Finally, possibilities for improving...

  13. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowell, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a polishing compound for plastic materials. The compound includes approximately by approximately by weight 25 to 80 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 12 parts mineral spirits, 50 to 155 parts abrasive paste, and 15 to 60 parts water. Preferably, the compound includes approximately 37 to 42 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, up to 8 parts mineral spirits, 95 to 110 parts abrasive paste, and 50 to 55 parts water. The proportions of the ingredients are varied in accordance with the particular application. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  14. Fourth symposium on macrocyclic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, J. J.; Izatt, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    Both theoretical and experimental aspects of the properties and behavior of synthetic and naturally occurring macrocyclic compounds are covered in this symposium. This document contains abstracts of the papers. (DLC)

  15. Crystallographic properties of fertilizer compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, A.W.; Dillard, E.F.; Thrasher, R.D.; Waerstad, K.R.; Hunter, S.R.; Kohler, J.J.; Scheib, R.M.

    1991-02-01

    This bulletin is a compilation of crystallographic data collected at NFERC on 450 fertilizer-related compounds. In TVA's fertilizer R and D program, petrographic examination, XRD, and infrared spectroscopy are combined with conventional chemical analysis methods in identifying the individual compounds that occur in fertilizer materials. This handbook brings together the results of these characterization studies and supplemental crystallographic data from the literature. It is in one-compound-per-page, loose-leaf format, ordered alphabetically by IUPAC name. Indexes provided include IUPAC name, formula, group, alternate formula, synonyms, x-ray data, optical data. Tables are given for solids, compounds in commercial MAP and DAP, and matrix materials in phosphate rock.

  16. Cytotoxic Compounds from Brucea mollis

    OpenAIRE

    Tung, Mai Hung Thanh; Đuc, Ho Viet; Huong, Tran Thu; Nguyen Thanh DUONG; Do Thi PHUONG; Thao, Do Thi; Tai, Bui Huu; Kim, Young Ho; Bach, Tran The; Cuong, Nguyen Manh

    2012-01-01

    Ten compounds, including soulameanone (1), isobruceine B (2), 9-methoxy-canthin-6-one (3), bruceolline F (4), niloticine (5), octatriacontan-1-ol (6), bombiprenone (7), α-tocopherol (8), inosine (9), and apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10), were isolated from the leaves, stems, and roots of Brucea mollis Wall. ex Kurz. Their structures were determined using one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against KB (...

  17. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-08-12

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action.

  18. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action. PMID:27529277

  19. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-06-04

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories.

  20. Cyclodextrins as encapsulation agents for plant bioactive compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Pinho, Eva Patrícia Paiva Santos; Grootveld, Martin; Soares, Graça M. B.; Henriques, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Plants possess a wide range of molecules capable of improve healing: fibre, vitamins, phytosterols, and further sulphur-containing compounds, carotenoids, organic acid anions and polyphenolics. However, they require an adequate level of protection from the environmental conditions to prevent losing their structural integrity and bioactivity. Cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides arising from the degradation of starch, which can be a viable option as encapsulation technique. Cy...

  1. Bioactivity of phenolic acids: Metabolites versus parent compounds: A review

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic acids are present in our diet in different foods. In particular, mushrooms are a good source of these molecules. Due to their bioactive properties, phenolic acids are extensively studied and there is evidence of their role in disease prevention. Nevertheless, in vivo, these compounds are metabolized and circulate in the organism as glucuronated, sulfated and methylated metabolites, displaying higher or lower bioactivity. To clarify the importance of the metabolism of phenolic acids, ...

  2. Screening of Compounds against Gardnerella vaginalis Biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Gottschick

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV is a common infection in reproductive age woman and is characterized by dysbiosis of the healthy vaginal flora which is dominated by Lactobacilli, followed by growth of bacteria like Gardnerella vaginalis. The ability of G. vaginalis to form biofilms contributes to the high rates of recurrence that are typical for BV and which unfortunately make repeated antibiotic therapy inevitable. Here we developed a biofilm model for G. vaginalis and screened a large spectrum of compounds for their ability to prevent biofilm formation and to resolve an existing G. vaginalis biofilm. The antibiotics metronidazole and tobramycin were highly effective in preventing biofilm formation, but had no effect on an established biofilm. The application of the amphoteric tenside sodium cocoamphoacetate (SCAA led to disintegration of existing biofilms, reducing biomass by 51% and viability by 61% and it was able to increase the effect of metronidazole by 40% (biomass and 61% (viability. Our data show that attacking the biofilm and the bacterial cells by the combination of an amphoteric tenside with the antibiotic metronidazole might be a useful strategy against BV.

  3. Chemistry and Functionality of Bioactive Compounds Present in Persimmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Yaqub

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research has related the consumption of persimmon with the reduced risk of various diseases and particularly highlighted the presence of bioactive phenolic compounds for their therapeutic properties. Major phenolic compounds present in persimmon are ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and gallic acid. β-Cryptoxanthin, lycopene, β-carotene, zeaxanthin, and lutein are important carotenoids having antioxidant potential. They are important to prevent oxidation of low-density lipoproteins, safeguard beta cells of the pancreas, and reduce cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes mellitus, and damage caused by chronic alcohol consumption. In this paper, the chemistry and health benefits of bioactive compounds present in persimmon are reviewed to encourage impending applications and to facilitate further research activities.

  4. Molecular mechanisms for anti-aging by natural dietary compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Min-Hsiung; Lai, Ching-Shu; Tsai, Mei-Ling; Wu, Jia-Ching; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2012-01-01

    Aging is defined as a normal decline in survival with advancing age; however, the recent researches have showed that physiological functions of the body change during the aging process. Majority of the changes are often subject to a higher risk of developing diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, as well as the dysregulated immune and inflammatory disorders. Aging process is controlled by a complicated and precise signaling network that involved in energy homeostasis, cellular metabolism and stress resistance. Over the past few decades, research in natural dietary compounds by various organism and animal models provides a new strategy for anti-aging. Natural dietary compounds act through a variety mechanisms to extend lifespan and prevent age-related diseases. This review summarizes the current understanding on signaling pathways of aging and knowledge and underlying mechanism of natural dietary compounds that provide potential application on anti-aging and improve heath in human.

  5. Prevention of suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a major public health problem in India, probably even bigger than in the West. Suicidal behavior is the best conceptualized as a multifaceted complex problem involving social factors and mental illnesses. Broadly, there are two approaches to suicide prevention; population preventive strategies and high-risk preventive strategies. Population preventive strategies include reducing availability of means for suicide, education of primary care physicians, influencing media portrayal of suicidal behavior, education of the public, telephone helplines, and addressing economic issues associated with suicidal behavior. High-risk preventive strategy includes identifying individuals with high risk of committing suicide, intensively treating mental illness if present, and providing psychosocial support. Thus, prevention requires a multipronged effort with collaboration from various sectors including mental health professionals, social justice department, and macroeconomic policy makers.

  6. Prevent Infections During Chemotherapy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-24

    This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.  Created: 10/24/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 10/24/2011.

  7. Preventing food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Silva, Debra; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Thusu, Sundeep

    2013-01-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology is developing guidelines about how to prevent and manage food allergy. As part of the guidelines development process, a systematic review is planned to examine published research about the prevention of food allergy. This systematic review...... recommendations. The aim of this systematic review will be to assess the effectiveness of approaches for the primary prevention of food allergy....

  8. Prevention of Prosthetic Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremin O.V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Prevention in prosthetic dentistry is not just a regular oral hygiene and the prevention of caries in the early stages of its development. The initial goal of orthopedic and dental should be the ability to convey to the patient's sense of pros-thetics that proteziruya one saved more. An example is included prosthetic dental arch defects with bridges or single artificial crowns on implants that will prevent movement of teeth and the continuity of the dentition

  9. Sunburn: Treatment and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ...

  10. Bioaccessibility testing of cobalt compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopford, Woodhall; Turner, John; Cappellini, Danielle; Brock, Tom

    2003-08-01

    Testing of metal compounds for solubility in artificial fluids has been used for many years to assist determining human health risk from exposure to specific compounds of concern. In lieu of obtaining bioavailability data from samples of urine, blood, or other tissues, these studies measured solubility of compounds in various artificial fluids as a surrogate for bioavailability. In this context, the measurement of metal "bioaccessibility" can be used as an in vitro substitute for measuring metal bioavailability. Bioaccessibility can be defined as a value representing the availability of metal for absorption when dissolved in in vitro surrogates of body fluids or juices. The aim of this study was to measure and compare the bioaccessibility of selected cobalt compounds in artificial human tissue fluids and human serum. A second aim was to initiate studies to experimentally validate an in vitro methodology that would provide a conservative estimate of cobalt bioavailability in the assessment of dose from human exposure to various species of cobalt compounds. This study evaluated the bioaccessibility of cobalt(II) from 11 selected cobalt compounds and an alloy in 2 physical forms in 5 surrogate human tissue fluids and human serum. Four (4) separate extraction times were used up to 72 hours. The effect of variables such as pH, dissolution time, and mass-ion effect on cobalt bioaccessibility were assessed as well. We found that the species of cobalt compound as well as the physico-chemical properties of the surrogate fluids, especially pH, had a major impact on cobalt solubility. Cobalt salts such as cobalt(II) sulfate heptahydrate were highly soluble, whereas cobalt alloys used in medical implants and cobalt aluminate spinels used as pigments, showed minimal dissolution over the period of the assay.

  11. Preventing head injuries in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concussion - preventing in children; Traumatic brain injury - preventing in children; TBI - children; Safety - preventing head injury ... Helmets help to prevent head injuries. Your child should wear a ... sports or activities: Playing contact sports, such as lacrosse, ...

  12. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... prevent high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...

  13. Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? Most people with thyroid cancer have ... Cancer? Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  14. A Systematic Review of the Efficacy of Bioactive Compounds in Cardiovascular Disease: Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar D. Rangel-Huerta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD is rising and is the prime cause of death in all developed countries. Bioactive compounds (BAC can have a role in CVD prevention and treatment. The aim of this work was to examine the scientific evidence supporting phenolic BAC efficacy in CVD prevention and treatment by a systematic review. Databases utilized were Medline, LILACS and EMBASE, and all randomized controlled trials (RCTs with prospective, parallel or crossover designs in humans in which the effects of BAC were compared with that of placebo/control were included. Vascular homeostasis, blood pressure, endothelial function, oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers were considered as primary outcomes. Cohort, ecological or case-control studies were not included. We selected 72 articles and verified their quality based on the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, establishing diverse quality levels of scientific evidence according to two features: the design and bias risk of a study. Moreover, a grade of recommendation was included, depending on evidence strength of antecedents. Evidence shows that certain polyphenols, such as flavonols can be helpful in decreasing CVD risk factors. However, further rigorous evidence is necessary to support the BAC effect on CVD prevention and treatment.

  15. Cytotoxic Compounds from Brucea mollis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Hung Thanh TUNG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ten compounds, including soulameanone (1, isobruceine B (2, 9-methoxy-canthin-6-one (3, bruceolline F (4, niloticine (5, octatriacontan-1-ol (6, bombiprenone (7, α-tocopherol (8, inosine (9, and apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10, were isolated from the leaves, stems, and roots of Brucea mollis Wall. ex Kurz. Their structures were determined using one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against KB (human carcinoma of the mouth, LU-1 (human lung adenocarcinoma, LNCaP (human prostate adeno-carcinoma, and HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia cancer cell lines. Compound 2 showed significant cytotoxic activity against KB, LU-1, LNCaP, and HL-60 cancer cells with IC50 values of 0.39, 0.40, 0.34, and 0.23 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, compounds 3 and 5 showed significant cytotoxic activity against KB, LU-1, LNCaP, and HL-60 cancer cells with IC50 values around 1–4 μg/mL. Compounds 9-methoxycanthin-6-one (3 and niloticine (5 have been discovered for the first time from the Brucea genus.

  16. Current Research on Antiepileptic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Xi Wei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy affects about 1% of the world’s population. Due to the fact all antiepileptic drugs (AEDs have some undesirable side effects and about 30% of epileptic patients are not seizure-free with the existing AEDs, there is still an urgent need for the development of more effective and safer AEDs. Based on our research work on antiepileptic compounds and other references in recent years, this review covers the reported work on antiepileptic compounds which are classified according to their structures. This review summarized 244 significant anticonvulsant compounds which are classified by functional groups according to the animal model data, although there are some limitations in the data. This review highlights the properties of new compounds endowed with promising antiepileptic properties, which may be proven to be more effective and selective, and possibly free of unwanted side effects. The reviewed compounds represent an interesting possibility to overcome refractory seizures and to reduce the percentage of patients with a poor response to drug therapy.

  17. Associative asymmetry of compound words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Jeremy B; Boulton, Kathy L; Gagné, Christina L

    2014-07-01

    Early verbal-memory researchers assumed participants represent memory of a pair of unrelated items with 2 independent, separately modifiable, directional associations. However, memory for pairs of unrelated words (A-B) exhibits associative symmetry: a near-perfect correlation between accuracy on forward (A →?) and backward (?← B) cued recall. This was viewed as arguing against the independent-associations hypothesis and in favor of the hypothesis that associations are remembered as holistic units. Here we test the Holistic Representation hypothesis further by examining cued recall of compound words. If we suppose preexisting words are more unitized than novel associations, the Holistic Representation hypothesis predicts compound words (e.g., ROSE BUD) will have a higher forward-backward correlation than novel compounds (e.g., BRIEF TAX). We report the opposite finding: Compound words, as well as noncompound words, exhibited less associative symmetry than novel compounds. This challenges the Holistic Representation account of associative symmetry. Moreover, preexperimental associates (positional family size) influenced associative symmetry-but asymmetrically: Increasing family size of the last constituent increasing decoupled forward and backward recall, but family size of the 1st constituent had no such effect. In short, highly practiced, meaningful associations exhibit associative asymmetry, suggesting associative symmetry is not diagnostic of holistic representations but, rather, is a characteristic of ad hoc associations. With additional learning, symmetric associations may be replaced by directional, independently modifiable associations as verbal associations become embedded within a rich knowledge structure.

  18. Naval Special Warfare Injury Prevention and Human Performance Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-30

    3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01 JUL 10-30 JUN 12 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Naval Special Warfare Group 4 Injury Prevention and Human Performance...from suboptimal biomechanical, musculoskeletal, and physiological characteristics and is further compounded with poor or inadequate nutrition . The...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Naval Special Warfare Injury Prevention and Human Performance

  19. Can I Prevent Acne?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Can I Prevent Acne? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can I Prevent Acne? A A A en español ¿Puedo ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Why Do I Get Acne? Myths About Acne Should I Pop ...

  20. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir By living a healthy lifestyle, you can help keep your blood pressure in ...

  1. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  2. Prevention dependence of marihuana

    OpenAIRE

    VOJTĚCHOVÁ, Jiřina

    2012-01-01

    This diploma thesis finds out, confronts knowledge and experience with drugs at the pupils. It characterizes drug addiction, its emergence and reasons. It deals with the problems of drug prevention, their possibilities and practices applied at schools. It describes laws about using drugs. And the survey shows that the primary prevention of using marihuana cannot be underestimated.

  3. Prevention de la Poliomyelite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Baltazard

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available In Iran, the prevention of poliomyelitis is practically limited to vaccinatton This paper, however, gives a detailed account of the preventive measures attempting to check the spread of the infection and of those aiming at the reduction of the frequency of the paralytic manifestation

  4. IMPACT Youth Crime Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrington, Georgina; Wright, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Four models of crime prevention are discussed that arise from differing views of the causes of crime: criminal justice, situational, developmental, and social development models. Two activity-based youth crime prevention projects in Queensland (Australia) use developmental and social development models and expand local youth service…

  5. Antitumor Compounds from Marine Actinomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Salas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy is one of the main treatments used to combat cancer. A great number of antitumor compounds are natural products or their derivatives, mainly produced by microorganisms. In particular, actinomycetes are the producers of a large number of natural products with different biological activities, including antitumor properties. These antitumor compounds belong to several structural classes such as anthracyclines, enediynes, indolocarbazoles, isoprenoides, macrolides, non-ribosomal peptides and others, and they exert antitumor activity by inducing apoptosis through DNA cleavage mediated by topoisomerase I or II inhibition, mitochondria permeabilization, inhibition of key enzymes involved in signal transduction like proteases, or cellular metabolism and in some cases by inhibiting tumor-induced angiogenesis. Marine organisms have attracted special attention in the last years for their ability to produce interesting pharmacological lead compounds.

  6. [Triterpene compounds from Cirsium setosum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingling; Sun, Zheng; Shang, Xiaoya; Li, Jinjie; Wang, Rong; Zhu, Jie

    2012-04-01

    To investigate chemical constituents contained in cytotoxic petroleum ether extractive fractions from ethanol extracts of Cirsium setosum. The constituents were separated and purified by a combination of various chromatographic methods including silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and preparative HPLC. Structures of the isolates were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D, 2D NMR and MS methods. The compound structures were also determined by reference to literature. Twelve compounds were separated from the petroleum ether fraction of ethanolic extract and elucidated as lupenyl acetate (1), lupeol (2), lupenone (3), beta-amyrin (4), psi-taraxasterol (5), psi-taraxasteryl acetate (6), taraxasteryl acetate (7), marsformoxide B (8), alpha-amyrenone (9), beta-amyrenone (10), taraxasterone (11) and psi-taraxasterone (12). Of them, compounds 3, 5, 7-12 were separated from this genus for the first time.

  7. Blowout preventer; Utblaasningssikring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askeland, R.; Larsen, V.

    1997-06-16

    the invention relates to a blowout preventer particularly for use in drilling bore hole sections near the sea bed. It is adapted to prevent blowout of shallow gas in the bore hole. It consists of one annular flexibly expansible and contractible packing element, which by radially directed expansion is adapted to rest in a sealed condition against the wall of the bore hole and close the passage through the annular space of the same. The preventer comprises an inner sleeve element being limited telescopic displaceable in relation to the outer housing of the preventer and being spring loaded towards extended telescopic position when it is subjected to extra weight loading, and means which in the relative contracted telescopic position of the sleeve element and outer housing is adapted to close the passage through the inner cavity of the blowout preventer and established liquid connection to the packing element or elements for inflation thereof. 13 figs.

  8. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  9. Electronic Configuration of Yb Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temmerman, W.M.; Szotek, Z. [Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, WA4 4AD, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Svane, A. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Strange, P. [Physics Department, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Winter, H. [INFP, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Delin, A.; Johansson, B.; Eriksson, O.; Fast, L. [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, University of Uppsala, Box 530, 75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Wills, J.M. [Center of Materials Science and Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    1999-11-01

    The total energy differences between divalent and trivalent configurations of Yb ions in a number of Yb compounds are studied. Two different band theoretical methods, which differ in the treatment of the localized f electrons, are used. The results show that in all Yb compounds the valence energy differences are equal to the energy needed to localize an f electron. These valence energy differences correlate with the number of f electrons hybridizing with the conduction bands in the trivalent configuration. For divalent YbS, the pressure induced f -electron delocalization implies an intermediate valency, as also indicated by experiment. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society }

  10. Antiprotozoal compounds from Asparagus africanus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oketch-Rabah, H A; Dossaji, S F; Christensen, S B

    1997-01-01

    Two antiprotozoal compounds have been isolated from the roots of Asparagus africanus Lam. (Liliaceae), a new sapogenin, 2 beta, 12 alpha-dihydroxy-(25R)-spirosta-4,7-dien-3-one (1), which was named muzanzagenin, and the lignan (+)-nyasol (2), (Z)-(+)-4,4'-(3-ethenyl-1-propene-1,3-diyl)-bisphenol.......Two antiprotozoal compounds have been isolated from the roots of Asparagus africanus Lam. (Liliaceae), a new sapogenin, 2 beta, 12 alpha-dihydroxy-(25R)-spirosta-4,7-dien-3-one (1), which was named muzanzagenin, and the lignan (+)-nyasol (2), (Z)-(+)-4,4'-(3-ethenyl-1-propene-1,3-diyl...

  11. The structures of binary compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hafner, J; Jensen, WB; Majewski, JA; Mathis, K; Villars, P; Vogl, P; de Boer, FR

    1990-01-01

    - Up-to-date compilation of the experimental data on the structures of binary compounds by Villars and colleagues. - Coloured structure maps which order the compounds into their respective structural domains and present for the first time the local co-ordination polyhedra for the 150 most frequently occurring structure types, pedagogically very helpful and useful in the search for new materials with a required crystal structure. - Crystal co-ordination formulas: a flexible notation for the interpretation of solid-state structures by chemist Bill Jensen. - Recent important advances in unders

  12. Closing the gap between centralized and decentralized compound management approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, Marc R M; Steiner, Thomas; Hueber, Matthieu; Schopfer, Ulrich; Smith, Robert; Igo, Debra; Cantrell, Daryl; Hohos, Aaron; Kiwanuka, Andrew

    2008-12-01

    The demand for organized storage concepts to maintain, collect and distribute compounds has grown not only at pharmaceutical companies, but also at smaller research organizations and academic laboratories where there is the demand to store and retrieve substances systematically. However, budget limitations have prevented these smaller groups from buying costly storage systems offered by specialized commercial vendors. On the other hand, within pharmaceutical companies a need for inexpensive and flexible storage concepts has developed and complements the existing automated archives. For reasons of efficiency, most companies have built centralized facilities holding large collections of internal medicinal chemistry compounds to assist various, globally distributed research programs. This standardization and centralization though is not always ideal for a global organization. Therefore, site specific and localized requirements need to be addressed to ensure quick on site access to compounds without losing the global accessibility to them. In this article, we describe an approach towards a low cost and highly flexible store concept with manual compound stores of variable design addressing local needs, created to complement the existing automated stores. A key component of our implementation is the Compound Store Manager software which is capable of administering the different global stores. The developed backend system and centralized data management facilitates the operation and integration of the stores into an existing store environment.

  13. Non-targeted analyses of organic compounds in urban wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G; Sartori, Luci; Silva, Lorena M A; Silva, Bianca F; Fadini, Pedro S; Soong, Ronald; Simpson, Andre; Ferreira, Antonio G

    2015-09-01

    A large number of organic pollutants that cause damage to the ecosystem and threaten human health are transported to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The problems regarding water pollution in Latin America have been well documented, and there is no evidence of substantive efforts to change the situation. In the present work, two methods to study wastewater samples are employed: non-targeted 1D ((13)C and (1)H) and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis to characterize the largest possible number of compounds from urban wastewater and analysis by HPLC-(UV/MS)-SPE-ASS-NMR to detect non-specific recalcitrant organic compounds in treated wastewater without the use of common standards. The set of data is composed of several compounds with the concentration ranging considerably with treatment and seasonality. An anomalous discharge, the influence of stormwater on the wastewater composition and the presence of recalcitrant compounds (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactant homologs) in the effluent were further identified. The seasonal variations and abnormality in the composition of organic compounds in sewage indicated that the procedure that was employed can be useful in the identification of the pollution source and to enhance the effectiveness of WWTPs in designing preventive action to protect the equipment and preserve the environment.

  14. CANCER CAN BE PREVENTED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Life style factors are contributing significantly in cancer prevention. With the intake of proper and balanced diet ,cancer prevention is possible. Many foods are associated either with incidence or prevention of cancer. Plant based foods like fresh fruits, vegetables and whole grains rich in fiber, b-carotene, vitamins and antioxidants can prevent cancer. Fiber rich foods increase bowel movement, decreasing the absorption of cholesterol. Pumpkin, carrots contain b-carotenes. Leafy vegetables, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, peas and beans are rich in fiber and stimulate cancer preventing enzyme induction. Vitamin C rich citrus fruits can stimulate immune system. Garlic and onions can stimulate enzymes that can suppress tumor growth. Turmeric used in cooking can prevent colorectal cancer. Topical application of turmeric can prevent breast cancer in women. On the other hand, certain foods can cause cancer. Refined foods, high fat foods, deep fried foods, processed foods and low fiber foods increase cancer risk. Red meat, processed meat and barbeques contain a carcinogen called acrylamide. Foods prepared with hydrogenated fats contain transfats which increase risk for breast, ovarian, cervical and lung cancer. Consumption of alcohol increasing the risk for cancers of digestive system. LET US EAT RIGHT FOODS AND AVOID WRONG FOODS.

  15. Prevention of hip fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, P J

    1993-11-30

    For a 50-year old Caucasian woman today, the risk of a hip fracture over her remaining life-time is about 17%. Tomorrow the situation will clearly be worse because the continuous increase in life expectancy will cause a three-fold increase in worldwide fracture incidence over the next 60 years. Through diagnostic bone mass measurements at the hip and assessment of biochemical parameters, a great deal has been learned in recent years about reduction of hip fracture risk. Preventive strategies are based on prevention of falls, use of hip protectors, and prevention of bone fragility. The latter includes the optimization of peak bone mass during childhood, postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy, and also late prevention consisting in reversing senile secondary hyperparathyroidism, which plays an important role in the decrease of skeletal strength. This secondary hyperparathyroidism, which results from both vitamin D insufficiency and low calcium intake, is preventable with vitamin D3 and calcium supplements. They have recently been shown capable of providing effective prevention of hip fractures in elderly women living in nursing homes, with a reduction of about 25% in the number of hip fractures noted in a 3-year controlled study in 3,270 women (intention-to-treat analysis). In conclusion, it is never too early to reduce the risk of osteoporosis and never too late to prevent hip fractures.

  16. Organophosphorus Compounds in Organic Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameem, Muhammad Anwar; Orthaber, Andreas

    2016-07-25

    This Minireview describes recent advances of organophosphorus compounds as opto-electronic materials in the field of organic electronics. The progress of (hetero-) phospholes, unsaturated phosphanes, and trivalent and pentavalent phosphanes since 2010 is covered. The described applications of organophosphorus materials range from single molecule sensors, field effect transistors, organic light emitting diodes, to polymeric materials for organic photovoltaic applications.

  17. Students' Categorizations of Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domin, Daniel S.; Al-Masum, Mohammad; Mensah, John

    2008-01-01

    Categorization is a fundamental psychological ability necessary for problem solving and many other higher-level cognitive tasks. In organic chemistry, students must establish groupings of different chemical compounds in order not only to solve problems, but also to understand course content. Classic models of categorization emphasize similarity as…

  18. Halogenated compounds from marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Vale, Carlos; Rauter, Amélia Pilar

    2010-08-09

    Marine algae produce a cocktail of halogenated metabolites with potential commercial value. Structures exhibited by these compounds go from acyclic entities with a linear chain to complex polycyclic molecules. Their medical and pharmaceutical application has been investigated for a few decades, however other properties, such as antifouling, are not to be discarded. Many compounds were discovered in the last years, although the need for new drugs keeps this field open as many algal species are poorly screened. The ecological role of marine algal halogenated metabolites has somehow been overlooked. This new research field will provide valuable and novel insight into the marine ecosystem dynamics as well as a new approach to comprehending biodiversity. Furthermore, understanding interactions between halogenated compound production by algae and the environment, including anthropogenic or global climate changes, is a challenging target for the coming years. Research of halogenated metabolites has been more focused on macroalgae than on phytoplankton. However, phytoplankton could be a very promising material since it is the base of the marine food chain with quick adaptation to environmental changes, which undoubtedly has consequences on secondary metabolism. This paper reviews recent progress on this field and presents trends on the role of marine algae as producers of halogenated compounds.

  19. Compound Cuing in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity…

  20. Moessbauer spectroscopy in neptunium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamoto, Tadahiro; Nakada, Masami; Masaki, Nobuyuki; Saeki, Masakatsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Moessbauer effects are observable in seven elements of actinides from {sup 232}Th to {sup 247}Cm and Moesbauer spectra have been investigated mainly with {sup 237}Np and {sup 238}U for the reasons of availability and cost of materials. This report describes the fundamental characteristics of Moessbauer spectra of {sup 237}Np and the correlation between the isomer shift and the coordination number of Np(V) compounds. The isomer shifts of Np(V) compounds had a tendency to increase as an increase of coordination number and the isomer shifts of Np(V) compounds showed broad distribution as well as those of Np(VI) but {delta} values of the compounds with the same coordination number were distributed in a narrow range. The {delta} values of Np(VI) complexes with O{sub x} donor set suggest that the Np atom in its hydroxide (NpO{sub 2}(OH){center_dot}4H{sub 2}O)might have pentagonal bipyramidal structure and at least, pentagonal and hexagonal bipyramidal structures might coexist in its acetate and benzoate. Really, such coexistence has been demonstrated in its nitrate, (NpO{sub 2}){sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O. (M.N.)

  1. Bacterial degradation of fluorinated compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, Maria Isabel Martins

    2007-01-01

    Fluorine was produced for the first time by Henri Moissan in 1886, for which he received the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1906. The unique properties of fluorine have led to the development of fluorine chemistry and numerous synthetic fluorinated compounds have been prepared and tested for different

  2. Assimilation of Unusual Carbon Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelhoven, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Yeast taxa traditionally are distinguished by growth tests on several sugars and organic acids. During the last decades it became apparent that many yeast species assimilate a much greater variety of naturally occurring carbon compounds as sole source of carbon and energy. These abilities are indica

  3. Thermal Decomposition of Dicyclopentadienylarylvanadium Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, C.P.; Jelsma, A.; Teuben, J.H.; Liefde Meijer, H.J. de

    1977-01-01

    The thermolysis of compounds of the type Cp2VR (R = aryl) in the solid state has been studied. A distinct increase in thermal stability is observed upon substitution of the ortho-position of the aryl group. Thermal decomposition occurs with formation of RH, Cp2V, a vanadocene homologue with the

  4. Unpacking Noun-Noun Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Viktor; Barratt, Daniel; Zlatev, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    In two complementary experiments we took an integrated approach to a set of tightly interwoven, yet rarely combined questions concerning the spontaneous interpretation of novel (unfamiliar) noun-noun compounds (NNCs) when encountered in isolation, and possible (re)interpretations of novel as well...

  5. Preventing Financial Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    This paper investigates the Swedish tax authority’s (Skatteverkets) compliance initiative called Preventing Financial Crime. In Sweden tax evasion related to organised moon-lighting is defined as a major risk to the revenue collection and to the legitimacy of Skatteverket. The traditional approach...... to abating such tax evasion has been reformed and a new mix-method approach adopted. This approach combines a proactive strategy—Preventing Financial Crime—with a reactive inspection strategy. During one a month of intensive fieldwork in Sweden, I studied the daily work in Preventing Financial Crime. Based...

  6. Primary Prevention With Statins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin B; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend initiating primary prevention for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) with statins based on absolute ASCVD risk assessment. Recently, alternative trial-based and hybrid approaches were suggested for statin treatment eligibility. OBJECTIVES: This study...... prevention of ASCVD with statins was superior to the trial-based and hybrid approaches. Our results indicate that the ACC/AHA guidelines will prevent more ASCVD events than the trial-based and hybrid approaches, while treating fewer people compared with the trial-based approach....

  7. Prevention of lipohypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Kumar, Arun; Gupta, Yashdeep

    2016-07-01

    Lipohypertrophy is an important insulin injection site reaction, which has clinically significant sequelae, including a greater risk of glycaemic variability and higher insulin dose requirement. This article describes the prevention of lipohypertrophy, using the concept of levels of prevention. It enumerates methods of primordial, primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary prevention of lipohypertrophy. Focus on patient education, site rotation, avoidance of needle reuse, and dose titration when shifting from injection in lipohypertrophic lesions to normal subcutaneous tissue, helps minimize the development and impact of lipohypertrophy.

  8. Building in Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    this chapter devotes its focus primarily on the small bumps on the road by initially discussing how physical structural prevention can be an appropriate strategy not only to bring about behavioural change in the population as a whole but also to reduce the negative consequences of a stigmatising health...... discourse. To get an overall view of the effects of physical, structural preventive action, the second half of this chapter presents a model that, with its theoretical basis, may provide guidance in the compilation of new preventive strategies. This leads onto a concluding discussion of the ways in which...

  9. CSI cardiac prevent 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ramakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The CSI Cardiac Prevent 2015 was held at Hotel Taj Palace, New Delhi, on September 25-27, 2015. The major challenge was to create interest among cardiologists and physicians on preventive cardiology, a neglected area. The theme of the conference was "Innovations in Heart Disease Prevention.′′ This conference included "CSI at WHF Roadmap Workshop, Inauguration Ceremony, scientific program, plenary sessions, Nursing/Dietician track, Industry Exhibition, Social Events," Great India blood pressure Survey, and CSI Smart Heart App. A total of 848 delegates/faculties attended this conference against a total of 1140 people registered for the meeting.

  10. Prevention of EHI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Prevention of EHI Michael S. Ferrara, Ph.D., ATC, FNATA University of Georgia Dept. of Kinesiology ACSM/DOD Conference Report Documentation Page Form...3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prevention of EHI 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...Intervention C ancel Injury Rate by Work:Rest Guide HE Rate 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 78-81.9 82-84.9 85-87.9 88-89.9 >90 EHI Prevention - Environment

  11. Altered transport and metabolism of phenolic compounds in obesity and diabetes: implications for functional food development and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in application of phenolic compounds from diet or supplements for prevention of chronic diseases has grown significantly, but efficacy of such approaches in humans is largely dependent on the bioavailability and metabolism of these compounds. While food and dietary factors have been the foc...

  12. Compounding errors in 2 dogs receiving anticonvulsants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkey, Sandra E; Walker, Susan; Adams, Cathy

    2012-04-01

    Two cases that involve drug compounding errors are described. One dog exhibited increased seizure activity due to a compounded, flavored phenobarbital solution that deteriorated before the expiration date provided by the compounder. The other dog developed clinical signs of hyperkalemia and bromine toxicity following a 5-fold compounding error in the concentration of potassium bromide (KBr).

  13. Ideas for Hypertensive Experimental Study Prevented and Treated by TCM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振涛

    2004-01-01

    Hypertensive experimental studies prevented and treated by TCM are matured relevant studies of western medicine for reference, such as the hypotensive effect and elucidating its therapeutic mechanism. Comprehension in all literatures, most simple herbs and compound recipes show functions such as: Adjustment of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), like angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI);

  14. Ideas for Hypertensive Experimental Study Prevented and Treated by TCM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振涛

    2004-01-01

    @@ Hypertensive experimental studies prevented and treated by TCM are matured relevant studies of western medicine for reference,such as the hypotensive effect and elucidating its therapeutic mechanism.Comprehension in all literatures, most simple herbs and compound recipes show functions such as: Adjustment of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), like angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI);

  15. Reprogramming : A Preventive Strategy in Hypertension Focusing on the Kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tain, You-Lin; Joles, JA

    2015-01-01

    Adulthood hypertension can be programmed in response to a suboptimal environment in early life. However, developmental plasticity also implies that one can prevent hypertension in adult life by administrating appropriate compounds during early development. We have termed this reprogramming. While th

  16. Pollution prevention through chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, J.J.; Anastas, P.T.; Hassur, S.M.; Tobin, P.S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics

    1995-09-01

    Prosperity without pollution, and the consideration of how to achieve this economic and environmental imperative, has become the fundamental environmental theme of the 1990s. The new strategy--pollution prevention--will serve s the keystone of federal, state, and local environmental policy. The challenge is to switch from two decades of environmental policy based on pollution controls and government-mandated regulations to a future environmental policy based on pollution prevention, source reduction, recycling, and waste minimization. To make this change will require a new social compact among environmental, industrial, and regulatory interests. This chapter focuses on the role of chemistry and the contributions of synthetic and process analytical chemists. It also describes the implementation of pollution prevention concepts into the premanufacturing notice review process mandated by Section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and discusses the implications of pollution prevention for chemical safety. 55 refs.

  17. Scabies: Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Error processing SSI file Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir When a ... avoid outbreaks. Institutional outbreaks can be difficult to control and require a rapid, aggressive, and sustained response. ...

  18. Prevention of Listeriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Listeria (Listeriosis) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Listeria (Listeriosis) Questions & Answers Prevention People at Risk Pregnant Women ...

  19. Polio and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplementary Immunization Activity (SIA) Calendar Financing Financial Needs Investment Case Financial Resource Requirements GPEI Budget 2017 FRR ... tonsils (tonsillectomy) intramuscular injections, e.g. medications strenuous exercise injury Treatment and prevention There is no cure ...

  20. Prevent Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and prevent back pain: Do back-strengthening and stretching exercises at least 2 or 3 times a ... risk of back pain. Do back-strengthening and stretching exercises [PDF - 244 KB] at least 2 or ...

  1. Prevention in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Stephen; Bridgman, Colette; Brocklehurst, Paul

    2015-01-01

    for the conference, collected materials from scribes during the conference and additional resources collated in advance of the meeting, authors agreed on the summary document. RESULTS: The Prevention in Practice conference aimed to collate information about which diseases could be prevented in practice, how diseases...... and that the use of effective skill mix would be key to realizing efficiencies. The evidence base for prevention of caries and periodontal disease has been available for many years, as have the tools and techniques to detect, diagnose and stage the diseases appropriately. Dentistry finds itself in a enviable...... position with respect to its ability to prevent, arrest and reverse much of the burden of disease, however, it is clear that the infrastructure within primary care must be changed, and practitioners and their teams appropriately supported to deliver this paradigm shift from a surgical to a medical model....

  2. Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MMWR RSS VitalSigns RSS Error processing SSI file Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities Effective protection for children Language: ... more use of sealants and reimbursement of services. Dental care providers can Apply sealants to children at ...

  3. Prevention of Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Hwei; Chen, Ding-Shinn

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes life-threatening liver disease. It is transmitted through a horizontal route or a mother-to-infant route, and the latter is the major route in endemic areas. Prevention of HBV infection by immunization is the best way to eliminate HBV-related diseases. The HBV vaccine is the first human vaccine using a viral antigen from infected persons, which is safe and effective. Either passive immunization by hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) or active immunization by HBV vaccine is effective, and a combination of both yields the best efficacy in preventing HBV infection. The impact of universal HBV immunization is huge, with 90%–95% effectiveness in preventing chronic HBV infection. It is the first cancer preventive vaccine with a protective efficacy against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) of ∼70%. Nevertheless, further effort is still needed to avoid vaccine failure and to increase the global coverage rate. PMID:25732034

  4. Preventing pressure ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000147.htm Preventing pressure ulcers To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pressure ulcers are also called bedsores, or pressure sores. They ...

  5. Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to prevent clots or, less commonly, thrombolytics to dissolve them. Glossary Cesarean Birth: Birth of a baby ... Opportunities Careers at ACOG Sitemap Website Feedback American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 409 12th Street SW, ...

  6. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or removed safely. How are children exposed to lead? Lead-based paint and lead contaminated dust are ... What can be done to prevent exposure to lead? It is important to determine the construction year ...

  7. Histoplasmosis Risk and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Histoplasmosis Risk & Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Who gets histoplasmosis? Anyone can get histoplasmosis if they’ve been ...

  8. A blowout preventer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigor' yev, N.I.; Khayrullin, B.Yu.; Nomin, V.I.; Ukdov, I.A.

    1983-01-01

    A blowout preventer is proposed which contains a body, blocks with rods, tops, hydraulic cylinders, spindles linked with the rods of the hydraulic cylinders and with the blocks which are installed in spindle stops and locking devices. To ensure the capability of backing up the hydraulic drive with a manual drive when using the preventer with traverse linked hydraulic cylinders installed on the body parallel to the axis of movement of the blocks, the spindles are linked with the rods of the blocks by a telescopic helical connection, are connected with the traverses with the capability of turning and are made with beads for interacting with the traverses when the preventer is closed. The stops are equal in length to the travel of the block for locking the spindles during opening of the preventer.

  9. Infection Prevention in Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergam, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    The number of patients undergoing hematopoietic cell and solid organ transplantation are increasing every year, as are the number of centers both transplanting and caring for these patients. Improvements in transplant procedures, immunosuppressive regimens, and prevention of transplant-associated complications have led to marked improvements in survival in both populations. Infections remain one of the most important sources of excess morbidity and mortality in transplant, and therefore, infection prevention strategies are a critical element for avoiding these complications in centers caring for high-risk patients. This manuscript aims to provide an update of recent data on prevention of major healthcare-associated infections unique to transplantation, reviews the emergence of antimicrobial resistant infections, and discusses updated strategies to both identify and prevent transmission of these pathogens in transplant recipients.

  10. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  11. Settings for Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out more about suicide prevention in particular settings. American Indian/Alaska Native Settings Behavioral Health Care Inpatient Mental Health Outpatient Mental Health Substance Abuse Treatment Colleges and Universities Communities Crisis Centers/ ...

  12. Chemical Accident Prevention Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    These include chemical safety alerts, emergency preparedness and prevention advisories, and topical backgrounders. Excess flow valves, protecting workers in ethylene oxide sterilization facilities, reactivity hazards, and delayed coker units are covered.

  13. Polyp Prevention Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary objective of the Polyp Prevention Trial (PPT) is to determine whether a low fat, high fiber, high vegetable and fruit eating plan will decrease the recurrence of adenomatous polyps of the large bowel.

  14. Preventing eye injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daksha Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main challenge in developing a strategy to prevent eye injuries is that there are so many different causes and situations that can lead to eye injuries, each requiring a different approach.

  15. Preventing Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Newsletter Donate Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Knee Injuries Knee injuries in children and adolescent athletes ... this PDF Share this page: WHAT ARE COMMON KNEE INJURIES? Pain Syndromes One of the most common ...

  16. Role of bioactive food components in diabetes prevention: effects on Beta-cell function and preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yoon Sin; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive compounds found in fruits and vegetables can have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic effects and can be protective against various diseases and metabolic disorders. These beneficial effects make them good candidates for the development of new functional foods with potential protective and preventive properties for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes the most relevant results concerning the effects of various bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, vitamins, and carotenoids on several aspects of beta-cell functionality. Studies using animal models with induced diabetes and diabetic patients support the hypothesis that bioactive compounds could ameliorate diabetic phenotypes. Published data suggest that there might be direct effects of bioactive compounds on enhancing insulin secretion and preventing beta-cell apoptosis, and some compounds might modulate beta-cell proliferation. Further research is needed to establish any clinical effects of these compounds.

  17. Microbial air-sampling equipment, part 2: experiences of compounding pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixon, Bill; Cabaleiro, Joe; Latta, Kenneth S

    2008-01-01

    The most recent changes to Chapter 797 of the United States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary initiated an intense controversy about the frequency of cleanroom air sampling that is required to prevent the contamination of sterile preparations. For compounders who must purchase an air sampler to use in the cleanroom, choices abound. This article summarizes discussions from compounding pharmacists and their experiences with air sampling devices.

  18. Principles for prevention of toxic effects from metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landrigan, Philip J.; Kotelchuk, David; Grandjean, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    and their compounds. An entirely new structure and illustrations represent the vast array of advancements made since the last edition. Special emphasis has been placed on the toxic effects in humans with chapters on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of metal poisoning. This up-to-date reference provides easy...... and Toxicity Carcinogenicity of Metal Compounds Immunotoxicology of Metals Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Metals Ecotoxicology of Metals - Sources, Transport, and Effects in the Ecosystem Risk Assessment Diagnosis and Treatment of Metal Poisoning - General Aspects Principles for Prevention...... of the Toxic Effects of Metals Aluminum Antimony Arsenic Barium Beryllium Bismuth Cadmium Chromium Cobalt Copper Gallium and Semiconductor Compounds Germanium Indium Iron Lead Manganese Mercury Molybdenum Nickel Palladium Platinum Selenium Silver Tellurium Thallium Tin Titanium Tungsten Uranium Vanadium Zinc...

  19. Prebiotics for Prevention of Gut Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Ebersbach, Tine; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    It is our postulate that the field of prebiotic research has until now been characterized by a one-view-fits-all approach, implicating that if a putatively prebiotic compound is good for something, it is good for everything. One area where this implication has been proved insufficient regards...... the putative preventive effect of prebiotics against intestinal pathogenic bacteria. Although indeed most evidence on effects of prebiotics against infections is positive, some studies indicate that prebiotic carbohydrates cause increased susceptibility to specific gastrointestinal infections. Here, we review...... existing knowledge about the impact of prebiotics on infective agents in vitro and in vivo....

  20. Cytotoxicity of apigenin on leukemia cell lines : implications for prevention and therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruela-de-Sousa, R. R.; Fuhler, G. M.; Blom, N.; Ferreira, C. V.; Aoyama, H.; Peppelenbosch, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    Natural-food-based compounds show substantial promise for prevention and biotherapy of cancers including leukemia. In general, their mechanism of action remains unclear, hampering rational use of these compounds. Herein we show that the common dietary flavonoid apigenin has anticancer activity, but

  1. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1989-07-18

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  2. Bacterial Degradation of Aromatic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing X. Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic compounds are among the most prevalent and persistent pollutants in the environment. Petroleum-contaminated soil and sediment commonly contain a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and heterocyclic aromatics. Aromatics derived from industrial activities often have functional groups such as alkyls, halogens and nitro groups. Biodegradation is a major mechanism of removal of organic pollutants from a contaminated site. This review focuses on bacterial degradation pathways of selected aromatic compounds. Catabolic pathways of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene are described in detail. Bacterial catabolism of the heterocycles dibenzofuran, carbazole, dibenzothiophene, and dibenzodioxin is discussed. Bacterial catabolism of alkylated PAHs is summarized, followed by a brief discussion of proteomics and metabolomics as powerful tools for elucidation of biodegradation mechanisms.

  3. Microstructural degradation in compound tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salonen, J.; Auerkari, P. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In order to quantify microstructural degradation at high temperatures, samples of SA 210 / AISI 304 L compound tube material were annealed in the temperature range 540-720 deg C for 1 to 1 000 hours. The hardness of the annealed material was measured and the micro structure of the samples was investigated with optical and scanning electron microscopy. Microstructural degradation was characterised by the carbide structure in the ferritic-pearlitic base material and by the depth of decarburised and carburised zones of the compound tube interface. The observed changes were quantified in terms of their time and temperature dependence and diffusion coefficients of the process. The results can be used in estimating the extent of thermal exposure of high-temperature components after long-term service or after incidences of overheating. (orig.) (4 refs.)

  4. [Selenium and cancer: from prevention to treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozmanová, J

    2011-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential dietary component for all animals, including human beings, that is regarded as a protective agent against cancer. Although the mode of its anticancer action is not yet fully understood, several mechanisms, such as antioxidant protection through selenoenzymes, stimulation of DNA repair, and apoptosis in tumor prestages have all been proposed. Despite the unsupported results of the last "SELECT" trial, the cancer-preventing activity of Se has been demonstrated in a majority of epidemiological studies. Moreover, recent studies suggest that Se has a potential to be used not only in cancer prevention but also in cancer treatment, where in combination with other anticancer drugs or radiation it may increase the efficacy of cancer therapy. In combating cancer cells, Se acts as a prooxidant rather than an antioxidant, inducing apoptosis through the generation of oxidative stress. Thus, inorganic Se compounds, having high redox potency, represent a promising option in cancer therapy.

  5. Polymer-solvent molecular compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Guenet, Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    Crystallisable polymers represent a large share of the polymers used for manufacturing a wide variety of objects, and consequently have received continuous attention from scientists these past 60 years. Molecular compounds from crystallisable polymers, particularly from synthetic polymers, are receiving growing interest due to their potential application in the making of new materials such as multiporous membranes capable of capturing large particles as well as small pollutant molecules. The present book gives a detailed description of these promising systems. The first chapter

  6. Neoclassical compounds and language registers

    OpenAIRE

    Lasserre, Marine

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Neoclassical compounds are special in French morphology. With regard to their final elements, they are at the border of composition and derivation. If originally they were used to designate scientific or technical concepts, today they are commonly used in everyday language. In this paper, we will see how these different language registers come into play in the construction of these words containing neoclassical elements, both from a formal and from a semantic point of ...

  7. Triterpenes as potentially cytotoxic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudzik, Malwina; Korzonek-Szlacheta, Ilona; Król, Wojciech

    2015-01-19

    Triterpenes are compounds of natural origin, which have numerously biological activities: anti-cancer properties, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-viral, anti-bacterial and anti-fungal. These substances can be isolated from plants, animals or fungi. Nowadays, when neoplasms are main cause of death, triterpenes can become an alternative method for treating cancer because of their cytotoxic properties and chemopreventive activities.

  8. Compound facial expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M

    2014-04-15

    Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories--happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another.

  9. Cancer Prevention - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    A catalog of posts from NCI’s Cancer Currents blog on research related to cancer prevention. Includes posts on behavioral interventions and other ways to prevent cancer and prevention-related research programs.

  10. Studying the Propensity of Compounds to Supersaturate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmelund, Henrik; Madsen, Cecilie Maria; Plum, Jakob;

    2016-01-01

    Supersaturating drug delivery systems can enhance the oral bioavailability of poorly soluble drug compounds. Supersaturation of such compounds has been studied in many different ways; however, a more standardized method is required. The rationale of choosing suitable concentrations of supersatura......Supersaturating drug delivery systems can enhance the oral bioavailability of poorly soluble drug compounds. Supersaturation of such compounds has been studied in many different ways; however, a more standardized method is required. The rationale of choosing suitable concentrations...... of supersaturation to study has previously been very inconsistent. This makes comparisons between studies and compounds difficult, as the propensity of compounds to supersaturate varies greatly. This study presents a standardized method to study the supersaturation of drug compounds. The method allows, both......, for a ranking of compounds according to their supersaturation propensity and the effectiveness of precipitation inhibitors. The time-concentration profile of supersaturation and precipitation was studied in situ for 4 different concentrations for 6 model compounds (albendazole, aprepitant, danazol, felodipine...

  11. Phytotherapic compounds: the consumer-pharmacist relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchini, Marco; Cuzzolin, Laura; Camerlengo, Thomas; Velo, Giampaolo; Benoni, Giuseppina

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacists play an important role in providing information about natural products and in preventing risks related to these substances, particularly with respect to interactions with conventional drugs. For these reasons, a survey was specifically designed to investigate the quality of self-care counselling by pharmacists on phytotherapy. Twenty-three pharmacy stores took part in the project. Face-to-face interviews, using a pre-structured questionnaire, were undertaken by trained pharmacists to consumers buying a herbal product. The questionnaire included socio-demographic data and 17 items designed to elicit information regarding the reason of consumption, product knowledge, relationship/communication with healthcare providers, level of satisfaction, concurrent drug use and adverse reactions. The collection of interviews started in November 2006 until April 2007. From the analysis of 1420 questionnaires, it is evident that herbal use is increasing in Italy: 12% of our interviewees were buying a herbal product for the first time. The present survey highlights the favourable perception of efficacy of phytotherapic compounds by the pharmacy's consumers, who consider this healthcare modality to be an important and effective way to promote health/wellness and disease management as well as being safer overall than conventional drugs. Moreover, findings from this study demonstrate that pharmacists are more likely to answer correctly about the uses of herbal medicines than about drug interactions, adverse drug effects and cautions about these products.

  12. Phenolic compounds: their journey after intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velderrain-Rodríguez, G R; Palafox-Carlos, H; Wall-Medrano, A; Ayala-Zavala, J F; Chen, C-Y O; Robles-Sánchez, M; Astiazaran-García, H; Alvarez-Parrilla, E; González-Aguilar, G A

    2014-02-01

    Plant foods are rich in phenolic compounds (PCs) that display multifaceted bioactions in health promotion and disease prevention. To exert their bioactivity, they must be delivered to and absorbed in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, transported in circulation, and reach the target tissues. During the journey from ingestion to target tissues and final excretion, PCs are subjected to modifications by many factors during their absorption, deposition, metabolism and excretion (ADME) and consequently their bioefficacy may be modified. Consistent with all nutrients in foods, PCs must first be released from the food matrix through mechanical, chemical, and enzymatic forces to facilitate absorption along the GI tract, particularly in the upper small intestine section. Further, glycosylation of PCs directs the route of their absorption with glycones being transported through active transportation and aglycones through passive diffusion. After enteral absorption, the majority of PCs are extensively transformed by the detoxification system in enterocytes and liver for excretion in bile, feces, and urine. The journey of PCs from consumption to excretion appears to be comparable to many synthetic medications, but with some dissimilarities in their fate and bioactivity after phase I and II metabolism. The overall bioavailability of PCs is determined mainly by chemical characteristics, bioaccessibility, and ADME. In this review, factors accounting for variation in PCs bioavailability are discussed because this information is crucial for validation of the health benefits of PCs and their mechanism of action.

  13. The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

    2012-12-01

    An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted.

  14. Diabetes mellitus prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende-Vigo, Myriam Zaydee

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review lifestyle modification interventions and pharmacological clinical studies designed to prevent diabetes and provide evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of Diabetes Mellitus. A review of relevant literature compiled via a literature search (PUBMED) of English-language publications between 1997 and 2010 was conducted. It is found that people at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus can halt the development of the disease. Lifestyle modification intervention with reduction of 5%-10% of excess body weight and increase in moderate physical activity by 150 min/wk has consistently proven to reduce the appearance of diabetes in different at-risk populations. Pharmacologic interventions have also demonstrated the prevention of the appearance of diabetes in persons at risk. Bariatric surgery has decreased the appearance of diabetes patients in a select group of individuals. The progression from prediabetes to diabetes mellitus can be prevented. Lifestyle modification intervention changes with weight loss and increased physical activity are currently recommended for the prevention of diabetes.

  15. Steroid hormone activity of flavonoids and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, R S; Jenkins, D J; Diamandis, E P

    2000-07-01

    Soy isoflavones have been studied extensively for estrogenic and antiestrogenic properties. Other flavonoids, found in fruits, vegetables, tea and wine, have been much less tested for steroid hormone activity. We therefore assessed the estrogenic, androgenic and progestational activities of 72 flavonoids and structurally-related compounds. These compounds were tested on BT-474 human breast cancer cells at concentrations of 10(8)-10(-5) M, with estradiol (estrogen), norgestrel (progestin) and dihydrotestosterone (androgen) used as positive controls, and ethanol (solvent) as a negative control. pS2, an estrogen-regulated protein, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA), regulated by androgens and progestins, were quantified in tissue culture supernatants using ELISA-type immunofluorometric assays developed in-house. Of the 72 compounds tested, 18 showed estrogenic activity at 10(-5) M. Of this subset, seven also showed progestational activity at this concentration. The soy isoflavones, biochanin A and genistein, showed the most potent estrogenic activity, with a dose-response effect up to 10(-7) M. Of all other flavonoids, luteolin and naringenin displayed the strongest estrogenicity, while apigenin had a relatively strong progestational activity. Based on our data, we have formulated a set of structure/function relationships between the tested compounds. Flavonoids, therefore, exhibit significant steroid hormone activity, and may have an effect in the modification of cancer risk by diet, or in cancer therapeutics and prevention.

  16. Biological properties of garlic and garlic-derived organosulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iciek, Małgorzata; Kwiecień, Inga; Włodek, Lidia

    2009-04-01

    Medicinal properties of garlic (Allium sativum) have been widely known and used since ancient times till the present. Garlic enhances immune functions and has antibacterial, antifungal and antivirus activities. It is known to prevent platelet aggregation, and to have hypotensive and cholesterol- and triglyceride-lowering properties, although the latter features have been questioned. This review is focused on anticancer efficacy of Allium sativum, and attempts to explain the mechanisms of this action. Medicinal properties of garlic rely upon organosulfur compounds mostly derived from alliin. Organosulfur compounds originating from garlic inhibit carcinogen activation, boost phase 2 detoxifying processes, cause cell cycle arrest mostly in G2/M phase, stimulate the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, increase acetylation of histones. Garlic-derived sulfur compounds influence also gap-junctional intercellular communication and participate in the development of multidrug resistance. This review presents also other little known aspects of molecular action of garlic-derived compounds, like modulation of cellular redox state, involvement in signal transduction and post-translational modification of proteins by sulfane sulfur or by formation of mixed disulfides (S-thiolation reactions).

  17. Investigations on organogermanium compounds XII. Reactions of trialkylgermylalkalimetal compounds in hexamethylphosphoric triamide (HMPT) with some inorganic and organic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulten, E.J.; Noltes, J.G.

    1971-01-01

    Trialkylgermyl alkali metal compounds in HMPT have been found to be highly reactive nucleophiles. Reactions with some inorganic and organic compounds, such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, inorganic and orgaanic halides, aldehydes, ketones, epoxides and lactones are described. Several new

  18. Review paper: Cancer chemopreventive compounds and canine cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, S J; McEntee, M F; Legendre, A M

    2009-07-01

    Canine cancer has become more prevalent in recent years because of increased life expectancy and greater attention to the health of pets. The range of cancers seen in dogs is as diverse as that in human patients, and despite more intensive therapeutic interventions, fatality rates remain unacceptably high in both species. Chemoprevention is therefore an important means of confronting this disease. Because domestic pets share our environment, greater cross-application and study of the protumorigenic and antitumorigenic factors in our shared environment will benefit all species, leading to the development of new families of less toxic antitumorigenic compounds based on novel and established molecular targets. Currently, the most interesting cancer preventive agents are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligands, and dietary compounds. This article provides an overview of what is known about how these agents affect molecular signaling in neoplastic disease, with reference to reported application and/or study in dogs where available.

  19. Biological activities of lignin hydrolysate-related compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siseon Lee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lignin hydrolysates contain many different chemical species,including ferulic acid, coumaric acid, vanillic acid, vanillin,syringaldehyde and furfural. From the perspective of biofuels,these compounds are problematic and can cause downstreamloss of product if not removed prior to beginning the fermentativeprocess. In contrast, a search for these compounds withinthe literature turns up many papers where the same compoundshave beneficial properties pertaining to human health,including as antioxidants and in cancer prevention, or are involvedin bacterial cell-to-cell signaling. Consequently, this articlereviews the dual nature of these and other compoundsfound in lignin hydrolysates, highlighting both their detrimentaland beneficial activities. [BMB Reports 2012; 45(5:265-274

  20. Nanoscale doping of compound semiconductors by solid phase dopant diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Jaehyun, E-mail: jaehyun.ahn@utexas.edu; Koh, Donghyi; Roy, Anupam; Banerjee, Sanjay K., E-mail: banerjee@ece.utexas.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Chou, Harry [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Kim, Taegon [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Semiconductor R& D Center, Samsung Electronics Corporation, 1 Samsungjeonja-ro, Hwasung, Kyounggi 445-330 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jonghan [Advanced Analysis Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Cheongryang, P.O. Box 131, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-21

    Achieving damage-free, uniform, abrupt, ultra-shallow junctions while simultaneously controlling the doping concentration on the nanoscale is an ongoing challenge to the scaling down of electronic device dimensions. Here, we demonstrate a simple method of effectively doping ΙΙΙ-V compound semiconductors, specifically InGaAs, by a solid phase doping source. This method is based on the in-diffusion of oxygen and/or silicon from a deposited non-stoichiometric silicon dioxide (SiO{sub x}) film on InGaAs, which then acts as donors upon activation by annealing. The dopant profile and concentration can be controlled by the deposited film thickness and thermal annealing parameters, giving active carrier concentration of 1.4 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}. Our results also indicate that conventional silicon based processes must be carefully reviewed for compound semiconductor device fabrication to prevent unintended doping.

  1. Analysis of nonextractable phenolic compounds in foods: the current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Torres, Josep Lluís

    2011-12-28

    More than 500 phenolic compounds have been reported as present in foodstuffs, and their intake has been related to the prevention of several chronic diseases. Most of the literature on phenolic compounds focuses on those present in the supernatant of aqueous-organic extractions: extractable phenolics. Nevertheless, significant amounts of phenolic compounds remain in the solid residues after such extractions. These nonextractable phenolics are mostly proanthocyanidins, phenolic acids, and hydrolyzable tannins that are closely associated with the food matrix. Studies of this fraction of dietary phenolic compounds are scarce, and the few there are usually refer to particular types of phenolics rather than to the fraction as a whole. The present review reports the state-of-the-art methods that currently exist for analyzing nonextractable phenolic compounds in foods.

  2. Prevention of COPD exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Lange, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Exacerbations have significant impact on the morbidity and mortality of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Most guidelines emphasise prevention of exacerbations by treatment with long-acting bronchodilators and/or anti-inflammatory drugs. Whereas most of this treatment is evidence......-based, it is clear that patients differ regarding the nature of exacerbations and are likely to benefit differently from different types of treatment. In this short review, we wish to highlight this, suggest a first step in differentiating pharmacological exacerbation prevention and call for more studies...... in this area. Finally, we wish to highlight that there are perhaps easier ways of achieving similar success in exacerbation prevention using nonpharmacological tools....

  3. Prevention of food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S

    1997-01-01

    Development of a food allergy appears to depend on both genetic factors and exposure-especially in early infancy-to food proteins. In prospective studies, the effect of dietary allergy prevention programmes has only been demonstrated in high-risk infants, i.e. infants with at least one first degree...... relative with documented atopic disease. High-risk infants feeding exclusively on breast milk and/or extensively hydrolysed formula (eHF) combined with avoidance of cow's milk proteins and solid foods during at least the first 4 months of life are found to have a significant reduction in the cumulative...... incidence of food allergy, especially cow's milk protein allergy/intolerance (CMPA/CMPI), in the first 4 years of life. As no studies have been conducted pertaining to the preventive effect of avoidance of milk and other foods after the age of 4-6 months, recommendation of preventive elimination diets...

  4. Prevention of running injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Karl B; Sykes, Jeannie C; Walker, Katherine M; Jackson, Jonathan C

    2010-01-01

    Evidence for preventive strategies to lessen running injuries is needed as these occur in 40%-50% of runners on an annual basis. Many factors influence running injuries, but strong evidence for prevention only exists for training modification primarily by reducing weekly mileage. Two anatomical factors - cavus feet and leg length inequality - demonstrate a link to injury. Weak evidence suggests that orthotics may lessen risk of stress fracture, but no clear evidence proves they will reduce the risk of those athletes with leg length inequality or cavus feet. This article reviews other potential injury variables, including strength, biomechanics, stretching, warm-up, nutrition, psychological factors, and shoes. Additional research is needed to determine whether interventions to address any of these will help prevent running injury.

  5. Prevention of intracerebral haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Patrick; Mitra, Dipayan; Gregson, Barbara A; Mendelow, A David

    2007-07-01

    Nontraumatic intracerebral haemorrhages arise from a wide range of causes falling into two broad groups: discreet vascular "ictohaemorrhagic" lesions such as aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, cavernomas, tumours, and dural fistulae; and more generalised amyloid or hypertension related conditions. It is now possible using family history, associated risk factors and gradient echo MRI to predict cases at high risk of hypertensive or amyloid related haemorrhage. There is considerable potential for prevention of hypertensive haemorrhages by treatment of high risk cases with antihypertensive medication. As yet no effective preventative treatment for amyloid angiopathy related ICH has emerged although a variety of drugs are under investigation. Prevention of haemorrhage from ictohaemorrhagic lesions revolves around removal or obliteration of the lesion. Although there is a wide range of such lesions available treatments come down to three modalities. These are surgical excision, stereotactic radiosurgery and endovascular embolisation.

  6. Nutrition and melanoma prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, J Daniel; Wing, Gregory J; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2010-01-01

    Melanoma has continued to rise in incidence despite public efforts to promote sun protection behaviors. Because sunscreen use does not completely prevent skin cancer induced by ultraviolet radiation, additional chemopreventive methods for protecting against and reversing the effects of ultraviolet photodamage need evaluation. Recent years have brought increased interest in dietary factors, such as natural botanicals and vitamins, for the prevention of melanoma. This contribution provides a narrative review of the relevant, nutrition-related literature found by searching the keywords "melanoma chemoprevention," "nutrition and melanoma," "dietary botanicals and melanoma prevention," "green tea and melanoma," "vitamin D and melanoma," and "vitamin E and melanoma" in the PubMed database. Although randomized controlled trials of humans are lacking, basic science and epidemiologic studies show promising benefits of many natural products in chemoprevention for melanoma. Future studies, hopefully, will yield concrete answers and clarify the role of commonly available dietary nutrients in melanoma chemoprevention.

  7. Selenium prevents tumor development in a rat model for chemical carcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorkhem-Bergman, L.; Torndal, U. B.; Eken, S.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies in animals and humans have shown that selenium compounds can prevent cancer development. In this work we studied the tumor preventive effect of selenium supplementation, administrated as selenite, in the initiation, promotion and progression phases in a synchronized rat model for...

  8. Probiotics for allergy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, C E

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics, given either as a supplement or in infant foods, have been evaluated in randomised controlled trials for allergy prevention. Here, the aim is to give an overview of the results from these primary prevention studies and to discuss current strategies. In most studies, single strains or a mixture of strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria have been used--prenatally, postnatally or perinatally. Several meta-analyses have reported a moderate benefit of probiotics for eczema prevention, and the most consistent effect has been observed with a combined perinatal intervention in infants at high risk of allergic disease due to familial predisposition. In a recent meta-analysis, the use of multi-strain probiotics appeared to be most effective for eczema prevention. No preventive effect has been shown for other allergic manifestations. As long-term follow-up data on later onset allergic conditions (asthma and allergic rhinitis) are available only from a few of the initiated studies, reports from ongoing follow-up studies that are adequately powered to examine long-term outcomes are anticipated to provide more insight. Arguably, the differences in many aspects of study design and the use of different probiotic strains and combinations have made direct comparison difficult. To date, expert bodies do not generally recommend probiotics for allergy prevention, although the World Allergy Organization (WAO) in their recently developed guidelines suggests considering using probiotics in pregnant women, during breastfeeding and/or to the infant if at high risk of developing allergic disease (based on heredity). However, in concordance with other expert bodies, the WAO guideline panel stressed the low level of evidence and the need for adequately powered randomised controlled trials and a more standardised approach before clinical recommendations on specific strains, dosages and timing can be given.

  9. Lignan compounds and 4,4'-dihydroxybiphenyl protect C2C12 cells against damage from oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Ayumu; Saito, Yumiko; Maruyama, Kei

    2006-05-26

    Lignan compounds are known to have various biological activities, especially antioxidative effects. We investigated whether lignan compounds show antioxidative activity in myoblast C2C12 cells. Among 14 lignan compounds investigated, two lignans containing two phenolic functional groups, namely Gomisin J and GR-12, prevented hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced cell death. A simple compound, 4,4'-dihydroxybiphenyl, which was found to be a common component of Gomisin J and GR-12, also largely prevented H(2)O(2)-induced cell death and almost completely prevented H(2)O(2)-induced increases in p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Our present results provide a useful in vitro system for clarifying the molecular mechanisms of lignan-mediated antioxidative effects and evaluating lead molecules toward the development of therapeutic drugs.

  10. Gender-Based Violence Prevention. Issues in Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on gender-based violence prevention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Preventing Gender-Based Violence: An Overview (Linda Langford); (2) Q&A With Amelia Cobb; (3) Denim Day at HBCUs; (4) Dear Colleague Letter; (5) ED Grants for Violence Prevention; and (6) Higher Education Center…

  11. Community How To Guide On Underage Drinking Prevention: Prevention & Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Governors' Highway Safety Representatives.

    Underage drinking prevention has two goals: prevent harm to the individual drinker and prevent harm to society. Modern prevention programs should be measured not by their intentions, but by their consequences: reducing the number of criminal events, reducing the amount of harm to individuals, and reducing the harm to society. This guide discusses…

  12. Malaria prevention in travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genton, Blaise; D'Acremont, Valérie

    2012-09-01

    A common approach to malaria prevention is to follow the "A, B, C, D" rule: Awareness of risk, Bite avoidance, Compliance with chemoprophylaxis, and prompt Diagnosis in case of fever. The risk of acquiring malaria depends on the length and intensity of exposure; the risk of developing severe disease is primarily determined by the health status of the traveler. These parameters need to be assessed before recommending chemoprophylaxis and/or stand-by emergency treatment. This review discusses the different strategies and drug options available for the prevention of malaria during and post travel.

  13. Nanomaterials in preventive dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannig, Matthias; Hannig, Christian

    2010-08-01

    The prevention of tooth decay and the treatment of lesions and cavities are ongoing challenges in dentistry. In recent years, biomimetic approaches have been used to develop nanomaterials for inclusion in a variety of oral health-care products. Examples include liquids and pastes that contain nano-apatites for biofilm management at the tooth surface, and products that contain nanomaterials for the remineralization of early submicrometre-sized enamel lesions. However, the treatment of larger visible cavities with nanomaterials is still at the research stage. Here, we review progress in the development of nanomaterials for different applications in preventive dentistry and research, including clinical trials.

  14. [Preventive strategies for dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Patrick; Schmicker, Marlen; Müller, Notger G

    2017-05-01

    In the context of the demographically induced increase in the prevalence of dementia and the simultaneous lack of causal pharmacological therapies, preventive approaches are gaining in importance. By reducing risk factors and with measures which induce neuroplasticity successful aging can be supported. This article summarizes the current developments in preventing dementia by modification of life style factors. The main focus lies on the impact of cognitive and physical activity on neuroprotection. A promising approach combines both activities within a dance training program. Further studies that meet the demanding criteria of a randomized clinical trial are urgently needed.

  15. Preventing Melanoma PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.  Created: 6/2/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/2/2015.

  16. Pediatric transplantation: preventing thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J D

    2015-06-01

    Due to progressive advances in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive therapies, and supportive care, outcomes from both solid organ transplantation and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation continue to improve. Thrombosis remains a challenging management issue in this context, with implications for both graft survival and long-term quality of life. Unfortunately, there remains a general paucity of pediatric-specific data regarding thrombosis incidence, risk stratification, and the safety or efficacy of preventative strategies with which to guide treatment algorithms. This review summarizes the available evidence and rationale underlying the spectrum of current practices aimed at preventing thrombosis in the transplant recipient, with a particular focus on risk factors, pathophysiology, and described antithrombotic regimens.

  17. HOW TO PREVENT FRAUD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela – Corina Chersan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Fraud can range from minor employee theft and unproductive behavior tomisappropriation of assets and fraudulent financial reporting. The risk of fraud can be reduced through a combination of prevention and detection measures. Moreover, prevention and deterrence measures are much less costly than the time and expense required for fraud detection and investigation. The information presented in this document generally is applicable to entities of all sizes. However, the degree to which certain programs and controls are applied in smaller, less-complex entities and the formality of theirapplication are likely to differ from larger organizations.

  18. Volatile flavor compounds in yogurt: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa

    2010-11-01

    Considerable knowledge has been accumulated on the volatile compounds contributing to the aroma and flavor of yogurt. This review outlines the production of the major flavor compounds in yogurt fermentation and the analysis techniques, both instrumental and sensory, for quantifying the volatile compounds in yogurt. The volatile compounds that have been identified in plain yogurt are summarized, with the few key aroma compounds described in detail. Most flavor compounds in yogurt are produced from lipolysis of milkfat and microbiological transformations of lactose and citrate. More than 100 volatiles, including carbonyl compounds, alcohols, acids, esters, hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, sulfur-containing compounds, and heterocyclic compounds, are found in yogurt at low to trace concentrations. Besides lactic acid, acetaldehyde, diacetyl, acetoin, acetone, and 2-butanone contribute most to the typical aroma and flavor of yogurt. Extended storage of yogurt causes off-flavor development, which is mainly attributed to the production of undesired aldehydes and fatty acids during lipid oxidation. Further work on studying the volatile flavor compounds-matrix interactions, flavor release mechanisms, and the synergistic effect of flavor compounds, and on correlating the sensory properties of yogurt with the compositions of volatile flavor compounds are needed to fully elucidate yogurt aroma and flavor.

  19. The emerging role of preventive medicine in health diplomacy after the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, James D; Price, Owen; West, David F

    2008-02-01

    On October 22, 2005, a preventive medicine team deployed with the 212th Mobile Army Surgical Hospital to assist with earthquake relief efforts in Pakistani-controlled Kashmir. These efforts included core field preventive medicine but quickly extended into other efforts. In collaboration with the host nation and other organizations, the preventive medicine team performed additional support for operations outside the U.S. compound, including water and sanitation assessments of camps for internally displaced persons, communicable disease investigation and control, and vaccination programs. Preventive medicine personnel were vital to health diplomacy efforts in this operation, particularly because of security concerns that prevented other U.S. medical assets from leaving the compound. Comparisons with the U.S. responses during other humanitarian operations are made. Preventive medicine missions in health diplomacy will continue to increase. Training and collaborative relationships with other government agencies, such as the U.S. Agency for International Development, and with nongovernmental organizations should continue to be developed.

  20. Nitrogen Compounds in Radiation Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, H.E. [NNL Sellafield (United Kingdom); Dey, G.R. [Radiation and Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Vaudey, C.E.; Peaucelle, C. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon - IPNL, 69 - Lyon (France); Boucher, J.L. [Lab. de Chimie et Biochimie Pharmacologiques et Toxicologiques, UMR 8601 CNRS 45 rue des Saints Peres, 75270 Paris cedex 06, Univ Paris 5, 75 (France); Toulhoat, N. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (France); Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique CEA/DEN, Centre de Saclay (France); Bererd, N. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (France); IUT Departement Chimie, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1 (France); Koppenol, W.H. [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Janata, E. [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Materialien und Energie, Solar Energy Research, Berlin (Germany); Dauvois, V.; Durand, D.; Legand, S.; Roujou, J.L.; Doizi, D.; Dannoux, A.; Lamouroux, C. [Laboratoire de Speciation des Radionucleides et des Molecules, DEN/DPC/Service d' Etude du Comportement des Radionucleides, CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur yvette (France)

    2009-07-01

    Water radiolysis in presence of N{sub 2} is probably the topic the most controversy in the field of water radiolysis. It still exists a strong discrepancy between the different reports of ammonia formation by water radiolysis in presence of N{sub 2} and moreover in absence of oxygen there is no agreement on the formation or not of nitrogen oxide like NO{sub 2}- and NO{sub 3}-. These discrepancies come from multiple sources: - the complexity of the reaction mechanisms where nitrogen is involved - the experimental difficulties - and, the irradiation conditions. The aim of the workshop is to capitalize the knowledge needed to go further in simulations and understanding the problems caused (or not) by the presence of nitrogen / water in the environment of radioactive materials. Implications are evident in terms of corrosion, understanding of biological systems and atmospheric chemistry under radiation. Topics covered include experimental and theoretical approaches, application and fundamental researches: - Nitrate and Ammonia in radiation chemistry in nuclear cycle; - NOx in biological systems and atmospheric chemistry; - Formation of Nitrogen compounds in Nuclear installations; - Nitrogen in future power plant projects (Gen4, ITER...) and large particle accelerators. This document gathers the transparencies available for 7 of the presentations given at this workshop. These are: - H.E SIMS: 'Radiation Chemistry of Nitrogen Compounds in Nuclear Power Plant'; - G.R. DEY: 'Nitrogen Compounds Formation in the Radiolysis of Aqueous Solutions'; - C.E. VAUDEY et al.: 'Radiolytic corrosion of nuclear graphite studied with the dedicated gas irradiation cell of IPNL'; - J.L. BOUCHER: 'Roles and biosynthesis of NO in eukaryotes and prokaryotes'; - W.H. KOPPENOL: 'Chemistry of NOx'; - E. JANATA: 'Yield of OH in N{sub 2}O saturated aqueous solution'; - V. DAUVOIS: 'Analytical strategy for the study of radiolysis gases'

  1. Cyclodextrins as encapsulation agents for plant bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Eva; Grootveld, Martin; Soares, Graça; Henriques, Mariana

    2014-01-30

    Plants possess a wide range of molecules capable of improve healing: fibre, vitamins, phytosterols, and further sulphur-containing compounds, carotenoids, organic acid anions and polyphenolics. However, they require an adequate level of protection from the environmental conditions to prevent losing their structural integrity and bioactivity. Cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides arising from the degradation of starch, which can be a viable option as encapsulation technique. Cyclodextrins are inexpensive, friendly to humans, and also capable of improving the biological, chemical and physical properties of bioactive molecules. Therefore, the aim of this review is to highlight the use of cyclodextrins as encapsulating agents for bioactive plant molecules in the pharmaceutical field.

  2. Bacterial degradation of detergent compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnow, R A; Harrison, A P

    1972-10-01

    A survey for surfactant degradation among aerobic bacteria has been undertaken. Tests have been made in peptone medium where such a degradation, if it occurs, will be gratuitous. Tallow-alkyl-sulfate, alkyl-ethoxylate-sulfate, and linear-alkyl-benzene-sulfonate were used. Forty-five strains of 34 species in 19 genera degrade one or more of these detergent compounds. With some species, the surfactant inhibits degradation without inhibiting growth, whereas with one species slight degradation took place even at a toxic concentration of surfactant.

  3. Aroma compounds in fresh cut pomegranate arils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little published information exists regarding flavor and aroma compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum). Although arils have fruity and sweet characteristics, we found no publications describing actual compounds responsible for their typical flavor. Since most commercial usage of pomegranates in...

  4. Lipid encapsulated phenolic compounds by fluidization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds exhibit antioxidant and antimicrobial activities with applications as functional food and feed additives. Ferulic acid, a phenolic compound present in grain crops and lignocellulose biomass, was encapsulated with saturated triglycerides using a laboratory fluidizer. Stability of t...

  5. Therapeutic Phytogenic Compounds for Obesity and Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Soong Jung

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural compounds have been used to develop drugs for many decades. Vast diversities and minimum side effects make natural compounds a good source for drug development. However, the composition and concentrations of natural compounds can vary. Despite this inconsistency, half of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved pharmaceuticals are natural compounds or their derivatives. Therefore, it is essential to continuously investigate natural compounds as sources of new pharmaceuticals. This review provides comprehensive information and analysis on natural compounds from plants (phytogenic compounds that may serve as anti-obesity and/or anti-diabetes therapeutics. Our growing understanding and further exploration of the mechanisms of action of the phytogenic compounds may afford opportunities for development of therapeutic interventions in metabolic diseases.

  6. Formation of Reissert compound of bisbenzimidazole

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    A Reissert compound of bisbenzimidazole can be formed by first reacting benzimidazole with an aliphatic diacid chloride to form bisbenzimidazole and then reacting the bisbenzimidazole with an aliphatic acid chloride and cyanide to form the Reissert compound thereof.

  7. SELKIRK'S THEORY OF VERBAL COMPOUNDING: A CRITICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    English verbal compounds are "endocentric adjective or noun compounds whose head ... from phrase structure and does not simply constitute the "lower" portion ..... to V-ing' can, pragmatically, be made somewhat more specific, and approach.

  8. | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Injury Prevention Research

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-09-01

    Research provides the knowledge that we need to understand what is possible, what is not, and the best way to proceed in our intervention efforts.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 9/1/2009.

  10. Probiotics for preventive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minocha, Anil

    2009-01-01

    Gut flora and probiotics have potential to affect health and disease far beyond the gut. There is increasing evidence that probiotics have beneficial effects in preventing a wide range of conditions and improving health. Randomized, double-blind studies have provided evidence of the effectiveness of probiotics for preventing various diarrheal illnesses as well as allergic disorders. Evidence for their efficacy for use in the prevention and treatment of bacterial vaginosis and urinary tract infections is also mounting. In addition, probiotics may be useful for preventing respiratory infections, dental caries, necrotizing enterocolitis, and certain aspects of inflammatory bowel disease. Data also suggest that probiotics may promote good health in day care and work settings, and may enhance growth in healthy as well as ill and malnourished children. Results from meta-analyses and systematic reviews that combine results of studies from different types of probiotics to examine the effects in any disease state should be interpreted with caution. Specific strains are effective in specific disease states. No 2 probiotics are exactly alike; we should not expect reproducible results from studies that employ different species or strains, variable formulations, and diverse dosing schedules.

  11. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach that ...... valuable weapons for preventing pathogen contamination and fighting infectious diseases in the future....

  12. Rural Wellness and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... governors of U.S. states have implemented wellness and prevention programs in their states in the last few years. The programs generally promote healthy habits, understanding of risks associated with lifestyles, disease management practices, and regular physical activity. Worksites provide ...

  13. Neonatal Pressure Ulcer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheans, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of pressure ulcers in acutely ill infants and children ranges up to 27 percent in intensive care units, with a range of 16-19 percent in NICUs. Anatomic, physiologic, and developmental factors place ill and preterm newborns at risk for skin breakdown. Two case studies illustrate these factors, and best practices for pressure ulcer prevention are described.

  14. Prevention of relapsing backache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raspe, Heiner

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The condition of non-specific back pain is characterized by high prevalence, non satisfactory therapeutic options and severe socioeconomic consequences. Therefore prevention seems an attractive option to downsize the problem. However, the construction of effective preventive measures is complicated by the obscure aetiology of the condition, the multidimensionality of risk and prognostic factors (bio psychosocial model! and the variability of its natural as well as clinical course. This led to the development of a wide variety of preventive measures: e. g. exercise programs, educational measures (including back school, ergonomic modification of the work environment, mechanical supports (e. g. back belts as well as multidisciplinary interventions. For two reasons the workplace seems to be a suitable setting for prevention. First, because a number of strong risk factors are associated with working conditions and second, because it allows addressing a large proportion of the adult population. Against this background the assessment at hand sets out to answer the following questions: What is the amount and methodological quality of the available scientific literature on the effectiveness of back pain prevention in the workplace environment? What are effective measures for the prevention of back pain and its consequences in the workplace environment and how effective are they? Is back pain prevention in the workplace environment cost-effective? Is there a need for more research? As primary outcomes for effectiveness the assessment will focus on time lost from work and the frequency and duration of episodes with back pain. The preventive measures assessed belong to the following categories: exercise programs, educational and information measures, multidimensional interventions, back belts, lifting teams and ergonomic interventions. Methods: The assessment is based on a systematic review of the published literature according to the

  15. Building in Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Health interventions can be seen as initiatives that seek to prevent the emergence and development of impaired public health. Initiatives made in the area of prophylaxis can be experienced as anything from direct invasions of personal freedom to small traffic bumps on the roads. In this spectrum ...

  16. Responsible Hospitality. Prevention Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colthurst, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Responsible Hospitality (RH)--also called Responsible Beverage Service (RBS)--encompasses a variety of strategies for reducing risks associated with the sale and service of alcoholic beverages. RH programs have three goals: (1) to prevent illegal alcohol service to minors; (2) to reduce the likelihood of drinkers becoming intoxicated; and (3) to…

  17. PREVENTABLE ERRORS: NEVER EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narra Gopal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Operation or any invasive procedure is a stressful event involving risks and complications. We should be able to offer a guarantee that the right procedure will be done on right person in the right place on their body. “Never events” are definable. These are the avoidable and preventable events. The people affected from consequences of surgical mistakes ranged from temporary injury in 60%, permanent injury in 33% and death in 7%”.World Health Organization (WHO [1] has earlier said that over seven million people across the globe suffer from preventable surgical injuries every year, a million of them even dying during or immediately after the surgery? The UN body quantified the number of surgeries taking place every year globally 234 million. It said surgeries had become common, with one in every 25 people undergoing it at any given time. 50% never events are preventable. Evidence suggests up to one in ten hospital admissions results in an adverse incident. This incident rate is not acceptable in other industries. In order to move towards a more acceptable level of safety, we need to understand how and why things go wrong and have to build a reliable system of working. With this system even though complete prevention may not be possible but we can reduce the error percentage2. To change present concept towards patient, first we have to change and replace the word patient with medical customer. Then our outlook also changes, we will be more careful towards our customers.

  18. Preventing Skin Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-05-18

    A man and a woman talk about how they’ve learned to protect their skin from the sun over the years. .  Created: 5/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/18/2016.

  19. Bullying Prevention for Kids

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-19

    This podcast discusses what victims of bullying may experience and provides recommendations for coping with it.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  20. Preventing Violence in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Dean

    1995-01-01

    Elementary school principals are in a key position to prevent school violence. This document reviews five publications that feature strategies administrators and teachers can use to create a safe school. In "Creating Safe Environments for Learning in North Carolina's Public Schools," Tanya M. Suarez reviews the literature on school safety and…

  1. Preventing School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena

    2011-01-01

    School violence has mushroomed into a devastating epidemic and is deteriorating the basic foundation of education. In this article, the author will present several teaching strategies for preventing school violence from becoming an arduous enigma within the classroom and school environments, and focus on assessment and reflection in order to…

  2. Preventive medicine in 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2012-12-01

    This invited commentary imagines two futures for preventive medicine and public health in the Year 2030. Using satire, the commentary describes one future in which large corporations control public health and another where a robust public sector plays the leading role.

  3. Preventing Giardia Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, W. Nicholas

    1993-01-01

    Outdoor recreationists are at risk for developing giardia infection from drinking contaminated stream water. Giardia is the most common human parasite found in contaminated water that causes gastrointestinal illness. Describes medical treatment and ways of preventing infection through water treatment, including heat, filtration, and chemical…

  4. Eating Disorder Prevention Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapia, Jennifer L.

    This paper provides information for school psychologists regarding the necessity and benefits of school-based prevention programming for students at risk for developing eating disorders (i.e., females). School-based programming is a cost-effective means of reaching the largest number of individuals at once and identifying those individuals…

  5. Perinatal programming prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larguía, A Miguel; González, María Aurelia; Dinerstein, Néstor Alejandro; Soto Conti, Constanza

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, there has been outstanding scientific progress related to perinatal programming and its epigenetic effects in health, and we can anticipate this trend will continue in the near future. We need to make use and apply these achievements to human neurodevelopment via prevention interventions. Based on the concept of the interaction between genome and ambiome, this chapter proposes low-cost easy-implementation preventive strategies for maternal and infant health institutions.Breastfeeding and human milk administration are the first preventive measures, as has been reviewed in the policy statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Another strategy is the Safe and Family-Centered Maternity Hospitals initiative that promotes and empowers the inclusion of the families and the respect for their rights, especially during pregnancy and birth. (This change of paradigm was approved and is recommended by both United Nations Children's Fund, UNICEF, and Pan American Health Organization, PAHO.) Then, there is also an important emphasis given to the sacred hour-which highlights the impact of bonding, attachment, and breastfeeding during the first hour of life-the pain prevention and treatment in newborns, the control of the "new morbidity" represented by late preterm infants, and finally, the importance of avoiding intrauterine and extrauterine growth restriction. (However, there are not yet clear recommendations about nutritional interventions in order to diminish the potential metabolic syndrome consequence in the adult.).

  6. Two new acetylenic compounds from Asparagus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Mei; Cai, Jin-Long; Wang, Wen-Xiang; Ai, Hong-Lian; Mao, Zi-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Two new acetylenic compounds, asparoffins A (1) and B (2), together with two known compounds, nyasol (3) and 3″-methoxynyasol (4), were isolated from stems of Asparagus officinalis. The structures of two new compounds were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR). All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicities against three human cancer cell lines.

  7. Bioavailability of dietary phenolic compounds: Review

    OpenAIRE

    Erick Gutiérrez-Grijalva Paul Gutiérrez-Grijalva; Dulce Libna Ambriz-Pérez; Nayely Leyva-López; Ramón Ignacio Castillo-López; José Basilio Heredia

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are ubiquitous in plant-based foods. High dietary intake of fruits, vegetables and cereals is related to a decreased rate in chronic diseases. Phenolic compounds are thought to be responsible, at least in part, for those health effects. Nonetheless, phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and biotransformation is often not considered in these studies; thus, a precise mechanism of action of phenolic compounds is not known. In this review we aim to present a comprehensive knowled...

  8. Delinquency Prevention Works. Program Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilchik, Shay

    The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) compiled this summary in order to assist states and jurisdictions in their delinquency prevention efforts. The summary provides a synthesis of current information on a broad range of programs and strategies which seek to prevent delinquency. The theory of risk-focused prevention is…

  9. Prebiotic Evolution of Nitrogen Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrhenius, G.

    1999-01-01

    Support from this four year grant has funded our research on two general problems. One involves attempts to model the abiotic formation of simple source compounds for functional biomolecules, their concentration from dilute state in the hydrosphere and, in several cases, surface induced reactions to form precursor monomers for bioactive end products (refs. 1-5). Because of the pervasiveness and antiquity of phosphate based biochemistry and the catalytic activity of RNA we have exploring the hypothesis of an RNA World as an early stage in the emergence of life. This concept is now rather generally considered, but has been questioned due to the earlier lack of an experimentally demonstrated successful scheme for the spontaneous formation of ribose phosphate, the key backbone molecule in RNA. That impediment has now been removed. This has been achieved by demonstrating probable sources of activated (condensed) highly soluble and strongly sorbed phosphates in nature (Refs. 1,2) and effective condensation of aldehyde phosphates to form ribose phosphate in high yield (ref.6), thereby placing the RNA World concept on a somewhat safer experimental footing. Like all work in this field these experiments are oversimplifications that largely ignore competing side reactions with other compounds expected to be present. None the less our choice of experimental conditions aim at selective processes that eliminate interfering reactions. We have also sought to narrow the credibility gap by simulating geophysically and geochemically plausible conditions surrounding the putative prebiotic reactions.

  10. Superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Robert P. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Weller, Thomas E.; Howard, Christopher A. [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom); Dean, Mark P.M. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Rahnejat, Kaveh C. [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom); Saxena, Siddharth S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Ellerby, Mark, E-mail: mark.ellerby@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Historical background of graphite intercalates. • Superconductivity in graphite intercalates and its place in the field of superconductivity. • Recent developments. • Relevant modeling of superconductivity in graphite intercalates. • Interpretations that pertain and questions that remain. - Abstract: The field of superconductivity in the class of materials known as graphite intercalation compounds has a history dating back to the 1960s (Dresselhaus and Dresselhaus, 1981; Enoki et al., 2003). This paper recontextualizes the field in light of the discovery of superconductivity in CaC{sub 6} and YbC{sub 6} in 2005. In what follows, we outline the crystal structure and electronic structure of these and related compounds. We go on to experiments addressing the superconducting energy gap, lattice dynamics, pressure dependence, and how these relate to theoretical studies. The bulk of the evidence strongly supports a BCS superconducting state. However, important questions remain regarding which electronic states and phonon modes are most important for superconductivity, and whether current theoretical techniques can fully describe the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on pressure and chemical composition.

  11. When to Compound Medications for Veterinary Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Lauren Eichstadt

    2017-01-01

    This article serves as a brief discussion about some of the restrictions applicable to compounding medications for veterinary patients based on U. S. Food and Drug Administration compliance policy guidelines and provides a brief summary of when it is appropriate to compound medications for veterinary patients. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  12. Five new bioactive compounds from Chenopodium ambrosioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kun; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Hong-Qing; Liu, Chao; Li, Bao-Ming; Kang, Jie; Chen, Ruo-Yun

    2015-05-01

    Five new bioactive compounds, chenopodiumamines A-D (1-4) and chenopodiumoside A (5), were isolated from the ethanol extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by various spectroscopic means (UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). Compounds 1-3 had moderate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

  13. Semiconducting compounds and devices incorporating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Tobin J; Facchetti, Antonio; Boudreault, Pierre-Luc; Miyauchi, Hiroyuki

    2014-06-17

    Disclosed are molecular and polymeric compounds having desirable properties as semiconducting materials. Such compounds can exhibit desirable electronic properties and possess processing advantages including solution-processability and/or good stability. Organic transistor and photovoltaic devices incorporating the present compounds as the active layer exhibit good device performance.

  14. Semiconducting compounds and devices incorporating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Tobin J.; Facchetti, Antonio; Boudreault, Pierre-Luc; Miyauchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-19

    Disclosed are molecular and polymeric compounds having desirable properties as semiconducting materials. Such compounds can exhibit desirable electronic properties and possess processing advantages including solution-processability and/or good stability. Organic transistor and photovoltaic devices incorporating the present compounds as the active layer exhibit good device performance.

  15. Low-molecular compounds of erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Sorochan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose and free amino acids levels in rats’ blood plasma and erythrocytes hemolysate under carcinoma Geuren Т8 development as well as after introduction of Rhenium (III and сys-Platinum compounds were studied. The complex Rhenium (III compounds with organic ligands act as antioxidant and normalize the concentration of low-molecular compounds in erythrocytes under the carcinogenesis.

  16. Overview of gastrointestinal cancer prevention in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Min; Lee, Ho-Jae; Yoo, Jun Hwan; Ko, Weon Jin; Cho, Joo Young; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2015-12-01

    "War on cancer" was declared through the National Cancer Act by President Richard Nixon in 1971, but cancer statistics from the American Cancer Society and other sources indicated the failure of this war, suggesting instead focus on the message that a "prevention strategy" might be much more effective than cancer treatment. While cancer statistics notoriously showed sharp increases in incidence as well as in mortality concurrent with economic growth in Asia, fortunately Asian countries benefit from plentiful resources of natural compounds, which can prevent cancer. Just like cancer chemotherapeutics targeted to kill cancer cells in Western countries, natural agents activating molecular mechanisms for cancer prevention, reversion of premalignant tumors, and even ablation of cancer stem cells, are very abundant in Asia. Currently, these natural agents are under very active investigations targeting the hallmarks of cancer prevention, including selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells, suppression of growth factors or their signaling, suppression of cell proliferation and of cancer-promoting angiogenesis, induction of mesenchymal-epithelial transition, and disruption of the tumor microenvironment, developing promising cancer preventive agents. However, Asia is the most populous continent in the world and some Asian countries do not have the resources to implement cancer screening programs for early detection or treatment. In addition, despite the excellent cancer preventive screening strategies in some Asian countries, well-designed clinical trials for cancer prevention are somewhat delayed compared to Western countries. In this review article, several phytochemicals/phytoceuticals produced and studied in different Asian countries will be introduced, including Korean red ginseng (pride of Korea), curcumin (Indian spice for life), black or green tea (popular in Japan/Sri Lanka), genistein from tofu (famous Chinese food), diallylsulfide or S-allylcysteine (garlic

  17. Volatile organic compounds associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Ricardo; Coronado, Lorena M; Garrido, Anette C; Durant-Archibold, Armando A; Spadafora, Carmenza

    2017-05-02

    In order to identify new ways to prevent transmission of vector-borne diseases such as malaria, efforts have been made to understand how insects are attracted to humans. Vector-host interaction studies have shown that several volatile compounds play an important role in attracting mosquitoes to human targets. A headspace solid-phase micro-extraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HSPME GC-MS) analysis of the volatile organic composition of extracellular vesicles (EVs) and supernatants of ultracentrifugation (SNUs) was carried out in Plasmodium falciparum-infected cultures with high and low parasitemias. A list of 18 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was obtained from the EVs of both infected and uninfected RBCs with 1,2,3-Propanetriol, diacetate (diacetin) increased in the infected EVs, regardless of the parasitemia of the culture. The supernatant analysis, however, gave off 56 VOCs, with pentane 2,2,4-trimethyl being present in all the SNUs of uninfected erythrocytes but absent from the parasite-infected ones. Standing out in this study was hexanal, a reported insect attractant, which was the only VOC present in all samples from SNUs from infected erythrocytes and absent from uninfected ones, suggesting that it originates during parasite infection. The hexanal compound, reportedly a low-level component found in healthy human samples such as breath and plasma, had not been found in previous analyses of P. falciparum-infected patients or cultures. This compound has been reported as an Anopheles gambiae attractant in plants. While the compound could be produced during infection by the malaria parasite in human erythrocytes, the A. gambiae attraction could be used by the parasite as a strategy for transmission.

  18. Reliability at the Chip Interfaces: Delaminating the Silicon Die from Molding Compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlottig, G.

    2012-01-01

    This book describes a setup that allows to delaminate the Silicon-to-Molding Compound interface for obtaining interfacial fracture parameters: the Mixed Mode Chisel setup (MMC). With this device for the first time the delamination can be initiated and propagated, while preventing the occurrence of r

  19. Reliability at the Chip Interfaces: Delaminating the Silicon Die from Molding Compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlottig, G.

    2012-01-01

    This book describes a setup that allows to delaminate the Silicon-to-Molding Compound interface for obtaining interfacial fracture parameters: the Mixed Mode Chisel setup (MMC). With this device for the first time the delamination can be initiated and propagated, while preventing the occurrence of r

  20. A New Compound from Swertia cincta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-xing Liu; Qian Tian; Cui Yang; Hai-yan Wu; Shang-xiu Li; Gan-peng Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents from the whole plant of Swertia cincta.Methods The chemical constituents were purified by chromatographic methods such as silica gel column and Sephadex LH-20.The structures of these compounds were elucidated by MS,IR,and NMR analyses.Results Two compounds were isolated from S.cincta.Conclusion Compound 1 is a new compound named swercinctlactone A.Compound 2 is identified as (±)-gentiolactone and its configuration is confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction and optical specific rotation.

  1. Highly sweet compounds of plant origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Cheol; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2002-12-01

    The demand for new alternative "low calorie" sweeteners for dietetic and diabetic purposes has increased worldwide. Although the currently developed and commercially used highly sweet sucrose substitutes are mostly synthetic compounds, the search for such compounds from natural sources is continuing. As of mid-2002, over 100 plant-derived sweet compounds of 20 major structural types had been reported, and were isolated from more than 25 different families of green plants. Several of these highly sweet natural products are marketed as sweeteners or flavoring agents in some countries as pure compounds, compound mixtures, or refined extracts. These highly sweet natural substances are reviewed herein.

  2. Use of a compound of formula (I) to manufacture a medicament for treating gaucher's disease, pharmaceutical composition, a compound of formula (IB) and method for obtaining said compound

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Palacin, Pilar; Moya García, Aurelio; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Pocovi Mieras, Miguel; Giraldo, Pilar; Ortiz-Mellet, Carmen; García Fernández, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    [EN] Use of a compound of formula (I) to manufacture a medicament for treating Gaucher's disease in a human subject, a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of formula (I), compounds of formula (Ib) and method for obtaining said compounds.

  3. Veterinary Compounding: Regulation, Challenges, and Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Gigi

    2017-01-10

    The spectrum of therapeutic need in veterinary medicine is large, and the availability of approved drug products for all veterinary species and indications is relatively small. For this reason, extemporaneous preparation, or compounding, of drugs is commonly employed to provide veterinary medical therapies. The scope of veterinary compounding is broad and focused primarily on meeting the therapeutic needs of companion animals and not food-producing animals in order to avoid human exposure to drug residues. As beneficial as compounded medical therapies may be to animal patients, these therapies are not without risks, and serious adverse events may occur from poor quality compounds or excipients that are uniquely toxic when administered to a given species. Other challenges in extemporaneous compounding for animals include significant regulatory variation across the global veterinary community, a relative lack of validated compounding formulas for use in animals, and poor adherence by compounders to established compounding standards. The information presented in this article is intended to provide an overview of the current landscape of compounding for animals; a discussion on associated benefits, risks, and challenges; and resources to aid compounders in preparing animal compounds of the highest possible quality.

  4. Promiscuity progression of bioactive compounds over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ye; Jasial, Swarit; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    In the context of polypharmacology, compound promiscuity is rationalized as the ability of small molecules to specifically interact with multiple targets. To study promiscuity progression of bioactive compounds in detail, nearly 1 million compounds and more than 5.2 million activity records were analyzed. Compound sets were assembled by applying different data confidence criteria and selecting compounds with activity histories over many years. On the basis of release dates, compounds and activity records were organized on a time course, which ultimately enabled monitoring data growth and promiscuity progression over nearly 40 years, beginning in 1976. Surprisingly low degrees of promiscuity were consistently detected for all compound sets and there were only small increases in promiscuity over time. In fact, most compounds had a constant degree of promiscuity, including compounds with an activity history of 10 or 20 years. Moreover, during periods of massive data growth, beginning in 2007, promiscuity degrees also remained constant or displayed only minor increases, depending on the activity data confidence levels. Considering high-confidence data, bioactive compounds currently interact with 1.5 targets on average, regardless of their origins, and display essentially constant degrees of promiscuity over time. Taken together, our findings provide expectation values for promiscuity progression and magnitudes among bioactive compounds as activity data further grow.

  5. New permanent magnets; manganese compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coey, J M D

    2014-02-12

    The exponential growth of maximum energy product that prevailed in the 20th century has stalled, leaving a market dominated by two permanent magnet materials, Nd2Fe14B and Ba(Sr)Fe12O19, for which the maximum theoretical energy products differ by an order of magnitude (515 kJ m(-3) and 45 kJ m(-3), respectively). Rather than seeking to improve on optimized Nd-Fe-B, it is suggested that some research efforts should be devoted to developing appropriately priced alternatives with energy products in the range 100-300 kJ m(-3). The prospects for Mn-based hard magnetic materials are discussed, based on known Mn-based compounds with the tetragonal L10 or D022 structure or the hexagonal B81 structure.

  6. Antimicrobial compounds from Alpinia conchigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Ahmad Nazif; Ibrahim, Halijah; Rosmy Syamsir, Devi; Mohtar, Mastura; Vejayan, Jaya; Awang, Khalijah

    2013-02-13

    The rhizome of Alpinia conchigerahas been used as a condiment in the northern states of Peninsular Malaysia and occasionally in folk medicine in the east coast to treat fungal infections. In some states of Peninsular Malaysia, the rhizomes are consumed as a post-partum medicine and the young shoots are prepared into a vegetable dish. This study aimed to investigate the chemical constituents of the pseudostems and rhizomes of Malaysian Alpinia conchigera and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of the pseudostems, rhizomes and the isolated compounds against three selected fungi and five strains of Staphylococcus aureus. The dried and ground pseudostems (0.8kg) and rhizomes (1.0kg) were successively extracted in Soxhlet extractor using n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol. The n-hexane and DCM extracts of the pseudostem and rhizome were subjected to isolation and purification using column chromatography on silica gel using a stepwise gradient system (n-hexane to methanol). Briefly, a serial two fold dilutions of the test materials dissolved in DMSO were prepared prior to addition of 100μl overnight microbial suspension (108 cfu/ml) followed by incubation at 37°C (bacteria) or 26°C (dermatophytes and candida) for 24h. The highest concentration of DMSO remaining after dilution (5%, v/v) caused no inhibition to bacterial/candida/dermatophytes' growth. Antibiotic cycloheximide was used as reference for anticandidal and antidermatophyte comparison while oxacilin was used as reference for antibacterial testing. DMSO served as negative control. Turbidity was taken as indication of growth, thus the lowest concentration which remains clear after macroscopic evaluation was taken as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The isolation of n-hexane and DCM extracts of the rhizomes and pseudostems of Alpinia conchigera via column chromatography yielded two triterpenes isolated as a mixture of stigmasterol and

  7. Zirconium Compound with Boundless Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO FangCheng; ZHENG JingYi; LV WenGuang; CHEN ZhongXi; WU FengFeng

    2001-01-01

    @@ Zirconium compound has a wide-ranging use in the field of high and new technology. It is published in 2000'CHINA HIGH AND NEW TECHNOLOGY PRODUCT CATALOGUE , CHINA HIGH and NEW TECHNOLOGY PRODUCT EXPORT CATALOGUE, and INTERNATIONAL KEY AND URGING DEVELOPMENT CATALOGUE OF PROPERTY, COMMODITY AND TECHNOLNGY Zirconia with the characteristic of electricity, magnetism, optics and mechanies, has good advantageous in making configurable ceramic and functional ceramic, such as band filter, resonator, buzzer and other electronic elements; optical lens, upholster crystallize glasses and other glass; synthetic tooth, synthetic bones and other biological ceramic products; new type axletree, engine, valve, airproof loop and other components of internal-combustion engine and steamship; ferrozirconium and other high temperature ceramic paint. It become a new material which has a wide-ranging use in the field of electron, spaceflight, aerospace, metallurgy, chemistry, biology, medicine and etc.

  8. Zirconium Compound with Boundless Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO; FangCheng

    2001-01-01

    Zirconium compound has a wide-ranging use in the field of high and new technology. It is published in 2000'CHINA HIGH AND NEW TECHNOLOGY PRODUCT CATALOGUE , CHINA HIGH and NEW TECHNOLOGY PRODUCT EXPORT CATALOGUE, and INTERNATIONAL KEY AND URGING DEVELOPMENT CATALOGUE OF PROPERTY, COMMODITY AND TECHNOLNGY Zirconia with the characteristic of electricity, magnetism, optics and mechanies, has good advantageous in making configurable ceramic and functional ceramic, such as band filter, resonator, buzzer and other electronic elements; optical lens, upholster crystallize glasses and other glass; synthetic tooth, synthetic bones and other biological ceramic products; new type axletree, engine, valve, airproof loop and other components of internal-combustion engine and steamship; ferrozirconium and other high temperature ceramic paint. It become a new material which has a wide-ranging use in the field of electron, spaceflight, aerospace, metallurgy, chemistry, biology, medicine and etc.  ……

  9. Organic compounds in carbonaceous meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sephton, Mark A

    2002-06-01

    The carbonaceous chondrite meteorites are fragments of asteroids that have remained relatively unprocessed since the formation of the solar system 4.6 billion years ago. These carbon-rich objects contain a variety of extraterrestrial organic molecules that constitute a record of chemical evolution prior to the origin of life. Compound classes include aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, amino acids, carboxylic acids, sulfonic acids, phosphonic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, sugars, amines, amides, nitrogen heterocycles, sulfur heterocycles and a relatively abundant high molecular weight macromolecular material. Structural and stable isotopic characteristics suggest that a number of environments may have contributed to the organic inventory, including interstellar space, the solar nebula and the asteroidal meteorite parent body. This review covers work published between 1950 and the present day and cites 193 references.

  10. Prevention of acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Pee, Saskia; Grais, Rebecca; Fenn, Bridget;

    2015-01-01

    undernutrition during the first 1,000 days from conception to 24 months of age can reduce the risks of wasting, stunting, and micronutrient deficiencies. Under circumstances that exacerbate the underlying causes of undernutrition and increase the incidence of wasting, such as food insecurity related to lean...... seasons or emergencies, or increased incidence of illness, such as diarrhea or measles, additional efforts are required to prevent and treat wasting. Special nutritious foods directly meet the increased nutrient requirements of children at risk for wasting; assistance to vulnerable households, in the form...... of cash or food, enables households to better meet the food, health, and other needs of household members and may increase resilience; water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and health interventions help prevent and address illness and hence reduce wasting risk. The contributions of specific interventions...

  11. [Depression and suicide prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Mitsuhiko

    2007-09-01

    Suicide is a major public health problem and the number of suicide victims has exceeded 30,000 a year since 1998 in Japan. The rates of depression are extremely high in suicide victims. Social and environmental factors, such as the slow recovery of Japanese economy, could have a strong effect on depression and suicide, especially in middle-aged men. To reduce the number of suicide victims, we need to use both population-based and high-risk approaches, targeting individuals with high psychological and socioeconomic risks of suicide, especially depressed patients. On the other hand, the role of antidepressants in suicide prevention is a major question given the high prevalence of both depression and depression-related suicidality. Because treatment and prevention of suicide are complex and encompass many factors, success will need multi-sector collaboration.

  12. Prevention of acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Pee, Saskia; Grais, Rebecca; Fenn, Bridget;

    2015-01-01

    Acute malnutrition is associated with increased morbidity and mortality risk. When episodes are prolonged or frequent, acute malnutrition is also associated with poor growth and development, which contributes to stunting Nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive strategies to prevent...... undernutrition during the first 1,000 days from conception to 24 months of age can reduce the risks of wasting, stunting, and micronutrient deficiencies. Under circumstances that exacerbate the underlying causes of undernutrition and increase the incidence of wasting, such as food insecurity related to lean...... seasons or emergencies, or increased incidence of illness, such as diarrhea or measles, additional efforts are required to prevent and treat wasting. Special nutritious foods directly meet the increased nutrient requirements of children at risk for wasting; assistance to vulnerable households, in the form...

  13. The prevention of thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Antonio; Kan, Yuet Wai

    2013-02-01

    The thalassemias are among the most common inherited diseases worldwide, affecting individuals originating from the Mediterranean area, Middle East, Transcaucasia, Central Asia, Indian subcontinent, and Southeast Asia. As the diseases require long-term care, prevention of the homozygous state constitutes a major armament in the management. This article discusses the major prevention programs that are set up in many countries in Europe, Asia, and Australia, often drawing from the experience in Sardinia. These comprehensive programs involve carrier detections, molecular diagnostics, genetic counseling, and prenatal diagnosis. Variability of clinical severity can be attributable to interactions with α-thalassemia and mutations that increase fetal productions. Special methods that are currently quite expensive and not widely applicable are preimplantation and preconception diagnosis. The recent successful studies of fetal DNA in maternal plasma may allow future prenatal diagnosis that is noninvasive for the fetus.

  14. The Prevention of Thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Antonio; Kan, Yuet Wai

    2013-01-01

    The thalassemias are among the most common inherited diseases worldwide, affecting individuals originating from the Mediterranean area, Middle East, Transcaucasia, Central Asia, Indian subcontinent, and Southeast Asia. As the diseases require long-term care, prevention of the homozygous state constitutes a major armament in the management. This article discusses the major prevention programs that are set up in many countries in Europe, Asia, and Australia, often drawing from the experience in Sardinia. These comprehensive programs involve carrier detections, molecular diagnostics, genetic counseling, and prenatal diagnosis. Variability of clinical severity can be attributable to interactions with α-thalassemia and mutations that increase fetal productions. Special methods taht are currently quite expensive and not widely applicable are preimplantation and preconception diagnosis. The recent successful studies of fetal DNA in maternal plasma may allow future prenatal diagnosis that is noninvasive for the fetus. PMID:23378598

  15. Teleophthalmology in preventive medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Michelson, Georg

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date overview of the clinical applications, methods, and technologies of teleophthalmology within the field of preventive medicine. The ability of novel methods to detect the initial signs of neurodegenerative diseases on the basis of alterations in the retina is reviewed, and detailed attention is paid to the role of teleophthalmology in screening for vision-threatening diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. A major part of the book is devoted to novel imaging methods and the latest information technologies, including advanced mobile communication and Web 2.0 applications in teleophthalmology. In addition, the initial projects of an interdisciplinary cooperation in preventive medicine are described. All of the authors are experienced in the scientific and practical aspects of teleophthalmology, including e-learning, and have produced a book that will meet the needs of all medical care providers interested in using teleophthalmology.

  16. Novel preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    to that point. These include: approximal sealants; fluoride applications, including slow-release devices; measures to help remineralize demineralized tissue, including 3 different methods of delivering amorphous calcium phosphate; measures to help modify the biofilm to reduce the cariogenic challenge, including...... ozone therapy and probiotics; measures to increase enamel resistance to demineralization, including laser treatment of enamel, and a novel 'hybrid' technique for the treatment of primary molar caries which involves 'overlapping' of secondary and tertiary prevention--the Hall technique. Although many...... of these techniques show considerable promise and dentists should be aware of these developments and follow their progress, the evidence for each of these novel preventive treatment options is currently insufficient to make widespread recommendations. Changes in dental practice should be explored to see how oral...

  17. The formation of lithium diarylargentates from arylsilver compounds and the corresponding aryllithium compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blenkers, J.; Hofstee, H.K.; Boersma, J.; Kerk, G.J.M. van der

    1979-01-01

    Diarylsilverlithium compounds of the type Ar2AgLi are formed by treating arylsilver compounds with the corresponding aryllithium compounds. Cryoscopy in benzene shows that the Ar2AgLi compounds are associated into dimers. NMR spectroscopic data indicate that only one type of aryl group is present in

  18. [Preventing cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, P; Noël, J-C

    2015-09-01

    The incidence of cervical cancer has hopefully been dropping down in our industrialized countries since the introduction of both primary and secondary prevention. Nevertheless, it is still lethal in one out of two affected women though the introduction of cytological screening has dramatically reduced the mortality. Progressive diffusion of anti-HPV vaccination, the broadening of the viral types concerned, its association with existing screening measures and finally the introduction of viral detection as a screening tool must optimize the results already obtained.

  19. Wireless Intrusion Prevention Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack TIMOFTE

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The wireless networks have changed the way organizations work and offered a new range of possibilities, but at the same time they introduced new security threats. While an attacker needs physical access to a wired network in order to launch an attack, a wireless network allows anyone within its range to passively monitor the traffic or even start an attack. One of the countermeasures can be the use of Wireless Intrusion Prevention Systems.

  20. Osteoporosis Prevention and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Muralidhar V

    2017-08-01

    Osteoporosis, defined by BMD at the hip or lumbar spine that is less than or equal to 2.5 standard deviations below the mean BMD of a young-adult reference population, is the most common bone disease in humans affecting both sexes and all races. It's a silent killer affecting the quality of life due to fractures and postural changes. In osteoporosis there is an imbalance between bone formation and bone resorption in favor of latter. Preventive measures and treatments are available to combat this evil. Counseling is the integral part of prevention as well as treatment of osteoporosis. Preventive strategy includes life style changes, exercise, intake of calcium and vitamin D, avoiding alcohol, smoking and excessive intake of salt. Estrogen therapy/estrogen+progesterone therapy (ET/EPT) is no longer recommended as a first-line therapy for the prevention of osteoporosis. They may be used in the therapy for osteoporosis in women under 60. Diagnosis and classification are made by assessment of BMD using DEXA or ultrasound and laboratory investigations. Management includes estimation of 10-year fracture risk using FRAX, life style and diet modification and pharmacological therapy. The drugs used in osteoporosis may be those that inhibit bone resorption-bisphosphonates, denosumab, calcitonin, SERMs, estrogen and progesterone-or that stimulate bone formation-PTH, Teriparatide. Combination therapies are not recommended as they do not have proven additional BMD/fracture benefits. No therapy should be indefinite in duration. There are no uniform recommendations to all patients. Duration decisions need to be individualized. While on treatment monitoring should be done with BMD assessment by DEXA/ultrasound and bone turnover markers.

  1. Prevention of pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Kuroczycki-Saniutycz; Agnieszka Grzeszczuk; Zbigniew Wojciech Zwierz; Paweł Kołodziejczyk; Jakub Szczesiul; Beata Zalewska-Szajda; Krystyna Ościłowicz; Napoleon Waszkiewicz; Krzysztof Zwierz; Sławomir Dariusz Szajda

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) accounts for 95% of all pancreatic cancers. About 230,000 PDA cases are diagnosed worldwide each year. PDA has the lowest five-year survival rate as compared to others cancers. PDA in Poland is the fifth leading cause of death after lung, stomach, colon and breast cancer. In our paper we have analysed the newest epidemiological research, some of it controversial, to establish the best practical solution for pancreatic cancer prevention in the healthy...

  2. Can Metformin Prevent Cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Jakubowicz, Salomón; Hospital Universitario de Caracas

    2015-01-01

    The drug metformin is widely used for 50 years by diabetics and patients with obesity. It has recently been found to prevent various cancers and reduces the aggressiveness of some tumors. El medicamento metformina es ampliamente utilizado desde hace cincuenta años por diabéticos y pacientes con obesidad. Recientemente se ha descubierto que previene varios tipos de cáncer y disminuye la agresividad de algunos tumores.

  3. Prevention of foot blisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J

    2014-01-01

    Foot blisters are the most common medical problem faced by Soldiers during foot march operations and, if untreated, they can lead to infection. Foot blisters are caused by boots rubbing on the foot (frictional forces), which separates skin layers and allows fluid to seep in. Blisters can be prevented by wearing properly sized boots, conditioning feet through regular road marching, wearing socks that reduce reduce friction and moisture, and possibly applying antiperspirants to the feet.

  4. Can Metformin Prevent Cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Jakubowicz, Salomón; Hospital Universitario de Caracas

    2015-01-01

    The drug metformin is widely used for 50 years by diabetics and patients with obesity. It has recently been found to prevent various cancers and reduces the aggressiveness of some tumors. El medicamento metformina es ampliamente utilizado desde hace cincuenta años por diabéticos y pacientes con obesidad. Recientemente se ha descubierto que previene varios tipos de cáncer y disminuye la agresividad de algunos tumores.

  5. FRAUD PREVENTION SOLUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    АЛИБЕКОВА Ю.К.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, business ethics and integrity of top managers and employees are often under a big question, so we cannot rely on them. Non-compliant behavior of top management and employees related to fraud and corrupt practices lead to huge financial losses, loss of reputation and litigations. Incidents of internal fraud and embezzlement are happening in every business imaginable. Fraud prevention solutions we recommend are the fundamental for corporate financial compliance. All stakeholders must...

  6. Preventing Ophthalmia Neonatorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy L Moore

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of silver nitrate as prophylaxis for neonatal ophthalmia was instituted in the late 1800s to prevent the devastating effects of neonatal ocular infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. At that time – during the preantibiotic era – many countries made such prophylaxis mandatory by law. Today, neonatal gonococcal ophthalmia is rare in Canada, but ocular prophylaxis for this condition remains mandatory in some provinces/ territories. Silver nitrate drops are no longer available and erythromycin, the only ophthalmic antibiotic eye ointment currently available for use in newborns, is of questionable efficacy. Ocular prophylaxis is not effective in preventing chlamydial conjunctivitis. Applying medication to the eyes of newborns may result in mild eye irritation and has been perceived by some parents as interfering with mother-infant bonding. Physicians caring for newborns should advocate for rescinding mandatory ocular prophylaxis laws. More effective means of preventing ophthalmia neonatorum include screening all pregnant women for gonorrhea and chlamydia infection, and treatment and follow-up of those found to be infected. Mothers who were not screened should be tested at delivery. Infants of mothers with untreated gonococcal infection at delivery should receive ceftriaxone. Infants exposed to chlamydia at delivery should be followed closely for signs of infection.

  7. Guidelines for prevention in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The effectiveness of prevention to enhance human functioning and reduce psychological distress has been demonstrated. From infancy through adulthood, access to preventive services and interventions is important to improve the quality of life and human functioning and reduce illness and premature death. The importance of prevention is consistent with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even with the increased focus on prevention, psychology training programs rarely require specific courses on prevention. In particular, conceptualizations about best practices in prevention, particularly at the environmental level, are lacking. Therefore, psychologists engaged in prevention can benefit from a set of guidelines that address and inform prevention practices. Accordingly, the Guidelines for Prevention in Psychology are intended to "inform psychologists, the public, and other interested parties regarding desirable professional practices" in prevention. The Prevention Guidelines are recommended based on their potential benefits to the public and the professional practice of psychology. They support prevention as an important area of practice, research, and training for psychologists. The Guidelines give increased attention to prevention within APA, encouraging psychologists to become involved with preventive activities relevant to their area of practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Selenium for the Prevention of Cutaneous Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Grossman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of selenium (Se supplementation in cancer prevention is controversial; effects often depend on the nutritional status of the subject and on the chemical form in which Se is provided. We used a combination of in vitro and in vivo models to study two unique therapeutic windows for intervention in the process of cutaneous melanomagenisis, and to examine the utility of two different chemical forms of Se for prevention and treatment of melanoma. We studied the effects of Se in vitro on UV-induced oxidative stress in melanocytes, and on apoptosis and cell cycle progression in melanoma cells. In vivo, we used the HGF transgenic mouse model of UV-induced melanoma to demonstrate that topical treatment with l-selenomethionine results in a significant delay in the time required for UV-induced melanoma development, but also increases the rate of growth of those tumors once they appear. In a second mouse model, we found that oral administration of high dose methylseleninic acid significantly decreases the size of human melanoma xenografts. Our findings suggest that modestly elevation of selenium levels in the skin might risk acceleration of growth of incipient tumors. Additionally, certain Se compounds administered at very high doses could have utility for the treatment of fully-malignant tumors or prevention of recurrence.

  9. Potential Bioactive Compounds from Seaweed for Diabetes Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusrizam Sharifuddin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders of the endocrine system characterised by hyperglycaemia. Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM constitutes the majority of diabetes cases around the world and are due to unhealthy diet, sedentary lifestyle, as well as rise of obesity in the population, which warrants the search for new preventive and treatment strategies. Improved comprehension of T2DM pathophysiology provided various new agents and approaches against T2DM including via nutritional and lifestyle interventions. Seaweeds are rich in dietary fibres, unsaturated fatty acids, and polyphenolic compounds. Many of these seaweed compositions have been reported to be beneficial to human health including in managing diabetes. In this review, we discussed the diversity of seaweed composition and bioactive compounds which are potentially useful in preventing or managing T2DM by targeting various pharmacologically relevant routes including inhibition of enzymes such as α-glucosidase, α-amylase, lipase, aldose reductase, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B and dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4. Other mechanisms of action identified, such as anti-inflammatory, induction of hepatic antioxidant enzymes’ activities, stimulation of glucose transport and incretin hormones release, as well as β-cell cytoprotection, were also discussed by taking into consideration numerous in vitro, in vivo, and human studies involving seaweed and seaweed-derived agents.

  10. Potential Bioactive Compounds from Seaweed for Diabetes Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifuddin, Yusrizam; Chin, Yao-Xian; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Phang, Siew-Moi

    2015-08-21

    Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders of the endocrine system characterised by hyperglycaemia. Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) constitutes the majority of diabetes cases around the world and are due to unhealthy diet, sedentary lifestyle, as well as rise of obesity in the population, which warrants the search for new preventive and treatment strategies. Improved comprehension of T2DM pathophysiology provided various new agents and approaches against T2DM including via nutritional and lifestyle interventions. Seaweeds are rich in dietary fibres, unsaturated fatty acids, and polyphenolic compounds. Many of these seaweed compositions have been reported to be beneficial to human health including in managing diabetes. In this review, we discussed the diversity of seaweed composition and bioactive compounds which are potentially useful in preventing or managing T2DM by targeting various pharmacologically relevant routes including inhibition of enzymes such as α-glucosidase, α-amylase, lipase, aldose reductase, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4). Other mechanisms of action identified, such as anti-inflammatory, induction of hepatic antioxidant enzymes' activities, stimulation of glucose transport and incretin hormones release, as well as β-cell cytoprotection, were also discussed by taking into consideration numerous in vitro, in vivo, and human studies involving seaweed and seaweed-derived agents.

  11. Development of Preventive Measures to Prevent School Absenteeism in Twente

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Liere, Annette; Ritzen, Henk; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia

    2011-01-01

    Van Liere, A., Ritzen, H., & Brand-Gruwel, S. (2011, August). Development of Preventive Measures to Prevent School Absenteeism in Twente. Paper presented at 14th Biennial Conference for Research on Learning and Instruction of EARLI, Exeter, England.

  12. POLLUTION PREVENTION DEMONSTRATION AND EVALUATION OF PAINT APPLICATION EQUIPMENT AND ALTERNATIVES TO METHYLENE CHLORIDE AND METHYL ETHYL KETONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of demonstrations of technologies to prevent or control emissions of hazardous air pollutant (HAPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from processes with high solvent usage: (1) paint stripping using methylene chloride, (2) cleaning paint equipment wi...

  13. Inhibitory Effect of Natural Phenolic Compounds on Aspergillus parasiticus Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina P. Pizzolitto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the impact of Aspergillus species on crops, it appears to be highly desirable to apply strategies to prevent their growth, as well as to eliminate or reduce their presence in food products. For this reason, the aims of this investigation were to evaluate the effects of ten natural phenolic compounds on the Aspergillus parasiticus growth and to determine which physicochemical properties are involved in the antifungal activity. According to the results of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of the individual compounds, isoeugenol, carvacrol, and thymol were the most active phenolic components (1.26 mM, 1.47 mM, and 1.50 mM, resp., followed by eugenol (2.23 mM. On the other hand, creosol, p-cresol, o-cresol, m-cresol, vanillin, and phenol had no effects on fungal development. Logarithm of the octanol/water partition coefficient (log P, refractivity index (RI, and molar volume (MV were demonstrated to be the descriptors that best explained the antifungal activity correlated to lipophilicity, reactivity of the components, and steric aspect. These findings make an important contribution to the search for new compounds with antifungal activity.

  14. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Prevention Fellowship provides a strong foundation for scientists and clinicians to train in the field of cancer prevention and control. This structured, multidisciplinary program offers early career scientists from different health disciplines a variety of postdoctoral training opportunities . | Training to form a strong foundation in cancer prevention and control for scientists and clinicians.

  15. Role of Enforcement in Prevention. Issues in Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on the role of enforcement in prevention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) What the Evidence Tells Us about the Role of Enforcement in Prevention; (2) Campus Briefs; (3) Q&A with Charles Cychosz; and (4) Higher Education Center Resources.

  16. Community Colleges--Prevention Challenges. Issues in Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on prevention challenges facing community colleges. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Prevention at Community Colleges; (2) Q&A With William Auvenshine; (3) Chancellor's Initiative at the University of Wisconsin-Stout; (4) Alcohol Marketing in the Digital Age; and (5) Higher Education…

  17. High-Strength, Superelastic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Malcolm; Noebe, Ronald; Dellacorte, Christopher; Bigelow, Glen; Thomas, Fransua

    2013-01-01

    In a previous disclosure, the use of 60- NiTiNOL, an ordered intermetallic compound composed of 60 weight percent nickel and 40 weight percent titanium, was investigated as a material for advanced aerospace bearings due to its unique combination of physical properties. Lessons learned during the development of applications for this material have led to the discovery that, with the addition of a ternary element, the resulting material can be thermally processed at a lower temperature to attain the same desirable hardness level as the original material. Processing at a lower temperature is beneficial, not only because it reduces processing costs from energy consumption, but because it also significantly reduces the possibility of quench cracking and thermal distortion, which have been problematic with the original material. A family of ternary substitutions has been identified, including Hf and Zr in various atomic percentages with varying concentrations of Ni and Ti. In the present innovation, a ternary intermetallic compound consisting of 57.6 weight percent Ni, 39.2 weight percent Ti, and 3.2 weight percent Hf (54Ni-45Ti-1Hf atomic percent) was prepared by casting. In this material, Hf substitutes for some of the Ti atoms in the material. In an alternate embodiment of the innovation, Zr, which is close in chemical behavior to Hf, is used as the substitutional element. With either substitution, the solvus temperature of the material is reduced, and lower temperatures can be used to obtain the necessary hardness values. The advantages of this innovation include the ability to solution-treat the material at a lower temperature and still achieve the required hardness for bearings (at least 50 Rockwell C) and superelastic behavior with recoverable strains greater than 2%. Most structural alloys will not return to their original shape after being deformed as little as 0.2% (a tenth of that possible with superelastic materials like 60 NiTiNOL). Because lower temperatures

  18. [AIDS prevention in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, E

    2007-04-01

    In 1987 the national AIDS prevention campaign "Gib AIDS keine Chance" (Don't give AIDS a chance) was started in Germany. After a very difficult and controversial political debate about a probably successful response to AIDS, in the end a political decision was made in favour of the implementation of a long term "social learning strategy". Thus, since then the Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (Federal Centre for Health Education, BZgA) has been running the campaign on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health. The result of this prevention program is a low rate of infections. In Germany there were 2600 newly diagnosed infections in 2005: 59 % in homosexual men, 16 % by heterosexual contacts, 17 % in people from high prevalence countries and 7 % in i.v. drug users. In comparison to the international situation Germany has a relatively low HIV-prevalence even nowadays. However, Germany has also been confronted with an increasing number of newly diagnosed infections in the last few years. When the prevention program was started it was very important to build new structures for a successful implementation of the campaign. That meant for instance to build up an effective infrastructure for cooperation between the governmental and the nongovernmental sector, including organising the coordinated action among the partners at the federal, regional and local levels. Likewise, international networking was of great importance. A key element, relevant for the success of the campaign was the close cooperation at the federal level between the BZgA and the Deutsche AIDS Hilfe (German AIDS Help, DAH), to combine the highreach intervention in low-prevalence populations with intensive interventions for high prevalence groups. An effective national AIDS prevention campaign must reach the whole population; inform the public about the main risks of infection, about methods of protection and about what is not infectious. Moreover groups with a higher level of risk of

  19. Diapause prevention effect of Bombyx mori by dimethyl sulfoxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Yamamoto

    Full Text Available HCl treatment has been, for about 80 years, the primary method for the prevention of entry into embryonic diapauses of Bombyx mori. This is because no method is as effective as the HCl treatment. In this study, we discovered that dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO prevented entry into the diapause of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The effect of diapause prevention was 78% as a result of treatment with 100% DMSO concentration, and the effect was comparable to that of the HCl treatment. In contrast, in the case of non-diapause eggs, hatchability was decreased by DMSO in a concentration-dependent manner. The effect of DMSO was restricted within 24 hours after oviposition of diapause eggs, and the critical period was slightly shorter than the effective period of the HCl treatment. DMSO analogs, such as dimethyl formamide (DMF and dimethyl sulfide (DMS, did little preventive effect against the diapause. Furthermore, we also investigated the permeation effects of chemical compounds by DMSO. When treated with an inhibitor of protein kinase CK2 (CK2 dissolved in DMSO, the prevention rate of the diapause was less than 40%. This means that the inhibition effect by the CK2 inhibitor was the inhibition of embryonic development after diapause prevention by DMSO. These data suggest that DMSO has the effects of preventing from entering into the diapause and permeation of chemicals into diapause eggs.

  20. Mission Critical: Preventing Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... file Error processing SSI file Mission Critical: Preventing Antibiotic Resistance Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Can you ... spp. So, what can we do to prevent antibiotic resistance in healthcare settings? Patients, healthcare providers, healthcare facility ...

  1. Body Lice Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Body lice ... that can be taken to help prevent and control the spread of body lice: Bathe regularly and ...

  2. Head Lice: Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Prevention & Control Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... that can be taken to help prevent and control the spread of head lice: Avoid head-to- ...

  3. Genetics, Disease Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the genetic terms used on this page Genetics, Disease Prevention and Treatment Overview How can learning about my family's health history help me prevent disease? How can I learn about my family's health ...

  4. Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Health and Stroke Heart disease and stroke prevention Related information Learn more about healthy eating and ... top More information on Heart disease and stroke prevention Read more from womenshealth.gov A Lifetime of ...

  5. How Can Pneumonia Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t last as long Fewer serious complications Pneumococcal pneumonia vaccines Two vaccines are available to prevent pneumococcal ... Vaccination Web page. Other ways to help prevent pneumonia You also can take the following steps to ...

  6. Preventing Ticks on Your Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of ticks in the environment Prevents tickborne disease Cons: Tick bites can cause a painful wound and ... wounds and possible resulting infections Prevents tickborne disease Cons: Will not reduce the number of ticks in ...

  7. How Can Bronchitis Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics » Bronchitis » How Can Bronchitis Be Prevented? Explore Bronchitis What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics ...

  8. Diabetic Complications and Amputation Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enable Javascript in your browser. Diabetes Complications and Amputation Prevention People living with diabetes are prone to ... have lost any feeling or circulation. When Is Amputation Necessary? Even with preventive care and prompt treatment ...

  9. Exercises to help prevent falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000493.htm Exercises to help prevent falls To use the sharing features on this page, ... even more serious injuries. Exercising can help prevent falls because it can: Make your muscles stronger and ...

  10. Early prevention of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Maffeis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating energy intake and expenditure and body size mainly occurs in the first 1,000 days of life. Therefore, factors affecting the foetal exposition to maternal metabolic environment and early postnatal nutrition are crucial in modulating the definition of the metabolic programming processes in the brain. Maternal diseases, mainly malnutrition for defect or excess, obesity and diabetes, placental disorders and dysfunctions, maternal use of alcohol and drugs, smoking, affect long term metabolic programming of the foetus with lifelong consequences. Similarly, early nutrition contributes to complete the long-term metabolic regulating framework initiated in the uterus. Breastfeeding, adequate weaning, attention to portion size and diet composition are potential tools for reducing the obesity risk later in childhood. Longitudinal randomized controlled studies are needed for exploring the efficacy of obesity prevention strategies initiated after conception.Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  11. Preventing cervical cancer globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeler, Kathleen M

    2012-11-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer and cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. More than 85% of cases and deaths occur in the developing world where the availability of effective screening is limited. In this issue of the journal, Pierce and colleagues (beginning on page 1273) describe a novel technique using a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) to diagnose cervical dysplasia. This perspective reviews the limitations of existing cervical cancer screening methods currently in use in low-resource settings and the potential for HRME imaging to contribute to cervical cancer prevention in the developing world.

  12. Prevention of postoperative ileus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2002-01-01

    mediators. We update evidence on the advances in the prevention and treatment on PI. As single interventions, continuous thoracic epidural analgesia with local anesthetics and minimally invasive surgery are the most efficient interventions in the reduction of PI. The effects of pharmacological agents have...... generally been disappointing with the exception of cisapride and the introduction of the new selective peripherally acting m-opioid antagonists. Presently, introduction of a multi-modal rehabilitation programme (including continuous epidural analgesia with local anesthetics, early oral feeding and enforced...

  13. Preventing medical device recalls

    CERN Document Server

    Raheja, Dev

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Medical Device RequirementsIntroductionThe ChallengesSources of ErrorsUnderstanding the Science of Safety     Overview of FDA Quality System Regulation     Overview of Risk Management Standard ISO 14971     Overview of FDA Device Approval Process     Overview of Regulatory Requirements for Clinical TrialsSummaryReferencesPreventing Recalls during Specification WritingIntroductionConduct Requirements Analysis to Identify Missing RequirementsSpecifications for Safety, Durability, and

  14. Preventing undernutrition in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skau, Jutta Kloppenborg Heick

    The first 1000 days (from conception to 24 months) of a child’s life are critical for long-term mental and physical development. This period is clearly marked as the optimal period of preventing malnutrition and named the “window of opportunity”. The first phase of complementary feeding (about 6...... and propose a need for further studies from low-income countries on how nutrition intake influence body composition, but also how changes in body composition in early life influence growth, development and long term health. In Paper III, we assessed the possibilities of using linear programming (LP...

  15. Selenium for preventing cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Dennert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selenium is a trace element essential to humans. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. OBJECTIVE: Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: 1. an aetiological relationship between selenium exposure and cancer risk in women and men?; 2. the efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in women and men? SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched electronic databases and bibliographies of reviews and included publications. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included prospective observational studies to answer research question (a and randomised controlled trials (RCTs to answer research question (b. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We conducted random effects meta-analyses of epidemiological data when five or more studies were retrieved for a specific outcome. We made a narrative summary of data from RCTs. MAIN RESULTS: We included 49 prospective observational studies and six RCTs. In epidemiologic data, we found a reduced cancer incidence (summary odds ratio, OR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.53 to 0.91 and mortality (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83 with higher selenium exposure. Cancer risk was more pronouncedly reduced in men (incidence: OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.05 than in women (incidence: OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.77. These findings have potential limitations due to study design, quality and heterogeneity of the data, which complicated the interpretation of the summary statistics. The RCTs found no protective efficacy of selenium yeast supplementation against non-melanoma skin cancer or L-selenomethionine supplementation against prostate cancer. Study results for the prevention of liver cancer with selenium supplements were inconsistent and studies had an unclear risk of bias. The results of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial (NPCT and SELECT raised concerns about possible harmful effects of selenium supplements. AUTHORS

  16. Preventing and diagnosing dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Bernie; Jenkins, Catharine; Ginesi, Laura

    While dementia is an umbrella term for a range of degenerative brain disorders, many share similar presentations. Nurses are ideally placed to identify those at risk and empower them to access treatment and plan and prepare for their future needs--as such, they need up-to-date knowledge of the signs and symptoms of the different types of dementia to identify risk factors and make an informed diagnosis. This article, the third in a four-part series on dementia, examines the risk factors, signs, symptoms and diagnosis of dementia, as well as outlining lifestyle factors such as diet and exercise that may help to prevent the development of the condition.

  17. Pest Prevention 101 | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the summer months, along with rising temperatures and more daylight, comes the nuisance of mosquitoes, ticks, and other insects. In the United States, mosquito bites are largely no more than an annoyance, but worldwide, mosquitoes transmit disease to more than 700 million people every year, according to the Annals of Internal Medicine. And the recent outbreaks of the Zika virus have made people especially wary. The best way to avoid the threat of any insect-borne disease is to prevent bites from occurring in the first place.

  18. Preventing undernutrition in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skau, Jutta Kloppenborg Heick

    ). This complementary food diet is low in energy, nutrient-density, has poor vitamin and low mineral bioavailability. To better understand the consequences or impact of nutrition interventions on growth more reliable measurement techniques are required. Researchers have argued that measuring body composition......, which on their own is important in preventing undernutrition. This thesis links these components together by assessing the capability of local nutrient-dense food to meet nutrient requirements during complementary feeding (Paper III) and subsequent assessing these foods impact on growth, and hereby...

  19. Flavonoids and related compounds as anti-allergic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Mari; Hirano, Toru; Higa, Shinji; Arimitsu, Junsuke; Maruta, Michiru; Kuwahara, Yusuke; Ohkawara, Tomoharu; Hagihara, Keisuke; Yamadori, Tomoki; Shima, Yoshihito; Ogata, Atsushi; Kawase, Ichiro; Tanaka, Toshio

    2007-06-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased all over the world during the last two decades. Dietary change is considered to be one of the environmental factors that cause this increase and worsen allergic symptoms. If this is the case, an appropriate intake of foods or beverages with anti-allergic activities is expected to prevent the onset of allergic diseases and ameliorate allergic symptoms. Flavonoids, ubiquitously present in vegetables, fruits or teas possess anti-allergic activities. Flavonoids inhibit histamine release, synthesis of IL-4 and IL-13 and CD40 ligand expression by basophils. Analyses of structure-activity relationships of 45 flavones, flavonols and their related compounds showed that luteolin, ayanin, apigenin and fisetin were the strongest inhibitors of IL-4 production with an IC(50) value of 2-5 microM and determined a fundamental structure for the inhibitory activity. The inhibitory activity of flavonoids on IL-4 and CD40 ligand expression was possibly mediated through their inhibitory action on activation of nuclear factors of activated T cells and AP-1. Administration of flavonoids into atopic dermatitis-prone mice showed a preventative and ameliorative effect. Recent epidemiological studies reported that a low incidence of asthma was significantly observed in a population with a high intake of flavonoids. Thus, this evidence will be helpful for the development of low molecular compounds for allergic diseases and it is expected that a dietary menu including an appropriate intake of flavonoids may provide a form of complementary and alternative medicine and a preventative strategy for allergic diseases. Clinical studies to verify these points are now in progress.

  20. Effect of Compound Sulfadiazine Suspension on Growth Performance of Broiler in Clinical Efficacy Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Compound Sulfadiazine suspension is used mainly to prevent and cure E. coli, Salmonella infection of chicken in veterinary clinical application. Effect of compound Sulfadiazine suspension on growth performance of broiler in clinical efficacy trial was studied in the study. One hundred eighty 15-day-old broilers were divided randomly into six groups, blank control group, negative control group, Trisulmixos gavage group, Trisulmixos drinking group, Sufuning gavage group and Sufuning drinking group, respectively. There were three repeating treatments in each group and ten broilers in each treatment. Results showed that compound Sulfadiazine suspension can promote the feed conversion rate of broiler when curing E. coli, Salmonella infection of chicken. Both from the perspective of efficacy and from the perspective of growth performance, giving drug by gavage were more effective than giving by drinking. When two products of Compound Sulfadiazine suspension were compared, the indicators of Sufuning were a little better Trisulmixos.