WorldWideScience

Sample records for pyrogens

  1. The Pyrogenic Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Michael I.; Wynn, Jonathan G.; Saiz, Gustavo; Wurster, Christopher M.; McBeath, Anna

    2015-05-01

    Pyrogenic carbon (PyC; includes soot, char, black carbon, and biochar) is produced by the incomplete combustion of organic matter accompanying biomass burning and fossil fuel consumption. PyC is pervasive in the environment, distributed throughout the atmosphere as well as soils, sediments, and water in both the marine and terrestrial environment. The physicochemical characteristics of PyC are complex and highly variable, dependent on the organic precursor and the conditions of formation. A component of PyC is highly recalcitrant and persists in the environment for millennia. However, it is now clear that a significant proportion of PyC undergoes transformation, translocation, and remineralization by a range of biotic and abiotic processes on comparatively short timescales. Here we synthesize current knowledge of the production, stocks, and fluxes of PyC as well as the physical and chemical processes through which it interacts as a dynamic component of the global carbon cycle.

  2. Pyrogenic effect of respirable road dust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayawardena, Umesh; Tollemark, Linda; Tagesson, Christer; Leanderson, Per, E-mail: per.leanderson@lio.s [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, S-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Because pyrogenic (fever-inducing) compounds on ambient particles may play an important role for particle toxicity, simple methods to measure pyrogens on particles are needed. Here we have used a modified in vitro pyrogen test (IPT) to study the release of interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) in whole human blood exposed to respirable road-dust particles (RRDP). Road dusts were collected from the roadside at six different streets in three Swedish cities and particles with a diameter less than 10 mum (RRDP) were prepared by a water sedimentation procedure followed by lyophilisation. RRDP (200 mul of 1 - 10{sup 6} ng/ml) were mixed with 50 mul whole blood and incubated at 37 deg. C overnight before IL-1beta was analysed with chemiluminescence ELISA in 384-well plates. Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide from Salmonella minnesota), zymosan B and Curdlan (P-1,3-glucan) were used as positive controls. All RRDP samples had a pyrogenic effect and the most active sample produced 1.6 times more IL-1beta than the least active. This formation was of the same magnitude as in samples with 10 ng LPS/ml and was larger than that evoked by zymosan B and Curdlan (by mass basis). The method was sensitive enough to determine formation of IL-1beta in mixtures with 10 ng RRDP/ml or 0.01 ng LPS/ml. The endotoxin inhibitor, polymyxin B (10 mug/ml), strongly reduced the RRDP-induced formation of IL-1beta at 1mug RRDP/ml (around 80 % inhibition), but had only marginal or no effects at higher RRDP-concentrations (10 and 100 mug /ml). In summary, all RRDP tested had a clear pyrogen effect in this in vitro model. Endotoxin on the particles but also other factors contributed to the pyrogenic effect. As opposed to the limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay (which measures endotoxin alone), IPT measures a broad range of pyrogens that may be present on particulate matter. The IPT method thus affords a simple, sensitive and quantitative determination of the total pyrogenic potential of ambient particles.

  3. An investigation of the possibility to replace the rabbit pyrogen test by an in vitro test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommer AM; Donders LAM; LGM

    1998-01-01

    The classical test for the detection of pyrogenic contaminations in pharmaceuticals is the rabbit pyrogen test. The most frequently occuring and most important pyrogenic contamination in biological and biotechnological pharmaceutical preparations are bacterial endotoxins, originating from the

  4. An investigation of the possibility to replace the rabbit pyrogen test by an in vitro test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommer AM; Donders LAM; LGM

    1998-01-01

    The classical test for the detection of pyrogenic contaminations in pharmaceuticals is the rabbit pyrogen test. The most frequently occuring and most important pyrogenic contamination in biological and biotechnological pharmaceutical preparations are bacterial endotoxins, originating from the cellul

  5. An investigation of the possibility to replace the rabbit pyrogen test by an in vitro test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommer AM; Donders LAM; LGM

    1998-01-01

    The classical test for the detection of pyrogenic contaminations in pharmaceuticals is the rabbit pyrogen test. The most frequently occuring and most important pyrogenic contamination in biological and biotechnological pharmaceutical preparations are bacterial endotoxins, originating from the cellul

  6. DMPD: Tolerance to pyrogens. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 856:116-31. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Tolerance to pyrogens. PubmedID 9917872 Title Tolerance to py...le (.png) SVG File (.svg) HTML File (.html) CSML File (.csml) Open .csml file wit

  7. Standard Molded Composite Rocket Pyrogen Igniter - A progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucy, M. H.

    1978-01-01

    The pyrogen igniter has the function to furnish a controlled, high temperature, high pressure gas to ignite solid propellant surfaces in a rocket motor. Present pyrogens consist of numerous inert components. The Standard Molded Pyrogen Igniter (SMPI) consists of three basic parts, a cap with several integrally molded features, an ignition pellet retainer plate, and a tube with additional integrally molded features. A description is presented of an investigation which indicates that the SMPI concept is a viable approach to the design and manufacture of pyrogen igniters for solid propellant rocket motors. For some applications, combining the structural and thermal properties of molded composites can result in the manufacture of lighter assemblies at considerable cost reduction. It is demonstrated that high strength, thin walled tubes with high length to diameter ratios can be fabricated from reinforced plastic molding compound using the displacement compression process.

  8. Pyrogenic organic matter can alter microbial communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, Caroline; Gao, Xiaodong; Cheng, Hsiao-Ying; Silberg, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Soil microbes communicate with each other to manage a large range of processes that occur more efficiently when microbes are able to act simultaneously. This coordination occurs through the continuous production of signaling compounds that are easily diffused into and out of cells. As the number of microbes in a localized environment increases, the internal cellular concentration of these signaling compounds increases, and when a threshold concentration is reached, gene expression shifts, leading to altered (and coordinated) microbial behaviors. Many of these coordinated behaviors have biogeochemically important outcomes. For example, methanogenesis, denitrification, biofilm formation, and the development of plant-rhizobial symbioses are all regulated by a simple class of cell-cell signaling molecules known as acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). Pyrogenic organic matter in soils can act to disrupt microbial communication through multiple pathways. In the case of AHLs, charcoal's very high surface area can sorb these signaling compounds, preventing microbes from detecting each others' presence (Masiello et al., 2014). In addition, the lactone ring in AHLs is vulnerable to pH increases accompanying PyOM inputs, with soil pH values higher than 7-8 leading to ring opening and compound destabilization. Different microbes use different classes of signaling compounds, and not all microbial signaling compounds are pH-vulnerable. This implies that PyOM-driven pH increases may trigger differential outcomes for Gram negative bacteria vs fungi, for example. A charcoal-driven reduction in microbes' ability to detect cell-cell communication compounds may lead to a shift in the ability of microbes to participate in key steps of C and N cycling. For example, an increase in an archaeon-specific AHL has been shown to lead to a cascade of metabolic processes that eventually results in the upregulation of CH4 production (Zhang et al., 2012). Alterations in similar AHL compounds leads to

  9. DMPD: Afferent pathways of pyrogen signaling. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9917870 Afferent pathways of pyrogen signaling. Blatteis CM, Sehic E, Li S. Ann N Y... Acad Sci. 1998 Sep 29;856:95-107. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Afferent pathways of pyrogen signaling.... PubmedID 9917870 Title Afferent pathways of pyrogen signaling. Authors Blatteis CM, Sehic E, Li S. Publica

  10. Neutron induced degradation in nitrided pyrogenic field oxide MOS capacitors

    CERN Document Server

    Vaidya, S J; Shaikh, A M; Chandorkar, A N

    2002-01-01

    Neutron induced oxide charge trapping and generation of interface states in MOS capacitors with pyrogenic and nitrided pyrogenic field oxides have been studied. In order to assess the damage due to neutrons alone, it is necessary to account for the damage produced by the accompanying gamma rays from neutron radiation. This is done by measuring the intensity of gamma radiation accompanying neutrons at different neutron fluences at the irradiation position. MOS capacitor structures were subjected to neutron radiation in a swimming pool type of reactor. Other samples from the same batch were then subjected to an equivalent dose of gamma radiation from a Co sup 6 sup 0 source. The difference in the damage observed was used to characterize the damage caused by neutrons. It is observed that neutrons, though uncharged, are capable of causing ionization damage. This damage is found to be significant when the radiation is performed under biased conditions. Nitridation in different ambients is found to improve the radi...

  11. Highly sensitive pyrogen detection on medical devices by the monocyte activation test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stang, Katharina; Fennrich, Stefan; Krajewski, Stefanie; Stoppelkamp, Sandra; Burgener, Iwan Anton; Wendel, Hans-Peter; Post, Marcell

    Pyrogens are components of microorganisms, like bacteria, viruses or fungi, which can induce a complex inflammatory response in the human body. Pyrogen contamination on medical devices prior operation is still critical and associated with severe complications for the patients. The aim of our study

  12. Soil and plant responses to pyrogenic organic matter: carbon stability and symbiotic patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagrilo, E.

    2014-01-01

    Soil and plant responses to pyrogenic organic matter: carbon stability and symbiotic patterns Edvaldo Sagrilo Summary Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM), also known as biochar, is the product of biomass combustion under low oxygen concentration. There

  13. Soil and plant responses to pyrogenic organic matter: carbon stability and symbiotic patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagrilo, E.

    2014-01-01

    Soil and plant responses to pyrogenic organic matter: carbon stability and symbiotic patterns Edvaldo Sagrilo Summary Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM), also known as biochar, is the product of biomass combustion under low oxygen concentration. There

  14. Priming of Native Soil Organic Matter by Pyrogenic Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCiucies, S.; Lehmann, J.; Woolf, D.; Whitman, T.

    2016-12-01

    Within the global carbon (C) cycle, soil C makes up a critical and active pool. Pyrogenic C, (PyC) or black C, contributes to this pool, and has been shown to change the turnover rate of the non-pyrogenic soil organic carbon (nSOC) associated with it. This change in rate of mineralization is referred to as priming, which can be negative or positive. There are many possible mechanisms that may be causing this priming effect, both biological and chemical. This study employs incubation experiments to identify and parse these potential mechanisms, focusing on negative priming mechanisms which may have importance in global carbon storage and carbon cycling models. Continuous respiration measurements of soil/char and soil/biomass incubations using isotopically labeled biomass (13C and 15N) indicate that priming interactions are more significant in soils with higher carbon contents, and that higher temperature chars induce more negative priming over time. Current incubations are exploring the effects of chars pyrolyzed at different temperatures, chars extracted of DOC versus non-extracted, soils with differing carbon contents, and the effects of pH and nutrient adjusting incubations. We will continue to examine the contribution of the different mechanisms by isolating variables such as nutrient addition, soil texture, char application rate, and mineral availability. We anticipate that sorption on PyOM surfaces are important in nSOM stabilization and will continue to study these effects using highly labeled substrates and nano secondary ion mass spectrometry (nano-SIMS).

  15. Discerning the biochemical stability of pyrogenic C in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Rosa, José M.; Paneque, Marina; Contreras-Bernal, Lidia; Miller, Ana Z.; Knicker, Heike

    2016-04-01

    The soil organic matter (SOM) constitutes approximately 2/3 of the global terrestrial C pool, which corresponds to estimated 4000 Pg to a depth of 3 m [1] and therefore, the dynamics of organic carbon (OC) in soils control a large part of the terrestrial C cycle. The term Pyrogenic Carbon (PyC) comprises the whole range of pyrogenic organic materials, from partly charred material through charcoal to soot produced during fire, as well as technical chars (biochars) produced by pyrolysis of biomass. The previously common assumption of PyC being inert has long been proven wrong [2]. In theory, the pyrogenic process confers these materials a longer mean residence time in the soils than their precursors, thus the application of PyC in general and particularly biochar to soil is proposed as a valid approach to establish a significant, long-term sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide in terrestrial ecosystems [3]. Nevertheless, the knowledge concerning the biochemical recalcitrance of PyOM in soils is still limited. This study combines the analysis by 13C solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (13C NMR), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) and CO2 emissions in incubated pots of burned and unburned soils as well as in biochar amended and un-amended soils. By using this integrated approach we achieved a more complete understanding of the stability of different forms of PyC in the soil and the chemical changes occurring during aging. Significant differences are found between the stability of PyC. They depend on the nature of the source material, surficial properties of PyC, the pyrolysis process and the soil conditions during aging. Acknowledgements: The Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions (PCIG12-GA-2012-333784-Biocharisma project and PIEF-GA-2012-328689-DECAVE project), and the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) (project PCGL2012-37041) are thanked for the financial support of the present study

  16. Actinomycetal complexes in drained peat soils of the taiga zone upon pyrogenic succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenova, G. M.; Glushkova, N. A.; Bannikov, M. V.; Shvarov, A. P.; Pozdnyakov, A. I.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2008-04-01

    The number and diversity of actinomycetes in peat soils vary in dependence on the stage of pyrogenic succession. In the cultivated peat soil, the number of actinomycetes after fires decreases by three-four times, mainly at the expense of acidophilic and neutrophilic groups. An increase in the number of mycelial prokaryotes (at the expense of alkaliphilic forms) is seen on the fifth year of functioning of the pyrogenic peat soil. The species diversity of streptomycetes in peat soils also decreases after fires. An increase in the range of streptomycetal species at the expense of neutrophilic and alkaliphilic forms takes place on the fifth year of the pyrogenic succession. Parameters of the actinomycetal complex—the population density, species composition, and ecological features—are the criteria whose changes allow us to judge the state of peat soils in the course of their pyrogenic succession.

  17. Rapid electron transfer by the carbon matrix in natural pyrogenic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianran; Levin, Barnaby D. A.; Guzman, Juan J. L.; Enders, Akio; Muller, David A.; Angenent, Largus T.; Lehmann, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Surface functional groups constitute major electroactive components in pyrogenic carbon. However, the electrochemical properties of pyrogenic carbon matrices and the kinetic preference of functional groups or carbon matrices for electron transfer remain unknown. Here we show that environmentally relevant pyrogenic carbon with average H/C and O/C ratios of less than 0.35 and 0.09 can directly transfer electrons more than three times faster than the charging and discharging cycles of surface functional groups and have a 1.5 V potential range for biogeochemical reactions that invoke electron transfer processes. Surface functional groups contribute to the overall electron flux of pyrogenic carbon to a lesser extent with greater pyrolysis temperature due to lower charging and discharging capacities, although the charging and discharging kinetics remain unchanged. This study could spur the development of a new generation of biogeochemical electron flux models that focus on the bacteria–carbon–mineral conductive network. PMID:28361882

  18. Phase transitions of pyrogenic silica suspensions: a comparison to model laponite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kätzel, Uwe; Richter, Thomas; Stintz, Michael; Barthel, Herbert; Gottschalk-Gaudig, Torsten

    2007-09-01

    Pyrogenic silica is often used as a thickening agent in paints, pastes, adhesives, or resins. Other applications include, e.g., abrasives in chemical mechanical planarization in the microelectronics industry. In all these applications it is essential to control the state of dispersion. Sometimes, phase transitions from the liquid to the solid state are required while in other cases they have to be completely avoided for the whole shelf life. The nature and influencing parameters of the fluid-solid transition for pyrogenic silica have not been investigated so far. Most investigations deal with the phase transitions of small clay particles such as laponite. Here, we dedicate our interest to the behavior of pyrogenic silica suspensions with varying specific surface area and ionic background concentration. To get an impression of the phase transition behavior we compare our results to model laponite suspensions. We apply dynamic light scattering measurements in the backscattering regime to minimize multiple scattering contributions from concentrated pyrogenic silica suspensions. Further on we exert a decomposition of the measured autocorrelation functions into an ergodic and nonergodic contribution. The analysis of the ergodic spectrum yields two different gelation kinetics for both systems, laponite and pyrogenic silica. For laponite these are in accordance with earlier investigations. The kinetics depend on the ionic background and the solids content of the suspensions. Additionally, we used dynamic extinction spectroscopy to follow the phase transitions of pyrogenic silica on a macroscale.

  19. Tracing pyrogenic carbon (PyC) beyond terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemeier, Daniel B.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Hanke, Ulrich M.; Schmidt, Michael W. I.

    2015-04-01

    Combustion-derived, pyrogenic carbon (PyC) is a persistent organic carbon fraction. Due to its aromatic and condensed nature (Wiedemeier et al., 2015), it is relatively resistant against chemical and biological degradation in the environment, leading to a comparatively slow turnover, which would support carbon sequestration. PyC is produced on large scales (hundreds of teragrams) in biomass burning events such as wildfires, and by combustion of fossil fuel in industry and traffic. PyC is an inherently terrestrial product and thus has predominantly been investigated in soils and the atmosphere. Much fewer studies are available about the subsequent transport of PyC to rivers and oceans. Recently, awareness has been rising about the mobility of PyC from terrestrial to marine systems and its fate in coastal and abyssal sediments was recognized (Mitra et al, 2014). It is therefore crucial to extend our knowledge about the PyC cycle by tracing PyC through all environmental compartments. By comparing its biogeochemical behavior and budgets to that of other forms of organic carbon, it will eventually be possible to elucidate PyC's total spatiotemporal contribution to carbon sequestration. In this study, we are using a state-of-the-art PyC molecular marker method (Wiedemeier et al., 2013, Gierga et al., 2014) to trace quantity, quality as well as 13C and 14C signature of PyC in selected major river systems around the globe (Godavari, Yellow, Danube, Fraser, Mackenzie and Yukon river). Different size fractions of particulate suspended sediment are being analyzed and compared across a north-south gradient. Previous studies suggested a distinct relationship between the age of plant-derived suspended carbon and the latitude of the river system, indicating slower cycling of plant biomarkers in higher latitudes. We discuss this pattern with respect to PyC, its isotopic signature and quality and the resulting implications for the global carbon and PyC cycle. Gierga et al., 2014

  20. [Role of the adenyl cyclase system in achieving the immunogenesis-stimulating action of bacterial lipopolysaccharides--pyrogenal and endogenous serum pyrogen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzheksenbaev, O Sh; Selezneva, V P; Loginova, V T

    1976-05-01

    Experiments were conducted on rabbits immunized intraperitoneally with corpuscular typhoid vaccine; the number of antibody-forming cells in the spleen proved to increase after tha administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)--pyropeneal, and endogenous serum pyrogen (EPS) together with theopylline. The data obtained indicated that the adenylcyclase system played a certain role in the mechanism of the stimulating action of LPS and EPS.

  1. Priming of native soil organic matter by pyrogenic organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCiucies, Silene; Dharmakeerthi, Saman; Whitman, Thea; Woolf, Dominic; Lehmann, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Priming, in relation to pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM), describes the change in mineralization rate of non-pyrogenic ("native") soil organic matter (nSOM) due to the addition of PyOM. Priming may be 'positive', in that the addition of pyC increases the mineralization rate of native SOM, or 'negative', in that the mineralization rate of nSOM is decreased. Reasons for increased mineralization may include: (i) co-metabolism: microbial decomposition of labile C-additions increases microbial activity, and facilitates additional decomposition of npSOC by active enzymes; (ii) stimulation: substrate additions result in lifted pH, nutrient, oxygen, or water constraints resulting in increased microbial activity. Decreased mineralization may be a result of: (i) inhibition: the opposite of stimulation whereby constraints are aggravated by substrate addition. Substrate addition may also cause inhibition by interfering with enzymes or signaling compounds; (ii) preferential substrate utilization: labile fraction of PyOM additions are preferentially used up by microbes thus causing a decrease in nSOC decomposition; (iii) sorption: organic compounds are adsorbed onto PyOM surfaces, decreasing their rate of mineralization; (iv) stabilization: formation of organo-mineral associations forms stable SOC pools. We have conducted a suite of experiments to investigate these potential interactions. In a seven year long incubation study, PyOM additions increased total OM mineralization for the first 2.5 years, was equal to control after 6.2 years, and was 3% lower after 7.1 years. Cumulative nSOM mineralization was 23% less with the PyOM additions than without, and over 60% of the added PyOM was present in the labile soil fraction after the 7.1 year incubation. Two additional incubation studies, one with and without plants, showed greater nSOM mineralization in the short term and lower nSOM mineralization over the long term. Increased nSOC mineralization due to the presence of plants was

  2. Tracing pyrogenic carbon suspended in rivers on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemeier, Daniel B.; Haghipour, Negar; McIntyre, Cameron P.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Schmidt, Michael W. I.

    2016-04-01

    Combustion-derived, pyrogenic carbon (PyC) is a persistent organic carbon fraction. Due to its aromatic and condensed nature (Wiedemeier et al., 2015), it is relatively resistant against chemical and biological degradation in the environment, leading to a comparatively slow turnover, which would support carbon sequestration. PyC is produced on large scales (hundreds of teragrams) in biomass burning events such as wildfires, and by combustion of fossil fuel in industry and traffic. PyC is an inherently terrestrial product and thus has predominantly been investigated in soils and the atmosphere. Much fewer studies are available about the subsequent transport of PyC to rivers and oceans. Recently, awareness has been rising about the mobility of PyC from terrestrial to marine systems and its fate in coastal and abyssal sediments was recognized (Mitra et al, 2013). It is therefore crucial to extend our knowledge about the PyC cycle by tracing PyC through all environmental compartments. By comparing its biogeochemical behavior and budgets to that of other forms of organic carbon, it will eventually be possible to elucidate PyC's total spatiotemporal contribution to carbon sequestration. In this study, we use a state-of-the-art PyC molecular marker method (Wiedemeier et al., 2013, Gierga et al., 2014) to trace quantity, quality as well as 13C and 14C signature of PyC in selected major river systems around the globe (Godavari, Yellow, Danube, Fraser, Mackenzie and Yukon river). Different size fractions of particulate suspended sediment are analyzed and compared across a north-south gradient. Previous studies suggested a distinct relationship between the 14C age of plant-derived suspended carbon and the latitude of the river system, indicating slower cycling of plant biomarkers in higher latitudes. We discuss this pattern with respect to PyC, its isotopic signature and quality and the resulting implications for the global carbon and PyC cycle. References Wiedemeier, D.B. et

  3. Limitations of the rabbit pyrogen test for assessing meningococcal OMV based vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vipond, Caroline; Findlay, Lucy; Feavers, Ian; Care, Rory

    2016-01-01

    The rabbit pyrogen test was developed in the early 1900's to detect contaminating pyrogens in parenteral medicines. Since its conception alternative methods with improved sensitivity, relevancy and which are ethically more acceptable have been developed. However, the test is a current Pharmacopeial method and is used to evaluate the pyrogen content of some vaccines. In this article the limitations and pitfalls of using the test to measure pyrogenicity of vaccines containing outer membrane vesicles are described. The method is unsuitable as a safety test for these products due to the high levels of endotoxin present in the vaccine which generate a pyrogenic response in rabbits when delivered intravenously without any dilution. Its use as a consistency test is also ambiguous as the test gives a qualitative rather than quantitative response and the rabbit models are highly variable. In addition there is evidence that measuring the temperature rise of the animals over three hours does not capture the maximum fever response. Finally the article considers the use of alternative methods and the validity of animal models when applying a consistency based approach for assessing the quality of licensed products.

  4. Endospores of B subtilis are pyrogenic and activate Mono Mac 6 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Lise; Hansen, Erik W; Christensen, Jens D;

    2003-01-01

    The monocytic cell line Mono Mac 6 is sensitive to pyrogens and interleukin-6 secretion is induced after exposure to pyrogens. The aim of this study is to examine the pyrogenic activity and the interleukin-6-inducing capacity of the Gram-positive B. subtilis bacteria, endospores and isolated cell...... in a sandwich immunoassay. B. subtilis bacteria and endospores induce interleukin-6 in a dose-dependent manner. Endospores are less potent than bacteria. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) isolated from B. subtilis induces interleukin-6 in a dose-dependent manner, whereas muramyl dipeptide (MDP) is unable to induce...... interleukin-6. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) dose-dependently induce interleukin-6 release, but the curve differs from that of LTA both in shape and offset. The interleukin-6 secretion induced by LPS, LTA and B. subtilis bacteria can be blocked by 73-85% by an antibody directed against CD14, whereas the antibody...

  5. Soil charcoal as long-term pyrogenic carbon storage in Amazonian seasonal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios, Maryory M; Jaramillo, Margarita M A; do Vale, José F; Fearnside, Philip M; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires (paleo + modern) have caused charcoal particles to accumulate in the soil vertical profile in Amazonia. This forest compartment is a long-term carbon reservoir with an important role in global carbon balance. Estimates of stocks remain uncertain in forests that have not been altered by deforestation but that have been impacted by understory fires and selective logging. We estimated the stock of pyrogenic carbon derived from charcoal accumulated in the soil profile of seasonal forest fragments impacted by fire and selective logging in the northern portion of Brazilian Amazonia. Sixty-nine soil cores to 1-m depth were collected in 12 forest fragments of different sizes. Charcoal stocks averaged 3.45 ± 2.17 Mg ha(-1) (2.24 ± 1.41 Mg C ha(-1) ). Pyrogenic carbon was not directly related to the size of the forest fragments. This carbon is equivalent to 1.40% (0.25% to 4.04%) of the carbon stocked in aboveground live tree biomass in these fragments. The vertical distribution of pyrogenic carbon indicates an exponential model, where the 0-30 cm depth range has 60% of the total stored. The total area of Brazil's Amazonian seasonal forests and ecotones not altered by deforestation implies 65-286 Tg of pyrogenic carbon accumulated along the soil vertical profile. This is 1.2-2.3 times the total amount of residual pyrogenic carbon formed by biomass burning worldwide in 1 year. Our analysis suggests that the accumulated charcoal in the soil vertical profile in Amazonian forests is a substantial pyrogenic carbon pool that needs to be considered in global carbon models.

  6. A comparative study of Mono Mac 6 cells, isolated mononuclear cells and Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay in pyrogen testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Lise; Jensen, S; Hansen, E W

    1999-01-01

    Pyrogen induced secretion of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in Mono Mac 6 (MM6) cells was measured. The ability of the MM6 cell culture to detect pyrogens was compared to the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test and isolated mononuclear cells (MNC). The detection limit of MM6 for lipopolysaccharide (LPS...

  7. A comparative study of Mono Mac 6 cells, isolated mononuclear cells and Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay in pyrogen testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Lise; Jensen, S; Hansen, E W;

    1999-01-01

    Pyrogen induced secretion of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in Mono Mac 6 (MM6) cells was measured. The ability of the MM6 cell culture to detect pyrogens was compared to the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test and isolated mononuclear cells (MNC). The detection limit of MM6 for lipopolysaccharide (LPS...

  8. Towards a global assessment of pyrogenic carbon from vegetation fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Thorsten; Santín, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan; Kane, Evan; Masiello, Caroline; Ohlson, Mikael; De La Rosa, Jose Maria; Preston, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    The production of pyrogenic carbon (PyC; a continuum of organic carbon (C) ranging from partially charred biomass and charcoal to soot) is a widely acknowledged C sink, with the latest estimates indicating that ~50% of the PyC produced by vegetation fires potentially sequesters C over centuries. Nevertheless, the quantitative importance of PyC in the global C balance remains contentious, and therefore, PyC is rarely considered in global C cycle and climate studies. Here we examine the robustness of existing evidence and identify the main research gaps in the production, fluxes and fate of PyC from vegetation fires. Much of the previous work on PyC production has focused on selected components of total PyC generated in vegetation fires, likely leading to underestimates. We suggest that global PyC production could be in the range of 116-385 Tg C per year, that is ~0.2-0.6% of the annual terrestrial net primary production. According to our estimations, atmospheric emissions of soot/black C might be a smaller fraction of total PyC (<2%) than previously reported. Research on the fate of PyC in the environment has mainly focused on its degradation pathways, and its accumulation and resilience either in situ (surface soils) or in ultimate sinks (marine sediments). Off-site transport, transformation and PyC storage in intermediate pools are often overlooked, which could explain the fate of a substantial fraction of the PyC mobilized annually. Rivers carry about 25-28 Tg dissolved PyC per year into the ocean where it accumulates in dissolved form over ten-thousands of year to one of the largest PyC pool on Earth. The riverine flux of suspended (particulate) PyC is largely unconstrained to date. We propose new research directions addressing gaps in the global PyC cycle to fully understand the importance of the products of burning in global C cycle dynamics. This presentation is based largely on a recent review by the same group of authors (Santín et al., 2016, Global Change

  9. Function of Wildfire-Deposited Pyrogenic Carbon in Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa R. A. Pingree

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fire is an important driver of change in most forest, savannah, and prairie ecosystems and fire-altered organic matter, or pyrogenic carbon (PyC, conveys numerous functions in soils of fire-maintained terrestrial ecosystems. Although an exceptional number of recent review articles and books have addressed agricultural soil application of charcoal or biochar, few reviews have addressed the functional role of naturally formed PyC in fire-maintained ecosystems. Recent advances in molecular spectroscopic techniques have helped strengthen our understanding of PyC as a ubiquitous, complex material that is capable of altering soil chemical, physical, and biological properties and processes. The uniquely recalcitrant nature of PyC in soils is partly a result of its stable C = C double-bonded, graphene-like structure and C-rich, N-poor composition. This attribute allows it to persist in soils for hundreds to thousands of years and represent net ecosystem C sequestration in fire-maintained ecosystems. The rapid formation of PyC during wildfire or anthropogenic fire events short-circuits the normally tortuous pathway of recalcitrant soil C formation. Existing literature also suggests that PyC provides an essential role in the cycling of certain nutrients, greatly extending the timeframe by which fires influence soil processes and facilitating recovery in ecosystems where organic matter inputs are low and post-fire surface soil bacterial and fungal activity is reduced. The high surface area of PyC allows for the adsorption a broad spectrum of organic compounds that directly or indirectly influence microbial processes after fire events. Adsorption capacity and microsite conditions created by PyC yields a “charosphere” effect in soil with heightened microbial activity in the vicinity of PyC. In this mini-review, we explore the function of PyC in natural and semi-natural settings, provide a mechanistic approach to understanding these functions, and examine

  10. Soil pyrogenic carbon lacks long-term persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfalla, Suzanne; Abiven, Samuel; Barré, Pierre; Wiedemeier, Daniel; Christensen, Bent; Houot, Sabine; Kätterer, Thomas; Macdonald, Andy; van Oort, Fok; Chenu, Claire

    2015-04-01

    In the context of climate change, one mitigation technique currently investigated is the use of pyrogenic organic carbon (PyOC) -which is biomass turned into charcoal- to sequester carbon in soils with the hypothesis that PyOC is persistent and will not be biodegraded (or mineralized). In this study, we use the unique opportunity offered by five long term bare fallow (LTBF) experiments across Europe (Askov in Denmark, Grignon and Versailles in France, Ultuna in Sweden and Rothamsted in the United Kingdom) to compare the dynamics of PyOC and soil organic carbon (SOC) in the same plots at the decadal time scale (from 25 to 80 years of bare fallow depending on the site). Bare fallow plots were regularly sampled throughout the bare fallow duration and these samples were carefully archived. In bare fallow plots, with negligible external carbon input and with continuing biodegradation, SOC is depleting. Using the Benzene Polycarboxylic Acid (BPCA) technique to estimate the PyOC quantity and quality in the soils at different sampling dates, we investigated if PyOC content was also decreasing and compared the rates of depletion of PyOC and SOC. We found that PyOC contents decreased rapidly in soils at all sites. The loss of PyOC between the first and the last soil sampling ranged from 19.8 to 57.3% of the initial PyOC content. Furthermore, PyOC quality exhibited a similar evolution at all sites, becoming more enriched in condensed material with time. We applied a one pool model with mono-exponential decay to our data and found an average mean residence time of native PyOC of 116 years across the different sites, with a standard deviation of 15 years, just 1.6 times longer than that of SOC. Our results show that, though having a longer residence time than total SOC, PyOC content can decrease rapidly in soils suggesting that the potential for long-term C storage in soil by PyOC amendments is less than currently anticipated. Our results therefore question the concept of

  11. Forest environmental consequences of pyrogenous anomalies in the basin of Baikal lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Evdokimenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The nature of forest pyrogenous anomalies in the basin of Baikal, due to mainly arid climate of the region and the predominance of highly inflammable types of light needle coniferous forests discussed in the paper. Pyrological regimes (placid, moderate, intense, and extreme in the full altitudinal range at different meteorological situations of the seasons analyzed. Forest pyrogenous anomalies occur under intense and extreme conditions, especially during the spring and summer «high fire» season, as the establishment on a large part of the territory pyrological monotony with the full absence of incombustible areas of vegetation. Hence, a high risk of extensive landscape fires that really happened in recent times, in 2003 and 2015. The forest ecosystems’ post-fire transformation have been studied: fire damages of forests; post pyrogenous dynamics of their viability and productivity; the main variations in forest forming process; changes in soil environment, including the ash content and acidity of forest litter, physical and chemical soil properties. Pyrogenic degradation of forest ecosystems will inevitably lead to degradation of the protective functions of the Baikal forests, the restoration of which after landscape fires takes many decades. Products of soils erosion from the burned areas complicate current alarming situation with the pollution of coastal waters in Baikal lake.

  12. Natural and pyrogenic humic acids at goethite and natural oxide surfaces interacting with phosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, T.; Mia, S.; Duhaut, P.B.; Molleman, B.

    2013-01-01

    Fulvic and humic acids have a large variability in binding to metal (hydr) oxide surfaces and interact differently with oxyanions, as examined here experimentally. Pyrogenic humic acid has been included in our study since it will be released to the environment in the case of large-scale application

  13. High throughput pyrogenic carbon (biochar) characterisation and quantification by liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerqueira, W.V.; Rittl, T.F.; Novotny, E.H.; Pereira Netto, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    Characterisation and quantification of the carbonaceous polyaromatic structure of pyrogenic carbon (PyC) are of paramount importance to evaluate the role of PyC in soil carbon sequestration. A new method of rapid resolution liquid chromatography with UV diode array detection (RRLC-UV-DAD) was dev

  14. Characterization and Phenanthrene Sorption of Natural and Pyrogenic Organic Matter Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jie; Sun, Ke; Wang, Ziying; Yang, Yan; Han, Lanfang; Xing, Baoshan

    2017-03-07

    Pyrogenic humic acid (HA) is released into the environment during the large-scale application of biochar. However, the biogeochemistry of pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) fractions and their sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) are poorly understood in comparison with natural organic matter (NOM) fractions. HA and humin (HM) fractions isolated from soils and the oxidized biochars were characterized. Sorption of phenanthrene (PHE) by these fractions was also examined. The characterization results demonstrate that pyrogenic HAs are different from natural HAs, with the former having lower atomic H/C ratios, more abundant aromatic C, and higher concentrations of surface carboxylic groups. Compared with the fresh biochars, the Koc of PHE on their oxidized biochars, pyrogenic HA, and HM fractions were undiminished, which is encouraging for the use of biochar in soil remediation. The PyOM fractions exhibited stronger nonlinear sorption than the NOM fractions. In addition, the PyOM fractions had higher sorption capacity than the NOM fractions due to their low polar C content and high aryl C content. The results obtained from this work will shed new light on the impact of the addition of biochar on the biogeochemistry of soil organic matter and on the fate of HOCs in biochar-amended soil.

  15. The impact of pyrogenic C on soil functioning : a study using ancient killn soil as a model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpel, Cornelia; Naisse, Christophe; Thi Ngo, Phuong; Davasse, Bernard; Girardin, Cyril; Chabbi, Abad

    2016-04-01

    The long-term effect of pyrogenic C on the physicochemical and biological functioning of soils is poorly understood. We used ancient killn soils as model systems in order to investigate soil properties after four centuries of pyrogenic C addition. In particular we were interested in the effect of the pyrogenic C amendment on the (micro-)biological functioning of the soil. We analysed for physicochemical properties, C mineralisation as well as C dynamics following input of 13C labelled charcoal and plant residues. Our results show compared to soil without any addition, that pyrogenic C amendment led in the long term to more rapid decomposition of the new materials. The decomposition rate was increased by about 17%. In contrast,a negative priming effect reduced soil organic carbon mineralization by about 30%. Soil physicochemical poperties, i.e. clay content, cation exchange and nutrient availability were durably improved in soil amended with pyrogenic C four centuries ago. These changes probably promoted higher microbial activity and thus intense mineralization when new plant litter was added. On the contrary, charcoal was degraded at a similar rate compared to soil without pyrogenic C amendment. Thus no specific adaptation of microorganism to charcoal degradation was observed even after several centuries. The negative priming effect induced by charcoal additiion can be due to a physical protection of the soluble carbon fraction at the surfaces of new charcoal. In contrast, the negative priming effect induced by plant residue input may be more likely due to a shift of substrate utilisation by microbial communities evolving in a nutrient-rich environment. Our results demonstrate that pyrogenic C addition modifies the carbon dynamic of soils in the long-term. We propose a conceptual model accounting for the alterations of soil functioning in the long term after pyrogenic C addition.

  16. Toxoids of Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin A Are Protective in Rabbit Models of Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Roggiani, Manuela; Stoehr, Jennifer A.; Olmsted, Stephen B.; Matsuka, Yury V.; Pillai, Subramonia; Ohlendorf, Douglas H.; Schlievert, Patrick M.

    2000-01-01

    Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (SPEs) are superantigens that have been implicated in causing streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). Most notably, SPE serotype A is made by nearly all M-protein serotype 1 and 3 streptococci, the M types most associated with the illness (these strains contain one or more other SPEs, and those proteins are likely also to contribute to disease). We have prepared double-, triple-, and hexa-amino-acid mutants of SPE A by PCR and other mutagenesis procedures....

  17. Interrelationship of Pyrogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Contamination in Different Environmental Media

    OpenAIRE

    Un Hyuk Yim; Yong-Seung Shin; Won Joon Shim; Seung-Kyu Kim; Dong Soo Lee

    2009-01-01

    Interrelationships between pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed in air, soil, water, sediment, and tree leaves by using multi-media monitoring data. Concurrent concentration measurements were taken bimonthly for a year for the multi-media at urban and suburban sites. PAH level correlations between air and other media were observed at the urban site but were less clear at the suburban site. Considering a closer PAHs distribution/fate characteristics to soil than susp...

  18. Interrelationship of Pyrogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH Contamination in Different Environmental Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Un Hyuk Yim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Interrelationships between pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were assessed in air, soil, water, sediment, and tree leaves by using multi-media monitoring data. Concurrent concentration measurements were taken bimonthly for a year for the multi-media at urban and suburban sites. PAH level correlations between air and other media were observed at the urban site but were less clear at the suburban site. Considering a closer PAHs distribution/fate characteristics to soil than suspended solids, contamination in sediment seemed to be governed primarily by that in soil. The partitioning of PAHs in waters could be better accounted for by sorption onto black carbon and dissolved organic carbon.

  19. Use of anti-pyrogenic powder to prevent spontaneous combustion of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maevskaya, V.M.; Baskakov, V.I.; Boldin, V.A.

    1986-07-01

    The paper describes the generation of endogenic fires during extraction, by the shield method, of thick seams of coal prone to spontaneous combustion, outlines the disadvantages of current system of extinguishing and preventing such fires and proposes the use of anti-pyrogenic powder for this purpose. The powder, which is composed of carbanide and diammonia phosphate and is non-toxic, inexpensive and readily available, is pumped via boreholes under pressure into the coal pillar between horizons prior to its being caved in order to prevent generation of endogenic fires in the caved area of the extraction pillar by starving the fire zone of oxygen. Successful applications of this method are described.

  20. Stimulation tests of human growth hormone secretion by insulin, lysine vasopressin, pyrogen and glucagon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogawa,Norio

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, comparisons have been made of the secretion of human growth hormone (HGH that was induced by insulin, lysine vasopressin and pyrogen injections in order to study whether these substances can be utilized as a rapid test of HGH secretion. In insulin test, a fall of the fasting blood glucose level by 28.6% or more seemed to be sufficient to provoke adequate HGH elevation, and 9.4 ng/ml or higher HGH increment was recognized as being normal, because lysine vasopressin and pyrogen produce varying degrees of side-effects and are less specific and unpredictable in the release of HGH. Secondly, the pharmacologic effects and mechanism of action of exogenous glucagon upon the HGH secretion were studied. In normal subjects after one mg sc glucagon, there was a mean peak blood glucose level of 142. 4±3.l mg/lOO ml at 30 min, HGH levels reached a mean peak level of 22. 6±4. 8 ng/ml at 150 min, and no false negative response was noted. In patients with hypopituitarism, there was no positive response in plasma HGH levels after the sc glucagon. The present study revealed that the rise and subsequent fall of blood glucose are not the sole mechanism responsible for the effct of glucagon on HGH secretion, and that the HGH secretion in response to the sc glucagon was not triggered by cathecholamine via the stimulation of the adrenal medulla.

  1. Natural and pyrogenic humic acids at goethite and natural oxide surfaces interacting with phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, Tjisse; Mia, Shamim; Duhaut, Pierre-Benoît; Molleman, Bastiaan

    2013-08-20

    Fulvic and humic acids have a large variability in binding to metal (hydr) oxide surfaces and interact differently with oxyanions, as examined here experimentally. Pyrogenic humic acid has been included in our study since it will be released to the environment in the case of large-scale application of biochar, potentially creating Darks Earths or Terra Preta soils. A surface complexation approach has been developed that aims to describe the competitive behavior of natural organic matter (NOM) in soil as well as model systems. Modeling points unexpectedly to a strong change of the molecular conformation of humic acid (HA) with a predominant adsorption in the Stern layer domain at low NOM loading. In soil, mineral oxide surfaces remain efficiently loaded by mineral-protected organic carbon (OC), equivalent with a layer thickness of ≥ ~0.5 nm that represents at least 0.1-1.0% OC, while surface-associated OC may be even three times higher. In natural systems, surface complexation modeling should account for this pervasive NOM coverage. With our charge distribution model for NOM (NOM-CD), the pH-dependent oxyanion competition of the organo-mineral oxide fraction can be described. For pyrogenic HA, a more than 10-fold increase in dissolved phosphate is predicted at long-term applications of biochar or black carbon.

  2. Parsing pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: forensic chemistry, receptor models, and source control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Kirk T; Pietari, Jaana; Boehm, Paul D

    2014-04-01

    A realistic understanding of contaminant sources is required to set appropriate control policy. Forensic chemical methods can be powerful tools in source characterization and identification, but they require a multiple-lines-of-evidence approach. Atmospheric receptor models, such as the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)'s chemical mass balance (CMB), are increasingly being used to evaluate sources of pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments. This paper describes the assumptions underlying receptor models and discusses challenges in complying with these assumptions in practice. Given the variability within, and the similarity among, pyrogenic PAH source types, model outputs are sensitive to specific inputs, and parsing among some source types may not be possible. Although still useful for identifying potential sources, the technical specialist applying these methods must describe both the results and their inherent uncertainties in a way that is understandable to nontechnical policy makers. The authors present an example case study concerning an investigation of a class of parking-lot sealers as a significant source of PAHs in urban sediment. Principal component analysis is used to evaluate published CMB model inputs and outputs. Targeted analyses of 2 areas where bans have been implemented are included. The results do not support the claim that parking-lot sealers are a significant source of PAHs in urban sediments. © 2013 SETAC.

  3. Forensic source differentiation of petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic hydrocarbons in Canadian oil sands environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Parrott, J L; Frank, R A; Yang, Z; Brown, C E; Hollebone, B P; Landriault, M; Fieldhouse, B; Liu, Y; Zhang, G; Hewitt, L M

    2014-04-30

    To facilitate monitoring efforts, a forensic chemical fingerprinting methodology has been applied to characterize and differentiate pyrogenic (combustion derived) and biogenic (organism derived) hydrocarbons from petrogenic (petroleum derived) hydrocarbons in environmental samples from the Canadian oil sands region. Between 2009 and 2012, hundreds of oil sands environmental samples including water (snowmelt water, river water, and tailings pond water) and sediments (from river beds and tailings ponds) have been analyzed. These samples were taken from sites where assessments of wild fish health, invertebrate communities, toxicology and detailed chemistry are being conducted as part of the Canada-Alberta Joint Oil Sands Monitoring Plan (JOSMP). This study describes the distribution patterns and potential sources of PAHs from these integrated JOSMP study sites, and findings will be linked to responses in laboratory bioassays and in wild organisms collected from these same sites. It was determined that hydrocarbons in Athabasca River sediments and waters were most likely from four sources: (1) petrogenic heavy oil sands bitumen; (2) biogenic compounds; (3) petrogenic hydrocarbons of other lighter fuel oils; and (4) pyrogenic PAHs. PAHs and biomarkers detected in snowmelt water samples collected near mining operations imply that these materials are derived from oil sands particulates (from open pit mines, stacks and coke piles).

  4. The cAMP-mediated protein kinase signal transduction pathway is involved in the pyrogenic effect of CRH in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The primary action of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) is stimulation of the synthesis and release of adrenocorticotropic hormone and β-endorphin from the pituitary in response to stress. In addition, a number of studies indicate that CRH exerts other physiological actions within the central nervous system which are independent of the pituitary. These include increased body temperature and thermogenesis. However, the intracellular mechanism responsible for pyrogenic action of CRH is still unclear. The purpose of these studies was to determine whether or not cAMP was involved in the pyrogenic action of CRH in the rat. Intracerebroventricular (icv) microinjection of CRH (2.5 μg, 5.0 μg, 10 μg) caused increases in colonic temperature and hypothalamus cAMP level in conscious rats. The pyrogenic effects of CRH were abolished or markedly inhibited by prior injection (icv) of an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, 2,,3,-dideoxyadenosine (DDA, 30 μg) or an inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, adenosine-3,,5,-(cyclic) monophosphorothionate (Rp-cAMPs, 15 μg). This is the first report demonstrating the pyrogenic effcet of centrally administration of CRH on the rat via the cAMP-mediated protein kinase signal transduction pathway.

  5. How the type of pyrogenic organic matter determines the SOM quality in amended soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Agustin; Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Morangues, Lur; Arias-Gonzalez, Ander

    2016-04-01

    Charred biomass can be used as an organic amendment and to enhance the C sink capacity of soils. There are two types of by-products containing pyrogenic OM that could be used to improve in agricultural or forestry, biochar and wood ash. Due to their different heating conditions under which it is produced (pyrolysis, combustion and different temperatures, feedstocks,..), the properties of this pyrogenic OM might be highly variable, which could affect the SOM quality and the C sink capacity of the amended soil. The purpose of this study was to assess how SOM quality is influenced by pyrogenic organic matter with different degree of carbonization. Biochar and bottom wood ash were added to two Atlantic forest soils (Pinus radiata, 12 °C, 1200 mm) with different texture, clayey loam and sandy loam. The experiment consisted in a randomized block trials, in which different doses of biochar (0, 3, 9, 18 Mh ha-1) and wood ash (0, 1.5, 4.5, and 9 Mg ha-1) were added. The Biochar applied (pH: 9.8; C: 87 %) was produced by the pyrolysis of Myscanthus sp. at 450°C in a Pyreg® pyrolysis unit. The bottom wood ash (pH: 10.6; C: 30 %) was produced by combustion in a biomass power plant. The aromatization/carbonization was lightly higher in biochar than in wood ash. This latter by-product, in addition to the black carbon, it also contained mineral ash, as well as unburnt or lightly charred plant biomass. The evolution of soil chemical and SOM properties were monitored over three years by solid state Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and 13C CPMAS NMR. These techniques were applied in bulk samples and also in fractions of different densityes. The changes in microbial activity were studied by analysis of microbial biomass C and basal respiration and soil microbial community. Three years after applications the SOM content increased lightly in the treatment receiving the highest doses of biochar and wood ash, specially in the clay loam soil. SOM in the treated soils displayed a

  6. The Influence of Pyrogenic, Biogenic and Anthropogenic Emissions on Ozone Production Downwind from Boreal Forest Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Douglas; Palmer, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Boreal forest fires emit pollutants that can have a strong influence on downwind surface ozone concentrations, with potential implications for exceeding air quality regulations. The influence of the mixing of pyrogenic, biogenic and anthropogenic emissions on ozone is not well understood. Using the nested 0.5° latitude x 0.667° longitude GEOS-Chem chemical transport model we track biomass burning plumes in North America. We identify the changes in key chemical reactions within these plumes as well as the sensitivity of ozone to the different emission sources. We illustrate the importance of this method using a case study of a multi-day forest fire during the BORTAS aircraft campaign over eastern Canada during summer 2011. We focus on emissions from the fire on the 17th of July and follow the plume for eight days. After the initial 24 hours of pyrogenic emissions the main source of VOCs is biogenic with increasing emissions from anthropogenic sources including outflow from Quebec City and Newfoundland. Using a Lagrangian framework, we show that the ozone production efficiency (OPE) of this plume decreases steadily as it moves away from the fire but increases rapidly as the plume reaches the east coast of Canada. Using a Eulerian framework we show that ozone mixing ratios of a east coast receptor region increase by approximately 15% even though the ozone tendency of the regional air mass is negative, which we find is due to the arrival of ozone precursors in the plume. We also consider the contribution of anthropogenic outflow over Nova Scotia that originates from the eastern seaboard of the United States to the local chemistry. Using these sensitivity model runs we generate a chemical reaction narrative for the plume trajectory that helps to understand the attribution of observed ozone variations.

  7. Physicochemical changes in pyrogenic organic matter (biochar) after 15 months of field aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.; Zimmerman, A. R.; Hamdan, R.; Cooper, W. T.

    2014-07-01

    Predicting the effects of pyrogenic organic matter (OM) addition (either natural or intentional as in the case of biochar amendment) on soil chemistry and crop yields has been hampered by a lack of understanding of how pyrogenic OM evolves in the environment over time. This work compared the physicochemical characteristics of newly made and 15-month-field-aged biochars and biochar-soil mixtures. After aging, biochars made by pyrolysis of wood and grass at 250, 400 and 650 °C exhibited 5-fold increases in cation exchange capacity (CEC), on average; appearance of anion exchange capacity (AEC); and significant decreases in pH, ash content and nanopore surface area. Cross polarization 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses indicated relative increases in O-containing functional groups, including substituted aryl, carboxyl and carbonyl C, and losses of O-alkyl groups. Similar chemical trends were observed for soil-biochar mixtures, suggesting the same biochar aging processes occurred in the soil environment. However, there was evidence for a role of soil OM-microbe-biochar interaction during aging. Field aging of soil with biochar resulted in large increases in C and N content (up to 124 and 143%, respectively) and exchange capacity (up to 43%) beyond that calculated by the weighted addition of the properties of biochar and soil aged separately. These beneficial interactive effects varied with soil and biochar type. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) images of biochar particles aged with soil showed colonization by microbes and widespread OM coatings. Thus, sorption of both microbially produced and soil OM are likely processes that enhanced biochar aging. Thus, biochar's full beneficial effects on soil properties likely increase over time, and proper assignment of C sequestration credits to biochar users will require consideration of soil-biochar interactions.

  8. Bacterial Community Composition Associated with Pyrogenic Organic Matter (Biochar) Varies with Pyrolysis Temperature and Colonization Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhongmin; Barberán, Albert; Li, Yong; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2017-01-01

    Microbes that colonize pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) (also called biochar) play an important role in PyOM mineralization and crucially affect soil biogeochemical cycling, while the microbial community composition associated with PyOM particles is poorly understood. We generated two manure-based PyOMs with different characteristics (PyOM pyrolyzed at the low temperature of 300°C [i.e., PyOM300] and at the high temperature of 700°C [i.e., PyOM700]) and added them to high-carbon (4.15%) and low-C (0.37%) soil for microbial colonization. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that Actinobacteria, particularly Actinomycetales, was the dominant taxon in PyOM, regardless of the PyOM pyrolysis temperature and soil type. Bacterial communities associated with PyOM particles from high-C soils were similar to those in non-PyOM-amended soils. PyOM300 had higher total microbial activity and more differential bacterial communities than PyOM700. More bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) preferentially thrived on the low-pyrolysis-temperature PyOM, while some specific OTUs thrived on high-pyrolysis-temperature PyOM. In particular, Chloroflexi species tended to be more prevalent in high-pyrolysis-temperature PyOM in low-C soils. In conclusion, the differences in colonized bacterial community composition between the different PyOMs were strongly influenced by the pyrolysis temperatures of PyOM, i.e., under conditions of easily mineralizable C or fused aromatic C, and by other properties, e.g., pH, surface area, and nutrient content. IMPORTANCE Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) is widely distributed in soil and fluvial ecosystems and plays an important role in biogeochemical cycling. Many studies have reported changes in soil microbial communities stimulated by PyOM, but very little is known about the microbial communities associated with PyOM. The microbes that colonize PyOMs can participate in the mineralization of PyOM, so changing its structure affects the fate of PyOMs and

  9. Pyrogenic Impact on Gray Humus Soils of Pine Forests in the Central Ecological Zone of the Baikal Lake Natural Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Krasnoshchekov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The data of experimental research on the dynamics of post pirogenic gray humus soils of pine forests in the central ecological zone of the Baikal natural territory are analysed. Ground litter-humus fires transforms type diagnostic surface organic soil horizons, lead to the formation of new organogenic pyrogenic horizons (Opir. Negative impact of surface fires of varying intensity on stock change, quality of fractional composition of soil organic horizons, and their chemical composition is shown.

  10. Determination of Interference During In Vitro Pyrogen Detection: Development and Characterization of a Cell-Based Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Linda; Rossetti, Francesca; Dominici, Sabrina; Buondelmonte, Costantina; Rocchi, Marco B L; Rizzardi, Gian P; Vallanti, Giuliana; Magnani, Mauro

    2016-12-20

    Contamination of pharmaceutical products and medical devices with pyrogens such as endotoxins is the most common cause of systemic inflammation and, in worst cases, of septic shock. Thus, quantification of pyrogens is crucial. The limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL)-based assays are the reference tests for in vitro endotoxin detection, in association with the in vivo rabbit pyrogen test (RPT), according to European Pharmacopoeia (EP 2.6.14), and U.S. Pharmacopoeia (USP ). However, several substances interfere with LAL assay, while RPT is not accurate, not quantitative, and raises ethical limits. Biological assays, as monocyte activation tests, have been developed and included in European Pharmacopoeia (EP 7.0; 04/2010:20630) guidelines as an alternative to RPT and proved relevant to the febrile reaction in vivo. Because this reaction is carried out by endogenous mediators under the transcriptional control of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), we sought to determine whether a NF-kappaB reporter-gene assay, based on MonoMac-6 (MM6) cells, could reconcile the basic mechanism of innate immune response with the relevance of monocytoid cell lines to the organism reaction to endotoxins. This article describes both optimization and characterization of the reporter cells-based assay, which overall proved the linearity, accuracy, and precision of the test, and demonstrated the sensitivity of the assay to 0.24 EU/mL endotoxin, close to the pyrogenic threshold in humans. Moreover, the assay was experimentally compared to the LAL test in the evaluation of selected interfering samples. The good performance of the MM6 reporter test demonstrates the suitability of this assay to evaluate interfering or false-positive samples.

  11. Discrimination in Degradability of Soil Pyrogenic Organic Matter Follows a Return-On-Energy-Investment Principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Omar R.; Myers-Pigg, Allison N.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Singh, Bhupinder Pal; Kuehn, Kevin A.; Louchouarn, Patrick

    2016-08-16

    A fundamental understanding of biodegradability is central to elucidating the role(s) of pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) in biogeochemical cycles. Since microbial community and ecosystem dynamics are driven by net energy flows, then a quantitative assessment of energy value versus energy requirement for oxidation of PyOM should yield important insights into their biodegradability. We used bomb calorimetry, step-wise isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (isoTGA) and 5-year in-situ bidegradation data, to develop energy-biodegradability relationships for a suite of plant- and manure-derived PyOM (n = 10). The net energy value (ΔE) for PyOM was between 4.0 and 175 kJ mol-1; with manure-derived PyOM having the highest ΔE. Thermal-oxidation activation energy (Ea) requirements ranged from 51 to 125 kJ mol-1, with wood-derived PyOM having the highest Ea requirements. We propose a return-on-investment (ROI) parameter (ΔE/Ea) for differentiating short-to-medium term biodegradability of PyOM and deciphering if biodegradation will most likely proceed via co-metabolism (ROI < 1) or direct metabolism (ROI ≥ 1). The ROI-biodegradability relationship was sigmoidal with higher biodegradability associated with PyOM of higher ROI; indicating that microbes exhibit a higher preference for “high investment value” PyOM.

  12. Carbon Mineralizability Determines Interactive Effects on Mineralization of Pyrogenic Organic Matter and Soil Organic Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitman, Thea L.; Zhu, Zihua; Lehmann, Johannes C.

    2014-10-31

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is a critical and active pool in the global C cycle, and the addition of pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) has been shown to change SOC cycling, increasing or decreasing mineralization rates (often referred to as priming). We adjusted the amount of easily mineralizable C in the soil, through 1-day and 6-month pre-incubations, and in PyOM made from maple wood at 350°C, through extraction. We investigated the impact of these adjustments on C mineralization interactions, excluding pH and nutrient effects and minimizing physical effects. We found short-term increases (+20-30%) in SOC mineralization with PyOM additions in the soil pre-incubated for 6 months. Over the longer term, both the 6-month and 1-day pre-incubated soils experienced net ~10% decreases in SOC mineralization with PyOM additions. This was possibly due to stabilization of SOC on PyOM surfaces, suggested by nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry. Additionally, the duration of pre-incubation affected priming interactions, indicating that there may be no optimal pre-incubation time for SOC mineralization studies. We show conclusively that relative mineralizability of SOC in relation to PyOM-24 C is an important determinant of the effect of PyOM additions on SOC mineralization.

  13. Redistribution of pyrogenic carbon from hillslopes to stream corridors following a large montane wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrufo, M. Francesca; Boot, Claudia M.; Kampf, Stephanie; Nelson, Peter A.; Brogan, Daniel J.; Covino, Tim; Haddix, Michelle L.; MacDonald, Lee H.; Rathburn, Sarah; Ryan-Bukett, Sandra; Schmeer, Sarah; Hall, Ed

    2016-09-01

    Pyrogenic carbon (PyC) constitutes a significant fraction of organic carbon in most soils. However, PyC soil stocks are generally smaller than what is expected from estimates of PyC produced from fire and decomposition losses, implying that other processes cause PyC loss from soils. Surface erosion has been previously suggested as one such process. To address this, following a large wildfire in the Rocky Mountains (CO, USA), we tracked PyC from the litter layer and soil, through eroded, suspended, and dissolved solids to alluvial deposits along riversides. We separated deposited sediment into high- and low-density fractions to identify preferential forms of PyC transport and quantified PyC in all samples and density fractions using benzene polycarboxylic acid markers. A few months after the fire, PyC had yet to move vertically into the mineral soil and remained in the organic layer or had been transported off site by rainfall driven overland flow. During major storm events PyC was associated with suspended sediments in river water and later identified in low-density riverbank deposits. Flows from an unusually long-duration and high magnitude rainstorm either removed or buried the riverbank sediments approximately 1 year after their deposition. We conclude that PyC redistributes after wildfire in patterns that are consistent with erosion and deposition of low-density sediments. A more complete understanding of PyC dynamics requires attention to the interaction of post fire precipitation patterns and geomorphological features that control surface erosion and deposition throughout the watershed.

  14. Linking Pyrogenic Organic Matter Reactivity in Soil to its Charring Temperature and Wood Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filley, T. R.; Gibson, C. D.; Hatton, P. J.; Dastmalchi, K.; Chatterjee, S.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.; Stark, R. E.; Bird, J.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the link between the chemical and structural properties of pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) and its subsequent reactivity in soil is critical to predict how future increases in forest fire frequency and intensity will affect C and N cycling. Herein, we present results from a laboratory incubation that investigated the effects of wood species and charring temperature on the decomposition of PyOM and native soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in a sandy soil from a northern temperate forest (University of Michigan Biological Station, Pellston, MI, USA). PyOM was produced from highly 13C/15N-labeled red maple (RM; Acer rubrum) and jack pine (JP; Pinus banksania) at 0 (native wood), 200, 300, 450 and 600 °C. PyOM amendments to soil were at 11 % total soil C. After 3 months of this ongoing incubation, 13CO2 evolution indicates that both pyrolysis temperature and species played a significant role in PyOM and native SOC mineralization. For both species, PyOM-C mineralization decreased with increasing temperature and PyOM ≥200 °C additions decreased SOC mineralization relative to controls.. In addition, PyOM-C mineralization of RM-derived PyOM was enhanced relative to JP-derived PyOM at temperatures Soils with added RM-derived PyOM exhibited significantly lower SOC mineralization at 300 and 450 °C than from JP-derived PyOM additions. These results highlighting interactive temperature and species effects are consistent with our detailed spectroscopic, elemental and isotope analysis of the PyOM samples across this pyrolysis gradient, which shows significant physicochemical changes at 300 °C for JP and between 300 and 450 °C for RM. Efforts will be made in this paper to link PyOM structural and chemical properties to the PyOM and native SOC turnover rates.

  15. Characterization, Quantification and Compound-specific Isotopic Analysis of Pyrogenic Carbon Using Benzene Polycarboxylic Acids (BPCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemeier, Daniel B; Lang, Susan Q; Gierga, Merle; Abiven, Samuel; Bernasconi, Stefano M; Früh-Green, Gretchen L; Hajdas, Irka; Hanke, Ulrich M; Hilf, Michael D; McIntyre, Cameron P; Scheider, Maximilian P W; Smittenberg, Rienk H; Wacker, Lukas; Wiesenberg, Guido L B; Schmidt, Michael W I

    2016-05-16

    Fire-derived, pyrogenic carbon (PyC), sometimes called black carbon (BC), is the carbonaceous solid residue of biomass and fossil fuel combustion, such as char and soot. PyC is ubiquitous in the environment due to its long persistence, and its abundance might even increase with the projected increase in global wildfire activity and the continued burning of fossil fuel. PyC is also increasingly produced from the industrial pyrolysis of organic wastes, which yields charred soil amendments (biochar). Moreover, the emergence of nanotechnology may also result in the release of PyC-like compounds to the environment. It is thus a high priority to reliably detect, characterize and quantify these charred materials in order to investigate their environmental properties and to understand their role in the carbon cycle. Here, we present the benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA) method, which allows the simultaneous assessment of PyC's characteristics, quantity and isotopic composition ((13)C and (14)C) on a molecular level. The method is applicable to a very wide range of environmental sample materials and detects PyC over a broad range of the combustion continuum, i.e., it is sensitive to slightly charred biomass as well as high temperature chars and soot. The BPCA protocol presented here is simple to employ, highly reproducible, as well as easily extendable and modifiable to specific requirements. It thus provides a versatile tool for the investigation of PyC in various disciplines, ranging from archeology and environmental forensics to biochar and carbon cycling research.

  16. Century-scale patterns and trends of global pyrogenic carbon emissions and fire influences on terrestrial carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jia; Tian, Hanqin; Tao, Bo; Ren, Wei; Lu, Chaoqun; Pan, Shufen; Wang, Yuhang; Liu, Yongqiang

    2015-09-01

    Fires have consumed a large amount of terrestrial organic carbon and significantly influenced terrestrial ecosystems and the physical climate system over the past century. Although biomass burning has been widely investigated at a global level in recent decades via satellite observations, less work has been conducted to examine the century-scale changes in global fire regimes and fire influences on the terrestrial carbon balance. In this study, we investigated global pyrogenic carbon emissions and fire influences on the terrestrial carbon fluxes from 1901 to 2010 by using a process-based land ecosystem model. Our results show a significant declining trend in global pyrogenic carbon emissions between the early 20th century and the mid-1980s but a significant upward trend between the mid-1980s and the 2000s as a result of more frequent fires in ecosystems with high carbon storage, such as peatlands and tropical forests. Over the past 110 years, average pyrogenic carbon emissions were estimated to be 2.43 Pg C yr-1 (1 Pg = 1015 g), and global average combustion rate (defined as carbon emissions per unit area burned) was 537.85 g C m-2 burned area. Due to the impacts of fires, the net primary productivity and carbon sink of global terrestrial ecosystems were reduced by 4.14 Pg C yr-1 and 0.57 Pg C yr-1, respectively. Our study suggests that special attention should be paid to fire activities in the peatlands and tropical forests in the future. Practical management strategies, such as minimizing forest logging and reducing the rate of cropland expansion in the humid regions, are in need to reduce fire risk and mitigate fire-induced greenhouse gases emissions.

  17. Use of Pyrogenic Carbon Geosorbents to Decrease the Mobility and Bioavailability of Pharmaceuticals in the Soil-Water-Biota Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Hua; Zhang, Yingjie; Bhalsod, Gemini; Chuang, Ya-Hui; Boyd, Stephen; Teppen, Brian; Tiedje, James; Li, Hui; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Pharmaceuticals are emerging contaminants widely detected in soil and water environments, and concerns are mounting over their potential impact on human and ecosystem health. In particular, overuse of antibiotics (an important group of pharmaceuticals) in human medicine and animal agriculture and rapid emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria on a global scale are threatening the health of humans, animals, and the environment. We have investigated interactions of pharmaceuticals with pyrogenic carbon geosorbents (e.g., biohar and activated carbon), bacteria, and vegetable crops in order to better understand sorption, uptake, and translocation of pharmaceuticals in the soil-water-biota continuum. Sorption of antibiotics by biochars was studied to assess the effect of biochar soil amendment in reducing the transport and bioavailability of antibiotics. Pyrogenic carbonaceous materials such as biochars and activated carbon had strong sorption capacities for antibiotics, and drastically lowed the uptake of antibiotics by an Escherichia coli, therefore demonstrating soil amendment with pyrogenic carbon geosorbents as an effective remediation strategy to reduce antibiotic transport and selection pressure for antibiotic resistant bacteria. Additionally, because consuming pharmaceutical-tainted food is a direct human exposure pathway, it is critical to investigate the residue levels of pharmaceuticals in food crops grown in contaminated soils or irrigated with reclaimed water. Therefore, we have studied the uptake and accumulations of pharmaceuticals in greenhouse-grown lettuce under overhead or surface irrigations. Preliminary results indicate that pharmaceuticals of large molecular weight and low water solubility had greater concentrations in lettuce shoots under overhead irrigation than surface irrigation. Pharmaceuticals of low molecular weight and high water solubility are less clearly influenced by irrigation methods. These results implies that irrigation scheme

  18. Pyrogenic Carbon as a Nonlinear Driver in the Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, C. A.; Silberg, J. J.; Cheng, H. Y.; Gao, X.; Del Valle, I.

    2016-12-01

    Our first conceptual models of pyrogenic carbon's effects on the carbon cycle treated this material as a form of organic matter whose environmental residence time was long enough to render it inert, and PyC was modeled as an unreactive mass that moved through C cycle reservoirs essentially unmodified. This concept saw modifications with the recognition that some fractions of PyC were labile. For example, the reactive sugars and lignin monomers cleaved off the lignocellulose matrix by heating have lifetimes on the order of hours to weeks. However, the now-common multiple component model of PyC does not satisfactorily explain many nonlinearities that have been observed when it is added to soils. These nonlinearities include the positive and negative "priming" effects sometimes triggered, where the presence of PyC in some matrices can trigger shifts in the overall microbial community metabolism, as well as alteration of microbial community structure, shifts in the behavior of belowground and aboveground plant parasites, and shifted rates of greenhouse gas emissions that are not well-correlated to shifts in soil hydrologic processes. To understand the effects of PyC on the global C and N cycles, we will need a better understanding of the mechanisms behind PyC-driven C and N cycle nonlinearities. This talk will examine potential mechanisms driving the nonlinearities observed in soil systems following the introduction of PyC. Potential mechanisms discussed will include PyC effects on soil microbial communication and PyC effects on microbial electron transfer. Cell-cell communication through the secretion and detection of small molecules is used by soil microbes to manage many biogeochemically relevant processes including production of biofilms, production of extracellular enzymes, and management of methanogenesis and denitrification. PyC disrupts microbial cell-cell communication differentially, altering some species' ability to communicate more than others. Electron

  19. The stability of Pyrogenic Organic Matter is dependent upon its wood source and charring temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, C. D.; Filley, T. R.; Bird, J.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.; Stark, R. E.; Hatton, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Fire is a major mediator of carbon (C) cycling in forests and can result in the formation of pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM). The biological reactivity of PyOM is largely dependent upon the physiochemical characteristics of source material and production temperature. As a result, PyOM can persist up to centennial time scales after deposition while simultaneously enhancing or suppressing the mineralization of native soil C (NSC). To investigate the interactive effects of PyOM source and production temperature on NSC, we added 13C-enriched red maple (RM) or jack pine (JP) pyrolyzed at 200, 300, 450 or 600°C to a low C (0.5%;), near-surface soil (0-20 cm-depth) at 60% water holding capacity and 11% of native soil C and then incubated the samples in the dark at 25⁰C for 6 months. We found that PyOM mineralization rates decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature for either species while NSC mineralization was suppressed across all treatments with the largest decrease observed in JP 300⁰C. RM mineralization rates were consistently greater (˜5 to ˜25%) than for JP residence time (MRT) of PyOM-C was significantly higher in PyOM >300°C resulting in MRT of ~300 - 550 y compared to 8-30 y in lower temperature PyOM (0-300 °C). RM exhibited significantly lower MRT in 300°C PyOM than JP corresponding to differences observed in PyOM and NSC mineralization rates. The modelled active and slow pools of PyOM-C mineralized decreased with increasing combustion temperature. JP 300°C had a 20% smaller active pool when compared to RM suggesting that for both species, 300⁰C - 450⁰C represented a thermal transition point which was most evident in jack pine. These results highlight how differences in PyOM physiochemical characteristics linked to a species thermal transformation threshold may be a predictor in determining its biological reactivity in soil.

  20. White-rot fungal response to fresh and photolytically-weathered pyrogenic organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, C. D.; Berry, T. D.; Wang, R.; Bird, J. A.; Filley, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM or biochar) is the product of the incomplete combustion of biomass. A better understanding of the microbial-mediated degradation of PyOM is critical to assess its role in soil C sequestration and to serve as an agricultural amendment. Recent studies have shown that PyOM additions can prime native soil C but results have been inconsistent, with studies reporting no effect, an increase, or decrease in C mineralization. This study investigated the ability of saprotrophic white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor, to decompose an unaltered 'fresh' PyOM and a photo-oxidized PyOM. In addition, we measured PyOM-induced priming effects on the mineralization of malt extract agar media (MEA). Enriched (13C) Pinus banksiana-derived PyOM, produced at 450oC under N2, was added fresh and after 4 weeks exposure to 254 nm light to MEA. Vials containing the various types of media were then monitored for CO2 evolution and oxidative enzyme activity. We found that MEA C respired was stimulated (positive priming) by photolyzed PyOM and was inhibited with fresh PyOM addition (negative priming) relative to controls. Vetryl alcohol addition, a laccase production stimulant, resulted in less activity in the presence of PyOM compared with a control, indicating PyOM may disrupt enzyme induction processes. Loss of PyOM-13CO2 was 0.2% (× 0.001) for fresh PyOM and 1.2% (×0.001) for photolyzed PyOM C during 10 weeks averaged across media treatments. While MEA C mineralization decreased after fresh PyOM addition, both oxidative (laccase and manganese peroxidase) and hydrolytic (β glucosidase) enzyme production increased with fresh PyOM in the absence of veratryl alcohol. However, there was a decrease in its presence. These results suggest that the physiological response of this common wood decay fungus to PyOM is complex and responsive to enzymatic triggers but that PyOM itself can act to promote or suppress overall litter or soil decay by fungi.

  1. Structural Characterization and Reactivity of Pyrogenic Water-Soluble Organic Matter Derived from Biomass Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, M. J.; Louchouarn, P.; Kuo, L.

    2011-12-01

    Combustion processes, whether from natural or anthropogenic origin, are major sources of particulate matter (PM), black carbon (BC), and volatile organic carbon to the atmosphere as well as soils and aquatic environments. The ubiquitous presence of biomass combustion by-products in atmospheric particles and soils could potentially lead to a large transfer of pyrogenic water-soluble organic matter (Pyr-WSOM) to the surface of watersheds and aquatic systems. In spite of this, there is a dearth of studies that have characterized the sources, and particularly the fate, of Pyr-WSOM to aquatic systems. In the present study, Pyr-WSOM was extracted from plant-derived chars (feedstocks: honey mesquite, cordgrass, and loblolly pine) produced at a range of temperatures (150-850C), and were then characterized using elemental analyses and ATR-FTIR. Low temperature (250C) Pyr-WSOM, extracted from honey mesquite and cordgrass biochars, were then incubated with aliquots of filtered water from the Trinity River (TX) for one month under dark conditions. Consistent with prior studies on combustion molecular markers such as anhydrosugars and methoxylated phenols, the total amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) released from biochars peaks around 200-250C and then decreases with increasing temperature of combustion. Elemental and structural analyses of biochar-derived WSOM reflect the selective solubility of certain functional groups. For example, despite the predominance of aromatic units and soot structures in biochars formed at high temperatures, such functionalities are not as predominant in their respective Pyr-WSOM. In addition, the high proportion of O-containing functionalities suggests that Pyr-WSOM may be more biodegradable than the particulate residues of biomass combustion. Indeed, low temperature Pyr-WSOM decomposed rapidly with half-lives ranging ~30 days for total DOC to 4-5 days for specific molecular markers of biomass combustion. These rapid turnover rates are in

  2. Pyrogenic carbon distribution in mineral topsoils of the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauss, Verena; Sullivan, Patrick J.; Sanderman, Jonathan; Smith, David; Lehmann, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Due to its slow turnover rates in soil, pyrogenic carbon (PyC) is considered an important C pool and relevant to climate change processes. Therefore, the amounts of soil PyC were compared to environmental covariates over an area of 327,757 km2 in the northeastern United States in order to understand the controls on PyC distribution over large areas. Topsoil (defined as the soil A horizon, after removal of any organic horizons) samples were collected at 165 field sites in a generalised random tessellation stratified design that corresponded to approximately 1 site per 1600 km2 and PyC was estimated from diffuse reflectance mid-infrared spectroscopy measurements using a partial least-squares regression analysis in conjunction with a large database of PyC measurements based on a solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy technique. Three spatial models were applied to the data in order to relate critical environmental covariates to the changes in spatial density of PyC over the landscape. Regional mean density estimates of PyC were 11.0 g kg− 1 (0.84 Gg km− 2) for Ordinary Kriging, 25.8 g kg− 1(12.2 Gg km− 2) for Multivariate Linear Regression, and 26.1 g kg− 1 (12.4 Gg km− 2) for Bayesian Regression Kriging. Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) indicated that the Multivariate Linear Regression model performed best (AIC = 842.6; n = 165) compared to Ordinary Kriging (AIC = 982.4) and Bayesian Regression Kriging (AIC = 979.2). Soil PyC concentrations correlated well with total soil sulphur (P assessment of PyC in soils. Better estimates of the contribution of PyC to the global carbon cycle will thus also require more accurate assessments of these covariates.

  3. Assessing aromaticity and the degree of aromatic condensation of pyrogenic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemeier, D. B.; Abiven, S.; Hockaday, W. C.; Keiluweit, M.; Kleber, M.; Masiello, C. A.; McBeath, A. V.; Nico, P. S.; Pyle, L. A.; Schneider, M. P.; Smernik, R. J.; Wiesenberg, G. L.; Schmidt, M. W.

    2013-12-01

    Fire-derived, pyrogenic carbon (PyC) is a persistent organic carbon fraction in soils because it is relatively resistant against chemical and biological degradation. PyC thus represents a carbon sequestration potential in the global carbon cycle and was also reported to be potentially beneficial for soil fertility. PyC is naturally added to soils during wildfires and anthropogenically in the form of biochar, after organic waste is pyrolyzed. Aromaticity and the degree of aromatic condensation are the two main quality properties of PyC that probably determine its persistence against degradation. Consequently, the two properties largely influence the PyC's carbon sequestration potential as well as the duration, during which it can provide benefits to the soil. Aromaticity and the degree of aromatic condensation of PyC should theoretically be dependent on pyrolysis conditions, such as highest heating temperature or pyrolysis time, and also depend on the feedstock. In this study, we used two different pyrolysis procedures and four different feedstocks to produce four thermosequences of 38 chars in total, with highest heating temperatures ranging from 100 - 1000° C. The chars were then analyzed with an extensive suite of seven different methods: solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR), diffuse infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), synchrotron-based near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure analysis (NEXAFS), benzene polycarboxylic acid analysis (BPCA), lipid analysis, elemental analysis and helium pycnometry. These methods allowed to infer the aromaticity and the degree of aromatic condensation of the differently pyrolyzed materials. Using multivariate statistical methods, aromaticity and the degree of aromatic condensation could successfully be linked to highest heating temperature and other pyrolysis conditions because characteristic patterns of the two aromatic properties could be observed by different methods throughout all four

  4. Total and pyrogenic carbon stocks in black spruce forest floors from eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucemarianadin, Laure; Quideau, Sylvie; MacKenzie, M. Derek; Munson, Alison; Boiffin, Juliette; Bernard, Guy; Wasylishen, Roderick

    2016-04-01

    In boreal forests, pyrogenic carbon (PyC), a by-product of recurrent wildfires, is an important component of the global soil C pool, although precise assessment of boreal PyC stock is scarce. In this study including 14 fire sites spreading over 600 km in the Quebec province, our aim was to better estimate total C stock and PyC stock in forest floors of Eastern Canada boreal forests. We also investigated the environmental conditions controlling the stocks and characterized the composition of the various forest floor layers. We analyzed the forest floor samples that were collected from mesic black spruce sites recently affected by fire (3-5 years) using elemental analysis and solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. PyC content was further estimated using a molecular mixing model on the 13C NMR data. Total C stock in forest floors averaged 5.7 ± 2.9 kg C/m2 and PyC stock 0.6 ± 0.3 kg C/m2. Total C stock was under control of the position in the landscape, with a greater accumulation of organic material on northern aspects and lower slope positions. In addition, total stock was significantly higher in spruce-dominated forest floors than in stands where jack pine was dominant. The PyC stock was significantly related to the atomic H/C ratio (R2 = 0.84) of the different organic layers. 13C NMR spectroscopy revealed a large increase in aromatic carbon in the deepest forest floor layer (humified H horizon) at the organic-mineral soil interface. The majority of the PyC stock was located in this horizon and had been formed during past high severity fires rather than during the most recent fire event. Conversely, the superficial "fresh" PyC layer, produced by early-season wildfires in 2005-2007, had NMR spectra fairly similar to unburned forest floors and comparatively low PyC stocks.

  5. Cupric Oxide (CuO) Oxidation Detects Pyrogenic Carbon in Burnt Organic Matter and Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, Jeff; Goñi, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Wildfire greatly impacts the composition and quantity of organic carbon stocks within watersheds. Most methods used to measure the contributions of fire altered organic carbon-i.e. pyrogenic organic carbon (Py-OC) in natural samples are designed to quantify specific fractions such as black carbon or polyaromatic hydrocarbons. In contrast, the CuO oxidation procedure yields a variety of products derived from a variety of precursors, including both unaltered and thermally altered sources. Here, we test whether or not the benzene carboxylic acid and hydroxy benzoic acid (BCA) products obtained by CuO oxidation provide a robust indicator of Py-OC and compare them to non-Py-OC biomarkers of lignin. O and A horizons from microcosms were burned in the laboratory at varying levels of fire severity and subsequently incubated for 6 months. All soils were analyzed for total OC and N and were analyzed by CuO oxidation. All BCAs appeared to be preserved or created to some degree during burning while lignin phenols appeared to be altered or destroyed to varying extents dependent on fire severity. We found two specific CuO oxidation products, o-hydroxybenzoic acid (oBd) and 1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid (BTC2) that responded strongly to burn severity and withstood degradation during post-burning microbial incubations. Interestingly, we found that benzene di- and tricarboxylic acids (BDC and BTC, respectively) were much more reactive than vanillyl phenols during the incubation as a possible result of physical protection of vanillyl phenols in the interior of char particles or CuO oxidation derived BCAs originating from biologically available classes of Py-OC. We found that the ability of these compounds to predict relative Py-OC content in burned samples improved when normalized by their respective BCA class (i.e. benzene monocarboxylic acids (BA) and BTC, respectively) and when BTC was normalized to total lignin yields (BTC:Lig). The major trends in BCAs imparted by burning

  6. Improved quantification of pyrogenic carbon in soils and sediments by a HPLC-DAD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemeier, D. B.; Hilf, M. D.; Smittenberg, R. H.; Schmidt, M. W. I.

    2012-04-01

    Fire-derived (pyrogenic) carbon (PyC) is produced by the incomplete combustion of biomass, for example during wildfires. It can persist in the environment for a long time due to its relative resistance against biological and chemical breakdown. Its accurate quantification in soils and sediments is of great interest because the slow turn-over of PyC has implications for the global carbon cycle and carbon budget calculations. Moreover, PyC in pedological and sedimentological records can be used to reconstruct wildfire history or to investigate historical periods like the industrialization. A whole suite of PyC quantification methods exists because PyC is not a defined chemical structure but rather a continuum of thermally altered biomass. The benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCA) analysis is a molecular marker method that was shown to give conservative estimates of PyC quantity in soils. In addition, it yields qualitative information about the degree of aromaticity and condensation of PyC. The commonly used BPCA method consists in digesting samples with nitric acid that breaks down the PyC into a suite of BPCAs, which are cleaned, derivatized and finally analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Here, we present a modified BPCA method for soils and sediments that uses a high performance liquid chromatography system coupled to diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). We demonstrate that this method greatly enhances the reproducibility of PyC quantification in soil and sediment samples while significantly reducing analysis time. Moreover, much less sample material is needed for precise PyC quantification and we show that the HPLC-DAD method yields consistently higher PyC contents than the GC-FID method. Additionally, the modified method also facilitates δ13C and 14C measurements of the PyC fraction in these complex matrix samples. The isotopic information further improves the assessment of PyC budgets in the environment and the reconstruction of past

  7. Quantitative characterization of agglomerates and aggregates of pyrogenic and precipitated amorphous silica nanomaterials by transmission electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Temmerman Pieter-Jan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interaction of a nanomaterial (NM with a biological system depends not only on the size of its primary particles but also on the size, shape and surface topology of its aggregates and agglomerates. A method based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM, to visualize the NM and on image analysis, to measure detected features quantitatively, was assessed for its capacity to characterize the aggregates and agglomerates of precipitated and pyrogenic synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide (SAS, or silica, NM. Results Bright field (BF TEM combined with systematic random imaging and semi-automatic image analysis allows measuring the properties of SAS NM quantitatively. Automation allows measuring multiple and arithmetically complex parameters simultaneously on high numbers of detected particles. This reduces operator-induced bias and assures a statistically relevant number of measurements, avoiding the tedious repetitive task of manual measurements. Access to multiple parameters further allows selecting the optimal parameter in function of a specific purpose. Using principle component analysis (PCA, twenty-three measured parameters were classified into three classes containing measures for size, shape and surface topology of the NM. Conclusion The presented method allows a detailed quantitative characterization of NM, like dispersions of precipitated and pyrogenic SAS based on the number-based distributions of their mean diameter, sphericity and shape factor.

  8. How does pyrogenic organic matter affect the N dynamic in agricultural soils? An incubation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Rosa, José M.; Knicker, Heike

    2010-05-01

    Besides other environmental factors, N availability drives the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles in grasslands. Since grass-dominated ecosystems cover approximately 40% of the terrestrial surface and store more than 30% of global soil organic carbon (SOC), alterations to those ecosystems could have significant consequences and potential implications for global C and N cycles and climate (Schlesinger et al., 1990). Understanding the processes that govern the efficient cycling of nutrients through soil/plant systems remains an important topic to underpin the choice of strategies aimed at ensuring the long-term sustainability of ecosystems. In Mediterranean ecosystems, wild-fires occur frequently. Whereas factors such as water shortage or erosion contribute to reduced N-availability by lowering the litter input, burning additionally increase the refractory N and C-pools by charring litter and humic material (charred pyrogenic organic matter-PyOM) (Gonzalez-Pérez, 2004). In general, the addition of organic matter either as plant residues or farmyard manure has been shown to significantly increase biological activity, microbial biomass and enzyme activity in soil (Dick, 1992). Even in situations where microbial biomass appears to be unaffected, the activity of specific processes (e.g. N mineralization) can be significantly influenced by the addition of organic residues). However, little is known about the changes of the N cycle caused by the addition of PyOM. Therefore, the interest of our research was to study the impact of 15N enriched-biochars either alone or in conjunction with a 15N enriched fertilizer (K15NO3) on aggregate stability and organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) distribution among the different soil fractions. The latter may help to elucidate both, the quality of the stored organic matter and if the accumulation is related to interaction with the mineral matter. Therefore, biochar derived from grass material grown on 15N-enriched fertilizer was added

  9. Impact of pyrogenic organic matter decomposition and induced priming effect on soil C budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestrini, Bernardo; Abiven, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) results from the incomplete combustion of biomass and may contribute to constitute an important fraction of soil C in forest and agricultural soils, in the form of charcoal (produced by wildfires) or biochar (anthropogenic). Although many evidences exist on the long mean residence time of PyOM there is still a large uncertainty on PyOM loss processes and rate and on possible induced priming effect on non-PyOM. Therefore determining PyOM mineralization rate, loss processes and possible induced priming effect on soil organic matter decomposition are key issues to understand the impact of PyOM on the carbon (C) cycle. We investigated the impact of PyOM on soil C budget by combining results from three independent studies: (i) a field study to investigate PyOM mineralization rate and the relative importance of PyOM loss processes, (ii) a PyOM and soil incubation experiment to correlate C and N mineralization rates, (iii) a review of the priming effect induced by PyOM on soil organic C. We employed 13C labelled pinewood-derived PyOM for the field experiment and 13C labelled ryegrass-derived PyOM in the incubation experiment to trace PyOM losses. In the field experiment it was observed that: (i) Pyrolysis process reduced pinewood decomposition by a factor of 60, (ii) leaching and translocation of fresh PyOM along the soil profile were negligible compared to losses as CO2. In the incubation experiment we found that ryegrass induced a two phase priming effect on native soil organic matter, with a positive priming effect followed by a negative priming effect phase, we also found that ryegrass-derived PyOM decomposition was much slower than pinewood one. The different decomposition rate results probably from the different aromaticity of the two PyOM together with the different set-up of the two experiments. Both the incubation experiment and the meta-analysis revealed that PyOM may induce a two-phase priming effect on native soil organic matter

  10. Black (pyrogenic) carbon: a synthesis of current knowledge and uncertainties with special consideration of boreal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, C. M.; Schmidt, M. W. I.

    2006-09-01

    The carbon (C) cycle in boreal regions is strongly influenced by fire, which converts biomass and detrital C mainly to gaseous forms (CO2 and smaller proportions of CO and CH4), and some 1-3% of mass to pyrogenic C (PyC). PyC is mainly produced as solid charred residues, including visually-defined charcoal, and a black carbon (BC) fraction chemically defined by its resistance to laboratory oxidation, plus much lower proportions of volatile soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). All PyC is characterized by fused aromatic rings, but varying in cluster sizes, and presence of other elements (N, O) and functional groups. The range of PyC structures is often described as a continuum from partially charred plant materials, to charcoal, soot and ultimately graphite which is formed by the combination of heat and pressure. There are several reasons for current interest in defining more precisely the role of PyC in the C cycle of boreal regions. First, PyC is largely resistant to decomposition, and therefore contributes to very stable C pools in soils and sediments. Second, it influences soil processes, mainly through its sorption properties and cation exchange capacity, and third, soot aerosols absorb solar radiation and may contribute to global warming. However, there are large gaps in the basic information needed to address these topics. While charcoal is commonly defined by visual criteria, analytical methods for BC are mainly based on various measures of oxidation resistance, or on yield of benzenepolycarboxylic acids. These methods are still being developed, and capture different fractions of the PyC structural continuum. There are few quantitative reports of PyC production and stocks in boreal forests (essentially none for boreal peatlands), and results are difficult to compare due to varying experimental goals and methods, as well as inconsistent terminology. There are almost no direct field measurements of BC aerosol production from boreal wildfires, and

  11. Black (pyrogenic carbon: a synthesis of current knowledge and uncertainties with special consideration of boreal regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Preston

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The carbon (C cycle in boreal regions is strongly influenced by fire, which converts biomass and detrital C mainly to gaseous forms (CO2 and smaller proportions of CO and CH4, and some 1–3% of mass to pyrogenic C (PyC. PyC is mainly produced as solid charred residues, including visually-defined charcoal, and a black carbon (BC fraction chemically defined by its resistance to laboratory oxidation, plus much lower proportions of volatile soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. All PyC is characterized by fused aromatic rings, but varying in cluster sizes, and presence of other elements (N, O and functional groups. The range of PyC structures is often described as a continuum from partially charred plant materials, to charcoal, soot and ultimately graphite which is formed by the combination of heat and pressure. There are several reasons for current interest in defining more precisely the role of PyC in the C cycle of boreal regions. First, PyC is largely resistant to decomposition, and therefore contributes to very stable C pools in soils and sediments. Second, it influences soil processes, mainly through its sorption properties and cation exchange capacity, and third, soot aerosols absorb solar radiation and may contribute to global warming. However, there are large gaps in the basic information needed to address these topics. While charcoal is commonly defined by visual criteria, analytical methods for BC are mainly based on various measures of oxidation resistance, or on yield of benzenepolycarboxylic acids. These methods are still being developed, and capture different fractions of the PyC structural continuum. There are few quantitative reports of PyC production and stocks in boreal forests (essentially none for boreal peatlands, and results are difficult to compare due to varying experimental goals and methods, as well as inconsistent terminology. There are almost no direct field measurements of BC aerosol production from boreal

  12. Black (pyrogenic carbon in boreal forests: a synthesis of current knowledge and uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Preston

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The carbon (C cycle in boreal regions is strongly influenced by fire, which converts biomass and detrital C mainly to gaseous forms (CO2 and smaller proportions of CO and CH4, and some 1–7% of mass to pyrogenic C (PyC. PyC is mainly produced as solid charred residues, including visually-defined charcoal, and a black carbon (BC fraction chemically defined by its resistance to laboratory oxidation, plus much lower proportions of volatile soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. All PyC is characterized by fused aromatic rings, but varying in cluster sizes, and presence of other elements (N, O and functional groups. There are several reasons for current interest in defining more precisely the role of PyC in the C cycle of boreal regions. First, PyC is resistant to decomposition, and therefore contributes to very stable C pools in soils and sediments. Second, it influences soil processes, mainly through its sorption properties and cation exchange capacity, and third, soot aerosols absorb solar radiation and may contribute to global warming. However, there are large gaps in the basic information needed to address these topics. While charcoal is commonly defined by visual criteria, analytical methods for BC are mainly based on various measures of oxidation resistance, or on yield of benzenepolycarboxylic acids. These methods are still being developed, and capture different fractions of the PyC "continuum". There are few quantitative reports of PyC production and stocks in boreal forests (essentially none for boreal peatlands, and results are difficult to compare due to varying experimental goals and methods, as well as inconsistent terminology. There are almost no direct field measurements of BC aerosol production from boreal wildfires, and little direct information on rates and mechanisms for PyC loss. Structural characterization of charred biomass and forest floor from wildfires generally indicates a low level of

  13. Evolution of the surface polar character of pyrogenic silicas, with their grafting ratios by dimethylchlorosilane, studied by microcalorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnet, Jean-Baptiste; Ridaoui, Hassan; Balard, Henri; Barthel, Herbert; Gottschalk-Gaudig, Torsten

    2008-09-01

    The interactions of water, hexamethyldisiloxane, and dodecane with pyrogenic silica samples, modified by a controlled partial silylation with dimethyldichlorosilane, were studied by microcalorimetry and wettability measurements. The samples, having a coverage ratio lower than dimethylsilyl (DMS) monolayer capacity ( approximately 2.6 DMS/nm(2)), show a regular and linear decrease of their heat of immersion into water with the coverage ratio and correlate with the increase of residual silanol groups. Two critical coverage ratios were evidenced at about 25 and 50% of the DMS monolayer capacity, the grafted silica remaining hydrophilic, below 25% being strongly hydrophobic beyond. The heat of immersion into hexamethyldisiloxane decreases until 50% of the DMS monolayer whereas that of dodecane remains independent of the grafting ratio. This study demonstrates that the water/residual free silica surface plays the main role in the stabilization of the W/O Pickering's emulsions.

  14. Combining charcoal and elemental black carbon analysis in sedimentary archives : implications for past fire regimes, the pyrogenic carbon cycle, and the human-climate interactions

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the quantification of combustion-derived products in oceanic and continental sediments by optical and chemical approaches, and the interest of combining such methods for reconstructing past biomass burning activity and the pyrogenic carbon cycle. In such context, the dark particles >0.2 mu m(2) remaining after the partial digestion of organic matter are optically counted by automated image analysis and defined as charcoal, while the elemental carbon remaining after therma...

  15. Combining charcoal and elemental black carbon analysis in sedimentary archives : implications for past fire regimes, the pyrogenic carbon cycle, and the human-climate interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Thevenon, Florian; Williamson, David; Bard, Edouard; Flavio S. Anselmetti; Beaufort, Luc; Cachier, Hélène

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the quantification of combustion-derived products in oceanic and continental sediments by optical and chemical approaches, and the interest of combining such methods for reconstructing past biomass burning activity and the pyrogenic carbon cycle. In such context, the dark particles >0.2 mu m(2) remaining after the partial digestion of organic matter are optically counted by automated image analysis and defined as charcoal, while the elemental carbon remaining after therma...

  16. [Carriage of Streptococcus pyogenes in primary school children: M-protein types, pyrogenic toxin genes, and investigation of the clonal relationships between the isolates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otlu, Barış; Karakurt, Cemşit; Bayındır, Yaşar; Kayabaş, Üner; Yakupoğulları, Yusuf; Gözükara Bağ, Harika

    2015-07-01

    M-protein and pyrogenic toxins are the most important virulence factors of Streptococcus pyogenes, and they play significant role in the pathophysiology of acute rheumatoid fever and scarlet fever, respectively. In this study, the pharyngeal carriage of S.pyogenes of the primary school children, clonal relationship of the strains, M-protein types, and the presence of pyrogenic toxin genes were aimed to be investigated. A total of 668 throat cultures obtained from children (age range: 6-16 years) in two primary schools in our region, were included in the study. The clonal relationships of the isolated group A streptococci (GAS) strains were investigated by DiversiLab assay (BioMérieux, France), and the clonal relatedness was confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method. M-protein (emm) typing was performed by DNA sequencing as suggested by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The genes encoding pyrogenic toxins, speA and speC, were investigated by an in-house multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. S.pyogenes was isolated from 134 (20.05%) of the throat samples. The GAS carriage rate of the students aged ≥10 was statistically higher than those 7-9 years age group (%22 vs %16.4, pvaccine was determined to be over 90% with respect to M-protein types. Since the pyrogenic toxin-encoding genes were found in one fifth of the isolates from the studied subjects, we concluded that the carrier population may also have high risk for scarlet fever. We also concluded that, the clonal relationship ratio determined among the isolates may be a risk in school transmission of GAS.

  17. Effect of dialyser membranes on extracellular and intracellular granulocyte and monocyte activation in ex vivo pyrogen-free conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahiout, A; Courtney, J M

    1994-10-01

    This study examined effects of blood-contacting materials on the monocyte reaction following the first contact of human blood with hollow fibre dialyser membranes under pyrogen-free conditions. Membrane materials were the unchanged regenerated cellulose, the synthetic polysulphone (PS), a positively charged diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-C), the negatively charged carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and acrylonitrile copolymer (AN). The experimental system involved perfusion with human fresh venous blood through different modules containing the materials in the form of hollow fibre membranes. Extracellular and intracellular aspects of blood reactions after the first contact with the materials were investigated in Ficoll-separated granulocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Investigations were done by release reactions of platelet activating factor (PAF), oxygen radical (O2-), leukotriene B4, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cytokines (IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6). The intracellular activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was done by mRNA transcription of IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-8 and beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-MG). From the set of parameters, release reactions were only measurable for PAF, PGE2 and O2- if a second stimulus (phorbol myristate acetate, lipopolysaccharide, zymosan and calcium ionophore) was used after blood-membrane interaction. Although the extent of the release reaction was weak, negatively charged membranes were, in general, more active. All dialysers exhibited the same increase in beta 2-MG mRNA transcription, suggesting that all blood-contacting membranes initiate the gene expression of beta 2-MG at the same level. TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-1 beta and IL-8 mRNAs were demonstrated in the AN and CMC membranes rather than the other materials, which exhibit a lower transcription than the tubing set. As has been found, an enhanced generation of PGE2 for both CMC and AN membranes supports, therefore, the concept of an effect of the negative

  18. Labile pyrogenic dissolved organic carbon in major Siberian Arctic rivers: Implications for wildfire-stream metabolic linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers-Pigg, Allison N.; Louchouarn, Patrick; Amon, Rainer M. W.; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Pierce, Kayce; Rubtsov, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    burning produces a spectrum of thermally altered materials that releases pyrogenic carbon (PyC) to terrestrial, atmospheric, and aquatic systems. Most studies focus on the refractory end of the PyC spectrum, derived from middle- to high-temperature combustion. Low-temperature PyC is produced during wildfires and has been found to be particularly labile and water soluble. Here we find that in each of the major Siberian watersheds, low-temperature fire-derived biomarkers are present in detectable concentrations during all flow regimes of the 2004-2006 sampling period, confirming that PyC is an intrinsic component of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool mobilized by hydrologic events. Gymnosperm combustion, from the southern portions of these watersheds, is the primary source of this Py-DOC input. Using first-order degradation rates and transit times of water through these rivers, about half of the total estimated flux of this material may be remineralized during transport from fire source to river mouth (20-40 days), demonstrating the input of a labile source of PyC to these watersheds.

  19. Source Material and Concentration of Wildfire-Produced Pyrogenic Carbon Influence Post-Fire Soil Nutrient Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas A. Michelotti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pyrogenic carbon (PyC is produced by the thermal decomposition of organic matter in the absence of oxygen (O. PyC affects nutrient availability, may enhance post-fire nitrogen (N mineralization rates, and can be a significant carbon (C pool in fire-prone ecosystems. Our objectives were to characterize PyC produced by wildfires and examine the influence that contrasting types of PyC have on C and N mineralization rates. We determined C, N, O, and hydrogen (H concentrations and atomic ratios of charred bark (BK, charred pine cones (PC, and charred woody debris (WD using elemental analysis. We also incubated soil amended with BK, PC, and WD at two concentrations for 60 days to measure C and N mineralization rates. PC had greater H/C and O/C ratios than BK and WD, suggesting that PC may have a lesser aromatic component than BK and WD. C and N mineralization rates decreased with increasing PyC concentrations, and control samples produced more CO2 than soils amended with PyC. Soils with PC produced greater CO2 and had lower N mineralization rates than soils with BK or WD. These results demonstrate that PyC type and concentration have potential to impact nutrient dynamics and C flux to the atmosphere in post-fire forest soils.

  20. Sensitive responders among bacterial and fungal microbiome to pyrogenic organic matter (biochar) addition differed greatly between rhizosphere and bulk soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhongmin; Hu, Jiajie; Xu, Xingkun; Zhang, Lujun; Brookes, Philip C; He, Yan; Xu, Jianming

    2016-11-08

    Sensitive responses among bacterial and fungal communities to pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) (biochar) addition in rhizosphere and bulk soils are poorly understood. We conducted a pot experiment with manure and straw PyOMs added to an acidic paddy soil, and identified the sensitive "responders" whose relative abundance was significantly increased/decreased among the whole microbial community following PyOM addition. Results showed that PyOMs significantly (p rhizosphere soil was larger than in bulk soil, regardless of PyOM types and microbial domains, indicating the microbial community in rhizosphere soil was sensitive to PyOM addition than bulk soil. The significant increased root biomass and length caused by PyOM addition, associated with physiological processes, e.g. C exudates secretion, likely favored more sensitive responders in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil. Our study identified the responders at fine taxonomic resolution in PyOM amended soils, improved the understanding of their ecological phenomena associated with PyOM addition, and examined their interactions with plant roots.

  1. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid detection of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Cuiming; Zhang, Fang; Ji, Mingyu; Pei, Fengyan; Fan, Xiujie; Shen, Hong; Wang, Qingxi; Yang, Weihua; Wang, Yunshan

    2016-07-01

    We developed a visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique to detect the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (speB) gene. Fifteen strains (from American Type Culture Collection or clinical isolates) were used to determine the specificity and sensitivity of the LAMP assay. Clinical samples were collected from 132 patients with suspected Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) infection to verify the feasibility of the LAMP assay for detection of the speB gene. By using a set of five primers (a pair of outer primers, a pair of inner primers and one loop primer) targeting the speB gene, the amplification reaction was rapidly performed in a regular water bath under isothermal conditions at 63 °C for approximately 60 min. Only the two S. pyogenes strains showed positive results which were easily observed with the naked eye, and the other strains showed negative results. The detection limit of the LAMP assay was 0.01 ng/μl of template, showing higher sensitivity than conventional PCR (with a detection limit of 1.0 ng/μl). The detection rate of the speB gene in clinical samples was 71.21% and was consistent with the PCR results. The rapid detection of the speB gene by the LAMP assay is highly specific and sensitive, is simple to perform and cost-effective, and is expected to be a new reliable method for the rapid diagnosis of S. pyogenes infection, that is particularly suitable for rural or community hospitals in developing countries.

  2. Understanding the fate of black (pyrogenic) carbon in soil: Preliminary results from a long term field trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Will; Ascough, Philippa; Bird, Michael; Large, David; Shen, Licheng; Snape, Colin

    2014-05-01

    Black carbon (BC, also known as pyrogenic carbon) is an 'inert' form of carbon and has been proposed as a means of long-term carbon sequestration, particularly by amending soils and sediments with BC known as biochar. While there is abundant anecdotal evidence of biochar stability over extended timescales it is essential to gain a greater understanding of the degree and mechanisms of biochar degradation in the environment. This study aims to quantitatively assess the stability of biochar by investigating samples from field degradation trials first buried during 2009 in a tropical soil, and recovered after 12 and 36 month intervals. Catalytic hydropyrolysis (HyPy) is a novel analytical tool for the isolation of BC [1] in which high hydrogen pressure (150 bar) and a sulphided Mo catalyst reductively remove the non-BC fraction of the chars, and so isolate the most stable portion of the biochar, defined as BC(HyPy). This method also allows for the non-BC(HyPy) fraction of a sample, which from charcoal is known to include small ring PAHs (oceans [5], implying that BC cycling could be faster than previously thought [6]. Longer term field trials will be required (analysis of the 36 month samples) to observe systematic changes in the PAH distribution of the non-BCC(HyPy) fractions isolated form aged chars, although natural analogues with a better constrained environmental history may also be useful. [1] Meredith, W. et al., 2012. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 97, 131-147. [2] Ascough, P.L. et al., 2010. Radiocarbon 52, 1336-1350. [3] Lockhart, R.S. et al., 2013. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 104, 640-652. [4] Hockaday, W.C. et al., 2007. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 71, 3432-3445. [5] Jaffe, R. et al., 2013. Science 340, 345-347. [6] Zimmerman, M. et al., 2012. Global Change Biology 18, 3306-3316.

  3. Linking charring temperature and wood source to the structure and degradation rates of pyrogenic organic matter in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, P.; Dastmalchi, K.; Chatterjee, S.; Auclerc, A.; Le Moine, J.; Filley, T. R.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.; Stark, R.; Bird, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Fire is a major controller of forest C cycling by releasing CO2 to the atmosphere and by contributing pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM or biochar) to soils. Recent studies have shown that much of fire-derived PyOM may turn over in soils at century time scales. Two likely controllers of the chemical structure of PyOM and its resulting decay rate are pyrolysis temperature and the source biomass. However, we know little of how these two factors determine the chemical structure and bioreactivity of the resulting PyOM. To gain further insight into controls on the structure and fate of PyOM, we examined two species of dual-labeled (13C/15N), wood-based PyOM (Pinus banksiana and Acer rubrum) made with 5 pyrolysis temperatures (0, 200, 300, 450, 600 °C) using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, isotopic and elemental composition (C, H, O, and N), and differential scanning calorimetry. In addition, we are investigating the fate of a subset of these PyOM materials applied to forest soils in a long-term field study located at the University of Michigan Biological Station in Pellston, MI, USA. We will present data of the loss of PyOM C as CO2 and DOC during the first year in situ. We found complementary lines of evidence for a facile removal of cellulose and hemicellulose and a progressive alteration of nitrogenous moieties across the charring gradient for wood-derived PyOM of both tree species as temperature was increased from 0 to 600 °C. Our NMR results show a significant species by pyrolysis temperature interaction on PyOM chemical structure with considerably less condensation for Acer- than Pinus-derived PyOM at 300 °C. In the first year after addition to soil, Acer-derived PyOM pyrolyzed at 450 °C mineralized faster than Pinus-derived PyOM pyrolyzed at 450 °C. Increasing pyrolysis temperatures for Pinus-derived PyOM also resulted in slower CO2 mineralization rates during the first year of field decay. These results relate pyrolysis temperature to the resulting Py

  4. The global pyrogenic carbon cycle and its impact on the level of atmospheric CO2 over past and future centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Jean-Sébastien; Matthews, H Damon

    2016-12-19

    The incomplete combustion of vegetation and dead organic matter by landscape fires creates recalcitrant pyrogenic carbon (PyC), which could be consequential for the global carbon budget if changes in fire regime, climate, and atmospheric CO2 were to substantially affect gains and losses of PyC on land and in oceans. Here, we included global PyC cycling in a coupled climate-carbon model to assess the role of PyC in historical and future simulations, accounting for uncertainties through five sets of parameter estimates. We obtained year-2000 global stocks of (Central estimate, likely uncertainty range in parentheses) 86 (11-154), 47 (2-64), and 1129 (90-5892) Pg C for terrestrial residual PyC (RPyC), marine dissolved PyC, and marine particulate PyC, respectively. PyC cycling decreased atmospheric CO2 only slightly between 1751 and 2000 (by 0.8 Pg C for the Central estimate) as PyC-related fluxes changed little over the period. For 2000 to 2300, we combined Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5 with stable or continuously increasing future fire frequencies. For the increasing future fire regime, the production of new RPyC generally outpaced the warming-induced accelerated loss of existing RPyC, so that PyC cycling decreased atmospheric CO2 between 2000 and 2300 for most estimates (by 4-8 Pg C for Central). For the stable fire regime, however, PyC cycling usually increased atmospheric CO2 (by 1-9 Pg C for Central), and only the most extreme choice of parameters maximizing PyC production and minimizing PyC decomposition led to atmospheric CO2 decreases under RCPs 4.5 and 8.5 (by 5-8 Pg C). Our results suggest that PyC cycling will likely reduce the future increase in atmospheric CO2 if landscape fires become much more frequent; however, in the absence of a substantial increase in fire frequency, PyC cycling might contribute to, rather than mitigate, the future increase in atmospheric CO2 .

  5. Demonstration of interleukin 1 activity in apparently homogeneous specimens of the pI 5 form of rabbit endogenous pyrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, D F; Murphy, P A

    1984-08-01

    Rabbit mononuclear cells from oil-induced peritoneal exudates were purified by centrifugation on Percoll gradients, suspended in tissue culture medium, and stimulated with opsonized Staphylococcus epidermidis. The supernatants from these macrophages caused fever when injected intravenously into rabbits (endogenous pyrogen [EP] activity). The EP activity was contained in two protein fractions, with pIs of 7.3 and ca. 5.0. The same fractions caused mouse thymocytes to incorporate tritiated thymidine when incubated in vitro with small quantities of phytohemagglutinin (interleukin 1 [IL-1] activity). The pI 5.0 form of EP was purified to apparent homogeneity by sequential use of ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, hydrophobic chromatography, and high-resolution isoelectric focusing. EP and IL-1 activities were not separable by any of these procedures. Active fractions from isoelectric focusing were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Only one band was visible as judged by a silver staining method, and IL-1 activity could be recovered by renaturing eluates from the same region of sodium dodecyl sulfate gels run in parallel. An estimate of specific activity was made by comparing the intensity of stained bands of EP with the intensity of bands containing known quantities of lysozyme or RNase. By this criterion, the specific activity of purified pI 5 EP was between 17,000 and 58,000 degrees C U/mg of protein, and the specific activity in terms of IL-1 was between 59 million and 360 million U per mg of protein. These observations suggest that both EP and IL-1 activities can be expressed by a single molecular species. The implications of this coincidence are discussed. It was also shown that highly purified pI 5 EP obtained from macrophages stimulated in the presence of 14C-labeled amino acids contained significant 14C radioactivity. This suggests that the pI 5.0 EP, like the pI 7

  6. Alternative modelling approaches for estimating pyrogenic carbon, soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in contrasting ecoregions within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauss, Verena; Sullivan, Patrick; Lehmann, Johannes; Sanderman, Jonathan; Daub, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Given that turnover rates of pyrogenic carbon (PyC) in soil are substantially slower than those of other organic carbon input, it is considered an important carbon pool and its function and fate are relevant to global environmental change processes. Research on PyC has expanded greatly over recent years, but the analytical challenges of determining environmental core factors influencing its production, accumulation and dispersion still require elucidation across different scales. Mid-infrared spectroscopy and partial least-squares analysis were used in conjunction with ultraviolet photo-oxidation followed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques, to quantify PyC, soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (total N) amounts for samples we collected of surface and subsurface soils across the United States at National Science Foundation supported Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites as well as samples from a national soil sampling effort by the U.S. Geological Survey. In our study, we illustrate the impact of the aforementioned natural factors by examining their correlation with PyC content in soils under contrasting environmental conditions thus identifying the factors affecting PyC accumulation. Our central findings revealed a statistically significant relationship of PyC with environmental variables soil drainage, lignin content of the vegetation, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation as well as for the USGS sites total soil sulphur. During our investigations we evaluated PyC on different spatial scales. On a geographically smaller scale we examined samples from New England and New York. We developed a new and innovative Bayesian framework and applied three spatial models to the data in order to relate critical environmental covariates to changes in spatial density of PyC over the landscape. Akaike Information Criterion demonstrated that the Bayesian Multivariate Linear Regression model performed best (r2=0.6; p>0.05) with

  7. Combining charcoal and elemental black carbon analysis in sedimentary archives: Implications for past fire regimes, the pyrogenic carbon cycle, and the human-climate interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenon, Florian; Williamson, David; Bard, Edouard; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Beaufort, Luc; Cachier, Hélène

    2010-07-01

    This paper addresses the quantification of combustion-derived products in oceanic and continental sediments by optical and chemical approaches, and the interest of combining such methods for reconstructing past biomass burning activity and the pyrogenic carbon cycle. In such context, the dark particles > 0.2 µm 2 remaining after the partial digestion of organic matter are optically counted by automated image analysis and defined as charcoal, while the elemental carbon remaining after thermal and chemical oxidative treatments is quantified as black carbon (BC). The obtained pyrogenic carbon records from three sediment core-based case studies, (i) the Late Pleistocene equatorial Pacific Ocean, (ii) the mid-Holocene European Lake Lucerne, and (iii) the Late Holocene African Lake Masoko, are interpreted as proxy records of regional transportation mechanisms and biomass burning activities. The results show that the burial of dark carbon-rich particles in the 360 kyr-long record from the west equatorial Pacific is controlled by the combination of sea-level changes and low-latitude atmospheric circulation patterns (summer monsoon dynamics). However, the three fold increases in charcoal and BC sediment influxes between 53-43 and 12-10 kyr BP suggest that major shifts in fire activity occur synchronously with human colonization in the Indo/Pacific region. The coarse charcoal distribution from a 7.2 kyr record from Lake Lucerne in Switzerland closely matches the regional timing of major technical, land-use, and socio-economic changes during the Neolithic (between ca. 5.7 and 5.2 kyr BP and 4.9-4.5 kyr BP), the Bronze and Iron Ages (at ca. 3.3 and 2.4 kyr BP, respectively), and the industrialization (after AD 1838), pointing to the key impact of human activities on the sources, transportation processes and reservoirs of refractory carbon during the Holocene. In the tropical Masoko maar lake in Tanzania, where charcoal and BC records are highly sensitive to the local climate

  8. Molecular requirements for MHC class II alpha-chain engagement and allelic discrimination by the bacterial superantigen streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Katherine J; Xi, Wang; Rahman, A K M Nur-Ur; Nooh, Mohammed M; Kotb, Malak; Sundberg, Eric J; Madrenas, Joaquín; McCormick, John K

    2008-09-01

    Superantigens (SAgs) are microbial toxins that bind to both TCR beta-chain variable domains (Vbetas) and MHC class II molecules, resulting in the activation of T cells in a Vbeta-specific manner. It is now well established that different isoforms of MHC II molecules can play a significant role in the immune response to bacterial SAgs. In this work, using directed mutational studies in conjunction with functional analyses, we provide a complete functional map of the low-affinity MHC II alpha-chain binding interface of the SAg streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C (SpeC) and identify a functional epitope in the beta-barrel domain that is required for the activation of T cells. Using cell lines that exclusively express individual MHC II isoforms, our studies provide a molecular basis for the selectivity of SpeC-MHC II recognition, and provide one mechanism by how SAgs are capable of distinguishing between different MHC II alleles.

  9. Determination of bacterial endotoxin (pyrogen) in radiopharmaceuticals by the gel clot method. Validation; Determinacao de endotoxina bacteriana (pirogenio) em radiofarmacos pelo metodo de formacao de gel. Validacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumori, Neuza Taeko Okasaki

    2008-07-01

    Before the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test, the only available means of pirogenicity testing for parenteral drugs and medical devices was the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) rabbit pyrogen test. Especially for radiopharmaceuticals, the LAL assay is the elective way to determine bacterial endotoxin. The aim of this work was to validate the gel clot method for some radiopharmaceuticals without measurable interference. The FDA's LALTest guideline defines interference as a condition that causes a significant difference between the endpoints of a positive water control and positive product control series using a standard endotoxin. Experiments were performed in accordance to the USP bacterial endotoxins test in the {sup 131}I- m-iodobenzylguanidine; the radioisotopes Gallium-67 and Thallium-201; the lyophilized reagents DTPA, Phytate, GHA, HSA and Colloidal Tin. The Maximum Valid Dilution (MVD) was calculated for each product based upon the clinical dose of the material and a twofold serial dilution below the MVD was performed in duplicate to detect interferences. The labeled sensitivity of the used LAL reagent was 0.125 EU mL{sup -1} (Endotoxin Units per milliliter). For validation, a dilution series was performed, a twofold dilution of control standard endotoxin (CSE) from 0.5 to 0.03 EU mL{sup -1}, to confirm the labeled sensitivity of the LAL reagent being tested in sterile and non pyrogenic water, in quadruplicate. The same dilution series was performed with the CSE and the product in the 1:100 dilution factor, in three consecutive batches of each radiopharmaceutical. The products {sup 131}I-m-iodobenzylguanidine, Gallium-67, Thallium-201, DTPA, HSA and Colloidal Tin were found compatible with the LAL test at a 1:100 dilution factor. Phytate and GHA showed some interference in the gel clot test. Other techniques to determine endotoxins as the chromogenic (color development) and the turbidimetric test (turbidity development), were also assessed to get

  10. Research on Pyrogen Test by Replacing Domestic Rabbit with Whole Blood or Cell%用全血或细胞替代家兔进行热原检查的方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冠民; 黄清泉; 张云河; 贺争鸣

    2003-01-01

    The pyrogen test is an important index of quality-management relating to druggery injection and instillation and the current common methods are domestic-rabbit test and Bacterial Endotoxins Test. Since there are shortcomings and limitations of resources in these two methods , it's necessary to look for another new substitute. We have done the preliminary study of the feasibility of the pyrogen test with domestic rabbit's blood plasm, human's plasm and THP-1.The principle is as follows: after incubating the standard sample of bacterial endotoxins, glycogen anti-coagulation whole blood extracting from the healthy domestic rabbit, extralin anti-congealable whole blood from healthy volunteers,THP-1 cells together, measure the releasing amount of TNF and IL-6 from cell gene by the method of ELISA as a endogenesis index judging the pro-heat role of endotoxin.The results indicate: the blood-rabbit's whole blood, human's whole blood, or THP-lcelI, their releasing amount of TNF and IL-6 are closely connected with the amount of acting endotoxins within a certain range. Three methods have their own peculiarities and some feasibilities as a new substitute method for pyrogen test with domestic rabbit.

  11. Application of Fishbone Diagram in Risk Control of Pyrogen Reaction%鱼骨图在致热源反应风险控制中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋忠伟; 吴凤莲; 王秦; 许平娟

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly expounds the application of fishbone diagram analysis method in the prevention of complications caused by dialysis equipment applications, and puts forward to the potential risks, which could cause pyrogen reaction to the patients, such as risks in the maintenance of water treatment system, disinfection of the reverse osmosis membrane, disinfection of the ward pipeline, the use of dialysate, disinfection of the dialysis machine. Corresponding prevention measures are also introduced in this paper.%本文主要阐述了鱼骨图分析法在预防透析设备所致并发症的应用。以致热源反应为例,提出了水处理系统预处理的维护,反渗膜的消毒,病房管道的消毒,透析液的使用,透析机的消毒,透析耗材的使用等环节中可能引发患者致热源反应存在的风险,并陈述了预防的措施。

  12. Cytotoxin and Pyrogenic Toxin Superantigen Gene Profiles of Staphylococcus aureus Associated with Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Cows and Relationships with Macrorestriction Genomic Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fueyo, J. M.; Mendoza, M. C.; Rodicio, M. R.; Muñiz, J.; Alvarez, M. A.; Martín, M. C.

    2005-01-01

    A set of 84 Staphylococcus aureus isolates collected from the milk of cows with subclinical mastitis in Asturias (a cattle region of Spain) and six control strains were tested for sequences of genes encoding hemolysins (hla, hlb, hld, hlg, and hlg-2), leukotoxins (lukPV, lukM, and lukED), toxic shock syndrome toxin (tst), and enterotoxins (sea to see, seg to ser, and seu) by conventional and multiplex PCR. It was found that 84, 83, 11, and 39 isolates carried some type of hl, luk, tst, or se gene, respectively, which were arranged in 14 exotoxin genotypes. All of the isolates were negative for lukPV, hlg, sea, sed, see, sej, sek, sep, seq, and ser. Two gene groupings could be related with pathogenicity islands—[lukED, seg, sei, sem, sen, seo ± seu] with Saβ-1 and [tst, sec, sel] with SaPIbov, present in 45 and 13.1% of the isolates, respectively—while 11.9% of them carried both islands. Only one contained seb (together with υSaβ-1), and another contained seh (together with lukED). The isolates were also analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis performed with SmaI. Thirty-nine SmaI profiles (similarity coefficient [S] = 0.94 to 0.21) were differentiated; 12, 1, and 10 of these, respectively, were generated by isolates presumptively carrying Saβ-1, SaPIbov, or both. Five SmaI profiles (S ≥ 0.8) formed a cluster, which contained 20 and 10 isolates carrying one (υSaβ-1) or both islands. These data show the high frequency of genes encoding cytotoxins and pyrogenic toxin superantigens, their relationship with pathogenicity islands, and their distribution among a diversity of genetic types of S. aureus related to subclinical mastitis. PMID:15750096

  13. Pyrogenic organic matter accumulation after density and particle size fractionation of burnt Cambisol using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martín, María; Knicker, Heike

    2017-04-01

    Fires lead to formation of the pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) which is quickly incorporated into the soil. The charring process involves chemical alterations of the litter material, where biologically available structures are transferred into aromatic polymers, such as black carbon (BC) and black nitrogen (BN). In order to reveal the medium term fate of BC and BN in soils, the top 5 cm of A horizons from unburnt, single and double burnt Cambisols of the Sierra de Aznalcóllar (Southern Spain) were collected 7 year after an intense fire and separated according to their density and their size (Golchin et al., 1994; Sohi et al., 2001). The density fractionation yielded in the free (fPOM), occluded particulate organic matter (oPOM) and the mineral-association organic fraction (MAF) and was performed using a sodium polytungstate solution with a density of 1.8 g cm-3. The MAF was further separated into the sand (2 mm to 63 μm) and coarse silt (63 to 20 μm) and fine fraction (competitividad de España (MINECO) and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) for financial support of the project (CGL2009-10557). The MINECO is also acknowledged for providing the Formación de Professional Investigator (FPI) grant (BES-2010-42581). REFERENCES Golchin, A., Oades, J., Skjemstad, J., Clarke, P., 1994. Soil structure and carbon cycling. Soil Research 32, 1043-1068. Sohi, S.P., Mahieu, N., Arah, J.R.M., Powlson, D.S., Madari, B., Gaunt, J.L., 2001. A procedure for isolating soil organic matter fractions suitable for modelling. Soil Science Society of America Journal 65, 1121.

  14. A practical and pyrogen-free preparation of 11C-L-methionine in a good manufacturing practice-compliant approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Po Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: 11C-L-methionine, an amino acid tracer used to delineate certain tumor tissues, has proven to be a prevailing nonfluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET radiopharmaceutical. We intended to prepare 11C-L-methionine by following modified synthetic strategies at a rebuilt working area to meet the PET drug current good manufacturing practice (cGMP and Pharmaceutical Inspection Co-operation Scheme (PIC/S regulations. Furthermore, we overcame the problem of pyrogen cross-contamination using a cleaner and more efficient program. Material and Methods: The task of upgrading air filtration equipment was integrated with the set of Web-Based Building Automation system (WebCTRL®. 11C-L-methionine synthesis was carried out in accordance with redesigned methods to meet the requirements of PET drug cGMP. The product quality was tested by a series of quality control tests and was found to be satisfactory. Depyrogenation was carried out by three different methods with different flow rates and flushing durations. The results were examined through limulus amebocyte lysate clotting test. Results: The level of air cleanliness in each section meets the PIC/S GMP standards after the reconstructions. Moreover, after delicate modifications, the radiochemical yield of 11C-L-methionine was 36.20% ± 3.59% (based on 11C-CH3I, n = 7, which is about 10% higher than the average former yield. Besides, the used depyrogenation methods could wipe the bioburden off within 8 h. Conclusions: The modifications done not only offer a good production environment but also protect the products from contamination. The modified approaches in both 11C-L-methionine production and depyrogenation resulted in prominent progress in stability and efficiency as well.

  15. 一种基于人体发热机理设计的新热原检测方法研究%A novel pyrogen testing based on the mechanism of human fever reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺庆; 谭德讲; 李冠民; 黄清泉; 高华

    2012-01-01

    目的:针对现有热原检测法存在的问题,研究建立体外混合新鲜人全血热原检测法.方法:本试验用来源于5个不同个体的混合新鲜人全血模拟人体,将其分别与热原标准品(细菌内毒素)、受试品溶液进行孵育,通过酶联免疫吸附试验(enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,ELISA)检测并比较其孵育体系中相关内热原(主要为细胞因子,如IL-1β、IL-6、TNF-α)的含量,从而反映受试品的致热活性及热原污染情况.结果:①本试验热原刺激全血分泌的细胞因子中,IL-1β、IL-6较TNF-α更灵敏,更适用于检测热原;②新鲜人全血-IL-1β、IL-6法可检测多种热原[如革兰氏阴性菌来源的细菌内毒素(lipopolysaccharide,LPS)、革兰氏阳性菌来源的脂磷壁酸(lipoteichoic acid,ETA)、真菌来源的酵母多糖(zymosan)],其对上述热原的反应总体较家兔法灵敏;③新鲜人全血-IL-1β、IL-6法的最佳孵育时间为17~24 h,所用全血应37℃保存,2h内使用;④新鲜人全血-IL-1β、IL-6法对细菌内毒素最低检测限分别为0.05 EU·mL-1和0.1 EU·mL-1,两检测指标分别在LPS(0.05 ~1.6,0.1~ 1.6 EU·mL-1)范围内与LPS浓度间均有较好的量效关系;⑤初步结果表明全血法可应用于生物制品[如注射用重组人干扰α1b、重组人粒细胞集落刺激因子注射液、静脉注射用人免疫球蛋白(pH 4)、冻干人用狂犬病疫苗(vero细胞)]、中药注射液(如双黄莲注射液)及化药注射剂(如注射用甲氨蝶呤)的热原检测中.结论:体外混合新鲜人全血热原检测法具有对热原的检测谱宽、灵敏度高、应用范围较广等特点,可将该方法作为现有热原检测法(家兔法、细菌内毒素法)的补充方法对其做进一步论证研究.%Objective: To study a novel pyrogen test using pooled fresh human whole blood to compensate shortcomings of conventional pyrogen tests. Method:In this novel pyrogen test,pooled fresh human whole blood

  16. Pyrogenic Carbon in soils: a literature-based inventory and a global estimation of its content in soil organic carbon and stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Reisser

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pyrogenic carbon (PyC is considered one of the most stable components in soil and can represent more than 30% of total soil organic carbon (SOC. However, few estimates of global PyC stock or distribution exist and thus PyC is not included in any global carbon cycle models, despite its potential major relevance for the soil pool. To obtain a global picture, we reviewed the literature for published PyC content in SOC data. We generated the first PyC database including more than 560 measurements from 55 studies. Despite limitations due to heterogeneous distribution of the studied locations and gaps in the database, we were able to produce a worldwide PyC inventory. We found that global PyC represent on average 13.7% of the SOC and can be even up to 60%, making it one of the largest groups of identifiable compounds in soil, together with polysaccharides. We observed a consistent range of PyC content in SOC, despite the diverse methods of quantification. We tested the PyC content against different environmental explanatory variables: fire and land use (fire characteristics, land use, net primary productivity, climate (temperature, precipitation, climatic zones, altitude and pedogenic properties (clay content, pH, SOC content. Surprisingly, soil properties explain PyC content the most. Soils with clay content higher than 50% contain significantly more PyC (> 30% of the SOC than with clay content lower than 5% (< 6% of the SOC. Alkaline soils contain at least 50% more PyC than acidic soils. Furthermore, climatic conditions, represented by climatic zone or mean temperature or precipitation, correlate significantly with the PyC content. By contrast, fire characteristics could only explain PyC content, if site-specific information was available. Datasets derived from remote sensing did not explain the PyC content.To show the potential of this database, we used it in combination with other global datasets to create a global worldwide PyC content and a

  17. Pyrogenic Carbon in soils: a literature-based inventory and a global estimation of its content in soil organic carbon and stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisser, Moritz; Purves, Ross; Schmidt, Michael W. I.; Abiven, Samuel

    2016-08-01

    Pyrogenic carbon (PyC) is considered one of the most stable components in soil and can represent more than 30% of total soil organic carbon (SOC). However, few estimates of global PyC stock or distribution exist and thus PyC is not included in any global carbon cycle models, despite its potential major relevance for the soil pool. To obtain a global picture, we reviewed the literature for published PyC content in SOC data. We generated the first PyC database including more than 560 measurements from 55 studies. Despite limitations due to heterogeneous distribution of the studied locations and gaps in the database, we were able to produce a worldwide PyC inventory. We found that global PyC represent on average 13.7% of the SOC and can be even up to 60%, making it one of the largest groups of identifiable compounds in soil, together with polysaccharides. We observed a consistent range of PyC content in SOC, despite the diverse methods of quantification. We tested the PyC content against different environmental explanatory variables: fire and land use (fire characteristics, land use, net primary productivity), climate (temperature, precipitation, climatic zones, altitude) and pedogenic properties (clay content, pH, SOC content). Surprisingly, soil properties explain PyC content the most. Soils with clay content higher than 50% contain significantly more PyC (> 30% of the SOC) than with clay content lower than 5% (Alkaline soils contain at least 50% more PyC than acidic soils. Furthermore, climatic conditions, represented by climatic zone or mean temperature or precipitation, correlate significantly with the PyC content. By contrast, fire characteristics could only explain PyC content, if site-specific information was available. Datasets derived from remote sensing did not explain the PyC content. To show the potential of this database, we used it in combination with other global datasets to create a global worldwide PyC content and a stock estimation, which resulted

  18. Evaluating the influence of fire history on dissolved pyrogenic C exported from coniferous and deciduous forest soils in northern Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, F.; Wagner, S.; Rothstein, D.; Miesel, J. R.; Jaffe, R.

    2015-12-01

    Pyrogenic carbon (PyC) is formed from the thermal decomposition of plant biomass and fossil fuels, and accounts for a significant portion of the dissolved organic matter pool in rivers worldwide. While PyC mobilization and leaching from fire-impacted terrestrial ecosystems are thought to be the primary source of dissolved PyC (DPC) in riverine environments, the influence of recent biomass burning on the fluxes of DPC leached from soils remains poorly quantified. Here we examined differences in DPC leaching fluxes between (1) red pine sites that experienced post-logging slash burning in the late 19th century, and (2) sugar maple sites that show no evidence of burning in the past 200 years. We collected spring snowmelt leachates from zero-tension lysimeters installed underneath O and E soil horizons of Spodosols in both red pine and sugar maple ecosystems. We quantified DPC in leachates by measuring Benzene Polycarboxylic Acids. We also determined DPC in leachates collected from lysimeters installed beneath B horizons in the red pine ecosystem. Average concentrations of DPC leached from O and E horizons in red pine and sugar maple sites were 1.22 ± 0.33 mg L-1 and 0.96 ±0.58 mg L-1, respectively. Although DPC concentrations in either the O or E horizon leachates did not differ between the two ecosystem types, the proportion of DPC in the dissolved organic C pool was 62% higher in red pine than in sugar maple in E horizon leachates. In red pine sites, DPC concentrations were significantly lower in the B horizon leachates than in the upper soil horizons leachates, likely due to DPC immobilization in the mineral subsoil. Our preliminary results showed that a single production of PyC was not the main source of DPC exported from soils, suggesting that DPC mobilized and released from the ecosystems studied here likely integrates PyC produced at a millennial time-scale in the Great Lakes Region.

  19. NMR spectroscopic study of the carbon and nitrogen dynamics of grass-derived pyrogenic organic material during 2.3 years of incubation in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilscher, André; Knicker, Heike

    2010-05-01

    Incomplete combustion of vegetation results in pyrogenic organic material (PyOM) which occurs ubiquitously in soils and sediments. To understand the C sequestration potential of PyOM in environmental systems knowledge is required about the respective degradation and humification mechanisms and the stability of the different chemical PyOM structures. The present study focuses on the microbial recalcitrance of PyOM on molecular scale. Therefore, microcosms incubation experiments were performed using PyOM produced from highly isotopically enriched 13C and 15N rye grass (Lolium perenne) at 350°C under oxic conditions for one (1M) and four minutes (4M). Solid-state CPMAS 13C and 15N NMR studies were accomplished to obtain insights into the involved humification mechanisms at different stages the PyOM degradation. In total up to 38% of the bulk PyOM C was mineralised during the 28 months of incubation. The O/N-alkyl C and alkyl C residues which survived the charring process were effectively decomposed. At the end of the incubation up to 73% and 57% of the initial O/N-alkyl C and alkyl C amount were mineralised or converted to other C groups, respectively. The total aryl C group recovery of the PyOM decreased significantly during the 28 months of incubation (P ≤ 0.001). After 20 months of incubation between 26% and 40% of the initial aryl C amount was lost. For this group, relative short half time periods in the range of 3.0 and 3.8 years were obtained. The observed loss of aromatic C structures may be attributed to two simultaneous processes, the mineralisation to CO2 and the conversion to other C groups by partial oxidation. The presence of a readily decomposable co-substrate showed no significant changes in the degradation pattern of the different PyOM, possibly because decomposable sources were already available in the starting PyOM. Most of the organic bound N of the fresh PyOM was assignable to heterocyclic aromatic compounds such as pyrrole and indole

  20. Antibiotic susceptibilities, streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin gene profiles among clinical isolates of group C or G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis & of group G S. anginosus group at a tertiary care centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijayini Behera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Group C and group G streptococci (together GCGS are often regarded as commensal bacteria and their role in streptococcal disease burden is under-recognized. While reports of recovery of GCGS from normally sterile body sites are increasing, their resistance to macrolides, fluoroquinolone further warrants all invasive β haemolytic streptococci to be identified to the species level and accurately tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence, clinical profile, antimicrobial susceptibility and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin gene profile (speA, speB, speC, speF, smeZ, speI, speM, speG, speH and ssa of GCGS obtained over a period of two years at a tertiary care centre from north India. Methods: The clinical samples were processed as per standard microbiological techniques. β-haemolytic streptococci (BHS were characterized and grouped. Antimicrobial susceptibility of GCGS was performed using disk diffusion method. All GCGS were characterized for the presence of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (spe and spe genes were amplified by PCR method. Results: GCGS (23 GGS, 2GCS comprised 16 per cent of β haemolytic streptococci (25/142 βHS, 16% isolated over the study period. Of the 25 GCGS, 22 (88% were recovered from pus, two (8% from respiratory tract, whereas one isolate was recovered from blood of a fatal case of septicaemia. Of the total 23 GGS isolates, 18 (78% were identified as Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp equisimilis (SDSE, large-colony phenotype, five (21% were Streptococcus anginosus group (SAG, small-colony phenotype. The two GCS were identified as SDSE. All GCGS isolates were susceptible to penicillin, vancomycin, and linezolid. Tetracycline resistance was noted in 50 per cent of SDSE isolates. The rates of macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance in SDSE were low. Twelve of the 20 SDSE isolates were positive for one or more spe genes, with five of the SDSE isolates

  1. Avaliação de pirogênios em produtos de uso veterinário pelos testes da hipertermia em coelhos e do lisado de amebócitos do Limulus Pyrogens in veterinary products by the rabbit pyrogen test and the Limulus amoebocyte lysate test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Barth

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se a avaliação de pirogênios em produtos veterinários de uso parenteral, pelo método da hipertermia em coelhos, calculando-se, para o teste das amostras, doses com concentrações de três a sete vezes superiores à terapêutica. Preconizou-se como resposta positiva o aumento de temperatura de 0,6°C. Utilizou-se também o ensaio do lisado de amebócitos do Limulus (LAL por geleificação, semiquantitativo, executando o teste de interferentes, validando o procedimento e estabelecendo a máxima diluição válida para a análise de cada produto. Paralelamente, efetuou-se avaliação comparativa de amostras com o método do LAL cromogênico, quantitativo, demonstrando correlação e reprodutibilidade dos resultados. Avaliaram-se vinte e oito produtos de diferentes classes farmacológicas, observando-se que dois não cumpriram as especificações, sendo reprovados. Sugere-se que as especificações estudadas sejam adotadas, contribuindo para aprimorar o controle de contaminantes, garantindo a qualidade e a segurança dos produtos veterinários.The rabbit pyrogen test was used to evaluate veterinary products, suggesting the temperature rise of 0.6°C as the ending point for the positive results. The test doses were calculated based on the therapeutic dose increased from three to seven times. The semi-quantitative Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL gel clot test was performed and compared to the LAL spectrophotometric chromogenic, quantitative assay. The comparative evaluation of the samples showed correlation and reproducibility of the results. The interference test was carried out, the procedure validated and the maximum valid dilution established for the analysis of the products without Pharmacopoeial specifications. Two of the twenty-eight products of different pharmacological groups evaluated didn't meet the requirements and were reproved. The specifications investigated are suggested to be used for the purity evaluation of the

  2. Black Carbon, The Pyrogenic Clay Mineral?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most soils contain significant amounts of black carbon, much of which is present as discrete particles admixed with the coarse clay fraction (0.2–2.0 µm e.s.d.) and can be physically separated from the more abundant diffuse biogenic humic materials. Recent evidence has shown that naturally occurring...

  3. Aplicabilidade do Teste de Ativação de Monócitos (MAT no Brasil: importância da sua utilização como teste para detecção de pirogênios no controle da qualidade de produtos injetáveis | Applicability of the Monocyte Activation Test (MAT in Brazil: the importance of its use as a test for the detection of pyrogens in the quality control of injectable products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Caldeira da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available O MAT (sigla do inglês Monocyte Activation Test é considerado um potencial substituto do Teste de Pirogênios, entretanto: i. não foi avaliado para um número suficiente de produtos; ii. faltam dados que possam garantir sua capacidade em detectar pirogênios não endotoxinas; e iii. deve ser realizada a validação do método para cada classe de produtos. O objetivo foi identificar as monografias que requerem testes de pirogenicidade e propor os produtos que têm por base somente o teste de pirogênios como um ponto de partida para futuros estudos. As monografias específicas nas Farmacopeias Americana, Europeia e Brasileira que recomendam o Teste de Pirogênios ou Teste de Endotoxina Bacteriana ou LAL (sigla do inglês Limulus Amebocyte Lysate foram: Teste de Pirogênios: 20 monografias na Americana, 37 na Europeia e 28 na Brasileira. LAL: 619 monografias na Americana, 157 na Europeia e 41 na Brasileira. Somente quatro produtos requerem testes de pirogenicidade nas três farmacopeias analisadas. O Teste de Pirogênios e LAL são recomendados em seis monografias na Brasileira e 15 na Europeia. Na Brasileira, a maior parte dessas monografias é referente a produtos biológicos, sugerindo, assim, que estes devam ser os primeiros a ser testados, uma vez que são ensaiados em animais. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Monocyte Activation Test (MAT is thought to be a good replacement for rabbit pyrogen test (RPT; however, MAT remains controversial. MAT was not adequately evaluated in a sufficient number of products, and there is no sufficient data that support the ability of MAT to detect non-endotoxin pyrogens. Furthermore, MAT was used subject to validation for each specific product. The aim of this study was to identify in main pharmacopoeias, whose monographs require pyrogenicity tests, and propose those products for which only the rabbit pyrogen test is required to be used as a

  4. cAMP依赖性蛋白激酶信号传导通路在大鼠CRH性发热机制中的作用%The cAMP-mediated protein kinase signal transduction pathway is involved in the pyrogenic effect of CRH in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华东; 王彦平; 屈洋; 戚仁斌; 陆大祥; 李楚杰; 颜亮

    2001-01-01

    目的观察cAMP依赖性蛋白激酶信号传导通路在大鼠CRH性发热机制中的作用。 方法第三脑室注射促肾上腺皮质激素释放激素(CRH),腺苷酸环化酶抑制剂DDA或cAMP依赖性蛋白 激酶抑制剂Rp-cAMPS,测定大鼠结肠温度。用放射免疫分析法测定下丘脑cAMP含量,并用离体实验观 察CRH对下丘脑cAMP含量的影响。 结果第三脑室微量注射CRH(2.5μg,5.0μg,10μg)引起大鼠结肠温度和下丘脑cAMP水平明显升高,下 丘脑cAMP水平与大鼠2小时发热反应指数之间存在明显的正相关(r=0.994,P<0.01)。离体实验同样 观察到CRH可引起下丘脑cAMP水平明显升高。事先向第三脑室微量注射腺苷酸环化酶抑制剂DDA 30μg或cAMP依赖性蛋白激酶抑制剂Rp-cAMPs 15μg均显著抑制中枢注射CRH引起的发热反应。 结论这些结果证明,cAMP参与了大鼠CRH性发热的中枢机制,cAMP依赖性蛋白激酶可能在CRH性发 热机制中发挥重要作用,cAMP依赖性蛋白激酶信号传导通路可能介导中枢注射CRH对大鼠的致热作用。%To determine whether the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) mediated protein kinase signal transduction pathway is involved in the pyrogenic action of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) in rats. Methods Corticotropin releasing hormone, 2', 3 '-dideoxyadenosine (DDA) and adenosine-3', 5' (cyclic) monophosphorothionate, Rp-lsomer (Rp-cAMPS), were administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). The colonic temperature was measured using a thermistor, and the content of cAMP in the hypothalamus was determined by radioimmunoassay. Hypethalemic incubation was used to assess the effects of CRH on the content of cAMP in the hypothalamus in vitro. Results Microinjection (i.c.v.) of CRH (2.5 μg, 5.0 μg and 10 μg) caused increases in colonic temperature and the hypothalemus cAMP level in conscious rats. CRH increased hypothalemus cAMP level in vitro. The pyrogenic effects of

  5. Ultrasonication of pyrogenic microorganisms improves the detection of pyrogens in the Mono Mac 6 assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Lise; Hansen, E W; Christensen, J D

    2000-01-01

    of the assay. The interleukin-6 inducing capacity of a broad spectrum of UV-killed and ultrasonicated microorganisms is examined in Mono Mac 6 cells. The interleukin-6 secretion is determined in a sandwich immunoassay (DELFIA). The Mono Mac 6 assay is able to detect UV-killed Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus...... aureus and Salmonella typhimurium, but neither Candida albicans nor Aspergillus niger. After ultrasonication of the microorganisms it is possible to detect C. albicans and A. niger. The interleukin-6 inducing ability of the examined microorganisms is in no case reduced after ultrasonic treatment. However...

  6. 体外新鲜人血法检测热原相关因子IL-1β的条件优化及初步方法学研究%Optimization and Preliminary Methodology Study of in vitro Fresh Human Whole Blood Detection Method for Pyrogen-related Factor IL-1β

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文佳; 陈志明; 庞智慧; 方海顺; 何华红; 李薇

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To establish the detection method for pyrogen-related factor interleukin 1β(IL-1β)through optimiz-ing detection condition,and to conduct preliminary methodology study. METHODS:The in vitro fresh human whole blood detec-tion method was used. The bacterial endotoxin standard solution(5,2,0.8,0.32 EU/ml)were added into diluted blood;using di-luted RPMI 1640 as blank control,the content of IL-1β in blood sample was determined by ELISA after incubation. The relation-ship of the addition of different attenuants(RPMI 1640 culture,sterilized normal saline)and fetal bovine serum,final dilution vol-ume fraction(40%,20%,10%and 8.3%)and storage duration(2,5,6,8,26 h)with the contents of endotoxin IL-1βwere in-vestigated,and related coefficient and detection limits were calculated. Different dilution times of Qingkailing injection and Ginaton injection samples and interference solutions were added into diluted blood to detect their recovery. RESULTS:The results indicated that RPMI 1640 media and 40% diluted blood was more sensitive(detection limit was 0.128 EU/ml,r=0.993);while the addition of fetal bovine serum didn’t influence the results. The detection limits of blood sample storied at 4 ℃ for 26 h were 0.128 EU/ml (r>0.990). When Qingkailing injection and Ginaton injection were diluted 10,32 and more times,the detection method was not interfered and the recovery ranged 68%-118%. CONCLUSIONS:Established in vitro fresh human whole blood detection method can be used for the detection of pyrogen,and provides trial evidence for the pyrogen detection of TCM injection.%目的:建立热原相关因子白细胞介素1β(IL-1β)的检测方法并优化其条件,同时进行初步方法学研究。方法:采用体外新鲜人血法。将5、2、0.8、0.32 EU/ml的细菌内毒素标准溶液加入稀释血液中,同时用稀释后的RPMI 1640作为空白对照,培养后采用酶联免疫吸附(ELISA)试验测定血液中释放的IL-1β含量。

  7. High Molecular Weight Petrogenic and Pyrogenic Hydrocarbons in Aquatic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrajano, T. A., Jr.; Yan, B.; O'Malley, V.

    2003-12-01

    Geochemistry is ultimately the study of sources, movement, and fate of chemicals in the geosphere at various spatial and temporal scales. Environmental organic geochemistry focuses such studies on organic compounds of toxicological and ecological concern (e.g., Schwarzenbach et al., 1993, 1998; Eganhouse, 1997). This field emphasizes not only those compounds with potential toxicological properties, but also the geological systems accessible to the biological receptors of those hazards. Hence, the examples presented in this chapter focus on hydrocarbons with known health and ecological concern in accessible shallow, primarily aquatic, environments.Modern society depends on oil for energy and a variety of other daily needs, with present mineral oil consumption throughout the 1990s exceeding 3×109 t yr-1 (NRC, 2002). In the USA, e.g., ˜40% of energy consumed and 97% of transportation fuels are derived from oil. In the process of extraction, refinement, transport, use, and waste production, a small but environmentally significant fraction of raw oil materials, processed products, and waste are released inadvertently or purposefully into the environment. Because their presence and concentration in the shallow environments are often the result of human activities, these organic materials are generally referred to as "environmental contaminants." Although such reference connotes some form of toxicological or ecological hazard, specific health or ecological effects of many organic "environmental contaminants" remain to be demonstrated. Some are, in fact, likely innocuous at the levels that they are found in many systems, and simply adds to the milieu of biogenic organic compounds that naturally cycle through the shallow environment. Indeed, virtually all compounds in crude oil and processed petroleum products have been introduced naturally to the shallow environments as oil and gas seepage for millions of years ( NRC, 2002). Even high molecular weight (HMW) polyaromatic compounds were introduced to shallow environments through forest fires and natural coking of crude oil ( Ballentine et al., 1996; O'Malley et al., 1997). The full development of natural microbial enzymatic systems that can utilize HMW hydrocarbons as carbon or energy source attests to the antiquity of hydrocarbon dispersal processes in the environment. The environmental concern is, therefore, primarily due to the rate and spatial scale by which petroleum products are released in modern times, particularly with respect to the environmental sensitivity of some ecosystems to these releases ( Schwarzenbach et al., 1993; Eganhouse, 1997; NRC, 2002).Crude oil is produced by diagenetic and thermal maturation of terrestrial and marine plant and animal materials in source rocks and petroleum reservoirs. Most of the petroleum in use today is produced by thermal and bacterial decomposition of phytoplankton material that once lived near the surface of the world's ocean, lake, and river waters (Tissot and Welte, 1984). Terrestrially derived organic matter can be regionally significant, and is the second major contributor to the worldwide oil inventory ( Tissot and Welte, 1984; Peters and Moldowan, 1993; Engel and Macko, 1993). The existing theories hold that the organic matter present in crude oil consists of unconverted original biopolymers and new compounds polymerized by reactions promoted by time and increasing temperature in deep geologic formations. The resulting oil can migrate from source to reservoir rocks where the new geochemical conditions may again lead to further transformation of the petrogenic compounds. Any subsequent changes in reservoir conditions brought about by uplift, interaction with aqueous fluids, or even direct human intervention (e.g., drilling, water washing) likewise could alter the geochemical makeup of the petrogenic compounds. Much of our understanding of environmental sources and fate of hydrocarbon compounds in shallow environments indeed borrowed from the extensive geochemical and analytical framework that was meticulously built by petroleum geochemists over the years (e.g., Tissot and Welte, 1984; Peters et al., 1992; Peters and Moldowan, 1993; Engel and Macko, 1993; Moldowan et al., 1995; Wang et al., 1999; Faksness et al., 2002).Hydrocarbon compounds present in petroleum or pyrolysis by-products can be classified based on their composition, molecular weight, organic structure, or some combination of these criteria. For example, a report of the Committee on Intrinsic Remediation of the US NRC classified organic contaminants into HMW hydrocarbons, low molecular weight (LMW) hydrocarbons, oxygenated hydrocarbons, halogenated aliphatics, halogenated aromatics, and nitroaromatics (NRC, 2000). Hydrocarbons are compounds comprised exclusively of carbon and hydrogen and they are by far the dominant components of crude oil, processed petroleum hydrocarbons (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, fuel oil, and lubricating oil), coal tar, creosote, dyestuff, and pyrolysis waste products. These hydrocarbons often occur as mixtures of a diverse group of compounds whose behavior in near-surface environments is governed by their chemical structure and composition, the geochemical conditions and media of their release, and biological factors, primarily microbial metabolism, controlling their transformation and degradation.Hydrocarbons comprise from 50% to 99% of compounds present in refined and unrefined oil, and compounds containing other elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur are present in relatively smaller proportions. Hydrocarbon compounds have carbons joined together as single C - C bonds (i.e., alkanes), double or triple C=C bonds (i.e., alkenes or olefins), or via an aromatic ring system with resonating electronic structure (i.e., aromatics). Alkanes, also called paraffins, are the dominant component of crude oil, with the carbon chain forming either straight (n-alkanes), branched (iso-alkanes), or cyclic (naphthenes) arrangement of up to 60 carbons (Figure 1). Aromatic compounds are the second major component of crude oil, with asphalthenes, consisting of stacks of highly polymerized aromatic structures (average of 16 rings), completing the list of major oil hydrocarbon components. Also shown in Figure 1 are several important classes of compounds that are extensively used in "fingerprinting" crude oil or petroleum sources: sterols derived from steroid, hopanol derived from bacteriohopanetetrols, and pristane and phytane derived from phytol (from chlorophyll) during diagenesis.

  8. BIOCHAR: PYROGENIC CARBON FOR AGRICULTURAL USE - A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etelvino Henrique Novotny

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochar (carbonized biomass for agricultural use has been used worldwide as soil amendment and is a technology of particular interest for Brazil, since its "inspiration" is from the historical Terra Preta de Índios(Amazon Dark Earth, and also because Brazil is the world's largest charcoal producer, generating enormous residue quantities in form of fine charcoal and due to the availability of different residual biomasses, mainly from agroindustry (e.g., sugar-cane bagasse; wood and paper-mill wastes; residues from biofuel industries; sewage sludge etc, that can be used for biochar production, making Brazil a key actor in the international scenario in terms of biochar research and utilization. In the last decade, numerous studies on biochar have been carried out and now a vast literature, and excellent reviews, are available. The objective of this paper is therefore to deliver a critical review with some highlights on biochar research, rather than an exhaustive bibliographic review. To this end, some key points considered critical and relevant were selected and the pertinent literature "condensed", with a view to guide future research, rather than analyze trends of the past.

  9. Removal of nutrients from piggery wastewater using struvite precipitation and pyrogenation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiming; Xu, Chunlian; Zhang, Wei

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, removal of nutrients from piggery wastewater by struvite crystallization was conducted using a combined technology of low-cost magnesium source in struvite precipitation and recycling of the struvite pyrolysate in the process. In the present research, it was found that high concentrations of K(+) and Ca(2+) present in the solution significantly affected the removal of nutrients. When the struvite crystallization formed at the condition of dosing the magnesite pyrolysate at a Mg:N:P molar ratio of 2.5:1:1, and having a reaction time of 6 h, a majority of nutrients in piggery wastewater can be removed. Surface characterization analysis demonstrated that the main components of the pyrolysate of the obtained struvite were amorphous magnesium sodium phosphate (MgNaPO(4)) and MgO. When the struvite pyrolysate was recycled in the process at the pH range of 8.0-8.5, the precipitation effect was optimum. When the struvite pyrolysate was recycled repeatedly at pH 8.5 or without any adjustment of pH, the outcome of the removal of the nutrients in both cases was similar. With the increase in the number of recycle times, the performance of struvite precipitation progressively decreased. An economic evaluation showed that the combination of using low-cost material and recycling of struvite was feasible. Recycling struvite for three process cycles could save the chemical costs by 81% compared to the use of pure chemicals.

  10. Mutational Effects on Protein Folding Stability and Antigenicity: The Case of Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    protective in rabbit models of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, Inf. Immunol. 68 (2000) 5011–5017. [6] A.C. Papageorgiou, C.M. Collins, D.M. Gutman, J.B...in Streptococcus pyogenes , J. Exp. Med. 174 (1991) 1271–1274. [14] M. Roggiani, J.A. Stoehr, B.A. Leonard, P.M. Schlievert, Analysis of toxicity of...1]. SPEA1 is a major virulence factor released by Streptococcus pyogenes and is associated with scarlet fever and severe invasive infections [1–4

  11. Endocannabinoids, through opioids and prostaglandins, contribute to fever induced by key pyrogenic mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Daniel; Zanoni, Cristiane I S; Zampronio, Aleksander R; Parada, Carlos A; Rae, Giles A; Souza, Glória E P

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the contribution of endocannabinoids on the cascade of mediators involved in LPS-induced fever and to verify the participation of prostaglandins and endogenous opioids in fever induced by anandamide (AEA). Body temperature (Tc) of male Wistar rats was recorded over 6h, using a thermistor probe. Cerebrospinal fluid concentration of PGE2 and β-endorphin were measured by ELISA after the administration of AEA. Intracerebroventricular administration of the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (5μg, i.c.v.), reduced the fever induced by IL-1β (3ng, i.c.v.), TNF-α (250ng, i.c.v.), IL-6 (300ng, i.c.v.), corticotrophin release factor (CRH; 2.5μg, i.c.v.) and endothelin (ET)-1 (1pmol, i.c.v.), but not the fever induced by PGE2 (250ng, i.c.v.) or PGF2α (250ng, i.c.v.). Systemic administration of indomethacin (2mgkg(-1), i.p.) or celecoxib (5mgkg(-1), p.o.) reduced the fever induced by AEA (1μg, i.c.v.), while naloxone (1mgkg(-1), s.c.) abolished it. The increases of PGE2 and β-endorphin concentration in the CSF induced by AEA were abolished by the pretreatment of rats with AM251. These results suggest that endocannabinoids are intrinsically involved in the pyretic activity of cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6), CRH and ET-1 but not the PGE2 or PGF2α induced fevers. However, anandamide via CB1 receptor activation induces fever that is dependent on the synthesis of prostaglandin and opioids.

  12. Sorption interactions of biochars and pyrogenic carbonaceous materials with anionic contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristak, Vladimir; Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo; Micháleková-Richveisová, Barbora; Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Bucheli, Thomas; Soja, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    Biochar as a highly porous and carbon-rich material with a large surface area is a new player in the system of environmental remediation techniques. A wide range of valuable sorption properties of this carbonaceous pyrolysis product provides new options to solve contaminant problems in soil and water and thus may reduce the number of contaminated sites. The sorption capacity of agricultural wastes and wood processing-derived biochars has been found to be excellent due to high surface area, pore volume, and surface functional groups. However, sorption interactions and separation of xenobiotics from waste water, soil solutions or polluted surface water is very often affected by the concentration of contaminant, contact time, effects of competitive substances and mainly by the chemical form of the respective contaminant. The negative surface charge of biochar-based sorption materials supports significant sorption in particular for cationic forms of pollutants. On the other hand many environmentally critical substances occur in anionic forms (e.g. As, P, Mo, Tc). Therefore their retention and immobilization by biochar is frequently considered as problematic or limited. Besides, details about the mechanism of biochar interactions with anionic compounds and the options for surface modification are largely unexplored. This contribution presents a comparative study about production and characterization of unmodified, chemically pre-treated and post-treated biochars with respect to sorption processes of model anionic compounds (PO43-, AsO43-). The obtained results confirmed the crucial role of altering biochar properties (pH) and of surface modification for improving biochar sorption efficiency for anionic contaminants.

  13. Pyrogenic changes in iron-illuvial podzols in the middle taiga of the Komi Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymov, A. A.; Dubrovsky, Yu. A.; Gabov, D. N.

    2014-02-01

    The changes in the morphological, physicochemical, and chemical properties of iron-illuvial podzols under middle-taiga dwarf shrub-green moss pine forests in the first months after fires are examined. It is shown that forest fires are accompanied by changes in the morphology of the litter horizons, their compaction, and by changes in the chemical properties of the soils. The data on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) indicate a significant increase in the contents of chrysene, fluorene, naphthalene, pyrene, and anthracene in the Opyr(L) horizon in comparison with the litters in the background pine forest. The total PAH content in the O(F)pyr horizon increases mainly at the expense of di- and tri-nuclear PAHs (naphthalene and fluorene). The mineral soil horizons in the burnt area become enriched in the most mobile amphiphilic fractions of the organic matter, which is seen from the increase in the absolute and relative contents of the hydrophilic fractions, which might be represented by the products of combustion of fresh plant remains and litter.

  14. Pyrogen testing of lipid-based TPN using Mono Mac 6 monocyte cell line and DELFIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Lise; Hansen, E W; Christensen, J D

    1997-01-01

    Measurement of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion in Mono Mac 6 cells.......Measurement of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion in Mono Mac 6 cells....

  15. Pyrogenic carbon from tropical savanna burning: production and stable isotope composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Saiz

    2014-10-01

    C4 grasses ranging from 35 to 99% of total biomass. Residues from each fire were partitioned into PyC and further into recalcitrant (HyPyC components, with each of these also partitioned into proximal (> 125 μm and distal (13C compositions of PyC and HyPyC were generally lower by 1–3‰ relative to the original biomass, with marked depletion up to 7 ‰ for grasslands dominated by C4 biomass. δ13C values of CO2 produced by combustion was computed by mass balance and ranged from ~0.4 to 1.3‰. The depletion of 13C in PyC and HyPyC relative to the original biomass has significant implications for the interpretation of δ13C values of savanna soil organic carbon and of ancient PyC preserved in the geologic record, and for global 13C isotopic disequilibria calculations.

  16. Pyrogenic Transformations of the Baikal Lake Forests. Retrospective and Contemporary Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Yevdokimenko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the forests of the Baikal Lake basin annual fire activity historically has been higher as compared to surrounding forest areas due to specific climatic conditions and altitude-controlled vegetation structure. The regional forests, predominantly light coniferous, develop under a high or, in dry years, extreme-fire-activity regime. Common pine and larch tree stands of fire origin are periodically thinned by fire. The productivity of the fire-intact parts of such stands decreases as a result of fire-caused soil condition disturbances. In extreme fire years, large fires cover landscapes and lead to irreversible forest ecosystem degradation and, hence, to local deforestation. In the past, forest fire activity and area burned increased with increasing use of the regional forests beginning with hunting, wood extraction by dwellers of local settlements, Trans-Siberian Rail Road building and, finally, industrial-scale logging. In 1970–1980, the regional fire situation was successfully controlled due to improvements of forest use and protection. However, the recently relaxed forest economy standards have resulted in loss of the progress achieved.

  17. Predicting toxicity to Hyalella azteca in pyrogenic-impacted sediments-Do we need to analyze for all 34 PAHs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Stephen C; Azzolina, Nicholas A; Nakles, David V; Hawthorne, Steven B

    2016-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are major drivers of risk at many urban and/or industrialized sediment sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) currently recommends using measurements of 18 parent + 16 groups of alkylated PAHs (PAH-34) to assess the potential for sediment-bound PAHs to impact benthic organisms at these sites. ASTM Method D7363-13 was developed to directly measure low-level sediment porewater PAH concentrations. These concentrations are then compared to ambient water criteria (final chronic values [FCVs]) to assess the potential for impact to benthic organisms. The interlaboratory validation study that was used to finalize ASTM D7363-13 was developed using 24 of the 2-, 3-, and 4-ring PAHs (PAH-24) that are included in the USEPA PAH-34 analyte list. However, it is the responsibility of the user of ASTM Method D7363 to establish a test method to quantify the remaining 10 higher molecular weight PAHs that make up PAH-34. These higher molecular weight PAHs exhibit extremely low saturation solubilities that make their detection difficult in porewater, which has proven difficult to implement in a contract laboratory setting. As a result, commercial laboratories are hesitant to conduct the method on the entire PAH-34 analyte list. This article presents a statistical comparison of the ability of the PAH-24 and PAH-34 porewater results to predict survival of the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca, using the original 269 sediment samples used to gain ASTM D7363 Method approval. The statistical analysis shows that the PAH-24 are statistically indistinguishable from the PAH-34 for predicting toxicity. These results indicate that the analysis of freely dissolved porewater PAH-24 is sufficient for making risk-based decisions based on benthic invertebrate toxicity (survival and growth). This reduced target analyte list should result in a cost-saving for stakeholders and broader implementation of the method at PAH-impacted sediment sites. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:493-499. © 2015 SETAC.

  18. Characterization of pyrogenic organic matter by 2-dimenstional HETeronucleus CORelation solid-state 13C NMR (HETCOR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knicker, Heike

    2016-04-01

    During the last years, increasing evidences are provided that the common view of charcoal as a polyaromatic network is too much simplified. Experiments with model compounds indicated that it represents a heterogeneous mixture of thermally altered biomacromolecules with N, O and likely also S substitutions as common features. If produced from a N-rich feedstock, the so called black nitrogen (BN) has to be considered as an integral part of the aromatic charcoal network. In order to study this network one-dimensional (1D) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is often applied. However, this technique suffers from broad resonance lines and low resolution. Applying 2D techniques can help but until recently, this was unfeasible for natural organic matter (NOM) due to sensitivity problems and the high complexity of the material. On the other hand, during the last decade, the development of stronger magnetic field instruments and advanced pulse sequences has put them into reach for NOM research. Although 2D NMR spectroscopy has many different applications, all pulse sequences are based on the introduction of a preparation time during which the magnetization of a spin system is adjusted into a state appropriate to whatever properties are to be detected in the indirect dimension. Then, the spins are allowed to evolve with the given conditions and after their additional manipulation during a mixing period the modulated magnetization is detected. Assembling several 1D spectra with incrementing evolution time creates a data set which is two-dimensional in time (t1, t2). Fourier transformation of both dimensions leads to a 2D contour plot correlating the interactions detected in the indirect dimension t1 with the signals detected in the direct dimension t2. The so called solid-state heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) NMR spectroscopy represents a 2D technique allows the determination which protons are interacting with which carbons. In the present work this technique was used for monitoring the chemical changes occurring during charring of biomass derived from model compounds, fire-affected and unaffected NOM. The 2D 13C HETCOR NMR spectrum of the fire- unaffected soils revealed that most of the carboxyl C occurs as ester or amide. Aside from cross peaks typically seen in spectra of NOM, the spectrum of the respective fire-affected counterpart shows additional signals assignable to PyOM.

  19. Influence of Soil Organic Matter type on Priming of Biochar (Pyrogenic soil C) Mineralization (and the reverse)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, A. R.; Ouyang, L.

    2016-12-01

    Biochar mineralization rates must be made predictable so that biochar users or land managers can accurately predict future soil C stocks following biochar amendments. This is particularly important for assignment of credits in C offset trading systems. However, mineralization from biochar/soil mixtures has also been shown to vary greatly and both `positive' and `negative' priming (increased and decreased, respectively, mineralization of native soil organic matter following a soil amendment) has been observed. In order to better understand the interactions that govern priming, we incubated biochar made from bagasse (sugar cane residues) made at 300 and 650 oC combined with model organic substrates of low and high reactivity (glucose and humic acid, respectively). Mineralization of the biochar and substrate carbon was distinguished because of the distinct isotopic signature of their evolved CO2. Results showed that glucose increased biochar C mineralization by only a small amount (1-2%) and this occurred mainly during early incubation stages. Humic acid did not influence biochar C mineralization at all compared to a larger positive priming effect (2%) on the unpyrolyzed biomass. Conversely, both biochars and unpyrolyzed sugarcane increased mineralization of glucose C (1-5%) throughout the 5 month incubation period. In contrast, the non-pyrolyzed sugarcane promoted and the biochars had no effect on the mineralization of humic acid. These results suggest that soil organic matter-biochar interactions are mutual and vary with soil organic matter type. Also, while appearing large in some laboratory systems, these interactions are likely to have little longer term effects on the high C storage potential of biochar-amended soils.

  20. Pyrogenic transformation of Nannochloropsis oceanica into fatty acid methyl esters without oil extraction for estimating total lipid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jieun; Jung, Jong-Min; Lee, Jechan; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Choi, Tae O; Kim, Jae-Kon; Jeon, Young Jae; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2016-07-01

    This study fundamentally investigated the pseudo-catalytic transesterification of dried Nannochloropsis oceanica into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) without oil extraction, which was achieved in less than 5min via a thermo-chemical pathway. This study presented that the pseudo-catalytic transesterification reaction was achieved in the presence of silica and that its main driving force was identified as temperature: pores in silica provided the numerous reaction space like a micro-reactor, where the heterogeneous reaction was developed. The introduced FAME derivatization showed an extraordinarily high tolerance of impurities (i.e., pyrolytic products and various extractives). This study also explored the thermal cracking of FAMEs derived from N. oceanica: the thermal cracking of saturated FAMEs was invulnerable at temperatures lower than 400°C. Lastly, this study reported that N. oceanica contained 14.4wt.% of dried N. oceanica and that the introduced methylation technique could be applicable to many research fields sharing the transesterification platform. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fever and changes in plasma zinc and iron concentrations in the goat: The role of leukocytic pyrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, J.H.M.; Miert, A. S. J. P. A. M. Van; Duin, C.T.M. van; Schotman, A.J.H.; Nieuwenhuis, J.

    1984-01-01

    In goats with trypanosomiasis (T. vivax or T. congolense) no marked fall in plasma zinc concentration was seen despite high temperature peaks, whereas plasma concentrations of iron tended to undergo some decline. In goats infected with Ehrlichia phagocytophila, there was a marked decline in plasma z

  2. Invasive group A streptococcal diseases and pyrogenic exotoxins A and B : an update on pathogenesis and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mascini, EM; Verhoef-Verhage, EAE; van Dijk, H

    2000-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, there have been increasing numbers of reports on the resurgence of severe invasive group A streptococcal infections world-wide. Despite prompt therapy with penicillin and/or clindamycin, the mortality rates of these infections, including streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome,

  3. Prevalence of genes encoding pyrogenic toxin superantigens and exfoliative toxins among strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from blood and nasal specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, Karsten; Friedrich, Alexander W; Lubritz, Gabriele; Weilert, Maria; Peters, Georg; Von Eiff, Christof

    2003-01-01

    A total of 429 different Staphylococcus aureus isolates encompassing 219 blood isolates and 210 isolates taken from anterior nares were systematically searched by two multiplex PCR-DNA enzyme immunoassays (PCR-DEIA) for exfoliative toxin (ET) genes eta and etb, as well as for the classical members o

  4. Pyrogen test about novel biodegradable magnesium phosphate cement%新型可降解磷酸镁骨水泥的热原实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩振川; 刘洋; 熊森; 张雅宾; 李修璨; 王旭翾; 毛克亚

    2016-01-01

    目的 通过动物热原实验探讨磷酸镁骨水泥(magnesium phosphate cement,MPC)的生物安全性,补充磷酸镁骨水泥生物相容性的证据,为其在骨科临床领域应用提供依据.方法 选取健康新西兰白兔20只,分为MPC实验组(A组)和对照组(B组),每组各10只.制备MPC浸提液,将浸提液预热至38℃,按照10 ml/kg将浸提液通过耳缘静脉注入实验组(A组)兔体内;同样方法,将预热至38℃的0.9%氯化钠注射液注入对照组(B组)兔体内;输注速度为2 ml/min.输注前及给药后每隔0.5 h测量体温,共测量6次.结果 实验组(A组)及对照组(B组)兔体质量(kg)、输注液体量(ml)、初始体温(℃)差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);实验组(A组)在输注浸提液0.5 h、1h、1.5 h、2h、2.5 h、3h测得体温与对照组(B组)相应时刻测得的体温差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);实验组(A组)在输注浸提液后测得的最高体温与对照组(B组)测得的最高体温差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);实验组(A组)及对照组(B组)测得的最高体温与初始体温差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 MPC置入动物体内不发生热原反应,初步证明其热原检测安全可靠.

  5. DNA-Containing Immunocomplexes Promote Inflammasome Assembly and Release of Pyrogenic Cytokines by CD14+ CD16+ CD64high CD32low Inflammatory Monocytes from Malaria Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirako, Isabella C.; Gallego-Marin, Carolina; Ataide, Marco A.; Andrade, Warrison A.; Gravina, Humberto; Rocha, Bruno C.; de Oliveira, Rosane B.; Pereira, Dhelio B.; Vinetz, Joseph; Diamond, Betty; Ram, Sanjay; Golenbock, Douglas T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT High levels of circulating immunocomplexes (ICs) are found in patients with either infectious or sterile inflammation. We report that patients with either Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax malaria have increased levels of circulating anti-DNA antibodies and ICs containing parasite DNA. Upon stimulation with malaria-induced ICs, monocytes express an NF-κB transcriptional signature. The main source of IC-induced proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α] and interleukin-1β [IL-1β])in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from acute malaria patients was found to be a CD14+ CD16 (FcγRIIIA)+ CD64 (FcγRI)high CD32 (FcγRIIB)low monocyte subset. Monocytes from convalescent patients were predominantly of the classical phenotype (CD14+ CD16−) that produces high levels of IL-10 and lower levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in response to ICs. Finally, we report a novel role for the proinflammatory activity of ICs by demonstrating their ability to induce inflammasome assembly and caspase-1 activation in human monocytes. These findings illuminate our understanding of the pathogenic role of ICs and monocyte subsets and may be relevant for future development of immunity-based interventions with broad applications to systemic inflammatory diseases. PMID:26578679

  6. Hypothesis: Leukocyte Endogenous Mediator/Endogenous Pyrogen/Lymphocyte-Activating Factor Modulates the Development of Nonspecific and Specific Immunity and Affects Nutritional Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    become kocyte function and maintain cell-mediated "’toxic." Thus the ammonia moiety that is immunological processes. Glucagon. in phar- released when... spleen cells (49). LEM/EP/LAF in- of nutrition and infection. Geneva: WHO. 1968. duces macrophages to make colony-stimulat- 12. Wilmore DW. Kinney JM...mouse spleen Accession lou’ NTIS ORA&I DTJCI ___ "LLCTI; , Just if ivetiou.... .w Di~tribution/ Availatbility Codes A t O -- Avail and/or D t SpecCIll 90to 2ed 4I

  7. Endotoxin testing of proteins for parenteral administration using the Mono Mac 6 assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Lise; Hansen, E W; Christensen, J D

    2000-01-01

    Pharmaceutical products containing proteins cause problems in testing for endotoxin and pyrogens. Many proteins interfere with the LAL test and the proteins are immunogenic in rabbits. The monocytic cell line Mono Mac 6 is an alternative assay for detection of endotoxin and other pyrogens....

  8. Investigating the temporal trends in PAH, PCB and OCP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-09

    May 9, 2013 ... pollution, except for the winter season where both pyrogenic and petrogenic sources likely contribute .... development is also present along the shorelines of the basin, ...... Environment and Tourism of the North West Province.

  9. Screening for the presence of antimicrobial activity in few Indian seaweeds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kotnala, S.; Garg, Aakriti; Chatterji, A.

    Methanolic extracts of 17 commonly found seaweeds in the west coast of India were screened for the presence of antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp., Streptococcus pyrogenes, Staphylococcus aureus...

  10. Stunting may determine the severity of malaria-associated anemia in African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, H.; West, C.E.; Veenemans, J.; Beguin, Y.; Kok, F.J.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evidence from previous studies that malnourished children are protected against malaria is controversial. In individuals repeatedly exposed to malaria, immunity may develop first against severe disease, then against pyrogens, and last, against parasites. If this is true, this would

  11. Ervaringen van een florist en van een dierenarts met de wrangwortel (Helleborus viridis L.) in Gelderland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.T.; Veldhuizen, van E.

    1986-01-01

    Locally in the province of Gelderland farmers still use Helleborus viridis to cure mastitis induced by Corynebacterium pyrogenes. The plants are treated with care; their rootstocks harvested in August.

  12. unusually high prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    AFRICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY ... Differences are known to occur in prevalence rates in urinary tract infections (UTI) between men and ... pneumonia, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pyrogenes, Staphylococcus saprophyticus,and .... in skin microflora that may cause opportunistic.

  13. Heteroaggregation of cerium oxide nanoparticles and nanoparticles of pyrolyzed biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heteroaggregation with indigenous particles is an important process controlling the mobility of engineered nanomaterials in the environment. We studied heteroaggregation of cerium oxide nanoparticles (n-CeO2), which are widely used commercially, with nanoparticles of pyrogenic carbonaceous material ...

  14. Utilization of the human cell line HL-60 for chemiluminescence based detection of microorganisms and related substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm, Michael; Hansen, Erik W; Moesby, Lise;

    2006-01-01

    species (ROS) when challenged with pyrogenic substances. In a luminol enhanced chemilumimetric assay the responsiveness of differentiated HL-60 cells is tested towards Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA...

  15. Nanofluids and a method of making nanofluids for ground source heat pumps and other applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, John Melvin

    2013-11-12

    This invention covers nanofluids. Nanofluids are a combination of particles between 1 and 100 nanometers, a surfactant and the base fluid. The nanoparticles for this invention are either pyrogenic nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes. These nanofluids improve the heat transfer of the base fluids. The base fluid can be ethylene glycol, or propylene glycol, or an aliphatic-hydrocarbon based heat transfer fluid. This invention also includes a method of making nanofluids. No surfactant is used to suspend the pyrogenic nanoparticles in glycols.

  16. Storage Reliability of Missile Materiel Program. Igniters and Safe and Arm Device Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    currenk is applied to the squibs which ignite the pyrogen motor. Hot gases from the pyrogen motor exhaust up the blast tube to the rocket motor...acts as a back- up in case of failure of the primary ignition spark plug. The hot gas igniter has a burn-time of 80 to 100 milliseconds. It consists of...Reliability The data collected todate indicates two separate character- istics effecting the reliability of igniters and safe and arm devices. The first

  17. Applicability of bacterial endotoxins test to various blood products by the use of endotoxin-specific lysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Masaki; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Naito, Seishiro; Maeyama, Jun-Ichi; Masumi, Atsuko; Hamaguchi, Isao; Horiuchi, Yoshinobu; Yamaguchi, Kazunari

    2010-11-01

    Endotoxin contamination is a serious threat to the safety of parenteral drugs, and the rabbit pyrogen test has played a crucial role in controlling this contamination. Although the highly sensitive endotoxin test has replaced the pyrogen test for various pharmaceuticals, the pyrogen test is still implemented as the control test for most blood products in Japan. We examined the applicability of the endotoxin test to blood products for reliable detection and quantification of endotoxin. Nineteen types of blood products were tested for interfering factors based on spike/recovery of endotoxin by using 2 types of endotoxin-specific lysate reagents for photometric techniques. Interfering effects on the endotoxin test by the products could be eliminated by diluting from 1/2 to 1/16, with the exception of antithrombin III. However, conventional lysate reagents that also react with non-pyrogenic substances, such as (1-3)-β-D-glucan, produced results that were not relevant to endotoxin content or pyrogenicity. Our results showed that the endotoxin test would be applicable to most blood products if used with appropriate endotoxin-specific lysate reagents.

  18. Analysis of IL-1β Release from Cryopreserved Pooled Lymphocytes in Response to Lipopolysaccharide and Lipoteichoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreelekshmi R. Nair

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrogens are heterogeneous group of fever-inducing substances derived from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and viruses. They incite immune response by producing endogenous pyrogens such as prostaglandins and other proinflammatory cytokines like IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. The present study was to analyze the influence of cryopreservation in IL-1β release, a marker for inflammatory response from human lymphocytes, in response to exogenous pyrogenic stimulants. Lymphocytes isolated from pooled blood of multiple healthy individuals were cryopreserved in DMSO and glycerol for periods of 7, 14, 30, and 60 days and were challenged with LPS and LTA in vitro. The inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β release, was measured by ELISA method. It was observed that the release of IL-1β increases instantaneously after the initiation of incubation and reaches a maximum at 3 to 5 hours and then gradually decreases and gets stabilized for both pyrogens. Moreover it was also observed that the effect of cryoprotectants, DMSO (10% and glycerol (10%, showed almost similar results for short-term storage, but DMSO-preserved lymphocytes yielded a better viability for long-term storage. Thus, the isolated cryopreserved lymphocytes system can be a promising approach for the total replacement/alteration to animal experimentation for pyrogenicity evaluation.

  19. [Studies of disinfection of hemodialysis instruments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briedigkeit, H; Rouvel, J; Dziuba, U; Lindenau, K; Precht, K

    1977-10-01

    Fever reactions in dialysis patients may partly be traced back to the transmission of pyrogens from the rinsing solution compartment into the sanguiferous system. The pyrogen concentration increases with the germ contents of the rinsing solution, which, therefore, should be kept as low as possible by suitable desinfection measures. For the artificial kidney Gambro AK 3 a hot water desinfection of 90 minutes at 90 degrees C or a formalin desinfection of 30 minutes, respectively, for the artificial kidney Leuven IIIC the formalin or peracetic acid desinfection of 30 minutes each proved to be sufficient.

  20. The ying and yang of fever in rheumatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, James; Cope, Andrew P

    2015-06-01

    Fevers are relatively common in rheumatic disease, largely due to the fact that the inflammatory process is driven by inflammatory mediators that function as endogenous pyrogens. Since the immune system's sensors cannot accurately distinguish between endogenous and exogenous (pathogen-derived) pyrogens a major challenge for physicians and rheumatologists has been to decipher patterns of clinical signs and symptoms to inform clinical decision making. Here we describe some of the common pitfalls and clinical challenges, and highlight the importance of a systematic approach to investigating the rheumatic disease patient presenting with fever.

  1. Fast and simple one-step preparation of ⁶⁸Ga citrate for routine clinical PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Svend B; Nielsen, Karin M; Mewis, Dennis;

    2013-01-01

    , and the rest on the cation exchange cartridge (7.48 +/- 1.23 and in the waste vial (0.47 +/- 0.28. The radiochemical purity of the product determined by instant thin-layer chromatography was greater than 99 The products have been proven to be sterile and pyrogen-free. Variations were made in several critical...

  2. Invasive group A streptococcal disease in The Netherlands : Evidence for a protective role of anti-exotoxin A antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mascini, EM; Jansze, M; Schellekens, JFP; Musser, JM; Faber, JAJ; Verhoef-Verhage, LAE; Schouls, L; van Leeuwen, WJ; Verhoef, J; van Dijk, H

    As part of a nationwide surveillance in The Netherlands during 1994-1997, 53 patients with invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infections were evaluated for medical history, symptoms, and outcome. Patients' isolates were tested for the production of pyrogenic exotoxins A (SPE-A) and B (SPE-B).

  3. Streptococcal pyogenic exotoxin B (SpeB) boosts the contact system via binding of a-1 antitrypsin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinert Niclasen, Louise; Olsen, Johan G; Dagil, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The Streptococcus pyogenes cysteine protease SpeB (streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B) is important for the invasive potential of the bacteria, but its production is down-regulated following systemic infection. This prompted us to investigate if SpeB potentiated the host immune response after...

  4. Optical and morphological properties of infrared emitting functionalized silica nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iovino, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, I-90123 Palermo (Italy); Malvindi, M.A. [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Center for Bio-Molecular Nanotechnologies@Unile, Via Barsanti, Arnesano, I-73010 Lecce (Italy); Agnello, S., E-mail: simonpietro.agnello@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, I-90123 Palermo (Italy); Buscarino, G.; Alessi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, I-90123 Palermo (Italy); Pompa, P.P. [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Center for Bio-Molecular Nanotechnologies@Unile, Via Barsanti, Arnesano, I-73010 Lecce (Italy); Gelardi, F.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, I-90123 Palermo (Italy)

    2013-11-01

    The loading process of functionalized silica nanoparticles was investigated in order to obtain nanoparticles having functional groups on their surface and Near-Infrared (NIR) emission properties. The NIR emission induced by O{sub 2} loading was studied in silica nanoparticles, produced by pyrogenic and microemulsion methods, with size ranging from 20 to 120 nm. Loading was carried out by thermal treatments in O{sub 2} atmosphere up to 400 °C and 90 bar. The effects of the thermal treatments on the NIR emission and on the structural properties were studied by luminescence and Raman techniques, whereas the morphological features were investigated by Transmission Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy. Our data show that silica nanoparticles produced by pyrogenic technique can be loaded with O{sub 2} at lower temperature than the ones obtained by microemulsion and have a higher luminescence intensity due to the internal porosity of the latter. The treatments do not affect the nanosize of the microemulsion particles and provide NIR emitting probes of selected size. Post-processing surface functionalization of the pyrogenic nanoparticles does not affect their emission properties and provides high efficiency NIR emitters with functionalized surface. - Highlights: • Pyrogenic and microemulsion silica nanoparticles with near infrared emission. • Functionalization of nanoparticles does not change the NIR emission. • Porosity limits the emission properties of nanoparticles.

  5. Relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particle size in dated core sediments in Lake Lianhuan, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Zang, Shuying

    2013-09-01

    Atmospheric particle associated with pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) poses serious threats to human health by inhalation exposure, especially in semiarid areas. Hence, the distributions of PAHs and particle size in two core sediments collected from Lake Lianhuan, Northeast China were studied. The sediments were dated radiometrically, and particle size distribution and PAH concentration were evaluated and potential human health risk was assessed. From 1980 to 2007, the dominant PAHs in the two cores were 2- and 3-ring PAHs, and the concentrations of 3-6 ring PAHs gradually increased from the early 1990s. Diagnostic ratios indicated that pyrogenic PAHs were the main sources of PAHs which changed over time from combustions of wood and coal to liquid fossil fuel sources. Fine particles (PAHs (especially carcinogenic 5-6 ring PAHs) and 10-35 μm particulate fractions indicated that eolian particles played an important role in adsorbing pyrogenic PAHs. Petroleum source of PAHs was only identified during the 1980s in one core sediments, in which positive correlations between 2-ring PAHs and particulate fractions of >125 μm were found. Future research should focus on the seven carcinogenic pyrogenic PAHs due to a rapidly increasing trend since 1995 based on the assessment of toxic equivalency factors.

  6. Microbiological quality and quality control of purified water and ultrapure dialysis fluids for online hemodiafiltration in routine clinical practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penne, E.L.; Visser, L.; Dorpel, M.A. van den; Weerd, N.C. van der; Mazairac, A.H.; Jaarsveld, B.C. van; Koopman, M.G.; Vos, P.; Feith, G.W.; Kremer Hovinga, T.K.; Hamersvelt, H.W. van; Wauters, I.M.; Bots, M.L.; Nube, M.J.; Wee, P.M. ter; Blankestijn, P.J.; Grooteman, M.P.C.

    2009-01-01

    During online hemodiafiltration, patients are directly infused with sterile substitution solutions to maintain fluid balance. Adequate water treatment and a well-organized quality control process are essential to provide non-pyrogenic fluids with consistent optimal quality. We sought to assess water

  7. Microbiological quality and quality control of purified water and ultrapure dialysis fluids for online hemodiafiltration in routine clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penne, E. Lars; Visser, Linda; van den Dorpel, Marinus A.; van der Weerd, Neelke C.; Mazairac, Albert H. A.; van Jaarsveld, Brigit C.; Koopman, Marion G.; Vos, Pieter; Feith, Geert W.; Kremer Hovinga, T; van Hamersvelt, Henk W.; Wauters, Inge M.; Bots, Michiel L.; Nube, Menso J.; ter Wee, Piet M.; Blankestijn, Peter J.; Grooteman, Muriel P. C.

    2009-01-01

    During online hemodiafiltration, patients are directly infused with sterile substitution solutions to maintain fluid balance. Adequate water treatment and a well-organized quality control process are essential to provide non-pyrogenic fluids with consistent optimal quality. We sought to assess water

  8. Lipopolysaccharide quantification and alkali-based inactivation in polysaccharide preparations to enable in vitro immune modulatory studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, Coen; Tomassen, Monic M.M.; Rieder, Anne; Ballance, Simon; Knutsen, Svein H.; Mes, Jurriaan J.

    2016-01-01

    The correct identification of immune-modulatory activity of polysaccharides is often hampered by immune-stimulatory contaminants, with pyrogens such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a very potent example. In order to avoid false positive immuno-stimulatory properties to be attributed to polysaccharide

  9. PERIPHERAL LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE STIMULATION INDUCES INTERLEUKIN-1-BETA MESSENGER-RNA IN RAT-BRAIN MICROGLIAL CELLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUTTINI, M; BODDEKE, H

    The inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 acts as an endogenous pyrogen in organisms affected by infectious diseases and has been shown to influence the activity of the central nervous system. Using in situ hybridization histochemistry, we have examined the cellular source of interleukin-1 beta in rat

  10. Stunting may determine the severity of malaria-associated anemia in African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, H.; West, C.E.; Veenemans, J.; Beguin, Y.; Kok, F.J.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evidence from previous studies that malnourished children are protected against malaria is controversial. In individuals repeatedly exposed to malaria, immunity may develop first against severe disease, then against pyrogens, and last, against parasites. If this is true, this would sugges

  11. Pilot Scale Production and Testing of a Recombinant Staphylococcal Enterotoxin (SEB) Triple Mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    and streptococcal exotoxins that share sequence homology.1–3 These bacterial proteins are known to be pyrogenic and are connected to significant...distribution unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT: The use of chemically or thermally inactivated biothreat toxins in detection...use of chemically or thermally inactivated biothreat toxins in detection methodologies can prove problematic when the resulting toxoids become

  12. 21 CFR 212.70 - What controls and acceptance criteria must I have for my finished PET drug products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identity, strength, quality, purity, and, if appropriate, sterility and pyrogens. (b) Test procedures... release but must be started within 30 hours after completion of production. The 30-hour requirement may be...; (ii) You determine that all other acceptance criteria are met; (iii) You retain a reserve sample of...

  13. Lipopolysaccharide quantification and alkali-based inactivation in polysaccharide preparations to enable in vitro immune modulatory studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, Coen; Tomassen, Monic M.M.; Rieder, Anne; Ballance, Simon; Knutsen, Svein H.; Mes, Jurriaan J.

    2016-01-01

    The correct identification of immune-modulatory activity of polysaccharides is often hampered by immune-stimulatory contaminants, with pyrogens such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a very potent example. In order to avoid false positive immuno-stimulatory properties to be attributed to

  14. Invasive group A streptococcal disease in The Netherlands : Evidence for a protective role of anti-exotoxin A antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mascini, EM; Jansze, M; Schellekens, JFP; Musser, JM; Faber, JAJ; Verhoef-Verhage, LAE; Schouls, L; van Leeuwen, WJ; Verhoef, J; van Dijk, H

    2000-01-01

    As part of a nationwide surveillance in The Netherlands during 1994-1997, 53 patients with invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infections were evaluated for medical history, symptoms, and outcome. Patients' isolates were tested for the production of pyrogenic exotoxins A (SPE-A) and B (SPE-B). Acut

  15. Phytochemical and Antibacterial Properties of Root and Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science (March, 2012), 20(1): 1-6. ISSN 0794-5698 ... Streptococcus pyrogenes. The phytochemical ... pungent sap latex is used to treat boils, infected wounds and other skin problems in people and to.

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in caribou, moose, and wolf scat samples from three areas of the Alberta oil sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Jessica I; Riffell, Jeffrey A; Wasser, Samuel K

    2015-11-01

    Impacts of toxic substances from oil production in the Alberta oil sands (AOS), such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), have been widely debated. Studies have been largely restricted to exposures from surface mining in aquatic species. We measured PAHs in Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), moose (Alces americanus), and Grey wolf (Canis lupus) across three areas that varied in magnitude of in situ oil production. Our results suggest a distinction of PAH level and source profile (petro/pyrogenic) between study areas and species. Caribou samples indicated pyrogenic sourced PAHs in the study area previously devastated by forest fire. Moose and wolf samples from the high oil production area demonstrated PAH ratios indicative of a petrogenic source and increased PAHs, respectively. These findings emphasize the importance of broadening monitoring and research programs in the AOS.

  17. Geochemical markers of sedimentary organic matter in Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia - Brazil. Indicators of sources and preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, José Roberto Bispo; do Rosário Zucchi, Maria; Costa, Alexandre Barreto; de Azevedo, Antonio Expedito Gomes; Spano, Saulo

    2017-06-30

    Natural stable isotopes, such as carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), are modern tools to assess geochemical processes. C and N in organic matter can carry fingerprints of their hydrologic flows and sedimentary processes, including any anthropogenic modification on the natural system. This study focuses on the determination of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and isotopic ratio in the sediment of Todos os Santos Bay (TSB). The isotopic results of the total organic matter indicate varied contribution marine and terrigenous. Typical rates of PAHs mainly indicate a pyrogenic source and mixture between pyrogenic and petrogenic sources. Typical ratios for the n-alkanes indicate the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons. The isotopic composition of n-alkanes suggests a mixture of sources, with the possible contribution of petrogenic. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Baseline distributions and sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface sediments from the Prai and Malacca Rivers, Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Hwai, Tan Shau; Yusuff, Ferdius Ferdius Mohamat; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Vaezzadeh, Vahab; Magam, Sami M; Masood, Najat; Alkhadher, Sadeq A A; Abootalebi-Jahromi, Fatemeh

    2014-11-15

    In this study, the surface sediments of the Malacca and Prai Rivers were analyzed to identify the distributions, and sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). The total PAH concentrations varied from 716 to 1210 and 1102 to 7938 ng g(-1)dw in the sediments of the Malacca and Prai Rivers, respectively. The PAH concentrations can be classified as moderate and high level of pollution in the sediments of the Malacca and Prai Rivers, respectively. The comparison of PAHs with the Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) indicates that the PAHs in the sediments of the Malacca and Prai Rivers may have the potential to cause adverse toxicity effects on the sampled ecosystems. The diagnostic ratios of individual PAHs indicate both petrogenic- and pyrogenic-origin PAHs with dominance of pyrogenic source in both rivers. These findings demonstrate that the environmental regulations in Malaysia have effectively reduced the input of petrogenic petroleum hydrocarbons into rivers.

  19. Influence of amorphous silica on the hydration in ultra-high performance concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oertel, Tina, E-mail: tina.oertel@isc.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer–Institute for Silicate Research ISC, Neunerplatz 2, 97082 Würzburg (Germany); Inorganic Chemistry I, Universität Bayreuth, Universitätsstr. 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Helbig, Uta, E-mail: uta.helbig@th-nuernberg.de [Crystallography and X-ray Methods, Technische Hochschule Nürnberg Georg Simon Ohm, Wassertorstraße 10, 90489 Nürnberg (Germany); Hutter, Frank [Fraunhofer–Institute for Silicate Research ISC, Neunerplatz 2, 97082 Würzburg (Germany); Kletti, Holger [Building Materials, Bauhaus–Universität Weimar, Coudraystr. 11, 99423 Weimar (Germany); Sextl, Gerhard [Fraunhofer–Institute for Silicate Research ISC, Neunerplatz 2, 97082 Würzburg (Germany); Chemical Technology of Advanced Materials, Julius Maximilian Universität, Röntgenring 11, 97070 Würzburg (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    Amorphous silica particles (silica) are used in ultra-high performance concretes to densify the microstructure and accelerate the clinker hydration. It is still unclear whether silica predominantly increases the surface for the nucleation of C–S–H phases or dissolves and reacts pozzolanically. Furthermore, varying types of silica may have different and time dependent effects on the clinker hydration. The effects of different silica types were compared in this study by calorimetric analysis, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, in situ X-ray diffraction and compressive strength measurements. The silica component was silica fume, pyrogenic silica or silica synthesized by a wet-chemical route (Stoeber particles). Water-to-cement ratios were 0.23. Differences are observed between the silica for short reaction times (up to 3 days). Results indicate that silica fume and pyrogenic silica accelerate alite hydration by increasing the surface for nucleation of C–S–H phases whereas Stoeber particles show no accelerating effect.

  20. Seroepidemiology of leptospirosis in Minnesota wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M.A.; Goyal, S.M.; Diesch, S.L.; Mech, L.D.; Fritts, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    Serum samples (n = 457) from wolves (Canis lupus) in northern Minnesota were collected from 1972 through 1986 and were tested for antibodies against Leptospira interrogans using a microtiter agglutination test. Twelve serovars included in the study were: australis, autumnalis, ballum, bataviae, bratislava, canicola, copenhageni, grippotyphosa, hardjo, pomona, pyrogenes, and tarassovi. Fifty-two (11%) sera had antibody titers of greater than or equal to 1:50 against one or more serovars of L. interrogans. The seroprevalence of different serovars in decreasing order was: grippotyphosa, bratislava, autumnalis, canicola, pomona, ballum, pyrogenes, hardjo, and copenhageni. No antibodies were found against australis, bataviae, and tarassovi. These results indicate that L. interrogans infection may occur in wolves of Minnesota.

  1. Distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Osaka Bay, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Shizuho; Uno, Seiichi; Ito, Kazuki; Koyama, Jiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2014-08-30

    Contaminations in sediments by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs were investigated at 44 sites in Osaka Bay, Japan. Concentrations of total PAHs and alkylated PAHs were in the range 6.40-7800 ng/g dry weights and 13.7-1700 ng/g dry weights, respectively. The PAH concentrations tended to be higher along the shoreline in the vicinities of big ports, industrialized areas, and densely populated regions such as the cities of Osaka and Kobe. The major sources appeared to be pyrogenic or both pyrogenic and petrogenic at most of the sites. PAH concentrations were remarkably high at a site near Kobe, where the concentrations of dibenzo(a,h)anthracene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene exceeded the effects-range-medium concentration and eight PAHs were above the corresponding effects-range-low concentrations. Those PAHs may have been derived from the great fire associated with the large earthquake in 1995.

  2. Historical polycyclic aromatic and petrogenic hydrocarbon loading in Northern Central Gulf of Mexico shelf sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overton, E.B.; Ashton, B.M.; Miles, M.S. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Studies

    2005-10-01

    The distribution of selected hydrocarbons within ten dated sediment cores taken from the Mississippi River Bight off coastal Louisiana suggests a chronic contaminant loading from several sources including the river itself, oil and gas exploration in the central Gulf of Mexico (GOM) shelf area, and natural geologic hydrocarbon seeps. Data were grouped as either total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's), which were indicative of pyrogenic PAH's; or estimated total hopanes (indicative of petrogenic hydrocarbons). The total PAH concentrations and estimated total hopanes begin increasing above background levels (approximately 200 ng g{sup -1}) after the 1950s. The distribution of these hydrocarbons and hopanes within the dated sediment cores suggests that the Mississippi River is a regional source of pyrogenic PAH's, and that the hopanes are from natural geologic hydrocarbon seeps, oil and gas exploration in the GOM, or both. (author)

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal sediment of klang strait, Malaysia: distribution pattern, risk assessment and sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Belin Tavakoly Sany

    Full Text Available Concentration, source, and ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were investigated in 22 stations from surface sediments in the areas of anthropogenic pollution in the Klang Strait (Malaysia. The total PAH level in the Klang Strait sediment was 994.02±918.1 µg/kg dw. The highest concentration was observed in stations near the coastline and mouth of the Klang River. These locations were dominated by high molecular weight PAHs. The results showed both pyrogenic and petrogenic sources are main sources of PAHs. Further analyses indicated that PAHs primarily originated from pyrogenic sources (coal combustion and vehicular emissions, with significant contribution from petroleum inputs. Regarding ecological risk estimation, only station 13 was moderately polluted, the rest of the stations suffered rare or slight adverse biological effects with PAH exposure in surface sediment, suggesting that PAHs are not considered as contaminants of concern in the Klang Strait.

  4. Behaviour of different lichen species as biomonitors of air pollution by PAHs in natural ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, María; Domeño, Celia; López, Patricia; Nerín, Cristina

    2011-09-01

    Six different species of lichens (Parmelia sulcata Tayl., Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach., Ramalina farinacea, Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf., Usnea sp. and Lobaria pulmonaria (Schreb.) Hoffm.) were collected in two mountain valleys in Central Pyrenees: the Aspe and Aragon valleys. Two multivariate techniques have been applied with different purposes, ANOVA and Discriminant Analysis (DA), to evaluate the data. The PAHs spatial distribution was studied in the three more abundant and widespread species in the area: P. sulcata, E. prunastri (L.) Ach. and R. farinacea in terms of total PAHs, PAHs related to the combustion processes and toxicity. Different behaviour of each lichen species to trap PAHs was found, being P. sulcata the best one to monitor the most persistent PAHs of pyrogenic origin and E. prunastri the most appropriate to provide information about pyrogenic and petrogenic PAHs. Traffic was the most relevant influence in PAHs bioaccumulation in lichen species.

  5. Serological prevalence of leptospiral infection in wild rats at the National Service Training Centres in Kelantan and Terengganu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed-Hassan, S N; Bahaman, A R; Mutalib, A R; Khairani-Bejo, S

    2010-04-01

    One hundred and sixty eight rats were trapped from the National Service Training Centres (NSTC) in Kelantan and Terengganu from October 2008 to May 2009. Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was performed to detect the presence of agglutinating antibodies to Leptospira among the rats caught. All the MAT positive rats were identified as Rattus tiomanicus. In Kelantan, 17.3 % (14/81) of the rats had leptospiral antibodies to serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae (12.3%), Canicola (2.5%), Ballum (1.2%), and Pyrogenes (1.2%). In Terengganu, 18.4% (16/87) of the rats had antibodies to serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae (15%), Canicola (1.1%), Pyrogenes (1.1%) and Hebdomadis (1.1%). This study indicated that Leptospira serovars were prevalent in the rat population in the study areas and could be a source of infection to humans. Therefore, control of the rat population in all NSTC is critical to prevent outbreaks of leptospirosis amongst the NSTC trainees.

  6. Biocompatibility of Tri-block Bone-matrix Material in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Deyu; ZHENG Qixin; HAO Jie; GUO Xiaodong

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the biocompatibility of poly(lactic acid/glycolic acid/ asparagic acid-copolyethylene glycol)(PLGA-[ASP-PEG]) tri-block copolymer in vitro, L929 fibroblast was co-cultured with the copolymer for cytotoxicity, hemolysis and pyrogen tests. And, compared with PLGA, the adhesiveness rate of the copolymer was calculated. The experimental results show that the toxicity gradation of the material was 0-1; L929 fibroblasts had a good cell morphology and proliferated rapidly on the surface of the material; hemolysis ratio was 3.08%; there was no pyrogen reaction. The adhesiveness of PLGA-[ASP-PEG] was better than that of the PLGA's(P<0.05). The results confirm that the PLGA-[ASP-PEG] has a good biocompatibility.

  7. Development of Solid-Phase Extraction Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for the Analysis of Organophosphorus Pesticides-(Chlorpyrifos) in Aqueous Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Binsalom, A.; Chianella, I.; Campbell, K.; Zourob, M.

    2016-01-01

    A new and selective sorbent for molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) was prepared to extract chlorpyrifos (CPF) residue from solutions. The extracted analyte was analyzed by high performance liquid chromotography (HPLC) coupled with photodiode array detection. To synthesize the molecularly imprinted polymers, four different pyrogens (acetonitrile, toluene, dichloromethane and chloroform) were initially studied. CPF was used as the template molecule, methacrylic acid as the fun...

  8. [Pharyngo-tonsillitis and necrosing submaxillary adenitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes associated with toxic shock syndrome in children from Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulén de Vázquez, I; González-Galnares, M; Ridaura-Sanz, C; Saucedo-Sánchez, A; Osnaya-Martínez, H

    1993-08-01

    We report on six previously healthy children between nine months and nine years old, who suffered streptococcal faringoamigdalitis and cervical adenitis with scarlet fever and toxic shock syndrome; four of them died in a fulminant course and two survived. These patients behave similarly to others reported from United States of America, England and Australia, and in similar way these clinical entity could be due to bacterial pyrogenic exotoxins according to the clinical fulminant course.

  9. Interferon Inducers Against Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-15

    S0.4 - 0.3- 02 0.1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 !f !7 16 19 20 21 nIm Ir DAYS 0 9 + IL 0 13 A IUD x cWr Fig. 5. IC-(PLL-Dextran), 10 pg/mouse...of organic chemistry; 5. They should be obtainable free of microorganisms , 3 pyrogens, etc.; 6. It may be possible to obtain more reproducible IFN

  10. Presence of toxic shock toxin in toxic shock and other clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Reeves, M W; Pine, L; Feeley, J. C.; Wells, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    Toxic shock toxin (TST), also known as pyrogenic exotoxin C (Schlievert et al., J. Infect. Dis. 143:509-516, 1981) and staphylococcal enterotoxin F (Bergdoll et al., Lancet i:1017-1021, 1981), was purified from toxic shock strains of Staphylococcus aureus by preparative isoelectric focusing and by chromatofocusing. Neither method produced an absolutely pure protein as determined by silver staining of sodium dodecyl sulfate-acrylamide gels, although chromatofocusing was the better method of th...

  11. Purification and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus FRI 1169 and 587 toxic shock syndrome exotoxins.

    OpenAIRE

    Igarashi, H; Fujikawa, H; Usami, H; Kawabata, S.; Morita, T

    1984-01-01

    An exotoxin was purified from a toxic shock toxin (TST)-producing Staphylococcus aureus strain, FRI 1169, and another exotoxin was purified from a pyrogenic exotoxin C (PEC)-producing S. aureus strain, 587. Both strains had been isolated from toxic-shock syndrome patients. The two exotoxins were purified by the same method of ion-exchange chromatography, chromatofocusing, and gel filtration. After purification, those exotoxins gave a line of identity against an anti-TST serum and also were im...

  12. Methods of acute biological assays in guinea-pigs for the study of toxicity and innocuity of drugs and chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 602 samples were tested by the following assays performed at the animal facilities (Cedeme) of the Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP): 385 for dermal irritability, 90 for ocular irritability (discontinued in 1995), 31 for systemic toxicity by injection, 26 for oral acute toxicity, 15 for toxicity by intracutaneous injection, 15 for skin sensitization, 15 for toxicity of serum and vaccines for human use, 14 for toxicity by intramuscular implantation, 7 for pyrogens, 2 for...

  13. Separation of T-cell-stimulating activity from streptococcal M protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Fleischer, B; Schmidt, K.H.; Gerlach, D.; Köhler, W.

    1992-01-01

    The superantigenic properties of M protein type 5 of Streptococcus pyogenes have been implicated as an important pathogenicity factor in streptococcal autoimmune diseases. Here we show that after a single purification step by affinity chromatography on immobilized albumin or fibrinogen, M protein has no mitogenic activity for T cells. We demonstrate that the superantigenicity of M proteins of type 5 and type 1 is due to contamination with the highly potent pyrogenic exotoxins of S. pyogenes i...

  14. Colloidal Behavior of Engineered NPs in Environmental Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    LogC pHzpc 1 -7.683 -0.247 2 -12.441 -5.011 1.189 7.11 NP-DLVO modeling 7 • We are developing a software package for predicting environmental risk of...Two types of humics: pyrogenic and biogenic . • Actual surfactive and chelating behavior varies greatly with structure (and “availability” of

  15. Environmental forensics evaluation of sources of sediment hydrocarbon contamination in Milford Haven Waterway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, David I; Galperin, Yakov; Bullimore, Blaise; Camplin, Mike

    2015-02-01

    Current and historic petroleum-related activities in Milford Haven Waterway (MHW; Wales, UK) contribute to hydrocarbon contamination of surficial sediments. Three main hydrocarbon components of sediments were analyzed: (1) aliphatic hydrocarbons of predominantly biogenic origin, representing about 5-15% of total hydrocarbons (THC); (2) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from recent petrogenic and mainly older pyrogenic sources, representing about 2-6% of THC; (3) unresolved complex mixture from spill-related and heavily-weathered petrogenic sources, representing as much as 70-85% of THC. Environmental forensics evaluation of the data demonstrate that although 72,000 tonnes (t) crude oil spilled from the Sea Empress in 1996, the Forties blend cargo was not identified in 2010. However, using biomarkers, heavy fuel oil (HFO) from Sea Empress' bunkers (480 t spilled) was detected further upstream and more widely than previously. Iranian crude (100 t) spilled by the El Omar in 1988 and fuel (130,000 t) lost during bombing in 1940 also were tentatively identified. The PAH source ratios demonstrate that the historic pyrogenic PAHs come mainly from biomass and coal combustion. The distribution pattern of PAHs appeared more pyrogenic in 2012 than in 1996, as if recovering from the more petrogenic signature, in places, of the Sea Empress. The heavier PAH distributions were pyrogenic at most stations, and similar to those in sediments from oil terminal berths up to 2006, when dredging operations peaked. Partly as a result of this, in 2007 the concentrations of PAHs peaked throughout the waterway. Apart from effluent, atmospheric and runoff inputs, most of the identified inputs to the surficial sediments are historic. Therefore, likely processes include disturbance by construction (e.g. pile-driving) and dredging of contaminants sequestered in sediments, followed by their wide redistribution via suspended sediment transport.

  16. Diagnosis of trichomonas vaginalis in patients with chronic abacterial prostatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Selivanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonasis diagnostics in 326 men with chronic prostatitis was performing. Trichomonas vaginalis was seen in 31,5% and 60,7% together with pyrogenal provocation. Trichomonas vaginalis was detected in 158 (48,5% by microscopy, in 90 (27,6% by direct immunofluorescence assay, in 24 (7,4% by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and 6 (1,8% polymerase chain reaction. Polymerase chain reaction demonstrated lowest sensitiveness.

  17. An improved glyoxal retrieval from OMI measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado, L. M. A.; Richter, A; M. Vrekoussis; Wittrock, F; Hilboll, A.; S. F. Schreier; Burrows, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Satellite observations from the SCIAMACHY, GOME-2, and OMI spectrometers have been used to retrieve atmospheric columns of glyoxal (CHOCHO) with the DOAS method. High CHOCHO levels are found over regions with large biogenic and pyrogenic emissions, and hot-spots have been identified over areas of anthropogenic activities. This study focuses on the development of an improved retrieval for CHOCHO from measurements by the OMI instrument. From sensitivi...

  18. Neuroimmune Interactions, Low-Dose Sarin Inhalation, and Gulf War Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    and Martin 2006; Ulloa and Wang 2007) and reduces the pyrogenic response to turpentine- induced sterile abscess (Sopori et al. 1998a; Sopori et al...tolerance. Immunol Rev 228:9–22 Scott DA, Martin M (2006) Exploitation of the nicotinic anti- inflammatory pathway for the treatment of epithelial inflamma...2008;180:7655-63. J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL SEPTEMBER 2012 780 GUNDAVARAPU ET AL12. Proskocil BJ, Sekhon HS, Jia Y, Savchenko V, Blakely RD, Lindstrom J, et

  19. 基于Aspen Plus的褐煤热解过程模拟%The Lignite Coal Pyrolysis Process Simulation Based on Aspen Plus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 商玉坤; 武建军

    2011-01-01

    With high moisture lignite coal as an example, the method and procedure to build simplified model for coal pyrogenation process (CPD) using the chemical process simulation software Aspen Plus were introduced. Setting process of CPD model simulation parameter was given, and the Aspen Plus software was used to simulate the calculation process of coal pyrogenation, and the obtained simulation value was compared with the actual value. At the same time, the coal pyrolysis simulation process and the results were analyzed and provided basic reference to coal pyrogenation process development and optimization.%以高水分褐煤为例,介绍了利用Aspen Plus化工流程模拟软件建立煤热解过程简化模型的方法及步骤.阐述了CPD模型模拟参数的设置过程,并利用Aspen Plus软件对煤热解过程进行了模拟计算,将得出的模拟值与实际值进行了比较.同时,对煤热解模拟过程及结果进行了分析,给煤热解过程的工艺开发和工艺优化提供了参考依据.

  20. Distributions and source apportionment of sediment-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hopanes in rivers and estuaries of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Hwai, Tan Shau; Yusuff, Ferdius Mohamat; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2015-06-01

    In this study, the distributions and sources of sediment-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hopanes in the Malaysian rivers and estuaries were evaluated. The concentrations of 16 USEPA PAHs varied from 225.5 to 293.9 (Perlis River), 195.2 to 481.2 (Kedah River), 791.2 to 1995.4 (Merbok River), 231.2 to 426.7 (Perak River), and 3803.2 to 7442.7 ng g(-1) (Klang River) dry weight. PAHs can be classified as moderate in the Perlis, Kedah, and Perak Rivers, moderate to high in the Merbok River, and high to very high in the Klang River. The comparison of PAHs with sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) indicates that occasionally adverse biological effects may occur from total PAHs, low molecular weight (LMW), and high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs at stations 1, 2, and 3 of the Klang River and from total PAHs at station 2 of the Merbok River. The diagnostic ratios of individual PAHs indicate both petrogenic and pyrogenic origin PAHs with significant dominance of pyrogenic sources in the study areas. The results suggest that Malaysian sediments had hopane ratios (C29/C30) similar to MECO suggesting MECO as a major source of the petroleum hydrocarbons found in the sediments, which is consistent with results reported in previous studies. These findings demonstrate that effective and improved environmental regulations in Malaysia have shifted the source of petroleum hydrocarbons from petrogenic to pyrogenic origin.

  1. Biochar-Facilitated Reduction of Crystalline Fe(III) in Hematite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S.; Yang, Y.; Roden, E. E.; Tang, Y.; Huang, R.; Adhikari, D.

    2015-12-01

    Pyrogenic organic matter is a significant component of soil organic matter, the transformation of which may play a crucial role in the coupled redox cycles of carbon and iron. However, scant information is available for the role of pyrogenic carbon in the redox cycle of iron. Herein, we studied the influences of wheat straw-derived biochar on the microbial reduction of hematite by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. In the presence of 10 mg/L biochar, microbial reduction of hematite was substantially accelerated by 41% to 142%. Reduction of hematite was enhanced to similar degrees by aqueous biochar with the concentration of 1-3 mg C/L. Importance of the aqueous biochar was also supported by the response of enhancement of Fe reduction to the dose of biochar particles, closely linked to the change in aqueous biochar concentration rather than the amount of total biochar particles. Microbiologically pre-reduced biochar reduced hematite abiotically, demonstrating the electron shuttling capacity of aqueous biochar for hematite reduction. On the other side, biochar particles sorbed Fe(II) and consequently decreased the accumulation of Fe(II) in solution to facilitate the reduction of hematite further. We reported for the first time the biochar-facilitated microbial reduction of crystalline Fe(III), through electron shuttling processes mediated by aqueous biochar and complexation of Fe(II) by biochar particles. Such impacted redox cycles of Fe would be important for the soil environment with relatively high content of indigenous pyrogenic carbon or substantial application of biochar.

  2. Photochemistry of the African troposphere: Influence of biomass-burning emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marufu, L.; Dentener, F.; Lelieveld, J.; Andreae, M. O.; Helas, G.

    2000-06-01

    The relative importance of biomass-burning (pyrogenic) emissions from savannas, deforestation, agricultural waste burning, and biofuel consumption to tropospheric ozone abundance over Africa has been estimated for the year 1993, on the basis of global model calculations. We also calculated the importance of this emission source to tropospheric ozone in other regions of the world and compared it to different sources on the African regional and global scales. The estimated annual average total tropospheric ozone abundance over Africa for the reference year is 26 Tg. Pyrogenic, industrial, biogenic, and lightning emissions account for 16, 19, 12, and 27%, respectively, while stratospheric ozone input accounts for 26%. In the planetary boundary layer over Africa, the contribution by biomass burning is ˜24%. A large fraction of the African biomass-burning-related ozone is transported away from the continent. On a global scale, biomass burning contributes ˜9% to tropospheric ozone. Our model calculations suggest that Africa is the single most important region for biomass-burning-related tropospheric ozone, accounting for ˜35% of the global annual pyrogenic ozone enhancement of 29 Tg in 1993.

  3. Endotoxin Detection in Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices with Kinetic-QCL, a Kinetic-Quantitative Chromogenic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzofsky, Ronald N.

    1995-01-01

    The observation that endotoxin caused gelation in extracts of Limulus amebocytes has been expanded to the development of an in vitro kinetic, quantitative chromogenic LAL assay (Kinetic-QCL) for the detection of endotoxin in aqueous fluids. Within the last 15 years, the use of Limulus amebocyte lysate to detect and control the presence of pyrogenic substances in pharmaceuticals and medical devices has gained wide international acceptance. Both the United States and European Pharmacopoeias contain descriptions of and requirements for the LAL Bacterial Endotoxin Test. Both pharmacopoeias have begun to remove the rabbit pyrogen test requirement in a majority of drug monographs and have substituted endotoxin limits to be determined by LAL. The use of LAL has proved invaluable in controlling the level of endotoxin in finished product. The endotoxin contribution of raw materials and packaging material can be monitored as well. In-process testing at critical production steps can identify additional sources of endotoxin contamination, and depyrogenation processes can be validated by quantitating the degradation of endotoxin challenges. The speed, reproducibility, sensitivity, and economics of the Kinetic-QCL assay, in conjunction with the ppropriate equipment and software, over both the in vivo rabbit pyrogen test and the more traditional LAL gel-clot assay allow a more in-depth approach to the control of endotoxin in pharmaceuticals and medical devices.

  4. Retention of cytokine-inducing substances inside high-flux dialyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufft, V; Mahiout, A; Shaldon, S; Koch, K M; Schindler, R

    1996-01-01

    Reprocessing of dialyzers is often performed with nonsterile solutions possibly contaminated with bacterial-derived cytokine-inducing substances. We investigated the retention of cytokine-inducing substances inside the dialyzer during reprocessing in a closed loop in vitro hemodialysis system using a polyamide high flux membrane. After the first in vitro circulation of human whole blood, rinse of the blood compartment (BC) and reverse ultrafiltration (RUF) was performed with either cytokine-inducing substance-free saline or saline contaminated with filtrates from Pseudomonas cultures (6 ng/ml LAL-reactive material); subsequently, dialyzers were stored in 2% formaldehyde. Dialyzers were rinsed with approximately 15 liters pyrogen-free saline before the second circulation using blood from the same donor; the effluates were free of cytokine-inducing substances and formaldehyde. Before and after the blood circulations, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were separated and total production of IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta was determined after overnight incubation. In noncirculated PBMC as well as in PBMC separated after whole blood circulation with pyrogen-free processed dialyzers, production of IL-1 beta was not detectable. After contaminated rinse of the BC, production of IL-1 beta could be observed (1,600 +/- 1,100 pg/ml, mean +/- SEM). When pyrogen-free RUF was performed after contaminated BC rinse, IL-1 beta production averaged 163 +/- 92 pg/ml when using reused dialyzers, but 1,820 +/- 880 pg/ml when using new dialyzers. After reuse with pyrogen-free BC-rinse and contaminated RUF no IL-1 beta synthesis was observed; however, when pyrogen-free BC-rinse and contaminated RUF was applied to new dialyzers, IL-1 beta synthesis averaged 1,620 +/- 1,200 pg/ml. We conclude that cytokine-inducing substances are retained inside the dialyzer, probably by adsorption to the membrane as well as to the protein layer covering the membrane and are still biologically active after

  5. Chemical recalcitrance of biochar and wildfire charcoal: how similar are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Merino, Agustin

    2016-04-01

    The enhanced chemical resistance to biological degradation of pyrogenic materials, either produced during wildfires (charcoal) or by man (biochar), makes them long-term carbon sinks once incorporated in soils. In spite of their fundamental similarities, studies comparing the chemical recalcitrance of biochar and wildfire charcoal are scarce because analogous materials for accurate comparison are not easily available. Using solid-state 13C cross polarization-magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy we characterized the chemical recalcitrance of pyrogenic materials generated from the same unburnt feedstooks (litter and dead wood from Pinus banksiana): (a) charcoal from a high-intensity wildfire and (b) biochar obtained by slow pyrolysis [3 treatments: 2 h at 350, 500 and 650°C]. For quantification, the spectra were divided into four regions representing different chemical environments of the 13C nucleus: alkyl C (0-45 ppm), O-alkyl C (45-110 ppm), olefinic and aromatic C(110-160 ppm), and carbonyl C (160-210 ppm). As an indicator of chemical recalcitrance, the degree of aromaticity (%) was calculated as follow: aromatic-C ∗ 100 / (alkyl C+ O alkyl-C + aromatic-C). The pyrogenic materials derived from wood show higher degrees of aromaticity (68 to 88%) than pyrogenic material derived from litter (40 to 88%). When comparing biochar and wildfire charcoal, biochars produced at 500 and 650°C always have higher degrees of aromaticity than wildfire charcoals, irrespective of the original feedstock. Wildfire charcoals always show a more heterogeneous chemical composition, with alkyl and O-alkyl compounds present even in charcoal generated at very high temperatures (temperatures up to 950 °C were recorded on the litter surface during the wildfire). However, biochars produced at 500 and 650 °C are mostly aromatic, and only the biochars produced at 350 °C show partial contribution of alkyl-C compounds. Our results suggest that biochar-type pyrogenic

  6. The isolation and characterization of lipopolysaccharides from Microcystis aeruginosa, a prominent toxic water bloom forming cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bláhová, Lucie; Adamovský, Ondřej; Kubala, Lukáš; Švihálková Šindlerová, Lenka; Zounková, Radka; Bláha, Luděk

    2013-12-15

    Massive toxic blooms of cyanobacteria represent a major threat to water supplies worldwide, yet serious gaps exist in understanding their complex toxic effects, including the role of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The present comparative study focused on the levels and biological activities of LPS isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa, which is one of the most globally distributed toxic species. Using hot phenol extraction, LPS was isolated from 3 laboratory cultures and 11 natural water blooms. It formed 0.2-0.7% of the original dry biomass of the cyanobacteria, based on gravimetry. Additional analyses by commercial anti-LPS ELISA were correlated with gravimetry but showed concentrations that were about 7-times lower, which indicated either impurities in isolated LPS or the poor cross-reactivity of the antibodies used. LPS isolates from M. aeruginosa were potent pyrogens in the traditional Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL)-test, but comparison with the PyroGene test demonstrated the limited selectivity of LAL with several interferences. The determined pyrogenicity (endotoxin units, EU) ranged from very low values in laboratory cultures (less than 0.003 up to 0.008-EU per 100 pg LPS) to higher values in complex bloom samples (0.01-0.078 EU per 100 pg of LPS), which suggested the role of bloom-associated bacteria in the overall effects. Potent pro-inflammatory effects of the studied LPS from both cultures and bloom samples were observed in a highly-relevant ex vivo human blood model by studying reactive oxygen species production in phagocytes as well as increased productions of interleukin 8, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor α, TNF-α. LPS from M. aeruginosa seem to modulate several pathways involved in the regulation of both innate immunity and specific responses. In comparison to the standard pathogenic bacterial LPS (World Health Organization Escherichia coli O113:10 endotoxin; activity 1 EU per 100 pg), the studied cyanobacterial samples had pyrogenicity potencies

  7. Leptospira Seroprevalence and Risk Factors in Health Centre Patients in Hoima District, Western Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anou Dreyfus

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The burden of human leptospirosis in Uganda is unknown. We estimated the seroprevalence of Leptospira antibodies, probable acute/recent leptospirosis, and risk factors for seropositivity in humans in rural Western Uganda.359 non-pregnant adults visiting the Kikuube and Kigorobya Health Centers were sequentially recruited during March and April 2014. A health history survey and serum were collected from consented participants. Overall, 69% reported having fever in the past year, with 49% reporting malaria, 14% malaria relapse, 6% typhoid fever, 3% brucellosis, and 0% leptospirosis. We tested sera by microscopic agglutination test (MAT against eight Leptospira serovars representing seven serogroups. Leptospira seroprevalence was 35% (126/359; 95%CI 30.2-40.3% defined as MAT titer ≥ 1:100 for any serovar. The highest prevalence was against L. borgpetersenii Nigeria (serogroup Pyrogenes at 19.8% (71/359; 95%CI 15.9-24.4%. The prevalence of probable recent leptospirosis (MAT titer ≥1:800 was 1.9% (95%CI 0.9-4.2% and uniquely related to serovar Nigeria (serogroup Pyrogenes. Probable recent leptospirosis was associated with having self-reported malaria within the past year (p = 0.048. Higher risk activities included skinning cattle (n = 6 with 12.3 higher odds (95%CI 1.4-108.6; p = 0.024 of Leptospira seropositivity compared with those who had not. Participants living in close proximity to monkeys (n = 229 had 1.92 higher odds (95%CI 1.2-3.1; p = 0.009 of seropositivity compared with participants without monkeys nearby.The 35% prevalence of Leptospira antibodies suggests that exposure to leptospirosis is common in rural Uganda, in particular the Nigeria serovar (Pyrogenes serogroup. Leptospirosis should be a diagnostic consideration in febrile illness and "smear-negative malaria" in rural East Africa.

  8. Leptospira Seroprevalence and Risk Factors in Health Centre Patients in Hoima District, Western Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Raewynne; Kankya, Clovice; Kajura, Charles; Alinaitwe, Lordrick; Kakooza, Steven; Pelican, Katharine M.; Travis, Dominic A.; Mahero, Michael; Boulware, David R.; Mugisha, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Background The burden of human leptospirosis in Uganda is unknown. We estimated the seroprevalence of Leptospira antibodies, probable acute/recent leptospirosis, and risk factors for seropositivity in humans in rural Western Uganda. Methodology and Principal Findings 359 non-pregnant adults visiting the Kikuube and Kigorobya Health Centers were sequentially recruited during March and April 2014. A health history survey and serum were collected from consented participants. Overall, 69% reported having fever in the past year, with 49% reporting malaria, 14% malaria relapse, 6% typhoid fever, 3% brucellosis, and 0% leptospirosis. We tested sera by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) against eight Leptospira serovars representing seven serogroups. Leptospira seroprevalence was 35% (126/359; 95%CI 30.2–40.3%) defined as MAT titer ≥ 1:100 for any serovar. The highest prevalence was against L. borgpetersenii Nigeria (serogroup Pyrogenes) at 19.8% (71/359; 95%CI 15.9–24.4%). The prevalence of probable recent leptospirosis (MAT titer ≥1:800) was 1.9% (95%CI 0.9–4.2%) and uniquely related to serovar Nigeria (serogroup Pyrogenes). Probable recent leptospirosis was associated with having self-reported malaria within the past year (p = 0.048). Higher risk activities included skinning cattle (n = 6) with 12.3 higher odds (95%CI 1.4–108.6; p = 0.024) of Leptospira seropositivity compared with those who had not. Participants living in close proximity to monkeys (n = 229) had 1.92 higher odds (95%CI 1.2–3.1; p = 0.009) of seropositivity compared with participants without monkeys nearby. Conclusions/Significance The 35% prevalence of Leptospira antibodies suggests that exposure to leptospirosis is common in rural Uganda, in particular the Nigeria serovar (Pyrogenes serogroup). Leptospirosis should be a diagnostic consideration in febrile illness and “smear-negative malaria” in rural East Africa. PMID:27487398

  9. Hypothalamic neuronal histamine modulates febrile response but not anorexia induced by lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Seiichi; Itateyama, Emi; Oka, Kyoko; Masaki, Takayuki; Sakata, Toshiie; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu

    2005-05-01

    This study examined the contribution of hypothalamic neuronal histamine (HA) to the anorectic and febrile responses induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an exogenous pyrogen, and the endogenous pyrogens interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Intraperitoneal (ip) injection of LPS, IL-1beta, or TNF-alpha suppressed 24-hr cumulative food intake and increased rectal temperature in rats. To analyze the histaminergic contribution, rats were pretreated with intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of 2.44 mmol/kg or ip injection of 244 mmol/kg of alpha-fluoromethylhistidine (FMH), a suicide inhibitor of histidine decarboxylase (HDC), to deplete neural HA. The depletion of neural HA augmented the febrile response to ip injection of LPS and IL-1beta and alleviated the anorectic response to ip injection of IL-1beta. However, the depletion of neural HA did not modify the LPS-induced anorectic response or TNF-alpha-induced febrile and anorectic responses. Consistent with these results, the rate of hypothalamic HA turnover, assessed by the accumulation of tele-methylhistamine (t-MH), was elevated with ip injections of LPS and IL-1beta, but unaffected by TNF-alpha at equivalent doses. This suggests that (i) LPS and IL-1beta activate hypothalamic neural HA turnover; (ii) hypothalamic neural HA suppresses the LPS- and IL-1beta-induced febrile responses and accelerates the IL-1beta-induced anorectic response; and (iii) TNF-alpha modulates the febrile and anorectic responses via a neural HA-independent pathway. Therefore, hypothalamic neural HA is involved in the IL-1beta-dominant pathway, rather than the TNF-alpha-dominant pathway, preceding the systemic inflammatory response induced by exogenous pyrogens, such as LPS. Further research on this is needed.

  10. Distribution and origins of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in riverine, estuarine, and marine sediments in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyatumanond, Ruchaya; Wattayakorn, Gullaya; Togo, Ayako; Takada, Hideshige

    2006-08-01

    To assess the status of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in coastal and riverine environments in Thailand, we collected 42 surface sediment samples from canals, a river, an estuary, and coastal areas in Thailand in 2003 and analyzed them for PAHs with 3-7 benzene rings by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total concentration of PAHs ranged from 6 to 8399 ng/g dry weight. The average total PAH concentrations were 2290+/-2556 ng/g dry weight (n=8) in canals, 263+/-174 (n=11) in the river, 179+/-222 (n=9) in the estuary, and 50+/-56 (n=14) in coastal areas. Comparison of the concentration range with a worldwide survey of sedimentary PAH concentrations ranked PAH contamination in Thai sediments as low to moderate. The ratio of the sum of methylphenanthrenes to phenanthrene (MP/P ratio) allows discrimination of PAH sources between petrogenic (>2) and pyrogenic (Chao Phraya River. These pyrogenic PAHs may be atmospherically transported throughout the nation. Middle and lower reaches of the Chao Phraya River, the river mouth, and the upper Gulf of Thailand showed intermediate concentrations and profiles of PAHs, indicating mixtures of petrogenic and pyrogenic origins. Perylene was abundant in sediments, representing up to approximately 60% of total identified PAHs. High inputs of soil due to frequent heavy rains could contribute to the high perylene abundance in the sediments. Sedimentary PAH concentrations decreased offshore with a half distance of approximately 10 km in the upper Gulf off the mouth of the Chao Phraya River. This is probably due to active deposition of laterally transported riverborne particles.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban street dust and surface soil: comparisons of concentration, profile, and source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-Gao; Yang, Meng; Jia, Hong-Liang; Zhou, Lei; Li, Yi-Fan

    2009-02-01

    Street dust and surface soil samples in urban areas of Dalian, a coastal city in Liaoning Province, China, were collected and analyzed for 25 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The concentrations, distribution, and sources of PAHs in dust and soil were determined. The concentrations of total PAHs in street dust ranged between 1890 and 17,070 ng/g (dry weight), with an average of 7460 ng/g, whereas the concentrations of total PAHs in surface soil varied greatly, from 650 to 28,900 ng/g, with a mean value of 6440 ng/g. Statistical paired t-test confirmed that total PAH concentrations have no significant difference between street dust and surface soil. Mean PAH concentrations in two type samples were much higher at industrial sites than at business/residential or garden sites. PAHs were dominated by higher molecular weight PAH (4- to 6-ring) homologues, which accounted for about 73% and 72% of total PAHs in street dust and surface soil, respectively. Principal component analysis was used in source apportionment of PAHs in dust and soil. Pyrogenic and petrogenic sources contributed 70% and 22.4% of total PAHs in street dusts, and fossil fuel (coal and petroleum) and biomass combustion accounted for 64.4% and 5.6% of total PAHs in pyrogenic sources, respectively. In surface soil, total PAHs were dominated by pyrogenic sources. The diagnostic ratios of benz[a]anthracene/chrysene confirmed that PAHs in street dust and surface soil of a Dalian urban zone might come mostly from the emission of local sources.

  12. Intralaboratory validation of kinetic chromogenic Limulus amebocyte lysate assay for bacterial endotoxin determination in anti-bothropic serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingola, Fernando F; Albertino, Sheila R G; Abrantes, Shirley de M P; Zamith, Helena P S

    2013-11-01

    Over the years, substituting in vitro biological methods for in vivo tests has posed an ever increasing challenge for researchers, including those who study the applications for snake antivenom. In the quality control of antivenons, the only official test recommended by pharmacopoeias for detecting pyrogenicity is the rabbit pyrogen test. In the present study, we propose intralaboratory validation of a method to replace the rabbit pyrogen test: in vitro determination of bacterial endotoxin in anti-bothropic serum (ABS) with quantitative kinetic chromogenic limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. The kinetic chromogenic LAL assay is specific to the detection of gram-negative bacterial endotoxin. The validation of the test involved the determination of performance parameters required by the Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária Brasileira (ANVISA, the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency), the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 35. In all experiments, the correlation coefficient of the curve obtained with the control standard endotoxin (CSE; Escherichia coli 055:B5 strain, range, 0.005-50 EU/mL) was between -0.998 and -1.000; and the recovery of endotoxin added to the sample of ABS (0.5 EU/mL) at the working dilution (1:10) followed the recuperation criteria (i.e., 50-200%). We performed six determinations, in each of which the coefficient of variation for the intermediate precision was between 5.6% and 13.8% (below the 15% threshold) and the accuracy was between 90.7% and 114.3% (within the acceptable range of 80-120%). The endotoxin concentration limit for the ABS was determined to be ≤ 2.9 EU/mL. The intralaboratory validation of the methodology was considered to have been successful because it met the criteria for all of the performance parameters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Fever's glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, P A; Boulant, J A

    1996-03-01

    The importance of an upper limit of the febrile response has been recognized since the time of Hippocrates. Although the precise temperature defining this limit varies according to the site at which body temperature is measured, human core temperature is almost never permitted to rise above 41 degrees C-42 degrees C during fever. There are compelling physiological reasons for such an upper limit of regulated body temperature. The mechanisms by which the limit is maintained are most likely complex and involve special properties of thermoregulatory neurons themselves, circulating endogenous antipyretics (such as arginine vasopressin and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone), and soluble receptors for the (pyrogenic) cytokine mediators of the febrile response.

  14. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infections in Denmark during 2003 and 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luca-Harari, B.; Linden, M. van der; Staum-Kattoft, M.

    2008-01-01

    being higher in patients more than 70 years of age (36.5%). For streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) and necrotizing fasciitis the CFRs were 53% and 25%, respectively. Out of 16 T types recorded, three predominated: T28 (23%), T1 (22%), and the cluster T3/13/B3264 (14%). Among 21) different emm....... Of nine pyrogenic exotoxin (superantigen) genes examined, speA and speC were identified in 58% and 40% of the strains, respectively; either of the genes was present in all strains causing STSS. Most strains harbored speG (99%). ssa was present in 14% of the isolates only. In Denmark, as in comparable...

  15. [Protein toxins of Staphylococcus aureus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsutdinov, A F; Tiurin, Iu A

    2014-01-01

    Main scientific-research studies regarding protein bacterial toxins of the most widespread bacteria that belong to Staphylococcus spp. genus and in particular the most pathogenic species for humans--Staphylococcus aureus, are analyzed. Structural and biological properties of protein toxins that have received the name of staphylococcus pyrogenic toxins (PTSAg) are presented. Data regarding genetic regulation of secretion and synthesis of these toxins and 3 main regulatory genetic systems (agr--accessory gene regulator, xpr--extracellular protein regulator, sar--staphylococcal accessory regulator) that coordinate synthesis of the most important protein toxins and enzymes for virulence of S. aureus, are presented.

  16. PURIFICATION OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY 3H11 AGAINST GASTRIC CANCER FOR IN VIVO USE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhen-fu; ZHANG Hong; NIU Yong-ge

    1999-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody (McAb) 3H11 against gastric cancer was grown in the mouse ascites system. To acquire a clinical grade product for cancer radioimmuno-imaging was purified by two step high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) protocol using protein A and high-performance hydroxylapatite (HPHT). An analysis of data reported shows the two step HPLC method to be the best purification procedure. This protocol satisfies purity and immunoreactivity requirement, and provides an sample sterility,free-pyrogens, free-mycoplasma and non-specific IgG contamination. This procedure described was capable of generating large amounts of clinical grade monoclonal antibody.

  17. Fast and simple preparation of 68Ga-citrate for routine clinical PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karin M; Kaufmann, Jens; Mewis, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    cartridge (7.48 ± 1.23%) and in the waste vial (0.47 ± 0.28%). The radiochemical purity of the product determined by instant thin-layer chromatography was greater than 99%. The products have been proven to be sterile and pyrogen-free. Variations were made in several critical synthesis parameters......, and the results are presented herein. By eliminating the use of organic solvents, the previously required quality control testing of the final product by gas chromatography can be abandoned. This novel, high-yielding method allows for a more efficient synthesis of ⁶⁸Ga citrate with both shorter production time...

  18. Fast and simple one-step preparation of Ga-68 citrate for routine clinical PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Svend B.; Nielsen, Karin M.; Mewis, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    , and the rest on the cation exchange cartridge (7.48 +/- 1.23 and in the waste vial (0.47 +/- 0.28. The radiochemical purity of the product determined by instant thin-layer chromatography was greater than 99 The products have been proven to be sterile and pyrogen-free. Variations were made in several critical...... synthesis parameters, and the results are presented herein. By eliminating the use of organic solvents, the previously required quality control testing of the final product by gas chromatography can be abandoned. This novel, high-yielding method allows for a more efficient synthesis of Ga-68 citrate...

  19. Fast and simple preparation of 68Ga-citrate for routine clinical PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karin M; Kaufmann, Jens; Mewis, Dennis

    cartridge (7.48 ± 1.23%) and in the waste vial (0.47 ± 0.28%). The radiochemical purity of the product determined by instant thin-layer chromatography was greater than 99%. The products have been proven to be sterile and pyrogen-free. Variations were made in several critical synthesis parameters......, and the results are presented herein. By eliminating the use of organic solvents, the previously required quality control testing of the final product by gas chromatography can be abandoned. This novel, high-yielding method allows for a more efficient synthesis of ⁶⁸Ga citrate with both shorter production time...

  20. Basics of sterile compounding: bubble point testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Compounding pharmacies that compound sterile preparations must choose sterile filters that are approved for human use. They may rely on the filter manufacturer's Certificate of Quality to ensure the sterile filter is pyrogen free and has been tested for bacterial retention. The Certificate of Quality from the filter manufacturer also contains other useful information about the filter such as: flow rate and maximum pressure drop, thermal and hydraulic stress, and membrane results of the initial integrity test performed on the filter membrane with water, if a hydrophilic membrane. This article discusses the integrity test, which is often called the water bubble point test.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the coastal water, surface sediment and mullet Liza klunzingeri from northern part of Hormuz strait (Persian Gulf).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Afkhami, Majid; Ehsanpour, Maryam; Kazaali, Aida; Mohammadizadeh, Maria; Haghparast, Sarah; Soltani, Farzaneh; Zanjani, Seyed Asal; Ghorghani, Nasrin Farzaneh; Pourzare, Roya

    2013-11-15

    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in mullet (Liza klunzingeri), water and sediment from northern part of Hormuz strait (Persian Gulf). The concentration levels of total PAHs in L. klunzingeri, water and sediment were 133.99-268.57 ng g(-1)dry weight, 3.12-5.88 ng l(-1) and 42.29-228.9 ng g(-1) dry weight, respectively. Based on isomer ratios, analysis of the PAHs source in the sediment demonstrated that the PAHs come from pyrogenic and petrogenic origin. Risk assessment showed PAHs threshold concentrations to occasionally be exceeded in the study area.

  2. Index to FAA Office of Aerospace Medicine Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    pyrogen-induced hyperpyrexia in man. 64-9 Freud SL: Duration of spiral aftereffect as a function of retinal size, retinal place, and hemiretinal transfer...AD618588 64-10 Freud SL: Duration as a measure of the spiral aftereffect. AD618589 64-11 Pinkerson AL, Kot PA, Knowlan DM: Effect of glyceryl...mate- rial. II. AD456670 64-17 Freud SL: The physiological locus of the spiral aftereffect. AD611881 64-18 Melton CE Jr: Physiological recordings from

  3. Automated synthesis of 18F analogue of paclitaxel (PAC): [18F]Paclitaxel (FPAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalen, Joseph D; Hirsch, Jerry I; Kurdziel, Karen A; Eckelman, William C; Kiesewetter, Dale O

    2007-06-01

    A positron-emitting paclitaxel (PAC) derivative could allow in vivo measurement of multidrug resistance in tumors and, therefore, predict a potential chemotherapeutic benefit to patients. [18F]Paclitaxel was produced using a 2-reaction vessel automated synthesizer followed by HPLC purification. Optimized reaction conditions resulted in radiochemical yields of 21.2+/-9.6% at end of bombardment, radiochemical purity >99%, and specific activity of 159+/-43 G Bq/micromol. [18F]Paclitaxel activities of 1.33+/-0.729 G Bq (n=7) were obtained in sterile, pyrogen-free solution for IV administration.

  4. Automated synthesis of {sup 18}F analogue of paclitaxel (PAC): [{sup 18}F]Paclitaxel (FPAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalen, Joseph D. [Molecular Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)]. E-mail: jdkalen@vcu.edu; Hirsch, Jerry I. [Molecular Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Kurdziel, Karen A. [Molecular Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Eckelman, William C. [Molecular Tracer, LLC, Bethesda, MD (United States); Kiesewetter, Dale O. [Positron Emission Tomography Radiochemistry Group, NIBIB, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2007-06-15

    A positron-emitting paclitaxel (PAC) derivative could allow in vivo measurement of multidrug resistance in tumors and, therefore, predict a potential chemotherapeutic benefit to patients. [{sup 18}F]Paclitaxel was produced using a 2-reaction vessel automated synthesizer followed by HPLC purification. Optimized reaction conditions resulted in radiochemical yields of 21.2+/-9.6% at end of bombardment, radiochemical purity >99%, and specific activity of 159+/-43GBq/{mu}mol. [{sup 18}F]Paclitaxel activities of 1.33+/-0.729GBq (n=7) were obtained in sterile, pyrogen-free solution for IV administration.

  5. 99mTc-ciprofloxacin for diagnosis of bacterial infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aungurarat, A.; Ngamprayad, T.; Dangprasert, M.; Phumkem, S.; Jowanaridhi, B.

    2015-05-01

    Preparation of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin for diagnosis of bacterial infection was investigated by varying factors which affected this compound. The optimum conditions for preparation of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin and a lyophilized kit for Tc-99m labelling were studied. The results from biodistribution study showed that the percentages of the injected dose per gram tissues of infected area at 1 and 3 hours after injection were around 0.25-0.56. 99mTc-ciprofloxacin was found sterile, pyrogen-free and non-toxic. Radiochemical purity was greater than 90% with greater than 6 hours of stability.

  6. 利用基因敲除小鼠研究发热机制的进展%Progress in studying the mechanism of fever using knockout mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李沧海; 霍海如; 姜廷良

    2002-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that a complex net-work of fever induction pathways in mammalian exists.In this article,the overview of recent studies on the mechanism of fever induced by different pyrogens using IL-1,IL-1R,ICE,IL-1ra,IL-1RacP,IL-6,IL-10,TNFR,cPLA2,COX,EP,AT2,iNOS and D2/3 knockout mice is presented.Hyperthermia respond to localized infection/inflammation(e.g.,scinjection of turpentine) is mediated by IL-1β and IL-6 in turn.While fever induced by systemic infection/inflammation(e.g.,treatment with LPS intraperitoneally)varies with the different doses of pyrogens administered.Fever caused by a low dose of LPS administered ip is IL-6 dependent,but the IL-6 independent pathway is crucial for the fever evoked by a high dose of LPS.Febrile responses during both local and systemic infection/inflammation develop totally through central PGE2 dependent mechanism,but some stress induced hyperthermia otherwise.

  7. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of lyophilized bovine bone biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Galia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The use of bone grafts in orthopedic, maxillofacial and dental surgery has been growing. Nevertheless, both fresh autografts and frozen allografts have limitations, and therefore, alternative synthetic or natural biomaterials, such as processed and lyophilized bovine bone graft have been developed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of lyophilized bovine bone manufactured in a semi-industrial scale, according to a modifical protocol developed by the authors. METHODS: Samples of bovine cancellous bone were processed according to a protocol developed by Kakiuchi et al., and modified to process samples of bovine cancellous bone. The following trials were performed: in vitro cytotoxicity, in vivo acute systemic toxicity, in vivo oral irritation potential, in vitro pyrogenic reaction, and bioburden. RESULTS: The in vitro evaluation of lyophilized bovine cancellous bone revealed an absence of cytotoxicity in 100% of the samples. Regarding in vivo evaluation of acute systemic toxicity, neither macroscopic abnormalities nor deaths were noted in the animals. Pyrogenicity was not greater than 0.125 UE/ml in any of the samples. The bioburden revealed negative results for microbial growth before sterilization. Regarding the oral irritation potential, in vivo evaluation at 24 and 72 hours showed that the animals had no edema or erythema on the oral mucosa. CONCLUSION: The protocol changes established by the authors to prepare lyophilized bovine cancellous bone at a semi-industrial scale is reproducible and yielded a product with excellent biocompatibility.

  8. Development of a recombinant fusion protein vaccine formulation to protect against Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morefield, Garry; Touhey, Graham; Lu, Fangjia; Dunham, Anisa; HogenEsch, Harm

    2014-06-24

    Diseases resulting from infection by group A streptococcus (GAS) are an increasing burden on global health. A novel vaccine was developed targeting infection by Streptococcus pyogenes. The vaccine incorporates a recombinant fusion protein antigen (SpeAB) which was engineered by combining inactive mutant forms of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA) and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB) from S. pyogenes. A rational, scientific approach to vaccine development was utilized to determine optimal formulation conditions with aluminum adjuvants. Investigations of the pH stability profile of SpeAB concluded the antigen was most stable near pH 8. Incorporation of the stabilizers sucrose and mannitol significantly enhanced the stability of the antigen. Vaccines were formulated in which most of the SpeAB was adsorbed to the adjuvant or remained in solution. A SpeAB vaccine formulation, stabilized with sucrose, in which the antigen remains adsorbed to the aluminum adjuvant retained the greatest potency as determined by evaluation of neutralizing antibody responses in mice. This vaccine has great potential to provide a safe and effective method for prevention of GAS disease.

  9. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and n-alkanes in Suspended Particulate Matter and Sediments from the Langat River, Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Riyahi Bakhtiari

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Langat River basin has seen rapid developments in industrialization, urbanization and dramatic population increases during the past two decades. The composition and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and aliphatic hydrocarbon (n-alkanes concentrations were determined in surface sediments (SS and suspended particulate matter (SPM collected from six locations in the Langat River. The total n-alkanes concentrations (∑HC ranged from 5900 to 23000 µg/g in SPM and 1700 to 8600 µg/g in SS samples. Total PAHs concentrations varied from 306 to 7968 ng/g in SPM and 558 to 980 ng/g in SS. PAHs and n-alkanes were dominated by higher molecular weight compounds in SS and low-medium molecular weight compounds in SPM. Carbon preference index (CPI values for n-alkanes in ranges C 25-33, C 15-35 and C 25-35 varied from 0.95 to 2.49 in SS and close to unity in SPM. The CPIs values indicated multiple n-alkanes sources (petrogenic and natural. PAHs isomer pairs ratios indicated multiple (petrogenic and pyrogenic with predominance of pyrogenic PAH sources. Analysis of the possible source of PAHs and n-alkanes indicated a complicated, combined PAHs and n-alkanes source in the Langat River.

  10. Leptospira-rat-human relationship in Luzon, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Sharon Yvette Angelina M; Saito, Mitsumasa; Baterna, Rubelia A; Estrada, Crystal Amiel M; Rivera, Ana Kriselda B; Dato, Micaella C; Zamora, Pia Regina Fatima C; Segawa, Takaya; Cavinta, Lolita L; Fukui, Takashi; Masuzawa, Toshiyuki; Yanagihara, Yasutake; Gloriani, Nina G; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2014-11-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection that is caused by the pathogenic species of Leptospira. Rats are the most important reservoirs of these organisms. Our study aimed to characterize Leptospira isolates from humans and rats and elucidate the Leptospira-rat-human relationship in Luzon, Philippines. Forty strains were isolated from humans and rats. The isolates were confirmed to be Leptospira and pathogenic through rrl- and flaB-PCR, respectively. Around 73% of the isolates were found to be lethal to hamsters. Serotyping showed that there were mainly three predominant leptospiral serogroups in the study areas namely Pyrogenes, Bataviae, and Grippotyphosa. Gyrase B gene sequence analysis showed that all the isolates belonged to Leptospira interrogans. Most had 100% similarity with serovar Manilae (15/40), serovar Losbanos (8/40), and serogroup Grippotyphosa (8/40). Strains from each group had highly identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and were further grouped as A (Pyrogenes, 14), B (Bataviae, 8), and C (Grippotyphosa, 10). Results further revealed that similar serotypes were isolated from both humans and rats in the same areas. It is suggested that these three predominant groups with highly similar intra-group PFGE patterns may have been primarily transmitted by rats and persistently caused leptospirosis in humans particularly in the Luzon islands.

  11. Extremely slowly desorbing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soot and soot-like materials: evidence by supercritical fluid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Michiel T O; Hawthorne, Steven B; Koelmans, Albert A

    2005-10-15

    Combustion-derived PAHs are strongly sorbed to their particulate carrier (i.e., soot, charcoal), and therefore, very slow desorption kinetics of the chemicals might be anticipated. Measurements are however lacking, because conventional methods (Tenax, XAD, gas-purging) fail to accurately determine desorption kinetics due to practical problems. In this study, we used a mild supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method, which mimics desorption into water and circumvents these problems, to quantify desorption kinetics of 13 native PAHs from pure charcoal, coal, and four types of soot. The results show that generally only very small PAH fractions are released. Desorption behavior was, however, not related to common sorbent/sorbate characteristics. Two-site model-derived "fast desorbing fractions" were water measured from 10(-7) to 10(-5) h(-1). These data suggest that desorption of coal and combustion-derived PAHs can be even slower than the "very slow" desorption observed in sediments. Estimated time scales required for removal of pyrogenic PAHs from these extremely slow sites into water amount to several millennia. Our results imply reduced chemical risks for soot and soot-like materials, casting doubts on current risk assessment procedures and environmental quality standards of pyrogenic PAHs.

  12. [Problems in microbial safety of advanced therapy medicinal products. Squaring the circle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag-Lessing, T; Störmer, M; Schurig, U; Brachert, J; Bubenzer, M; Sicker, U; Beshir, R; Spreitzer, I; Löschner, B; Bache, C; Becker, B; Schneider, C K

    2010-01-01

    Today, sterility of parenteral drugs is practically guaranteed. Well-defined procedures in the pharmaceutical industry enable effective protection against contamination by bacteria and fungi. In contrast, problems regarding microbial safety of advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs), especially of cell therapeutics, are at best only partially solved. The latter should be understood as a challenge for manufacturers, regulators, and physicians. Many of the manufacturing principles mentioned above are not applicable in production of cell therapeutics. Sterility of source materials cannot be guaranteed and the hitherto known procedures for sterilization are, as a rule, not feasible. Thus, the sterility of the final product cannot be guaranteed. Considering the extremely short shelf life of many cell therapeutics, sometimes only a few hours, the results from established methods for sterility testing are often available too late. Furthermore, the sterility of a test sample does not indicate sterility of the whole product. In most cases, conventional methods for pyrogen testing are not applicable for ATMPs. This paper demonstrates relevant limitations regarding microbial safety and pyrogenicity. Possibilities to overcome these problems are discussed and some novel solutions are proposed.

  13. Tracking the Hercules 265 marine gas well blowout in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Isabel C.; Özgökmen, Tamay; Snyder, Susan; Schwing, Patrick; O'Malley, Bryan J.; Beron-Vera, Francisco J.; Olascoaga, Maria J.; Zhu, Ping; Ryan, Edward; Chen, Shuyi S.; Wetzel, Dana L.; Hollander, David; Murawski, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    On 23 July 2013, a marine gas rig (Hercules 265) ignited in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The rig burned out of control for 2 days before being extinguished. We conducted a rapid-response sampling campaign near Hercules 265 after the fire to ascertain if sediments and fishes were polluted above earlier baseline levels. A surface drifter study confirmed that surface ocean water flowed to the southeast of the Hercules site, while the atmospheric plume generated by the blowout was in eastward direction. Sediment cores were collected to the SE of the rig at a distance of ˜0.2, 8, and 18 km using a multicorer, and demersal fishes were collected from ˜0.2 to 8 km SE of the rig using a longline (508 hooks). Recently deposited sediments document that only high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations decreased with increasing distance from the rig suggesting higher pyrogenic inputs associated with the blowout. A similar trend was observed in the foraminifera Haynesina germanica, an indicator species of pollution. In red snapper bile, only HMW PAH metabolites increased in 2013 nearly double those from 2012. Both surface sediments and fish bile analyses suggest that, in the aftermath of the blowout, increased concentration of pyrogenically derived hydrocarbons was transported and deposited in the environment. This study further emphasizes the need for an ocean observing system and coordinated rapid-response efforts from an array of scientific disciplines to effectively assess environmental impacts resulting from accidental releases of oil contaminants.

  14. Organic persistent toxic substances in soils, waters and sediments along an altitudinal gradient at Mt. Sagarmatha, Himalayas, Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzzella, Licia, E-mail: guzzella@irsa.cnr.it [IRSA-CNR, via del Mulino 19, 20047 Brugherio (Italy); Poma, Giulia; De Paolis, Adolfo; Roscioli, Claudio; Viviano, Gaetano [IRSA-CNR, via del Mulino 19, 20047 Brugherio (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are important classes of compounds of serious environmental concern. These compounds were measured in waters, sediments and soils from several high altitude sites in the Sagarmatha National Park (Nepal) and included in the Himalayan ridge. In water samples, low-level substituted PCBs and PBDEs, along with more volatile PAHs, were the most common contaminants. In sediment and soil samples, the PCB profile was mainly composed of medium-level chlorinated congeners and significantly correlated with altitude. The PAH profile for water and soil samples showed the main contribution of pyrogenic PAHs due to emissions of solid combustion, whereas the profile for sediments indicated the main contribution of pyrogenic PAHs from gasoline emissions. The PAH levels measured in Himalayan samples must be considered as low to medium contaminated, whereas the regarded Himalayan stations can be considered undisturbed remote areas concerning PCB, PBDE and OC compounds. - Highlights: > POPs were measured in environmental samples from remote lakes in the Himalaya ridge. > It was confirmed the hypothesis of Long-Range Atmospheric Transport for lighter POPs. > PAH levels in Himalayan samples must be considered as low to medium contaminated. > The stations can be considered undisturbed remote areas concerning PCB, PBDE and OCC. - Organic PTSs in environmental matrices in remote regions of the Himalayan ridge.

  15. Monitoring chronic and acute PAH atmospheric pollution using transplants of the moss Hypnum cupressiforme and Robinia pseudacacia leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, F.; Di Palma, A.; Adamo, P.; Spagnuolo, V.; Giordano, S.

    2017-02-01

    Few studies are focused on correlations between the concentrations of PAHs in mosses and other bioindicator plant species. This study was carried out to investigate the potential of the joint use of devitalized H. cupressiforme transplants and R. pseudoacacia leaves as cost effective biomonitors for the assessment of PAHs in the air. The test was performed in a land historically devoted to agriculture, where recurrent waste burnings randomly occur, especially in the season we chose for the investigation. The presence of 20 PAHs was assessed following EPA 3550 C 2007 and EPA 8270 D 2014 protocols. R. pseudoacacia was able to accumulate both LMW and HMW PAHs, while moss prevalently collected the latter. It is suggested that R. pseudoacacia combined chronic pyrogenic and petrogenic PAH inputs, while moss transplants reflected PAH depositions from recent pyrogenic events. Our approach revealed long and short-term pollution footprints, with R. pseudoacacia recording the chronic input of PAH compounds loaded along its vegetative growth, and moss bags reflecting acute pollution inputs occurred during the exposure duration.

  16. Carbon sequestration and fertility after centennial time scale incorporation of charcoal into soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Criscuoli

    Full Text Available The addition of pyrogenic carbon (C in the soil is considered a potential strategy to achieve direct C sequestration and potential reduction of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we investigated the long term effects of charcoal addition on C sequestration and soil physico-chemical properties by studying a series of abandoned charcoal hearths in the Eastern Alps of Italy established in the XIX century. This natural setting can be seen as an analogue of a deliberate experiment with replications. Carbon sequestration was assessed indirectly by comparing the amount of pyrogenic C present in the hearths (23.3±4.7 kg C m(-2 with the estimated amount of charcoal that was left on the soil after the carbonization (29.3±5.1 kg C m(-2. After taking into account uncertainty associated with parameters' estimation, we were able to conclude that 80±21% of the C originally added to the soil via charcoal can still be found there and that charcoal has an overall Mean Residence Time of 650±139 years, thus supporting the view that charcoal incorporation is an effective way to sequester atmospheric CO2. We also observed an overall change in the physical properties (hydrophobicity and bulk density of charcoal hearth soils and an accumulation of nutrients compared to the adjacent soil without charcoal. We caution, however, that our site-specific results should not be generalized without further study.

  17. Improved immunogenicity of tetanus toxoid by Brucella abortus S19 LPS adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohsen; Kianmehr, Zahra; Kaboudanian Ardestani, Sussan; Gharegozlou, Behnaz

    2014-09-01

    Adjuvants are used to increase the immunogenicity of new generation vaccines, especially those based on recombinant proteins. Despite immunostimulatory properties, the use of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as an adjuvant has been hampered due to its toxicity and pyrogenicity. Brucella abortus LPS is less toxic and has no pyrogenic properties compared to LPS from other gram negative bacteria. To evaluate the adjuvant effect of B. abortus (vaccine strain, S19) LPS for tetanus toxoid antigen (TT) and to investigate the protective effect of different tetanus vaccine preparations. LPS was extracted and purified from B. abortus S19 and KDO, glycan, phosphate content, and protein contamination were measured. Adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) was used as a linker for conjugation of TT to LPS. Different amounts of B. abortus LPS, TT, TT conjugated with LPS, and TT mixed with LPS or complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) were injected into mice and antibody production against TT was measured. The protective effect of induced antibodies was determined by LD50. Immunization of mice with TT+LPS produced the highest anti-TT antibody titer in comparison to the group immunized with TT without any adjuvant or the groups immunized with TT-LPS or TT+CFA. Tetanus toxid-S19 LPS also produced a 100% protective effect against TT in immunized mice. These data indicate that B. abortus LPS enhances the immune responses to TT and suggest the possible use of B. abortus LPS as an adjuvant in vaccine preparations.

  18. Perfil dos cães sororreagentes para aglutininas anti-Leptospira interrogans em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, 2001/2002 Serological profile of seropositive dogs to anti-Leptospira interrogans agglutinins in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 2001-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Magalhães

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The serological profile of seropositive dogs according to anti-Leptospira agglutinins was checked in Belo Horizonte including variables such as race, sex, age and whether the dog had an owner or not. The dogs were captured by the Zoonosis Control Center in nine neighborhoods around the city and were separated in two categories - with owners or captured on the streets. The prevalence of anti-Leptospira agglutinins was evaluated in 3,417 blood samples using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT from September 2001 to September 2002. It was found that 13.1% of the dogs had seropositive results with the most reactive serovars being Canicola (7.0%, Ballum (6.1%, Pyrogenes (3.2% and Icterohaemorrhagiae (2.9%. The prevalence of other serovars was less than 1.0%. Greater prevalence was found in male, crossbred dogs, without owners. There were no significant results due to age in 95% (P=0.808 of the cases. According to the results, more research should be done in order to isolate and classify the serovars in positive dogs, especially Ballum and Pyrogenes, which will suggest their inclusion in the commercial vaccines against leptospira used in dogs in this city.

  19. Microbiological quality and quality control of purified water and ultrapure dialysis fluids for online hemodiafiltration in routine clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penne, E Lars; Visser, Linda; van den Dorpel, Marinus A; van der Weerd, Neelke C; Mazairac, Albert H A; van Jaarsveld, Brigit C; Koopman, Marion G; Vos, Pieter; Feith, Geert W; Kremer Hovinga, Ton K; van Hamersvelt, Henk W; Wauters, Inge M; Bots, Michiel L; Nubé, Menso J; Ter Wee, Piet M; Blankestijn, Peter J; Grooteman, Muriel P C

    2009-09-01

    During online hemodiafiltration, patients are directly infused with sterile substitution solutions to maintain fluid balance. Adequate water treatment and a well-organized quality control process are essential to provide non-pyrogenic fluids with consistent optimal quality. We sought to assess water quality, the water treatment system, and the methods for surveillance of microbiological water quality in 10 Dutch dialysis centers that routinely treat patients with hemodiafiltration. Microbiological monitoring results (micro-organisms and endotoxins) were collected over a 1-year period representing 11,258 hemodiafiltration sessions covering 97 patients. In all centers, water purification was based on a reverse osmosis module in combination with a second reverse osmosis and/or an electrodeionizer. All centers regularly and routinely monitored the microbiological purity of the dialysis water with adequate analytical methods but with variable monitoring frequency. Microbiological assessments were compliant with reference quality levels in 3923 of 3961 samples. Our study suggests that non-pyrogenic substitution fluids can be produced online for a prolonged period of time. It is likely that the current Dutch Quality of Care Guideline has contributed to high-quality water treatment and a well-organized control process.

  20. Carbon sequestration and fertility after centennial time scale incorporation of charcoal into soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscuoli, Irene; Alberti, Giorgio; Baronti, Silvia; Favilli, Filippo; Martinez, Cristina; Calzolari, Costanza; Pusceddu, Emanuela; Rumpel, Cornelia; Viola, Roberto; Miglietta, Franco

    2014-01-01

    The addition of pyrogenic carbon (C) in the soil is considered a potential strategy to achieve direct C sequestration and potential reduction of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we investigated the long term effects of charcoal addition on C sequestration and soil physico-chemical properties by studying a series of abandoned charcoal hearths in the Eastern Alps of Italy established in the XIX century. This natural setting can be seen as an analogue of a deliberate experiment with replications. Carbon sequestration was assessed indirectly by comparing the amount of pyrogenic C present in the hearths (23.3±4.7 kg C m(-2)) with the estimated amount of charcoal that was left on the soil after the carbonization (29.3±5.1 kg C m(-2)). After taking into account uncertainty associated with parameters' estimation, we were able to conclude that 80±21% of the C originally added to the soil via charcoal can still be found there and that charcoal has an overall Mean Residence Time of 650±139 years, thus supporting the view that charcoal incorporation is an effective way to sequester atmospheric CO2. We also observed an overall change in the physical properties (hydrophobicity and bulk density) of charcoal hearth soils and an accumulation of nutrients compared to the adjacent soil without charcoal. We caution, however, that our site-specific results should not be generalized without further study.

  1. Methylated and unsubstituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in street dust from Vietnam and India: occurrence, distribution and in vitro toxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyen, Le Huu; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Takahashi, Shin; Suzuki, Go; Viet, Pham Hung; Subramanian, Annamalai; Bulbule, Kesav A; Parthasarathy, Peethambaram; Ramanathan, Alagappan; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-11-01

    Methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MePAHs), unsubstituted PAHs and AhR-mediated activities were determined in street dust collected from Vietnam and India using a combined approach of chemical analysis and in vitro reporter gene assay. MePAHs and PAHs diagnostic ratios indicated that the main sources of MePAHs in Vietnam were pyrogenic emissions, whereas in India there were mixed sources of pyrogenic and petrogenic emissions. AhR-mediated activities determined by using DR-CALUX assay were observed in urban street dust at mean 40, 29 and 20 ng CALUX-TEQ/g dw for Hanoi, Bangalore and New Delhi, respectively. MePAHs and PAHs contributed only 5% or less to AhR-mediated activity in street dust, indicating the occurrence of unknown AhR agonists. The principal contributors to Theoretical-TEQs among target compounds were methyl benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]- and benzo[k]fluoranthene. The present study indicates importance of MePAHs in evaluation of toxic risk related to AhR-mediated activity in urban polluted areas.

  2. In-canopy gradients, composition, and sources of optically active aerosols over the Amazon forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, P.; Graham, B.; Roberts, G. C.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.; Maenhaut, W.

    2003-04-01

    As part of the European contribution to the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA-EUSTACH), size-fractionated aerosol samples were collected at a primary rainforest site in the Brazilian Amazon during the wet and dry seasons. Daytime-nighttime segregated sampling was carried out at three different heights (above, within and below canopy level) on a 54 m meteorological tower. The samples were analyzed for up to 19 trace elements, equivalent black carbon (BCe) and mass concentrations. Additionally, measurements of scattering and absorption coefficients were performed. Absolute principal component analysis revealed that the wet and dry season aerosols contained the same three main aerosol components, namely a natural biogenic, a pyrogenic, and a soil dust component, but that these were present in different (absolute and relative) amounts. The elements related to biomass burning and soil dust generally exhibited highest concentrations above the canopy and during daytime, whilst forest-derived aerosol was more concentrated underneath the canopy and during nighttime. These variations can be largely attributed to daytime convective mixing and the formation of a shallow nocturnal boundary layer, along with the possibility of enhanced nighttime release of biogenic aerosol particles. All three components contributed significantly to light extinction, suggesting that, in addition to pyrogenic particles, biogenic and soil dust aerosols must be taken into account when modeling the physical and optical properties of aerosols in forested regions such the Amazon Basin.

  3. Production and physico-chemical characterisation of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze Isfort, C; Rochnia, M

    2009-05-08

    Synthetic nanoscaled metal oxides are mainly produced by pyrogenic decomposition of precursors in the gas phase using a hot-wall or plasma reactor. Due to their low production rate and limited scalability, these processes are of minor technical relevance in manufacturing commercial quantities of nanoparticles. The most common and by far the most important industrial process is flame hydrolysis. In this process, a gaseous mixture of a metal chloride precursor, hydrogen and air is introduced in a closed and continuously operated flame reactor. The general mechanism of formation and growth of particles (e.g. silica) occurring in the flame is dominated by nucleation, coalescence (sintering) and coagulation (collision) of primary particles forming aggregated structures. The term 'aggregate' describes clusters of particles held together by strong chemical bonds. Agglomerates, however, are defined as loose accumulations of particles held together by hydrogen bonds for example. Although, a variety of physico-chemical methods exist to characterise pyrogenic oxides, the most important ones are analysis of the specific surface area by the so-called BET method, determination of the aggregate size by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and characterisation of the phase composition by means of X-ray analysis.

  4. Isolation and characterization of new Leptospira genotypes from patients in Mayotte (Indian Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Bourhy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis has been implicated as a severe and fatal form of disease in Mayotte, a French-administrated territory located in the Comoros archipelago (southwestern Indian Ocean. To date, Leptospira isolates have never been isolated in this endemic region. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Leptospires were isolated from blood samples from 22 patients with febrile illness during a 17-month period after a PCR-based screening test was positive. Strains were typed using hyper-immune antisera raised against the major Leptospira serogroups: 20 of 22 clinical isolates were assigned to serogroup Mini; the other two strains belonged to serogroups Grippotyphosa and Pyrogenes, respectively. These isolates were further characterized using partial sequencing of 16S rRNA and ligB gene, Multi Locus VNTR Analysis (MLVA, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Of the 22 isolates, 14 were L. borgpetersenii strains, 7 L. kirschneri strains, and 1, belonging to serogoup Pyrogenes, was L. interrogans. Results of the genotyping methods were consistent. MLVA defined five genotypes, whereas PFGE allowed the recognition of additional subgroups within the genotypes. PFGE fingerprint patterns of clinical strains did not match any of the patterns in the reference strains belonging to the same serogroup, suggesting that the strains were novel serovars. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary PCR screening of blood specimen allowed a high isolation frequency of leptospires among patients with febrile illness. Typing of leptospiral isolates showed that causative agents of leptospirosis in Mayotte have unique molecular features.

  5. Polynuclear aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons in mussels from the coastal zone of Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Oscar A; Comoglio, Laura I; Sericano, José L

    2011-03-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis chilensis) were collected from 12 coastal locations in Ushuaia Bay, Argentina, and the surrounding area in October 1999 and again in October 2003. Concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and selected chlorinated pesticides were determined to assess the impact of a fast-growing population in the area. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 2.24 to an extremely high concentration of 2,420 µg/g lipid measured in mussels collected near an oil jetty used to discharge to shore storage tanks. The composition of PAHs in these samples indicates that the source of these compounds inside Ushuaia Bay is predominantly petrogenic, with some pyrogenic background, whereas mostly pyrogenic-related PAHs were evident in areas outside the bay. Total concentrations of PCBs ranged between 12.8 and 8,210 ng/g lipid, with the highest concentration, detected inside Ushuaia harbor, representing a 10-fold increase when compared with historical data. Chlorinated pesticides were detected at comparatively lower concentrations, with 4-4'- 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene being the most common. The aggressive increase in population and related activities observed in the city of Ushuaia over the last two decades might have affected the environmental quality of the local bay. Moreover, the oceanographic and atmospheric conditions existing in Ushuaia Bay and surrounding areas may favor the accumulation and long-term presence of these organic pollutants in all compartments of this fragile environment. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  6. An improved glyoxal retrieval from OMI measurements

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    L. M. A. Alvarado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Satellite observations from the SCIAMACHY, GOME-2, and OMI spectrometers have been used to retrieve atmospheric columns of glyoxal (CHOCHO with the DOAS method. High CHOCHO levels are found over regions with large biogenic and pyrogenic emissions, and hot-spots have been identified over areas of anthropogenic activities. This study focuses on the development of an improved retrieval for CHOCHO from measurements by the OMI instrument. From sensitivity tests, an optimal fitting window and polynomial degree are determined. Two different approaches to reduce the interference of liquid water absorption over oceanic regions are evaluated, achieving significant reduction of negative columns over clear water regions. Moreover, a high temperature absorption cross-section of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 is introduced in the DOAS retrieval to account for potential interferences of NO2 over regions with large anthropogenic emissions, leading to improved fit quality over these areas. A comparison with vertical CHOCHO columns retrieved from measurements of the GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY instruments over continental regions is performed, showing overall good consistency. Using the new OMI CHOCHO data set, the link between fires and glyoxal columns is investigated for two selected regions in Africa. In addition, mapped averages are computed for a fire event in the east of Moscow between mid-July and mid-August 2010. In both cases, enhanced CHOCHO levels are found in close spatial and temporal proximity to MODIS fire radiative power, demonstrating that pyrogenic emissions can be clearly identified in the OMI CHOCHO product.

  7. Anti-snake venom: use and adverse reaction in a snake bite study clinic in Bangladesh

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    MR Amin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Snakebites can present local or systemic envenomation, while neurotoxicity and respiratory paralysis are the main cause of death. The mainstay of management is anti-snake venom (ASV, which is highly effective, but liable to cause severe adverse reactions including anaphylaxis. The types of adverse reaction to polyvalent anti-snake venom have not been previously studied in Bangladesh. In this prospective observational study carried out between 1999 and 2001, in the Snake Bite Study Clinic of Chittagong Medical College Hospital, 35 neurotoxic-snake-bite patients who had received polyvalent anti-snake venom were included while the ones sensitized to different antitoxins and suffering from atopy were excluded. The common neurotoxic features were ptosis (100%, external ophthalmoplegia (94.2%, dysphagia (77.1%, dysphonia (68.5% and broken neck sign (80%. The percentage of anti-snake venom reaction cases was 88.57%; pyrogenic reaction was 80.64%; and anaphylaxis was 64.51%. The common features of anaphylaxis were urticaria (80%; vomiting and wheezing (40%; and angioedema (10%. The anti-snake venom reaction was treated mainly with adrenaline for anaphylaxis and paracetamol suppository in pyrogenic reactions. The average recovery time was 4.5 hours. Due to the danger of reactions the anti-snake venom should not be withheld from a snakebite victim when indicated and appropriate guidelines should be followed for its administration.

  8. Source characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by using their molecular indices: an overview of possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stogiannidis, Efstathios; Laane, Remi

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades. an exponential increase in the concentration of anthropogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs; see Table I for a li st of PAH abbreviations) has been observed worldwide. Regulators need to know the sources if concentrations are to be reduced and appropriate remediation measures taken. "Source characterization of PAHs" involves linking these contaminants to their sources. Scientists place PAH sources into three classes: pyrogenic, petrogenic. and natural. In this review. we investigate the possibility of using PAH molecular ratios individually or in combination for the purpose of deducing the petrogenic or pyrogenic origin of the contamination in sediments. We do this by reviewing the characteristic PAH patterns of the sources and by taking into account the fate of PAHs in the aquatic environment. Many PAH indicators have been developed for the purpose of discriminating different PAH sources. In Table 4 we summarize the applicability of different PAH ratios and threshold values. The analysis of two- to four-ringed alkylated PAH soilers the possibility to distinguish two or more single sources or categories of pollution in greater detail. For example. the FLO/PYO. the PPI. and PO/AO ratios can be used to discriminate between pyrogenic and petrogcnic sources of contamination. When petrogenic contamination is suspected. chrysenes. PAHs lighter than CO. and in particular. alkylated PAHs can usually be of use. For unburned coal PAHs. The methylphenanthrenic ratios (MP!s). the 1-D I/4- DI. and BbF/BkF are promising, since they are sometimes correlated with vitrinite rellectance (coal ranks). Alkylphenanthrenes can be used to detect biomass combustion. Higher molecular weight parent and alkylated PAHs are appropriate for pyrogenic discriminations. When PAH indices are coupled with discriminant analysis techniques such as PMF (positive matrix factorization),the origin of multiple sources in even the most complex environments can be traced and

  9. Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS) experiment: design, execution and science overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, P. I.; Parrington, M.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Rickard, A. R.; Bernath, P. F.; Duck, T. J.; Waugh, D. L.; Tarasick, D. W.; Andrews, S.; Aruffo, E.; Bailey, L. J.; Barrett, E.; Bauguitte, S. J.-B.; Curry, K. R.; Di Carlo, P.; Chisholm, L.; Dan, L.; Forster, G.; Franklin, J. E.; Gibson, M. D.; Griffin, D.; Helmig, D.; Hopkins, J. R.; Hopper, J. T.; Jenkin, M. E.; Kindred, D.; Kliever, J.; Le Breton, M.; Matthiesen, S.; Maurice, M.; Moller, S.; Moore, D. P.; Oram, D. E.; O'Shea, S. J.; Owen, R. C.; Pagniello, C. M. L. S.; Pawson, S.; Percival, C. J.; Pierce, J. R.; Punjabi, S.; Purvis, R. M.; Remedios, J. J.; Rotermund, K. M.; Sakamoto, K. M.; da Silva, A. M.; Strawbridge, K. B.; Strong, K.; Taylor, J.; Trigwell, R.; Tereszchuk, K. A.; Walker, K. A.; Weaver, D.; Whaley, C.; Young, J. C.

    2013-07-01

    We describe the design and execution of the BORTAS (Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites) experiment, which has the overarching objective of understanding the chemical aging of air masses that contain the emission products from seasonal boreal wildfires and how these air masses subsequently impact downwind atmospheric composition. The central focus of the experiment was a two-week deployment of the UK BAe-146-301 Atmospheric Research Aircraft (ARA) over eastern Canada, based out of Halifax, Nova Scotia. Atmospheric ground-based and sonde measurements over Canada and the Azores associated with the planned July 2010 deployment of the ARA, which was postponed by 12 months due to UK-based flights related to the dispersal of material emitted by the Eyjafjallajökull volcano, went ahead and constituted phase A of the experiment. Phase B of BORTAS in July 2011 involved the same atmospheric measurements, but included the ARA, special satellite observations and a more comprehensive ground-based measurement suite. The high-frequency aircraft data provided a comprehensive chemical snapshot of pyrogenic plumes from wildfires, corresponding to photochemical (and physical) ages ranging from 45 sr 10 days, largely by virtue of widespread fires over Northwestern Ontario. Airborne measurements reported a large number of emitted gases including semi-volatile species, some of which have not been been previously reported in pyrogenic plumes, with the corresponding emission ratios agreeing with previous work for common gases. Analysis of the NOy data shows evidence of net ozone production in pyrogenic plumes, controlled by aerosol abundance, which increases as a function of photochemical age. The coordinated ground-based and sonde data provided detailed but spatially limited information that put the aircraft data into context of the longer burning season in the boundary layer. Ground-based measurements of

  10. Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS experiment: design, execution and science overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. Palmer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe the design and execution of the BORTAS (Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites experiment, which has the overarching objective of understanding the chemical aging of air masses that contain the emission products from seasonal boreal wildfires and how these air masses subsequently impact downwind atmospheric composition. The central focus of the experiment was a two-week deployment of the UK BAe-146-301 Atmospheric Research Aircraft (ARA over eastern Canada, based out of Halifax, Nova Scotia. Atmospheric ground-based and sonde measurements over Canada and the Azores associated with the planned July 2010 deployment of the ARA, which was postponed by 12 months due to UK-based flights related to the dispersal of material emitted by the Eyjafjallajökull volcano, went ahead and constituted phase A of the experiment. Phase B of BORTAS in July 2011 involved the same atmospheric measurements, but included the ARA, special satellite observations and a more comprehensive ground-based measurement suite. The high-frequency aircraft data provided a comprehensive chemical snapshot of pyrogenic plumes from wildfires, corresponding to photochemical (and physical ages ranging from 45 sr 10 days, largely by virtue of widespread fires over Northwestern Ontario. Airborne measurements reported a large number of emitted gases including semi-volatile species, some of which have not been been previously reported in pyrogenic plumes, with the corresponding emission ratios agreeing with previous work for common gases. Analysis of the NOy data shows evidence of net ozone production in pyrogenic plumes, controlled by aerosol abundance, which increases as a function of photochemical age. The coordinated ground-based and sonde data provided detailed but spatially limited information that put the aircraft data into context of the longer burning season in the boundary layer. Ground

  11. Storage and source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments downstream of a major coal district in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, O; Mondamert, L; Grosbois, C; Dhivert, E; Bourrain, X; Labanowski, J; Desmet, M

    2015-12-01

    During the 20th century, the local economy of the Upper Loire Basin (ULB) was essentially based on industrial coal mining extraction. One of the major French coal districts with associated urban/industrial activities and numerous coking/gas plants were developed in the Ondaine-Furan subbasins, two tributaries of the upper Loire main stream. To determine the compositional assemblage, the level and the potential sources of contamination, the historical sedimentary chronicle of the 16 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been investigated. PAH concentrations were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in a dated core, sampled in the Villerest flood-control reservoir located downstream of the Ondaine-Furan corridor (OFC). The most contaminated sediments were deposited prior to 1983 (Σ16PAHs ca. 4429-13,348 ng/g) and during flood events (Σ16PAHs ca. 6380 ng/g - 1996 flood; 5360 ng/g - 2003 flood; 6075 ng/g - 2008 flood), especially in medium and high molecular weight PAHs. Among them, typical pyrogenic PAHs such as FLT, PYR, BbF and BaP were prevalent in most of the core samples. In addition, some PAHs last decade data is available from the Loire Bretagne Water Agency and were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization (HPLC/FLD). These results confirm that the most highly contaminated sediments were found downstream of OFC (Σ16PAHs ca. 2264-7460 ng/g). According to the observed molecular distribution, PAHs are originated largely from high-temperature pyrolytic processes. Major sources of pyrogenic PAHs have been emphasized by calculation of specific ratios and by comparison to reported data. Atmospheric deposition of urban and industrial areas, wood combustion and degraded coal tar derived from former factories of coking/gas plants seem to be the major pyrogenic sources. Specifically, particular solid transport conditions that can occur during major flood

  12. Snake antivenoms: adverse reactions and production technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VM Morais

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Antivenoms have been widely used for more than a century for treating snakebites and other accidents with poisonous animals. Despite their efficacy, the use of heterologous antivenoms involves the possibility of adverse reactions due to activation of the immune system. In this paper, alternatives for antivenom production already in use were evaluated in light of their ability to minimize the occurrence of adverse reactions. These effects were classified according to their molecular mechanism as: anaphylactic reactions mediated by IgE, anaphylactoid reactions caused by complement system activation, and pyrogenic reactions produced mainly by the presence of endotoxins in the final product. In the future, antivenoms may be replaced by humanized antibodies, specific neutralizing compounds or vaccination. Meanwhile, improvements in antivenom quality will be focused on the obtainment of a more purified and specific product in compliance with good manufacturing practices and at an affordable cost.

  13. Fever during anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Chiharu; Lenhardt, Rainer

    2003-12-01

    Fever occurs when pyrogenic stimulation activates thermal control centres. Fever is common during the perioperative period, but rare during anaesthesia. Although only a limited number of studies are available to explain how anaesthesia affects fever, general anaesthesia seems to inhibit fever by decreasing the thermoregulatory-response thresholds to cold. Opioids also inhibit fever; however, the effect is slightly less than that of general anaesthesia. In contrast, epidural anaesthesia does not affect fever. This suggests that hyperthermia, which is often associated with epidural infusions during labour or in the post-operative period, may be a true fever caused by inflammatory activation. Accordingly, this fever might be diminished in patients who receive opioids for pain treatment. Post-operative fever is a normal thermoregulatory response usually of non-infectious aetiology. Fever may be important in the host defence mechanisms and should not be routinely treated lest the associated risks exceed the benefits.

  14. Characteristics of TaSi/sub 2//Poly-Si films oxidized in steam for VLSI applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBlasi, J.M.; Razouk, R.R.; Thomas, M.E.

    1983-12-01

    The oxidation kinetics of tantalum disilicide/polycrystalline silicon composite structures in pyrogenic steam over the temperature range of 800/sup 0/-1000/sup 0/C have been investigated. The oxide formation over the tantalum silicide film has been found to proceed in a linear-parabolic manner similar to that observed for oxide formation over single crystal silicon. The parabolic rate constant is similar to that observed for single crystal silicon, while the linear rate constant is higher than that of lightly doped single crystal and polycrystalline silicon. The electrical properties of oxides formed over the silicide as well as oxides under the silicide/polycrystalline silicon composite layer (gate oxides) have been investigated. Gate oxide integrity has been found to degrade dramatically when, due to oxidation, the average remaining underlying polysilicon thickness is reduced to less than 2000A at the gate electrode.

  15. Leptospirosis in man, in wild and in domestic animals at waste disposal sites in Cairo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebek, Z; Sixl, W; Valova, M; Schaffler, R

    1989-01-01

    The authors examined 65 Rattus rattus, 28 pigs, 12 donkeys, 67 goats, 5 sheep, 1 cow and 1 dog as well as 196 inhabitants at two settlements on the waste disposal sites at the periphery of Cairo. Rattus norvegicus were positive in 55.4% for L. ictero-haemorrhagiae, pigs in 14.3% for L. pomona and in 3.6% for L. ictero-haemorrhagiae. 2 out of 12 donkeys were positive for L. pomona, 1 of them for L. pyrogenes and L. icterohaemorrhagiae as well, goats in 1.5% for L. grippotyphosa. Human sera reacted positively in 8.7% of the cases, 7.1% of which with L. bratislava, 1.0% with L. icterohaemorrhagiae and 0.5% with L. grippotyphosa and L. sejroe respectively.

  16. Structure of the Mature Streptococcal Cysteine Protease Exotoxin mSpeB in Its Active Dimeric Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Johan G; Dagil, Robert; Niclasen, Louise Meinert

    2009-01-01

    Invasive infections of Streptococcus pyogenes are dependent on the cysteine protease streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B. Previous structures of the enzyme have not disclosed the proper active-site configuration. Here, the crystal structure of the mature enzyme is presented to 1.55 A, disclosing....... Based on the present structure, the active site of clan CA cysteine proteases is expanded and a detailed mechanism of the deacylation mechanism is proposed. The results may have applications for the development of protease inhibitors specific to bacterial cysteine proteases....... a homodimer. A serine from one subunit inserts into the active site of the other to donate to the oxyanion hole and coordinates the ligand proximal to the active-site cysteine. Dimerization is unique to the mature form and is clearly a prerequisite for catalysis. The present structure supports a tripartite...

  17. Depyrogenation options for the compounding cleanroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Tom; Bell, Jeff; Dullinger, Roger; Allen, Vern; Anthenat, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Compounding pharmacies, especially those awarded 503B status under the U.S. Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act that resulted from the Drug Quality and Security Act, must meet increasingly strict standards for the preparation of sterile formulations. Depyrogenating the containers and tools used in such compounding is essential to meeting those standards and ensuring patient safety. Although pyrogens are relatively thermally stable, treating aseptic-compounding glassware and implements in a dry-heat oven or tunnel is the most common method of depyrogenation. Depyrogenation tunnels are used at larger facilities in which automation and a higher throughput can justify the cost of that equipment, but a small batch oven is an inexpensive and appropriate solution to meeting sterilization and depyrogenation requirements in a smaller compounding pharmacy. In this article, we discuss the appropriate use of depyrogenation ovens and tunnels, compare those types of equipment, and describe the selection and use of a cleanroom oven in a compounding pharmacy.

  18. New 1,3,4-bisthiadiazolines: Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Mohamad; Kaur, Manvinder; Jain, Payal; Solanki, Indu

    2012-11-01

    The bisthiadiazolines 4a-4g have been synthesized in good yields from the cyclization reactions of bisthiosemicarbazones 3a-3g with acetic anhydride. The condensation reaction of dibenzaldehydes 2a-2g with thiosemicarbazide in alcoholic medium provided 3a-3g and former were obtained from the O-alkylation of 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde with suitable 1,ω-dibromoalkanes under alkaline conditions in the presence of dry EtOH/DMF. The intermediates 3a-3g and bishetrocyclics 4a-4g were also screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activities against seven bacterial strains (Klubsellia pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Straphylococcus aureus, Bacillius subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Streptoccus pyrogens) and five fungi strains (Aspergillius janus, Pencillium glabrum, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus sclerotiorum, Aspergillus niger). The compounds 3f, 3g, 4f &4g were found to be significantly active against the tested microorganisms.

  19. Endotoxin-like activity associated with Lyme disease Borrelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumarola, D; Munno, I; Marcuccio, C; Miragliotta, G

    1986-12-01

    The newly recognized spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme Disease, has been examined for endotoxin-like activities as measured by the standard Farmacopea Ufficiale della Republica Italiana rabbit fever test and the Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. The suspension of heat-killed microorganism caused a febrile response at a dose of 1 X 10(8) bacteria pro kilo. Similar results were obtained in the Limulus assay where the heat-killed spirochetes stimulated formation of solid clot until the concentration of 1 X 10(5) per ml. Both in pyrogen test and in Limulus assay heat-killed Escherichia coli exhibited a higher degree of potency. These results show that LD-Borrelia possess endotoxin-like activities which could help in understanding the pathogenesis of the clinical symptomatology of the disease.

  20. 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.05.057

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Josephine; Poulsen, Kristoffer Gulmark; Bruun Knudsen, Sofie;

    2016-01-01

    Khuzestan, Iran is heavily industrialised with petrochemical and refinery companies. Herein, sediment and soil samples were collected from Hendijan coast, Khore Mosa and Arvandroud River. The CHEMSIC (CHEmometric analysis of Selected Ion Chromatograms) method was used to assign the main sources...... of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution. A four-component principal component analysis (PCA) model was obtained. While principal component 1 (PC1) was related to the total concentration of PAHs, the remaining PCs described three distinct sources: PC2 and PC3 collectively differentiate between...... weathered petrogenic and pyrogenic, and PC4 is indicative for a diagenetic input. The sources of PAHs in the Arvandroud River were mainly relatively fresh oil with some samples corresponding to a weathered oil input. Further, perylene (indicator for diagenetic source) was identified. Samples from Khore Mosa...

  1. Glucosylation Drives the Innate Inflammatory Response to Clostridium difficile Toxin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowardin, Carrie A; Jackman, Brianna M; Noor, Zannatun; Burgess, Stacey L; Feig, Andrew L; Petri, William A

    2016-08-01

    Clostridium difficile is a major, life-threatening hospital-acquired pathogen that causes mild to severe colitis in infected individuals. The tissue destruction and inflammation which characterize C. difficile infection (CDI) are primarily due to the Rho-glucosylating toxins A and B. These toxins cause epithelial cell death and induce robust inflammatory signaling by activating the transcription factor NF-κB, leading to chemokine and cytokine secretion. The toxins also activate the inflammasome complex, which leads to secretion of the pyrogenic cytokine IL-1β. In this study, we utilized glucosylation-deficient toxin A to show that activation of the inflammasome by this toxin is dependent on Rho glucosylation, confirming similar findings reported for toxin B. We also demonstrated that tissue destruction and in vivo inflammatory cytokine production are critically dependent on the enzymatic activity of toxin A, suggesting that inhibiting toxin glucosyltransferase activity may be effective in combating this refractory disease.

  2. Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from Khuzestan province, Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Josephine; Poulsen, Kristoffer Gulmark; Knudsen, Sofie B.;

    2016-01-01

    Khuzestan, Iran is heavily industrialised with petrochemical and refinery companies. Herein, sediment and soil samples were collected from Hendijan coast, Khore Mosa and Arvandroud River. The CHEMSIC (CHEmometric analysis of Selected Ion Chromatograms) method was used to assign the main sources...... of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution. A four-component principal component analysis (PCA) model was obtained. While principal component 1 (PC1) was related to the total concentration of PAHs, the remaining PCs described three distinct sources: PC2 and PC3 collectively differentiate between...... weathered petrogenic and pyrogenic, and PC4 is indicative for a diagenetic input. The sources of PAHs in the Arvandroud River were mainly relatively fresh oil with some samples corresponding to a weathered oil input. Further, perylene (indicator for diagenetic source) was identified. Samples from Khore Mosa...

  3. 1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker of PAH exposure in the marine invertebrates N. diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tairova, Zhanna; Giessing, Anders; Hansen, Rikke

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous, persistent and toxic contaminants in the marine environment. Uptake of PAHs by marine deposit-feeding invertebrates can be determined by screening for PAH-derived metabolites. Methods for detection and quantification of PAH metabolites may...... serve as useful screening tools for preliminary stages of environmental risk assessment of PAH-contaminated sediment. Pyrene is one of the predominant pyrogenic PAHs and analysis of its metabolites provides an extra dimension to the environmental risk assessment of ecosystems with regard to PAH exposure......, bioavailability and biotransformation. Measurement of pyrene metabolites, primarily 1-hydroxypyrene, in excretory products has gained considerable attention as a potential biomarker and is widely used to study PAH exposure in humans and animals. Reports on 1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker for PAH exposure in marine...

  4. Formation of oxide-trapped charges in 6H-SiC MOS structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Masahito; Ohshima, Takeshi; Itoh, Hisayoshi; Nashiyama, Isamu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Okumura, Hajime; Yoshida, Sadafumi

    1997-03-01

    The silicon and the carbon faces of hexagonal silicon carbide (6H-SiC) substrates were oxidized pyrogenically at 1100degC, and the metal-oxide-semiconductor structures were formed on these faces. The MOS capacitors developed using the silicon and the carbon faces were irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma-rays under argon atmosphere at room temperature. The bias voltages with the different polarity were applied to the gate electrode during irradiation to examine the formation mechanisms of the trapped charges in the oxides of these MOS capacitors. The amount of the trapped charges in the oxide were obtained from capacitance pulse voltage characteristics. The generation of the trapped charges are affects with not only the absorbed dose but also the bias polarity applied to the gate electrodes during irradiation. The formation mechanisms of the trapped charges in the oxides were estimated in conjunction with the surface orientation of 6H-SiC substrates. (author)

  5. Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus in Botucatu region, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CB Zetun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The destruction of natural ecosystems has caused several problems to humans and other animals; herein we investigate the close relationship among vampire bats, humans and domestic animals. Toxoplasma gondii and Leptospira spp. infections are two worldwide zoonoses that provoke serious damage to animals. To determine the prevalence of bats seropositive for toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis in the Botucatu region, 204 serum samples of vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus were tested for T. gondii antibodies by modified agglutination test (MAT-t and for Leptospira spp. by microscopic agglutination test (MAT-l. No animal was tested positive for T. gondii while leptospiral positivity was 7.8% for Pyrogenes, Shermani and Javanica serovars, with titers varying from 100 to 1,600. Thus, it was verified that D. rotundus does not play a relevant role in toxoplasmosis epidemiology. However, these bats can be important in the maintenance of Leptospira spp. in the environment.

  6. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of Pulau Tinggi, Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Ezzati Sulhi Abdul; Halim, Izzyan Syazwani Abdul; Ali, Masni Mohd

    2016-11-01

    Surface sediments samples were collected at 11 stations around the Pulau Tinggi, Johor in September 2015. A total of 15 PAHs were determined and quantified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total PAH concentrations of surface sediments from Pulau Tinggi ranged from 39.61 ng/g to 149.2 ng/g and they were classified as being in low to moderate pollution range. Individual PAH analysis showed that two and three rings PAHs were the most frequently detected isomers and accounted for 22 - 46% of the total PAH concentrations. The sources of PAHs were evaluated by employing diagnostic ratiosof specific PAH compounds.PAH ratios analysis showed a prevalence of pyrogenic PAH origin at most of the stations with exception of only a few stations.

  7. Physiology of temperature regulation: comparative aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicego, Kênia C; Barros, Renata C H; Branco, Luiz G S

    2007-07-01

    Few environmental factors have a larger influence on animal energetics than temperature, a fact that makes thermoregulation a very important process for survival. In general, endothermic species, i.e., mammals and birds, maintain a constant body temperature (Tb) in fluctuating environmental temperatures using autonomic and behavioural mechanisms. Most of the knowledge on thermoregulatory physiology has emerged from studies using mammalian species, particularly rats. However, studies with all vertebrate groups are essential for a more complete understanding of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of Tb. Ectothermic vertebrates-fish, amphibians and reptiles-thermoregulate essentially by behavioural mechanisms. With few exceptions, both endotherms and ectotherms develop fever (a regulated increase in Tb) in response to exogenous pyrogens, and regulated hypothermia (anapyrexia) in response to hypoxia. This review focuses on the mechanisms, particularly neuromediators and regions in the central nervous system, involved in thermoregulation in vertebrates, in conditions of euthermia, fever and anapyrexia.

  8. Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of boldine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhouse, N; Delporte, C; Givernau, M; Cassels, B K; Valenzuela, A; Speisky, H

    1994-10-01

    Boldine, an antioxidant alkaloid isolated from Peumus boldus, exhibits a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced guinea pig paw edema test with an oral ED50 of 34 mg/kg. Boldine also reduces bacterial pyrogen-induced hyperthermia in rabbits to an extent which varied between 51% and 98% at a dose of 60 mg/kg p.o. In vitro studies carried out in rat aortal rings revealed that boldine is an effective inhibitor of prostaglandin biosynthesis, promoting 53% inhibition at 75 microM. The latter in vitro effect may be mechanistically linked to the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of boldine exerted in vivo.

  9. The electrical characteristics of metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors fabricated on cubic silicon carbide

    CERN Document Server

    Ohshima, T; Ishida, Y

    2003-01-01

    The n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) were fabricated on cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) epitaxial layers grown on 3C-SiC substrates. The gate oxide of the MOSFETs was formed using pyrogenic oxidation at 1100 degC. The 3C-SiC MOSFETs showed enhancement type behaviors after annealing at 200degC for 30 min in argon atmosphere. The maximum value of the effective channel mobility of the 3C-SiC MOSFETs was 260cm sup 2 /V centre dot s. The leakage current of gate oxide was of a few tens of nA/cm sup 2 at an electric field range below 8.5 MV/cm, and breakdown began around 8.5MV/cm. (author)

  10. Biocompatibility of metal injection molded versus wrought ASTM F562 (MP35N) and ASTM F1537 (CCM) cobalt alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Sago, Alan; West, Shari; Farina, Jeff; Eckert, John; Broadley, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We present a comparative analysis between biocompatibility test results of wrought and Metal Injection Molded (MIM) ASTM F562-02 UNS R30035 (MP35N) and F1537 UNS R31538 (CCM) alloy samples that have undergone the same generic orthopedic implant's mechanical, chemical surface pre-treatment, and a designed pre-testing sample preparation method. Because the biocompatibility properties resulting from this new MIM cobalt alloy process are not well understood, we conducted tests to evaluate cytotoxicity (in vitro), hemolysis (in vitro), toxicity effects (in vivo), tissue irritation level (in vivo), and pyrogenicity count (in vitro) on such samples. We show that our developed MIM MP35N and CCM materials and treatment processes are biocompatible, and that both the MIM and wrought samples, although somewhat different in microstructure and surface, do not show significant differences in biocompatibility.

  11. Monitoring of pollution in Egyptian Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee I. Abdallah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The level of the Egyptian Red Sea water pollution by oil was studied to assess the general pattern of oil pollutants and to evaluate the hydrocarbon origin (anthropogenic, petrogenic or biogenic with emphasis on the poly aromatic hydrocarbons in surface water. The oil extracted from the samples was analyzed by gas chromatography to determine the concentrations and distribution of aliphatic and alicyclic n-alkanes. Results obtained indicate that most of the organic species present in water samples consist of petrogenic hydrocarbons with additional biogenic types. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC technique was used to study the poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs fingerprints of the studied water samples. The results obtained indicate the presence of PAHs of both pyrogenic and petrogenic origins.

  12. Quality-Control Analytical Methods: Microbial-Testing Aspects of USP Chapter 797 for Compounded Sterile Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupiec, Thomas C

    2005-01-01

    The standards set forth by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Chapter 797 have now been in effect since January 1 or 2004. As the first practice standards of sterile pharmacy compounding in US history, they have "attracted both respect and criticism" because they have also been cited as a practice expectation by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. USP 797 expands the scope of facilities governed by the regulatinos and defines the practices covered, emphasizing the importance of environmental quality and control, verification of accuracy and sterility, training and evaluation, quality control after preparations leave the pharmacy, patient monitoring and adverse events reporting. The purpose of this article is to help the reader understand the criteria set forth by USP Chapter 797 regarding finished-product testing, including criteria for the microbial-testing aspects of sterility testing (USP Chapter 71) and endotoxin (pyrogen) testing (USP Chapter 85).

  13. Bioactive phenolic derivatives from Acaena splendens methanol extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhouse, N; Delporte, C; Negrete, R; Feliciano, S A San; López-Pérez, J L

    2002-09-01

    Acaena splendens H. et A. has been used in Chilean folk medicine for the treatment of fever and inflammation. A description of the in vivo reduction of bacterial pyrogen-induced fever in rabbits and carrageenan-induced paw oedema in guinea pigs is presented. The methanol extract named ME-1, obtained after succesive extractions with petroleum ether and dichloromethane, showed a strong antipyretic action (45.7% of effect), though the antiinflammatory activity was only observed after submitting this extract to column fractionation, giving a crude mixture of flavonoids named C4 with both activities (55.7% and 98.9% of antiinflammatory and antipyretic effect respectively at a dose of 600 mg/kg). The bioassay-guided fractionation by column chromatography afforded the active fraction, which contained (-,-)-epicatechin, tiliroside, 7-O-acetyl-3-O-beta-D-glucosyl-kaempferol and 7-beta-D-glucosyloxy-5-hydroxy-chromone.

  14. Seizure susceptibility due to antihistamines in febrile seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Tomoyuki; Sakaue, Yuko; Sokoda, Tatsuyuki; Sawai, Chihiro; Akabori, Shie; Maruo, Yoshihiro; Taga, Takashi; Ohno, Masaki; Takeuchi, Yoshihiro

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether seizure susceptibility due to antihistamines is provoked in patients with febrile seizures. The study population comprised 14 patients with simple febrile seizures and 35 patients with complex febrile seizures. Detailed clinical manifestations were compared between patients with and without administration of antihistamine. The time from fever detection to the seizure onset was significantly shorter in the antihistamine group than that in the nonantihistamine group, and the duration of seizures was significantly longer in the antihistamine group than that in nonantihistamine group. Interleukin-1beta is thought to be associated with causing febrile seizures via its dual role as a pyrogen and convulsant substance. Moreover, interleukin-1beta may activate the turnover of hypothalamic neural histamine. These considerations, along with the present results, suggest that the depletion of hypothalamic neuronal histamine induced by antihistamines may increase neuronal excitability, thereby increasing seizure susceptibility in patients with febrile seizures. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Land use and land use change effects on nitrous oxide emissions in the seasonally dry ecosystems of Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyamadzawo, G; Chirinda, Ngoni; Mapanda, F

    2012-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas (GHG) with a considerable warming potential and involvement in the destruction of stratospheric ozone. The conversion of savannas to agricultural land has the potential of changing the characteristics and gas exchange of the ecosystems dramatically....... The savanna woodlands cover over 95% of Zimbabwe’s forest area, and are divided into five woodland types: Acacia, miombo, mopane, teak (Baikiaea Plurijuga) and Terminalia-Combretaceae. This review is aimed at exploring the effects of land-use changes and land management practices on N2O emissions in Zimbabwe...... emissions were mainly concentrated in the wet season as N2O production is strongly enhanced by high soil moisture. During the dry season pyrogenic emissions were also important sources of N2O, contributing, an estimated 6.7 Gg N2O annually. Land use change in the form of biomass burning and conversion...

  16. SEROLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE FROM Escherichia coli L-19

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Varbanets

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli L-19 was isolated, chemically identified and its nontoxicity but pyrogenicity were shown. The investigations of lipopolysaccharide influence on T- and B-lymphocytes indicated that it might be used as a mitogen in blasttransformation reactions since it was only in insignificant degree less active in comparison with the commercial one. It was shown that in reactions of Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion in agar LPS from E. coli L-19 exerted an activity of antigen in homological system. There were not established serological cross reactions between antiserum to heated E.coli L-19 cells and LPS from another of E.coli strain М-17 аnd also the representatives of Enterobacteriaceae species such as Budvicia aquatica, Rahnella aquatilis and Pragia fontium. These results indicate the absence of common antigenic determinants between the tested strains.

  17. Qualification of Magnesium/Teflon/Viton Pyrotechnic Composition Used in Rocket Motors Ignition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Barros

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of fluoropolymers in high-energy-release pyrotechnic compositions is common in the space and defense areas. Pyrotechnic compositions of magnesium/Teflon/Viton are widely used in military flares and pyrogen igniters for igniting the solid propellant of a rocket motor. Pyrotechnic components are considered high-risk products as they may cause catastrophic accidents if initiated or ignited inadvertently. To reduce the hazards involved in the handling, storage and transportation of these devices, the magnesium/Teflon/Viton composition was subjected to various sensitivity tests, DSC and had its stability and compatibility tested with other materials. This composition obtained satisfactory results in all the tests, which qualifies it as safe for production, handling, use, storage and transportation.

  18. Chemical characterization of smoke from the production process of wood-plastic composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shi-fa; Zhang Ai-jun

    2007-01-01

    The chemical composition of unpleasant smell, emitted from the production process of wood-plastic composites using Manchurian ash sawdust (Fraxinus mandschurica Rupr.) and polypropylene powder as the raw material, was investigated. Wood sawdust and polypropylene powder were subjected to heat treatment to 290℃ during 8 min (the conditions were similar to those employed on an industrial scale). The emitted compounds were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analytical results showed that the unpleasant smell was emitted from the pyrogenation of wood sawdust rather than from the polypropylene powder. Nine types of compounds (hydrocarbons, ethers, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, acids and their derivatives, furan and its derivatives, and nitrogen-containing compounds) were collected in the gas phase during heating.Among those 126 components detected by GC-MS, 112 compounds were identified.

  19. Sedimentary record of hydrophobic organic compounds in relation to regional economic development: A study of Taihu Lake, East China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Guoqing, E-mail: liugq@szu.edu.c [Institute of Applied Nuclear Technology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang Gan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone for Sustainable Development, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Jin Zhangdong [State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710075 (China); Li Jun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Sediment cores taken from Taihu Lake, East China were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The results showed a general sharp increase of HCH, DDT, PAH and PBDE concentrations in the surface layers, corresponding to a sedimentation time of 1980 and 1990 onward in the Meiliang Bay and Xukou Bay, respectively. The source of PAHs has largely transferred from petrogenic to pyrogenic origin, and good relationships were observed between sediment PAH concentrations and the regional gross domestic product. The sharp increase of DDTs in recent years may be related to the mobilization and migration of these chemicals from surface soil to lake sediment, as a result of enhanced soil run-off due to large scale land transform, as well as the contribution of current usage of dicofol and DDT-containing anti-fouling paints. - PAHs, DDTs and PBDEs are still increasing in the Taihu Lake sediment.

  20. Effect of selected antiasthmatic plant constituents against micro organism causing upper respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilani, P; Duraisamy, B; Dhamodaran, P; Ravichandran, S; Elango, K

    2010-01-01

    Most exacerbations of asthma can be proven to be associated with bacterial infections and there is scientific evidence that frequent respiratory infections particularly bacterial infections provoke asthma attack. Considering these facts different plant extracts and phytoconstituents with proven anti asthmatic property had been selected for screening anti microbial activity in in-vitro models. In the present study, Coleus forskohlii Willd. extract (10% Forskolin), Piper Longum L. Extract (20% Piperine), Adathoda vasica Nees. extract (30% Vasicinone), Curcuma longa L. extract (60% Curcumin) were screened for the antibacterial activity against human pathogens causing upper respiratory infection namely Haemophilus influenzae , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Streptococcus pyrogene and Staphylococcus aureus, by taking Gentamycin, Optochin, Bacitracin and Amoxicillin as reference standards. Except for Adathoda vasica Nees. extract, all the other selected plant extracts exhibited a moderate activity antibacterial activity against selected strains.

  1. Modified sequential extraction for biochar and petroleum coke: Metal release potential and its environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Gunten, Konstantin; Alam, Md Samrat; Hubmann, Magdalena; Ok, Yong Sik; Konhauser, Kurt O; Alessi, Daniel S

    2017-07-01

    A modified Community Bureau of Reference (CBR) sequential extraction method was tested to assess the composition of untreated pyrogenic carbon (biochar) and oil sands petroleum coke. Wood biochar samples were found to contain lower concentrations of metals, but had higher fractions of easily mobilized alkaline earth and transition metals. Sewage sludge biochar was determined to be less recalcitrant and had higher total metal concentrations, with most of the metals found in the more resilient extraction fractions (oxidizable, residual). Petroleum coke was the most stable material, with a similar metal distribution pattern as the sewage sludge biochar. The applied sequential extraction method represents a suitable technique to recover metals from these materials, and is a valuable tool in understanding the metal retaining and leaching capability of various biochar types and carbonaceous petroleum coke samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [THE EFFECTS OF CHRO- NIC ADMINISTRATION OF MODERATE DOSE OF PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINE INTERLEUKIN-1β ON RAT INVESTIGATIVE BEHAVIOR AND SPATIAL MEMORY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalemenev, S V; Sizov, V V; Ischenko, A M; Zubareva, O E

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to discover the effects of chronic intraperitoneal administration of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) on rat investigative behavior and spatial memory. Rats were injected with a moderate pyrogenic dose of IL-1β (0.5 mkg/kg) daily during 14 days (7 days before tests and 7 testing days). The behavior was examined in 23.5 hours after the previous injection of cytokine. The test battery included: "The open field" (within 3 consecutive days), "The exploration of novel objects", and "The Morris water maze". The animals treated with IL-1β differed from the control animals in an essential decrease of locomotor activity, slight increase of anxiety and suppression of exploratory behavior. The impairment of spatial memory was not revealed.

  3. Geological and geochemical character and genesis of the Jinlongshan-Qiuling gold deposits in Qinling orogen: Metallogenic mechanism of the Qinling-pattern Carlin-type gold deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张复新,陈衍景,李超Department; of; Geology,; Peking; University,; Beijing; 100871,; China; ,张静Department; of; Geology,; Peking; University,; Beijing; 100871,; China; ,马建秦,李欣Department; of; Geology,; Peking; University,; Beijing; 100871,; China

    2000-01-01

    The Qinling Carlin-type gold deposit belt is the second largest Carlin-type gold ore concentrated area in the world and occurs in Mesozoic intracontinental collisional orogen, contrasting to the Carlin-type gold deposits in the Basin and Range province in Cenozoic active continental margin of West America. With ore-forming ages focussed at the range of 197.45-129.45 Ma, its metallogenic geodynamic background was the decornpression-pyrogenation regime at the transition stage from collisional compression to extension, indicating that gold mineralization synchronized with the Mesozoic continental collision. Geochemical studies discover that ore fluids and materials mainly came from the Hercynian-lndosinian tectonic layer. Mesozoic intracontinental subduction of Hercynian-lndosinian association along the Shuanghe-Gongguan fault led to the formation of Jinlongshan-Qiuling gold deposits. Accordingly, the tectonic metallogenic model is established for Qinling-pattern Carlin-type gold deposits.

  4. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from the Bering Sea and western Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mengwei; Wang, Weiguo; Liu, Yanguang; Dong, Linsen; Jiao, Liping; Hu, Limin; Fan, Dejiang

    2016-03-15

    To analyze the distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and evaluate their potential ecological risks, the concentrations of 16 PAHs were measured in 43 surface sediment samples from the Bering Sea and western Arctic Ocean. Total PAH (tPAH) concentrations ranged from 36.95 to 150.21 ng/g (dry weight). In descending order, the surface sediment tPAH concentrations were as follows: Canada Basin>northern Chukchi Sea>Chukchi Basin>southern Chukchi Sea>Aleutian Basin>Makarov Basin>Bering Sea shelf. The Bering Sea and western Arctic Ocean mainly received PAHs of pyrogenic origin due to pollution caused by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. The concentrations of PAHs in the sediments of the study areas did not exceed effects range low (ERL) values.

  5. Development of activity standard for {sup 90}Y microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, L. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia) and Institute of Medical Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)]. E-mail: lmx@ansto.gov.au; Avci, B. [SIRTeX Medical Limited, Unit F6 Parkview, 16 Mars Road, Lane Cove, NSW 2066 (Australia); James, D. [SIRTeX Medical Limited, Unit F6 Parkview, 16 Mars Road, Lane Cove, NSW 2066 (Australia); Simpson, B. [CSIR National Metrology Laboratory, 15 Lower Hope Road, Rosebank, Cape Town 7700 (South Africa); Van Wyngaardt, W.M. [CSIR National Metrology Laboratory, 15 Lower Hope Road, Rosebank, Cape Town 7700 (South Africa); Cessna, J.T. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Baldock, C. [Institute of Medical Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2005-08-01

    {sup 90}Y microspheres are important therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals used in the treatment of liver cancer through a process known as selective internal radiation therapy. SIR-spheres[reg] is a radiopharmaceutical product that is comprised of {sup 90}Y microspheres suspended in sterile, pyrogen-free water for injection into patients. It is necessary to establish for the SIR-spheres[reg] production the capability of accurately measuring the activity of this product to a traceable national measurement standard. An activity standard for SIR-spheres[reg] was developed from a standard for {sup 90}Y solution, employing a highly quantifiable chemical digestion process. Calibration factors for the manufacturer's ionisation chambers were determined for 1 and 5 ml of the SIR-spheres[reg] product placed in Wheaton vials, for both 34% and 44% of {sup 90}Y microsphere concentration.

  6. [Review on characteristics and detecting assay of bacterial endotoxin contamination in water environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Can; Liu, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Ming-Lu; Tian, Fang; Yang, Yi; An, Dai-Zhi

    2014-04-01

    Endotoxins, also known as lipopolysaccharide complexes, are anchored in the outer membrane cell wall of most Gram-negative bacteria and some cyanobacteria. They are continuously released to environment during cell decay. Being common pyrogens and highly immunogenic molecules, endotoxins are related to many human diseases. Due to the tolerances and thermo-stability of endotoxin molecules, they were hard to be removed by common methods. The health risk caused by the endotoxin contamination in drinking water and water environment by various exposure pathways have attracted more and more attention in recent years. In this paper, the physical and chemical properties, biological activities and detection assay of the endotoxin contamination were reviewed, and interfere factors of the main assay, the LAL/TAL (Limulus amebocyte lysate/Tachypleus amebocyte lysate) assay, for detecting endotoxin in water sample were investigated, and the development tendency of the endotoxin detection assay was analyzed.

  7. Recent advances in biosensor based endotoxin detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A P; Kumar, P S; Swain, S

    2014-01-15

    Endotoxins also referred to as pyrogens are chemically lipopolysaccharides habitually found in food, environment and clinical products of bacterial origin and are unavoidable ubiquitous microbiological contaminants. Pernicious issues of its contamination result in high mortality and severe morbidities. Standard traditional techniques are slow and cumbersome, highlighting the pressing need for evoking agile endotoxin detection system. The early and prompt detection of endotoxin assumes prime importance in health care, pharmacological and biomedical sectors. The unparalleled recognition abilities of LAL biosensors perched with remarkable sensitivity, high stability and reproducibility have bestowed it with persistent reliability and their possible fabrication for commercial applicability. This review paper entails an overview of various trends in current techniques available and other possible alternatives in biosensor based endotoxin detection together with its classification, epidemiological aspects, thrust areas demanding endotoxin control, commercially available detection sensors and a revolutionary unprecedented approach narrating the influence of omics for endotoxin detection.

  8. Determination of endotoxins in sugar with the Limulus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskå, G; Nystrand, R

    1979-12-01

    The Limulus amebocyte lysate test has been used for determination of pyrogens in sugar of different qualities. All the samples of domestic white sugar and beet raw sugar produced in Sweden during 1976 had a very low content of endotoxins, less than 10 ng/g of sugar. Imported cane raw sugar was, however, highly contaminated. The highest value obtained corresponds to about 100 mg of Escherichia coli endotoxin per g of raw sugar. Such crude sugar cannot, even after refining, be used for medical purposes. Instead, Swedish beet sugar is used as the raw material for production of invert sugar solutions for parenteral administration. The amount of endotoxin in this sugar is less than 1 ng/g.

  9. Determination of endotoxin levels and their impact on interleukin-1 generation in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, F C; Dubczak, J; Weary, M; Anderson, J

    1988-01-01

    Endotoxins represent a family of ubiquitous bacterial lipopolysaccharides found in water and raw materials. These substances have the ability to generate interleukin-1 (IL-1) and induce fever, as well as other acute phase phenomena. A study was undertaken to determine levels of background endotoxin in (1) continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis solution, (2) spent dialysate subsequent to overnight dwell, (3) hemodialysis solution, and (4) Limulus amebocyte lysate-reactive material (LAL-RM) in hemodialyzers and patient plasma. Levels of endotoxin in all of the above cases were less than thought to be required to induce biological activity, such as pyrogenicity, through IL-1 generation. Although nanogram amounts of LAL-RM are associated with some hollow-fiber membranes as well as the plasma of patients on those membranes, this material per se does not appear to produce IL-1 in vitro.

  10. Comparison of organochlorine and PAHs residues in terns eggs from two natural protected areas in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallarino, Adriana; Rendon von Osten, Jaime

    2017-03-15

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are dispersed all over the world while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are released into the environment from pyrogenic and petrogenic sources and are not very mobile or persistent. The aim of this study was to identify POPs and PAHs from eggs of Least and Sooty Terns nesting in two protected marine areas with different anthropogenic impacts in the southern Gulf of Mexico. ΣHCHs were higher in Terminos in 2010 and higher in Alacranes in 2011. ΣDienes and ΣDDTs were higher in 2011 in both study sites. ΣEndosulfan was higher in Terminos than in Alacranes in both years. ΣDienes, ΣDDT and ΣHeptachlor were the highest in both species both years. Acenaphtylene and Fluoranthene were higher in Terminos while Pyrene was higher in Alacranes. No differences were present within species between years. In 2011 PAHs in eggs could have reflected the BP oil spill input.

  11. The Construction of Scrub in California and the Mediterranean Borderlands: Climatic and Edaphic Climax Mosaic or Anthropogenic Artifact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, C. M.

    2004-12-01

    There is a marked difference in the representation of Mediterranean scrub vegetation (e.g., chaparral, maquis) in North American and European literature in biogeography and ecology. Authors discussing this vegetation in the California context accept that it is a natural response to the Mediterranean climates, with their late summer and fall fires, and steep terrain. Debate here focusses on the extent to which humans have modified or, indeed, can modify "natural" fire regimes. European authors frame this vegetation instead as a secondary successional formation in a landscape that "should" be dominated by oak woodland and forest. The widespread presence of Mediterranean scrub is cast as an artifact of human disturbance over thousands of years, mediated through overgrazing, deforestation, accelerated erosion, and anthropogenic fire. This poster will present a content analysis of the Mediterranean scrub literature, in order to engage both traditions in the construction of a unified framework for these pyrogenic formations.

  12. TNF — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    TNF (tumor necrosis factor) is a cytokine involved in many biological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and coagulation. TNF belongs to the TNF superfamily. It is mainly secreted by macrophages and can induce cell death of certain tumor cell lines. TNF binds to its receptors TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR, through which it functions. It is involved in cellular responses to stimuli such as cytokines and stress and plays a key role in regulating the immune response to infection. This cytokine is a pyrogen, causing fever by direct action or by stimulation of interleukin-1 secretion and is implicated in the induction of cachexia. TNF has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune diseases, insulin resistance, and cancer. Knockout studies in mice also suggest this cytokine has a neuroprotective function. TNF is cleaved into two chains, tumor necrosis factor, membrane form and tumor necrosis factor, soluble form.

  13. Further results of serological examination of domestic animals for leptospirosis in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebek, Z; Blazek, K; Valová, M; Amin, A

    1978-01-01

    The authors examined serologically 329 specimens of domestic animals from 8 provinces of Afghanistan for the incidence of leptospirosis. They detected in 15.8% of the animals examined antibodies against Leptospira in titres of 1 : 800 and higher: in 6.4% with serotypes of the serogroup Hebdomadis, 5.5%--Tarassovi, 2.7%--Grippotyphosa, 2.4%--Pomona, 2.1% Javanica, 1.5%--Icterohaemorrhagiae, 0.6% each--Canicola, Ballum, Bataviae, 0.3%--Pyrogenes. Positivity was highest in the buffalo--55.0%, camel--10 of the 18 animals examined, and cattle--25.5%. It was considerably lower in sheep--2.3% and goat--3.2%; also positive was one of the 6 zebus examined.

  14. Cross-species surveillance of Leptospira in domestic and peri-domestic animals in Mahalla City, Gharbeya Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felt, Stephen A; Wasfy, Momtaz O; El-Tras, Wael F; Samir, Ahmed; Rahaman, Bassem Abdel; Boshra, Marie; Parker, Tina M; Hatem, Mahmoud Essam; El-Bassiouny, Ahmed Ahmed; Murray, Clinton K; Pimentel, Guillermo

    2011-03-01

    A survey of 179 animals (black rats, dogs, sheep, buffaloes, cattle, donkeys, weasels, and cats) for Leptospira infection was conducted in Mahalla City (Lower Egypt). Blood, urine, and kidney were collected and tested by culture, microscopic agglutination test (MAT), and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Among rats, 26% were positive by PCR, including 7% that were also positive by culture for L. interrogans serovars Grippotyphosa, Pyrogenes, and Icterohaemorrhagiae. L. borpetersenii serovar Polonica was isolated for the first time in Egypt in three rats. MAT titers ≥ 1:800 were observed in 11% of rats and 12% of dogs. L. interrogans serovar Grippotyphosa was detected in one cat. Sheep and donkeys were negative for leptospirosis by all methods. Buffaloes and cattle were seropositive in 20% and 44% of animals, respectively. Data indicate that several pathogenic serovars are circulating in the animals, which may pose exposure risks and account for high rates of acute febrile illness.

  15. Streptococcus sp. and Staphylococcus aureus isolates from patients with psoriasis possess genes that code for toxins (superantigens): clinical and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ferezli, Jessica; Jenbazian, Lori; Rubeiz, Nelly; Kibbi, Abdul-Ghani; Zaynoun, Shukrallah; Abdelnoor, Alexander M

    2008-01-01

    Superantigens are powerful T lymphocyte-stimulating agents that are believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of certain diseases such as psoriasis. Toxins produced by Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus are superantigens. The aim of this study was to detect genes that code for superantigens in Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus isolates from psoriatic patients. Primers to amplify streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A, B, and C and streptolysin O genes and staphylococcal enterotoxin A, B, C, and D genes were used. Streptococcal exotoxin B was detected in five streptococcal isolates. Staphyloccocus aureus enterotoxin A and/or C genes were detected in nine S. aureus isolates. Isolates from 13 of 22 patients possesed gene(s) that code for toxin(s) (superantigens). These results might support the role of superantigens in the exacerbation of psoriasis.

  16. Preparation of intravenous cholesterol tracer using current good manufacturing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Racette, Susan B; Swaney, William P; Ostlund, Richard E

    2015-12-01

    Studies of human reverse cholesterol transport require intravenous infusion of cholesterol tracers. Because insoluble lipids may pose risk and because it is desirable to have consistent doses of defined composition available over many months, we investigated the manufacture of cholesterol tracer under current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) conditions appropriate for phase 1 investigation. Cholesterol tracer was prepared by sterile admixture of unlabeled cholesterol or cholesterol-d7 in ethanol with 20% Intralipid(®). The resulting material was filtered through a 1.2 micron particulate filter, stored at 4°C, and tested at time 0, 1.5, 3, 6, and 9 months for sterility, pyrogenicity, autoxidation, and particle size and aggregation. The limiting factor for stability was a rise in thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances of 9.6-fold over 9 months (P postproduction. CGMP manufacturing methods can be achieved in the academic setting and need to be considered for critical components of future metabolic studies.

  17. A panel data set on harvest and perfusion decellularization of porcine rectus abdominis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this dataset, we particularly depicted the harvest and perfusion decellularization of porcine rectus abdominis (RA, accompanied with displaying of the retained vascular trees within the perfusion-decellularized skeletal muscle matrix (pM-ECM using vascular corrosion casting. In addition, several important tips for successful pM-ECM preparation were emphasized, which including using anatomically isolated skeletal muscle as tissue source with all main feeding and draining vessels perfused, preserving the internal microcirculation availability, aseptic technique and pyrogen free in all steps, sequential perfusion via artery or vein, and longtime washing after decellularization. The data are supplemental to our original research article describing detailed associations of pM-ECM as a clinically relevant scale, three-dimensional scaffold with a vascular network template for tissue-specific regeneration, “Perfusion-decellularized skeletal muscle as a three-dimensional scaffold with a vascular network template” Zhang et al. (2016 [1].

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Carbon Encapsulated Permalloy Nanoparticles Magnetic Fluid%碳包覆坡莫合金纳米粒子磁流体制备及表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李儒; 李红丽; 张先; 付路军; 薛俊; 曹宏

    2009-01-01

    Carbon encapsulated permalloy nanoparticles(CEPNPs) were prepared with a pyrogenation-anneal meth-od. Nanometer magnetic fluid was obtained by mechanical ball milling, using oleic acid as the modifier and kerosene as the carrier liquid. The phase, particle sizes and microstrueture of CEPNPs were investigated with XRD, particle size analyzer and HRTEM respectively, The magnetic properties of magnetic fluid were studied with magnetic scale,And the rheological properties of magnetic fluid were studied with rotational viscometer. The results indicate thatCEPNPs are core-shell nanostructure, the particles size is 75 nm on an average, CEPNPs magnetic fluid looks black and viscous and stable, and the viscosity of CEPNPs magnetic fluid decreases with increasing shear rate without magnetic field and increases with the applied magnetic field .%用热解(pyrogenation)-退火(anneal)法制备了碳包覆坡莫合金纳米粒子(carbon encapsulated permalloynanoparticles,CEPNPs),选用油酸为表面活性剂,煤油为载液,采用机械球磨法制备出CEPNPs磁流体.用XRD,粒度分析仪和HRTEM分析了CEPNPs的物相组成、粒度分布和微观形貌;用磁天平法测定了CEPNPs磁流体的磁性能;用旋转粘度仪探讨了其流变学性能.结果表明:制备的CEPNPs具有壳/内核包覆结构,平均粒径在75nm左右;以其制备的磁流体外观呈黑色粘稠状,稳定性好,在无磁场条件下磁流体粘度随转子转速的增大而减小,有外磁场时,磁流体粘度随磁场强度增大而增大.

  19. Determination of ATP-activity as a useful tool for monitoring microbial load in aqueous humidifier samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebers, Verena; Bachmann, Dieter; Franke, Gabriele; Freundt, Susanne; Stubel, Heike; Düser, Maria; Kendzia, Benjamin; Böckler, Margret; Brüning, Thomas; Raulf, Monika

    2015-03-01

    Air humidifier water tanks are potential sources of microbial contaminants. Aerosolization of these contaminants is associated with the development of airway and lung diseases; therefore, implementation of preventive strategies including monitoring of the microbial contamination is recommended. So far, culture-based methods that include measuring colony forming units (CFU) are widely used to monitor microbial load. However, these methods are time consuming and have considerable drawbacks. As a result, alternative methods are needed which provide not only clear and accurate results concerning microbial load in water samples, but are also rapid and easy to use in the field. This paper reports on a rapid test for ATP quantification as an alternative method for microbial monitoring, including its implementation, validation and application in the field. For this purpose, 186 water samples were characterized with different methods, which included ATP analysis, culture-based methods, endotoxin activity (common and rapid test), pyrogenic activity and number of particles. Half of the samples was measured directly in the field and the other half one day later in the laboratory. The results of both tests are highly correlated. Furthermore, to check how representative the result from one sample of a water source is, a second sample of the same water tank were collected and measured. Bioluminescence results of the undiluted samples covered a range between 20 and 25,000 relative light units (RLU) and correlated with the results obtained using the other methods. The highest correlation was found between bioluminescence and endotoxin activity (rs=0.79) as well as pyrogenic activity (rs=0.75). Overall, the results of this study indicate that ATP measurement using bioluminescence is a suitable tool to obtain rapid, reproducible and sensitive information on the microbial load of water samples, and is suitable to use in the field. However, to use ATP measurement as an indicator of

  20. Pyrexia, anorexia, adipsia, and depressed motor activity in rats during systemic inflammation induced by the Toll-like receptors-2 and -6 agonists MALP-2 and FSL-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübschle, Thomas; Mütze, Jörg; Mühlradt, Peter F; Korte, Stefan; Gerstberger, Rüdiger; Roth, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    Macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 (MALP-2) from Mycoplasma fermentans has been identified as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern of Mycoplasmas that causes activation of the innate immune system through the activation of the heterodimeric Toll-like receptors (TLRs)-2 and -6. The aim of this study was to characterize the ability of MALP-2 and a synthetic analog fibroblast-stimulating lipopeptide-1 (FSL-1; represents the NH2-terminal sequence of a lipoprotein from M. salivarium) to act as exogenous pyrogens, to induce formation of cytokines (endogenous pyrogens), and to cause sickness behavior, such as depressed motor activity, anorexia, and adipsia. For this purpose, body temperature, activity, food intake, and water intake were recorded for 3 days by use of telemetry devices in several groups of rats treated with MALP-2/FSL-1 or the respective control solutions. Intraperitoneal injections of FSL-1 caused fever at doses of 10 or 100 microg/kg, which was preceded by a pronounced phase of hypothermia in response to a dose of 1,000 microg/kg. The maximal fever (a peak of 1.5 degrees C above baseline) was caused by the 100 microg/kg dose with almost identical responses to both MALP-2 and FSL-1. Fever was accompanied by pronounced rises of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-6 in plasma. Treatment with the TLR-2 and -6 agonists further induced a dose-dependent manifestation of anorexia and adipsia, as well as a reduction of motor activity. We could thus demonstrate that activation of TLR-2 and -6 can induce systemic inflammation in rats accompanied by the classical signs of brain-controlled illness responses.

  1. Central circuitries for body temperature regulation and fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazuhiro

    2011-11-01

    Body temperature regulation is a fundamental homeostatic function that is governed by the central nervous system in homeothermic animals, including humans. The central thermoregulatory system also functions for host defense from invading pathogens by elevating body core temperature, a response known as fever. Thermoregulation and fever involve a variety of involuntary effector responses, and this review summarizes the current understandings of the central circuitry mechanisms that underlie nonshivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue, shivering thermogenesis in skeletal muscles, thermoregulatory cardiac regulation, heat-loss regulation through cutaneous vasomotion, and ACTH release. To defend thermal homeostasis from environmental thermal challenges, feedforward thermosensory information on environmental temperature sensed by skin thermoreceptors ascends through the spinal cord and lateral parabrachial nucleus to the preoptic area (POA). The POA also receives feedback signals from local thermosensitive neurons, as well as pyrogenic signals of prostaglandin E(2) produced in response to infection. These afferent signals are integrated and affect the activity of GABAergic inhibitory projection neurons descending from the POA to the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) or to the rostral medullary raphe region (rMR). Attenuation of the descending inhibition by cooling or pyrogenic signals leads to disinhibition of thermogenic neurons in the DMH and sympathetic and somatic premotor neurons in the rMR, which then drive spinal motor output mechanisms to elicit thermogenesis, tachycardia, and cutaneous vasoconstriction. Warming signals enhance the descending inhibition from the POA to inhibit the motor outputs, resulting in cutaneous vasodilation and inhibited thermogenesis. This central thermoregulatory mechanism also functions for metabolic regulation and stress-induced hyperthermia.

  2. Biological evaluation of coral artificial bone%珊瑚人工骨的生物学评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗林; 吴洋; 周洁; 刘宝林

    2001-01-01

    目的:评价海南珊瑚人工骨的生物相容性。方法:参考上海市非直接接触血液的医用生物材料生物性能测试标准评价珊瑚人工骨的组织相容性进行了一系列体内及体外试验,包括:细胞毒性试验,溶血试验,急性全身毒性试验,热原试验,皮下种植,肌肉种植及骨内种植试验。结果:各实验结果均符合种植材料要求。结论:珊瑚人工骨具有良好的生物相容性,安全无毒,无溶血性,对组织刺激小,不含热原。%Objective:To evaluate the biological compatibility of coral as a bone transplant substitute.Methods:Coral collected from Hainan of China was tested with,a series of experiments for the study of cytotoxicity,hemolysis,general acute toxicity,pyrogen and bone inductivity of the materia.Results:The coral showed no cytotoxicity,hemolysis and pyrogen,while it induced new bone formation in bone defects.Conclusion:Coral has good biocompatibility in vitro and in vivo.

  3. 复合α-TCP透磷灰石骨水泥材料的生物相容性研究%Biocompatibility of α-TCP brushite bone cement material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马建敏; 杨洪; 王凯; 刘璨; 赵慧娟

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察复合α-TCP透磷灰石骨水泥的生物相容性,为该复合骨水泥的临床应用提供动物组织学实验依据.方法:在β-TCP+ MCPM骨水泥的基础上添加α-TCP,得到一种改进型透磷灰石骨水泥.以传统的透磷灰石骨水泥为对照组,对其进行体外溶血试验、热源试验、急性毒性试验、皮肤过敏试验、肌内植入试验.结果:α-TCP透磷灰石骨水泥的溶血率<5%,无热源性、无毒性、无皮肤过敏,植入肌肉后无明显炎症反应.结论:α-TCP的透磷灰石骨水泥具有良好的生物相容性和安全性,可作为体内骨替换材料.%AIM: To investigate the biocompatibility of α-TCP brushite bone cement. METHOD; a-TCP was introduced to β-TCP + MCPM bone cement to obtain α-TCP brashite bone cement. The material was evaluated by hemulysis test, pyrogen test, acute toxicity test, skin allergy test and muscle implant test. The bioeompatibility of α-TCP brushite bone cement was compared with traditional brushite bone cement. RESULTS: The hemolysis rate of α-TCP brushite bone cement was below 5 percent. No pyrogenic, no toxic, no skin allergic, and no obvious inflammatory reaction were observs. CONCLUSION: The α-TCP brushite bone cement shows excellent biocompatibilily and safety, tence can be used in vivo as a bone substitute material.

  4. Leptospirose bovina: sorologia na bacia leiteira da região de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil Bovine leptospirosis: serology at dairy farms in Londrina region, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Giatti Rodrigues

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Uma avaliação sorológica para 22 sorotipos de L. interrogans foi realizada. Usou-se o teste de microaglutinação rápida no soro de 1253 fêmeas bovinas, adultas de 14 propriedades produtoras de leite tipo B, da região de Londrina-Paraná- Brasil, onde havia animais com problemas reprodutivos. Títulos de anticorpos > 100 foram detectados em 166 (13,25% animais de 10 (71,43% propriedades. Em 56 (33,73% animais foram encontrados anticorpos contra dois ou mais sorotipos simultaneamente. Anticorpos contra o sorotipo icterohaemorrhagiae foram detectados em 48 (28,91% animais, seguido pelos sorotipos pomona 35 (21,08%; bataviae 28 (16,87%; autumnalis 24 (14,46%; canicola 19 (11,44%; hardjo 18 (10,84%; bratislava 17 (10,24%; butembo 13 (7,83%; pyrogenes 12 (7,22%; hebdomadis 11 (6,63% e wolffi 10 (6,02%.A serological survey for leptospirosis was performed in farms that had cows with reproductive problems, in the region of Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil. Twenty-two serotype of L. interrogans were investigated, using rapid microscopic agglutination test in 1253 serum samples. One-hundred-sixty-six serum samples (13.25% from 10 farms (71.43% presented antibodies agaisnt L. interrogans. Antibodies against two or more L. interrogans serotypes were found in 56 animals. Antibodies against the serotype icterohaemorrhagiae were found in 48 (28.91% animals, whereas antibodies against pomona were found in 35 (21.08%, bataviae in 28 (16.87%, autumnalis in 24 (14.46% , canicola in 19 (11.44%, hardjo in 18 (10.84%, bratislava in 17 (10.24%, butembo in 13 (7.83%, pyrogenes in 12 (7.22%, hebdomadis in 11 (6.63% and wolffi in 10 (6.02%.

  5. Detection and Identification System of Bacteria and Bacterial Endotoxin Based on Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Elsayeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a global health problem that causes risk of death. In the developing world, about 60 to 80 % of death cases are caused by Sepsis. Rapid methods for detecting its causes, represent one of the major factors that may reduce Sepsis risks. Such methods can provide microbial detection and identification which is critical to determine the right treatment for the patient. Microbial and Pyrogen detection is important for quality control system to ensure the absence of pathogens and Pyrogens in the manufacturing of both medical and food products. Raman spectroscopes represent a q uick and accurate identification and detection method, for bacteria and bacterial endotoxin, which this plays an important role in delivering high quality biomedical products using the power of Raman spectroscopy. It is a rapid method for chemical structure detection that can be used in identifying and classifying bacteria and bacterial endotoxin. Such a method acts as a solution for time and cost effective quality control procedures. This work presents an automatic system based on Raman spectroscopy to detect and identify bacteria and bacterial endotoxin. It uses the frequency properties of Raman scattering through the interaction between organic materials and electromagnetic waves. The scattered intensities are measured and wave number converted into frequency, then the cepstral coefficients are extracted for both the detection and identification. The methodology depends on normalization of Fourier transformed cepstral signal to extract their classification features. Experiments’ results proved effective identification and detection of bacteria and bacterial endotoxin even with concentrations as low as 0.0003 Endotoxin unit (EU/ml and 1 Colony Forming Unit (CFU/ml using signal processing based enhancement technique.

  6. Coexisting sea-based and land-based sources of contamination by PAHs in the continental shelf sediments of Coatzacoalcos River discharge area (Gulf of Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina; Portela, Julián Mauricio Betancourt; Sericano, José Luis; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Espinosa, Luisa Fernanda; Cardoso-Mohedano, José Gilberto; Pérez-Bernal, Libia Hascibe; Tinoco, Jesús Antonio Garay

    2016-02-01

    The oldest refinery and the major petrochemical complexes of Mexico are located in the lower reach of the Coatzacoalcos River, considered the most polluted coastal area of Mexico. A (210)Pb-dated sediment core, from the continental shelf of the Coatzacoalcos River, was studied to assess the contamination impact by the oil industry in the southern Gulf of Mexico. The sedimentary record showed the prevalence of petrogenic PAHs between 1950s and 1970s, a period during which waste discharges from the oil industry were not regulated. Later on, sediments exhibited higher contents of pyrogenic PAHs, attributed to the incineration of petrochemical industry wastes and recurrent wildfires in open dumpsites at the nearby swamps. The total concentration of the 16 EPA-priority PAHs indicated low levels of contamination (1000 ng g(-1)) during the late 1970s, most likely due to the major oil spill produced by the blowout of the Ixtoc-I offshore oil rig in deep waters of the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Most of the PAH congeners did not show defined temporal trends but, according to a Factor Analysis, apparently have a common origin, probably waste released from the nearby oil industry. The only exceptions were the pyrogenic benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene, and the biogenic perylene, that showed increasing concentration trends with time, which we attributed to erosional input of contaminated soil from the catchment area. Our study confirmed chronic oil contamination in the Coatzacoalcos River coastal area from land based sources for more than 60 years (since 1950s).

  7. [Drug susceptibility and analysis using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of Streptococcus pyogenes strains isolated from the patients with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Rumi; Endoh, Miyoko; Shimojima, Yukako; Yanagawa, Yoshitoki; Morozumi, Satoshi; Oonaka, Kenji; Furuhata, Katsunori; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2005-04-01

    Previously, we have performed T typing of Streptococcus pyogenes strains isolated from patients with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) in Japan, and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin (SPE) typing for epidemiological examination. In this study, we conducted a drug sensitivity test using these strains, and investigated the results of gene analysis by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of S. pyogenes strains derived from patients with STSS, the patient's family, and patients other than those with STSS. To clarify the relationship between the host and bacterial factors, we investigated the association between clinical symptoms and T typing of the isolated strains/production of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin. There were no strains resistant to beta-lactams, and only 1 strain was resistant to multiple agents other than beta-lactams. The PFGE pattern of T1 type strains was classified into 2 ; the pattern was consistent between the strains derived from patients with STSS and those derived from the patient's family. The PFGE pattern of T3 type strains was classified into 5 (IV) ; Pattern I, which was most frequently observed, was detected in both the strains derived from patients with STSS/non-STSS. However, Patterns II and III were detected only in the strains derived from patients with non-STSS. Patterns IV and V were detected only in the strains derived from patients with STSS. When examining the association between clinical symptoms and bacterial factors, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) was associated with T1-SPE B-producing strains, and pharyngitis was associated with T3-SPE A-producing strains. In the future, the relationship between the host and bacterial factors should be further investigated.

  8. Distribution characteristics and source identification of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in the waters from River Kanzaki, running through Osaka urban area, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masao Kishida

    2013-01-01

    This is the first to elucidate the distribution and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs),and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in the waters from Kanzaki River,which is one of the most heavily polluted rivers in Japan.The World Health Organization (WHO)-toxic equivalent quantities (TEQs) in waters from the mainstream exceeded the Japanese environmental standard (1.0 pg-TEQ/L).The PCDD/PCDFs were dominated by highly chlorinated DFs,which predominantly contributed to the WHO-TEQs,suggesting that the main causes would be the incineration-related wastes.To find the sources,the dioxin congener concentrations in water and sediment samples from its tributary small waterways were determined.Abnormally high WHO-TEQs were detected in a water (50 pg-TEQ/L) and a sediment sample (41,000 ng-TEQ/kg dry weight) near the industrial solid waste incinerators (ISWIs).The PCDD/PCDF characteristics agreed well with those of the incinerator-related wastes as seen in the mainstream.These facts indicate that the dioxin pollution in the mainstream could be largely related to the industrial wastes from the ISWIs.Here,a TEQ apportionment method was used to understand the contribution of the pyrogenic sources to the WHO-TEQs.The average contribution ratios of the pyrogenic sources to WHO-TEQs were more than 80% for river waters from the mainstream,indicating that the elevated WHO-TEQs in the mainstream had been largely caused by the ISWIs.

  9. Aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils of the northwest Qinling Mountains: Patterns, potential risk and an appraisal of the PAH ratios to infer their source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanhong; Wu, Yingqin; Xia, Yanqing; Lei, Tianzhu; Tian, Chuntao; Hou, Xiaohuan

    2017-03-21

    Surface soils from the tourist areas of the northwest Qinling Mountains were analyzed to determine the concentrations, probable sources and potential risks of hydrocarbons. Concentrations of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons ranged from 4.18 to 3240 ng g(-1) and 0.0462 to 101 ng g(-1) dry weight, respectively. The extent of soil contamination by hydrocarbons was generally typified by unpolluted to slightly polluted levels. The incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs) for exposure to soil-borne PAHs indicated complete safety for tourists. Early diagenesis of natural products, bacteria activities and petroleum were the three main sources of aliphatic hydrocarbons, while the transport of air pollutants from pyrolytic processes was the main origin of PAHs. Because the photochemical reaction of PAHs in the atmosphere would produce lower ratios for Ant/(Ant + Phe), BaA/(BaA + Chr) and IcdP/(IcdP + BghiP), but a higher ratio for Fla/(Fla + Pyr), the source classification highly depended on the diagnostic ratios chosen. The plot of ΣCOM/Σ13PAH vs. ΣLMW/ΣHMWPAH provide additional information to distinguish the origins of PAHs, and it showed a cluster of pyrogenic sources except for sample JFS-8. Four sources were resolved by principal component analysis: (1) a low temperature pyrogenic process related to the use of fossil fuel and biomass, such as charcoal, straw and wood, which contributes 63.1% of the measured PAHs; (2) the potential contribution of diagenetic processes, contributing 18.4%; (3) traffic emissions, contributing 9.27%; and (4) bioconversion/bacterial action, contributing 5.82%. Additionally, there was a good exponential relationship (r(2) = 0.969) between the natural n-alkanes ratio (NAR) and carbon preference index for C23-C35 (CPI23-35) for all samples, which is of great use for the determination of the origins of aliphatic hydrocarbon.

  10. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Esther S; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K; Christensen, Jan H

    2015-03-01

    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPAPAH16) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). The chemical fingerprinting strategy proposed in this study included four tiers: (i) qualitative analysis of GC-FID chromatograms, (ii) comparison of the chemical composition of both un-substituted and alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), (iii) diagnostic ratios of selected PACs, and (iv) multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized PAC concentrations. The assessment criteria included quantitative analysis of 19 PACs and C1-C4 alkyl-substituted homologues of naphthalene, fluorene, dibenzothiophene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and chrysene; and 13 oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compounds (O-PACs). The chemical composition of un-substituted and alkyl-substituted PACs and visual interpretation of GC-FID chromatograms were in combination successful in differentiating pyrogenic and petrogenic hydrocarbon sources and in assessing weathering trends of hydrocarbon contamination in the soils. Multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized concentrations could as a stand-alone tool distinguish between hydrocarbon sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic origin, differentiate within petrogenic sources, and detect weathering trends. Diagnostic ratios of PACs were not successful for source identification of the heavily weathered hydrocarbon sources in the soils. The fingerprinting of contaminated soils revealed an underestimation of PACs in petrogenic contaminated soils when the assessment was based solely on EPAPAH16. As alkyl-substituted PACs are dominant in petrogenic sources, the evaluation of the total load of PACs based on EPAPAH16 was not representative. Likewise, the O-PACs are not

  11. The protective effect of immunisation against diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT) in relation to sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essery, S D; Raza, M W; Zorgani, A; MacKenzie, D A; James, V S; Weir, D M; Busuttil, A; Hallam, N; Blackwell, C

    1999-08-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates infants immunised against diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT) are at decreased risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Asymptomatic whooping cough and pyrogenic toxins of Staphylococcus aureus have been implicated in the aetiology of SIDS. The objectives of the present study were: (1) to determine if the DPT vaccine induced antibodies cross-reactive with the staphylococcal toxins; (2) to determine if antibodies to the pertussis toxin (PT) and the staphylococcal toxins were present in the sera of women during late pregnancy; (3) to examine the effects of infant immunisation on levels of antibodies to PT and the staphylococcal toxins; (4) to assess the effects of changes in immunisation schedules in the UK on the incidence and age distribution of SIDS. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were used to measure binding of rabbit or human IgG to the DPT vaccine, PT, toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) and staphylococcal enterotoxins A (SEA), B (SEB) and C (SEC). Neutralisation activity of anti-DPT serum was assessed by a bioassay for induction of nitric oxide from human monocytes by the staphylococcal toxins. Anti-DPT serum bound to the DPT vaccine, PT and each of the staphylococcal toxins. It also reduced the ability of the four toxins to induce nitric oxide from monocytes. In pregnant women, levels of IgG to PT, SEC and TSST-1 decreased significantly in relation to increasing weeks of gestation while antibodies to SEA and SEB increased. In infants' sera there were significant correlations between levels of IgG bound to DPT and IgG bound to PT, TSST-1 and SEC but not SEA or SEB. Antibody levels to the toxins in infants declined with age; sera from infants antibodies cross-reactive with pyrogenic staphylococcal toxins implicated in many cases of SIDS. Passive immunisation of infants who have low levels of these antibodies might reduce further the numbers of these infant deaths.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in road-deposited sediments, water sediments, and soils in Sydney, Australia: Comparisons of concentration distribution, sources and potential toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy Chung; Loganathan, Paripurnanda; Nguyen, Tien Vinh; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Kandasamy, Jaya; Slee, Danny; Stevenson, Gavin; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-06-01

    Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) considered as priority environmental pollutants were analysed in surface natural soils (NS), road-deposited sediments (RDS), and water sediments (WS) at Kogarah in Sydney, Australia. Comparisons were made of their concentration distributions, likely sources and potential toxicities. The concentrations (mg/kg) in NS, RDS, and WS ranged from 0.40 to 7.49 (mean 2.80), 1.65 to 4.00 (mean 2.91), and 0.49 to 5.19 (mean 1.76), respectively. PAHs were dominated by relatively high molecular weight compounds with more than three fused benzene rings, indicating that high temperature combustion processes were their predominant sources. The proportions of high molecular weight PAHs with five or six fused benzene rings were higher in NS than in RDS, whereas the low molecular weight PAHs were higher in RDS. Concentrations of all PAHs compounds were observed to be the lowest in WS. The concentrations of most of the high molecular weight PAHs significantly correlated with each other in RDS and WS. All PAHs (except naphthalene) were significantly correlated in NS suggesting a common PAH source. Ratios for individual diagnostic PAHs demonstrated that the primary source of PAHs in WS and NS was of pyrogenic origin (combustion of petroleum (vehicle exhaust), grass, and wood) while in RDS it was petrogenic (i.e. unburned or leaked fuel and oil, road asphalt, and tyre particles) as well as pyrogenic. The potential toxicities of PAHs calculated using a toxicity equivalent quotient (TEQ) were all low but higher for NS compared to WS and RDS.

  13. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban street dust: implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, Damien; Entwistle, Jane A; Cave, Mark; Dean, John R

    2011-05-01

    The determination of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban street dust has been done. Samples were collected from 12 sampling locations in a city centre location (Newcastle upon Tyne, north east England) and extracted using in situ pressurised fluid extraction followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. From the results it was possible to identify three groups, with respect to PAH concentration, with PAH contents ranging between 0.6-2.3 mg kg(-1), 15.6-22.5 mg kg(-1) and 36.1-46.0 mg kg(-1). The total PAH content of samples from these sampling sites has been compared to 22 urban locations around the world; comparable levels were found in these samples compared to the other cities around the world. The potential source of PAHs has been investigated by investigating the proportion of pyrogenic and petrogenic material in urban street dust using specific individual PAH ratios. The results indicate that the PAH content of urban street dust from the chosen sites are more likely to be due to pyrogenic sources i.e. vehicle exhaust emissions. The particle size fractions (PAHs in three selected sampling sites was investigated. In two of the selected sites the PAH content was independent of particle size whereas in sampling site 10 elevated PAH levels are noted in the PAHs was assessed in terms of a mean daily intake (based on an ingestion rate of 100 mg d(-1)). It was found that all 4-6 membered ring PAHs had concentrations in excess of the mean daily intake thereby reflecting a potential health risk, particularly in the smallest size particle fractions.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil of the Canadian River floodplain in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, F.; Wade, T.L.; Sericano, J.L.; Mohanty, B.P.; Smith, K.A.

    2010-01-01

    The accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in soil, plants, and water may impart negative eff ects on ecosystem and human health. We quantified the concentration and distribution of 41 PAH (n = 32), organic C, total N, and S (n = 140) and investigated PAH sources using a chronosequence of floodplain soils under a natural vegetation succession. Soil samples were collected between 0- and 260-cm depth in bare land (the control), wetland, forest, and grassland areas near a closed municipal landfill and an active asphalt plant (the contaminant sources) in the north bank of the Canadian River near Norman, OK. Principal component, cluster, and correlation analyses were used to investigate the spatial distribution of PAH, in combination with diagnostic ratios to distinguish pyrogenic vs. petrogenic PAH suites. Total PAH concentration (??PAH) had a mean of 1300 ng g-1, minimum of 16 ng g-1, and maximum of 12,000 ng g-1. At 0- to 20-cm depth, ??PAH was 3500 ?? 1600 ng g-1 (mean ?? 1 SE) near the contaminant sources. The most common compounds were nonalkylated, high molecular weight PAH of pyrogenic origin, i.e., fluoranthene (17%), pyrene (14%), phenanthrene (9%), benzo(b)fluoranthene (7%), chrysene (6%), and benzo(a)anthracene (5%). ??PAH in the control (130 ?? 23 ng g -1) was comparable to reported concentrations for the rural Great Plains. Perylene had a unique distribution pattern suggesting biological inputs. The main PAH contamination mechanisms were likely atmospheric deposition due to asphalt production at the 0- to 20-cm depth and past landfill operations at deeper depths. Copyright ?? 2010 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  15. Sources of optically active aerosol particles over the Amazon forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, Pascal; Graham, Bim; Roberts, Gregory C.; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.; Maenhaut, Willy; Artaxo, Paulo; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    Size-fractionated ambient aerosol samples were collected at a pasture site and a primary rainforest site in the Brazilian Amazon Basin during two field campaigns (April-May and September-October 1999), as part of the European contribution to the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA-EUSTACH). The samples were analyzed for up to 19 trace elements by particle-induced X-ray emission analysis (PIXE), for equivalent black carbon (BC e) by a light reflectance technique and for mass concentration by gravimetric analysis. Additionally, we made continuous measurements of absorption and light scattering by aerosol particles. The vertical chemical composition gradients at the forest site have been discussed in a companion article (Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 108 (D18), 4591 (doi:4510.1029/2003JD003465)). In this article, we present the results of a source identification and quantitative apportionment study of the wet and dry season aerosols, including an apportionment of the measured scattering and absorption properties of the total aerosol in terms of the identified aerosol sources. Source apportionments (obtained from absolute principal component analysis) revealed that the wet and dry season aerosols contained the same three main components, but in different (absolute and relative) amounts: the wet season aerosol consisted mainly of a natural biogenic component, whereas pyrogenic aerosols dominated the dry season aerosol mass. The third component identified was soil dust, which was often internally mixed with the biomass-burning aerosol. All three components contributed significantly to light extinction during both seasons. At the pasture site, up to 47% of the light absorption was attributed to biogenic particles during the wet season, and up to 35% at the tower site during the wet-to-dry transition period. The results from the present study suggest that, in addition to pyrogenic particles, biogenic and soil dust aerosols must be

  16. Alterations to Soil and Eroded Sediment Carbon after the Rim Fire, Yosemite National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever, R.; Berhe, A. A.; Fogel, M. L.; Hockaday, W. C.; Kuhn, T. J.; Austin, L. J.

    2015-12-01

    The soil system is a critical global carbon (C) pool that is under threat from both fire and erosion perturbations. In the Western United States, forecasted increases in average temperatures, as well as for extended summer growing seasons, indicate that large fuel loads and ideal fire conditions may generate more high intensity wildfires. Understanding how wildfires control soil C storage is critical for both projecting losses of soil C and how to better manage fire regimes to increase soil C storage. This research addresses a topic that has only been briefly addressed by the current body of literature - the erosion of pyrogenic C, or C which has undergone some combustion, which has the potential to affect storage of C within the soil system. The Rim Fire was a wildfire that consumed over 250,000 acres of land in Yosemite National Park and Stanislaus National Forest in 2013. After the fire, sediment traps were established on a hillslope under three treatment conditions: 1) high burn severity — high slope; 2) high burn severity — moderate slope, and; 3) moderate burn severity — high slope. Sediments were collected from these traps after every major precipitation event following the Rim Fire, Additionally, representative soils were collected from the source areas of the eroded material. Differences in chemical composition of organic matter and concentration of pyrogenic matter were determined using 13C Cross-Polarization Magic Angle Spinning (CPMAS) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, in addition to elemental and stable isotope analysis of carbon and nitrogen. Our results show that carbon eroded from areas of higher burn intensity generally had higher concentration of aromatic functional groups, compared to moderate burn intensity areas. Differences in the form of C eroded from areas of different burn intensity and slope steepness can be used as a proxy for determining how fire severity and geomorphology dictate the amount and nature of C eroded from

  17. Toxicity and immunogenicity of Neisseria meningitidis lipopolysaccharide incorporated into liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, A B; Semenov, B F; Vartanyan, Y P; Zakirov, M M; Torchilin, V P; Trubetskoy, V S; Koshkina, N V; L'Vov, V L; Verner, I K; Lopyrev, I V

    1992-09-01

    To obtain nontoxic and highly immunogenic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for immunization, we incorporated Neisseria meningitidis LPS into liposomes. Native LPS and its salts were incorporated by the method of dehydration-rehydration of vesicles or prolonged cosonication. The most complete incorporation of LPS into liposomes and a decrease in toxicity were achieved by the method of dehydration-rehydration of vesicles. Three forms of LPS (H+ form, Mg2+ salt, and triethanolamine salt) showed different solubilities in water, the acidic form of LPS, with the most pronounced hydrophobic properties, being capable of practically complete association with liposomal membranes. An evaluation of the activity of liposomal LPS in vitro (by the Limulus amoebocyte test) and in vivo (by monitoring the pyrogenic reaction in rabbits) revealed a decrease in endotoxin activity of up to 1,000-fold. In addition, the pyrogenic activity of liposomal LPS was comparable to that of a meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Liposomes had a pronounced adjuvant effect on the immune response to LPS. Thus, the level of anti-LPS plaque-forming cells in the spleens of mice immunized with liposomal LPS was 1 order of magnitude higher and could be observed for a longer time (until day 21, i.e., the term of observation) than in mice immunized with free LPS. The same regularity was revealed in a study done with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This study also established that antibodies induced by immunization belonged to the immunoglobulin M and G classes, which are capable of prolonged circulation. Moreover, liposomal LPS induced a pronounced immune response in CBA/N mice (defective in B lymphocytes of the LyB-5+ subpopulation). The latter results indicate that the immunogenic action of liposomal LPS occurs at an early age.

  18. A review of leptospirosis in farm animals in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, T

    1998-12-01

    This paper presents a review of Leptospira infection in farm animals in Portugal which is based mainly on serological results obtained in the National Veterinary Research Laboratory between January 1987 and December 1993. Serum samples were tested by the microscopic agglutination test, at a minimum dilution of 1:100. Positive titres were obtained in 15.3% of the 9,543 bovine samples examined. Sejroe, Pomona, Hebdomadis, Tarassovi and Icterohaemorrhagiae were the principal serogroups which reacted in the tests. A total of 3,195 pigs were tested, of which 20.2% showed positive reactions. The main serogroups which reacted were Australis, Pomona, Cynopteri, Icterohaemorrhagiae and Autumnalis. Field observations on outbreaks of leptospirosis in pigs, along with data obtained from an experimental infection with serovar mozdok in pregnant gilts suggest that this serovar, rather than serovar pomona, may be causing Pomona group infections in pigs. Serum samples from 5,298 sheep were tested and 3.3% gave positive results. The predominant serogroups involved were Canicola, Pomona, Cynopteri, Sejroe and Icterohaemorrhagiae. From the 1,631 goats examined serologically, 5.0% gave positive results, mainly to serogroups Grippotyphosa, Canicola, Pomona, Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pyrogenes. Only 83 serum samples from horses were obtained, of which 43.4% showed positive titres. Serogroups Australis, Autumnalis, Cynopteri and Pyrogenes were those most commonly found. Serological evidence of leptospirosis in farm animals is widespread in Portugal, particularly in cattle and pigs. Leptospirosis in horses needs to be studied further. In an attempt to provide a general view on the occurrence of leptospirosis in these animal species in Portugal, the present results are compared with results obtained in previous studies and are complemented with both previous and recent bacteriological findings.

  19. Rapid prototyping for tissue-engineered bone scaffold by 3D printing and biocompatibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hui-Yu; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Mi, Xue; Hu, Yang; Gu, Xiao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The prototyping of tissue-engineered bone scaffold (calcined goat spongy bone-biphasic ceramic composite/PVA gel) by 3D printing was performed, and the biocompatibility of the fabricated bone scaffold was studied. Pre-designed STL file was imported into the GXYZ303010-XYLE 3D printing system, and the tissue-engineered bone scaffold was fabricated by 3D printing using gel extrusion. Rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured in vitro and then inoculated to the sterilized bone scaffold obtained by 3D printing. The growth of rabbit BMSCs on the bone scaffold was observed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of the tissue-engineered bone scaffold on the proliferation and differentiation of rabbit BMSCs using MTT assay. Universal testing machine was adopted to test the tensile strength of the bone scaffold. The leachate of the bone scaffold was prepared and injected into the New Zealand rabbits. Cytotoxicity test, acute toxicity test, pyrogenic test and intracutaneous stimulation test were performed to assess the biocompatibility of the bone scaffold. Bone scaffold manufactured by 3D printing had uniform pore size with the porosity of about 68.3%. The pores were well interconnected, and the bone scaffold showed excellent mechanical property. Rabbit BMSCs grew and proliferated on the surface of the bone scaffold after adherence. MTT assay indicated that the proliferation and differentiation of rabbit BMSCs on the bone scaffold did not differ significantly from that of the cells in the control. In vivo experiments proved that the bone scaffold fabricated by 3D printing had no acute toxicity, pyrogenic reaction or stimulation. Bone scaffold manufactured by 3D printing allows the rabbit BMSCs to adhere, grow and proliferate and exhibits excellent biomechanical property and high biocompatibility. 3D printing has a good application prospect in the prototyping of tissue-engineered bone scaffold.

  20. Alkane, terpene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon geochemistry of the Mackenzie River and Mackenzie shelf: Riverine contributions to Beaufort Sea coastal sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunker, Mark B.; Macdonald, Robie W.; Cretney, Walter J.; Fowler, Brian R.; McLaughlin, Fiona A.

    1993-07-01

    To study the largest source of river sediment to the Arctic Ocean, we have collected suspended particulates from the Mackenzie River in all seasons and sediments from the Mackenzie shelf between the river mouth and the shelf edge. These samples have been analyzed for alkanes, triterpenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We found that naturally occurring hydrocarbons predominate in the river and on the shelf. These hydrocarbons include biogenic alkanes and triterpenes with a higher plant/peat origin, diagenetic PAHs from peat and plant detritus, petrogenic alkanes, triterpenes and PAHs from oil seeps and/or bitumens and combustion PAHs that are likely relict in peat deposits. Because these components vary independently, the season is found to strongly influence the concentration and composition of hydrocarbons in the Mackenzie River. While essentially the same pattern of alkanes, diagenetic hopanes and alkyl PAHs is observed in all river and most shelf sediment samples, alkane and triterpene concentration variations are strongly linked to the relative amount of higher plant/peat material. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecular-mass profiles also appear to be tied primarily to varying proportions of peat, with an additional petrogenic component which is most likely associated with lithic material mobilized by the Mackenzie River at freshet. Consistent with the general lack of alkyl PAHs in peat, the higher PAHs found in the river are probably derived from forest and tundra fires. A few anthropogenic/pyrogenic compounds are manifest only at the shelf edge, probably due to a weakening of the river influence. We take this observation of pyrogenic PAHs and the pronounced source differences between two sediment samples collected at the shelf edge as evidence of a transition from dominance by the Mackenzie River to the geochemistry prevalent in Arctic regions far removed from major rivers.

  1. An improved glyoxal retrieval from OMI measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, L. M. A.; Richter, A.; Vrekoussis, M.; Wittrock, F.; Hilboll, A.; Schreier, S. F.; Burrows, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite observations from the SCIAMACHY, GOME-2 and OMI spectrometers have been used to retrieve atmospheric columns of glyoxal (CHOCHO) with the DOAS method. High CHOCHO levels were found over regions with large biogenic and pyrogenic emissions, and hot-spots have been identified over areas of anthropogenic activities. This study focuses on the development of an improved retrieval for CHOCHO from measurements by the OMI instrument. From sensitivity tests, a fitting window and a polynomial degree are determined. Two different approaches to reduce the interference of liquid water absorption over oceanic regions are evaluated, achieving significant reduction of the number of negative columns over clear water regions. The impact of using different absorption cross-sections for water vapour is evaluated and only small differences are found. Finally, a high-temperature (boundary layer ambient: 294 K) absorption cross-section of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is introduced in the DOAS retrieval to account for potential interferences of NO2 over regions with large anthropogenic emissions, leading to improved fit quality over these areas. A comparison with vertical CHOCHO columns retrieved from GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY measurements over continental regions is performed, showing overall good consistency. However, SCIAMACHY CHOCHO columns are systematically higher than those obtained from the other instruments. Using the new OMI CHOCHO data set, the link between fires and glyoxal columns is investigated for two selected regions in Africa. In addition, mapped averages are computed for a fire event in Russia between mid-July and mid-August 2010. In both cases, enhanced CHOCHO levels are found in close spatial and temporal proximity to elevated levels of MODIS fire radiative power, demonstrating that pyrogenic emissions can be clearly identified in the new OMI CHOCHO product.

  2. Sorovares de leptospiras predominantes em exames sorológicos de bubalinos, ovinos, caprinos, eqüinos, suínos e cães de diversos estados brasileiros Most frequent serovars of leptospires in serological tests of buffaloes, sheeps, goats, horses, swines and dogs from several brazilian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cecília Mercaldi Favero

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Em estudo retrospectivo abrangendo os anos de 1984 a 1997, foram realizados 15.558 exames sorológicos para leptospirose (SAM, com coleção de 24 sorovares, que incluíram: 284 ovinos, 879 bubalinos, 983 cães, 1.941 caprinos, 2.903 eqüinos e 8.568 suínos, distribuídos percentualmente por estado da seguinte forma: ovinos - SP (100%; bubalinos - SP (100%; cães - SP (80,7%, RS (0,10%, SC (0,10% e PI (19,0%; caprinos - SP (33,1%, PB (63,7% e CE (3,2%; eqüinos - SP (79,3%, RS (9,98%, SC (0,62%, PR (2,5%, RJ (0,17%, MG (1,96%, MT (3,99%, PB (1,3% e PI (0,03%; suínos - SP (61,91%, RS (0,3%, SC (5,95%, PR (3,67%, RJ (0,88%, MG (24,38%, GO (1,12%, SE (0,2%, PE (0,90%, CE (0,34% e MA (0,1%. A distribuição temporal dos animais examinados incluiu: para a espécie ovina - 54,5% referentes aos anos 1996 e 97, 33,3% referentes a 89 e 90 e 12,2% aos outros anos; espécie bubalina - 21,7% no intervalo de 1984 a 95 e 78,83% entre 96 e 97; espécie canina - 16,91% entre 1984 e 92 e 83,09% entre 1993 e 97; caprinos - 6,97% entre 1984 e 91 e 93,09% entre 1992 e 97, sendo que 49% das amostras foram referentes ao ano de 1992; eqüinos - 18,1% no intervalo de 84 a 90 e 81,9% de1991 a 97; suínos - 61,16% referentes aos anos 90, 91, 95 e 96. As médias de animais reatores e variantes mais freqüentes por espécie foram: ovinos - 0,70% de soropositividade e reações mais freqüentes para a variante icterohaemorrhagiae; bubalinos - 43,7% de positivos e variantes hardjo seguida de pomona; cães - soropositividade de 17,7% e reações para as variantes copenhageni e icterohaemorrhagiae no estado de SP e pyrogenes no PI; caprinos - 4,17% de positividade e variantes icterohaemorrhagiae e grippotyphosa no CE, icterohaemorrhagiae na PB e pyrogenes em SP; eqüinos - 29% de soros positivos e variantes icterohaemorrhagiae no PR, SC, SP, RJ e MG, grippotyphosa no MT, pyrogenes na PB e patoc no RS; suínos - soropositividade de 24,46% e grippotyphosa seguida de

  3. 人肝细胞/微孔聚丙烯杂化界面的生物相容性%Biocompatibility of human hepatocyte/microporous polypropylene hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞; 彭承宏; 韩宝三; 王兆海; 吴旭波; 吴薇; 高长有

    2008-01-01

    背景:生物反应器膜材料不仅具备双向物质交换、良好的理化特性,还要具有良好的生物相容性.目的:评价人肝细胞/微孔聚丙烯杂化界面,即接技改性微孔聚丙烯超滤膜的生物相容性.设计、时间及地点:动物实验观察,于2005-09/2007-10在上海交通大学医学院附属瑞金医院器官移植中心(上海消化外科研究所)实验室和浙江大学高分子材料研究所共同完成.材料:选用孔径为0.2 μm,分子截流量为Mr 50000-100000的微孔聚丙烯超滤平面薄膜为实验模型,利用光化学接枝聚合改性技术,在聚丙烯超滤膜表面通过化学键的形式接枝亲水性丙烯酰胺基团,成功地构建一种人肿细胞/微孔聚丙烯杂化界面,即新型的生物人工肝生物反应器膜--接枝改性微孔聚丙烯超滤膜.方法:参照国际标准化组织ISO10993-1:1992医疗器械生物学评价标准和要求进行溶血试验、细胞毒性试验、全身急性毒性试验、热原试验、皮肤和皮内刺激试验,评价接枝改性微孔聚丙烯超滤膜的生物相容性.主要观察指标:接枝改性微孔聚丙烯超滤膜浸提液的溶血试验、细胞毒性试验、全身急性毒性试验、热原试验、皮肤和皮内刺激试验结果.结果:接枝改性微孔聚丙烯超滤膜的溶血率为1.90% 50 000-100 000 molecular blockage, were used. Photochemical graft polymerization modification technique was adopted to graft hydrophilic acrylamide group through chemical bonds on MPP surface and succeeded in constructing an interface of human hepatocyte/microporous polypropylene, i.e. bioreactor membrane of bioartificial liver, graft modified MPP.METHODS: The biocompatibility of modified MPP was evaluated by hemolysis test, cytotoxicity test, acute systemic toxicity test, pyrogen test, skin sensitization and percutaneous stimulation test according to the requirements and biological evaluation criteria of medical device of ISO10993-1:1992.MAIN

  4. 鹿脱蛋白松质骨的生物相容性*☆%Biocompatibility of deer deproteinized cancellous bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海鹏; 李春; 张舵; 吴丹凯

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antigen-extracted xenogeneic cancel ous bone as a kind of bone implant material has a natural porous structure, plasticity, and certain mechanical strength. OBJECTIVE: To study the biocompatibility of the deer deproteinized cancel ous bone. METHODS: Pyrogen test and acute toxicity test: Fresh deer bone, deproteinized cancel ous bone, and free-dried deproteinized cancel ous bone extracts were injected into the ear vein of rabbits and the abdominal cavity of mice. Hemolysis test: Rabbit mixed blood was added into the fresh deer bone, deproteinized cancel ous bone, and free-dried deproteinized cancel ous bone extracts, sodium carbonate (positive control), and normal saline (negative control). Coagulation test: Fresh deer bone, deproteinized cancel ous bone, and free-dried deproteinized cancel ous bone were placed into normal rabbit mixed blood. Long-term muscle test: Fresh deer bone, deproteinized cancel ous bone, and free-dried deproteinized cancel ous bone were implanted into the thigh muscle pouches of mice. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Deer deproteinized cancel ous bone and free-dried deproteinized cancel ous bone had no pyrogen reaction, toxicity, hemolysis and hemopexis reactions, and did not result in rejection reaction after implantation to the thigh muscle pouches of mice. There was a mild abnormality for the fresh deer bone in pyrogen, coagulation, hemolysis and long-term muscle tests without death. These findings indicate that deer deproteinized cancel ous bone and free-dried deproteinized cancel ous bone have good biocompatibility.%  背景:经过脱蛋白去抗原处理的异种松质骨作为骨移植材料,具有天然的多孔结构、可塑性及一定的机械强度。目的:观察鹿脱蛋白松质骨的生物相容性。方法:①热源实验与急性毒性实验:将鹿新鲜骨、脱蛋白松质骨及深低温冻干脱蛋白松质骨浸提液分别注入家兔耳缘静脉与小鼠腹腔。②溶血实验:将兔血混悬液

  5. Observations of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN in the upper troposphere by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS

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    K. A. Tereszchuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxyacetyl nitrate (CH3CO·O2NO2, abbreviated as PAN is a trace molecular species present in the troposphere and lower stratosphere due primarily to pollution from fuel combustion and the pyrogenic outflows from biomass burning. In the lower troposphere, PAN has a relatively short life-time and is principally destroyed within a few hours through thermolysis, but it can act as a reservoir and carrier of NOx in the colder temperatures of the upper troposphere where UV photolysis becomes the dominant loss mechanism. Pyroconvective updrafts from large biomass burning events can inject PAN into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS, providing a means for the long-range transport of NOx. Given the extended lifetimes at these higher altitudes, PAN is readily detectable via satellite remote sensing.

    A new PAN data product is now available for the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS Version 3.0 data set. We report measurements of PAN in Boreal biomass burning plumes recorded during the Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS campaign. The retrieval method employed and errors analysis are described in full detail.

    The retrieved volume mixing ratio (VMR profiles are compared to coincident measurements made by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS instrument on the European Space Agency (ESA ENVIronmental SATellite (ENVISAT. Three ACE-FTS occultations containing measurements of Boreal biomass burning outflows, recorded during BORTAS, were identified as having coincident measurements with MIPAS. In each case, the MIPAS measurements demonstrated good agreement with the ACE-FTS VMR profiles for PAN.

    The ACE-FTS PAN data set is used to obtain zonal mean distributions of seasonal averages from ~5 to 20 km. A strong

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and black carbon in intertidal sediments of China coastal zones: Concentration, ecological risk, source and their relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaofei [School of Geographical Sciences, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Hou, Lijun [State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Li, Ye [School of Geographical Sciences, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Liu, Min, E-mail: mliu@geo.ecnu.edu.cn [School of Geographical Sciences, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Lin, Xianbiao; Cheng, Lv [School of Geographical Sciences, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and black carbon (BC) have attracted many attentions, especially in the coastal environments. In this study, spatiotemporal distributions of PAHs and BC, and the correlations between BC and PAHs were investigated in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. BC in sediments was measured through dichromate oxidation (BC{sub Cr}) and thermal oxidation (BC{sub CTO}). The concentrations of BC{sub Cr} in the intertidal sediments ranged between 0.61 and 6.32 mg g{sup −1}, while BC{sub CTO} ranged between 0.57 and 4.76 mg g{sup −1}. Spatial variations of δ{sup 13}C signatures in TOC and BC were observed, varying from − 21.13‰ to − 24.87‰ and from − 23.53‰ to − 16.78‰, respectively. PAH contents of sediments ranged from 195.9 to 4610.2 ng g{sup −1} in winter and 98.2 to 2796.5 ng g{sup −1} in summer, and significantly seasonal variations were observed at most sampling sites. However, the results of potential toxicity assessment indicated low ecological risk in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. Greater concentrations of PAHs measured in the sediments of estuarine environments indicated that rivers runoff may have been responsible for the higher PAH pollution levels in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. Pearson's correlation analysis suggested that pyrogenic compounds of PAH were significantly related to BC, due to that both BC and these compounds derived mainly from the combustion process of fossil fuels and biomass. Overall, increasing energy consumptions caused by anthropogenic activities can contribute more emissions of BC as well as PAHs and thus improve the importance of BC in indicating pyrogenic compounds of PAHs in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. - Highlights: • River runoffs were responsible for the high PAH pollution levels in the study area. • BC and PAHs derived mainly from the combustion process of fossil fuels. • BC was associated

  7. A neglected - but not negligible - carbon reservoir in the Italian forests: relic charcoal kiln soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrolonardo, Giovanni; Francioso, Ornella; Carrari, Elisa; Brogi, Cristiana; Venturi, Martina; Certini, Giacomo

    2017-04-01

    Charcoal production in forests is one of the oldest human activities in Italy and the other European countries. Here, 3 thousand years ago civilizations were already used to convert wood into charcoal for energetic and metallurgic purposes. The technique for making charcoal remained substantially unchanged in time: wood piles covered with turf were built in appositely shaped emplacements, and then left to pyrolyse for days under controlled semi-anoxic conditions. This widespread activity lasted until a few decades ago, leaving as legacy a plethora of repeatedly used emplacements where soil shows a thick top layer very rich in charcoal. Despite the high frequency of relic charcoal kilns in the European forests, no studies aimed at accurately determining their C stock to assess their relevance as C sink in forest environment. In this work, we studied some relic charcoal kilns in a mixed oak forest at Marsiliana, Tuscany, central Italy, where charcoal production was enduring and massive at least since the Middle age. At Marsiliana, density of charcoal kiln sites was not uniform within the forest areas as it mostly depends on biomass availability. According to the aspect, northerly or southerly, we recognized two main forest areas where kiln sites density ranged between 2 and 3 sites per hectare. In general, the C content in the kiln soils was eight times the one in the surrounding soil, with just one third of the C in the form of pyrogenic C. Hence, natural organic carbon content was significantly higher in the kiln soils. Such a finding confirms that charcoal gives a substantial contribution to the C stock in the kilns but does not fully account for their particular richness in C. It has been thus hypothesized that charcoal is somehow able to stimulate the accumulation of native soil organic matter. At Marsiliana forest, relic charcoal kilns soils cover less than 0.5% of total surface. Nonetheless, their contribution to the total C stock in the top soil (30 cm

  8. Characterization of the humic substances isolated from postfire soils of scotch pine forest in Togljatty city, Samara region by the 13C-NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimova, Ekaterina; Abakumov, Evgeny

    2016-04-01

    Postpyrogenic soil dynamics is an informative tool for studying of soil elementary processes in extreme temperature conditions and for predicting of short time environmental changes in conditions of catastrophic landscape changes. Soil organic matter (SOM) system evolution is the most rapid process of postpyrogenic soil development. In this relation the evaluation of humus accumulation rates and humification trend were conducted with use of the classical chemical and modern spectroscopy methods. Soil restoration after spontaneous forest fires near Togljatty city (Samara region, Russia) was abandoned in 2010, and further monitoring over the next four years was organized to evaluate the speed of biogenic processes and humus accumulation dynamics. Three key soil plots were studied for estimating SOM quality changes under the forest fire effect: surface forest fire, crown forest fire and control. Total carbon and nitrogen content as well as Cha/Cfa ratios (content of humic acids/ content of fulvic acids), were estimated to assess the dynamics of soil restoration. Humic acid powders were extracted and analyzed by elemental composition and 13C-NMR spectroscopy to assess changes in humic substance structure and composition. The data obtained indicate that burning of a forest floor and sod (humic) horizon led to humus losses and decreases in total carbon stocks. As a result of the fires, the content of humic acids in the pyrogenic horizon increased, leading alterations of humus type. Greater increases in the degree of organic matter humification were observed for surface fires than crown fires. It was shown that the humus molecular composition was substantially affected by the wildfires. The data show an increase in aromaticity, a loss of oxygen-containing groups and dehydrogenation of humic acids. Humic acids in the soils of the control plots and after wildfires were significantly different, especially in the ratios of hydrogen, oxygen and carbon. The increase in the

  9. Environmental Partitioning of Biomass Combustion Biomarkers in Arctic Rivers across the Spring Freshet Hydrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers-Pigg, A.; Louchouarn, P.; Tananaev, N.; Teisserenc, R.

    2014-12-01

    A number of studies have recently documented that pyrogenic carbon (PyC) is an integral and significant proportion of DOM in worldwide rivers, and that this material originates from all fractions of the PyC continuum, from highly resistant PyC to more soluble, labile components. Understanding the transfer of PyC to river systems is paramount for Arctic regions, given the projected increase in frequency and intensity of forest fires in boreal ecosystems. Considering this potential increase in the production of boreal PyC, constraining the PyC-cycle in Arctic environments is essential. However, one of the parameters that affect the fate of PyC in river systems, the environmental partitioning between soluble and particulate phases (Kd), has so far been unstudied. This is particularly important to quantify for low-temperature PyC, due to the greater experimental solubility of this portion of the PyC continuum. Here, we present for the first time a study that analyzes phase partitioning of low-temperature PyC biomarkers in two Arctic Rivers: a small Canadian river, the Great Whale River in northern Quebec, and the largest Arctic River, the Yenisei River in north-central Siberia. During the spring freshet increases in discharge in each river, mass-normalized sorption coefficients (Kd) increase by two orders of magnitude, whereas organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficients (KOC) vary by a much smaller range. The former trend implies that spring discharge events export potentially fresher materials in the sorbed fractions, as the PyC components may not yet have fully equilibrated with the aqueous phase. The latter observation suggests an association of combustion biomarkers with particulate organic matter (char particles or sorbed soil organic matter). The present work confirms that low temperature PyC biomarkers sorb to particles at a high enough level to enter sedimentary deposits and record wildfire signatures. However, the Kd-KOC values for these rivers are 3

  10. 磷酸钙骨水泥/骨形态发生蛋白复合人工骨的生物相容性%Biocompatibility of calcium phosphate cement/BMP composite as bone graft material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙明林; 胡蕴玉; 贾新斌; 李丹; 刘忠湘; 朱德生

    2001-01-01

    AIM To construct CPC/BMP composite by combining CPC with BMP, and to detect their biocompatibity. METHODS The toxicity, pyrogen, hemolytic activities and immunogen were detected by means of animal test, cell culture, hemolysis test and histochemical technique. RESULTS The composites were found no toxicity and no pyrogen by animal test, no hemolytic activities and couldn't influence the coagulate of blood in vitro. When the materials were grafted into the muscle pounches in the thigh of mice or rabbits, no obvious specific antibodies produced were detected in serum by ELISA, nor were significant immune reaction of foreign body observed by histochemistry technique. The composites were also testified no cytotoxicity in vitor for the proliferation of cultured cells couldn' be inhibited. CONCLUSION The CPC/BMP composite might have good biocompatibility and be safe for clinical use.%目的将自行合成的磷酸钙骨水泥(CPC)作为载体与BMP复合成人工骨,检测其生物相容性. 方法制备CPC/BMP及CPC骨块,通过体外实验、细胞培养、动物实验等方法观察其毒性、免疫原性、对血液系统的影响等生物相容性指标. 结果动物实验表明材料属无毒级,不含致热原,体外试验不引起溶血反应,对凝血功能无明显影响. 植入兔或小鼠肌袋内未检测出特异性抗体. 组织学检查未见免疫排斥反应,对肌肉无刺激作用.对体外培养的细胞增殖没有明显抑制作用.结论材料有较好的生物相容性,临床使用安全.

  11. Substantial Underestimation of Post-harvest Burning Emissions in East China as Seen by Multi-species Space Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakou, T.; Muller, J. F.; Bauwens, M.; De Smedt, I.; Lerot, C.; Van Roozendael, M.

    2015-12-01

    Crop residue burning is an important contributor to global biomass burning. In the North China Plain, one of the largest and densely populated world plains, post-harvest crop burning is a common agricultural management practice, allowing for land clearing from residual straw and preparation for the subsequent crop cultivation. The most extensive crop fires occur in the North China Plain in June after the winter wheat comes to maturity, and have been blamed for spikes in air pollution leading to serious health problems. Estimating harvest season burning emissions is therefore of primary importance to assess air quality and define best policies for its improvement in this sensitive region. Bottom-up approaches, either based on crop production and emission factors, or on satellite burned area and fire radiative power products, have been adopted so far, however, these methods crucially depend, among other assumptions, on the satellite skill to detect small fires, and could lead to underestimation of the actual emissions. The flux inversion of atmospheric observations is an alternative, independent approach for inferring the emissions from crop fires. Satellite column observations of formaldehyde (HCHO) exhibit a strong peak over the North China Plain in June, resulting from enhanced pyrogenic emissions of a large suite of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), precursors of HCHO. We use vertical columns of formaldehyde retrieved from the OMI instrument between 2005 and 2012 as constraints in an adjoint inversion scheme built on IMAGESv2 CTM, and perform the optimization of biogenic, pyrogenic, and anthropogenic emission parameters at the model resolution. We investigate the interannual variability of the top-down source, quantify its importance for the atmospheric composition on the regional scale, and explore its uncertainties. The OMI-based crop burning source is compared with the corresponding anthropogenic flux in the North China Plain, and is evaluated against HCHO

  12. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in rivers and estuaries in Malaysia: a widespread input of petrogenic PAHs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Takada, Hideshige; Tsutsumi, Shinobu; Ohno, Kei; Yamada, Junya; Kouno, Eriko; Kumata, Hidetoshi

    2002-05-01

    This is the first publication on the distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in riverine and coastal sediments in South East Asia where the rapid transfer of land-based pollutants into aquatic environments by heavy rainfall and runoff waters is of great concern. Twenty-nine Malaysian riverine and coastal sediments were analyzed for PAHs (3-7 rings) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Total PAHs concentrations in the sediment ranged from 4 to 924 ng/g. Alkylated homologues were abundant for all sediment samples. The ratio of the sum of methylphenanthrenes to phenanthrene (MP/P), an index of petrogenic PAHs contribution, was more than unity for 26 sediment samples and more than 3 for seven samples for urban rivers covering a broad range of locations. The MP/P ratio showed a strong correlation with the total PAHs concentrations, with an r2 value of 0.74. This ratio and all other compositional features indicated that Malaysian urban sediments are heavily impacted by petrogenic PAHs. This finding is in contrast to other studies reported in many industrialized countries where PAHs are mostly of pyrogenic origin. The MP/P ratio was also significantly correlated with higher molecular weight PAHs such as benzo[a]pyrene, suggesting unique PAHs source in Malaysia which contains both petrogenic PAHs and pyrogenic PAHs. PAHs and hopanes fingerprints indicated that used crankcase oil is one of the major contributors of the sedimentary PAHs. Two major routes of inputs to aquatic environments have been identified: (1) spillage and dumping of waste crankcase oil and (2) leakage of crankcase oils from vehicles onto road surfaces, with the subsequent washout by street runoff. N-Cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazolamine (NCBA), a molecular marker of street dust, was detected in the polluted sediments. NCBA and other biomarker profiles confirmed our hypothesis of the input from street dust contained the leaked crankcase oil. The fingerprints excluded crude oil

  13. Leptopirosis in animal of animal house of Biologic Science Center of Londrina State University / Leptospirose em animais do biotério central do Centro de Ciências Biológicas da Universidade Estadual de Londrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Eckehardt Muller

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis has been described in laboratory animal house of several countries happening among mice. albino rats. guinea pigs, dogs, rabbits, monkeys and man. The laboratory animal house of Biologic Science Center of Londrina State University maintains and breeds several species of animals and stray dogs trapped in citíes of Paraná State. In this paper w e r e utilized for leptospirosis research, 325 wistar rats. 323 albino mice. 289 dogs, 135 rabbits. 119 guinea pigs, and 57 black rats trapped around of animal house. The microscopic agglutination test with 22 cultures of Leptospira interrogans showed positive results in 110 dogs and o n e guinea pig, having been found antibodies against serovars canicola (62, 7%, pyrogenes (51,8%, castellonis (30.9% and icterobaemorrhagiae (23,6%. The dark field microscopy examination of 574 urine samples (282 albino mice, 224 wistar rats, 29 black rats, 24 dogs, 13 rabbits and two guinea pigs showed positive resuíts in six dogs. The seven attempts of urine and kidneys isolation were negatives.A leptospirose tem sido descrita em biotérios de vários países, acometendo camundongos, ratos albinos, cobaios, cães, coelhos e macacos além do manipuladores. O Biotério Centrai do Centro de Ciências Biológicas da Universidade Estadual de Londrina mantém e cria várias espécies de animais além de receber cães de rua, capturados em municípios do Estado do Paraná. Neste trabalho foram utilizados para a pesquisa de leptospirose, soros de 325 ratos wistar, 323 camundongos albinos. 289 cães de rua, 135 coelhos, 119 cobaios, além de 57 ratos pretos capturados nas proximidades do biotério. A prova de somaglutinação microscópica com 22 soroiipos de Lepiospira interrogans mostrou resultados positivos em 110 cães e um cobaio, sendo encontrado anticorpos principalmente contra os soroiipos canicola (62. 7%. pyrogenes (51.8%. castellonis (30,9% e icterohaemorrhagiae (23.6%. A pesquisa direta de leptospira em

  14. Micro- and nano-environments of C sequestration in soil: a multi-elemental STXM-NEXAFS assessment of black C and organomineral associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Dawit; Lehmann, Johannes; Wang, Jian; Kinyangi, James; Heymann, Karen; Lu, Yingshen; Wirick, Sue; Jacobsen, Chris

    2012-11-01

    Black C is an essential component of the terrestrial C pool and its formation is often credited as a CO(2) sink by transferring the fast-cycling C from the atmosphere-biosphere system into slower cycling C in the geosphere. This study is the first multi-element K- (C, N, Ca, Fe, Al and Si) soft-X-ray STXM-NEXAFS investigation conducted at a submicron-scale spatial resolution specifically targeting black C and its interaction with the mineral and non-black C organic matter in the organomineral assemblage. The STXM-NEXAFS micrographs and spectra demonstrated that pyrogenic C was dominated by quinoide, aromatic, phenol, ketone, alcohol, carboxylic and hydroxylated- and ether-linked C species. There was also evidence for the presence of pyridinic, pyridonic, pyrrolic, amine and nitril N functionalities. The non-black C organic matter contained amino acids, amino sugars, nucleic acids and polysaccharides known to exhibit negatively charged carboxylic, phenolic, enolic, thiolate and phosphate functionalities highly reactive towards metal ions and black C. The metal-rich mineral matrix was composed of phyllosilicate clay minerals, Fe and Al hydroxypolycations, oxides, hydroxides and oxyhydroxide that can attract and bind organic biopolymers. STXM-NEXAFS provided evidence for interactive association between pyrogenic C, non-black C organic matter and the mineral oxide and oxyhydroxide communities in the organomineral interface. These intimate associations occurred through a "two-way" direct linkage between black C and the mineral or non-black C organic matter or via a "three-way" indirect association where non-black C organic matter could serve as a molecular cross-linking agent binding black C with the mineral matrix or vice versa where inorganic oxides, hydroxides and polycations could act as a bridge to bind black C with non-black C organic matter. The binding and sequestration of black C in the investigated micro- and nano-C repository environments seem to be the

  15. Gas Permeation, Mechanical Behavior and Cytocompatibility of Ultrathin Pure and Doped Diamond-Like Carbon and Silicon Oxide Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen M. Lackner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Protective ultra-thin barrier films gather increasing economic interest for controlling permeation and diffusion from the biological surrounding in implanted sensor and electronic devices in future medicine. Thus, the aim of this work was a benchmarking of the mechanical oxygen permeation barrier, cytocompatibility, and microbiological properties of inorganic ~25 nm thin films, deposited by vacuum deposition techniques on 50 µm thin polyetheretherketone (PEEK foils. Plasma-activated chemical vapor deposition (direct deposition from an ion source was applied to deposit pure and nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon films, while physical vapor deposition (magnetron sputtering in pulsed DC mode was used for the formation of silicon as well as titanium doped diamond-like carbon films. Silicon oxide films were deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The results indicate a strong influence of nanoporosity on the oxygen transmission rate for all coating types, while the low content of microporosity (particulates, etc. is shown to be of lesser importance. Due to the low thickness of the foil substrates, being easily bent, the toughness as a measure of tendency to film fracture together with the elasticity index of the thin films influence the oxygen barrier. All investigated coatings are non-pyrogenic, cause no cytotoxic effects and do not influence bacterial growth.

  16. Pyrolysis Products as Soil Fertilizers: Screening of Potentially Hazardous Aromatic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frišták Vladimír

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in pyrogenic carbonaceous materials (PCM produced from three waste materials during slow pyrolysis at 400 and 500°C. As feedstocks bone meal (BM, biogas slurry (BC and chicken manure (CM were used. As potentially problematic substances 1- and 2- methylnaphthalene were analysed as indicators for methylated hydrocarbons in pyrolysis products. The phytotoxic effect of soil amendments was evaluated by a standard cress germination test with Lepidium sativum L. The analysis showed higher concentrations of the sum of 16 US-EPA PAHs in samples produced at lower temperature and in samples produced from biogas slurry. Concentrations of 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene showed similar trends with concentrations in a range of 35-205% of the sum of 16 PAHs. Germination tests showed inhibition effects of products from biogas slurry when applied in concentrations of ≥ 10 % to standard substrate. Apparently pyrolysis of biogas slurry requires special attention to avoid accumulation of PAHs and methylated naphthalenes.

  17. Human scFvs That Counteract Bioactivities of Staphylococcus aureus TSST-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukkawattanakul, Thunchanok; Sookrung, Nitat; Seesuay, Watee; Onlamoon, Nattawat; Diraphat, Pornphan; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Indrawattana, Nitaya

    2017-01-01

    Some Staphylococcus aureus isolates produced toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) which is a pyrogenic toxin superantigen (PTSAg). The toxin activates a large fraction of peripheral blood T lymphocytes causing the cells to proliferate and release massive amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines leading to a life-threatening multisystem disorder: toxic shock syndrome (TSS). PTSAg-mediated-T cell stimulation circumvents the conventional antigenic peptide presentation to T cell receptor (TCR) by the antigen-presenting cell (APC). Instead, intact PTSAg binds directly to MHC-II molecule outside peptide binding cleft and simultaneously cross-links TCR-Vβ region. Currently, there is neither specific TSS treatment nor drug that directly inactivates TSST-1. In this study, human single chain antibodies (HuscFvs) that bound to and neutralized bioactivities of the TSST-1 were generated using phage display technology. Three E. coli clones transfected with TSST-1-bound phages fished-out from the human scFv library using recombinant TSST-1 as bait expressed TSST-1-bound-HuscFvs that inhibited the TSST-1-mediated T cell activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expressions and productions.Computerized simulation, verified by mutations of the residues of HuscFv complementarity determining regions (CDRs),predicted to involve in target binding indicated that the HuscFvs formed interface contact with the toxin residues important for immunopathogenesis. The HuscFvs have high potential for future therapeutic application. PMID:28218671

  18. Fabrication of a novel magnetic carbon nanocomposite adsorbent via pyrolysis of sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dong-Wan; Lee, Jechan; Ok, Yong Sik; Kwon, Eilhann E; Song, Hocheol

    2016-11-01

    A new-fashioned fabrication recipe for a magnetic carbon nanocomposite (Fe3O4@C) via pyrolysis of sugar with magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles was developed for the practical environmental application as an adsorbent. In order to synthesize Fe3O4@C, the thermal degradation of sugar was firstly investigated via thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) to explore the optimal pyrolytic conditions for fabricating Fe3O4@C. This study laid a great emphasis on the physicochemical characterization of pyrogenic Fe3O4@C through various analytical techniques, which experimentally validated that Fe3O4@C retained thin graphitic carbon layers containing carboxyl groups on the surface with the point of zero charge (pHpzc) of 7.5. Based on adsorption tests of methylene blue (MB), it was found the optimal mass ratio of sugar to Fe3O4 was 0.15 with pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C. The adsorption capacity of Fe3O4@C for MB was 52.6 mg g(-1) and MB adsorption showed a strong pH dependence, which implies an active role of electrostatic interactions in the adsorption process. In regeneration experiments, Fe3O4@C retained 84% of its initial adsorption capacity after completing four consecutive adsorption cycles.

  19. Quantifying the Impact of BOReal Forest Fires on Tropospheric Oxidants Over the Atlantic Using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS) Experiment: Design, Execution, and Science Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Paul I.; Parrington, Mark; Lee, James D.; Lewis, Alistair C.; Richard, Andrew R.; Bernath, Peter F.; Pawson, Steven; daSilva, Arlindo M.; Duck, Thomas J.; Waugh, David L.; Tarasick, Daivd W.; Andrews, Stephen; Aruffo, Eleonora; Bailey, Loren J.; Barrett, Lucy; Bauguitte, Stephan J.-B.; Curry, Kevin R.; DiCarlo, Piero; Chisholm, Lucy; Dan, Lin; Forster, Grant; Franklin, Jonathan E.; Gibson, Mark D.; Griffin, Debora; Moore, David P.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the design and execution of the BORTAS (Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants using Aircraft and Satellites) experiment, which has the overarching objective of understanding the chemical aging of airmasses that contain the emission products from seasonal boreal wildfires and how these airmasses subsequently impact downwind atmospheric composition. The central focus of the experiment was a two-week deployment of the UK BAe-146-301 Atmospheric Research Aircraft (ARA) over eastern Canada. The planned July 2010 deployment of the ARA was postponed by 12 months because of activities related to the dispersal of material emitted by the Eyjafjallaj¨okull volcano. However, most other planned model and measurement activities, including ground-based measurements at the Dalhousie University Ground Station (DGS), enhanced ozonesonde launches, and measurements at the Pico Atmospheric Observatory in the Azores, went ahead and constituted phase A of the experiment. Phase B of BORTAS in July 2011 included the same measurements, but included the ARA, special satellite observations and a more comprehensive measurement suite at the DGS. Integrating these data helped us to describe pyrogenic plumes from wildfires on a wide spectrum of temporal and spatial scales. We interpret these data using a range of chemistry models, from a near-explicit gas-phase chemical mechanism to regional and global models of atmospheric transport and lumped chemistry. We also present an overview of some of the new science that has originated from this project.

  20. Influence of traffic conditions on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon abundance in street dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Li; Li, Yingxia; Yang, Zhifeng; Shi, Jianghong

    2010-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations were quantified in sieved street dusts from eight sampling sites with different traffic conditions in Beijing. The parent diagnostic ratio test and multi-regression analysis were used to identify the different PAH pollution sources. Results showed that more than 93% of the cumulative 16 priority pollutant PAHs (Sigma 16EPA-PAH) load was present in street dust with a diameter less than 300 microm across all the sampling sites. The concentration of Sigma 4-6 ring PAHs was 93 to 284% higher than that of Sigma 2-3 ring PAHs for most of the sites except the cycle lane site, indicating the dominance of pyrogenic inputs in street dusts at these sites. Cooking oil is an important PAH source in street dusts for all the sampling sites. Tire debris and vehicle emissions were also identified as significant contributors to the PAH loading in the heavy traffic zone, vehicle parking areas, the frequent brake usage zone, and the construction area.

  1. Strategic Petroleum Reserve, West Hackberry oil storage cavern fire and spill of September 21, 1978: an environmental assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A

    1980-02-29

    This report summarizes an environmental assessment of the fire and oil spill at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve site, West Hackberry, Louisiana. Subjective identification of oil contaminated habitats was supported by a more rigorous classification of samples utilizing discriminant analysis. Fourteen contaminated stations were identified along the shore of Black Lake just north and west of Wellpad 6, encompassing approximately 9 hectares. Seasonal variation in the structures of marsh and lake bottom communities in this contaminated area were not generally distinguishable from that of similar communities in uncontaminated habitats along the southern and southeastern shores of Black Lake. The major impact of spilled oil on the marsh vegetation was to accelerate the natural marsh deterioration which will eventually impact animals dependent on marsh vegetation for habitat structure. Vanadium, the predominate trace metal in the oil, and pyrogenic products due to the fire were found at the most distant sampling site (5 km) from Cavern 6 during Phase I, but were not detected downwind of the fire in excess of background levels in the later phases. Remote sensing evaluation of vegetation under the plume also indicated that stress existed immediately after the fire, but had disappeared by the end of the 1-year survey.

  2. A Novel Antibacterial Compound from Siegesbeckia glabrescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deokhoon Park

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The crude methanol extract of the dried aerial parts of Siegesbeckia glabrescens (Compositae showed antibacterial activity against the foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Bioactivity-guided separation led to the isolation of 3-(dodecanoyloxy-2-(isobutyryloxy-4-methylpentanoic acid from nature for the first time. The structure was determined by spectroscopic data analysis (UV, MS, and NMR. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of 3-(dodecanoyloxy-2-(isobutyryloxy-4-methylpentanoic acid against S. aureus was found to be 3.12 μg/mL. In addition, in a further antimicrobial activity assay against Gram-positive (B. subtilis, E. faecalis, P. acnes, S. epidermidis, S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans, S. agalactiae and S. pyrogens, and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli and P. aeruginosa, and yeast strains (C. alibicans and F. neoformans, the antimicrobial activity of the compound was found to be specific for Gram-positive bacteria. The MIC values of the compound for Gram-positive bacteria ranged from 3.12 to 25 mg/mL. Furthermore, it was found that the 2-(isobutyryloxy-4-methylpentanoic acid substituent may operate as a key factor in the antibacterial activity of the compound, together with the laurate group.

  3. Carbon-Based Adsorbents for Postcombustion CO2 Capture: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Anne Elise; Gao, Bin

    2016-07-19

    The persistent increase in atmospheric CO2 from anthropogenic sources makes research directed toward carbon capture and storage imperative. Current liquid amine absorption technology has several drawbacks including hazardous byproducts and a high-energy requirement for regeneration; therefore, research is ongoing to develop more practical methods for capturing CO2 in postcombustion scenarios. The unique properties of carbon-based materials make them specifically promising for CO2 adsorption at low temperature and moderate to high partial pressure. This critical review aims to highlight the development of carbon-based solid sorbents for postcombustion CO2 capture. Specifically, it provides an overview of postcombustion CO2 capture processes with solid adsorbents and discusses a variety of carbon-based materials that could be used. This review focuses on low-cost pyrogenic carbon, activated carbon (AC), and metal-carbon composites for CO2 capture. Further, it touches upon the recent progress made to develop metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and carbon nanomaterials and their general CO2 sorption potential.

  4. Occurrence and distribution of hydrocarbons in the surface microlayer and subsurface water from the urban coastal marine area off Marseilles, Northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigue, Catherine; Tedetti, Marc; Giorgi, Sébastien; Goutx, Madeleine

    2011-12-01

    Aliphatic (AHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in dissolved and particulate material from surface microlayer (SML) and subsurface water (SSW) sampled at nearshore observation stations, sewage effluents and harbour sites from Marseilles coastal area (Northwestern Mediterranean) in 2009 and 2010. Dissolved and particulate AH concentrations ranged 0.05-0.41 and 0.04-4.3 μg l(-1) in the SSW, peaking up to 38 and 1366 μg l(-1) in the SML, respectively. Dissolved and particulate PAHs ranged 1.9-98 and 1.9-21 ng l(-1) in the SSW, amounting up 217 and 1597 ng l(-1) in the SML, respectively. In harbours, hydrocarbons were concentrated in the SML, with enrichment factors reaching 1138 for particulate AHs. Besides episodic dominance of biogenic and pyrogenic inputs, a moderate anthropisation from petrogenic sources dominated suggesting the impact of shipping traffic and surface runoffs on this urbanised area. Rainfalls increased hydrocarbon concentrations by a factor 1.9-11.5 in the dissolved phase.

  5. Linking wood source and charring temperature to the stability and biological reactivity of PyOM in a temperate forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Christy; Filley, Timothy; Hatton, Pierre Joseph; Nadelhoffer, Knute; Stark, Ruth; Bird, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Fire is a major mediator of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in forests, releasing significant quantities of greenhouse gases, soot, and aerosols while simultaneously depositing pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) onto forest soil. The condensed aromatic structure of PyOM imparts a resistance to weathering and decay and potentially promotes soil C stabilization and sequestration. This resistance however, is largely dependent upon the physiochemical characteristics of source material and production temperature. Few studies have been able to determine the stability and reactivity of well-characterized PyOM in field or laboratory decay studies. To address this, we added highly 13C-enriched red maple (RM) or jack pine (JP) pyrolyzed at 200, 300, 450 or 600°C to a low C, near-surface soil (0.5%; 0-20 cm-depth) at 60% water holding capacity and 11% of native soil C. We then incubated the samples in the dark at 25°C for 6 months. The results of 13CO2 evolution measurements indicated that both pyrolysis temperature and wood species played a significant role in PyOM mineralization. PyOM mineralization rates decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature for either species. RM mineralization rates were consistently greater (~5 to ~25%) than for JP soil.

  6. Serological studies on leptospirosis in livestock and chickens from Grenada and Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, C O; Fraser-Chanpong, G M; James, A C; Butcher, L V

    1985-01-01

    Sera from 1,206 livestock animals and chickens on Grenada and Trinidad were tested for leptospiral antibodies by the microscopic agglutination test. 376 of the sera were positive (25% of those tested on Grenada and 44% on Trinidad). The positive sera were obtained from 25% of 324 cattle, 35% of 130 pigs, 35% of 146 sheep, 25% of 44 goats and 11% of 175 chickens on Grenada; and 92% of 26 cattle, 53% of 122 pigs, 76% of 87 horses and donkeys and 11% of 144 chickens on Trinidad. Eight sera from ducks and geese on Trinidad were tested and found to be negative. The serogroups most commonly found to react with the sera of the Grenadian animals were Autumnalis, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Hebdomadis and the related serogroups Sejroe and Mini, and Pyrogenes; in the Trinidadian animals they were Icterohaemorrhagiae, Autumnalis, Hebdomadis and its related serogroups, and Panama. Strains of serogroup Pomona do not appear to have become established as livestock pathogens on the islands.

  7. Decoupled sedimentary records of combustion: Causes and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Ulrich M.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Braun, Ana L. L.; Reddy, Christopher M.; Wiedemeier, Daniel B.; Schmidt, Michael W. I.

    2016-05-01

    Pyrogenic carbon (PyC) is a collective term for carbon-rich residues comprised of a continuum of products arising from biomass burning and fossil-fuel combustion. PyC is ubiquitous in the environment where it can be transported by wind and water before being deposited in aquatic sediments. We compare results from four different methods used to trace PyC that were applied to a high-temporal resolution sedimentary record in order to constrain changes in PyC concentrations and fluxes over the past ~250 years. We find markedly discordant records for different PyC tracers, particularly during the preindustrial age, implying different origins and modes of supply of sedimentary PyC. In addition to providing new insights into the composition of sedimentary combustion products, this study reveals that elucidation of past combustion processes and development of accurate budgets of PyC production and deposition on local to regional scales requires careful consideration of both source characteristics and transport processes.

  8. A waste load allocation method based on unfairness factors and its application in the Zhangweinan Watershed, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ruzhi; Li, Yingxia; Yang, Zhifeng; Li, Chunhui; Yu, Jingshan; Shi, Jianghong

    2010-01-01

    A waste load allocation method was developed for industrial wastewater management based on unfairness factors, an industrial allocation factor and pollution reduction discounts. Three unfairness factors were defined to assess the relative efficiencies of energy consumption, pollution discharge and waste treatment costs for different industries. The overall effect of these factors was described by an industrial allocation factor. Based on the values of these factors, industries were classified into three types, after which waste load allocation proportions among different industries were determined using different pollution reduction discounts. This waste load allocation method was then applied in the Zhangweinan Watershed, which is one of the most seriously polluted watersheds in northern China. The results revealed that extractive, mechanical and food industries comprise the type I industries, which had the lowest pollution reduction discounts of 0, 0.25 and 0.5, respectively. The metallurgical industry and other industries were characterized as type II and discounts of 0.5 and 0.6 were given to their primary reductions. Textile, pharmaceutical, oil and pyrogenic, chemical and paper industries were classified as type III industries and had a waste load reduction of more than 80% of the pollution discharge in 2004.

  9. Systematic survey on the prevalence of genes coding for staphylococcal enterotoxins SElM, SElO, and SElN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Karsten; Friedrich, Alexander W; Peters, Georg; von Eiff, Christof

    2004-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus remains a leading cause of food-poisoning with substantial impact on public health. Using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction-DNA enzyme immunoassay (PCR-DEIA), we studied the presence of genes encoding staphylococcal enterotoxin-like (SEl) superantigens sem, sen, and seo, associated with the enterotoxin gene cluster (egc), in 429 clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates. 294 (68.5%) isolates tested positive for at least one of the three SEl genes. In contrast to the fixed gene combination seg/sei also located on egc, a substantial number of isolates (n = 108) were found to bear only one or two of the genes encoding SElM, SElN, and SElO. Regarding the origin of the S. aureus isolates, a significant difference (P = 0.022) was found for the possession of seo (61.2% of blood isolates versus 42.9% of nasal strains). Also sem (not significantly) was found more common in blood isolates (52.1% versus 40.5%). The survey of the newly described SEl genes sem-seo supports the concept that most clinical S. aureus isolates harbor subsets of pyrogenic toxin superantigens. The potential contribution of seo and sem to the pathogenic potential of S. aureus has to be further evaluated.

  10. After the Burn: Forest Carbon Stocks and Fluxes across fire disturbed landscapes in Colorado, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, R. T.; Buma, B.; Wolf, K.; Elwood, K. K.; Fehsenfeld, T.; Kehlenbeck, M.

    2015-12-01

    In terrestrial ecosystems, ecological disturbances can strongly regulate material and energy flows. This often results from the reduction in biomass and associated ecological relationships and physiological processes. Researchers have noted an increase in the size and severity of disturbances, such as wildfire, in recent decades. While there is significant research examining post-disturbance carbon stocks and recovery, there is less known about the fate and quality of post-disturbance carbon pools. In an effort to understand the recovery and resilience of forest carbon stocks to severe wildfire we examined the carbon and black carbon (pyrogenic) stocks (e.g. above ground biomass, coarse woody debris, charcoal, soils) and export fluxes (stream export, soil respiration) within the burn scars of three Colorado fires (Hayman in 2002, Hinman in 2002, and Waldo Canyon in 2012) and compared them to nearby unburned forested ecosystems. The Hayman and Hinman fire comparison allows us to quantify differences between fire impacts in Ponderosa-Douglas Fir (montane) and Spruce-Fir (subalpine) ecosystems, while the Hayman and Waldo Canyon comparison gives us insights into how recovery time influences carbon biogeochemistry in these systems. We will present preliminary data comparing and relating terrestrial carbon and black carbon stocks, soil respiration rates, and watershed export fluxes.

  11. Fingerprinting analysis and characterization of hydrocarbons in sediments of the Pearl River Delta in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.; Wang, Z.; Hollebone, B.; Yang, Z.; Brown, C.; Landriault, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Section; Peng, X. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Inst. of Geochemistry

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID) to investigate and characterize the contamination in southern China's Pearl River Delta, with particular reference to contamination from petroleum,n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), biomarkers and diamondoid compounds. Forensic analysis of sediments was necessary in order to decode the contamination history and evaluate the contamination level of the aquatic ecosystem. The contamination of the Pearl River Delta sediment was derived from various inputs, including petrogenic, biogenic and pyrogenic sources. However, in addition to identifying PAHs and biomarker terpanes and steranes, the detection of trace diamondoid compounds in the sediments demonstrated that the pollution in the river was derived partially from petroleum sources. Diamondoids are a class of saturated hydrocarbons that consist of three-dimensionally fused cyclohexane rings. They occur naturally in source rocks, crude oils, intermediate petroleum distillates, and finished petroleum products. They are more resistant to biodegradation than most other petroleum compounds such as n-alkanes. As such, they can play an important role in identifying and characterizing petroleum contamination in the environment. It was concluded that the petroleum contamination in the Pearl River Delta is attributed to the mixture of medium to heavy petroleum residues. 31 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs.

  12. Evaluation of the toxicity of intravenous delivery of auroshell particles (gold-silica nanoshells).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Shayne C; Sharp, Kelly L; Montgomery, Charles; Payne, J Donald; Goodrich, Glenn P

    2012-01-01

    Gold nanoshells (155 nm in diameter with a coating of polyethylene glycol 5000) were evaluated for preclinical biocompatibility, toxicity, and biodistribution as part of a program to develop an injectable device for use in the photothermal ablation of tumors. The evaluation started with a complete good laboratory practice (GLP) compliant International Organization for Standardization (ISO)-10993 biocompatibility program, including cytotoxicity, pyrogenicity (US Pharmacopeia [USP] method in the rabbit), genotoxicity (bacterial mutagenicity, chromosomal aberration assay in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and in vivo mouse micronucleus), in vitro hemolysis, intracutaneous reactivity in the rabbit, sensitization (in the guinea pig maximization assay), and USP/ISO acute systemic toxicity in the mouse. There was no indication of toxicity in any of the studies. Subsequently, nanoshells were evaluated in vivo by intravenous (iv) infusion using a trehalose/water solution in a series of studies in mice, Sprague-Dawley rats, and Beagle dogs to assess toxicity for time durations of up to 404 days. Over the course of 14 GLP studies, the gold nanoshells were well tolerated and, when injected iv, no toxicities or bioincompatibilities were identified.

  13. Superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin C1 mutant can reduce paraquat pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiegang; Xu, Mingkai; Wang, Nana; Zhao, Min

    2015-01-01

    A network of inflammation factors is related to pulmonary fibrosis induced by paraquat (PQ) poisoning. At high doses, the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin C1 (SEC1) can induce immunological unresponsiveness and inhibit release of inflammation factors. In this study, site-directed mutagenesis was performed at the H118 and H122 amino acid residues of SEC1 to reduce SEC1 toxicity. The SEC1 mutant showed significantly decreased pyrogenic toxicity, but retained clonal anergy at high dosages in vitro. Pretreatment with the SEC1 mutant prior to PQ poisoning in mice reduced symptom duration and severity, prolonged survival time, and decreased the splenocyte response to ConA induction. The SEC1 mutant also down-regulated several important cytokines related to fibrosis in the plasma after PQ poisoning. SEC1 decreased the expression of genes related to pulmonary fibrosis, including α-SMA, COL1a1, COL3 and TGF-β1, in PQ poisoned mice. Histomorphological observation indicated alleviation of pathological changes in the lungs after SEC1 pretreatment compared to mice in the PQ group. In conclusion, the SEC1 mutant reduced pulmonary interstitial fibrosis induced by PQ poisoning.

  14. Advantages of implantation of acellular porcine-derived mesh in the treatment of human rectocele – Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kościński

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A rectocele is a hernation of the rectum into the vaginal lumen developing as a consequence of weakness of the rectovaginal septum. It affects about 18% of women after childbearing age. Symptoms associated with a rectocele include constipation, vaginal fullness or heaviness, feeling of a bulging mass within vagina, incomplete stool evacuation and dyspareunia. Current methods of surgical treatment of a rectocele often require implantation of a mesh graft. In most of cases, synthetic and non-absorbable meshes are used. Although implantation of a synthetic and non-absorbable mesh is effective in the treatment of rectocele, a high rate of mesh erosion has been reported. Case report. This study presents a surgical technique and case report for the treatment of a rectocele in a 46-year-old women by implantation of a porcine-derived absorbable collagen mesh (Pelvicol® by transvaginal approach, with six year follow-up. A review of the literature concerning implantation of Pelvicol® for the treatment of rectocele was also undertaken. Conclusions. The clinical experience and review of the literature by the authors suggest that a porcine-derived acellular mesh is non-cytotoxic, pyrogenic or allergenic, and the application of a biomesh in the management of rectocele is effective and safe, and the risk of mesh erosion is very low.

  15. Muscle-damaging exercise increases heat strain during subsequent exercise heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Matthew Benjamin; Di Felice, Umberto; Dolci, Alberto; Junglee, Naushad A; Crockford, Michael J; West, Liam; Hillier-Smith, Ryan; Macdonald, Jamie Hugo; Walsh, Neil Peter

    2013-10-01

    It remains unclear whether exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) increases heat strain during subsequent exercise heat stress, which in turn may increase the risk of exertional heat illness. We examined heat strain during exercise heat stress 30 min after EIMD to coincide with increases in circulating pyrogens (e.g., interleukin-6 [IL-6]) and 24 h after EIMD to coincide with the delayed muscle inflammatory response when a higher rate of metabolic energy expenditure (M˙) and thus decreased economy might also increase heat strain. Thirteen non-heat-acclimated males (mean ± SD, age = 20 ± 2 yr) performed exercise heat stress tests (running for 40 min at 65% V˙O2max in 33°C, 50% humidity) 30 min (HS1) and 24 h (HS2) after treatment, involving running for 60 min at 65% V˙O2max on either -10% gradient (EIMD) or +1% gradient (CON) in a crossover design. Rectal (Tre) and skin (Tsk) temperature, local sweating rate, and M˙ were measured throughout HS tests. Compared with CON, EIMD evoked higher circulating IL-6 pre-HS1 (P correlated with the pre-HS1 circulating IL-6 concentration (r = 0.67). Heat strain was increased during endurance exercise in the heat conducted 30 min after and, to a much lesser extent, 24 h after muscle-damaging exercise. These data indicate that EIMD is a likely risk factor for exertional heat illness particularly during exercise heat stress when behavioral thermoregulation cues are ignored.

  16. Spatial variation of peat soil properties in the oil-producing region of northeastern Sakhalin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, D. N.; Shcheglov, A. I.; Manakhov, D. V.; Zavgorodnyaya, Yu. A.; Rozanova, M. S.; Brekhov, P. T.

    2017-07-01

    Morphology and properties of medium-deep oligotrophic peat, oligotrophic peat gley, pyrogenic oligotrophic peat gley, and peat gley soils on subshrub-cotton grass-sphagnum bogs and in swampy larch forests of northeastern Sakhalin have been studied. Variation in the thickness and reserves of litters in the studied bog and forest biogeocenoses has been analyzed. The profile distribution and spatial variability of moisture, density, ash, and pHKCl in separate groups of peat soils have been described. The content and spatial variability of petroleum hydrocarbons have been considered in relation to the accumulation of natural bitumoids by peat soils and the technogenic pressing in the oil-producing region. Variation of each parameter at different distances (10, 50, and 1000 m) has been estimated using a hierarchical sampling scheme. The spatial conjugation of soil parameters has been studied by factor analysis using the principal components method and Spearman correlation coefficients. Regression equations have been proposed to describe relationships of ash content with soil density and content of petroleum hydrocarbons in peat horizons.

  17. Clinical and pathogenetic aspects of fever in patients with infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Zhdanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available About diagnostic valueof fever, in in fectious patients physicians knew from the time of Hippocrates. Significant contribution to thestudy madeby S. Libermeister, SP Botkin, AA Ostroumov, IP Pavlov, II Metchnikoff andothers. Themain centerof thermoregulation is the hypothalamus. The reare three sources of temperature reception – ther more ceptors of the skin, ther mose nsitive of inter oreceptor sand specific thermosensitiveneuronsof theCNS (neuronsnucleusanterior, middle and posteriorhy pothalamus. Ther more ceptors of the skin andthermal of interoceptorsarechannelswith transient receptorpotential (temperature-sensitivetransient receptorpotential (TRP channels of thefreenerveendings, such asthevagusnerve.Current experimental studiesshow that thereareseveral waysto initiatefever. Themain classical pathway of feverisassociated with increasedprostaglandin synthesisby theaction of endogenouspyrogens. Endogenouspyrogensincludea numberof cytokines: interleukin-1 (IL-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumornecrosisfactoralpha (TNF-α; interferon (IFN. Themain secondary pyrogen isconsideredto beIL-1β. Synthesisof IL-1β stimulatedstructuresPAMPs(pathogen-associatedmolecularpatternsandDAMRs(danger-associatedmolecularpatterns, dependson theactivation of caspase–1 with inflammasom. Thestateof thermoregulation andisnow estimatedthermometry. Thefounderoftheclinical thermometerisa German physician C. Wunderlich. Abroad,the«goldstandard» isa measurement of rectal body temperature, asthemost stableandreliable. In ourcountry, in practice, usually measuredaxillary body temperature. Accordingto thetypesof feverandtemperaturecurvesinfectiousdiseasescan predefinenosological formof infectiousdisease. Amonginfectiousdiseasesaremost common, andsometimesalmost pathognomonic (malaria, fora given nosological formof thereaction temperature.

  18. Acetylated bacterial cellulose coated with urinary bladder matrix as a substrate for retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Sara; Rodrigues, Inês Patrício; Padrão, Jorge; Silva, João Pedro; Sencadas, Vitor; Lanceros-Mendez, Senentxu; Girão, Henrique; Gama, Francisco M; Dourado, Fernando; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2016-03-01

    This work evaluated the effect of acetylated bacterial cellulose (ABC) substrates coated with urinary bladder matrix (UBM) on the behavior of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), as assessed by cell adhesion, proliferation and development of cell polarity exhibiting transepithelial resistance and polygonal shaped-cells with microvilli. Acetylation of bacterial cellulose (BC) generated a moderate hydrophobic surface (around 65°) while the adsorption of UBM onto these acetylated substrates did not affect significantly the surface hydrophobicity. The ABS substrates coated with UBM enabled the development of a cell phenotype closer to that of native RPE cells. These cells were able to express proteins essential for their cytoskeletal organization and metabolic function (ZO-1 and RPE65), while showing a polygonal shaped morphology with microvilli and a monolayer configuration. The coated ABC substrates were also characterized, exhibiting low swelling effect (between 1.5-2.0 swelling/mm(3)), high mechanical strength (2048MPa) and non-pyrogenicity (2.12EU/L). Therefore, the ABC substrates coated with UBM exhibit interesting features as potential cell carriers in RPE transplantation that ought to be further explored.

  19. Group A Streptococcal Cysteine Protease Cleaves Epithelial Junctions and Contributes to Bacterial Translocation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumitomo, Tomoko; Nakata, Masanobu; Higashino, Miharu; Terao, Yutaka; Kawabata, Shigetada

    2013-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is an important human pathogen that possesses an ability to translocate across the epithelial barrier. In this study, culture supernatants of tested GAS strains showed proteolytic activity against human occludin and E-cadherin. Utilizing various types of protease inhibitors and amino acid sequence analysis, we identified SpeB (streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B) as the proteolytic factor that cleaves E-cadherin in the region neighboring the calcium-binding sites within the extracellular domain. The cleaving activities of culture supernatants from several GAS isolates were correlated with the amount of active SpeB, whereas culture supernatants from an speB mutant showed no such activities. Of note, the wild type strain efficiently translocated across the epithelial monolayer along with cleavage of occludin and E-cadherin, whereas deletion of the speB gene compromised those activities. Moreover, destabilization of the junctional proteins was apparently relieved in cells infected with the speB mutant, as compared with those infected with the wild type. Taken together, our findings indicate that the proteolytic efficacy of SpeB in junctional degradation allows GAS to invade deeper into tissues. PMID:23532847

  20. Research Progress of Recycling Molybdenum from Waste Catalyst%从废催化剂中回收钼的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仁祺; 戴铁军

    2012-01-01

    Introduce three kinds of domestic main way of recycling molybdenum from the waste catalyst, namely the method of using pyrogenic process, wet process(including water extraction, acid leaching, alkaline leaching and composite leaching) ,and also direct utilization process. Analyze the advantages and disadvantages of these methods and lastly point out the future research should develop new techniques of low cost, low pollution, low energy consumption and strengthen comprehensive recovery of other beneficial elements in the waste catalyst.%介绍了国内从废催化剂中回收钼所采用的火法、湿法(包括水浸法、酸浸法、碱浸法和复合浸取法)和直接利用法这3种工艺的研究进展,并分析了各种方法的优缺点,最后指出在今后的研究中应注重开发低成本、低污染、低能耗新工艺及加强废催化剂中其他有益元素的综合回收.

  1. Origin and distribution of hydrocarbons and organic matter in the surficial sediments of the Sfax-Kerkennah channel (Tunisia, Southern Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghden, Hatem; Tedetti, Marc; Sayadi, Sami; Serbaji, Mohamed Moncef; Elleuch, Boubaker; Saliot, Alain

    2017-04-15

    We investigated the origin and distribution of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs and PAHs) and organic matter (OM) in surficial sediments of the Sfax-Kerkennah channel in the Gulf of Gabès (Tunisia, Southern Mediterranean Sea). TOC, AH and PAH concentrations ranged 2.3-11.7%, 8-174μgg(-1)sed.dw and 175-10,769ngg(-1)sed.dw, respectively. The lowest concentrations were recorded in the channel (medium sand sediment) and the highest ones in the Sfax harbor (very fine sand sediment). AHs, PAHs and TOC were not correlated for most of the stations. TOC/N and δ(13)C values revealed a mixed origin of OM with both marine and terrestrial sources. Hydrocarbon molecular composition highlighted the dominance of petrogenic AHs and the presence of both petrogenic and pyrogenic PAHs, associated with petroleum products and combustion processes. This work underscores the complex distribution patterns and the multiple sources of OM and hydrocarbons in this highly anthropogenized coastal environment.

  2. Quality-controlled small-scale production of a well-defined bacteriophage cocktail for use in human clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Merabishvili

    Full Text Available We describe the small-scale, laboratory-based, production and quality control of a cocktail, consisting of exclusively lytic bacteriophages, designed for the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus infections in burn wound patients. Based on successive selection rounds three bacteriophages were retained from an initial pool of 82 P. aeruginosa and 8 S. aureus bacteriophages, specific for prevalent P. aeruginosa and S. aureus strains in the Burn Centre of the Queen Astrid Military Hospital in Brussels, Belgium. This cocktail, consisting of P. aeruginosa phages 14/1 (Myoviridae and PNM (Podoviridae and S. aureus phage ISP (Myoviridae was produced and purified of endotoxin. Quality control included Stability (shelf life, determination of pyrogenicity, sterility and cytotoxicity, confirmation of the absence of temperate bacteriophages and transmission electron microscopy-based confirmation of the presence of the expected virion morphologic particles as well as of their specific interaction with the target bacteria. Bacteriophage genome and proteome analysis confirmed the lytic nature of the bacteriophages, the absence of toxin-coding genes and showed that the selected phages 14/1, PNM and ISP are close relatives of respectively F8, phiKMV and phage G1. The bacteriophage cocktail is currently being evaluated in a pilot clinical study cleared by a leading Medical Ethical Committee.

  3. Serological investigation of Leptospira infection and its circulation in one intensive-type water buffalo farm in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Marvin A; Mingala, Claro N; Gloriani, Nina G; Yanagihara, Yasutake; Isoda, Norikazu; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Koizumi, Nobuo

    2016-02-01

    Water buffalo is an indispensable livestock in the Philippines. Leptospirosis is a serious zoonosis that can be fatal to humans and cause reproductive problems in livestock. Leptospirosis has been reported in some countries where water buffaloes are commercially raised, highlighting the Leptospira prevalence in this farming system, but information on leptospirosis in water buffalo farms in the Philippines is limited. In this study, we collected blood samples from rats (n = 21), and water buffaloes (n = 170) from different groups and locations in one intensive-type buffalo farm in the Philippines. Serum was analyzed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Anti-Leptospira antibodies reacting with serogroups Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona were found in sera of 30% tested rats, and 48% of water buffalo sera tested positive for at least one Leptospira strain, in which serogroups Mini, Hebdomadis, Tarassovi and Pyrogenes were predominantly agglutinated. The number of seropositive young water buffaloes (animals were reactive with multiple Leptospira strains with variable MAT titers. In addition, antibodies against serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona were detected in both animals. Finally, Leptospira infection was found associated with age and animal grouping, highlighting the impact of management in the persistence of leptospirosis at intensive-type buffalo farm settings in the Philippines. Further investigation and appropriate control strategies are required to prevent leptospirosis from causing risks to public health and economic losses to the water buffalo farming industry.

  4. Impact of ultrasonic dispersion on the photocatalytic activity of titania aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoai Nga Le

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of photocatalytic materials increases with the specific surface area, thus nanoscale photocatalyst particles are preferred. However, such nanomaterials are frequently found in an aggregated state, which may reduce the photocatalytic activity due to internal obscuration and the extended diffusion path of the molecules to be treated. This paper investigates the effect of aggregate size on the photocatalytic activity of pyrogenic titania (Aeroxide® P25, Evonik, which is widely used in fundamental photocatalysis research. Well-defined and reproducible aggregate sizes were achieved by ultrasonic dispersion. The photocatalytic activity was examined by the color removal of methylene blue (MB with a laboratory-scale setup based on a plug flow reactor (PFR and planar UV illumination. The process parameters such as flow regime, optical path length and UV intensity are well-defined and can be varied. Our results firstly show that a complete dispersion of the P25 aggregates is not practical. Secondly, the photocatalytic activity is not further increased beyond a certain degree of dispersion, which probably corresponds to a critical size for which UV irradiation can penetrate the aggregate without significant obscuration.

  5. Formulation of a charcoal suspension for intratumoral injection. Study of galenical excipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhomme-Faivre, L; Mathieu, M C; Depraetere, P; Grossiord, J L; Orbach-Arbouys, S; Puisieux, F; Seiller, M

    1999-02-01

    To tattoo human breast cancer prior to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or surgery, thus allowing a better localization of the remaining tumor by the surgeon, we developed a formulation containing 10% charcoal suspended in water for parenteral preparations. The present study concerns a new step in the development of the charcoal suspension. We sought to determine whether the addition of various excipients could improve the formulation properties and affect the labeling of tumor by the suspension. We have tested surfactants (egg lecithin, polysorbate 80, Cremophor EL, and Pluronic F68), isotonisants (sugars such as glucose and mannitol), polysaccharides (dextrans 20 and 40), and Cabosil, a pyrogenated silica. Except for glucose and mannitol, which were added at a 5% concentration, the other excipients were added at a 0.1% concentration, they were dissolved in water for parenteral injection and sterilized at 120 degrees C for 20 min. We then measured diffusion in vivo in mammary tumor. In vivo, when injected intratumorally in mice, a greater diffusion of charcoal particles was noted within the tumor (in the case of egg lecithin, polysorbate 80, dextran 20 and 40, and glucose) and sometimes in some organs (e.g., Cremophor EL and mannitol). Pluronic F68 slightly improved the stability of the suspension and did not lead to marked diffusion at the injection site, but it showed slight toxicity and cannot be used in the formulation. We concluded that the best formulation was an aqueous 10% micronized peat charcoal suspension.

  6. LPS-protein aggregation influences protein partitioning in aqueous two-phase micellar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, André Moreni; Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria de Carvalho; Novaes, Leticia Celia de Lencastre; Molino, João Vitor Dutra; Barbosa, Leandro Ramos Souza; Pessoa, Adalberto; Rangel-Yagui, Carlota de Oliveira

    2013-07-01

    Lipopolysaccharide endotoxins (LPS) are the most common pyrogenic substances in recombinant peptides and proteins purified from Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli. In this respect, aqueous two-phase micellar systems (ATPMS) have already proven to be a good strategy to purify recombinant proteins of pharmaceutical interest and remove high LPS concentrations. In this paper, we review our recent experimental work in protein partitioning in Triton X-114 ATPMS altogether with some new results and show that LPS-protein aggregation can influence both protein and LPS partitioning. Green fluorescent protein (GFPuv) was employed as a model protein. The ATPMS technology proved to be effective for high loads of LPS removal into the micelle-rich phase (%REM(LPS) > 98 %) while GFPuv partitioned preferentially to the micelle-poor phase (K GFP(uv) system. Nonetheless, ATPMS can still be considered as an efficient strategy for high loads of LPS removal, but being aware that the excluded-volume partitioning theory available might overestimate partition coefficient values due to the presence of protein-LPS aggregation.

  7. Assessing the Ecological Risk of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Sediments at Langkawi Island, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Nasher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism-related activities such as the heavy use of boats for transportation are a significant source of petroleum hydrocarbons that may harm the ecosystem of Langkawi Island. The contamination and toxicity levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH in the sediments of Langkawi were evaluated using sediment quality guidelines (SQGs and toxic equivalent factors. Ten samples were collected from jetties and fish farms around the island in December 2010. A gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID was used to analyse the 18 PAHs. The concentration of total PAHs was found to range from 869 ± 00 to 1637 ± 20 ng g−1 with a mean concentration of 1167.00 ± 24 ng g−1, lower than the SQG effects range-low (3442 ng g−1. The results indicated that PAHs may not cause acute biological damage. Diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis suggested that the PAHs were likely to originate from pyrogenic and petrogenic sources. The toxic equivalent concentrations of the PAHs ranged from 76.3 to 177 ng TEQ/g d.w., which is lower compared to similar studies. The results of mean effects range-median quotient of the PAHs were lower than 0.1, which indicate an 11% probability of toxicity effect. Hence, the sampling sites were determined to be the low-priority sites.

  8. Assessing the Ecological Risk of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Sediments at Langkawi Island, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasher, Essam; Heng, Lee Yook; Zakaria, Zuriati; Surif, Salmijah

    2013-01-01

    Tourism-related activities such as the heavy use of boats for transportation are a significant source of petroleum hydrocarbons that may harm the ecosystem of Langkawi Island. The contamination and toxicity levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in the sediments of Langkawi were evaluated using sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) and toxic equivalent factors. Ten samples were collected from jetties and fish farms around the island in December 2010. A gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) was used to analyse the 18 PAHs. The concentration of total PAHs was found to range from 869 ± 00 to 1637 ± 20 ng g−1 with a mean concentration of 1167.00 ± 24 ng g−1, lower than the SQG effects range-low (3442 ng g−1). The results indicated that PAHs may not cause acute biological damage. Diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis suggested that the PAHs were likely to originate from pyrogenic and petrogenic sources. The toxic equivalent concentrations of the PAHs ranged from 76.3 to 177 ng TEQ/g d.w., which is lower compared to similar studies. The results of mean effects range-median quotient of the PAHs were lower than 0.1, which indicate an 11% probability of toxicity effect. Hence, the sampling sites were determined to be the low-priority sites. PMID:24163633

  9. Rubber-like poly(vinyl alcohol) gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nambu, Masao (Nippon Oil Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Central Technical Research Lab.)

    1990-09-01

    Anomalous poly (vinyl alcohol) gel has been found in our laboratory since 1980. The gel is prepared by repeated freezing (or freeze-dehydration) of aqueous poly (vinyl alcohol). Experiments establish the fact that anomalous gel is never produced in the course of freezing, but during sustained thawing the gelation does occur. Moreover, it was found that the softening point of the gel increases at 37degC. It is assumed that crystal nuclei are generated on freezing, then on thawing, some of them grow to very fine crystals which act as polymer network-knots (cross-linking). Additional freezing provide other seeds, which grow similarly, and these are accumulated until rubber-like gel is produced. The gel was always water-resistant at 37degC, and the potassium permanganate consumption of the extracted water layer remained far below the official restricted value for medical materials. The gel can be sterilized with gamma-rays or chlorhexidine. Moreover, it satisfies the official standards of acute toxicity, pyrogen, intracutaneous reaction, hemolyzation, and intracorporeal implantation, respectively. Applications to adhesion-preventing membrane (for joint or pericardium), tamponade (for jaw defects), electrode (for electroretinogram or artificial inner ear), artificial denture base and phantoms for magnetic resonance imaging were examined. (author) 54 refs.

  10. The fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in water from Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Hui; Zhao, Zhonghua; Zhang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    The fate of polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the water columns from Poyang Lake was studied. The total concentrations of OCPs and PAHs were 19.10-111.78 ng L(-1) and 5.56-266.1 ng L(-1), respectively. Among OCPs, endosulfans, chlordanes, and HCHs accounted for 21.96%, 24.6% and 24.65%, and were the predominant pollutants. Results suggested that the main sources of DDTs were residue from technical DDTs and dicofol, as well as antifouling paints for ships, while for HCHs, the main sources included long-distance transmission, agriculture activities and the combination of industrial products with separate lindane in use. As for PAHs, the predominance of lower molecular weight congeners demonstrated that petroleum and the combustion products of fuel oil, as well as other pyrogenic sources, contributed to the main input of PAHs in the Poyang region. The vehicle emissions were mostly from diesel engines. Moreover, HCH, DDT and BaP concentrations in water of Poyang Lake were all below the threshold values.

  11. Concentration and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in surface soil near a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, A; Dettlaff, A; Kuklińska, K; Namieśnik, J; Wolska, L

    2015-10-15

    Due to a continuous demand of land for infrastructural and residential development there is a public concern about the condition of surface soil near municipal solid waste landfills. A total of 12 surface (0-20 cm) soil samples from a territory near a landfill were collected and the concentration of 16 PAHs and 7 PCB congeners were investigated in these samples. Limits of detection were in the range of 0.038-1.2 μg/kg for PAHs and 0.025-0.041 μg/kg for PCBs. The total concentration of ∑ PAHs ranged from 892 to 3514 μg/kg with a mean of 1974 μg/kg. The total concentration of ∑ PCBs ranged from 2.5 to 12 μg/kg with a mean of 4.5 μg/kg. Data analyses allowed to state that the PAHs in surface soils near a landfill were principally from pyrogenic sources. Due to air transport, PAHs forming at the landfill are transported outside the landfill. PCB origin is not connected with the landfill. Aroclor 1242 can be the source of PCBs in several samples.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coastal sediments from urban and industrial areas of Asaluyeh Harbor, Iran: distribution, potential source and ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisi, Alireza; Arfaeinia, Hossein; Seifi, Morteza; Shirzad-Siboni, Mehdi; Keshtkar, Mozhgan; Dobaradaran, Sina

    The distribution and toxicity levels of 16 EPA priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the sediments of Asaluyeh shore, Iran were investigated. The total concentrations of the PAHs in surface sediments ranged from 1,054 to 17,448 ng/g dry weights with a mean concentration of 8,067 ng/g. The spatial distribution of PAHs showed that PAH levels are much higher in the industrial areas in comparison with urban areas. Based on diagnostic ratios, pyrogenic activities were dominant sources of PAHs pollution in sediments comparing petroleum sources. The toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQ Carc) of PAHs ranged from 172 to 2,235 ng TEQ/g with mean value of 997.9. Toxicity levels were evaluated using sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) and toxic equivalent factors. Samples were collected from industrial and urban stations in Asaluyeh shores. According to SQGs, ΣPAHs concentrations in sediments of urban areas were below the ERL (effects range low), but the industrial samples had ΣPAHs concentrations between ERL and ERM (effects range median). Furthermore, ΣHPAHs (heavy PAHs) and some individual PAHs in some industrial stations exceeded ERM, indicating adverse ecological risk effects frequently occur. Findings demonstrate that the surface sediment from Asaluyeh shore is highly to very highly contaminated with PAHs.

  13. Fever of unknown origin; Re-evaluation of sup 67 Ga scintigraphy in detecting causes of fever

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misaki, Takashi; Matsui, Akira; Tanaka, Fumiko; Okuno, Yoshishige; Mitsumori, Michihide; Torizuka, Tatsurou; Dokoh, Shigeharu; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Shimbo, Shin-ichirou (Kyoto City Hospital (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    Gallium-67 scintigraphy is a commonly performed imaging modality in deteting pyrogenic lesions in cases of long-standing inexplainable fever. To re-evaluate the significance of gallium imaging in such cases, a retrospective review was made of 56 scans performed in febrile patients in whom sufficient clinical and laboratory findings were obtained. Gallium scans were true positive in 30 patients, false positive in 3, true negative in 19, and false negative in 4. In the group of true positive, local inflammatory lesions were detected in 23 patients with a final diagnosis of lung tuberculosis, urinary tract infection, and inflammatory joint disease. Abnormal gallium accumulation, as shown in the other 7 patients, provided clues to the diagnosis of generalized disorders, such as hematological malignancies (n=3), systemic autoimmune diseases (n=3), and severe infectious mononucleosis (n=one). In the group of false positive, gallium imaging revealed intestinal excretion of gallium in 2 patients and physiological pulmonary hilar accumulation in one. In the true negative group of 19 patients, fever of unknown origin was resolved spontaneously in 12 patients, and with antibiotics and corticosteroids in 2 and 5 patients, respectively. Four patients having false negative scans were finally diagnosed as having urinary tract infection (n=2), bacterial meningitis (n=one), and polyarteritis (n=one). Gallium imaging would remain the technique of choice in searching for origin of unknown fever. It may also be useful for early diagnosis of systemic disease, as well as focal inflammation. (N.K.).

  14. Effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide on thermoregulation in green anole lizards (Anolis carolinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Mark; Fleury, Lauren; Rutherford, Renee; Paulissen, Mark

    2008-09-15

    Fever is a non-specific host defense mechanism that comprises part of the innate immune response. Innate immune function is thought to be an important adaptive immunological response to infection because it occurs across a broad diversity of phyla. Some reptiles can mount a febrile response, despite the fact that their internal body temperatures (T(b)s) are, to some extent, controlled by the environmental temperatures in which they live. This study was undertaken to determine if LPS would induce fever in green anole lizards (Anolis carolinensis). Lizards were maintained in thermal gradients (22-45 degrees C) with a 12-h diurnal cycle. anoles were injected with LPS, pyrogen-free saline, or left untreated, and their T(b)s were recorded every 15min using internal cloacal probes. All lizards showed a diurnal periodicity in T(b) characterized by decreased temperatures during the scotophase (dark hours) and higher temperatures during the photophase (light phase). Anoles injected with LPS exhibited a hypothermic response, relative to untreated and saline-injected animals. The response varied from 2.1 to 4.6 degrees C lower than control lizards. The hypothermic response was initiated within 12-24h of LPS injection, and continued for 3 days after treatment. However, the anapyrexic response was observed primarily during scotophases, with photophase hypothermia observed only on the first day after LPS injection.

  15. Functional activity of soil microbial communities in post-fire pine stands of Tolyatti, Samara oblast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimova, E. Yu.; Kudinova, A. G.; Abakumov, E. V.

    2017-02-01

    The state of microbial communities in gray-humus soils (Eutric Fluvic Arenosols (Ochric)) of pine stands in the city of Tolyatti after forest fires of 2010 is analyzed. It is shown that fires exert negative effects on the structure and metabolic activity of microbial communities in the postpyrogenic soils. The content of the carbon of microbial biomass and the intensity of microbial respiration in the upper organic horizons of the post-fire plots decrease by 6.5 and 3.4 times, respectively, in comparison with those in the soils of background plots. However, the fire has not affected the studied microbiological parameters of the soils at the depths of more than 10 cm. The maximum content of the carbon of microbial biomass carbon and the maximum intensity of microbial respiration have been found in the subsurface AY2 and AC horizons two-three years the fire. An increase in the microbial metabolic quotient (the ratio of soil respiration to microbial biomass) attests to the disturbance of the ecophysiological state of soil microbial communities after the pyrogenic impact.

  16. Carbon-11 labeled diacylglycerol for signal transduction imaging by positron CT. Evaluation of the quality and safety for clinical use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Ryou [Nishijin Hospital, Kyoto (Japan); Imahori, Yoshio; Ido, Tatsuo [and others

    1995-02-01

    To elucidate the synaptic transmission in the neural system, we have been developing fundamental studies for intracellular signaling. For clinical application of carbon-11 labeled diacylglycerol (1-[1-{sup 11}C]butyryl-2-palmitoyl-rac-glycerol: {sup 11}C-DAG) using positron emission computed tomography (PET), we evaluated the quality and the safety of {sup 11}C-DAG as the solution for injection. As a result, {sup 11}C-DAG was synthesized within 50 minutes, including the preparation step for injection. The half life time and energy spectrum of {sup 11}C-DAG were the same as the physical character of carbon-11, and other radioisotopes were not detected. In the quality control, {sup 11}C-DAG solution was negative in the examination of bacterial contamination and the pyrogen test in three successive synthesis procedures. In the acute toxicity test by administration of {sup 11}C-DAG and 100 {mu}mol/kg of non-radioactive DAG to the rat intravenously, the systemic condition of the rat was not changed and no abnormalities were found in any organ 24 hours after administration. These findings indicated the safety of {sup 11}C-DAG solution. Clinical application of {sup 11}C-DAG using positron emission tomography may be useful to elucidate the dysfunction of intracellular signaling in disorders of higher cortical function such as Alzheimer disease. (author).

  17. Distribution patterns of PAHs in different tissues of annulated sea snake (Hydrophis cyanocinctus) and short sea snake (Lapemis curtus) from the Hara Protected Area on the North Coast of the Persian Gulf, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereshk, Zahra Heydari; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi

    2014-11-01

    The levels of 22 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in the skin, liver, kidney and muscle tissues of annulated sea snake (Hydrophis cyanocinctus), and short sea snake (Lapemis curtus) collected from the Hara Protected Area, Persian Gulf during October 2010. Low molecular weight (≤3-rings) had the highest levels in skin, while high molecular weight (≥4-rings) was highest in the kidney. The lowest levels of analyzed PAHs were found in muscle in the both species. H. cyanocinctus (59.37 ng g(-1) dw) revealed to be significantly more contaminated than L. curtus (50.51 ng g(-1) dw). Naphtalene was the PAH most frequently detected and at the highest level in the different tissues both species. Di- and tri-cyclic PAHs were predominant in both species suggesting petrogenic origin rather than pyrogenic sources of PAHs. The present study represents the first data of contamination by PAHs in sea snake from the Persian Gulf. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Exploring the potential of fungi isolated from PAH-polluted soil as a source of xenobiotics-degrading fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Patricia; Reina, Rocío; Calderón, Andrea; Wittich, Regina-Michaela; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Aranda, Elisabet

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to find polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading fungi adapted to polluted environments for further application in bioremediation processes. In this study, a total of 23 fungal species were isolated from a historically pyrogenic PAH-polluted soil in Spain and taxonomically identified. The dominant groups in these samples were the ones associated with fungi belonging to the Ascomycota phylum and two isolates belonging to the Mucoromycotina subphylum and Basiodiomycota phylum. We tested their ability to convert the three-ring PAH anthracene in a 42-day time course and analysed their ability to secrete extracellular oxidoreductase enzymes. Among the 23 fungal species screened, 12 were able to oxidize anthracene, leading to the formation of 9,10-anthraquinone as the main metabolite, a less toxic one than the parent compound. The complete removal of anthracene was achieved by three fungal species. In the case of Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, extracellular enzyme independent degradation of the initial 100 μM anthracene occurred, whilst in the case of the ligninolytic fungus Fomes (Basidiomycota), the same result was obtained with extracellular enzyme-dependent transformation. The yield of accumulated 9,10-anthraquinone was 80 and 91 %, respectively, and Fomes sp. could slowly deplete it from the growth medium when offered alone. These results are indicative for the effectiveness of these fungi for pollutant removal. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  19. Physicochemical and toxicological evaluation of silica nanoparticles suitable for food and consumer products collected by following the EC recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contado, Catia; Mejia, Jorge; Lozano García, Omar; Piret, Jean-Pascal; Dumortier, Elise; Toussaint, Olivier; Lucas, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Specific information about the particle size distribution, agglomeration state, morphology, and chemical composition of four silica samples, used as additives in food and in personal care products, were achieved with a combination of analytical techniques. The combined use of differential centrifugal sedimentation (DCS), sedimentation field flow fractionation (SdFFF), and scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) allows to classify the water dispersed samples as "nanomaterials" according to the EC definition. The mechanical stirring and the ultrasound treatment were compared as dispersion methods. The particle surface chemical composition, determined by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), assessed the different levels of purity between the pyrogenic and the precipitated silica and highlighted particle surface chemical composition modifications in the outer shell when dispersed by mechanical stirring. The potential toxic effects of silica on intestinal Caco-2 cells were investigated using MTS assay and by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and caspases 3/7 activity after 24 h of incubation. No or limited decrease of cell viability was observed for all particles regardless of dispersion procedure, suggesting a relative innocuity of these silica samples.

  20. Water sorption of CH3- and CF3-Bis-GMA based resins with additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Prakki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of additives on the water sorption characteristics of Bis-GMA based copolymers and composites containing TEGDMA, CH3Bis-GMA or CF3Bis-GMA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen experimental copolymers and corresponding composites were prepared combining Bis-GMA and TEGDMA, CH3Bis-GMA or CF3Bis-GMA, with aldehyde or diketone (24 and 32 mol% totaling 30 groups. For composites, barium aluminosilicate glass and pyrogenic silica was added to comonomer mixtures. Photopolymerization was effected by 0.2 wt% each of camphorquinone and N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine. Specimen densities in dry and water saturated conditions were obtained by Archimedes' method. Water sorption and desorption were evaluated in a desorption-sorption-desorption cycle. Water uptake (%WU, water desorption (%WD, equilibrium solubility (ES; µg/mm³, swelling (f and volume increase (%V were calculated using appropriate equations. RESULTS: All resins with additives had increased %WU and ES. TEGDMA-containing systems presented higher %WU, %WD, ES, f and %V values, followed by resins based on CH3Bis-GMA and CF3Bis-GMA. CONCLUSIONS: Aldehyde and diketone led to increases in the water sorption characteristics of experimental resins.

  1. Central control of thermogenesis in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Madden, Christopher J

    2008-07-01

    Thermogenesis, the production of heat energy, is an essential component of the homeostatic repertoire to maintain body temperature in mammals and birds during the challenge of low environmental temperature and plays a key role in elevating body temperature during the febrile response to infection. The primary sources of neurally regulated metabolic heat production are mitochondrial oxidation in brown adipose tissue, increases in heart rate and shivering in skeletal muscle. Thermogenesis is regulated in each of these tissues by parallel networks in the central nervous system, which respond to feedforward afferent signals from cutaneous and core body thermoreceptors and to feedback signals from brain thermosensitive neurons to activate the appropriate sympathetic and somatic efferents. This review summarizes the research leading to a model of the feedforward reflex pathway through which environmental cold stimulates thermogenesis and discusses the influence on this thermoregulatory network of the pyrogenic mediator, prostaglandin E(2), to increase body temperature. The cold thermal afferent circuit from cutaneous thermal receptors ascends via second-order thermosensory neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord to activate neurons in the lateral parabrachial nucleus, which drive GABAergic interneurons in the preoptic area to inhibit warm-sensitive, inhibitory output neurons of the preoptic area. The resulting disinhibition of thermogenesis-promoting neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus and possibly of sympathetic and somatic premotor neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla, including the raphe pallidus, activates excitatory inputs to spinal sympathetic and somatic motor circuits to drive thermogenesis.

  2. Ozone Tendency in Biomass Burning Plumes: Influence of Biogenic and Anthropogenic Emissions Downwind of Forest Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, D.; Palmer, P. I.

    2015-12-01

    Forest fires emit pollutants that can influence downwind surface concentrations of ozone, with potential implications for exceeding air quality regulations. The influence of emissions from biogenic and anthropogenic sources that are mixed into a biomass burning plume as it travels downwind is not well understood. Using the GEOS-Chem atmospheric chemistry transport model and a novel method to track the centre of biomass burning plumes, we identify the chemical reactions that determine ozone production and loss along the plume trajectory. Using a series of sensitivity runs, we quantify the role of biogenic and anthropogenic emissions on the importance of individual chemical reactions. We illustrate the method using data collected during the BORTAS aircraft campaign over eastern Canada during summer 2011. We focus on two contrasting plume trajectories originating from the same multi-day fire in Ontario. The first plume trajectory on 16th July 2011 travels eastward from the fire and eventually mixes with anthropogenic emissions travelling up the east coast of the United States before outflow over the North Atlantic. The second plume trajectory we follow is three days later and travels eastward with a strong northeast component away from large anthropogenic sources. Both trajectories are influenced by downwind biogenic emissions. We generate a chemical reaction narrative for each plume trajectory, allowing is to quantify how mixing pyrogenic, biogenic and anthropogenic emissions influences downwind ozone photochemistry.

  3. Biomimetic synthesis of highly biocompatible gold nanoparticles with amino acid-dithiocarbamate as a precursor for SERS imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liu, Jianbo; Yang, Xiaohai; Huang, Jin; He, Dinggeng; Guo, Xi; Wan, Lan; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin

    2016-03-01

    Amino acid-dithiocarbamate (amino acid-DTC) was developed as both the reductant and ligand stabilizer for biomimetic synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), which served as an excellent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) contrast nanoprobe for cell imaging. Glycine (Gly), glutamic acid (Glu), and histidine (His) with different isoelectric points were chosen as representative amino acid candidates to synthesize corresponding amino acid-DTC compounds through mixing with carbon disulfide (CS2), respectively. The pyrogenic decomposition of amino acid-DTC initiated the reduction synthesis of AuNPs, and the strong coordinating dithiocarbamate group of amino acid-DTC served as a stabilizer that grafted onto the surface of the AuNPs, which rendered the as-prepared nanoparticles a negative surface charge and high colloidal stability. MTT cell viability assay demonstrated that the biomimetic AuNPs possessed neglectful toxicity to the human hepatoma cell, which guaranteed them good biocompatibility for biomedical application. Meanwhile, the biomimetic AuNPs showed a strong SERS effect with an enhancement factor of 9.8 × 105 for the sensing of Rhodamine 6G, and two distinct Raman peaks located at 1363 and 1509 cm-1 could be clearly observed in the cell-imaging experiments. Therefore, biomimetic AuNPs can be explored as an excellent SERS contrast nanoprobe for biomedical imaging, and the amino acid-DTC mediated synthesis of the AuNPs has a great potential in bio-engineering and biomedical imaging applications.

  4. Chances and risks of biochar use in soils; Chancen und Risiken des Einsatzes von Pflanzenkohle. Biokohle in Boeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammann, Claudia [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Pflanzenoekologie

    2012-05-15

    The topic of 'biochar' is a recent, interdisciplinary and highly dynamic field of research and development; it includes a multitude of chances and opportunities, but also still many interesting 'unknowns'. The article gives a background of this field of research and provides a brief state-ofthe-art overview. Pyrogenic biochar seems to have a higher stability than hydrochar produced via hydrothermal carbonization. Hence it will likely be more suitable for soil C sequestration. Some positive effects of biochars are now well established, e.g. the increase of the water holding capacity in sandy soils, the reduction of N{sub 2}O emissions, the increase of N mineralization in acidic forest soils or the longevity of biochars. In the face of global soil degradation, erosion and global warming which we will leave to the generation of our children and grandchildren, 'biochar' offers too many interesting perspectives to forego the chance to shape a promising tool via research. (orig.)

  5. Plant growth improvement mediated by nitrate capture in co-composted biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammann, Claudia I.; Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Messerschmidt, Nicole; Linsel, Sebastian; Steffens, Diedrich; Müller, Christoph; Koyro, Hans-Werner; Conte, Pellegrino; Stephen, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Soil amendment with pyrogenic carbon (biochar) is discussed as strategy to improve soil fertility to enable economic plus environmental benefits. In temperate soils, however, the use of pure biochar mostly has moderately-negative to -positive yield effects. Here we demonstrate that co-composting considerably promoted biochars’ positive effects, largely by nitrate (nutrient) capture and delivery. In a full-factorial growth study with Chenopodium quinoa, biomass yield increased up to 305% in a sandy-poor soil amended with 2% (w/w) co-composted biochar (BCcomp). Conversely, addition of 2% (w/w) untreated biochar (BCpure) decreased the biomass to 60% of the control. Growth-promoting (BCcomp) as well as growth-reducing (BCpure) effects were more pronounced at lower nutrient-supply levels. Electro-ultra filtration and sequential biochar-particle washing revealed that co-composted biochar was nutrient-enriched, particularly with the anions nitrate and phosphate. The captured nitrate in BCcomp was (1) only partly detectable with standard methods, (2) largely protected against leaching, (3) partly plant-available, and (4) did not stimulate N2O emissions. We hypothesize that surface ageing plus non-conventional ion-water bonding in micro- and nano-pores promoted nitrate capture in biochar particles. Amending (N-rich) bio-waste with biochar may enhance its agronomic value and reduce nutrient losses from bio-wastes and agricultural soils. PMID:26057083

  6. The effect of different chemical treatments, pyrolysis conditions and feedstocks on the redox properties of biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Francisco Javier; Cayuela, María Luz; Roig, Asunción; Ángel Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    Pyrogenic carbonaceous materials can have a role in several biogeochemical redox reactions as electron transfer catalysts. Low N2O emissions in biochar amended soils can be related to its ability to act as an "electron shuttle", facilitating the transport of electrons to soil denitrifying microorganisms. Modifying biochar redox properties could be an interesting approach to regulate this effect. In this work we propose several methods for the development of biochars from slow pyrolysis with altered electrochemical properties. To improve its electron exchange capacity we aimed to: 1) Increase the number of redox active functional groups in biochar. Several pyrolysis conditions and chemical treatments (KOH, H3PO4 and H2O2) were tested. 2) Raise the fraction of redox active mineral in biochar. The presence of Fe and Mn-based minerals in biochar could also catalyze redox reactions in soil associated with the nitrogen cycle. Different additives (FeCl3, KMnO4 and clay) were combined with the feedstock before the pyrolysis process. Results of their ability to modify biochar redox properties, measured by mediated electrochemical analysis, are presented. Additionally, we characterized biochars produced from different feedstocks to assess how their lignin, holocellulose and ash composition affects these properties. Analytical issues arising from the difficulty of measuring the electron exchange capacity of biochar will also be discussed.

  7. Biochar As Plant Growth Promoter: Better Off Alone or Mixed with Organic Amendments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Bonanomi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Biochar is nowadays largely used as a soil amendment and is commercialized worldwide. However, in temperate agro-ecosystems the beneficial effect of biochar on crop productivity is limited, with several studies reporting negative crop responses. In this work, we studied the effect of 10 biochar and 9 not pyrogenic organic amendments (NPOA, using pure and in all possible combinations on lettuce growth (Lactuca sativa. Organic materials were characterized by 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis (pH, EC, C, N, C/N and H/C ratios. Pure biochars and NPOAs have variable effects, ranging from inhibition to strong stimulation on lettuce growth. For NPOAs, major inhibitory effects were found with N poor materials characterized by high C/N and H/C ratio. Among pure biochars, instead, those having a low H/C ratio seem to be the best for promoting plant growth. When biochars and organic amendments were mixed, non-additive interactions, either synergistic or antagonistic, were prevalent. However, the mixture effect on plant growth was mainly dependent on the chemical quality of NPOAs, while biochar chemistry played a secondary role. Synergisms were prevalent when N rich and lignin poor materials were mixed with biochar. On the contrary, antagonistic interactions occurred when leaf litter or woody materials were mixed with biochar. Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms behind the observed non-additive effects and to develop biochar-organic amendment combinations that maximize plant productivity in different agricultural systems.

  8. Sources, solubility, and acid processing of aerosol iron and phosphorous over the South China Sea: East Asian dust and pollution outflows vs. Southeast Asian biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, S.-C.; Gong, G.-C.; Shiah, F.-K.; Hung, C.-C.; Kao, S.-J.; Zhang, R.; Chen, W.-N.; Chen, C.-C.; Chou, C. C.-K.; Lin, Y.-C.; Lin, F.-J.; Lin, S.-H.

    2014-08-01

    Iron and phosphorous are essential to marine microorganisms in vast regions in oceans worldwide. Atmospheric inputs are important allochthonous sources of Fe and P. The variability in airborne Fe deposition is hypothesized to serve an important function in previous glacial-interglacial cycles, contributing to the variability in atmospheric CO2 and ultimately the climate. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the mobilization of airborne Fe and P from insoluble to soluble forms is critical to evaluate the biogeochemical effects of these elements. In this study, we present a robust power-law correlation between fractional Fe solubility and non-sea-salt-sulfate / Total-Fe (nss-sulfate / FeT) molar ratio independent of distinct sources of airborne Fe of natural and/or anthropogenic origins over the South China Sea. This area receives Asian dust and pollution outflows and Southeast Asian biomass burning. This correlation is also valid for nitrate and total acids, demonstrating the significance of acid processing in enhancing Fe mobilization. Such correlations are also found for P, yet source dependent. These relationships serve as straightforward parameters that can be directly incorporated into available atmosphere-ocean coupling models that facilitate the assessment of Fe and P fertilization effects. Although biomass burning activity may supply Fe to the bioavailable Fe pool, pyrogenic soils are possibly the main contributors, not the burned plants. This finding warrants a multidisciplinary investigation that integrates atmospheric observations with the resulting biogeochemistry in the South China Sea, which is influenced by atmospheric forcings and nutrient dynamics with monsoons.

  9. Comparison of Antimicrobial Activity of Child Formula Dentifrices at different Concentrations: An in vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Shilpy; Shashikiran, ND

    2017-01-01

    Aim The aim of the present in vitro study is to evaluate and compare antimicrobial efficacy of commercially available child’s dental formulas in reduced concentrations containing different forms of fluoride against Streptococcus mutans activity. Materials and methods The selected dentifrices were prepared in dilutions of 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:8, and 1:16 using sterile pyrogen-free distilled water. Various dilutions of the selected toothpaste slurries were incubated in the agar plate containing pure strains of S. mutans, and antimicrobial activity of each was assessed by measuring the diameter of zones of inhibition (in mm). Agar well plate diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination were the methods used in this study. The inhibitory circle of each dentifrice was measured and MIC was achieved by considering the value of diameter of the circle. Results The results of the study showed that even at a lower concentration of fluoride, inhibition halos were obtained for all the formulations at different dilutions. Conclusion The kid’s formulations having lower fluoride concentration show antimicrobial activity even after dilutions. Thus, commercially, the fluoride concentrations can be further lowered down in the dentifrices, thereby reducing the risk associated with fluoride. How to cite this article Malhotra R, Singla S, Shashikiran ND. Comparison ofAntimicrobial Activity of Child Formula Dentifrices at different Concentrations: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(2):131-135. PMID:28890611

  10. Central effects of some peptide and non-peptide opioids and naloxone on thermoregulation in the rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, S. B.; Williams, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of several peptide and non-peptide opiods and naloxone on induced hyperthermia is studied in rabbits. The effect of tyical mu, kappa, and sigma receptor antagonists (morphine, ketocyclazcine and SKF 10,0 10, 047) and some opioid peptides (Beta-endorphin /BE/, methionine-enkaphalin /ME/, and D-Ala2-methionine-enkaphalin-amide /DAME/ are determined. The role of prostaglandins (PG), cAMP, and norepinephrine (NE) in morphine, BE, and DAME induced hyperthermia is investigated. In addition, the effect of naloxone on pyrogen, arachidonic acid, PGE2, prostacyclin, dibutyryl cAMP, and NE induced hyperthermia is determined. Among other results, it is found that the three receptor antagonists induced hyperthermia in rabbits. BE, ME, and DAME were also found to cause hyperthermia, and it is suggested that they act on the same type of receptor. It is also determined that neither NE nor cAMP is involved in the hyperthermia due to morphine, BE, and DAME. It is suggested that an action of endogenous peptides on naloxone sensitive receptors plays little role in normal thermoregulation or in hyperthermia.

  11. The organic composition of diesel particulate matter, diesel fuel and engine oil of a non-road diesel generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fuyan; Lu, Mingming; Keener, Tim C; Liu, Zifei; Khang, Soon-Jai

    2005-10-01

    Diesel-powered equipment is known to emit significant quantities of fine particulate matter to the atmosphere. Numerous organic compounds can be adsorbed onto the surfaces of these inhalable particles, among which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered potential occupational carcinogens. Guidelines have been established by various agencies regarding diesel emissions and various control technologies are under development. The purpose of this study is to identify, quantify and compare the organic compounds in diesel particulate matter (DPM) with the diesel fuel and engine oil used in a non-road diesel generator. Approximately 90 organic compounds were quantified (with molecular weight ranging from 120 to 350), which include alkanes, PAHs, alkylated PAHs, alkylbenzenes and alkanoic acids. The low sulfur diesel fuel contains 61% alkanes and 7.1% of PAHs. The identifiable portion of the engine oil contains mainly the alkanoic and benzoic acids. The composition of DPM suggests that they may be originated from unburned diesel fuel, engine oil evaporation and combustion generated products. Compared with diesel fuel, DPM contains fewer fractions of alkanes and more PAH compounds, with the shift toward higher molecular weight ones. The enrichment of compounds with higher molecular weight in DPM may be combustion related (pyrogenic).

  12. Isolation and clinical sample typing of human leptospirosis cases in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiani, Yosena; Jacob, Paulina; Varni, Vanina; Landolt, Noelia; Schmeling, María Fernanda; Pujato, Nazarena; Caimi, Karina; Vanasco, Bibiana

    2016-01-01

    Leptospira typing is carried out using isolated strains. Because of difficulties in obtaining them, direct identification of infective Leptospira in clinical samples is a high priority. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) proved highly discriminatory for seven pathogenic species of Leptospira, allowing isolate characterization and robust assignment to species, in addition to phylogenetic evidence for the relatedness between species. In this study we characterized Leptospira strains circulating in Argentina, using typing methods applied to human clinical samples and isolates. Phylogenetic studies based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences enabled typing of 8 isolates (6 Leptospira interrogans, one Leptospira wolffii and one Leptospira broomii) and 58 out of 85 (68.2%) clinical samples (55 L. interrogans, 2 Leptospira meyeri, and one Leptospira kirschneri). MLST results for the L. interrogans isolates indicated that five were probably Canicola serogroup (ST37) and one was probably Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup (ST17). Eleven clinical samples (21.6%), provided MLST interpretable data: five were probably Pyrogenes serogroup (ST13), four Sejroe (ST20), one Autumnalis (ST22) and one Canicola (ST37). To the best of our knowledge this study is the first report of the use of an MLST typing scheme with seven loci to identify Leptospira directly from clinical samples in Argentina. The use of clinical samples presents the advantage of the possibility of knowing the infecting strain without resorting to isolates. This study also allowed, for the first time, the characterization of isolates of intermediate pathogenicity species (L. wolffii and L. broomii) from symptomatic patients.

  13. Toxic shock due to Streptococcus pyogenes in a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Anapatricia; Paul, Katherine; Beall, Bernard; McClure, Harold

    2006-09-01

    Recent years have seen a worldwide resurgence in serious infections caused by group A streptococci. This group includes Streptococcus pyogenes, one of the most common pathogens among children which causes diverse suppurative infections, such as pharyngitis, as well as nonsuppurative infections with sequelae, such as rheumatoid fever and rheumatic heart disease. S. pyogenes produces several superantigen-like erythrogenic toxins, which are believed to be associated with pyrogenicity, erythromatous skin reactions, and various immunologic and cytotoxic effects. These toxins also can cause myocardial necrosis. In addition, recently reported streptococcal infections in obstetric human patients appear to be clinically different from classic puerperal sepsis. Here, we report a case of spontaneous streptococcal infection in a pregnant female rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). In addition to lesions consistent with bacteremia and toxic shock, this animal had severe cardiac lesions resembling those described in humans with rheumatic heart disease. S. pyogenes was isolated from intracardiac blood, liver, placenta, and fetal tissues. This isolate also had a unique M protein gene.

  14. Successful Treatment of Both Mother and Infant in Pregnancy-Associated Group A Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Tanaka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available All perinatal cases of group A streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS previously documented in English literature have been fatal for the mother, the fetus or both. We present the first report of successful treatment of a mother-infant pair with perinatal STSS. A pregnant woman developed STSS at 34 weeks’ gestation 3 h after delivery, following a 25-h history of fever and sore throat. The patient received intravenous penicillin, clindamycin and immnoglobulins and continuous hemodialysis, along with numerous supportive agents during early clinical course. The newborn infant was born with mild asphyxia and developed transient tachypnea. Both mother and infant survived without any sequelae. Streptococcus pyogenes was isolated from the patient’s blood, nasopharynx of the infant and throat of two family members. These strains were identically type T1M1 (emm1 and produced streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins A (SPEA and B. SPEA was remarkably elevated in the maternal blood, but not in the infant’s blood. Extremely low serum anti-SPEA antibody levels might have predisposed the mother to severe invasive infection. This case highlights the importance of early recognition, prompt and intensive multimodal therapy and rapid delivery before a transfer of pathogen and its toxin to the fetus.

  15. Classification Based on Soil Heterogeneity: Tool for Land Management and Policy in a Woody Plant Encroached Region of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svejcar, L.; Peinetti, R.; Bestelmeyer, B.

    2013-12-01

    Transitions from savanna to woody plant dominated, or in some cases thicketized, states have negative effects on ecosystem services worldwide. Attempts to restore historic savanna states have seen minimal success; woody plants continue to gain dominance and encroach into relict savannas. In the Caldenal Ecoregion of central Argentina, calden trees (Prosopis caldenia) and associated shrub species have established a pyrogenic dominance, thus outcompeting grass species. We quantitatively define states within the calden system using field collected plant and soils data that integrates woody and herbaceous strata, and looks for patterns of association between occurrence of states and inherent soil properties. We hypothesized that thicketized states would exhibit greater soil organic matter, total N, and total P compared to ancestral savanna states and that the level of calcium carbonate in the soil would influence plant composition. Thicketized states did not exhibit higher levels of soil organic matter, P, and N than savanna states and calcium carbonate in the soil did not directly impact vegetative composition. However, high silt-clay content soils showed the greatest vulnerability to thicketization. The information derived from this project can serve as a basis for distinguishing ecological sites based on predictions of thicketized state frequency and distribution and will assist land managers and policy makers in future land use decisions.

  16. Prostacyclin-induced hyperthermia - Implication of a protein mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, S. B.; Williams, B. A.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanism of the prostacyclin-linked hyperthermia is studied in rabbits. Results show that intracerebroventricular administration of prostacyclin (PGI2) induces dose-related hyperthermia at room temperature (21 C), as well as at low (4 C) and high (30 C) ambient temperatures. It is found that this PGI2-induced hyperthermia is not mediated by its stable metabolite 6-keto prostaglandin F-1(alpha). Only one of the three anion transport systems, the liver transport system, appears to be important to the central inactivation of pyrogen, prostaglandin E2, and PGI2. Phenoxybenzamine and pimozide have no thermolytic effect on PGI2-induced hyperthermia, while PGI2 still induces hyperthermia after norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine levels are depleted by 6-hydroxydopamine. Indomethacin and SC-19220 (a PG antagonist) do not antagonize PGI2 induced hyperthermia, while theophylline does not accentuate the PGI2-induced hyperthermia. However, the hyperthermic response to PGI2 is attenuated by central administration of the protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin. It is concluded that PGI2-induced hyperthermia is not induced by NE, dopamine, or cyclic AMP, but rather that a protein mediator is implicated in the induction of fever by PG12.

  17. Hyperthermic responses to central injections of some peptide and non-peptide opioids in the guinea-pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, S. B.; Williams, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    The intracerebroventricular administration of prototype nonpeptide opioid receptor (mu, kappa, and sigma) agonists, morphine, ketocyclazocine, and N-allyl normetazocine and an agonist at both kappa and sigma receptors, pentazocine, was found to induce hyperthermia in guinea pigs. The similar administration of peptide opioids like beta endorphin, methionine endkephalin, leucine endkephaline, and several of their synthetic analogues was also found to cause hyperthermia. Only the liver-like transport system of the three anion transport systems (iodide, hippurate, and liver-like) present in the choroid plexus was determined to be important to the central inactivation of beta-endorphin and two synthetic analogues. Prostaglandins and norepinephrine (NE) as well as cAMP were not involved in peptide and nonpeptide opioid-induced hyperthermia. Naloxone-sensitive receptors were found to be involved in the induction of hyperthermia by morphine and beta-endorphin, while hyperthermic responses to ketocyclazocine, N-allyl normetazocine, pentazocine, Met-enkephalin, Leu-enkephalin, and two of the synthetic analogues were not antagonized by nalozone. The lack of antagonism of naloxone on pyrogen, arachidonic acid, PGE2, dibutyryl cAMP, and NE-induced hyperthermia shows that endogenous opioid peptides are not likely to be central mediators of the hyperthermia induced by these agents.

  18. Quantitative method for the Measurement of bacterial endotoxin in Hirudo injection%动态浊度法检测水蛭注射液中细菌内毒素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖伟

    2012-01-01

      Objective to develop an assay for determination of bacterial endotoxin in Hirudo injection and compare it with pyrogens test. Methods detection was carried out according to the bacterial endotoxin test procedure and guiding principle for interfere factors test in chinese Pharmacopeia,2005 edition. Rsults Hirudo injection did not interfere with limulus agent in 200 diluted concentration,it can get the same result which meets Pharmacopeia,2005 edition using the two methods. Conclusion turbidimetric-Kinetic method for the Measurement of bacterial endotoxin could be used in in Hirudo injection.%  目的建立动态浊度法定量检测水蛭注射液中的细菌内毒素。方法按中国药典2010版二部收载的细菌内毒素检查方法及其指导原则进行干扰试验,并与热源检查法比较。结果当样品作200倍稀释时用动态浊度法进行测试未见干扰作用,与热源法测试结果一致,均符合规定。结论该样品可以用动态浊度法进行定量检测水蛭注射液中的内毒素。

  19. Leptospirosis en el Perú: IV. Observaciones serológicas en la hacienda Pucalá (Dpto. de Lambayeque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arístides Herrer

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available 1. En relación con la leptospirosis se han realizado observaciones serológicas en 95 muestras de sangre procedentes de la hacienda Pucalá, departamento de Lambayeque, de las cuales 41 correspondían a obreros de dicha hacienda, 52 a perros de la misma localidad, y dos a ratas (Rattus norvegicus. Por medio de la reacción de aglutinación-lisis en once muestras humanas (26.8% y tres (5.8% de perros se consiguió verificar la presencia de anticuerpos contra leptospiras, a título de 1: 100 o mayor. 2. De los once casos humanos serológicamente positivos, nueve fueron frente al antígeno de la Leptospira bataviae y los dos restantes, frente al de L. pomona. Los perros positivos fueron a L. canicola (dos y a L. pyrogenes (uno. 3. Se hicieron cultivos del riñón en seis ratas, todos con resultados negativos. También fueron negativos los 93 cultivos del coágulo sanguíneo, 41 humanos y 52 caninos.

  20. Investigation of fixed wavelength fluorescence results for biliary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formed in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampanin, Daniela M; Kemppainen, Eeva K; Skogland, Karianne; Jørgensen, Kåre B; Sydnes, Magne O

    2016-02-01

    Fixed wavelength fluorescence (FF) and synchronous fluorescence scanning (SFS) of fish bile are commonly used methods to analyze for exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from petrogenic and pyrogenic sources. A range of conjugated oxidation products from petrogenic PAHs are normally accumulated in the bile. Therefore their detection is important. In the present study, phenanthrene and naphthalene metabolites, formed in vivo in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), were used to study the response of these compounds in both FF and SFS analyses. The selected synthetic metabolites were (-)-(1R,2R)-1,2-dihydrophenanthrene-1,2-diol and (-)-(1R,2R)-1,2-dihydronaphthalene-1,2-diol. The study findings showed that the recommended excitation and emission wavelengths for FF analysis do not comprise the maximum emission wavelengths for these metabolites, providing an incorrect estimation of the PAH exposure. A method developed in our laboratory for the synthesis of (-)-(1R,2R)-1,2-dihydrophenanthrene-1,2-diol is also described.

  1. Fire in ice: two millennia of boreal forest fire history from the Greenland NEEM ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zennaro, P.; Kehrwald, N.; McConnell, J. R.; Schüpbach, S.; Maselli, O. J.; Marlon, J.; Vallelonga, P.; Leuenberger, D.; Zangrando, R.; Spolaor, A.; Borrotti, M.; Barbaro, E.; Gambaro, A.; Barbante, C.

    2014-10-01

    Biomass burning is a major source of greenhouse gases and influences regional to global climate. Pre-industrial fire-history records from black carbon, charcoal and other proxies provide baseline estimates of biomass burning at local to global scales spanning millennia, and are thus useful to examine the role of fire in the carbon cycle and climate system. Here we use the specific biomarker levoglucosan together with black carbon and ammonium concentrations from the North Greenland Eemian (NEEM) ice cores (77.49° N, 51.2° W; 2480 m a.s.l) over the past 2000 years to infer changes in boreal fire activity. Increases in boreal fire activity over the periods 1000-1300 CE and decreases during 700-900 CE coincide with high-latitude NH temperature changes. Levoglucosan concentrations in the NEEM ice cores peak between 1500 and 1700 CE, and most levoglucosan spikes coincide with the most extensive central and northern Asian droughts of the past millennium. Many of these multi-annual droughts are caused by Asian monsoon failures, thus suggesting a connection between low- and high-latitude climate processes. North America is a primary source of biomass burning aerosols due to its relative proximity to the Greenland Ice Cap. During major fire events, however, isotopic analyses of dust, back trajectories and links with levoglucosan peaks and regional drought reconstructions suggest that Siberia is also an important source of pyrogenic aerosols to Greenland.

  2. Transcriptomic evidence for modulation of host inflammatory responses during febrile Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tuan M.; Jones, Marcus B.; Ongoiba, Aissata; Bijker, Else M.; Schats, Remko; Venepally, Pratap; Skinner, Jeff; Doumbo, Safiatou; Quinten, Edwin; Visser, Leo G.; Whalen, Elizabeth; Presnell, Scott; O’Connell, Elise M.; Kayentao, Kassoum; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Chaussabel, Damien; Lorenzi, Hernan; Nutman, Thomas B.; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.; Haks, Mariëlle C.; Traore, Boubacar; Kirkness, Ewen F.; Sauerwein, Robert W.; Crompton, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying molecular predictors and mechanisms of malaria disease is important for understanding how Plasmodium falciparum malaria is controlled. Transcriptomic studies in humans have so far been limited to retrospective analysis of blood samples from clinical cases. In this prospective, proof-of-principle study, we compared whole-blood RNA-seq profiles at pre-and post-infection time points from Malian adults who were either asymptomatic (n = 5) or febrile (n = 3) during their first seasonal PCR-positive P. falciparum infection with those from malaria-naïve Dutch adults after a single controlled human malaria infection (n = 5). Our data show a graded activation of pathways downstream of pro-inflammatory cytokines, with the highest activation in malaria-naïve Dutch individuals and significantly reduced activation in malaria-experienced Malians. Newly febrile and asymptomatic infections in Malians were statistically indistinguishable except for genes activated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. The combined data provide a molecular basis for the development of a pyrogenic threshold as individuals acquire immunity to clinical malaria. PMID:27506615

  3. Photochemical synthesis and antimicrobial studies of new chromen-4-one based vinyl ethers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Yusuf

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The chromen-4-one based vinyl ethers 3a–3e have been synthesized from the photochemical reaction of cyclobutylmethoxychromen-4-ones 2a–2e in dry MeOH. The compounds 2a–2e were easily obtained from the O-alkylation of different hydroxychromen-4-ones 1a–1e with bromomethyl-cyclobutane in the presence of anhydrous K2CO3/dry acetone and Bu4N+I− (PTC. The structure of the these compounds have been characterized from the rigorous analysis of their IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, ESI-MS and elemental analysis. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of newly prepared compounds were also evaluated against selected pathogens which include Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas florescens, Staphylococcus pyrogens, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Aspergillus janus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporium, Aspergillus sclerotium, Penicillium glabrum respectively. Some of the studied compounds exhibited significant activity against the tested microorganisms.

  4. Nerve growth factor enhances sleep in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, S; Krueger, J M

    1999-04-02

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) elicits rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) in cats. Removal of NGF receptor-positive cholinergic basal forebrain neurons inhibits REMS in rats. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of NGF on sleep and brain temperature (Tbr) in rabbits. Male rabbits were implanted with electroencephalograph (EEG) electrodes, a brain thermistor and an intraventricular (i.c.v.) guide cannula. Rabbits received human beta-NGF i.c.v. (0.01, 0.1, 1.0 or 10 microg] and on a separate day, 25 microl pyrogen-free saline i.c.v. as control. EEG and Tbr were recorded for 23 h after injections. The highest two doses of NGF increased both non-REMS and REMS across the 23-h recording period. REMS was enhanced dose-dependently. Tbr was not affected by any dose of NGF. These results suggest that NGF is involved in both REMS and non-REMS regulation.

  5. The Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Steppe Fires in Lake Elton’s Area Based on RSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinkarenko Stanislav Sergeevich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the satellite imagery for the period of 1985-2014 in order to identify the causes of wildfires in Lake Elton’s surroundings. It was found that in the early 21st century fires have the greatest impact on the landscape, which is caused by the decrease in the number of livestock grazing and reduced steppe loads in the late 1990s. The map of the fire frequency in the researched area, and t he map of areas recovering from fires in different years were developed on the basis of remote sensing data (RSD. The investigation of Landsat space imagery found that 54 % of the territory since 2004 has been subject to a prairie fire at least once. The maximum frequency of occurrence is marked for the southern area of Buluhta-Lake where eight fires were registered for the last decad. Most fires are caused by human factors: deliberate or spontaneous arson, military trials. The factors limiting the fires are: degraded pastures, roads, landforms and the elements of the hydrological network. The resulting materials allow to effectively organize further ground survey of these areas for a complete description and assessment of revegetation and their relation to the duration of pyrogenic successions.

  6. Isocyanate-functional adhesives for biomedical applications. Biocompatibility and feasibility study for vascular closure applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadba, Ahmad R; Belcheva, Nadya; Jones, Fatima; Abuzaina, Ferass; Calabrese, Allison; Kapiamba, Mbiya; Skalla, Walter; Taylor, Jack L; Rodeheaver, George; Kennedy, John

    2011-10-01

    Biodegradable isocyanate-functional adhesives based on poly(ethylene glycol)-adipic acid esters were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Two types of formulations, P2TT and P2MT, were developed by functionalization with 2,4-tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) or 4,4'-methylene-bis(phenyl isocyanate) (MDI), respectively, and branching with 1,1,1-trimethylolpropane (TMP). The biocompatibility of the synthesized adhesive formulations was evaluated as per ISO 10993. Cytotoxicity, systemic toxicity, pyrogenicity, genotoxicity (reverse mutation of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli), hemolysis, intracutaneous reactivity, and delayed-type hypersensitivity were evaluated. All formulations met the requirements of the conducted standard tests. The biological behavior and ability of the adhesive formulations to close an arteriotomy and withstand arterial pressure following partial approximation with a single suture were evaluated in a rat abdominal aorta model. Animals were evaluated at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after surgery. Macroscopic and histopathologic evaluation of explanted arteries suggested that the P2TT formulation had better in vivo performance than the P2MT formulation. Additionally, the P2TT formulation resulted in less tissue reaction than P2MT formulation. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the potential of this new class of isocyanate-functional degradable adhesives for vascular applications. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [Experience with the regeneration and repeated use of dialyzers (1977-1987)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gál, G; Kiss, E; Tichy, B; Búzás, E

    1989-10-01

    During ten years 59616 haemodialyses were performed with 18139 capillary dialysers on 226 patients being in the final stage of chronic renal insufficiency. With the semi-automatic technique applied blood can be eliminated from the dialyser in 15-20 minutes. Formalin used for desinfection is washed out of the apparatus such a way, that formalin content of the last washing solution ranges between 0-0.1 microgram/ml. Anti-N antibody indicating the presence of formalin could be detected in the serum of 2 patients out of the 120 cases tested. The same dialyser is used repeatedly on one patient, 3.29-times on the average. The regenerated dialyser eliminates compounds of small-and middle molecular weight with the same efficiency up to the 4th repeated use. Ratio of pyrogenic reactions is low, 0.08%. Neither infection or sepsis associated with the regeneration occurred. Rehabilitation degree as well as the survival time of patient corresponded with the average European standard. Because of the "first use syndrome" (allergic symptoms, hypotension, nausea, vomiting, headache, cramps etc.) with 5 patients haemodialysis could be performed only with regenerated dialysers dialyses. From the considerable sums saved by regeneration process 7 satellite dialysing units were established and equipped.

  8. Preclinical Toxicology Studies of Recombinant Human Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-BB Either Alone or in Combination with Beta-Tricalcium Phosphate and Type I Collagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conan S. Young

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (hPDGF-BB is a basic polypeptide growth factor released from platelets at the injury site. It is a multifunctional molecule that regulates DNA synthesis and cell division and induces biological effects that are implicated in tissue repair, atherosclerosis, inflammatory responses, and neoplastic diseases. This paper is an overview of the toxicology data generated from a broad testing platform to determine bone, soft tissue, and systemic responses following administration of rhPDGF-BB. Moreover, the systemic and local toxicity of recombinant human PDGF-BB (rhPDGF-BB in combination with either beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP or collagen combined with β-TCP was studied to determine dermal sensitization, irritation, intramuscular tissue responses, pyrogenicity, genotoxicity, and hemolytic properties. All data strongly suggest that rhPDGF-BB either alone or in combination with β-TCP or collagen with β-TCP is biocompatible and has neither systemic nor local toxicity, supporting its safe use in enhancing wound healing in patients.

  9. Outbreak of Streptococcus pyogenes emm type 58 in a high dependency unit of a level-1 trauma center of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purva Mathur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Group A Streptococcus (GAS can cause illnesses ranging from self-limited to severe, life-threatening, invasive infections. The objective of the following study was to investigate a suspected Streptococcus pyogenes outbreak in a high dependency unit (HDU of our trauma center. Materials and Methods: All the isolates of beta hemolytic Streptococci were identified by standard microbiological methods, Vitek 2 system and latex agglutination tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed as recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Exotoxin genes, including speA, speB, speC, speF, smeZ, ssa, speG, speH, speJ, speL, speM and speI were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The emm types of isolates of S. pyogenes were determined by sequencing the variable 5′ end of emm gene after amplification by PCR. Results: In a 28 bedded poly-trauma ward with a four bedded HDU three out of four patients developed S. pyogenes emm type 58 infection. The strain was macrolide and tetracycline resistant and produced the Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins speB, speC, speG, speF and smeZ. Surveillance sampling was done for investigation from patients, health-care workers and environmental samples. Conclusion: An outbreak of GAS infections was established caused by the uncommonly reported emm type 58. The outbreak was controlled by prompt treatment, intensive surveillance, feedback and training.

  10. Recognizing different impacts of human and natural sources on the spatial distribution and temporal trends of PAHs and PCBs (including PCB-11) in sediments of the Nador Lagoon (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Silvia; Piazza, Rossano; El Moumni, Bouchta; Polo, Fabio Paolo; Vecchiato, Marco; Romano, Stefania; Zambon, Stefano; Frignani, Mauro; Bellucci, Luca Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    The Nador Lagoon holds a major interest in present-day Moroccan socioeconomic development. This environment is exposed to a number of potential polluting sources, such as mine tailings, urban and industrial dumping, and untreated wastewater inputs from surrounding cities. The aim of this study was to assess concentrations and trends of persistent contaminants such as PCBs and PAHs and to identify their origin. The non-Aroclor PCB-11 was determined for the first time in the lagoon sediments. Chronology and source assessment helped identifying the timing and nature of inputs and post-depositional processes controlling the two classes of contaminants: PAHs present a typical mixed petrogenic signature, with the exception of sediments deposited in the period 1930-1960 near the city of Nador, when pyrogenic inputs prevailed; PCBs show signs of microbial anaerobic degradation from 1950 to 1990, probably linked to changing hydrodynamic conditions in the South-Western part of the lagoon where agricultural inputs are dominant. The presence of PCB-11 is linked to specific productions and might be affected by degradation processes. Presently, different land uses (e.g., urban and agricultural areas) appear to be the key factors in controlling the level and composition of PAHs and PCBs in lagoon sediments. Total PAH and PCB levels are low (from 21.6 to 108 ng g(-1) and from 2.50 to 20.7 ng g(-1), respectively) but recent increasing values and the potential threat to humans and biota require continuous and constant monitoring.

  11. Assessing the ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments at Langkawi Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasher, Essam; Heng, Lee Yook; Zakaria, Zuriati; Surif, Salmijah

    2013-01-01

    Tourism-related activities such as the heavy use of boats for transportation are a significant source of petroleum hydrocarbons that may harm the ecosystem of Langkawi Island. The contamination and toxicity levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in the sediments of Langkawi were evaluated using sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) and toxic equivalent factors. Ten samples were collected from jetties and fish farms around the island in December 2010. A gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) was used to analyse the 18 PAHs. The concentration of total PAHs was found to range from 869 ± 00 to 1637 ± 20 ng g⁻¹ with a mean concentration of 1167.00 ± 24 ng g⁻¹, lower than the SQG effects range-low (3442 ng g⁻¹). The results indicated that PAHs may not cause acute biological damage. Diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis suggested that the PAHs were likely to originate from pyrogenic and petrogenic sources. The toxic equivalent concentrations of the PAHs ranged from 76.3 to 177 ng TEQ/g d.w., which is lower compared to similar studies. The results of mean effects range-median quotient of the PAHs were lower than 0.1, which indicate an 11% probability of toxicity effect. Hence, the sampling sites were determined to be the low-priority sites.

  12. Concentrations and Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Seawater around Langkawi Island, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Nasher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the water around the Island and their probable sources. Water samples were collected from four jetties and three marine fish farms around the main Langkawi Island and analysed for 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in December 2010. The total PAH concentrations ranged from 6.1 ± 0.43 to 46 ± 0.42 μgL−1, which exceed the maximum admissible concentrations of PAHs (0.20 μgL−1 for the water standard of European Union. The calculated diagnostic benzo[a]anthracene : benzo[a]anthracene + chrysene ratio of between 0.52 and 1.0 suggests that the sources of PAHs at the majority of the stations studied are derived primarily from pyrogenic sources, from incomplete fuel combustion of the boats and vehicle engines, with lesser amounts of PAHs contributed from petrogenic sources. Some stations displayed mixed sources. A significant positive correlation was found between total organic carbon (TOC and the concentrations of the high-molecular-weight PAHs (r2=0.86, P<0.05, which suggests significant secondary sources of PAHs, such as those from atmospheric deposition.

  13. L-(4-/sup 11/C)aspartic acid: enzymatic synthesis, myocardial uptake, and metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrio, J.R.; Egbert, J.E.; Henze, E.; Schelbert, H.R.; Baumgartner, F.J.

    1982-01-01

    Sterile, pyrogen-free L-(4-/sup 11/C)aspartic acid was prepared from /sup 11/CO/sub 2/ using phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and glutamic/oxaloacetic acid transaminase immobilized on Sepharose supports to determine if it is a useful indicator for in vivo, noninvasive determination of myocardial metabolism. An intracoronary bolus injection of L-(4-/sup 11/C)aspartic acid into dog myocardium showed a triexponential clearance curve with maximal production of /sup 11/CO/sub 2/ 100 s after injection. Inactivation of myocardial transaminase activity modified the tracer clearance and inhibited the production of /sup 11/CO/sub 2/. Positron-computed tomography imaging showed that the /sup 11/C activities retained in rhesus monkey myocardium are higher than those observed in dog heart after intravenous injection of L-(4-/sup 11/C)aspartic acid. These findings demonstrated the rapid incorporation of the carbon skeleton of L-aspartic acid into the tricarboxylic acid cycle after enzymatic transamination in myocardium and suggested that L-(4-/sup 11/C)aspartic acid could be of value for in vivo, noninvasive assessment of local myocardial metabolism.

  14. Distribution, potential sources and ecological risks of two persistent organic pollutants in the intertidal sediment at the Shuangtaizi Estuary, Bohai Sea of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiutang; Yang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Anguo; Ma, Xindong; Gao, Hui; Na, Guangshui; Zong, Humin; Liu, Guize; Sun, Yongguang

    2017-01-15

    Spatial distribution, source apportionment, and potential ecological risks of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and seven endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in the intertidal sediment at the Shuangtaizi Estuary, Bohai Sea of China were analyzed. Results showed that the total PAH concentrations ranged from 28.79ngg(-1) dw to 281.97ngg(-1) dw (mean: 115.92ngg(-1) dw) and the total EDC concentrations from 0.52ngg(-1) dw to 126.73ngg(-1) dw (mean: 37.49ngg(-1) dw). The distribution pattern for the PAHs was generally different from that of the EDCs possibly due to their distinct sources and n-octanol-/water partition coefficients (KOW). Qualitative and quantitative analytical results showed that PAH sources were mainly from a mixture of pyrogenic and petrogenic contributions. The higher levels at the southeast of Geligang indicated that the EDC pollutants may have mainly originated from the plastic industry and other chemical plants located along the Liao River. Ecological risk assessment revealed that PAHs exhibited low ecotoxicological effects, whereas EDCs, especially 4-tert-octylphenol and bisphenol A, had high ecological hazard to the estuarine biota.

  15. Aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments collected from mangroves with different levels of urbanization in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Maíra Algarve; Frena, Morgana; Santos, Ana Paula Stein; Dos Santos Madureira, Luiz Augusto

    2017-06-15

    Three mangroves located in southern Brazil, Carijós (CA), Rio Tavares (RT) and Itacorubi (ITA), with distinct anthropogenic influences, were assessed with regard to the presence of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In this study, the n-alkane concentrations ranged from 1.9μg g(-1) (CA) to 55.6μg g(-1) (ITA) (dry weight). The carbon preference index (CPI) ranged from 2.1 to 7.9 and values for the terrestrial/aquatic ratio (TAR) were >1. Thus, both indexes indicated the predominance of sediment of terrestrial origin, mainly comprised of higher plants. Concentrations of total PAH ranged from 6.8ng g(-1) (RT) to 437.3ng g(-1) (ITA). The PAH isomeric ratios indicated that these compounds originated mainly from pyrogenic sources. Nevertheless, levels of n-alkanes in the three mangroves were relatively low and they are considered typical of uncontaminated surface sediments, while the level of contamination with PAH was classified as low to moderate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mineralization of soil organic matter in biochar amended agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintala, R.; Clay, D. E.; Schumacher, T. E.; Kumar, S.; Malo, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    Pyrogenic biochar materials have been identified as a promising soil amendment to enhance climate resilience, increase soil carbon recalcitrance and achieve sustainable crop production. A three year field study was initiated in 2013 to study the impact of biochar on soil carbon and nitrogen storage on an eroded Maddock soil series - Sandy, Mixed, Frigid Entic Hapludolls) and deposition Brookings clay loam (Fine-Silty, Mixed, Superactive, Frigid Pachic Hapludolls) landscape positions. Three biochars produced from corn stover (Zea mays L.), Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson and C. Lawson) wood residue, and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) were incorporated at 9.75 Mg ha-1 rate (≈7.5 cm soil depth and 1.3 g/cm3 soil bulk density) with a rototiller. The changes in chemical fractionation of soil carbon (soluble C, acid hydrolyzable C, total C, and δ13 C) and nitrogen (soluble N, acid hydrolyzable N, total N, and δ14 N) were monitored for two soil depths (0-7.5 and 7.5 - 15 cm). Soluble and acid hydrolyzable fractions of soil C and N were influenced by soil series and were not significantly affected by incorporation of biochars. Based on soil and plant samples to be collected in the fall of 2015, C and N budgets are being developed using isotopic and non-isotopic techniques. Laboratory studies showed that the mean residence time for biochars used in this study ranged from 400 to 666 years. Laboratory and field studies will be compared in the presentation.

  17. Updraft gasification of poultry litter at farm-scale--A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taupe, N C; Lynch, D; Wnetrzak, R; Kwapinska, M; Kwapinski, W; Leahy, J J

    2016-04-01

    Farm and animal wastes are increasingly being investigated for thermochemical conversion, such as gasification, due to the urgent necessity of finding new waste treatment options. We report on an investigation of the use of a farm-scale, auto-thermal gasification system for the production of a heating gas using poultry litter (PL) as a feedstock. The gasification process was robust and reliable. The PL's ash melting temperature was 639°C, therefore the reactor temperature was kept around this value. As a result of the low reactor temperature the process performance parameters were low, with a cold gas efficiency (CGE) of 0.26 and a carbon conversion efficiency (CCE) of 0.44. The calorific value of the clean product gas was 3.39 MJ m(-3)N (LHV). The tar was collected as an emulsion containing 87 wt.% water and the extracted organic compounds were identified. The residual char exceeds thresholds for Zn and Cu to obtain European biochar certification; however, has potential to be classified as a pyrogenic carbonaceous material (PCM), which resembles a high nutrient biochar.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of isolated Stigmast- 5-en-3β-ol (β-Sitosterol from Honeybee Propolis from North-Western, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jephthah O. Odiba

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The new reported exploration into the chemical profiling of constituents of honey bee propolis from North Western, Nigeria led to the isolation of a sterol; β-Sitosterol from the n-hexane-soluble fraction of the ethanol extract of the propolis. The structures of these compounds were characterised by comparing their spectral data including 1D and 2D NMR with those reported in the literature. The isolated compound was active against 6 out of 12 tested microorganisms including; Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococci pyrogene, Klebsiella pneumonia Shigella dysentariae and Candida krusei. The zones of inhibition ranged between 26mm to 34mm against the test microorganisms. The MIC and MBC value was as low as 12.5-25μg/mL and 25- 100μg/mL respectively against test bacteria’s while the MFC value was 50μg/mL against Candida krusei. This is a new report of the isolation of this compound from the propolis around this region.

  19. Potential origin and formation for molecular components of humic acids in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, Nicole; Chen, Hongmei; Waggoner, Derek; Hatcher, Patrick G.

    2016-04-01

    Soil humic acids are the base soluble/acid insoluble organic components of soil organic matter. Most of what we know about humic acids comes from studies of their bulk molecular properties or analysis of individual fractions after extraction from soils. This work attempts to better define humic acids and explain similarities and differences for several soils varying in degrees of humification using advanced molecular level techniques. Our investigation using electrospray ionization coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICR-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) has given new insight into the distinctive molecular characteristics of humic acids which suggest a possible pathway for their formation. Humic acids from various ecosystems, climate regions and soil textural classes are distinguished by the presence of three predominant molecular components: lignin-like molecules, carboxyl-containing aliphatic molecules and condensed aromatic molecules that bear similarity to black carbon. Results show that humification may be linked to the relative abundance of these three types of molecules as well as the relative abundance of carboxyl groups in each molecular type. This work also demonstrates evidence for lignin as the primary source of soil organic matter, particularly condensed aromatic molecules often categorized as black carbon and is the first report of the non-pyrogenic source for these compounds in soils. We also suggest that much of the carboxyl-containing aliphatic molecules are sourced from lignin.

  20. 五大连池大气中PAHs污染源解析及控制措施%Pollution Source Apportionment And Control Measure Of Pahs In Air In Wudalianchi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔令军; 李海智

    2012-01-01

    对于五大连池大气中PAHs的污染研究,通过在该地区的农村设置大气采样点,进行了为期一个季度的大气样品采集,对PAHs的污染来源进行了初探,运用比值法和主成分分析法相结合对大气中PAHs的来源进行了定性和定量研究,结果表明,煤和生物质等的高温燃烧源是五大连池大气中PAHs的主要污染源,贡献率为83.5%,地表挥发和大气传输源的混合源的贡献率为16.5%。%For the pollution study of PAHs in Wudalianchi, the air samples were collected in a typical rural area for one season. The pollution sources of PAHs were investigated. The selected diagnostic ratios and PCA were combined for the source apportionment of PAHs in air in Wudalianchi. The pyrogenic combustion sources of coal and biomass was the primary source of PAHs in the air in Wudalianchi, accounting for 83.5% of ∑ 16PAHs, followed by the mixed source of surface evaporation and atmospheric transportation ( 16.5% ) .

  1. Pollution assessment and source identifications of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of the Yellow River Delta, a newly born wetland in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhifeng; Wang, Lili; Niu, Junfeng; Wang, Jingyi; Shen, Zhenyao

    2009-11-01

    The levels and possible sources of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic carbons (PAHs) in the sediments from the Yellow River Delta (YRD) were investigated. The total PAH concentrations ranged from 23.9 to 520.6 microg kg(-1) with a mean value of 150.9 microg kg(-1), indicating low or medium levels compared with reported values of other deltas. The concentrations of the 16 individual PAHs presented varied profiles among different regions. The ecological risk assessment of PAHs showed that adverse effects would rarely occur in the sediments of the YRD based on the effect range-low quotients and the probability risk assessment. The PAH compositions and the principal component analysis (PCA) with multiple linear regression (MLR) uniformly presumed the mixed sources of pyrogenic- and petrogenic-deriving PAHs in the YRD. By PCA with MLR, the contributions of major sources were quantified as 36.4% from oil burning, 33.1% from biomass combustion, and 30.5% from diesel emission sources.

  2. Source apportionment of PAHs using Unmix model for Yantai costal surface sediments, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Yin-Hai; Yang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    16 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 20 surface sediments from Yantai offshore area were measured. The total PAHs concentrations varied from 450.0 to 4,299.0 ng/g, with a mean of 2,492.9 ng/g. The high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs were most abundant and the ratio ranged from 54.9 % to 81.6 % in all sampling stations, indicating that pyrogenic sources were a predominant contribution to PAHs pollution. The source contributions of PAHs were estimated based on the EPA Unmix 6.0 receptor model. The data were well simulated due to a high correlation coefficient between predicted and measured PAHs concentration (R(2) = 0.99). A mixed source of coal combustion and traffic pollution contributed to 38.9 % of the measured PAHs, followed by diesel emission (38.8 %) and a mixed source of biomass combustion and gasoline engine emissions (22.3 %). The current findings further validated that Unmix model could be applied to apportion the sources of PAHs in sediments.

  3. A novel approach for characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution patterns in sediments from Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jan H; Tomasi, Giorgio; de Lemos Scofield, Arthur; de Fatima Guadalupe Meniconi, Maria

    2010-10-01

    A novel multivariate method based on principal component analysis of pre-processed sections of chromatograms is used to characterize the complex PAH pollution patterns in sediments from Guanabara Bay, Brazil. Five distinct sources of 3- to 6-ring PAHs could be revealed. The harbour is the most contaminated site in the bay, its plume stretches in a South West to North East direction and the chemical profile indicates mainly pyrogenic sources mixed with a fraction of high-molecular-weight petrogenic PAHs. Rio São João de Meriti is the second largest source of PAHs, and introduces mainly a fraction of low-molecular-weight petrogenic PAHs from the western region of Rio de Janeiro. The sites close to the ruptured pipeline at the Duque de Caxias Refinery show a distinctive pollution pattern indicating a heavy petroleum fraction. The method also led to the identification of new potential indicator ratios also involving coeluting peaks (e.g., triphenylene and chrysene).

  4. A preliminary investigation into the use of Red Pine (Pinus Resinosa) tree cores as historic passive samplers of POPs in outdoor air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauert, Cassandra; Harner, Tom

    2016-09-01

    The suitability of Red Pine trees (Pinus Resinosa) to act as passive samplers for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in outdoor air and to provide historic information on air concentration trends was demonstrated in this preliminary investigation. Red Pine tree cores from Toronto, Canada, were tested for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), alkylated-PAHs, nitro and oxy-PAHs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and novel brominated flame retardants (novel BFRs). The PBDEs and novel BFRs demonstrated a similar relative contribution in cores representing 30 years of tree growth, to that reported in contemporary air samples. Analysis of tree ring segments of 5-15 years resulted in detectable concentrations of some PAHs and alk-PAHs and demonstrated a transition from petrogenic sources to pyrogenic sources over the period 1960-2015. A simple uptake model was developed that treats the tree rings as linear-phase passive air samplers. The bark infiltration factor, IFBARK, is a key parameter of the model that reflects the permeability of the bark to allow chemicals to be transferred from ambient air to the outer tree layer (cambium). An IFBARK of about 2% was derived for the Red Pine trees based on tree core and air monitoring data.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of Beijing and Tianjin region: vertical distribution, correlation with TOC and transport mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Fengpeng; ZHANG Zhihuan; WAN Yunyang; LU Song; WANG Liang; BU Qingwei

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations and compositions of 20 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) were investigated in 16 soil profiles of Beijing and Tianjin region. Transport of high molecular weight PAHs (HMWPAHs) and correlation between total organic carbon (TOC) and the concentrations were also discussed. The results indicated that highly contaminated sites were located at urban or wastewater irrigation areas and pollutants mainly accumulated in topsoil (<40 cm), with a sharp content decrease at the vertical boundary of 30--40 cm. Total PAHs/HAHs concentrations in soils from Tianjin were markedly greater than those from Beijing. Even the contents at bottoms of soil profiles in Tianjin were higher than those in topsoils of Beijing soil profile. HMWPAHs (4-6 rings PAHs) dominated the PAH profiles, exhibiting a uniform distribution of pyrogenic origin between topsoils and deep layers. Furthermore, the percentages of HMWPAHs remained relative constant with the depth of soil profiles, which were consistent with the distribution of particulate matter-associated PAHs in the local atmospheric environments. Therefore, HMWPAHs transport with particulates might be the predominant source found in soil profiles.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediment from Yangpu Bay, China: Distribution, sources and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Diao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Yu; Xie, Yanli; Yang, Fei; Zhou, Hailong; Han, Qian; Wang, Fuqiang; Cheng, Huamin; Wang, Haihua

    2015-10-15

    The study investigated the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface sediment from eleven sites in Yangpu Bay, China in December 2013 (winter) and July 2014 (summer). The 16 US EPA priority PAHs were found in the range of 1583.2-5701.7 ng/g dry weights with an average of 3134.7 ± 1241.3 ng/g in winter and ranged from 2161.8 to 4527.2 ng/g with an average of 3016.6 ± 748.0 ng/g in summer, respectively. The concentrations of the PAHs tended to be relatively high in comparison with other areas from the literatures. The identification using molecular indices analysis indicated that the PAHs originated mainly from pyrogenic and petrogenic sources in most of the sites. According to principle component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA/MLR) for their source apportionment, the main sources of PAHs were vehicle emissions, petroleum products and biomass combustion. The risk assessment using international sediments quality guidelines and sediments quality criteria indicated that several PAHs, such as Nap, Flu, Phe, Ace, Acy and BghiP in most of the sites would potentially affect organisms in Yangpu Bay.

  7. Plant growth improvement mediated by nitrate capture in co-composted biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammann, Claudia I.; Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Messerschmidt, Nicole; Linsel, Sebastian; Steffens, Diedrich; Müller, Christoph; Koyro, Hans-Werner; Conte, Pellegrino; Stephen, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    Soil amendment with pyrogenic carbon (biochar) is discussed as strategy to improve soil fertility to enable economic plus environmental benefits. In temperate soils, however, the use of pure biochar mostly has moderately-negative to -positive yield effects. Here we demonstrate that co-composting considerably promoted biochars’ positive effects, largely by nitrate (nutrient) capture and delivery. In a full-factorial growth study with Chenopodium quinoa, biomass yield increased up to 305% in a sandy-poor soil amended with 2% (w/w) co-composted biochar (BCcomp). Conversely, addition of 2% (w/w) untreated biochar (BCpure) decreased the biomass to 60% of the control. Growth-promoting (BCcomp) as well as growth-reducing (BCpure) effects were more pronounced at lower nutrient-supply levels. Electro-ultra filtration and sequential biochar-particle washing revealed that co-composted biochar was nutrient-enriched, particularly with the anions nitrate and phosphate. The captured nitrate in BCcomp was (1) only partly detectable with standard methods, (2) largely protected against leaching, (3) partly plant-available, and (4) did not stimulate N2O emissions. We hypothesize that surface ageing plus non-conventional ion-water bonding in micro- and nano-pores promoted nitrate capture in biochar particles. Amending (N-rich) bio-waste with biochar may enhance its agronomic value and reduce nutrient losses from bio-wastes and agricultural soils.

  8. Immunization with a streptococcal multiple-epitope recombinant protein protects mice against invasive group A streptococcal infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chih-Feng; Tsao, Nina; Hsieh, I-Chen; Lin, Yee-Shin; Wu, Jiunn-Jong; Hung, Yu-Ting

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus; GAS) causes clinical diseases, including pharyngitis, scarlet fever, impetigo, necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. A number of group A streptococcus vaccine candidates have been developed, but only one 26-valent recombinant M protein vaccine has entered clinical trials. Differing from the design of a 26-valent recombinant M protein vaccine, we provide here a vaccination using the polyvalence epitope recombinant FSBM protein (rFSBM), which contains four different epitopes, including the fibronectin-binding repeats domain of streptococcal fibronectin binding protein Sfb1, the C-terminal immunogenic segment of streptolysin S, the C3-binding motif of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B, and the C-terminal conserved segment of M protein. Vaccination with the rFSBM protein successfully prevented mortality and skin lesions caused by several emm strains of GAS infection. Anti-FSBM antibodies collected from the rFSBM-immunized mice were able to opsonize at least six emm strains and can neutralize the hemolytic activity of streptolysin S. Furthermore, the internalization of GAS into nonphagocytic cells is also reduced by anti-FSBM serum. These findings suggest that rFSBM can be applied as a vaccine candidate to prevent different emm strains of GAS infection. PMID:28355251

  9. One century sedimentary records of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, mercury and trace elements in the Qinghai Lake, Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiaoping, E-mail: wangxp@itpcas.ac.c [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Yang Handong [Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London, Pearson Building, Gower Street, London WC1E6BT (United Kingdom); Gong Ping; Zhao Xin; Wu Guangjian [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Turner, Simon [Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London, Pearson Building, Gower Street, London WC1E6BT (United Kingdom); Yao Tandong [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Sediments from a remote lake of northeastern Tibetan Plateau were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and trace metals. USEPA priority PAHs, ranged from 11 in 1860 to 279 ng g{sup -1} in 2002, while, the deposition fluxes were in the range of 0.2-11.4 ng cm{sup -2} yr{sup -1}. Similarly, from 1860 to 2002, an increased trend of Hg flux was observed (0.5-3.2 ng cm{sup -2} yr{sup -1}). Remarkable increase of PAHs and Hg concentration began from 1970, nearly the same period of the 'Reform and Open' Policy had been embarked (1978) in China. Good correlations were found between concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cd, As, Hg, and PAHs, which suggested the sources of these chemicals in the sediment is analogous, likely from anthroprogenic sources. Based on isomer ratios, PAHs in core were dominantly from the incomplete combustion of coal. Owing to the proximity to dust source area (Qaidam Basin) and the close association between PAHs, Hg, Pb, and particle matters, atmospheric dust-transport and deposition might be the main pathways that pollutants enter into Qinghai Lake. - The historical deposition records of PAHs and Hg followed the economical development stages of China and sources of PAHs and Hg are dominantly pyrogenic.

  10. Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: pollution and ecological risk assessment in street dust of Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Mohsen; Li, Loretta Y; Salmanzadeh, Mahdiyeh

    2012-08-15

    50 street dust samples from four major streets in eastern and southern Tehran, the capital of Iran, were analyzed for metal pollution (Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Cd, Zn, Fe, Mn and Li). Hakanson's method was used to determine the Risk Index (RI) and ecological risks. Amongst these samples, 21 were also analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Correlation, cluster and principal component analyses identified probable natural and anthropogenic sources of contaminants. The dust had elevated concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe and PAHs. Enrichment factors of Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn showed that the dust is extremely enriched in these metals. Multivariate statistical analyses revealed that Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe and PAHs and, to a lesser extent, Cr and Ni have common anthropogenic sources. While Mn and Li were identified to have natural sources, Cd may have different anthropogenic origins. All samples demonstrated high ecological risk. Traffic and related activities, petrogenic and pyrogenic sources are likely to be the main anthropogenic sources of heavy metals and PAHs in Tehran dust.

  11. Methyl halide emissions from savanna fires in southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, M. O.; Atlas, E.; Harris, G. W.; Helas, G.; de Kock, A.; Koppmann, R.; Maenhaut, W.; Manø, S.; Pollock, W. H.; Rudolph, J.; Scharffe, D.; Schebeske, G.; Welling, M.

    1996-10-01

    The methyl halides, methyl chloride (CH3Cl), methyl bromide (CH3Br), and methyl iodide (CH3I), were measured in regional air samples and smoke from savanna fires in southern Africa during the Southern Africa Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative-92 (SAFARI-92) experiment (August-October 1992). All three species were significantly enhanced in the smoke plumes relative to the regional background. Good correlations were found between the methyl halides and carbon monoxide, suggesting that emission was predominantly associated with the smoldering phase of the fires. About 90% of the halogen content of the fuel burned was released to the atmosphere, mostly as halide species, but a significant fraction (3-38%) was emitted in methylated form. On the basis of comparison with the composition of the regional background atmosphere, emission ratios to carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide were determined for the methyl halide species. The emission ratios decreased in the sequence CH3Cl > CH3Br > CH3I. Extrapolation of these results in combination with data from other types of biomass burning, e.g. forest fires, suggests that vegetation fires make a significant contribution to the atmospheric budget of CH3Cl and CH3Br. For tropospheric CH3I, on the other hand, fires appear to be a minor source. Our results suggest that pyrogenic emissions of CH3Cl and CH3Br need to be considered as significant contributors to stratospheric ozone destruction.

  12. Evaluation of PAH contamination in soil treated with solid by-products from shale pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini, Jaqueline; Khan, Muhammad Y; Matsui, M; Côcco, Lílian C; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Lopes, Wilson A; de Andrade, Jailson B; Pillon, Clenio N; Arizaga, Gregorio G Carbajal; Mangrich, Antonio S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils to which solid shale materials (SSMs) were added as soil conditioners. The SSMs were derived from the Petrosix pyrolysis process developed by Petrobras (Brazil). An improved ultrasonic agitation method was used to extract the PAHs from the solid samples (soils amended with SSMs), and the concentrations of the compounds were determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The procedure provided satisfactory recoveries, detection limits, and quantification limits. The two-, three-, and four-ring PAHs were most prevalent, and the highest concentration was obtained for phenanthrene (978 ± 19 μg kg(-1) in a pyrolyzed shale sample). The use of phenanthrene/anthracene and fluoranthene/pyrene ratios revealed that the PAHs were derived from petrogenic rather than pyrogenic sources. The measured PAH concentrations did not exceed national or international limit values, suggesting that the use of SSMs as soil conditioners should not cause environmental damage.

  13. Abundance, composition and vertical distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of the Mai Po Inner Deep Bay of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenye; Zhuang, Yi-Xuan; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2012-08-01

    The distribution and changes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination in mangrove sediments of Mai Po Inner Deep Bay Ramsar Site of Hong Kong SAR were investigated. Surface sediments (10 cm) collected from four sampling sites (SZ, SP, MF and M) exhibited significant spatial variations in concentrations of total PAH (with ΣPAHs ranging from 161.7 to 383.7 ng g(-1) dry wt), as well as the composition of 16 US EPA priority PAH compounds. The highest PAHs concentrations were found in the mangrove sediments. Moreover, a sediment core was extracted from mangrove area is used to reconstruct the high-resolution depositional record of PAHs by (210)Pb isotope analysis, showing the amounts of PAHs remained relatively constant for the past 41 years. Urbanization of Shenzhen Economic Zone, the rapid increase in vehicle numbers and energy consumption in the last two decades contributed to the PAHs detected in sediments. The source-diagnostic ratios indicated that pyrogenic input are important throughout the record and the surface sediments, and suggest that diesel fuel combustion, and hence traffic of heavier vehicles, is the most probable cause of PAHs.

  14. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of the Mai Po Inner Deep Bay Ramsar Site in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen-Ye; Chu, Yan-ling; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2012-08-01

    The concentration of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (∑PAHs) and the 16 US EPA priority individual PAH compounds were analyzed in surface sediments from the Mai Po Inner Deep Bay, Ramsar Site of Hong Kong from December 2001 to Jun 2005, to investigate the spatial variability of anthropogenic pollutants. ∑PAHs concentrations ranged from 36.5 to 256.3 ng g(-1) dry weight with an average of 148.9 ng g(-1), comparable to other urbanized areas of the world, and there was little difference among different sampling times from December 2001 to June 2005. Based on comparison to the results from earlier study, it appears that a decrease of total PAHs concentration has occurred since 1992. Meanwhile, the concentrations of ∑PAHs were positive correlated with total organic carbon contents except sites F and G, suggesting the characteristics of the sediment influences the distribution and concentration of PAHs. There was relatively a good relationship among the individual PAHs and the compounds of fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene and indeno[cd]pyrene yielded a good correlation (r(2) > 0.5) with total PAHs. Principal component analysis and specific PAHs compound ratios (Phe/Ant vs. Flt/Pyr) indicate the pyrogenic origins, especially traffic exhausts, are the dominant sources of PAHs in the Mai Po Inner Deep Bay Nature Reserve.

  15. Leptospires in field Rats in and around the laboratory animal facilities of Banglore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vinodkumar

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of leptospires in field rats in and around laboratory animal facilities in Bangalore. 34 rats were trapped alive in and around the laboratory animal facilities in Bangalore. Urine and serum samples from theses field rats were collected. Serum samples were tested for anti-leptospiral antibodies by microscopic agglutination test, while urine samples were subjected for dark field microscopy and polymerase chain reaction to detect the presence of leptospiral antigens. Serology revealed the presence of antileptospiral antibodies in 19 (61.29 percent field rats and dark field microscopy revealed the presence of leptospiral antigens in 3 (8.82 percent and 6 (17.65 percent of urine samples of these field rats. Among the serovars, Icterohaemorrhagiae was predominant followed by Autumnalis and Pyrogens. Serology dark field microscopy and polymerase chain reaction reveals that field rats are major natural carriers and shedders of leptospires. [Vet. World 2011; 4(9.000: 410-412

  16. Chemical stability and adsorption of atracurium besylate injections in disposable plastic syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramar, Y V; Loucas, V A; Word, D

    1996-06-01

    Atracurium besylate (AB) is supplied as a sterile, non-pyrogenic aqueous solution for intravenous use. Hospitals pre-fill disposable plastic syringes with these solutions so that they are ready for immediate use when required. Drug loss due to potential adsorption on to the plastic material of the syringes has not been studied. Atracurium is also administered by intravenous infusion using a diluted solution in either 5% dextrose injection (USP) or 0.9% sodium chloride injection USP. Drug solutions not used within 24 h are usually discarded, resulting in tremendous waste. The purpose of these investigations was to determine the adsorption behaviour of atracurium when stored in plastic syringes, and to study the degradation of atracurium in i.v. fluids. For the adsorption study, 10 mg/ml solutions were used, whereas the diluted infusion solutions were prepared to contain 0.5 mg/ml of atracurium. Drug degradation was monitored using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. Degradation studies were conducted at 5 degrees C, 25 degrees C and 40 degrees C. Refrigeration was observed to improve drug stability. The manufacturer's recommended expiry period was too conservative. Storage at room temperature for up to 6 weeks can be safely recommended, without significant loss of chemical stability.

  17. A rapid kinetic chromogenic method for quantification of bacterial endotoxins in lyophilized reagents for labeling with {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Campos, Domingos G.; Silva, Laercio; Fernandes, Adriana V.; Mengatti, Jair; Silva, Constancia P.G.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A rapid quantitative kinetic chromogenic test in an automated Portable Test System (PTS) has been developed for determination of bacterial endotoxins in water, in-process and end-products using the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL). The aim of this work was to validate the method for lyophilized reagents for labeling with {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceuticals with no interfering factors. Experiments were performed in three consecutive batches of the lyophilized reagents Methylenediphosphonic Acid (MDP) and Pyrophosphate (PYRO) produced at IPEN-CNEN/ SP using the PTS from Endosafe, Inc.{sup TM}, Charleston, SC. The Maximum Valid Dilution (MVD) was calculated to establish the extent of dilution to avoid interfering test conditions (MVD=500). Better results were obtained above 1:20 dilution factor for MDP and 1:100 for PYRO. The parameters of coefficient correlation (R) -0.980, RPPC between 50 - 200% and coefficient variation (CV) of the samples less than 25% were satisfied and the endotoxin concentration was lower than the lowest concentration of the standard curve (0.05 EU mL{sup -1}), therefore less than the established limit in pharmacopoeias. The PTS is a rapid, simple and accurate technique using the quantitative kinetic chromogenic method for bacterial endotoxin determination. For this reason, it is very practical in the radiopharmaceutical area and it trends to be the method of choice for the pyrogen test. For MDP and PYRO, the validation was successfully performed. (author)

  18. 丹红注射液中细菌内毒素的检测%Discussion on the bacterial endotoxin test of Danhong Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀花

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of the bacterial endotoxin test for Danhong Injection. Methods: The experiment was based on the bacterial endotoxin test method stated in Chinese Pharmacoperia 2010 Edition (Vol II), which helped to identify the effective dilution of Danhong Injection and the limits of bacteria endotoxin. Results: When the Danhong Injection was diluted 10 times, it had no interference effects on the TAL. The limit of bacterial endotoxin was 5.0 ELJ/ ml. Conclusion: The bacterial endotoxin test can be used to replace the pyrogen test.%目的:探讨丹红注射液细菌内毒素检查方法的可行性.方法:依据2010年版二部附录细菌内毒素检查法,确定丹红注射液的有效稀释浓度和细菌内毒素限值.结果:丹红注射液经稀释10倍后对鲎试剂无干扰作用,细菌内毒素的限值为5.0 EU/ml.结论:可用细菌内毒素检查取代热原检查.

  19. Current trends in endotoxin detection and analysis of endotoxin-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullah, Elvina Clarie; Ongkudon, Clarence M

    2017-03-01

    Endotoxin is a type of pyrogen that can be found in Gram-negative bacteria. Endotoxin can form a stable interaction with other biomolecules thus making its removal difficult especially during the production of biopharmaceutical drugs. The prevention of endotoxins from contaminating biopharmaceutical products is paramount as endotoxin contamination, even in small quantities, can result in fever, inflammation, sepsis, tissue damage and even lead to death. Highly sensitive and accurate detection of endotoxins are keys in the development of biopharmaceutical products derived from Gram-negative bacteria. It will facilitate the study of the intermolecular interaction of an endotoxin with other biomolecules, hence the selection of appropriate endotoxin removal strategies. Currently, most researchers rely on the conventional LAL-based endotoxin detection method. However, new methods have been and are being developed to overcome the problems associated with the LAL-based method. This review paper highlights the current research trends in endotoxin detection from conventional methods to newly developed biosensors. Additionally, it also provides an overview of the use of electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and docking programs in the endotoxin-protein analysis.

  20. Methodological Studies on Plasma Endotoxin Level and Endotoxin Inactivation Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚国相; 杨乃发; 薛新波; 赵玉沛; 蒋朱明

    2004-01-01

    To establish stable methods for detecting plasma endotoxin level and endotoxin inactivation capacity in a normal population and general surgical patients and evaluate their perioperative changes, 50 healthy people and 50 patients receiving gastrointestinal operation were enrolled, their plasma endotoxin levels and plasma endotoxin inactivation capacity were assayed. Our results showed that plasma endotoxin levels were 0.044±0.009 EU/ml in the normal population and 0.044±0.023 EU/ml in the preoperative patients. Endotoxin level peaked 3 h after the operation (0.223±0.041 EU/ml), and then decreased rapidly on the first day after the operation (0.134±0.164EU/ml). Endotoxin inactivation capacity also had the same time course as endotoxin level. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome and infection induced another elevation in the time course. It is concluded that establishing the endotoxin standard curve by using pyrogenic free water is better than by using plasma. Plasma endotoxin inactivation capacity can be used as an indirect indicator of postoperative immune depression. Plasma endotoxin level and endotoxin inactivation capacity peaked shortly after operation, indicating surgical stress is closely related with the changes.

  1. Methods of Endotoxin Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wenqiong; Ding, Xianting

    2015-08-01

    Endotoxin, present in the outer membrane of all gram-negative bacteria, can pose serious risks to human health, from irreversible shock to death. Therefore, it is essential to develop sensitive, accurate, and rapid methods for its detection. The rabbit pyrogen test is the first standard technique for endotoxin detection and, nowadays, has been replaced by the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate test, which is the most popular detection technique for endotoxin. With in-depth understanding of endotoxin, biosensors based on endotoxin-sensing components are promising alternatives to pursue in developing low-cost, easy-operation, and fast-response endotoxin detection techniques. This article summarizes the recent advances of endotoxin detection methods with a particular emphasis on optical and electrochemical biosensors based on various sensing elements ranging from nature biomolecules to artificial materials. As the research and technological revolution continues, the highly integrated and miniaturized commercial devices for sensitively and reliably detecting endotoxin will provide a wide range of applications in people's daily life.

  2. 注射用阿魏酸钠细菌内毒素检查法的建立%Studies on Establishment of Bacterial Endotoxin Test of Sodium Ferulate for Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王相忍

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立注射用阿魏酸钠细菌内毒素检查法。方法采用《中国药典》2010年版二部附录细菌内毒素检查法。结果注射用阿魏酸钠稀释至1.25mg· mL -1时,不干扰细菌内毒素试验,其细菌内毒素限值可订为0·4EU· mg -1。结论使用细菌内毒素检查法检查注射用阿魏酸钠中的细菌内毒素是可行的,可用细菌内毒素检查法代替家兔热原检查法。%OBJECTIVE To establish a method for the bacterial endotoxin test of Sodium Ferulate for Injec-tion.METHODS The method of the bacterial endotoxin test approved by the Chinese Pharmacopoeia ( edition 2010 ) was adopted.RESULTS Sodium Ferulate for Injection was diluted to 1.25 mg· mL-1 ,does not interfere with the bacterial endotoxin test ,the bacterial endotoxin limit can be set for 0.4EU· mg-1.CONCLUSION The meth-od is feasible to detect bacterial endotoxin in Sodium Ferulate for Injection , which can replace the rabbit pyrogen test.

  3. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tree-rings of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) from two industrial sites in the Pearl River Delta, south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Yuan-wen; Zhou, Guo-yi; Wen, Da-zhi; Li, Jiong; Sun, Fang-fang

    2011-09-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were examined and potential sources of PAHs were identified from the dated tree-rings of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) near two industrial sites (Danshuikeng, DSK and Xiqiaoshan, XQS) in the Pearl River Delta of south China. Total concentrations of PAHs (∑PAHs) were revealed with similar patterns of temporal trends in the tree-rings at both sites, suggesting tree-rings recorded the historical variation in atmospheric PAHs. The differences of individual PAHs and of ∑PAHs detected in the tree-rings between the two sites reflected the historical differences of airborne PAHs. Regional changes in industrial activities might contribute to the site-specific and period-specific patterns of the tree-ring PAHs. The diagnostic PAH ratios of Ant/(Ant + PA), FL/(FL + Pyr), and BaA/(BaA + Chr)) revealed that PAHs in the tree-rings at both sites mainly stemmed from the combustion process (pyrogenic sources). Principal component analysis further confirmed that wood burning, coal combustion, diesel, and gasoline-powered vehicular emissions were the dominant contributors of PAHs sources at DSK, while diesel combustion, gasoline and natural gas combustion, and incomplete coal combustion were responsible for the main origins of PAHs at XQS. Tree-ring analysis of PAHs was indicative of PAHs from a mixture of sources of combustion, thus minimizing the bias of short-term active air sampling.

  4. Unravelling airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in southern China using tree-rings of 100-yr old Pinus Kwangtungensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Huang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Reliable perennial biomonitoring of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs is urgently necessary to detect long-term impacts of anthropogenic emission, in response to industrial policies and combustion technology adoption. One hundred records of airborne PAHs were novelly demonstrated by analyzing the tree-rings of Kwangtung pine (Pinus kwangtungensis formed from 1883 to 2007 at Naling Mountains of southern China. The total concentrations of PAHs (∑PAHs detected in the tree xylem did not progressively increase against the time. Temporal increase of high molecular-weight PAHs (HMW-PAHs coincided well to the historical-socioeconomic status in China, suggesting HMW-PAHs in old trees growing at high mountains were more indicative of regionally historical changes in airborne PAHs compared with ∑PAHs. Compositional analysis indicated airborne PAHs absorbed and accumulated in tree tissues were pyrogenic origination. Principal component analysis revealed PAHs inputs were quite historically diversiform and unevenly distributed in the atmosphere of Nanling Mountains of southern China. Dendroanalysis of old trees grown at geographically sink locations could be a useful biomonitoring technique for unravelling historical changes in PAHs composition and intensity in the atmosphere, in relation to regional industrial development and fuel consumptions.

  5. Organic nitrogen storage in mineral soil: Implications for policy and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Andrew H; Cotrufo, M Francesca

    2016-05-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most important ecosystem nutrients and often its availability limits net primary production as well as stabilization of soil organic matter. The long-term storage of nitrogen-containing organic matter in soils was classically attributed to chemical complexity of plant and microbial residues that retarded microbial degradation. Recent advances have revised this framework, with the understanding that persistent soil organic matter consists largely of chemically labile, microbially processed organic compounds. Chemical bonding to minerals and physical protection in aggregates are more important to long-term (i.e., centuries to millennia) preservation of these organic compounds that contain the bulk of soil nitrogen rather than molecular complexity, with the exception of nitrogen in pyrogenic organic matter. This review examines for the first time the factors and mechanisms at each stage of movement into long-term storage that influence the sequestration of organic nitrogen in the mineral soil of natural temperate ecosystems. Because the factors which govern persistence are different under this newly accepted paradigm we examine the policy and management implications that are altered, such as critical load considerations, nitrogen saturation and mitigation consequences. Finally, it emphasizes how essential it is for this important but underappreciated pool to be better quantified and incorporated into policy and management decisions, especially given the lack of evidence for many soils having a finite capacity to sequester nitrogen.

  6. Hypothermic and antipyretic effects of ACTH (1-24) and alpha-melanotropin in guinea-pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, S. B.; Williams, B. A.

    1984-01-01

    Intracerebroventricular administration of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH 1-24) and alpha-melanotropin (alpha-MSH), peptides which occur naturally in brain induced dose-related hypothermia in guinea-pigs at room temperature (21 C) and also produced greater hypothermia at low (10 C) ambient temperature. However, when the experiments were repeated in a warm (30 C) environment, no effect on body temperature was observed. These results indicate that the peptides did not reduce the central set-point of temperature control. The hypothermia induced by ACTH and alpha-MSH was not mediated via histamine H1- or H2-receptors and serotonin since the H1-receptor antagonist, mepyramine, the H2-receptor antagonist, cimetidine, and the serotonin antagonist, methysergide, had no antagonistic effects. The peptides were antipyretic since they reduced pyrogen-induced-fever and hyperthermia due to prostaglandin E2, norepinephrine and dibutyryl cAMP, at a dose which did not affect normal body temperature. The powerful central effects of these peptides on normal body temperature, fever and hyperthermia, together with their presence of the brain regions important to temperature control, suggest that they participate in thermoregulation.

  7. 枸橼酸钠注射液细菌内毒素检查方法的考察%Studies of Bacterial Endotoxins Test of Sodium Citrate Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何进; 史国兵; 高军; 陈金旺

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish a method of bacterial endotoxin test of sodium citrate injection by gel clot.Methods The method was based on the bacterial endotoxin test in the appendix of Chp 2005.A series of tests were performed, such as the sensitivity test of tachypleus amebocyte lysate, first interference test and interference tests.Results No interference was found after the sodium citrate injection was diluted 6 times in the bacterial endotoxin interference factors test.Conclusion The present method can replace the pyrogen test with rabbits for examination of bacterial endotoxin of sodium citrate injection.%目的 建立枸橼酸钠注射液细菌内毒素检查方法.方法 按2005年版附录细菌内毒素检查法,分别进行了鲎试剂灵敏度复核试验、细菌内毒素干扰试验.结果 枸橼酸钠注射液稀释6倍后,不干扰鲎试剂与细菌内毒素的凝胶反应.结论 可用细菌内毒素检查法替代家兔法检查枸橼酸钠注射液中的细菌内毒素.

  8. In vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy and UHMWPE polymer for total hip replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc Bich Vu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introductions: Joint replacements have considerably improved the quality of life of patients with damaged joints. Over the past 30 years, there has been much effort and investigations in ways to repair damages in joints, including knee and hip joints. Materials for joint production have also been developed. Many improvements have been made in the joint replacement materials to increase their biocompatibility and longevity. This study is aimed at evaluating the in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy and UHMWPE polymer used in total hip replacements. Methods: Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy and UHMWPE polymer were carefully washed with sterile distilled water then autoclaved. The materials were used directly or indirectly to evaluate pyrogens, endotoxins, animal cell cytotoxicity, gene mutation, animal cell transformation, DNA synthesis, immunogenicity, histology reactions, and immune response. All assays were performed according to ISO10993 guidelines. Results: The results showed that Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy and Chirulen 1020 UHMWPE polymer satisfied all criteria for implantable materials. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(3.000: 567-577

  9. Assesment of trace elements and organic pollutants from a marine oil complex into the coral reef system of Cayo Arcas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, Silke; Ponce De León, Claudia A; Fernández, Pilar; Sommer, Irene; Rivas, Hilda; Morales, Luis Miguel

    2006-10-01

    Possible contaminants produced by the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) marine oil complex in the vicinity of the Cayo Arcas (Mexico) coral reef ecosystem were evaluated by analyzing sediments and sea water for hydrocarbons and metal elements. We found that the concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the sea water were generally low, with the highest values detected near the oil station; the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was generally below the detection limit. The hydrocarbons found in the sediments seem to have a pyrogenic origin, and were probably produced by marine traffic in the study area. The total PAH concentration did not exceed the NOAA criteria, although levels of some individual PAHs did. The only metal detected in the sea water at high concentrations was nickel. The Ni/V ratio in the sediments indicates the contribution of crude oil to the system. The high content of Ni and Zn was attributed to the ballast waters from the oil tankers that load at the station's monobuoys. The presence of fine sediments that commonly originate from terrestrial ecosystems supported this assumption.

  10. Contributions of microbial activity and ash deposition to post-fire nitrogen availability in a pine savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficken, Cari D.; Wright, Justin P.

    2017-01-01

    Many ecosystems experience drastic changes to soil nutrient availability associated with fire, but the magnitude and duration of these changes are highly variable among vegetation and fire types. In pyrogenic pine savannas across the southeastern United States, pulses of soil inorganic nitrogen (N) occur in tandem with ecosystem-scale nutrient losses from prescribed burns. Despite the importance of this management tool for restoring and maintaining fire-dependent plant communities, the contributions of different mechanisms underlying fire-associated changes to soil N availability remain unclear. Pulses of N availability following fire have been hypothesized to occur through (1) changes to microbial cycling rates and (2) direct ash deposition. Here, we document fire-associated changes to N availability across the growing season in a longleaf pine savanna in North Carolina. To differentiate between possible mechanisms driving soil N pulses, we measured net microbial cycling rates and changes to soil δ15N before and after a burn. Our findings refute both proposed mechanisms: we found no evidence for changes in microbial activity, and limited evidence that ash deposition could account for the increase in ammonium availability to more than 5-25 times background levels. Consequently, we propose a third mechanism to explain post-fire patterns of soil N availability, namely that (3) changes to plant sink strength may contribute to ephemeral increases in soil N availability, and encourage future studies to explicitly test this mechanism.

  11. Mathematic simulation of heat transfer and operating optimization in alumina rotary kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易正明; 肖慧; 宋佳霖; 马光柏; 周孑民

    2013-01-01

    Based on the analysis of material motion in the axial direction, heat transfer and mass transport processes in a rotary kiln, and combining with pulverized coal combustion, material pyrogenation, cooling of furnace wall finally, and heat transfer and mass transport equations, the combined heat transfer mathematical model for alumina rotary kiln was built up. According to the in-site real operation parameters, the heat transfer mathematical model was solved numerically for an alumina rotary kiln to predict the temperature profiles of gas and material in the axial direction. The results show that as the excess air coefficient reduces from 1.38 to 1.20, the temperature of the sintering zone increases and the length decreases. However, as the excess air coefficient reduces from 1.20 to 1.10, the temperature of the sintering zone decreases and the length increases. When the mixed coal amount at the end of kiln is reduced from 68.6 kg/t to 62.0 kg/t and the burned coal amount at the head of kiln correspondingly increases from 155.3 kg/t to 161.9 kg/t, the sintering zone temperature increases and the length reduces. The suitable excess air coefficient and mixed coal amount at the end of kiln are recommended for the rotary kiln operation optimization.

  12. Sources and distribution of aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in coastal sediments from the Ushuaia Bay (Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commendatore, Marta G; Nievas, Marina L; Amin, Oscar; Esteves, José L

    2012-03-01

    The environmental quality of Ushuaia Bay, located at the southernmost tip of South America, is affected by the anthropogenic pressure of Ushuaia city. In this study, levels and sources of hydrocarbons in coastal sediments were assessed. Aliphatic hydrocarbon fractions ranged between 5.5 and 1185.3 μg/g dry weight and PAHs from not detected to 360 ng/g. Aliphatic diagnostic indices, the nalkanes homologous series occurrence, Aliphatic Unresolved Complex Mixtures (AliUCMs), and pristane and phytane isoprenoids indicated a petrogenic input. Some sites showed biogenic features masked by the anthropogenic signature. Particularly in port areas biodegradation processes were evident. PAH ratios showed a mixture of petrogenic and pyrogenic sources. Aliphatic and aromatic UCMs were strongly correlated, reflecting chronic pollution. Three areas were distinguished inside the bay: (1) east, with low hydrocarbons impact; (2) central, where hydrocarbons accumulation was related to source proximity and sediment characteristics; (3) south-west, where sediment characteristics and current circulation favour hydrocarbons accumulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Calciomics:prediction and analysis of EF-hand calcium binding proteins by protein engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Jenny; Jie

    2010-01-01

    Ca2+ plays a pivotal role in the physiology and biochemistry of prokaryotic and mammalian organisms.Viruses also utilize the universal Ca2+ signal to create a specific cellular environment to achieve coexistence with the host,and to propagate.In this paper we first describe our development of a grafting approach to understand site-specific Ca2+ binding properties of EF-hand proteins with a helix-loop-helix Ca2+ binding motif,then summarize our prediction and identification of EF-hand Ca2+ binding sites on a genome-wide scale in bacteria and virus,and next report the application of the grafting approach to probe the metal binding capability of predicted EF-hand motifs within the streptococcal hemoprotein receptor(Shr) of Streptococcus pyrogenes and the nonstructural protein 1(nsP1) of Sindbis virus.When methods such as the grafting approach are developed in conjunction with prediction algorithms we are better able to probe continuous Ca2+-binding sites that have been previously underrepresented due to the limitation of conventional methodology.

  14. Aseptic peritonitis due to peptidoglycan contamination of pharmacopoeia standard dialysis solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martis, Leo; Patel, Mehul; Giertych, Joe; Mongoven, Jim; Taminne, Michel; Perrier, Michele A; Mendoza, Omar; Goud, Niranjan; Costigan, Aidan; Denjoy, Nicole; Verger, Christian; Owen, William F

    Manufacturers of parenteral solutions adhere to European and US Pharmacopoeia standards to define safety and sterility. In response to excess cases of aseptic peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients using icodextrin-containing dialysate that met all pharmacopoeia standards, a global recall was issued in May, 2002. We aimed to establish the cause of aseptic peritonitis. We analysed 186 reports of aseptic peritonitis between September, 2001, and January, 2003. Extensive physical, chemical, and microbiological investigations of recalled dialysate were done. We calculated dose-response curves for peptidoglycan-induced interleukin 6 elaboration in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors and for sterile peritonitis in rats. Although its chemical constituents and concentrations of endotoxin were within pharmacopoeia specifications, the dialysis solution elicited an interlukin 6 response in vivo and in vitro. We identified peptidoglycan from thermophilic acidophilic bacteria (Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius) as the contaminating proinflammatory substance. In the PBMC assay, strong dose-response relations were noted between peptidoglycan concentrations and interleukin 6. In rats injected with peptidoglycan, dose-dependent increases of intraperitoneal neutrophils and pyrogenic cytokines were recorded. We measured a positive relation between peptidoglycan concentrations in recalled dialysate and reports of aseptic peritonitis. After implementation of corrective actions, the rate of peritonitis returned to baseline. Excess cases of aseptic peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients were due to peptidoglycan contamination of dialysate by Alicyclobacillus. This outbreak serves as an example of how contemporary parenteral products with microbial contaminants can be considered safe under current pharmacopoeia tests, but provoke adverse clinical effects.

  15. Effect of Carbon Content on Electrochemical Properties of LiFePO4/C Composite Cathode%碳含量对LiFePO4/C复合正极材料性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮艳莉; 唐致远; 黄保民

    2005-01-01

    Olivine-type LiFePO4/C composite cathode materials were synthesized by a solid-state reaction method in an inert atmosphere. The glucose was added as conductive precursors before the formation of the crystalline phase. The effects of glucose content on the properties of as-synthesized cathode materials were investigated. The crystal structure and the electrochemical performance were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser particle-size distribution measurement and electrochemical performance testing.The material has a single crystal oIivine structure with grain-sizes ca. 100-200 nm. SEM micrographs and the corresponding energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) data confirm that the carbon particulates produced by glucose pyrogenation are uniformly dispersed among the LiFePO4 grains, ensuring a good electronic contact. Impedance spectroscopy was used to investigate the ohmic and kinetic contributions to the cell performance. It is found that increasing the carbon content leads to a reduction of the cell impedance due to the reduction of the charge transfer resistance. The galvanostatically charge and discharge tests show that the material obtained by adding 10% C (by mass) gives a maximum discharge capacity of 140.8 mA.h.g-1 at the same rate (C/10). The material also displays a more stable cycle-life than the others.

  16. Preclinical safety and immunogenicity evaluation of a nonavalent PorA native outer membrane vesicle vaccine against serogroup B meningococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaijk, Patricia; van Straaten, Ineke; van de Waterbeemd, Bas; Boot, Elmieke P J; Levels, Lonneke M A R; van Dijken, Harry H; van den Dobbelsteen, Germie P J M

    2013-02-04

    An improved nonavalent PorA native outer membrane vesicle vaccine was developed with intrinsic adjuvating activity due to presence of less-toxic (lpxL1) LPS. In the present study, the safety and immunogenicity of this next-generation NonaMen vaccine were evaluated following repeated vaccination in rabbits and mice. A repeated-dose toxicology study was performed in rabbits. Immunogenicity of next-generation NonaMen was evaluated by determining the serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titers against meningococcal serogroup B strains containing several PorA subtypes. Release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), by the human monocytic cell line (MM6) was measured to estimate pyrogenic activity. No toxicologically relevant findings were noted in vaccinated rabbits receiving plain next-generation NonaMen. In agreement, next-generation NonaMen induced reduced amounts of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-6, released by human monocyte cell line. In both rabbits and mice, next-generation NonaMen induced high SBA titers against all tested MenB strains regardless of whether or not aluminium phosphate adjuvant is used. The data suggest that next-generation NonaMen is a safe vaccine with the potential to develop a broadly protective immune response and encourage the start of the first clinical studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Manganese(II) Complexes with Schiff Bases Immobilized on Nanosilica as Catalysts of the Reaction of Ozone Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakytska, Tetyana; Truba, Alla; Radchenko, Evgen; Golub, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we submit the description of synthesis and identification of manganese(II) complexes with pyrogenic nanosilica-immobilized ( d av = 10 nm; S sp = 290 m2/g) hydroxyaldimine ligands (Mn{(L)}_2/overline{Si}) : salicilaldiminopropyl (L1); 5-bromosalicilaldiminopropyl (L2); 2-hydroxynaphtaldiminopropyl (L3); 2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldiminopropyl (L4); 2-hydroxy-3,5-dichloroacetophenoniminopropyl (L5); and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldiminopropyl (L6). The ligands and complexes were characterized by UV-VIS and IR spectrometry. Nanocomposites consisting of complexes Mn{(L)}_2/overline{Si} showed a high catalytic activity in low-temperature ozone decomposition in the range of concentrations between 2.1 × 10-6 and 8.4 × 10-6 mol/l. The number of catalytic cycles increased for isostructural pseudotetrahedral complexes Mn{(L)}_2/overline{Si} (L1-L5) in the following order: Mn(L3)2 >> Mn(L4)2 > Mn(L1)2 > Mn(L2)2 > Mn(L5)2. In the case of pseudooctahedral complexes with L6, the change of coordination polyhedral does not influence the kinetics and stoichiometric parameters of the reaction.

  18. Arbitrarily primed PCR- A rapid and simple method for typing of leptospiral serovars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadass P

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the use of arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR for typing of leptospiral serovars. METHODS: AP-PCR was adopted for identification of laboratory strains of leptospires and leptospiral cultures at serovar level. A primer of 12 bp was used for amplifying DNA of 13 laboratory strains of leptospires as well as culture pellets of leptospires. RESULTS: Each serovar produced distinct DNA fingerprint which was characteristic for each serovar. These patterns were used for typing of 81 serum culture samples obtained from human leptospiral cases. Of these samples, 39 could be typed based on AP-PCR fingerprints belonging to serovars autumnalis, pomona, canicola, javanica, icterohaemorrhagiae, patoc and pyrogenes. These results were confirmed by RAPD fingerprinting of the DNA samples of the respective leptospiral serovars after culturing -FNx01them in EMJH media. One of the important findings of this work was that straight culture sample could be used for AP-PCR assay, without purification of DNA. By having more number of AP-PCR reference fingerprints, more serovars could be typed. CONCLUSIONS: AP-PCR technique provides great potential for simple and rapid identification of leptospires at serovar level, which could be useful in molecular epidemiological studies of leptospirosis.

  19. Multiparameter telemetry as a sensitive screening method to detect vaccine reactogenicity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Arras

    Full Text Available Refined vaccines and adjuvants are urgently needed to advance immunization against global infectious challenges such as HIV, hepatitis C, tuberculosis and malaria. Large-scale screening efforts are ongoing to identify adjuvants with improved efficacy profiles. Reactogenicity often represents a major hurdle to the clinical use of new substances. Yet, irrespective of its importance, this parameter has remained difficult to screen for, owing to a lack of sensitive small animal models with a capacity for high throughput testing. Here we report that continuous telemetric measurements of heart rate, heart rate variability, body core temperature and locomotor activity in laboratory mice readily unmasked systemic side-effects of vaccination, which went undetected by conventional observational assessment and clinical scoring. Even minor aberrations in homeostasis were readily detected, ranging from sympathetic activation over transient pyrogenic effects to reduced physical activity and apathy. Results in real-time combined with the potential of scalability and partial automation in the industrial context suggest multiparameter telemetry in laboratory mice as a first-line screen for vaccine reactogenicity. This may accelerate vaccine discovery in general and may further the success of vaccines in combating infectious disease and cancer.

  20. Enhanced Phytoremediation of Crude Oil-Polluted Soil by Four Plant Species: Effect of Inorganic and Organic Bioaugumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaichi, Eucharia Oluchi; Frac, Magdalena; Nwoha, Paul Aleruchi; Eragbor, Progress

    2015-01-01

    A field experiment investigating the removal and/or uptake of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and specific metals (As, Cd, Cr) from a crude oil polluted agricultural soil was performed during the 2013 wet season using four plant species: Fimbristylis littoralis, Hevea brasilensis (Rubber plants), Cymbopogom citratus (Lemon grass), and Vigna subterranea (Bambara nuts). Soil functional diversity and soil-enzyme interactions were also investigated. The diagnostic ratios and the correlation analysis identified mixed petrogenic and pyrogenic sources as the main contributors of PAHs at the study site. A total of 16 PAHs were identified, 6 of which were carcinogenic. Up to 42.4 mg kg(-1) total PAHs was recorded prior to the experiments. At 90 d, up to 92% total PAH reduction and 96% As removal were achieved using F. littoralis, the best performing species. The organic soil amendment (poultry dung) rendered most of the studied contaminants unavailable for uptake. However, the organic amendment accounted for over 70% of the increased dehydrogenase, phosphatase, and proteolytic enzymes activities in the study. Overall, the combined use of soil amendments and phytoremediation significantly improved the microbial community activity, thus promoting the restoration of the ecosystem.

  1. Occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments of San Diego Bay marinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Carlos; Cossaboon, Jennifer; Mendoza, Guillermo; Hoh, Eunha; Levin, Lisa A

    2017-01-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have garnered much attention due to their bioaccumulation, carcinogenic properties, and persistence in the environment. Investigation of the spatial distribution, composition, and sources of PAHs in sediments of three recreational marinas in San Diego Bay, California revealed significant differences among marinas, with concentrations in one site exceeding 16,000ngg(-1). 'Hotspots' of PAH concentration suggest an association with stormwater outfalls draining into the basins. High-molecular weight PAHs (4-6 rings) were dominant (>86%); the average percentage of potentially carcinogenic PAHs was high in all sites (61.4-70%) but ecotoxicological risks varied among marinas. Highly toxic benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) was the main contributor (>90%) to the total toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) in marinas. PAHs in San Diego Bay marina sediments appear to be derived largely from pyrogenic sources, potentially from combustion products that reach the basins by aerial deposition and stormwater drainage from nearby streets and parking lots. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Factors determining the origin and maintenance of redundant species diversity of the soil animal population (by a case study of the Far East)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganin, G N; Striganova, B P

    2012-01-01

    The factors determining the origin and maintenance of a high taxonomic diversity of soil communities are discussed by a case study of the key groups constituting the soil saproblock. The bulk of the species richness in the southern Far East is localized to the coniferous-deciduous forests retaining the tertiary elements in their flora and ancient relations with the Asian tropical fauna. The roles of the following factors are considered: the long-term geographic isolation in the absence of catastrophic climate changes; pyrogenic effects, enhancing formation of isolated survival sites; and abundance of mutagenesis in various pedobiont groups. The high species richness of individual taxocenes in combination with a high topic association in the distribution of closely related and ecologically similar species suggests the absence of competitive exclusion. It has been demonstrated that this phenomenon is determined, on the one hand, by rich resource reserves and their spatial differentiation in the soil-litter stratum and, on the other, by spatial-temporal segregation and dense packing of ecological niches, decreasing competition.

  3. Interleukin 1. alpha. inhibits prostaglandin E sub 2 release to suppress pulsatile release of luteinizing hormone but not follicle-stimulating hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rettori, V.; McCann, S.M. (Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas (United States)); Gimeno, M.F. (CEFYBO, Buenos Aires (Argentina)); Karara, A. (Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)); Gonzalez, M.C. (Univ. de La Laguno, Tenerife (Spain))

    1991-04-01

    Interleukin 1{alpha} (IL-1{alpha}), a powerful endogenous pyrogen released from monocytes and macrophages by bacterial endotoxin, stimulates corticotropin, prolactin, and somatotropin release and inhibits thyrotropin release by hypothalamic action. The authors injected recombinant human IL-1{alpha} into the third cerebral ventricle, to study its effect on the pulsatile release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in conscious, freely moving, ovariectomized rats. Intraventricular injection of 0.25 pmol of IL-1{alpha} caused an almost immediate reduction of plasma LH concentration. To determine the mechanism of the suppression of LH release, mediobasal hypothalamic fragments were incubated in vitro with IL-1{alpha} (10 pM) and the release of LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} into the medium was measured by RIA in the presence or absence of nonrepinephrine. 1{alpha} reduced basal LHRH release and blocked LHRH release induced by nonrepinephrine. In conclusion, IL-1{alpha} suppresses LH but not FSH release by an almost complete cessation of pulsatile release of LH in the castrated rat. The mechanism of this effect appears to be by inhibition of prostaglandin E{sub 2}-mediated release of LHRH.

  4. Continuation of comprehensive quality control of the itG (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator and production of (68)Ga-DOTATOC and (68)Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC for clinical research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor-Coarasa, Alejandro; Kelly, James M; Gruca, Monika; Nikolopoulou, Anastasia; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Babich, John W

    2017-10-01

    Performance of a second itG (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator system and production of (68)Ga-DOTATOC and (68)Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC were tested over one year as an accompaniment to a previously published study (J Nucl Med. 2016;57:1402-1405). Performance of a 1951MBq (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator was characterized and the eluate used for preparation of (68)Ga-DOTATOC and (68)Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC. Weekly elution profiles of (68)Ga elution yield and (68)Ge breakthrough were determined. (68)Ga elution yields averaged 82% (61.8-98.4%) and (68)Ge breakthrough averaged 0.002% (0.0007% to 0.004%). The radiochemical purities of (68)Ga-DOTATOC and (68)Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC were determined by HPLC analysis to be >98% and specific activity was 12.6 and 42GBq/μmol, respectively. (68)Ge contamination in the product was under the detection limit (0.00001%). Final sterile, pyrogen-free formulation of (68)Ga-DOTATOC and (68)Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC in physiologic saline with 5%-7% ethanol was achieved. Performance of a (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator was studied over one year with satisfactory results. The generator eluate was used to synthesize (68)Ga-DOTATOC and (68)Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC on a routine basis in high purity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Design of CGMP production of 18F- and 68Ga-radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yen-Ting; Chu, Pei-Chun; Chao, Hao-Yu; Shieh, Wei-Chen; Chen, Chuck C

    2014-01-01

    Radiopharmaceutical production process must adhere to current good manufacturing process (CGMP) compliance to ensure the quality of precursor, prodrug (active pharmaceutical ingredient, API), and the final drug product that meet acceptance criteria. We aimed to develop an automated system for production of CGMP grade of PET radiopharmaceuticals. The hardware and software of the automated synthesizer that fit in the hot cell under cGMP requirement were developed. Examples of production yield and purity for (68)Ga-DOTATATE and (18)F-FDG at CGMP facility were optimized. Analytical assays and acceptance criteria for cGMP grade of (68)Ga-DOTATATE and (18)F-FDG were established. CGMP facility for the production of PET radiopharmaceuticals has been established. Radio-TLC and HPLC analyses of (68)Ga-DOTATATE and (18)F-FDG showed that the radiochemical purity was 92% and 96%, respectively. The products were sterile and pyrogenic-free. CGMP compliance of radiopharmaceuticals has been reviewed. (68)Ga-DOTATATE and (18)F-FDG were synthesized with high radiochemical yield under CGMP process.

  6. Simple, fast preparation of gallium-68-labelled human serum albumin microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvert, J P; Mazière, B; Verhas, M; Comar, D

    1979-04-01

    Following a study of the main factors involved in the 68-Ga labelling of human serum albumin microspheres (H.S.A.M.), especially methods of production and preparation of active solution and conditions of radioelement fixation on the protein support, the practical details of a fast technique (60 min) based on the process described by Hnatowich are presented. This method gives high labelling yields (93 +/- 3%), and after washing of the microspheres leads to a radiopharmaceutical product almost without free 68Ga (less than 2%). The spheres ready for use carry a total radioactivity corresponding to about 35%, including decay, of the activity originally recovered in the generator eluate and to more than 98% of that, found in the final suspension. The labelled product is sterile, non-pyrogenic and non-toxic. When it is injected in animals by left ventrical catheterization the uptake rates in the heart, lungs, spleen, left kidney and right kidney are similar to those observed with reference 85Sr-labelled carbonized microspheres. This radiopharmaceutical, easy to prepare and having excellent biological and nuclear properties, seems ideally suited for the scanning of organs by position emission tomoscintigraphy.

  7. Preparation of intravenous cholesterol tracer using current good manufacturing practices1[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Racette, Susan B.; Swaney, William P.; Ostlund, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of human reverse cholesterol transport require intravenous infusion of cholesterol tracers. Because insoluble lipids may pose risk and because it is desirable to have consistent doses of defined composition available over many months, we investigated the manufacture of cholesterol tracer under current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) conditions appropriate for phase 1 investigation. Cholesterol tracer was prepared by sterile admixture of unlabeled cholesterol or cholesterol-d7 in ethanol with 20% Intralipid®. The resulting material was filtered through a 1.2 micron particulate filter, stored at 4°C, and tested at time 0, 1.5, 3, 6, and 9 months for sterility, pyrogenicity, autoxidation, and particle size and aggregation. The limiting factor for stability was a rise in thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances of 9.6-fold over 9 months (P postproduction. CGMP manufacturing methods can be achieved in the academic setting and need to be considered for critical components of future metabolic studies. PMID:26416797

  8. Gamma scintigraphy and biodistribution of (99m)Tc-cefotaxime sodium in preclinical models of bacterial infection and sterile inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilem-Ozdemir, Derya; Asikoglu, Makbule; Ozkilic, Hayal; Yilmaz, Ferda; Hosgor-Limoncu, Mine; Ayhan, Semin

    2016-03-01

    (99m)Tc-cefotaxime sodium ((99m)Tc-CEF) was developed and standardized under varying conditions of reducing and antioxidant agent concentration, pH, radioactivity dose, and reducing agent type. Labeling studies were performed by changing the selected parameters one by one, and optimum labeling conditions were determined. After observing the conditions for maximum labeling efficiency and stability, lyophilized freeze dry kits were prepared accordingly. Simple method for radiolabeling of CEF with (99m)Tc has been developed and standardized. Labeling efficiency of (99m)Tc-CEF was assessed by both radio thin-layer chromatography and radio high-performance liquid chromatography and found higher than 90%. The labeled compound was found to be stable in saline and human serum up to 24 h. Two different freeze dry kits were developed and evaluated. Based on the data obtained from this study, both products were stable for 6 months with high labeling efficiency. The prepared cold kit was found sterile and pyrogen free. The bacterial infection and sterile inflammation imaging capacity of (99m)Tc-CEF was evaluated. Based on the in vivo studies, (99m)Tc-CEF has higher uptake in infected and inflamed thigh muscle than healthy thigh muscle.

  9. Health technology assessment on reprocessing single-use catheters for cardiac electrophysiology: results of a three-years study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessarolo, F; Disertori, M; Caola, I; Guarrera, G M; Favaretti, C; Nollo, G

    2007-01-01

    The study aims to define the technical, ethical, juridical and economic issues involved in the assessment of a reprocessing policy for single-use interventional cardiac devices (SUDs). The feasibility of reprocessing was evaluated for cardiac electrophysiology catheters by comparing the chemical, physical and functional properties of new and reprocessed devices. The issue of hygiene was addressed by developing microbiological tests for the quantification of bioburden, sterility and pyrogenic load. The results of more than 1500 tests, conducted on 531 catheters, suggested a precautionary number of regenerations of five cycles. The ethical aspects were reviewed and the European juridical framework was assessed, revealing a need for harmonization. Applying a specific economic model, potential savings were calculated for a representative cardiology department and estimated at national and European level. Potential savings of 41.2% and 32.9% were calculated for diagnostic and ablation catheters, respectively. Safe and effective reprocessing of SUDs could be pursued if quality control processes and certified procedures are met. A reprocessing policy in EP laboratory could lead to savings of about 27,250 euros per 100,000 population, but the economic benefits are strongly dependent on the maximum number of regenerations and the regeneration rate.

  10. Biocompatibility and superiority of lyophilized acellular ligament scaffolds%冻干韧带脱细胞支架材料的生物相容性及优势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 陈雄生; 周盛源; 黄俊俊; 蔡弢艺

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acellular matrix ligament removes the cellular components within the ligament tissue and reduce the immunogenicity through a variety of acellular ways. Simultaneously, the damage to scaffold structure is mild in the process of decellularization, and it retains the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix.OBJECTIVE: To verify the biocompatibility and superiority of rabbit patellar tendon acellular scaffold after frozen and lyophilized processing.METHODS: Patellar ligaments were treated with 1% sodium deoxycholate for preparation of acellular ligaments with or without lyophilization. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: No residual nuclear component was detected in all ligaments. Collagen structure was maintained.No significant differences in elastic modulus and ultimate tensile stress were found between non-lyophilized acellular scaffolds and lyophilized ones. The in vitro cytotoxicity test showed the cells grew well in all groups with or without extracts from lyophilized acellular scaffold. No significant difference was found between the control group and the experiment group. Toxicity symptoms were not obvious.Pyrogen detection experiment showed that no pyrogen was found in the lyophilized acellular scaffold extracts. Percutaneous stimulation test was negative as primary stimulation index was 0. In vivo implantation experiment showed that lyophilized acellular ligament scaffold showed the characteristics of little immunogenicity and light inflammation. Lyophilized acellular ligament scaffold treated with 1% DCA method not only maintains the mechanical characteristics of the non-lyophilized ones, but also has good biological compatibility. Because of its preparation, disinfection, packaging and preservation was easy and convenient, the lyophilized acellular ligament scaffold will be an ideal scaffold for tissue engineering ligament.%背景:韧带脱细胞基质是通过各种脱细胞方法将韧带组织内的细胞成分清除,降低免疫

  11. Black Nitrogen as a source for the built-up of microbial biomass in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martín, María; Milter, Anja; Knicker, Heike

    2016-04-01

    In areas with frequent wildfires, soil organic nitrogen (SON) is sequestered in pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) due to heat-induced transformation of proteinaceous compounds into N-heterocycles, i.e. pyrrole, imidazole and indole compounds. These newly formed structures, known as Black Nitrogen (BN), have been assumed to be hardly degradable by microorganisms, thus being efficiently sequestered from the N cycle. On the other hand, a previous study showed that nitrogen of BN can be used by plants for the built-up of their biomass (de la Rosa and Knicker 2011). Thus, BN may play an important role as an N source during the recovery of the forest after a fire event. In order to obtain a more profound understanding of the role of BN within the N cycle in soils, we studied the bioavailability and incorporation of N derived from PyOM into microbial amino acids. For that, pots with soil from a burnt and an unburnt Cambisol located under a Mediterranean forest were covered with different amendments. The toppings were mixtures of unlabeled KNO3 with 15N labeled grass or 15N-labeled PyOM from burned grass and K15NO3 mixed with unlabeled grass material or PyOM. The pots were kept in the greenhouse under controlled conditions for 16 months and were sampled after 0.5, 1, 5, 8 and 16 months. From all samples the amino acids were extracted after hydrolysis (6 M HCl, 22 h, 110 °C) and quantified via gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The fate of 15N was followed by isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The results show that the contribution of extractable amino acids to total soil organic matter was always higher in the unburnt than in the burnt soil. However, with ongoing incubation their amount decreased. Already after 0.5 months, some PyOM-derived 15N was incorporated into the extractable amino acids and the amount increased with experiment time. Since this can only occur after prior microbial degradation of PyOM our results clearly support a lower biochemical

  12. The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment: laboratory fire measurements and synthesis of campaign data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Yokelson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment (TROFFEE, tropical forest fuels were burned in a large, biomass-fire simulation facility and the smoke was characterized with open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS, gas chromatography (GC, GC/PTR-MS, and filter sampling of the particles. In most cases, about one-third of the fuel chlorine ended up in the particles and about one-half remained in the ash. About 50% of the mass of non-methane organic compounds (NMOC emitted by these fires could be identified with the available instrumentation. The lab fire emission factors (EF, g compound emitted per kg fuel burned were coupled with EF obtained during the TROFFEE airborne and ground-based field campaigns. This revealed several types of EF dependence on parameters such as the ratio of flaming to smoldering combustion and fuel characteristics. The synthesis of data from the different TROFFEE platforms was also used to derive EF for all the measured species for both primary deforestation fires and pasture maintenance fires – the two main types of biomass burning in the Amazon. Many of the EF are larger than those in widely-used earlier work. This is mostly due to the inclusion of newly-available, large EF for the initially-unlofted smoldering emissions and the assumption that these emissions make a significant contribution (~40% to the total emissions from pasture fires. The TROFFEE EF for particles with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 microns (EFPM2.5 is 14.8 g/kg for primary deforestation fires and 18.7 g/kg for pasture maintenance fires. These EFPM2.5 are significantly larger than a previous recommendation (9.1 g/kg and lead to an estimated pyrogenic primary PM2.5 source for the Amazon that is 84% larger. Regional through global budgets for biogenic and pyrogenic emissions were roughly estimated. Coupled with previous measurements of

  13. 新型可注射可降解磷酸钙骨水泥的生物相容性*☆%Biocompatibility of a novel injectable and degradable calcium phosphate cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段昕; 廖红兴; 邹华章; 张紫机; 张浩; 张志奇; 叶建东; 廖威明

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A novel calcium phosphate bone cement has been proved to have good injectability, biomechanical properties, anti-col apsibility and in vitro degradability. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the biocompatibility of a novel injectable and degradable calcium phosphate cement. METHODS: (1) In acute toxicity test, cement extracts were applied to mice by tail vein injection. (25) In pyrogen test, extracts were applied to rabbits by mainline. (3) In hemolysis test, extracts were added in the fresh anticoagulant blood of rabbits. (4) In delayed-type hypersensitivity test, two steps, induced and aroused were applied to guinea pigs. (5) In cytotoxicity test in vitro, extracts of cement, polyethylene, and phenol were added in L929 cells to evaluate cytotoxicity. (6) In mammal micronucleus test, extracts, normal saline and cyclophosphamide were applied to mice by intraperitoneal injection. (7) In muscular implantation test, muscle specimens were histologically evaluated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The cement-extracted liquid induced no acute toxicity in mice, no pyrogenic reaction in rabbits, no genetic toxicity in mice or allergic reaction in guinea pigs. This novel cement had a great biocompatibility and biological safety.%  背景:体外实验已证实新型磷酸钙骨水泥有良好的可注射性、力学性能、抗溃散性及体外降解性能。目的:验证新型可注射、可降解磷酸钙骨水泥的生物相容性。方法:①急性毒性实验:分别向昆明小鼠尾静脉可注射新型磷酸钙骨水泥浸提液与生理盐水。②热源实验:在新西兰兔耳缘静脉注射新型磷酸钙骨水泥浸提液。③溶血实验:在兔抗凝血分别加入新型磷酸钙骨水泥浸提液、生理盐水及双蒸水。④迟发型超敏反应实验:在豚鼠肩胛骨内侧部位分别注射可注射新型磷酸钙骨水泥浸提液与生理盐水,并进行敷贴激发实验。⑤体外细胞毒性实验:在L929系小鼠成纤维细胞株

  14. Validación de puntos críticos de la producción de Surfacen Validation of critical features of Surfacen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamilka Riverón Alemán

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available El Surfacen® es un medicamento utilizado en el tratamiento del síndrome de dificultad respiratorio del recién nacido, causa importante de mortalidad y morbilidad neonatal. Este se fabrica en el Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (La Habana, Cuba bajo un Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad y Buenas Prácticas de Fabricación. El pulmón porcino constituye la materia prima fundamental, y es a partir de su calidad microbiológica y la del proceso productivo que se garantiza un producto final libre de contaminantes microbianos y de pirógenos. A partir del diseño de protocolos específicos y de las regulaciones existentes se demostró que la crianza de cerdos, su proceso de sacrificio y los materiales utilizados en la obtención de los lavados pulmonares, permiten alcanzar una calidad microbiológica definida y bajo control. El proceso de producción fue capaz de eliminar la carga microbiana presente en los lavados pulmonares que junto al resto de las operaciones de preparación de materiales estériles, su traslado, uso, al igual que la limpieza y desinfección de las áreas limpias, el llenado aséptico y el personal garantizaron la esterilidad del producto final. Todos estos resultados permiten concluir que los procesos críticos de la producción de Surfacen® están validados y garantizan que este sea estéril, libre de pirógenos y sin residuales tóxicos, lo que demuestra su seguridad, reproducibilidad y consistencia.Surfacen® is a drug used in treatment of newborn respiratory distress syndrome, a significant cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. This drug is manufactured by National Center of Farming and livestock Hygiene (La Habana, Cuba under a Management System of Quality and Good Practices of Manufacture. Pig lung is the essential raw material, and it is from microbiologic quality and that of productive process, that a free of microbial contaminant and pyrogen end product is guaranteed. From design of specific protocols and

  15. Biomass burning in boreal forests and peatlands: Effects on ecosystem carbon losses and soil carbon stabilization as black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turetsky, M. R.; Kane, E. S.; Benscoter, B.

    2011-12-01

    to burning during subsequent fire events. We also observed no correlations between black carbon stocks in soils and fire frequency, again suggesting that pyrogenic C is susceptible to re-burning, or decay in the post-burn environment. The majority of pyrogenic carbon in boreal soils appears to be derived from recent wildfire activity, as the age of the black carbon pool often is equivalent to stand age. Together these results show that landscape characteristics that control decomposition and the accumulation of peat also have strong controls on combustion processes and post-fire soil chemistry. Warmer temperatures and drier or more variable precipitation patterns are likely to result in more intense burning of organic soils in the future. Research linking the conditions of char formation with its stabilization mechanisms (either consumption in wildfire or microbial attack) will shed light on spatial patterns of black carbon formation and preservation in high latitude soils.

  16. How consistent are top-down hydrocarbon emissions based on formaldehyde observations from GOME-2 and OMI?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakou, T.; Müller, J.-F.; Bauwens, M.; De Smedt, I.; Van Roozendael, M.; De Mazière, M.; Vigouroux, C.; Hendrick, F.; George, M.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P.-F.; Guenther, A.

    2015-10-01

    , likely reflecting mismatches between the observed and the modeled diurnal cycle in this region. The resulting biogenic and pyrogenic flux estimates from both optimizations generally show a good degree of consistency. A reduction of the global annual biogenic emissions of isoprene is derived, of 9 and 13 % according to GOME-2 and OMI, respectively, compared to the a priori estimate of 363 Tg in 2010. The reduction is largest (up to 25-40 %) in the Southeastern US, in accordance with earlier studies. The GOME-2 and OMI satellite columns suggest a global pyrogenic flux decrease by 36 and 33 %, respectively, compared to the GFEDv3 (Global Fire Emissions Database) inventory. This decrease is especially pronounced over tropical forests, such as in Amazonia, Thailand and Myanmar, and is supported by comparisons with CO observations from IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer). In contrast to these flux reductions, the emissions due to harvest waste burning are strongly enhanced over the northeastern China plain in June (by ca. 70 % in June according to OMI) as well as over Indochina in March. Sensitivity inversions showed robustness of the inferred estimates, which were found to lie within 7 % of the standard inversion results at the global scale.

  17. How consistent are top-down hydrocarbon emissions based on formaldehyde observations from GOME-2 and OMI?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Stavrakou

    2015-04-01

    reflecting mismatches between the observed and the modelled diurnal cycle in this region. The resulting biogenic and pyrogenic flux estimates from both optimizations generally show a good degree of consistency. A reduction of the global annual biogenic emissions of isoprene is derived, by 9 and by 13% according to GOME-2 and OMI, respectively, compared to the a priori estimate of 363 Tg in 2010. The reduction is largest (up to 25–40% in the Southeastern US, in accordance with earlier studies. The GOME-2 and OMI satellite columns suggest a global pyrogenic flux decrease by 36 and 33%, respectively, compared to the GFEDv3 inventory. This decrease is especially pronounced over tropical forests such as Amazonia and Thailand/Myanmar, and is supported by comparisons with IASI CO observations. In contrast to these flux reductions, the emissions due to harvest waste burning are strongly enhanced in the Northeastern China plain in June (by ca. 70% in June according to OMI as well as over Indochina in March. Sensitivity inversions showed robustness of the inferred estimates, which were found to lie within 7% of the standard inversion results at the global scale.

  18. Peat fires as source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibart, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) arrive from pyrogenic sources including volcanism and the combustion of oil products and plant materials. The production of PAHs during the combustion of plant materials was considered in a number of publications, but their results were mainly obtained in laboratory experiments. Insufficient data are available on the hightemperature production of PAHs in environmental objects. For example, natural fires are frequently related to the PAH sources in landscapes, but very little factual data are available on this topic. On Polistovskii reserve (Russia, Pskov region) the soil series were separated depending on the damage to the plants; these series included soils of plots subjected to fires of different intensities, as well as soils of the background plots. The series of organic and organomineral soils significantly differed in their PAH distributions. In this series, the concentration of PAHs in the upper horizons of the peat soils little varied or slightly decreased, but their accumulation occurred at a depth of 5-10 or 10-20 cm in the soils after the fires. For example, in the series of high moor soils, the content of PAHs in the upper horizons remained almost constant; significant differences were observed in the subsurface horizons: from 2 ng/g in the background soil to 70 ng/g after the fire. In the upper horizons of the oligotrophic peat soils under pine forests, the total PAH content also varied only slightly. At the same time, the content of PAHs in the soil series increased from 15 to 90 ng/g with the increasing pyrogenic damage to the plot. No clear trends of the PAH accumulation were recorded in the organomineral soils. The content of PAHs in the soddy-podzolic soil subjected to fire slightly decreased (from 20 to 10 ng/g) compared to the less damaged soil. In peat fires, the access of oxygen to the fire zone is lower than in forest fires. The oxygen deficit acts as a factor of the organic fragments recombination and

  19. The Charcoal Component of Soil Organic Matter in the Boreal Forest of Western Quebec (Abitibi Region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, C. M.; Simard, M.; Kurz, W. A.; Rampley, G.; Wasylishen, R. E.; Bernard, G. M.; Bergeron, Y.; Lecomte, N.

    2009-05-01

    Despite high interest in pyrogenic carbon (PyC) as a stable and possibly major component of soil organic matter (SOM), there is surprisingly little information on production, stocks, longevity, chemical properties or ecological role of PyC in boreal forests. We define the whole range of fire-transformed biomass and SOM as pyrogenic C (PyC), black carbon (BC) as the fraction resistant to laboratory oxidation, and charcoal as that determined visually. Fire is the major disturbance in boreal forests, with panboreal production estimated at 12.7 Tg/y as solid PyC and 0.38 Tg/y as atmospheric soot (estimated as 5% and 0.15% of emissions, respectively). PyC is considered a highly-stable component of SOM, and thus should contribute to long-term C sequestration by partially offsetting C losses due to fire. Forest floor charcoal is considered to enhance N availability after fire, partly by sorbing phenolics and providing microsites for microbial activity, while other studies have indicated that BC enhances mineral soil fertility, mainly by enhancing cation exchange capacity as it oxidizes. However, studies of its ecological role in boreal forests have not sufficiently isolated charcoal effects per se from direct effects of fire. Without fire disturbance many boreal forests undergo gradual paludification, with increasing thickness of organic horizons and dominance of sphagnum moss and ericaceous shrubs. As part of extensive studies of fire history and paludification in the Abitibi region of Quebec, charcoal fragments (>2mm) were separated at 1 cm depth increments (organic horizons plus varying depths of mineral soil, 2-3 monoliths per plot) in 31 plots of black spruce (Picea mariana) and 19 of jack pine (Pinus banksiana). Plots included stands originating after high- and low-severity fires, the former defined as leaving <5 cm of organic horizon. Plots from low-severity fires (mainly black spruce, up to 229 y) generally had multiple layers of charcoal in the organic horizons

  20. Soroprevalência de aglutininas anti-Leptospira spp. em ovinos nas Mesorregiões Sudeste e Sudoeste do Estado Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Seroprevalence of agglutinins anti-Leptospira spp. in sheep from the Southeast and Southwest Mesoregions of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geder Paulo Herrmann

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A presença de aglutininas anti-Leptospira spp. em 1360 amostras soros de ovinos, clinicamente sadios com mais de um ano de idade, criados extensivamente em 136 fazendas de 18 municípios; 10 na Mesorregião Sudeste e 8 na Mesorregião Sudoeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, entre os meses de janeiro a março de 1999. Foi determinado pela Técnica de Aglutinação Microscópica (MAT, das 1360 amostras de soros testados, 466 (34,26% animais foram reagentes e os títulos de aglutininas anti-Leptospira spp. variavam de 100 a 3200. As sorovariedades encontradas foram: hardjo (Norma, 210 (28,4%, sentot, 152 (16,8%; hardjoprajitno, 133 (14,5%; fortbragg 73 (6,3%, wolffi, 39 (4,7%; pyrogenes, 25 (1,8%; australis, 21 (1,6%; pomona, 20 (1,6%; sejroe, 19 (2,2%; castellonis, 18(1,8%; hebdomadis, 17 (1,3%; icterohaemorrhagiae, 16 (0,5%; grippotyphosa, 9 (0,7%; canicola, 8 (0,6%; tarassovi, 7 (0,6%, bratislava, 4 (0,29%, autumnalis, 3 (0,2%. Os resultados mostraram que as Leptospira spp. estão disseminadas na maioria das fazendas que criam ovinos nas Mesorregiões Sudeste e Sudoeste do Rio Grande do Sul.The presence of anti-Leptospira agglutinins in 1.360 samples of ovine sera was determined. Clinically healthy sheep with more than one year of age, raised in pasture in 136 farms of 18 counties, 10 located in the southeast Mesorregions and 8 in the southwest Mesorregions of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, between the months of January and March of 1999. Were used sera tested by the Microscopic Agglutination Technique (MAT, from the 1.360 samples of serum tested, 466 (34.26% were positive and the titers of anti-Leptospira spp. agglutinins varied from 100 to 3.200. The serovars founded were: hardjo (Norma, 210 (28.4%, sentot, 152 (16.8%; hardjoprajitno, 133 (14.5%; fortbragg, 73 (6.3%; wolffi, 39 (4.7%; pyrogenes, 25 (1.8%; australis, 21 (1.6%; pomona, 20 (1.6%; sejroe, 19 (2.2%; castellonis, 18 (1.8%; hebdomadis, 17 (1.3%; icterohaemorrhagiae, 16 (0

  1. The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment: laboratory fire measurements and synthesis of campaign data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Yokelson

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment (TROFFEE, tropical forest fuels were burned in a large, biomass-fire simulation facility and the smoke was characterized with open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS, gas chromatography (GC, GC/PTR-MS, and filter sampling of the particles. In most cases, about one-third of the fuel chlorine ended up in the particles and about one-half remained in the ash. About 50% of the mass of non-methane organic compounds (NMOC emitted by these fires could be identified with the available instrumentation. The lab fire emission factors (EF, g compound emitted per kg dry fuel burned were coupled with EF obtained during the TROFFEE airborne and ground-based field campaigns. This revealed several types of EF dependence on parameters such as the ratio of flaming to smoldering combustion and fuel characteristics. The synthesis of data from the different TROFFEE platforms was also used to derive EF for all the measured species for both primary deforestation fires and pasture maintenance fires – the two main types of biomass burning in the Amazon. Many of the EF are larger than those in widely-used earlier work. This is mostly due to the inclusion of newly-available, large EF for the initially-unlofted smoldering emissions from residual logs in pastures and the assumption that these emissions make a significant contribution (~40% to the total emissions from pasture fires. The TROFFEE EF for particles with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 microns (EFPM2.5 is 14.8 g/kg for primary deforestation fires and 18.7 g/kg for pasture maintenance fires. These EFPM2.5 are significantly larger than a previous recommendation (9.1 g/kg and lead to an estimated pyrogenic primary PM2.5 source for the Amazon that is 84% larger. New regional budgets for biogenic and pyrogenic emissions were roughly estimated. Coupled with an

  2. Production optimization of 99Mo/99mTc zirconium molybate gel generators at semi-automatic device: DISIGEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Guzman, F; Rivero Gutiérrez, T; López Malpica, I Z; Hernández Cortes, S; Rojas Nava, P; Vazquez Maldonado, J C; Vazquez, A

    2012-01-01

    DISIGEG is a synthesis installation of zirconium (99)Mo-molybdate gels for (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generator production, which has been designed, built and installed at the ININ. The device consists of a synthesis reactor and five systems controlled via keyboard: (1) raw material access, (2) chemical air stirring, (3) gel dried by air and infrared heating, (4) moisture removal and (5) gel extraction. DISIGEG operation is described and dried condition effects of zirconium (99)Mo- molybdate gels on (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generator performance were evaluated as well as some physical-chemical properties of these gels. The results reveal that temperature, time and air flow applied during the drying process directly affects zirconium (99)Mo-molybdate gel generator performance. All gels prepared have a similar chemical structure probably constituted by three-dimensional network, based on zirconium pentagonal bipyramids and molybdenum octahedral. Basic structural variations cause a change in gel porosity and permeability, favouring or inhibiting (99m)TcO(4)(-) diffusion into the matrix. The (99m)TcO(4)(-) eluates produced by (99)Mo/(99m)Tc zirconium (99)Mo-molybdate gel generators prepared in DISIGEG, air dried at 80°C for 5h and using an air flow of 90mm, satisfied all the Pharmacopoeias regulations: (99m)Tc yield between 70-75%, (99)Mo breakthrough less than 3×10(-3)%, radiochemical purities about 97% sterile and pyrogen-free eluates with a pH of 6.

  3. Potential contributions of asphalt and coal tar to black carbon quantification in urban dust, soils, and sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Ligouis, B.; Werth, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of black carbon (BC) using either chemical or thermal oxidation methods are generally thought to indicate the amount of char and/or soot present in a sample. In urban environments, however, asphalt and coal-tar particles worn from pavement are ubiquitous and, because of their pyrogenic origin, could contribute to measurements of BC. Here we explored the effect of the presence of asphalt and coal-tar particles on the quantification of BC in a range of urban environmental sample types, and evaluated biases in the different methods used for quantifying BC. Samples evaluated were pavement dust, residential and commercial area soils, lake sediments from a small urban watershed, and reference materials of asphalt and coal tar. Total BC was quantified using chemical treatment through acid dichromate (Cr2O7) oxidation and chemo-thermal oxidation at 375??C (CTO-375). BC species, including soot and char/charcoal, asphalt, and coal tar, were quantified with organic petrographic analysis. Comparison of results by the two oxidation methods and organic petrography indicates that both coal tar and asphalt contribute to BC quantified by Cr2O7 oxidation, and that coal tar contributes to BC quantified by CTO-375. These results are supported by treatment of asphalt and coal-tar reference samples with Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. The reference asphalt is resistant to Cr2O7 oxidation but not to CTO-375, and the reference coal tar is resistant to both Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. These results indicate that coal tar and/or asphalt can contribute to BC measurements in samples from urban areas using Cr2O7 oxidation or CTO-375, and caution is advised when interpreting BC measurements made with these methods. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Fire spatial heterogeneity, fire seasonality and burned area mapping accuracy in the tropical savannas of Northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sofia L. J.; Campagnolo, Manuel L.; Pereira, Jose M. C.; Russell-Smith, Jeremy

    2013-04-01

    Accurate burned area mapping from remotely sensed data should be able to identify spatial heterogeneity within a fire perimeter, for an improved representation of fire effects as experienced by plants and animals. In order to derive a very high spatial resolution characterization of fire patterns in the tropical savannas of the Northern Territory, Australia, we walked 38.2km of line transects, sampling the presence/absence of burning evidence at 1m intervals, in 35 different fires that occurred between 2009 and 2011. Transects were sampled in the early and in the late dry season, and in five dominant vegetation classes. We used lacunarity analysis and spatial autocorrelation to assess the dominant scale of burned area patches, which turns out to be approximately 200m. Lacunarity analysis also suggests that burnt areas exhibit a clustered pattern and that fire heterogeneity is more pronounced in the early dry season. This is consistent with our observation that patches in the late dry season tend to be smaller and more randomly distributed. Finally, we used our high resolution data date to simulate remote sensing detection of burnt areas for a range of spatial resolutions. We quantify the omission error for each sensor and conclude that if resolution is lower than the dominant scale, then the error tends to be small. Our results also suggest that sensors with spatial resolution higher than the dominant scale have similar omission errors over a broad range of resolution values. The forthcoming Sentinel-2 satellites, which combine 5-day revisit, and systematic acquisition of all land surfaces at 10-20 m spatial resolution, with a large number of spectral bands, ought to allow for very accurate and timely mapping of fire heterogeneity, for improved assessment of fire impacts on biodiversity and pyrogenic emissions.

  5. Different pathways but same result? Comparing chemistry and biological effects of burned and decomposed litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, Stefano; Bonanomi, Giuliano; Incerti, Guido; El-Gawad, Ahmed M. Abd; Sarker, Tushar Chandra; Cesarano, Gaspare; Saulino, Luigi; Saracino, Antonio; Castro Rego, Francisco

    2017-04-01

    Litter burning and biological decomposition are oxidative processes co-occurring in many terrestrial ecosystems, producing organic matter with different chemical properties and differently affecting plant growth and soil microbial activity. Here, we tested the chemical convergence hypothesis (i.e. materials with different initial chemistry tend to converge towards a common profile, with similar biological effects, as the oxidative process advances) for burning and decomposition. We compared the molecular composition of 63 organic materials - 7 litter types either fresh, decomposed for 30, 90, 180 days, or heated at 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 °C - as assessed by 13C NMR. We used litter water extracts (5% dw) as treatments in bioassays on plant (Lepidium sativum) and fungal (Aspergillus niger) growth, and a washed quartz sand amended with litter materials (0.5 % dw) to assess heterotrophic respiration by CO2 flux chamber. We observed different molecular variations for materials either burning (i.e. a sharp increase of aromatic C and a decrease of most other fractions above 200 °C) or decomposing (i.e. early increase of alkyl, methoxyl and N-alkyl C and decrease of O-alkyl and di-O-alkyl C fractions). Soil respiration and fungal growth progressively decreased with litter age and temperature. Plant growth underwent an inhibitory effect by untreated litter, more and less rapidly released over decomposing and burning materials, respectively. Correlation analysis between NMR and bioassay data showed that opposite responses for soil respiration and fungi, compared to plants, are related to essentially the same C molecular types. Our findings suggest a functional convergence of decomposed and burnt organic substrates, emerging from the balance between the bioavailability of labile C sources and the presence of recalcitrant and pyrogenic compounds, oppositely affecting different trophic levels.

  6. Estimation of the novel antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antihyperlipidemic effects of silymarin in Albino rats and mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed; Mahmoud; Amin; Mahmoud; Soliman; Arbid

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the other pharmacological actions of silymarin in Albino rats and mice such as antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antihyperlipidemic effects. Methods: Rats were injected intramuscularly with pyrogenic dose of brewer’s yeast for the antipyretic test of silymarin. Another group of rats injected with 0.1 mL of 1% carrageenan solution in saline at the subplanter area of the right hind paw for the anti-inflammatory test of silymarin. Another group of mice tested by hot plate method for determination of antinociceptive effect of silymarin. Hyperlipidemia was induced using high fat diet for 2 months to estimate the antihyperlipidemic activity of silymarin. Results: Silymarin showed a significant antipyretic effect of both doses(50 and 100 mg/kg) compared with control untreated group. Moreover, silymarin elucidated a significant anti-inflammatory effect of both doses reflected on the decrease of the rat paw edema every hour interval for 4 h after administration in comparison with control positive group. By the same taken, both doses of silymarine revealed a significant antinociceptive action in hot plate method at 30 and 60 min post administration. Besides, it lowered significantly the serum levels of prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta after 2 h of silymarin administration in carrageenan induced rat paw edema besides the significant decrease of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein and significantly elevated high density lipoprotein after 2 weeks of silymarin administration. Conclusions: These outcomes delivered a new vision into the possible pharmacological mechanisms by which silymarin advances antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antihyperlipidemic effects.

  7. LipL21 mRNA expression in lungs of hamsters infected with pathogenic Leptospira

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chintana Chirathaworn; Namo Suksomyos; Somchai Utivamek; Somboon Keelawat; Duangjai Suwancharoen; Duangporn Phulsuksombati; Yong Poovorawan

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Pulmonary haemorrhage is an increasing cause of death in leptospirosis patients.However,molecu-lar mechanism underlying pathologies in this organ is not clearly understood.It has been shown that sodium transport was disturbed following Leptospira infection.LipL21 is the second abundant outer membrane protein found only in pathogenic Leptospira.Its expression in vivo has been shown which suggests that this protein may be involved in survival in hosts or pathogenesis.However,the expression of this protein in host organs and its role in lung pathology has not been demonstrated.In this study we demonstrated the expression of LipL21 in lungs of hamsters infected with pathogenic Leptospira.Methods:Lung tissues were collected from Golden Syri-an hamsters injected with Leptospira interrogans serovar Pyrogenes at days 3,5 and 7 post-infection.Four ham-sters were used for each time point.Lungs from non-infected hamsters were collected as a control group.Li-pL21 mRNA expression in lung tissues was investigated by reverse transcription and nested PCR.Results:Li-pL21 mRNA expression was detected in all lung tissues from hamsters infected with pathogenic Leptospira.No PCR product was detected when tissues from non-infected hamsters were investigated.Conclusion:Our data demonstrated that LipL21 is expressed in lungs of hamsters infected with pathogenic Leptospira.Additional ex-periments such as quantitation and localization of LipL21 expression in lungs will provide further information whether this protein is involved in pathogenesis.

  8. RBM3 regulates temperature sensitive miR-142-5p and miR-143 (thermomiRs), which target immune genes and control fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Justin J-L; Au, Amy Y M; Gao, Dadi; Pinello, Natalia; Kwok, Chau-To; Thoeng, Annora; Lau, Katherine A; Gordon, Jane E A; Schmitz, Ulf; Feng, Yue; Nguyen, Trung V; Middleton, Robert; Bailey, Charles G; Holst, Jeff; Rasko, John E J; Ritchie, William

    2016-04-07

    Fever is commonly used to diagnose disease and is consistently associated with increased mortality in critically ill patients. However, the molecular controls of elevated body temperature are poorly understood. We discovered that the expression of RNA-binding motif protein 3 (RBM3), known to respond to cold stress and to modulate microRNA (miRNA) expression, was reduced in 30 patients with fever, and in THP-1-derived macrophages maintained at a fever-like temperature (40 °C). Notably, RBM3 expression is reduced during fever whether or not infection is demonstrable. Reduced RBM3 expression resulted in increased expression of RBM3-targeted temperature-sensitive miRNAs, we termed thermomiRs. ThermomiRs such as miR-142-5p and miR-143 in turn target endogenous pyrogens including IL-6, IL6ST, TLR2, PGE2 and TNF to complete a negative feedback mechanism, which may be crucial to prevent pathological hyperthermia. Using normal PBMCs that were exogenously exposed to fever-like temperature (40 °C), we further demonstrate the trend by which decreased levels of RBM3 were associated with increased levels of miR-142-5p and miR-143 and vice versa over a 24 h time course. Collectively, our results indicate the existence of a negative feedback loop that regulates fever via reduced RBM3 levels and increased expression of miR-142-5p and miR-143.

  9. Nutrient cycling responses to fire frequency in the Kruger National Park (South Africa) as indicated by stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranibar, J N; Macko, S A; Anderson, I C; Potgieter, A L E; Sowry, R; Shugart, H H

    2003-06-01

    Fires, which are an intrinsic feature of southern African ecosystems, produce biogenic and pyrogenic losses of nitrogen (N) from plants and soils. Because of the long history of fires in these savannas, it was hypothesized that N2 fixation by legumes balances the N losses caused by fires. In this study, the N2 fixation activity of woody legumes was estimated by analyzing foliar delta15N and proportional basal area of N2 fixing species along experimental fire gradients in the Kruger National Park (South Africa). In addition, soil carbon (C) and N pools, foliar phosphorus (P) and gross N mineralization and nitrification rates were measured, to indicate the effects of fires on nutrient stocks and the possible N cycling processes modified by fires. Although observations of increased soil C/N and mineralization rates in frequently burned plots support previous reports of N losses caused by fires, soil %N did not decrease with increasing fire frequency (except in 1 plot), suggesting that N losses are replenished in burned areas. However, relative abundance and N2 fixation of woody legumes decreased with fire frequency in two of the three fire gradients analyzed, suggesting that woody legume N2 fixation is not the mechanism that balances N losses. The relatively constant %N along fire gradients suggests that these ecosystems have other mechanisms to balance the N lost by fires, which could include inputs by atmospheric deposition and N2 fixation by forbs, grasses and soil cyanobacteria. Soil isotopic signatures have been previously used to infer patterns of fire history. However, the lack of a relationship between soil delta15N and fire frequency found in this study indicates that the effects of fires on ecosystem delta15N are unpredictable. Similar soil delta15N along fire gradients may reflect the contrasting effects of increased N gaseous emissions (which increases delta15N) and N2 fixation other than that associated with woody legumes (which lowers delta15N) on

  10. Wind and temperature profiles in the boundary layer above the Kruger National Park during SAFARI-92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, G.

    1996-10-01

    The experimental phase of SAFARI-92 in the Kruger National Park took place from September 7 to 26, 1992. Eskom's Environmental Sciences was committed to provide meteorological support during the experimental burns in the Pretoriuskop area of the KNP and to characterize the boundary layer during the field campaign. Surface temperature inversions were found during most nights when vertical soundings were available. The inversion strength was generally ≤3.5° with a depth of ≤270 m above ground level (agl). Low-level elevated inversions with a base height of 350 to 500 m agl and a strength of ≤3.6°C were found on four occasions. The base height of the subsidence inversion, when observed, varied between 1500 and 2500 m agl. Significant superadiabatic temperature gradients, impacting directly on the vertical dispersion of pyrogenic products, have been observed to reach as high as several hundred meters above ground level. Vertical profiles of wind speed and direction varied greatly from day to day in response to the changes in the synoptic pattern. However, weak low-level wind maxima just above the surface inversion were observed during most nights, generally with speeds of <10 m s-1. Detailed case studies of boundary layer conditions during the major burns have been included. Since the observations were made during spring it is suggested that the results could be more characteristic of summer conditions. It can be assumed that the inversions will be stronger and the low-level wind maxima more pronounced during winter.

  11. Assessment of climate change impact on the fates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the multimedia environment based on model prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Juan Juan; Song, Jee Hey; Lee, Yunah; Lee, Dong Soo

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to quantitatively understand the impacts of climate change (CC) under the A1B scenario on the contamination levels of 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from pyrogenic sources in the environmental media based on model prediction. To predict the impacts of CC in South Korea, a revised version of KoEFT-PBTs, a dynamic multimedia model for persistent organic pollutants in South Korea, was used. Simulations were conducted for the period from 2000 to 2049 under the A1B scenario with the emission data for 2009 and the results for Seoul and Kangwon were compared to those under no climate change (NCC) scenario. Due to CC, the average of annual or monthly average concentration changes within a factor of two for the PAHs in air, soil and water. Time dependent comparison indicates that the maximum increase induced by CC in the monthly average concentration ranges from 10 to 10(2) in air and water. Change in advective flux due to wind speed difference between A1B and NCC dictates the change of the atmospheric PAHs levels while wet particle deposition due to rain rate difference contributes to some extent to the change of 5 and 6 ring PAHs. Whether the concentration change is positive or not depends primarily on the emission strength of internal sources relative to those in surrounding areas. The CC induced changes in atmospheric depositions and degradation rate in soil play a leading role in the change of soil concentration. In water, runoff and degradation are the key processes to the CC induced concentration change. Both in soil and water, the relative importance of individual key processes varies with PAHs. The difference between the two scenarios in wind speed and in rain rate shows stronger correlations with the concentration change than the temperature change. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fire Regime and Stability of the West African Tropical Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwomoh, F. K.; Wimberly, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    Ecological discussions concerning alternative stable states theory suggest that tropical forest ecosystems could shift to qualitatively different alternative states upon catastrophic disturbances which exceed forest resilience. In this regard, it is expected that changes in the fire regime facilitated by climate and land use alterations could lead to rapid forest cover loss, creating conditions likely to push tropical forests to tipping points, beyond which forest resilience is lost. However, there is a dearth of empirical examples of fire-driven alternative stable states involving tropical forests. Key among the constraints for this scarcity are the requirements for large scale disturbances and long-term data, both of which are scarce. However, in the West African tropical forest (referred to as the Upper Guinean forest, UGF) a number of protected areas were impacted by large fire events during the 1980s El Niño-driven droughts, providing an opportunity for testing hypotheses concerning alternative stable states in tropical forest ecosystems. This paper aims to demonstrate fire-driven alternative stable states in the deciduous forest zone of the UGF by analyzing fire activity and forest recovery in fire-impacted forest reserves. We analyzed historical Landsat and MODIS imagery to map and quantify vegetation cover change, fire frequency and fire severity patterns. Our analyses suggest that the historic fires in the 1980s were catastrophic enough to remove forest canopy, thereby triggering a landscape-scale alternative stable states. Forest cover declined substantially becoming replaced by a novel ecosystem with low tree density. Our results also indicate the establishment of a positive fire-vegetation feedback effect, such that the new vegetation which displaced severely burned forests is more pyrogenic and maintained through frequent burns. This study expands our knowledge on the vulnerability of tropical forest ecosystems to state transitions in response to fire

  13. Viable group A streptococci in macrophages during acute soft tissue infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontus Thulin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Group A streptococcal severe soft tissue infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, are rapidly progressive infections associated with high mortality. Group A streptococcus is typically considered an extracellular pathogen, but has been shown to reside intracellularly in host cells.We characterized in vivo interactions between group A streptococci (GAS and cells involved in innate immune responses, using human biopsies (n = 70 collected from 17 patients with soft tissue infections. Immunostaining and in situ image analysis revealed high amounts of bacteria in the biopsies, even in those collected after prolonged antibiotic therapy. Viability of the streptococci was assessed by use of a bacterial viability stain, which demonstrated viable bacteria in 74% of the biopsies. GAS were present both extracellularly and intracellularly within phagocytic cells, primarily within macrophages. Intracellular GAS were predominantly noted in biopsies from newly involved tissue characterized by lower inflammation and bacterial load, whereas purely extracellular GAS or a combination of intra- and extracellular GAS dominated in severely inflamed tissue. The latter tissue was also associated with a significantly increased amount of the cysteine protease streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin SpeB. In vitro studies confirmed that macrophages serve as reservoirs for viable GAS, and infection with a speB-deletion mutant produced significantly lower frequencies of cells with viable GAS following infection as compared to the wild-type bacteria.This is the first study to demonstrate that GAS survive intracellularly in macrophages during acute invasive infections. This intracellular presence may have evolved as a mechanism to avoid antibiotic eradication, which may explain our finding that high bacterial load is present even in tissue collected after prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy. This new insight into the pathogenesis of streptococcal soft tissue infections

  14. Viable Group A Streptococci in Macrophages during Acute Soft Tissue Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group A streptococcal severe soft tissue infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, are rapidly progressive infections associated with high mortality. Group A streptococcus is typically considered an extracellular pathogen, but has been shown to reside intracellularly in host cells. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We characterized in vivo interactions between group A streptococci (GAS and cells involved in innate immune responses, using human biopsies (n = 70 collected from 17 patients with soft tissue infections. Immunostaining and in situ image analysis revealed high amounts of bacteria in the biopsies, even in those collected after prolonged antibiotic therapy. Viability of the streptococci was assessed by use of a bacterial viability stain, which demonstrated viable bacteria in 74% of the biopsies. GAS were present both extracellularly and intracellularly within phagocytic cells, primarily within macrophages. Intracellular GAS were predominantly noted in biopsies from newly involved tissue characterized by lower inflammation and bacterial load, whereas purely extracellular GAS or a combination of intra- and extracellular GAS dominated in severely inflamed tissue. The latter tissue was also associated with a significantly increased amount of the cysteine protease streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin SpeB. In vitro studies confirmed that macrophages serve as reservoirs for viable GAS, and infection with a speB-deletion mutant produced significantly lower frequencies of cells with viable GAS following infection as compared to the wild-type bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to demonstrate that GAS survive intracellularly in macrophages during acute invasive infections. This intracellular presence may have evolved as a mechanism to avoid antibiotic eradication, which may explain our finding that high bacterial load is present even in tissue collected after prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy. This new insight into the pathogenesis

  15. The role of plasma coating on the permeation of cytokine-inducing substances through dialyser membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonnemann, G; Schindler, R; Lufft, V; Mahiout, A; Shaldon, S; Koch, K M

    1995-01-01

    We studied the effects of coating of dialyser membranes with plasma proteins on the permeation of bacteria-derived cytokine-inducing substances (CIS). An in vitro dialysis circuit using polysulphone (PS) or modified cellulose triacetate (mCT) dialysers was used. Precoating of the dialysers was performed by recirculation of 10% normal human plasma for 30 min in the blood compartment and subsequent rinse with pyrogen-free saline. Samples from the blood compartment were tested for induction of interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF alpha) at various time points after challenging the dialysate with sterile culture supernatants from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Contamination of the dialysate resulted in the appearance of CIS in the blood compartment of both polysuphone modified cellulose triacetate (IL-1 alpha: PS, time 0: 81 +/- 11 pg/ml, time 60 min: 4747 +/- 1822 pg/ml, P < 0.05; mCT, time 0: 235 +/- 141 pg/ml, time 60 min: 1632 +/- 531 pg/ml, P < 0.05). The plasma protein layer reduced the penetration of CIS significantly only for polysulphone (IL-1 alpha: PS, time 60: 4747 +/- 1822 versus 880 +/- 525 pg/ml, P < 0.05; modified cellulose triacetate, time 60 min: 1632 +/- 531 pg/ml versus 930 +/- 326 pg/ml). Samples from the blood compartment contained < 6 pg/ml LAL-reactive material at all time points. We conclude that plasma coating of polysulphone dialysers reduces the permeability for CIS derived from Pseudomonas, either by reducing the effective pore size or by adsorption of proteins that bind CIS.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Quantification and radiocarbon source apportionment of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols using the CTO-375 method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zencak, Zdenek; Elmquist, Marie; Gustafsson, Örjan

    To make progress towards linking the atmosphere and biogeosphere parts of the black carbon (BC) cycle, a chemothermal oxidation method (CTO-375), commonly applied for isolating BC from complex geomatrices such as soils, sediments and aquatic particles, was applied to investigate the BC also in atmospheric particles. Concentrations and 14C-based source apportionment of CTO-375 based BC was established for a reference aerosol (NIST RM-8785) and for wintertime aerosols collected in Stockholm and in a Swedish background area. The results were compared with thermal-optical (OC/EC) measurements. For NIST RM-8785, a good agreement was found between the BC CTO-375 concentration and the reported elemental carbon (EC) concentration measured by the "Speciation Trends Network—National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health" method (EC NIOSH) with BC CTO-375 of 0.054±0.002 g g -1 and EC NIOSH of 0.067±0.008 g g -1. In contrast, there was an average factor of ca. 20 difference between BC CTO-375 and EC NIOSH for the ambient Scandinavian wintertime aerosols, presumably reflecting a combination of BC CTO-375 isolating only the recalcitrant soot-BC portion of the BC continuum and the EC NIOSH metric inadvertently including some intrinsically non-pyrogenic organic matter. Isolation of BC CTO-375 with subsequent off-line radiocarbon analysis yielded fraction modern values (fM) for total organic carbon (TOC) of 0.93 (aerosols from a Swedish background area), and 0.58 (aerosols collected in Stockholm); whereas the fM for BC CTO-375 isolates were 1.08 (aerosols from a Swedish background area), and 0.87 (aerosols collected in Stockholm). This radiocarbon-based source apportionment suggests that contribution from biomass combustion to cold-season atmospheric BC CTO-375 in Stockholm was 70% and in the background area 88%.

  17. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen stock alteration under the influences of bushfires in tundra-forest permafrost ecosystems of the Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamilishvili, George; Abakumov, Evgeniy; Maksimova, Ekaterina

    2017-04-01

    The study provides information on the alteration of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (N tot) stocks in postfire podzol soils of the tundra-forest permafrost ecosystem of the Western Siberia. Data was derived in August 2016, describing the consequence of the surface-crown bushfire on the permafrost affected tundra soils, previously occurred in Nadym region of the YaNAR, Russia. Obtained data on the SOC content in upper organic horizons show sharp decline of these parameters in postfire soil in comparison with control soil of the tundra area unexposed to fire (from 38,27 to 26,59% respectively). SOC stocks, calculated for the upper organic (O, 0-3 cm) and subsequent eluvial horizons (E, 3-10(20) cm), were found to be significantly lower in postfire soils (decreasing from 20,28 and 0,89 kg/m2 to 2,69 and 0,28 kg/m2 in postfire soil). The analytic data obtained showed a raise of N tot content in burned horizon of the postfire soil with a maximal level of 0,94% in the ash. Calculated nitrogen stocks also showed enrichment in postfire soils. This feature is explained by the release of nutrients from organic residues and plant material to the soil under the influence of high temperatures. The pyrogenic impact increases the portion of humic acids in the organic matter. Along with the transfer of the clay fraction, the translocation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons resulting from the fires to the accumulative geochemical positions is also possible.

  18. The Position of His-Tag in Recombinant OspC and Application of Various Adjuvants Affects the Intensity and Quality of Specific Antibody Response after Immunization of Experimental Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Krupka

    Full Text Available Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi-caused infection, if not recognized and appropriately treated by antibiotics, may lead to chronic complications, thus stressing the need for protective vaccine development. The immune protection is mediated by phagocytic cells and by Borrelia-specific complement-activating antibodies, associated with the Th1 immune response. Surface antigen OspC is involved in Borrelia spreading through the host body. Previously we reported that recombinant histidine tagged (His-tag OspC (rOspC could be attached onto liposome surfaces by metallochelation. Here we report that levels of OspC-specific antibodies vary substantially depending upon whether rOspC possesses an N' or C' terminal His-tag. This is the case in mice immunized: (a with rOspC proteoliposomes containing adjuvants MPLA or non-pyrogenic MDP analogue MT06; (b with free rOspC and Montanide PET GEL A; (c with free rOspC and alum; or (d with adjuvant-free rOspC. Stronger responses are noted with all N'-terminal His-tag rOspC formulations. OspC-specific Th1-type antibodies predominate post-immunization with rOspC proteoliposomes formulated with MPLA or MT06 adjuvants. Further analyses confirmed that the structural features of soluble N' and C' terminal His-tag rOspC and respective rOspC proteoliposomes are similar including their thermal stabilities at physiological temperatures. On the other hand, a change in the position of the rOspC His-tag from N' to C' terminal appears to affect substantially the immunogenicity of rOspC arguably due to steric hindrance of OspC epitopes by the C' terminal His-tag itself and not due to differences in overall conformations induced by changes in the His-tag position in rOspC variants.

  19. Characterization of colonizing Staphylococcus aureus isolated from surgical wards' patients in a Nigerian university hospital.

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    Deboye O Kolawole

    Full Text Available In contrast to developed countries, only limited data on the prevalence, resistance and clonal structure of Staphylococcus aureus are available for African countries. Since S. aureus carriage is a risk factor for postoperative wound infection, patients who had been hospitalized in surgical wards in a Nigerian University Teaching Hospital were screened for S. aureus carriage. All S. aureus isolates were genotyped (spa, agr and assigned to multilocus sequence types (MLST. Species affiliation, methicillin-resistance, and the possession of pyrogenic toxin superantigens (PTSAg, exfoliative toxins (ETs and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL were analyzed. Of 192 patients screened, the S. aureus carrier rate was 31.8 % (n = 61. Of these isolates, 7 (11.5% were methicillin-resistant (MRSA. The isolates comprised 24 spa types. The most frequent spa types were t064, t084, t311, and t1931, while the most prevalent MLST clonal complexes were CC5 and CC15. The most frequent PTSAg genes detected were seg/sei (41.0% followed by seb (29.5%, sea (19.7%, seh (14.7% and sec (11.5. The difference between the possession of classical and newly described PTSAg genes was not significant (63.9% versus 59.0% respectively; P = 0.602. PVL encoding genes were found in 39.3% isolates. All MRSA isolates were PVL negative, SCCmec types I and VI in MLST CC 5 and CC 30, respectively. Typing of the accessory gene regulator (agr showed the following distribution: agr group 1 (n = 20, group II (n = 17, group III (n = 14 and group IV (n = 10. Compared to European data, enterotoxin gene seb and PVL-encoding genes were more prevalent in Nigerian methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates, which may therefore act as potential reservoir for PVL and PTSAg genes.

  20. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius can be misdiagnosed as Staphylococcus aureus in humans with dog bite wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börjesson, S; Gómez-Sanz, E; Ekström, K; Torres, C; Grönlund, U

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether S. pseudintermedius is misdiagnosed as S. aureus by clinical laboratories when isolated from humans with dog bite wounds. In addition, we attempted to determine whether S. pseudintermedius isolates related to dog bite wounds share phenotypic and genotypic traits. S. pseudintermedius was identified by PCR targeting the nuc gene. Isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility using VetMIC GP-mo microdilution panels. The occurrence of genes encoding leukocidins, exfoliatins, pyrogenic toxin superantigens and enterotoxins was determined by PCR. The relatedness of S. pseudintermedius isolates was investigated using Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Out of 101 isolates defined as S. aureus by human clinical microbiology laboratories, 13 isolates were re-identified as S. pseudintermedius and one isolate was confirmed to carry the mecA gene, i.e. methicillin-resistant (MRSP). The MRSP isolate was also defined as multi-resistant. Two methicillin-susceptible S. pseudintermedius isolates were also multi-resistant and five were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. With the exception of three S. pseudintermedius isolates belonging to multi locus sequence type (MLST) 158, all the isolates belonged to unique STs. All isolates contained lukS/F-I, siet and se-int, and expA were identified in two isolates and expB and sec canine-sel in one isolate respectively. S. pseudintermedius is frequently misdiagnosed as S. aureus from humans with dog bite wounds showing that it can act as an opportunistic pathogen in humans. No common phenotypic and genotypic traits shared by the S. pseudintermedius isolates could be identified.

  1. Removal and fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollutants in an urban stormwater bioretention facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBlasi, Catherine J; Li, Houng; Davis, Allen P; Ghosh, Upal

    2009-01-15

    This research investigated the removal and fate of 16 USEPA priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from urban stormwater runoff through a bioretention cell. Bioretention is an infiltration/filtration practice containing a mixed layer of about 90 cm of soil, sand, and organic matter, planted with appropriate vegetation. Field water quality monitoring and bioretention media core analyses were performed. The results indicate that bioretention is a promising management practice to control runoff PAH pollutants. The PAH event mean concentration (EMC) reduction ranged from 31 to 99%, with a mean discharge EMC of 0.22 microg/L. The mass load decreased from a mean value of 0.0180 kg/ha yr to 0.0025 kg/ha yr, suggesting an average PAH mass load reduction of 87% to the discharging watershed. The most dominant PAH species monitored were fluoranthene and pyrene. Influent PAHs indicated strong affiliation with runoff total suspended solids (TSS). As such, PAH removal positively correlated with TSS removal. Low rainfall depth was associated with high influent PAH concentration and resulted in favorable PAH removal. Source investigation suggested that the PAHs measured in the monitored cell were from pyrogenic sources, likely resulting from vehicle combustion processes. Sealers used in parking lots and driveway coatings were also a possible source of PAHs. Media core analyses indicated that the intercepted PAH compounds transported only a few centimeters vertically in the soil media near the runoff entrance location, suggesting that a shallow cell design may be adequate for systems focusing on PAH removal.

  2. Circulating leptin mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced anorexia and fever in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachot, Christelle; Poole, Stephen; Luheshi, Giamal N

    2004-11-15

    Anorexia and fever are important features of the host's response to inflammation that can be triggered by the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the appetite suppressant leptin. Previous studies have demonstrated that LPS induces leptin synthesis and secretion in the periphery, and that the action of leptin on appetite suppression and fever are dependent on brain interleukin (IL)-1beta. However, the role of leptin as a neuroimmune mediator of LPS-induced inflammation has not been fully elucidated. To address this issue, we neutralized circulating leptin using a leptin antiserum (LAS) and determined how this neutralization affected LPS-induced anorexia, fever and hypothalamic IL-1beta. Adult male rats were separated into four treatment groups, namely LPS + normal sheep serum (NSS), LPS + LAS, saline + LAS and saline + NSS. Intraperitoneal injection of LPS (100 microg kg(-1)) induced a significant reduction in food intake and body weight, which were significantly reversed in the presence of LAS (1 ml kg(-1)), 8 and 24 h after treatment. In addition, LPS-induced fever was significantly attenuated by LAS over the duration of the fever response (8 h). Lipopolysaccharide induced an increase of circulating IL-6, another potential circulating pyrogen, which was not affected by neutralization of leptin at 2 h. Interleukin-1beta mRNA at 1 and 8 h, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (ra) at 2 h were significantly upregulated in the hypothalamus of LPS-treated animals. The induction of these cytokines was attenuated in the presence of LAS. These results are the first to demonstrate that leptin is a circulating mediator of LPS-induced anorexia and fever, probably through a hypothalamic IL-1beta-dependent mechanism.

  3. Carbon losses from pyrolysed and original wood in a forest soil under natural and increased N deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Maestrini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM plays an important role as a stable carbon (C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems. However, uncertainties remain about in situ turnover rates of PyOM in soil, the main processes leading to PyOM C and nitrogen (N losses from the soil, and the role of N availability in PyOM cycling in soils. We measured PyOM and native soil organic carbon losses from the soil as carbon dioxide and dissolved organic carbon (DOC using additions of highly 13C-labelled PyOM (2.03 atom % and its precursor pinewood during one year in a temperate forest soil. The field experiment was carried out under ambient and increased mineral N deposition (+60 kg N ha−1 yr−1. The results showed that after one year: (1 0.5% of PyOM-C and 22% of wood-C were mineralized as CO2, leading to an estimate of minimum turnover time of 191 and 4 yr respectively, (2 the quantity of PyOM and wood lost as dissolved organic carbon was negligible (0.0004 ± 0.0003% and 0.022 ± 0.007 respectively; and (3 N additions decreased cumulative PyOM mineralization by 43%, but did not affect cumulative wood mineralization and did not affect the loss of DOC from PyOM or wood. We conclude that mineralization to CO2 was the main process leading to PyOM losses during the first year of decomposition in a forest soil, and that N addition can decrease PyOM C cycling while leaving unaltered wood C cycling.

  4. 铁矿烧结烟气中SO2的排放规律%Emission rule of SO2 in flue gas during sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘建; 朱德庆; 崔瑜; 陈栋; 周仙霖

    2011-01-01

    从烧结过程燃料用量、混合料水分、烧结矿碱度及混合料含硫量研究烧结工艺参数对烧结烟气中SO2排放的影响,发现烧结过程SO2的排放不受烧结工艺参数及原料含硫变化的影响,在烧结终点前始终存在一个排放浓度峰值区间,揭示烧结烟气SO2排放的自持性规律是由于烧结料层有选择性吸附SO2作用所导致,SO2的排放遵循硫化物、硫酸盐热分解生成-料层吸附-再分解-解吸的迁移及循环富集排放机理。%The effect of sinter technology parameters, including coke ratio, moisture, basicity and sulphur content in sinter mix, on the emission of SO2 in sintering flue gas was studied. The results show that the emission of SO2 rises to a peak value rapidly just before the sintering end point and declines dramatically no matter how parameters of sinter technology and the properties of raw material change. The self-sustaining characteristics of SO2 emission results from the selectively adsorbing SO2 by sinter bed, and the emission of SO2 is controlled by the mechanism of transfer and cycling enrichment which consists of sulphide and sulphate pyrogenation formation-sinter bed adsorption-further decomposition-desorption of SO2.

  5. Changes in Antibody Levels during and following an Episode of Acute Adenolymphangitis (ADL among Lymphedema Patients in Leogane, Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Mues

    Full Text Available Episodes of acute adenolymphangitis (ADL are often the first clinical sign of lymphatic filariasis (LF. They are often accompanied by swelling of the affected limb, inflammation, fever, and general malaise and lead to the progression of lymphedema. Although ADL episodes have been studied for a century or more, questions still remain as to their etiology. We quantified antibody levels to pathogens that potentially contribute to ADL episodes during and after an episode among lymphedema patients in Léogâne, Haiti. We estimated the proportion of ADL episodes hypothesized to be attributed to specific pathogens.We measured antibody levels to specific pathogens during and following an ADL episode among 41 lymphedema patients enrolled in a cohort study in Léogâne, Haiti. We calculated the absolute and relative changes in antibody levels between the ADL and convalescent time points. We calculated the proportion of episodes that demonstrated a two-fold increase in antibody level for several bacterial, fungal, and filarial pathogens.Our results showed the greatest proportion of two-fold changes in antibody levels for the carbohydrate antigen Streptococcus group A, followed by IgG2 responses to a soluble filarial antigen (BpG2, Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin B, and an antigen for the fungal pathogen Candida. When comparing the median antibody level during the ADL episode to the median antibody level at the convalescent time point, only the antigens for Pseudomonas species (P-value = 0.0351 and Streptolysin O (P-value = 0.0074 showed a significant result.Although our results are limited by the lack of a control group and few antibody responses, they provide some evidence for infection with Streptococcus A as a potential contributing factor to ADL episodes. Our results add to the current evidence and illustrate the importance of determining the causal role of bacterial and fungal pathogens and immunological antifilarial response in ADL episodes.

  6. A dual site study of PM 2.5 and PM 10 aerosol chemistry in the larger region of Vienna, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puxbaum, H.; Gomiscek, B.; Kalina, M.; Bauer, H.; Salam, A.; Stopper, S.; Preining, O.; Hauck, H.

    The measurements of PM 2.5 and PM 10 at two sites—an urban site in Vienna (AUPHEP-1) and a rural site considered local background (AUPHEP-2)—indicated only low aerosol generation activity in the city on an annual basis. Defining the term "urban impact" as the difference between observations at the urban and the local background site we find an annually averaged urban impact for PM 2.5 of 3.4 μg m -3 and for PM C of 3.3 μg m -3 (the coarse fraction PM C=PM 10-PM 2.5). The relative increase of the particulate matter (PM) concentration at the urban site compared to the background site (AUPHEP-2) is annually averaged only 19% for PM 2.5, but 60% for PM C. The chemical main constituents of the PM 2.5 urban impact are black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), and sulfate; the main constituents of the PM C urban impact are OC and indicators for mineralic aerosol (Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, K). The BC/TC ratio of the PM 2.5 urban impact is typical as for combustion sources, e.g. automotive traffic, oil or coal combustion. Urban coarse OC is considered to originate from non-pyrogenic sources. From the trace metals investigated (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) only Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn exhibited a slight cold season enrichment in the urban airshed. From the weak signal of a seasonality of oil or coal combustion indicators we conclude that local domestic heating sources are using "clean fuels".

  7. Sources, solubility, and acid processing of aerosol iron and phosphorous over the South China Sea: East Asian dust and pollution outflows vs. Southeast Asian biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-C. Hsu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Iron and phosphorous are essential to marine microorganisms in vast regions in oceans worldwide. Atmospheric inputs are important allochthonous sources of Fe and P. The variability in airborne Fe deposition is hypothesized to serve an important function in previous glacial–interglacial cycles, contributing to the variability in atmospheric CO2 and ultimately the climate. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the mobilization of airborne Fe and P from insoluble to soluble forms is critical to evaluate the biogeochemical effects of these elements. In this study, we present a robust power-law correlation between fractional Fe solubility and non-sea-salt-sulfate / Total-Fe (nss-sulfate / FeT molar ratio independent of distinct sources of airborne Fe of natural and/or anthropogenic origins over the South China Sea. This area receives Asian dust and pollution outflows and Southeast Asian biomass burning. This correlation is also valid for nitrate and total acids, demonstrating the significance of acid processing in enhancing Fe mobilization. Such correlations are also found for P, yet source dependent. These relationships serve as straightforward parameters that can be directly incorporated into available atmosphere–ocean coupling models that facilitate the assessment of Fe and P fertilization effects. Although biomass burning activity may supply Fe to the bioavailable Fe pool, pyrogenic soils are possibly the main contributors, not the burned plants. This finding warrants a multidisciplinary investigation that integrates atmospheric observations with the resulting biogeochemistry in the South China Sea, which is influenced by atmospheric forcings and nutrient dynamics with monsoons.

  8. Assessing the legacy effects of historic charcoal production in Brandenburg, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Anna; Hirsch, Florian; Raab, Alexandra; Bonhage, Alexander; Raab, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Charcoal produced in kilns or hearths was an important source of energy in many regions of Europe and Northern America until the 19th century, and charcoal production in hearths is still common in many other regions of the world. The remains of charcoal hearths are therefore a widespread legacy of historic land use in forest areas. Soils on charcoal hearth sites are characterized by a technogenic layer rich in charcoal and ash on top of the soil profile, and by a pyrogenic modification of substrates below the former hearth. The aims of our study are to examine how these alterations to the natural soil profiles affect the soil water regime and other soil physical properties, and to assess the relevance of these effects on the landscape scale. We present first results of a mapping of hearth site occurrence in forest areas in the state of Brandenburg, Germany, and of a characterization of the infiltration behaviour on hearth sites as compared with undisturbed forest soils. Results of mapping small-scale relief features from LIDAR-based digital elevation models show that charcoal hearths occur in a high density in many large forest areas throughout Brandenburg. In the areas studied so far, up to almost 3% of the soil surface were found to be affected by the remains of historic hearths. First analyses of soil physical properties indicate differences in the infiltration characteristics of hearth site soils and undisturbed forest soils: Hood infiltrometer measurements show a very high spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity for hearth site soils, and water-drop-penetration-time tests reflect extremely high hydrophobicity of the technogenic layer on the sites. Results of dye tracer experiment show considerably strong preferential flow and therefore a higher spatial variability of soil wetness below the hearth remains. Overall, our first results therefore indicate that the legacy effects of historic charcoal production might significantly affect overall site

  9. The effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide on gastric emptying in rats suffering from moderate renal insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigatto S.Z.P.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the response of rats suffering from moderate renal insufficiency to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, or endotoxin. The study involved 48 eight-week-old male SPF Wistar rats (175-220 g divided into two groups of 24 animals each. One group underwent 5/6 nephrectomy while the other was sham-operated. Two weeks after surgery, the animals were further divided into two subgroups of 12 animals each and were fasted for 20 h but with access to water ad libitum. One nephrectomized and one sham-treated subgroup received E. coli LPS (25 µg/kg, iv while the other received a sterile, pyrogen-free saline solution. Gastric retention (GR was determined 10 min after the orogastric infusion of a standard saline test meal labeled with phenol red (6 mg/dl. The gastric emptying of the saline test meal was studied after 2 h. Renal function was evaluated by measuring the plasma levels of urea and creatinine. The levels of urea and creatinine in 5/6 nephrectomized animals were two-fold higher than those observed in the sham-operated rats. Although renal insufficiency did not change gastric emptying (median %GR = 26.6 for the nephrectomized subgroup and 29.3 for the sham subgroup, LPS significantly retarded the gastric emptying of the sham and nephretomized groups (median %GR = 42.0 and 61.0, respectively, and was significantly greater (P<0.01 in the nephrectomized rats. We conclude that gastric emptying in animals suffering from moderate renal insufficiency is more sensitive to the action of LPS than in sham animals

  10. 激光核聚变中自生磁场与热输运的粒子模拟%Particle-in-Cell of Self-Generated Magnetic Fields and Thermal Transport in Laser Inertial Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    帕尔哈提·吐尼亚孜; 阿不都热苏力·阿不都热西提; 帕力哈提·米吉提

    2012-01-01

    Stimulated self-generated magnetic field and electron thermal transport properties in ultraintense laser-plasma interactions are studied by using electromagnetic relativistic particle-in-cell simulation program. The generation mechanism of spontaneons magnetic and nonlinear saturation process are discussed. Functional relation between linear growth rate of spontaneons magnetic and anisotropic parameters is provided. The state of transport of energy in the heat exchange with electron is analyzed by the Spitzer-Harm theory, and electron' s vertical pyrogenation phenomenon resulting from anisotropic heating of laser is observed. The results may be important for understanding the spontaneous magnetic field generation and fast electron propagation in fast iginition physics.%利用相对论电磁粒子模拟程序研究了超强激光与等离子体相互作用过程中产生的自生磁场和电子热输运特性.讨论了自生磁场产生机制和非线性饱和过程.给出了自生磁场的线性增长率和各向异性参数之间的函数关系,用Spitzer-Harm理论分析了电子热传导中能量的运输情况,观察到由激光的非等方加热引起的电子纵向加热现象.细致研究这些过程对更好的理解快点火物理中自生磁场的产生、超热电子热输运等过程有重要意义.

  11. Organic nitrogen storage in mineral soil: Implications for policy and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Andrew H., E-mail: drew_bingham@nps.gov [Air Resources Division, National Park Service, P.O. Box 25287, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Cotrufo, M. Francesca [Department of Soil and Crop Sciences and Natural Resources Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, 200 West Lake Street, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most important ecosystem nutrients and often its availability limits net primary production as well as stabilization of soil organic matter. The long-term storage of nitrogen-containing organic matter in soils was classically attributed to chemical complexity of plant and microbial residues that retarded microbial degradation. Recent advances have revised this framework, with the understanding that persistent soil organic matter consists largely of chemically labile, microbially processed organic compounds. Chemical bonding to minerals and physical protection in aggregates are more important to long-term (i.e., centuries to millennia) preservation of these organic compounds that contain the bulk of soil nitrogen rather than molecular complexity, with the exception of nitrogen in pyrogenic organic matter. This review examines for the first time the factors and mechanisms at each stage of movement into long-term storage that influence the sequestration of organic nitrogen in the mineral soil of natural temperate ecosystems. Because the factors which govern persistence are different under this newly accepted paradigm we examine the policy and management implications that are altered, such as critical load considerations, nitrogen saturation and mitigation consequences. Finally, it emphasizes how essential it is for this important but underappreciated pool to be better quantified and incorporated into policy and management decisions, especially given the lack of evidence for many soils having a finite capacity to sequester nitrogen. - Highlights: • We review the current framework for long-term nitrogen stabilization in soils. • We highlight the most important factors according to this framework. • We discuss how these factors may influence management and policy decisions.

  12. Fever Pathogenesis and Antipyretic Use in Children%发热及小儿解热药的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏林林; 许昂; 兰丽; 季晖

    2015-01-01