Sample records for pyrometallurgy

  1. Current and Suggested focus on Sustainability in Pyrometallurgy (United States)

    See, J. B.; Robertson, D. G. C.; Mackey, P. J.

    The production of iron and steel and non-ferrous metals by pyrometallurgical processes will remain a critical element in meeting the demand for materials in both developed and developing nations. Given the important need to reduce and minimise greenhouse gas emissions the technological focus of future pyrometallurgical R&D by universities and industry alike must concentrate on sustainability issues such as improved energy efficiency, recycling and waste minimization. Continued efforts are also needed on process optimization and new process development with a view to reducing capital and operating costs of the new large "mega" plants. Using the academic and industrial backgrounds of the authors, the present paper reviews the current status of R&D in pyrometallurgy in university departments with a particular emphasis on sustainability issues. The role of industry and government laboratories is also reviewed although primarily for developed countries. The paper also includes comments and suggestions on the future requirements for education and R&D in pyrometallurgy in developed countries to maximise sustainability. It is also suggested that future R&D in pyrometallurgy will be even more concentrated in developing countries — most notably China.

  2. 火法富集低品位贵金属废料试验%Pyrometallurgy Enrichment of Precious Metals from Low Grade Waste Slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾华祥; 陆跃华; 贺小塘


    Waste slag is important secondary resources of precious metals, pyrometallurgy is a effective means of enriching precious metals from low grade complex waste slag. Study of pyrometallurgy enrichment precious metals from tailings, wet abandon slag showed that, the enrichment ratio in smelting slag matte reached 5~10 times, and the recoveries of platinum, palladium, rhodium are higher than 90%.%贵金属废料是一类重要的贵金属二次资源,火法熔炼是从低品位复杂废料中富集贵金属的有效手段。对尾矿、弃渣采用火法熔炼富集的研究表明,锍中的贵金属富集倍数达到5~10倍,铂、钯、铑的直收率>90%。

  3. Industrial use of thermodynamic simulations in pyrometallurgy (United States)

    Taskinen, Pekka


    Mastering slag chemistry and fluxing is the key of an effective smelting operation. Today, the requirements of resource efficiency and in particular the recoveries of metal values at the lowest possible use of fossil fuels indicate that the problem is multidimensional. It needs flexible and the best possible tools for analyzing various possibilities and alternatives. The use of computational thermodynamics allows evaluation of fluxing practices in industrial multi-component slags, due to the availability of extensive and internally consistent databases for use with appropriate advanced thermochemical packages. This approach unlocks new options for optimising smelting and refining operations and unit processes, and the able use of increasingly complex raw materials of the future.

  4. Arsenic inertization through alunite-type phases: Application to copper pyrometallurgy



    [eng] Nowadays, arsenic is an important problem in water pollution. Non-ferrous metallurgical industries generate arsenic residues because the ores contain this mineral. The high technology improvement is increasing the demand of some metals such as copper. This increasing demand and the scarce of copper ores with low arsenic content is generating a problem with arsenic wastes in lots of countries, but especially in Asia and in South and Central America. In these countries, groundwater is pol...

  5. Proceedings of the 48. conference of metallurgists : international symposium on pyrometallurgy of nickel and cobalt 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J. [Vale Inco Ltd., Sudbury, ON (Canada); Peacey, J. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada); Barati, M. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada); Kashani-Nejad, S. [Hatch Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Davis, B. [Kingston Process Metallurgy, Kingston, ON (Canada)] (eds.)


    Increases in nickel demand have led to significant changes in the nickel industry over the last 4 years. Several new pyrolysis projects are now being constructed to process laterite ore for the production of nickel alloys. This international symposium was held to provide a forum for industry experts and researchers to discuss issues related to the energy efficiency, sustainability and atmospheric emissions control in the nickel industry. Recent advancements in processing, refining and smelting were presented. Process optimization and management techniques were reviewed. The symposium was divided into the following 8 sessions: (1) general, (2) traditional and new technologies, review and advancements, (3) slags, fluxes and smelting, (4) process optimization, (5) laterite ore processing and FeNi refining, (6) NiO reduction and other technology, (7) modelling and process improvement, and (8) a plenary session. The symposium featured 49 presentations, of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  6. Preparation of Fe2O3-TiO2 composite from Sukabumi iron sand through magnetic separation, pyrometallurgy, and hydrometallurgy (United States)

    Wahyuningsih, S.; Ramelan, A. H.; Pranata, H. P.; Hanif, Q. A.; Ismoyo, Y. A.; Ichsan, K. F.


    Preparation of Fe2O3/TiO2 composite from Sukabumi iron sand by magnetic separation, roasting, leaching and precipitation treatment has been carried out. Magnetic separation can separate magnetic particles and non-magnetic particles of iron sand content, while the non-magnetic particles (wustite (FeO), hematite (α-Fe2O3), maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) and magnetite (Fe3O4)) was washing with oxalic acid 1 M. The result product then was roasted at 800 °C treated by sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) addition of 1:1; 2:1 and 1:2 (w/w) of iron sand to Na2CO3 weight ratio, respectively. The X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis result shown that Sukabumi iron sand have hematite (Fe2O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) content about 72.17% dan 14.42%. XRD analysis of roasted iron sand shown the rutile (TiO2), Hematite (Fe2O3), NaFeO2, FeO, and Na2TiO3. Leaching of roasted iron sand using sulphuric acid (H2SO4) have influenced by concentrations of the H2SO4 solution. The optimum iron sand dissolution occurred in H2SO4 9 M, which condensation product of the leachant have a weight ratio of Fe:Ti = 1:1 (w/w). Meanwhile, the settling back-filtrate result of second condensation was obtained a ratio of Fe2O3: TiO2 of 3: 1 (w/w).

  7. 火法冶炼红土镍矿技术分析%Analysis on Pyrometallurgy Technologies of Laterite-Nickel Ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞建明; 郭培民; 赵沛


    火法冶炼红土镍矿工艺为当前从红土镍矿中提镍的主要流程.分析了主要的火法冶炼红土镍矿工艺的技术特点.火法冶炼红土镍矿工艺具有工艺成熟、流程短、效率高等优点,但同时也存在能耗较高、熔炼过程渣量过多、有粉尘污染等不足.中国自主开发了高炉冶炼红土矿生产镍铁合金新技术,并在实践中进一步得到发展,高炉冶炼红土矿生产镍铁合金工艺还应从大型化、节能、环保、长寿等领域进一步发展.当前对火法冶炼红土镍矿工艺的研究势在必行,需要在完善还原熔炼工艺方面进行深入的研究,通过研究新方法、新工艺解决火法冶炼工艺中能耗高、各种有价值金属综合回收的难题,实现红土镍矿火法冶炼工艺的低能耗、低排放和镍工业的可持续发展.%Main technical process to extract Ni from laterite-nickel ore were pyrometallurgical technologies currently. The technical characteristics of the main pyrometallurgical technologies of laterite-nickel ore were discussed. The advantage of pyrometallurgical technologies of laterite-nickel ore was mature, simple and effective, etc, while its disadvantage were high energy consumption, excessive slag in the course of smelting, high smelting temperature, serious dust pollution, etc. The technology of laterite ore smelted in BF was industrialization firstly in China, and developed the theory and practice further. The technology of laterite ore smelted in BF was of demonstration of multi-resources utilization, and should be developed in these fields including large-scale BF, energy saving, environmental protection, and long-life. The study on pyrometallurgical technologies of laterite-nickel ore was imperative currently, and it was necessary to be explored in depth from improving reduction smelting technologies. The problems of high energy consumption and recovery of valuable metals in nickel extractive metallurgy can be solved by putting forward new methods and new technologies. Thereby low energy consumption and low emission of pyrometallurgical technologies of laterite-nickel ore and sustainable development of nickel industry will be realized.

  8. 镍火法冶炼废渣中钴、镍回收的研究进展%Progress on recovery of cobalt and nickel from waste slag of the nickel pyrometallurgy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄斐荣; 廖亚龙; 周娟; 李冰洁


    The comprehensive methods of recycling valuable metal resources such as cobalt and nickel from waste slag produced in the nickel smelter were reviewed. Mineralogical characteristics of typical waste slag and research status on the reclamation of valuable metals,cobalt and nickel in particular from the slag were introduced. Advantages and limitations of the main methods were analyzed and discussed. Furthermore,the research direction and trend were predicted. And it was pointed out that although the purpose of enriching cobalt and nickel can be realized economically by ore dressing method,the drawback of narrow raw material application scope is obvious. The defects of gaseous pollutant emission and high energy consumption exist in pyrometallurgical process. While the reaction velocity of bioleaching process is low, the characteristics of simple process,low investment and etc, can make it a promising research direction full of development prospect. High pressure oxidative acid leaching(HPOAL) is considered to be environmentally friendly and suitable for extracting cobalt and nickel from the slag because of high recovery of nickel and cobalt without hazardous materials being produced in the process. The slag is treated by HPOAL after slow-cooling,roasting and or reduction pretreatment,and alternative materials of sulfuric acid like pyrrhotite tailing containing certain quantity of nickel and other metals as leaching agents during this process. This can be the developing trend of HPOAL.%综述了镍火法冶炼废渣中钴、镍等有价金属资源综合回收技术。通过回顾镍火法冶炼过程中产生的典型废渣的物相研究以及渣中钴、镍等有价金属回收的研究现状,分析和讨论了主要处理镍冶炼废渣工艺的优势及存在的缺陷,展望了研究方向和趋势。指出选矿法尽管能够经济地实现钴、镍富集的目的,但存在原料适用范围狭窄的局限性;火法处理工艺存在能耗高,会产生气态污染物的缺陷;微生物浸出工艺存在反应速率低的问题,但具有工艺简单、投资少等优点,是极具发展前景的研究方向。氧压酸浸能够高选择性浸出钴、镍,钴、镍的回收率高,过程无有害废弃物产生,环境友好,是今后提取废渣中钴、镍的可取方法。炉渣缓冷、焙烧或还原预处理后再进行氧压酸浸,浸出过程中加入含镍的磁黄铁矿等尾矿替代硫酸作为浸出剂,是氧压浸出工艺的发展趋势。

  9. Mineral resources of Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, D.F.; Woodcock, J.T. (eds.)


    The papers presented cover geological, geochemical technology and geophysics in mineral exploration, mineral resources, mining methods and technology, aspects of beneficiation, pyrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy, and environmental aspects. 4 of the 14 papers have been abstracted separately.

  10. Contrast of pyro-metallurgy and hydro-metallurgy processes of one high copper content refractory sulfide gold concentrate%某高铜难处理硫化金精矿火法冶炼与湿法冶炼工艺对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊蕾; 梁可; 张春生; 张之于; 张岚


    为获得某高铜难处理硫化金精矿的最佳处理方案,根据其金精矿性质,进行了火法冶炼与湿法冶炼工艺的对比分析. 其结果表明:对于该高铜硫化金精矿,火法冶炼工艺优于湿法冶炼工艺,其能更好地回收精矿中的 Cu、Au、Ag,实现了矿产资源的综合利用,也可获得较好的经济效益.%Pyro-metallurgy and hydro-metallurgy processes are compared according to the properties of gold con-centrates to obtain the optimal treatment plan of one high copper content refractory sulfide gold concentrate. The study finds that for the gold concentrates,pyro-metallurgy process is better than hydro-metallurgy. It can better recover Cu, Au and Ag from high copper content refractory sulfide gold concentrates fulfilling the purpose of comprehensive recov-ery and obtaining satisfactory economic profits.

  11. Process mineralogy IX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petruk, W.; Hagni, R.D.; Pignolet-Brandom, S.; Hausen, D.M. (eds.) (Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology, Ottawa, ON (Canada))


    54 papers are presented under the headings: keynote address; process mineralogy applications to mineral processing; process mineralogy applications to gold; process mineralogy applications to pyrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy; process mineralogy applications to environment and health; and process mineralogy applications to synthetic materials. Subject and author indexes are provided. Three papers have been abstracted separately.

  12. Self-Paced Tutorial Courses for Mineral Science - Metallurgy Departments. Final Progress Report (July 1975-August 1980). (United States)

    Twidwell, L. G.

    Four courses in extractive metallurgy (Pyrometallurgy, Hydrometallurgy, Electrometallurgy; and Physical Chemistry of Iron and Steel) were prepared in a modular, self-paced format. Development of the course materials included: (1) preparation of course outlines by unit coordinators and advisory committees; (2) approval of course outlines (included…

  13. Recent development of recycling lead from scrap CRTs: A technological review. (United States)

    Yu-Gong; Tian, Xiang-Miao; Wu, Yu-Feng; Zhe-Tan; Lei-Lv


    Cathode ray tubes (CRTs) contain numerous harmful substances with different functions. Lead is found in the funnel glass of CRTs. Improperly treated toxic lead may pose significant risks to human health and the environment. This paper reviews and summarizes existing technological processes on the recycling of lead from waste CRTs, including pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, and product-regeneration. The present situation, advantages, and disadvantages of these techniques are described in detail. Generally, pyrometallurgy shows better practicability in recovery lead from waste CRT than hydrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy, in view of environmental impact, energy-consumption, product formats and safety and maturity of technology. Moreover, the gaps in the existing technologies were identified and recommendations for future research were provided.

  14. Biossolubilização da calcopirita (cufes2) na presença de íons cloreto


    Firmino, Stella Maris [UNESP; Rosa, Tahuany; Bevilaqua, Denise [UNESP


    Mining currently has encountered great difficulties in obtaining high-grade ores due to depletion of mineral reserves. Conventional methods of extraction of metals (pyrometallurgy) present high energy costs and are unfriendly to the environment (e.g SO2 emissions). For this reason, alternative methods to minimize operating costs and the environmental impacts have been required. Thus, the use of bacteria as catalyst for the leaching of low-grade ores is an interesting alternative for mining co...

  15. 化工废催化剂中钯的回收%Recovery of Palladium from Spent Catalyst in Chemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾华祥; 陆跃华; 贺小塘


    采用火法富集-湿法工艺相结合的工艺,从Pd/Al2O3废催化剂中回收钯,介绍了工艺流程及控制参数。%With the combination of pyrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy, palladium was recovered from spent catalyst of Pd/Al2O3. The technological process and control parameters were briefly introduced.

  16. Limitation of Sulfide Capacity Concept for Molten Slags (United States)

    Jung, In-Ho; Moosavi-Khoonsari, Elmira


    The sulfide capacity concept has been widely used in pyrometallurgy to define sulfur removal capacities of slags. Typically, the sulfide capacity is considered to be a unique slag property depending only on temperature regardless of partial pressures of oxygen and sulfur. In the present study, it is demonstrated that sulfide capacities of slags in particular those of Na2O-containing slags can vary with partial pressures of oxygen and sulfur due to large solubility of sulfide in Na2O-containing slag systems.

  17. Study on the Recovery of Rhodium from Spent Organic Rhodium Catalysts of Acetic Acid Industry Using Pyrometallurgical Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiaotang; WANG Huan; WU Xilong; LI Yong; ZHAO Yu; HAN Shouli; LI Kun; GUO Junmei


    A new process recycling rhodium from organic waste containing rhodium in acetic acid industry is developed.Use the special affinity of base metal sulfides (FeS,Ni2S3,CuS,etc.) on platinum group metals,adopting high nickel matte trapping-aluminothermic activation method to recovery rhodium from incinerator residue of organic rhodium waste.The method is shorter process,lower equipment requirement,and the higher activity of rhodium black.In pyrometallurgy enrichment process,the recovery rate of rhodium reached 94.65%,the full flow of rhodium recovery rate was 92.04%.

  18. Application of supercritical water to decompose brominated epoxy resin and environmental friendly recovery of metals from waste memory module. (United States)

    Li, Kuo; Xu, Zhenming


    Waste Memory Modules (WMMs), a particular kind of waste printed circuit board (WPCB), contain a high amount of brominated epoxy resin (BER), which may bring a series of environmental and health problems. On the other hand, metals like gold and copper are very valuable and are important to recover from WMMs. In the present study, an effective and environmental friendly method using supercritical water (SCW) to decompose BER and recover metals from WMMs was developed instead of hydrometallurgy or pyrometallurgy simultaneously. Experiments were conducted under external-catalyst-free conditions with temperatures ranging from 350 to 550 °C, pressures from 25 to 40 MPa, and reaction times from 120 to 360 min in a semibatch-type reactor. The results showed that BER could be quickly and efficiently decomposed under SCW condition, and the mechanism was possibly free radical reaction. After the SCW treatments, the glass fibers and metal foils in the solid residue could be easily liberated and recovered, respectively. The metal recovery rate reached 99.80%. The optimal parameters were determined as 495 °C, 33 MPa, and 305 min on the basis of response surface methodology (RSM). This study provides an efficient and environmental friendly approach for WMMs recycling compared with electrolysis, pyrometallurgy, and hydrometallurgy.

  19. Neutron activation analysis of multimetallic accumulation in dolomites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zovko Emira


    Full Text Available The reason for exploring polymetallic ores, which are found in dolomite structures of the Veovača and Borovica zone near Vareš, lies in the fact that there is very little information about its chemical structure. The isolated concentrates that we analyzed from surface mines, have shown significant difference in quantity of trace elements. Deep probing of the whole area was not performed, but there are presumptions that there are roots of ore-rich dolomites in the areas of 30 - 40 km. The future concept of exploitation of these mines in the Vareš zone would probably require deeper probing. There are prospects for finding higher quality deposits with significant quantities of polymetallic components. By the method of neutron activation analysis the existence of mercury in amounts of about 0.4 % was confirmed. Because of the presence of mercury, these concentrates are not appropriate for pyrometallurgy, since it may result in environment contamination.

  20. Pyro-chemistry within the FP7 ACSEPT Project-Program and Objective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravaca, Concha [CIEMAT/Nuclear Fission Division/URAA, Avda. Complutense, 22.Madrid 28040 (Spain); Bourg, Stephane [CEA/DEN/MAR/DRCP, CEA Marcoule. BP17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France)


    Actinide recycling by partitioning and transmutation is considered as one of the most promising strategies to reduce the inventory of radioactive waste, thus contributing to make nuclear energy sustainable. To make advances beyond the current state of the art in pyrochemical separations processes, the Domain 2 (DM2) of ACSEPT has been built on considering a process approach based on system studied. Four work packages that represent the main steps of a process block diagram have been identified: head-end steps, core process development, and salt treatment for recycling and waste conditioning. The results obtained in this domain will be integrated in DM 3 (Process) in order to orientate the R and D studies of DM2 and to propose and validate flowsheets at the end of the project. The state of the art on pyrochemical separation within the European Community and the working program of ACSEPT in pyrometallurgy are presented in this work. (authors)

  1. Waste Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Recycling Techniques. (United States)

    Ning, Chao; Lin, Carol Sze Ki; Hui, David Chi Wai; McKay, Gordon


    With the development of technologies and the change of consumer attitudes, the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is increasing annually. As the core part of WEEE, the waste printed circuit board (WPCB) is a dangerous waste but at the same time a rich resource for various kinds of materials. In this work, various WPCB treatment methods as well as WPCB recycling techniques divided into direct treatment (landfill and incineration), primitive recycling technology (pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, biometallurgy and primitive full recovery of NMF-non metallic fraction), and advanced recycling technology (mechanical separation, direct use and modification of NMF) are reviewed and analyzed based on their advantages and disadvantages. Also, the evaluation criteria are discussed including economic, environmental, and gate-to-market ability. This review indicates the future research direction of WPCB recycling should focus on a combination of several techniques or in series recycling to maximize the benefits of process.

  2. Pyro-chemistry within the FP7 ACSEPT Project-Program and Objective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravaca, Concha [CIEMAT/Nuclear Fission Division/URAA, Avda. Complutense, 22.Madrid 28040 (Spain); Bourg, Stephane [CEA/DEN/MAR/DRCP, CEA Marcoule. BP17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France)


    Actinide recycling by partitioning and transmutation is considered as one of the most promising strategies to reduce the inventory of radioactive waste, thus contributing to make nuclear energy sustainable. To make advances beyond the current state of the art in pyrochemical separations processes, the Domain 2 (DM2) of ACSEPT has been built on considering a process approach based on system studied. Four work packages that represent the main steps of a process block diagram have been identified: head-end steps, core process development, and salt treatment for recycling and waste conditioning. The results obtained in this domain will be integrated in DM 3 (Process) in order to orientate the R and D studies of DM2 and to propose and validate flowsheets at the end of the project. The state of the art on pyrochemical separation within the European Community and the working program of ACSEPT in pyrometallurgy are presented in this work. (authors)

  3. The evaluation of the pyrochemistry for the treatment of Gen IV nuclear fuels Inert matrix chlorination studies in the gas phase or molten chloride salts (United States)

    Bourg, S.; Péron, F.; Lacquement, J.


    The structure of the fuels for the future Gen IV nuclear reactors will be totally different from those of PWR, especially for the GFR concept including a closed cycle. In these reactors, fissile materials (carbides or nitrides of actinides) should be surrounded by an inert matrix. In order to build a reprocessing process scheme, the behavior of the potential inert matrices (silicon carbide, titanium nitride, and zirconium carbide and nitride) was studied by hydro- and pyrometallurgy. This paper deals with the chlorination results at high temperature by pyrometallurgy. For the first time, the reactivity of the matrix towards chlorine gas was assessed in the gas phase. TiN, ZrN and ZrC are very reactive from 400 °C whereas it is necessary to be over 900 °C for SiC to be as fast. In molten chloride melts, the bubbling of chlorine gas is less efficient than in gas phase but it is possible to attack the matrices. Electrochemical methods were also used to dissolve the refractory materials, leading to promising results with TiN, ZrN and ZrC. The massive SiC samples used were not conductive enough to be studied and in this case specific SiC-coated carbon electrodes were used. The key point of these studies was to find a method to separate the matrix compounds from the fissile material in order to link the head to the core of the process (electrochemical separation or liquid-liquid reductive extraction in the case of a pyrochemical reprocessing).

  4. 攀钢含钛高炉渣湿法提钛工艺%Hydrometallurgical process for recovering titanium from titanium-bearing blast furnace slag in Panzhihua Steel Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩然; 张延玲; 安卓卿; 赵世强


    酸浸法提钛工艺可以获得较高TiO2含量的产物,但是该工艺所产生的酸浸液存在难回收的问题。采用碱浸法可以避免酸浸液回收的问题,但是该工艺流程比较复杂,钠盐的回收成本较高。酸碱法在理论上可以将含钛高炉渣转化为富钛料,然而该工艺流程相对复杂,工业应用还需要不断深入研究与完善。针对采用湿法工艺从攀钢含钛高炉渣中提钛的各项技术,从技术、经济、环保等方面进行对比分析,指出需要将湿法工艺与火法工艺联合,同时将一些外场冶金技术引入到含钛高炉渣的提钛分离过程中,从而有望高效、综合利用攀钢含钛高炉渣。%High purity TiO2-containing product is prepared by acid leaching method. However, the pickle liquor recycling remains a difficult problem, which can be avoided by using the alkaline leaching method, but this process is complex and the recovering cost of sodium salt is a bit high. The acid-alkali method can change the Ti-bearing blast-furnace slag into rich-titanium material theoretically, while this process is complex too, which needs further study and perfection. A variety of pyrometallurgy technologies to recover titanium from ti-tanium bearing blast furnace slag are comprehensively reviewed and a comparative analysis is made from as-pect of technological, economic and environmental protection. It is pointed out that efficient and comprehen-sive utilization of titanium bearing blast furnace slag requires combining pyrometallurgy with hydro metallur-gical process, as well as some external field metallurgy technology.

  5. Environmentally sound technologies for recycling secondary lead (United States)

    Andrews, D.; Raychaudhuri, A.; Frias, C.

    Advances in hydrometallurgy are providing increasingly simple means for controlling the entire lead chain from concentrate to recycled lead. Used in parallel with pyrometallurgy, these processes allow furnace temperatures to be reduced to the minimum, which is essential for casting or alloying. Fumes and atmospheric pollution are minimized, furnace slags are digested, and most residues (other than purification cements) are non-toxic and convertible into marketable products. These new processes provide the cleanest and healthiest practicable means for recycling lead from batteries. By substituting melting for smelting, the heat requirement and cycle time per charge are reduced by more than half. A new hydrometallurgical plant could be installed alongside an existing pyrometallurgical plant without interference, doubling its potential capacity when operational (and more, if electrowinning is used). Over 99.5% of the lead originally present is recovered in tests of a combined PLACID-pyro plant. The average purity of electrowon PLACID lead is 99.995%. Results from the PLINT process should be similar. The purity of the lead chain can thereby be sustained through recycling. Perfect solid/paste separation is not mandatory, and PLINT-type plant units can be of any size. Such processes constitute a good basis for development of clean processes, which are suitable for use in Asian societies.

  6. High-temperature experimental and thermodynamic modelling research on the pyrometallurgical processing of copper (United States)

    Hidayat, Taufiq; Shishin, Denis; Decterov, Sergei A.; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni


    Uncertainty in the metal price and competition between producers mean that the daily operation of a smelter needs to target high recovery of valuable elements at low operating cost. Options for the improvement of the plant operation can be examined and decision making can be informed based on accurate information from laboratory experimentation coupled with predictions using advanced thermodynamic models. Integrated high-temperature experimental and thermodynamic modelling research on phase equilibria and thermodynamics of copper-containing systems have been undertaken at the Pyrometallurgy Innovation Centre (PYROSEARCH). The experimental phase equilibria studies involve high-temperature equilibration, rapid quenching and direct measurement of phase compositions using electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA). The thermodynamic modelling deals with the development of accurate thermodynamic database built through critical evaluation of experimental data, selection of solution models, and optimization of models parameters. The database covers the Al-Ca-Cu-Fe-Mg-O-S-Si chemical system. The gas, slag, matte, liquid and solid metal phases, spinel solid solution as well as numerous solid oxide and sulphide phases are included. The database works within the FactSage software environment. Examples of phase equilibria data and thermodynamic models of selected systems, as well as possible implementation of the research outcomes to selected copper making processes are presented.

  7. Development and application of biotechnologies in the metal mining industry. (United States)

    Johnson, D Barrie


    Metal mining faces a number of significant economic and environmental challenges in the twenty-first century for which established and emerging biotechnologies may, at least in part, provide the answers. Bioprocessing of mineral ores and concentrates is already used in variously engineered formats to extract base (e.g., copper, cobalt, and nickel) and precious (gold and silver) metals in mines throughout the world, though it remains a niche technology. However, current projections of an increasing future need to use low-grade primary metal ores, to reprocess mine wastes, and to develop in situ leaching technologies to extract metals from deep-buried ore bodies, all of which are economically more amenable to bioprocessing than conventional approaches (e.g., pyrometallurgy), would suggest that biomining will become more extensively utilized in the future. Recent research has also shown that bioleaching could be used to process a far wider range of metal ores (e.g., oxidized ores) than has previously been the case. Biotechnologies are also being developed to control mine-related pollution, including securing mine wastes (rocks and tailings) by using "ecological engineering" approaches, and also to remediate and recover metals from waste waters, such as acid mine drainage. This article reviews the current status of biotechnologies within the mining sector and considers how these may be developed and applied in future years.

  8. Bioleaching of Minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Roberto


    Bioleaching is the term used to describe the microbial dissolution of metals from minerals. The commercial bioleaching of metals, particularly those hosted in sulfide minerals, is supported by the technical disciplines of biohydrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, pyrometallurgy, chemistry, electrochemistry, and chemical engineering. The study of the natural weathering of these same minerals, above and below ground, is also linked to the fields of geomicrobiology and biogeochemistry. Studies of abandoned and disused mines indicate that the alterations of the natural environment due to man's activities leave as remnants microbiological activity that continues the biologically mediated release of metals from the host rock (acid rock drainage; ARD). A significant fraction of the world's copper, gold and uranium is now recovered by exploiting native or introduced microbial communities. While some members of these unique communities have been extensively studied for the past 50 years, our knowledge of the composition of these communities, and the function of the individual species present remains relatively limited. Nevertheless, bioleaching represents a major strategy in mineral resource recovery whose importance will increase as ore reserves decline in quality, become more difficult to process (due to increased depth, increased need for comminution, for example), and as environmental considerations eliminate traditional physical processes such as smelting, which have served the mining industry for hundreds of years.

  9. Biodiversity and interactions of acidophiles: Key to understanding and optimizing microbial processing of ores and concentrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Mining companies have become increasingly aware of the potential of microbiological approaches for recovering base and precious metals from low-grade ores,and for remediating acidic,metal-rich wastewaters that drain from both operating and abandoned mine sites.Biological systems offer a number of environmental and (sometimes) economical advantages over conventional approaches,such as pyrometallurgy,though their application is not appropriate in every situation.Mineral processing using micro-organisms has been exploited for extracting gold,copper,uranium and cobalt,and current developments are targeting other base metals.Recently,there has been a great increase in our knowledge and understanding of both the diversity of the microbiology of biomining environments,and of how the microorganisms interact with each other.The results from laboratory experiments which have simulated both stirred tank and heap bioreactor systems have shown that microbial consortia are more robust than pure cultures of mineral-oxidizing acidophiles,and also tend to be more effective at bioleaching and bio-oxidizing ores and concentrates.The paper presented a concise review of the nature and interactions of microbial consortia that are involved in the oxidation of sulfide minerals,and how these might be adapted to meet future challenges in biomining operations.

  10. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): recovery of metals. (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi


    Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud.

  11. ACSEPT, a European project for a new step in the future demonstration of advanced fuel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, S. [CEA Marcoule 30 (France); Hill, C. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Caravaca, C.; Espartero, A. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain); Rhodes, C.; Taylor, R.; Harrison, M. [National Nuclear Laboratory (United Kingdom); Geist, A. [Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe - INE (Germany); Modolo, G. [Forschungszentrum Juelich - FZJ (Germany); Cassayre, L. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Orsay (France); Malmbeck, R. [Joint Research Centre (JRC) - Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) (Germany); De Angelis, G. [ENEA, Bologna (Italy); Bouvet, S. [Alcan, 92 - Courbevoie (France); Klaassen, F. [Nuclear Research and consultancy Group (NRG) (Netherlands); Ekber, C.


    Partitioning and transmutation, associated to a multi-recycling of all transuranics should play a key role in the development of sustainable nuclear energy. By joining together 34 partners coming from European universities, nuclear research laboratories and major industrial players, in a multi-disciplinary consortium, the FP7-Euratom-Fission collaborative project ACSEPT (Actinide recycling by separation and transmutation), provides the sound basis and future improvements for future demonstrations of fuel treatment in strong connection with fuel fabrication techniques. ACSEPT is organized into 3 technical domains: 1) selecting and optimizing mature aqueous separation processes (Diamex-Sanex, Ganex); 2) high temperature pyrochemical separation processes, and 3) carrying out engineering and systems studies on hydro- and pyro-chemical processes to prepare for future demonstration at a pilot level. After 2 years of work, 2 successful hot-tests were performed in hydrometallurgy, validating the Sanex and i-Sanex routes. Efforts are now devoted to the Ganex concept. Progress was also made in fuel dissolution and fuel re-fabrication. In pyrometallurgy, promising routes are almost demonstrated for the actinide recovery from aluminium. (A.C.)

  12. 镍钴高温合金废料湿法冶金回收%Hydrometallurgical Recovery of Waste Ni- Co Super- Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟晗琪; 马光; 吴贤; 王靖坤


    The super - alloy scrap contained large amounted of nickel and cobalt. How to make these to be renewable resources became a hot topic. Because of the low recovery rate, poor product quality, high production cost and environmental pollution for pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgical process to deal with the nickel and cobalt waste took more and more attentions. The hydrometallurgical recovery technology of super - alloy scrap was briefly described, including the leaching processing technology, and nickel- cobalt separation and recovery technology.%由于高温合金废料中含有大量的镍、钴资源,如何使这些资源再生成为当今的热点话题。由于传统火法处理都存在金属回收率低、产品质量较差、生产成本高、环境污染大等缺点,因此用湿法冶金处理镍钴废料日益受到重视。本文简单介绍了高温合金废料的湿法冶金回收技术,包括合金废料的浸出处理技术和镍钴分离回收技术。

  13. Behavior, distribution and environmental influence of arsenic in a typical lead smelter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴立元; 史美清; 梁彦杰; 汤景文; 李青竹


    A field study was conducted to determine the behavior and distribution of arsenic during the pyrometallurgy process in a typical SKS (Shuikoushan) lead smelter in Hunan province, China. Environmental influences of arsenic in selected samples were evaluated. Arsenic contents in all input and output samples vary from 0.11%in raw lead to 6.66%in collected dust-2. More arsenic is volatilized in blast furnace and fuming furnace (73.02% of arsenic input) than bottom blowing furnace (10.29%of arsenic input). There are 78.97%, 13.69%, 7.31% of total arsenic distributed in intermediate materials, stockpiled materials and unorganized emissions, respectively. Matte slag-2, collected dust-1 and secondary zinc oxide are hazardous based on the arsenic concentrations of toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. According to risk assessment code (RAC) guideline, arsenic in collected dust-1 poses a very serious risk to the surrounding environment, arsenic in speiss, matte slag-2, water-quenched slag and secondary zinc oxide show low risk, while arsenic in matte slag-1, collected dust-2 and post dust has no risk to the environment.

  14. Spent lead-acid battery recycling in China - A review and sustainable analyses on mass flow of lead. (United States)

    Sun, Zhi; Cao, Hongbin; Zhang, Xihua; Lin, Xiao; Zheng, Wenwen; Cao, Guoqing; Sun, Yong; Zhang, Yi


    Lead is classified to be one of the top heavy metal pollutants in China. The corresponding environmental issues especially during the management of spent lead-acid battery have already caused significant public awareness and concern. This research gives a brief overview on the recycling situation based on an investigation of the lead industry in China and also the development of technologies for spent lead-acid batteries. The main principles and research focuses of different technologies including pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy and greener technologies are summarized and compared. Subsequently, the circulability of lead based on the entire life cycle analyses of lead-acid battery is calculated. By considering different recycling schemes, the recycling situation of spent lead-acid battery in China can be understood semi-quantitatively. According to this research, 30% of the primary lead production can be shut down that the lead production can still ensure consecutive life cycle operation of lead-acid battery, if proper management of the spent lead-acid battery is implemented according to current lead industry situation in China. This research provides a methodology on the view of lead circulability in the whole life cycle of a specific product and is aiming to contribute more quantitative guidelines for efficient organization of lead industry in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Study on Treatment of Silver Concentrate with Thiourea Process%硫脲法处理银精矿的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 党晓娥; 王正民; 安小康; 周熙


    The silver floatation concentrate from leaching slag of zinc hydrometallurgy was leached with thi-ourea process. Silver and copper was recovered from leaching solution by means of zinc powder stepping reduction. The results show that the leaching rate of silver is about 90% under the optimum conditions, the silver sponge grade is about 80% and copper grade in copper slag is 60%. Treated with pyrometallurgy first, the silver sponge is then electrolysis refined to get silver ingot. The secondary reduction solution can be directly returned to leaching process and the thiourea is recycled. This technology can be commercialized to achieve better economic benefit after pilot plant test.%以某厂湿法炼锌浸出渣浮选所得的银精矿为原料,用硫脲对其进行络合浸出,并用锌粉分步还原回收浸出液中的银和铜.结果表明,银浸出率保持在90%左右,锌粉分步还原可得到含银80%左右的银绵和含铜60%左右的铜渣.银绵经火法处理得粗银锭,再经电解可得精银,二次还原后液可直接返回浸出流程,可使硫脲得到循环利用.经生产中试,该工艺可应用于工业生产并取得较好的经济效益.

  16. Life-cycle implications and supply chain logistics of electric vehicle battery recycling in California (United States)

    Hendrickson, Thomas P.; Kavvada, Olga; Shah, Nihar; Sathre, Roger; Scown, Corinne D.


    Plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) use in the United States (US) has doubled in recent years and is projected to continue increasing rapidly. This is especially true in California, which makes up nearly one-third of the current US PEV market. Planning and constructing the necessary infrastructure to support this projected increase requires insight into the optimal strategies for PEV battery recycling. Utilizing life-cycle perspectives in evaluating these supply chain networks is essential in fully understanding the environmental consequences of this infrastructure expansion. This study combined life-cycle assessment and geographic information systems (GIS) to analyze the energy, greenhouse gas (GHG), water use, and criteria air pollutant implications of end-of-life infrastructure networks for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in California. Multiple end-of-life scenarios were assessed, including hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical recycling processes. Using economic and environmental criteria, GIS modeling revealed optimal locations for battery dismantling and recycling facilities for in-state and out-of-state recycling scenarios. Results show that economic return on investment is likely to diminish if more than two in-state dismantling facilities are constructed. Using rail as well as truck transportation can substantially reduce transportation-related GHG emissions (23-45%) for both in-state and out-of-state recycling scenarios. The results revealed that material recovery from pyrometallurgy can offset environmental burdens associated with LIB production, namely a 6-56% reduction in primary energy demand and 23% reduction in GHG emissions, when compared to virgin production. Incorporating human health damages from air emissions into the model indicated that Los Angeles and Kern Counties are most at risk in the infrastructure scale-up for in-state recycling due to their population density and proximity to the optimal location.

  17. 7th european metallurgical conference EMC 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko R. Stopić


    /Process Modelling, Waste heat recovery by ORC Power Generation Vol. 3: General Hydrometallurgy, General Pyrometallurgy, Vessel Integrity, Process Gas Treatment; Recycling The plenary lectures will be published in the scientific journal “World of Metallurgy – ERZMETALL”, published by GDMB. The next 8th European Metallurgical Conference will be held between June 14 and June 17, 2015 in Duesseldorf. 

  18. The 6th European metallurgical conference EMC 2011: Proceedings review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko R. Stopić


    : Vol. 1: Copper, General Pyrometallurgy, Vessel Integrity, Process Gas Treatment; Vol. 2: Lead and Zinc, Process Control, Process Modeling, Vol. 3: Light metals, General Hydrometallurgy, Precious Metals; Vol. 4: Process Metallurgy, Recycling, Waste Treatment and Prevention, Vol 5: Sustainable technologies, Sustainable of non-ferrous metals production, waste effluents Treatment and Biohydrometallurgical application. The plenary lectures will be published in the scientific journal 'World of Metallurgy - ERZMETALL', which is published by the GDMB.

  19. Research Progress of Gold Bio-leaching Technology from Waste Printed Circuit Board%电子垃圾中金的生物浸取技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    With the continuous development of science and technology, electronic equipments renew fast-er and faster. If these waste equipments can be used environmentally friendly, not only can they reduce the envi-ronmental pressure, but also can make up for the shortage of resources. Biological metallurgy is a rapid develop-ment of technology, which can overcome the problems of traditional pyrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy exist-ing in the metal recycling, and is a promising green metallurgical method. As a means of biological metallurgy, using cyanide-generating bacteria to leach gold from waste printed circuit board powder it has attracted a great attention in recent years. This paper introduces research progress of gold bio-leaching technology, especially the gold leaching technology of cyanide-generating bacteria, then analyses its mechanism, gold leaching pro-cess, influencing factors, and the limitation of gold bio-leaching technology. Finally it points out that the biolog-ical method combined with physical and chemical methods, complement each other, is the development trend of gold bioleaching.%随着经济的增长和科技的进步,电子垃圾成为全球增长最快的垃圾。如果能用环境友好型的方式对电子垃圾中的有用资源进行回收,不仅可以减少环境压力,而且还可以弥补资源的短缺。生物冶金是一种快速发展的技术,它可以克服传统的湿法冶金和火法冶金在金属回收中存在的问题,是一种很有前途的绿色环保的冶金方法。作为生物冶金的一种方式,利用产氰细菌从废弃印刷线路板粉末中提取金,近年来更受到人们的关注。文章对生物浸金技术,尤其是产氰生物的浸金技术作了综述,分析了其在浸金过程中的机理、过程、影响因素,以及生物浸金技术的限制,最后指出将生物法与物理、化学方法相结合,取长补短,是未来生物浸金的发展趋势。


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Bazán


    Full Text Available La demanda mundial de cobre metálico se incrementó sensiblemente durante estos últimos años debido a los mercados emergentes y a China en particular. Actualmente en Argentina los proyectos mineros de explotación de cobre qeue se desarrollan en el norte del país concluyen su proceso con la exportación de concentrados. En nuestro país se han realizado diferentes exploraciones y en algunos casos ya están en explotación minerales de alta ley de cobre (0,5% - 0,8% libres de impurezas tales como: Sb, As, Pb, Bi y Hg. Esto indicaría que hay un gran futuro de la pirometalurgia del cobre que no se ha desarrollado aquí hasta el momento. Las condiciones del mercado argentino de cobre generan una demanda insatisfecha del metal, ya que existen plantas transformadoras de cobre metálico a productos terminados provocando una nueva importación de productos intermedios de cobre. Este trabajo propone profundizar el conocimiento y ampliar el espectro de los fundamentos técnicos con el objetivo de cubrir ese espacio del mercado. Esto puede promover que los grandes proyectos cupríferos superen la instancia de exportar concentrados proporcionando esta materia prima a una industria metalúrgica nacional que produzca cobre metálico, y de este modo evitar que se importe dicho insumo y de esta manera se satisfaga el mercado interno.The copper demand in the world has considerably increased during the last years due to the emergent markets, particularly the Chinese market. Nowadays, the mining projects for copper exploitation that are being developed in the North of Argentina conclude with the concentrates exports. In our country different explorations have been carried out and in some cases high law of copper minerals are being exploited (0,5% - 0,8%. These minerals are free from impurities such as: Sb,As,Pb,Bi and Hg. This would lead to think that there are good prospects for the copper pyrometallurgy that have not been developed yet in our country. The