WorldWideScience

Sample records for pyrococcus genus analysis

  1. Functional analysis of hyperthermophilic endocellulase from Pyrococcus horikoshii by crystallographic snapshots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Woo; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko

    2011-07-15

    A hyperthermophilic membrane-related β-1,4-endoglucanase (family 5, cellulase) of the archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii was found to be capable of hydrolysing cellulose at high temperatures. The hyperthermophilic cellulase has promise for applications in biomass utilization. To clarify its detailed function, we determined the crystal structures of mutants of the enzyme in complex with either the substrate or product ligands. We were able to resolve different kinds of complex structures at 1.65-2.01 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm). The structural analysis of various mutant enzymes yielded a sequence of crystallographic snapshots, which could be used to explain the catalytic process of the enzyme. The substrate position is fixed by the alignment of one cellobiose unit between the two aromatic amino acid residues at subsites +1 and +2. During the enzyme reaction, the glucose structure of cellulose substrates is distorted at subsite -1, and the β-1,4-glucoside bond between glucose moieties is twisted between subsites -1 and +1. Subsite -2 specifically recognizes the glucose residue, but recognition by subsites +1 and +2 is loose during the enzyme reaction. This type of recognition is important for creation of the distorted boat form of the substrate at subsite -1. A rare enzyme-substrate complex was observed within the low-activity mutant Y299F, which suggested the existence of a trapped ligand structure before the formation by covalent bonding of the proposed intermediate structure. Analysis of the enzyme-substrate structure suggested that an incoming water molecule, essential for hydrolysis during the retention process, might be introduced to the cleavage position after the cellobiose product at subsites +1 and +2 was released from the active site.

  2. The tungsten metallome of Pyrococcus furiosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevcenco, A.M.; Pinkse, M.; Bol, E.; Krijgen, G.; Wolterbeek, H.; Verhaert, P.D.E.M.; Hagedoorn, P.L.; Hagen, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    The tungsten metallome of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus has been investigated using electroanalytical metal analysis and native–native 2D-PAGE with the radioactive tungsten isotope W-187 (t1/2 = 23.9 h). P. furiosus cells have an intracellular tungsten concentration of 29 mM, of

  3. The tungsten metallome of Pyrococcus furiosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevcenco, A.M.; Pinkse, M.W.H.; Bol, E.; Krijger, G.C.; Wolterbeek, H.T.; Verhaert, P.; Hagedoorn, P.L.; Hagen, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    The tungsten metallome of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus has been investigated using electroanalytical metal analysis and native-native 2D-PAGE with the radioactive tungsten isotope W-187 (t(1/2) = 23.9 h). P. furiosus cells have an intracellular tungsten concentration of 29 mu M

  4. Structural Analysis and Bioengineering of Thermostable Pyrococcus furiosus Prolidase for the Optimization of Organophosphorus Nerve Agent Detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS prolidase, organophosphate , OP nerve agent, thermostable enzyme, Pyrococcus furiosus...Singh, 2009). Annually, there are an estimated 3 million poisonings and 300,000 human deaths owing to OP compounds (Singh, 2009). There is a need... organophosphate anhydrolase/prolidase. Biochemistry, 49, 547-59. Wang, Q., Sun, M., Zhang, H. & Huang, C. 1998. Purification and properties of soman

  5. Normal mode analysis of pyrococcus furiosus rubredoxin via nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) and resonance raman spectroscopy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Y.; Wang, H.; George, S.J.; Smith, M.C.; Adams, M.W.W.; Jenney, F.E., Jr.; Sturhahn, W.; Alp, E.E.; Zhao, J.; Yoda, Y.; Dey, A.; Solomon, E.I.; Cramer, S.P.; Experimental Facilities Division (APS); Univ. of California; LBNL; Stanford Univ.; Univ. of Georgia; SPring-8

    2005-10-26

    We have used {sup 57}Fe nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) to study the Fe(S{sub cys})4 site in reduced and oxidized rubredoxin (Rd) from Pyrococcus furiosus (Pf). The oxidized form has also been investigated by resonance Raman spectroscopy. In the oxidized Rd NRVS, strong asymmetric Fe-S stretching modes are observed between 355 and 375 cm{sup -1}; upon reduction these modes shift to 300-320 cm{sup -1}. This is the first observation of Fe-S stretching modes in a reduced Rd. The peak in S-Fe-S bend mode intensity is at {approx}150 cm{sup -1} for the oxidized protein and only slightly lower in the reduced case. A third band occurs near 70 cm{sup -1} for both samples; this is assigned primarily as a collective motion of entire cysteine residues with respect to the central Fe. The {sup 57}Fe partial vibrational density of states (PVDOS) were interpreted by normal mode analysis with optimization of Urey-Bradley force fields. The three main bands were qualitatively reproduced using a D{sub 2d} Fe(SC){sub 4} model. A C{sub 1} Fe(SCC){sub 4} model based on crystallographic coordinates was then used to simulate the splitting of the asymmetric stretching band into at least 3 components. Finally, a model employing complete cysteines and 2 additional neighboring atoms was used to reproduce the detailed structure of the PVDOS in the Fe-S stretch region. These results confirm the delocalization of the dynamic properties of the redox-active Fe site. Depending on the molecular model employed, the force constant KFe-S for Fe-S stretching modes ranged from 1.24 to 1.32 mdyn/Angstrom. KFe-S is clearly diminished in reduced Rd; values from {approx}0.89 to 1.00 mdyn/Angstrom were derived from different models. In contrast, in the final models the force constants for S-Fe-S bending motion, HS-Fe-S, were 0.18 mdyn/Angstrom for oxidized Rd and 0.15 mdyn/Angstrom for reduced Rd. The NRVS technique demonstrates great promise for the observation and quantitative

  6. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of archaeal 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydrobiopterin synthase homologue PH0634 from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Sugahara, Mitsuaki; Kunishima, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    6-Pyruvoyl tetrahydrobiopterin synthase (PTPS) catalyses the conversion of dihydroneopterin triphosphate to 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin, the second of the three enzymatic steps in the synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin from GTP. PH0634, a 13.51 kDa archaeal PTPS homologue from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3, was overexpressed as native and selenomethionine-substituted protein and the purified protein was crystallized by the oil-microbatch method at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.1 A resolution from the native crystal using synchrotron radiation at 100 K. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 35.83, b = 95.71, c = 105.65 A. Threefold noncrystallographic symmetry was identified from self-rotation calculations. Assuming the presence of a trimer in the asymmetric unit, the solvent content is 45% (V(M) = 2.24 A3 Da(-1)). The selenomethionine-substituted crystal is isomorphous to the native crystal and diffracts X-rays to 2.9 A.

  7. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the biotin-protein ligase from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Kuroishi, Chizu; Sugahara, Mitsuaki; Kunishima, Naoki

    2005-02-01

    Biotin-protein ligase is an enzyme that catalyzes the ATP-dependent biotinylation of a specific lysine residue in acetyl-CoA carboxylase. The biotin-protein ligase from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 has been cloned, overexpressed and purified. Crystallization was performed by the microbatch method or the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 2000 as a precipitant at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 1.6 A resolution from a native crystal and to 1.55 A resolution from a selenomethionine-derivative crystal for multiple anomalous dispersion phasing using synchrotron radiation at 100 K. The native crystal belongs to the monoclinic space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 38.601, b = 78.264, c = 70.147 A, beta = 101.48 degrees. Assuming a homodimer per asymmetric unit gives a VM value of 2.14 A3 Da(-1) and a solvent content of 42.5%. Cocrystals with biotin, ADP and biotinyl-5'-AMP were prepared and diffraction data sets were collected to 1.6, 1.6 and 1.45 A resolution, respectively.

  8. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of RecA superfamily ATPase PH0284 from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Kunishima, Naoki

    2006-04-01

    Circadian (daily) protein clocks are found in cyanobacteria, where a complex of the KaiA, KaiB and KaiC proteins generates circadian rhythms. The 28.09 kDa KaiC homologue PH0284 protein from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 was cloned and expressed and the purified protein was crystallized by the oil-microbatch method at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data from the crystal were collected to 2.0 angstroms resolution using synchrotron radiation at 100 K. The crystal belongs to the trigonal space group P3(2)21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 96.06, c = 298.90 angstroms. Assuming the presence of one hexamer in the asymmetric unit gives a V(M) value of 2.36 angstroms3 Da(-1) and a solvent content of 47.9%. A cocrystal with ATP was prepared and a diffraction data set was collected at 2.3 angstroms resolution.

  9. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of RecA superfamily ATPase PH0284 from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Kunishima, Naoki, E-mail: kunisima@spring8.or.jp [Advanced Protein Crystallography Research Group, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Harima Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2006-04-01

    RecA superfamily ATPase PH0284 from P. horikoshii OT3 was overexpressed, purified, crystallized and cocrystallized with ATP. Both crystal forms belong to the trigonal space group P3{sub 2}21 and diffract X-rays to 2.0 and 2.3 Å resolution, respectively. Circadian (daily) protein clocks are found in cyanobacteria, where a complex of the KaiA, KaiB and KaiC proteins generates circadian rhythms. The 28.09 kDa KaiC homologue PH0284 protein from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 was cloned and expressed and the purified protein was crystallized by the oil-microbatch method at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data from the crystal were collected to 2.0 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at 100 K. The crystal belongs to the trigonal space group P3{sub 2}21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 96.06, c = 298.90 Å. Assuming the presence of one hexamer in the asymmetric unit gives a V{sub M} value of 2.36 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 47.9%. A cocrystal with ATP was prepared and a diffraction data set was collected at 2.3 Å resolution.

  10. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of archaeal 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydrobiopterin synthase homologue PH0634 from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin [Advanced Protein Crystallography Research Group, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Harima Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Sugahara, Mitsuaki [Structural Biophysics Laboratory, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Harima Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Kunishima, Naoki, E-mail: kunisima@spring8.or.jp [Advanced Protein Crystallography Research Group, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Harima Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2007-01-01

    An archaeal 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydrobiopterin synthase homologue from P. horikoshii OT3 was overexpressed as native and selenomethionine-substituted protein, purified and crystallized. The native and selenomethionine-derivative crystals are isomorphous and diffract X-rays to 2.1 and 2.9 Å resolution, respectively. 6-Pyruvoyl tetrahydrobiopterin synthase (PTPS) catalyses the conversion of dihydroneopterin triphosphate to 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin, the second of the three enzymatic steps in the synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin from GTP. PH0634, a 13.51 kDa archaeal PTPS homologue from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3, was overexpressed as native and selenomethionine-substituted protein and the purified protein was crystallized by the oil-microbatch method at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.1 Å resolution from the native crystal using synchrotron radiation at 100 K. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 35.83, b = 95.71, c = 105.65 Å. Threefold noncrystallographic symmetry was identified from self-rotation calculations. Assuming the presence of a trimer in the asymmetric unit, the solvent content is 45% (V{sub M} = 2.24 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}). The selenomethionine-substituted crystal is isomorphous to the native crystal and diffracts X-rays to 2.9 Å.

  11. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the biotin–protein ligase from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Kuroishi, Chizu; Sugahara, Mitsuaki; Kunishima, Naoki

    2005-01-01

    Biotin–protein ligase is an enzyme that catalyzes the ATP-dependent biotinylation of a specific lysine residue in acetyl-CoA carboxylase. The biotin–protein ligase from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 has been cloned, overexpressed and purified. Crystallization was performed by the microbatch method or the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 2000 as a precipitant at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 1.6 Å resolution from a native crystal and to 1.55 Å resolution from a selenomethionine-derivative crystal for multiple anomalous dispersion phasing using synchrotron radiation at 100 K. The native crystal belongs to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 38.601, b = 78.264, c  =  70.147 Å, β = 101.48°. Assuming a homodimer per asymmetric unit gives a V M value of 2.14 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 42.5%. Cocrystals with biotin, ADP and biotinyl-5′-AMP were prepared and diffraction data sets were collected to 1.6, 1.6 and 1.45 Å resolution, respectively. PMID:16510991

  12. Mitogenomic analysis of the genus Panthera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lei; Wu, Xiaobing; Zhu, Lixin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2011-10-01

    The complete sequences of the mitochondrial DNA genomes of Panthera tigris, Panthera pardus, and Panthera uncia were determined using the polymerase chain reaction method. The lengths of the complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of the three species were 16990, 16964, and 16773 bp, respectively. Each of the three mitochondrial DNA genomes included 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA, two rRNA, one O(L)R, and one control region. The structures of the genomes were highly similar to those of Felis catus, Acinonyx jubatus, and Neofelis nebulosa. The phylogenies of the genus Panthera were inferred from two combined mitochondrial sequence data sets and the complete mitochondrial genome sequences, by MP (maximum parsimony), ML (maximum likelihood), and Bayesian analysis. The results showed that Panthera was composed of Panthera leo, P. uncia, P. pardus, Panthera onca, P. tigris, and N. nebulosa, which was included as the most basal member. The phylogeny within Panthera genus was N. nebulosa (P. tigris (P. onca (P. pardus, (P. leo, P. uncia)))). The divergence times for Panthera genus were estimated based on the ML branch lengths and four well-established calibration points. The results showed that at about 11.3 MYA, the Panthera genus separated from other felid species and then evolved into the several species of the genus. In detail, N. nebulosa was estimated to be founded about 8.66 MYA, P. tigris about 6.55 MYA, P. uncia about 4.63 MYA, and P. pardus about 4.35 MYA. All these estimated times were older than those estimated from the fossil records. The divergence event, evolutionary process, speciation, and distribution pattern of P. uncia, a species endemic to the central Asia with core habitats on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and surrounding highlands, mostly correlated with the geological tectonic events and intensive climate shifts that happened at 8, 3.6, 2.5, and 1.7 MYA on the plateau during the late Cenozoic period.

  13. Crystal structure of Pyrococcus horikoshii tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase and structure-based phylogenetic analysis suggest an archaeal origin of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xianchi; Zhou, Minyun; Zhong, Chen; Yang, Bei; Shen, Ning; Ding, Jianping

    2010-03-01

    The ancient and ubiquitous aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases constitute a valuable model system for studying early evolutionary events. So far, the evolutionary relationship of tryptophanyl- and tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS and TyrRS) remains controversial. As TrpRS and TyrRS share low sequence homology but high structural similarity, a structure-based method would be advantageous for phylogenetic analysis of the enzymes. Here, we present the first crystal structure of an archaeal TrpRS, the structure of Pyrococcus horikoshii TrpRS (pTrpRS) in complex with tryptophanyl-5' AMP (TrpAMP) at 3.0 A resolution which demonstrates more similarities to its eukaryotic counterparts. With the pTrpRS structure, we perform a more complete structure-based phylogenetic study of TrpRS and TyrRS, which for the first time includes representatives from all three domains of life. Individually, each enzyme shows a similar evolutionary profile as observed in the sequence-based phylogenetic studies. However, TyrRSs from Archaea/Eucarya cluster with TrpRSs rather than their bacterial counterparts, and the root of TrpRS locates in the archaeal branch of TyrRS, indicating the archaeal origin of TrpRS. Moreover, the short distance between TrpRS and archaeal TyrRS and that between bacterial and archaeal TrpRS, together with the wide distribution of TrpRS, suggest that the emergence of TrpRS and subsequent acquisition by Bacteria occurred at early stages of evolution.

  14. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the genus Aeromonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Murcia, Antonio J; Monera, Arturo; Saavedra, M Jose; Oncina, Remedios; Lopez-Alvarez, Monserrate; Lara, Erica; Figueras, M Jose

    2011-05-01

    A broad multilocus phylogenetic analysis (MLPA) of the representative diversity of a genus offers the opportunity to incorporate concatenated inter-species phylogenies into bacterial systematics. Recent analyses based on single housekeeping genes have provided coherent phylogenies of Aeromonas. However, to date, a multi-gene phylogenetic analysis has never been tackled. In the present study, the intra- and inter-species phylogenetic relationships of 115 strains representing all Aeromonas species described to date were investigated by MLPA. The study included the independent analysis of seven single gene fragments (gyrB, rpoD, recA, dnaJ, gyrA, dnaX, and atpD), and the tree resulting from the concatenated 4705 bp sequence. The phylogenies obtained were consistent with each other, and clustering agreed with the Aeromonas taxonomy recognized to date. The highest clustering robustness was found for the concatenated tree (i.e. all Aeromonas species split into 100% bootstrap clusters). Both possible chronometric distortions and poor resolution encountered when using single-gene analysis were buffered in the concatenated MLPA tree. However, reliable phylogenetic species delineation required an MLPA including several "bona fide" strains representing all described species.

  15. Analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in the genus Rhizobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxin; Wu, Liang; Zhou, Ping; Zhu, Shengfeng; An, Wei; Chen, Yu; Zhao, Lin

    2013-11-01

    The codon usage patterns of rhizobia have received increasing attention. However, little information is available regarding the conserved features of the codon usage patterns in a typical rhizobial genus. The codon usage patterns of six completely sequenced strains belonging to the genus Rhizobium were analysed as model rhizobia in the present study. The relative neutrality plot showed that selection pressure played a role in codon usage in the genus Rhizobium. Spearman's rank correlation analysis combined with correspondence analysis (COA) showed that the codon adaptation index and the effective number of codons (ENC) had strong correlation with the first axis of the COA, which indicated the important role of gene expression level and the ENC in the codon usage patterns in this genus. The relative synonymous codon usage of Cys codons had the strongest correlation with the second axis of the COA. Accordingly, the usage of Cys codons was another important factor that shaped the codon usage patterns in Rhizobium genomes and was a conserved feature of the genus. Moreover, the comparison of codon usage between highly and lowly expressed genes showed that 20 unique preferred codons were shared among Rhizobium genomes, revealing another conserved feature of the genus. This is the first report of the codon usage patterns in the genus Rhizobium.

  16. Science Letters:Preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of PH1948, predicted RNA methyltransferase from Pyrococcus horikoshii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yong-gui; YAO Min; TANAKA Isao

    2005-01-01

    RNA methyltransferase is responsible for transferring methyl and resulting in methylation on the bases or ribose ring of RNA, which existed widely but mostly remains an open question. A recombinant protein PH1948 predicting RNA methyltransferase from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 has been crystallized. The crystals of selenomethionyl PH1948 belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a=207.0 (A),b=43.1 (A), c= 118.2 (A), β=92.1°, and diffract X-rays to 2.2(A) resolution. The VM value was determined to be 2.8(A)3/Da, indicating the presence of four protein molecules in the asymmetric unit.

  17. [Quantitative analysis of nucleosides in four Cordyceps genus by HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zheng-Ming; Li, Wen-Qing; Wang, Chuan-Xi; Zhou, Miao-Xia; Sun, Min-Tian; Gao, Hao; Li, Wen-Jia

    2016-07-01

    To compare the main nucleosides in Cordyceps genus herbs (C. sinensis, C. millitaris, Hirsutella sinensis and C. sobolifera), an HPLC method for simultaneous determination of uridine, inosine, guanosine, adenosine and cordycepine in Cordyceps genus herbs was developed. The sample was extracted with 0.5% phosphoric acid solution to prepare test solution. The separation was performed on a Zorbax SB-Aq (4.6 mm×150 mm, 5 μm) column with gradient elution by 0.04 mol•L⁻¹ potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution and acetonitrile, column temperature 30 ℃,flow rate 0.8 mL•min⁻¹,and detection wavelength 260 nm. The content of nucleosides in four Cordyceps genus herbs was evaluated by fingerprint analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The calibration curves of five nucleosides showed good linear regression (r>0.99) and the average recoveries were between 95.0% and 105.0%. The contents of the five nucleosides in the four Cordyceps genus herbs were different and could be obviously distinguished by HCA. The fingerprint analysis result showed that the similarity between C. sinensis and the others was less than 0.9. The method was accurate and reliable, which can be used for quality control of Cordyceps genus herbs. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. Identification of a glycolytic regulon in the archaea Pyrococcus and Thermococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Werken, Harmen J G; Verhees, Corné H; Akerboom, Jasper; de Vos, Willem M; van der Oost, John

    2006-07-01

    The glycolytic pathway of the hyperthermophilic archaea that belong to the order Thermococcales (Pyrococcus, Thermococcus and Palaeococcus) differs significantly from the canonical Embden-Meyerhof pathway in bacteria and eukarya. This archaeal glycolysis variant consists of several novel enzymes, some of which catalyze unique conversions. Moreover, the enzymes appear not to be regulated allosterically, but rather at transcriptional level. To elucidate details of the gene expression control, the transcription initiation sites of the glycolytic genes in Pyrococcus furiosus have been mapped by primer extension analysis and the obtained promoter sequences have been compared with upstream regions of non-glycolytic genes. Apart from consensus sequences for the general transcription factors (TATA-box and BRE) this analysis revealed the presence of a potential transcription factor binding site (TATCAC-N(5)-GTGATA) in glycolytic and starch utilizing promoters of P. furiosus and several thermococcal species. The absence of this inverted repeat in Pyrococcus abyssi and Pyrococcus horikoshii probably reflects that their reduced catabolic capacity does not require this regulatory system. Moreover, this phyletic pattern revealed a TrmB-like regulator (PF0124 and TK1769) which may be involved in recognizing the repeat. This Thermococcales glycolytic regulon, with more than 20 genes, is the largest regulon that has yet been described for Archaea.

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Hordeum using repetitive DNA sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svitashev, S.; Bryngelsson, T.; Vershinin, A.

    1994-01-01

    A set of six cloned barley (Hordeum vulgare) repetitive DNA sequences was used for the analysis of phylogenetic relationships among 31 species (46 taxa) of the genus Hordeum, using molecular hybridization techniques. In situ hybridization experiments showed dispersed organization of the sequences...... over all chromosomes of H. vulgare and the wild barley species H. bulbosum, H. marinum and H. murinum. Southern blot hybridization revealed different levels of polymorphism among barley species and the RFLP data were used to generate a phylogenetic tree for the genus Hordeum. Our data are in a good...

  20. Multilocus sequence analysis of phytopathogenic species of the genus Streptomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The identification and classification of species within the genus Streptomyces is difficult because there are presently 576 validly described species and this number increases every year. The value of the application of multilocus sequence analysis scheme to the systematics of Streptomyces species h...

  1. Pyrococcus furiosus strains and methods of using same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipscomb, Gina L; Farkas, Joel Andrew; Adams, Michael W. W.; Westpheling, Janet

    2015-01-06

    Provided herein are methods for transforming a Pyrococcus furiosus with a polynucleotide. In one embodiment, the method includes contacting a P. furiosus with a polynucleotide under conditions suitable for uptake of the polynucleotide by the P. furiosus, and identifying transformants at a frequency of, for instance, at least 10.sup.3 transformants per microgram DNA. Also provided are isolated Pyrococcus furiosus having the characteristics of Pyrococcus furiosus COM1, and plasmids that include an origin of replication that functions in a Pyrococcus furiosus. The plasmid is stable in a recipient P. furiosus without selection for more than 100 generations and is structurally unchanged after replication in P. furiosus for more than 100 generations.

  2. Ancestral Area Analysis of the Genus Caragara (Leguminosae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGMing-Li

    2004-01-01

    Caragana has a temperate Asian distribution. Based on the phylogeny and 13 distributionalareas of this genus, its ancestral area was studied via the ancestral area analysis suggested by Bremer(1992), Ronquist (1994) and Hausdorf (1997). The results indicate that three areas, Far East-NortheastChina, Altai-Sayan and North China-Qinling Mountains (Mts) are likely the ancestral areas. Linking to theviewpoints of the Holarctic origin for north temperate flora, Far East-Northeast China seems more likely tobe the ancestral area. According to the three ancestral areas isolated geographically and the analysis inthe present study, as well as former biogeographical analysis of this genus, it is suggested that Caraganaspeciation is mainly in the mode of vicariance rather than dispersal, and dispersed is often in shortdistance.

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of the Hyperthermophilic Piezophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus kukulkanii NCB100 Isolated from the Rebecca's Roost Hydrothermal Vent in the Guaymas Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oger, Philippe M; Callac, Nolwenn; Oger-Desfeux, Christine; Hughes, Sandrine; Gillet, Benjamin; Jebbar, Mohamed; Godfroy, Anne

    2017-02-16

    Members of the order Thermococcales are common inhabitants of high-temperature hydrothermal vent systems (black smokers) that are represented in clone libraries mostly by isolates from the Thermococcus genus. We report the complete sequence of a novel species from the Pyrococcus genus, P. kukulkanii strain NCB100, which has been isolated from a flange fragment of the Rebecca's Roost hydrothermal vent system in the Guaymas Basin.

  4. Preliminary Cluster Analysis For Several Representatives Of Genus Kerivoula (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Noor Haliza; Abdullah, M. T.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study is to use cluster analysis on morphometric parameters within the genus Kerivoula to produce a dendrogram and to determine the suitability of this method to describe the relationship among species within this genus. A total of 15 adult male individuals from genus Kerivoula taken from sampling trips around Borneo and specimens kept at the zoological museum of Universiti Malaysia Sarawak were examined. A total of 27 characters using dental, skull and external body measurements were recorded. Clustering analysis illustrated the grouping and morphometric relationships between the species of this genus. It has clearly separated each species from each other despite the overlapping of measurements of some species within the genus. Cluster analysis provides an alternative approach to make a preliminary identification of a species.

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus sp. Strain ST04, Isolated from a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Sulfide Chimney on the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Ju-Hoon; Holden, James F.; Seo, Dong-Ho; Shin, Hakdong; Kim, Hae-Yeong; Kim, Wooki; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2012-01-01

    Pyrococcus sp. strain ST04 is a hyperthermophilic, anaerobic, and heterotrophic archaeon isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal sulfide chimney on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. To further understand the distinct characteristics of this archaeon at the genome level (polysaccharide utilization at high temperature and ATP generation by a Na+ gradient), the genome of strain ST04 was completely sequenced and analyzed. Here, we present the complete genome sequence analysis results of Pyrococcus sp. ST04 and report the major findings from the genome annotation, with a focus on its saccharolytic and metabolite production potential. PMID:22843576

  6. Characterization of DNA polymerase from Pyrococcus sp. strain KOD1 and its application to PCR.

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The DNA polymerase gene from the archaeon Pyrococcus sp. strain KOD1 (KOD DNA polymerase) contains a long open reading frame of 5,013 bases that encodes 1,671 amino acid residues (GenBank accession no. D29671). Similarity analysis revealed that the DNA polymerase contained a putative 3'-5' exonuclease activity and two in-frame intervening sequences of 1,080 bp (360 amino acids; KOD pol intein-1) and 1,611 bp (537 amino acids; KOD pol intein-2), which are located in the middle of regions conse...

  7. Molecular signatures and phylogenomic analysis of the genus Burkholderia: proposal for division of this genus into the emended genus Burkholderia containing pathogenic organisms and a new genus Paraburkholderia gen. nov. harboring environmental species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawana, Amandeep; Adeolu, Mobolaji; Gupta, Radhey S

    2014-01-01

    The genus Burkholderia contains large number of diverse species which include many clinically important organisms, phytopathogens, as well as environmental species. However, currently, there is a paucity of biochemical or molecular characteristics which can reliably distinguish different groups of Burkholderia species. We report here the results of detailed phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses of 45 sequenced species of the genus Burkholderia. In phylogenetic trees based upon concatenated sequences for 21 conserved proteins as well as 16S rRNA gene sequence based trees, members of the genus Burkholderia grouped into two major clades. Within these main clades a number of smaller clades including those corresponding to the clinically important Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) and the Burkholderia pseudomallei groups were also clearly distinguished. Our comparative analysis of protein sequences from Burkholderia spp. has identified 42 highly specific molecular markers in the form of conserved sequence indels (CSIs) that are uniquely found in a number of well-defined groups of Burkholderia spp. Six of these CSIs are specific for a group of Burkholderia spp. (referred to as Clade I in this work) which contains all clinically relevant members of the genus (viz. the BCC and the B. pseudomallei group) as well as the phytopathogenic Burkholderia spp. The second main clade (Clade II), which is composed of environmental Burkholderia species, is also distinguished by 2 identified CSIs that are specific for this group. Additionally, our work has also identified multiple CSIs that serve to clearly demarcate a number of smaller groups of Burkholderia spp. including 3 CSIs that are specific for the B. cepacia complex, 4 CSIs that are uniquely found in the B. pseudomallei group, 5 CSIs that are specific for the phytopathogenic Burkholderia spp. and 22 other CSI that distinguish two groups within Clade II. The described molecular markers provide highly specific means for

  8. Genus delineation of Chlamydiales by analysis of the percentage of conserved proteins justifies the reunifying of the genera Chlamydia and Chlamydophila into one single genus Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Qi-Long, Qin; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; van der Ende, Arie

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have aimed to set up boundaries for the classification and definition of prokaryotic genus and species classification; however, studies that focused on genus-level genomic differences for existing taxonomy systems are limited. Recently, a novel method was described for prokaryotic genus delineation using the percentage of conserved proteins (POCP) between two strains to estimate their evolutionary and phenotypic distance (Qin et al. A proposed genus boundary for the prokaryotes based on genomic insights. J Bacteriol 2014; 196: :2210-5). Here, we extended the POCP analysis of the order Chlamydiales and pairwise compared all currently recognized species and candidate species of the family Chlamydiaceae as well as some species from other families. Using the taxonomy advised by the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes, subcommittee on the taxonomy of the Chlamydiae, POCP analysis revealed that all pairwise comparisons of species from different families resulted in values lower than 50%, the proposed threshold for genus boundary. In contrast, all interspecies pairwise comparisons of species from the single genus within the family Chlamydiaceae resulted in POCP values higher than 70%. We conclude that the recommended genus classification of the family Chlamydiaceae is rational and that POCP analyses can provide a robust genomic index for the taxonomy of members of the order Chlamydiales in terms of genus demarcation.

  9. Molybdenum incorporation in tungsten aldehyde oxidoreductase enzymes from Pyrococcus furiosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevcenco, A.M; Bevers, L.E.; Pinkse, M.W.H.; Krijger, G.C.; Wolterbeek, H.T.; Verhaert, P.D.E.M.; Hagen, W.R.; Hagedoorn, P.L.

    2010-01-01

    The hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus expresses five aldehyde oxidoreductase (AOR) enzymes, all containing a tungsto-bispterin cofactor. The growth of this organism is fully dependent on the presence of tungsten in the growth medium. Previous studies have suggested that molybdenum is no

  10. Molybdenum incorporation in tungsten aldehyde oxidoreductase enzymes from Pyrococcus furiosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevcenco, A.M; Bevers, L.E.; Pinkse, M.W.H.; Krijger, G.C.; Wolterbeek, H.T.; Verhaert, P.D.E.M.; Hagen, W.R.; Hagedoorn, P.L.

    2010-01-01

    The hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus expresses five aldehyde oxidoreductase (AOR) enzymes, all containing a tungsto-bispterin cofactor. The growth of this organism is fully dependent on the presence of tungsten in the growth medium. Previous studies have suggested that molybdenum is no

  11. Enzymology and bioenergetics of the glycolytic pathway of pyrococcus furiosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuininga, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    During growth ondi- and polysaccharides, the hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcusfuriosus uses a modified Embden-Meyerhof pathway

  12. A proposal to rename the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus woesei as Pyrococcus furiosus subsp. woesei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirojne Kanoksilapatham

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrococcus species are hyperthermophilic members of the order Thermococcales, with optimal growth temperatures approaching 100 °C. All species grow heterotrophically and produce H2 or, in the presence of elemental sulfur (S°, H2S. Pyrococcus woesei and P. furiosus were isolated from marine sediments at the same Vulcano Island beach site and share many morphological and physiological characteristics. We report here that the rDNA operons of these strains have identical sequences, including their intergenic spacer regions and part of the 23S rRNA. Both species grow rapidly and produce H2 in the presence of 0.1% maltose and 10–100 µM sodium tungstate in S°-free medium. However,P. woesei shows more extensive autolysis than P. furiosus in the stationary phase. Pyrococcusfuriosus and P. woesei share three closely related families of insertion sequences (ISs. A Southern blot performed with IS probes showed extensive colinearity between the genomes of P. woesei and P. furiosus. Cloning and sequencing of ISs that were in different contexts in P. woesei and P. furiosus revealed that the napA gene in P. woesei is disrupted by a type III IS element, whereas in P. furiosus, this gene is intact. A type I IS element, closely linked to the napA gene, was observed in the same context in both P. furiosus and P. woesei genomes. Our results suggest that the IS elements are implicated in genomic rearrangements and reshuffling in these closely related strains. We propose to rename P. woesei a subspecies of P. furiosus based on their identical rDNA operon sequences, many common IS elements that are shared genomic markers, and the observation that all P. woesei nucleotide sequences deposited in GenBank to date are > 99% identical to P. furiosus sequences.

  13. Crystal Structure of PAV1-137: A Protein from the Virus PAV1 That Infects Pyrococcus abyssi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Leulliot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrococcus abyssi virus 1 (PAV1 was the first virus particle infecting a hyperthermophilic Euryarchaeota (Pyrococcus abyssi strain GE23 that has been isolated and characterized. It is lemon shaped and is decorated with a short fibered tail. PAV1 morphologically resembles the fusiform members of the family Fuselloviridae or the genus Salterprovirus. The 18 kb dsDNA genome of PAV1 contains 25 predicted genes, most of them of unknown function. To help assigning functions to these proteins, we have initiated structural studies of the PAV1 proteome. We determined the crystal structure of a putative protein of 137 residues (PAV1-137 at a resolution of 2.2 Å. The protein forms dimers both in solution and in the crystal. The fold of PAV1-137 is a four-α-helical bundle analogous to those found in some eukaryotic adhesion proteins such as focal adhesion kinase, suggesting that PAV1-137 is involved in protein-protein interactions.

  14. Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals Ecological Differentiation in the Genus Carnobacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Christelle F.; Borges, Frédéric; Taminiau, Bernard; Daube, Georges; Zagorec, Monique; Remenant, Benoît; Leisner, Jørgen J.; Hansen, Martin A.; Sørensen, Søren J.; Mangavel, Cécile; Cailliez-Grimal, Catherine; Revol-Junelles, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) differ in their ability to colonize food and animal-associated habitats: while some species are specialized and colonize a limited number of habitats, other are generalist and are able to colonize multiple animal-linked habitats. In the current study, Carnobacterium was used as a model genus to elucidate the genetic basis of these colonization differences. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene meta-barcoding data showed that C. maltaromaticum followed by C. divergens are the most prevalent species in foods derived from animals (meat, fish, dairy products), and in the gut. According to phylogenetic analyses, these two animal-adapted species belong to one of two deeply branched lineages. The second lineage contains species isolated from habitats where contact with animal is rare. Genome analyses revealed that members of the animal-adapted lineage harbor a larger secretome than members of the other lineage. The predicted cell-surface proteome is highly diversified in C. maltaromaticum and C. divergens with genes involved in adaptation to the animal milieu such as those encoding biopolymer hydrolytic enzymes, a heme uptake system, and biopolymer-binding adhesins. These species also exhibit genes for gut adaptation and respiration. In contrast, Carnobacterium species belonging to the second lineage encode a poorly diversified cell-surface proteome, lack genes for gut adaptation and are unable to respire. These results shed light on the important genomics traits required for adaptation to animal-linked habitats in generalist Carnobacterium. PMID:28337181

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of the sharpshooter genus Subrasaca Young, 1977 (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Cicadellini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta dos Santos da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The South American sharpshooter genus Subrasaca comprises 14 species. Some species of this genus are quite common in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. In this paper, a phylogenetic analysis of Subrasaca, based on a matrix of 20 terminal taxa and 72 morphological characters of the head, thorax, and male and female genitalia, is presented. The analysis yielded six equally most parsimonious trees (197 steps, CI = 0.6091, RI = 0.5722, and RC = 0.3486. The results suggest that Subrasaca is a monophyletic taxon, although the genus branch is not robust. The clade showing the highest bootstrap and Bremer scores is formed by species with longitudinal dark brown to black stripes on the forewings (S. bimaculata, S. constricta, S. curvovittata, and S. flavolineata, followed by S. atronasa + S. austera.

  16. Transcriptome analysis of scorpion species belonging to the Vaejovis genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-Hernández, Verónica; Ramírez-Carreto, Santos; Romero-Gutiérrez, María Teresa; Valdez-Velázquez, Laura L; Becerril, Baltazar; Possani, Lourival D; Ortiz, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Scorpions belonging to the Buthidae family have traditionally drawn much of the biochemist's attention due to the strong toxicity of their venoms. Scorpions not toxic to mammals, however, also have complex venoms. They have been shown to be an important source of bioactive peptides, some of them identified as potential drug candidates for the treatment of several emerging diseases and conditions. It is therefore important to characterize the large diversity of components found in the non-Buthidae venoms. As a contribution to this goal, this manuscript reports the construction and characterization of cDNA libraries from four scorpion species belonging to the Vaejovis genus of the Vaejovidae family: Vaejovis mexicanus, V. intrepidus, V. subcristatus and V. punctatus. Some sequences coding for channel-acting toxins were found, as expected, but the main transcribed genes in the glands actively producing venom were those coding for non disulfide-bridged peptides. The ESTs coding for putative channel-acting toxins, corresponded to sodium channel β toxins, to members of the potassium channel-acting α or κ families, and to calcium channel-acting toxins of the calcin family. Transcripts for scorpine-like peptides of two different lengths were found, with some of the species coding for the two kinds. One sequence coding for La1-like peptides, of yet unknown function, was found for each species. Finally, the most abundant transcripts corresponded to peptides belonging to the long chain multifunctional NDBP-2 family and to the short antimicrobials of the NDBP-4 family. This apparent venom composition is in correspondence with the data obtained to date for other non-Buthidae species. Our study constitutes the first approach to the characterization of the venom gland transcriptome for scorpion species belonging to the Vaejovidae family.

  17. MASS SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF THUNNUS GENUS FOUR SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pepe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An accurate identification of similar fish species is necessary to prevent illegal substitution and is imposed by labeling regulations in UE countries (1. The genus Thunnus comprises many species of different quality and commercial value. The increasing trade of fish preparations of the species included in this genus and the consequent loss of the external anatomical and morphological features enables fraudulent substitutions. This study reports data relating to the proteomic analysis of four tuna species (T. thynnus, T. alalunga, T. albacares, T. obesus. Sarcoplasmic proteins were studied by mono and two dimensional electrophoresis. The most significant proteins for the characterization of the species were analyzed by mass spectrometric techniques. As reported in a previous study (2, an accurate identification of the species seems possible, owing to the polymorphism displayed by the species of the Thunnus genus.

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of the Antarctic genus Oswaldella Stechow, 1919 (Hydrozoa, Leptomedusae, Kirchenpaueriidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña Cantero, Alvaro L.; Marques, Antonio C.

    1999-01-01

    A cladistic study was carried out on known species of the characteristically Antarctic genus Oswaldella, adopting as outgroups some other genera included in the family Kirchenpaueriidae. The analysis resulted in a cladogram with low CI in which no relationship between genera can be depicted. However

  19. Coupled TLC and MALDI-TOF/MS Analyses of the Lipid Extract of the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Lobasso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipidome of the marine hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus was studied by means of combined thin-layer chromatography and MALDI-TOF/MS analyses of the total lipid extract. 80–90% of the major polar lipids were represented by archaeol lipids (diethers and the remaining part by caldarchaeol lipids (tetraethers. The direct analysis of lipids on chromatography plate showed the presence of the diphytanylglycerol analogues of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylglycerol, the N-acetylglucosamine-diphytanylglycerol phosphate plus some caldarchaeol lipids different from those previously described. In addition, evidence for the presence of the dimeric ether lipid cardiolipin is reported, suggesting that cardiolipins are ubiquitous in archaea.

  20. Phylogenetic relationships among pufferfish of genus Takifugu by RAPD analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lin-Sheng; Liu, Bao-Zhong; Wang, Zai-Zhao; Li, Hong-Lei; Xiang, Jian-Hai; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2001-06-01

    Amplifications with 300 10-base primers under predetermined optimal reaction yielded 2762 reproducible amplified fragments ranging from 200 to 3000 bp. Genetic distances among five species of Takifugu and Lagocephalus spadiceus as outgroup were calculated based on the presence/absence of the amplified fragments. Topological phylogenic trees of the 5 species of Takifugu and the outgroup were generated by Parsimony and Neighbor-Joining analysis based on RAPD data set. The genetic distance between T. rubripes and T. pseudommus was almost the same as that between individuals within each species, but was much smaller than that among T. rubripes, T. pseudommus and the other species. The molecular data from RAPD analysis convincingly showed that T. rubripes and T. pseudommus should be the same species.

  1. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG PUFFERFISH OF GENUS TAKIFUGU BY RAPD ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Amplifications with 300 10-base primers under predetermined optimal reaction yielded 2762 reproducible amplified fragments ranging from 200 to 3000 bp. Genetic distances among five species of Takifugu and Lagocephalus spadiceus as outgroup were calculated based on the presence/absence of the amplified fragments. Topological phylogenic trees of the 5 species of Takifugu and the outgroup were generated by Parsimony and Neighbor-Joining analysis based on RAPD data set. The genetic distance between T. rubripes and T. pseudommus was almost the same as that between individuals within each species, but was much smaller than that among T. rubripes, T. pseudommus and the other species. The molecular data from RAPD analysis convincingly showed that T. rubripes and T. pseudommus should be the same species.

  2. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG PUFFERFISH OF GENUS TAKIFUGU BY RAPD ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋林生; 刘保忠; 王在照; 李红蕾; 相建海; 钱培元

    2001-01-01

    AmpLifications with 300 10-base primers under predetermined optimal reaction yielded 2762 reproducible amplified fragments ranging from 200 to 3000 bp. Genetic distances among five species of Takifugu and Lagocephalus spadiceus as outgreup were calculated based on the presence/absence of the amplified fragments. Topological phylogenie trees of the 5 species of Takgfugu and the outgroup were gen-erated by Parsimony and Neighbor-Joining analysis based on RAPD data set. The genetic distance between T. rubripes and T. pseudommus was almost the same as that between individuals within each species, but was much smaller than that among T. rubripes, T. pseudommus and the other species. The molecu-lar data from RAPD analysis convincingly showed that T. rubripes and T. pseudommus should be the same species.

  3. Population and genomic analysis of the genus Halorubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Fullmer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Halobacteria are known to engage in frequent gene transfer and homologous recombination. In order for stably diverged lineages to be maintained there must be some checks on the rate of recombination between them. We surveyed a group of isolates from the Aran-Bidgol endorheic lake in Iran and sequenced a selection of them. Multi-locus sequence analysis and Average Nucleotide Identity revealed multiple clusters (phylogroups of organisms present in the lake. While two of these clusters displayed numerous signs of sharing an exchange bias towards others in their group while showing reduced rates of exchange with other clusters. However, a third cluster, composed in part of named species from other areas of central Asia, displayed many indications of not having a unified set of exchange partners. We conclude that barriers to efficient gene exchange exist between the two purely Aran-Bidgol phylogroups and that the cluster with members from other regions is not a single population and likely reflects an amalgamation of several populations.

  4. Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of the Neotropical genus Acrochaeta Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Stratiomyidae: Sarginae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachin, Diego Aguilar; Amorim, Dalton De Souza

    2015-11-30

    The Neotropical genus Acrochaeta Wiedemann is revised and a cladistics analysis of the genus based on morphological characters is presented. This paper raises the total number of extant Acrochaeta species from 10 to 14 with the description of nine new species, the synonymy of one species, the transfer of five species to other genera and the transfer of one species of Merosargus to Acrochaeta. The new species described (of which eight are from Brazil and one from Bolivia and Peru) are Acrochaeta asapha nov. sp., A. balbii nov. sp., A. dichrostyla nov. sp., A. polychaeta nov. sp., A. pseudofasciata nov. sp., A. pseudopolychaeta nov. sp., A. rhombostyla nov. sp. A. ruschii nov. sp. and A. stigmata nov. sp. The primary types of all Acrochaeta species were studied at least from photos, when possible with the study of dissected male or female terminalia. A. mexicana Lindner is proposed as a junior synonym of A. flaveola Bigot. M. chalconota (Brauer) comb. nov., M. degenerata (Lindner) comb. nov., M. longiventris (Enderlein) comb. nov. and M. picta (Brauer) comb. nov. are herein transferred from Acrochaeta to Merosargus Loew, and Chrysochlorina elegans (Perty) comb. nov. is transferred from Acrochaeta to Chrysochlorina James. A. convexifrons (McFadden) comb. nov. is transferred from Merosargus to Acrochaeta. The limits of the genus and its insertion in the Sarginae are considered, and an updated generic diagnosis is provided. All species of the genus are redescribed and diagnosed, and illustrated with photos of the habitus, thorax, wing, and drawings of the antenna and male and female terminalia. Distribution maps are provided for the species, along with an identification key for adults of all species. Parsimony analyses were carried out under equal and implied weight. Our matrix includes 43 terminal taxa--of which 26 are outgroup species from four different sargine genera--and 59 adult morphological characters. The phylogenetic analysis supports the monophyly of

  5. Oligosaccharide synthesis by the hyperthermostable b-glucosidase from Pyrococcus furiosus: kinetics and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, M.E.; Strubel, M.; Lieshout, van J.F.T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    Oligosaccharides can be synthesised from monosaccharides or disaccharides, using glycosidases as a catalyst. To investigate the potential of this synthesis with beta-glycosidase from Pyrococcus furiosus we determined kinetic parameters for substrate conversion and product formation from cellobiose,

  6. Identification of a glycolytic regulon in the Archaea Pyrococcus and Thermococcus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werken, van de H.J.G.; Verhees, C.H.; Akerboom, A.P.; Vos, de W.M.; Oost, van der J.

    2006-01-01

    The glycolytic pathway of the hyperthermophilic archaea that belong to the order Thermococcales (Pyrococcus, Thermococcus and Palaeococcus) differs significantly from the canonical Embden-Meyerhof pathway in bacteria and eukarya. This archaeal glycolysis variant consists of several novel enzymes, so

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Lensia (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Siphonophora), based on the species morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Eric Y; Ribeiro, Guilherme C; Oliveira, Otto M P

    2016-07-01

    Siphonophores are poorly studied despite their abundance and ecological importance in marine ecosystems. The genus Lensia Totton, 1932 contains the highest number of species within Siphonophora, but systematic studies of these organisms are scarce in the literature. This study presents a phylogenetic analysis for fifteen species of Lensia based on morphological data. The material for this study was obtained during two oceanographic campaigns made along the southeastern Brazilian coast. A total of twenty two characters of the anterior nectophore morphology were scored. The shortest trees were searched using parsimony (under different weighting regimes). All analyses provided the same topology: (M. kochi (D. dispar + D. bojani) (L. leloupi (L. havock (L. conoidea (L. subtilis; L. meteori; L. hardy; L. fowleri; (L. subtiloides (L. hotspur; L. cossack; L. campanella)); (L. multicristata (L. hunter (L. lelouveteau + L. grimaldii))). The monophyly of the genus Lensia is supported by the hydroecium measuring up to 1/4 the height of the nectosac.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Glycoside Hydrolases Activities from Phylogenetically Diverse Marine Bacteria of the Genus Arenibacter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Mikhailov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 16 marine strains belonging to the genus Arenibacter, recovered from diverse microbial communities associated with various marine habitats and collected from different locations, were evaluated in degradation of natural polysaccharides and chromogenic glycosides. Most strains were affiliated with five recognized species, and some presented three new species within the genus Arenibacter. No strains contained enzymes depolymerizing polysaccharides, but synthesized a wide spectrum of glycosidases. Highly active β-N-acetylglucosaminidases and α-N-acetylgalactosaminidases were the main glycosidases for all Arenibacter. The genes, encoding two new members of glycoside hydrolyses (GH families, 20 and 109, were isolated and characterized from the genomes of Arenibacter latericius. Molecular genetic analysis using glycosidase-specific primers shows the absence of GH27 and GH36 genes. A sequence comparison with functionally-characterized GH20 and GH109 enzymes shows that both sequences are closest to the enzymes of chitinolytic bacteria Vibrio furnissii and Cellulomonas fimi of marine and terrestrial origin, as well as human pathogen Elisabethkingia meningoseptica and simbionts Akkermansia muciniphila, gut and non-gut Bacteroides, respectively. These results revealed that the genus Arenibacter is a highly taxonomic diverse group of microorganisms, which can participate in degradation of natural polymers in marine environments depending on their niche and habitat adaptations. They are new prospective candidates for biotechnological applications due to their production of unique glycosidases.

  9. Genome organization and phylogenetic tree analysis of Garlic virus E, a new member of genus Allexivirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The complete sequence of an Allexivirus isolated from garlic plants in Yuhang City, Zhejiang Province, China had been determined. The single-strand, positive RNA genome was 8451 nucleotides in length excluding poly(A) tail. The genome organization of this virus was similar to that of the other Allexiviruses but only with 62.8%-64.8% nucleotide acid identities. The amino acid sequences of proteins encoded by ORF1-6 shared 67.6%-78.5%, 55.4%-66.2%, 56.7%- 66.4%, 40.3%-55.6%, 66.3%-79.7% and 52.2%- 68.8% identities with those of the others respectively. The homology range between it and the other Allexiviruses was similar to that between the other distinct species in this genus. A more comprehensive comparison using all available CP amino acid sequences showed that it shared only 63.9%- 79.8% amino acids identical with the others. Therefore, it had been considered as a new member of the genus, named as garlic virus E (GarV-E). Phylogenetic analysis confirmed GarV-E as a distinct member and the correct names and classification of some members of genus Allexivirus were also discussed.

  10. Analysis of the unexplored features of rrs (16S rDNA) of the Genus Clostridium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Bacterial taxonomy and phylogeny based on rrs (16S rDNA) sequencing is being vigorously pursued. In fact, it has been stated that novel biological findings are driven by comparison and integration of massive data sets. In spite of a large reservoir of rrs sequencing data of 1,237,963 entries, this analysis invariably needs supplementation with other genes. The need is to divide the genetic variability within a taxa or genus at their rrs phylogenetic boundaries and to discover those fundamental features, which will enable the bacteria to naturally fall within them. Within the large bacterial community, Clostridium represents a large genus of around 110 species of significant biotechnological and medical importance. Certain Clostridium strains produce some of the deadliest toxins, which cause heavy economic losses. We have targeted this genus because of its high genetic diversity, which does not allow accurate typing with the available molecular methods. Results Seven hundred sixty five rrs sequences (> 1200 nucleotides, nts) belonging to 110 Clostridium species were analyzed. On the basis of 404 rrs sequences belonging to 15 Clostridium species, we have developed species specific: (i) phylogenetic framework, (ii) signatures (30 nts) and (iii) in silico restriction enzyme (14 Type II REs) digestion patterns. These tools allowed: (i) species level identification of 95 Clostridium sp. which are presently classified up to genus level, (ii) identification of 84 novel Clostridium spp. and (iii) potential reduction in the number of Clostridium species represented by small populations. Conclusions This integrated approach is quite sensitive and can be easily extended as a molecular tool for diagnostic and taxonomic identification of any microbe of importance to food industries and health services. Since rapid and correct identification allows quicker diagnosis and consequently treatment as well, it is likely to lead to reduction in economic losses and mortality

  11. Production and Application of a Soluble Hydrogenase from Pyrococcus furiosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Hao Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen gas is a potential renewable alternative energy carrier that could be used in the future to help supplement humanity’s growing energy needs. Unfortunately, current industrial methods for hydrogen production are expensive or environmentally unfriendly. In recent years research has focused on biological mechanisms for hydrogen production and specifically on hydrogenases, the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the reduction of protons to generate hydrogen. In particular, a better understanding of this enzyme might allow us to generate hydrogen that does not use expensive metals, such as platinum, as catalysts. The soluble hydrogenase I (SHI from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus, a member of the euryarchaeota, has been studied extensively and used in various biotechnological applications. This review summarizes the strategies used in engineering and characterizing three different forms of SHI and the properties of the recombinant enzymes. SHI has also been used in in vitro systems for hydrogen production and NADPH generation and these systems are also discussed.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of parasitic trematodes of the genus Euclinostomum found in Trichopsis and Betta fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapin, S; Phiwsaiya, K; Laosinchai, P; Kowasupat, C; Ruenwongsa, P; Panijpan, B

    2014-06-01

    Many species of fish in the world are infected with digenean trematodes belonging to the genera Clinostomum and Euclinostomum. In this study, metacercariae, identified as Euclinostomum sp. on the basis of morphological characteristics and molecular data, were taken from 3 osphronemid fish- Trichopsis vittata , Trichopsis schalleri, and Betta imbellis, in Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis based on a mitochondrial gene (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) and 2 nuclear genes (18S rDNA and ITS-internal transcribed spacer) of these Euclinostomum parasites indicated a clear distinction from those belonging to the Clinostomum genus. These are the first records of partial mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences of an Euclinostomum sp.

  13. Identification and classification of the genus Bacteroides by multilocus sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Ohkuma, Moriya

    2011-12-01

    Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) was performed on representative species of the genus Bacteroides. Internal fragments of the genes selected, dnaJ, gyrB, hsp60, recA, rpoB and 16S rRNA, were amplified by direct PCR and then sequenced from 38 Bacteroides strains representing 35 species. Neighbour-joining (NJ), maximum-likelihood (ML) and maximum-parsimony (MP) phylogenies of the individual genes were compared. The data confirm that the potential for discrimination of Bacteroides species is greater using MLSA of housekeeping genes than 16S rRNA genes. Among the housekeeping genes analysed, gyrB was the most informative, followed by dnaJ. Analyses of concatenated sequences (4816 bp) of all six genes revealed robust phylogenetic relationships among different Bacteroides species when compared with the single-gene trees. The NJ, ML and MP trees were very similar, and almost fully resolved relationships of Bacteroides species were obtained, to our knowledge for the first time. In addition, analysis of a concatenation (2457 bp) of the dnaJ, gyrB and hsp60 genes produced essentially the same result. Ten distinct clades were recognized using the SplitsTree4 program. For the genus Bacteroides, we can define species as a group of strains that share at least 97.5% gene sequence similarity based on the fragments of five protein-coding housekeeping genes and the 16S rRNA gene. This study demonstrates that MLSA of housekeeping genes is a valuable alternative technique for the identification and classification of species of the genus Bacteroides.

  14. Identification and Analysis of Genetic Diversity Structure Within Pisum Genus Based on Microsatellite Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Xu-xiao; Rebecca Ford; Robert R Redden; GUAN Jian-ping; WANG Shu-min

    2009-01-01

    To assesse the genetic diversity among wild and cultivated accessions of 8 taxonomic groups in 2 species, and 5 subspecies under Pisum genus, and to analyze population structure and their genetic relationships among various groups of taxonomy,the study tried to verify the fitness of traditionally botanical taxonomic system under Pisum genus and to provide essential information for the exploration and utilization of wild relatives of pea genetic resources. 197 Pisum accessions from 62 counties of 5 continents were employed for SSR analysis using 21 polymorphic primer pairs in this study. Except for cultivated field pea Pisum sativum ssp. sativum vat. sativum (94 genotypes), also included were wild relative genotypes that were classified as belonging to P. fulvum, P. sativum ssp.abyssinicum, P. sativum ssp. asiaticum, P. sativum ssp. transcaucasicum, P. sativum ssp. elatius vat. elatius, P. sativum ssp. elatius vat. pumilio and P. sativum ssp.sativum vat. arvense (103 genotypes). The PCA analyses and 3-dimension PCA graphs were conducted and drawn by NTSYSpe 2.2d statistical package. Nei78 genetic distances among groups of genetic resources were calculated, and cluster analysis using UPGMA method was carried out by using Popgene V1.32 statistical package, the dendrogram was drawn by MEGA3.1 statistical package. Allelie statistics were carried out by Popgene V1.32. The significance test between groups of genotypes was carried out by Fstat V2.9.3.2 statistical package. 104 polymorphic bands were amplified using 21 SSR primer pairs with unambiguous unique polymorphic bands. 4.95 alleles were detected by each SSR primer pair in average, of which 65.56% were effective alleles for diversity. PSAD270, PSAC58, PSAA18, PSAC75, PSAA175 and PSAB72 were the most effective SSR pairs. SSR alleles were uniformly distributed among botanical taxon units under Pisum genus, but significant difference appeared in most pairwise comparisons for genetic diversity between taxon unit based

  15. Determination of the systematic position of the genus Asticcacaulis Poindexter by a polyphasic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, W R; Strömpl, C; Vancanneyt, M; Lünsdorf, H; Moore, E R

    2001-01-01

    The genus Asticcacaulis, to date, comprises two species of unicellular, stalked bacteria, developing a stalk at a site which is not coincidental with the centre of the pole of the cell. Multiplication is similar to that demonstrated by the prosthecate species of the genera Caulobacter, Brevundimonas and Maricaulis. A polyphasic approach, comprising 16S rRNA gene sequencing, lipid analysis and NaCl tolerance characterizations, was used to clarify the taxonomy of the two Asticcacaulis species. From the analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences, a close phylogenetic relationship between the species that comprise the genera Asticcacaulis, Caulobacter and Brevundimonas could be deduced wherein the three genera form three distinct branches. The individual genera could also be discerned by different characteristic polar lipids. The species of Asticcacaulis differed from species of Caulobacter and Brevundimonas by the lack of 1,2-diacyl-3-O-[6'-phosphatidyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl]glycerol. They also did not contain 1,2-di-O-acyl-3-O-[D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-alpha-D-glucuronopyranosyl]glycerol, which is found in most Brevundimonas species but not in strains of the genus Caulobacter. The morphological differences seen between the two species Asticcacaulis excentricus and Asticcacaulis biprosthecium are mirrored by the observed 16S rDNA sequence similarity value of 95.3%, which is relatively low compared to the interspecies similarity values observed within the genera Brevundimonas or Caulobacter.

  16. Sesquiterpene Lactones from Artemisia Genus: Biological Activities and Methods of Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Ivanescu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sesquiterpene lactones are a large group of natural compounds, found primarily in plants of Asteraceae family, with over 5000 structures reported to date. Within this family, genus Artemisia is very well represented, having approximately 500 species characterized by the presence of eudesmanolides and guaianolides, especially highly oxygenated ones, and rarely of germacranolides. Sesquiterpene lactones exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiulcer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, and insect deterrent. Many of the biological activities are attributed to the α-methylene-γ-lactone group in their molecule which reacts through a Michael-addition with free sulfhydryl or amino groups in proteins and alkylates them. Due to the fact that most sesquiterpene lactones are thermolabile, less volatile compounds, they present no specific chromophores in the molecule and are sensitive to acidic and basic mediums, and their identification and quantification represent a difficult task for the analyst. Another problematic aspect is represented by the complexity of vegetal samples, which may contain compounds that can interfere with the analysis. Therefore, this paper proposes an overview of the methods used for the identification and quantification of sesquiterpene lactones found in Artemisia genus, as well as the optimal conditions for their extraction and separation.

  17. Multilocus sequence analysis of the genus Citrobacter and description of Citrobacter pasteurii sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clermont, Dominique; Motreff, Laurence; Passet, Virginie; Fernandez, José-Carlos; Bizet, Chantal; Brisse, Sylvain

    2015-05-01

    Strains originating from various sources and classified as members of the genus Citrobacter within the family Enterobacteriaceae were characterized by sequencing internal portions of genes rpoB, fusA, pyrG and leuS, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, average nucleotide identity (ANI) of genomic sequences and biochemical tests. Phylogenetic analysis based on the four housekeeping genes showed that the 11 species of the genus Citrobacter with validly published names are well demarcated. Strains CIP 55.13(T) and CIP 55.9 formed a distinct branch associated with Citrobacter youngae. The ANI between CIP 55.9 and CIP 55.13(T) was 99.19%, whereas it was 94.75% between CIP 55.13(T) and strain CIP 105016(T) of the species C. youngae, the most closely related species. Biochemical characteristics consolidated the fact that the two isolates represent a separate species, for which the name Citrobacter pasteurii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CIP 55.13(T) ( =DSM 28879(T) =Na 1a(T)).

  18. Revision and phylogenetic analysis of the orb-weaving spider genus Glenognatha Simon, 1887 (Araneae, Tetragnathidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabra-García, Jimmy; Brescovit, Antonio D

    2016-01-27

    A taxonomic revision and phylogenetic analysis of the spider genus Glenognatha Simon, 1887 is presented. This analysis is based on a data set including 24 Glenognatha species plus eight outgroups representing three related tetragnathine genera and one metaine as the root. These taxa were scored for 78 morphological characters. Parsimony was used as the optimality criterion and a sensitivity analysis was performed using different character weighting concavities. Seven unambiguous synapomorphies support the monophyly of Glenognatha. Some internal clades within the genus are well-supported and its relationships are discussed. Glenognatha as recovered includes 27 species, four of them only known from males. A species identification key and distribution maps are provided for all. New morphological data are also presented for thirteen previously described species. Glenognatha has a broad distribution occupying the Neartic, Afrotropic, Indo-Malaya, Oceania and Paleartic regions, but is more diverse in the Neotropics. The following eleven new species are described: G. vivianae n. sp., G. caaguara n. sp., G. boraceia n. sp. and G. timbira n. sp. from southeast Brazil, G. caparu n. sp., G. januari n. sp. and G. camisea n. sp. from the Amazonian region, G. mendezi n. sp., G. florezi n. sp. and G. patriceae n. sp. from northern Andes and G. gouldi n. sp. from Southern United States and central Mexico. Females of G. minuta Banks, 1898, G. gaujoni Simon, 1895 and G. gloriae (Petrunkevitch, 1930) and males of G. globosa (Petrunkevitch, 1925) and G. hirsutissima (Berland, 1935) are described for the first time. Three new combinations are proposed in congruence with the phylogenetic results: G. argyrostilba (O. P.-Cambridge, 1876) n. comb., G. dentata (Zhu & Wen, 1978) n. comb. and G. tangi (Zhu, Song & Zhang, 2003) n. comb., all previously included in Dyschiriognatha Simon, 1893. The following taxa are newly synonymized: Dyschiriognatha montana Simon, 1897, Glenognatha mira Bryant

  19. Species delimitation in the fern genus Lemmaphyllum (Polypodiaceae) based on multivariate analysis of morphological variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Ping WEI; Xian-Chun ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    The species delimitation of Lemmaphyllum,including the former segregated Lepidogrammitis in China,was considered as unresolved.Previous treatments accepted between one and 20 species.In the present study,multivariate analysis and maximum parsimony analyses were carried out on data from herbarium specimens of this genus by evaluating 24 quantitative characters and 13 qualitative characters.In total,558 specimens representing 11 previously accepted species and one variety in China were studied.As a result,three species and two varieties were recognized,Lemmaphyllum pyriforme,L.rostratum,L.carnosum,L.carnosum var.microphyllum,and L.carnosum var.drymoglossoides.Two new combinations and seven new synonyms were introduced.An identification key and distribution maps were provided.This study also elucidated the diagnostic value of two previously ignored characters,scales at the base of stipe and laminae hydathodes.

  20. What Makes a Bacterial Species Pathogenic?:Comparative Genomic Analysis of the Genus Leptospira.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick E Fouts

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis, caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira, is a globally widespread, neglected and emerging zoonotic disease. While whole genome analysis of individual pathogenic, intermediately pathogenic and saprophytic Leptospira species has been reported, comprehensive cross-species genomic comparison of all known species of infectious and non-infectious Leptospira, with the goal of identifying genes related to pathogenesis and mammalian host adaptation, remains a key gap in the field. Infectious Leptospira, comprised of pathogenic and intermediately pathogenic Leptospira, evolutionarily diverged from non-infectious, saprophytic Leptospira, as demonstrated by the following computational biology analyses: 1 the definitive taxonomy and evolutionary relatedness among all known Leptospira species; 2 genomically-predicted metabolic reconstructions that indicate novel adaptation of infectious Leptospira to mammals, including sialic acid biosynthesis, pathogen-specific porphyrin metabolism and the first-time demonstration of cobalamin (B12 autotrophy as a bacterial virulence factor; 3 CRISPR/Cas systems demonstrated only to be present in pathogenic Leptospira, suggesting a potential mechanism for this clade's refractoriness to gene targeting; 4 finding Leptospira pathogen-specific specialized protein secretion systems; 5 novel virulence-related genes/gene families such as the Virulence Modifying (VM (PF07598 paralogs proteins and pathogen-specific adhesins; 6 discovery of novel, pathogen-specific protein modification and secretion mechanisms including unique lipoprotein signal peptide motifs, Sec-independent twin arginine protein secretion motifs, and the absence of certain canonical signal recognition particle proteins from all Leptospira; and 7 and demonstration of infectious Leptospira-specific signal-responsive gene expression, motility and chemotaxis systems. By identifying large scale changes in infectious (pathogenic and intermediately

  1. Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals Habitat-Specific Genes and Regulatory Hubs within the Genus Novosphingobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Roshan; Verma, Helianthous; Haider, Shazia; Bajaj, Abhay; Sood, Utkarsh; Ponnusamy, Kalaiarasan; Nagar, Shekhar; Shakarad, Mallikarjun N.; Negi, Ram Krishan; Singh, Yogendra; Khurana, J. P.; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Species belonging to the genus Novosphingobium are found in many different habitats and have been identified as metabolically versatile. Through comparative genomic analysis, we identified habitat-specific genes and regulatory hubs that could determine habitat selection for Novosphingobium spp. Genomes from 27 Novosphingobium strains isolated from diverse habitats such as rhizosphere soil, plant surfaces, heavily contaminated soils, and marine and freshwater environments were analyzed. Genome size and coding potential were widely variable, differing significantly between habitats. Phylogenetic relationships between strains were less likely to describe functional genotype similarity than the habitat from which they were isolated. In this study, strains (19 out of 27) with a recorded habitat of isolation, and at least 3 representative strains per habitat, comprised four ecological groups—rhizosphere, contaminated soil, marine, and freshwater. Sulfur acquisition and metabolism were the only core genomic traits to differ significantly in proportion between these ecological groups; for example, alkane sulfonate (ssuABCD) assimilation was found exclusively in all of the rhizospheric isolates. When we examined osmolytic regulation in Novosphingobium spp. through ectoine biosynthesis, which was assumed to be marine habitat specific, we found that it was also present in isolates from contaminated soil, suggesting its relevance beyond the marine system. Novosphingobium strains were also found to harbor a wide variety of mono- and dioxygenases, responsible for the metabolism of several aromatic compounds, suggesting their potential to act as degraders of a variety of xenobiotic compounds. Protein-protein interaction analysis revealed β-barrel outer membrane proteins as habitat-specific hubs in each of the four habitats—freshwater (Saro_1868), marine water (PP1Y_AT17644), rhizosphere (PMI02_00367), and soil (V474_17210). These outer membrane proteins could play a

  2. Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals Habitat-Specific Genes and Regulatory Hubs within the Genus Novosphingobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Roshan; Verma, Helianthous; Haider, Shazia; Bajaj, Abhay; Sood, Utkarsh; Ponnusamy, Kalaiarasan; Nagar, Shekhar; Shakarad, Mallikarjun N; Negi, Ram Krishan; Singh, Yogendra; Khurana, J P; Gilbert, Jack A; Lal, Rup

    2017-01-01

    Species belonging to the genus Novosphingobium are found in many different habitats and have been identified as metabolically versatile. Through comparative genomic analysis, we identified habitat-specific genes and regulatory hubs that could determine habitat selection for Novosphingobium spp. Genomes from 27 Novosphingobium strains isolated from diverse habitats such as rhizosphere soil, plant surfaces, heavily contaminated soils, and marine and freshwater environments were analyzed. Genome size and coding potential were widely variable, differing significantly between habitats. Phylogenetic relationships between strains were less likely to describe functional genotype similarity than the habitat from which they were isolated. In this study, strains (19 out of 27) with a recorded habitat of isolation, and at least 3 representative strains per habitat, comprised four ecological groups-rhizosphere, contaminated soil, marine, and freshwater. Sulfur acquisition and metabolism were the only core genomic traits to differ significantly in proportion between these ecological groups; for example, alkane sulfonate (ssuABCD) assimilation was found exclusively in all of the rhizospheric isolates. When we examined osmolytic regulation in Novosphingobium spp. through ectoine biosynthesis, which was assumed to be marine habitat specific, we found that it was also present in isolates from contaminated soil, suggesting its relevance beyond the marine system. Novosphingobium strains were also found to harbor a wide variety of mono- and dioxygenases, responsible for the metabolism of several aromatic compounds, suggesting their potential to act as degraders of a variety of xenobiotic compounds. Protein-protein interaction analysis revealed β-barrel outer membrane proteins as habitat-specific hubs in each of the four habitats-freshwater (Saro_1868), marine water (PP1Y_AT17644), rhizosphere (PMI02_00367), and soil (V474_17210). These outer membrane proteins could play a key role in

  3. Crystallization of [Fe4S3]-ferredoxin from the hyperthermophile archaeon pyrococcus furiosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Ericsson Skovbo; Harris, Pernille; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant Pyrococcus furiosus ferredoxin with a [Fe3S4]-cluster was crystallized through steps of optimization and X-ray diffraction data were collected from several crystal forms. Flat plate-like crystals were grown by hanging-drop vapour diffusion. The precipitant used was 30% PEG 400; the p...

  4. Exploring the reductive capacity of Pyrococcus furiosus. The reduction of carboxylic acids and pyridine nucleotides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ban, van den E.C.D.

    2001-01-01

    This Ph.D. project started in 1997 and its main goal was to obtain insight in the reductive capacity of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus . The research was focused on the biocatalytic reduction of carboxylic acids.Reductions of carboxylic acids are interes

  5. Identification and molecular characterization of a novel type of alpha-galactosidase from Pyrococcus furiosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, van J.F.T.; Verhees, C.H.; Ettema, T.J.G.; Sar, van der S.; Imamura, H.; Matsuzawa, H.; Oost, van der J.; Vos, de W.M.

    2003-01-01

    An -galactosidase gene from Pyrococcus furiosus was identified, cloned and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. It is the first -galactosidase from a hyperthermophilic archaeon described to date. The gene encodes a unique amino acid sequence compared to other -galactosidases. Highest homology

  6. Argonaute of the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus is a DNA-guided nuclease that targets cognate DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swarts, D.C.; Hegge, J.W.; Hinojo, Ismael; Shiimori, Masami; Ellis, Michael A.; Dumrongkulraksa, Justin; Terns, Rebecca M.; Terns, Michael P.; Oost, Van Der John

    2015-01-01

    Functions of prokaryotic Argonautes (pAgo) have long remained elusive. Recently, Argonautes of the bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Thermus thermophilus were demonstrated to be involved in host defense. The Argonaute of the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus (PfAgo) belongs to a different branch in

  7. Exploring the reductive capacity of Pyrococcus furiosus : the reduction of carboxylic acids and pyridine nucleotides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ban, van den E.C.D.

    2001-01-01

    This Ph.D. project started in 1997 and its main goal was to obtain insight in the reductive capacity of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus . The research was focused on the biocatalytic reduction of carboxylic

  8. Production and characterization of a thermostable L-threonine dehydrogenase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machielsen, M.P.; Oost, van der J.

    2006-01-01

    The gene encoding a threonine dehydrogenase (TDH) has been identified in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The Pf-TDH protein has been functionally produced in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The enzyme has a tetrameric conformation with a molecular mass of ¿ 155 kDa.

  9. Evidence supporting a cis-enediol-based mechanism for Pyrococcus furiosus phosphoglucose isomerase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berrisford, J.M.; Hounslow, A.M.; Akerboom, A.P.; Hagen, W.R.; Brouns, S.J.J.; Oost, van der J.; Murray, I.A.; Blackburn, G.M.; Waltho, J.P.; Rice, D.W.; Baker, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    The enzymatic aldose ketose isomerisation of glucose and fructose sugars involves the transfer of a hydrogen between their C1 and C2 carbon atoms and, in principle, can proceed through either a direct hydride shift or via a cis-enediol intermediate. Pyrococcus furiosus phosphoglucose isomerase (PfPG

  10. Practical applications of hydrogenase I from Pyrococcus furiosus for NADPH generation and regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, R.; Greiner, L.; Ban, van den E.C.D.; Haaker, H.B.C.M.; Liese, A.

    2003-01-01

    The soluble hydrogenase I (H-2:NADP(+) oxidoreductase, EC 1.18.99.1) from the marine hyperthermophilic strain of the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus was partially purified by anion-exchange chromatography. This P furiosus hydrogenase I preparation (PF H(2)ase I) has been used as biocatalyst in the enzy

  11. Identification and molecular characterization of a novel type of alpha-galactosidase from Pyrococcus furiosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, van J.F.T.; Verhees, C.H.; Ettema, T.J.G.; Sar, van der S.; Imamura, H.; Matsuzawa, H.; Oost, van der J.; Vos, de W.M.

    2003-01-01

    An -galactosidase gene from Pyrococcus furiosus was identified, cloned and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. It is the first -galactosidase from a hyperthermophilic archaeon described to date. The gene encodes a unique amino acid sequence compared to other -galactosidases. Highest homology

  12. Crystal structure of Pyrococcus furiosus phosphoglucose isomerase: Implications for substrate binding and catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berrisford, J.M.; Akerboom, A.P.; Turnbull, A.P.; Geus, de D.; Sedelnikova, S.E.; Staton, I.; McLeod, C.W.; Verhees, C.H.; Oost, van der J.; Rice, D.W.; Baker, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) catalyzes the reversible isomerization between D-fructose 6-phosphate and D-glucose 6-phosphate as part of the glycolytic pathway. PGI from the Archaea Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu) was crystallized, and its structure was determined by x-ray diffraction to a 2-Angstrom

  13. Construction, alignment and analysis of twelve framework physical maps that represent the ten genome types of the genus Oryza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyeRan; Hurwitz, Bonnie; Yu, Yeisoo; Collura, Kristi; Gill, Navdeep; SanMiguel, Phillip; Mullikin, James C; Maher, Christopher; Nelson, William; Wissotski, Marina; Braidotti, Michele; Kudrna, David; Goicoechea, José Luis; Stein, Lincoln; Ware, Doreen; Jackson, Scott A; Soderlund, Carol; Wing, Rod A

    2008-01-01

    We describe the establishment and analysis of a genus-wide comparative framework composed of 12 bacterial artificial chromosome fingerprint and end-sequenced physical maps representing the 10 genome types of Oryza aligned to the O. sativa ssp. japonica reference genome sequence. Over 932 Mb of end sequence was analyzed for repeats, simple sequence repeats, miRNA and single nucleotide variations, providing the most extensive analysis of Oryza sequence to date.

  14. The genus Bipolaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manamgoda, D S; Rossman, A Y; Castlebury, L A; Crous, P W; Madrid, H; Chukeatirote, E; Hyde, K D

    2014-09-01

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on DNA sequence data derived from living cultures of fresh isolates, available ex-type cultures from worldwide collections and observation of type and additional specimens. Combined analyses of ITS, GPDH and TEF gene sequences were used to reconstruct the molecular phylogeny of the genus Bipolaris for species with living cultures. The GPDH gene is determined to be the best single marker for species of Bipolaris. Generic boundaries between Bipolaris and Curvularia are revised and presented in an updated combined ITS and GPDH phylogenetic tree. We accept 47 species in the genus Bipolaris and clarify the taxonomy, host associations, geographic distributions and species' synonymies. Modern descriptions and illustrations are provided for 38 species in the genus with notes provided for the other taxa when recent descriptions are available. Bipolaris cynodontis, B. oryzae, B. victoriae, B. yamadae and B. zeicola are epi- or neotypified and a lectotype is designated for B. stenospila. Excluded and doubtful species are listed with notes on taxonomy and phylogeny. Seven new combinations are introduced in the genus Curvularia to accomodate the species of Bipolaris transferred based on the phylogenetic analysis. A taxonomic key is provided for the morphological identification of species within the genus.

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of the Trypanosoma genus based on the heat-shock protein 70 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Jorge; Fernández-Calienes, Aymé; Montalvo, Ana Margarita; Maes, Ilse; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Büscher, Philippe; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Van der Auwera, Gert

    2016-09-01

    Trypanosome evolution was so far essentially studied on the basis of phylogenetic analyses of small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) and glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) genes. We used for the first time the 70kDa heat-shock protein gene (hsp70) to investigate the phylogenetic relationships among 11 Trypanosoma species on the basis of 1380 nucleotides from 76 sequences corresponding to 65 strains. We also constructed a phylogeny based on combined datasets of SSU-rDNA, gGAPDH and hsp70 sequences. The obtained clusters can be correlated with the sections and subgenus classifications of mammal-infecting trypanosomes except for Trypanosoma theileri and Trypanosoma rangeli. Our analysis supports the classification of Trypanosoma species into clades rather than in sections and subgenera, some of which being polyphyletic. Nine clades were recognized: Trypanosoma carassi, Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma grayi, Trypanosoma lewisi, T. rangeli, T. theileri, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanozoon. These results are consistent with existing knowledge of the genus' phylogeny. Within the T. cruzi clade, three groups of T. cruzi discrete typing units could be clearly distinguished, corresponding to TcI, TcIII, and TcII+V+VI, while support for TcIV was lacking. Phylogenetic analyses based on hsp70 demonstrated that this molecular marker can be applied for discriminating most of the Trypanosoma species and clades.

  16. Metabarcoding Analysis of Phytophthora Diversity Using Genus-Specific Primers and 454 Pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigigallo, Maria I; Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Cacciola, Santa O; Faedda, Roberto; Sanzani, Simona M; Cooke, David E L; Schena, L

    2016-03-01

    A metabarcoding method based on genus-specific primers and 454 pyrosequencing was utilized to investigate the genetic diversity of Phytophthora spp. in soil and root samples of potted plants, from eight nurseries. Pyrosequencing enabled the detection of 25 Phytophthora phylotypes distributed in seven different clades and provided a much higher resolution than a corresponding cloning/Sanger sequencing approach. Eleven of these phylotypes, including P. cactorum, P. citricola s.str., P. palmivora, P. palmivora-like, P. megasperma or P. gonapodyides, P. ramorum, and five putative new Phytophthora species phylogenetically related to clades 1, 2, 4, 6, and 7 were detected only with the 454 pyrosequencing approach. We also found an additional 18 novel records of a phylotype in a particular nursery that were not detected with cloning/Sanger sequencing. Several aspects confirmed the reliability of the method: (i) many identical sequence types were identified independently in different nurseries, (ii) most sequence types identified with 454 pyrosequencing were identical to those from the cloning/Sanger sequencing approach and/or perfectly matched GenBank deposited sequences, and (iii) the divergence noted between sequence types of putative new Phytophthora species and all other detected sequences was sufficient to rule out sequencing errors. The proposed method represents a powerful tool to study Phytophthora diversity providing that particular attention is paid to the analysis of 454 pyrosequencing raw read sequences and to the identification of sequence types.

  17. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis Provides Evidence of Local Thermal Adaptation in Three Loaches (Genus: Misgurnus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shaokui; Wang, Sai; Zhong, Jia; Wang, Weimin

    2016-11-24

    The geographic distribution of three Misgurnus species, M. anguillicaudatus, M. bipartitus, and M. mohoity, displays a specific pattern in China, coincident with temperature zones. In this study, we sequenced the transcriptomes of these three species and used the sequences to investigate the lineage-specific adaptations within the genus Misgurnus. In total, 51 orphan genes (19 in M. anguillicaudatus, 18 in M. bipartitus, and 14 in M. mohoity) that may contribute to the species-specific adaptations were identified. An analysis of 1392 one-to-one orthologous genes revealed significantly higher ratios of nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitutions in the M. mohoity lineage than in M. anguillicaudatus. The genes displaying signatures of positive selection and rapid evolution in Misgurnus were involved in four function categories, (1) energy metabolism; (2) signal transduction; (3) membrane; and (4) cell proliferation or apoptosis, implying that these candidate genes play critical roles in the thermal adaptation of the fish to their living environments. We also detected more than five positively selected sites in cldn15lb and isca1, which function as important factors in paracellular Na⁺ transport and Fe/S cluster assembly, respectively. Overall, our study provides valuable insights into the adaptive evolution of loaches from different temperature zones in China and is a foundation for future studies to clarify the genetic basis of temperature adaptation in fishes.

  18. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis Provides Evidence of Local Thermal Adaptation in Three Loaches (Genus: Misgurnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaokui Yi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The geographic distribution of three Misgurnus species, M. anguillicaudatus, M. bipartitus, and M. mohoity, displays a specific pattern in China, coincident with temperature zones. In this study, we sequenced the transcriptomes of these three species and used the sequences to investigate the lineage-specific adaptations within the genus Misgurnus. In total, 51 orphan genes (19 in M. anguillicaudatus, 18 in M. bipartitus, and 14 in M. mohoity that may contribute to the species-specific adaptations were identified. An analysis of 1392 one-to-one orthologous genes revealed significantly higher ratios of nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitutions in the M. mohoity lineage than in M. anguillicaudatus. The genes displaying signatures of positive selection and rapid evolution in Misgurnus were involved in four function categories, (1 energy metabolism; (2 signal transduction; (3 membrane; and (4 cell proliferation or apoptosis, implying that these candidate genes play critical roles in the thermal adaptation of the fish to their living environments. We also detected more than five positively selected sites in cldn15lb and isca1, which function as important factors in paracellular Na+ transport and Fe/S cluster assembly, respectively. Overall, our study provides valuable insights into the adaptive evolution of loaches from different temperature zones in China and is a foundation for future studies to clarify the genetic basis of temperature adaptation in fishes.

  19. Adsorption of an endoglucanase from the hyperthermophilic Pyrococcus furiosus of hydrophobic (polysterene) and hydrophilic (silica) surfaces increases protein heat stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutsopoulos, S.; Oost, van der J.; Norde, W.

    2004-01-01

    The interaction of an endoglucanase from the hyperthermophilic microorganism Pyrococcus furiosus with two types of surfaces, that is, hydrophobic polystyrene and hydrophilic silica, was investigated, and the adsorption isotherms were determined. The adsorbed hyperthermostable enzyme did not undergo

  20. Adsorption of an endoglucanase from the hyperthermophilic Pyrococcus furiosus on hydrophobic (polystyrene) and hydrophilic (silica) surfaces increases protein heat stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutsopoulos, S.; van der Oost, J.; Norde, Willem

    2004-01-01

    The interaction of an endoglucanase from the hyperthermophilic microorganism Pyrococcus furiosus with two types of surfaces, that is, hydrophobic polystyrene and hydrophilic silica, was investigated, and the adsorption isotherms were determined. The adsorbed hyperthermostable enzyme did not undergo

  1. Recombinant expression library of Pyrococcus furiosus constructed by high-throughput cloning: a useful tool for functional and structural genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui eYuan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus grows optimally near 100°C and is an important resource of many industrial and molecular biological enzymes. To study the structure and function of Pyrococcus furiosus proteins at whole genome level, we constructed expression plasmids of each Pyrococcus furiosus gene using a ligase-independent cloning method, which was based on amplifying target gene and vector by PCR using phosphorothioate-modified primers and digesting PCR products by λ exonuclease. Our cloning method had a positive clone percentage of ≥ 80% in 96-well plate cloning format. Small-scale expression experiment showed that 55 out of 80 genes were efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli Strain Rosetta 2(DE3pLysS. In summary, this recombinant expression library of Pyrococcus furiosus provides a platform for functional and structural studies, as well as developing novel industrial enzymes. Our cloning scheme is adaptable to constructing recombinant expression library of other sequenced organisms.

  2. Phenotypic and Genotypic Analysis of Newly Obtained Interspecific Hybrids in the Campanula Genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röper, Anna-Catharina; Orabi, Jihad; Lütken, Henrik; Christensen, Brian; Thonning Skou, Anne-Marie; Müller, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Interspecific hybridisation creates new phenotypes within several ornamental plant species including the Campanula genus. We have employed phenotypic and genotypic methods to analyse and evaluate interspecific hybridisation among cultivars of four Campanula species, i.e. C. cochleariifolia, C. isophylla, C. medium and C. formanekiana. Hybrids were analysed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), flow cytometry and biometrical measurements. Results of correlation matrices demonstrated heterogeneous phenotypes for the parental species, which confirmed our basic premise for new phenotypes of interspecific hybrids. AFLP assays confirmed the hybridity and identified self-pollinated plants. Limitation of flow cytometry analysis detection was observed while detecting the hybridity status of two closely related parents, e.g. C. cochleariiafolia × C. isophylla. Phenotypic characteristics such as shoot habitus and flower colour were strongly influenced by one of the parental species in most crosses. Rooting analysis revealed that inferior rooting quality occurred more often in interspecific hybrids than in the parental species. Only interspecific hybrid lines of C. formanekiana ‘White’ × C. medium ‘Pink’ showed a high rooting level. Phenotype analyses demonstrated a separation from the interspecific hybrid lines of C. formanekiana ‘White’ × C. medium ‘Pink’ to the other clustered hybrids of C. formanekiana and C. medium. In our study we demonstrated that the use of correlation matrices is a suitable tool for identifying suitable cross material. This study presents a comprehensive overview for analysing newly obtained interspecific hybrids. The chosen methods can be used as guidance for analyses for further interspecific hybrids in Campanula, as well as in other ornamental species. PMID:26352688

  3. The detection and phylogenetic analysis of the alkane 1-monooxygenase gene of members of the genus Rhodococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Táncsics, András; Benedek, Tibor; Szoboszlay, Sándor; Veres, Péter G; Farkas, Milán; Máthé, István; Márialigeti, Károly; Kukolya, József; Lányi, Szabolcs; Kriszt, Balázs

    2015-02-01

    Naturally occurring and anthropogenic petroleum hydrocarbons are potential carbon sources for many bacteria. The AlkB-related alkane hydroxylases, which are integral membrane non-heme iron enzymes, play a key role in the microbial degradation of many of these hydrocarbons. Several members of the genus Rhodococcus are well-known alkane degraders and are known to harbor multiple alkB genes encoding for different alkane 1-monooxygenases. In the present study, 48 Rhodococcus strains, representing 35 species of the genus, were investigated to find out whether there was a dominant type of alkB gene widespread among species of the genus that could be used as a phylogenetic marker. Phylogenetic analysis of rhodococcal alkB gene sequences indicated that a certain type of alkB gene was present in almost every member of the genus Rhodococcus. These alkB genes were common in a unique nucleotide sequence stretch absent from other types of rhodococcal alkB genes that encoded a conserved amino acid motif: WLG(I/V/L)D(G/D)GL. The sequence identity of the targeted alkB gene in Rhodococcus ranged from 78.5 to 99.2% and showed higher nucleotide sequence variation at the inter-species level compared to the 16S rRNA gene (93.9-99.8%). The results indicated that the alkB gene type investigated might be applicable for: (i) differentiating closely related Rhodococcus species, (ii) properly assigning environmental isolates to existing Rhodococcus species, and finally (iii) assessing whether a new Rhodococcus isolate represents a novel species of the genus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Phylogenetic spectrum and analysis of antibacterial activities of leaf extracts from plants of the genus Rhododendron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezk, Ahmed; Nolzen, Jennifer; Schepker, Hartwig; Albach, Dirk C; Brix, Klaudia; Ullrich, Matthias S

    2015-03-18

    Plants are traditionally used for medicinal treatment of numerous human disorders including infectious diseases caused by microorganisms. Due to the increasing resistance of many pathogens to commonly used antimicrobial agents, there is an urgent need for novel antimicrobial compounds. Plants of the genus Rhododendron belong to the woody representatives of the family Ericaceae, which are typically used in a range of ethno-medical applications. There are more than one thousand Rhododendron species worldwide. The Rhododendron-Park Bremen grows plants representing approximately 600 of the known Rhododendron species, and thus enables research involving almost two thirds of all known Rhododendron species. Twenty-six bacterial species representing different taxonomic clades have been used to study the antimicrobial potential of Rhododendron leaf extracts. Agar diffusion assay were conducted using 80% methanol crude extracts derived from 120 Rhododendron species. Data were analyzed using principal component analysis and the plant-borne antibacterial activities grouped according the first and second principal components. The leaf extracts of 17 Rhododendron species exhibited significant growth-inhibiting activities against Gram-positive bacteria. In contrast, only very few of the leaf extracts affected the growth of Gram-negative bacteria. All leaf extracts with antimicrobial bioactivity were extracted from representatives of the subgenus Rhododendron, with 15 from the sub-section Rhododendron and two belonging to the section Pogonanthum. The use of bacterial multidrug efflux pump mutants revealed remarkable differences in the susceptibility towards Rhododendron leaf extract treatment. For the first time, our comprehensive study demonstrated that compounds with antimicrobial activities accumulate in the leaves of certain Rhododendron species, which mainly belong to a particular subgenus. The results suggested that common genetic traits are responsible for the production of

  5. Comparative genomic analysis reveals a diverse repertoire of genes involved in prokaryote-eukaryote interactions within the Pseudovibrio genus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano eRomano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Strains of the Pseudovibrio genus have been detected worldwide, mainly as part of bacterial communities associated with marine invertebrates, particularly sponges. This recurrent association has been considered as an indication of a symbiotic relationship between these microbes and their host. Until recently, the availability of only two genomes, belonging to closely related strains, has limited the knowledge on the genomic and physiological features of the genus to a single phylogenetic lineage.Here we present 10 newly sequenced genomes of Pseudovibrio strains isolated from marine sponges from the west coast of Ireland, and including the other two publicly available genomes we performed an extensive comparative genomic analysis. Homogeneity was apparent in terms of both the orthologous genes and the metabolic features shared amongst the 12 strains. At the genomic level, a key physiological difference observed amongst the isolates was the presence only in strain P. axinellae AD2 of genes encoding proteins involved in assimilatory nitrate reduction, which was then proved experimentally. We then focused on studying those systems known to be involved in the interactions with eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. This analysis revealed that the genus harbors a large diversity of toxin-like proteins, secretion systems and their potential effectors. Their distribution in the genus was not always consistent with the phylogenetic relationship of the strains. Finally, our analyses identified new genomic islands encoding potential toxin-immunity systems, previously unknown in the genus.Our analyses shed new light on the Pseudovibrio genus, indicating a large diversity of both metabolic features and systems for interacting with the host. The diversity in both distribution and abundance of these systems amongst the strains underlines how metabolically and phylogenetically similar bacteria may use different strategies to interact with the host and find a niche

  6. Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals a Diverse Repertoire of Genes Involved in Prokaryote-Eukaryote Interactions within the Pseudovibrio Genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Stefano; Fernàndez-Guerra, Antonio; Reen, F Jerry; Glöckner, Frank O; Crowley, Susan P; O'Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul D; Adams, Claire; Dobson, Alan D W; O'Gara, Fergal

    2016-01-01

    Strains of the Pseudovibrio genus have been detected worldwide, mainly as part of bacterial communities associated with marine invertebrates, particularly sponges. This recurrent association has been considered as an indication of a symbiotic relationship between these microbes and their host. Until recently, the availability of only two genomes, belonging to closely related strains, has limited the knowledge on the genomic and physiological features of the genus to a single phylogenetic lineage. Here we present 10 newly sequenced genomes of Pseudovibrio strains isolated from marine sponges from the west coast of Ireland, and including the other two publicly available genomes we performed an extensive comparative genomic analysis. Homogeneity was apparent in terms of both the orthologous genes and the metabolic features shared amongst the 12 strains. At the genomic level, a key physiological difference observed amongst the isolates was the presence only in strain P. axinellae AD2 of genes encoding proteins involved in assimilatory nitrate reduction, which was then proved experimentally. We then focused on studying those systems known to be involved in the interactions with eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. This analysis revealed that the genus harbors a large diversity of toxin-like proteins, secretion systems and their potential effectors. Their distribution in the genus was not always consistent with the phylogenetic relationship of the strains. Finally, our analyses identified new genomic islands encoding potential toxin-immunity systems, previously unknown in the genus. Our analyses shed new light on the Pseudovibrio genus, indicating a large diversity of both metabolic features and systems for interacting with the host. The diversity in both distribution and abundance of these systems amongst the strains underlines how metabolically and phylogenetically similar bacteria may use different strategies to interact with the host and find a niche within its

  7. A new genus and eight new species of the subtribe Anillina (Carabidae, Trechinae, Bembidiini) from Mexico, with a cladistic analysis and some notes on the evolution of the genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Igor M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract One new genus and eight new species of anilline carabids are described from southern Mexico. The new genus, Zapotecanillus gen. n., is established for Z. oaxacanus (type species) sp. n., Z. nanus sp. n., Z. iviei sp. n., Z. ixtlanus sp. n., Z. montanus sp. n., and Z. kavanaughi sp. n. from the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, Z. pecki sp. n. from the Sierra Madre del Sur, and Z. longinoi sp. n. from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas. A taxonomic key for all described species of Zapotecanillus and a cladistic analysis, based on morphological data, are provided. Morphological, behavioral and biogeographical aspects of the speciation in the genus obtained from the resulting cladogram are discussed. PMID:24294092

  8. A new genus and eight new species of the subtribe Anillina (Carabidae, Trechinae, Bembidiini from Mexico, with a cladistic analysis and some notes on the evolution of the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Sokolov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One new genus and eight new species of anilline carabids are described from southern Mexico. The new genus, Zapotecanillus gen. n., is established for Z. oaxacanus (type species sp. n., Z. nanus sp. n., Z. iviei sp. n., Z. ixtlanus sp. n., Z. montanus sp. n., and Z. kavanaughi sp. n. from the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, Z. pecki sp. n. from the Sierra Madre del Sur, and Z. longinoi sp. n. from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas. A taxonomic key for all described species of Zapotecanillus and a cladistic analysis, based on morphological data, are provided. Morphological, behavioral and biogeographical aspects of the speciation in the genus obtained from the resulting cladogram are discussed.

  9. Carpological analysis of Phoenix (Arecaceae): contributions to the taxonomy and evolutionary history of the genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main purpose of this study was, first, to analyze the morphology of seeds of Phoenix spp. and relevant cultivars and to assess the taxonomic value of the information generated as a means of studying the systematics and evolutionary history of the genus Phoenix. We then analyzed seed morphologica...

  10. Toxic polyacetylenes in the genus Bupleurum (Apiaceae) - Distribution, toxicity, molecular mechanism and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meiyu; Zhang, Weidong; Su, Juan

    2016-12-04

    The genus Bupleurum includes approximately 200 species that are widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere, Eurasia and North Africa. Certain species of this genus have long been used as antiphlogistic, antipyretic and analgesic agents in traditional folk medicine. As described in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, the roots of Bupleurum chinense DC. and B. scorzonerifolium Willd. are the herbal materials that compose Chaihu (Radix Bupleuri), a well-known TCM herb. This review aims to provide up-to-date and comprehensive information regarding the distribution, toxicity, molecular mechanism and relatively new methods for the qualitative and quantitative determination of polyacetylenes in different Bupleurum species. The information needed for this paper were sourced from publishing sites such as Elsevier, science Direct, PubMed; electronic search engines such as Scopus and Web of Science, Google scholar; other scientific database sites for chemicals such as ChemSpider, PubChem, SciFinder, and also from on line books. Polyacetylenes, which are widely distributed in genus Bupleurum of the Apiaceae family, have high toxicity. Among polyacetylenes, bupleurotoxin, acetylbupleurotoxin and oenanthotoxin have strong neurotoxicity. Through previous research, it was found that the toxicity of Bupleurum polyacetylenes manifested as epileptic seizures, with the target of toxicity being the brain. The neurotoxicity of polyacetylenes exhibits a relationship with the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor pathway, and polyacetylenes have been shown to inhibit GABA-induced currents (IGABA) in a competitive manner. The plants of genus Bupleurum have been used in traditional medicine for thousands of years. However, certain species of this genus are poisonous, and it was attributed to the high content of polyacetylenes. The present review indicates that certain polyacetylenes in the genus Bupleurum have highly neurotoxic effects. The major challenge with regard to toxic polyacetylenes is to

  11. High hydrostatic pressure adaptive strategies in an obligate piezophile Pyrococcus yayanosii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoud, Grégoire; Jebbar, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Pyrococcus yayanosii CH1, as the first and only obligate piezophilic hyperthermophilic microorganism discovered to date, extends the physical and chemical limits of life on Earth. It was isolated from the Ashadze hydrothermal vent at 4,100 m depth. Multi-omics analyses were performed to study the mechanisms used by the cell to cope with high hydrostatic pressure variations. In silico analyses showed that the P. yayanosii genome is highly adapted to its harsh environment, with a loss of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathways and the high constitutive expression of the energy metabolism compared with other non-obligate piezophilic Pyrococcus species. Differential proteomics and transcriptomics analyses identified key hydrostatic pressure-responsive genes involved in translation, chemotaxis, energy metabolism (hydrogenases and formate metabolism) and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats sequences associated with Cellular apoptosis susceptibility proteins.

  12. High hydrostatic pressure adaptive strategies in an obligate piezophile Pyrococcus yayanosii

    KAUST Repository

    Michoud, Gregoire

    2016-06-02

    Pyrococcus yayanosii CH1, as the first and only obligate piezophilic hyperthermophilic microorganism discovered to date, extends the physical and chemical limits of life on Earth. It was isolated from the Ashadze hydrothermal vent at 4,100 m depth. Multi-omics analyses were performed to study the mechanisms used by the cell to cope with high hydrostatic pressure variations. In silico analyses showed that the P. yayanosii genome is highly adapted to its harsh environment, with a loss of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathways and the high constitutive expression of the energy metabolism compared with other non-obligate piezophilic Pyrococcus species. Differential proteomics and transcriptomics analyses identified key hydrostatic pressure-responsive genes involved in translation, chemotaxis, energy metabolism (hydrogenases and formate metabolism) and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats sequences associated with Cellular apoptosis susceptibility proteins.

  13. Exploring the reductive capacity of Pyrococcus furiosus. The reduction of carboxylic acids and pyridine nucleotides

    OpenAIRE

    Ban, van den, A.W.

    2001-01-01

    This Ph.D. project started in 1997 and its main goal was to obtain insight in the reductive capacity of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus . The research was focused on the biocatalytic reduction of carboxylic acids.Reductions of carboxylic acids are interesting reactions, since the generated products, aldehydes and alcohols, are potentially applicable in the fine-chemical industry. However, the reduction of carboxylic acids to the corresponding aldehydes is a thermodynamicall...

  14. A Phylogenetic Analysis of 34 Chloroplast Genomes Elucidates the Relationships between Wild and Domestic Species within the Genus Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell-Caballero, Jose; Alonso, Roberto; Ibañez, Victoria; Terol, Javier; Talon, Manuel; Dopazo, Joaquin

    2015-08-01

    Citrus genus includes some of the most important cultivated fruit trees worldwide. Despite being extensively studied because of its commercial relevance, the origin of cultivated citrus species and the history of its domestication still remain an open question. Here, we present a phylogenetic analysis of the chloroplast genomes of 34 citrus genotypes which constitutes the most comprehensive and detailed study to date on the evolution and variability of the genus Citrus. A statistical model was used to estimate divergence times between the major citrus groups. Additionally, a complete map of the variability across the genome of different citrus species was produced, including single nucleotide variants, heteroplasmic positions, indels (insertions and deletions), and large structural variants. The distribution of all these variants provided further independent support to the phylogeny obtained. An unexpected finding was the high level of heteroplasmy found in several of the analyzed genomes. The use of the complete chloroplast DNA not only paves the way for a better understanding of the phylogenetic relationships within the Citrus genus but also provides original insights into other elusive evolutionary processes, such as chloroplast inheritance, heteroplasmy, and gene selection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  15. Genetic analysis of the genus Diospyros ssp. using RAPD and i-PBS methods

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    Jana Raddová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular techniques (RAPD and i-PBS were used to study genetic diversity within persimmon collection at Horticulture Faculty of Mendel University in Lednice. The aim of the work was to distinguish 14 known and 6 of unknown origin persimmon cultivars. The basic screening of 20 OPT primers was applied to 4 cultivars differring in the place of origin. Within the group of screened primers there were chosen those, which gave polymorphic repeatable strong and middle strong bands. Selected primers were used for the RAPD reactions within the whole persimmon collection. Three OPA primers previously described in the literature were also used for the RAPD reactions within the whole persimmon collection. Additional 16 i-PBS primers previously described in the literature were also used for i-PBS analysis of the whole group of cultivars. Amplification was successful with 12 i-PBS primers. The FreeTree software package was used to gen­erate a similarity matrix and then to produce a dendrogram using UPGMA analyses. The similarity dendrograms of all persimmon cultivars were created based on both approaches and also on combination of both analyses by program Tree View. All the dendrograms clearly separated the assessed cultivars into 4 clusters. There are cluster of American persimmons – Meader’ (1, ’Garretson’ (2 and ’Early Golden’ (3. They are representatives of D. virginiana. Further part of dendrogram includes single D. lotus (5, which is also clearly separated from other cultivars of the genus Diospyros. The third cluster includes interspecific hybrids ’Rossiyanka’ (10 and ’Nikitskaiya Bordovaiya’ (13, which arised from crosses of D. virginiana and D. kaki. The last cluster is formed by cultivars of Japanese persimmon – ’Mikatani Gosho’, ’Zenjimaru’, ’Tone Wase’, ’Hiratanenashi’, ’Fuyu’, Chinese cultivar – ’Sansi’ and two Italian cultivars ’Vaniglia’ and ’Tipo’. They are clustered without significant

  16. Characterization of the PH1704 protease from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 and the critical functions of Tyr120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Dongling; Bai, Aixi; Yu, Lei; Han, Weiwei; Feng, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The PH1704 protease from hyperthermophilic archaean Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 is a member of DJ-1/ThiJ/PfpI superfamily with diverse functional subclasses. The recombinant PH1704 was efficiently purified and was systematically characterized by a combination of substrate specificity analysis, steady-state kinetics study and molecular docking research. The homogeneous protease was obtained as a presumed dodecamer with molecular weight of ∼240 kDa. Iodoacetamide strongly inhibited the peptidase activity, confirming that Cys100 is a nucleophilic residue. The recombinant protein was identified as both an aminopeptidase and an endopeptidase. Experimental data showed that L-R-amc was the best substrate of PH1704. Structural interaction fingerprint analysis (SIFt) indicated the binding pose of PH1704 and showed that Tyr120 is important in substrate binding. Kinetic parameters Kcat and Kcat/Km of the Y120P mutant with L-R-amc was about 7 and 7.8 times higher than that of the wild type (WT). For the endopeptidase Y120P with AAFR-amc, Kcat and Kcat/Km is 10- and 21-fold higher than that of WT. Experimental data indicate the important functions of Tyr120: involvement in enzyme activity to form a hydrogen bond with Cys100 and as an entrance gate of the substrate with Lys43. The results of this study can be used to investigate the DJ-1/ThiJ/PfpI superfamily.

  17. Characterization of the archaeal ribonuclease P proteins from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Atsushi; Honda, Takashi; Fukuhara, Hideo; Hada, Kazumasa; Kimura, Makoto

    2006-08-01

    Ribonuclease P (RNase P) is a ribonucleoprotein complex involved in the processing of the 5'-leader sequence of precursor tRNA (pre-tRNA). Our earlier study revealed that RNase P RNA (pRNA) and five proteins (PhoPop5, PhoRpp38, PhoRpp21, PhoRpp29, and PhoRpp30) in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 reconstituted RNase P activity that exhibits enzymatic properties like those of the authentic enzyme. In present study, we investigated involvement of the individual proteins in RNase P activity. Two particles (R-3Ps), in which pRNA was mixed with three proteins, PhoPop5, PhoRpp30, and PhoRpp38 or PhoPop5, PhoRpp30, and PhoRpp21 showed a detectable RNase P activity, and five reconstituted particles (R-4Ps) composed of pRNA and four proteins exhibited RNase P activity, albeit at reduced level compared to that of the reconstituted particle (R-5P) composed of pRNA and five proteins. Time-course analysis of the RNase P activities of R-4Ps indicated that the R-4Ps lacking PhoPop5, PhoRpp21, or PhoRpp30 had virtually reduced activity, while omission of PhoRpp29 or PhoRpp38 had a slight effect on the activity. The results indicate that the proteins contribute to RNase P activity in order of PhoPop5 > PhoRpp30 > PhoRpp21 > PhoRpp29 > PhoRpp38. It was further found that R-4Ps showed a characteristic Mg2+ ion dependency approximately identical to that of R-5P. However, R-4Ps had optimum temperature of around at 55 degrees C which is lower than 70 degrees C for R-5P. Together, it is suggested that the P. horikoshii RNase P proteins are predominantly involved in optimization of the pRNA conformation, though they are individually dispensable for RNase P activity in vitro.

  18. Molecular analysis reveals hidden diversity in Zungaro (Siluriformes: Pimelodidade): a genus of giant South American catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Antonio A; Ramirez, Jorge L; Galetti, Pedro M; Troy, Waldo P; Freitas, Patricia D

    2017-06-01

    The genus Zungaro contains some of the largest catfish in South America. Two valid species are currently recognized: Zungaro jahu, inhabiting the Paraná and Paraguay basins, and Zungaro zungaro, occurring in the Amazonas and Orinoco basins. Analysing Zungaro specimens from the Amazonas, Orinoco, Paraguay and Paraná basins, based on the sequencing of COI and D-loop, we found at least three MOTUs, indicating the existence of hidden diversity within this fish group. Considering the ecological and economic values of this fish, our results are surely welcomed for its conservation, disclosing new findings on its diversity and pointing out the necessity for a detailed taxonomic revision.

  19. Expression cloning and characterization of a novel gene that encodes the RNA-binding protein FAU-1 from Pyrococcus furiosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Akio; Oida, Hanako; Matsuura, Nana; Doi, Hirofumi

    2003-05-15

    We systematically screened a genomic DNA library to identify proteins of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus using an expression cloning method. One gene product, which we named FAU-1 (P. furiosus AU-binding), demonstrated the strongest binding activity of all the genomic library-derived proteins tested against an AU-rich RNA sequence. The protein was purified to near homogeneity as a 54 kDa single polypeptide, and the gene locus corresponding to this FAU-1 activity was also sequenced. The FAU-1 gene encoded a 472-amino-acid protein that was characterized by highly charged domains consisting of both acidic and basic amino acids. The N-terminal half of the gene had a degree of similarity (25%) with RNase E from Escherichia coli. Five rounds of RNA-binding-site selection and footprinting analysis showed that the FAU-1 protein binds specifically to the AU-rich sequence in a loop region of a possible RNA ligand. Moreover, we demonstrated that the FAU-1 protein acts as an oligomer, and mainly as a trimer. These results showed that the FAU-1 protein is a novel heat-stable protein with an RNA loop-binding characteristic.

  20. Subunit interaction and regulation of activity through terminal domains of the family D DNA polymerase from Pyrococcus horikoshii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y; Tang, X-F; Matsui, E; Matsui, I

    2004-04-01

    Family D DNA polymerase (PolD) has recently been found in the Euryarchaeota subdomain of Archaea. Its genes are adjacent to several other genes related to DNA replication, repair and recombination in the genome, suggesting that this enzyme may be the major DNA replicase in Euryarchaeota. We successfully cloned, expressed, and purified the family D DNA polymerase from Pyrococcus horikoshii (PolDPho). By site-directed mutagenesis, we identified amino acid residues Asp-1122 and Asp-1124 of a large subunit as the essential residues responsible for DNA-polymerizing activity. We analysed the domain structure using proteins truncated at the N- and C-termini of both small and large subunits (DP1Pho and DP2Pho), and identified putative regions responsible for subunit interaction, oligomerization and regulation of the 3'-5' exonuclease activity in PolDPho. It was also found that the internal region of the putative zinc finger motif (cysteine cluster II) at the C-terminal of DP2Pho is involved in the 3'-5' exonuclease activity. Using gel filtration analysis, we determined the molecular masses of the recombinant PolDPho and the N-terminal putative dimerization domain of the large subunit, and proposed that PolD from P. horikoshii probably forms a heterotetrameric structure in solution. Based on these results, a model regarding the subunit interaction and regulation of activity of PolDPho is proposed.

  1. Genomewide and biochemical analyses of DNA-binding activity of Cdc6/Orc1 and Mcm proteins in Pyrococcus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Fujihiko; Glatigny, Annie; Mucchielli-Giorgi, Marie-Hélène; Agier, Nicolas; Delacroix, Hervé; Marisa, Laetitia; Durosay, Patrice; Ishino, Yoshizumi; Aggerbeck, Lawrence; Forterre, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    The origin of DNA replication (oriC) of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi contains multiple ORB and mini-ORB repeats that show sequence similarities to other archaeal ORB (origin recognition box). We report here that the binding of Cdc6/Orc1 to a 5 kb region containing oriC in vivo was highly specific both in exponential and stationary phases, by means of chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with hybridization on a whole genome microarray (ChIP-chip). The oriC region is practically the sole binding site for the Cdc6/Orc1, thereby distinguishing oriC in the 1.8 M bp genome. We found that the 5 kb region contains a previously unnoticed cluster of ORB and mini-ORB repeats in the gene encoding the small subunit (dp1) for DNA polymerase II (PolD). ChIP and the gel retardation analyses further revealed that Cdc6/Orc1 specifically binds both of the ORB clusters in oriC and dp1. The organization of the ORB clusters in the dp1 and oriC is conserved during evolution in the order Thermococcales, suggesting a role in the initiation of DNA replication. Our ChIP-chip analysis also revealed that Mcm alters the binding specificity to the oriC region according to the growth phase, consistent with its role as a licensing factor.

  2. Proteomic analysis of venom variability and ontogeny across the arboreal palm-pitvipers (genus Bothriechis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, Davinia; Sanz, Libia; Sasa, Mahmood; Acevedo, Manuel E; Dwyer, Quetzal; Durban, Jordi; Pérez, Alicia; Rodriguez, Yania; Lomonte, Bruno; Calvete, Juan J

    2017-01-30

    Bothriechis is a genus of eleven currently recognized slender and arboreal venomous snakes, commonly called palm-pitvipers that range from southern Mexico to northern South America. Despite dietary studies suggesting that palm-pitvipers are generalists with an ontogenetic shift toward endothermic prey, venom proteomic analyses have revealed remarkable divergence between the venoms of the Costa Rican species, B. lateralis, B. schlegelii, B. supraciliaris, and B. nigroviridis. To achieve a more complete picture of the venomic landscape across Bothriechis, the venom proteomes of biodiversity of the northern Middle American highland palm-pitvipers, B. thalassinus, B. aurifer, and B. bicolor from Guatemala, B. marchi from Honduras, and neonate Costa Rican B. lateralis and B. schlegelii, were investigated. B. thalassinus and B. aurifer venoms are comprised by similar toxin arsenals dominated by SVMPs (33-39% of the venom proteome), CTLs (11-16%), BPP-like molecules (10-13%), and CRISPs (5-10%), and are characterized by the absence of PLA2 proteins. Conversely, the predominant (35%) components of B. bicolor are D49-PLA2 molecules. The venom proteome of B. marchi is similar to B. aurifer and B. thalassinus in that it is rich in SVMPs and BPPs, but also contains appreciable amounts (14.3%) of PLA2s. The major toxin family found in the venoms of both neonate B. lateralis and B. schlegelii, is serine proteinase (SVSP), comprising about 20% of their toxin arsenals. The venom of neonate B. schlegelii is the only palm-pitviper venom where relative high amounts of Kunitz-type (6.3%) and γPLA2 (5.2%) inhibitors have been identified. Despite notable differences between their proteomes, neonate venoms are more similar to each other than to adults of their respective species. However, the ontogenetic changes taking place in the venom of B. lateralis strongly differ from those that occur in the venom of B. schlegelii. Thus, the ontogenetic change in B. lateralis produces a SVMP

  3. Extended Multilocus Sequence Analysis to Describe the Global Population Structure of the Genus Brucella: Phylogeography and Relationship to Biovars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatmore, Adrian M.; Koylass, Mark S.; Muchowski, Jakub; Edwards-Smallbone, James; Gopaul, Krishna K.; Perrett, Lorraine L.

    2016-01-01

    An extended multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme applicable to the Brucella, an expanding genus that includes zoonotic pathogens that severely impact animal and human health across large parts of the globe, was developed. The scheme, which extends a previously described nine locus scheme by examining sequences at 21 independent genetic loci in order to increase discriminatory power, was applied to a globally and temporally diverse collection of over 500 isolates representing all 12 known Brucella species providing an expanded and detailed understanding of the population genetic structure of the group. Over 100 sequence types (STs) were identified and analysis of data provided insights into both the global evolutionary history of the genus, suggesting that early emerging Brucella abortus lineages might be confined to Africa while some later lineages have spread worldwide, and further evidence of the existence of lineages with restricted host or geographical ranges. The relationship between biovar, long used as a crude epidemiological marker, and genotype was also examined and showed decreasing congruence in the order Brucella suis > B. abortus > Brucella melitensis. Both the previously described nine locus scheme and the extended 21 locus scheme have been made available at http://pubmlst.org/brucella/ to allow the community to interrogate existing data and compare with newly generated data. PMID:28066370

  4. Genome-wide analysis of LTR-retrotransposon diversity and its impact on the evolution of the genus Helianthus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascagni, Flavia; Giordani, Tommaso; Ceccarelli, Marilena; Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia

    2017-08-18

    Genome divergence by mobile elements activity and recombination is a continuous process that plays a key role in the evolution of species. Nevertheless, knowledge on retrotransposon-related variability among species belonging to the same genus is still limited. Considering the importance of the genus Helianthus, a model system for studying the ecological genetics of speciation and adaptation, we performed a comparative analysis of the repetitive genome fraction across ten species and one subspecies of sunflower, focusing on long terminal repeat retrotransposons at superfamily, lineage and sublineage levels. After determining the relative genome size of each species, genomic DNA was isolated and subjected to Illumina sequencing. Then, different assembling and clustering approaches allowed exploring the repetitive component of all genomes. On average, repetitive DNA in Helianthus species represented more than 75% of the genome, being composed mostly by long terminal repeat retrotransposons. Also, the prevalence of Gypsy over Copia superfamily was observed and, among lineages, Chromovirus was by far the most represented. Although nearly all the same sublineages are present in all species, we found considerable variability in the abundance of diverse retrotransposon lineages and sublineages, especially between annual and perennial species. This large variability should indicate that different events of amplification or loss related to these elements occurred following species separation and should have been involved in species differentiation. Our data allowed us inferring on the extent of interspecific repetitive DNA variation related to LTR-RE abundance, investigating the relationship between changes of LTR-RE abundance and the evolution of the genus, and determining the degree of coevolution of different LTR-RE lineages or sublineages between and within species. Moreover, the data suggested that LTR-RE abundance in a species was affected by the annual or perennial

  5. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  6. Genomic survey and expression analysis of DNA repair genes in the genus Leptospira.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Pinheiro, Marinalva; Schons-Fonseca, Luciane; da Silva, Josefa B; Domingos, Renan H; Momo, Leonardo Hiroyuki Santos; Simões, Ana Carolina Quirino; Ho, Paulo Lee; da Costa, Renata M A

    2016-04-01

    Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonosis with important economic and public health consequences and is caused by pathogenic leptospires. The genus Leptospira belongs to the order Spirochaetales and comprises saprophytic (L. biflexa), pathogenic (L. interrogans) and host-dependent (L. borgpetersenii) members. Here, we present an in silico search for DNA repair pathways in Leptospira spp. The relevance of such DNA repair pathways was assessed through the identification of mRNA levels of some genes during infection in animal model and after exposition to spleen cells. The search was performed by comparison of available Leptospira spp. genomes in public databases with known DNA repair-related genes. Leptospires exhibit some distinct and unexpected characteristics, for instance the existence of a redundant mechanism for repairing a chemically diverse spectrum of alkylated nucleobases, a new mutS-like gene and a new shorter version of uvrD. Leptospira spp. shares some characteristics from Gram-positive, as the presence of PcrA, two RecQ paralogs and two SSB proteins; the latter is considered a feature shared by naturally competent bacteria. We did not find a significant reduction in the number of DNA repair-related genes in both pathogenic and host-dependent species. Pathogenic leptospires were enriched for genes dedicated to base excision repair and non-homologous end joining. Their evolutionary history reveals a remarkable importance of lateral gene transfer events for the evolution of the genus. Up-regulation of specific DNA repair genes, including components of SOS regulon, during infection in animal model validates the critical role of DNA repair mechanisms for the complex interplay between host/pathogen.

  7. The first complete mitochondrial genome from Bostrychus genus (Bostrychus sinensis) and partitioned Bayesian analysis of Eleotridae fish phylogeny

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tao Wei; Xiao Xiao Jin; Tian Jun Xu

    2013-08-01

    To understand the phylogenetic position of Bostrychus sinensis in Eleotridae and the phylogenetic relationships of the family, we determined the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial (mt) genome of Bostrychus sinensis. It is the first complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Bostrychus genus. The entire mtDNA sequence was 16508 bp in length with a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs) and a noncoding control region. The mitochondrial genome of B. sinensis had common features with those of other bony fishes with respect to gene arrangement, base composition, and tRNA structures. Phylogenetic hypotheses within Eleotridae fish have been controversial at the genus level. We used the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene sequence to examine phylogenetic relationships of Eleotridae by using partitioned Bayesian method. When the specific models and parameter estimates were presumed for partitioning the total data, the harmonic mean –lnL was improved. The phylogenetic analysis supported the monophyly of Hypseleotris and Gobiomorphs. In addition, the Bostrychus were most closely related to Ophiocara, and the Philypnodon is also the sister to Microphlypnus, based on the current datasets. Further, extensive taxonomic sampling and more molecular information are needed to confirm the phylogenetic relationships in Eleotridae.

  8. Comparative genomic analysis of the genus Nocardiopsis provides new insights into its genetic mechanisms of environmental adaptability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wei Li

    Full Text Available The genus Nocardiopsis, a widespread group in phylum Actinobacteria, has received much attention owing to its ecological versatility, pathogenicity, and ability to produce a rich array of bioactive metabolites. Its high environmental adaptability might be attributable to its genome dynamics, which can be estimated through comparative genomic analysis targeting microorganisms with close phylogenetic relationships but different phenotypes. To shed light on speciation, gene content evolution, and environmental adaptation in these unique actinobacteria, we sequenced draft genomes for 16 representative species of the genus and compared them with that of the type species N. dassonvillei subsp. dassonvillei DSM 43111(T. The core genome of 1,993 orthologous and paralogous gene clusters was identified, and the pan-genomic reservoir was found not only to accommodate more than 22,000 genes, but also to be open. The top ten paralogous genes in terms of copy number could be referred to three functional categories: transcription regulators, transporters, and synthases related to bioactive metabolites. Based on phylogenomic reconstruction, we inferred past evolutionary events, such as gene gains and losses, and identified a list of clade-specific genes implicated in environmental adaptation. These results provided insights into the genetic causes of environmental adaptability in this cosmopolitan actinobacterial group and the contributions made by its inherent features, including genome dynamics and the constituents of core and accessory proteins.

  9. Phosphate and arsenate removal efficiency by thermostable ferritin enzyme from Pyrococcus furiosus using radioisotopes

    KAUST Repository

    Sevcenco, Ana-Maria

    2015-03-13

    Oxo-anion binding properties of the thermostable enzyme ferritin from Pyrococcus furiosus were characterized with radiography. Radioisotopes 32P and 76As present as oxoanions were used to measure the extent and the rate of their absorption by the ferritin. Thermostable ferritin proved to be an excellent system for rapid phosphate and arsenate removal from aqueous solutions down to residual concentrations at the picomolar level. These very low concentrations make thermostable ferritin a potential tool to considerably mitigate industrial biofouling by phosphate limitation or to remove arsenate from drinking water.

  10. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus Psathyrostachys (Poaceae) based on one nuclear gene, three plastid genes, and morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gitte; Seberg, Ole; Baden, Claus

    2004-01-01

    A phylogenetic analysis of the small, Central Asian genus Psathyrostachys Nevski is presented. The analysis is based on morphological characters and nucleotide sequence data from one nuclear gene, DMC1, and three plastid genes, rbcL, rpoA, and rpoC2. Separate analyses of the three data partitions...

  11. RFLP analysis of phylogenetic relationships and genetic variation in the genus Lycopersicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J C; Tanksley, S D

    1990-10-01

    Forty single-copy, nuclear probes of known chromosomal position were used to examine restriction fragment length polymorphism in the tomato genus Lycopersion. The probes were from three libraries: one cDNA, and two genomic libraries [Symbol: see text]ne genomic made with EcoRI and the other with PstI. Total DNA from 156 plants representing eight species was cut with five different restriction enzymes and scored in 198 probe-enzyme combinations. Genetic distances between accessions (populations) and species were calculated from the resultant restriction patterns and proportion of shared bands. Accessions belonging to the same species largely clustered together, confirming their current classification. However, one mountain accession, classified as L. peruvianum var. humifusum (LA2150), was sufficiently distinct from the other accessions of L. peruvianum that it may qualify as a separate species L. esculentum and L. pimpinellifolium were the least clearly differentiated, possibly reflecting introgressive hybridization, known to have been promoted by man in recent history. Dendrograms constructed from cDNA versus genomic clones were nearly identical in their general grouping of species. The dendrograms revealed two major dichotomies in the genus: one corresponding to mating behavior [self-compatible (SC) versus self-incompatible (SI) species] and the other corresponding to fruit color (red versus green-fruited species). The ratio of withinversus between-accession diversity was much lower for SC species, indicating that most of the diversity within these species exists between populations, rather than within populations. Overall, the amount of genetic variation in the SI species far exceeded that found in SC species. This result is exemplified by the fact that more genetic variation could be found within a single accession of one of the SI species (e.g., L. peruvianum) than among all accessions tested of any one of the SC species (e.g., L. esculentum or L

  12. Phylogenetic Analysis of the North American Beetle Genus Trichiotinus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Trichiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Keith Philips

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A hypothesized evolutionary history of the North American endemic trichiine scarab genus Trichiotinus is presented including all eight species and three outgroup taxa. Data from nineteen morphological traits and CO1 and 28S gene sequences were used to construct phylogenies using both parsimony and Bayesian algorithms. All results show that Trichiotinus is monophyletic. The best supported topology shows that the basal species T. lunulatus is sister to the remaining taxa that form two clades, with four and three species each. The distribution of one lineage is relatively northern while the other is generally more southern. The ancestral Trichiotinus lineage arose from 23.8–14.9 mya, and east-west geographic partitioning of ancestral populations likely resulted in cladogenesis and new species creation, beginning as early as 10.6–6.2 mya and as recently as 1.2–0.7 mya. Morphological character evolution is also briefly discussed. The limited distribution of T. rufobrunneus in Florida and T. viridans in the Midwest mainly due to urban development and widespread agriculture makes these two species of conservation concern.

  13. Metabolomic evaluation of ginsenosides distribution in Panax genus (Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius) using multivariate statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Roberto; Martinelli, Ernesto Marco; Sardone, Nicola; D E Combarieu, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Ginseng is any one of the eleven species belonging to the genus Panax of the family Araliaceae and is found in North America and in eastern Asia. Ginseng is characterized by the presence of ginsenosides. Principally Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius are the adaptogenic herbs and are commonly distributed as health food markets. In the present study high performance liquid chromatography has been used to identify and quantify ginsenosides in the two subject species and the different parts of the plant (roots, neck, leaves, flowers, fruits). The power of this chromatographic technique to evaluate the identity of botanical material and to distinguishing different part of the plants has been investigated with metabolomic technique such as principal component analysis. Metabolomics provide a good opportunity for mining useful chemical information from the chromatographic data set resulting an important tool for quality evaluation of medicinal plants in the authenticity, consistency and efficacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cytogenetic analysis of the Amazon stingless bee Melipona seminigra merrillae reveals different chromosome number for the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaura Bezerra Francini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic analysis of the Amazon stingless bee Melipona seminigra merrillae, by conventional Giemsa staining and C-banding, revealed a different chromosome number for Melipona: 2n = 22 for females and diploid drones while the haploid drones present n = 11. There is no evidence of B chromosomes. This result contrasts with previous studies, in which the chromosome number of 19 Melipona species was determined as 2n = 18 for females and n = 9 for haploid males. Based on cytogenetic information available for other Melipona species, we propose that M. s. merrillae has a more derived diploid number. This indicates that chromosome number is not a conservative characteristic within the genus as previously thought. Cytogenetic data for stingless bees are scarce, especially in Amazon region. Additional studies will be very important in order to promote Melipona karyoevolution discussion and consequently a taxonomy review.

  15. Increased susceptibility of ß-glucosidase from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus to thermal inactivation at higher pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, M.E.; Meersman, F.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Heremans, K.; Boom, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    The stability of ß-glucosidase from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus was studied as a function of pressure, temperature and pH. The conformational stability was monitored using FTIR spectroscopy, and the functional enzyme stability was monitored by inactivation studies. The enzyme proved to

  16. Biochemical evidence for the presence of two α-glucoside ABC-transport systems in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Sonja M.; Konings, Wil N.; Driessen, Arnold J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus can utilize different carbohydrates, such as starch, maltose and trehalose. Uptake of α-glucosides is mediated by two different, binding protein-dependent, ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-type transport systems. The maltose transporter also transports tr

  17. Accurate Computation of Reduction Potentials of 4Fe−4S Clusters Indicates a Carboxylate Shift in Pyrococcus furiosus Ferredoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta; Ooi, Bee Lean; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager

    2007-01-01

    This work describes the computation and accurate reproduction of subtle shifts in reduction potentials for two mutants of the iron-sulfur protein Pyrococcus furiosus ferredoxin. The computational models involved only first-sphere ligands and differed with respect to one ligand, either acetate (as...

  18. Replication slippage of the thermophilic DNA polymerases B and D from the Euryarchaeota Pyrococcus abyssi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa G. eCastillo-Lizardo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Replication slippage or slipped-strand mispairing involves the misalignment of DNA strands during the replication of repeated DNA sequences, and can lead to genetic rearrangements such as microsatellite instability. Here, we show that PolB and PolD replicative DNA polymerases from the archaeal model Pyrococcus abyssi (Pab slip in vitro during replication of a single-stranded DNA template carrying a hairpin structure and short direct repeats. We find that this occurs in both their wild-type (exo+ and exonuclease deficient (exo- forms. The slippage behavior of PabPolB and PabPolD, probably due to limited strand displacement activity, resembles that observed for the high fidelity Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu DNA polymerase. The presence of PabPCNA inhibited PabPolB and PabPolD slippage. We propose a model whereby PabPCNA stimulates strand displacement activity and polymerase progression through the hairpin, thus permitting the error-free replication of repetitive sequences.

  19. Biochemical and genomic analysis of the denitrification pathway within the genus Neisseria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Kenneth R; Isabella, Vincent M; Clark, Virginia L

    2009-12-01

    Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis are obligate human pathogens, a comparison with commensal species of the same genus could reveal differences important in pathogenesis. The recent completion of commensal Neisseria genome draft assemblies allowed us to perform a comparison of the genes involved in the catalysis, assembly and regulation of the denitrification pathway, which has been implicated in the virulence of several bacteria. All species contained a highly conserved nitric oxide reductase (NorB) and a nitrite reductase (AniA or NirK) that was highly conserved in the catalytic but divergent in the N-terminal lipid modification and C-terminal glycosylation domains. Only Neisseria mucosa contained a nitrate reductase (Nar), and only Neisseria lactamica, Neisseria cinerea, Neisseria subflava, Neisseria flavescens and Neisseria sicca contained a nitrous oxide reductase (Nos) complex. The regulators of the denitrification genes, FNR, NarQP and NsrR, were highly conserved, except for the GAF domain of NarQ. Biochemical examination of laboratory strains revealed that all of the neisserial species tested except N. mucosa had a two- to fourfold lower nitrite reductase activity than N. gonorrhoeae, while N. meningitidis and most of the commensal Neisseria species had a two- to fourfold higher nitric oxide (NO) reductase activity. For N. meningitidis and most of the commensal Neisseria, there was a greater than fourfold reduction in the NO steady-state level in the presence of nitrite as compared with N. gonorrhoeae. All of the species tested generated an NO steady-state level in the presence of an NO donor that was similar to that of N. gonorrhoeae. The greatest difference between the Neisseria species was the lack of a functional Nos system in the pathogenic species N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis.

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Laparocerus, with comments on colonisation and diversification in Macaronesia (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entiminae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Antonio; Rodríguez-Expósito, Eduardo; López, Mercedes; Hernández, Mariano

    2017-01-01

    The flightless Entiminae weevil genus Laparocerus is the species-richest genus, with 237 species and subspecies, inhabiting Macaronesia (Madeira archipelago, Selvagens, Canary Islands) and the continental 'Macaronesian enclave' in Morocco (one single polytypic species). This is the second contribution to gain insight of the genus and assist in its systematic revision with a mitochondrial phylogenetic analysis. It centres on the Canarian clade, adding the 12S rRNA gene to the combined set of COII and 16S rRNA used in our first contribution on the Madeiran clade (here re-analysed). The nuclear 28S rRNA was also used to produce an additional 4-gene tree to check coherency with the 3-gene tree. A total of 225 taxa (95%) has been sequenced, mostly one individual per taxa. Plausible explanations for incoherent data (mitochondrial introgressions, admixture, incomplete lineage sorting, etc.) are discussed for each of the monophyletic subclades that are coincident with established subgenera, or are restructured or newly described. The overall mean genetic divergence (p-distance) among species is 8.2%; the mean divergence within groups (subgenera) ranks from 2.9 to 7.0% (average 4.6%), and between groups, from 5.4% to 12.0% (average 9.2%). A trustful radiation event within a young island (1.72 Ma) was used to calibrate and produce a chronogram using the software RelTime. These results confirm the monophyly of both the Madeiran (36 species and subspecies) and the Canarian (196 species and subspecies) clades, which originated ca. 11.2 Ma ago, and started to radiate in their respective archipelagos ca. 8.5 and 7.7 Ma ago. The Madeiran clade seems to have begun in Porto Santo, and from there it jumped to the Desertas and to Madeira, with additional radiations. The Canarian clade shows a sequential star-shape radiation process generating subclades with a clear shift from East to West in coherence with the decreasing age of the islands. Laparocerus garretai from the Selvagens

  1. [Analysis of diet composition and overlap in four species of the genus Diplectrum (Perciformes: Serranidae) in the Mexican Central Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Palomino, Bernabé; González Sansón, Gaspar

    2010-12-01

    Analysis of diet composition and overlap in four species of the genus Diplectrum (Perciformes: Serranidae) in the Mexican Central Pacific. The information of trophic interactions among species is essential to understand ecosystem function. To assess this in four Diplectrum species, we analyzed the stomach contents of 397 individuals caught using shrimp trawling nets off the coasts of Jalisco and Colima, Mexico. Main food component of D. eumelum were fish of the Order Pleuronectiformes, followed by shrimps (Metapenaeopsis spp). D. euryplectrum feeds mainly on crustaceans, with stomatopods (Squilla mantoidea) as main food items followed by shrimps and brachyurans. Fish and polychaetes had a low representation in the diet of this species. D. labarum feeds mainly on crustaceans, mollusks and fish. The stomatopod Eurysquilla veleronis contributed to with a high diet percentage by weight, followed by shrimps (mostly Solenoceraflorae) and brachyurans, as well as the squid Lolliguncula diomedae. Fishes (Ophidion spp.) were also an important component of the diet of this species. The most common preys of D. rostrum were crustaceans, mollusks, polychaetes and fish. The squid Lolliguncula diomedae and fishes of genus Ophidion were also well represented in the diet. Diet breadth index yielded significant differences between species. The number of diet items varied from 16 in D. euryplectrum to 6 in D. eumelum. The average value of overlap (0.247) was not significantly different (p = 0.118) from the expected one for a null model (0.174). The observed variance of the overlap index (0.071) was significantly higher (V = 0.025, p = 0.0004) than the value expected for a null model.

  2. Karyotypic analysis in species of the genus Dasyprocta (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae found in Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSEMAR S. L. RAMOS

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 30 animals of the genus Dasyprocta were cytogenetically studied. They belong to the following species: D. prymnolopha (N=20, D. leporina (N=6, D. fuliginosa (N=1 and Dasyprocta sp. (N=3 (Dasyproctidae, Hystricognathi. Cell suspensions were obtained by peripheral blood culture, besides bone marrow and spleen cells, from D. prymnolopha and D. leporina. The diploid number was 64/65 for all samples. The karyotypes showed similarity, and chromosomal polymorphism was not detected by Giemsa conventional staining and G banding. The constitutive heterochromatin distribution at the pericentromeric region of all the chromosomes was similar in all species. D. prymnolopha, D. leporina and Dasyprocta sp. presented variation in the heterochromatical block size at one of the homologues of the A18 pair. D. fuliginosa presented the heterochromatin uniformly distributed in all chromosomes. There was not variation in the NORs pattern in the species studied.Foram estudados citogeneticamente um total de 30 animais das espécies D. prymnolopha (N=20, D. leporina (N=6, D. fuliginosa (N=1 e Dasyprocta sp. (N=3 (Dasyproctidae, Histricognathi. As preparações cromossômicas foram obtidas do cultivo de sangue periférico, além de medula óssea e baço em D. prymnolopha e D. leporina. O número diplóide foi de 64/65 em todos os exemplares. O cariótipo mostrou similaridade, não sendo detectado, através de coloração convencional de giemsa e de banda G, polimorfismo cromossômico em qualquer uma das espécies estudadas. A distribuição da heterocromatina constitutiva na região pericentromérica de todos os cromossomos foi similar nas quatro espécies. D. prymnolopha, D. leporina e Dasyprocta sp. apresentaram variação no tamanho do bloco heterocromático em um dos homólogos do par A18. D. fuliginosa apresentou a heterocromatina uniformemente distribuída em todos os cromossomos. Não houve variação no padrão das RONs entre as esp��cies estudadas.

  3. Comparative 16S rRNA signatures and multilocus sequence analysis for the genus Salinicola and description of Salinicola acroporae sp. nov., isolated from coral Acropora digitifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepcha, Rinchen T; Poddar, Abhijit; Schumann, Peter; Das, Subrata K

    2015-07-01

    A novel Gram-negative, aerobic, motile marine bacterium, strain S4-41(T), was isolated from mucus of the coral Acropora digitifera from the Andaman Sea. Heterotrophic growth was observed in 0-25 % NaCl, at 15-45 °C and pH 4.5-9. In phylogenetic trees, strain S4-41(T) was grouped within the genus Salinicola but formed a separate branch distant from a cluster composed of Salinicola salarius M27(T) and Salinicola socius SMB35(T). DNA-DNA relatedness between strain S4-41(T) and these reference strains were well below 70 %. Q-9 was the sole respiratory quinone. The DNA G+C content was determined to be 63.6 mol%. Based on a polyphasic analysis, strain S4-41(T) is concluded to represent a novel species in the genus Salinicola for which the name Salinicola acroporae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S4-41(T) (=JCM 30412(T) = LMG 28587(T)). Comparative 16S rRNA analysis of the genera Salinicola, Kushneria, Chromohalobacter and Cobetia revealed the presence of genus specific sequence signatures. Multilocus sequence analysis based on concatenated sequences of rRNAs (16S and 23S) and four protein coding housekeeping genes (atpA, gyrB, secA, rpoD) was found to be unnecessary for phylogenetic studies of the genus Salinicola.

  4. The Casiquiare river acts as a corridor between the Amazonas and Orinoco river basins: biogeographic analysis of the genus Cichla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, S C; Nunes, M; Montaña, C G; Farias, I P; Ortí, G; Lovejoy, N R

    2010-03-01

    The Casiquiare River is a unique biogeographic corridor between the Orinoco and Amazonas basins. We investigated the importance of this connection for Neotropical fishes using peacock cichlids (Cichla spp.) as a model system. We tested whether the Casiquiare provides a conduit for gene flow between contemporary populations, and investigated the origin of biogeographic distributions that span the Casiquiare. Using sequences from the mitochondrial control region of three focal species (C. temensis, C. monoculus, and C. orinocensis) whose distributions include the Amazonas, Orinoco, and Casiquiare, we constructed maximum likelihood phylograms of haplotypes and analyzed the populations under an isolation-with-migration coalescent model. Our analyses suggest that populations of all three species have experienced some degree of gene flow via the Casiquiare. We also generated a mitochondrial genealogy of all Cichla species using >2000 bp and performed a dispersal-vicariance analysis (DIVA) to reconstruct the historical biogeography of the genus. This analysis, when combined with the intraspecific results, supports two instances of dispersal from the Amazonas to the Orinoco. Thus, our results support the idea that the Casiquiare connection is important across temporal scales, facilitating both gene flow and the dispersal and range expansion of species.

  5. What is the genus?

    CERN Document Server

    Popescu-Pampu, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Exploring several of the evolutionary branches of the mathematical notion of genus, this book traces the idea from its prehistory in problems of integration, through algebraic curves and their associated Riemann surfaces, into algebraic surfaces, and finally into higher dimensions. Its importance in analysis, algebraic geometry, number theory and topology is emphasized through many theorems. Almost every chapter is organized around excerpts from a research paper in which a new perspective was brought on the genus or on one of the objects to which this notion applies. The author was motivated by the belief that a subject may best be understood and communicated by studying its broad lines of development, feeling the way one arrives at the definitions of its fundamental notions, and appreciating the amount of effort spent in order to explore its phenomena.

  6. Determinació de l'estructura tridimensional de la glicogen sintasa de "Pyrococcus abyssi"

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Les glicogen i midó sintases són glicosiltransferases que catalitzen la transferència de residus glucosil a l'extrem no reductor d'una cadena creixent d'un glucà α-1,4, retenint la configuració del carboni anomèric del sucre transferit. Aquest procès és central en el metabolisme energètic de la majoria d'èssers vius.En aquest treball presentem l'estructura cristal·logràfica de la glicogen sintasa de Pyrococcus abyssi (PaGS). Aquest enzim és termoestable i presenta una activitat màxima a ...

  7. Theoretical Study on the Allosteric Regulation of an Oligomeric Protease from Pyrococcus horikoshii by Cl− Ion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongling Zhan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The thermophilic intracellular protease (PH1704 from Pyrococcus horikoshii that functions as an oligomer (hexamer or higher forms has proteolytic activity and remarkable stability. PH1704 is classified as a member of the C56 family of peptidases. This study is the first to observe that the use of Cl− as an allosteric inhibitor causes appreciable changes in the catalytic activity of the protease. Theoretical methods were used for further study. Quantum mechanical calculations indicated the binding mode of Cl− with Arg113. A molecular dynamics simulation explained how Cl− stabilized distinct contact species and how it controls the enzyme activity. The new structural insights obtained from this study are expected to stimulate further biochemical studies on the structures and mechanisms of allosteric proteases. It is clear that the discovery of new allosteric sites of the C56 family of peptidases may generate opportunities for pharmaceutical development and increases our understanding of the basic biological processes of this peptidase family.

  8. Heterologous Production of an Energy-Conserving Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase Complex in the Hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Jan Schut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is an important intermediate in anaerobic carbon fixation pathways in acetogenesis and methanogenesis. In addition, some anaerobes can utilize CO as an energy source. In the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus, which grows optimally at 80°C, CO oxidation and energy conservation is accomplished by a respiratory complex encoded by a 16-gene cluster containing a carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, a membrane-bound [NiFe]-hydrogenase and a Na+/H+ antiporter module. This complex oxidizes CO, evolves CO2 and H2, and generates a Na+ motive force that is used to conserve energy by a Na+-dependent ATP synthase. Herein we used a bacterial artificial chromosome to insert the 13.2 kb gene cluster encoding the CO-oxidizing respiratory complex of T. onnurineus into the genome of the heterotrophic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally at 100°C. P. furiosus is normally unable to utilize CO, however, the recombinant strain readily oxidized CO and generated H2 at 80°C. Moreover, CO also served as an energy source and allowed the P. furiosus strain to grow with a limiting concentration of sugar or with peptides as the carbon source. Moreover, CO oxidation by P. furiosus was also coupled to the re-utilization, presumably for biosynthesis, of acetate generated by fermentation. The functional transfer of CO utilization between Thermococcus and Pyrococcus species demonstrated herein is representative of the horizontal gene transfer of an environmentally-relevant metabolic capability. The transfer of CO utilizing, hydrogen-producing genetic modules also has applications for biohydrogen production and a CO-based industrial platform for various thermophilic organisms.

  9. Recombinant production and biochemical characterization of a hyperthermostable α-glucan/maltodextrin phosphorylase from Pyrococcus furiosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman M. Mizanur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-glucan phosphorylase catalyzes the reversible cleavage of α-1-4-linked glucose polymers into α-D-glucose-1-phosphate. We report the recombinant production of an α-glucan/maltodextrin phosphorylase (PF1535 from a hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus, and the first detailed biochemical characterization of this enzyme from any archaeal source using a mass-spectrometry-based assay. The apparent 98 kDa recombinant enzyme was active over a broad range of temperatures and pH, with optimal activity at 80 °C and pH 6.5–7. This archaeal protein retained its complete activity after 24 h at 80 °C in Tris-HCl buffer. Unlike other previously reported phosphorylases, the Ni-affinity column purified enzyme showed broad substrate specificity in both the synthesis and degradation of maltooligosaccharides. In the synthetic direction of the enzymatic reaction, the lowest oligosaccharide required for the chain elongation was maltose. In the degradative direction, the archaeal enzyme can produce glucose-1-phosphate from maltotriose or longer maltooligosaccharides including both glycogen and starch. The specific activity of the enzyme at 80 °C in the presence of 10 mM maltoheptaose and at 10 mg ml–1 glycogen concentration was 52 U mg–1 and 31 U mg–1, respectively. The apparent Michaelis constant and maximum velocity for inorganic phosphate were 31 ± 2 mM and 0.60 ± 0.02 mM min–1 µg–1, respectively. An initial velocity study of the enzymatic reaction indicated a sequential bi-bi catalytic mechanism. Unlike the more widely studied mammalian glycogen phosphorylase, the Pyrococcus enzyme is active in the absence of added AMP.

  10. Heterologous Production of an Energy-Conserving Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase Complex in the Hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schut, Gerrit J.; Lipscomb, Gina L.; Nguyen, Diep M. N.; Kelly, Robert M.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important intermediate in anaerobic carbon fixation pathways in acetogenesis and methanogenesis. In addition, some anaerobes can utilize CO as an energy source. In the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus, which grows optimally at 80°C, CO oxidation and energy conservation is accomplished by a respiratory complex encoded by a 16-gene cluster containing a CO dehydrogenase, a membrane-bound [NiFe]-hydrogenase and a Na+/H+ antiporter module. This complex oxidizes CO, evolves CO2 and H2, and generates a Na+ motive force that is used to conserve energy by a Na+-dependent ATP synthase. Herein we used a bacterial artificial chromosome to insert the 13.2 kb gene cluster encoding the CO-oxidizing respiratory complex of T. onnurineus into the genome of the heterotrophic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally at 100°C. P. furiosus is normally unable to utilize CO, however, the recombinant strain readily oxidized CO and generated H2 at 80°C. Moreover, CO also served as an energy source and allowed the P. furiosus strain to grow with a limiting concentration of sugar or with peptides as the carbon source. Moreover, CO oxidation by P. furiosus was also coupled to the re-utilization, presumably for biosynthesis, of acetate generated by fermentation. The functional transfer of CO utilization between Thermococcus and Pyrococcus species demonstrated herein is representative of the horizontal gene transfer of an environmentally relevant metabolic capability. The transfer of CO utilizing, hydrogen-producing genetic modules also has applications for biohydrogen production and a CO-based industrial platform for various thermophilic organisms. PMID:26858706

  11. Cladistic analysis of the genus Ebenus (Fabaceae-Hedysareae based on morphological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Kaveh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, cladistic analysis of characteristics morphological dataset using 21 characters for 26 taxa, including 19 taxa of Ebenus, 2 taxa of Taverniera, 2 taxa of Onobrychis and 2 taxa of Hedysarum as ingroups plus Alhagi persarum as an outgroup were chosen in phylogenetic analyses. Maximum parsimony approach as implemented in PAUP* with a heuristic search was employed. Fifty shortest trees with L=17.88 steps and a CI=0.709 and an RI=0.901 were generated. The analysis revealed that Ebenus was monophyletic. None of its multi-specific sections, Ebenidium and Euebenus, were monophyletic. E. cretica and E. stellata were basalmost branches that followed by a clade consisting of the remaining species. Onobrychis and Hedysarum were strongly allied with Ebenus.

  12. Analysis of resistance to Yam mosaic virus, genus Potyvirus in white guinea yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babajide Odu O.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to Yam mosaic virus (YMV, genus Potyvirus was studied in 10 populations of selected white Guinea yam (Dioscorea rotundata. Plants of resistant genotypes: TDr 35, TDr 1621, TDr 93-1, TDr 93-32, TDr 95-107, TDr 93-23, and susceptible ones: TDr 87/00211, TDr 87/00571 and TDr 95-127 were screened for their reaction to the pathogen by symptom severity scoring scale of 1-5, and by quantifying virus multiplication by triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA. Controlled crosses were made among the genotypes within and between the groups according to reactions to the pathogen. The resultant F1 progenies were evaluated for the infection by disease symptom development and by TAS ELISA to detect a symptomless infection in an insect-proof screenhouse for the assessment of inheritance of resistance to YMV. A genetic analysis of the reactions of progenies derived from the D. rotundata genotypes to inoculation with YMV strongly suggests that resistance to the virus is a dominantly inherited trait. Segregation ratios obtained from the families indicate that at least two dominant genes are involved.

  13. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus Fragaria (strawberry) using intron-containing sequence from the ADH-1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMeglio, Laura M; Staudt, Günter; Yu, Hongrun; Davis, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    The genus Fragaria encompasses species at ploidy levels ranging from diploid to decaploid. The cultivated strawberry, Fragaria×ananassa, and its two immediate progenitors, F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, are octoploids. To elucidate the ancestries of these octoploid species, we performed a phylogenetic analysis using intron-containing sequences of the nuclear ADH-1 gene from 39 germplasm accessions representing nineteen Fragaria species and one outgroup species, Dasiphora fruticosa. All trees from Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood analyses showed two major clades, Clade A and Clade B. Each of the sampled octoploids contributed alleles to both major clades. All octoploid-derived alleles in Clade A clustered with alleles of diploid F. vesca, with the exception of one octoploid allele that clustered with the alleles of diploid F. mandshurica. All octoploid-derived alleles in clade B clustered with the alleles of only one diploid species, F. iinumae. When gaps encoded as binary characters were included in the Maximum Parsimony analysis, tree resolution was improved with the addition of six nodes, and the bootstrap support was generally higher, rising above the 50% threshold for an additional nine branches. These results, coupled with the congruence of the sequence data and the coded gap data, validate and encourage the employment of sequence sets containing gaps for phylogenetic analysis. Our phylogenetic conclusions, based upon sequence data from the ADH-1 gene located on F. vesca linkage group II, complement and generally agree with those obtained from analyses of protein-encoding genes GBSSI-2 and DHAR located on F. vesca linkage groups V and VII, respectively, but differ from a previous study that utilized rDNA sequences and did not detect the ancestral role of F. iinumae.

  14. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus Fragaria (strawberry using intron-containing sequence from the ADH-1 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M DiMeglio

    Full Text Available The genus Fragaria encompasses species at ploidy levels ranging from diploid to decaploid. The cultivated strawberry, Fragaria×ananassa, and its two immediate progenitors, F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, are octoploids. To elucidate the ancestries of these octoploid species, we performed a phylogenetic analysis using intron-containing sequences of the nuclear ADH-1 gene from 39 germplasm accessions representing nineteen Fragaria species and one outgroup species, Dasiphora fruticosa. All trees from Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood analyses showed two major clades, Clade A and Clade B. Each of the sampled octoploids contributed alleles to both major clades. All octoploid-derived alleles in Clade A clustered with alleles of diploid F. vesca, with the exception of one octoploid allele that clustered with the alleles of diploid F. mandshurica. All octoploid-derived alleles in clade B clustered with the alleles of only one diploid species, F. iinumae. When gaps encoded as binary characters were included in the Maximum Parsimony analysis, tree resolution was improved with the addition of six nodes, and the bootstrap support was generally higher, rising above the 50% threshold for an additional nine branches. These results, coupled with the congruence of the sequence data and the coded gap data, validate and encourage the employment of sequence sets containing gaps for phylogenetic analysis. Our phylogenetic conclusions, based upon sequence data from the ADH-1 gene located on F. vesca linkage group II, complement and generally agree with those obtained from analyses of protein-encoding genes GBSSI-2 and DHAR located on F. vesca linkage groups V and VII, respectively, but differ from a previous study that utilized rDNA sequences and did not detect the ancestral role of F. iinumae.

  15. Development of ESTs from chickpea roots and their use in diversity analysis of the Cicer genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshwar K

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chickpea is a major crop in many drier regions of the world where it is an important protein-rich food and an increasingly valuable traded commodity. The wild annual Cicer species are known to possess unique sources of resistance to pests and diseases, and tolerance to environmental stresses. However, there has been limited utilization of these wild species by chickpea breeding programs due to interspecific crossing barriers and deleterious linkage drag. Molecular genetic diversity analysis may help predict which accessions are most likely to produce fertile progeny when crossed with chickpea cultivars. While, trait-markers may provide an effective tool for breaking linkage drag. Although SSR markers are the assay of choice for marker-assisted selection of specific traits in conventional breeding populations, they may not provide reliable estimates of interspecific diversity, and may lose selective power in backcross programs based on interspecific introgressions. Thus, we have pursued the development of gene-based markers to resolve these problems and to provide candidate gene markers for QTL mapping of important agronomic traits. Results An EST library was constructed after subtractive suppressive hybridization (SSH of root tissue from two very closely related chickpea genotypes (Cicer arietinum. A total of 106 EST-based markers were designed from 477 sequences with functional annotations and these were tested on C. arietinum. Forty-four EST markers were polymorphic when screened across nine Cicer species (including the cultigen. Parsimony and PCoA analysis of the resultant EST-marker dataset indicated that most accessions cluster in accordance with the previously defined classification of primary (C. arietinum, C. echinospermum and C. reticulatum, secondary (C. pinnatifidum, C. bijugum and C. judaicum, and tertiary (C. yamashitae, C. chrossanicum and C. cuneatum gene-pools. A large proportion of EST alleles (45% were only

  16. Characterization of novel human papillomavirus types 157, 158 and 205 from healthy skin and recombination analysis in genus γ-Papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolatti, Elisa M; Chouhy, Diego; Casal, Pablo E; Pérez, Germán R; Stella, Emma J; Sanchez, Adriana; Gorosito, Mario; Bussy, Ramón Fernandez; Giri, Adriana A

    2016-08-01

    Gammapapillomavirus (γ-PV) is a diverse and rapidly expanding genus, currently consisting of 79 fully characterized human PV (HPV) types. In this study, three novel types, HPV157, HPV158 and HPV205, obtained from healthy sun-exposed skin of two immunocompetent individuals, were amplified by the "Hanging droplet" long PCR technique, cloned, sequenced and characterized. HPV157, HPV158 and HPV205 genomes comprise 7154-bp, 7192-bp and 7298-bp, respectively, and contain four early (E1, E2, E6 and E7) and two late genes (L1 and L2). Phylogenetic analysis of the L1 ORF placed all novel types within the γ-PV genus: HPV157 was classified as a new member of species γ-12 while HPV158 and HPV205 belong to species γ-1. We then explored potential recombination events in genus γ-PV with the RDP4 program in a dataset of 74 viruses (71 HPV types with available full-length genomes and the 3 novel types). Two events, both located in the E1 ORF, met the inclusion criterion (p-values genus γ-PV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Genomic Characterization for Parasitic Weeds of the Genus Striga by Sample Sequence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt C. Estep

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Generation of ∼2200 Sanger sequence reads or ∼10,000 454 reads for seven Lour. DNA samples (five species allowed identification of the highly repetitive DNA content in these genomes. The 14 most abundant repeats in these species were identified and partially assembled. Annotation indicated that they represent nine long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposon families, three tandem satellite repeats, one long interspersed element (LINE retroelement, and one DNA transposon. All of these repeats are most closely related to repetitive elements in other closely related plants and are not products of horizontal transfer from their host species. These repeats were differentially abundant in each species, with the LTR retrotransposons and satellite repeats most responsible for variation in genome size. Each species had some repetitive elements that were more abundant and some less abundant than the other species examined, indicating that no single element or any unilateral growth or decrease trend in genome behavior was responsible for variation in genome size and composition. Genome sizes were determined by flow sorting, and the values of 615 Mb [ (L. Kuntze], 1330 Mb [ (Willd. Vatke], 1425 Mb [ (Delile Benth.] and 2460 Mb ( Benth. suggest a ploidy series, a prediction supported by repetitive DNA sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis using six chloroplast loci indicated the ancestral relationships of the five most agriculturally important species, with the unexpected result that the one parasite of dicotyledonous plants ( was found to be more closely related to some of the grass parasites than many of the grass parasites are to each other.

  18. Genetic analysis and morphological identification of pilus-like structures in members of the genus Bifidobacterium

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-08-30

    Abstract Background Cell surface pili in Gram positive bacteria have been reported to orchestrate the colonization of host tissues, evasion of immunity and the development of biofilms. So far, little if any information is available on the presence of pilus-like structures in human gut commensals like bifidobacteria. Results and discussion In this report, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) of various bifidobacterial strains belonging to Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum, Bifidobacterium dentium, Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis revealed the existence of appendages resembling pilus-like structures. Interestingly, these microorganisms harbour two to six predicted pilus gene clusters in their genome, with each organized in an operon encompassing the major pilin subunit-encoding gene (designated fimA or fimP) together with one or two minor pilin subunit-encoding genes (designated as fimB and\\/or fimQ), and a gene encoding a sortase enzyme (strA). Quantitative Real Time (qRT)-PCR analysis and RT-PCR experiments revealed a polycistronic mRNA, encompassing the fimA\\/P and fimB\\/Q genes, which are differentially expressed upon cultivation of bifidobacteria on various glycans.

  19. Variability and factor analysis of morphological and productive characteristics of species of the genus Amaranthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujačić Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten genotypes of amaranth were being studied for three years. Morphological and productive characteristics - plant height, foliage per plant, average foliage length, average foliage width, mass per plant, and seed mass per plant were the subject of this research. Variability of these traits was analyzed and classification of the genotypes by the method of major components was conducted. Variability within a specific trait was significant. In case of the plant height it ranged between 93.18 cm (genotype 9 - A. cruentus and 160.78 cm (genotype 1 - A mantegazzianus; foliage per plant raged between 12.89 (genotype 10 - A cruentus and 23.46 (genotype I - A mantegazzianus; average foliage length varied from 14.77 cm (genotype 9 - A cruentus to 26.72 cm (genotype 1 - A mantegazzianus; average foliage width ranged between 6.30 cm (genotype 9 - A cruentus and 14.46 cm (genotype 1 - A mantegazzianus; foliage mass per plant ranged between 94.05 g (genotype 3 - A molleros and 246.81 g (genotype 1 - A mantegazzianus. Seed mass per plant varied from 45.56 g (genotype 3 - A molleros to 67.55 g (genotype I - A mantegazzianus. The major components method, i.e. factor analysis indicated that the characteristics such as: plant height, average foliage length and average foliage width, had a significant factor loading with the first factor. These traits are of a crucial importance for genotype variability. Foliage number and foliage mass were significantly correlated with the second factor, meaning that they were of a minor importance for the genotype variability. Such results offer guidance with respect to the plant modeling, i.e. indicate how to proceed with the breeding program of this species.

  20. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of an endemic monotypic genus Hagenia (Rosaceae): structural comparative analysis, gene content and microsatellite detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gichira, Andrew W; Li, Zhizhong; Saina, Josphat K; Long, Zhicheng; Hu, Guangwan; Gituru, Robert W; Wang, Qingfeng; Chen, Jinming

    2017-01-01

    Hagenia is an endangered monotypic genus endemic to the topical mountains of Africa. The only species, Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J.F. Gmel, is an important medicinal plant producing bioactive compounds that have been traditionally used by African communities as a remedy for gastrointestinal ailments in both humans and animals. Complete chloroplast genomes have been applied in resolving phylogenetic relationships within plant families. We employed high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine the complete chloroplast genome sequence of H. abyssinica. The genome is a circular molecule of 154,961 base pairs (bp), with a pair of Inverted Repeats (IR) 25,971 bp each, separated by two single copies; a large (LSC, 84,320 bp) and a small single copy (SSC, 18,696). H. abyssinica's chloroplast genome has a 37.1% GC content and encodes 112 unique genes, 78 of which code for proteins, 30 are tRNA genes and four are rRNA genes. A comparative analysis with twenty other species, sequenced to-date from the family Rosaceae, revealed similarities in structural organization, gene content and arrangement. The observed size differences are attributed to the contraction/expansion of the inverted repeats. The translational initiation factor gene (infA) which had been previously reported in other chloroplast genomes was conspicuously missing in H. abyssinica. A total of 172 microsatellites and 49 large repeat sequences were detected in the chloroplast genome. A Maximum Likelihood analyses of 71 protein-coding genes placed Hagenia in Rosoideae. The availability of a complete chloroplast genome, the first in the Sanguisorbeae tribe, is beneficial for further molecular studies on taxonomic and phylogenomic resolution within the Rosaceae family.

  1. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of an endemic monotypic genus Hagenia (Rosaceae: structural comparative analysis, gene content and microsatellite detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W. Gichira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hagenia is an endangered monotypic genus endemic to the topical mountains of Africa. The only species, Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce J.F. Gmel, is an important medicinal plant producing bioactive compounds that have been traditionally used by African communities as a remedy for gastrointestinal ailments in both humans and animals. Complete chloroplast genomes have been applied in resolving phylogenetic relationships within plant families. We employed high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine the complete chloroplast genome sequence of H. abyssinica. The genome is a circular molecule of 154,961 base pairs (bp, with a pair of Inverted Repeats (IR 25,971 bp each, separated by two single copies; a large (LSC, 84,320 bp and a small single copy (SSC, 18,696. H. abyssinica’s chloroplast genome has a 37.1% GC content and encodes 112 unique genes, 78 of which code for proteins, 30 are tRNA genes and four are rRNA genes. A comparative analysis with twenty other species, sequenced to-date from the family Rosaceae, revealed similarities in structural organization, gene content and arrangement. The observed size differences are attributed to the contraction/expansion of the inverted repeats. The translational initiation factor gene (infA which had been previously reported in other chloroplast genomes was conspicuously missing in H. abyssinica. A total of 172 microsatellites and 49 large repeat sequences were detected in the chloroplast genome. A Maximum Likelihood analyses of 71 protein-coding genes placed Hagenia in Rosoideae. The availability of a complete chloroplast genome, the first in the Sanguisorbeae tribe, is beneficial for further molecular studies on taxonomic and phylogenomic resolution within the Rosaceae family.

  2. Comparative analysis of the repertoire of G protein-coupled receptors of three species of the fungal genus Trichoderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Eukaryotic organisms employ cell surface receptors such as the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as sensors to connect to the environment. GPCRs react to a variety of extracellular cues and are considered to play central roles in the signal transduction in fungi. Several species of the filamentous ascomycete Trichoderma are potent mycoparasites, i.e. can attack and parasitize other fungi, which turns them into successful bio-fungicides for the protection of plants against fungal phytopathogens. The identification and characterization of GPCRs will provide insights into how Trichoderma communicates with its environment and senses the presence of host fungi. Results We mined the recently published genomes of the two mycoparasitic biocontrol agents Trichoderma atroviride and Trichoderma virens and compared the identified GPCR-like proteins to those of the saprophyte Trichoderma reesei. Phylogenetic analyses resulted in 14 classes and revealed differences not only among the three Trichoderma species but also between Trichoderma and other fungi. The class comprising proteins of the PAQR family was significantly expanded both in Trichoderma compared to other fungi as well as in the two mycoparasites compared to T. reesei. Expression analysis of the PAQR-encoding genes of the three Trichoderma species revealed that all except one were actually transcribed. Furthermore, the class of receptors with a DUF300 domain was expanded in T. atroviride, and T. virens showed an expansion of PTH11-like receptors compared to T. atroviride and T. reesei. Conclusions Comparative genome analyses of three Trichoderma species revealed a great diversity of putative GPCRs with genus- and species- specific differences. The expansion of certain classes in the mycoparasites T. atroviride and T. virens is likely to reflect the capability of these fungi to establish various ecological niches and interactions with other organisms such as fungi and plants. These

  3. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of an endemic monotypic genus Hagenia (Rosaceae): structural comparative analysis, gene content and microsatellite detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saina, Josphat K.; Long, Zhicheng; Hu, Guangwan; Gituru, Robert W.

    2017-01-01

    Hagenia is an endangered monotypic genus endemic to the topical mountains of Africa. The only species, Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J.F. Gmel, is an important medicinal plant producing bioactive compounds that have been traditionally used by African communities as a remedy for gastrointestinal ailments in both humans and animals. Complete chloroplast genomes have been applied in resolving phylogenetic relationships within plant families. We employed high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine the complete chloroplast genome sequence of H. abyssinica. The genome is a circular molecule of 154,961 base pairs (bp), with a pair of Inverted Repeats (IR) 25,971 bp each, separated by two single copies; a large (LSC, 84,320 bp) and a small single copy (SSC, 18,696). H. abyssinica’s chloroplast genome has a 37.1% GC content and encodes 112 unique genes, 78 of which code for proteins, 30 are tRNA genes and four are rRNA genes. A comparative analysis with twenty other species, sequenced to-date from the family Rosaceae, revealed similarities in structural organization, gene content and arrangement. The observed size differences are attributed to the contraction/expansion of the inverted repeats. The translational initiation factor gene (infA) which had been previously reported in other chloroplast genomes was conspicuously missing in H. abyssinica. A total of 172 microsatellites and 49 large repeat sequences were detected in the chloroplast genome. A Maximum Likelihood analyses of 71 protein-coding genes placed Hagenia in Rosoideae. The availability of a complete chloroplast genome, the first in the Sanguisorbeae tribe, is beneficial for further molecular studies on taxonomic and phylogenomic resolution within the Rosaceae family.

  4. The genus Bipolaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manamgoda, D.S.; Rossman, A.Y.; Castlebury, L.A.; Crous, P.W.; Madrid, H.; Chukeatirote, E.; Hyde, K.D.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on

  5. The medical threat of mamba envenoming in sub-Saharan Africa revealed by genus-wide analysis of venom composition, toxicity and antivenomics profiling of available antivenoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Stuart; Petras, Daniel; Engmark, Mikael; Süssmuth, Roderich D; Whiteley, Gareth; Albulescu, Laura-Oana; Kazandjian, Taline D; Wagstaff, Simon C; Rowley, Paul; Wüster, Wolfgang; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Arias, Ana Silvia; Gutiérrez, José M; Harrison, Robert A; Casewell, Nicholas R; Calvete, Juan J

    2017-08-24

    extremely rapid-acting neurotoxins. Previous studies on mamba venoms have focused on the biochemical and pharmacological characterisation of their most relevant toxins to rationalize the common neurological and neuromuscular symptoms of envenomings caused by these species, but there has been little work on overall venom composition or comparisons between them. Only very recently an overview of the composition of the venom of two Dendroaspis species, D. angusticeps and D. polylepis, has been unveiled through venomics approaches. Here we present the first genus-wide transcriptomic-proteomic analysis of mamba venom composition. The transcriptomic analyses described in this paper have contributed 29 (D. polylepis), 23 (D. angusticeps), 40 (D. viridis), 25 (D. j. jamesoni) and 21 (D. j. kaimosae), novel full-length toxin sequences to the non-redundant Dendroaspis sequence database. The mamba genus-wide venomic analysis demonstrated that major D. polylepis venom components are Kunitz-fold family toxins. This feature is unique in relation to the relatively conserved three-finger toxin (3FTx)-dominated venom compositions of the green mambas. Venom variation was interpreted in the context of dietary variation due to the divergent terrestrial ecology of D. polylepis compared to the arboreal niche occupied by all other mambas. Additionally, the degree of cross-reactivity conservation of mamba venoms was assessed by antivenomics against a panel of commercial antivenoms generated for the sub-Saharan Africa market. This study provides a genus-wide overview to infer which available antivenoms may be capable of neutralising human envenomings caused by mambas, irrespective of the species responsible. The information gathered in this study lays the foundations for rationalising the pharmacological profiles of mamba venoms at locus resolution. This understanding will contribute to the generation of a safer and more efficacious pan-Dendroaspis therapeutic antivenom against any mamba

  6. Phylogenetic analysis, genetic diversity and relationships between the recently segregated species of Corynandra and Cleoserrata from the genus Cleome using DNA barcoding and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboli, Asif Shabodin; Patil, Swapnil Mahadeo; Gholave, Avinash Ramchandra; Kadam, Suhas Kishor; Kotibhaskar, Shreya Vijaykumar; Yadav, Shrirang Ramchandra; Govindwar, Sanjay Prabhu

    2016-01-01

    Cleome is the largest genus in the family Cleomaceae and it is known for its various medicinal properties. Recently, some species from the Cleome genus (Cleome viscosa, Cleome chelidonii, Cleome felina and Cleome speciosa) are split into genera Corynandra (Corynandra viscosa, Corynandra chelidonii, Corynandra felina), and Cleoserrata (Cleoserrata speciosa). The objective of this study was to obtain DNA barcodes for these species for their accurate identification and determining phylogenetic relationships. Out of 10 screened barcoding regions, rbcL, matK and ITS1 regions showed higher PCR efficiency and sequencing success. This study added matK, rbcL and ITS1 barcodes for the identification of Corynandra chelidonii, Corynandra felina, Cleome simplicifolia and Cleome aspera species in existing barcode data. Corynandra chelidonii and Corynandra felina species belong to the Corynandra genus, but they are not grouped with the Corynandra viscosa species, however clustered with the Cleome species. Molecular marker analysis showed 100% polymorphism among the studied plant samples. Diversity indices for molecular markers were ranged from He=0.1115-0.1714 and I=0.2268-0.2700, which indicates a significant amount of genetic diversity among studied species. Discrimination of the Cleome and Corynandra species from Cleoserrata speciosa was obtained by two RAPD primers (OPA-4 and RAPD-17) and two ISSR primers (ISSR-1 and ISSR-2). RAPD and ISSR markers are useful for the genetic characterization of these studied species. The present investigation will be helpful to understand the relationships of Cleome lineages with Corynandra and Cleoserrata species.

  7. Genome Analysis of the Biotechnologically Relevant Acidophilic Iron Oxidising Strain JA12 Indicates Phylogenetic and Metabolic Diversity within the Novel Genus "Ferrovum".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie R Ullrich

    Full Text Available Members of the genus "Ferrovum" are ubiquitously distributed in acid mine drainage (AMD waters which are characterised by their high metal and sulfate loads. So far isolation and microbiological characterisation have only been successful for the designated type strain "Ferrovum myxofaciens" P3G. Thus, knowledge about physiological characteristics and the phylogeny of the genus "Ferrovum" is extremely scarce.In order to access the wider genetic pool of the genus "Ferrovum" we sequenced the genome of a "Ferrovum"-containing mixed culture and successfully assembled the almost complete genome sequence of the novel "Ferrovum" strain JA12.The genome-based phylogenetic analysis indicates that strain JA12 and the type strain represent two distinct "Ferrovum" species. "Ferrovum" strain JA12 is characterised by an unusually small genome in comparison to the type strain and other iron oxidising bacteria. The prediction of nutrient assimilation pathways suggests that "Ferrovum" strain JA12 maintains a chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle utilising carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, ammonium and urea, sulfate, phosphate and ferrous iron as carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous and energy sources, respectively.The potential utilisation of urea by "Ferrovum" strain JA12 is moreover remarkable since it may furthermore represent a strategy among extreme acidophiles to cope with the acidic environment. Unlike other acidophilic chemolithoautotrophs "Ferrovum" strain JA12 exhibits a complete tricarboxylic acid cycle, a metabolic feature shared with the closer related neutrophilic iron oxidisers among the Betaproteobacteria including Sideroxydans lithotrophicus and Thiobacillus denitrificans. Furthermore, the absence of characteristic redox proteins involved in iron oxidation in the well-studied acidophiles Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (rusticyanin and Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans (iron oxidase indicates the existence of a modified pathway in "Ferrovum" strain JA12

  8. Analysis of phylogenetic relationships and genome size evolution of the Amaranthus genus using GBS indicates the ancestors of an ancient crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetter, Markus G; Schmid, Karl J

    2017-04-01

    The genus Amaranthus consists of 50-70 species and harbors several cultivated and weedy species of great economic importance. A small number of suitable traits, phenotypic plasticity, gene flow and hybridization made it difficult to establish the taxonomy and phylogeny of the whole genus despite various studies using molecular markers. We inferred the phylogeny of the Amaranthus genus using genotyping by sequencing (GBS) of 94 genebank accessions representing 35 Amaranthus species and measured their genome sizes. SNPs were called by de novo and reference-based methods, for which we used the distant sugarbeet Beta vulgaris and the closely related Amaranthus hypochondriacus as references. SNP counts and proportions of missing data differed between methods, but the resulting phylogenetic trees were highly similar. A distance-based neighbor joining tree of individual accessions and a species tree calculated with the multispecies coalescent supported a previous taxonomic classification into three subgenera although the subgenus A. Acnida consists of two highly differentiated clades. The analysis of the Hybridus complex within the A. Amaranthus subgenus revealed insights on the history of cultivated grain amaranths. The complex includes the three cultivated grain amaranths and their wild relatives and was well separated from other species in the subgenus. Wild and cultivated amaranth accessions did not differentiate according to the species assignment but clustered by their geographic origin from South and Central America. Different geographically separated populations of Amaranthus hybridus appear to be the common ancestors of the three cultivated grain species and A. quitensis might be additionally be involved in the evolution of South American grain amaranth (A. caudatus). We also measured genome sizes of the species and observed little variation with the exception of two lineages that showed evidence for a recent polyploidization. With the exception of two lineages

  9. Hydrolysis of isoflavone glycosides by a thermostable β-glucosidase from Pyrococcus furiosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Soo-Jin; Kim, Bi-Na; Kim, Yeong-Su; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2012-02-15

    The recombinant β-glucosidase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus was purified with a specific activity of 330 U/mg for genistin by His-trap chromatography. The specific activity of the purified enzyme followed the order genistin > daidzin > glycitin> malonyl glycitin > malonyl daidzin > malonyl genistin. The hydrolytic activity for genistin was highest at pH 6.0 and 95 °C with a half-life of 59 h, a K(m) of 0.5 mM, and a k(cat) of 6050 1/s. The enzyme completely hydrolyzed 1.0 mM genistin, daidzin, and glycitin within 100, 140, and 180 min, respectively. The soybean flour extract at 7.5% (w/v) contained 1.0 mM genistin, 0.9 mM daidzin, and 0.3 mM glycitin. Genistin, daidzin, and glycitin in the soybean flour extract were completely hydrolyzed after 60, 75, and 120 min, respectively. Of the reported β-glucosidases, P. furiosusβ-glucosidase exhibited the highest thermostability, k(cat), k(cat)/K(m), yield, and productivity for hydrolyzing genistin. These results suggest that this enzyme may be useful for the industrial hydrolysis of isoflavone glycosides.

  10. Differential signal transduction via TrmB, a sugar sensing transcriptional repressor of Pyrococcus furiosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Jae; Surma, Melanie; Seitz, Sabine; Hausner, Winfried; Thomm, Michael; Boos, Winfried

    2007-06-01

    TrmB is a transcriptional repressor of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus serving at least two operons. TrmB represses genes encoding an ABC transporter for trehalose and maltose (the TM system) with trehalose and maltose as inducers. TrmB also represses genes encoding another ABC transporter for maltodextrins (the MD system) with maltotriose and sucrose as inducers. Here we report that glucose which was also bound by TrmB acted as a corepressor (causing stronger repression) for both the TM and the MD system. Binding of glucose by TrmB was increased in the presence of TM promoter DNA. Maltose which acted as inducer for the TM system acted as a corepressor for the MD system intensifying repression. We propose that the differential conformational changes of TrmB in response to binding the different sugars governs the ability of TrmB to interact with the promoter region and represents a simple mechanism for selecting the usage of one carbon source over the other, reminiscent of catabolite repression in bacteria.

  11. Replication slippage of the thermophilic DNA polymerases B and D from the Euryarchaeota Pyrococcus abyssi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Lizardo, Melissa; Henneke, Ghislaine; Viguera, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Replication slippage or slipped-strand mispairing involves the misalignment of DNA strands during the replication of repeated DNA sequences, and can lead to genetic rearrangements such as microsatellite instability. Here, we show that PolB and PolD replicative DNA polymerases from the archaeal model Pyrococcus abyssi (Pab) slip in vitro during replication of a single-stranded DNA template carrying a hairpin structure and short direct repeats. We find that this occurs in both their wild-type (exo+) and exonuclease deficient (exo-) forms. The slippage behavior of PabPolB and PabPolD, probably due to limited strand displacement activity, resembles that observed for the high fidelity P. furiosus (Pfu) DNA polymerase. The presence of PabPCNA inhibited PabPolB and PabPolD slippage. We propose a model whereby PabPCNA stimulates strand displacement activity and polymerase progression through the hairpin, thus permitting the error-free replication of repetitive sequences.

  12. Comparative Genomic and Transcriptional Analyses of CRISPR Systems Across the Genus Pyrobaculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Bernick

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the domain Archaea, the CRISPR immune system appears to be nearly ubiquitous based on computational genome analyses. Initial studies in bacteria demonstrated that the CRISPR system targets invading plasmid and viral DNA. Recent experiments in the model archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus uncovered a novel RNA-targeting variant of the CRISPR system potentially unique to archaea. Because our understanding of CRISPR system evolution in other archaea is limited, we have taken a comparative genomic and transcriptomic view of the CRISPR arrays across six diverse species within the crenarchaeal genus Pyrobaculum. We present transcriptional data from each of four species in the genus (P. aerophilum, P. islandicum, P. calidifontis, P. arsenaticum, analyzing mature CRISPR-associated small RNA abundance from over 20 arrays. Within the genus, there is remarkable conservation of CRISPR array structure, as well as unique features that are have not been studied in other archaeal systems. These unique features include: a nearly invariant CRISPR promoter, conservation of direct repeat families, the 5' polarity of CRISPR-associated small RNA abundance, and a novel CRISPR-specific association with homologues of nurA and herA. These analyses provide a genus-level evolutionary perspective on archaeal CRISPR systems, broadening our understanding beyond existing non-comparative model systems.

  13. Certhiasomus, a new genus of woodcreeper (Aves: Passeriformes: Dendrocolaptidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derryberry, Elizabeth; Claramunt, Santiago; Chesser, R. Terry; Aleixo, Alexandre; Cracraft, Joel; Moyle, Robert G.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the family Dendrocolaptidae (Aves: Passeriformes) indicates that the two species traditionally placed in the genus Deconychura are not sister taxa. Certhiasomus, a new genus of woodcreeper, is described for one of these species, C. stictolaemus.

  14. Specific interaction between DNA polymerase II (PolD) and RadB, a Rad51/Dmc1 homolog, in Pyrococcus furiosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, I; Morikawa, K; Ishino, Y

    1999-12-15

    Pyrococcus furiosus has an operon containing the DNA polymerase II (PolD) gene and three other genes. Using a two-hybrid screening to examine the interactions of the proteins encoded by the operon, we identified a specific interaction between the second subunit of PolD (DP1) and a Rad51/Dmc1 homologous protein (RadB). To ensure the specific interaction between these two proteins, each gene in the operon was expressed in Escherichia coli or insect cells separately and the products were purified. The in vitro analyses using the purified proteins also showed the interaction between DP1 and RadB. The deletion mutant analysis of DP1 revealed that a region important for binding with RadB is located in the central part of the sequence (amino acid residues 206-498). This region has an overlap to the C-terminal half (amino acids 334-613), which is highly conserved among euryarchaeal DP1s and is essential for the activity of PolD. Our results suggest that, although RadB does not noticeably affect the primer extension ability of PolD in vitro, PolD may utilize the RadB protein in DNA synthesis under certain conditions.

  15. Complete genome sequence and analysis of blackcurrant leaf chlorosis associated virus, a new member of the genus Idaeovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Delano; Phelan, James

    2017-02-11

    Blackcurrant leaf chlorosis associated virus (BCLCaV) was isolated from symptomatic blackcurrants (Ribes nigrum cv. Baldwin). The virus has a genome organization similar to that of raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV), the type member of the genus Idaeovirus. The RNA-1of this virus encodes the replicase complex (ORF1, Mr 197 kDa), while RNA-2 encodes a putative movement protein (ORF2a, Mr 38.8 kDa) and the putative coat protein (ORF2b, Mr 30 kDa). A concatenated form of BCLCaV RNA-2 was detected by next-generation sequencing and confirmed by RT-PCR. BCLCaV is a new member of the genus Idaeovirus.

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of symbionts in feather-feeding lice of the genus Columbicola: evidence for repeated symbiont replacements

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Wendy A.; Oakeson, Kelly F.; Johnson, Kevin P.; Reed, David L.; Carter, Tamar; Smith, Kari L; Koga, Ryuichi; Fukatsu, Takema; Dale H Clayton; Dale, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Background Many groups of insects have obligate bacterial symbionts that are vertically transmitted. Such associations are typically characterized by the presence of a monophyletic group of bacteria living in a well-defined host clade. In addition the phylogeny of the symbiotic bacteria is typically congruent with that of the host, signifying co-speciation. Here we show that bacteria living in a single genus of feather lice, Columbicola (Insecta: Phthiraptera), present an exception to this ty...

  17. Synteny analysis provides a route to design genus-specific PCR primers for rapid identification of all Saccharomyces species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Ben; Hulin, Michelle; Thorne-Wallis, James; Wheals, Alan

    2014-05-01

    The genus Saccharomyces comprises seven single-genome species (S. arboricola, S. cerevisiae, S. eubayanus, S. kudriavzevii, S. mikatae, S. paradoxus and S. uvarum) and two hybrid species - S. pastorianus (S. cerevisiae plus S. eubayanus) and S. bayanus (mostly S. uvarum plus S. eubayanus). Species-specific primers have already been developed for the identification of each of the single-genome species, and these primers can usually detect both genomes in hybrids. It would be advantageous if a single reaction could detect any member of the clade. We have investigated three potentially generic approaches to design genus-specific primers. Two methods that both use sequence alignment differences for primer design were only partly successful. A third method used synteny data to identify 136 target genes that are potentially present only in all species of the Saccharomyces clade. HSP30 (YCR021C) was fully successful; different primer pairs were developed with high G+C content for use at 63 °C. In < 3 h, using a robust colony-PCR followed by gel electrophoresis, the method can reliably detect any member of the genus. This novel approach still uses conventional sequence alignment mismatches but relies principally on the presence of the target gene only within the genus Saccharomyces. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative genomic analysis of 45 type strains of the genus Bifidobacterium: a snapshot of its genetic diversity and evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Sun

    Full Text Available Bifidobacteria are well known for their human health-promoting effects and are therefore widely applied in the food industry. Members of the Bifidobacterium genus were first identified from the human gastrointestinal tract and were then found to be widely distributed across various ecological niches. Although the genetic diversity of Bifidobacterium has been determined based on several marker genes or a few genomes, the global diversity and evolution scenario for the entire genus remain unresolved. The present study comparatively analyzed the genomes of 45 type strains. We built a robust genealogy for Bifidobacterium based on 402 core genes and defined its root according to the phylogeny of the tree of bacteria. Our results support that all human isolates are of younger lineages, and although species isolated from bees dominate the more ancient lineages, the bee was not necessarily the original host for bifidobacteria. Moreover, the species isolated from different hosts are enriched with specific gene sets, suggesting host-specific adaptation. Notably, bee-specific genes are strongly associated with respiratory metabolism and are potential in helping those bacteria adapt to the oxygen-rich gut environment in bees. This study provides a snapshot of the genetic diversity and evolution of Bifidobacterium, paving the way for future studies on the taxonomy and functional genomics of the genus.

  19. Evolutionary analysis of a large mtDNA translocation (numt) into the nuclear genome of the Panthera genus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Heup; Antunes, Agostinho; Luo, Shu-Jin; Menninger, Joan; Nash, William G; O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E

    2006-02-01

    Translocation of cymtDNA into the nuclear genome, also referred to as numt, has been reported in many species, including several closely related to the domestic cat (Felis catus). We describe the recent transposition of 12,536 bp of the 17 kb mitochondrial genome into the nucleus of the common ancestor of the five Panthera genus species: tiger, P. tigris; snow leopard, P. uncia; jaguar, P. onca; leopard, P. pardus; and lion, P. leo. This nuclear integration, representing 74% of the mitochondrial genome, is one of the largest to be reported in eukaryotes. The Panthera genus numt differs from the numt previously described in the Felis genus in: (1) chromosomal location (F2-telomeric region vs. D2-centromeric region), (2) gene make up (from the ND5 to the ATP8 vs. from the CR to the COII), (3) size (12.5 vs. 7.9 kb), and (4) structure (single monomer vs. tandemly repeated in Felis). These distinctions indicate that the origin of this large numt fragment in the nuclear genome of the Panthera species is an independent insertion from that of the domestic cat lineage, which has been further supported by phylogenetic analyses. The tiger cymtDNA shared around 90% sequence identity with the homologous numt sequence, suggesting an origin for the Panthera numt at around 3.5 million years ago, prior to the radiation of the five extant Panthera species.

  20. Structural analysis of inter-genus complexes of V-antigen and its regulator and their stabilization by divalent metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Abhishek; Das, Atanu; Mondal, Abhisek; Datta, Saumen

    2016-03-01

    Gram-negative bacteria like Yersinia, Pseudomonas, and Aeromonas need type III secretion system (T3SS) for their pathogenicity. V-antigen and its regulator are essential for functioning of T3SS. There is significant functional conservation amongst V-antigen and its regulator belonging to the Ysc family. In this study, we have structurally characterized the inter-genus complexes of V-antigen and its regulator. ConSurf analysis demonstrates that V-antigens belonging to the Ysc family show high structural identity predominantly confined to the two long helical regions. The regulator of V-antigen shows high conservation in its first intramolecular coiled-coil domain, responsible for interaction with V-antigen. ∆LcrG(1-70) localizes within the groove formed by long helices of LcrV, as observed in PcrV-∆PcrG(13-72) interaction. Inter-genus complexes of LcrV-PcrG and PcrV-LcrG exhibited elongated conformation and 1:1 heterodimeric state like the native complex of PcrV-PcrG and LcrV-LcrG. Both native and inter-genus complexes showed rigid tertiary structure, solvent-exposed hydrophobic patches, and cooperative melting behavior with high melting temperature. LcrV-PcrG and PcrV-LcrG showed nanomolar affinity of interaction, identical to PcrV-PcrG interaction, but stronger than LcrV-LcrG interaction. Calcium (a secretion blocker of T3SS) propels all the complexes towards a highly monodisperse form. Calcium and magnesium increase the helicity of the native and inter-genus complexes, and causes helix-helix stabilization. Stabilization of helices leads to a slight increase in the melting temperature by 1.5-2.0 °C. However, calcium does not alter the affinity of interaction of V-antigen and its regulator, emphasizing the effect of divalent of cations at the structural level without any regulatory implications. Therefore, the structural conservation of these inter-genus complexes could be the basis for their functional complementation.

  1. In situ STM imaging and direct electrochemistry of Pyrococcus furiosus ferredoxin assembled on thiolate-modified Au(111) surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingdong; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager; Ooi, Bee Lean

    2004-01-01

    We have addressed here electron transfer (ET) of Pyrococcus furiosus ferredoxin (PfFd, 7.5 kDa) in both homogeneous solution using edge plane graphite (EPG) electrodes and in the adsorbed state by electrochemistry on surface-modified single-crystal Au(111) electrodes, This has been supported...... surface modified by the same functional group monolayer and to address diffusionless direct electrochemistry, as well as surface microstructures of the protein monolayer. PfFd molecules were found to assemble on either mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) or cysteine-modified Au(111) surfaces in stable monolayers...

  2. Comparative genome sequence analysis of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and 9 other isolates of its genus for factors influencing codon and amino acid usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Kinshuk Chandra

    2013-01-15

    In the present study, major constraints for codon and amino acid usage of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, Sulfolobus solfataricus, Sulfolobus tokodali, Sulfolobus islandis and 6 other isolates from islandicus species of genus Sulfolobus were investigated. Correspondence analysis revealed high significant correlation between the major trend of synonymous codon usage and gene expression level, as assessed by the "Codon Adaptation Index" (CAI). There is a significant negative correlation between Nc (Effective number of codons) and CAI demonstrating role of codon bias as an important determinant of codon usage. The significant correlation between major trend of synonymous codon usage and GC3s (G+C at third synonymous position) indicated dominant role of mutational bias in codon usage pattern. The result was further supported from SCUO (synonymous codon usage order) analysis. The amino acid usage was found to be significantly influenced by aromaticity and hydrophobicity of proteins. However, translational selection which causes a preference for codons that are most rapidly translated by current tRNA with multiple copy numbers was not found to be highly dominating for all studied isolates. Notably, 26 codons that were found to be optimally used by genes of S. acidocaldarius at higher expression level and its comparative analysis with 9 other isolates may provide some useful clues for further in vivo genetic studies on this genus.

  3. Evidence for polyphyly of the genus Scrupocellaria (Bryozoa: Candidae based on a phylogenetic analysis of morphological characters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro M Vieira

    Full Text Available The bryozoan genus Scrupocellaria comprises about 80 species in the family Candidae. We propose a hypothesis for the phylogenetic relationships among species assigned to Scrupocellaria to serve as framework for a phylogenetic classification using 35 morphological characters. Our results suggest that the genus Scrupocellaria is polyphyletic. Scrupocellaria s. str. is redefined according to four morphological features: vibracular chamber with a curved setal groove, ooecium with a single ectooecial fenestra, two axillary vibracula, and a membranous operculum with a distinct distal rim. Thus, the genus includes only 11 species: Scrupocellaria aegeensis, Scrupocellaria delilii, Scrupocellaria harmeri, Scrupocellaria incurvata, Scrupocellaria inermis, Scrupocellaria intermedia, Scrupocellaria jullieni, Scrupocellaria minuta, Scrupocellaria puelcha, Scrupocellaria scrupea, and Scrupocellaria scruposa. The monophyly of Cradoscrupocellaria is supported and five new genera are erected: Aquiloniella n. gen., Aspiscellaria n. gen., Paralicornia n. gen., Pomocellaria n. gen. and Scrupocaberea n. gen. Two other new genera, Bathycellaria n. gen. and Sinocellaria n. gen., are erected to accommodate two poorly known species, Scrupocellaria profundis Osburn and Scrupocellaria uniseriata Liu, respectively. Scrupocellaria congesta is tentatively assigned to Tricellaria. Fifteen species are reassigned to Licornia: Licornia cookie n. comb., Licornia micheli n. comb., Licornia milneri n. comb., Licornia curvata n. comb., Licornia diegensis n. comb., Licornia drachi n. comb., Licornia mexicana n. comb., Licornia pugnax n. comb., Licornia raigadensis n. comb., Licornia regularis n. comb., Licornia resseri n. comb., Licornia securifera n. comb., Licornia spinigera n. comb., Licornia tridentata n. comb., and Licornia wasinensis n. comb. Notoplites americanus n. name is proposed as a replacement name for Scrupocellaria clausa Canu & Bassler. Three fossil species are

  4. [Phylogenetic analysis of Altai osmans of the genus Oreoleuciscus (Pisces, Cyprinidae, Leuciscinae), based on the analysis of the cytochrome oxidase 1 gene (Co-1) sequence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batishcheva, N M; Kartavtsev, Iu F; Bogutskaia, N G

    2011-10-01

    Molecular genetic analysis of Altai osmans of the genus Oreoleuciscus from two different parts of the range was carried out. In this study, based on the mitochondrial Co-1 gene sequence, a total of 25 fish specimens belonging to four genera were examined: (1) O. humilis, 2 specimens; O. potanini, 13 specimens; (2) Pseudaspius leptocephalus, 1 specimen; (3) Tribolodon brandtii, T. hakonensis, and T. sachalinensis from the GenBank database, 8 speciens; and (4) Leuciscus waleckii, 1 specimen (used as an outgroup). The p-distances were very low both within and between the species: (1) 0.20 +/- 0.03%; (2) 0.40 +/- 0.12%; and (1-2) 0.80 +/- 0.04%. To visualize the relationships among all of the species examined, the neighbor joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), Bayesian (BA), and maximum likelihood (ML) trees were constructed. The results obtained using these methods were very similar. It was demonstrated that species assignment of the individuals (barcoding) with the help Co-1 gene was effective, despite of very low divergence of the two osman taxa, which was comparable with typical intraspecific values in other animal groups. Taxonomic status of O. potanini and O. humilis requires further investigation with paying attention to low genetic distances between these species along with the lack of material from sympatric parts of the ranges.

  5. Substrate recognition of N,N'-diacetylchitobiose deacetylase from Pyrococcus horikoshii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tsutomu; Yonezawa, Yasushige; Tsuchiya, Yuko; Niiyama, Mayumi; Ida, Kurumi; Oshima, Maki; Morita, Junji; Uegaki, Koichi

    2016-09-01

    Enzymes of carbohydrate esterase (CE) family 14 catalyze hydrolysis of N-acetyl groups at the non-reducing end of the N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) residue of chitooligosaccharides or related compounds. N,N'-diacetylchitobiose deacetylase (Dac) belongs to the CE-14 family and plays a role in the chitinolytic pathway in archaea by deacetylating N,N'-diacetylchitobiose (GlcNAc2), which is the end product of chitinase. In this study, we revealed the structural basis of reaction specificity in CE-14 deacetylases by solving a crystal structure of Dac from Pyrococcus horikoshii (Ph-Dac) in complex with a novel reaction intermediate analog. We developed 2-deoxy-2-methylphosphoramido-d-glucose (MPG) as the analog of the tetrahedral oxyanion intermediate of the monosaccharide substrate GlcNAc. The crystal structure of Ph-Dac in complex with MPG demonstrated that Arg92, Asp115, and His152 side chains interact with hydroxyl groups of the glucose moiety of the non-reducing-end GlcNAc residue. The amino acid residues responsible for recognition of the MPG glucose moiety are spatially conserved in other CE-14 deacetylases. Molecular dynamics simulation of the structure of the Ph-Dac-GlcNAc2 complex indicated that the reducing GlcNAc residue is placed in a large intermolecular cleft and is not involved with specific interactions with the enzyme. This observation was consistent with results indicating that Ph-Dac displayed similar kinetic parameters for both GlcNAc and GlcNAc2. This study provides the structural basis of reaction-site specificity of Dac and related CE-14 enzymes.

  6. A mutant ('lab strain') of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, lacking flagella, has unusual growth physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Derrick L; Notey, Jaspreet S; Chandrayan, Sanjeev K; Loder, Andrew J; Lipscomb, Gina L; Adams, Michael W W; Kelly, Robert M

    2015-03-01

    A mutant ('lab strain') of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus DSM3638 exhibited an extended exponential phase and atypical cell aggregation behavior. Genomic DNA from the mutant culture was sequenced and compared to wild-type (WT) DSM3638, revealing 145 genes with one or more insertions, deletions, or substitutions (12 silent, 33 amino acid substitutions, and 100 frame shifts). Approximately, half of the mutated genes were transposases or hypothetical proteins. The WT transcriptome revealed numerous changes in amino acid and pyrimidine biosynthesis pathways coincidental with growth phase transitions, unlike the mutant whose transcriptome reflected the observed prolonged exponential phase. Targeted gene deletions, based on frame-shifted ORFs in the mutant genome, in a genetically tractable strain of P. furiosus (COM1) could not generate the extended exponential phase behavior observed for the mutant. For example, a putative radical SAM family protein (PF2064) was the most highly up-regulated ORF (>25-fold) in the WT between exponential and stationary phase, although this ORF was unresponsive in the mutant; deletion of this gene in P. furiosus COM1 resulted in no apparent phenotype. On the other hand, frame-shifting mutations in the mutant genome negatively impacted transcription of a flagellar biosynthesis operon (PF0329-PF0338).Consequently, cells in the mutant culture lacked flagella and, unlike the WT, showed minimal evidence of exopolysaccharide-based cell aggregation in post-exponential phase. Electron microscopy of PF0331-PF0337 deletions in P. furiosus COM1 showed that absence of flagella impacted normal cell aggregation behavior and, furthermore, indicated that flagella play a key role, beyond motility, in the growth physiology of P. furiosus.

  7. Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derryberry, Elizabeth; Claramunt, Santiago; O'Quin, Kelly E.; Aleixo, Alexandre; Chesser, R. Terry; Remsen, J.V.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the family Furnariidae (Aves: Passeriformes) indicates that the genus Asthenes is polyphyletic, consisting of two groups that are not sister taxa. Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird, is described for one of these groups. The four species included in the new genus, formerly placed in Asthenes, are P. humicola, P. patagonica, P. steinbachi, and P. cactorum.

  8. Evolutionary analysis of the APA genes in the Phaseolus genus: wild and cultivated bean species as sources of lectin-related resistance factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioi, L; Galasso, I; Lanave, C; Daminati, M G; Bollini, R; Sparvoli, F

    2007-11-01

    The APA (Arcelin/Phytohemagglutinin/alpha-Amylase inhibitor) gene family is composed of various members, present in Phaseolus species and coding for lectin and lectin-related seed proteins having the double role of storage and defense proteins. Here members of the APA family have been identified by immunological, functional, and molecular analyses and representative genes were sequenced in nine wild species of Phaseolus. All taxa possessed at least one member of the true lectin gene. No arcelin type sequences have been isolated from the species examined. Among the wild species studied, only P. costaricensis contained an alpha-amylase inhibitor (alpha-AI). In addition P. augusti, P. maculatus, P. microcarpus, and P. oligospermus showed the presence of the lectin-related alpha-amylase inhibitor-like (AIL) genes and alpha-AI activity. Data from Southern blot analysis indicated the presence of only one lectin gene in P. parvulus and P. filiformis, while an extensive gene duplication of the APA locus was found in the other Phaseolus species. Phylogenetic analysis carried out on the nucleotide sequences showed the existence of two main clusters and clearly indicated that lectin-related genes originated from a paralogous duplication event preceding the development of the ancestor to the Phaseolus genus. The finding of detectable alpha-AI activity in species containing AIL genes suggests that exploiting APA genes variability in the Phaseolus genus may represent a valuable tool to find new members that may have acquired insecticidal activities.

  9. Classification of species in the genus Penicillium by Curie point pyrolysis/mass spectrometry followed by multivariate analysis and artificial neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Torben; Bassani, Maria R.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    1996-01-01

    linkage clustering. By this approach a successful classification of the species Penicillium italicum, P. expansum and P. digitatum originating from fruits was obtained. Isolates of the same species grouped together in the dendrogram, while the different species were distinguished. Also when grown on two......Curie point pyrolysis/mass spectrometry of Penicillium species was performed with 530 degrees C Curie point foils. The mass spectra were submitted to principal component analysis, canonical variates analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis, producing a final dendrogram by the use of average...... in a correct classification in all cases. Thus, it is concluded that Curie point pyrolysis/mass spectrometry is useful in chemotaxonomic studies of the closely related species in the genus Penicillium....

  10. The genus Squamanita

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bas, C.

    1965-01-01

    By transferring Cystoderma paradoxum Smith & Sing. and Vaginata umbonata Sumst. to the genus Squamanita and the description of the new species, S. pearsonii, the number of species of that genus is raised from two to five. In addition two more species of Squamanita are provisionally described. An

  11. The genus Idertia (Ochnaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sosef, M.S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims - The genus Idertia belongs to the subfamily Ochnoideae, tribe Ochneae, subtribe Ouratinae. This paper aims at a full taxonomic revision and a critical evaluation of the taxonomic position of the genus along with its diagnostic characters. Methods - All characters are studied usi

  12. Genome Analysis of the Biotechnologically Relevant Acidophilic Iron Oxidising Strain JA12 Indicates Phylogenetic and Metabolic Diversity within the Novel Genus “Ferrovum”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Sophie R.; Poehlein, Anja; Tischler, Judith S.; González, Carolina; Ossandon, Francisco J.; Daniel, Rolf; Holmes, David S.; Schlömann, Michael; Mühling, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Members of the genus “Ferrovum” are ubiquitously distributed in acid mine drainage (AMD) waters which are characterised by their high metal and sulfate loads. So far isolation and microbiological characterisation have only been successful for the designated type strain “Ferrovum myxofaciens” P3G. Thus, knowledge about physiological characteristics and the phylogeny of the genus “Ferrovum” is extremely scarce. Objective In order to access the wider genetic pool of the genus “Ferrovum” we sequenced the genome of a “Ferrovum”-containing mixed culture and successfully assembled the almost complete genome sequence of the novel “Ferrovum” strain JA12. Phylogeny and Lifestyle The genome-based phylogenetic analysis indicates that strain JA12 and the type strain represent two distinct “Ferrovum” species. “Ferrovum” strain JA12 is characterised by an unusually small genome in comparison to the type strain and other iron oxidising bacteria. The prediction of nutrient assimilation pathways suggests that “Ferrovum” strain JA12 maintains a chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle utilising carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, ammonium and urea, sulfate, phosphate and ferrous iron as carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous and energy sources, respectively. Unique Metabolic Features The potential utilisation of urea by “Ferrovum” strain JA12 is moreover remarkable since it may furthermore represent a strategy among extreme acidophiles to cope with the acidic environment. Unlike other acidophilic chemolithoautotrophs “Ferrovum” strain JA12 exhibits a complete tricarboxylic acid cycle, a metabolic feature shared with the closer related neutrophilic iron oxidisers among the Betaproteobacteria including Sideroxydans lithotrophicus and Thiobacillus denitrificans. Furthermore, the absence of characteristic redox proteins involved in iron oxidation in the well-studied acidophiles Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (rusticyanin) and Acidithiobacillus

  13. Comparative genomic analysis of the genus Staphylococcus including Staphylococcus aureus and its newly described sister species Staphylococcus simiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus belongs to the Gram-positive low G + C content group of the Firmicutes division of bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus is an important human and veterinary pathogen that causes a broad spectrum of diseases, and has developed important multidrug resistant forms such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Staphylococcus simiae was isolated from South American squirrel monkeys in 2000, and is a coagulase-negative bacterium, closely related, and possibly the sister group, to S. aureus. Comparative genomic analyses of closely related bacteria with different phenotypes can provide information relevant to understanding adaptation to host environment and mechanisms of pathogenicity. Results We determined a Roche/454 draft genome sequence for S. simiae and included it in comparative genomic analyses with 11 other Staphylococcus species including S. aureus. A genome based phylogeny of the genus confirms that S. simiae is the sister group to S. aureus and indicates that the most basal Staphylococcus lineage is Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, followed by Staphylococcus carnosus. Given the primary niche of these two latter taxa, compared to the other species in the genus, this phylogeny suggests that human adaptation evolved after the split of S. carnosus. The two coagulase-positive species (S. aureus and S. pseudintermedius) are not phylogenetically closest but share many virulence factors exclusively, suggesting that these genes were acquired by horizontal transfer. Enrichment in genes related to mobile elements such as prophage in S. aureus relative to S. simiae suggests that pathogenesis in the S. aureus group has developed by gene gain through horizontal transfer, after the split of S. aureus and S. simiae from their common ancestor. Conclusions Comparative genomic analyses across 12 Staphylococcus species provide hypotheses about lineages in which human adaptation has taken place and contributions of horizontal transfer in pathogenesis. PMID

  14. Comparative genomic analysis of the genus Staphylococcus including Staphylococcus aureus and its newly described sister species Staphylococcus simiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Haruo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus belongs to the Gram-positive low G + C content group of the Firmicutes division of bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus is an important human and veterinary pathogen that causes a broad spectrum of diseases, and has developed important multidrug resistant forms such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. Staphylococcus simiae was isolated from South American squirrel monkeys in 2000, and is a coagulase-negative bacterium, closely related, and possibly the sister group, to S. aureus. Comparative genomic analyses of closely related bacteria with different phenotypes can provide information relevant to understanding adaptation to host environment and mechanisms of pathogenicity. Results We determined a Roche/454 draft genome sequence for S. simiae and included it in comparative genomic analyses with 11 other Staphylococcus species including S. aureus. A genome based phylogeny of the genus confirms that S. simiae is the sister group to S. aureus and indicates that the most basal Staphylococcus lineage is Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, followed by Staphylococcus carnosus. Given the primary niche of these two latter taxa, compared to the other species in the genus, this phylogeny suggests that human adaptation evolved after the split of S. carnosus. The two coagulase-positive species (S. aureus and S. pseudintermedius are not phylogenetically closest but share many virulence factors exclusively, suggesting that these genes were acquired by horizontal transfer. Enrichment in genes related to mobile elements such as prophage in S. aureus relative to S. simiae suggests that pathogenesis in the S. aureus group has developed by gene gain through horizontal transfer, after the split of S. aureus and S. simiae from their common ancestor. Conclusions Comparative genomic analyses across 12 Staphylococcus species provide hypotheses about lineages in which human adaptation has taken place and contributions of horizontal

  15. Analysis of the RNA of Potato yellow vein virus: evidence for a tripartite genome and conserved 3'-terminal structures among members of the genus Crinivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livieratos, I C; Eliasco, E; Müller, G; Olsthoorn, R C L; Salazar, L F; Pleij, C W A; Coutts, R H A

    2004-07-01

    Double-stranded RNA preparations produced from potato plants graft-inoculated with a Peruvian isolate of Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV; genus Crinivirus, family Closteroviridae) contain five RNA species denoted RNA 1, RNA 2, RNA 3, x and y of approximately 8, 5.3, 3.8, 2.0 and 1.8 kbp, respectively. The complete nucleotide sequences of PYVV RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and Northern hybridization analysis showed that PYVV RNA 1 contained the replication module and an additional open reading frame (p7), while two distinct species, RNAs 2 and 3, contain the Closteroviridae hallmark gene array. Pairwise comparisons and phylogeny of genome-encoded proteins showed that PYVV shares significant homology with other criniviruses but is most closely related to the Trialeurodes vaporariorum-vectored Cucumber yellows virus. Secondary structure prediction of the 3'-untranslated regions of all three PYVV RNAs revealed four conserved stem-loop structures and a 3'-terminal pseudoknot structure, also predicted for all fully characterized members of the genus Crinivirus and some members of the genera Closterovirus and Ampelovirus.

  16. Polyphyletic origin of the genus Physarum (Physarales, Myxomycetes revealed by nuclear rDNA mini-chromosome analysis and group I intron synapomorphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandipati Satish CR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physarales represents the largest taxonomic order among the plasmodial slime molds (myxomycetes. Physarales is of particular interest since the two best-studied myxomycete species, Physarum polycephalum and Didymium iridis, belong to this order and are currently subjected to whole genome and transcriptome analyses. Here we report molecular phylogeny based on ribosomal DNA (rDNA sequences that includes 57 Physarales isolates. Results The Physarales nuclear rDNA sequences were found to be loaded with 222 autocatalytic group I introns, which may complicate correct alignments and subsequent phylogenetic tree constructions. Phylogenetic analysis of rDNA sequences depleted of introns confirmed monophyly of the Physarales families Didymiaceae and Physaraceae. Whereas good correlation was noted between phylogeny and taxonomy among the Didymiaceae isolates, significant deviations were seen in Physaraceae. The largest genus, Physarum, was found to be polyphyletic consisting of at least three well supported clades. A synapomorphy, located at the highly conserved G-binding site of L2449 group I intron ribozymes further supported the Physarum clades. Conclusions Our results provide molecular relationship of Physarales genera, species, and isolates. This information is important in further interpretations of comparative genomics nd transcriptomics. In addition, the result supports a polyphyletic origin of the genus Physarum and calls for a reevaluation of current taxonomy.

  17. Polyphyletic origin of the genus Physarum (Physarales, Myxomycetes) revealed by nuclear rDNA mini-chromosome analysis and group I intron synapomorphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandipati, Satish C R; Haugli, Kari; Coucheron, Dag H; Haskins, Edward F; Johansen, Steinar D

    2012-08-31

    Physarales represents the largest taxonomic order among the plasmodial slime molds (myxomycetes). Physarales is of particular interest since the two best-studied myxomycete species, Physarum polycephalum and Didymium iridis, belong to this order and are currently subjected to whole genome and transcriptome analyses. Here we report molecular phylogeny based on ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences that includes 57 Physarales isolates. The Physarales nuclear rDNA sequences were found to be loaded with 222 autocatalytic group I introns, which may complicate correct alignments and subsequent phylogenetic tree constructions. Phylogenetic analysis of rDNA sequences depleted of introns confirmed monophyly of the Physarales families Didymiaceae and Physaraceae. Whereas good correlation was noted between phylogeny and taxonomy among the Didymiaceae isolates, significant deviations were seen in Physaraceae. The largest genus, Physarum, was found to be polyphyletic consisting of at least three well supported clades. A synapomorphy, located at the highly conserved G-binding site of L2449 group I intron ribozymes further supported the Physarum clades. Our results provide molecular relationship of Physarales genera, species, and isolates. This information is important in further interpretations of comparative genomics nd transcriptomics. In addition, the result supports a polyphyletic origin of the genus Physarum and calls for a reevaluation of current taxonomy.

  18. The role of fusion in ant chromosome evolution: insights from cytogenetic analysis using a molecular phylogenetic approach in the genus mycetophylax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Danon Clemes; das Graças Pompolo, Silvia; Cristiano, Maykon Passos; Tavares, Mara Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Among insect taxa, ants exhibit one of the most variable chromosome numbers ranging from n = 1 to n = 60. This high karyotype diversity is suggested to be correlated to ants diversification. The karyotype evolution of ants is usually understood in terms of Robertsonian rearrangements towards an increase in chromosome numbers. The ant genus Mycetophylax is a small monogynous basal Attini ant (Formicidae: Myrmicinae), endemic to sand dunes along the Brazilian coastlines. A recent taxonomic revision validates three species, Mycetophylax morschi, M. conformis and M. simplex. In this paper, we cytogenetically characterized all species that belongs to the genus and analyzed the karyotypic evolution of Mycetophylax in the context of a molecular phylogeny and ancestral character state reconstruction. M. morschi showed a polymorphic number of chromosomes, with colonies showing 2n = 26 and 2n = 30 chromosomes. M. conformis presented a diploid chromosome number of 30 chromosomes, while M. simplex showed 36 chromosomes. The probabilistic models suggest that the ancestral haploid chromosome number of Mycetophylax was 17 (Likelihood framework) or 18 (Bayesian framework). The analysis also suggested that fusions were responsible for the evolutionary reduction in chromosome numbers of M. conformis and M. morschi karyotypes whereas fission may determines the M. simplex karyotype. These results obtained show the importance of fusions in chromosome changes towards a chromosome number reduction in Formicidae and how a phylogenetic background can be used to reconstruct hypotheses about chromosomes evolution.

  19. Multilocus sequence analysis of the marine bacterial genus Tenacibaculum suggests parallel evolution of fish pathogenicity and endemic colonization of aquaculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Christophe; Houel, Armel; Lunazzi, Aurélie; Bernardet, Jean-François; Olsen, Anne Berit; Nilsen, Hanne; Toranzo, Alicia E; Castro, Nuria; Nicolas, Pierre; Duchaud, Eric

    2014-09-01

    The genus Tenacibaculum, a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae, is an abundant component of marine bacterial ecosystems that also hosts several fish pathogens, some of which are of serious concern for marine aquaculture. Here, we applied multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) to 114 representatives of most known species in the genus and of the worldwide diversity of the major fish pathogen Tenacibaculum maritimum. Recombination hampers precise phylogenetic reconstruction, but the data indicate intertwined environmental and pathogenic lineages, which suggests that pathogenicity evolved independently in several species. At lower phylogenetic levels recombination is also important, and the species T. maritimum constitutes a cohesive group of isolates. Importantly, the data reveal no trace of long-distance dissemination that could be linked to international fish movements. Instead, the high number of distinct genotypes suggests an endemic distribution of strains. The MLSA scheme and the data described in this study will help in monitoring Tenacibaculum infections in marine aquaculture; we show, for instance, that isolates from tenacibaculosis outbreaks in Norwegian salmon farms are related to T. dicentrarchi, a recently described species.

  20. Species composition of the genus Saprolegnia in fin fish aquaculture environments, as determined by nucleotide sequence analysis of the nuclear rDNA ITS regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Bastide, Paul Y; Leung, Wai Lam; Hintz, William E

    2015-01-01

    The ITS region of the rDNA gene was compared for Saprolegnia spp. in order to improve our understanding of nucleotide sequence variability within and between species of this genus, determine species composition in Canadian fin fish aquaculture facilities, and to assess the utility of ITS sequence variability in genetic marker development. From a collection of more than 400 field isolates, ITS region nucleotide sequences were studied and it was determined that there was sufficient consistent inter-specific variation to support the designation of species identity based on ITS sequence data. This non-subjective approach to species identification does not rely upon transient morphological features. Phylogenetic analyses comparing our ITS sequences and species designations with data from previous studies generally supported the clade scheme of Diéguez-Uribeondo et al. (2007) and found agreement with the molecular taxonomic cluster system of Sandoval-Sierra et al. (2014). Our Canadian ITS sequence collection will thus contribute to the public database and assist the clarification of Saprolegnia spp. taxonomy. The analysis of ITS region sequence variability facilitated genus- and species-level identification of unknown samples from aquaculture facilities and provided useful information on species composition. A unique ITS-RFLP for the identification of S. parasitica was also described.

  1. Classification of the genus Bacillus based on MALDI-TOF MS analysis of ribosomal proteins coded in S10 and spc operons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Yudai; Sato, Jun; Sato, Hiroaki; Hosoda, Akifumi; Tamura, Hiroto

    2011-05-25

    A rapid bacterial identification method by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) using ribosomal proteins coded in S10 and spc operons as biomarkers, named the S10-GERMS (the S10-spc-alpha operon gene encoded ribosomal protein mass spectrum) method, was applied for the genus Bacillus a Gram-positive bacterium. The S10-GERMS method could successfully distinguish the difference between B. subtilis subsp. subtilis NBRC 13719(T) and B. subtilis subsp. spizizenii NBRC 101239(T) because of the mass difference of 2 ribosomal subunit proteins, despite the difference of only 2 bases in the 16S rRNA gene between them. The 8 selected reliable and reproducible ribosomal subunit proteins without disturbance of S/N level on MALDI-TOF MS analysis, S10, S14, S19, L18, L22, L24, L29, and L30, coded in S10 and spc operons were significantly useful biomarkers for rapid bacterial classification at species and strain levels by the S10-GERMS method of genus Bacillus strains without purification of ribosomal proteins.

  2. Identification of a novel amino acid racemase from a hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT-3 induced by D-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Ryushi; Ohmori, Taketo; Sakuraba, Haruhiko; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2015-08-01

    To date, there have been few reports analyzing the amino acid requirement for growth of hyperthermophilic archaea. We here found that the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT-3 requires Thr, Leu, Val, Phe, Tyr, Trp, His and Arg in the medium for growth, and shows slow growth in medium lacking Met or Ile. This largely corresponds to the presence, or absence, of genes related to amino acid biosynthesis in its genome, though there are exceptions. The amino acid requirements were dramatically lost by addition of D-isomers of Met, Leu, Val, allo-Ile, Phe, Tyr, Trp and Arg. Tracer analysis using (14)C-labeled D-Trp showed that D-Trp in the medium was used as a protein component in the cells, suggesting the presence of D-amino acid metabolic enzymes. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent racemase activity toward Met, Leu and Phe was detected in crude extract of P. horikoshii and was enhanced in cells grown in the medium supplemented with D-amino acids, especially D-allo-Ile. The gene encoding the racemase was narrowed down to one open reading frame on the basis of enzyme purification from P. horikoshii cells, and the recombinant enzyme exhibited PLP-dependent racemase activity toward several amino acids, including Met, Leu and Phe, but not Pro, Asp or Glu. This is the first report showing the presence in a hyperthermophilic archaeon of a PLP-dependent amino acid racemase with broad substrate specificity that is likely responsible for utilization of D-amino acids for growth.

  3. Larvae of the genus Eleodes (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae: matrix-based descriptions, cladistic analysis, and key to late instars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Smith

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Darkling beetle larvae (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae are collectively referred to as false wireworms. Larvae from several species in the genus Eleodes are considered to be agricultural pests, though relatively little work has been done to associate larvae with adults of the same species and only a handful of species have been characterized in their larval state.Morphological characters from late instar larvae were examined and coded to produce a matrix in the server-based content management system mx. The resulting morphology matrix was used to produce larval species descriptions, reconstruct a phylogeny, and build a key to the species included in the matrix.Larvae are described for the first time for the following 12 species: Eleodes anthracinus Blaisdell, Eleodes carbonarius (Say, Eleodes caudiferus LeConte, Eleodes extricatus (Say, Eleodes goryi Solier, Eleodes hispilabris (Say, Eleodes nigropilosus LeConte, Eleodes pilosus Horn, Eleodes subnitens LeConte, Eleodes tenuipes Casey, Eleodes tribulus Thomas, and Eleodes wheeleri Aalbu, Smith & Triplehorn. The larval stage of Eleodes armatus LeConte is redescribed with additional characters to differentiate it from the newly described congeneric larvae.

  4. Larvae of the genus Eleodes (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae): matrix-based descriptions, cladistic analysis, and key to late instars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aaron D; Dornburg, Rebecca; Wheeler, Quentin D

    2014-01-01

    Darkling beetle larvae (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) are collectively referred to as false wireworms. Larvae from several species in the genus Eleodes are considered to be agricultural pests, though relatively little work has been done to associate larvae with adults of the same species and only a handful of species have been characterized in their larval state. Morphological characters from late instar larvae were examined and coded to produce a matrix in the server-based content management system mx. The resulting morphology matrix was used to produce larval species descriptions, reconstruct a phylogeny, and build a key to the species included in the matrix. Larvae are described for the first time for the following 12 species: Eleodes anthracinus Blaisdell, Eleodes carbonarius (Say), Eleodes caudiferus LeConte, Eleodes extricatus (Say), Eleodes goryi Solier, Eleodes hispilabris (Say), Eleodes nigropilosus LeConte, Eleodes pilosus Horn, Eleodes subnitens LeConte, Eleodes tenuipes Casey, Eleodes tribulus Thomas, and Eleodes wheeleri Aalbu, Smith & Triplehorn. The larval stage of Eleodes armatus LeConte is redescribed with additional characters to differentiate it from the newly described congeneric larvae.

  5. An attempted analysis of the tetrads in the complex heterozygote species of the sub-genus Oenothera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, R

    1977-09-01

    The statistical parameters of a pollen population of Oenothera purpurata in which the mendelian factor of pollen lethality segregates, showed that the pollen population analysed at anthesis in the Oenothera sub-genus quite faithfully conserves the segregation indicated in the tetrads. Following on this fact, the segregation "active grains, inactive grains, empty grains" was analysed in the pollen of the complex heterozygotes. The large standard deviation of the percentages of the three pollen classes and the value of the correlation between the percentages of grain classes taken two by two signify that the segregation of the three potential classes of microspore differs from one tetrad to another. By superimposing the correlation coefficient estimated between the percentage of the three grain classes of a bifactorial segregation of corn pollen on the correlation coefficient of the three classes of Oenothera pollen, it is possible to know with certainty the distribution of the potentially active, inactive and empty microspores in the tetrads. This distribution, which is different depending on whether the species is heterogamous or isogamous, allows us to confirm that the empty grains carry the recombined complexes which become lethal as a result of this recombination.

  6. Survey and analysis of microsatellites from transcript sequences in Phytophthora species: frequency, distribution, and potential as markers for the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreto Emiliano

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the genus Phytophthora are notorious pathogens with world-wide distribution. The most devastating species include P. infestans, P. ramorum and P. sojae. In order to develop molecular methods for routinely characterizing their populations and to gain a better insight into the organization and evolution of their genomes, we used an in silico approach to survey and compare simple sequence repeats (SSRs in transcript sequences from these three species. We compared the occurrence, relative abundance, relative density and cross-species transferability of the SSRs in these oomycetes. Results The number of SSRs in oomycetes transcribed sequences is low and long SSRs are rare. The in silico transferability of SSRs among the Phytophthora species was analyzed for all sets generated, and primers were selected on the basis of similarity as possible candidates for transferability to other Phytophthora species. Sequences encoding putative pathogenicity factors from all three Phytophthora species were also surveyed for presence of SSRs. However, no correlation between gene function and SSR abundance was observed. The SSR survey results, and the primer pairs designed for all SSRs from the three species, were deposited in a public database. Conclusion In all cases the most common SSRs were trinucleotide repeat units with low repeat numbers. A proportion (7.5% of primers could be transferred with 90% similarity between at least two species of Phytophthora. This information represents a valuable source of molecular markers for use in population genetics, genetic mapping and strain fingerprinting studies of oomycetes, and illustrates how genomic databases can be exploited to generate data-mining filters for SSRs before experimental validation.

  7. Bacteriophage prevalence in the genus Azospirillum and analysis of the first genome sequence of an Azospirillum brasilense integrative phage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Mickaël; Haurat, Jacqueline; Samain, Sylvie; Segurens, Béatrice; Gavory, Frédérick; González, Víctor; Mavingui, Patrick; Rohr, René; Bally, René; Wisniewski-Dyé, Florence

    2008-02-01

    The prevalence of bacteriophages was investigated in 24 strains of four species of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria belonging to the genus Azospirillum. Upon induction by mitomycin C, the release of phage particles was observed in 11 strains from three species. Transmission electron microscopy revealed two distinct sizes of particles, depending on the identity of the Azospirillum species, typical of the Siphoviridae family. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and hybridization experiments carried out on phage-encapsidated DNAs revealed that all phages isolated from A. lipoferum and A. doebereinerae strains had a size of about 10 kb whereas all phages isolated from A. brasilense strains displayed genome sizes ranging from 62 to 65 kb. Strong DNA hybridizing signals were shown for most phages hosted by the same species whereas no homology was found between phages harbored by different species. Moreover, the complete sequence of the A. brasilense Cd bacteriophage (phiAb-Cd) genome was determined as a double-stranded DNA circular molecule of 62,337 pb that encodes 95 predicted proteins. Only 14 of the predicted proteins could be assigned functions, some of which were involved in DNA processing, phage morphogenesis, and bacterial lysis. In addition, the phiAb-Cd complete genome was mapped as a prophage on a 570-kb replicon of strain A. brasilense Cd, and a region of 27.3 kb of phiAb-Cd was found to be duplicated on the 130-kb pRhico plasmid previously sequenced from A. brasilense Sp7, the parental strain of A. brasilense Cd.

  8. Mutations of Asp540 and the domain-connecting residues synergistically enhance Pyrococcus furiosus DNA ligase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Maiko; Ishino, Sonoko; Ishino, Yoshizumi; Nishida, Hirokazu

    2014-01-21

    The structure of Pyrococcus furiosus DNA ligase (PfuLig), which architecturally resembles human DNA ligase I (hLigI), revealed that the C-terminal helix stabilizes the closed conformation through several ionic interactions between two domains (adenylylation domain (AdD) and C-terminal OB-fold domain (OBD)). This helix is oriented differently in DNA-bound hLigI, suggesting that the disruption of its interactions with AdD facilitates DNA binding. Previously, we demonstrated that the replacement of Asp540 with arginine improves the ligation activity. Here we report that the combination of the Asp540-replacement and the elimination of ionic residues in the helix, forming interactions with AdD, effectively enhanced the activity.

  9. Structure of a double hexamer of the Pyrococcus furiosus minichromosome maintenance protein N-terminal domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Martin; Enemark, Eric J.

    2016-06-22

    The crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of thePyrococcus furiosusminichromosome maintenance (MCM) protein as a double hexamer is described. The MCM complex is a ring-shaped helicase that unwinds DNA at the replication fork of eukaryotes and archaea. Prior to replication initiation, the MCM complex assembles as an inactive double hexamer at specific sites of DNA. The presented structure is highly consistent with previous MCM double-hexamer structures and shows two MCM hexamers with a head-to-head interaction mediated by the N-terminal domain. Minor differences include a diminished head-to-head interaction and a slightly reduced inter-hexamer rotation.

  10. Evaluation of four methods of assigning species and genus to medically important bacteria using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Geon; Jin, Won-Young; Jang, Sook-Jin; Kook, Joong-Ki; Choi, Ji Ae; Park, Gyun Cheol; Lee, Min-Jung; Park, Soon-Nang; Li, Xue Min; Cho, Seong-Sig; Jang, Chul Ho; Kang, Seong-Ho; Moon, Dae-Soo

    2015-05-01

    The four methods for assigning bacterial species are the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), modified CLSI (mCLSI), phylogenetic analysis (PA) and closest match (CM) methods, these are used to identify the genus and species using 16S rRNA gene sequence results. In this study, the results of identification by these four methods of 37 aerobic reference strains, 30 anaerobic reference strains, 15 Acinetobacter reference strains and 167 Acinetobacter clinical strains were compared. The rates of accurate identification to the species level using the CLSI, mCLSI, PA and CM methods were as follows: 24.3, 86.5, 86.5 and 89.2%, respectively, for the 37 aerobic reference strains; 73.3%, 96.7%, 90.0% and 93.3%, respectively, for the 30 anaerobic reference strains; 40.0%, 93.3%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively, for the 15 Acinetobacter reference strains; and 53.9%, 90.4%, 95.8% and 90.4%, respectively, for the 167 Acinetobacter clinical strains. The rates of accurate identification to the genus level using the CLSI, mCLSI, PA, and CM methods were as follows: 91.9%, 91.9%, 94.6% and 91.9%, respectively, for the 37 aerobic reference strains; 100%, 100%, 100% and 100%, respectively, for all of the 30 anaerobic reference strains, 15 Acinetobacter reference strains and the 167 Acinetobacter clinical strains. The mCLSI is the most practical and pragmatic method for identification of species based on 16S rRNA sequences for hospital, research or industry laboratories because it performs well and involves a simple procedure.

  11. Sequence analysis of the 3’-untranslated region of HSP70 (type I genes in the genus Leishmania: its usefulness as a molecular marker for species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Requena Jose M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Leishmaniases are a group of clinically diverse diseases caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania. To distinguish between species is crucial for correct diagnosis and prognosis as well as for treatment decisions. Recently, sequencing of the HSP70 coding region has been applied in phylogenetic studies and for identifying of Leishmania species with excellent results. Methods In the present study, we analyzed the 3’-untranslated region (UTR of Leishmania HSP70-type I gene from 24 strains representing eleven Leishmania species in the belief that this non-coding region would have a better discriminatory capacity for species typing than coding regions. Results It was observed that there was a remarkable degree of sequence conservation in this region, even between species of the subgenus Leishmania and Viannia. In addition, the presence of many microsatellites was a common feature of the 3´-UTR of HSP70-I genes in the Leishmania genus. Finally, we constructed dendrograms based on global sequence alignments of the analyzed Leishmania species and strains, the results indicated that this particular region of HSP70 genes might be useful for species (or species complex typing, improving for particular species the discrimination capacity of phylogenetic trees based on HSP70 coding sequences. Given the large size variation of the analyzed region between the Leishmania and Viannia subgenera, direct visualization of the PCR amplification product would allow discrimination between subgenera, and a HaeIII-PCR-RFLP analysis might be used for differentiating some species within each subgenera. Conclusions Sequence and phylogenetic analyses indicated that this region, which is readily amplified using a single pair of primers from both Old and New World Leishmania species, might be useful as a molecular marker for species discrimination.

  12. Sequence analysis of the 3'-untranslated region of HSP70 (type I) genes in the genus Leishmania: its usefulness as a molecular marker for species identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Jose M; Chicharro, Carmen; García, Lineth; Parrado, Rudy; Puerta, Concepción J; Cañavate, Carmen

    2012-04-28

    The Leishmaniases are a group of clinically diverse diseases caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania. To distinguish between species is crucial for correct diagnosis and prognosis as well as for treatment decisions. Recently, sequencing of the HSP70 coding region has been applied in phylogenetic studies and for identifying of Leishmania species with excellent results. In the present study, we analyzed the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of Leishmania HSP70-type I gene from 24 strains representing eleven Leishmania species in the belief that this non-coding region would have a better discriminatory capacity for species typing than coding regions. It was observed that there was a remarkable degree of sequence conservation in this region, even between species of the subgenus Leishmania and Viannia. In addition, the presence of many microsatellites was a common feature of the 3'-UTR of HSP70-I genes in the Leishmania genus. Finally, we constructed dendrograms based on global sequence alignments of the analyzed Leishmania species and strains, the results indicated that this particular region of HSP70 genes might be useful for species (or species complex) typing, improving for particular species the discrimination capacity of phylogenetic trees based on HSP70 coding sequences. Given the large size variation of the analyzed region between the Leishmania and Viannia subgenera, direct visualization of the PCR amplification product would allow discrimination between subgenera, and a HaeIII-PCR-RFLP analysis might be used for differentiating some species within each subgenera. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses indicated that this region, which is readily amplified using a single pair of primers from both Old and New World Leishmania species, might be useful as a molecular marker for species discrimination.

  13. Revision of the genus Draconarius Ovtchinnikov 1999 (Agelenidae: Coelotinae) in Yunnan, China, with an analysis of the Coelotinae diversity in the Gaoligongshan Mountains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.-P.; Griswold, C.E.; Miller, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    A total of 71 species of the spider subfamily Coelotinae are recorded from Yunnan, China. The seven species that belong to the Coelotes pseudoterrestris species group were revised by Wang et al. (2009). Three species of the genus Pireneitega, one species of the genus Platocoelotes will be studied in

  14. Cloning, expression, and purification of the His(6)-tagged hyper-thermostable dUTPase from Pyrococcus woesei in Escherichia coli: application in PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabrowski, Slawomir; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    The gene encoding dUTPase from Pyrococcus woesei was cloned into Escherichia coli expression system. It shows 100% gene identity to homologous gene in Pyrococcus furiosus. The expression of N-terminal His(6)-tagged Pwo dUTPase was performed in E coli BL21(DE3)pLysS and E. coli Rosetta(DE3)p......LysS strain that contains plasmid encoding additional copies of rare E. coli tRNAs. E. coli Rosetta(pLysS) strain was found with two times higher expression yield of His(6)-tagged Pwo dUTPase than E. coli BL21(DE3)pLysS. The His(6)-tagged Pwo dUTPase was purified on Ni2+-IDA-Sepharose, dialyzed...

  15. Simultaneous determination of six index constituents and comparative analysis of four ethnomedicines from genus Gentiana using a UPLC-UV-MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yu; Shen, Tao; Zhang, Ji; Zhao, Yan-Li; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Li, Wan-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Many species from genus Gentiana (Gentianaceae) have a long history of applications as folk medicines in the world. A simple rapid UPLC-UV-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of six index constituents (gentiopicroside, swertiamarin, loganic acid, sweroside, mangiferin and ferulic acid) from the four ethnomedicines (G. rigescens Franch. ex Hemsl., G. rhodantha Franch. ex Hemsl., G. scabra Bunge and G. farreri Balf. f.). The UPLC analysis was performed on Shim-Pack XR-ODS III (150 × 2.0 mm, 2.2 µm). The mobile phase was consisted of acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid water using gradient elution. The wavelength 242 nm was chose for the four iridoids as well as mangiferin and 320 nm was set for ferulic acid. Mass spectrometry was applied for identification and quantification for analytes with low concentration. All the regression equations revealed a good linear relationship (R(2)  > 0.9993). Accuracy and precision were all within the required limits. The chromatogram fingerprints analysis combined with principal component analysis showed the similarity values of the four species were scabra Bunge and G. rigescens Franch. ex Hemsl. were >0.993, which provided reasonable foundation for utilization and clinical application of the four ethnomedicines. This developed method appears to be a useful tool for quality control of the four ethnomedicines.

  16. Chemical fingerprint and simultaneous determination of alkaloids and flavonoids in aerial parts of genus Peganum indigenous to China based on HPLC-UV: application of analysis on secondary metabolites accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fangfang; Cheng, Xuemei; Liu, Wei; Xuan, Min; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Xin; Shan, Meng; Li, Yan; Teng, Liang; Wang, Zhengtao; Wang, Changhong

    2014-12-01

    The aerial parts of genus Peganum are officially used in traditional Chinese medicine. The paper aims to establish a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for fingerprint analysis and simultaneous determination of three alkaloids and two flavonoids in aerial parts of genus Peganum, and to analyze accumulative difference of secondary metabolites in inter-species, individuals of plants, inter-/intra-population and from different growing seasons. HPLC analysis was performed on a C18 column with gradient elution using 0.1% trifloroacetic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase and detected at 265 nm, by conventional methodology validation. For fingerprint analysis, the RSDs of relative retention time and relative peak area of the characteristic peaks were within 0.07-0.78 and 0.94-9.09%, respectively. For simultaneous determination of vasicine, harmaline, harmine, deacetylpeganetin and peganetin, all calibration curves showed good linearity (r > 0.9990) within the test range. The relative standard deviations of precision, repeatability and stability test did not exceed 2.37, 2.68 and 2.67%, respectively. The average recoveries for the five analytes were between 96.47 and 101.20%. HPLC fingerprints play a minor role in authenticating and differentiating the herbs of different species of genus Peganum. However, the secondary metabolites levels of alkaloids and flavonoids in aerial parts of genus Peganum rely on species-, habitat-, and growth season-dependent accumulation.

  17. Complete Genome Sequencing and Phylogenetic Analysis of a Getah Virus Strain (Genus Alphavirus, Family Togaviridae) Isolated from Culex tritaeniorhynchus Mosquitoes in Nagasaki, Japan in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Isawa, Haruhiko; Ejiri, Hiroko; Sasaki, Toshinori; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Futami, Kyoko; Tsuda, Yoshio; Katayama, Yukie; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Minakawa, Noboru; Ohta, Nobuo; Sawabe, Kyoko

    2016-12-01

    Getah virus (GETV; genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae) is a mosquito-borne virus known to cause disease in horses and pigs. In 2014, for the first time in ∼30 years, a sudden GETV outbreak occurred among racehorses in Ibaraki, Japan. Two years before this outbreak, we obtained multiple GETV isolates from Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes collected in Nagasaki, Japan and determined the whole genome sequence of GETV isolate 12IH26. Our phylogenetic analysis of GETV strains revealed that the isolate 12IH26 forms a robust clade with the epidemic strains 14-I-605-C1 and 14-I-605-C2 isolated from horses in the 2014 outbreak in Ibaraki. Furthermore, the complete genomic sequence of the isolate 12IH26 was 99.9% identical to those of the 2014 epidemic strains in Ibaraki. Phylogenetic analysis also showed that the recent Japanese GETV strains, including the isolate 12IH26, are closely related to the Chinese and South Korean strains rather than the previous Japanese strains, suggesting that GETV strains may be transported from overseas into Japan through long-distance migration of the infected mosquitoes or migratory birds.

  18. Phylogenomic and MALDI-TOF MS analysis of Streptococcus sinensis HKU4T reveals a distinct phylogenetic clade in the genus Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Jade L L; Huang, Yi; Tse, Herman; Chen, Jonathan H K; Tang, Ying; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2014-10-20

    Streptococcus sinensis is a recently discovered human pathogen isolated from blood cultures of patients with infective endocarditis. Its phylogenetic position, as well as those of its closely related species, remains inconclusive when single genes were used for phylogenetic analysis. For example, S. sinensis branched out from members of the anginosus, mitis, and sanguinis groups in the 16S ribosomal RNA gene phylogenetic tree, but it was clustered with members of the anginosus and sanguinis groups when groEL gene sequences used for analysis. In this study, we sequenced the draft genome of S. sinensis and used a polyphasic approach, including concatenated genes, whole genomes, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry to analyze the phylogeny of S. sinensis. The size of the S. sinensis draft genome is 2.06 Mb, with GC content of 42.2%. Phylogenetic analysis using 50 concatenated genes or whole genomes revealed that S. sinensis formed a distinct cluster with Streptococcus oligofermentans and Streptococcus cristatus, and these three streptococci were clustered with the "sanguinis group." As for phylogenetic analysis using hierarchical cluster analysis of the mass spectra of streptococci, S. sinensis also formed a distinct cluster with S. oligofermentans and S. cristatus, but these three streptococci were clustered with the "mitis group." On the basis of the findings, we propose a novel group, named "sinensis group," to include S. sinensis, S. oligofermentans, and S. cristatus, in the Streptococcus genus. Our study also illustrates the power of phylogenomic analyses for resolving ambiguities in bacterial taxonomy.

  19. The genus Cladosporium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bench, K.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    A monographic revision of the hyphomycete genus Cladosporium s. lat. (Cladosporiaceae, Capnodiales) is presented. It includes a detailed historic overview of Cladosporium and allied genera, with notes on their phylogeny, systematics and ecology. True species of Cladosporium s. str. (anamorphs of Dav

  20. The genus Lagenophora (Compositae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabrera, Angel L.

    1966-01-01

    The genus Lagenophora was first described by Cassini under the name Lagenifera (in Bull. Soc. Philomat. 12, 1816, 199) with the following diagnosis: ‘Ce genre, de la tribus des astérées, comprend le calendula magellanicá, Willd. et le bellis stipitata, Labill. Son principal caractère reside dans la

  1. The genus Cladosporium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bench, K.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    A monographic revision of the hyphomycete genus Cladosporium s. lat. (Cladosporiaceae, Capnodiales) is presented. It includes a detailed historic overview of Cladosporium and allied genera, with notes on their phylogeny, systematics and ecology. True species of Cladosporium s. str. (anamorphs of

  2. The genus Lagenophora (Compositae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabrera, Angel L.

    1966-01-01

    The genus Lagenophora was first described by Cassini under the name Lagenifera (in Bull. Soc. Philomat. 12, 1816, 199) with the following diagnosis: ‘Ce genre, de la tribus des astérées, comprend le calendula magellanicá, Willd. et le bellis stipitata, Labill. Son principal caractère reside dans la

  3. The genus Faradaya (Labiatae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, de R.P.J.; Mabberley, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    A revision of the genus Faradaya F. Muell. (Labiatae) is presented with taxonomic history, keys, full descriptions, distribution maps and ecological and ethnobotanical notes. Only three species are recognised: F. amicorum (Seem.) Seem., F. lehuntei (Home ex Baker) A.C. Sm. and F. splendida F. Muell.

  4. The amphipod genus Acidostoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahl, E.

    1964-01-01

    The genus Acidostoma was established by Lilljeborg (1865, p. 24) to receive Anonyx obesus Sp. Bate (1862, p. 74). Afterwards two further species have been added, viz. A. laticorne G. O. Sars (1879, p. 440) and A. nodiferum Stephensen (1923, p. 40). In the present paper it will be shown that A. latic

  5. Genomic diversity within the haloalkaliphilic genus Thioalkalivibrio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Anne-Catherine; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P.; Overmars, Lex; Richter, Michael; Woyke, Tanja; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.

    2017-01-01

    Thioalkalivibrio is a genus of obligate chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Their habitat are soda lakes which are dual extreme environments with a pH range from 9.5 to 11 and salt concentrations up to saturation. More than 100 strains of this genus have been isolated from various soda lakes all over the world, but only ten species have been effectively described yet. Therefore, the assignment of the remaining strains to either existing or novel species is important and will further elucidate their genomic diversity as well as give a better general understanding of this genus. Recently, the genomes of 76 Thioalkalivibrio strains were sequenced. On these, we applied different methods including (i) 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, (ii) Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) based on eight housekeeping genes, (iii) Average Nucleotide Identity based on BLAST (ANIb) and MUMmer (ANIm), (iv) Tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficients (TETRA), (v) digital DNA:DNA hybridization (dDDH) as well as (vi) nucleotide- and amino acid-based Genome BLAST Distance Phylogeny (GBDP) analyses. We detected a high genomic diversity by revealing 15 new “genomic” species and 16 new “genomic” subspecies in addition to the ten already described species. Phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses showed that the genus is not monophyletic, because four strains were clearly separated from the other Thioalkalivibrio by type strains from other genera. Therefore, it is recommended to classify the latter group as a novel genus. The biogeographic distribution of Thioalkalivibrio suggested that the different “genomic” species can be classified as candidate disjunct or candidate endemic species. This study is a detailed genome-based classification and identification of members within the genus Thioalkalivibrio. However, future phenotypical and chemotaxonomical studies will be needed for a full species description of this genus. PMID:28282461

  6. Genomic diversity within the haloalkaliphilic genus Thioalkalivibrio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Anne-Catherine; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Overmars, Lex; Richter, Michael; Woyke, Tanja; Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Muyzer, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Thioalkalivibrio is a genus of obligate chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Their habitat are soda lakes which are dual extreme environments with a pH range from 9.5 to 11 and salt concentrations up to saturation. More than 100 strains of this genus have been isolated from various soda lakes all over the world, but only ten species have been effectively described yet. Therefore, the assignment of the remaining strains to either existing or novel species is important and will further elucidate their genomic diversity as well as give a better general understanding of this genus. Recently, the genomes of 76 Thioalkalivibrio strains were sequenced. On these, we applied different methods including (i) 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, (ii) Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) based on eight housekeeping genes, (iii) Average Nucleotide Identity based on BLAST (ANIb) and MUMmer (ANIm), (iv) Tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficients (TETRA), (v) digital DNA:DNA hybridization (dDDH) as well as (vi) nucleotide- and amino acid-based Genome BLAST Distance Phylogeny (GBDP) analyses. We detected a high genomic diversity by revealing 15 new "genomic" species and 16 new "genomic" subspecies in addition to the ten already described species. Phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses showed that the genus is not monophyletic, because four strains were clearly separated from the other Thioalkalivibrio by type strains from other genera. Therefore, it is recommended to classify the latter group as a novel genus. The biogeographic distribution of Thioalkalivibrio suggested that the different "genomic" species can be classified as candidate disjunct or candidate endemic species. This study is a detailed genome-based classification and identification of members within the genus Thioalkalivibrio. However, future phenotypical and chemotaxonomical studies will be needed for a full species description of this genus.

  7. Isolation, cultivation and genomic analysis of magnetosome biomineralization genes of a new genus of South-seeking magnetotactic cocci within the Alphaproteobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morillo, Viviana [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Abreu, Fernanda [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Araujo, Ana C [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; de Almeida, Luiz G [Laboratorio Nacional de Computacao Cientifica; Enrich-Prast, Alex [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Farina, Marcos [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; de Vasconcelos, Ana T [Laboratorio Nacional de Computacao Cientifica; Bazylinski, Dennis A [Ames Laboratory; Lins, Ulysses [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro

    2014-01-01

    Although magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats, they are still considered fastidious microorganisms with regard to growth and cultivation with only a relatively low number of axenic cultures available to date. Here, we report the first axenic culture of an MTB isolated in the Southern Hemisphere (Itaipu Lagoon in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Cells of this new isolate are coccoid to ovoid in morphology and grow microaerophilically in semi-solid medium containing an oxygen concentration ([O2]) gradient either under chemoorganoheterotrophic or chemolithoautotrophic conditions. Each cell contains a single chain of approximately 10 elongated cuboctahedral magnetite (Fe3O4) magnetosomes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence shows that the coccoid MTB isolated in this study represents a new genus in the Alphaproteobacteria; the name Magnetofaba australis strain IT-1 is proposed. Preliminary genomic data obtained by pyrosequencing shows that M. australis strain IT-1 contains a genomic region with genes involved in biomineralization similar to those found in the most closely related magnetotactic cocci Magnetococcus marinus strain MC-1. However, organization of the magnetosome genes differs from M. marinus.

  8. Suitability of DNA extracted from archival specimens of fruit-eating bats of the genus Artibeus (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae for polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Pinzan Scatena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To establish a technique which minimized the effects of fixation on the extraction of DNA from formalin-fixed tissues preserved in scientific collections we extracted DNA samples from fixed tissues using different methods and evaluated the effect of the different procedures on PCR and sequencing analysis. We investigated muscle and liver tissues from museum specimens of five species of fruit-eating (frugivorous bats of the Neotropical genus Artibeus (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae: A. fimbriatus, A. lituratus, A. jamaicensis, A. obscurus, and A. planirostris. The results indicated that treatment of tissues in buffered solutions at neutral pH and about 37 °C for at least four days improves the quality and quantity of extracted DNA and the quality of the amplification and sequencing products. However, the comparison between the performance of DNA obtained from fixed and fresh tissues showed that, in spite of the fact that both types of tissue generate reliable sequences for use in phylogenetic analyses, DNA samples from fixed tissues presented a larger rate of errors in the different stages of the study. These results suggest that DNA extracted from formalin-fixed tissue can be used in molecular studies of Neotropical Artibeus bats and that our methodology may be applicable to other animal groups.

  9. Analysis of an inactive cyanobactin biosynthetic gene cluster leads to discovery of new natural products from strains of the genus Microcystis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niina Leikoski

    Full Text Available Cyanobactins are cyclic peptides assembled through the cleavage and modification of short precursor proteins. An inactive cyanobactin gene cluster has been described from the genome Microcystis aeruginosa NIES843. Here we report the discovery of active counterparts in strains of the genus Microcystis guided by this silent cyanobactin gene cluster. The end products of the gene clusters were structurally diverse cyclic peptides, which we named piricyclamides. Some of the piricyclamides consisted solely of proteinogenic amino acids while others contained disulfide bridges and some were prenylated or geranylated. The piricyclamide gene clusters encoded between 1 and 4 precursor genes. They encoded highly diverse core peptides ranging in length from 7-17 amino acids with just a single conserved amino acid. Heterologous expression of the pir gene cluster from Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7005 in Escherichia coli confirmed that this gene cluster is responsible for the biosynthesis of piricyclamides. Chemical analysis demonstrated that Microcystis strains could produce an array of piricyclamides some of which are geranylated or prenylated. The genetic diversity of piricyclamides in a bloom sample was explored and 19 different piricyclamide precursor genes were found. This study provides evidence for a stunning array of piricyclamides in Microcystis, a worldwide occurring bloom forming cyanobacteria.

  10. An In-depth Analysis of a Multilocus Phylogeny Identifies leuS As a Reliable Phylogenetic Marker for the Genus Pantoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambong, James T; Xu, Renlin; Kaneza, Cynthia-Anne; Nshogozabahizi, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Partial sequences of six core genes (fusA, gyrB, leuS, pyrG, rlpB, and rpoB) of 37 strains of Pantoea species were analyzed in order to obtain a comprehensive view regarding the phylogenetic relationships within the Pantoea genus and compare tree topologies to identify gene(s) for reliable species and subspecies differentiation. All genes used in this study were effective at species-level delineation, but the internal nodes represented conflicting common ancestors in fusA- and pyrG-based phylogenies. Concatenated gene phylogeny gave the expected DNA relatedness, underscoring the significance of a multilocus sequence analysis. Pairwise comparison of topological distances and percent similarities indicated a significant differential influence of individual genes on the concatenated tree topology. leuS- and fusA-inferred phylogenies exhibited, respectively, the lowest (4) and highest (52) topological distances to the concatenated tree. These correlated well with high (96.3%) and low (64.4%) percent similarities of leuS- and fusA-inferred tree topologies to the concatenated tree, respectively. We conclude that the concatenated tree topology is strongly influenced by the gene with the highest number of polymorphic and non-synonymous sites in the absence of significant recombination events. PMID:25125967

  11. Otolith shape analysis for stock discrimination of two Collichthys genus croaker (Pieces: Sciaenidae,) from the northern Chinese coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Liu, Jinhu; Song, Junjie; Cao, Liang; Dou, Shuozeng

    2017-08-01

    The otolith morphology of two croaker species (Collichthys lucidus and Collichthys niveatus) from three areas (Liaodong Bay, LD; Huanghe (Yellow) River estuary, HRE; Jiaozhou Bay, JZ) along the northern Chinese coast were investigated for species identification and stock discrimination. The otolith contour shape described by elliptic Fourier coefficients (EFC) were analysed using principal components analysis (PCA) and stepwise canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) to identify species and stocks. The two species were well differentiated, with an overall classification success rate of 97.8%. And variations in the otolith shapes were significant enough to discriminate among the three geographical samples of C. lucidus (67.7%) or C. niveatus (65.2%). Relatively high mis-assignment occurred between the geographically adjacent LD and HRE samples, which implied that individual mixing may exist between the two samples. This study yielded information complementary to that derived from genetic studies and provided information for assessing the stock structure of C. lucidus and C. niveatus in the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea.

  12. Characterization of the TrmB-like protein, PF0124, a TGM-recognizing global transcriptional regulator of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Jae; Surma, Melanie; Seitz, Sabine; Hausner, Winfried; Thomm, Michael; Boos, Winfried

    2007-07-01

    The characterization of the transcriptional regulator TrmBL1 of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, homologous to TrmB (transcriptional regulator of the maltose system), was studied. The genome of P. furiosus contains three TrmB paralogues. One of the TrmB-like proteins (TrmBL), PF0124 (TrmBL1), was analysed in more detail. It regulated the expression of the genes encoding enzymes of the glycolytic pathway as well as the maltodextrin (MD) ABC transporter. By molecular sieve chromatography, purified TrmBL1 behaved at ambient temperature as a tetramer of 148.8 kDa. In the presence of 1 mM maltotriose or 5 mM maltose TrmBL1 formed octamers. As shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) TrmBL1 was found to bind the MD (maltodextrin ABC transport genes) promoter DNA with sixfold higher binding affinity (K(d) 0.2 microM) than to the trehalose/maltose ABC transporter (TM) promoter (K(d) 1.2 microM). Maltotriose and maltose interfered in these assays indicating inducer function. In vitro transcription assays using purified transcription components corroborated the data obtained with EMSA and showed inhibition of transcription of the MD promoter by TrmBL1. Recently, van de Werken et al. (FEMS Microbiol Lett 2006; 260: 69-76) identified TGM, a conserved sequence (Thermococcales-Glycolytic-Motif) upstream of genes encoding glycolytic enzymes and the MD ABC transporter. The position of TGM is invariably located downstream of the BRE-TATA box and overlapping the transcription start site on each promoter. By footprint analysis TrmBL1 was found to recognize the TGM sequence in several TGM-containing promoter sequences. We identified the recognition helix in TrmBL1 revealing tyrosine (Y49) to be essential for target DNA binding. However, the TGM motif was not essential for TrmBL1 binding. We conclude that TrmBL1 is a global sugar-sensing transcriptional regulator controlling the genes of transport systems and of sugar-metabolizing enzymes.

  13. Transfer of Methanolobus siciliae to the genus Methanosarcina, naming it Methanosarcina siciliae, and emendation of the genus Methanosarcina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, S.; Woese, C. R.; Aldrich, H. C.; Boone, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    A sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA of Methanolobus siciliae T4/M(T) (T = type strain) showed that this strain is closely related to members of the genus Methanosarcina, especially Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A(T). Methanolobus siciliae T4/M(T) and HI350 were morphologically more similar to members of the genus Methanosarcina than to members of the genus Methanolobus in that they both formed massive cell aggregates with pseudosarcinae. Thus, we propose that Methanolobus siciliae should be transferred to the genus Methanosarcina as Methanosarcina siciliae.

  14. Tracking the feeding patterns of tsetse flies (Glossina genus by analysis of bloodmeals using mitochondrial cytochromes genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine N Muturi

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies are notoriously difficult to observe in nature, particularly when populations densities are low. It is therefore difficult to observe them on their hosts in nature; hence their vertebrate species can very often only be determined indirectly by analysis of their gut contents. This knowledge is a critical component of the information on which control tactics can be developed. The objective of this study was to determine the sources of tsetse bloodmeals, hence investigate their feeding preferences. We used mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI and cytochrome b (cytb gene sequences for identification of tsetse fly blood meals, in order to provide a foundation for rational decisions to guide control of trypanosomiasis, and their vectors. Glossina swynnertoni were sampled from Serengeti (Tanzania and G. pallidipes from Kenya (Nguruman and Busia, and Uganda. Sequences were used to query public databases, and the percentage identities obtained used to identify hosts. An initial assay showed that the feeds were from single sources. Hosts identified from blood fed flies collected in Serengeti ecosystem, included buffaloes (25/40, giraffes (8/40, warthogs (3/40, elephants (3/40 and one spotted hyena. In Nguruman, where G. pallidipes flies were analyzed, the feeds were from elephants (6/13 and warthogs (5/13, while buffaloes and baboons accounted for one bloodmeal each. Only cattle blood was detected in flies caught in Busia and Uganda. Out of four flies tested in Mbita Point, Suba District in western Kenya, one had fed on cattle, the other three on the Nile monitor lizard. These results demonstrate that cattle will form an integral part of a control strategy for trypanosomiasis in Busia and Uganda, while different approaches are required for Serengeti and Nguruman ecosystems, where wildlife abound and are the major component of the tsetse fly food source.

  15. Tracking the feeding patterns of tsetse flies (Glossina genus) by analysis of bloodmeals using mitochondrial cytochromes genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Catherine N; Ouma, Johnson O; Malele, Imna I; Ngure, Raphael M; Rutto, Jane J; Mithöfer, Klaus M; Enyaru, John; Masiga, Daniel K

    2011-02-28

    Tsetse flies are notoriously difficult to observe in nature, particularly when populations densities are low. It is therefore difficult to observe them on their hosts in nature; hence their vertebrate species can very often only be determined indirectly by analysis of their gut contents. This knowledge is a critical component of the information on which control tactics can be developed. The objective of this study was to determine the sources of tsetse bloodmeals, hence investigate their feeding preferences. We used mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) and cytochrome b (cytb) gene sequences for identification of tsetse fly blood meals, in order to provide a foundation for rational decisions to guide control of trypanosomiasis, and their vectors. Glossina swynnertoni were sampled from Serengeti (Tanzania) and G. pallidipes from Kenya (Nguruman and Busia), and Uganda. Sequences were used to query public databases, and the percentage identities obtained used to identify hosts. An initial assay showed that the feeds were from single sources. Hosts identified from blood fed flies collected in Serengeti ecosystem, included buffaloes (25/40), giraffes (8/40), warthogs (3/40), elephants (3/40) and one spotted hyena. In Nguruman, where G. pallidipes flies were analyzed, the feeds were from elephants (6/13) and warthogs (5/13), while buffaloes and baboons accounted for one bloodmeal each. Only cattle blood was detected in flies caught in Busia and Uganda. Out of four flies tested in Mbita Point, Suba District in western Kenya, one had fed on cattle, the other three on the Nile monitor lizard. These results demonstrate that cattle will form an integral part of a control strategy for trypanosomiasis in Busia and Uganda, while different approaches are required for Serengeti and Nguruman ecosystems, where wildlife abound and are the major component of the tsetse fly food source.

  16. Complete genome sequence of Nitrobacter hamburgensis X14 and comparative genomic analysis of species within the genus Nitrobacter.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkenburg, Shawn R [Oregon State University; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Stein, Lisa Y [University of California, Riverside; Klotz, Martin G [University of Louisville, Louisville; Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Sayavedra-Soto, LA [Oregon State University; Poret-Peterson, Amisha T. [University of Louisville, Louisville; Gentry, ME [University of Louisville, Louisville; Arp, D J [Oregon State University; Ward, Bess B. [Princeton University; Bottomley, Peter J [Oregon State University

    2008-05-01

    The alphaproteobacterium Nitrobacter hamburgensis X14 is a gram-negative facultative chemolithoautotroph that conserves energy from the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. Sequencing and analysis of the Nitrobacter hamburgensis X14 genome revealed four replicons comprised of one chromosome (4.4 Mbp) and three plasmids (294, 188, and 121 kbp). Over 20% of the genome is composed of pseudogenes and paralogs. Whole-genome comparisons were conducted between N. hamburgensis and the finished and draft genome sequences of Nitrobacter winogradskyi and Nitrobacter sp. strain Nb-311A, respectively. Most of the plasmid-borne genes were unique to N. hamburgensis and encode a variety of functions (central metabolism, energy conservation, conjugation, and heavy metal resistance), yet approximately 21 kb of a approximately 28-kb "autotrophic" island on the largest plasmid was conserved in the chromosomes of Nitrobacter winogradskyi Nb-255 and Nitrobacter sp. strain Nb-311A. The N. hamburgensis chromosome also harbors many unique genes, including those for heme-copper oxidases, cytochrome b(561), and putative pathways for the catabolism of aromatic, organic, and one-carbon compounds, which help verify and extend its mixotrophic potential. A Nitrobacter "subcore" genome was also constructed by removing homologs found in strains of the closest evolutionary relatives, Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Among the Nitrobacter subcore inventory (116 genes), copies of genes or gene clusters for nitrite oxidoreductase (NXR), cytochromes associated with a dissimilatory nitrite reductase (NirK), PII-like regulators, and polysaccharide formation were identified. Many of the subcore genes have diverged significantly from, or have origins outside, the alphaproteobacterial lineage and may indicate some of the unique genetic requirements for nitrite oxidation in Nitrobacter.

  17. Genus Ranges of Chord Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico

    2015-04-01

    A chord diagram consists of a circle, called the backbone, with line segments, called chords, whose endpoints are attached to distinct points on the circle. The genus of a chord diagram is the genus of the orientable surface obtained by thickening the backbone to an annulus and attaching bands to the inner boundary circle at the ends of each chord. Variations of this construction are considered here, where bands are possibly attached to the outer boundary circle of the annulus. The genus range of a chord diagram is the genus values over all such variations of surfaces thus obtained from a given chord diagram. Genus ranges of chord diagrams for a fixed number of chords are studied. Integer intervals that can be, and those that cannot be, realized as genus ranges are investigated. Computer calculations are presented, and play a key role in discovering and proving the properties of genus ranges.

  18. Calongea, a new genus of truffles in the Pezizaceae (Pezizales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosanne A. Healy; Gregory Bonito; James M. Trappe

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS and LSU rDNA of Pachyphloeus species from Europe and North America revealed a new truffle genus. These molecular analyses plus sequences downloaded from a BLAST search in GenBank indicated that Pachyphloeus prieguensis is within the Pezizaceae but well outside of the genus Pachyphloeus...

  19. Homology modelling of two subtilisin-like proteases from the hyperthermophilic archaea Pyrococcus furiosus and Thermococcus stetteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhorst, W G; Warner, A; de Vos, W M; Siezen, R J

    1997-08-01

    The hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus produces an extracellular, glycosylated hyperthermostable subtilisin-like serine protease, termed pyrolysin (Voorhorst,W.G.B., Eggen,R.I.L., Geerling,A.C.M., Platteeuw,C., Siezen,R.J. and de Vos,W.M. (1996) J. Biol. Chem., 271, 20426-20431). Based on the pyrolysin coding sequence, a pyrolysin-like gene fragment was cloned and characterized from the extreme thermophilic archaeon Thermococcus stetteri. Like pyrolysin, the deduced sequence of this serine protease, designated stetterlysin, contains a catalytic domain with high homology with other subtilases, allowing homology modelling starting from known crystal structures. Comparison of the predicted three-dimensional models of the catalytic domain of stetterlysin and pyrolysin with the crystal structure of subtilases from mesophilic and thermophilic origin, i.e. subtilisin BPN' and thermitase, and the homology model of subtilisin S41 from psychrophilic origin, led to the identification of features that could be related to protein stabilization. Higher thermostability was found to be correlated with an increased number of residues involved in pairs and networks of charge-charge and aromatic-aromatic interactions. These highly thermostable proteases have several extra surface loops and inserts with a relatively high frequency of aromatic residues and Asn residues. The latter are often present in putative N-glycosylation sites. Results from modelling of known substrates in the substrate-binding region support the broad substrate range and the autocatalytic activation previously suggested for pyrolysin.

  20. N-Linked Glycans Are Assembled on Highly Reduced Dolichol Phosphate Carriers in the Hyperthermophilic Archaea Pyrococcus furiosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Michelle M; Imperiali, Barbara; Eichler, Jerry; Guan, Ziqiang

    2015-01-01

    In all three domains of life, N-glycosylation begins with the assembly of glycans on phosphorylated polyisoprenoid carriers. Like eukaryotes, archaea also utilize phosphorylated dolichol for this role, yet whereas the assembled oligosaccharide is transferred to target proteins from dolichol pyrophosphate in eukaryotes, archaeal N-linked glycans characterized to date are derived from a dolichol monophosphate carrier, apart from a single example. In this study, glycan-charged dolichol phosphate from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus was identified and structurally characterized. Normal and reverse phase liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry revealed the existence of dolichol phosphate charged with the heptasaccharide recently described in in vitro studies of N-glycosylation on this species. As with other described archaeal dolichol phosphates, the α- and ω-terminal isoprene subunits of the P. furiosus lipid are saturated, in contrast to eukaryal phosphodolichols that present only a saturated α-position isoprene subunit. Interestingly, an additional 1-4 of the 12-14 isoprene subunits comprising P. furiosus dolichol phosphate are saturated, making this lipid not only the longest archaeal dolichol phosphate described to date but also the most highly saturated.

  1. N-Linked Glycans Are Assembled on Highly Reduced Dolichol Phosphate Carriers in the Hyperthermophilic Archaea Pyrococcus furiosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M Chang

    Full Text Available In all three domains of life, N-glycosylation begins with the assembly of glycans on phosphorylated polyisoprenoid carriers. Like eukaryotes, archaea also utilize phosphorylated dolichol for this role, yet whereas the assembled oligosaccharide is transferred to target proteins from dolichol pyrophosphate in eukaryotes, archaeal N-linked glycans characterized to date are derived from a dolichol monophosphate carrier, apart from a single example. In this study, glycan-charged dolichol phosphate from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus was identified and structurally characterized. Normal and reverse phase liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry revealed the existence of dolichol phosphate charged with the heptasaccharide recently described in in vitro studies of N-glycosylation on this species. As with other described archaeal dolichol phosphates, the α- and ω-terminal isoprene subunits of the P. furiosus lipid are saturated, in contrast to eukaryal phosphodolichols that present only a saturated α-position isoprene subunit. Interestingly, an additional 1-4 of the 12-14 isoprene subunits comprising P. furiosus dolichol phosphate are saturated, making this lipid not only the longest archaeal dolichol phosphate described to date but also the most highly saturated.

  2. X-ray crystalline structures of pyrrolidone carboxyl peptidase from a hyperthermophile, Pyrococcus furiosus, and its cys-free mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, H; Chinami, M; Mizushima, T; Ogasahara, K; Ota, M; Tsukihara, T; Yutani, K

    2001-07-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanism of the thermostability of proteins from hyperthermophiles, X-ray crystalline structures of pyrrolidone carboxyl peptidase from a hyperthermophile, Pyrococcus furiosus (PfPCP), and its mutant protein with Ser substituted at Cys142 and Cys188 were determined at 2.2 and 2.7 A resolution, respectively. The obtained structures were compared with those previously reported for pyrrolidone carboxyl peptidases from a hyperthermophilie, Thermococcus litoralis (TlPCP), and from a mesophile, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BaPCP). The PfPCP structure is a tetramer of four identical subunits similar to that of the TlPCP and BaPCP. The largest structural changes among the three PCPs were detected in the C-terminal protrusion, which interacts with that of another subunit. A comparison of the three structures indicated that the high stability of PfPCP is caused by increases in hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds, the formation of an intersubunit ion-pair network, and improvement to an ideal conformation. On the basis of the structures of the three proteins, it can be concluded that PfPCP does not have any special factors responsible for its extremely high stability and that the conformational structure of PfPCP is superior in its combination of positive and negative stabilizing factors compared with BaPCP.

  3. Crystal structure and nucleic acid-binding activity of the CRISPR-associated protein Csx1 of Pyrococcus furiosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Kwan; Kim, Yeon-Gil; Oh, Byung-Ha

    2013-02-01

    In many prokaryotic organisms, chromosomal loci known as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and CRISPR-associated (CAS) genes comprise an acquired immune defense system against invading phages and plasmids. Although many different Cas protein families have been identified, the exact biochemical functions of most of their constituents remain to be determined. In this study, we report the crystal structure of PF1127, a Cas protein of Pyrococcus furiosus DSM 3638 that is composed of 480 amino acids and belongs to the Csx1 family. The C-terminal domain of PF1127 has a unique β-hairpin structure that protrudes out of an α-helix and contains several positively charged residues. We demonstrate that PF1127 binds double-stranded DNA and RNA and that this activity requires an intact β-hairpin and involve the homodimerization of the protein. In contrast, another Csx1 protein from Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 that is composed of 377 amino acids does not have the β-hairpin structure and exhibits no DNA-binding properties under the same experimental conditions. Notably, the C-terminal domain of these two Csx1 proteins is greatly diversified, in contrast to the conserved N-terminal domain, which appears to play a common role in the homodimerization of the protein. Thus, although P. furiosus Csx1 is identified as a nucleic acid-binding protein, other Csx1 proteins are predicted to exhibit different individual biochemical activities. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Improving the Thermostability and Optimal Temperature of a Lipase from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus by Covalent Immobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta V. Branco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A recombinant thermostable lipase (Pf2001Δ60 from the hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus (PFUL was immobilized by hydrophobic interaction on octyl-agarose (octyl PFUL and by covalent bond on aldehyde activated-agarose in the presence of DTT at pH = 7.0 (one-point covalent attachment (glyoxyl-DTT PFUL and on glyoxyl-agarose at pH 10.2 (multipoint covalent attachment (glyoxyl PFUL. The enzyme’s properties, such as optimal temperature and pH, thermostability, and selectivity, were improved by covalent immobilization. The highest enzyme stability at 70°C for 48 h incubation was achieved for glyoxyl PFUL (around 82% of residual activity, whereas glyoxyl-DTT PFUL maintained around 69% activity, followed by octyl PFUL (27% remaining activity. Immobilization on glyoxyl-agarose improved the optimal temperature to 90°C, while the optimal temperature of octyl PFUL was 70°C. Also, very significant changes in activity with different substrates were found. In general, the covalent bond derivatives were more active than octyl PFUL. The E value also depended substantially on the derivative and the conditions used. It was observed that the reaction of glyoxyl-DTT PFUL using methyl mandelate as a substrate at pH 7 presented the best results for enantioselectivity E=22 and enantiomeric excess (ee (% = 91.

  5. Structural basis for the transglycosylase activity of a GH57-type glycogen branching enzyme from Pyrococcus horikoshii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Soohui; Park, Minjeong; Jo, Inseong; Cha, Jaeho; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2017-03-18

    Glycogen branching enzyme (GBE) catalyzes the formation of α-1,6-branching points during glycogenesis by cleaving α-1,4 bonds and making new α-1,6 bonds. Most GBEs belong to the glycoside hydrolase 13 family (GH13), but new GBEs in the GH57 family have been isolated from Archaea. Here, we determined the crystal structure of a GH57 GBE from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii (PhGBE) at a resolution of 2.3 Å. PhGBE exhibits both α-1,6-branching activity and endo-α-1,4 hydrolytic activity. PhGBE has a central (β/α)7-barrel domain that contains an embedded helix domain and an α-helix-rich C-terminal domain. The active-site cleft is located at the interface of the central and C-terminal domains. Amino acid substitution at Trp22, which is separate from the catalytic nucleophilic residue, abolished both enzymatic activities, indicating that Trp22 might be responsible for substrate recognition. We also observed that shortening of the flexible loop near the catalytic residue changed branched chain lengths of the reaction products with increased hydrolytic activity. Taken together, our findings propose a molecular mechanism for how GH57 GBEs exhibit the two activities and where the substrate binds the enzyme.

  6. Expression and Characterization of a Novel Glycerophosphodiester Phosphodiesterase from Pyrococcus furiosus DSM 3638 That Possesses Lysophospholipase D Activity

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    Fanghua Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases (GDPD are enzymes which degrade various glycerophosphodiesters to produce glycerol-3-phosphate and the corresponding alcohol moiety. Apart from this, a very interesting finding is that this enzyme could be used in the degradation of toxic organophosphorus esters, which has resulted in much attention on the biochemical and application research of GDPDs. In the present study, a novel GDPD from Pyrococcus furiosus DSM 3638 (pfGDPD was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and biochemically characterized. This enzyme hydrolyzed bis(p-nitrophenyl phosphate, one substrate analogue of organophosphorus diester, with an optimal reaction temperature 55 °C and pH 8.5. The activity of pfGDPD was strongly dependent on existing of bivalent cations. It was strongly stimulated by Mn2+ ions, next was Co2+ and Ni2+ ions. Further investigations were conducted on its substrate selectivity towards different phospholipids. The results indicated that except of glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC, this enzyme also possessed lysophospholipase D activity toward both sn1-lysophosphatidylcholine (1-LPC and sn2-lysophosphatidylcholine (2-LPC. Higher activity was found for 1-LPC than 2-LPC; however, no hydrolytic activity was found for phosphatidylcholine (PC. Molecular docking based on the 3D-modeled structure of pfGDPD was conducted in order to provide a structural foundation for the substrate selectivity.

  7. A 21-amino acid peptide from the cysteine cluster II of the family D DNA polymerase from Pyrococcus horikoshii stimulates its nuclease activity which is Mre11-like and prefers manganese ion as the cofactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yulong; Tang, Xiao-Feng; Yokoyama, Hideshi; Matsui, Eriko; Matsui, Ikuo

    2004-01-01

    Family D DNA polymerase (PolD) is a new type of DNA polymerase possessing polymerization and 3'-5' exonuclease activities. Here we report the characterization of the nuclease activity of PolD from Pyrococcus horikoshii. By site-directed mutagenesis, we verified that the putative Mre11-like nuclease domain in the small subunit (DP1), predicted according to computer analysis and structure inference reported previously, is the catalytic domain. We show that D363, H365 and H454 are the essential residues, while D407, N453, H500, H563 and H565 are critical residues for the activity. We provide experimental evidence demonstrating that manganese, rather than magnesium, is the preferable metal ion for the nuclease activity of PolD. We also show that DP1 alone is insufficient to perform full catalysis, which additionally requires the formation of the PolD complex and manganese ion. We found that a 21 amino acid, subunit-interacting peptide of the sequence from cysteine cluster II of the large subunit (DP2) stimulates the exonuclease activity of DP1 and the internal deletion mutants of PolD lacking the 21-aa sequence. This indicates that the putative zinc finger motif of the cysteine cluster II is deeply involved in the nucleolytic catalysis.

  8. Analysis of gene order data supports vertical inheritance of the leukotoxin operon and genome rearrangements in the 5' flanking region in genus Mannheimia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Kuhnert, Peter; Frey, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    , the supposed sister group, lives as a commensal in the ovine rumen. We have tested the hypothesis that vertical inheritance of the leukotoxin (lktCABD) operon has occurred from the last common ancestor of genus Mannheimia to any ancestor of the diverging subclades by exploring gene order data. RESULTS: We...... than the hslVU-lapB-artJ-lktC and xylAB-lktC gene strings. The presence of (remnants of) the ancient gene string hslVU-lapB-lktC among any subclades within genus Mannheimia supports that it has been vertically inherited from the last common ancestor of genus Mannheimia to any ancestor of the diverging...... subclades, thus reaffirming the hypothesis of vertical inheritance of the leukotoxin operon. The presence of individual 5' flanking regions in M. haemolytica + M. glucosida and M. granulomatis reflects later genome rearrangements within each subclade. The evolution of the novel 5' flanking region in M...

  9. Comparative analysis of A, B,C and D genomes in the genus Oryza with C0t-1 DNA of C genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Weizhen; QIN Rui; LI Gang; HE Guangcun

    2006-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)was applied to somatic chromosomes preparations of Oryza officinalis Wall. (CC), O. sativa L. (AA)×O. officinalis F1 hybrid (AC), backcross progenies BC1 (AAC and ACC), O. latifolia Desv. (CCDD), O. alta Swallen (CCDD) and O. punctata Kotschy (BBCC)with a labelled probe of Cot-1 DNA from O. officinalis.In O. officinalis, the homologous chromosomes showed similar signal bands probed by C0t-1 DNA and karyotype analysis was conducted based on the band patterns. Using no blocking DNA, the probe identified the chromosomes of C genome clearly, but detected few signals on chromosomes of A genome in the F1 hybrid and two backcross progenies of BC1.It is obvious that the highly and moderately repetitive DNA sequences were considerably different between C and A genomes. The chromosomes of C genome were also discriminated from the chromosomes of D-and B-genome in the tetraploid species O. latifolia, O.alta and O. punctata by C0t-1 DNA-FISH. Comparison of the fluorescence intensity on the chromosomes of B, C and D genomes in O. latifolia, O. alta,and O. punctata indicated that the differentiations between C and D genomes are less than that between C and B genomes. The relationship between C and D genomes in O. alta is closer than that of C and D genomes in O. latifolia. This would be one of the causes for the fact that both the genomes are of the same karyotype (CCDD) but belong to different species. The above results showed that the C0t-1 DNA had a high specificity of genome and species. In this paper, the origin of allotetraploid in genus Oryza is also discussed.

  10. A New Isolate of the Genus Malassezia Based on the Sequence Analysis of 26S and ITS1 in Ribosomal DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mirhendi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malassezia species considered to be the etiological agents of pityriasis versicolor andMalassezia follicolitis in humans. Recently, on the basis of molecular data, four new specieswere added to the genus. In total, 11 species have been described and accepted sofar. In this study we describe a new isolate of Malassezia based on the nucleotide sequenceof 26SrDNA and ITS1 regions, as the accepted critical markers for description ofthe species.The yeast was isolated from a hamster. Two primer pairs, one for amplification of D1/D2-26Sr DNA and another for the ITS1 region were used in PCR. The PCR products weresequenced and analyzed to compare with other similar sequences which are already depositedin the GenBank. The 26SrDNA PCR product was also digested with the restrictionenzyme CfoI.Malassezia-specific universal primer pairs successfully amplified the 26srDNA and ITS1regions of the new isolate, providing a single PCR product of about 580 and 280 basepairs, respectively. After digestion of the 26s PCR product with the enzyme CfoI, a uniqueand different RFLP pattern was observed. Sequence analysis of D1/D226s and ITS1 regionswere compared with the same regions in all already described Malassezia species,which implied a different and unique new sequences. The phylogenetic tree of both regionsshowed that the isolate could be a different Malassezia isolate.Regarding the new RFLP pattern of D1/D226SrDBA and the unique nucleotide sequence ofboth D1/D2 26SrDNA and ITS1 regions, we propose the isolate to be a new Malassezia.

  11. Palynology of the Genus Stachytarpheta Vahl. (Verbenaceae

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    Olubukola ADEDEJI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The exine morphology of pollen grains of Stachytarpheta indica (Linn. Vahl, Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl and Stachytarpheta angustifolia (Mill. Vahl is reported. This study was carried out with a light microscope. Pollen grains from fresh anthers were collected and aceolysed. Statistical analysis used to analyse the data collected include cluster analysis, correlation analysis, similarity and distance indices. The pollen grains are spheroidal to oblate to sub-oblate in shape. They are aperturate, both colpate and porate. Tricolpate types occur most frequently, acolpate, monocolpate, bicolpate and tetracolpate types less frequently. The multicolpate and multiporate attributes in all the species indicate that the genus is not primitive in evolutionary history and this species probably, evolved around in the same time. According to the size, the pollen grains of the genus falls into groups permagna (pollen diameter 100-200 ?m and giganta (pollen diameter greater than 200 ?m. S. cayennensis and S. anguistifolia belong to group permagna and S. indica only in the group giganta. This separates S. indica from the other two species. The large pollen grain size in the genus clearly supports the fact that the flowers in the genus are more insect-and-bird pollinated than wind pollinated. The similarity and distance indices of the species showed that S. cayennensis and S. angustifolia are the closest. S. indica is closer to S. angustifolia but farther from S. cayennensis.

  12. Increased genetic diversity in Greek populations of the genus Ligidium (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) revealed by RFLP analysis of mtDNA segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klossa-Kilia, E.; Kilias, G.; Sfenthourakis, S.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated mtDNA genetic differentiation and the phylogenetic relationships of 11 populations of the oniscidean genus Ligidium. We studied nine populations from Greece, assigned to three nominal species (L. euboicum, L. germanicum and L. beieri), and two from central Europe (L. germanicum and L

  13. Exposure profiles and human papillomavirus infection in skin cancer: an analysis of 25 genus beta-types in a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anita S; Karagas, Margaret R; Perry, Ann E; Nelson, Heather H

    2008-12-01

    An increasing number of studies report that genus beta human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are associated with skin cancer, with suggestions of specificity for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. We have conducted a systematic examination of HPV DNA in tumors from immunocompetent hosts, including SCC and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), using a highly sensitive methodology and population-based samples to test the hypothesis that a differential prevalence of beta-HPVs exists between SCC (n=101) and BCC (n=101) tumors. When testing for all known beta-HPV types, we found no significant difference in HPV prevalence between the two histologies. However, SCC lesions were significantly more likely to be infected with HPV genus beta-species 1 (includes types 5 and 8), than BCC samples (P=0.01); this difference was not observed for any other species. A histologic difference was also observed for those HPV types previously reported to be important in skin cancer (P=0.003). SCC samples showed a higher rate of infectivity (that is, were positive for multiple types) than BCC tumors (P=0.02). These data highlight the potential importance of various genus beta-HPV types, in particular genus beta-species 1 in SCC, and support the hypothesis of a behavioral difference of the virus within the two major histological skin cancers.

  14. The Oryza map alignment project: Construction, alignment and analysis of 12 BAC fingerprint/end sequence framework physical maps that represent the 10 genome types of genus Oryza

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Oryza Map Alignment Project (OMAP) provides the first comprehensive experimental system for understanding the evolution, physiology and biochemistry of a full genus in plants or animals. We have constructed twelve deep-coverage BAC libraries that are representative of both diploid and tetraploid...

  15. The medical threat of mamba envenoming in sub-Saharan Africa revealed by genus-wide analysis of venom composition, toxicity and antivenomics profiling of available antivenoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ainsworth, Stuart; Petras, Daniel; Engmark, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    ecology of D. polylepis compared to the arboreal niche occupied by all other mambas makes it plausible that this major difference in venom composition is due to dietary variation. The pattern of intrageneric venom variability across Dendroaspis represented a valuable opportunity to investigate, in a genus...

  16. Specific interaction between DNA polymerase II (PolD) and RadB, a Rad51/Dmc1 homolog, in Pyrococcus furiosus.

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, I; Morikawa, K; ISHINO, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Pyrococcus furiosus has an operon containing the DNA polymerase II (PolD) gene and three other genes. Using a two-hybrid screening to examine the interactions of the proteins encoded by the operon, we identified a specific interaction between the second subunit of PolD (DP1) and a Rad51/Dmc1 homologous protein (RadB). To ensure the specific interaction between these two proteins, each gene in the operon was expressed in Escherichia coli or insect cells separately and the products were purifie...

  17. Specific interaction between DNA polymerase II (PolD) and RadB, a Rad51/Dmc1 homolog, in Pyrococcus furiosus.

    OpenAIRE

    I. Hayashi; Morikawa, K.; Ishino, Y

    1999-01-01

    Pyrococcus furiosus has an operon containing the DNA polymerase II (PolD) gene and three other genes. Using a two-hybrid screening to examine the interactions of the proteins encoded by the operon, we identified a specific interaction between the second subunit of PolD (DP1) and a Rad51/Dmc1 homologous protein (RadB). To ensure the specific interaction between these two proteins, each gene in the operon was expressed in Escherichia coli or insect cells separately and the products were purifie...

  18. Electronic, Magnetic, and Redox Properties of [MFe(3)S(4)] Clusters (M = Cd, Cu, Cr) in Pyrococcus furiosus Ferredoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Christopher R.; Dhawan, Ish K.; Finnegan, Michael G.; Dwinell, Derek A.; Zhou, Zhi Hao; Huang, Heshu; Verhagen, Marc F. J. M.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Johnson, Michael K.

    1997-12-01

    The ground- and excited-state properties of heterometallic [CuFe(3)S(4)](2+,+), [CdFe(3)S(4)](2+,+), and [CrFe(3)S(4)](2+,+) cubane clusters assembled in Pyrococcus furiosus ferredoxin have been investigated by the combination of EPR and variable-temperature/variable-field magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) studies. The results indicate Cd(2+) incorporation into [Fe(3)S(4)](0,-) cluster fragments to yield S = 2 [CdFe(3)S(4)](2+) and S = (5)/(2) [CdFe(3)S(4)](+) clusters and Cu(+) incorporation into [Fe(3)S(4)](+,0) cluster fragments to yield S = (1)/(2) [CuFe(3)S(4)](2+) and S = 2 [CuFe(3)S(4)](+) clusters. This is the first report of the preparation of cubane type [CrFe(3)S(4)](2+,+) clusters, and the combination of EPR and MCD results indicates S = 0 and S = (3)/(2) ground states for the oxidized and reduced forms, respectively. Midpoint potentials for the [CdFe(3)S(4)](2+,+), [CrFe(3)S(4)](2+,+), and [CuFe(3)S(4)](2+,+) couples, E(m) = -470 +/- 15, -440 +/- 10, and +190 +/- 10 mV (vs NHE), respectively, were determined by EPR-monitored redox titrations or direct electrochemistry at a glassy carbon electrode. The trends in redox potential, ground-state spin, and electron delocalization of [MFe(3)S(4)](2+,+) clusters in P. furiosus ferredoxin are discussed as a function of heterometal (M = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Tl).

  19. Crystal structure of product-bound complex of UDP-N-acetyl-D-mannosamine dehydrogenase from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pampa, K.J., E-mail: sagarikakj@gmail.com [Department of Studies in Microbiology, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India); Lokanath, N.K. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India); Girish, T.U. [Department of General Surgery, JSS Medical College and Hospital, JSS University, Mysore 570 015 (India); Kunishima, N. [Advanced Protein Crystallography Research Group, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Harima Institute, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Rai, V.R. [Department of Studies in Microbiology, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India)

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • Determined the structure of UDP-D-ManNAcADH to a resolution of 1.55 Å. • First complex structure of PhUDP-D-ManNAcADH with UDP-D-ManMAcA. • The monomeric structure consists of three distinct domains. • Cys258 acting as catalytic nucleophilic and Lys204 acts as acid/base catalyst. • Oligomeric state plays an important role for the catalytic function. - Abstract: UDP-N-acetyl-D-mannosamine dehydrogenase (UDP-D-ManNAcDH) belongs to UDP-glucose/GDP-mannose dehydrogenase family and catalyzes Uridine-diphospho-N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (UDP-D-ManNAc) to Uridine-diphospho-N-acetyl-D-mannosaminuronic acid (UDP-D-ManNAcA) through twofold oxidation of NAD{sup +}. In order to reveal the structural features of the Pyrococcus horikoshii UDP-D-ManNAcADH, we have determined the crystal structure of the product-bound enzyme by X-ray diffraction to resolution of 1.55 Å. The protomer folds into three distinct domains; nucleotide binding domain (NBD), substrate binding domain (SBD) and oligomerization domain (OD, involved in the dimerization). The clear electron density of the UDP-D-ManNAcA is observed and the residues binding are identified for the first time. Crystal structures reveal a tight dimeric polymer chains with product-bound in all the structures. The catalytic residues Cys258 and Lys204 are conserved. The Cys258 acts as catalytic nucleophile and Lys204 as acid/base catalyst. The product is directly interacts with residues Arg211, Thr249, Arg244, Gly255, Arg289, Lys319 and Arg398. In addition, the structural parameters responsible for thermostability and oligomerization of the three dimensional structure are analyzed.

  20. Influence of ionic liquid cosolvent on transgalactosylation reactions catalyzed by thermostable beta-glycosylhydrolase CelB from Pyrococcus Furiosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Markus; Kamrat, Thomas; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2006-12-20

    The synthesis of glycosides by enzymatic transglycosylation is a kinetically controlled reaction performed in the context of a non-favorable thermodynamic equilibrium. An unreactive organic cosolvent which increases the selectivity of the enzyme for glycosyl transfer to the acceptor nucleophile compared with water (Ksel) could improve maximum product yield. Here we report on the effect of the ionic liquid 1,3-dimethylimidazoliummethylsulfate on hydrolase and transferase activities of the hyperthermostable beta-glycosidase CelB from the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. CelB retained full catalytic efficiency for lactose hydrolysis at 80 degrees C in a 50% (by vol.) solution of ionic liquid in sodium citrate buffer, pH 5.5. It was inactive but not irreversibly denatured at 70% ionic liquid. Using lactose (0.15 M) as galactosyl donor, values of Ksel for a representative series of eight acceptor alcohols were determined in kinetic assays at 80 degrees C and found to increase between 1.3-fold (D-xylose) and 3.1-fold (glycerol) in 45% ionic liquid. Enhancement of Ksel was dependent on ionic liquid concentration and higher than expected from the decrease in water activity caused by the cosolvent. Experimental molar ratios of D-glucose and D-galactose produced during enzymatic conversion of lactose (75-150 mM) in the presence of D-xylose (0.5 M) or glycerol (0.5 M) showed excellent agreement with predictions based on Ksel values and confirm a significant, yet moderate effect of 45% ionic liquid on increasing the yield of D-galactoside product, by < or = 10%.

  1. Structural basis of thermal stability of the tungsten cofactor synthesis protein MoaB from Pyrococcus furiosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastassia Havarushka

    Full Text Available Molybdenum and tungsten cofactors share a similar pterin-based scaffold, which hosts an ene-dithiolate function being essential for the coordination of either molybdenum or tungsten. The biosynthesis of both cofactors involves a multistep pathway, which ends with the activation of the metal binding pterin (MPT by adenylylation before the respective metal is incorporated. In the hyperthermophilic organism Pyrococcus furiosus, the hexameric protein MoaB (PfuMoaB has been shown to catalyse MPT-adenylylation. Here we determined the crystal structure of PfuMoaB at 2.5 Å resolution and identified key residues of α3-helix mediating hexamer formation. Given that PfuMoaB homologues from mesophilic organisms form trimers, we investigated the impact on PfuMoaB hexamerization on thermal stability and activity. Using structure-guided mutagenesis, we successfully disrupted the hexamer interface in PfuMoaB. The resulting PfuMoaB-H3 variant formed monomers, dimers and trimers as determined by size exclusion chromatography. Circular dichroism spectroscopy as well as chemical cross-linking coupled to mass spectrometry confirmed a wild-type-like fold of the protomers as well as inter-subunits contacts. The melting temperature of PfuMoaB-H3 was found to be reduced by more than 15 °C as determined by differential scanning calorimetry, thus demonstrating hexamerization as key determinant for PfuMoaB thermal stability. Remarkably, while a loss of activity at temperatures higher than 50 °C was observed in the PfuMoaB-H3 variant, at lower temperatures, we determined a significantly increased catalytic activity. The latter suggests a gain in conformational flexibility caused by the disruption of the hexamerization interface.

  2. Transfer of eleven species of the genus Burkholderia to the genus Paraburkholderia and proposal of Caballeronia gen. nov. to accommodate twelve species of the genera Burkholderia and Paraburkholderia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobritsa, Anatoly P; Samadpour, Mansour

    2016-08-01

    It has been proposed to split the genus Burkholderia into two genera according to phylogenetic clustering: (1) a genus retaining this name and consisting mainly of animal and plant pathogens and (2) the genus Paraburkholderia including so-called environmental bacteria. The latter genus name has been validly published recently. During the period between the effective and valid publications of the genus name Paraburkholderia, 16 novel species of the genus Burkholderiawere described, but only two of them can be classified as members of this genus based on the emended genus description. Analysis of traits and phylogenetic positions of the other 11 species shows that they belong to the genus Paraburkholderia, and we propose to transfer them to this genus. The reclassified species names are proposed as Paraburkholderia dipogonis comb. nov., Paraburkholderia ginsengiterrae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia humisilvae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia insulsa comb. nov., Paraburkholderia kirstenboschensis comb. nov., Paraburkholderia metalliresistens comb. nov., Paraburkholderia monticola comb. nov., Paraburkholderia panaciterrae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia rhizosphaerae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia solisilvae comb. nov. and Paraburkholderia susongensis comb. nov. The remaining three species are transferred to the new genus Caballeronia gen. nov. proposed to accommodate twelve species of the genera Burkholderia and Paraburkholderia forming a distinctive clade in phylogenetic trees. The new genus members are Caballeronia choica comb. nov., Caballeronia cordobensis comb. nov., Caballeronia glathei comb. nov., Caballeronia grimmiae comb. nov., Caballeronia humi comb. nov., Caballeronia megalochromosomata comb. nov., Caballeronia jiangsuensis comb. nov., Caballeronia sordidicola comb. nov., Caballeronia telluris comb. nov., Caballeronia terrestris comb. nov., Caballeronia udeis comb. nov., and Caballeronia zhejiangensis comb. nov.

  3. Log-concavity of the genus polynomials of Ringel Ladders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan L Gross

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A Ringel ladder can be formed by a self-bar-amalgamation operation on a symmetric ladder, that is, by joining the root vertices on its end-rungs. The present authors have previously derived criteria under which linear chains of copies of one or more graphs have log-concave genus polyno- mials. Herein we establish Ringel ladders as the first significant non-linear infinite family of graphs known to have log-concave genus polynomials. We construct an algebraic representation of self-bar-amalgamation as a matrix operation, to be applied to a vector representation of the partitioned genus distribution of a symmetric ladder. Analysis of the resulting genus polynomial involves the use of Chebyshev polynomials. This paper continues our quest to affirm the quarter-century-old conjecture that all graphs have log-concave genus polynomials.

  4. The genus Allium. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, G R; Hanley, A B

    1985-01-01

    Allium is a genus of some 500 species belonging to the family Liliaceae. However only a few of these are important as food plants, notably onion, garlic, chive, leek, and rakkyo. Such plants have been used for many centuries for the pungency and flavoring value, for their medicinal properties, and, in some parts of the world, their use also has religious connotations. The flavors of members of the genus Alliums, in addition to having certain characteristics, are also complex, being derived enzymically from a number of involatile precursors. In addition to there being variation of flavor between different alliums, there are also considerable changes that occur as a result of cooking and processing. Of course, these are of importance to the consumer and food technologist-processor. The review will introduce the subject by an historical perspective and will set this against data on the present cultivation and usage of commercially cultivated alliums. The chemical composition of these plants will be discussed, emphasis being given to nonvolatile constituents which are, perhaps, less often considered. Discussion of the volatile constituents, which will include mention of the methods currently used for their analysis and for the determination of "flavor strength", will be mainly concerned with literature taken from the last 5 years. In considering the extent and nature of allium cultivation and processing, factors affecting the nutritional value and quality will be highlighted. The medicinal properties of garlic and onion oils have been much studied over the last decade and the review will include critical assessment of this area and also will touch on the more general properties (antimicrobial, antifungal, antibacterial, and insecticidal) of these oils. Finally mention will be made of the antinutritional, toxic, or otherwise undesirable effects of alliums, for example, as inadvertent components of animal diets, tainting of milk and other food products. It is our

  5. Mitochondrial genomes of the jungle crow Corvus macrorhynchos (Passeriformes: Corvidae) from shed feathers and a phylogenetic analysis of genus Corvus using mitochondrial protein-coding genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzeminska, Urszula; Wilson, Robyn; Rahman, Sadequr; Song, Beng Kah; Seneviratne, Sampath; Gan, Han Ming; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of two jungle crows (Corvus macrorhynchos) were sequenced. DNA was extracted from tissue samples obtained from shed feathers collected in the field in Sri Lanka and sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq Personal Sequencer. Jungle crow mitogenomes have a structural organization typical of the genus Corvus and are 16,927 bp and 17,066 bp in length, both comprising 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, and a non-coding control region. In addition, we complement already available house crow (Corvus spelendens) mitogenome resources by sequencing an individual from Singapore. A phylogenetic tree constructed from Corvidae family mitogenome sequences available on GenBank is presented. We confirm the monophyly of the genus Corvus and propose to use complete mitogenome resources for further intra- and interspecies genetic studies.

  6. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badali, H.; Gueidan, C.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Bonifaz, A.; Gerrits van den Ende, A.H.G.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved s

  7. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badali, H.; Gueidan, C.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Bonifaz, A.; Gerrits van den Ende, A.H.G.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved s

  8. Genus Distributions of Moebius Ladders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德明

    2005-01-01

    The genus distribution of a graph is a polynomial whose coefficients are the partition of the number of embeddings with respect to the genera. In this paper,the genus distribution of Moebius ladders is provided which is an infinite class of 3-connected simple graphs.

  9. Phylogeny of the plant genus Pachypodium (Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan O. Burge

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The genus Pachypodium contains 21 species of succulent, generally spinescent shrubs and trees found in southern Africa and Madagascar. Pachypodium has diversified mostly into arid and semi-arid habitats of Madagascar, and has been cited as an example of a plant group that links the highly diverse arid-adapted floras of Africa and Madagascar. However, a lack of knowledge about phylogenetic relationships within the genus has prevented testing of this and other hypotheses about the group. Methodology/Principal Findings. We use DNA sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal ITS and chloroplast trnL-F region for all 21 Pachypodium species to reconstruct evolutionary relationships within the genus. We compare phylogenetic results to previous taxonomic classifications and geography. Results support three infrageneric taxa from the most recent classification of Pachypodium, and suggest that a group of African species (P. namaquanum, P. succulentum and P. bispinosum may deserve taxonomic recognition as an infrageneric taxon. However, our results do not resolve relationships among major African and Malagasy lineages of the genus. Conclusions/Significance. We present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of Pachypodium. Our work has revealed five distinct lineages, most of which correspond to groups recognized in past taxonomic classifications. Our work also suggests that there is a complex biogeographic relationship between Pachypodium of Africa and Madagascar.

  10. Improving the Catalytic Activity of Hyperthermophilic Pyrococcus horikoshii Prolidase for Detoxification of Organophosphorus Nerve Agents over a Broad Range of Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey M. Theriot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolidases hydrolyze Xaa-Pro dipeptides and can also cleave the P-F and P-O bonds found in organophosphorus (OP compounds, including the nerve agents soman and sarin. Ph1prol (PH0974 has previously been isolated and characterized from Pyrococcus horikoshii and was shown to have higher catalytic activity over a broader pH range, higher affinity for metal, and increased thermostability compared to P. furiosus prolidase, Pfprol (PF1343. To obtain a better enzyme for OP nerve agent decontamination and to investigate the structural factors that may influence protein thermostability and thermoactivity, randomly mutated Ph1prol enzymes were prepared. Four Ph1prol mutants (A195T/G306S-, Y301C/K342N-, E127G/E252D-, and E36V-Ph1prol were isolated which had greater thermostability and improved activity over a broader range of temperatures against Xaa-Pro dipeptides and OP nerve agents compared to wild type Pyrococcus prolidases.

  11. The genus Syllis Savigny in Lamarck, 1818 (Annelida, Syllidae) from Australia. Molecular analysis and re-description of some poorly-known species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Campos, Patricia; Riesgo, Ana; Hutchings, Pat; San Martín, Guillermo

    2015-12-03

    The taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships within Syllis Savigny in Lamarck, 1818, the type genus of the family Syllidae, are still a matter of debate because the group does not show clear synapomorphies and because of the lack of molecular data for many of the species. In order to help understand some of the phylogenetic relationships within the genus Syllis, we have performed a morphological revision of part of the material collected during decades by the Australian Museum staff, and provide molecular data for species not sequenced before. In particular, seven poorly known Australian species of the genus Syllis Savigny in Lamarck, 1818 have been re-described in detail and sequenced to analyze their phylogenetic position: Syllis broomensis n. comb., S. crassicirrata (Treadwell, 1925) n. comb., Syllis cruzi Núñez & San Martín, 1991, S. edensis (Hartmann-Schröder, 1989), Syllis gracilis Grube, 1840, Syllis picta (Kinberg, 1866) n. comb., and S. setoensis (Imajima, 1966). The results obtained indicate the paraphyly of Typosyllis and a possible new organization of Syllis, which contains at least four well-supported clades.

  12. The myxomycete genus Schenella: morphological and DNA sequence evidence for synonymy with the gasteromycete genus Pyrenogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Torres, Arturo; Gaither, Thomas W; Miller, Dennis L; Lado, Carlos; Keller, Harold W

    2005-01-01

    The genus Schenella has proven difficult to classify since its description as a new genus in 1911. Macbride placed it with the Myxomycetes but it was unclear with which myxomycete, if any, it should be grouped. Recent identification of abundant samples of Schenella has aided a re-evaluation of its classification as a myxomycete. Morphological evidence based on light and scanning electron microscopy of recently collected specimens and on the type specimen of Macbride suggested that it might be synonymous with the gasteromycete Pyrenogaster Analysis of DNA sequences from freshly isolated samples indicates that the genus Schenella is related closely to an anciently diverged, monophyletic group of fungi that includes several gasteromycete genera, among them Geastrum, Sphaerobolus and Pseudocolus. Comparisons of the morphology and DNA sequences of authentically identified specimens of Pyrenogaster atrogleba indicate that it is synonymous with Schenella simplex. The nomenclatural implications of this discovery are discussed.

  13. Isleria, a new genus of antwren (Aves: Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Gustavo A.; Chesser, R. Terry; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis of the family Thamnophilidae indicated that the genus Myrmotherula is not monophyletic. The clade composed of M. guttata and M. hauxwelli is only distantly related to other members of the genus and should be removed from Myrmotherula. The phenotypic distinctiveness of the clade argues against merging it with its sister group Thamnomanes and no generic name is available for the guttata-hauxwelli clade. Consequently, we describe the genus Isleria for these two species, and designate Myrmothera guttata as its type species.

  14. toward a phylogeny of the kukri snakes, genus oligodon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    the south and southeast asian snake genus oligodon,known for its egg-eating feeding behavior,has been a taxonomically and systematically challenging group.this work provides the first phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus.we use approximately 1900 base pairs of mitochondrial dna sequence data to infer the relationships of these snakes,and we examine congruence between the phylogeny and hemipenial characters.a hypothesis for the position of oligodon within the colubridae is also proposed.we discuss the implications of the phylogeny for previous taxonomic groupings,and consider the usefulness of the trees in analysis of behavior and biogeography of this genus.

  15. Composite Genus One Belyi Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Vidunas, Raimundas

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by a demand for explicit genus 1 Belyi maps from physics, we give an efficient method of explicitly computing genus one Belyi maps by (1) composing covering maps from elliptic curves to the Riemann surface with the simpler, univariate, genus zero Belyi maps as well as by (2) composing further with isogenies of the elliptic curve. This gives many new explicit dessins on the doubly periodic plane, including several which have been realized in the physics literature as so-called brane-tilings in the context of quiver gauge theories.

  16. Chemodiversity in the genus Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2015-01-01

    to be characterized. The genus Aspergillus is cladistically holophyletic but phenotypically polythetic and very diverse and is associated to quite different sexual states. Following the one fungus one name system, the genus Aspergillus is restricted to a holophyletic clade that include the morphologically different...... biosynthetic family isoextrolites. However, it appears that secondary metabolites from one Aspergillus section have analogous metabolites in other sections (here also called heteroisoextrolites). In this review, we give a genus-wide overview of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus species. Extrolites...

  17. MAGGIE Component 1: Identification and Purification of Native and Recombinant Multiprotein Complexes and Modified Proteins from Pyrococcus furiosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Michael W. [University of Georgia; W. W. Adams, Michael

    2014-01-07

    Virtualy all cellular processes are carried out by dynamic molecular assemblies or multiprotein complexes (PCs), the composition of which is largely unknown. Structural genomics efforts have demonstrated that less than 25% of the genes in a given prokaryotic genome will yield stable, soluble proteins when expressed using a one-ORF-at-a-time approach. We proposed that much of the remaining 75% of the genes encode proteins that are part of multiprotein complexes or are modified post-translationally, for example, with metals. The problem is that PCs and metalloproteins (MPs) cannot be accurately predicted on a genome-wide scale. The only solution to this dilemma is to experimentally determine PCs and MPs in biomass of a model organism and to develop analytical tools that can then be applied to the biomass of any other organism. In other words, organisms themselves must be analyzed to identify their PCs and MPs: “native proteomes” must be determined. This information can then be utilized to design multiple ORF expression systems to produce recombinant forms of PCs and MPs. Moreover, the information and utility of this approach can be enhanced by using a hyperthermophile, one that grows optimally at 100°C, as a model organism. By analyzing the native proteome at close to 100 °C below the optimum growth temperature, we will trap reversible and dynamic complexes, thereby enabling their identification, purification, and subsequent characterization. The model organism for the current study is Pyrococcus furiosus, a hyperthermophilic archaeon that grows optimally at 100°C. It is grown up to 600-liter scale and kg quantities of biomass are available. In this project we identified native PCs and MPs using P. furiosus biomass (with MS/MS analyses to identify proteins by component 4). In addition, we provided samples of abundant native PCs and MPs for structural characterization (using SAXS by component 5). We also designed and evaluated generic bioinformatics and

  18. Mutational analyses of the enzymes involved in the metabolism of hydrogen by the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus

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    Gerrit J Schut

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pyrococcus furiosus grows optimally near 100°C by fermenting carbohydrates to produce hydrogen (H2 or, if elemental sulfur (S0, is present hydrogen sulfide instead. It contains two cytoplasmic hydrogenases, SHI and SHII, that use NADP(H as an electron carrier, and a membrane bound hydrogenase (MBH, that utilizes the redox protein ferredoxin. We previously constructed deletion strains lacking SHI and/or SHII and showed that they exhibited no obvious phenotype. This study has now been extended to include biochemical analyses and growth studies using the ΔSHI and ΔSHII deletion strains together with strains lacking a functional MBH (ΔMbhL. Hydrogenase activities in cytoplasmic extracts of ΔSHII and the parent strain were similar but were much lower (<10% in the ΔSHI strain, and no activity was detected in the ΔSHIΔSHII double deletion strain, indicating that SHI is responsible for most of the cytoplasmic hydrogenase activity. In contrast, the ΔmbhL strain showed no growth in the absence of S0, confirming the hypothesis that, in the absence of S0, MBH is the only enzyme that can dispose of reductant (as H2 generated during sugar oxidation. The deletion strain devoid of all three hydrogenases also grew only in the presence of S0 and did not produce any detectable H2. When grown in the presence of limiting S0, both H2S and H2 were produced by the parent and ΔSHI/ΔSHII strains. A significant amount of H2 was also produced by the ΔmbhL strain, showing that SHI can produce H2 from NADPH in vivo, although this does not enable significant growth of ΔmbhL in the absence of S0. We propose that the physiological function of SHI is to recycle H2 and provide a link between external H2 and the intracellular pool of NADPH needed for biosynthesis. This likely has a distinct energetic advantage in the environment, but it is clearly not required for growth of the organism under the usual laboratory conditions. The function of SHII, however, remains

  19. A new genus of leafhopper subtribe Paraboloponina (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) with molecular phylogeny of related genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, Naresh M; Shashank, Pathour R; Sinha, Twinkle

    2017-01-01

    A new leafhopper genus Chandra and species Chandra dehradunensis gen. nov., sp. nov. are described, illustrated from India and placed in the subtribe Paraboloponina (Cidadellidae: Deltocephalinae: Drabescini). This genus is closely associated with the genus Parabolopona Webb but differs in shape of the head, placement of antennae, male genitalia and molecular analysis using Histone H3 and COI genes confirmed the difference. The taxonomic and phylogenetic position of Chandra is discussed using morphological characters and preliminary molecular evidence of the new genus and related genus Parabolopona.

  20. Description, circumscription and phylogenetics of the Zaeucoilini, new tribe (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae) and a description of a new genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neotropical eucoiline genera that have been included in and allied with the Zaeucoila genus group sensu Nordlander are redescribed. Following character analysis and phylogenetic reconstruction (25 taxa, 96 morphological characters, 1452 ribosomal and mitochondrial characters), this informal genus g...

  1. Genomes-based phylogeny of the genus Xanthomonas

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    Rodriguez-R Luis M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Xanthomonas comprises several plant pathogenic bacteria affecting a wide range of hosts. Despite the economic, industrial and biological importance of Xanthomonas, the classification and phylogenetic relationships within the genus are still under active debate. Some of the relationships between pathovars and species have not been thoroughly clarified, with old pathovars becoming new species. A change in the genus name has been recently suggested for Xanthomonas albilineans, an early branching species currently located in this genus, but a thorough phylogenomic reconstruction would aid in solving these and other discrepancies in this genus. Results Here we report the results of the genome-wide analysis of DNA sequences from 989 orthologous groups from 17 Xanthomonas spp. genomes available to date, representing all major lineages within the genus. The phylogenetic and computational analyses used in this study have been automated in a Perl package designated Unus, which provides a framework for phylogenomic analyses which can be applied to other datasets at the genomic level. Unus can also be easily incorporated into other phylogenomic pipelines. Conclusions Our phylogeny agrees with previous phylogenetic topologies on the genus, but revealed that the genomes of Xanthomonas citri and Xanthomonas fuscans belong to the same species, and that of Xanthomonas albilineans is basal to the joint clade of Xanthomonas and Xylella fastidiosa. Genome reduction was identified in the species Xanthomonas vasicola in addition to the previously identified reduction in Xanthomonas albilineans. Lateral gene transfer was also observed in two gene clusters.

  2. A review of the genus Hyoscyamus (Solanaceae in Iran

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    شادی حاج رسولیها

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Hyoscyamus is belonging to the family Solanaceae. This genus with 12-19 species has a wide range of distribution in Iran. In different flora, some species of this genus are synonym due the similar morphology. Three subgenera are introduced for genus namely Hyoscyamus, Parahyoscyamus and Dendrotrichon in Iran. For accurate survey done the general review on this genus. For morphological studies the images of calyx species were plotted with stereo microscope with specified enlarge. For numerical taxonomy studies 42 qualitative and quantitative morphological characters were selected and analyzed with SPSS software with three methods cluster, PCA and FA. Then the results of analysis compared and reconciled with data from various studies conducted on this genus. Survey data confirmed the approximation of two species H.tenuicaulis and H. bornmulleri and H. bornmulleri is the synonym of H. tenuicaulis. Also, H. malekianus transferred from subgen. Parahyoscyamus to subgen. Dendrotrichon. Finally, a key to all species of the genus Hyoscyamus in Iran is provided.

  3. The genus Vitex: A review

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    Anita Rani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The review includes 161 references on the genus Vitex, and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies, and toxicology of the prominent species of Vitex. Essential oils, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides, diterpenoides and ligans constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these, leaves and fruits of V. agnus-castus Linn. (Verbenaceae has been traditionally used in treatment of women complaints. V. agnus-castus has also been included in herbal remedies, which are in clinical use to regulate the menstrual cycle, reduce premenstrual symptom tension and anxiety, treat some menopausal symptoms as well as to treat hormonally induced acne. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Vitex species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action.

  4. Dynamics of the [4Fe-4S] cluster in Pyrococcus furiosus D14C ferredoxin via nuclear resonance vibrational and resonance Raman spectroscopies, force field simulations, and density functional theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Devrani; Pelmenschikov, Vladimir; Guo, Yisong; Case, David A; Wang, Hongxin; Dong, Weibing; Tan, Ming-Liang; Ichiye, Toshiko; Jenney, Francis E; Adams, Michael W W; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Zhao, Jiyong; Cramer, Stephen P

    2011-06-14

    We have used (57)Fe nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) to study oxidized and reduced forms of the [4Fe-4S] cluster in the D14C variant ferredoxin from Pyrococcus furiosus (Pf D14C Fd). To assist the normal-mode assignments, we conducted NRVS with D14C ferredoxin samples with (36)S substituted into the [4Fe-4S] cluster bridging sulfide positions, and a model compound without ligand side chains, (Ph(4)P)(2)[Fe(4)S(4)Cl(4)]. Several distinct regions of NRVS intensity are identified, ranging from "protein" and torsional modes below 100 cm(-1), through bending and breathing modes near 150 cm(-1), to strong bands from Fe-S stretching modes between 250 and ∼400 cm(-1). The oxidized ferredoxin samples were also investigated by resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy. We found good agreement between NRVS and RR frequencies, but because of different selection rules, the intensities vary dramatically between the two types of spectra. The (57)Fe partial vibrational densities of states for the oxidized samples were interpreted by normal-mode analysis with optimization of Urey-Bradley force fields for local models of the [4Fe-4S] clusters. Full protein model calculations were also conducted using a supplemented CHARMM force field, and these calculations revealed low-frequency modes that may be relevant to electron transfer with Pf Fd partners. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations complemented these empirical analyses, and DFT was used to estimate the reorganization energy associated with the [Fe(4)S(4)](2+/+) redox cycle. Overall, the NRVS technique demonstrates great promise for the observation and quantitative interpretation of the dynamical properties of Fe-S proteins.

  5. Dynamics of the [4Fe-4S] Cluster in Pyrococcus furiosus D14C Ferredoxin via Nuclear Resonance Vibrational and Resonance Raman Spectroscopies, Force Field Simulations, and Density Functional Theory Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Devrani; Pelmenschikov, Vladimir; Guo, Yisong; Case, David A.; Wang, Hongxin; Dong, Weibing; Tan, Ming-Liang; Ichiye, Toshiko; Jenney, Francis E.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Zhao, Jiyong; Cramer, Stephen P.

    2011-01-01

    We have used 57Fe nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) to study oxidized and reduced forms of the [4Fe-4S] cluster in the D14C variant ferredoxin from Pyrococcus furiosus (Pf D14C Fd). To assist the normal mode assignments, we recorded the NRVS of D14C ferredoxin samples with 36S substituted into the [4Fe-4S] cluster bridging sulfide positions, and a model compound without ligand side chains: (Ph4P)2[Fe4S4Cl4]. Several distinct regions of NRVS intensity are identified, ranging from `protein' and torsional modes below 100 cm−1, through bending and breathing modes near 150 cm−1, to strong bands from Fe-S stretching modes between 250 cm−1 and ~400 cm−1. The oxidized ferredoxin samples were also investigated by resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy. We found good agreement between NRVS and RR frequencies, but because of different selection rules, the intensities vary dramatically between the two types of spectra. The 57Fe partial vibrational densities of states (PVDOS) for the oxidized samples were interpreted by normal mode analysis with optimization of Urey-Bradley force fields for local models of the [4Fe-4S] clusters. Full protein model calculations were also conducted using a supplemented CHARMM force field, and these calculations revealed low frequency modes that may be relevant to electron transfer with Pf Fd partners. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations complemented these empirical analyses, and DFT was used to estimate the reorganization energy associated with the [Fe4S4]2+/1+ redox cycle. Overall, the NRVS technique demonstrates great promise for the observation and quantitative interpretation of the dynamical properties of Fe-S proteins. PMID:21500788

  6. The genus Cladosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensch, K; Braun, U; Groenewald, J Z; Crous, P W

    2012-06-15

    A monographic revision of the hyphomycete genus Cladosporium s. lat. (Cladosporiaceae, Capnodiales) is presented. It includes a detailed historic overview of Cladosporium and allied genera, with notes on their phylogeny, systematics and ecology. True species of Cladosporium s. str. (anamorphs of Davidiella), are characterised by having coronate conidiogenous loci and conidial hila, i.e., with a convex central dome surrounded by a raised periclinal rim. Recognised species are treated and illustrated with line drawings and photomicrographs (light as well as scanning electron microscopy). Species known from culture are described in vivo as well as in vitro on standardised media and under controlled conditions. Details on host range/substrates and the geographic distribution are given based on published accounts, and a re-examination of numerous herbarium specimens. Various keys are provided to support the identification of Cladosporium species in vivo and in vitro. Morphological datasets are supplemented by DNA barcodes (nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA, as well as partial actin and translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences) diagnostic for individual species. In total 993 names assigned to Cladosporium s. lat., including Heterosporium (854 in Cladosporium and 139 in Heterosporium), are treated, of which 169 are recognized in Cladosporium s. str. The other taxa are doubtful, insufficiently known or have been excluded from Cladosporium in its current circumscription and re-allocated to other genera by the authors of this monograph or previous authors. Cladosporium allicinum (Fr.: Fr.) Bensch, U. Braun & Crous, comb. nov., C. astroideum var. catalinense U. Braun, var. nov., Fusicladium tectonicola (Yong H. He & Z.Y. Zhang) U. Braun & Bensch, comb. nov., Septoidium uleanum (Henn.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium adeniae (Hansf.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium dianellae (Sawada

  7. The genus Cladosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensch, K.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    A monographic revision of the hyphomycete genus Cladosporium s. lat. (Cladosporiaceae, Capnodiales) is presented. It includes a detailed historic overview of Cladosporium and allied genera, with notes on their phylogeny, systematics and ecology. True species of Cladosporium s. str. (anamorphs of Davidiella), are characterised by having coronate conidiogenous loci and conidial hila, i.e., with a convex central dome surrounded by a raised periclinal rim. Recognised species are treated and illustrated with line drawings and photomicrographs (light as well as scanning electron microscopy). Species known from culture are described in vivo as well as in vitro on standardised media and under controlled conditions. Details on host range/substrates and the geographic distribution are given based on published accounts, and a re-examination of numerous herbarium specimens. Various keys are provided to support the identification of Cladosporium species in vivo and in vitro. Morphological datasets are supplemented by DNA barcodes (nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA, as well as partial actin and translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences) diagnostic for individual species. In total 993 names assigned to Cladosporium s. lat., including Heterosporium (854 in Cladosporium and 139 in Heterosporium), are treated, of which 169 are recognized in Cladosporium s. str. The other taxa are doubtful, insufficiently known or have been excluded from Cladosporium in its current circumscription and re-allocated to other genera by the authors of this monograph or previous authors. Taxonomic novelties: Cladosporium allicinum (Fr.: Fr.) Bensch, U. Braun & Crous, comb. nov., C. astroideum var. catalinense U. Braun, var. nov., Fusicladium tectonicola (Yong H. He & Z.Y. Zhang) U. Braun & Bensch, comb. nov., Septoidium uleanum (Henn.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium adeniae (Hansf.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Avena based on chloroplast intergenic spacer psbA-trnH and single-copy nuclear gene Acc1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong-Hai; Baum, Bernard R; Zhou, Ping-Ping; Zhao, Jun; Wei, Yu-Ming; Ren, Chang-Zhong; Xiong, Fang-Qiu; Liu, Gang; Zhong, Lin; Zhao, Gang; Peng, Yuan-Ying

    2014-05-01

    Two uncorrelated nucleotide sequences, chloroplast intergenic spacer psbA-trnH and acetyl CoA carboxylase gene (Acc1), were used to perform phylogenetic analyses in 75 accessions of the genus Avena, representing 13 diploids, seven tetraploid, and four hexaploids by maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference. Phylogenic analyses based on the chloroplast intergenic spacer psbA-trnH confirmed that the A genome diploid might be the maternal donor of species of the genus Avena. Two haplotypes of the Acc1 gene region were obtained from the AB genome tetraploids, indicating an allopolyploid origin for the tetraploid species. Among the AB genome species, both gene trees revealed differences between Avena agadiriana and the other species, suggesting that an AS genome diploid might be the A genome donor and the other genome diploid donor might be the Ac genome diploid Avena canariensis or the Ad genome diploid Avena damascena. Three haplotypes of the Acc1 gene have been detected among the ACD genome hexaploid species. The haplotype that seems to represent the D genome clustered with the tetraploid species Avena murphyi and Avena maroccana, which supported the CD genomic designation instead of AC for A. murphyi and A. maroccana.

  9. Comparative analysis of germ cells and DNA of the genus Amblyomma: adding new data on Amblyomma maculatum and Amblyomma ovale species (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Páez, Fredy Arvey; Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; da Silva Matos, Renata; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2017-08-18

    Among tick species, members of the subfamily Amblyomminae have received special attention, since they serve as vectors for pathogens such as Rickettsia spp. and display cryptic species complexes that make their taxonomical classification challenging. Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma maculatum, and other species of the genus Amblyomma have shown a long history of taxonomic controversies. Spermiotaxonomy has proved to be a valuable tool in the solution of systematic conflicts in Metazoa that can aid molecular and external morphological analyses in ticks and, overall, provide more robust analyses and results. With this in mind, this study included histological analyses of the reproductive system of the species A. ovale and A. maculatum, as well as the description of morphohistological characters of the male reproductive system of ticks of the genus Amblyomma, in order to evaluate these characters within the current clustering proposals. In addition, 16S rDNA and COI (mitochondrial) molecular markers were used to study the genetic relationships of the species. The results show that the tick male reproductive system and its germ cells contain useful candidate characters for taxonomical analyses of Ixodida.

  10. Camerobiid mites (Acariformes: Raphignathina: Camerobiidae inhabiting epiphytic bromeliads and soil litter of tropical dry forest with analysis of setal homology in the genus Neophyllobius

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    Ricardo Paredes-León

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the camerobiid mites living on epiphytic bromeliads and the forest floor of a Mexican tropical dry forest was carried out. We found three new species of the genus Neophyllobius, which are described in this paper; the first two, namely N. cibyci sp. nov. and N. tepoztlanensis sp. nov., were both found inhabiting bromeliads (Tillandsia spp. and living on two tree species (Quercus obtusata and Sapium macrocarpum; the third, N. tescalicola sp. nov., was found in soil and litter under Q. obtusata. These three new species can be differentiated from other species in the genus by a combination of morphological characters in adult females, mainly those setae on femora and genua I. The idiosoma and leg setal ontogeny of a camerobiid mite is presented for the first time in this paper, illustrating chaetotaxic notations and their relative positions in N. cibyci sp. nov. larva, protonymph and adults (female and male, and establishing setal homologies among instars. Setal homology with other species in the cohort Raphignathina is briefly discussed. Additionally, a compilation and an identification key to all known species of camerobiid mites in Mexico is provided.

  11. Analysis of gene order data supports vertical inheritance of the leukotoxin operon and genome rearrangements in the 5' flanking region in genus Mannheimia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Kuhnert, Peter; Frey, Joachim;

    2007-01-01

    examined the gene order in the 5' flanking region of the leukotoxin operon and found that the 5' flanking gene strings, hslVU-lapB-artJ-lktC and xylAB-lktC, are peculiar to M. haemolytica + M. glucosida and M. granulomatis, respectively, whereas the gene string hslVU-lapB-lktC is present in M. ruminalis......, the supposed sister group of M. haemolytica + M. glucosida, and in the most ancient subclade M. varigena. In M. granulomatis, we found remnants of the gene string hslVU-lapB-lktC in the xylB-lktC intergenic region. CONCLUSIONS: These observations indicate that the gene string hslVU-lapB-lktC is more ancient...... than the hslVU-lapB-artJ-lktC and xylAB-lktC gene strings. The presence of (remnants of) the ancient gene string hslVU-lapB-lktC among any subclades within genus Mannheimia supports that it has been vertically inherited from the last common ancestor of genus Mannheimia to any ancestor of the diverging...

  12. Chromosomal distribution patterns of the (AC)10 microsatellite and other repetitive sequences, and their use in chromosome rearrangement analysis of species of the genus Avena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fominaya, Araceli; Loarce, Yolanda; Montes, Alexander; Ferrer, Esther

    2017-03-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to determine the physical location of the (AC)10 microsatellite in metaphase chromosomes of six diploid species (AA or CC genomes), two tetraploid species (AACC genome), and five cultivars of two hexaploid species (AACCDD genome) of the genus Avena, a genus in which genomic relationships remain obscure. A preferential distribution of the (AC)10 microsatellite in the pericentromeric and interstitial regions was seen in both the A- and D-genome chromosomes, while in C-genome chromosomes the majority of signals were located in the pericentromeric heterochromatic regions. New large chromosome rearrangements were detected in two polyploid species: an intergenomic translocation involving chromosomes 17AL and 21DS in Avena sativa 'Araceli' and another involving chromosomes 4CL and 21DS in the analyzed cultivars of Avena byzantina. The latter 4CL-21DS intergenomic translocation differentiates clearly between A. sativa and A. byzantina. Searches for common hybridization patterns on the chromosomes of different species revealed chromosome 10A of Avena magna and 21D of hexaploid oats to be very similar in terms of the distribution of 45S and Am1 sequences. This suggests a common origin for these chromosomes and supports a CCDD rather than an AACC genomic designation for this species.

  13. The Pangenome of the genus Clostridium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udaondo, Zulema; Duque, Estrella; Ramos, Juan Luis

    2017-03-21

    We present the pangenome for the genus Clostridium sensu stricto, which was obtained using highly curated and annotated genomes from 16 species, some of these cause disease, while others are used for the production of added-value chemicals. Multilocus sequencing analysis revealed that species of this genus group into at least two clades that include non-pathogenic and pathogenic strains, suggesting that pathogenicity is dispersed across the phylogenetic tree. The core genome of the genus includes 546 protein families, which mainly comprise those involved in protein translation and DNA repair. The GS-GOGAT may represent the central pathway for generating organic nitrogen from inorganic nitrogen sources. Glycerol and glucose metabolism genes are well represented in the core genome together with a set of energy conservation systems. A metabolic network comprising proteins/enzymes, RNAs and metabolites, whose topological structure is a non-random and scale-free network with hierarchically structured modules was built. These modules shed light on the interactions between RNAs, proteins and metabolites, revealing biological features of transcription and translation, cell wall biosynthesis, C1 metabolism and N metabolism. Network analysis identified four nodes that function as hubs and bottlenecks, namely, coenzyme A, HPr kinases, S-adenosylmethionine and the ribonuclease P-protein, suggesting pivotal roles for them in Clostridium. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. UPLC-QTOFMS based metabolomics followed by stepwise partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) explore the possible relation between the variations in secondary metabolites and the phylogenetic divergences of the genus Panax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy Truong; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Lee, Won Jun; Lee, GwangJin; Yoon, Sang Jun; Shin, Byong-Kyu; Nguyen, Minh Duc; Park, Jeong Hill; Lee, Jeongmi; Kwon, Sung Won

    2016-02-15

    Phylogenetic and metabolomic approaches have long been employed to study evolutionary relationships among plants. Nonetheless, few studies have examined the difference in metabolites within a clade and between clades of the phylogenetic tree. We attempted to relate phylogenetic studies to metabolomics using stepwise partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) for the genus Panax. Samples were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOFMS) to obtain metabolite profiles. Initially, conventional principal component analysis was subsequently applied to the metabolomic data to show the limitations in relating the expression of metabolites to divisions in the phylogenetic tree. Thereafter, we introduced stepwise PLS-DA with optimized scaling methods, which were properly applied according to the branches of the phylogenetic tree of the four species. Our approach highlighted metabolites of interest by elucidating the directions and degrees of metabolic alterations in each clade of the phylogenetic tree. The results revealed the relationship between metabolic changes in the genus Panax and its species' evolutionary adaptations to different climates. We believe our method will be useful to help understand the metabolite-evolution relationship.

  15. Revision of the genus Phaeanthus (Annonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, J.B.; Keßler, P.J.A.

    2000-01-01

    A revision of the genus Phaeanthus Hook.f. & Thomson (Annonaceae) is presented. The genus comprises 8 species. A key to the fruiting and/or flowering specimens of the genus is included. The genus consists of shrubs to small-sized trees from Malesia and Vietnam. It is characterised by sepals and

  16. Comparative Genomics Reveals High Genomic Diversity in the Genus Photobacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Henrique; Gram, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Vibrionaceae is a large marine bacterial family, which can constitute up to 50% of the prokaryotic population in marine waters. Photobacterium is the second largest genus in the family and we used comparative genomics on 35 strains representing 16 of the 28 species described so far, to understand...... the genomic diversity present in the Photobacterium genus. Such understanding is important for ecophysiology studies of the genus. We used whole genome sequences to evaluate phylogenetic relationships using several analyses (16S rRNA, MLSA, fur, amino-acid usage, ANI), which allowed us to identify two...... misidentified strains. Genome analyses also revealed occurrence of higher and lower GC content clades, correlating with phylogenetic clusters. Pan-and core-genome analysis revealed the conservation of 25% of the genome throughout the genus, with a large and open pan-genome. The major source of genomic diversity...

  17. Cytogenetic analysis in three Bryconamericus species (Characiformes, Characidae): first description of the 5S rDNA-bearing chromosome pairs in the genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Nowadays, the genus Bryconamericus is placed in subfamily Stevardiinae within of Characidae, but not shows consistent evidence of monophyletism. The purpose of this work was to study the chromosomes of three species of Bryconamericus, aiming to add cytogenetic knowledge and contribute to the understanding of the chromosomal evolution of this genus. Results The chromosomes of three species of Bryconamericus were analyzed using cytogenetic techniques. The karyotype of Bryconamericus stramineus contained 6 metacentric (m) + 10 submetacentric (sm) + 16 subtelocentric (st) + 20 acrocentric (a), the fundamental number (FN) of 84, one silver impregnated (Ag-NOR) pair, one pair bearing the 18S ribosomal DNA sites, another pair bearing the 5S rDNA sites, and a few positive C-bands. Bryconamericus turiuba had a karyotype containing 8 m + 10sm + 14st + 20a (FN = 84), one chromosome pair Ag-NOR, two pairs bearing the 18S rDNA sites, two pairs bearing the 5S rDNA sites, and a few C-band regions. Bryconamericus cf. iheringii had a karyotype containing 10 m + 14sm + 18st + 10a (FN = 94), including one pair with a secondary constriction Ag-NOR positive. In this karyotype the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed the 18S and 5S rDNA probe in adjacent position. Conclusions The results obtained in this work showed different characteristics in the organization of two multigene families, indicating that distinct evolutionary forces acting on the diversity of rDNA sequences in the genome of three Bryconamericus species. PMID:23547656

  18. Identification of CRISPR and riboswitch related RNAs among novel noncoding RNAs of the euryarchaeon Pyrococcus abyssi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpousis Agamemnon J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noncoding RNA (ncRNA has been recognized as an important regulator of gene expression networks in Bacteria and Eucaryota. Little is known about ncRNA in thermococcal archaea except for the eukaryotic-like C/D and H/ACA modification guide RNAs. Results Using a combination of in silico and experimental approaches, we identified and characterized novel P. abyssi ncRNAs transcribed from 12 intergenic regions, ten of which are conserved throughout the Thermococcales. Several of them accumulate in the late-exponential phase of growth. Analysis of the genomic context and sequence conservation amongst related thermococcal species revealed two novel P. abyssi ncRNA families. The CRISPR family is comprised of crRNAs expressed from two of the four P. abyssi CRISPR cassettes. The 5'UTR derived family includes four conserved ncRNAs, two of which have features similar to known bacterial riboswitches. Several of the novel ncRNAs have sequence similarities to orphan OrfB transposase elements. Based on RNA secondary structure predictions and experimental results, we show that three of the twelve ncRNAs include Kink-turn RNA motifs, arguing for a biological role of these ncRNAs in the cell. Furthermore, our results show that several of the ncRNAs are subjected to processing events by enzymes that remain to be identified and characterized. Conclusions This work proposes a revised annotation of CRISPR loci in P. abyssi and expands our knowledge of ncRNAs in the Thermococcales, thus providing a starting point for studies needed to elucidate their biological function.

  19. The genus Cyclidiopsis: an obituary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Matthew S; Triemer, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    Since its creation in 1917 the genus Cyclidiopsis, and its validity, has been a source of debate among euglenid taxonomists. While many authors have supported its legitimacy, various other authors have considered it to be a subgenus of Astasia or even promoted its complete dissolution. In this study, we have sequenced the small subunit and large subunit ribosomal DNA of Cyclidiopsis acus, the type species for the genus. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses showed that C. acus grouped with taxa from the genus Lepocinclis, which necessitated the removal of this taxon from Cyclidiopsis and into Lepocinclis as Lepocinclis cyclidiopsis nom. nov. After an extensive literature search it was determined that only two other previously described Cyclidiopsis taxa were morphologically distinct, and the rest were reassigned as synonyms of L. cyclidiopsis. These findings prompted a re-examination of the initial description of Cyclidiopsis, and it was determined that the morphological characters establishing the genus as a distinct group were no longer valid in light of current phylogenetic analyses and the emended generic description for Lepocinclis. Therefore, the remaining two taxa were formally moved to the genus Lepocinclis as L. crescentia comb. nov. and L. pseudomermis comb. nov.

  20. THE GENUS CULLENIA Wight * (Bombacaceae

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    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    1956-12-01

    Full Text Available The monotypic genus Cullenia was established by Wight (IconesPI. Ind. or. 5 (1 : pi. 1761—62 & text, 1851, who differentiated it fromDurio Adans. mainly by the lack of a corolla and the position and shapeof the anthers. The only species, originally described as Durio ceylanicusby Gardner, was cited by Wight as Cullenia excelsa Wight. K. Schumanncorrected the specific epithet rather casually and atributed it (wronglyto Wight. Bentham (in Benth. & Hook., Gen. pi. 1: 212. 1867; Baillon(Hist. pi. 4: 159. 1872, Masters (in Hook, f., Fl. Br. Ind. 1: 350. 1874and Beccari (Malesia 3: 219. 1889 accepted the genus.Bakhuizen van den Brink (in Bull. Jard. bot. Buitenzorg III, 6: 228.1924 incorporated the genus in Durio.In my opinion Cullenia represents a "good" genus by its lack ofcorolla. Alston, although accepting Bakhuizen's reduction, informed mepersonally, that he, too, is inclined to consider Cullenia different fromDurio.The pollen were described as being naked and pedicellate by Gardner;this wrong statement was corrected by Wight; the anthers are pedicellateand one-celled.In this paper a new Cullenia species is described, which strengthensthe position of the genus; both species are restricted to the rain forestregion of Ceylon and the Southern Indian Peninsula.

  1. On genus expansion of superpolynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Mironov, A; Sleptsov, A; Smirnov, A

    2013-01-01

    Recently it was shown that the (Ooguri-Vafa) generating function of HOMFLY polynomials is the Hurwitz partition function, i.e. that the dependence of the HOMFLY polynomials on representation is naturally captured by symmetric group characters (cut-and-join eigenvalues). The genus expansion and expansion through Vassiliev invariants explicitly demonstrate this phenomenon. In the present letter we claim that the superpolynomials are not functions of such a type: symmetric group characters do not provide an adequate linear basis for their expansions. Deformation to superpolynomials is, however, straightforward in the multiplicative basis:the Casimir operators are beta-deformed to Hamiltonians of the Calogero-Moser-Sutherland system. Applying this trick to the genus and Vassiliev expansions, we observe that the deformation is rather straightforward only for the thin knots. Beyond this family additional algebraically independent terms appear in the Vassiliev and genus expansions. This can suggest that the superpol...

  2. Strong embeddings of minimum genus

    CERN Document Server

    Mohar, Bojan

    2009-01-01

    A "folklore conjecture, probably due to Tutte" (as described in [P.D. Seymour, Sums of circuits, Graph theory and related topics (Proc. Conf., Univ. Waterloo, 1977), pp. 341-355, Academic Press, 1979]) asserts that every bridgeless cubic graph can be embedded on a surface of its own genus in such a way that the face boundaries are cycles of the graph. In this paper we consider closed 2-cell embeddings of graphs and show that certain (cubic) graphs (of any fixed genus) have closed 2-cell embedding only in surfaces whose genus is very large (proportional to the order of these graphs), thus providing plethora of strong counterexamples to the above conjecture. The main result yielding such counterexamples may be of independent interest.

  3. Genus paracoccidioides: Species recognition and biogeographic aspects.

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    Raquel Cordeiro Theodoro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (species S1, PS2, PS3, and Paracoccidioides lutzii. This work aimed to differentiate species within the genus Paracoccidioides, without applying multilocus sequencing, as well as to obtain knowledge of the possible speciation processes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis on GP43, ARF and PRP8 intein genes successfully distinguished isolates into four different species. Morphological evaluation indicated that elongated conidia were observed exclusively in P. lutzii isolates, while all other species (S1, PS2 and PS3 were indistinguishable. To evaluate the biogeographic events that led to the current geographic distribution of Paracoccidioides species and their sister species, Nested Clade and Likelihood Analysis of Geographic Range Evolution (LAGRANGE analyses were applied. The radiation of Paracoccidioides started in northwest South America, around 11-32 million years ago, as calculated on the basis of ARF substitution rate, in the BEAST program. Vicariance was responsible for the divergence among S1, PS2 and P. lutzii and a recent dispersal generated the PS3 species, restricted to Colombia. Taking into account the ancestral areas revealed by the LAGRANGE analysis and the major geographic distribution of L. loboi in the Amazon basin, a region strongly affected by the Andes uplift and marine incursions in the Cenozoic era, we also speculate about the effect of these geological events on the vicariance between Paracoccidioides and L. loboi. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The use of at least 3 SNPs, but not morphological criteria, as markers allows us to distinguish among the four cryptic species of the genus Paracoccidioides. The work also presents a biogeographic study speculating on how these species might have diverged in South America, thus contributing to elucidating evolutionary aspects of the genus Paracoccidioides.

  4. The controversial nature of the Weissella genus: technological and functional aspects versus whole genome analysis-based pathogenic potential for their application in food and health.

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    Hikmate eAbriouel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the use of several Weissella strains for biotechnological and probiotic purposes, certain species of this genus were found to act as opportunistic pathogens, while strains of W. ceti were recognized to be pathogenic for farmed rainbow trout. Herein, we investigated the pathogenic potential of weissellas based on in silico analyses of the 13 whole genome sequences available to date in the NCBI database.Our screening allowed us to find several virulence determinants such as collagen adhesins, aggregation substances, mucus-binding proteins and hemolysins in some species. Moreover, we detected several antibiotic resistance-encoding genes, whose presence could increase the potential pathogenicity of some strains, but should not be regarded as an excluding trait for beneficial weissellas,as long as these genes are not present on mobile genetic elements. Thus, selection of weissellas intended to be used as starters or for biotechnological or probiotic purposes should be investigated regarding their safety aspects on a strain to strain basis, preferably also by genome sequencing, since nucleotide sequence heterogeneity in virulence and antibiotic resistance genes makes PCR-based screeningunreliable for safety assessments. In this sense, the application of W. confusa and W. cibaria strains as starter cultures or as probiotics should be approached with caution, by carefully selecting strains that lack pathogenic potential.

  5. Extended phylogenetic analysis of a new Israeli isolate of Brevicoryne brassicae virus (BrBV-IL) suggests taxonomic revision of the genus Iflavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Neta; Reingold, Victoria; Lachman, Oded; Sela, Noa; Dombrovsky, Aviv

    2016-03-22

    Brevicoryne brassicae virus (BrBV) is a positive-strand genomic RNA virus which is unassigned tentative member of the genus Iflavirus. BrBv was first identified and characterized in the late 90's in the cabbage aphid in the United Kingdom (UK) (J Gen Virol 88:2590-2595, 2007) and was fully sequenced, using random amplification of encapsidated RNA. No other reports have been published demonstrating detection of this virus outside the UK. A new isolate of the cabbage aphid virus Brevicoryne brassicae virus was identified from Brevicoryne brassicae aphids growing on wild mustard plants (Sinapis arvensis) in northern Israel. The virus genome was partially assembled from purified siRNA using the Illumina MiSeq Sequencing System with limited success. Combining classical viral RNA purification and RT-PCR amplification followed by traditional Sanger sequencing enabled obtaining the complete genomic sequence. The Israeli strain of BrBV shared 95 % nucleotide sequence identity with the BrBV found in the United Kingdom. The detection of BrBV in Israel indicates a broader geographical distribution of the virus".

  6. The Analysis of Multiple Genome Comparisons in Genus Escherichia and Its Application to the Discovery of Uncharacterised Metabolic Genes in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli CFT073

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    William A. Bryant

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of a complete gene synteny comparison has been carried out between twenty fully sequenced strains from the genus Escherichia with the aim of finding yet uncharacterised genes implicated in the metabolism of uropathogenic strains of E. coli (UPEC. Several sets of adjacent colinear genes have been identified which are present in all four UPEC included in this study (CFT073, F11, UTI89, and 536, annotated with putative metabolic functions, but are not found in any other strains considered. An operon closely homologous to that encoding the L-sorbose degradation pathway in Klebsiella pneumoniae has been identified in E. coli CFT073; this operon is present in all of the UPEC considered, but only in 7 of the other 16 strains. The operon's function has been confirmed by cloning the genes into E. coli DH5α and testing for growth on L-sorbose. The functional genomic approach combining in silico and in vitro work presented here can be used as a basis for the discovery of other uncharacterised genes contributing to bacterial survival in specific environments.

  7. Development and application of a multilocus sequence analysis method for the identification of genotypes within genus Bradyrhizobium and for establishing nodule occupancy of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berkum, Peter; Elia, Patrick; Song, Qijian; Eardly, Bertrand D

    2012-03-01

    A multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method based on allelic variation of seven chromosomal loci was developed for characterizing genotypes (GT) within the genus Bradyrhizobium. With the method, 29 distinct multilocus GT were identified among 190 culture collection soybean strains. The occupancy of 347 nodules taken from uninoculated field-grown soybean plants also was determined. The bacteroid GT were either the same as or were closely related to GT identified among strains in the culture collection. Double-nodule occupancy estimates of 2.9% were much lower than values published based on serology. Of the 347 nodules examined, 337 and 10 were occupied by Bradyrhizobium japonicum and B. elkanii, respectively. The collection strains within the species B. japonicum and B. elkaniialso were compared with Bradyrhizobium cultures from other legumes. In many cases, the observed GT varied more according to their geographic origin than by their trap hosts of isolation. In other cases, there were no apparent relationships with either the legume or geographic source. The MLST method that was developed should be a useful tool in determining the influence of geographic location, temperature, season, soil type, and host plant cultivar on the distribution of GT of Bradyrhizobium spp.

  8. Functional analysis of Antirrhinum kelloggii flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase genes; critical role in flower color and evolution in the genus Antirrhinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Kanako; Taniguchi, Masumi; Tanaka, Yoshikazu

    2012-05-01

    The enzymes flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) play an important role in flower color by determining the B-ring hydroxylation pattern of anthocyanins, the major floral pigments. F3'5'H is necessary for biosynthesis of the delphinidin-based anthocyanins that confer a violet or blue color to most plants. Antirrhinum majus does not produce delphinidin and lacks violet flower colour while A. kelloggii produces violet flowers containing delphinidin. To understand the cause of this inter-specific difference in the Antirrhinum genus, we isolated one F3'H and two F3'5'H homologues from the A. kelloggii petal cDNA library. Their amino acid sequences showed high identities to F3'Hs and F3'5'Hs of closely related species. Transgenic petunia expressing these genes had elevated amounts of cyanidin and delphinidin respectively, and flower color changes in the transgenics reflected the type of accumulated anthocyanidins. The results indicate that the homologs encode F3'H and F3'5'H, respectively, and that the ancestor of A. majus lost F3'5'H activity after its speciation from the ancestor of A. kelloggii.

  9. Phylogeographic analysis of the true lemurs (genus Eulemur) underlines the role of river catchments for the evolution of micro-endemism in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markolf, Matthias; Kappeler, Peter M

    2013-11-14

    Due to its remarkable species diversity and micro-endemism, Madagascar has recently been suggested to serve as a biogeographic model region. However, hypothesis-based tests of various diversification mechanisms that have been proposed for the evolution of the island's micro-endemic lineages are still limited. Here, we test the fit of several diversification hypotheses with new data on the broadly distributed genus Eulemur using coalescent-based phylogeographic analyses. Time-calibrated species tree analyses and population genetic clustering resolved the previously polytomic species relationships among eulemurs. The most recent common ancestor of eulemurs was estimated to have lived about 4.45 million years ago (mya). Divergence date estimates furthermore suggested a very recent diversification among the members of the "brown lemur complex", i.e. former subspecies of E. fulvus, during the Pleistocene (0.33-1.43 mya). Phylogeographic model comparisons of past migration rates showed significant levels of gene flow between lineages of neighboring river catchments as well as between eastern and western populations of the redfronted lemur (E. rufifrons). Together, our results are concordant with the centers of endemism hypothesis (Wilmé et al. 2006, Science 312:1063-1065), highlight the importance of river catchments for the evolution of Madagascar's micro-endemic biota, and they underline the usefulness of testing diversification mechanisms using coalescent-based phylogeographic methods.

  10. The medicinal chemistry of genus Aralia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Jason A; Clement, Ella S H

    2015-01-01

    The genus Aralia contains many plants used medicinally in Asia and the Americas. Although many members of this genus are used medicinally, the vast majority of this genus has not been explored chemically. The species of Aralia that have been explored chemically have yielded compounds of several classes, including triterpenoid saponins, sterols, diterpenoids, and acetylenic lipids. Many of the biologically active components found in genus Aralia have been evaluated for their potential as lead compounds for drug discovery. This review will explore the medicinal chemistry of compounds reported from genus Aralia, and future prospects for this genus will be considered.

  11. THE GENUS BURRETIODENDRON* Rehder (Tiliaceae

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    AJGH Kostermans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of Burretwdendron are recognized, of which B. siamensis and B. yunnanensis are new to science. The distributional area of the genus covers Siam (one species, Yunnan (two species, Kweichow (one species;  Kwangsi (three species  and Tonkin (two species. B. tonkinensis is reduced to the synonymy of B. hsienmu. A key to the species is presented.

  12. Additions to the genus Acoridium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ames, Oakes

    1937-01-01

    The genus Acoridium is characterized by an extraordinary history. The original species, A. tenellum, a native of the Philippine Islands, was described at length from a fruiting specimen in 1843 by Nees von Esenbeck and referred to the Philydraceae. This treatment was prompted by the aspect of the pl

  13. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the biotin–protein ligase from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

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    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Kuroishi, Chizu; Sugahara, Mitsuaki; Kunishima, Naoki, E-mail: kunisima@spring8.or.jp

    2005-02-01

    The biotin–protein ligase from P. horikoshii OT3 was overexpressed, purified, crystallized and cocrystallized with biotin, ADP and biotinyl-5′-AMP. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1} and diffract to beyond 1.6 Å resolution.

  14. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of all species of swordtails and platies (Pisces: Genus Xiphophorus uncovers a hybrid origin of a swordtail fish, Xiphophorus monticolus, and demonstrates that the sexually selected sword originated in the ancestral lineage of the genus, but was lost again secondarily

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    Kang Ji Hyoun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Males in some species of the genus Xiphophorus, small freshwater fishes from Meso-America, have an extended caudal fin, or sword – hence their common name “swordtails”. Longer swords are preferred by females from both sworded and – surprisingly also, non-sworded (platyfish species that belong to the same genus. Swordtails have been studied widely as models in research on sexual selection. Specifically, the pre-existing bias hypothesis was interpreted to best explain the observed bias of females in presumed ancestral lineages of swordless species that show a preference for assumed derived males with swords over their conspecific swordless males. However, many of the phylogenetic relationships within this genus still remained unresolved. Here we construct a comprehensive molecular phylogeny of all 26 known Xiphophorus species, including the four recently described species (X. kallmani, X. mayae, X. mixei and X. monticolus. We use two mitochondrial and six new nuclear markers in an effort to increase the understanding of the evolutionary relationships among the species in this genus. Based on the phylogeny, the evolutionary history and character state evolution of the sword was reconstructed and found to have originated in the common ancestral lineage of the genus Xiphophorus and that it was lost again secondarily. Results We estimated the evolutionary relationships among all known species of the genus Xiphophorus based on the largest set of DNA markers so far. The phylogeny indicates that one of the newly described swordtail species, Xiphophorus monticolus, is likely to have arisen through hybridization since it is placed with the southern platyfish in the mitochondrial phylogeny, but with the southern swordtails in the nuclear phylogeny. Such discordance between these two types of markers is a strong indication for a hybrid origin. Additionally, by using a maximum likelihood approach the possession of the sexually

  15. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of all species of swordtails and platies (Pisces: Genus Xiphophorus) uncovers a hybrid origin of a swordtail fish, Xiphophorus monticolus, and demonstrates that the sexually selected sword originated in the ancestral lineage of the genus, but was lost again secondarily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ji Hyoun; Schartl, Manfred; Walter, Ronald B; Meyer, Axel

    2013-01-29

    Males in some species of the genus Xiphophorus, small freshwater fishes from Meso-America, have an extended caudal fin, or sword - hence their common name "swordtails". Longer swords are preferred by females from both sworded and - surprisingly also, non-sworded (platyfish) species that belong to the same genus. Swordtails have been studied widely as models in research on sexual selection. Specifically, the pre-existing bias hypothesis was interpreted to best explain the observed bias of females in presumed ancestral lineages of swordless species that show a preference for assumed derived males with swords over their conspecific swordless males. However, many of the phylogenetic relationships within this genus still remained unresolved. Here we construct a comprehensive molecular phylogeny of all 26 known Xiphophorus species, including the four recently described species (X. kallmani, X. mayae, X. mixei and X. monticolus). We use two mitochondrial and six new nuclear markers in an effort to increase the understanding of the evolutionary relationships among the species in this genus. Based on the phylogeny, the evolutionary history and character state evolution of the sword was reconstructed and found to have originated in the common ancestral lineage of the genus Xiphophorus and that it was lost again secondarily. We estimated the evolutionary relationships among all known species of the genus Xiphophorus based on the largest set of DNA markers so far. The phylogeny indicates that one of the newly described swordtail species, Xiphophorus monticolus, is likely to have arisen through hybridization since it is placed with the southern platyfish in the mitochondrial phylogeny, but with the southern swordtails in the nuclear phylogeny. Such discordance between these two types of markers is a strong indication for a hybrid origin. Additionally, by using a maximum likelihood approach the possession of the sexually selected sword trait is shown to be the most likely

  16. Symbiotic diversity in the cosmopolitan genus Acacia

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Leary; Paul W. Singleton; Paul G. Scowcroft; Dulal Borthakur

    2006-01-01

    Acacia is the second largest genus within the Leguminosae, with 1352 species identified. This genus is now known to be polyphyletic and the international scientific community will presumably split Acacia into five new genera. This review examines the diversity of biological nitrogen fixation symbiosis within Acacia as a single genus. Due to its global importance, an...

  17. Rank and genus of 3-manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tao

    2011-01-01

    We construct a counterexample to the Rank versus Genus Conjecture, i.e. a closed orientable hyperbolic 3-manifold with rank of its fundamental group smaller than its Heegaard genus. Moreover, we show that the discrepancy between rank and Heegaard genus can be arbitrarily large for hyperbolic 3-manifolds. We also construct toroidal such examples containing hyperbolic JSJ pieces.

  18. The genus Stixis (Capparaceae). A census

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.

    1963-01-01

    For a long time, the genus Stixis has been known in the Indian Floras under the name Roydsia, until Pierre monographed it in 1887. Several of Pierre’s species have in the present paper been reduced, leaving Stixis a genus comprising 7 species and 1 subspecies. The genus, which is very uniform, exten

  19. Two new species of Acervus (Pezizales) with a key to species of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Wen-Ying; Luo, Jing; Zhao, Peng

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the genus Acervus from China are reviewed briefly. Six of the seven known species of the genus are currently recorded in this country. Acervus beijingense and A. changchunense are described as new based on morphological features and molecular data, and A. flavidus with minor emendation is added to the Chinese fungus flora. Phylogenetic relationships among four of the seven species of the genus are investigated based on the 28S rDNA sequence analysis. Species of the genus formed a single clade with high bootstrap support. The sequences of A. epispartius forma epispartius and that of A. flavidus obtained from materials in different geographical regions together formed a group with 100% bootstrap support. Ascospore size and shape are important criteria in the taxonomy of the genus and are phylogenetically informative. A dichotomous key to all described species of the genus is provided.

  20. The CAZyome of Phytophthora spp.: A comprehensive analysis of the gene complement coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes in species of the genus Phytophthora

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    Laird Emma W

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism include Carbohydrate esterases (CE, Glycoside hydrolases (GH, Glycosyl transferases (GT, and Polysaccharide lyases (PL, commonly referred to as carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes. The CE, GH, and PL superfamilies are also known as cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDE due to their role in the disintegration of the plant cell wall by bacterial and fungal pathogens. In Phytophthora infestans, penetration of the plant cells occurs through a specialized hyphal structure called appressorium; however, it is likely that members of the genus Phytophthora also use CWDE for invasive growth because hyphal forces are below the level of tensile strength exhibited by the plant cell wall. Because information regarding the frequency and distribution of CAZyme coding genes in Phytophthora is currently unknown, we have scanned the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae, and P. ramorum for the presence of CAZyme-coding genes using a homology-based approach and compared the gene collinearity in the three genomes. In addition, we have tested the expression of several genes coding for CE in cultures grown in vitro. Results We have found that P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum contain a total of 435, 379, and 310 CAZy homologs; in each genome, most homologs belong to the GH superfamily. Most GH and PL homologs code for enzymes that hydrolyze substances present in the pectin layer forming the middle lamella of the plant cells. In addition, a significant number of CE homologs catalyzing the deacetylation of compounds characteristic of the plant cell cuticle were found. In general, a high degree of gene location conservation was observed, as indicated by the presence of sequential orthologous pairs in the three genomes. Such collinearity was frequently observed among members of the GH superfamily. On the other hand, the CE and PL superfamilies showed less collinearity for some of their putative members

  1. Galápagos and Californian sea lions are separate species: Genetic analysis of the genus Zalophus and its implications for conservation management

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    Wolf Jochen BW

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate formal taxonomic designations are thought to be of critical importance for the conservation of endangered taxa. The Galápagos sea lion (GSL, being appreciated as a key element of the Galápagos marine ecosystem, has lately been listed as 'vulnerable' by the IUCN. To date there is, however, hardly any scientific evidence, whether it constitutes a separate entity from its abundant Californian neighbour (CSL. In this paper, we delineate the taxonomic relationships within the genus Zalophus being comprised of the Galápagos sea lion, the Californian sea lion and the already extinct Japanese sea lion (JSL. Results Using a set of different phylogenetic reconstruction approaches, we find support for monophyly of all three taxa without evidence of reticulation events. Molecular clock estimates place time to common ancestry of the Galápagos sea lion and the Californian sea lion at about 2.3 ± 0.5 mya. Genetic separation is further suggested by diagnostic SNPs in the mitochondrial and nuclear genome. Microsatellite markers confirm this trend, showing numerous private alleles at most of the 25 investigated loci. Microsatellite-based estimates of genetic differentiation between the Galápagos sea lion and the Californian sea lion indicate significant genetic differentiation. Gene diversity is 14% lower in the Galápagos sea lion than in the Californian sea lion, but there is no evidence for recent bottleneck events in the Galápagos sea lion. Conclusion Based on molecular evidence we build a case for classifying the Galápagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki, the Californian sea lion (Zalophus californianus and the Japanese sea lion (Zalophus japonicus as true species. As morphological characters do not necessarily fully reflect the rapid divergence on the molecular level, the study can be considered as a test case for deriving species status from molecular evidence. We further use the results to discuss the role of genetics in

  2. Genomic characterization of the Taylorella genus.

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    Laurent Hébert

    Full Text Available The Taylorella genus comprises two species: Taylorella equigenitalis, which causes contagious equine metritis, and Taylorella asinigenitalis, a closely-related species mainly found in donkeys. We herein report on the first genome sequence of T. asinigenitalis, analyzing and comparing it with the recently-sequenced T. equigenitalis genome. The T. asinigenitalis genome contains a single circular chromosome of 1,638,559 bp with a 38.3% GC content and 1,534 coding sequences (CDS. While 212 CDSs were T. asinigenitalis-specific, 1,322 had orthologs in T. equigenitalis. Two hundred and thirty-four T. equigenitalis CDSs had no orthologs in T. asinigenitalis. Analysis of the basic nutrition metabolism of both Taylorella species showed that malate, glutamate and alpha-ketoglutarate may be their main carbon and energy sources. For both species, we identified four different secretion systems and several proteins potentially involved in binding and colonization of host cells, suggesting a strong potential for interaction with their host. T. equigenitalis seems better-equipped than T. asinigenitalis in terms of virulence since we identified numerous proteins potentially involved in pathogenicity, including hemagluttinin-related proteins, a type IV secretion system, TonB-dependent lactoferrin and transferrin receptors, and YadA and Hep_Hag domains containing proteins. This is the first molecular characterization of Taylorella genus members, and the first molecular identification of factors potentially involved in T. asinigenitalis and T. equigenitalis pathogenicity and host colonization. This study facilitates a genetic understanding of growth phenotypes, animal host preference and pathogenic capacity, paving the way for future functional investigations into this largely unknown genus.

  3. The genus Phytophthora anno 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Laurens P N M; Brouwer, Henk; de Cock, Arthur W A M; Govers, Francine

    2012-04-01

    Plant diseases caused by Phytophthora species will remain an ever increasing threat to agriculture and natural ecosystems. Phytophthora literally means plant destroyer, a name coined in the 19th century by Anton de Bary when he investigated the potato disease that set the stage for the Great Irish Famine. Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of potato late blight, was the first species in a genus that at present has over 100 recognized members. In the last decade, the number of recognized Phytophthora species has nearly doubled and new species are added almost on a monthly basis. Here we present an overview of the 10 clades that are currently distinguished within the genus Phytophthora with special emphasis on new species that have been described since 1996 when Erwin and Ribeiro published the valuable monograph 'Phytophthora diseases worldwide' (35).

  4. Maximum Genus of Strong Embeddings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Er-ling Wei; Yan-pei Liu; Han Ren

    2003-01-01

    The strong embedding conjecture states that any 2-connected graph has a strong embedding on some surface. It implies the circuit double cover conjecture: Any 2-connected graph has a circuit double cover.Conversely, it is not true. But for a 3-regular graph, the two conjectures are equivalent. In this paper, a characterization of graphs having a strong embedding with exactly 3 faces, which is the strong embedding of maximum genus, is given. In addition, some graphs with the property are provided. More generally, an upper bound of the maximum genus of strong embeddings of a graph is presented too. Lastly, it is shown that the interpolation theorem is true to planar Halin graph.

  5. THE HYPHOMYCETE GENUS DACTYLARIA SACC.

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    MIEN A. RIFAI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An emended delimitation of the genus Dactylaria Sacc. is proposed andthe two accepted species, which are non-predaceous and dematiaceous,are redescribed and illustrated. The affinity of many nematode-trappingspecies currently classified in Dactylaria with the didymosporous generaArthrobotrys Corda, Candelabrella Rifai & R. C. Cooke and Genicularia,Rifai & R. C. Cooke is discussed and the scopes of the latter genera areenlarged, and consequently several new combinations are made.

  6. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badali, H.; Gueidan, C.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Bonifaz, A.; van den Ende, A.H.G. Gerrits; de Hoog, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved several times independently in the order Chaetothyriales. On the basis of a multigene phylogeny (nucLSU, nucSSU, RPB1), most of the species of Cladophialophora (including its generic type C. carrionii) belong to a monophyletic group comprising two main clades (carrionii- and bantiana-clades). The genus includes species causing chromoblastomycosis and other skin infections, as well as disseminated and cerebral infections, often in immunocompetent individuals. In the present study, multilocus phylogenetic analyses were combined to a morphological study to characterize phenetically similar Cladophialophora strains. Sequences of the ITS region, partial Translation Elongation Factor 1-α and β-Tubulin genes were analysed for a set of 48 strains. Four novel species were discovered, originating from soft drinks, alkylbenzene-polluted soil, and infected patients. Membership of the both carrionii and bantiana clades might be indicative of potential virulence to humans. PMID:19287540

  7. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badali, H; Gueidan, C; Najafzadeh, M J; Bonifaz, A; van den Ende, A H G Gerrits; de Hoog, G S

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved several times independently in the order Chaetothyriales. On the basis of a multigene phylogeny (nucLSU, nucSSU, RPB1), most of the species of Cladophialophora (including its generic type C. carrionii) belong to a monophyletic group comprising two main clades (carrionii- and bantiana-clades). The genus includes species causing chromoblastomycosis and other skin infections, as well as disseminated and cerebral infections, often in immunocompetent individuals. In the present study, multilocus phylogenetic analyses were combined to a morphological study to characterize phenetically similar Cladophialophora strains. Sequences of the ITS region, partial Translation Elongation Factor 1-alpha and beta-Tubulin genes were analysed for a set of 48 strains. Four novel species were discovered, originating from soft drinks, alkylbenzene-polluted soil, and infected patients. Membership of the both carrionii and bantiana clades might be indicative of potential virulence to humans.

  8. On the concordance genus of topologically slice knots

    OpenAIRE

    Hom, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot K is the minimum Seifert genus of all knots smoothly concordant to K. Concordance genus is bounded below by the 4-ball genus and above by the Seifert genus. We give a lower bound for the concordance genus of K coming from the knot Floer complex of K. As an application, we prove that there are topologically slice knots with 4-ball genus equal to one and arbitrarily large concordance genus.

  9. The Odonata of Sulawesi and adjacent islands. Part 4. A new genus and species of Chlorocyphidae from South-East Sulawesi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van J.

    1998-01-01

    A new genus and species of Chlorocyphidae (Insecta: Odonata: Zygoptera), Watuwila vervoorti, from SE Sulawesi (Indonesia) is described. A preliminary phylogenetic analysis of the genera of the family indicates that the genus represents a relatively old lineage.

  10. The Odonata of Sulawesi and adjacent islands. Part 4. A new genus and species of Chlorocyphidae from South-East Sulawesi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van J.

    1998-01-01

    A new genus and species of Chlorocyphidae (Insecta: Odonata: Zygoptera), Watuwila vervoorti, from SE Sulawesi (Indonesia) is described. A preliminary phylogenetic analysis of the genera of the family indicates that the genus represents a relatively old lineage.

  11. Cladistics and biogeography of the assassin bug genus Rasahus Amyot & Serville (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrone, J.J.; Coscarón, M. del C.

    1998-01-01

    The assassin bug genus Rasahus Amyot & Serville (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae) comprises 26 Neotropical species. A cladistic analysis of the genus was carried out using 63 characters from external morphology, body vestiture, and male and female genitalia, with the species considered as termin

  12. A new genus for the Lesser Moorhen Gallinula angulata Sundevall, 1850 (Aves, Rallidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Sangster

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Molecular phylogenetic analysis has demonstrated that the genus Gallinula is not monophyletic and comprises four major lineages. A review of the nomenclature of Gallinula shows that generic names are available for three lineages but that a fourth is as yet unnamed. A new monotypic genus, Paragallinula gen. nov., is described for Lesser Moorhen (Gallinula angulata Sundevall, 1850.

  13. Cladistics and biogeography of the assassin bug genus Rasahus Amyot & Serville (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrone, J.J.; Coscarón, M. del C.

    1998-01-01

    The assassin bug genus Rasahus Amyot & Serville (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae) comprises 26 Neotropical species. A cladistic analysis of the genus was carried out using 63 characters from external morphology, body vestiture, and male and female genitalia, with the species considered as

  14. Transfer of 13 species of the genus Burkholderia to the genus Caballeronia and reclassification of Burkholderia jirisanensis as Paraburkholderia jirisanensis comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobritsa, Anatoly P; Linardopoulou, Elena V; Samadpour, Mansour

    2017-09-07

    A recent study of a group of Burkholderia glathei-like bacteria resulted in the description of 13 novel species of the genus Burkholderia. However, our analysis of phylogenetic positions of these species and their molecular signatures (conserved protein sequence indels) showed that they belong to the genus Caballeronia, and we propose to transfer them to this genus. The reclassified species names are proposed as Caballeroniaarationis comb. nov., Caballeroniaarvi comb. nov., Caballeroniacalidae comb. nov., Caballeroniacatudaia comb. nov., Caballeroniaconcitans comb. nov., Caballeroniafortuita comb. nov., Caballeroniaglebae comb. nov., Caballeroniahypogeia comb. nov., Caballeroniapedi comb. nov., Caballeroniaperedens comb. nov., Caballeroniaptereochthonis comb. nov., Caballeroniatemeraria comb. nov. and Caballeronia turbans comb. nov. It is also proposed to reclassify Burkholderia jirisanensis as Paraburkholderiajirisanensis comb. nov. Based on the results of the polyphasic study, B. jirisanensis had been described as a member of the A-group of the genus Burkholderiaand the most closely related to Burkholderia rhizosphaerae, Burkholderia humisilvae and Burkholderia solisilvae currently classified as belonging to the genus Paraburkholderia.

  15. Genetic variability assessment in the genus Passiflora by SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lougon Paiva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Passiflora encompasses many species that are endemic to the Brazilian territory, including some with economic value. Studies on genetic diversity in this genus are fundamental because they allow understanding genetic variability and distance. The present study aimed to determine the genetic variability and distances among 10 species of the genus Passiflora by using microsatellite markers (Simple Sequence Repeat, SSR. Twenty-eight heterologous microsatellite markers were tested, but only 12 were used in the diversity analysis because they amplified in at least 80% of the species. A clear separation was observed among the subgenuses studied, as well as wide variation among the accessions of Passiflora. This knowledge enables breeders to explore diversity and transfer favorable alleles found in wild species.

  16. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Bulgarian species of the genus Senecio

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    NADEZHDA KOSTOVA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nine Bulgarian species from the genus Senecio were studied phytochemically and/or by GC-MS analysis. Senecivernine-N-oxide was isolated and identified by spectral data for the first time. Different types of pyrrolizidine alkaloids were tested for cytotoxicity on murine lymphocytes. At a concentration of 100 µg/ml, the alkaloid retroisosenine showed immunosuppressive effect.

  17. Structural features underlying the selective cleavage of a novel exo-type maltose-forming amylase from Pyrococcus sp. ST04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwang-Hyun; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Park, Sung-Goo; Lee, Myeong-Eun; Holden, James F; Park, Cheon-Seok; Woo, Eui-Jeon

    2014-06-01

    A novel maltose-forming α-amylase (PSMA) was recently found in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus sp. ST04. This enzyme shows exo-type manner. Here, the crystal structure of PSMA at a resolution of 1.8 Å is reported, showing a tight ring-shaped tetramer with monomers composed of two domains: an N-domain (amino acids 1-341) with a typical GH57 family (β/α)7-barrel fold and a C-domain (amino acids 342-597) composed of α-helical bundles. A small closed cavity observed in proximity to the catalytic residues Glu153 and Asp253 at the domain interface has the appropriate volume and geometry to bind a maltose unit, accounting for the selective exo-type maltose hydrolysis of the enzyme. A narrow gate at the putative subsite +1 formed by residue Phe218 and Phe452 is essential for specific cleavage of glucosidic bonds. The closed cavity at the active site is connected to a short substrate-binding channel that extends to the central hole of the tetramer, exhibiting a geometry that is significantly different from classical maltogenic amylases or β-amylases. The structural features of this novel exo-type maltose-forming α-amylase provide a molecular basis for its unique enzymatic characteristics and for its potential use in industrial applications and protein engineering.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the biotin carboxyl carrier protein and biotin protein ligase complex from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Matsuura, Yoshinori; Bagautdinova, Svetlana; Kunishima, Naoki

    2007-04-01

    Biotin protein ligase (BPL) catalyses the biotinylation of the biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. To elucidate the exact details of the protein-protein interactions in the biotinylation function, the C-terminal half fragment of BCCP (BCCPDeltaN76), the R48A mutant of BPL (BPL*) and the R48A K111A double mutant of BPL (BPL**), all of which are from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3, have been expressed, purified and successfully cocrystallized. Cocrystals of the BPL*-BCCPDeltaN76 and BPL**-BCCPDeltaN76 complexes as well as crystals of BPL*, BPL** and BCCPDeltaN76 were obtained by the oil-microbatch method using PEG 20 000 as a precipitant at 295 K. Complete X-ray diffraction data sets for BPL*-BCCPDeltaN76 and BPL**-BCCPDeltaN76 crystals were collected at 100 K to 2.7 and 2.0 A resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. They belong to the monoclinic space group P2(1), with similar unit-cell parameters a = 69.85, b = 63.12, c = 75.64 A, beta = 95.9 degrees . Assuming two subunits of the complex per asymmetric unit gives a V(M) value of 2.45 A(3) Da(-1) and a solvent content of 50%.

  19. Tungsten transport protein A (WtpA) in Pyrococcus furiosus: the first member of a new class of tungstate and molybdate transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevers, Loes E; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Krijger, Gerard C; Hagen, Wilfred R

    2006-09-01

    A novel tungstate and molybdate binding protein has been discovered from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. This tungstate transport protein A (WtpA) is part of a new ABC transporter system selective for tungstate and molybdate. WtpA has very low sequence similarity with the earlier-characterized transport proteins ModA for molybdate and TupA for tungstate. Its structural gene is present in the genome of numerous archaea and some bacteria. The identification of this new tungstate and molybdate binding protein clarifies the mechanism of tungstate and molybdate transport in organisms that lack the known uptake systems associated with the ModA and TupA proteins, like many archaea. The periplasmic protein of this ABC transporter, WtpA (PF0080), was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, WtpA was observed to bind tungstate (dissociation constant [K(D)] of 17 +/- 7 pM) and molybdate (K(D) of 11 +/- 5 nM) with a stoichiometry of 1.0 mol oxoanion per mole of protein. These low K(D) values indicate that WtpA has a higher affinity for tungstate than do ModA and TupA and an affinity for molybdate similar to that of ModA. A displacement titration of molybdate-saturated WtpA with tungstate showed that the tungstate effectively replaced the molybdate in the binding site of the protein.

  20. Uncovering the stoichiometry of Pyrococcus furiosus RNase P, a multi-subunit catalytic ribonucleoprotein complex, by surface-induced dissociation and ion mobility mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Lai, Lien B; Lai, Stella M; Tanimoto, Akiko; Foster, Mark P; Wysocki, Vicki H; Gopalan, Venkat

    2014-10-20

    We demonstrate that surface-induced dissociation (SID) coupled with ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) is a powerful tool for determining the stoichiometry of a multi-subunit ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex assembled in a solution containing Mg(2+). We investigated Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu) RNase P, an archaeal RNP that catalyzes tRNA 5' maturation. Previous step-wise, Mg(2+)-dependent reconstitutions of Pfu RNase P with its catalytic RNA subunit and two interacting protein cofactor pairs (RPP21⋅RPP29 and POP5⋅RPP30) revealed functional RNP intermediates en route to the RNase P enzyme, but provided no information on subunit stoichiometry. Our native MS studies with the proteins showed RPP21⋅RPP29 and (POP5⋅RPP30)2 complexes, but indicated a 1:1 composition for all subunits when either one or both protein complexes bind the cognate RNA. These results highlight the utility of SID and IM-MS in resolving conformational heterogeneity and yielding insights on RNP assembly.

  1. The role of TrmB and TrmB-like transcriptional regulators for sugar transport and metabolism in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Jae; Surma, Melanie; Hausner, Winfried; Thomm, Michael; Boos, Winfried

    2008-09-01

    TrmB of Pyrococcus furiosus was discovered as the trehalose/maltose-specific repressor for the genes encoding the trehalose/maltose high-affinity ABC transporter (the TM system). TrmB also represses the genes encoding the high affinity maltodextrin-specific ABC transporter (the MD system) with maltodextrin and sucrose as inducers. In addition, TrmB binds glucose leading to an increased repression of both, the TM and the MD system. Thus, TrmB recognizes different promoters and depending on the promoter it will be activated or inactivated for promoter binding by different sugar effectors. The TrmB-like protein TrmBL1 of P. furiosus is a global regulator and recognizes preferentially, but not exclusively, the TGM (for Thermococcales-glycolytic motif) sequence that is found upstream of the MD system as well as of genes encoding enzymes involved in the glycolytic and the gluconeogenic pathway. It responds to maltose and maltotriose as inducers and functions as repressor for the genes encoding the MD system and glycolytic enzymes, but as activator for genes encoding gluconeogenic enzymes. The TrmB-like protein TrmBL2 of P. furiosus lacks the sugar-binding domain that has been determined in TrmB. It recognizes the MD promoter, but not all TGM harboring promoters. It is evolutionary the most conserved among the Thermococcales. The regulatory range of TrmBL2 remains unclear.

  2. DNA Polymerases BI and D from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus Both Bind to Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen with Their C-Terminal PIP-Box Motifs▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tori, Kazuo; Kimizu, Megumi; Ishino, Sonoko; Ishino, Yoshizumi

    2007-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is the sliding clamp that is essential for the high processivity of DNA synthesis during DNA replication. Pyrococcus furiosus, a hyperthermophilic archaeon, has at least two DNA polymerases, polymerase BI (PolBI) and PolD. Both of the two DNA polymerases interact with the archaeal P. furiosus PCNA (PfuPCNA) and perform processive DNA synthesis in vitro. This phenomenon, in addition to the fact that both enzymes display 3′-5′ exonuclease activity, suggests that both DNA polymerases work in replication fork progression. We demonstrated here that both PolBI and PolD functionally interact with PfuPCNA at their C-terminal PIP boxes. The mutant PolBI and PolD enzymes lacking the PIP-box sequence do not respond to the PfuPCNA at all in an in vitro primer extension reaction. This is the first experimental evidence that the PIP-box motif, located at the C termini of the archaeal DNA polymerases, is actually critical for PCNA binding to form a processive DNA-synthesizing complex. PMID:17496095

  3. DNA polymerases BI and D from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus both bind to proliferating cell nuclear antigen with their C-terminal PIP-box motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tori, Kazuo; Kimizu, Megumi; Ishino, Sonoko; Ishino, Yoshizumi

    2007-08-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is the sliding clamp that is essential for the high processivity of DNA synthesis during DNA replication. Pyrococcus furiosus, a hyperthermophilic archaeon, has at least two DNA polymerases, polymerase BI (PolBI) and PolD. Both of the two DNA polymerases interact with the archaeal P. furiosus PCNA (PfuPCNA) and perform processive DNA synthesis in vitro. This phenomenon, in addition to the fact that both enzymes display 3'-5' exonuclease activity, suggests that both DNA polymerases work in replication fork progression. We demonstrated here that both PolBI and PolD functionally interact with PfuPCNA at their C-terminal PIP boxes. The mutant PolBI and PolD enzymes lacking the PIP-box sequence do not respond to the PfuPCNA at all in an in vitro primer extension reaction. This is the first experimental evidence that the PIP-box motif, located at the C termini of the archaeal DNA polymerases, is actually critical for PCNA binding to form a processive DNA-synthesizing complex.

  4. Transfer of Pseudomonas pictorum Gray and Thornton 1928 to genus Stenotrophomonas as Stenotrophomonas pictorum comb. nov., and emended description of the genus Stenotrophomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, Aboubakar Sidiki; Le Mer, Jean; Joseph, Manon; Macarie, Hervé

    2017-06-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic approach including analysis of phenotypic, physiological and genotypic characteristics, 16S rRNA gene sequence and DNA-DNA hybridization analysis was used to determine the most consistent affiliation of Pseudomonas pictorum. Pseudomonas pictorum ATCC 23328T exhibited phenotypic traits of members of the genus Stenotrophomonas including cellular fatty acid composition, quinone and limited range of substrates that could be used. Antibiotic susceptibility and physiological characteristics were determined. The DNA G+C content was 65.7 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the type strains of Stenotrophomonas terrae, Stenotrophomonashumi, Stenotrophomonasnitritireducens and Stenotrophomonasacidaminiphila were the nearest relatives (16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 98.0 to 98.8 %). All the other type strains of species of the genus Stenotrophomonas showed high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities (96.8 to 97.2 %). DNA-DNA hybridizations revealed 31.0, 32.0, 43.3 and 43.6 % reassociation between Pseudomonas pictorum ATCC 23328T and the type strains of S. terrae, S. humi, S. nitritireducens and S. acidaminiphila, respectively. Our overall results indicate that Pseudomonas pictorum should be transferred to the genus Stenotrophomonas as a novel species of this genus, Stenotrophomonas pictorum comb. nov. Since the original description of the genus Stenotrophomonaswas made with only one species (Stenotrophomonasmaltophilia), an emendation of the genus description is proposed in order to match better with the characteristics of the eleven novel species assigned to this genus since then.

  5. 用SSR分子标记研究大豆属种间亲缘进化关系%Phylogenetic Analysis of Interspecies in Genus Glycine Through SSR Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓雷; 贺超英; 陈受宜; 庄炳昌; 王克晶; 王学臣

    2001-01-01

    利用SSR标记技术对大豆属11个种37份材料的遗传多样性进行分析,不同位点在种间的等位基因数为6~29,平均每个位点15.9个等位基因,Soja亚属的等位基因数是Glycine亚属的71.5%,并且Glycine亚属种间指纹图谱的差异大于Soja亚属种间的指纹图谱。SSR等位基因的主成分分析结果表明,大豆属中的Glycine亚属和Soja亚属的分类界限是比较明确的,利用第一主成分和第二主成分可较明显地区分开Glycine亚属和Soja亚属。通过UPGMA方法构建了大豆属11个种的遗传进化关系,Soja亚属中G.max、G.soja和G.gracilis3个种在系统分化树上界限是比较明显的,由此看来这3个种是独立存在的。%The genetic diversity among 11 species of genus Glycine (altogether 37 accessions) was evaluated through SSR analysis. The number of alleles in different loci ranges from 6 to 29, averaging 15.9 per locus; alleles of subgenus soja account for 71.5% of those in subgenus Glycine, and the fingerprinting among subgenus Glycine is more divergent than that of subgenus soja. Principal factor analysis shows that the first and the second principal factor can classify genus Glycine into two groups which represent subgenus Glycine and subgenus soja. The results of UPGMA indicate that G. mas, G. soja and G. gracilis in subgenus soja are different species.

  6. Chemodiversity in the genus Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvad, Jens C; Larsen, Thomas O

    2015-10-01

    Isolates of Aspergillus species are able to produce a large number of secondary metabolites. The profiles of biosynthetic families of secondary metabolites are species specific, whereas individual secondary metabolite families can occur in other species, even those phylogenetically and ecologically unrelated to Aspergillus. Furthermore, there is a high degree of chemo-consistency from isolate to isolate in a species even though certain metabolite gene clusters are silenced in some isolates. Genome sequencing projects have shown that the diversity of secondary metabolites is much larger in each species than previously thought. The potential of finding even further new bioactive drug candidates in Aspergillus is evident, despite the fact that many secondary metabolites have already been structure elucidated and chemotaxonomic studies have shown that many new secondary metabolites have yet to be characterized. The genus Aspergillus is cladistically holophyletic but phenotypically polythetic and very diverse and is associated to quite different sexual states. Following the one fungus one name system, the genus Aspergillus is restricted to a holophyletic clade that include the morphologically different genera Aspergillus, Dichotomomyces, Phialosimplex, Polypaecilum and Cristaspora. Secondary metabolites common between the subgenera and sections of Aspergillus are surprisingly few, but many metabolites are common to a majority of species within the sections. We call small molecule extrolites in the same biosynthetic family isoextrolites. However, it appears that secondary metabolites from one Aspergillus section have analogous metabolites in other sections (here also called heteroisoextrolites). In this review, we give a genus-wide overview of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus species. Extrolites appear to have evolved because of ecological challenges rather than being inherited from ancestral species, at least when comparing the species in the different

  7. A striking new genus and species of tiger-moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) from the Caribbean, with molecular and morphological analysis of its systematic placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Benoit; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; Rougerie, Rodolphe

    2014-01-31

    Westindia Vincent, a new genus, is proposed for W. haxairei Vincent, a new species of Neotropical tiger-moth described from Dominican Republic. Habitus, male and female genitalia are described and figured. The systematic position of the new genus within Arctiinae is discussed in light of a comparative morphology and a molecular phylogeny derived from the DNA barcode fragment of the mitochondrial COI gene and of the D2 region of the 28S rDNA gene.

  8. Acetobacter sicerae sp. nov., isolated from cider and kefir, and identification of species of the genus Acetobacter by dnaK, groEL and rpoB sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leilei; Wieme, Anneleen; Spitaels, Freek; Balzarini, Tom; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vuyst, Luc; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Five acetic acid bacteria isolates, awK9_3, awK9_4 ( = LMG 27543), awK9_5 ( = LMG 28092), awK9_6 and awK9_9, obtained during a study of micro-organisms present in traditionally produced kefir, were grouped on the basis of their MALDI-TOF MS profile with LMG 1530 and LMG 1531(T), two strains currently classified as members of the genus Acetobacter. Phylogenetic analysis based on nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequences as well as on concatenated partial sequences of the housekeeping genes dnaK, groEL and rpoB indicated that these isolates were representatives of a single novel species together with LMG 1530 and LMG 1531(T) in the genus Acetobacter, with Acetobacter aceti, Acetobacter nitrogenifigens, Acetobacter oeni and Acetobacter estunensis as nearest phylogenetic neighbours. Pairwise similarity of 16S rRNA gene sequences between LMG 1531(T) and the type strains of the above-mentioned species were 99.7%, 99.1%, 98.4% and 98.2%, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridizations confirmed that status, while amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) data indicated that LMG 1531(T), LMG 1530, LMG 27543 and LMG 28092 represent at least two different strains of the novel species. The major fatty acid of LMG 1531(T) and LMG 27543 was C18 : 1ω7c. The major ubiquinone present was Q-9 and the DNA G+C contents of LMG 1531(T) and LMG 27543 were 58.3 and 56.7 mol%, respectively. The strains were able to grow on D-fructose and D-sorbitol as a single carbon source. They were also able to grow on yeast extract with 30% D-glucose and on standard medium with pH 3.6 or containing 1% NaCl. They had a weak ability to produce acid from d-arabinose. These features enabled their differentiation from their nearest phylogenetic neighbours. The name Acetobacter sicerae sp. nov. is proposed with LMG 1531(T) ( = NCIMB 8941(T)) as the type strain. © 2014 IUMS.

  9. Classification of the medicinal plants of the genus Atractylodes using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and tandem mass spectrometry detection combined with multivariate statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Deok; Kim, Unyong; Suh, Joon Hyuk; Eom, Han Young; Kim, Junghyun; Lee, Seul Gi; Choi, Yong Seok; Han, Sang Beom

    2016-04-01

    Analytical methods using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and tandem mass spectrometry detection were developed for the discrimination of the rhizomes of four Atractylodes medicinal plants: A. japonica, A. macrocephala, A. chinensis, and A. lancea. A quantitative study was performed, selecting five bioactive components, including atractylenolide I, II, III, eudesma-4(14),7(11)-dien-8-one and atractylodin, on twenty-six Atractylodes samples of various origins. Sample extraction was optimized to sonication with 80% methanol for 40 min at room temperature. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection was established using a C18 column with a water/acetonitrile gradient system at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, and the detection wavelength was set at 236 nm. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was applied to certify the reliability of the quantitative results. The developed methods were validated by ensuring specificity, linearity, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision, recovery, robustness, and stability. Results showed that cangzhu contained higher amounts of atractylenolide I and atractylodin than baizhu, and especially atractylodin contents showed the greatest variation between baizhu and cangzhu. Multivariate statistical analysis, such as principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis, were also employed for further classification of the Atractylodes plants. The established method was suitable for quality control of the Atractylodes plants.

  10. Comparative Genomics Reveals High Genomic Diversity in the Genus Photobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Henrique; Gram, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Vibrionaceae is a large marine bacterial family, which can constitute up to 50% of the prokaryotic population in marine waters. Photobacterium is the second largest genus in the family and we used comparative genomics on 35 strains representing 16 of the 28 species described so far, to understand the genomic diversity present in the Photobacterium genus. Such understanding is important for ecophysiology studies of the genus. We used whole genome sequences to evaluate phylogenetic relationships using several analyses (16S rRNA, MLSA, fur, amino-acid usage, ANI), which allowed us to identify two misidentified strains. Genome analyses also revealed occurrence of higher and lower GC content clades, correlating with phylogenetic clusters. Pan- and core-genome analysis revealed the conservation of 25% of the genome throughout the genus, with a large and open pan-genome. The major source of genomic diversity could be traced to the smaller chromosome and plasmids. Several of the physiological traits studied in the genus did not correlate with phylogenetic data. Since horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is often suggested as a source of genetic diversity and a potential driver of genomic evolution in bacterial species, we looked into evidence of such in Photobacterium genomes. Genomic islands were the source of genomic differences between strains of the same species. Also, we found transposase genes and CRISPR arrays that suggest multiple encounters with foreign DNA. Presence of genomic exchange traits was widespread and abundant in the genus, suggesting a role in genomic evolution. The high genetic variability and indications of genetic exchange make it difficult to elucidate genome evolutionary paths and raise the awareness of the roles of foreign DNA in the genomic evolution of environmental organisms.

  11. [CITRULLINUREIDASE GENE DIVERSITY IN THE GENUS FRANCISELLA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, V S; Bakhteeva, I V; Pavlov, V M; Mokrievich, A N

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the results, of the in silico analysis of the genetic diversity of the citrullinureidase gene (ctu) in two species of bacteria of the genus Francisella: tularensis (ssp. tularensis, holarctica, mediasiatica, novicida) and philomiragia. The strains of the Central Asiatic subspecies possessing the citrullinureidase activity differ in the gene ctu from the ssp tularensis Schu by three nucleotide substitutions leading to two insignificant amino acid substitutions in the encoded polypeptide. In the strain F. tularensis of the ssp. holarctica the gene ctu encodes inactive enzyme, which is probably due to amino acid substitutions: 151 Gly --> Asp, 183 Pro --> Leu, 222 Asp --> Asn. Except for the Japan biovar bacteria, in all strains of the Holarctic subspecies there are two stop codons in the gene ctu. The bacteria of the subspecies novicida contain the ctu gene only in the strain 3523, whereas the other strains contain the gene FTN_0827 encoding the C-N hydrolase, which probably provides the citrullinureidase activity.

  12. Aspidonepsis (Asclepiadaceae, a new southern African genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nicholas

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspidonepsis, an endemic southern African genus, is described and compared to the closely allied genus Aspidoglossum. This newly described genus is composed of two subgenera, Aspidonepsis and Unguilobium. consisting of three and two species respectively.  Asclepias diploglossa, A. flava, A. cognata and A. reneensis are transferred to Aspidonepsis. and A. shebae is newly described. All species are discussed, illustrated and a key is given to aid in their identification.

  13. The genus Lolium; taxonomy and genetic resources.

    OpenAIRE

    Loos, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Several aspects of variation within the genus Lolium, and more in detail within Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) have been highlighted. As the results are extensively discussed in each chapter, the general discussion is focused on two aspects of the research.SpeciationIt is clear that the genus Lolium is a very variable genus. The variation within the species reduces the clarity of separation of the species. Stebbins (1956) found the differences between Lolium and Festuca not sufficient to...

  14. THE GENUS DURIO Adans. (Bombac.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Durio comprises, as far as known, 27 species. The centre ofdistribution is Borneo with 19 species, followed by Malaya with 11 spe-cies and Sumatra with 7 species. It is likely, when Sumatra will be betterexplored, that this island will prove to have many more species. An exclave of the area of distribution is found in Burma, where one endemic species occurs. The common Durio zibethinus Murr. probably originated in Borneo or in Sumatra. It is now widely cultivated outside of its former area and in many places it has become spontaneous.The genus Durio is subdivided into two subgenera: Durio and BoschiaKosterm. & Soegeng, according to the way of dehiscence of the anthers(with a longitudinal slit in the former, with an apical pore in the latter.A key to the species is proposed. A map is added, to show distribution and endemism. Each species is amply described and provided with a drawing . Economic and ecological data are given.

  15. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXXIII. Genus Lewnielsenius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching

    Science.gov (United States)

    A morphological analysis of the female genitalia of the species included in genus Lewnielsenius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted. The genitalia of the type species of the genus, Ln. muelleri (Dyar), are illustrated. Treatment of the genital morphology of the genus includes a detailed de...

  16. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXVIII. Genus Luius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A morphological analysis of the female genitalia of the species included in genus Luius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted. The genitalia of the type species of the genus, Lu. fengi (Edwards), are illustrated for the first time. Treatment of the genital morphology of the genus includes a ...

  17. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXX. Genus Gilesius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Gilesius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted. The genitalia of the type species of the genus, Gi. pulchriventer (Giles), are illustrated for the first time. Treatment of the genital morphology of the genus includ...

  18. The genus Boschniakia in China: An ethnopharmacological and phytochemical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Zhao, Yunshan; Wang, Zhipeng A; Wei, Kunhua; Qiu, Bin; Zhang, Chunhong; Wang-Müller, QiYan; Li, Minhui

    2016-12-24

    As a group of important medicine plants, Boschniakia rossica (Cham. et Schltdl) Fedtsch. and B. himalaica Hook.f.et Thoms, which are the only two species in the genus Boschniakia (Orobanchaceae), have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine for their multiple therapeutic uses related to enhanced renal function, erectile dysfunction, defaecate and hepatoprotective. Additionally, the two species are also used as dietary supplements in wine, cosmetics, and other healthy food. By providing comprehensive information and data of genus Boschniakia on botany, traditional medicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological research and toxicology, this review aims to summary the group of natural compounds from Boschniakia discovered so far. The other aims are to reference research findings of their biological activities and functions in medicine, physiology, and cell biology to highlight the compound candidates which can be used for further drug discovery in several pharmaceutical areas including antioxidation, anticancer, anti-inflammation, anti-senile, and immunology. All of the available information on B. rossica and B. himalaica was collected from the electronic resources (such as PubMed, SciFinder Scholar, CNKI, TPL (www.theplantlist.org), Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, and Web of Science). After a comprehensive analysis of the literatures from available online sources, the results show that both species of genus Boschniakia are valuable and popular herbal medicines with potentials to cure various ailments. The phytochemical studies revealed that the chemical compositions of this genus were mainly iridoid glycosides and phenylpropanoid glycosides. To date, 112 compounds have been isolated from the genus, while their crude extracts and purified compounds have been found to possess a wide range of biological activities including anti-senile, antitumor and anticancer, anti-inflammatory, protecting liver, boost memory, anti-oxidation, anti-lipid peroxidative, and

  19. Molecular organization and phylogenetic analysis of 5S rDNA in crustaceans of the genus Pollicipes reveal birth-and-death evolution and strong purifying selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perina, Alejandra; Seoane, David; González-Tizón, Ana M; Rodríguez-Fariña, Fernanda; Martínez-Lage, Andrés

    2011-10-17

    The 5S ribosomal DNA (5S rDNA) is organized in tandem arrays with repeat units that consist of a transcribing region (5S) and a variable nontranscribed spacer (NTS), in higher eukaryotes. Until recently the 5S rDNA was thought to be subject to concerted evolution, however, in several taxa, sequence divergence levels between the 5S and the NTS were found higher than expected under this model. So, many studies have shown that birth-and-death processes and selection can drive the evolution of 5S rDNA. In analyses of 5S rDNA evolution is found several 5S rDNA types in the genome, with low levels of nucleotide variation in the 5S and a spacer region highly divergent. Molecular organization and nucleotide sequence of the 5S ribosomal DNA multigene family (5S rDNA) were investigated in three Pollicipes species in an evolutionary context. The nucleotide sequence variation revealed that several 5S rDNA variants occur in Pollicipes genomes. They are clustered in up to seven different types based on differences in their nontranscribed spacers (NTS). Five different units of 5S rDNA were characterized in P. pollicipes and two different units in P. elegans and P. polymerus. Analysis of these sequences showed that identical types were shared among species and that two pseudogenes were present. We predicted the secondary structure and characterized the upstream and downstream conserved elements. Phylogenetic analysis showed an among-species clustering pattern of 5S rDNA types. These results suggest that the evolution of Pollicipes 5S rDNA is driven by birth-and-death processes with strong purifying selection.

  20. Comparison of genomes of eight species of sections Linum and Adenolinum from the genus Linum based on chromosome banding, molecular markers and RAPD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravenko, Olga V; Yurkevich, Olga Yu; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L; Samatadze, Tatiana E; Nosova, Inna V; Zelenina, Daria A; Volkov, Alexander A; Popov, Konstantin V; Zelenin, Alexander V

    2009-03-01

    Karyotypes of species sects. Linum and Adenolinum have been studied using C/DAPI-banding, Ag-NOR staining, FISH with 5S and 26S rDNA and RAPD analysis. C/DAPI-banding patterns enabled identification of all homologous chromosome pairs in the studied karyotypes. The revealed high similarity between species L. grandiflorum (2n = 16) and L. decumbens by chromosome and molecular markers proved their close genome relationship and identified the chromosome number in L. decumbens as 2n = 16. The similarity found for C/DAPI-banding patterns between species with the same chromosome numbers corresponds with the results obtained by RAPD-analysis, showing clusterization of 16-, 18- and 30-chromosome species into three separate groups. 5S rDNA and 26S rDNA were co-localized in NOR-chromosome 1 in the genomes of all species investigated. In 30-chromosome species, there were three separate 5S rDNA sites in chromosomes 3, 8 and 13. In 16-chromosome species, a separate 5S rDNA site was also located in chromosome 3, whereas in 18-chromosome species it was found in the long arm of NOR-chromosome 1. Thus, the difference in localization of rDNA sites in species with 2n = 16, 2n = 30 and 2n = 18 confirms taxonomists opinion, who attributed these species to different sects. Linum and Adenolinum, respectively. The obtained results suggest that species with 2n = 16, 2n = 18 and 2n = 30 originated from a 16-chromosome ancestor.

  1. Molecular analysis of the genus Asparagus based on matK sequences and its application to identify A. racemosus, a medicinally phytoestrogenic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsom, Teerawat; Waranuch, Neti; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Denduangboripant, Jessada; Sukrong, Suchada

    2012-07-01

    The plant Asparagus racemosus is one of the most widely used sources of phytoestrogens because of its high content of the steroidal saponins, shatavarins I-IV, in roots. The dry root of A. racemosus, known as "Rak-Sam-Sip" in Thai, is one of the most popular herbal medicines, used as an anti-inflammatory, an aphrodisiac and a galactagogue. Recently, the interest in plant-derived estrogens has increased tremendously, making A. racemosus particularly important and a possible target for fraudulent labeling. However, the identification of A. racemosus is generally difficult due to its similar morphology to other Asparagus spp. Thus, accurate authentication of A. racemosus is essential. In this study, 1557-bp nucleotide sequences of the maturase K (matK) gene of eight Asparagus taxa were analyzed. A phylogenetic relationship based on the matK gene was also constructed. Ten polymorphic sites of nucleotide substitutions were found within the matK sequences. A. racemosus showed different nucleotide substitutions to the other species. A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the matK gene was developed to discriminate A. racemosus from others. Only the 650-bp PCR product from A. racemosus could be digested with BssKI into two fragments of 397 and 253-bp while the products of other species remained undigested. Ten commercially crude drugs were analyzed and revealed that eight samples were derived from A. racemosus while two samples of that were not. Thus, the PCR-RFLP analysis of matK gene was shown to be an effective method for authentication of the medicinally phytoestrogenic species, A. racemosus.

  2. Multilocus sequence analysis of the central clade of the genus Vibrio by using the 16S rRNA, recA, pyrH, rpoD, gyrB, rctB and toxR genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Javier; Macián, M Carmen; Arahal, David R; Garay, Esperanza; Pujalte, María J

    2010-01-01

    The central clade of the genus Vibrio, also called the Vibrio core group, comprises six species that are tightly related (DNA-DNA reassociation values are very close to 70 % for most species pairs). Identification of novel strains to the species level within this group is troublesome and results are quite often dependent on the methodology employed. Therefore, this group represents an excellent framework to test the robustness of multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) not only for inferring phylogeny but also as an identification tool without the need for DNA-DNA hybridization assays. The genes selected, 16S rRNA, recA, pyrH, rpoD, gyrB, rctB and toxR, were amplified by direct PCR from 44 Vibrio core-group strains. Subsequent analysis allowed us to recognize toxR and rpoD as the most resolving individual genes and showed that concatenated sequences of rpoD, rctB and toxR were more useful than concatenated sequences of all seven genes. To validate our conclusions, MLSA similarities have been correlated with DNA-DNA relatedness values obtained in this study and values taken from the literature. Although the seven concatenated genes gave the best correlation, the concatenated sequences of rpoD, rctB and toxR have the practical advantage of showing a considerable gap between the maximal interspecies similarity and the minimal intraspecies similarity recorded, meaning that they can be used quite conveniently for species identification of vibrios.

  3. Towards a phylogeny of the genus Vibrio based on 16S rRNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsch, M; Lane, D; Stackebrandt, E

    1992-01-01

    The inter- and intrageneric relationships of the genus Vibrio were investigated by performing a comparative analysis of the 16S rRNAs of 10 species, including four pathogenic representatives. The results of immunological and 5S rRNA studies were confirmed in that the genus is a neighboring taxon of the family Enterobacteriaceae. With regard to the intrageneric structure, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio campbellii, Vibrio natriegens, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio proteolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus form the core of the genus, while Vibrio (Listonella) anguillarum, Vibrio diazotrophicus, and Vibrio hollisae are placed on the outskirts of the genus. Variable regions around positions 80, 180, and 450 could be used as target sites for genus- and species-specific oligonucleotide probes and polymerase chain reaction primers to be used in molecular identification.

  4. Representational difference analysis reveals genomic differences between Q. robur and Q. suber: implications for the study of genome evolution in the genus Quercus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoldos, V; Siljak-Yakovlev, S; Papes, D; Sarr, A; Panaud, O

    2001-04-01

    Very similar genome sizes, similar karyotypes and heterochromatin organisation, and identical number/position of ribosomal loci characterise the common oak (Q. robur) and the cork oak (Q. suber), two distantly related oak species. Representational Difference Analysis (RDA) was used to subtract the genome of Q. suber from the genome of Q. robur in order to search for genome differentiation. A library of 400 clones (bearing RDA fragments) representing genome differences between the two species was obtained. Seven Q. robur-specific DNA sequences were analysed with respect to their molecular and chromosome organisation. All belong to the dispersed repetitive component of the genome, as revealed by Southern hybridisation and in situ hybridisation. They are present in the Q. robur genome in between 100 and 700 copies, and are distributed along the length of almost all chromosomes. A search for homologies between RDA fragments and sequences in Genbank revealed similarities of all RDA fragments with known retrotransposons. The RDA fragments were also tested for their presence/absence in the genomes of six additional oak species belonging to different phylogenetic groups, in order to examine the evolutionary dynamics of these DNA sequences.

  5. Molecular Identification of a Species in Genus Nannochloropsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Si; PAN Kehou; ZHU Baohua; MA Xiaolei; LIANG Xin; YANG Guanpin

    2011-01-01

    Nannochloropsis is a genus of marine eukaryotic unicellular algae,which belongs to class Eustigmatophyceae.The species of Nannochloropsis which are fine rotifer feed and rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are economically important.Species in this genus are usually 2-5μm in size and are morphologically similar,which makes their identification difficult.We obtained a monoclone of Nannochloropsis with plating method in this study.DNA was extracted and the quality was determined by restriction enzyme digestion and spectrophotometer analysis.The DNA extracted was used to amplify the sequences of 18S ribosomal RNA gene,ITS region of ribosomal RNA transcription unit and rbcL gene.The phylogenetic analysis was carried out by constructing the neighbor-joining trees with Tamura-Nei distances.The phylogenetic analysis showed that the monoclone is N.oceanica.

  6. Antitumor activity and distribution of pyrroloiminoquinones in the sponge genus Zyzzya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijoux, M.G.; Schnabel, P.C.; Hallock, Y.F.; Boswell, J.L.; Johnson, T.R.; Wilson, J.A.; Ireland, C.M.; van Soest, R.W.M.; Boyd, M.R.; Barrows, L.R.; Cardellina, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    A detailed analysis of four different collections of the sponge genus Zyzzya yielded nine pyrroloiminoquinones of the makaluvamine, batzelline, and isobatzelline/damirone classes. Dereplication analyses of additional Zyzzya extracts did not disclose more potent or additional new compounds. Comparati

  7. Calamistrin E, the First Annonaceous Acetogenin with Double Bond in Aliphatic Chain from Genus Uvaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Calamistrin E, the first Annonaceous acetogenin with C=C bond in the aliphatic chain from the genus Uvaria was isolated from U. calamistrata. Its structure including relative and absolute configurations was determined by chemical derivation and spectral analysis.

  8. Replication factor C from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi does not need ATP hydrolysis for clamp-loading and contains a functionally conserved RFC PCNA-binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneke, Ghislaine; Gueguen, Yannick; Flament, Didier; Azam, Philippe; Querellou, Joël; Dietrich, Jacques; Hübscher, Ulrich; Raffin, Jean-Paul

    2002-11-08

    The molecular organization of the replication complex in archaea is similar to that in eukaryotes. Only two proteins homologous to subunits of eukaryotic replication factor C (RFC) have been detected in Pyrococcus abyssi (Pab). The genes encoding these two proteins are arranged in tandem. We cloned these two genes and co-expressed the corresponding recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Two inteins present in the gene encoding the small subunit (PabRFC-small) were removed during cloning. The recombinant protein complex was purified by anion-exchange and hydroxyapatite chromatography. Also, the PabRFC-small subunit could be purified, while the large subunit (PabRFC-large) alone was completely insoluble. The highly purified PabRFC complex possessed an ATPase activity, which was not enhanced by DNA. The Pab proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) activated the PabRFC complex in a DNA-dependent manner, but the PabRFC-small ATPase activity was neither DNA-dependent nor PCNA-dependent. The PabRFC complex was able to stimulate PabPCNA-dependent DNA synthesis by the Pabfamily D heterodimeric DNA polymerase. Finally, (i) the PabRFC-large fraction cross-reacted with anti-human-RFC PCNA-binding domain antibody, corroborating the conservation of the protein sequence, (ii) the human PCNA stimulated the PabRFC complex ATPase activity in a DNA-dependent way and (iii) the PabRFC complex could load human PCNA onto primed single-stranded circular DNA, suggesting that the PCNA-binding domain of RFC has been functionally conserved during evolution. In addition, ATP hydrolysis was not required either for DNA polymerase stimulation or PCNA-loading in vitro.

  9. The structures of the CutA1 proteins from Thermus thermophilus and Pyrococcus horikoshii: characterization of metal-binding sites and metal-induced assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin

    2014-01-01

    CutA1 (copper tolerance A1) is a widespread cytoplasmic protein found in archaea, bacteria, plants and animals, including humans. In Escherichia coli it is implicated in divalent metal tolerance, while the mammalian CutA1 homologue has been proposed to mediate brain enzyme acetylcholinesterase activity and copper homeostasis. The X-ray structures of CutA1 from the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus (TtCutA1) with and without bound Na+ at 1.7 and 1.9 Å resolution, respectively, and from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii (PhCutA1) in complex with Na+ at 1.8 Å resolution have been determined. Both are short and rigid proteins of about 12 kDa that form intertwined compact trimers in the crystal and solution. The main difference in the structures is a wide-type β-bulge on top of the TtCutA1 trimer. It affords a mechanism for lodging a single-residue insertion in the middle of β2 while preserving the interprotomer main-chain hydrogen-bonding network. The liganded forms of the proteins provide new structural information about the metal-binding sites and CutA1 assembly. The Na+–TtCutA1 structure unveils a dodecameric assembly with metal ions in the trimer–trimer interfaces and the lateral clefts of the trimer. For Na+–PhCutA1, the metal ion associated with six waters in an octahedral geometry. The structures suggest that CutA1 may contribute to regulating intracellular metal homeostasis through various binding modes. PMID:24699729

  10. Enhancing Heat Tolerance of the Little Dogwood Cornus canadensis L. f. with Introduction of a Superoxide Reductase Gene from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xing-Min; Liu, Xiang; Ji, Mikyoung; Hoffmann, William A; Grunden, Amy; Xiang, Qiu-Yun J

    2016-01-01

    Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be accelerated under various biotic and abiotic stresses causing lipid peroxidation, protein degradation, enzyme inactivation, and DNA damage. Superoxide reductase (SOR) is a novel antioxidant enzyme from Pyrococcus furiosus and is employed by this anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon for efficient detoxification of ROS. In this study, SOR was introduced into a flowering plant Cornus canadensis to enhance its heat tolerance and reduce heat induced damage. A fusion construct of the SOR gene and Green Fluorescent Protein gene (GFP) was introduced into C. canadensis using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Heat tolerance of the GFP-SOR expressing transgenic plants was investigated by observing morphological symptoms of heat injury and by examining changes in photosynthesis, malondialdehyde (MDA), and proline levels in the plants. Our results indicate that the expression of the P. furiosus SOR gene in the transgenic plants alleviated lipid peroxidation of cell membranes and photoinhibition of PS II, and decreased the accumulation of proline at 40°C. After a series of exposures to increasing temperatures, the SOR transgenic plants remained healthy and green whereas most of the non-transgenic plants dried up and were unable to recover. While it had previously been reported that expression of SOR in Arabidopsis enhanced heat tolerance, this is the first report of the successful demonstration of improved heat tolerance in a non-model plant resulting from the introduction of P. furiosus SOR. The study demonstrates the potential of SOR for crop improvement and that inherent limitations of plant heat tolerance can be ameliorated with P. furiosus SOR.

  11. Enhancing heat tolerance of the little dogwood Cornus canadensis L. f. with introduction of a superoxide reductase gene from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinmin eGeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS can be accelerated under various biotic and abiotic stresses causing lipid peroxidation, protein degradation, enzyme inactivation, and DNA damage. Superoxide reductase (SOR is a novel antioxidant enzyme from Pyrococcus furiosus and is employed by this anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon for efficient detoxification of ROS. In this study, SOR was introduced into a flowering plant Cornus canadensis to enhance its heat tolerance and reduce heat induced damage. A fusion construct of the SOR gene and Green Fluorescent Protein gene (GFP was introduced into C. canadensis using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Heat tolerance of the GFP-SOR expressing transgenic plants was investigated by observing morphological symptoms of heat injury and by examining changes in photosynthesis, malondialdehyde (MDA, and proline levels in the plants. Our results indicate that the expression of the P. furiosus SOR gene in the transgenic plants alleviated lipid peroxidation of cell membranes and photoinhibition of PS II, and decreased the accumulation of proline at 40°C. After a series of exposures to increasing temperatures, the SOR transgenic plants remained healthy and green whereas most of the non-transgenic plants dried up and were unable to recover. While it had previously been reported that expression of SOR in Arabidopsis enhanced heat tolerance, this is the first report of the successful demonstration of improved heat tolerance in a non-model plant resulting from the introduction of P. furiosus SOR. The study demonstrates the potential of SOR for crop improvement and that inherent limitations of plant heat tolerance can be ameliorated with P. furiosus SOR.

  12. Hydrolysis of flavanone glycosides by β-glucosidase from Pyrococcus furiosus and its application to the production of flavanone aglycones from citrus extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyung-Chul; Nam, Hyun-Koo; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2013-11-27

    The hydrolytic activity of the recombinant β-glucosidase from Pyrococcus furiosus for the flavanone glycoside hesperidin was optimal at pH 5.5 and 95 °C in the presence of 0.5% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and 0.1% (w/v) Tween 40 with a half-life of 88 h, a Km of 1.6 mM, and a kcat of 68.4 1/s. The specific activity of the enzyme for flavonoid glycosides followed the order hesperidin > neohesperidin > naringin > narirutin > poncirin > diosmin > neoponcirin > rutin. The specific activity for flavanone was higher than that for flavone or flavonol. DMSO at 10% (v/v) was used to increase the solubility of flavanone glycosides as substrates. The enzyme completely converted flavanone glycosides (1 g/L) to flavanone aglycones and disaccharides via one-step reaction. The major flavanone in grapefruit peel, grapefruit pulp, or orange peel extract was naringin (47.5 mg/g), naringin (16.6 mg/g), or hesperidin (18.2 mg/g), respectively. β-Glucosidase from P. furiosus completely converted naringin and narirutin in 100% (w/v) grapefruit peel extract to 22.5 g/L naringenin after 12 h, with a productivity of 1.88 g L(-1) h(-1); naringin and narirutin in 100% (w/v) grapefruit pulp extract to 8.1 g/L naringenin after 9 h, with a productivity of 0.90 g L(-1) h(-1); and hesperidin in 100% (w/v) orange peel extract to 9.0 g/L hesperetin after 9 h, with a productivity of 1.00 g L(-1) h(-1). The conversion yields, concentrations, and productivities of flavanone aglycones in this study are the highest among those obtained from citrus extracts. Thus, this enzyme may be useful for the industrial hydrolysis of flavanone glycosides in citrus extracts.

  13. TrmB, a sugar sensing regulator of ABC transporter genes in Pyrococcus furiosus exhibits dual promoter specificity and is controlled by different inducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Jae; Moulakakis, Christina; Koning, Sonja M; Hausner, Winfried; Thomm, Michael; Boos, Winfried

    2005-09-01

    TrmB is the transcriptional repressor for the gene cluster of the trehalose/maltose ABC transporter of the hyperthermophilic archaea Thermococcus litoralis and Pyrococcus furiosus (malE or TM operon), with maltose and trehalose acting as inducers. We found that TrmB (the protein is identical in both organisms) also regulated the transcription of genes encoding a separate maltodextrin ABC transporter in P. furiosus (mdxE or MD operon) with maltotriose, longer maltodextrins and sucrose acting as inducers, but not with maltose or trehalose. In vitro transcription of the malE and the mdxE operons was inhibited by TrmB binding to the different operator sequences. Inhibition of the TM operon was released by maltose and trehalose whereas inhibition of the MD operon was released by maltotriose and larger maltodextrins as well as by sucrose. Scanning mutagenesis of the TM operator revealed the role of the palindromic TACTNNNAGTA sequence for TrmB recognition. TrmB exhibits a broad spectrum of sugar-binding specificity, binding maltose, sucrose, maltotriose and trehalose in decreasing order of affinity, half-maximal binding occurring at 20, 60, 250 and 500 microM substrate concentration respectively. Of all substrates, only maltose shows sigmoidal binding characteristics with a Hill coefficient of 2. As measured by molecular sieve chromatography and cross-linking TrmB behaved as dimer in dilute buffer solution at room temperature. We conclude that TrmB acts as a bifunctional transcriptional regulator acting on two different promoters and being differentially controlled by binding to different sugars. We believe this to represent a novel strategy of prokaryotic transcription regulation.

  14. Small RNAs in the genus Clostridium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yili; Indurthi, Dinesh C; Jones, Shawn W; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2011-01-25

    The genus Clostridium includes major human pathogens and species important to cellulose degradation, the carbon cycle, and biotechnology. Small RNAs (sRNAs) are emerging as crucial regulatory molecules in all organisms, but they have not been investigated in clostridia. Research on sRNAs in clostridia is hindered by the absence of a systematic method to identify sRNA candidates, thus delegating clostridial sRNA research to a hit-and-miss process. Thus, we wanted to develop a method to identify potential sRNAs in the Clostridium genus to open up the field of sRNA research in clostridia. Using comparative genomics analyses combined with predictions of rho-independent terminators and promoters, we predicted sRNAs in 21 clostridial genomes: Clostridium acetobutylicum, C. beijerinckii, C. botulinum (eight strains), C. cellulolyticum, C. difficile, C. kluyveri (two strains), C. novyi, C. perfringens (three strains), C. phytofermentans, C. tetani, and C. thermocellum. Although more than one-third of predicted sRNAs have Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequences, only one-sixth have a start codon downstream of SD sequences; thus, most of the predicted sRNAs are noncoding RNAs. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (Q-RT-PCR) and Northern analysis were employed to test the presence of a randomly chosen set of sRNAs in C. acetobutylicum and several C. botulinum strains, leading to the confirmation of a large fraction of the tested sRNAs. We identified a conserved, novel sRNA which, together with the downstream gene coding for an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene, responds to the antibiotic clindamycin. The number of predicted sRNAs correlated with the physiological function of the species (high for pathogens, low for cellulolytic, and intermediate for solventogenic), but not with 16S rRNA-based phylogeny.

  15. Evolution of the Genus Homo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian; Schwartz, Jeffrey H.

    2009-05-01

    Definition of the genus Homo is almost as fraught as the definition of Homo sapiens. We look at the evidence for “early Homo,” finding little morphological basis for extending our genus to any of the 2.5-1.6-myr-old fossil forms assigned to “early Homo” or Homo habilis/rudolfensis. We also point to heterogeneity among “early African Homo erectus,” and the lack of apomorphies linking these fossils to the Asian Homo erectus group, a cohesive regional clade that shows some internal variation, including brain size increase over time. The first truly cosmopolitan Homo species is Homo heidelbergensis, known from Africa, Europe, and China following 600 kyr ago. One species sympatric with it included the >500-kyr-old Sima de los Huesos fossils from Spain, clearly distinct from Homo heidelbergensis and the oldest hominids assignable to the clade additionally containing Homo neanderthalensis. This clade also shows evidence of brain size expansion with time; but although Homo neanderthalensis had a large brain, it left no unequivocal evidence of the symbolic consciousness that makes our species unique. Homo sapiens clearly originated in Africa, where it existed as a physical entity before it began (also in that continent) to show the first stirrings of symbolism. Most likely, the biological underpinnings of symbolic consciousness were exaptively acquired in the radical developmental reorganization that gave rise to the highly characteristic osteological structure of Homo sapiens, but lay fallow for tens of thousands of years before being “discovered” by a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language.

  16. The Effect of Ginseng (The Genus Panax) on Glycemic Control: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishtar, Esra'; Sievenpiper, John L.; Djedovic, Vladimir; Cozma, Adrian I.; Ha, Vanessa; Jayalath, Viranda H.; Jenkins, David J. A.; Meija, Sonia Blanco; de Souza, Russell J.; Jovanovski, Elena; Vuksan, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Importance Despite the widespread use of ginseng in the management of diabetes, supporting evidence of its anti-hyperglycemic efficacy is limited, necessitating the need for evidence-based recommendations for the potential inclusion of ginseng in diabetes management. Objective To elucidate the effect of ginseng on glycemic control in a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in people with and without diabetes. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library (through July 3, 2013). Study selection Randomized controlled trials ≥30 days assessing the glycemic effects of ginseng in people with and without diabetes. Data extraction Relevant data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. The Heyland Methodological Quality Score and the Cochrane risk of bias tool were used to assess study quality and risk of bias respectively. Data synthesis Sixteen trials were included, in which 16 fasting blood glucose (n = 770), 10 fasting plasma insulin (n = 349), 9 glycated hemoglobin (n = 264), and 7 homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (n = 305) comparisons were reported. Ginseng significantly reduced fasting blood glucose compared to control (MD =  −0.31 mmol/L [95% CI: −0.59 to −0.03], P = 0.03). Although there was no significant effect on fasting plasma insulin, glycated hemoglobin, or homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, a priori subgroup analyses did show significant reductions in glycated hemoglobin in parallel compared to crossover trials (MD = 0.22% [95%CI: 0.06 to 0.37], P = 0.01). Limitations Most trials were of short duration (67% trialsGinseng modestly yet significantly improved fasting blood glucose in people with and without diabetes. In order to address the uncertainty in our effect estimates and provide better assessments of ginseng's anti-diabetic efficacy, larger and longer randomized controlled trials using

  17. Resurrection of the genus Haplanthus (Acanthaceae: Andrographinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnanasekaran, G.; Murthy, G.V.S.; Deng, Y.F.

    2016-01-01

    A systematic morphological study of Andrographis (Acanthaceae: Andrographinae) in India has revealed that the genus Haplanthus is distinct from Andrographis. We resurrect the genus Haplanthus here with four species, one of which contains three varieties. Five new combinations are proposed: H. laxifl

  18. A monograph of the genus Evolvulus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooststroom, van S.J.

    1934-01-01

    The great difficulties arising in the identification of a number of plants belonging to the genus Evolvulus, which plants were found in several recent collections of Convolvulaceae and were kindly entrusted to me for study, induced me to submit this genus to a further examination. It soon proved how

  19. A new genus of Lindsaeoid ferns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.U.

    1957-01-01

    In revising the New World representatives of the genus Lindsaea, the author came across a fern specimen from Borneo preserved in the Rijksherbarium, Leiden, that did not seem to fit into any described genus. It had been described as Schizoloma stortii v. A. v. R., but in the author’s opinion the gen

  20. A monograph of the Genus Aristida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1929-01-01

    In a preliminary work: „A critical Revision of the genus Aristida”, I have given a review of all the hitherto described species of this genus with the citation of the literature, the exact copies of the authentic descriptions and the figures of the spikelet-characters, taken from the type specimens

  1. New Forms in the genus Erebia (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisner, C.

    1946-01-01

    A revision of the material belonging to the genus Erebia Dalman in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden, mainly based on the "Monograph of the genus Erebia" by B. C. S. Warren (London, 1936), induced me to describe a number of new subspecies and aberrations, and to make some remarks on

  2. New Forms in the genus Erebia (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisner, C.

    1946-01-01

    A revision of the material belonging to the genus Erebia Dalman in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden, mainly based on the "Monograph of the genus Erebia" by B. C. S. Warren (London, 1936), induced me to describe a number of new subspecies and aberrations, and to make some remarks on

  3. Cytotaxonomic studies in the genus Campanula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, Th.W.J.

    1964-01-01

    De Candolle (1830) divided the genus Campanula into two large sections on basis of the presence or absence of calyx-appendages between the calyx-lobes. Boissier (1875) attached great value to the mode of dehiscence of the capsule, and divided the genus into two sections. None of the existing classif

  4. A monograph of the Genus Aristida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1929-01-01

    In a preliminary work: „A critical Revision of the genus Aristida”, I have given a review of all the hitherto described species of this genus with the citation of the literature, the exact copies of the authentic descriptions and the figures of the spikelet-characters, taken from the type specimens

  5. A taxonomic revision of the genus Podocarpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laubenfels, de D.J.

    1985-01-01

    In connection with the forthcoming revision of the Coniferae for the Flora Malesiana, the author thought it necessary to revise the genus Podocarpus. Although this genus has a substantial representation in Malesia (30 species), the revision is too involved to be appropriate with the Flora Malesiana

  6. Phylogenetic diversity and position of the genus Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, P. P.; DeBrunner-Vossbrinck, B.; Dunn, B.; Miotto, K.; MacDonnell, M. T.; Rollins, D. M.; Pillidge, C. J.; Hespell, R. B.; Colwell, R. R.; Sogin, M. L.; hide

    1987-01-01

    RNA sequence analysis has been used to examine the phylogenetic position and structure of the genus Campylobacter. A complete 5S rRNA sequence was determined for two strains of Campylobacter jejuni and extensive partial sequences of the 16S rRNA were obtained for several strains of C. jejuni and Wolinella succinogenes. In addition limited partial sequence data were obtained from the 16S rRNAs of isolates of C. coli, C. laridis, C. fetus, C. fecalis, and C. pyloridis. It was found that W. succinogenes is specifically related to, but not included, in the genus Campylobacter as presently constituted. Within the genus significant diversity was noted. C. jejuni, C. coli and C. laridis are very closely related but the other species are distinctly different from one another. C. pyloridis is without question the most divergent of the Campylobacter isolates examined here and is sufficiently distinct to warrant inclusion in a separate genus. In terms of overall position in bacterial phylogeny, the Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster represents a deep branching most probably located within an expanded version of the Division containing the purple photosynthetic bacteria and their relatives. The Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster is not specifically includable in either the alpha, beta or gamma subdivisions of the purple bacteria.

  7. Phylogenetic diversity and position of the genus Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, P. P.; DeBrunner-Vossbrinck, B.; Dunn, B.; Miotto, K.; MacDonnell, M. T.; Rollins, D. M.; Pillidge, C. J.; Hespell, R. B.; Colwell, R. R.; Sogin, M. L.; Fox, G. E.

    1987-01-01

    RNA sequence analysis has been used to examine the phylogenetic position and structure of the genus Campylobacter. A complete 5S rRNA sequence was determined for two strains of Campylobacter jejuni and extensive partial sequences of the 16S rRNA were obtained for several strains of C. jejuni and Wolinella succinogenes. In addition limited partial sequence data were obtained from the 16S rRNAs of isolates of C. coli, C. laridis, C. fetus, C. fecalis, and C. pyloridis. It was found that W. succinogenes is specifically related to, but not included, in the genus Campylobacter as presently constituted. Within the genus significant diversity was noted. C. jejuni, C. coli and C. laridis are very closely related but the other species are distinctly different from one another. C. pyloridis is without question the most divergent of the Campylobacter isolates examined here and is sufficiently distinct to warrant inclusion in a separate genus. In terms of overall position in bacterial phylogeny, the Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster represents a deep branching most probably located within an expanded version of the Division containing the purple photosynthetic bacteria and their relatives. The Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster is not specifically includable in either the alpha, beta or gamma subdivisions of the purple bacteria.

  8. Sugawara construction for higher genus Riemann surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichenmaier, Martin

    1999-04-01

    By the classical genus zero Sugawara construction one obtains representations of the Virasoro algebra from admissible representations of affine Lie algebras (Kac-Moody algebras of affine type). In this lecture, the classical construction is recalled first. Then, after giving a review on the global multi-point algebras of Krichever-Novikov type for compact Riemann surfaces of arbitrary genus, the higher genus Sugawara construction is introduced. Finally, the lecture reports on results obtained in a joint work with O. K. Sheinman. We were able to show that also in the higher genus, multi-point situation one obtains (from representations of the global algebras of affine type) representations of a centrally extended algebra of meromorphic vector fields on Riemann surfaces. The latter algebra is a generalization of the Virasoro algebra to higher genus.

  9. On the genus Bothrophyllum Trautschold, 1879 (Anthozoa, Rugosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorowski, Jerzy

    2016-03-01

    The rugose coral genus Bothrophyllum Trautschold, 1879 is revised on the basis of data from the literature and the author's personal investigation of both topotypes of its type species B. conicum and related and/or similar taxa from other areas. The intraspecific variability of the type species, its neotype, the intra-generic framework and a new generic diagnosis are established. Many more than 100 taxa related and/or similar to Bothrophyllum were analyzed and the most important of them are discussed. Detailed analysis of the type species based on the neotype and supported by additional topotype specimens illustrated here, allows restriction of both the type species and the genus, and leads to the proposition that Bothrophyllum -like taxa with a shortened cardinal septum should be considered of subgeneric (not named) status. Detailed analysis of the specimens and species described and illustrated from the type site (Myachkovo Quarry, Moscow Basin) form the basis for further considerations. On the basis of that analysis and characters established for the type species, taxa from all other European, African, Asiatic and North American areas either named Bothrophyllum or bearing characters of that genus were analyzed. The supposed origin and discussion of the relationships conclude the paper. A list of synonyms and exclusions from Bothrophyllum and lists of species included, excluded, or possibly belonging to Bothrophyllum and Bothrophyllum -like corals with a shortened cardinal septum are presented.

  10. Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of the Genus Tovomita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epifano, Francesco; Specchiulli, Maria Carmela; Taddeo, Vito Alessandro; Fiorito, Serena; Genovese, Salvatore

    2015-06-01

    The genus Tovomita (Fam. Clusiaceae) comprises 45 species mainly found in tropical regions of Central and South America. Most of the species of the title genus have been used for centuries as natural remedies. Phytochemicals isolated from Tovomita spp. include prenylated and unprenylated benzophenones and xanthones. The aim of this review is to examine in detail from a phytochemical and pharmacological point of view what is reported in the past and current literature about the properties of phytopreparations and individual active principles obtained from plants belonging to the Tovomita genus.

  11. Keanekaragaman metabolit sekunder Genus Artocarpus (Moraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIEFMAN HAKIM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hakim A. 2011. Keanekaragaman metabolit sekunder Genus Artocarpus (Moraceae. Bioteknologi 8: 86-98. Beberaapa spesies dari genus Artocarpus (Moraceae telah diteliti kandungan bahan alamnya. Metabolit sekunder yang berhasil diisolasi dari genus Artocarpus terdiri dari terpenoid, flavonoid, stilbenoid, arilbenzofuran, neolignan, dan adduct Diels-Alder. Kelompok flavonoid merupakan senyawa yang paling banyak ditemukan dari tumbuhan Artocarpus. Senyawa flavonoid yang telah berhasil diisolasi dari tumbuhan Artocarpus memiliki kerangka yang beragam seperti calkon, flavanon, flavan-3-ol, flavon sederhana, prenilflavon, oksepinoflavon, piranoflavon, dihidrobenzosanton, furanodi hidrobenzosanton, piranodihidrobenzosanton, kuinonosanton, siklolopentenosanton, santonolid, dihidrosanton.

  12. Genus llex L.: Phytochemistry, Ethnopharmacology, and Pharmacology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Yi; Xiao-ling Zhao; Yong Peng; Pei-gen Xiao

    2016-01-01

    The genus llex L. has been used as remedies in traditional Chinese medicine in Aquifoliaceae and beverages for thousands of years due to abundant pharmaceutical bioactivities. There are 600 species in genus llex L. containing various compounds such as terpenoids, saponins, glycosides, etc. Three species, I. cornuta, I. chinensis, and I. rotunda have been admitted in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2015 to treat dyspepsia, stomatitis, and hyperactivity cough and protect the liver and kidney. Recent studies showed that several species have been daily drunk to promote human health and prevent cardiovascular diseases in the folk. Here we reviewed the genus llex L. in phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology, and pharmacology.

  13. Beta genus papillomaviruses and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Peter M; Pfister, Herbert J

    2015-05-01

    A role for the beta genus HPVs in keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) remains to be established. In this article we examine the potential role of the beta HPVs in cancer revealed by the epidemiology associating these viruses with KC and supported by oncogenic properties of the beta HPV proteins. Unlike the cancer associated alpha genus HPVs, in which transcriptionally active viral genomes are invariably found associated with the cancers, that is not the case for the beta genus HPVs and keratinocyte carcinomas. Thus a role for the beta HPVs in KC would necessarily be in the carcinogenesis initiation and not in the maintenance of the tumor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The genus of a type of graph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the joint tree model introduced by Liu, the genera of further types of graphs not necessary to have certain symmetry can be obtained. In this paper, we obtain the genus of a new type of graph with weak symmetry. As a corollary, the genus of complete tripartite graph K n,n,l (l≥n≥2) is also derived. The method used here is more direct than those methods, such as current graph, used to calculate the genus of a graph and can be realized in polynomial time.

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the biotin carboxyl carrier protein and biotin protein ligase complex from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Matsuura, Yoshinori; Bagautdinova, Svetlana; Kunishima, Naoki, E-mail: kunisima@spring8.or.jp [Advanced Protein Crystallography Research Group, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Harima Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2007-04-01

    A truncated form of biotin carboxyl carrier protein containing the C-terminal half fragment (BCCPΔN76) and the biotin protein ligase (BPL) with the mutation R48A (BPL*) or the double mutation R48A K111A (BPL**) were successfully cocrystallized in the presence of ATP and biotin. The BPL*–BCCPΔN76 and BPL**–BCCPΔN76 crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1} and diffract X-rays to 2.7 and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively. Biotin protein ligase (BPL) catalyses the biotinylation of the biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. To elucidate the exact details of the protein–protein interactions in the biotinylation function, the C-terminal half fragment of BCCP (BCCPΔN76), the R48A mutant of BPL (BPL*) and the R48A K111A double mutant of BPL (BPL**), all of which are from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3, have been expressed, purified and successfully cocrystallized. Cocrystals of the BPL*–BCCPΔN76 and BPL**–BCCPΔN76 complexes as well as crystals of BPL*, BPL** and BCCPΔN76 were obtained by the oil-microbatch method using PEG 20 000 as a precipitant at 295 K. Complete X-ray diffraction data sets for BPL*–BCCPΔN76 and BPL**–BCCPΔN76 crystals were collected at 100 K to 2.7 and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. They belong to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with similar unit-cell parameters a = 69.85, b = 63.12, c = 75.64 Å, β = 95.9°. Assuming two subunits of the complex per asymmetric unit gives a V{sub M} value of 2.45 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 50%.

  16. Taxonomy of the genus Passerina (Thymelaeaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Bredenkamp

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Passerina L. is mainly a southern African genus, comprising 20 species and four subspecies. A few species occur along the Great Escarpment, two extend into Zimbabwe and Mozambique, but most are concentrated in the Cape Floristic Region. Palynological. macromorphological and anatomical evidence was used in the delimitation of the genus and its infrageneric taxa. A cladistic study supports Passerina as a monophyletic genus. A genus treatment, key to species and a full species treatment are given. Each species treatment includes a taxonomic diagnosis, description and notes on taxonomy, etymology, economic value and distribution. Illustrations of representative species are provided and distribution maps are included for each species.  P. esterhuyseniae Bredenk. & A.E.van Wyk is newly described. A list of excluded species names highlights the previous cosmopolitan taxonomic interpretation of Passerina. as many names are now in synony my under other genera of the Thymelaeaceae.

  17. Synaptospory in the fern genus Pyrrosia (Polypodiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffelen, van Gerda A.

    1985-01-01

    The correlation between sporoderm sculpture and life form of the sporophyte as postulated by Kramer (1977) is investigated for the fern genus Pyrrosia. This correlation is not found in Pyrrosia but may be present in other fern groups.

  18. Synaptospory in the fern genus Pyrrosia (Polypodiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffelen, van Gerda A.

    1983-01-01

    The correlation between sporoderm sculpture and life form of the sporophyte as postulated by Kramer (1977) is investigated for the fern genus Pyrrosia. This correlation is not found in Pyrrosia but may be present in other fern groups.

  19. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocephalotrichum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Serrato-Diaz, L.M.; Cheewangkoon, R.; French-Monar, R.D.; Decock, C.; Crous, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Species in the genus Gliocephalotrichum (= Leuconectria) (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) are soilborne fungi, associated with post-harvest fruit spoilage of several important tropical fruit crops. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of the

  20. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocephalotrichum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Serrato-Diaz, L. M.; Cheewangkoon, R.; French-Monar, R. D.; Decock, C.; Crous, P. W.

    Species in the genus Gliocephalotrichum (= Leuconectria) (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) are soilborne fungi, associated with post-harvest fruit spoilage of several important tropical fruit crops. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of the

  1. Monograph of the genus Phylacium (Leguminosae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bresser, Mirjam

    1978-01-01

    In the genus Phylacium 2 species are recognized. Special attention is paid to the morphology of the inflorescence; full descriptions are given with plates and a map, showing the distribution of both species.

  2. Taxonomic revision of the genus Acanthephippium (Orchidaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    This is a revision of the genus Acanthephippium Blume. Eleven species are recognised. Seven names are here for the first time reduced to synonymy (A. lycaste, A. odoratum, A. papuanum, A. pictum, A. simplex, A. sinense, and A. thailandicum).

  3. Taxonomy of the genus Passerina (Thymelaeaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Bredenkamp

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Passerina L. is mainly a southern African genus, comprising 20 species and four subspecies. A few species occur along the Great Escarpment, two extend into Zimbabwe and Mozambique, but most are concentrated in the Cape Floristic Region. Palynological. macromorphological and anatomical evidence was used in the delimitation of the genus and its infrageneric taxa. A cladistic study supports Passerina as a monophyletic genus. A genus treatment, key to species and a full species treatment are given. Each species treatment includes a taxonomic diagnosis, description and notes on taxonomy, etymology, economic value and distribution. Illustrations of representative species are provided and distribution maps are included for each species.  P. esterhuyseniae Bredenk. & A.E.van Wyk is newly described. A list of excluded species names highlights the previous cosmopolitan taxonomic interpretation of Passerina. as many names are now in synony my under other genera of the Thymelaeaceae.

  4. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocephalotrichum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Serrato-Diaz, L.M.; Cheewangkoon, R.; French-Monar, R.D.; Decock, C.; Crous, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Species in the genus Gliocephalotrichum (= Leuconectria) (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) are soilborne fungi, associated with post-harvest fruit spoilage of several important tropical fruit crops. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of the

  5. Chloroplast DNA evidence for the origin of the genus Heterogaura from a species of Clarkia (Onagraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Restriction-site variation in chloroplast DNA was examined in the morphologically distinct and monotypic genus Heterogaura and the related speciose genus Clarkia (Onagraceae), both native to California. Of the 605 restriction sites surveyed, a total of 119 mutations were identified. Of these, 55 were shared by at least two species and were used to construct a most parsimonious phylogenetic tree. This analysis, as well as one based on a distance metric, provided evidence that Heterogaura and C...

  6. Karyological and morphological variations within the genus Dysphania (Chenopodiaceae) in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Grozeva, Neli H.; Cvetanova, Yanka G.

    2013-01-01

    The karyological and morphological variability of species from the genus Dysphania were studied. The results demonstrated that genus Dysphania is represented in Bulgaria by five species: Dysphania ambrosioides, D. multifida, D. botrys, D. schraderiana and D. pumilio. The first two species are tetraploids with chromosome number 2n = 32 for D. ambrosioides and 2n = 36 for D. multifida. The remaining three species are diploids with 2n = 18. The results from statistical analysis demonstrated that...

  7. Cosmetic crossings of genus one knots

    CERN Document Server

    Balm, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    We show that for genus one knots the Alexander polynomial and the homology of the double cover branching over the knot provide obstructions to cosmetic crossings. As an application we prove the nugatory crossing conjecture for the negatively twisted, positive Whitehead doubles of all knots. We also verify the conjecture for several families of pretzel knots and all genus one knots with up to 10 crossings.

  8. Kops genus - en værkstedsrapport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudiksen, Asgerd

    2008-01-01

     Inden for Ømålsområdet optræder ordet kop både i genus femininum, masku­linum og neutrum. På Sjælland, hvor trekønssystemet er under af­vikling, kan ordet desuden være genus commune. Der kan konstateres en vis dialektgeografisk fordeling af de tre (fire) genera, men især på Sjælland er...

  9. Taxonomic novelties in the genus Campylospermum (Ochnaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bissiengou, P.; Chatrou, L.W.; Wieringa, J. J.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Four new species, one with two subspecies, of the genus Campylospermum are described, all endemic or sub-endemic to Gabon. These are C. auriculatum, C. gabonensis, C. gabonensis subsp. australis, C. glaucifolium and C. occidentalis. Distribution maps and scans of the holotypes are provided as well as preliminary IUCN Red List assessments. New combinations for nine species formerly assigned to the genus Ouratea and/or Gomphia are proposed: C. andongensis, C. glomeratum, C. longestipulatum, C. ...

  10. Functional proteomics within the genus Lactobacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Maria; Calasso, Maria; Cavallo, Noemi; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Lactobacillus are mainly used for the manufacture of fermented dairy, sourdough, meat, and vegetable foods or used as probiotics. Under optimal processing conditions, Lactobacillus strains contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. An extensive genomic diversity analysis was conducted to elucidate the core features of the genus Lactobacillus, and to provide a better comprehension of niche adaptation of the strains. However, proteomics is an indispensable "omics" science to elucidate the proteome diversity, and the mechanisms of regulation and adaptation of Lactobacillus strains. This review focuses on the novel and comprehensive knowledge of functional proteomics and metaproteomics of Lactobacillus species. A large list of proteomic case studies of different Lactobacillus species is provided to illustrate the adaptability of the main metabolic pathways (e.g., carbohydrate transport and metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, proteolytic system, amino acid metabolism, and protein synthesis) to various life conditions. These investigations have highlighted that lactobacilli modulate the level of a complex panel of proteins to growth/survive in different ecological niches. In addition to the general regulation and stress response, specific metabolic pathways can be switched on and off, modifying the behavior of the strains.

  11. Computational identification of strain-, species- and genus-specific proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiagarajan Rathi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of unique proteins at different taxonomic levels has both scientific and practical value. Strain-, species- and genus-specific proteins can provide insight into the criteria that define an organism and its relationship with close relatives. Such proteins can also serve as taxon-specific diagnostic targets. Description A pipeline using a combination of computational and manual analyses of BLAST results was developed to identify strain-, species-, and genus-specific proteins and to catalog the closest sequenced relative for each protein in a proteome. Proteins encoded by a given strain are preliminarily considered to be unique if BLAST, using a comprehensive protein database, fails to retrieve (with an e-value better than 0.001 any protein not encoded by the query strain, species or genus (for strain-, species- and genus-specific proteins respectively, or if BLAST, using the best hit as the query (reverse BLAST, does not retrieve the initial query protein. Results are manually inspected for homology if the initial query is retrieved in the reverse BLAST but is not the best hit. Sequences unlikely to retrieve homologs using the default BLOSUM62 matrix (usually short sequences are re-tested using the PAM30 matrix, thereby increasing the number of retrieved homologs and increasing the stringency of the search for unique proteins. The above protocol was used to examine several food- and water-borne pathogens. We find that the reverse BLAST step filters out about 22% of proteins with homologs that would otherwise be considered unique at the genus and species levels. Analysis of the annotations of unique proteins reveals that many are remnants of prophage proteins, or may be involved in virulence. The data generated from this study can be accessed and further evaluated from the CUPID (Core and Unique Protein Identification system web site (updated semi-annually at http://pir.georgetown.edu/cupid. Conclusion CUPID

  12. Genus distribution of ladder type and cross type graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method is given to calculate the explicit expressions of embedding genus distribution for ladder type graphs and cross type graphs. As an example, we refind the genus distri- bution of the graph Jn which is the first class of graphs studied for genus distribution where its genus depends on n.

  13. Genus distribution of ladder type and cross type graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN LiangXia; FENG KeQin; LIU YanPei; WANG DianJun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method is given to calculate the explicit expressions of embedding genus distribution for ladder type graphs and cross type graphs.As an example,we refind the genus distribution of the graph Jn which is the first class of graphs studied for genus distribution where its genus depends on n.

  14. Chipmunk parvovirus is distinct from members in the genus Erythrovirus of the family Parvoviridae.

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    Zhaojun Chen

    Full Text Available The transcription profile of chipmunk parvovirus (ChpPV, a tentative member of the genus Erythrovirus in the subfamily Parvovirinae of the family Parvoviridae, was characterized by transfecting a nearly full-length genome. We found that it is unique from the profiles of human parvovirus B19 and simian parvovirus, the members in the genus Erythrovirus so far characterized, in that the small RNA transcripts were not processed for encoding small non-structural proteins. However, like the large non-structural protein NS1 of the human parvovirus B19, the ChpPV NS1 is a potent inducer of apoptosis. Further phylogenetic analysis of ChpPV with other parvoviruses in the subfamily Parvovirinae indicates that ChpPV is distinct from the members in genus Erythrovirus. Thus, we conclude that ChpPV may represent a new genus in the family Parvoviridae.

  15. Review of the Genus Andropogon (Poaceae: Andropogoneae in America Based on Cytogenetic Studies

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    Nicolás Nagahama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Andropogon is a pantropical grass genus comprising 100–120 species and found mainly in the grasslands of Africa and the Americas. In the new world the genus is represented by approximately sixty (diploids or hexaploids species grouped in three sections. The hexaploid condition occurs only in the Americas and the full process of this origin is still uncertain, although cytogenetic analysis coupled with taxonomic evidence have provided strong support for new hypothesis. Stebbins proposed the first hypothesis suggesting that the origin of polyploidy in species of Andropogon in North America resulted from duplication of the genome of some diploid species, and then by intergeneric crosses with species of a related genus. Since then, numerous studies were performed to clarify the evolutionary history of the genus in America. In this paper, we present a review of cytogenetic studies in the American Andropogon species during the last four decades.

  16. Genus-wide physicochemical evidence of extracellular crystalline silver nanoparticles biosynthesis by Morganella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasesh Y Parikh

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine whether extracellular silver nanoparticles (AgNPs production is a genus-wide phenotype associated with all the members of genus Morganella, or only Morganella morganii RP-42 isolate is able to synthesize extracellular Ag nanoparticles. To undertake this study, all the available Morganella isolates were exposed to Ag+ ions, and the obtained nanoproducts were thoroughly analyzed using physico-chemical characterization tools such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM, UV-visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. It was identified that extracellular biosynthesis of crystalline silver nanoparticles is a unique biochemical character of all the members of genus Morganella, which was found independent of environmental changes. Significantly, the inability of other closely related members of the family Enterobacteriaceae towards AgNPs synthesis strongly suggests that AgNPs synthesis in the presence of Ag+ ions is a phenotypic character that is uniquely associated with genus Morganella.

  17. Comparative Study of Volatile Compounds from Genus Ocimum

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    S. R. Vani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are distinct varieties of basil types in the genus Ocimum which makes them very special. Genus Ocimum is widespread over Asia, Africa and Central & Southern America. All basils are member of the Lamiaceae family. The colors of the leaves vary from bright green to purple-green and sometimes almost black. Fresh basil leaves have a strong and characteristic aroma, not comparable to any other spice, although there is a hint of clove traceable. Ocimum Sanctum, also addressed as Ocimum Tenuiflorum is a sacred plant in the Hindu culture and known as Tulasi in Tamil or Holy Basil in English. Meanwhile Ocimum Basilicum, known as Common or Sweet Basil has very dark green leaves. The genus Ocimum is cultivated for its remarkable essential oil which exhibits many usages such as in medicinal application, herbs, culinary, perfume for herbal toiletries, aromatherapy treatment and as flavoring agent. Due to varying essential oil profiles even within the same species, plants may often be classified as a different species as a result of different scents. In the present study, volatile constituents of Ocimum Sanctum and Ocimum Basilicum were extracted using various solvents and their chemical constituents were identified and quantified by using GC-MS in optimized conditions. The profiles of extract from both species were compared in an effort to investigate effects of seasonal variation on their chemical compositions. The predominant species in Ocimum Sanctum and Ocimum Basilicum was found to be methyl eugenol and methyl chavicol, respectively, during different months of analysis.

  18. Taxonomy, Epidemiology, and Clinical Relevance of the Genus Arcobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Luis; Figueras, Maria José

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The genus Arcobacter, defined almost 20 years ago from members of the genus Campylobacter, has become increasingly important because its members are being considered emergent enteropathogens and/or potential zoonotic agents. Over recent years information that is relevant for microbiologists, especially those working in the medical and veterinary fields and in the food safety sector, has accumulated. Recently, the genus has been enlarged with several new species. The complete genomes of Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter nitrofigilis are available, with the former revealing diverse pathways characteristic of free-living microbes and virulence genes homologous to those of Campylobacter. The first multilocus sequence typing analysis showed a great diversity of sequence types, with no association with specific hosts or geographical regions. Advances in detection and identification techniques, mostly based on molecular methods, have been made. These microbes have been associated with water outbreaks and with indicators of fecal pollution, with food products and water as the suspected routes of transmission. This review updates this knowledge and provides the most recent data on the taxonomy, species diversity, methods of detection, and identification of these microbes as well as on their virulence potential and implication in human and animal diseases. PMID:21233511

  19. Taxonomy, epidemiology, and clinical relevance of the genus Arcobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Luis; Figueras, Maria José

    2011-01-01

    The genus Arcobacter, defined almost 20 years ago from members of the genus Campylobacter, has become increasingly important because its members are being considered emergent enteropathogens and/or potential zoonotic agents. Over recent years information that is relevant for microbiologists, especially those working in the medical and veterinary fields and in the food safety sector, has accumulated. Recently, the genus has been enlarged with several new species. The complete genomes of Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter nitrofigilis are available, with the former revealing diverse pathways characteristic of free-living microbes and virulence genes homologous to those of Campylobacter. The first multilocus sequence typing analysis showed a great diversity of sequence types, with no association with specific hosts or geographical regions. Advances in detection and identification techniques, mostly based on molecular methods, have been made. These microbes have been associated with water outbreaks and with indicators of fecal pollution, with food products and water as the suspected routes of transmission. This review updates this knowledge and provides the most recent data on the taxonomy, species diversity, methods of detection, and identification of these microbes as well as on their virulence potential and implication in human and animal diseases.

  20. Phylogenomics and the dynamic genome evolution of the genus Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Vincent P; Palmer, Sara R; Pavinski Bitar, Paulina D; Qin, Xiang; Weinstock, George M; Highlander, Sarah K; Town, Christopher D; Burne, Robert A; Stanhope, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    The genus Streptococcus comprises important pathogens that have a severe impact on human health and are responsible for substantial economic losses to agriculture. Here, we utilize 46 Streptococcus genome sequences (44 species), including eight species sequenced here, to provide the first genomic level insight into the evolutionary history and genetic basis underlying the functional diversity of all major groups of this genus. Gene gain/loss analysis revealed a dynamic pattern of genome evolution characterized by an initial period of gene gain followed by a period of loss, as the major groups within the genus diversified. This was followed by a period of genome expansion associated with the origins of the present extant species. The pattern is concordant with an emerging view that genomes evolve through a dynamic process of expansion and streamlining. A large proportion of the pan-genome has experienced lateral gene transfer (LGT) with causative factors, such as relatedness and shared environment, operating over different evolutionary scales. Multiple gene ontology terms were significantly enriched for each group, and mapping terms onto the phylogeny showed that those corresponding to genes born on branches leading to the major groups represented approximately one-fifth of those enriched. Furthermore, despite the extensive LGT, several biochemical characteristics have been retained since group formation, suggesting genomic cohesiveness through time, and that these characteristics may be fundamental to each group. For example, proteolysis: mitis group; urea metabolism: salivarius group; carbohydrate metabolism: pyogenic group; and transcription regulation: bovis group.

  1. Phylogenomics and the Dynamic Genome Evolution of the Genus Streptococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Vincent P.; Palmer, Sara R.; Pavinski Bitar, Paulina D.; Qin, Xiang; Weinstock, George M.; Highlander, Sarah K.; Town, Christopher D.; Burne, Robert A.; Stanhope, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Streptococcus comprises important pathogens that have a severe impact on human health and are responsible for substantial economic losses to agriculture. Here, we utilize 46 Streptococcus genome sequences (44 species), including eight species sequenced here, to provide the first genomic level insight into the evolutionary history and genetic basis underlying the functional diversity of all major groups of this genus. Gene gain/loss analysis revealed a dynamic pattern of genome evolution characterized by an initial period of gene gain followed by a period of loss, as the major groups within the genus diversified. This was followed by a period of genome expansion associated with the origins of the present extant species. The pattern is concordant with an emerging view that genomes evolve through a dynamic process of expansion and streamlining. A large proportion of the pan-genome has experienced lateral gene transfer (LGT) with causative factors, such as relatedness and shared environment, operating over different evolutionary scales. Multiple gene ontology terms were significantly enriched for each group, and mapping terms onto the phylogeny showed that those corresponding to genes born on branches leading to the major groups represented approximately one-fifth of those enriched. Furthermore, despite the extensive LGT, several biochemical characteristics have been retained since group formation, suggesting genomic cohesiveness through time, and that these characteristics may be fundamental to each group. For example, proteolysis: mitis group; urea metabolism: salivarius group; carbohydrate metabolism: pyogenic group; and transcription regulation: bovis group. PMID:24625962

  2. The genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach in Africa and a new genus Rabdosiella Codd (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Codd

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The typification of the genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach and its occurrence in Africa are discussed; an allied genus Rabdosiella Codd is described and the combinations R. calycina (Benth. Codd and R. ternifolia (D.Don Codd (the latter an Indian species are effected.

  3. The genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach in Africa and a new genus Rabdosiella Codd (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Codd

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The typification of the genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach and its occurrence in Africa are discussed; an allied genus Rabdosiella Codd is described and the combinations R. calycina (Benth. Codd and R. ternifolia (D.Don Codd (the latter an Indian species are effected.

  4. Calongea, a new genus of truffles in the Pezizaceae (Pezizales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trappe, James M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS and LSU rDNA of Pachyphloeus species from Europe and North America revealed a new truffle genus. These molecular analyses plus sequences downloaded from a BLAST search in GenBank indicated that Pachyphloeus prieguensis is within the Pezizaceae but well outside of the genus Pachyphloeus. Morphological differences in the peridial and glebal hyphae and spores distinguish this genus from Pachyphloeus. We here propose the monotypic new genus Calongea, with the type species C. prieguensis comb. nov., in honor of Prof. Francisco de Diego Calonge, who has long studied the truffle fungi of Spain and participated in describing the type species of Calongea.El análisis filogenético del ITS y LSU rDNA de especies europeas y norteamericanas de Pachyphloeus revelan un género nuevo de trufa. Los datos moleculares de este estudio, además de las secuencias obtenidas de una búsqueda BLAST en GenBank, indican que Pachyphloeus prieguensis es un miembro de la familia Pezizaceae pero no está relacionado con ninguna otra especie hipogea o epigea de dicha familia. Encontramos diferencias morfológicas en las hifas del peridio y gleba así como en las esporas que morfológicamente distinguen éste de Pachyphloeus. Proponemos el nuevo género monotípico Calongea, con C. prieguensis comb. nov. como la especie tipo, en honor a uno de los descubridores originales, Prof. Francisco de Diego Calonge.

  5. Femeniasia, novus genus Carduearum

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    Susanna de la Serna, Alfonso

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The systematic position of Centaurea balearica Rodríguez Femenias (Asteraceae-Cardueae is studied. A detailed analysis or its anatomy, with special reference to the carpology, forces the author lo reject its inclusion in the genus Centaurea or in any other genus or the tribe. A new genus, Femeniasia Susanna. is hence described, and the new nomenclatural combinari en Femeniasia balearica (Rodríguez Femenías Susanna is proposed. The relationship or Femeniasia and the other genera of the tribe is discussed; the author concludes that Femeniasia is a quite isolated genus in the Cardueae-Carduinae .

    [ca] Estudi de la posició sistemàtica de Centaurea balearica Rodríguez Femenías (Asteraceae-Cardueae . De l'anàlisi minuciosa de la seva anatomia, especialment de les seves cípseles, resulta que l'esmentada espècie no és cap Centaurea; tampoc pot ésser inclosa en cap del altres gèneres de la tribu. En conseqüència, hom descriu un nou gènere, Femeniasia Susanna, i proposa la combinació Femeniasia balearica (Rodríguez Femenías Susanna. Son analitzades les possibles relacions de parentiu amb d'altres gèneres del grup i l'autor arriba a la conclusió que Femeniasia és un gènere clarament isolat entre les Cardueae-Carduinae.

  6. Reclassification of Rhodospirillum photometricum Molisch 1907, Rhodospirillum sulfurexigens Anil Kumar et al. 2008 and Rhodospirillum oryzae Lakshmi et al. 2013 in a new genus, Pararhodospirillum gen. nov., as Pararhodospirillum photometricum comb. nov., Pararhodospirillum sulfurexigens comb. nov. and Pararhodospirillum oryzae comb. nov., respectively, and emended description of the genus Rhodospirillum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, K V N S; Divyasree, B; Ramprasad, E V V; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2014-04-01

    The genus Rhodospirillum is represented by four species, with three of them showing phylogenetic divergence compared to the type species, Rhodospirillum rubrum. Differences in the major diagnostic properties such as internal photosynthetic membranes, quinones, fatty acids, carotenoid composition and a few other phenotypic properties warrant the reclassification of members of this genus. Resultantly, a new genus, Pararhodospirillum gen. nov., is proposed based on the analysis of nine strains to accommodate Rhodospirillum photometricum, Rhodospirillum sulfurexigens and Rhodospirillum oryzae as Pararhodospirillum photometricum comb. nov., Pararhodospirillum sulfurexigens comb. nov. and Pararhodospirillum oryzae comb. nov., respectively. The type species of the genus is Pararhodospirillum photometricum comb. nov. An emended description of the genus Rhodospirillum is also proposed.

  7. The genus Hymenocrater: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morteza-Semnani, Katayoun; Ahadi, Hamideh; Hashemi, Zahra

    2016-12-01

    The genus Hymenocrater Fisch. et Mey. (Lamiaceae) contains over 21 species in the world. Some species have been used in folk medicine around the world. The present review comprises the ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and therapeutic potential of various species of Hymenocrater. This review brings together most of the available scientific research regarding the genus Hymenocrater. Through this review, the authors hope to attract the attention of natural product researchers throughout the world to focus on the unexplored potential of Hymenocrater species. This review has been compiled using references from major databases such as Chemical Abstracts, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Abstracts, ScienceDirect, SciFinder, Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed, Springer Link and books, without limiting the dates of publication. General web searches were also carried out using Google and Yahoo search engines by applying some related search terms (e.g., Hymenocrater spp., phytochemical, pharmacological, extract, essential oil and traditional uses). The articles related to agriculture, ecology, and synthetic works and those using languages other than English or Persian have been excluded. The genus Hymenocrater contains essential oil. Flavonoids, phenolic acids and terpenoids are important constituents of this genus. The pharmacological studies confirmed that the species of the genus Hymenocrater showed antimicrobial, antiparasitic, antioxidant, anticancer and antidiabetic activities. This review discusses the current knowledge of Hymenocrater species that review therapeutic potential, especially their effects on the cancer cells and gaps offering opportunities for future research.

  8. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visagie, C M; Houbraken, J; Frisvad, J C; Hong, S-B; Klaassen, C H W; Perrone, G; Seifert, K A; Varga, J; Yaguchi, T; Samson, R A

    2014-06-01

    Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens. Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept of Penicillium was re-defined to accommodate species from other genera, such as Chromocleista, Eladia, Eupenicillium, Torulomyces and Thysanophora, which together comprise a large monophyletic clade. As a result of this, and the many new species described in recent years, it was necessary to update the list of accepted species in Penicillium. The genus currently contains 354 accepted species, including new combinations for Aspergillus crystallinus, A. malodoratus and A. paradoxus, which belong to Penicillium section Paradoxa. To add to the taxonomic value of the list, we also provide information on each accepted species MycoBank number, living ex-type strains and provide GenBank accession numbers to ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RPB2 sequences, thereby supplying a verified set of sequences for each species of the genus. In addition to the nomenclatural list, we recommend a standard working method for species descriptions and identifications to be adopted by laboratories working on this genus.

  9. Revisiting the taxonomy of the family Circoviridae: establishment of the genus Cyclovirus and removal of the genus Gyrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Karyna; Breitbart, Mya; Harrach, Balázs; Segalés, Joaquim; Delwart, Eric; Biagini, Philippe; Varsani, Arvind

    2017-05-01

    The family Circoviridae contains viruses with covalently closed, circular, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) genomes, including the smallest known autonomously replicating, capsid-encoding animal pathogens. Members of this family are known to cause fatal diseases in birds and pigs and have been historically classified in one of two genera: Circovirus, which contains avian and porcine pathogens, and Gyrovirus, which includes a single species (Chicken anemia virus). However, over the course of the past six years, viral metagenomic approaches as well as degenerate PCR detection in unconventional hosts and environmental samples have elucidated a broader host range, including fish, a diversity of mammals, and invertebrates, for members of the family Circoviridae. Notably, these methods have uncovered a distinct group of viruses that are closely related to members of the genus Circovirus and comprise a new genus, Cyclovirus. The discovery of new viruses and a re-evaluation of genomic features that characterize members of the Circoviridae prompted a revision of the classification criteria used for this family of animal viruses. Here we provide details on an updated Circoviridae taxonomy ratified by the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses in 2016, which establishes the genus Cyclovirus and reassigns the genus Gyrovirus to the family Anelloviridae, a separate lineage of animal viruses that also contains circular ssDNA genomes. In addition, we provide a new species demarcation threshold of 80% genome-wide pairwise identity for members of the family Circoviridae, based on pairwise identity distribution analysis, and list guidelines to distinguish between members of this family and other eukaryotic viruses with circular, ssDNA genomes.

  10. A New Class of Tungsten-Containing Oxidoreductase in Caldicellulosiruptor, a Genus of Plant Biomass-Degrading Thermophilic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Israel M; Rubinstein, Gabe M; Lipscomb, Gina L; Basen, Mirko; Schut, Gerrit J; Rhaesa, Amanda M; Lancaster, W Andrew; Poole, Farris L; Kelly, Robert M; Adams, Michael W W

    2015-10-01

    Caldicellulosiruptor bescii grows optimally at 78°C and is able to decompose high concentrations of lignocellulosic plant biomass without the need for thermochemical pretreatment. C. bescii ferments both C5 and C6 sugars primarily to hydrogen gas, lactate, acetate, and CO2 and is of particular interest for metabolic engineering applications given the recent availability of a genetic system. Developing optimal strains for technological use requires a detailed understanding of primary metabolism, particularly when the goal is to divert all available reductant (electrons) toward highly reduced products such as biofuels. During an analysis of the C. bescii genome sequence for oxidoreductase-type enzymes, evidence was uncovered to suggest that the primary redox metabolism of C. bescii has a completely uncharacterized aspect involving tungsten, a rarely used element in biology. An active tungsten utilization pathway in C. bescii was demonstrated by the heterologous production of a tungsten-requiring, aldehyde-oxidizing enzyme (AOR) from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. Furthermore, C. bescii also contains a tungsten-based AOR-type enzyme, here termed XOR, which is phylogenetically unique, representing a completely new member of the AOR tungstoenzyme family. Moreover, in C. bescii, XOR represents ca. 2% of the cytoplasmic protein. XOR is proposed to play a key, but as yet undetermined, role in the primary redox metabolism of this cellulolytic microorganism.

  11. A Genus Oblivious Approach to Cross Parameterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, J C; Pascucci, V; Joy, K I

    2008-06-16

    In this paper we present a robust approach to construct a map between two triangulated meshes, M and M{prime} of arbitrary and possibly unequal genus. We introduce a novel initial alignment scheme that allows the user to identify 'landmark tunnels' and/or a 'constrained silhouette' in addition to the standard landmark vertices. To describe the evolution of non-landmark tunnels we automatically derive a continuous deformation from M to M{prime} using a variational implicit approach. Overall, we achieve a cross parameterization scheme that is provably robust in the sense that it can map M to M{prime} without constraints on their relative genus. We provide a number of examples to demonstrate the practical effectiveness of our scheme between meshes of different genus and shape.

  12. Revision of monotypic genus Llavea (Cryptogrammoideae: Pteridaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Palacios-Rios

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Llavea Lag. is a genus of Cryptogrammoideae (Pteridaceae, whose only species is distributed from southern United States and Mexico to Guatemala and Costa Rica, although it lives mainly in Mesoamerica, inhabiting preferably calcicolous habitats associated with forests and mountains. The genus is easily recognized by the presence of fertile leaves hemi-dimorphic, with the fertile apical portion with longer and narrower segments than the sterile ones, with strongly revolute margin, and rhizome scales bicolorous, shiny, and black. This paper presents a revision of the genus, nomenclatural issues are resolved, and and palynological morphological diversity are reviewed, as well as its distribution, phenology, ecology, and applications, based on field and herbarium specimens studies. In addition, two names related to Llavea, Allosorus karwinskii Kunze and Ceratodactylis osmundioides J. Sm., were lectotypified.

  13. The genus Craterium (Myxomycetes in Poland

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    Wanda Stojanowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an extended list of species of the genus Craterium, hitherto found in Poland.In the monograph on Polish slime moulds Krzemieniewska (1960 3 species and 1 variety of that genus were mentioned. Lately, the following two new species have been recorded: Craterium concinnum Rex. and C. brunneum Nann.-Bremek. Craterium muscorum Ing, reported earlier under the name of Badhamia rubiginosa (Chevall Rostaf. is also included in the present paper. All together, with Cratoium aureum (Schumach. Rostaf. rarely occurring in Poland, and widespread C. minutum (Leers Fr., C. leucocephalum (Pers. Ditmar with its variety scyphoides (Cooke et Balf. G. Lister, the number of taxa of the genus Craterium in Poland increased up to 7.

  14. The genus curve of the Abell clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, James E.; Gott, J. Richard, III; Postman, Marc

    1994-01-01

    We study the topology of large-scale structure through a genus curve measurement of the recent Abell catalog redshift survey of Postman, Huchra, and Geller (1992). The structure is found to be spongelike near median density and to exhibit isolated superclusters and voids at high and low densities, respectively. The genus curve shows a slight shift toward 'meatball' topology, but remains consistent with the hypothesis of Gaussian random phase initial conditions. The amplitude of the genus curve corresponds to a power-law spectrum with index n = 0.21(sub -0.47 sup +0.43) on scales of 48/h Mpc or to a cold dark matter power spectrum with omega h = 0.36(sub -0.17 sup +0.46).

  15. The genus Gymnospermium (Berberidaceae) in the Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Shuka, Lulezim; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    A revision of the genus Gymnospermium (Berberidaceae) in the Balkan Peninsula is carried out. Three species are recognised. Gymnospermium maloi is described as a new species from Mt. Picari in Gjirokastra district, southern Albania. It is compared with the closely related G. scipetarum which has...... has been reported for other members of the genus. The nuclear DNA content (2C-value) of all three species was determined. The genome size of G. maloi is 29.44 (± 0.47) pg, for G. scipetarum (chromosome number still unknown) 29.55 (± 1.35) pg, and for G. peloponnesiacum (2n = 2x = 16) 31.93 (± 2.38) pg....... These values are the first genome size measurements for the genus. All three species are mapped and fully illustrated. A key to the European species is also presented....

  16. Random matrix theory and higher genus integrability: the quantum chiral Potts model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angles d' Auriac, J.Ch. [Centre de Recherches sur les Tres Basses Temperatures, BP 166, Grenoble (France)]. E-mail: dauriac@polycnrs-gre.fr; Maillard, J.M.; Viallet, C.M. [LPTHE, Tour 16, Paris (France)]. E-mails: maillard@lpthe.jussieu.fr; viallet@lpthe.jussieu.fr

    2002-06-14

    We perform a random matrix theory (RMT) analysis of the quantum four-state chiral Potts chain for different sizes of the chain up to size L 8. Our analysis gives clear evidence of a Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE) statistics, suggesting the existence of a generalized time-reversal invariance. Furthermore, a change from the (generic) GOE distribution to a Poisson distribution occurs when the integrability conditions are met. The chiral Potts model is known to correspond to a (star-triangle) integrability associated with curves of genus higher than zero or one. Therefore, the RMT analysis can also be seen as a detector of 'higher genus integrability'. (author)

  17. Caryotricha minuta (Xu et al., 2008) nov. comb., a unique marine ciliate (Protista, Ciliophora, Spirotrichea), with phylogenetic analysis of the ambiguous genus Caryotricha inferred from the small-subunit rRNA gene sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Miao; Shao, Chen; Jiang, Jiamei; Li, Liqiong; Stoeck, Thorsten; Song, Weibo

    2009-02-01

    A population of Kiitricha minuta Xu et al., 2008, a small kiitrichid ciliate, was isolated from a brackish water sample in Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao, northern China. After comparison of its morphology and infraciliature, it is believed that this morphotype should be assigned to the genus Caryotricha; hence, a new combination is suggested, Caryotricha minuta (Xu et al., 2008) nov. comb. The small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence was determined in order to elucidate the phylogenetic position of this poorly known, ambiguous genus. The organism can be clearly separated from its congener, Caryotricha convexa Kahl, 1932, by the extremely shortened ventral cirral rows in the posterior ends. Based on the data available, an improved diagnosis is given for the genus: marine Kiitrichidae with prominent buccal field; two highly developed undulating membranes; non-grouped, uniform cirral rows on both ventral and dorsal sides; enlarged transverse cirri present, which are the only differentiated cirri; marginal cirri not present; one short migratory row located posterior to buccal field; structure of dorsal kineties generally in Kiitricha pattern. The sequence of the SSU rRNA gene of C. minuta differs by 13 % from that of Kiitricha marina. Molecular phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian inference, least squares, neighbour joining, maximum parsimony) indicate that Caryotricha, together with Kiitricha, diverges at a deep level from all other spirotrichs. Its branching position is between Phacodiniidia and Licnophoridia. The results strongly support the distinct separation of the Kiitricha-Caryotricha clade, which always branches basal to the Stichotrichia-Hypotrichia-Oligotrichia-Choreotrichia assemblage. These results also confirm the previous hypothesis that the Kiitricha-Caryotricha group, long assumed to be a close relation to the euplotids, represents a taxon at subclass level within the spirotrichs.

  18. The genus Allium--Part 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, G R; Hanley, A B

    1985-01-01

    Allium is a genus of some 500 species belonging to the family Liliaceae. However, only a few of these are important as food plants, notably onion, garlic, chive, leek, and rakkyo. Such plants have been used for many centuries for their pungency and flavoring value, for their medicinal properties, and in some parts of the world, their use also has religious connotations. The flavors of members of alliums, in addition to being characteristic, are also complex, being derived enzymically from a number of involatile precursors. As well as there being variation of flavor between different alliums there are also considerable changes that occur as a result of cooking and processing. These are, of course, of importance to the consumer and food technologist/processor. The review will introduce the subject by an historical perspective and will set against this data on the present cultivation and usage of commercially cultivated alliums. The chemical composition of these plants will be discussed, emphasis being given to nonvolatile constituents which are, perhaps, less often considered. Discussion of the volatile constituents, which will include mention of the methods currently used for their analysis and for the determination of "flavor strength," will be mainly concerned with literature taken from the last 5 years. In considering the extent and nature of allium cultivation and processing, factors affecting the nutritional value and quality will be highlighted. The medicinal properties of garlic and onion oils have been extensively studied over the last decade and the review will include critical assessment of this area; it will also touch on the more general properties (antimicrobial, antifungal, antibacterial, and insecticidal) of these oils. Finally, mention will be made of the antinutritional, toxic, or otherwise undesirable effects of alliums, for example, as inadvertant components of animal diets, tainting of milk, and other food products. It is our intention to review

  19. Slope equalities for genus 5 surface fibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Tenni, Elisa

    2010-01-01

    K. Konno proved a slope equality for fibred surfaces with fibres of odd genus and general fibre of maximal gonality. More precisely he found a relation between the invariants of the fibration and certain weights of special fibres (called the Horikawa numbers). We give an alternative and more geometric proof in the case of a genus 5 fibration, under generality assumptions. In our setting we are able to prove that the fibre with positive Horikawa numbers are precisely the trigonal ones, we compute their weights explicitly and thus we exhibit explicit examples of regular surfaces with assigned invariants and Horikawa numbers.

  20. Systematics of the genus Daubenya (Hyacinthaceae: Massonieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Daubenya Lindl. was until recently thought to comprise the single species D. aurea Lindl. but is now considered to include the monotypic genera Androsiphon Schltr. and Amphisiphon W.F.Barker. as well as the species previously referred to the genus Neobakeria Schltr. Eight species are now recognized in the genus, including the new combinations Daubenya comata (Burch, ex Baker J.C.Manning & A.M.van der Merwe and D. zeyheri (Kunth J.C.Manning & A.M.van der Merwe. Each species is fully described and illustrated in black-and-white and in colour. A key to the species, and distribution maps are provided.

  1. Exponentially many maximum genus embeddings and genus embeddings for complete graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Han; BAI Yun

    2008-01-01

    There are many results on the maximum genus,among which most are written for the existence of values of such embeddings,and few attention has been paid to the estimation of such embeddings and their applications.In this paper we study the number of maximum genus embeddings for a graph and find an exponential lower bound for such numbers.Our results show that in general case,a simple connected graph has exponentially many distinct maximum genus embeddings.In particular,a connected cubie graph G of order n always has at least (√2)m+n+α/2 distinct maximum genus embeddings,where α and m denote,respectively,the number of inner vertices and odd compo-nents of an optimal tree T.What surprise us most is that such two extremal embeddings (i.e.,the maximum genus embeddings and the genus embeddings) are sometimes closely related with each other.In fact,as applications,we show that for a sufficient large natural number n,there are at least C2n/4 many genus embeddings for complete graph Kn with n=4,7,10 (mod12),where C is a constance depending on the Value of n of residue 12.These results improve the bounds obtained by Korzhik and Voss and the methods used here are much simpler and straight.

  2. Evolutionary Roots and Diversification of the Genus Aeromonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanglas, Ariadna; Albarral, Vicenta; Farfán, Maribel; Lorén, J G; Fusté, M C

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of diversification rates in the study of prokaryote evolution, they have not been quantitatively assessed for the majority of microorganism taxa. The investigation of evolutionary patterns in prokaryotes constitutes a challenge due to a very scarce fossil record, limited morphological differentiation and frequently complex taxonomic relationships, which make even species recognition difficult. Although the speciation models and speciation rates in eukaryotes have traditionally been established by analyzing the fossil record data, this is frequently incomplete, and not always available. More recently, several methods based on molecular sequence data have been developed to estimate speciation and extinction rates from phylogenies reconstructed from contemporary taxa. In this work, we determined the divergence time and temporal diversification of the genus Aeromonas by applying these methods widely used with eukaryotic taxa. Our analysis involved 150 Aeromonas strains using the concatenated sequences of two housekeeping genes (approximately 2,000 bp). Dating and diversification model analyses were performed using two different approaches: obtaining the consensus sequence from the concatenated sequences corresponding to all the strains belonging to the same species, or generating the species tree from multiple alignments of each gene. We used BEAST to perform a Bayesian analysis to estimate both the phylogeny and the divergence times. A global molecular clock cannot be assumed for any gene. From the chronograms obtained, we carried out a diversification analysis using several approaches. The results suggest that the genus Aeromonas began to diverge approximately 250 millions of years (Ma) ago. All methods used to determine Aeromonas diversification gave similar results, suggesting that the speciation process in this bacterial genus followed a rate-constant (Yule) diversification model, although there is a small probability that a slight

  3. Evolutionary Roots and Diversification of the Genus Aeromonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanglas, Ariadna; Albarral, Vicenta; Farfán, Maribel; Lorén, J. G.; Fusté, M. C.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of diversification rates in the study of prokaryote evolution, they have not been quantitatively assessed for the majority of microorganism taxa. The investigation of evolutionary patterns in prokaryotes constitutes a challenge due to a very scarce fossil record, limited morphological differentiation and frequently complex taxonomic relationships, which make even species recognition difficult. Although the speciation models and speciation rates in eukaryotes have traditionally been established by analyzing the fossil record data, this is frequently incomplete, and not always available. More recently, several methods based on molecular sequence data have been developed to estimate speciation and extinction rates from phylogenies reconstructed from contemporary taxa. In this work, we determined the divergence time and temporal diversification of the genus Aeromonas by applying these methods widely used with eukaryotic taxa. Our analysis involved 150 Aeromonas strains using the concatenated sequences of two housekeeping genes (approximately 2,000 bp). Dating and diversification model analyses were performed using two different approaches: obtaining the consensus sequence from the concatenated sequences corresponding to all the strains belonging to the same species, or generating the species tree from multiple alignments of each gene. We used BEAST to perform a Bayesian analysis to estimate both the phylogeny and the divergence times. A global molecular clock cannot be assumed for any gene. From the chronograms obtained, we carried out a diversification analysis using several approaches. The results suggest that the genus Aeromonas began to diverge approximately 250 millions of years (Ma) ago. All methods used to determine Aeromonas diversification gave similar results, suggesting that the speciation process in this bacterial genus followed a rate-constant (Yule) diversification model, although there is a small probability that a slight

  4. Molecular characterization and phylogeny of four new species of the genus Trichonympha (Parabasalia, Trichonymphea) from lower termite hindguts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscaro, Vittorio; James, Erick R; Fiorito, Rebecca; Hehenberger, Elisabeth; Karnkowska, Anna; Del Campo, Javier; Kolisko, Martin; Irwin, Nicholas A T; Mathur, Varsha; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H; Keeling, Patrick J

    2017-09-01

    Members of the genus Trichonympha are among the most well-known, recognizable and widely distributed parabasalian symbionts of lower termites and the wood-eating cockroach species of the genus Cryptocercus. Nevertheless, the species diversity of this genus is largely unknown. Molecular data have shown that the superficial morphological similarities traditionally used to identify species are inadequate, and have challenged the view that the same species of the genus Trichonympha can occur in many different host species. Ambiguities in the literature, uncertainty in identification of both symbiont and host, and incomplete samplings are limiting our understanding of the systematics, ecology and evolution of this taxon. Here we describe four closely related novel species of the genus Trichonympha collected from South American and Australian lower termites: Trichonympha hueyi sp. nov. from Rugitermes laticollis, Trichonympha deweyi sp. nov. from Glyptotermes brevicornis, Trichonympha louiei sp. nov. from Calcaritermes temnocephalus and Trichonympha webbyae sp. nov. from Rugitermes bicolor. We provide molecular barcodes to identify both the symbionts and their hosts, and infer the phylogeny of the genus Trichonympha based on small subunit rRNA gene sequences. The analysis confirms the considerable divergence of symbionts of members of the genus Cryptocercus, and shows that the two clades of the genus Trichonympha harboured by termites reflect only in part the phylogeny of their hosts.

  5. Essential oils from Brazilian rutaceae. Part I. Genus Pilocardus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craveiro, A.A.; Andrade, C.H.S.; Matos, F.J.A.; Alencar, J.W.

    1979-11-01

    The leaves of jaborandi are commercially exploited in the Brazilian Northeast for industrial extraction of pilocarpine, an alkaloid with potent cholinergic activity. The leaves also contain an essential oil whose composition is registered in the literature in a confusing and incomplete way. Chemical re-examination of the essential oil from five distinct Pilocarpus species was conducted together with an analysis of the leaves used by local industry. It was found to contain terpenes, sesquiterpenes and ketones. Some of them are reported for the first time in the genus.

  6. Tungsten biochemistry of Pyrococcus furiosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevers, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    Tungsten is the heaviest element that exhibits biological activity (atomic number 74), when it is present in an enzyme. It is taken up by cells in the form of tungstate, and it is subsequently processed into an organic cofactor referred to as tungstopterin, which is found as active center in several

  7. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2014-01-01

    . Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept...

  8. The position of the genus Thomandersia Bail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremekamp, C.E.B.

    1942-01-01

    Among the most aberrant types of pollen grains found in plants which have been referred to the family Acanthaceae, are those of the genera Meyenia N. ab E. and Thomandersia Baill. Although the pollen grains were described by LINDAU under different names, those of the first genus as cogwheel-shaped

  9. The genus Alocasia (Araceae) in Australasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hay, A.; Wise, Rosemary

    1991-01-01

    The genus Alocasia (Araceae) is revised for Australasia. Thirteen species are recognised and keyed; eleven are endemic to and one is thought to be introduced to and escaped in Papuasia; A. brisbanensis (F.M. Bailey) Domin is endemic to Australia, and is redescribed; five are new to science. The

  10. Paramyristica, a new genus of Myristicaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, de, J.G.S.

    1994-01-01

    The new genus Paramyristica from New Guinea, based on Myristica sepicana Foreman, is described and discussed, and included in keys to the Asian genera of Myristicaceae. Detailed drawings of the androecia of Paramyristica sepicana and of Myristica hooglandii and M. hollrungii are presented for comparison.

  11. Endocomia, a new genus of Myristicaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1984-01-01

    The new genus Endocomia, ranging from South China to New Guinea, is described, keyed out and discussed among the other four Southeast Asiatic genera of Myristicaceae, viz. Knema, Myristica, Gymnacranthera, and Horsfieldia. Endocomia was formerly included in Horsfieldia under the name H. macrocoma, a

  12. Revision of the genus Gymnacranthera (Myristicaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.T.A.

    1986-01-01

    In Gymnacranthera, a small genus of Southeast Asian Myristicaceae, at present 7 species have been accepted, one (G. forbesii) with 2 and another ( G. farquhariana) with 4 varieties. One species, G. canarica, occurs in S. India, the remainder of the species is distributed in the area from S. Thailand

  13. Paramyristica, a new genus of Myristicaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1994-01-01

    The new genus Paramyristica from New Guinea, based on Myristica sepicana Foreman, is described and discussed, and included in keys to the Asian genera of Myristicaceae. Detailed drawings of the androecia of Paramyristica sepicana and of Myristica hooglandii and M. hollrungii are presented for compar

  14. The composite genus Blumea, a taxonomic revision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randeria, Aban J.

    1960-01-01

    My first acquaintance with the genus Blumea was made in December of 1949. On one of my taxonomy field trips then, and many more subsequently, I encountered these weedy, yellow-flowered composites. Perhaps what most helped to attract my attention was their relative abundance and their characteristic

  15. The genus Malassezia and human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inamadar A

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Sabouraud's Pityrosporum is now recognized as Malassezia. With taxonomic revision of the genus, newer species have been included. The role of this member of the normal human skin flora in different cutaneous and systemic disorders is becoming clearer. The immunological responses it induces in the human body are conflicting and their relevance to clinical features is yet to be explored.

  16. A conspectus of the genus Bhesa (Celastraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1958-01-01

    In his Numerical List Wallich inserted four specific epithets in the genus Kurrimia, viz 4334 K. pulcherrima Wall., 4335 K. calophylla Wall., 4336 K. paniculata Wall., and later 7200 K.? macrophylla Wall. The latter one was provided with a question mark; it was a new combination for Itea macrophylla

  17. The genus Lophopyxis Hook. f. (Lophopyxidaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleumer, H.

    1968-01-01

    When revising the Icacinaceae from SE. Asia and Malesia recently, my interest was drawn again to the genus Lophopyxis Hook. f. Designated by its author (1887) tentatively as a member of the Euphorbiaceae, it was rejected from this family by Pax as early as 1890. Engler (1893) transferred Lophopyxis

  18. The genus Lolium; taxonomy and genetic resources.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Several aspects of variation within the genus Lolium, and more in detail within Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) have been highlighted. As the results are extensively discussed in each chapter, the general discussion is focused on two aspects of the research.SpeciationIt is clear that the

  19. The genus Echinostelium (Myxomycetes in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gražina Adamonytė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of the genus – Echinostelium apitectum, E. arboreum, E. brooksii, E. colliculosum, E. corynophorum, E. aff. elachiston, E. minutum – are reported from Lithuania. Their morphological peculiarities are discussed; a key to the species, pictures and distribution maps are given.

  20. The genus Alfonsiella Waterston (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebes, J.T.

    1972-01-01

    This paper is a tribute to Prof. Dr. L. D. Brongersma, in remembrance of the years I served as his deputy in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie. The genus Alfonsiella was described by Waterston (1920) for A. fimbriata, a series of females of which were collected at Dar es Salaam, Tanganyika. I

  1. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocladiopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Using a global set of isolates and a phylogenetic approach employing DNA sequence data from five genes (ß-tubulin, histone H3, internal transcribed spacer region, 28S large subunit region and translation elongation factor 1-a), the taxonomic status of the genus Gliocladiopsis (Glionectria)

  2. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocladiopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Using a global set of isolates and a phylogenetic approach employing DNA sequence data from five genes (β-tubulin, histone H3, internal transcribed spacer region, 28S large subunit region and translation elongation factor 1-α), the taxonomic status of the genus Gliocladiopsis (Glionectria)

  3. A revision of the genus Podococcus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, van J.L.C.H.; Sunderland, T.

    2008-01-01

    A taxonomic revision of the palm genus Podococcus (Arecaceae) is presented. Two species are recognised: P. barteri, a species relatively widespread in a coastal band from Nigeria to the D. R. Congo and P. acaulis, a species previously considered conspecific to P. barteri, almost exclusively confined

  4. The genus Alocasia (Araceae) in Australasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hay, A.; Wise, Rosemary

    1991-01-01

    The genus Alocasia (Araceae) is revised for Australasia. Thirteen species are recognised and keyed; eleven are endemic to and one is thought to be introduced to and escaped in Papuasia; A. brisbanensis (F.M. Bailey) Domin is endemic to Australia, and is redescribed; five are new to science. The genu

  5. Note on the Genus Microsicydium Bleeker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koumans, F.P.

    1929-01-01

    This genus was established by Dr. P. BLEEKER in 1874 1) for fishes belonging to the phalanx Sicydiini having the caracteristics: „Dentes intermaxillares stipitati apice clavati obtusi, inframaxillares serie interna parvi aequales, serie externa aciculares. Maxilla inferior cirris nullis. Squamae cap

  6. A new genus of Blacinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester P. Gibson

    1977-01-01

    A new genus, Canalicephalus, of the subfamily Blacinae is described along with 4 new species, C. orientalis from Borneo, C. novus from New Guinea, and C. bakeri and C. mindanao, both from the Philippines. Keys are included to separate these 2 genera and the 4...

  7. The genus Kochia (Chenopodiaceae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge-Lin Chu; Stewart Sanderson

    2008-01-01

    The genus Kochia and Bassia with which it has been combined, of Chenopodiaceae tribe Camphorosmeae, were at one time considered to include plants native to Eurasia, Australia, and North America, and included species of both C3 and C4 photosynthetic types. This aggregate has been reduced in size by removal of a large group of C3 Australian genera and species. Because of...

  8. Bark beetles in the genus Dendroctonus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz

    2008-01-01

    The genus Dendroctonus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), originally described by Erichson in 1836, currently includes 19 species that are widely distributed. Seventeen species occur between Arctic North America and northwestern Nicaragua, and an additional two species are in northern Europe and Asia. Dendroctonus species attack and infest conifer hosts (Pinaceae...

  9. Chemotaxonomy of the genus Nuxia (Buddlejaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of two species of Nuxia (Buddlejaceae) showed that this genus is characterised by the presence of the eight-carbon iridoid glucoside unedoside and/or its derivatives. From N. floribunda was isolated unedoside, nuxioside (6-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-unedoside) and 2''-acetyl-3...

  10. Genome Evolution in the Genus Sorghum (Poaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Price, H. James; Dillon, Sally L.; HODNETT, GEORGE; Rooney, William L.; Ross, Larry; Johnston, J Spencer

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The roles of variation in DNA content in plant evolution and adaptation remain a major biological enigma. Chromosome number and 2C DNA content were determined for 21 of the 25 species of the genus Sorghum and analysed from a phylogenetic perspective.

  11. Interspecific hybridization in the genus Tulipa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creij, van M.G.M.

    1997-01-01

    The genus Tulipa L. comprises about 55 species. The tulip species are classified in two subgenera, Tulipa and Eriostemones, which are subdivided into five and three sections respectively. Commercial tulips are mainly cultivars of T. gesneriana L . and of Darwin hybrids, the latter of which are obtai

  12. Sarawakodendron, a new genus of Celastraceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1967-01-01

    During my trip to Malaysia in 1966, sponsored by the Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research (WOTRO), for doing field work on Anacardiaceae, a new tree genus was found in Sarawak belonging to the family Celastraceae which I have revised for the Flora Malesiana series I, volum

  13. The genus Lolium : taxonomy and genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Several aspects of variation within the genus Lolium, and more in detail within Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) have been highlighted. As the results are extensively discussed in each chapter, the general discussion is focused on two aspects of

  14. Farrowia, a new genus in the Chaetomiaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawksworth, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    The new genus Farrowia D. Hawksw. is described to accommodate Chaetomium longicolleum Krzem. & Badura and C. longirostre (Farrow) L. Ames, species formerly incorrectly referred to Chaetoceratostoma Turc. & Maffei. These two species are united under the name F. longicollea (Krzem. & Badura) D. Hawksw

  15. Taxonomic novelties in the genus Campylospermum (Ochnaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bissiengou, P.; Chatrou, L.W.; Wieringa, J.J.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Four new species, one with two subspecies, of the genus Campylospermum are described, all endemic or sub-endemic to Gabon. These are C. auriculatum, C. gabonensis, C. gabonensis subsp. australis, C. glaucifolium and C. occidentalis. Distribution maps and scans of the holotypes are provided as well a

  16. Nomenclatural changes in the genus Bremeria (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, A.P.; Razafimandimbison, S.G.; Andriambololonera, S.

    2011-01-01

    Five new combinations are made in the genus Bremeria: B. arachnocarpa, B. eriantha, B. scabrella, B. landia var. holosericea, and B. landia var. stadmanii. Bremeria gerrardii is conspecific with Gaertnera phanerophlebia, and thus excluded from Bremeria. Lectotypes are designated for Mussaenda erecti

  17. Fayochytriomyces, a new genus within Chytridiales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William J; Letcher, Peter M; Longcore, Joyce E; Powell, Martha J

    2015-01-01

    Chytriomyces is a complex genus in Chytridiales. The morphological concept of the genus expanded as new taxa were added, and studies of zoospore ultrastructure and molecular phylogenies have revealed the genus to be polyphyletic. One problematic taxon is C. spinosus Fay, a distinctive species characterized by whorls of spines on the zoosporangium and a large accumulation of vesicle material beneath the operculum. With light-, scanning-electron and transmission-electron microscopy, we examined a culture (WJD186) isolated from a muck sample collected from a temporary forest pond. We also analyzed the D1-D2 variable domains of the nuc 28S rDNA (28S) sequences to confirm the phylogenetic placement of the species relative to the type of Chytriomyces, C. hyalinus Karling. The morphology of culture WJD186 is consistent with features Fay described for C. spinosus, and the zoospore ultrastructure is consistent with the Group I-type zoospore characters of Chytriomycetaceae (Chytridiales). In our molecular phylogeny C. spinosus does not group with the type of Chytriomyces. Consequently, we erect a new genus in Chytriomycetaceae and present the new combination Fayochytriomyces spinosus. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  18. NSR superstring measures in genus 5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunin-Barkovskiy, P.; Sleptsov, A.; Stern, A.

    2013-01-01

    Currently there are two proposed ansätze for NSR superstring measures: the Grushevsky ansatz and the OPSMY ansatz, which for genera g⩽4g⩽4 are known to coincide. However, neither the Grushevsky nor the OPSMY ansatz leads to a vanishing two-point function in genus four, which can be constructed from

  19. The Mesozoic megafossil genus Linguifolium Arber 1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattemore Gary A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant megafossil genus Linguifolium Arber 1917 is chiefly known from the Middle and Upper Triassic of Gondwana. The range of Linguifolium extended beyond Gondwana by the Late Triassic, persisting there through the earliest Jurassic (Hettangian. The parent plants probably grew in a well-watered, canopied environment.

  20. The position of the genus Thomandersia Bail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremekamp, C.E.B.

    1942-01-01

    Among the most aberrant types of pollen grains found in plants which have been referred to the family Acanthaceae, are those of the genera Meyenia N. ab E. and Thomandersia Baill. Although the pollen grains were described by LINDAU under different names, those of the first genus as cogwheel-shaped a

  1. An account of the fern genus Belvisia Mirbel (Polypodiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovenkamp, P.H.; Franken, N.A.P.

    1993-01-01

    The genus Belvisia is revised. Two species are transferred from Lemmaphyllum to Belvisia, and two species are reduced to varieties. The genus now includes eight species, reaching from tropical Africa to China, Polynesia, and Australia.

  2. A preliminary survey of the genus Buchwaldoboletus (Boletales: Boletaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatriz Ortiz-Santana; Ernst E. Both

    2011-01-01

    Buchwaldoboletus is a small genus of about a dozen species with a world-wide distribution. The boletes of this genus are non-mycorrhizal, saprophytic and lignicolous. A preliminary survey is provided and seven new combinations are proposed.

  3. A New Genus of Macropsinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) From Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liyuan; Dietrich, C H; Zhang, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    Paragalboa acuta GEN & SP N: is described and illustrated from Madagascar. The new genus shows morphological affinities to the Macropsini genus Galboa Distant recorded from Seychelles. A checklist of all known genera of Macropsinae is provided.

  4. Genus Phyllanthus for chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J; Lin, Haili; McIntosh, H

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of genus Phyllanthus for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection we performed a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Randomized trials comparing genus Phyllanthus vs. placebo, no intervention, general nonspecific treatment, other herbal medicine...

  5. Exponentially many maximum genus embeddings and genus embeddings for complete graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    There are many results on the maximum genus, among which most are written for the existence of values of such embeddings, and few attention has been paid to the estimation of such embeddings and their applications. In this paper we study the number of maximum genus embeddings for a graph and find an exponential lower bound for such numbers. Our results show that in gen-eral case, a simple connected graph has exponentially many distinct maximum genus embeddings. In particular, a connected cubic graph G of order n always has at least 2~1/2m+n+ α2 distinct maximum genus embeddings, where α and m denote, respectively, the number of inner vertices and odd compo-nents of an optimal tree T . What surprise us most is that such two extremal embeddings (i.e., the maximum genus embeddings and the genus embeddings) are sometimes closely related with each other. In fact, as applications, we show that for a suffcient large natural number n, there are at least C2 n4 dmeapneyn dgienngu os ne mthbee vdadliuneg soffonrocf ormespidleutee 1g2r.a pThh eKsen rwesiuthlt sn i m≡p r4o,v 7e, 1th0e ( mbooudn1d2)s, owbthaeirnee dC b iys Ka ocroznhsikta anncde Voss and the methods used here are much simpler and straight.

  6. Taxonomy of the genus Passerina (Thymelaeaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    C. L. Bredenkamp; A. E. van Wyk

    2003-01-01

    Passerina L. is mainly a southern African genus, comprising 20 species and four subspecies. A few species occur along the Great Escarpment, two extend into Zimbabwe and Mozambique, but most are concentrated in the Cape Floristic Region. Palynological. macromorphological and anatomical evidence was used in the delimitation of the genus and its infrageneric taxa. A cladistic study supports Passerina as a monophyletic genus. A genus treatment, key to species and a full species treatment are give...

  7. Discovering Karima (Euphorbiaceae), a New Crotonoid Genus from West Tropical Africa Long Hidden within Croton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Martin; Challen, Gill; Lebbie, Aiah; Banks, Hannah; Barberá, Patricia; Riina, Ricarda

    2016-01-01

    Croton scarciesii (Euphorbiaceae-Crotonoideae), a rheophytic shrub from West Africa, is shown to have been misplaced in Croton for 120 years, having none of the diagnostic characters of that genus, but rather a set of characters present in no known genus of the family. Pollen analysis shows that the new genus Karima belongs to the inaperturate crotonoid group. Analysis of a concatenated molecular dataset combining trnL-F and rbcL sequences positioned Karima as sister to Neoholstia from south eastern tropical Africa in a well-supported clade comprised of genera of subtribes Grosserineae and Neoboutonieae of the inaperturate crotonoid genera. Several morphological characters support the relationship of Karima with Neoholstia, yet separation is merited by numerous characters usually associated with generic rank in Euphorbiaceae. Quantitative ecological data and a conservation assessment supplement illustrations and descriptions of the taxon.

  8. Discovering Karima (Euphorbiaceae), a New Crotonoid Genus from West Tropical Africa Long Hidden within Croton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Martin; Challen, Gill; Lebbie, Aiah; Banks, Hannah; Barberá, Patricia; Riina, Ricarda

    2016-01-01

    Croton scarciesii (Euphorbiaceae-Crotonoideae), a rheophytic shrub from West Africa, is shown to have been misplaced in Croton for 120 years, having none of the diagnostic characters of that genus, but rather a set of characters present in no known genus of the family. Pollen analysis shows that the new genus Karima belongs to the inaperturate crotonoid group. Analysis of a concatenated molecular dataset combining trnL-F and rbcL sequences positioned Karima as sister to Neoholstia from south eastern tropical Africa in a well-supported clade comprised of genera of subtribes Grosserineae and Neoboutonieae of the inaperturate crotonoid genera. Several morphological characters support the relationship of Karima with Neoholstia, yet separation is merited by numerous characters usually associated with generic rank in Euphorbiaceae. Quantitative ecological data and a conservation assessment supplement illustrations and descriptions of the taxon. PMID:27049519

  9. Discovering Karima (Euphorbiaceae, a New Crotonoid Genus from West Tropical Africa Long Hidden within Croton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Cheek

    Full Text Available Croton scarciesii (Euphorbiaceae-Crotonoideae, a rheophytic shrub from West Africa, is shown to have been misplaced in Croton for 120 years, having none of the diagnostic characters of that genus, but rather a set of characters present in no known genus of the family. Pollen analysis shows that the new genus Karima belongs to the inaperturate crotonoid group. Analysis of a concatenated molecular dataset combining trnL-F and rbcL sequences positioned Karima as sister to Neoholstia from south eastern tropical Africa in a well-supported clade comprised of genera of subtribes Grosserineae and Neoboutonieae of the inaperturate crotonoid genera. Several morphological characters support the relationship of Karima with Neoholstia, yet separation is merited by numerous characters usually associated with generic rank in Euphorbiaceae. Quantitative ecological data and a conservation assessment supplement illustrations and descriptions of the taxon.

  10. Diversification of the Genus Anopheles and a Neotropical Clade from the Late Cretaceous.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas A Freitas

    Full Text Available The Anopheles genus is a member of the Culicidae family and consists of approximately 460 recognized species. The genus is composed of 7 subgenera with diverse geographical distributions. Despite its huge medical importance, a consensus has not been reached on the phylogenetic relationships among Anopheles subgenera. We assembled a comprehensive dataset comprising the COI, COII and 5.8S rRNA genes and used maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference to estimate the phylogeny and divergence times of six out of the seven Anopheles subgenera. Our analysis reveals a monophyletic group composed of the three exclusively Neotropical subgenera, Stethomyia, Kerteszia and Nyssorhynchus, which began to diversify in the Late Cretaceous, at approximately 90 Ma. The inferred age of the last common ancestor of the Anopheles genus was ca. 110 Ma. The monophyly of all Anopheles subgenera was supported, although we failed to recover a significant level of statistical support for the monophyly of the Anopheles genus. The ages of the last common ancestors of the Neotropical clade and the Anopheles and Cellia subgenera were inferred to be at the Late Cretaceous (ca. 90 Ma. Our analysis failed to statistically support the monophyly of the Anopheles genus because of an unresolved polytomy between Bironella and A. squamifemur.

  11. Notes on the genus Digitaria, with descriptions of new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1934-01-01

    Some years ago I had the opportunity to study more extensively a very interesting group of grasses, belonging to what is now accepted as a distinct genus, the genus Digitaria, formerly belonging as a subgenus to the genus Panicum. As to living plants of this group I was familiar with two european sp

  12. Topological classification and enumeration of RNA structures by genus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Penner, Robert; Reidys, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    To an RNA pseudoknot structure is naturally associated a topological surface, which has its associated genus, and structures can thus be classified by the genus. Based on earlier work of Harer-Zagier, we compute the generating function for the number of those structures of fixed genus and minimum...

  13. Modular functors are determined by their genus zero data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Ueno, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    We prove in this paper that the genus zero data of a modular functor determines the modular functor. We do this by establishing that the S-matrix in genus one with one point labeled arbitrarily can be expressed in terms of the genus zero information and we give an explicit formula. We do not assu...

  14. The strong symmetric genus of the finite Coxeter groups

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The strong symmetric genus of a finite group G is the smallest genus of a closed orientable topological surface on which G acts faithfully as a group of orientation preserving automorphisms. In this paper we complete the calculation of the strong symmetric genus for each finite Coxeter group excluding the group E8.

  15. A taxonomic revision of the genus Ixonanthes (Linaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, R.

    1980-01-01

    In this revision 3 species are recognized for the Southeast Asian, mainly Malesian, genus Ixonanthes Jack (Linaceae). No new species are described, while 29 names have been placed into synonymy. It is proposed to unite the African genus Phyllocosmus Klotzsch with the American genus Ochthocosmus

  16. Redefinition of the genus Triophtydeus Thor, 1932 (Acari: Actinedida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    André, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    The genus Triophtydeus Thor, 1932 is redefined from the study of the type-species, T. triophthalmus (Oudemans, 1929). The genus Metatriophtydeus André, 1980 is a junior synonym of Triophtydeus. Species belonging or likely to belong to the genus Triophtydeus are listed and generic and specific

  17. Remarks on the Lower Bounds for the Average Genus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-chao Chen

    2011-01-01

    Let G be a graph of maximum degree at most four. By using the overlap matrix method which is introduced by B. Mohar, we show that the average genus of G is not less than 1/3 of its maximum genus, and the bound is best possible. Also, a new lower bound of average genus in terms of girth is derived.

  18. Gene diversity and genetic variation in lung flukes (genus Paragonimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David; Nawa, Yukifumi; Mitreva, Makedonka; Doanh, Pham Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    Paragonimiasis caused by lung flukes (genus Paragonimus) is a neglected disease occurring in Asia, Africa and the Americas. The genus is species-rich, ancient and widespread. Genetic diversity is likely to be considerable, but investigation of this remains confined to a few populations of a few species. In recent years, studies of genetic diversity have moved from isoenzyme analysis to molecular phylogenetic analysis based on selected DNA sequences. The former offered better resolution of questions relating to allelic diversity and gene flow, whereas the latter is more suitable for questions relating to molecular taxonomy and phylogeny. A picture is emerging of a highly diverse taxon of parasites, with the greatest diversity found in eastern and southern Asia where ongoing speciation might be indicated by the presence of several species complexes. Diversity of lung flukes in Africa and the Americas is very poorly sampled. Functional molecules that might be of value for immunodiagnosis, or as targets for medical intervention, are of great interest. Characterisation of these from Paragonimus species has been ongoing for a number of years. However, the imminent release of genomic and transcriptomic data for several species of Paragonimus will dramatically increase the rate of discovery of such molecules, and illuminate their diversity within and between species.

  19. The type-species of Psilochlorops Duda (Diptera, Chloropidae and its position in the phylogeny of the genus, with the description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Riccardi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The type-species of Psilochlorops Duda (Diptera, Chloropidae and its position in the phylogeny of the genus, with the description of a new species. The genus Psilochlorops is known only for the Neotropical Region and had six described species to date. Psilochlorops niger sp. nov. is herein described and the male genitalia of P. clavitibia, the type-species of the genus, is described in detail. A new cladistic analysis of Psilochlorops is presented, including all known species of the genus.

  20. Genus Tinospora: Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Sensen; She, Gaimei; Han, Dan; Wang, Weihua; Liu, Zhao; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The genus Tinospora includes 34 species, in which several herbs were used as traditional medicines by indigenous groups throughout the tropical and subtropical parts of Asia, Africa, and Australia. The extensive literature survey revealed Tinospora species to be a group of important medicinal plants used for the ethnomedical treatment of colds, headaches, pharyngitis, fever, diarrhea, oral ulcer, diabetes, digestive disorder, and rheumatoid arthritis. Indian ethnopharmacological data points to the therapeutic potential of the T. cordifolia for the treatment of diabetic conditions. While Tinospora species are confusing in individual ingredients and their mechanisms of action, the ethnopharmacological history of those plants indicated that they exhibit antidiabetic, antioxidation, antitumor, anti-inflammation, antimicrobial, antiosteoporosis, and immunostimulation activities. While the clinical applications in modern medicine are lacking convincing evidence and support, this review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicities of the genus Tinospora to reveal its therapeutic potentials and gaps, offering opportunities for future researches.

  1. Phytochemistry of the genus Skimmia (Rutaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena; Genovese, Salvatore; Granica, Sebastian; Vitalini, Sara; Zidorn, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The genus Skimmia is a rich source of interesting secondary metabolites, including 20 alkaloids derived from anthranilic acid, 45 coumarins, 21 limonoids, four cholestane derivatives, six pentacyclic triterpenes, six flavonoids, and two unusual fatty acid derivatives. Skimmia is employed in folk medicine e.g. against fever, inflammations, and rheumatism. Skimmia extracts, Skimmia essential oils and pure compounds isolated from Skimmia extracts have been experimentally shown to have various bioactivities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and insecticidal. In this review we discuss the exact structures of compounds isolated from members of the genus Skimmia, bioactivities of Skimmia extracts and pure compounds derived from them, and systematic implications of the patterns of occurrence of these compounds. Moreover, research gaps and interesting avenues for future research are discussed briefly.

  2. Gene order phylogeny of the genus Prochlorococcus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiwei Luo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Using gene order as a phylogenetic character has the potential to resolve previously unresolved species relationships. This character was used to resolve the evolutionary history within the genus Prochlorococcus, a group of marine cyanobacteria. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Orthologous gene sets and their genomic positions were identified from 12 species of Prochlorococcus and 1 outgroup species of Synechococcus. From this data, inversion and breakpoint distance-based phylogenetic trees were computed by GRAPPA and FastME. Statistical support of the resulting topology was obtained by application of a 50% jackknife resampling technique. The result was consistent and congruent with nucleotide sequence-based and gene-content based trees. Also, a previously unresolved clade was resolved, that of MIT9211 and SS120. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to use gene order data to resolve a bacterial phylogeny at the genus level. It suggests that the technique is useful in resolving the Tree of Life.

  3. Monotone Hurwitz numbers in genus zero

    CERN Document Server

    Goulden, I P; Novak, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Hurwitz numbers count branched covers of the Riemann sphere with specified ramification data, or equivalently, transitive permutation factorizations in the symmetric group with specified cycle types. Monotone Hurwitz numbers count a restricted subset of the branched covers counted by the Hurwitz numbers, and have arisen in recent work on the the asymptotic expansion of the Harish-Chandra-Itzykson-Zuber integral. In this paper we begin a detailed study of monotone Hurwitz numbers. We prove two results that are reminiscent of those for classical Hurwitz numbers. The first is the monotone join-cut equation, a partial differential equation with initial conditions that characterizes the generating function for monotone Hurwitz numbers in arbitrary genus. The second is our main result, in which we give an explicit formula for monotone Hurwitz numbers in genus zero.

  4. Operators and higher genus mirror curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codesido, Santiago; Gu, Jie; Mariño, Marcos

    2017-02-01

    We perform further tests of the correspondence between spectral theory and topological strings, focusing on mirror curves of genus greater than one with nontrivial mass parameters. In particular, we analyze the geometry relevant to the SU(3) relativistic Toda lattice, and the resolved C{^3}/Z_6 orbifold. Furthermore, we give evidence that the correspondence holds for arbitrary values of the mass parameters, where the quantization problem leads to resonant states. We also explore the relation between this correspondence and cluster integrable systems.

  5. Operators and higher genus mirror curves

    CERN Document Server

    Codesido, Santiago; Marino, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    We perform further tests of the correspondence between spectral theory and topological strings, focusing on mirror curves of genus greater than one with nontrivial mass parameters. In particular, we analyze the geometry relevant to the SU(3) relativistic Toda lattice, and the resolved C^3/Z_6 orbifold. Furthermore, we give evidence that the correspondence holds for arbitrary values of the mass parameters, where the quantization problem leads to resonant states. We also explore the relation between this correspondence and cluster integrable systems.

  6. Genus Schistochila Dumort. (Schistochilaceae, Marchantiophyta in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwisa Juengprayoon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A review of the genus Schistochila Dumort. in Thailand is presented, based on the study of fresh and herbarium specimens. Five species are recognized, namely S. aligera (Nees & Blume J.B. Jack & Steph., S. blumei (Nees Trevis., S. nuda Horik., S. sciurea (Nees Schiffn., and S. yakushimensis Ohnishi & Deguchi. In addition, a key to species, descriptions and line drawings are provided, and notes on the ecology and geographical distribution of the species.

  7. Genomic characterization of the Yersinia genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background New DNA sequencing technologies have enabled detailed comparative genomic analyses of entire genera of bacterial pathogens. Prior to this study, three species of the enterobacterial genus Yersinia that cause invasive human diseases (Yersinia pestis, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and Yersinia enterocolitica) had been sequenced. However, there were no genomic data on the Yersinia species with more limited virulence potential, frequently found in soil and water environments. Results We used high-throughput sequencing-by-synthesis instruments to obtain 25- to 42-fold average redundancy, whole-genome shotgun data from the type strains of eight species: Y. aldovae, Y. bercovieri, Y. frederiksenii, Y. kristensenii, Y. intermedia, Y. mollaretii, Y. rohdei, and Y. ruckeri. The deepest branching species in the genus, Y. ruckeri, causative agent of red mouth disease in fish, has the smallest genome (3.7 Mb), although it shares the same core set of approximately 2,500 genes as the other members of the species, whose genomes range in size from 4.3 to 4.8 Mb. Yersinia genomes had a similar global partition of protein functions, as measured by the distribution of Cluster of Orthologous Groups families. Genome to genome variation in islands with genes encoding functions such as ureases, hydrogeneases and B-12 cofactor metabolite reactions may reflect adaptations to colonizing specific host habitats. Conclusions Rapid high-quality draft sequencing was used successfully to compare pathogenic and non-pathogenic members of the Yersinia genus. This work underscores the importance of the acquisition of horizontally transferred genes in the evolution of Y. pestis and points to virulence determinants that have been gained and lost on multiple occasions in the history of the genus. PMID:20047673

  8. The minimal genus problem in rational surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Xu'an

    2006-01-01

    [1]Kronheimer P B,Mrowka T S.The genus of embedding surfaces in the projective plane.Math Res Lett,1994,1:797-808[2]Lawson T.The minimal genus problem.Expo Math,1997,15:385-431[3]Li B H.Representing nonnegative homology classes of CP2#n-CP2 by minimal genus smooth embedding.Trans Amer Soc,1999,352(9):4155-4169[4]Ruberman D.The minimal genus of an embedding surface of non-negative square in a rational surface.Turkish J Math,1996,20:129-133[5]Wall C T C.On the orthogonal groups of unimodular quadratic forms Ⅱ.Crelle Jour,1963,213:122-136[6]Gao H.Representing homology classes of almost definite 4-manifolds.Topology Appl,1993,52:109-120[7]Kikuchi K.Positive 2-spheres in 4-manifolds of signature (1,n).Pacific Jour Math,1993,160:245-258[8]Li B H,Li T J.Smooth minimal genera for small negative classes in CP2#n-CP2 with n ≤ 9.Topology Appl,2003,132(1):1-15[9]Friedman R,Morgan J.On the diffeomorphism types of certain algebraic surfaces.Journal of Differential Geometry,1988,27(3):371-398[10]Kac V G.Infinite-Dimensional Lie Algebras.3rd ed.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,1990[11]Li T J,Liu A.Symplectic structure on ruled surfaces and generalized adjunction formula.Math Res Lett,1995,2:453-471

  9. Sexual Communication in the Drosophila Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Gwénaëlle Bontonou; Claude Wicker-Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In insects, sexual behavior depends on chemical and non-chemical cues that might play an important role in sexual isolation. In this review, we present current knowledge about sexual behavior in the Drosophila genus. We describe courtship and signals involved in sexual communication, with a special focus on sex pheromones. We examine the role of cuticular hydrocarbons as sex pheromones, their implication in sexual isolation, and their evolution. Finally, we discuss the roles of male cuticular...

  10. Concordance of Bing Doubles and Boundary Genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Charles; van Cott, Cornelia A.

    2011-11-01

    Cha and Kim proved that if a knot K is not algebraically slice, then no iterated Bing double of K is concordant to the unlink. We prove that if K has nontrivial signature $\\sigma$, then the n-iterated Bing double of K is not concordant to any boundary link with boundary surfaces of genus less than $2^{n-1}\\sigma$. The same result holds with $\\sigma$ replaced by $2\\tau$, twice the Ozsvath-Szabo knot concordance invariant.

  11. Phytochemical, ethnomedicinal uses and pharmacological profile of genus Pistacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Abdur; Patel, Seema; Uddin, Ghias; Siddiqui, Bina S; Ahmad, Bashir; Muhammad, Naveed; Mabkhot, Yahia N; Hadda, Taibi Ben

    2017-02-01

    Pistacia genus belong to family Anacardiaceae and it is versatile in that its member species have food (P. vera), medicinal (P. lentiscus) and ornamental (P. chinensis) values. Various species of this genus have folkloric uses with credible mention in diverse pharmacopeia. As a trove of phenolic compounds, terpenoids, monoterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, fatty acids, and sterols, this genus has garnered pharmaceutical attention in recent times. With adequate clinical studies, this genus might be exploited for therapy of a multitude of inflammatory diseases, as promised by preliminary studies. In this regard, the ethnomedicinal, phytochemistry, biological potencies, risks, and scopes of Pistacia genus have been reviewed here.

  12. The genus Capsicum (Solanaceae in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Eshbaugh

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum (Solanaceae includes approximately 20 wild species and 4-5 domesticated taxa commonly referred to as ‘chilies’ or ‘peppers’. The pre-Colombian distribution of the genus was New World. The evolutionary history of the genus is now envisaged as including three distinct lines leading to the domesticated taxa. The route of Capsicum to the Old World is thought to have followed three different courses. First, explorers introduced it to Europe with secondary introduction into Africa via further exploratory expeditions; second, botanical gardens played a major role in introduction; and third, introduction followed the slave trade routes. Today, pepper production in Africa is of two types, vegetable and spice. Statistical profiles on production are difficult to interpret, but the data available indicate that Nigeria, Egypt, Tunisia and Ghana are the leading producers. Production is mainly a local phenomenon and large acreage is seldom devoted to the growing of peppers. The primary peppers in Africa are C.  annuum and C.  frutescens.

  13. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by bacterial genus Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Razia Alam; Rafique, Mazhar; Rehman, Abdul; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2016-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus pesticide commonly used in agriculture. It is noxious to a variety of organisms that include living soil biota along with beneficial arthropods, fish, birds, humans, animals, and plants. Exposure to chlorpyrifos may cause detrimental effects as delayed seedling emergence, fruit deformities, and abnormal cell division. Contamination of chlorpyrifos has been found about 24 km from the site of its application. There are many physico-chemical and biological approaches to remove organophosphorus pesticides from the ecosystem, among them most promising is biodegradation. The 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) as primary products are made when chlorpyrifos is degraded by soil microorganisms which further break into nontoxic metabolites as CO(2), H(2)O, and NH(3). Pseudomonas is a diversified genus possessing a series of catabolic pathways and enzymes involved in pesticide degradation. Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 is reported to be more efficient in chlorpyrifos degradation by a rate of 90% in 24 h among Pseudomonas genus. The current review analyzed the comparative potential of bacterial species in Pseudomonas genus for degradation of chlorpyrifos thus, expressing an ecofriendly approach for the treatment of environmental contaminants like pesticides.

  14. The genus Crataegus: chemical and pharmacological perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional drugs have become a subject of world importance, with both medicinal and economical implications. A regular and widespread use of herbs throughout the world has increased serious concerns over their quality, safety and efficacy. Thus, a proper scientific evidence or assessment has become the criteria for acceptance of traditional health claims. Plants of the genus Crataegus, Rosaceae, are widely distributed and have long been used in folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments such as heart (cardiovascular disorders, central nervous system, immune system, eyes, reproductive system, liver, kidney etc. It also exhibits wide range of cytotoxic, gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV and antimicrobial activities. Phytochemicals like oligomeric procyanidins, flavonoids, triterpenes, polysaccharides, catecholamines have been identified in the genus and many of these have been evaluated for biological activities. This review presents comprehensive information on the chemistry and pharmacology of the genus together with the traditional uses of many of its plants. In addition, this review discusses the clinical trials and regulatory status of various Crataegus plants along with the scope for future research in this aspect.

  15. Ethnopharmacology of the plants of genus Ajuga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israili, Zafar H; Lyoussi, Badiâa

    2009-10-01

    The plants of genus Ajuga are evergreen, clump-forming rhizomatous perennial or annual herbaceous flowering species, with Ajuga being one of the 266 genera of the family Lamiaceae. There are at least 301 species of the genus Ajuga with many variations. These plants, growing in Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia and North America, are used in gardens as ground cover or border for their foliage and beautiful flowers. Many of these plants have been used in traditional medicine as a remedy for fever, toothache, dysentery, malaria, high blood pressure, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, as anthelmintic, diuretic and antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antimycobacterial agents. They are also used as insect growth inhibitor s. A large number of compounds have been isolated from the Ajuga plants, including phytoecdysteroids, neo-clerodane-diterpenes and diterpenoids, triterpenes, sterols, anthocyanidin-glucosides and iridoid glycosides, withanolides, flavonoids, triglycerides and essential oils. These compounds possess a broad spectrum of biological, pharmacological and medicinal properties, such as anabolic, analgesic, antibacterial, antiestrogenic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antileukemic, antimalarial, antimycobacterial, antioxidant, antipyretic, cardiotonic, cytotoxic, hypoglycemic, and vasorelaxing activity, as well as antifeedant and insect growth-inhibitory properties. Thus, genus Ajuga has significant medicinal and economic importance.

  16. Standardized gene nomenclature for the Brassica genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Graham J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genus Brassica (Brassicaceae, Brassiceae is closely related to the model plant Arabidopsis, and includes several important crop plants. Against the background of ongoing genome sequencing, and in line with efforts to standardize and simplify description of genetic entities, we propose a standard systematic gene nomenclature system for the Brassica genus. This is based upon concatenating abbreviated categories, where these are listed in descending order of significance from left to right (i.e. genus – species – genome – gene name – locus – allele. Indicative examples are provided, and the considerations and recommendations for use are discussed, including outlining the relationship with functionally well-characterized Arabidopsis orthologues. A Brassica Gene Registry has been established under the auspices of the Multinational Brassica Genome Project that will enable management of gene names within the research community, and includes provisional allocation of standard names to genes previously described in the literature or in sequence repositories. The proposed standardization of Brassica gene nomenclature has been distributed to editors of plant and genetics journals and curators of sequence repositories, so that it can be adopted universally.

  17. Revision of genus Steindachneridion (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Garavello

    Full Text Available After several years collecting in the type-localities and studying representative samples of genus Steindachneridion Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1919 from Brazilian and foreign museums, a taxonomic revision of the Recent species of the genus is presented, including the description of a new species from the rio Iguaçu, above the great falls. Steindachneridion species are large sized fishes, reaching 1000 mm total length or more, and sharing some anatomical characters that, at least tentatively, support the monophyly of the genus. In addition to the general features found in the Pimelodidae, the species S. amblyurum (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1888, S. parahybae (Steindachner, 1877, S. doceanum (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889, S. scriptum (Miranda Ribeiro, 1918, S. punctatum (Miranda Ribeiro, 1918, and S. melanodermatum, new species, share the shape of the vomer tooth plates, six to eight branched rays in the dorsal-fin, and a low number of gill-rakers. All species, except fossil ones, are redescribed and a key for their identification is provided.

  18. Genus Ranges of 4-Regular Rigid Vertex Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Dorothy; Dolzhenko, Egor; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico; Valencia, Karin

    2015-01-01

    A rigid vertex of a graph is one that has a prescribed cyclic order of its incident edges. We study orientable genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs. The (orientable) genus range is a set of genera values over all orientable surfaces into which a graph is embedded cellularly, and the embeddings of rigid vertex graphs are required to preserve the prescribed cyclic order of incident edges at every vertex. The genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs are sets of consecutive integers, and we address two questions: which intervals of integers appear as genus ranges of such graphs, and what types of graphs realize a given genus range. For graphs with 2n vertices (n > 1), we prove that all intervals [a, b] for all a genus ranges. For graphs with 2n - 1 vertices (n ≥ 1), we prove that all intervals [a, b] for all a genus ranges. We also provide constructions of graphs that realize these ranges.

  19. Didiscus verdensis spec. nov. (Porifera: Halichondrida) from the Cape Verde Islands, with a revision and phylogenetic classification of the genus Didiscus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, F.; Soest, van R.W.M.

    1991-01-01

    A new species of the circumtropical/subtropical genus Didiscus Dendy, 1922 is described from the Cape Verde Islands. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of all known species of the genus, using morphological and microscopical (including SEM) characters, it was demonstrated that the new species is close

  20. Molecular-signature analyses support the establishment of the actinobacterial genus Sphaerimonospora (Mingma et al. 2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Paul R

    2017-08-18

    The genera Microbispora and Sphaerimonospora were examined for GyrB and RecA amino-acid signatures to determine whether molecular-signature analyses support the recent establishment of the genus Sphaerimonospora. The creation of Sphaerimonospora was based mainly upon morphological differences between Microbispora and Sphaerimonospora and the clustering of the type strains of the two genera in phylogenetic trees based on a multilocus sequence analysis. The molecular-signature analyses showed that all members of Sphaerimonospora can be distinguished from all members of Microbispora at 14 amino acid positions in the GyrB protein and at four positions in the shorter RecA protein. These amino acid differences can be used as signatures to differentiate the members of these genera from each other and thus provide support for the establishment of the genus Sphaerimonospora. This is the first demonstration of the use of molecular signatures to support the establishment of a new genus in the family Streptosporangiaceae. Following the transfer of Microbispora mesophila and Microbispora thailandensis from Microbispora to Sphaerimonospora, all species in the genus Microbispora are characterised by the insertion of a small, hydrophobic amino acid after position 208 in the GyrB protein. This insertion is absent from the GyrB protein of members of the genus Sphaerimonospora. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.