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Sample records for pyrochemical head-end treatment

  1. Pyrochemical head-end treatment for spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowersox, D.F.

    1977-01-01

    A program based upon thermodynamic values and scouting experiments at Argonne National Laboratory is proposed for development of a pyrochemical head-end treatment of spent nuclear fuels to replace the proposed chopping and leaching operation in the Purex process. The treatment consists of separation of the cladding from the oxide fuel by dissolution into liquid zinc; oxide reduction of uranium and plutonium and dissolution into a zinc--magnesium alloy; separation of alkali, alkaline earth, and rare earth fission products into a molten salt; and, finally, separation and recovery of the plutonium and uranium in the alloy. Uranium and plutonium would be separated from the fuel cladding and selected fission products in a form readily dissolvable in nitric acid. The head-end process could be developed eventually into an optimum method for recovering uranium, plutonium, and selected fission products and for minimizing wastes as compact, stable solids. Developmental expenses are not known clearly, but the potential advantages of the process are impressive

  2. Pyrochemical head-end treatment for fast reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avogadro, A.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents the R and D work performed at Ispra and Mol during the period 1965-1975 in order to find a way to overcome technical and economical difficulties arising when the conventional reprocessing is applied to fast reactor fuel elements. The work had been directed towards 3 specific topics: a) liquid-metal decladding of spent stainless steel - clad fuels (solinox process). b) oxidative pulverisation by fused salts and extraction of volatile fission products (satex process). c) Pyrochemical separation of plutonium from the bulk of the fuel

  3. Treatment of High-Level Waste Arising from Pyrochemical Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizin, A.A.; Kormilitsyn, M.V.; Osipenko, A.G.; Tomilin, S.V.; Lavrinovich, Yu.G.

    2013-01-01

    JSC “SSC RIAR” has been performing research and development activities in support of closed fuel cycle of fast reactor since the middle of 1960s. Fuel cycle involves fabrication and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) using pyrochemical methods of reprocessing in molten alkali metal chlorides. At present pyrochemical methods of SNF reprocessing in molten chlorides has reached such a level in their development that makes it possible to compare their competitiveness with classic aqueous methods. Their comparative advantage lies in high safety, compactness, high protectability as to nonproliferation of nuclear materials, and reduction of high level waste volume

  4. Treatment of the off-gas stream from the HTR reprocessing head-end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert-Wiemer, H.; Juergens, B.; Vijgen, H.

    1985-01-01

    The AKUT II-facility (nominal throughput 10 m 3 /h, STP) for the clean-up of the burner off-gas has been operated for 20 cold runs in parallel to the JUPITER reprocessing head-end. Two of these runs were continuous operation tests with a duration of 50 and 80 hours, respectively. The facility met or exceeded all design specifications. In a further test series the distillation column alone was run with pure CO 2 and two- and three-component gas mixtures to determine the flooding curves and the stage height (HETP)

  5. Pilot-scale equipment development for pyrochemical treatment of spent oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, S. D.

    1999-01-01

    Fundamental objectives regarding spent nuclear fuel treatment technologies include, first, the effective distribution of spent fuel constituents among product and stable waste forms and, second, the minimization and standardization of waste form types and volumes. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed and is presently demonstrating the electrometallurgical treatment of sodium-bonded metal fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor II, resulting in an uranium product and two stable waste forms, i.e. ceramic and metallic. Engineering efforts are underway at ANL to develop pilot-scale equipment which would precondition irradiated oxide fuel via pyrochemical processing and subsequently allow for electrometallurgical treatment of such non-metallic fuels into standard product and waste forms. This paper highlights the integration of proposed spent oxide fuel treatment with existing electrometallurgical processes. System designs and technical bases for development of pilot-scale oxide reduction equipment are also described

  6. Studies relating to construction materials to be used in different options for head end treatment in reprocessing of mixed carbide fuel of plutonium and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, S.K.; Palamalai, A.; Ravi, T.N.; Sampath, M.; Raman, V.R.; Balasubramanian, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    Mixed carbide of uranium and plutonium has been chosen as the fuel for the first core of Fast Breeder Test Reactor, installed in the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research. Reprocessing of this fuel is one of the vital steps to prove the viability of the fuel cycle. The head end treatment process introduces constraints in the reprocessing of carbide fuel when compared to the commonly used mixed oxide fuel. Three head end processes, namely direct oxidation, pyrohydrolysis and direct dissolution in nitric acid with oxidation of organic acids were considered for study for exercising the choice. The paper briefly describes the three processes. In each process probable material of construction and related problems are discussed. (author). 3 refs, 5 figs, 7 tabs

  7. Pyrochemical treatment of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant high-level waste calcine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, T.A.; DelDebbio, J.A.; Nelson, L.O.; Sharpsten, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), has reprocessed irradiated nuclear fuels for the US Department of Energy (DOE) since 1951 to recover uranium, krypton-85, and isolated fission products for interim treatment and immobilization. The acidic radioactive high-level liquid waste (HLLW) is routinely stored in stainless steel tanks and then, since 1963, calcined to form a dry granular solid. The resulting high-level waste (HLW) calcine is stored in seismically hardened stainless steel bins that are housed in underground concrete vaults. A research and development program has been established to determine the feasibility of treating ICPP HLW calcine using pyrochemical technology.This technology is described

  8. Advanced pyrochemical technologies for minimizing nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronson, M.C.; Dodson, K.E.; Riley, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to reduce the size of the current nuclear weapons complex and consequently minimize operating costs. To meet this DOE objective, the national laboratories have been asked to develop advanced technologies that take uranium and plutonium, from retired weapons and prepare it for new weapons, long-term storage, and/or final disposition. Current pyrochemical processes generate residue salts and ceramic wastes that require aqueous processing to remove and recover the actinides. However, the aqueous treatment of these residues generates an estimated 100 liters of acidic transuranic (TRU) waste per kilogram of plutonium in the residue. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing pyrochemical techniques to eliminate, minimize, or more efficiently treat these residue streams. This paper will present technologies being developed at LLNL on advanced materials for actinide containment, reactors that minimize residues, and pyrochemical processes that remove actinides from waste salts

  9. Development of Head-end Pyrochemical Reduction Process for Advanced Oxide Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, B. H.; Seo, C. S.; Hur, J. M.; Jeong, S. M.; Hong, S. S.; Choi, I. K.; Choung, W. M.; Kwon, K. C.; Lee, I. W.

    2008-12-01

    The development of an electrolytic reduction technology for spent fuels in the form of oxide is of essence to introduce LWR SFs to a pyroprocessing. In this research, the technology was investigated to scale a reactor up, the electrochemical behaviors of FPs were studied to understand the process and a reaction rate data by using U 3 O 8 was obtained with a bench scale reactor. In a scale of 20 kgHM/batch reactor, U 3 O 8 and Simfuel were successfully reduced into metals. Electrochemical characteristics of LiBr, LiI and Li 2 Se were measured in a bench scale reactor and an electrolytic reduction cell was modeled by a computational tool

  10. Development of Head-end Pyrochemical Reduction Process for Advanced Oxide Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, B. H.; Seo, C. S.; Hur, J. M.; Jeong, S. M.; Hong, S. S.; Choi, I. K.; Choung, W. M.; Kwon, K. C.; Lee, I. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    The development of an electrolytic reduction technology for spent fuels in the form of oxide is of essence to introduce LWR SFs to a pyroprocessing. In this research, the technology was investigated to scale a reactor up, the electrochemical behaviors of FPs were studied to understand the process and a reaction rate data by using U{sub 3}O{sub 8} was obtained with a bench scale reactor. In a scale of 20 kgHM/batch reactor, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and Simfuel were successfully reduced into metals. Electrochemical characteristics of LiBr, LiI and Li{sub 2}Se were measured in a bench scale reactor and an electrolytic reduction cell was modeled by a computational tool.

  11. Pyrochemical properties of actinides elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akabori, Mitsuo; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Minato, Kazuo

    2005-01-01

    The present status of research works on pyrochemical processing is introduced in view of: 1) the process concept; 2) R and D progress; 3) new experimental facilities in NUCEF. Basic laboratory studies with rare-earth elements have almost been completed and hot tests with americium have been started at the TRU-HITEC facility in NUCEF. (author)

  12. Pyrochemical reprocessing of nitride fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazono, Yoshihisa; Iwai, Takashi; Arai, Yasuo

    2004-01-01

    Electrochemical behavior of actinide nitrides in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt was investigated in order to apply pyrochemical process to nitride fuel cycle. The electrode reaction of UN and (U, Nd)N was examined by cyclic voltammetry. The observed rest potential of (U, Nd)N depended on the equilibrium of U 3+ /UN and was not affected by the addition of NdN of 8 wt.%. (author)

  13. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    A new process for recovery of plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste has been demonstrated. It is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, which eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flowsheet concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 = from high chloride-low acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with 1N HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. The plutonium is recovered, after elution, via hydroxide precipitation, while the americium is recovered via NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process are discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are now in progress for MSE residues. Flow sheets for actinide recovery from electrorefining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  14. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1985-05-01

    We demonstrated a new process for recovering plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste. The method is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, or acidity that eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flow chart concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 2- from high-chloride low-acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with lN HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. After elution, plutonium is recovered by hydroxide precipitation, and americium is recovered by NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process can be discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are in progress for MSE residues. Flow charts for actinide recovery from electro-refining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  15. Evaluation of the separation by pyrochemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report takes stock on the studies conducted by the CEA since the years 90 in the domain of the pyrochemical process, applied to the nuclear fuels reprocessing. After a presentation of the transmutation targets and fuels, the document presents the pyrochemical processes concepts and studies. In this part the author details the process developed foreign, the studies realized at the CEA, the fuel reprocessing of the molten salts reactors and the ionic liquids at ambient temperature. (A.L.B.)

  16. Pyrochemical processing of DOE spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laidler, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    A compact, efficient method for conditioning spent nuclear fuel is under development. This method, known as pyrochemical processing, or open-quotes pyroprocessing,close quotes provides a separation of fission products from the actinide elements present in spent fuel and further separates pure uranium from the transuranic elements. The process can facilitate the timely and environmentally-sound treatment of the highly diverse collection of spent fuel currently in the inventory of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The pyroprocess utilizes elevated-temperature processes to prepare spent fuel for fission product separation; that separation is accomplished by a molten salt electrorefining step that provides efficient (>99.9%) separation of transuranics. The resultant waste forms from the pyroprocess, are stable under envisioned repository environment conditions and highly leach-resistant. Treatment of any spent fuel type produces a set of common high-level waste forms, one a mineral and the other a metal alloy, that can be readily qualified for repository disposal and avoid the substantial costs that would be associated with the qualification of the numerous spent fuel types included in the DOE inventory

  17. Development of nitride fuel and pyrochemical process for transmutation of minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Yasuo; Akabori, Mitsuo; Minato, Kazuo; Uno, Masayoshi

    2010-01-01

    Nitride fuel cycle for transmutation of minor actinides has been investigated under the double-strata fuel cycle concept. Mononitride solid solutions containing minor actinides have been prepared and characterised. Thermo-physical properties, such as thermal expansion, heat capacity and thermal diffusivity, have been measured by use of minor actinide nitride and burn-up simulated nitride samples. Irradiation behaviour of nitride fuel has been examined by irradiation tests. Pyrochemical process for treatment of spent nitride fuel has been investigated mainly by electrochemical measurements and nitride formation behaviour in pyrochemical process has been studied for recycled fuel fabrication. Recent results of experimental study on nitride fuel and pyrochemical process are summarised in the paper. (authors)

  18. Design study of pyrochemical process operation by using virtual engineering models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakehi, I.; Tozawa, K.; Matsumoto, T.; Tanaka, K.

    2000-04-01

    This report describes accomplishment of simulations of Pyrochemical Process Operation by using virtual engineering models. The pyrochemical process using molten salt electrorefining would introduce new technologies for new fuels of particle oxide, particle nitride and metallic fuels. This system is a batch treatment system of reprocessing and re-fabrication, which transports products of solid form from a process to next process. As a results, this system needs automated transport system for process operations by robotics. In this study, a simulation code system has been prepared, which provides virtual engineering environment to evaluate the pyrochemical process operation of a batch treatment system using handling robots. And the simulation study has been conducted to evaluate the required system functions, which are the function of handling robots, the interactions between robot and process equipment, and the time schedule of process, in the automated transport system by robotics. As a result of simulation of the process operation, which we have designed, the automated transport system by robotics of the pyrochemical process is realistic. And the issues for the system development have been pointed out. (author)

  19. Review of major plutonium pyrochemical technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, W.S.; Navratil, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The past twenty years have seen significant growth in the development and application of pyrochemical technology for processing of plutonium. For particular feedstocks and specific applications, non-aqueous high-temperature processes offer key advantages over conventional hydrometallurgical systems. Major processes in use today include: (1) direct oxide reduction for conversion of PuO 2 to metal, (2) molten salt extraction for americium removal from plutonium, (3) molten salt electrorefining for Pu purification, and (4) hydriding to remove plutonium from host substrates. This paper reviews current major pyrochemical processes from the classical calcination-hydrofluorination-bomb reduction sequence through new techniques under development. Each process is presented and brief descriptions of production equipment are given. 47 references, 5 figures

  20. Selection of refractory materials for pyrochemical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axler, K.M.; DePoorter, G.L.; Bagaasen, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    Several pyrochemical processing operations require containment materials that exhibit minimal chemical interactions with the system, good thermal shock resistance, and reusability. One example is Direct Oxide Reduction (DOR). DOR involves the conversion of PuO 2 to metal by an oxidation/reduction reaction with Ca metal. The reaction proceeds within a molten salt flux at temperatures above 800C. A combination of thermodynamics, system thermodynamic modeling, and experimental investigations are in use to select and evaluate potential containment materials

  1. Conversion of metal plutonium to plutonium dioxide by pyrochemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panov, A.V.; Subbotin, V.G. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center, ALL-Russian Science and Research Institute of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk (Russian Federation); Mashirev, V.P. [ALL-Russian Science and Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    Report contains experimental results on metal plutonium of weapon origin samples conversion to plutonium dioxide by pyrochemical method. Circuits of processes are described. Their advantages and shortcomings are shown. Parameters of plutonium dioxide powders (phase and fraction compositions, poured density) manufactured by pyrochemical method in RFNC-VNIITF are shown as well. (authors)

  2. Pyrochemical recovery of plutonium fluoride reduction slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, D.C.; Rayburn, J.A.

    1983-07-01

    A process was developed for the pyrochemical recovery of plutonium from residues resulting from the PuF 4 reduction process. The process involves crushing the CaF 2 slag and dissolving it at 800 0 C in a CaCl 2 solvent. The plutonium, which exists either as finely divided metal or as incompletely reduced fluoride salt, is reduced to metal and/or allowed to coalesce as a massive button in the bottom of the reaction crucible. The recovery of plutonium in a 1-day cycle averaged 96%; all of the resulting residues were discardable

  3. Vacuum distillation of plutonium pyrochemical salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourges, Gilles; Faure, S.; Fiers, B.; Saintignon, S.; Lemoine, O.; Cardona-Barrau, D.; Devillard, D.

    2012-01-01

    A pyrochemical process is developed to upgrade the safety of plutonium spent salts interim storage. The feed material, consisting of alkali or alkali-earth chlorides containing various Pu and Am species, is first oxidized to convert the actinides into oxides. Then the chlorides are removed by vacuum distillation which requires temperature from 750 degrees C to 1100 degrees C. After a comprehensive R and D program, full-scale equipment was built to test the distillation of active salts. Tests with NaCl/KCl oxidized spent salt give decontamination factor of chlorides higher than 20000. The distilled salt meets the radiologic requirements to be discarded as low level waste. (authors)

  4. Reclamation of plutonium from pyrochemical processing residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Gray, J.H.; Holcomb, H.P.; Chostner, D.F.

    1987-04-01

    Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), Savannah River Plant (SRP), and Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) have jointly developed a process to recover plutonium from molten salt extraction residues. These NaCl, KCL, and MgCl 2 residues, which are generated in the pyrochemical extraction of 241 Am from aged plutonium metal, contain up to 25 wt % dissolved plutonium and up to 2 wt % americium. The overall objective was to develop a process to convert these residues to a pure plutonium metal product and discardable waste. To meet this objective a combination of pyrochemical and aqueous unit operations was used. The first step was to scrub the salt residue with a molten metal (aluminum and magnesium) to form a heterogeneous ''scrub alloy'' containing nominally 25 wt % plutonium. This unit operation, performed at RFP, effectively separated the actinides from the bulk of the chloride salts. After packaging in aluminum cans, the ''scrub alloy'' was then dissolved in a nitric acid - hydrofluoric acid - mercuric nitrate solution at SRP. Residual chloride was separated from the dissolver solution by precipitation with Hg 2 (NO 3 ) 2 followed by centrifuging. Plutonium was then separated from the aluminum, americium and magnesium using the Purex solvent extraction system. The 241 Am was diverted to the waste tank farm, but could be recovered if desired

  5. Preparation of fused chloride salts for use in pyrochemical plutonium recovery operations at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, K.W.; Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.; Williams, J.D.

    1986-07-01

    The Plutonium Metal Technology Group at Los Alamos routinely uses pyrochemical processes to produce and purify plutonium from impure sources. The basic processes (metal production, metal purification, and residue treatment) involve controlling oxidation and reduction reactions between plutonium and its compounds in molten salts. Current production methods are described, as well as traditional approaches and recent developments in the preparation of solvent salts for electrorefining, molten salt extraction, lean metal (pyroredox) purification, and direct oxide reduction

  6. Preparation of fused chloride salts for use in pyrochemical plutonium recovery operations at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fife, K.W.; Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.; Williams, J.D.

    1986-07-01

    The Plutonium Metal Technology Group at Los Alamos routinely uses pyrochemical processes to produce and purify plutonium from impure sources. The basic processes (metal production, metal purification, and residue treatment) involve controlling oxidation and reduction reactions between plutonium and its compounds in molten salts. Current production methods are described, as well as traditional approaches and recent developments in the preparation of solvent salts for electrorefining, molten salt extraction, lean metal (pyroredox) purification, and direct oxide reduction.

  7. Head-end process technology for the new reprocessing plants in France and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudray, D.; Hugelmann, D.; Cho, A.

    1991-01-01

    Major technological innovations brought to the new UP3 and UP2-800 reprocessing plants of COGEMA LA HAGUE and also to the JNFS ROKKASHO plant concern the head-end process. The continuous process designed allows for high throughputs whilst meeting stringent safety requirements. The head-end of each plant includes two lines for each operation in order to guarantee availability. This paper presents the T1 head-end facility of the UP3 plant as well as the few adaptations implemented in the ROKKASHO Reprocessing Plant to fulfill the particular design requirements in Japan

  8. Mechanical splicing of superelastic Cu–Al–Mn alloy bars with headed ends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kise, S.; Mohebbi, A.; Saiidi, M. S.; Omori, T.; Kainuma, R.; Shrestha, K. C.; Araki, Y.

    2018-06-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of mechanical splicing using a steel coupler to connect headed ends of superelastic Cu–Al–Mn alloy (Camalloy) bars and steel reinforcing bars to be used in concrete structures. Although threading of Camalloy is as easy as that of steel, mechanical splicing using threaded ends requires machining of Camalloy bars into dog-bone shape to avoid brittle fracture at the threaded ends. The machining process requires significant time and cost and wastes substantial amount of the material. This paper attempts to resolve this issue by applying mechanical splicing using steel couplers to connect headed ends of Camalloy and steel reinforcing bars. To study its feasibility, we prepare 3 specimens wherein both ends of each Camalloy bar (13 mm diameter and 300 mm length) are connected to steel reinforcing bars. The specimens are tested under monotonic, single-cycle, and full-cycle tension loading conditions. From these tests, we observed (1) excellent superelasticity with recoverable strain of around 6% and (2) large ductility with fracture strain of over 19%. It should be emphasized here that, in all the specimens, ductile fracture occurred at the locations apart from the headed ends. This is in sharp contrast with brittle fracture of headed superelastic Ni–Ti SMA bars, most of which took place around the headed ends. From the results of the microstructural analysis, we identified the following reasons for avoiding brittle fracture at the headed ends: (1) Precipitation hardening increases the strength around the boundary between the straight and headed (tapered) portions, where stress concentration takes place. (2) The strength of the straight portion does not increase significantly up to the ductile fracture if its grain orientation is close to 〈0 0 1〉.

  9. Proposed methods for treating high-level pyrochemical process wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.R.; Miller, W.E.; Steunenberg, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    This survey illustrates the large variety and number of possible techniques available for treating pyrochemical wastes; there are undoubtedly other process types and many variations. The choice of a suitable process is complicated by the uncertainty as to what will be an acceptable waste form in the future for both TRU and non-TRU wastes

  10. Application of the pyrochemical DOS, developed by the CEA, within reprocessing of CERCER transmutation fuel targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, E.; Ducasse, T.; Bertrand, M. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry and Processes Department, SMCS, LDPS, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Miguirditchian, M. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry and Processes Department, SMCS, LCPE, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2016-07-01

    Pyrochemical technology using high-temperature molten salts and molten metal media presents a potential interest for an overall separation and transmutation strategy for long-lived radionuclides. Within the frame of the two French acts on radioactive waste management, a pyrochemical research/development program was launched at the CEA Marcoule in the late 90's. The second step is the actinides back-extraction, which consists in a liquid/liquid oxidative stripping of the An from aluminium matrix into molten chloride media. The DOS process has been successfully demonstrated for treatment of oxide type fuels within the last years: the core of the process has been already assessed and the studies have shown high selectivity and a quantitative recovery of actinides. Within the framework of the SACSESS European research program, the pyrochemical activities focused on applications of the DOS process to reprocess CERCER transmutation targets. These particular types of fuels consist of a mixture of minor actinides (MA) oxides diluted in an inert (oxide MgO) matrices. The behaviour of matrices material was first investigated regarding the solubility in the fluoride salt, starting from both oxide powders or sintered pellets. The saturation of Mg in the salt could be estimated at ∼ 3 wt%. Regarding the reductive extraction, as expected no Mg was reduced by the metallic phase. The present work also highlights that Mg has low impact on the extraction efficiency of U as long as the salt is not saturated. Once the saturation occurs, the efficiency starts to decrease. So we recommend recycling the salt when Mg saturation is reached.

  11. Recent studies related to head-end fuel processing at the Hanford PUREX plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, J.L.

    1988-08-01

    This report presents the results of studies addressing several problems in the head-end processing (decladding, metathesis, and core dissolution) of N Reactor fuel elements in the Hanford PUREX plant. These studies were conducted over 2 years: FY 1986 and FY 1987. The studies were divided into three major areas: 1) differences in head-end behavior of fuels having different histories, 2) suppression of /sup 106/Ru volatilization when the ammonia scrubber solution resulting from decladding is decontaminated by distillation prior to being discharged, and 3) suitability of flocculating agents for lowering the amount of transuranic (TRU) element-containing solids that accompany the decladding solution to waste. 16 refs., 43 figs.

  12. A Study on Pyrochemical Process for Treating Fuel Debris from the Fukushima-Daiichi Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamura, Y.; Iizuka, M.; Koyama, T.; Kitawaki, S.; Nakayoshi, A.; Kofuji, H.

    2015-01-01

    After the severe accident at Fukushima-daiichi nuclear power plants, CRIEPI and JAEA started a feasibility study on the pyrochemical treatment of the corium that mainly consists of UO 2 -ZrO 2 solid solution. In this study, reduction behaviours of zirconium oxide compounds were investigated in LiCl-Li 2 O salt bath at 923 K. It was experimentally verified that uranium in the simulated corium could be reduced to the metallic form and a part of zirconium was converted to Li 2 ZrO 3 . At higher Li 2 O concentrations in LiCl, Li 2 ZrO 3 was converted to Li 6 Zr 2 O 7 and Li 8 ZrO 6 . In the subsequent electrorefining, Li 2 ZrO 3 reacts with UCl 3 dissolved in the electrolyte salt to give UO 2 precipitate. Therefore, how to remove the Li 2 ZrO 3 from the reduction product is a key point for the pyrochemical treatment of the corium. (authors)

  13. Status of the development on simulation technology for pyrochemical reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arie, Kazuo; Kawabe, Akihiro; Fujita, Reiko; Yamamura, Tsutomu; Sato, Yuzuru; Goto, Takuya; Minato, Kazuo; Tosaka, Ikuo; Amano, Osamu; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

    2005-01-01

    The computerized simulation technique of element behaviors in pyrochemical reprocessing is largely useful to raise the efficiency in development of pyrochemical reprocessing technique and moreover to operate reasonably practical plans in the near future. The simulation code SPR1.0 has currently been developed, which can simultaneously analyze the electrochemical and chemical reactions and can deal generally also with many elements of study. It was found from some trial calculations that this code can analyze an electrolytic behavior of MOX. The present study was performed by Toshiba Co., Ltd. together with Tohoku University. and Kyoto University as entrusted from Japan Atomic Power Company Co., Ltd. in cooperation with JAERI, Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc. and Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (M.H.)

  14. Pyrochemical investigations into recovering plutonium from americium extraction salt residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, K.W.; West, M.H.

    1987-05-01

    Progress into developing a pyrochemical technique for separating and recovering plutonium from spent americium extraction waste salts has concentrated on selective chemical reduction with lanthanum metal and calcium metal and on the solvent extraction of americium with calcium metal. Both techniques are effective for recovering plutonium from the waste salt, although neither appears suitable as a separation technique for recycling a plutonium stream back to mainline purification processes. 17 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Characterization of the head end cells at the West Valley Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, R.F.

    1986-11-01

    The head-end cells at the West Valley Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant are characterized in this report. These cells consist of the Process Mechanical Cell (PMC) where irradiated nuclear fuel was trimmed of excess hardware and sheared into short segments; and the General Purpose Cell (GPC) where the segments were collected and stored prior to dissolution, and leached hulls were packaged for disposal. Between 1966 and 1972, while Nuclear Fuels Services operated the plant, these cells became highly contaminated with radioactive materials. The purpose of this characterization work was to develop technical information as a basis of decontamination and decommissioning planning and engineering. It was accomplished by performing remote in-cell visual examinations, radiation surveys, and sampling. Supplementary information was obtained from available written records, out-of-cell inspections, and interviews with plant personnel

  16. Pyrochemical processing automation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, D.K.; Domning, E.E.; Seivers, R.

    1991-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a fully automated system for pyrochemical processing of special nuclear materials (SNM). The system utilizes a glove box, an automated tilt-pour furnace (TPF), an IBM developed gantry robot, and specialized automation tooling. All material handling within the glove box (i.e., furnace loading, furnace unloading, product and slag separation, and product packaging) is performed automatically. The objectives of the effort are to increase process productivity, decrease operator radiation, reduce process wastes, and demonstrate system reliability and availability. This paper provides an overview of the automated system hardware, outlines the overall operations sequence, and discusses the current status

  17. Pyrochemical and Dry Processing Methods Program. A selected bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDuffie, H.F.; Smith, D.H.; Owen, P.T.

    1979-03-01

    This selected bibliography with abstracts was compiled to provide information support to the Pyrochemical and Dry Processing Methods (PDPM) Program sponsored by DOE and administered by the Argonne National Laboratory. Objectives of the PDPM Program are to evaluate nonaqueous methods of reprocessing spent fuel as a route to the development of proliferation-resistant and diversion-resistant methods for widespread use in the nuclear industry. Emphasis was placed on the literature indexed in the ERDA--DOE Energy Data Base (EDB). The bibliography includes indexes to authors, subject descriptors, EDB subject categories, and titles

  18. Pyrochemical and Dry Processing Methods Program. A selected bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDuffie, H.F.; Smith, D.H.; Owen, P.T.

    1979-03-01

    This selected bibliography with abstracts was compiled to provide information support to the Pyrochemical and Dry Processing Methods (PDPM) Program sponsored by DOE and administered by the Argonne National Laboratory. Objectives of the PDPM Program are to evaluate nonaqueous methods of reprocessing spent fuel as a route to the development of proliferation-resistant and diversion-resistant methods for widespread use in the nuclear industry. Emphasis was placed on the literature indexed in the ERDA--DOE Energy Data Base (EDB). The bibliography includes indexes to authors, subject descriptors, EDB subject categories, and titles.

  19. Development of pyrochemical spent fuel management in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banfield, Zara; Cogan, John; Farrant, Dave; Gaubert, Emmanuel; Hopkins, Phil; Lewin, Bob [BNFL - Nexia Solutions Limited, Workington Facility, B291 Trenches, Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Nexia Solutions is undertaking a programme to investigate the role of pyrochemical techniques for spent nuclear fuel and legacy fuel management. The principal UK client is the energy unit, and the other clients are the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), for legacy fuel conditioning, and BNFL's corporate investment in advanced reactor systems which is contributing to the Generation IV programme. The emphasis of the programme is pragmatic industrialization, which we have identified as key for the establishment of pyrochemical fuel management. From our experience operating fuel manufacture, power generation and reprocessing plant we know that the areas which require particular attention for successful implementation are: - Plant Interfaces, - Operability, - Process Definition, - Underpinning Science. Plant Interfaces encompass the definition of feeds, products, effluents and wastes and whether the process can meet the constraints they impose. Operability is concerned with the sustainability of the plant processes and is linked to the use of nil-maintenance continuous systems and elimination of batch / mechanical operations and maintenance. Process Definition focuses on the performance, control, recovery and safety of individual unit operations. Together these underpin industrial nuclear plant implementability. As an example, we have built a test rig to demonstrate molten salts transfers, since we consider this to be a capability without which pyrochemical processing will not be viable. Similarly, we have developed pilot scale electro-refiner designs for high continuous throughput and we are building development modules to underpin key features of the designs. Scientific work has been targeted at electro-refiner actinide partitioning and has been expanded to investigate other critical areas of the process which include efficient uranium / salt separation, salt clean up and the development of waste forms which perform at least as well as borosilicate glass

  20. Development of pyrochemical spent fuel management in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banfield, Zara; Cogan, John; Farrant, Dave; Gaubert, Emmanuel; Hopkins, Phil; Lewin, Bob

    2006-01-01

    Nexia Solutions is undertaking a programme to investigate the role of pyrochemical techniques for spent nuclear fuel and legacy fuel management. The principal UK client is the energy unit, and the other clients are the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), for legacy fuel conditioning, and BNFL's corporate investment in advanced reactor systems which is contributing to the Generation IV programme. The emphasis of the programme is pragmatic industrialization, which we have identified as key for the establishment of pyrochemical fuel management. From our experience operating fuel manufacture, power generation and reprocessing plant we know that the areas which require particular attention for successful implementation are: - Plant Interfaces, - Operability, - Process Definition, - Underpinning Science. Plant Interfaces encompass the definition of feeds, products, effluents and wastes and whether the process can meet the constraints they impose. Operability is concerned with the sustainability of the plant processes and is linked to the use of nil-maintenance continuous systems and elimination of batch / mechanical operations and maintenance. Process Definition focuses on the performance, control, recovery and safety of individual unit operations. Together these underpin industrial nuclear plant implementability. As an example, we have built a test rig to demonstrate molten salts transfers, since we consider this to be a capability without which pyrochemical processing will not be viable. Similarly, we have developed pilot scale electro-refiner designs for high continuous throughput and we are building development modules to underpin key features of the designs. Scientific work has been targeted at electro-refiner actinide partitioning and has been expanded to investigate other critical areas of the process which include efficient uranium / salt separation, salt clean up and the development of waste forms which perform at least as well as borosilicate glass. Other

  1. Costs of head-end incineration with respect to Kr separation in the reprocessing of HTR fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnert-Wiemer, H.; Boehnert, R.

    1976-07-15

    The C-incinerations and the Kr-separations during head-end incineration in the reprocessing of HTR fuel elements are described. The costs for constructing an operating a head-end incineration of reprocessing capacities with 5,000 to 50,000 MW(e)-HTR power have been determined. The cost estimates are divided into investment and operating costs, further after the fraction of the N/sub 2/-content in the incineration exhaust gas, which strongly affects costs. It appears that, in the case of Kr-separation from the incineration exhaust gas, the investment costs as well as the operating costs of the head-end for N/sub 2/-containing exhaust gas are considerably greater than those for gas without N/sub 2/. The C-incineration of the graphite of the HTR fuel elements should therefore only be performed with influx gas that is free of N/sub 2/.

  2. Aqueous methods for recovery of plutonium from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscatello, A.C.; Killion, M.E.; Fisher, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of the recovery of plutonium from the pyrochemical residue salts from the Direct Oxide Reduction (DOR) and Electrorefining (ER) processes have shown that chloride anion exchange is useful and effective. Our previous studies have defined the operating limits for obtaining low level effluent plutonium losses on the order of 10 -3 g/l. The knowledge obtained in work on DOR salt was extended to ER salt and a process has been demonstrated to be feasible on a larger scale. Studies of oxalate precipitation of plutonium (III) from the eluat exhibit the expected losses to the filtrate as a function of the acidity. Two alternatives to chloride anion exchange, caustic leaching and direct oxalate precipitation are also shown to be feasible for the recovery of plutonium from ER salts. The results of studies of coprocessing DOR and ER residue salts to increase ER salt throughput and decrease HC1 requirements are also presented. The feasibility of coprocessing other pyrochemical residues, such as black salts, anode heel, and ER scrapeout will be discussed

  3. Study of pneumatic hydropulse filter for feed clarification in reprocessing plant head-end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, I.A.; Shah, B.V.; Salunke, S.U.; Kumar, S.V.

    1991-01-01

    A Pneumatic Hydropulse (PHP) Filter with sintered stainless steel cartridges was tested for suitability in reprocessing plant head-end filtration. The filter was tested with simulated slurry containing between 25 and 400 ppm of calcium carbonate particulates in the size ranges 45 to 53 micron and 53 to 75 micron at varying flow rates. Procedures were developed for dislodging the layer of solids on the cartidridges and regenerating the filter remotely. Application of 5.4 kg/cm 2 air to the dome of the filter during regenaration was found to be optimum for dislodging the particulate layer on the cartridges. No difficulties due to choking of the filter cartridges were experienced during operation and good regeneration by remote operation was possible. Approach velocity at the filter medium was about 6 cm/min. The efficiency of regeneration was better than 90%. Filtration efficiency was found to be better than 90%. Solid loading capacity was found to increase with increase of particle size and feed concentration. (author). 2 figs., 10 tabs

  4. Materials and coating technology for pyrochemical reprocessing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, T.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2013-01-01

    Metallic fuelled fast breeder reactors with co-located pyrochemical reprocessing plants have been proposed as the best option in order to increase the breeding gain, reduce the doubling time of the fuel and reprocess short cooled and high burnup fuel. To establish the pyrochemical reprocessing plants with various unit operations, it is necessary to identify, develop and qualify reliable corrosion resistant materials and coatings for service in molten LiCI-KCI salt and molten uranium environment operating at 773 to 1573 K. Towards materials and coating technology development and testing for molten salt environment a high temperature corrosion testing laboratory was established and studies were initiated. Molten salt test assembly for testing materials and coatings in molten LiCI-KCI salt under controlled ultra high pure (UHP) argon environment at high temperatures has been designed, fabricated, commissioned and tests were carried out on various candidate materials and coatings. Electro-formed (EF) Ni, Ni with Ni-W coating, coatings of ZrN, TiN, HfN and Ti-Si-N on high density (HD) graphite, candidate materials like 2.25Cr-1Mo steel, 9Cr-1Mo steel, 316L stainless steel, Ni base alloys (INCONEL 600, 625 and 690), HD graphite, pyrolytic graphite (PyG), and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and alumina-40wt% titania thermal barrier coatings were tested for their suitability for molten salt applications. Corrosion studies indicated that YSZ and PyG showed superior corrosion resistance in molten LiCI-KCI salt at 873 K up to 2000 h exposure. Surface modification techniques like annealing, laser remelting and laser shock processing were pursued to consolidate the coatings and improve their high temperature performance. Coating integrity using dielectric electrochemical system and thermal cycling furnace established that, compared to plain 9Cr-1Mo steel YSZ coated 9Cr-1Mo steel performed better from 473 K to 1223 K. The presentation highlights the results of the

  5. Status of development on simulation technology for pyrochemical reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arie, Kazuo; Mizuguchi, Koji; Fujita, Reiko

    2004-01-01

    Simulation techniques for the elemental behaviors in the pyrochemical reprocessing process of spent nuclear fuels are important for fuel reprocessing and future power station development. The authors developed a simulation code SPR1.0 which can analyze co-occurring electrochemical and chemical reactions simultaneously and which is applicable to know the behavior of any element in the system. The present report describes the status of the code development, the database for fundamental electrochemical reactions, and verification of the code. The code employs TRIAS code for electrochemical reactions and SOLGASMIX-PV for chemical reactions. Electrolytic process for MOX (mixed oxide) fuels with different Pu redox ratios were simulated using the present code and the effect of introducing iron ions was studied. The prospect of future development is also described. (S. Ohno)

  6. Analysis and characterization of plutonium in pyrochemical salt residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haschke, John M.; Phillips, Alan G.

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative measurement of hydrogen produced during salt-catalyzed hydrolysis of plutonium in pyrochemical salt residues show that the metal is present in concentrations of 10 ± 5 mass%. The analytical method is based on stoichiometric reaction of metal with water to form plutonium monoxide monohydride (PuOH) and hydrogen. Results of a kinetic model developed to describe the observed time dependence of the hydrolysis rate shows that metal is present predominately as particles with essentially spherical geometries and diameters near 1 mm. The presence of smaller metallic particles cannot be verified or excluded. Plutonium concentrations measured for residues stored in different configurations suggest that a sizable fraction of the metal has oxidized during storage. Application of the hydrolysis method in determining concentrations and dimensions of metallic plutonium in other nuclear waste forms is proposed

  7. Pyrochemical recovery of plutonium from calcium fluoride reduction slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, D.C.

    A pyrochemical method of recovering finely dispersed plutonium metal from calcium fluoride reduction slag is claimed. The plutonium-bearing slag is crushed and melted in the presence of at least an equimolar amount of calcium chloride and a few percent metallic calcium. The calcium chloride reduces the melting point and thereby decreases the viscosity of the molten mixture. The calcium reduces any oxidized plutonium in the mixture and also causes the dispersed plutonium metal to coalesce and settle out as a separate metallic phase at the bottom of the reaction vessel. Upon cooling the mixture to room temperature, the solid plutonium can be cleanly separated from the overlying solid slag, with an average recovery yield on the order of 96 percent.

  8. Literature on fabrication of tungsten for application in pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edstrom, C.M.; Phillips, A.G.; Johnson, L.D.; Corle, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    The pyrochemical processing of nuclear fuels requires crucibles, stirrers, and transfer tubing that will withstand the temperature and the chemical attack from molten salts and metals used in the process. This report summarizes the literature that pertains to fabrication (joining, chemical vapor deposition, plasma spraying, forming, and spinning) is the main theme. This report also summarizes a sampling of literature on molbdenum and the work previously performed at Argonne National Laboratory on other container materials used for pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuels

  9. Use of porous MgO in pyrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiya, P.S.; Sweeney, S.M.; Carroll, L.A.; Dusek, J.T.

    1994-11-01

    Pyrochemical methods for the extraction of transuranic elements from light water reactor spent fuel require a reduction step in which the oxide fuel is reduced to metals by Li in molten LiCl. The Li 2 O formed is electrolytically reduced to metal in a cell that uses a carbon (or inert) anode and a Li cathode to recycle the salt and minimize the waste. Use of a carbon anode causes carbon dust that interferes with the process. Moreover, current efficiency is reduced as a result of oxidation of Li to Li 2 O by CO 2 . A porous MgO shroud around the anode was found to obviate these problems. Porous MgO crucibles and rectangular bar specimens were fabricated from MgO powders (electrically fused MgO, reagent grade MgO were mixed in appropriate combinations with a binder and lubricant). Particle size, force applied to the powders during cold pressing, and sintering temperature were varied to achieve a total porosity of >45% (mostly open porosity) and to control pore size and pore distribution. Mercury intrusion porosimetry was used to determine the pore size and pore size distribution. Flexural strength is observed to be proportional to the square root of pore size, which is consistent with fracture mechanics

  10. Application of molten salts in pyrochemical processing of reactive metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L.; Averill, W.A.

    1992-01-01

    Various mixes of chloride and fluoride salts are used as the media for conducting pyrochemical processes in the production and purification of reactive metals. These processes generate a significant amount of contaminated waste that has to be treated for recycling or disposal. Molten calcium chloride based salt systems have been used in this work to electrolytically regenerate calcium metal from calcium oxide for the in situ reduction of reactive metal oxides. The recovery of calcium is characterized by the process efficiency to overcome back reactions in the electrowinning cell. A thermodynamic analysis, based on fundamental rate theory, has been performed to understand the process parameters controlling the metal deposition, rate, behavior of the ceramic anode-sheath and influence of the back-reactions. It has been observed that the deposition of calcium is dependent on the ionic diffusion through the sheath. It has also been evidenced that the recovered calcium is completely lost through the back-reactions in the absence of a sheath. A practical scenario has also been presented where the electrowon metal can be used in situ as a reductant to reduce another reactive metal oxide

  11. Aqueous recovery of plutonium from pyrochemical processing residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Gray, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Pyrochemical processes provide rapid methods to reclaim plutonium from scrap residues. Frequently, however, these processes yield an impure plutonium product and waste residues that are contaminated with actinides and are therefore nondiscardable. The Savannah River Laboratory and Plant and the Rocky Flats Plant are jointly developing new processes using both pyrochemistry and aqueous chemistry to generate pure product and discardable waste. An example of residue being treated is that from the molten salt extraction (MSE), a mixture of NaCl, KCl, MgCl 2 , PuCl 3 , AmCl 3 , PuO 2 , and Pu 0 . This mixture is scrubbed with molten aluminum containing a small amount of magnesium to produce a nonhomogeneous Al-Pu-Am-Mg alloy. This process, which rejects most of the NaCl-KCl-MgCl 2 salts, results in a product easily dissolved in 6M HNO 3 -0.1M HF. Any residual chloride in the product is removed by precipitation with Hg(I) followed by centrifuging. Plutonium and americium are then separated by the standard Purex process. The americium, initially diverted to the solvent extraction waste stream, can either be recovered or sent to waste

  12. Study of the actinide-lanthanide separation from nuclear waste by a new pyrochemical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemort, F.

    1997-01-01

    The theoretical extraction and separation of platinoids, actinides and lanthanides is allowed by thermodynamic using two adapted reducing agents: zinc and magnesium. Thereby, a pyrochemical method for the nuclear waste processing has been devised. The high temperature handling of the elements in fluoride forms and their processing by a reactive metallic phase required special precautions. The study of the behavior of matter in exploratory systems allowed the development of an experimental technology for the treatment and contacting of phases. The thermodynamical analysis of the experimental results shows the feasibility of the process. A model was developed to predict the distribution coefficients of zirconium, uranium and lanthanum as a function of the system composition. An estimation method was proposed in order to evaluate the distribution coefficients in diluted solution of all the actinides and lanthanides existing in the fission products between LiF CaF 2 and Zn-Mg at 720 deg C. Coupled with the experimental results, the estimates results may be extrapolated to concentrated solutions allowing predictions of the separation of all actinides and lanthanides. The rapidity of element transfer is induced by a thermal effect caused by the high exothermicity of the reduction by magnesium. The kinetic coefficients have been linked with the reduction enthalpy of each element. Moreover, the kinetics seem limited by chemical reaction and not by mass transfer. (author)

  13. Transportation of pyrochemical salts from Rocky Flats to Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, S.B.

    1997-01-01

    Radioactive legacy wastes or residues are currently being stored on numerous Sites around the former Department of Energy's (DOE) Nuclear Weapons Complex. Since most of the operating facilities were shut down and have not operated since before the declared end to the Cold War in 1993, the historical method for treating these residues no longer exists. The risk associated with continued storage of these residues will dramatically increase with time. Thus, the DOE was directed by the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board in its Recommendation 94-1 to address and stabilize these residues and established an eight year time frame for doing so. There are only two options available to respond to this requirement: (1) restart existing facilities to treat and package the residues for disposal or (2) transport the residues to another operating facility within the Complex where they can be treated and packaged for disposal. This paper focuses on one such residue type, pyrochemical salts, produced at one Complex site, the Rocky Flats Plant located northwest of Denver, Colorado. One option for treating the salts is their shipment to Los Alamos, New Mexico, for handling at the Plutonium Facility. The safe transportation of these salts can be accomplished at present with several shipping containers including a DOT 6M, a DOE 9968, Type A or Type B quantity 55-gallon drum overpacks, or even the TRUPACT II. The tradeoffs between each container is examined with the conclusion that none of the available shipping containers is fully satisfactory. Thus, the advantageous aspects of each container must be utilized in an integrated and efficient way to effectively manage the risk involved. 1 fig

  14. Head-end iodine removal from a reprocessing plant with a solid sorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.G.; Furrer, J.; Schultes, E.

    1976-01-01

    In the first large-scale reprocessing plant planned in the Federal Republic of Germany a total amount of 580 kg of iodine per annum will be released in the fuel dissolution process for a maximum heavy metal throughput of 1800 tons per year and 40,000 MWd/t of burnup. The main portion of the iodine is formed by the 129 I (T/sub 1/2/ = 1.6 x 10 7 a) isotope of which 82 Ci at the maximum are released every year. With the scheduled fuel element storage time of greater than or equal to 220 d the simultaneous release of 131 I is less than or equal to 12.5 Ci the mass of which does not play any part. According to the computer model presently imposed in the Federal Republic of Germany for treatment of the environmental impact by radioiodine, a total decontamination factor of 340 must be attained. This implies a long-term diffusion factor of 1 x 10 -7 s/m 3 for releases via the stack of the reprocessing plant and a limit value of 50 mrem/a at the maximum for the thyroid dose to the critical group of the population via the ingestion path. The flowsheet for dissolver off-gas cleaning in a reprocessing plant employing solid iodine sorption material and the arrangement of filter components are discussed. The principle of an iodine sorption filter is described which allows exhaustive loading of the iodine sorption material. The removal reactions of different organic iodine compounds and the loading capacity and removal efficiency of the iodine sorption material in the original dissolver off-gases of reprocessing plants are indicated. Studies on the influence of filter poisons are reported.Operating experience gathered with a first iodine sorption filter in operation is discussed; this filter has been used to remove practically all iodine produced in the dissolver off-gas of the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Pilot Plant (WAK). Direct measurement of 129 I in samples of filter material using a low energy photon spectrometer is briefly reported

  15. Use of curium neutron flux from head-end pyroprocessing subsystems for the High Reliability Safeguards methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrelli, R.A., E-mail: r.angelo.borrelli@gmail.com

    2014-10-01

    The deployment of nuclear energy systems (NESs) is expanding around the world. Nations are investing in NESs as a means to establish energy independence, grow national economies, and address climate change. Transitioning to the advanced nuclear fuel cycle can meet growing energy demands and ensure resource sustainability. However, nuclear facilities in all phases of the advanced fuel cycle must be ‘safeguardable,’ where safety, safeguards, and security are integrated into a practical design strategy. To this end, the High Reliability Safeguards (HRS) approach is a continually developing safeguardability methodology that applies intrinsic design features and employs a risk-informed approach for systems assessment that is safeguards-motivated. Currently, a commercial pyroprocessing facility is used as the example system. This paper presents a modeling study that investigates the neutron flux associated with processed materials. The intent of these studies is to determine if the neutron flux will affect facility design, and subsequently, safeguardability. The results presented in this paper are for the head-end subsystems in a pyroprocessing facility. The collective results from these studies will then be used to further develop the HRS methodology.

  16. SULFUR HEXAFLUORIDE TREATMENT OF USED NUCLEAR FUEL TO ENHANCE SEPARATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J.; Torres, R.; Korinko, P.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Becnel, J.; Garcia-Diaz, B.; Adams, T.

    2012-09-25

    Reactive Gas Recycling (RGR) technology development has been initiated at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), with a stretch-goal to develop a fully dry recycling technology for Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF). This approach is attractive due to the potential of targeted gas-phase treatment steps to reduce footprint and secondary waste volumes associated with separations relying primarily on traditional technologies, so long as the fluorinators employed in the reaction are recycled for use in the reactors or are optimized for conversion of fluorinator reactant. The developed fluorination via SF{sub 6}, similar to the case for other fluorinators such as NF{sub 3}, can be used to address multiple fuel forms and downstream cycles including continued processing for LWR via fluorination or incorporation into a aqueous process (e.g. modified FLUOREX) or for subsequent pyro treatment to be used in advanced gas reactor designs such metal- or gas-cooled reactors. This report details the most recent experimental results on the reaction of SF{sub 6} with various fission product surrogate materials in the form of oxides and metals, including uranium oxides using a high-temperature DTA apparatus capable of temperatures in excess of 1000{deg}C . The experimental results indicate that the majority of the fission products form stable solid fluorides and sulfides, while a subset of the fission products form volatile fluorides such as molybdenum fluoride and niobium fluoride, as predicted thermodynamically. Additional kinetic analysis has been performed on additional fission products. A key result is the verification that SF{sub 6} requires high temperatures for direct fluorination and subsequent volatilization of uranium oxides to UF{sub 6}, and thus is well positioned as a head-end treatment for other separations technologies, such as the volatilization of uranium oxide by NF{sub 3} as reported by colleagues at PNNL, advanced pyrochemical separations or traditional full recycle

  17. Immobilization of chloride-rich radioactive wastes produced by pyrochemical operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, E.W.; Terry, J.W.

    1997-08-01

    A a result of its former role as a producer of nuclear weapons components, the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), Golden, Colorado accumulated a variety of plutonium-contaminated materials. When the level of contamination exceeded a predetermined level (the economic discard limit), the materials were classified as residues rather than waste and were stored for later recovery of the plutonium. Although large quantities of residues were processed, others, primarily those more difficult to process, remain in storage at the site. It is planned for the residues with lower concentrations of plutonium to be disposed of as wastes at an appropriate disposal facility, probably the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Because the plutonium concentration is too high or because the physical or chemical form would be difficult to get into a form acceptable to WIPP, it may not be possible to dispose of a portion of the residues at WIPP. The pyrochemical salts are among the residues that are difficult to dispose of. For a large percentage of the pyrochemical salts, safeguards controls are required, but WIPP was not designed to accommodate safeguards controls. A potential solution would be to immobilize the salts. These immobilized salts would contain substantially higher plutonium concentrations than is currently permissible but would be suitable for disposal at WIPP. This document presents the results of a review of three immobilization technologies to determine if mature technologies exist that would be suitable to immobilize pyrochemical salts: cement-based stabilization, low-temperature vitrification, and polymer encapsulation. The authors recommend that flow sheets and life-cycle costs be developed for cement-based and low-temperature glass immobilization

  18. Development of system analysis code for pyrochemical process using molten salt electrorefining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozawa, K.; Matsumoto, T.; Kakehi, I.

    2000-04-01

    This report describes accomplishment of development of a cathode processor calculation code to simulate the mass and heat transfer phenomena with the distillation process and development of an analytical model for cooling behavior of the pyrochemical process cell on personal computers. The pyrochemical process using molten salt electrorefining would introduce new technologies for new fuels of particle oxide, particle nitride and metallic fuels. The cathode processor calculation code with distillation process was developed. A code validation calculation has been conducted on the basic of the benchmark problem for natural convection in a square cavity. Results by using the present code agreed well for the velocity-temperature fields, the maximum velocity and its location with the benchmark solution published in a paper. The functions have been added to advance the reality in simulation and to increase the efficiency in utilization. The test run has been conducted using the code with the above modification for an axisymmetric enclosed vessel simulating a cathode processor, and the capability of the distillation process simulation with the code has been confirmed. An analytical model for cooling behavior of the pyrochemical process cell was developed. The analytical model was selected by comparing benchmark analysis with detailed analysis on engineering workstation. Flow and temperature distributions were confirmed by the result of steady state analysis. In the result of transient cooling analysis, an initial transient peak of temperature occurred at balanced heat condition in the steady-state analysis. Final gas temperature distribution was dependent on gas circulation flow in transient condition. Then there were different final gas temperature distributions on the basis of the result of steady-state analysis. This phenomenon has a potential for it's own metastable condition. Therefore it was necessary to design gas cooling flow pattern without cooling gas circulation

  19. The GC computer code for flow sheet simulation of pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahluwalia, R.K.; Geyer, H.K.

    1996-01-01

    The GC computer code has been developed for flow sheet simulation of pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel. It utilizes a robust algorithm SLG for analyzing simultaneous chemical reactions between species distributed across many phases. Models have been developed for analysis of the oxide fuel reduction process, salt recovery by electrochemical decomposition of lithium oxide, uranium separation from the reduced fuel by electrorefining, and extraction of fission products into liquid cadmium. The versatility of GC is demonstrated by applying the code to a flow sheet of current interest

  20. Deployment of wireless sensor network in pyrochemical processing of metallic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghyalakshmi, D.; Shrikrishnan, T.S.; Ebenezer, Jemimah; Madhusoodanan, K.; Satya Murty, S.A.V.; Vannia Perumal, S.; Venkatesh, P.; Prabhakara Reddy, B.

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of wireless sensor networking technology, industries started adapting the wireless monitoring systems in phases to measure and control various process parameters. To test the feasibility for implementing Wireless Sensor Network to measure the potentials of an electrochemical cell and the temperatures of actinide drawdown process at Pyrochemical process studies laboratory, at Chemistry Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, experiments have been carried out. An experimental setup with two Wireless Sensor Networking nodes has been deployed inside argon atmosphere glove boxes. The Electrorefining studies on U and U based alloys and the studies on actinide recovery from the electrolyte salt in actinide drawdown process are carried out in the glove box. The WSN measuring system was tested and validated by measuring the potentials of an electrochemical cell and the temperatures of actinide drawdown process. The WSN system is proposed to be installed in the hot cells of the Chemistry Group where irradiated U-Zr fuel is reprocessed. This paper briefs the need for remote measuring in pyrochemical reprocessing and validation of the remote signals by measuring the potentials of an electrochemical cell and the temperatures of the actinide draw down process. (author)

  1. Pyrochemical separation of radioactive components from inert materials in ICPP high-level calcined waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Debbio, J.A.; Nelson, L.O.; Todd, T.A.

    1995-05-01

    Since 1963, calcination of aqueous wastes from reprocessing of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuels has resulted in the accumulation of approximately 3800 m 3 of high-level waste (HLW) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The waste is in the form of a granular solid called calcine and is stored on site in stainless steel bins which are encased in concrete. Due to the leachability of 137 Cs and 90 Sr and possibly other radioactive components, the calcine is not suitable for final disposal. Hence, a process to immobilize calcine in glass is being developed. Since radioactive components represent less than 1 wt % of the calcine, separation of actinides and fission products from inert components is being considered to reduce the volume of HLW requiring final disposal. Current estimates indicate that compared to direct vitrification, a volume reduction factor of 10 could result in significant cost savings. Aqueous processes, which involve calcine dissolution in nitric acid followed by separation of actinide and fission products by solvent extraction and ion exchange methods, are being developed. Pyrochemical separation methods, which generate small volumes of aqueous wastes and do not require calcine dissolution, have been evaluated as alternatives to aqueous processes. This report describes three proposed pyrochemical flowsheets and presents the results of experimental studies conducted to evaluate their feasibility. The information presented is a consolidation of three reports, which should be consulted for experimental details

  2. Solidification of metal chloride waste from pyrochemical process via dechlorination-chlorination reaction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H.S.; Cho, I.H.; Lee, K.R.; Choi, J.H.; Eun, H.C.; Kim, I.T.; Park, G.I. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    The metal chloride wastes generated from the pyro-chemical process to recover uranium and TRUs has been considered as a problematic waste due to the high volatility and low compatibility with conventional silicate glass. Our research group has suggested the dechlorination approach for the solidification of this kind of waste by using a synthetic composite, SAP (SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}). During the dechlorination, metal elements are chemically interacted with the inorganic composite, SAP, while chlorine is vaporized as gaseous chlorine. Metal elements in the salt were immobilized into phosphate and silicate glass which are uniformly distributed in tens of nm scale. During the dechlorination, gaseous chlorine is captured by Li{sub 2}O-Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} composite that can be converted into metal chloride (LiCl). About 98wt% of oxide composite was converted into LiCl that can be used as an electrolyte in the electrochemical process. The method suggested in this study can provide a chance to minimize the waste volume for the final disposal of salt wastes from a pyro-chemical process. (author)

  3. Core characteristics of fast reactor cycle with simple dry pyrochemical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, Tetsuo

    2008-01-01

    Fast reactor core concept and core nuclear characteristics are studied for the application of the simple dry pyrochemical processing for fast reactor mixed oxide spent fuels, that is, the Compound Process Fuel Cycle, large FR core with of loaded fuels are recycled by the simple dry pyrochemical processing. Results of the core nuclear analyses show that it is possible to recycle FR spent fuel once and to have 1.01 of breeding ratio without radial blanket region. The comparison is made among three kinds of recycle fuels, LWR UO 2 spent fuel, LWR MOX spent fuel, and FR spent fuel. The recycle fuels reach an equilibrium state after recycles regardless of their starting heavy metal compositions, and the recycled FR fuel has the lowest radio-activity and the same level of heat generation among the recycle fuels. Therefore, the compound process fuel cycle has flexibility to recycle both LWR spent fuel and FR spent fuel. The concept has a possibility of enhancement of nuclear non-proliferation and process simplification of fuel cycle. (author)

  4. Uranium transport to solid electrodes in pyrochemical reprocessing of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomczuk, Z.; Ackerman, J.P.; Wolson, R.D.; Miller, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    A unique pyrochemical process developed for the separation of metallic nuclear fuel from fission products by electrotransport through molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt to solid and liquid metal cathodes. The process allow for recovery and reuse of essentially all of the actinides in spent fuel from the integral fast reactor (IFR) and disposal of wastes in satisfactory forms. Electrotransport is used to minimize reagent consumption and, consequently, waste volume. In particular, electrotransport to solid cathodes is used for recovery of an essentially pure uranium product in the presence of other actinides; removal of pure uranium is used to adjust the electrolyte composition in preparation for recovery of a plutonium-rich mixture with uranium in liquid cadmium cathodes. This paper presents experiments that delineate the behavior of key actinide and rare-earth elements during electrotransport to a solid electrode over a useful range of PuCl 3 /UCl 3 ratios in the electrolyte, a thermodynamic basis for that behavior, and a comparison of the observed behavior with that calculated from a thermodynamic model. This work clearly established that recovery of nearly pure uranium can be a key step in the overall pyrochemical-fuel-processing strategy for the IFR

  5. RIAR experimental base development concept 1. Multi-purpose pyrochemical complex for experimental justification of innovative closed fuel cycle technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bychkov, A.V.; Kormilitsyn, M.V. [Research Institute of Atomic Reactors, Dimitrovgrad-10, Ulyanovsk region, 433510 (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    The principles of closed FC arrangement on the basis of non-aqueous methods allow the development of production addressing two tasks simultaneously: production of fresh fuel and reprocessing of irradiated fuel, that makes it possible to achieve the industrial level of implementation of closed FC of fast reactors of new generation in a series variant of standardized process modules on the basis of innovative pyrochemical high-effective compact technologies. For the purpose of experimental justification of innovative closed FC technologies at the RIAR site, the existing experimental base is being updated and a multi-purpose pyrochemical complex is developed: - Experimental complex of pyrochemical molten salt facilities to reprocess all types of spent fuel (MOX, nitride, metallic, IMF) of fast reactors of new generation (BN-800, MBIR, BREST). - Experimental complex of facilities to master a gas-fluoride technology of reprocessing intractable fuel, research reactors fuel and thermal SNF. - Transition of the existing facility of pyro-electrochemical production of MOX fuel into the mode of reprocessing of the BN-800 MOX SNF. - Renovation of the facilities for production of fuel elements from experimental, re-fabricated, innovative and high-active fuel - a complex of heavy and glove boxes - to produce experimental fuel elements and targets with MAs on the basis of oxides (vibro and pellets), mixed nitrides, metal alloys and inert matrices in heavy boxes. - Upgrading of the complex for mastering and demonstration of the processes for radioactive waste management and spent fuel pyrochemical reprocessing. The report covers main concept and design solutions, plans and schedule of the program for development of pyrochemical complex for experimental justification of innovative closed FC technologies. (authors)

  6. Nickel based alloys for molten salt applications in pyrochemical reprocessing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ningshen, S.; Ravi Shankar, A.; Rao, Ch. Jagadeeswara; Mallika, C.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2016-01-01

    Pyrochemical reprocessing route is one of the best option for reprocessing of spent metallic nuclear fuel from future fast breeder in many countries, especially in the US (Integral fast reactor, IFR), Russia (Research Institute of Atomic Reactors, RIAR), Japan, Korea and India. This technology with intrinsic nuclear proliferation resistance is regarded as one of the most promising nuclear fuel cycle technologies of the next-generation. However, the selection of materials of construction for pyrochemical reprocessing plants is challenging because of the extreme environments, i.e., high radiation, corrosive molten salt (LiCl-KCl, LiCl-KCl-CsCl, KCl-NaCl-MgCl 2 , etc.), reactive molten metals, and high temperature. Efforts have been made to develop compatible materials for various unit operations like salt preparation, electrorefining, cathode processing and alloy casting in pyrochemical reprocessing. Nickel and its alloy are the candidate materials for salt purification exposed to molten LiCl-KCl under Cl 2 bubbling, in air or ultra high purity argon environment. In the present study, the corrosion behavior of candidate materials like Inconel 600, Inconel 625, Inconel 690 exposed to molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt environment at 500 to 600 °C have been carried out. The surface morphology of the exposed samples and scales were examined by SEM/EDX and XRD. The weight loss results indicated that Inconel 600 and Inconel 690 offer better corrosion resistance compared to Inconel 625 in air and chlorine environment. Higher corrosion of Inconel 625 is attributed to development of Mo rich salt layers. However, Ni base alloys exhibited a decreasing trend of weight loss with increasing time of exposure and weight gain was observed under UHP Ar environment. The mechanism of corrosion of Ni base alloys appeared to be due to formation of Cr rich and Ni rich layers of Cr 2 O 3 , NiO and spinel oxides at the surface and subsequent spallation. Based on the present studies, Inconel 690

  7. Zone Freezing Study for Pyrochemical Process Waste Minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammon Williams

    2012-05-01

    Pyroprocessing technology is a non-aqueous separation process for treatment of used nuclear fuel. At the heart of pyroprocessing lies the electrorefiner, which electrochemically dissolves uranium from the used fuel at the anode and deposits it onto a cathode. During this operation, sodium, transuranics, and fission product chlorides accumulate in the electrolyte salt (LiCl-KCl). These contaminates change the characteristics of the salt overtime and as a result, large volumes of contaminated salt are being removed, reprocessed and stored as radioactive waste. To reduce the storage volumes and improve recycling process for cost minimization, a salt purification method called zone freezing has been proposed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Zone freezing is melt crystallization process similar to the vertical Bridgeman method. In this process, the eutectic salt is slowly cooled axially from top to bottom. As solidification occurs, the fission products are rejected from the solid interface and forced into the liquid phase. The resulting product is a grown crystal with the bulk of the fission products near the bottom of the salt ingot, where they can be easily be sectioned and removed. Despite successful feasibility report from KAERI on this process, there were many unexplored parameters to help understanding and improving its operational routines. Thus, this becomes the main motivation of this proposed study. The majority of this work has been focused on the CsCl-LiCl-KCl ternary salt. CeCl3-LiCl-KCl was also investigated to check whether or not this process is feasible for the trivalent species—surrogate for rare-earths and transuranics. For the main part of the work, several parameters were varied, they are: (1) the retort advancement rate—1.8, 3.2, and 5.0 mm/hr, (2) the crucible lid configurations—lid versus no-lid, (3) the amount or size of mixture—50 and 400 g, (4) the composition of CsCl in the salt—1, 3, and 5 wt%, and (5) the

  8. Pyrochemical separations technologies envisioned for the U.S. accelerator transmutation of waste system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laidler, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    A program has been initiated for the purpose of developing the chemical separations technologies necessary to support a large Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) system capable of dealing with the projected inventory of spent fuel from the commercial nuclear power stations in the United States. The baseline process selected combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to enable the efficient separation of uranium, technetium, iodine, and the transuranic elements from LWR spent fuel. The diversity of processing methods was chosen for both technical and economic factors. A six-year technology evaluation and development program is foreseen, by the end of which an informed decision can be made on proceeding with demonstration of the ATW system

  9. Advanced hybrid process with solvent extraction and pyro-chemical process of spent fuel reprocessing for LWR to FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Reiko; Mizuguchi, Koji; Fuse, Kouki; Saso, Michitaka; Utsunomiya, Kazuhiro; Arie, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    Toshiba has been proposing a new fuel cycle concept of a transition from LWR to FBR. The new fuel cycle concept has better economical process of the LWR spent fuel reprocessing than the present Purex Process and the proliferation resistance for FBR cycle of plutonium with minor actinides after 2040. Toshiba has been developing a new Advanced Hybrid Process with Solvent Extraction and Pyrochemical process of spent fuel reprocessing for LWR to FBR. The Advanced Hybrid Process combines the solvent extraction process of the LWR spent fuel in nitric acid with the recovery of high pure uranium for LWR fuel and the pyro-chemical process in molten salts of impure plutonium recovery with minor actinides for metallic FBR fuel, which is the FBR spent fuel recycle system after FBR age based on the electrorefining process in molten salts since 1988. The new Advanced Hybrid Process enables the decrease of the high-level waste and the secondary waste from the spent fuel reprocessing plants. The R and D costs in the new Advanced Hybrid Process might be reduced because of the mutual Pyro-chemical process in molten salts. This paper describes the new fuel cycle concept of a transition from LWR to FBR and the feasibility of the new Advanced Hybrid Process by fundamental experiments. (author)

  10. Pyrochemical reduction of uranium dioxide and plutonium dioxide by lithium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usami, T.; Kurata, M.; Inoue, T.; Sims, H.E.; Beetham, S.A.; Jenkins, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    The lithium reduction process has been developed to apply a pyrochemical recycle process for oxide fuels. This process uses lithium metal as a reductant to convert oxides of actinide elements to metal. Lithium oxide generated in the reduction would be dissolved in a molten lithium chloride bath to enhance reduction. In this work, the solubility of Li 2 O in LiCl was measured to be 8.8 wt% at 650 deg. C. Uranium dioxide was reduced by Li with no intermediate products and formed porous metal. Plutonium dioxide including 3% of americium dioxide was also reduced and formed molten metal. Reduction of PuO 2 to metal also occurred even when the concentration of lithium oxide was just under saturation. This result indicates that the reduction proceeds more easily than the prediction based on the Gibbs free energy of formation. Americium dioxide was also reduced at 1.8 wt% lithium oxide, but was hardly reduced at 8.8 wt%

  11. Pyrochemical recovery of actinide elements from spent light water reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.K.; Pierce, R.D.; Poa, D.S.; McPheeters, C.C.

    1994-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is investigating salt transport and lithium pyrochemical processes for recovery of transuranic (TRU) elements from spent light water reactor fuel. The two processes are designed to recover the TRU elements in a form compatible with the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle. The IFR is uniquely effective in consuming these long-lived TRU elements. The salt transport process uses calcium dissolved in Cu-35 wt % Mg in the presence of a CaCl 2 salt to reduce the oxide fuel. The reduced TRU elements are separated from uranium and most of the fission products by using a MgCl 2 transport salt. The lithium process, which does not employ a solvent metal, uses lithium in the presence of a LiCl salt as the reductant. After separation from the salt, the reduced metal is introduced into an electrorefiner, which separates the TRU elements from the uranium and fission products. In both processes, reductant and reduction salt are recovered by electrochemical decomposition of the oxide reaction product

  12. Salt stripping: a pyrochemical approach to the recovery of plutonium electrorefining salt residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, D.C.; Mullins, L.J.

    1982-10-01

    A pyrochemical process has been developed to take the salt residue from the plutonium electrorefining process and strip the plutonium from it. The process, called salt stripping, uses calcium as a reducing/coalescing agent. In a one-day operation, greater than 95% of the plutonium can be recovered as a metallic button. As much as 88% of the residue is either reused as metal or discarded as a clean salt. A thin layer of black salts, which makes up the bulk of the unrecovered Pu, is a by-product of the initial reductions. A number of black salts can be collected together and re-reduced in a second step. Greater than 88% of this plutonium can be successfully recovered in this second stage with the resulting residues being discardable. The processing time, number of processor hours, and the volume of secondary residues are greatly reduced over the classical aqueous recovery methods. In addition, the product metal is of sufficient quality to be fed directly to the electrorefining process for purification. 8 figures, 7 tables

  13. Interfacing solvent extraction in the recovery of pyrochemical residues at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Holcomb, H.P.

    1986-01-01

    The traditional feedstock for plutonium recovery at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has been spent reactor fuel elements and irradiated targets. Feed sources have included both onsite reactors and a wide variety of domestic and foreign reactors. For the past few years, a growing and increasingly varied mix of unirradiated plutonium residues has been purified through SRP aqueous-based processes. Recently, plutonium residues generated in various chloride salt melts have become a significant offsite source of feed for SRP recovery operations. Impure plutonium metal and plutonium alloys have also been processed. A broader range of molten salt and other high temperature residues is anticipated for the future. The major advantage of solvent extraction for scrap purification is the versatility of the solvent extraction system which allows numerous contaminants to be removed by routine operations. Major concerns are nuclear safety control, corrosion of equipment, and control of releases to the environment. SRP's past, present, and future interfacing of solvent extraction in processing pyrochemical and other plutonium-containing residues is reviewed

  14. The thermodynamics of pyrochemical processes for liquid metal reactor fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, I.

    1987-01-01

    The thermodynamic basis for pyrochemical processes for the recovery and purification of fuel for the liquid metal reactor fuel cycle is described. These processes involve the transport of the uranium and plutonium from one liquid alloy to another through a molten salt. The processes discussed use liquid alloys of cadmium, zinc, and magnesium and molten chloride salts. The oxidation-reduction steps are done either chemically by the use of an auxiliary redox couple or electrochemically by the use of an external electrical supply. The same basic thermodynamics apply to both the salt transport and the electrotransport processes. Large deviations from ideal solution behavior of the actinides and lanthanides in the liquid alloys have a major influence on the solubilities and the performance of both the salt transport and electrotransport processes. Separation of plutonium and uranium from each other and decontamination from the more noble fission product elements can be achieved using both transport processes. The thermodynamic analysis is used to make process design computations for different process conditions

  15. Development of quantitative analytical methods for the control of actinides in a pyrochemical partitioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abousahl, S.; Belle, P. van; Eberle, H.; Ottmar, H.; Lynch, B.; Vallet, P.; Mayer, K.; Ougier, M.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced nuclear fuel cycles are being developed in order to reduce the long-term radiotoxicity of highly radioactive waste. Pyrochemical partitioning techniques appear particularly attractive for advanced fuel cycles in which the minor actinides are recycled. The electrochemical processes of practical importance are the electrorefining process and the liquid-liquid extraction of transuranic (TRU) elements from fission products using either non-miscible molten metal or molten salt-metal phases. Analytical methods for the accurate assay of actinide elements in these matrices needed to be developed. A quantitative assay is required in order to establish a material balance for process development and - at a later stage - for accountancy and control purposes. To this end radiometric techniques such as energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), neutron coincidence counting (NCC) and high-resolution gamma spectrometry (HRGS) were extensively employed for the quantitative determination of actinides (U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm) in process samples. Comparative analyses were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The respective samples were available in small quantities (≅ 100 mg) either in the form of eutectic salt or in metallic form with Cd, Zr or Bi as major metallic matrix constituents. (orig.)

  16. On the possibility of reprocessing of fuel elements of dispersion type with copper matrix by pyrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasin, B.D.; Ivanov, V.A.; Shchetinskij, A.V.; Vavilov, S.K.; Savochkin, Yu.P.; Bychkov, A.V.; Kormilitsyn, M.V.

    2005-01-01

    A consideration is given to pyrochemical processes suitable for separation of uranium dioxide from structural materials when reprocessing cermet type fuel elements. The estimation of the possibility to apply liquid antimony and bismuth, potassium and copper chlorides melts is made. The specimens compacted of copper and uranium dioxide powders in a stainless steel can are used as simulators of fuel element sections. It is concluded that the dissolution of structural materials in molten salts at the stage of uranium dioxide concentration is the process of choice for reprocessing of dispersion type fuel elements [ru

  17. Study of the pyrochemical treatment-recycling process of the Molten Salt Reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussier, H.; Heuer, D.

    2010-01-01

    The Separation Processes Studies Laboratory (Commissariat a l'energie Atomique) has made a preliminary assessment of the reprocessing system associated with Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR). The scheme studied in this paper is based on the principle of reductive extraction and metal transfer that constituted the core process designed for the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR), although the flow diagram has been adapted to the current needs of the Molten Salt Reactor Fast (MSFR).

  18. Fission Product Separation from Pyrochemical Electrolyte by Cold Finger Melt Crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Versey, Joshua R. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This work contributes to the development of pyroprocessing technology as an economically viable means of separating used nuclear fuel from fission products and cladding materials. Electrolytic oxide reduction is used as a head-end step before electrorefining to reduce oxide fuel to metallic form. The electrolytic medium used in this technique is molten LiCl-Li2O. Groups I and II fission products, such as cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr), have been shown to partition from the fuel into the molten LiCl-Li2O. Various approaches of separating these fission products from the salt have been investigated by different research groups. One promising approach is based on a layer crystallization method studied at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Despite successful demonstration of this basic approach, there are questions that remain, especially concerning the development of economical and scalable operating parameters based on a comprehensive understanding of heat and mass transfer. This research explores these parameters through a series of experiments in which LiCl is purified, by concentrating CsCl in a liquid phase as purified LiCl is crystallized and removed via an argon-cooled cold finger.

  19. A Preliminary Shielding Study on the Integrated Operation Verification System in the Head-End Hot-Cell of the Pyro-processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinhwam; Kim, Yewon; Park, Se-Hwan; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Cho, Gyuseong [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Nuclear power accounts for more than 30 percent of power production in Korea. Its significance has annually been increased. Disposal spent fuel containing uranium, transuranic elements, and fission products is unavoidable byproduct of nuclear power production. it is recognized that finding appropriate sites for interim storage of disposal spent fuel is not easy because isolated sites should be required. Pyro-processing technology, Pyro-processing should be operated under high radiation environment in hot-cell structures. Because of this reason, all workers should be unauthorized to access inside the hot-cell areas under any circumstances except for acceptable dose verification and a normal operation should be remotely manipulated. For the reliable normal operation of pyroprocessing, it is noted that an evaluation of the space dose distribution in the hot-cell environments is necessary in advance in order to determine which technologies or instruments can be utilized on or near the process as the Integrated Operation Verification System (IOVS) is measured. Not like the electroreduction and electro-refining hot-cells, the head-end hot-cell equips Camera Radiation Detector (CRD) in which plutonium is securely measured and monitored for the safeguard of the pyro-processing. Results have been obtained using F2 surface tally in order to observe the magnitude of the gamma-ray and neutron flux which pass through the surface of the process cell. Furthermore, T-mesh tally has also been used to obtain the space dose distribution in the headend hot-cell. The hot-cell was divided into 7,668 cells in which each dimension was 1 x 1 x 1m for the T-mesh tally. To determine the position of the CRD and the surveillance camera, divergent approaches were required. Because the purpose of the CRD which contains a gamma-ray detector and a neutron detector is to identify the material composition as the process proceeds, the position in which detectable flux is exposed is required, whereas

  20. A study on recovery of uranium in the anode basket residues delivered from the pyrochemical process of used nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, H. C.; Kim, T. J.; Jang, J. H.; Kim, G. Y.; Park, S. B.; Yoon, D. S.; Kim, S. H.; Paek, S. W.; Lee, S. J.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the chlorination of uranium oxide (UO2) using ammonium chloride and zirconium as chemical agents was conducted to recover the uranium in the anode basket residues from the pyrochemical process of used nuclear fuel. The chlorination of UO2 was predicted using thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. The experimental conditions for the chlorination were determined using a chlorination test with cerium oxide (CeO2). In the chlorination test, it was confirmed that UO2 was chlorinated into UCl3 at 320 °C, some UO2 remained without changes in the chemical form, and ZrO2, Zr2O, and ZrCl2 were generated as byproducts.

  1. Interrelation of technologies for RW preparation and sites for final isolation of the wastes from pyrochemical processing of SNF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupalo, V.S.; Chistyakov, V.N. [JSC - Design-Prospecting and Scientific-Research Institute of Industrial Technology -, Kashirskoye Highway, 33, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Kormilitsyn, M.V.; Kormilitsyna, L.A. [JSC - State Scientific Center - Research Institute of Atomic Reactors -, Ulyanovsk region, Dimitrovgrad - 10, 433510 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    For the justification of engineering solutions and practical testing of the radiochemical component of the perspective nuclear power complex with on-site variant of nuclear fuel cycle (NFC), it is planned to establish a multi-functional research-development complex (MFCRC) for radiochemical processing of spent nuclear fuels (SNF) from fast reactors. MFCRC is being established at the NIIAR site, it comprises technological process lines, where innovation pyro-electrochemical and hydrometallurgical technologies are realized, with an option for closing the inter-chain material flows for testing the combined radiochemically converted materials. The technological flowchart for processing at the MFCRC is subdivided into 3 segments: -) complex of the lead operations for dismantling the fuel elements (FE) and fuel assemblies (FA), -) pyrochemical extraction flowchart for processing SNF, and -) hydrometallurgical flowchart for processing SNF. The engineered solutions for the management and disposition of the radioactive wastes from MFCRC are reviewed.

  2. Estimation of centerline temperature of the waste form for the rare earth waste generated from pyrochemical process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung-Hoon, E-mail: mrchoijh@kaeri.re.kr; Eun, Hee-Chul; Lee, Tae-Kyo; Lee, Ki-Rak; Han, Seung-Youb; Jeon, Min-Ku; Park, Hwan-Seo; Ahn, Do-Hee

    2017-01-15

    Estimation of centerline temperature of nuclear glass waste form for each waste stream is very essential in the period of storage because the centerline temperature being over its glass transition temperature results in the increase of leaching rate of radioactive nuclides due to the devitrification of glass waste form. Here, to verify the effects of waste form diameter and transuranic element content in the rare earth waste on the centerline temperature of the waste form, the surrogate rare earth glass waste generated from pyrochemical process was immobilized with SiO{sub 2}−Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}−B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass frit system, and thermal properties of the rare earth glass waste form were determined by thermomechanical analysis and thermal conductivity analysis. The estimation of centerline temperature was carried out using the experimental thermal data and steady-state conduction equation in a long and solid cylinder type waste form. It was revealed that thermal stability of waste form in case of 0.3 m diameter was not affected by the TRU content even in the case of 80% TRU recovery ratio in the electrowinning process, meaning that the waste form of 0.3 m diameter is thermally stable due to the low centerline temperature relative to its glass transition temperature of the rare earth glass waste form.

  3. Study of the actinide-lanthanide separation from nuclear waste by a new pyrochemical process; Etude de la separation actinides-lanthanides des dechets nucleaires par un procede pyrochimique nouveau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemort, F. [CEA Marcoule, Departement de Retraitement, des Dechets et du Demantelement, 30 - Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)]|[Institut National Polytechnique, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-01-01

    The theoretical extraction and separation of platinoids, actinides and lanthanides is allowed by thermodynamic using two adapted reducing agents: zinc and magnesium. Thereby, a pyrochemical method for the nuclear waste processing has been devised. The high temperature handling of the elements in fluoride forms and their processing by a reactive metallic phase required special precautions. The study of the behavior of matter in exploratory systems allowed the development of an experimental technology for the treatment and contacting of phases. The thermodynamical analysis of the experimental results shows the feasibility of the process. A model was developed to predict the distribution coefficients of zirconium, uranium and lanthanum as a function of the system composition. An estimation method was proposed in order to evaluate the distribution coefficients in diluted solution of all the actinides and lanthanides existing in the fission products between LiF CaF{sub 2} and Zn-Mg at 720 deg C. Coupled with the experimental results, the estimates results may be extrapolated to concentrated solutions allowing predictions of the separation of all actinides and lanthanides. The rapidity of element transfer is induced by a thermal effect caused by the high exothermicity of the reduction by magnesium. The kinetic coefficients have been linked with the reduction enthalpy of each element. Moreover, the kinetics seem limited by chemical reaction and not by mass transfer. (author) 66 refs.

  4. Behavior of molybdenum in pyrochemical reprocessing: A spectroscopic study of the chlorination of molybdenum and its oxides in chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovicha, Vladimir A.; Griffiths, Trevor R.; Thied, Robert C.; Lewin, Bob

    2003-01-01

    The high temperature reactions of molybdenum and its oxides with chlorine and hydrogen chloride in molten alkali metal chlorides were investigated between 400 and 700 deg. C. The melts studied were LiCl-KCl, NaCl-CsCl and NaCl-KCl and the reactions were followed by in situ electronic absorption spectroscopy measurements. In these melts Mo reacts with Cl 2 and initially produces MoCl 6 2- and then a mixture of Mo(III) and Mo(V) chlorocomplexes, the final proportion depending on the reaction conditions. The Mo(V) content can be removed as MoCl 5 from the melt under vacuum or be reduced to Mo(III) by Mo metal. The reaction of Mo when HCl gas is bubbled into alkali chloride melts yields only MoCl 6 3- . MoO 2 reacts in these melts with chlorine to form soluble MoOCl 5 2- and volatile MoO 2 Cl 2 . MoO 3 is soluble in chloride melts and then decomposes into the oxychloride MoO 2 Cl 2 , which sublimes or can be sparged from the melt, and molybdate. Pyrochemical reprocessing can thus be employed for molybdenum since, after various intermediates, the end-products are chloride melts containing chloro and oxychloro anions of molybdenum plus molybdate, and volatile chlorides and oxychlorides that can be readily separated off. The reactions were fastest in the NaCl-KCl melt. The X-ray diffraction pattern of MoO 2 Cl 2 is reported for the first time

  5. Corrosion resistance of ceramic materials in pyrochemical reprocessing atmosphere by using molten salt for spent nuclear oxide fuel. Corrosion research under chlorine gas condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Masayuki; Hanada, Keiji; Koizumi, Tsutomu; Aose, Shinichi; Kato, Toshihiro

    2002-12-01

    Pyrochemical reprocessing using molten salts (RIAR process) has been recently developed for spent nuclear oxide fuel and discussed in feasibility study. It is required to improve the corrosion resistance of equipments such as electrolyzer because the process is operated in severe corrosion environment. In this study, the corrosion resistance of ceramic materials was discussed through the thermodynamic calculation and corrosion test. The corrosion test was basically carried out in alkali molten salt under chlorine gas condition. And further consideration about the effects of oxygen, carbon and main fission product's chlorides were evaluated in molten salt. The result of thermodynamic calculation shows most of ceramic oxides have good chemical stability on chlorine, oxygen and uranyl chloride, however the standard Gibb's free energies with carbon have negative value. On the other hand, eleven kinds of ceramic materials were examined by corrosion test, then silicon nitride, mullite and cordierite have a good corrosion resistance less than 0.1 mm/y. Cracks were not observed on the materials and flexural strength did not reduce remarkably after 480 hours test in molten salt with Cl 2 -O 2 bubbling. In conclusion, these three ceramic materials are most applicable materials for the pyrochemical reprocessing process with chlorine gas condition. (author)

  6. Pyrochemical reprocessing of molten salt fast reactor fuel: focus on the reductive extraction step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Davide

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear fuel reprocessing is a prerequisite for nuclear energy to be a clean and sustainable energy. In the case of the molten salt reactor containing a liquid fuel, pyrometallurgical way is an obvious way. The method for treatment of the liquid fuel is divided into two parts. In-situ injection of helium gas into the fuel leads to extract the gaseous fission products and a part of the noble metals. The second part of the reprocessing is performed by ‘batch’. It aims to recover the fissile material and to separate the minor actinides from fission products. The reprocessing involves several chemical steps based on redox and acido-basic properties of the various elements contained in the fuel salt. One challenge is to perform a selective extraction of actinides and lanthanides in spent liquid fuel. Extraction of actinides and lanthanides are successively performed by a reductive extraction in liquid bismuth pool containing metallic lithium as a reductive reagent. The objective of this paper is to give a description of the several steps of the reprocessing retained for the molten salt fast reactor (MSFR concept and to present the initial results obtained for the reductive extraction experiments realized in static conditions by contacting LiF-ThF4-UF4-NdF3 with a lab-made Bi-Li pool and for which extraction efficiencies of 0.7% for neodymium and 14.0% for uranium were measured. It was concluded that in static conditions, the extraction is governed by a kinetic limitation and not by the thermodynamic equilibrium.

  7. Chemical Engineering Division fuel cycle programs. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1979. [Pyrochemical/dry processing; waste encapsulation in metal; transport in geologic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M.J.; Ader, M.; Barletta, R.E.

    1980-09-01

    For pyrochemical and dry processing materials development included exposure to molten metal and salt of Mo-0.5% Ti-0.07% Ti-0.01% C, Mo-30% W, SiC, Si/sub 2/ON/sub 2/, ZrB/sub 2/-SiC, MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, AlN, HfB/sub 2/, Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/, BeO, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/, nickel nitrate-infiltrated W, W-coated Mo, and W-metallized alumina-yttria. Work on Th-U salt transport processing included solubility of Th in liquid Cd, defining the Cd-Th and Cd-Mg-Th phase diagrams, ThO/sub 2/ reduction experiments, and electrolysis of CaO in molten salt. Work on pyrochemical processes and associated hardware for coprocessing U and Pu in spent FBR fuels included a second-generation computer model of the transport process, turntable transport process design, work on the U-Cu-Mg system, and U and Pu distribution coefficients between molten salt and metal. Refractory metal vessels are being service-life tested. The chloride volatility processing of Th-based fuel was evaluated for its proliferation resistance, and a preliminary ternary phase diagram for the Zn-U-Pu system was computed. Material characterization and process analysis were conducted on the Exportable Pyrochemical process (Pyro-Civex process). Literature data on oxidation of fissile metals to oxides were reviewed. Work was done on chemical bases for the reprocessing of actinide oxides in molten salts. Flowsheets are being developed for the processing of fuel in molten tin. Work on encapsulation of solidified radioactive waste in metal matrix included studies of leach rate of crystalline waste materials and of the impact resistance of metal-matrix waste forms. In work on the transport properties of nuclear waste in geologic media, adsorption of Sr on oolitic limestone was studied, as well as the migration of Cs in basalt. Fitting of data on the adsorption of iodate by hematite to a mathematical model was attempted.

  8. Pyrochemical processes for the recovery of weapons grade plutonium either as a metal or as PuO2 for use in mixed oxide reactor fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenares, C.A.; Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Bronson, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    The authors have developed two processes for the recovery of weapons grade Pu, as either Pu metal or PuO 2 , that are strictly pyrochemical and do not produce any liquid waste. Large amounts of Pu metal (up to 4 kg.), in various geometric shapes, have been recovered by a hydride/dehydride/casting process (HYDEC) to produce metal ingots of any desired shape. The three processing steps are carried out in a single compact apparatus. The experimental technique and results obtained will be described. The authors have prepared PuO 2 powders from weapons grade Pu by a process that hydrides the Pu metal followed by the oxidation of the hydride (HYDOX process). Experimental details of the best way to carry out this process will be presented, as well as the characterization of both hydride and oxide powders produced

  9. Pyrochemical recovery of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laidler, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses an important advantage of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) which is its ability to recycle fuel in the process of power generation, extending fuel resources by a considerable amount and assuring the continued viability of nuclear power stations by reducing dependence on external fuel supplies. Pyroprocessing is the means whereby the recycle process is accomplished. It can also be applied to the recovery of fuel constituents from spent fuel generated in the process of operation of conventional light water reactor power plants, offering the means to recover the valuable fuel resources remaining in that material

  10. Pyrochemical recovery of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laidler, J.J.

    1993-03-01

    This report discusses an important advantage of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) which is its ability to recycle fuel in the process of power generation, extending fuel resources by a considerable amount and assuring the continued viability of nuclear power stations by reducing dependence on external fuel supplies. Pyroprocessing is the means whereby the recycle process is accomplished. It can also be applied to the recovery of fuel constituents from spent fuel generated in the process of operation of conventional light water reactor power plants, offering the means to recover the valuable fuel resources remaining in that material.

  11. Pyrochemical recovery of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laidler, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses an important advantage of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) which is its ability to recycle fuel in the process of power generation, extending fuel resources by a considerable amount and assuring the continued viability of nuclear power stations by reducing dependence on external fuel supplies. Pyroprocessing is the means whereby the recycle process is accomplished. It can also be applied to the recovery of fuel constituents from spent fuel generated in the process of operation of conventional light water reactor power plants, offering the means to recover the valuable fuel resources remaining in that material.

  12. Development of the object-oriented analysis code for the estimation of material balance in pyrochemical reprocessing process (2). Modification of the code for the analysis of holdup of nuclear materials in the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Nobuo; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2001-04-01

    Pyrochemical reprocessing is thought to be promising process for FBR fuel cycle mainly from the economical viewpoint. However, the material behavior in the process is not clarified enough because of the lack of experimental data. The authors have been developed the object-oriented analysis code for the estimation of material balance in the process, which has the flexible applicability for the change of process flow sheet. The objective of this study is to modify the code so as to analyze the holdup of nuclear materials in the pyrochemical process from the viewpoint of safeguard, because of the possibility of larger amount of the holdup in the process compared with aqueous process. As a result of the modification, the relationship between the production of nuclear materials and its holdup in the process can be evaluated by the code. (author)

  13. Technical-and-economic analysis and optimization of the full flow charts of processing of radioactive wastes on a polyfunctional plant of pyrochemical processing of the spent nuclear fuel of fast reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupalo, V. S.; Chistyakov, V. N.; Kormilitsyn, M. V.; Kormilitsyna, L. A.; Osipenko, A. G.

    2015-12-01

    When considering the full flow charts of processing of radioactive wastes (RAW) on a polyfunctional plant of pyrochemical processing of the spent nuclear fuel of NIIAR fast reactors, we corroborate optimum technical solutions for the preparation of RAW for burial from a standpoint of heat release, dose formation, and technological storage time with allowance for technical-and-economic and ecological indices during the implementation of the analyzed technologies and equipment for processing of all RAW fluxes.

  14. Spent fuel treatment at ANL-West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, K.M.; Benedict, R.W.; Levinskas, D.

    1994-01-01

    At Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-West) there are several thousand kilograms of metallic spent nuclear fuel containing bond sodium. This fuel will be treated in the Fuel Cycle Facility at ANL-West to produce stable waste forms for storage and disposal. The treatment operations will employ a pyrochemical process that also has applications for treating most of the fuel types within the Department of Energy complex. The treatment equipment is in its last stage of readiness, and operations will begin in the Fall of 1994

  15. Chemical Engineering Division Fuel Cycle Programs. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1978. [Advanced solvent extraction; accidents; pyrochemical; radwaste in metal matrix; waste migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M. J.; Ader, M.; Barletta, R. E.

    1979-12-01

    Fuel cycle studies reported include development of centrifugal contactors for Purex processes. Tricaprylmethyl-ammonium nitrate and di-n-amyl-n-amylphosphonate are being evaluated as Thorex extractants. Dispersion of uranium and plutonium by fires, and mechanisms for subdividing and dispersing liquids and solids were reviewed. In the pyrochemical and dry processing program, a facility for testing containment materials is under construction; a flowsheet for carbide fuel processing has been designed and studies of carbide reactions in bismuth are underway; salt transport processes are being studied; process-size refractory metal vessels are being fabricated; the feasibility of AIROX reprocessing is being determined; the solubility of UO/sub 2/, UO/sub 2/ + fission products, and PuO/sub 2/ in molten alkali metal nitrates, has been investigated; a flowsheet was developed for reprocessing actinide oxides in molten salts; preparation of Th-U carbide from the oxide is being studied; new flowsheets based on the Dow Aluminum Pyrometallurgical process for reprocessing of spent uranium metal fuel have been prepared; the chloride volitility processing of thorium-based fuels is being studied; the reprocessing of (Th,U)O/sub 2/ solid solution in KCl-LiCl-ThCl/sub 4/-Th is being studied; and a flowsheet for processing spent nuclear fuel in molten tin has been constructed. Leach rates of simulated encapsulated waste forms in a metal matrix were studied. Nine criteria for handling waste cladding hulls were established. Strontium and tin migration in glauconite columns was measured. Radioactive Sr in a stream of water moved through oolitic limestone as rapidly as water, but in a stream of water equilibrated with the limestone, Sr moved through the limestone one-tenth as fast. Migration of trace quantities of Cs and I through kaolinite was studied. 88 figures, 53 tables.

  16. Properties of the LiCl-KCl-Li2O system as operating medium for pyro-chemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullabaev, Albert; Tkacheva, Olga; Shishkin, Vladimir; Kovrov, Vadim; Zaikov, Yuriy; Sukhanov, Leonid; Mochalov, Yuriy

    2018-03-01

    Crystallization temperatures (liquidus and solidus) in the LiCl-Li2O and (LiCl-KCl)-Li2O systems with the KCl content of 10 and 20 mol.% were obtained with independent methods of thermal analysis using cooling curves, isothermal saturation, and differential scanning calorimetry. The linear sweep voltammetry was applied to control the time of the equilibrium establishment in the molten system after the Li2O addition, which depended on the composition of the base melt and the concentration of Li2O. The fragments of the binary LiCl-Li2O and quazi-binary [LiCl-KCl(10 mol.%)]-Li2O and [LiCl-KCl(20 mol.%)]-Li2O phase diagrams in the Li2O concentration range from 0 to 12 mol.% were obtained. The KCl presence in the LiCl-KCl-Li2O molten mixture in the amount of 10 and 20 mol.% reduces the liquidus temperature by 30 and 80°, respectively, but the region of the homogeneous molten state of the system is considerably narrowed, which complicates its practical application. The Li2O solubility in the molten LiCl, LiCl-KCl(10 mol.%) and LiCl-KCl(20 mol.%) decreases with increasing the KCl content and is equal to 11.5, 7.7 and 3.9 mol.% at 650°С, respectively. The LiCl-KCl melt with 10 mol.% KCl can be recommended for practical use as a medium for the SNF pyro-chemical reprocessing at temperature below 700 °C.

  17. Review of the literature for dry reprocessing oxide, metal, and carbide fuel: The AIROX, RAHYD, and CARBOX pyrochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyt, R.C.; Rhee, B.W. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Energy Systems Group

    1979-09-30

    The state of the art of dry processing oxide, carbide, and metal fuel has been determined through an extensive literature review. Dry processing in one of the most proliferation resistant fuel reprocessing technologies available to date, and is one of the few which can be exported to other countries. Feasibility has been established for oxide, carbide, and metal fuel on a laboratory scale, and large-scale experiments on oxide and carbide fuel have shown viability of the dry processing concept. A complete dry processing cycle has been demonstrated by multicycle processing-refabrication-reirradiation experiments on oxide fuel. Additional experimental work is necessary to: (1) demonstrate the complete fuel cycle for carbide and metal fuel, (2) optimize dry processing conditions, and (3) establish fission product behavior. Dry process waste management is easier than for an aqueous processing facility since wastes are primarily solids and gases. Waste treatment can be accomplished by techniques which have been, or are being, developed for aqueous plants.

  18. International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Development of Computational Models for Pyrochemical Electrorefiners of Nuclear Waste Transmutation Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, M.F.; Kim, K.-R.

    2010-01-01

    In support of closing the nuclear fuel cycle using non-aqueous separations technology, this project aims to develop computational models of electrorefiners based on fundamental chemical and physical processes. Spent driver fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) is currently being electrorefined in the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). And Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is developing electrorefining technology for future application to spent fuel treatment and management in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Electrorefining is a critical component of pyroprocessing, a non-aqueous chemical process which separates spent fuel into four streams: (1) uranium metal, (2) U/TRU metal, (3) metallic high-level waste containing cladding hulls and noble metal fission products, and (4) ceramic high-level waste containing sodium and active metal fission products. Having rigorous yet flexible electrorefiner models will facilitate process optimization and assist in trouble-shooting as necessary. To attain such models, INL/UI has focused on approaches to develop a computationally-light and portable two-dimensional (2D) model, while KAERI/SNU has investigated approaches to develop a computationally intensive three-dimensional (3D) model for detailed and fine-tuned simulation.

  19. Pyro-chemistry within the FP7 ACSEPT Project-Program and Objective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravaca, Concha [CIEMAT/Nuclear Fission Division/URAA, Avda. Complutense, 22.Madrid 28040 (Spain); Bourg, Stephane [CEA/DEN/MAR/DRCP, CEA Marcoule. BP17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    Actinide recycling by partitioning and transmutation is considered as one of the most promising strategies to reduce the inventory of radioactive waste, thus contributing to make nuclear energy sustainable. To make advances beyond the current state of the art in pyrochemical separations processes, the Domain 2 (DM2) of ACSEPT has been built on considering a process approach based on system studied. Four work packages that represent the main steps of a process block diagram have been identified: head-end steps, core process development, and salt treatment for recycling and waste conditioning. The results obtained in this domain will be integrated in DM 3 (Process) in order to orientate the R and D studies of DM2 and to propose and validate flowsheets at the end of the project. The state of the art on pyrochemical separation within the European Community and the working program of ACSEPT in pyrometallurgy are presented in this work. (authors)

  20. Testing of pyrochemical centrifugal contactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, L.S.; Carls, E.L.; Basco, J.K.; Johnson, T.R.

    1996-01-01

    A centrifugal contactor that performs oxidation and reduction exchange reactions between molten metals and salts at 500 degrees Centigrade has been tested successfully at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The design is based on contactors for aqueous- organic systems operation near room temperature. In tests to demonstrate the performance of the pyrocontactor, cadmium and LICl-KCl eutectic salt were the immiscible solvent phases, and rare earths were the distributing solutes. The tests showed that the pyrocontactor mixed and separated the phases well, with stage efficiencies approaching 99% at rotor speeds near 2700 rpm. The contactor ran smoothly and reliably over the entire range of speeds that was tested

  1. Conceptual design of the alcohol waste treatment equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Morio; Nitta, Kazuhiko; Morita, Yasuhiro; Nakada, Eiju

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the result of Conceptual Design of the Alcohol Waste Treatment Equipment. The experimental fast Reactor, JOYO, saves the radioactive alcohol waste at storage tank. As this alcohol waste is not able to treat with existing equipment, it is stored about 5 m 3 . And the amount of this is increasing every year. So it is necessary to treat the alcohol waste by chemical resolution for example. On account of this, the investigative test about filtration and dialyzer, and conceptual design about catalyst oxidation process, which is composed from head end process to resolution, are done. The results of investigation show as follows. 1. Investigative Test about filtration and dialyzer. (1) The electric conduction is suitable for the judgement of alkyl sodium hydrolysis Alkyl sodium hydrolysis is completed below 39% alcohol concentration. (2) The microfiltration is likely to separate the solid in alcohol waste. (3) From laboratory test, the electrodialyzer is effective for sodium separation in alcohol waste. And sodium remove rate, 96-99%, is confirmed. 2. Conceptual Design. The candidate process is as follows. (1) The head end process is electrodialyzer, and chemical resolution process is catalyst oxidation. (2) The head end process is not installed, and chemical resolution process is catalyst oxidation. (3) The head end process is electrodialyzer, and alcohol extracted by pervaporation. In this Conceptual Design, as far these process, the components, treatment ability, properties of waste, chemical mass balance, safety for fire and explosion, and the plot plan are investigated. As a result, remodeling the existing facility into catalyst oxidation process is effective to treat the alcohol waste, and treatment ability is about 1.25 l/h. (author)

  2. Head-end reprocessing equipment remote maintenance demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.H.; Metz, C.F. III.

    1989-01-01

    Prototype equipment for reprocessing breeder reactor nuclear fuel was installed in the Remote Operation and Maintenance Demonstration (ROMD) area of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in order to evaluate the design of this equipment in a cold mock-up of a remotely maintained hot cell. This equipment included the Remote Disassembly System (RDS) and the Remote Shear System (RSS). These systems were disassembled and reassembled remotely by using the extensive remote handling systems that are installed in this simulated hot-cell environment. 5 refs., 5 figs

  3. Specialists' meeting on gas-cooled reactor fuel development and spent fuel treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-07-01

    Topics covered during the 'Specialists' meeting on gas-cooled reactor fuel development and spent fuel treatment' were as follows: Selection of constructions and materials, fuel element development concepts; Fabrication of spherical coated fuel particles and fuel element on their base; investigation of fuel properties; Spent fuel treatment and storage; Head-end processing of HTGR fuel elements; investigation of HTGR fuel regeneration process; applicability of gas-fluorine technology of regeneration of spent HTGR fuel elements.

  4. Specialists' meeting on gas-cooled reactor fuel development and spent fuel treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Topics covered during the 'Specialists' meeting on gas-cooled reactor fuel development and spent fuel treatment' were as follows: Selection of constructions and materials, fuel element development concepts; Fabrication of spherical coated fuel particles and fuel element on their base; investigation of fuel properties; Spent fuel treatment and storage; Head-end processing of HTGR fuel elements; investigation of HTGR fuel regeneration process; applicability of gas-fluorine technology of regeneration of spent HTGR fuel elements

  5. Selective Trapping of Volatile Fission Products with an Off-Gas Treatment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.R. Westphal; J.J. Park; J.M. Shin; G.I. Park; K.J. Bateman; D.L. Wahlquist

    2008-07-01

    A head-end processing step, termed DEOX for its emphasis on decladding via oxidation, is being developed for the treatment of spent oxide fuel by pyroprocessing techniques. The head-end step employs high temperatures to oxidize UO2 to U3O8 resulting in the separation of fuel from cladding and the removal of volatile fission products. Development of the head-end step is being performed in collaboration with the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) through an International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Following the initial experimentation for the removal of volatile fission products, an off-gas treatment system was designed in conjunction with KAERI to collect specific fission gases. The primary volatile species targeted for trapping were iodine, technetium, and cesium. Each species is intended to be collected in distinct zones of the off-gas system and within those zones, on individual filters. Separation of the volatile off-gases is achieved thermally as well as chemically given the composition of the filter media. A description of the filter media and a basis for its selection will be given along with the collection mechanisms and design considerations. In addition, results from testing with the off-gas treatment system will be presented.

  6. Development of a vacuum distillation process for Pu pyro-chemistry spent salts treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourges, G.; Lambertin, D.; Baudrot, C.; Pescayre, L.; Thiebaut, C.

    2004-01-01

    The pyrochemical purification of plutonium has generated spent salts, which are disposed in nuclear facility. To reduce stored quantities, the development of a pyrochemical treatment is in progress. The feed salt, typically composed of various Pu and Am species spread into monovalent or divalent chloride matrix, is first oxidized to convert the actinides into oxides. Then the chlorides are separated from the actinide oxides by vacuum distillation. Temperatures higher than 750 deg C for mono-chloride salts mixture NaCl/KCl and higher than 1100 deg C for divalent CaCl 2 base salts, are required to produce an industrial flow of vaporization. Inactive qualification of the process for NaCl/KCl base salt has been carried with lanthanide surrogates. Then, a pilot equipment, called Distillator has been designed and built for production-scale distillation of NaCl/KCl and CaCl 2 oxidized plutonium salts. Industrial flows of vaporization have been obtained with this pilot equipment: about 4 g/cm 2 /h for NaCl/KCl at 800 - 900 deg C and 1 Pa, and more than 1.5 g/cm 2 /h for CaCl 2 base salts between 1000 - 1200 deg C at 0.1 Pa. The last step will be the integration of the Distillator into a glove box. (authors)

  7. Development of the system for the estimation of materials flow in pyrochemical reprocessing plant. Characteristic evaluation of the oxide electrowinning plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Nobuo; Tozawa, Katuhiro; Sato, Koji

    2002-07-01

    The operation of the plant with the non-aqueous reprocessing technology depends on the materials handling equipment closely. Because the value of decontamination factor of the products in the plant is low, treatment of nuclear materials requires remote operation technology. So the system for the evaluation of materials flow in the plant was built to evaluate the production ability of the plant and to check out the plant operation from the viewpoint of materials flow. The system is only based on information of the treatment abilities of materials handling machines and process installations and the arrangement of process installations in the reprocessing cell that influences a way to operate materials handling machines intensity. Therefore the system can be used to estimate the characteristics of non-aqueous plants that are not in detail design stage. The amount of production and the characteristics of the oxide electrowinning plant (operation term 200days/year, plant capacity 50tHM/year in design) designed in Feasibility Study Phase1 were estimated using the system. The results show that the practical amount of production of the plant design is about 88% of the designed value. To increase the amount of production, it is more useful to speed up materials handling machine time than to install new installation or to give priority to conduct bottleneck processes. It is because materials handling influences the production ability of the plant deeply. (author)

  8. Waste Minimization Study on Pyrochemical Reprocessing Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussier, H.; Conocar, O.; Lacquement, J.

    2006-01-01

    Ideally a new pyro-process should not generate more waste, and should be at least as safe and cost effective as the hydrometallurgical processes currently implemented at industrial scale. This paper describes the thought process, the methodology and some results obtained by process integration studies to devise potential pyro-processes and to assess their capability of achieving this challenging objective. As example the assessment of a process based on salt/metal reductive extraction, designed for the reprocessing of Generation IV carbide spent fuels, is developed. Salt/metal reductive extraction uses the capability of some metals, aluminum in this case, to selectively reduce actinide fluorides previously dissolved in a fluoride salt bath. The reduced actinides enter the metal phase from which they are subsequently recovered; the fission products remain in the salt phase. In fact, the process is not so simple, as it requires upstream and downstream subsidiary steps. All these process steps generate secondary waste flows representing sources of actinide leakage and/or FP discharge. In aqueous processes the main solvent (nitric acid solution) has a low boiling point and evaporate easily or can be removed by distillation, thereby leaving limited flow containing the dissolved substance behind to be incorporated in a confinement matrix. From the point of view of waste generation, one main handicap of molten salt processes, is that the saline phase (fluoride in our case) used as solvent is of same nature than the solutes (radionuclides fluorides) and has a quite high boiling point. So it is not so easy, than it is with aqueous solutions, to separate solvent and solutes in order to confine only radioactive material and limit the final waste flows. Starting from the initial block diagram devised two years ago, the paper shows how process integration studies were able to propose process fittings which lead to a reduction of the waste variety and flows leading at an 'ideal' new block diagram allowing internal solvent recycling, and self eliminating reactants. This new flowsheet minimizes the quantity of inactive inlet flows that would have inevitably to be incorporated in a final waste form. The study identifies all knowledge gaps to be filled and suggest some possible R and D issues to confirm or infirm the feasibility of the proposed process fittings. (authors)

  9. Study of the pyrochemical treatment-recycling process of the Molten Salt Reactor fuel; Estudio de sistema de un proceso de tratamiento-reciclaje piroquimico del combustible de un reactor de sales fundidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussier, H.; Heuer, D.

    2010-07-01

    The Separation Processes Studies Laboratory (Commissariat a l'energie Atomique) has made a preliminary assessment of the reprocessing system associated with Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR). The scheme studied in this paper is based on the principle of reductive extraction and metal transfer that constituted the core process designed for the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR), although the flow diagram has been adapted to the current needs of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR).

  10. Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa M. Raghab

    2013-08-01

    The main goal of this study is to utilize a natural low cost material “as an accelerator additive to enhance the chemical treatment process using Alum coagulant and the accelerator substances were Perlite and Bentonite. The performance of the chemical treatment was enhanced using the accelerator substances with 90 mg/l Alum as a constant dose. Perlite gave better performance than the Bentonite effluent. The removal ratio for conductivity, turbidity, BOD and COD for Perlite was 86.7%, 87.4%, 89.9% and 92.8% respectively, and for Bentonite was 83.5%, 85.0%, 86.5% and 85.0% respectively at the same concentration of 40 mg/l for each.

  11. Study of treatment scenarios for fuel debris removed from Fukushima Daiichi NPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washiya, Tadahiro; Yano, Kimihiko; Kaji, Naoya; Yamada, Seiya; Kamiya, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, a severe nuclear accident occurred at Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO)’s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (hereinafter called as F1). After the accident, the Council for the Decommissioning was established, mainly by the government and TEPCO, and a road map for the F1 decommissioning was drawn up. In the road map, the fuel debris removal from the reactors is scheduled to launch around 2020. In this study, the characteristics and technological issues of each potential treatment scenario were extracted, and the scenarios were prioritized in advance of formal evaluations in the future. The preliminary evaluation results show that long term storage and direct disposal have more positive aspects in terms of economic efficiency and radioactive waste generation. On the other hand, stabilizing processing, aqueous processing, and pyrochemical processing have been estimated to have more disadvantages in such aspects. (author)

  12. Hydrometallurgical treatment of plutonium. Bearing salt baths waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bros, P.; Gozlan, J.P.; Lecomte, M.; Bourges, J.

    1993-01-01

    The salt flux issuing from the electrorefining of plutonium metal alloy in salt baths (KCI + NaCI) poses a difficult problem of the back-end alpha waste management. An alternative to the salt process promoted by Los Alamos Laboratory is to develop a hydrometallurgical treatment. A new process based on the electrochemistry technique in aqueous solution has been defined and tested successfully in the CEA. The diagram of the process exhibits two principal steps: in the head-end, a dissolution in HNO 3 medium accompanied with an electrolytic dechlorination leading to a quantitative elimination of chloride as CI 2 gas followed by its trapping one soda lime cartridge, a complete oxidative dissolution of the refractory Pu residues by electrogenerated Ag(II), in the back-end: the Pu and Am recoveries by chromatographic extractions. (authors). 10 figs., 9 refs

  13. HTR combustion head end comparison of the shaft furnace and fluidized bed processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnert, R.; Kaiser, G.; Pirk, H.; Tillessen, U.

    1975-01-15

    Two methods are described for the combustion of the graphite of HTR fuel elements, a sufficient description of the principles being given to permit an understanding of the processes. The present state of the technology of the two processes is then compared on the basis of the results obtained at Gulf General Atomic. Finally, the possibilities of further development are examined using a pilot plant designed to deliver a reactor power of 7000 MWe as the basis. The present report is a collection of facts. It contains neither an evaluation nor a recommendation. A summarized comparison of the state of the technology and the possibilities of development is given in tabular form.

  14. Nuclear fuel cycle head-end enriched uranium purification and conversion into metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonini, A.; Cabrejas, J.; Lio, L. de; Dell'Occhio, L.; Devida, C.; Dupetit, G.; Falcon, M.; Gauna, A.; Gil, D.; Guzman, G.; Neuringer, P.; Pascale, A.; Stankevicius, A.

    1998-01-01

    The CNEA (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica - Argentina) operated two facilities at the Ezeiza Atomic Center which supply purified enriched uranium employed in the production of nuclear fuels. At one of those facilities, the Triple Height Laboratory scraps from the production of MTR type fuel elements (mainly out of specification U 3 O 8 plates or powder) are purified to nuclear grade. The purification is accomplished by a solvent extraction process. The other facility, the Enriched Uranium Laboratory produces 90% enriched uranium metal to be used in Mo 99 production (originally the uranium was used for the manufacture of MTR fuel elements made of aluminium-uranium alloy). This laboratory also provided metallic uranium with a lower enrichment (20%) for a first uranium-silicon testing fuel element, and in the near future it is going to recommence 20% enriched uranium related activities in order to provide the metal for the silicon-based fuel elements production (according to the policy of enrichment reduction for MTR reactors). (author)

  15. TRISO-coated spent fuel processing using a Grind-Leach head-end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Barry B.; Del Cul, Guillermo D.; Mattus, Catherine H.; Collins, Emory D.

    2005-01-01

    Processing of TRISO-coated HTGR fuels with the grind-leach process requires that the fuel be finely pulverized for efficient and effective acid dissolution of the fuel components. Mechanical size reduction of the fuel is being investigated with jet mill technology as the final milling step. Laboratory experiments were performed with surrogates of crushed fuel compacts that indicate that milling to very small particle sizes is feasible. The size distribution of the milled product is sensitive to the solids feed rate, and the distribution may be bimodal which could support an effective solid-solid separation. (author)

  16. The development of automated fuel dismantling equipment for a future head-end plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberlin, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    For future reprocessing plants, practicable methods for dismantling fuel elements are being examined at Springfields Nuclear Power Development Laboratories which would meet the requirements of a high throughput facility. This paper contains the initial results of an experimental programme undertaken to develop and evaluate an automated high speed single/multiple pin extraction unit. Concomitant parts of the programme include the design and evaluation of single and multi-pin extraction chucks. Dummy fuel elements, a 325 pin gridded LMFBR assembly and a 17 x 17 pin gridded LWR assembly were used to assess process efficacy

  17. The implementation of a burnup credit based criticality safety assessment in the THORP head end plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulliford, J.; Edge, J.A.; Gracey, J.; Harris, N.

    2003-01-01

    A new criticality safety assessment based on Actinide-Only Burnup Credit has been developed to cover operations in BNFL's Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP). Reduction of the gadolinium concentration leads to significant reduction in active waste volumes. Detailed description of the methodology was presented at ICNC 1999 and the basic components of the approved safety case have remained unchanged from those proposed then. This paper presents a brief summary of the new methodology, and describes further analyses carried out to quantify additional safety margins. These additional margins are not credited in the derivation of the operating limits, but provide further evidence of the fault tolerance inherent in the new regime. As part of the arrangements to monitor the overall performance of the plant and instrumentation under the new regime, various analyses of plant data are made, including 'on-line' cross checks of measured versus expected fuel parameters (i.e. in addition to the checks on Residual Enrichment). Statistical analyses of data are made and compared with similar data from earlier batches. A summary of analyses made on some of the early fuel batches is presented here. A summary of the likely further development in the Burnup Credit methodology is given in this paper. (author)

  18. Aerosol and iodine removal from the head-end offgas of a reprocessing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furrer, J.; Wilhelm, J.C.

    The offgases of a reprocessing facility must be cleaned, removing liquid and solid suspended matter, gaseous iodine and ruthenium (in the form of RuO 4 ), and the noble gases and tritium. Suspended particulates which call for radiation protection are those radioisotopes like the actinides Pu, Am, and Cm, and other radioisotopes such as 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 89 Sr, 90 Sr and 144 Ce

  19. Waste form development and characterization in pyrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, J.

    1998-01-01

    Electrometallurgical treatment is a compact, inexpensive method that is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory to deal with spent nuclear fuel, primarily metallic and oxide fuels. In this method, metallic nuclear fuel constituents are electrorefined in a molten salt to separate uranium from the rest of the spent fuel. Oxide and other fuels are subjected to appropriate head end steps to convert them to metallic form prior to electrorefining. The treatment process generates two kinds of high-level waste--a metallic and a ceramic waste. Isolation of these wastes has been developed as an integral part of the process. The wastes arise directly from the electrorefiner, and waste streams do not contain large quantities of solvent or other process fluids. Consequently, waste volumes are small and waste isolation processes can be compact and rapid. This paper briefly summarizes waste isolation processes then describes development and characterization of the two waste forms in more detail

  20. Formulation of engineering design principles for the treatment of irradiated fuel and associated radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banford, A.W.; Hanson, B.C.; Scully, P.J.; Taylor, R.

    2007-01-01

    The industrial scale treatment of irradiated fuel in the UK has resulted in BNFL developing extensive experience of the process design, build, commissioning, and operation necessary for successful nuclear processing plant. Much of the design experience now resides in Nexia Solutions (formally BNFL Research and Development Division) who have always defined and undertaken the extensive development programmes necessary to underpin the design at all stages of the project life-cycle. Since the 1990's, Nexia Solutions has built up a large portfolio of plant designs for a range of spent fuel applications, from fuel conditioning to partitioning and transmutation. In addition, by investigation of a large and diverse portfolio of technologies Nexia Solutions has developed innovative concepts for plant design that could present significant economic savings on conventional approaches. Using this experience and the lessons learned, we have developed and refined our own engineering design principles necessary for the successful design of commercial spent fuel and waste treatment plant. Our approach is to advocate an integral concept, with both science and engineering designs working in parallel during development. 4 foundation principles for success have been identified: -) understand the strategic objective, -) adopt a risk driven programme, -) engage in engineering activities early, and -) timely application of appropriate engineering methodologies. 2 Case studies presented in this paper: first, the BNFL segregated effluent treatment plant and secondly, the selection of a pyrochemical process for recycle of fast reactor, demonstrate how this approach has been adopted and the benefits that have been gained

  1. Use of ion conductors in the pyrochemical reduction of oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.E.; Tomczuk, Z.

    1994-01-01

    An electrochemical process and electrochemical cell for reducing a metal oxide are provided. First the oxide is separated as oxygen gas using, for example, a ZrO 2 oxygen ion conductor anode and the metal ions from the reduction salt are reduced and deposited on an ion conductor cathode, for example, sodium ion reduced on a β-alumina sodium ion conductor cathode. The generation of and separation of oxygen gas avoids the problem with chemical back reaction of oxygen with active metals in the cell. The method also is characterized by a sequence of two steps where an inert cathode electrode is inserted into the electrochemical cell in the second step and the metallic component in the ion conductor is then used as the anode to cause electrochemical reduction of the metal ions formed in the first step from the metal oxide where oxygen gas formed at the anode. The use of ion conductors serves to isolate the active components from chemically reacting with certain chemicals in the cell. While applicable to a variety of metal oxides, the invention has special importance for reducing CaO to Ca o used for reducing UO 2 and PuO 2 to U and Pu. 2 figures

  2. Evaluation of alkali bromide salts for potential pyrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, P.K.; Gutknecht, T.Y.; Herrmann, S.D.; Fredrickson, G.L.; Lister, T.E.

    2013-01-01

    Transient techniques were employed to study the electrochemical behavior, reduction mechanism and transport properties of REBr 3 (RE - La, Nd and Gd) in pure LiBr, LiBr-KBr (eutectic) and LiBr-KBr-CsBr (eutectic) melts. Gd(III) showed a reversible single step soluble-insoluble exchange phenomenon in LiBr melt at 973 K. Although La (III), Nd(III) and Gd(III) ions showed reversible behavior in eutectic LiBr-KBr melts, these ions showed a combination of temperature dependent reversible and pseudo-reversible behavior. While both La(III) and Gd(III) showed one step reduction, the reduction of Nd(III) was observed to be a two step process. La metal could be electrodeposited from the ternary electrolyte at a temperature of 673 K. Various electrochemical measurements suggest that both binary and ternary bromide melts can potentially be used to electro-deposit high purity RE metals at comparatively lower operating temperatures. (authors)

  3. Pyrochemical recovery of easily reducible species from spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouault, C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the reprocessing of spent fuel is to separate noble metals and other easily reducible species, actinides and lanthanides. A thermodynamic and bibliographical study allowed us to elaborate a process which realises these separations in several steps. The experimental validation of the steps concerning the extraction of noble metals and easily reducible species required to imagine an apparatus which is conformed to the study of the two steps in question: the reduction by a gas of fission product oxides and the extraction of the metallic particles, obtained by reduction, by digestion in a liquid metal. Experiments on digestion, carried on molybdenum and ruthenium particles, allowed us to conclude that the transfer of metallic particles from a molten salt into a liquid metal is ruled by phenomena of complex wettability between the metallic particle, the molten salt, the liquid metal and the gas. The transfer from the salt to the metal is a chain of two steps: emersion of the particles from the salt to go into the gas, and then transfer from the gas into the metal. Kinetics are limited by the transfer through the metal surface. Kinetics study withdrew the experimental parameters and the metals properties which influence the digestion rate. A model on the transfer into a liquid metal of a particle trapped at the fluid/metal interface ratified the experimental conclusions and informed on the stirring influence. All the results allow us to think that the extraction of noble metals and easily reducible species are feasible in this way. (author) [fr

  4. Electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides in pyrochemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castrillejo, Y.; Fernandez, P.; Medina, J.; Hernandez, P.; Barrado, E.

    2011-01-01

    This work concerns the electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides. In this way, the electrochemical behaviour of samarium ions has been investigated in the eutectic LiCl-KCl at the surface of tungsten, aluminium and aluminium coated tungsten electrodes. On a W inert electrode the electro-reduction of Sm(III) takes place in only one soluble-soluble electrochemical step Sm(III)/Sm(II). The electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) has not been observed within the electrochemical window, because of the prior reduction of Li(I) ions from the solvent, which inhibits the electro-extraction of Sm species from the salt on such a substrate. Sm metal in contact with the melt react to give Li(0) according to the reaction: Sm(0) + 2Li(I) ↔ Sm(II) + 2Li(0). On the contrary, on reactive Al electrodes the electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) was observed within the electroactive range. The potential shift of the redox couple is caused by the decrease of Sm activity in the metal phase due to the formation of Sm-Al alloys at the interface. The formation mechanism of the intermetallic compounds was studied in a melt containing: (i) both Sm(III) and Al(III) ions, using W and Al coated tungsten electrodes, and (ii) Sm(III) ions using an Al electrode. Analysis of the samples after potentiostatic electrolysis by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), allowed the identification of Al 3 Sm and Al 2 Sm.

  5. Electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides in pyrochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrillejo, Y., E-mail: ycastril@qa.uva.es [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Fernandez, P. [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Medina, J. [Dept Fisica Materia Condensada Cristalografia y Mineralogia, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Hernandez, P. [Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carr. Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, C.P. 42076 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Barrado, E. [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)

    2011-10-01

    This work concerns the electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides. In this way, the electrochemical behaviour of samarium ions has been investigated in the eutectic LiCl-KCl at the surface of tungsten, aluminium and aluminium coated tungsten electrodes. On a W inert electrode the electro-reduction of Sm(III) takes place in only one soluble-soluble electrochemical step Sm(III)/Sm(II). The electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) has not been observed within the electrochemical window, because of the prior reduction of Li(I) ions from the solvent, which inhibits the electro-extraction of Sm species from the salt on such a substrate. Sm metal in contact with the melt react to give Li(0) according to the reaction: Sm(0) + 2Li(I) {r_reversible} Sm(II) + 2Li(0). On the contrary, on reactive Al electrodes the electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) was observed within the electroactive range. The potential shift of the redox couple is caused by the decrease of Sm activity in the metal phase due to the formation of Sm-Al alloys at the interface. The formation mechanism of the intermetallic compounds was studied in a melt containing: (i) both Sm(III) and Al(III) ions, using W and Al coated tungsten electrodes, and (ii) Sm(III) ions using an Al electrode. Analysis of the samples after potentiostatic electrolysis by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), allowed the identification of Al{sub 3}Sm and Al{sub 2}Sm.

  6. Evaluation of Alkali Bromide Salts for Potential Pyrochemical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhat K. Tripathy; Steven D. Herrmann; Guy L. Fredrickson; Tedd E. Lister; Toni Y. Gutknecht

    2013-10-01

    Transient techniques were employed to study the electrochemical behavior, reduction mechanism and transport properties of REBr3 (RE - La, Nd and Gd) in pure LiBr, LiBr-KBr (eutectic) and LiBr-KBr-CsBr (eutectic) melts. Gd(III) showed a reversible single step soluble-insoluble exchange phenomenon in LiBr melt at 973K. Although La (III), Nd(III) and Gd(III) ions showed reversible behavior in eutectic LiBr-KBr melts, these ions showed a combination of temperature dependent reversible and pseudo-reversible behavior. While both La(III) and Gd(III) showed one step reduction, the reduction of Nd(III) was observed to be a two step process. La metal could be electrodeposited from the ternary electrolyte at a temperature of 673K. Various electrochemical measurements suggest that both binary and ternary bromide melts can potentially be used to electrodeposit high purity RE metals at comparatively lower operating temperatures.

  7. Dissolution of uranium oxide TBP-HNO3 complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Mineo; Kosaka, Yuji; Mori, Yukihide; Shimada, Takashi

    2002-12-01

    As a head end process for the pulverization of the spent fuel, the mechanical method (the shredder method) and the pyro-chemical method (oxidisation heat-treatment) have been examined. UO 2 is a main ingredient of Uranium oxide powder by the mechanical method, and U 3 O 8 is that by the pyro-chemical method. Moreover, the particle size of the pulverized powder depend on the conditions of the pulverizing process. As it was considered that the difference of dissolution rates of samples was caused by the difference of sample chemical forms and dissolution temperature, parametric surveys on chemical form and particle size of powder and dissolution temperature were carried out, and the following results were obtained. 1) The remarkable difference of dissolution rate between U 3 O 8 powder (average particle size 3.7 μm) and UO 2 powder (average particle size 2.4 μm) which have comparatively similar particle size was not observed. 2) It was confirmed that the dissolution rate became lower according to the particle size increase (average particle size 2.4 μm-1 mm). And it was considered that dissolution rate had strong dependency on particle size, according to the results that the powder with 1 mm particle size did not dissolute completely after 5 hours test. 3) The temperature dependency of the dissolution rate was confirmed by dissolution test with UO 2 powder (average particle size 2.4 μm-1 mm). The higher dissolution rate was obtained in the higher dissolution temperature, and 11 kcal/mol was obtained as activation energy of dissolution. 4) In the dissolution test of UO 2 powder, the nitric acid concentration started to change earlier than that of U 3 O 8 powder and concentration change range became larger compared with that in the dissolution test of U 3 O 8 powder. It was considered that those differences were caused by difference in mole ratio of Uranium and nitric acid which are consumed in the dissolution reaction (3:7 for U 3 O 8 , 3:8 for UO 2 ). 5) In case

  8. Basic design of alpha aqueous waste treatment process in NUCEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineo, Hideaki; Matsumura, Tatsuro; Nishizawa, Ichio; Mitsui, Takeshi; Ueki, Hiroyuki; Wada, Atsushi; Sakai, Ichita; Takeshita, Isao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Nishimura, Kenji

    1996-11-01

    This paper described the basic design of Alpha Aqueous Waste Treatment Process in NUCEF. Since various experiments using the TRU (transuranium) elements are carried out in NUCEF, wastes containing TRU elements arise. The liquid wastes in NUCEF are categorized into three types. Decontamination and volume reduction of the liquid waste mainly of recovery water from acid recovery process which has lowest radioactive concentration is the most important task, because the arising rate of the waste is large. The major function of the Alpha Aqueous Waste Treatment Process is to decontaminate the radioactive concentration below the level which is allowed to discharge into sea. Prior the process design of this facility, the followings are evaluated:property and arising rate of the liquid waste, room space to install and licensing condition. Considering varieties of liquid wastes and their large volume, the very high decontamination factor was proposed by a process of multiple evaporation supported with filtration and adsorption in the head end part and reverse osmosis in the distillate part. (author)

  9. A reactive distillation process for the treatment of LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt containing rare earth chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eun, H.C., E-mail: ehc2004@kaeri.re.kr; Choi, J.H.; Kim, N.Y.; Lee, T.K.; Han, S.Y.; Lee, K.R.; Park, H.S.; Ahn, D.H.

    2016-11-15

    The pyrochemical process, which recovers useful resources (U/TRU metals) from used nuclear fuel using an electrochemical method, generates LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt containing radioactive rare earth chlorides (RECl{sub 3}). It is necessary to develop a simple process for the treatment of LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt in a hot-cell facility. For this reason, a reactive distillation process using a chemical agent was achieved as a method to separate rare earths from the LiCl-KCl waste salt. Before conducting the reactive distillation, thermodynamic equilibrium behaviors of the reactions between rare earth (Nd, La, Ce, Pr) chlorides and the chemical agent (K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) were predicted using software. The addition of the chemical agent was determined to separate the rare earth chlorides into an oxide form using these equilibrium results. In the reactive distillation test, the rare earth chlorides in LiCl-KCl eutectic salt were decontaminated at a decontamination factor (DF) of more than 5000, and were mainly converted into oxide (Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeO{sub 2}, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3}) or oxychloride (LaOCl, PrOCl) forms. The LiCl-KCl was purified into a form with a very low concentration (<1 ppm) for the rare earth chlorides.

  10. The role of errors in the measurements performed at the reprocessing plant head-end for material accountancy purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foggi, C.; Liebetrau, A.M.; Petraglia, E.

    1999-01-01

    One of the most common procedures used in determining the amount of nuclear material contained in solutions consists of first measuring the volume and the density of the solution, and then determining the concentrations of this material. This presentation will focus on errors generated at the process lime in the measurement of volume and density. These errors and their associated uncertainties can be grouped into distinct categories depending on their origin: those attributable to measuring instruments; those attributable to operational procedures; variability in measurement conditions; errors in the analysis and interpretation of results. Possible errors sources, their relative magnitudes, and an error propagation rationale are discussed, with emphasis placed on bases and errors of the last three types called systematic errors [ru

  11. UK regulatory perspective on the application of burn-up credit to the BNFL thorp head end plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simister, D.N.; Clemson, P.D.

    2003-01-01

    In the UK the Health and Safety Executive, which incorporates the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII), is responsible for regulation of safety on nuclear sites. This paper reports progress made in the application and development of a UK regulatory position for assessing licensee's plant safety caes which invoke the use of Burn-up Credit for criticality applications. The NII's principles and strategy for the assessment of this technical area have been developed over a period of time following expressions of interest from UK industry and subsequent involvement in the international collaborations and debate in this area. This experience has now been applied to the first main plant safety case application claiming Burn-up Credit. This case covers the BNFL Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) dissolver at Sellafield, where dissolved gadolinium neutron poison is used as a criticality control. The case argues for a reduction in gadolinium content by taking credit for the burn-up of input fuel. The UK regulatory process, assessment principles and criteria are briefly outlined, showing the regulatory framework used to review the case. These issues include the fundamental requirement in UK Health and Safety law to demonstrate that risks have been reduced to as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP), the impact on safety margins, compliance and operability procedures, and the need for continuing review. Novel features of methodology, using a ''Residual Enrichment'' and ''Domain Boundary'' approach, were considered and accepted. The underlying validation, both of criticality methodology and isotopic determination, was also reviewed. Compliance was seen to rely heavily on local in-situ measurements of spent fuel used to determine ''Residual Enrichment'' and other parameters, requiring review of the development and basis of the correlations used to underpin the measurement process. Overall, it was concluded that the case as presented was adequate. Gadolinium reduction has been successfully implemented as part of current operational procedures at Sellafield. (author)

  12. Integration of treatment wetlands as sustainable wastewater management systems for small communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahab, M.F.; Surampalli, R.Y. [Univ. of Nebraski-Lincoln, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2002-06-15

    This paper discuses the applicability as well as the integration of the constructed wetlands technology within the environmental infrastructure in small communities. To that end, a case study involving the use of Constructed wetlands (CW) for waste management in the Nebraska plains is presented. CW systems have been shown to be effective treatment alternatives in resource-limited small communities; and hence, can contribute to improving the economic well-being and the sustainability of many small communities. The paper specifically discusses the performance of subsurface-flow constructed wetlands systems used as the wastewater treatment process for a small community in eastern Nebraska and outlines operational experience gained through five years of plant operation. The results show that effective and sufficient CW seasonal removals of TSS, VSS, CBOD{sub 5}, COD, and fecal coliform were achieved. Wastewater temperatures seemed to affect CBOD{sub 5} and COD removal rates. Nitrogen and phosphorus reductions were not as effective and varied seasonally, as well as with wastewater temperature. The addition of a sand filter, to aid in further nitrification and disinfection following CW treatment, markedly improved the performance of the wetlands system. After a few years of operation, the performance of the system was dampened by apparent clogging and subsequent eruption of wastewater at the head-end of the treatment cells. While clogging was partially caused by biomass build-up in the wetlands substrate, visual observations suggest that excessive vegetation and relaxed maintenance may also be responsible. (author)

  13. Integration of treatment wetlands as sustainable wastewater management systems for small communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahab, M.F.; Surampalli, R.Y.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discuses the applicability as well as the integration of the constructed wetlands technology within the environmental infrastructure in small communities. To that end, a case study involving the use of Constructed wetlands (CW) for waste management in the Nebraska plains is presented. CW systems have been shown to be effective treatment alternatives in resource-limited small communities; and hence, can contribute to improving the economic well-being and the sustainability of many small communities. The paper specifically discusses the performance of subsurface-flow constructed wetlands systems used as the wastewater treatment process for a small community in eastern Nebraska and outlines operational experience gained through five years of plant operation. The results show that effective and sufficient CW seasonal removals of TSS, VSS, CBOD 5 , COD, and fecal coliform were achieved. Wastewater temperatures seemed to affect CBOD 5 and COD removal rates. Nitrogen and phosphorus reductions were not as effective and varied seasonally, as well as with wastewater temperature. The addition of a sand filter, to aid in further nitrification and disinfection following CW treatment, markedly improved the performance of the wetlands system. After a few years of operation, the performance of the system was dampened by apparent clogging and subsequent eruption of wastewater at the head-end of the treatment cells. While clogging was partially caused by biomass build-up in the wetlands substrate, visual observations suggest that excessive vegetation and relaxed maintenance may also be responsible. (author)

  14. Electrochemical reduction of CerMet fuels for transmutation using surrogate CeO2-Mo pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claux, B.; Souček, P.; Malmbeck, R.; Rodrigues, A.; Glatz, J.-P.

    2017-08-01

    One of the concepts chosen for the transmutation of minor actinides in Accelerator Driven Systems or fast reactors proposes the use of fuels and targets containing minor actinides oxides embedded in an inert matrix either composed of molybdenum metal (CerMet fuel) or of ceramic magnesium oxide (CerCer fuel). Since the sufficient transmutation cannot be achieved in a single step, it requires multi-recycling of the fuel including recovery of the not transmuted minor actinides. In the present work, a pyrochemical process for treatment of Mo metal inert matrix based CerMet fuels is studied, particularly the electroreduction in molten chloride salt as a head-end step required prior the main separation process. At the initial stage, different inactive pellets simulating the fuel containing CeO2 as minor actinide surrogates were examined. The main studied parameters of the process efficiency were the porosity and composition of the pellets and the process parameters as current density and passed charge. The results indicated the feasibility of the process, gave insight into its limiting parameters and defined the parameters for the future experiment on minor actinide containing material.

  15. Partitioning technologies and actinide science: towards pilot facilities in Europe (ACSEPT project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourg, S.; Hill, C.; Ouvrier, N.

    2010-01-01

    ACSEPT is an essential contribution to the demonstration, in the long term, of the potential benefits of actinide recycling to minimize the burden on the geological repositories. To succeed, ACSEPT is organized into three technical domains: (i) Considering technically mature aqueous separation processes, ACSEPT works to optimize and select the most promising ones dedicated either to actinide partitioning or to grouped actinide separation. A substantial review was undertaken either to be sure that the right molecule families are being studied, or, on the contrary, to identify new candidates. Results of the first hot tests allowed the validation of some process options. (ii) Concerning pyrochemical separation processes, ACSEPT is focused on the enhancement of the two reference cores of process selected within EUROPART with specific attention to the exhaustive electrolysis in molten chloride (quantitative recovery of the actinides with the lowest amount of fission products) and to actinide back-extraction from an An-Al alloy. R and D efforts are also brought to key scientific and technical issues compulsory for building a complete separation process (head-end steps, salt treatment for recycling and waste management). (iii) By integrating all the experimental results within engineering and systems studies, both in hydro and pyro domains, ACSEPT will deliver relevant flowsheets and recommendations to prepare for future demonstration at a pilot level, in relation with strategies developed through the SNE-TP. In addition, a training and education programme is implemented to share the knowledge among the partitioning community and the future generations of researchers

  16. Overview of the Main Achievements of the FP7 EURATOM Collaborative Project ACSEPT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourg, S.; Geist, A.; Cassayre, L.; Rhodes, C.; Ekberg, C.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power plays a key role in limiting European Union’s greenhouse gases emissions, and makes an important contribution to improve EU’s independence, security and diversity of energy supply. However, its social acceptance is closely linked to an enhanced safety in the management of long-lived radioactive waste contributing to resource efficiency and cost-effectiveness of this energy and ensuring a robust and socially acceptable system of protection of man and environment. Among the different strategies, partitioning and transmutation (P&T) allows a reduction of the amount, the radiotoxicity and the thermal power of these wastes, leading to an optimal use of geological repository sites. ACSEPT successfully addressed the partitioning issues by focusing on the development of advanced separation processes, both aqueous and pyrochemical. Head-end steps, fuel refabrication, solvent treatment, waste management were also taken into account. In aqueous process development, the SANEX, innovative SANEX and GANEX flowsheets were designed and tested in hot cells. In pyrometallurgy, studies on actinide back-extraction from aluminium and exhaustive electrolysis allowed the validation of two flowsheets developed from more then 10 years in Europe. A training and education program including seminars, workshops, brainstorming meeting but also student exchanges and support to post-doctorate fellowships was a key point for maintaining and increasing a high expertise level in actinide separation sciences in Europe. Six month after the end of ACSEPT, and when its follow-up, SACSESS, just begins, it is time to highlight its main achievements. (author)

  17. Feasible modifications for the low-level waste treatment plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilton, J.M.

    1984-06-01

    Aqueous, low-level, radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contain small amounts of 60 Co, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and trace amounts of other radionuclides. These wastes are processed by passage through beds of a strong-acid cation exchange resin, and the treated water is then discharged to the environment. Studies show that pretreatment of the waste with a weak-acid cation exchange resin would result in a significant decrease in regeneration reagents and a saving of manpower. This can be accomplished in the present plant by piping changes on the existing columns. The effluent from the cation treatment process contains all of the radionuclides that are present in anionic form. Routinely, this consists only of approximately one-half of the 60 Co. Under certain conditions, other anions (such as 131 I) could be present. Studies show that these can be removed by use of an anion exchange resin bed at the end of the process. This would require the construction of an additional column, if the head-end treatment described above is also installed. 2 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  18. Fuel cycle studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Programs are being conducted in the following areas: advanced solvent extraction techniques, accident consequences, fuel cycles for nonproliferation, pyrochemical and dry processes, waste encapsulation, radionuclide transport in geologic media, hull treatment, and analytical support for LWBR

  19. Chemistry of pyroprocessing for nuclear waste transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, J.P. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Pyrochemical treatment of spent nuclear fuel is an attractive approach for separating the transuranium (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium because of its simplicity, diversion resistance, and potentially low cost.

  20. Cholera Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis and Detection Laboratory Testing for Cholera Treatment Rehydration Therapy Antibiotic Treatment Zinc Treatment Prevention & Control Five ... page for current cholera treatment recommendations. Cholera Treatments Rehydration therapy , meaning prompt restoration of lost fluids and ...

  1. Treatment of radioactive waste salt by using synthetic silica-based phosphate composite for de-chlorination and solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In-Hak; Park, Hwan-Seo; Lee, Ki-Rak; Choi, Jung-Hun; Kim, In-Tae; Hur, Jin Mok; Lee, Young-Seak

    2017-09-01

    In the radioactive waste management, waste salts as metal chloride generated from a pyrochemical process to recover uranium and transuranic elements are one of problematic wastes due to their intrinsic properties such as high volatility and low compatibility with conventional glasses. This study reports a method to stabilize and solidify LiCl waste via de-chlorination using a synthetic composite, U-SAP (SiO2-Al2O3-B2O3-Fe2O3-P2O5) prepared by a sol-gel process. The composite was reacted with alkali metal elements to produce some metal aluminosilicates, aluminophosphates or orthophosphate as a crystalline or amorphous compound. Different from the original SAP (SiO2-Al2O3-P2O5), the reaction product of U-SAP could be successfully fabricated as a monolithic wasteform without a glassy binder at a proper reaction/consolidation condition. From the results of the FE-SEM, FT-IR and MAS-NMR analysis, it could be inferred that the Si-rich phase and P-rich phase as a glassy grains would be distributed in tens of nm scale, where alkali metal elements would be chemically interacted with Si-rich or P-rich region in the virgin U-SAP composite and its products was vitrified into a silicate or phosphate glass after a heat-treatment at 1150 °C. The PCT-A (Product Consistency Test, ASTM-1208) revealed that the mass loss of Cs and Sr in the U-SAP wasteform had a range of 10-3∼10-1 g/m2 and the leach-resistance of the U-SAP wasteform was comparable to other conventional wasteforms. From the U-SAP method, LiCl waste salt was effectively stabilized and solidified with high waste loading and good leach-resistance.

  2. [Importance of medical treatment in second echelon during war in Croatia, example--war surgical hospital in Garesnica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gverić, Tugomir; Huljev, Dubravko; Zdilar, Boris; Kolak, Toni; Barisic, Jadranko; Ahmetasovic, Snjezana Gveric; Trajbar, Dubravka; Lojo, Nermin; Sever, Marko

    2009-05-01

    At beginning of 1991, the increasing necessity of emergency surgical treatment of wounded persons in Croatia led to the formation of mobile surgical teams. However, this system was abandoned due to many problems and echelon health division was formed. One of the war surgical hospitals (second echelon) was the War Surgical Hospital Garesnica. In this study, materials of the Croatian War Veterans Ministry, Ministry of Defense, Garesnica War Surgical Hospital and Garesnica Defense Office archive were used. We analyzed the number and localization of wounds, and describe the organization, work and results of the War Surgical Hospital in Garesnica. During the work of the War Surgical Hospital in Garesnica, 909 surgical examinations were performed, 521 wounded were surgically treated (45% civilians and 55% soldiers), 331 wounded were operated on, 5 lethal outcomes were recorded, 68% of wounds were localized on the extremities, 19% on the thorax and abdomen, and 13% on the head end neck. In this article the organization and work of the War Surgical Hospital in Garesnica is described, which had a major role in providing emergency medical care to people wounded in west Slavonia.

  3. VENUS: cold prototype installation of the head-end of the reprocessing of HTR fuel elements. Activity report, 1 July 1976--31 December 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehnert, R.; Walter, C.

    The purpose of the VENUS Project is advance planning for the construction of a cold prototype system to incinerate HTR fuel element graphite. The Venus Project is organized into four phases between advance planning and experimental operation, corresponding to the maturity of the work. It is in the advance planning phase. Status of individual studies is given

  4. VENUS: cold prototype installation of the head-end of the reprocessing of HTR fuel elements. Activity report, 1 July 1976--31 December 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnert, R.; Walter, C.

    1977-02-15

    The purpose of the VENUS Project is advance planning for the construction of a cold prototype system to incinerate HTR fuel element graphite. The Venus Project is organized into four phases between advance planning and experimental operation, corresponding to the maturity of the work. It is in the advance planning phase. Status of individual studies is given. (LK)

  5. Cryptosporidium: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lt;/label> Parasites Home Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Most people who have healthy immune systems will recover without treatment. Diarrhea can be managed by drinking plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration. ...

  6. Cancer treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000901.htm Cancer treatments To use the sharing features on this page, ... or IV. Immunotherapy Immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that relies on the body's ability to fight ...

  7. Treatment Wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Dotro, Gabriela; Langergraber, Günter; Molle, Pascal; Nivala, Jaime; Puigagut, Jaume; Stein, Otto; Von Sperling, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Overview of Treatment Wetlands; Fundamentals of Treatment Wetlands; Horizontal Flow Wetlands; Vertical Flow Wetlands; French Vertical Flow Wetlands; Intensified and Modified Wetlands; Free Water Surface Wetlands; Other Applications; Additional Aspects.

  8. Tuberculosis Treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis Treatment, Lusaka, Zambia. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3 ... TB treatment has contributed to the steady rise of TB incidence in ... respondents (89.4%) had positive attitude towards TB treatment ..... respondents described feelings of depression, anger and apathy .... Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,. 1979, 37:1-11.

  9. ACSEPT-Partitioning technologies and actinide science: Towards pilot facilities in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourg, S.; Hill, C.; Caravaca, C.; Rhodes, C.; Ekberg, C.; Taylor, R.; Geist, A.; Modolo, G.; Cassayre, L.; Malmbeck, R.; Harrison, M.; Angelis, G. de; Espartero, A.; Bouvet, S.; Ouvrier, N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → ACSEPT works at developing actinide separation processes for advanced fuel cycles. → ACSEPT develops both aqueous and pyrochemical actinide separation processes. → Homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling strategies are both considered in ACSEPT. → Training and education in actinide chemistry are important issues addressed by ACSEPT. - Abstract: Actinide recycling by separation and transmutation is considered worldwide and particularly in several European countries as one of the most promising strategies to reduce the inventory of radioactive waste and to optimise the use of natural resources. With its multidisciplinary consortium of 34 partners from 12 European countries plus Australia and Japan, the European Research Project ACSEPT (Actinide reCycling by SEParation and Transmutation) aims at contributing to the development of this strategy by studying both hydrometallurgical and pyrochemical partitioning routes. ACSEPT is organised into three technical domains: (i)Considering technically mature aqueous separation processes, ACSEPT works to optimise and select the most promising ones dedicated either to actinide partitioning (for the heterogeneous recycling of actinides in ADS target or specific actinide bearing blanket fuels in fast reactor) or to grouped actinide separation (for the homogeneous recycling of the actinides in fast reactor fuels). In addition, dissolution and conversion studies are underway taking into account the specific requirements of these specific fuels. (ii)Concerning pyrochemical separation processes, ACSEPT focuses on the enhancement of the two reference cores processes selected within FP6-EUROPART. R and D efforts are also devoted to key scientific and technical issues compulsory to set up a complete separation process (head-end steps, salt treatment for recycling and waste management). (iii)By integrating all the experimental results in engineering and system studies, both in hydro and pyro domains, ACSEPT will

  10. Multidisciplinary treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayabuchi, Naofumi; Jingu, Kenichi; Matsuura, Keiichi

    1985-01-01

    Multidisciplinary treatment for malignant lymphoma is reported in terms of indication, current status, and outcome of this approach to Hodgkin's disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NLH). HD is considered to be most successfully managed with multidisciplinary treatment. Success of treatment of HD in European countries and the US, which has resulted from accurate staging of HD and developments in radiotherapy and chemotherapy, is reviewed in the literature. Problems in the treatment of HD in Japan are presented. A treatment policy for NHL is discussed according to the original site, i.e. lymph nodes, Waldeyer's ring or other sites of tumor involvement. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Treatment Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckman, James J.; Lopes, Hedibert F.; Piatek, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the emerging Bayesian literature on treatment effects. It derives treatment parameters in the framework of a potential outcomes model with a treatment choice equation, where the correlation between the unobservable components of the model is driven by a low-dimensional v......This paper contributes to the emerging Bayesian literature on treatment effects. It derives treatment parameters in the framework of a potential outcomes model with a treatment choice equation, where the correlation between the unobservable components of the model is driven by a low...... to observe the same person in both the treated and untreated states, but it also turns out to be straightforward to implement. Formulae are provided to compute mean treatment effects as well as their distributional versions. A Monte Carlo simulation study is carried out to illustrate how the methodology can...

  12. Research and development of pyrochemical technologies for ADTT systems in NRI Rez plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlir, J.

    1999-01-01

    The activities within the Czech national Partitioning and Transmutation program are oriented mainly toward the following areas: (i) ADS flowsheeting working out a proposal for a suitable technological flowsheet for treating spent fuel into a form fitted for transmutation reactor, including separation procedures before transmutation (Front-end) and separation processes after passage of fuel through the transmutor (Back-end). (ii) Technological research into the uranium component separation from spent fuel by the Fluoride Volatility Method semi-pilot-plant technological research based on the application of experience from spent fuel fluoride reprocessing. (iii) Laboratory research into electro-separation methods for the separation of fission products, plutonium and minor actinides from the fluoride melt. Selection of a suitable matrix composition of fluoride melts based on studies of their physicochemical properties and design of laboratory electro-separation facility. (iv) Development of materials and equipment for molten fluoride salts based ADS technologies, i.e. construction materials development, research into the corrosion resistance and development of equipment for molten fluoride salts technologies. The NRI Rez plc cooperates in this area with the SKODA Nuclear Machinery company

  13. Numerical Modelling of Induction Heating for a Molten Salts Pyrochemical Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, Xuan-Tuyen; Feraud, Jean-Pierre; Ode, Denis [CEA Marcoule: DTEC/SGCS/LGCI Bat. 57 B17171, 30207 Bagnols/Ceze (France); Du Terrail Couvat, Yves [SIMaP, Grenoble INP, CNRS: ENSEEG, BP 75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    Technological developments in the pyro-chemistry program are required to allow choices for a reprocessing experiment on 100 g of spent nuclear fuel. In this context, a special device must be designed for the solid/gas reaction phases followed by actinide extraction and stripping in molten salt. This paper discusses a modelling approach for designing an induction furnace. Using this numerical approach is a good way to improve thermal performance of the device in terms of magnetic/thermal coupling phenomena. The influence of current frequency is also studied to give another view of the possibilities of an induction furnace. Electromagnetic forces are taken into account in a computational fluid dynamics code derived from a specifically developed exchange library. Induction heating systems are an example of a typical multi-physics problem involving numerically coupled equations. (authors)

  14. Numerical Modelling of Induction Heating for a Molten Salts Pyrochemical Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu, Xuan-Tuyen; Feraud, Jean-Pierre; Ode, Denis; Du Terrail Couvat, Yves

    2008-01-01

    Technological developments in the pyro-chemistry program are required to allow choices for a reprocessing experiment on 100 g of spent nuclear fuel. In this context, a special device must be designed for the solid/gas reaction phases followed by actinide extraction and stripping in molten salt. This paper discusses a modelling approach for designing an induction furnace. Using this numerical approach is a good way to improve thermal performance of the device in terms of magnetic/thermal coupling phenomena. The influence of current frequency is also studied to give another view of the possibilities of an induction furnace. Electromagnetic forces are taken into account in a computational fluid dynamics code derived from a specifically developed exchange library. Induction heating systems are an example of a typical multi-physics problem involving numerically coupled equations. (authors)

  15. Conditioning matrices from high level waste resulting from pyrochemical processing in fluorine salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandjean, Agnes; Advocat, Thierry; Bousquet, Nicolas; Jegou, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Separating the actinides from the fission products through reductive extraction by aluminium in a LiF/AlF 3 medium is a process investigated for pyrometallurgical reprocessing of spent fuel. The process involves separation by reductive salt-metal extraction. After dissolving the fuel or the transmutation target in a salt bath, the noble metal fission products are first extracted by contacting them with a slightly reducing metal. After extracting the metal fission products, then the actinides are selectively separated from the remaining fission products. In this hypothesis, all the unrecoverable fission products would be conditioned as fluorides. Therefore, this process will generate first a metallic waste containing the 'reducible' fission products (Pd, Mo, Ru, Rh, Tc, etc.) and a fluorine waste containing alkali-metal, alkaline-earth and rare earth fission products. Immobilization of these wastes in classical borosilicate glasses is not feasible due to the very low solubility of noble metals, and of fluoride in these hosts. Alternative candidates have therefore been developed including silicate glass/ceramic system for fluoride fission products and metallic ones for noble metal fission products. These waste-forms were evaluated for their confinement properties like homogeneity, waste loading, volatility during the elaboration process, chemical durability, etc. using appropriate techniques. (authors)

  16. Waste removal in pyrochemical fuel processing for the Integral Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.; Laidler, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Electrorefining in a molten salt electrolyte is used in the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycle to recover actinides from spent fuel. Processes that are being developed for removing the waste constituents from the electrorefiner and incorporating them into the waste forms are described in this paper. During processing, halogen, chalcogen, alkali, alkaline earth, and rare earth fission products build up in the molten salt as metal halides and anions, and fuel cladding hulls and noble metal fission products remain as metals of various particle sizes. Essentially all transuranic actinides are collected as metals on cathodes, and are converted to new metal fuel. After processing, fission products and other waste are removed to a metal and a mineral waste form. The metal waste form contains the cladding hulls, noble metal fission products, and (optionally) most rare earths in a copper or stainless steel matrix. The mineral waste form contains fission products that have been removed from the salt into a zeolite or zeolite-derived matrix

  17. Development of Computational Models for Pyrochemical Electrorefiners of Nuclear Waste Transmutation Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. R.; Lee, H. S.; Hwang, I. S.

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this project is to develop multi-dimensional computational models in order to improve the operation of uranium electrorefiners currently used in pyroprocessing technology. These 2-D (US) and 3-D (ROK) mathematical models are based on the fundamental physical and chemical properties of the electrorefiner processes. The validated models by compiled and evaluated experimental data could provide better information for developing advanced electrorefiners for uranium recovery. The research results in this period are as follows: - Successfully assessed a common computational platform for the modeling work and identify spatial characterization requirements. - Successfully developed a 3-D electro-fluid dynamic electrorefiner model. - Successfully validated and benchmarked the two multi-dimensional models with compiled experimental data sets

  18. Direct oxide reduction (DOR) solvent salt recycle in pyrochemical plutonium recovery operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, K.W.; Bowersox, D.F.; Davis, C.C.; McCormick, E.D.

    1987-02-01

    One method used at Los Alamos for producing plutonium metal is to reduce the oxide with calcium metal in molten CaCl 2 at 850 0 C. The solvent CaCl 2 from this reduction step is currently discarded as low-level radioactive waste because it is saturated with the reaction by-product, CaO. We have developed and demonstrated a molten salt technique for rechlorinating the CaO, thereby regenerating the CaCl 2 and incorporating solvent recycle into the batch PuO 2 reduction process. We discuss results from the process development experiments and present our plans for incorporating the technique into an advanced design for semicontinuous plutonium metal production

  19. Pyrochemical extraction for selective removal of transuranium elements from molten LiCl-KCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    Recent determinations of separation factors that describe partition of the actinide and rare earth elements between liquid cadmium and LiCl-KCl eutectic allowed identification of a process for selective removal of the transuranium (TRU) element chlorides from the electrolyte used for electrofining of metal fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor. It is periodically necessary to remove rare earth elements from the electrolyte to limit heat generation from radioactive decay. Countercurrent extraction of electrolyte with uranium in cadmium solution allows retention of valuable TRU elements in the reprocessed fuel, and results in a rare earth waste stream that is essentially free of TRU elements and their concomitant long-term hazards

  20. Pyrochemical processing of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) High Level Waste (HLW) calcine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronson, M.C.; Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Riley, D.C.; Nelson, L.; Del Debbio, J.

    1994-01-01

    Inertial force damping control by micromanipulator modulation is proposed to suppress the vibrations of a micro/macro-manipulator system. The proposed controller, developed using classical control theory, is added to the existing control system. The proposed controller uses real-time measurements of macro-manipulator flexibility to adjust the motion of the micro manipulator to counteract structural vibrations. Experimental studies using an existing micro/macro flexible link manipulator testbed demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach to suppression of vibrations in the macro/micro-manipulator system using micromanipulator-based inertial active damping control

  1. Preparation of a technology development roadmap for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) System : report of the ATW separations technologies and waste forms technical working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.; Duguid, J.; Henry, R.; Karell, E.J.; Laidler, J.J.; McDeavitt, S.M.; Thompson, M.; Toth, L.M.; Williamson, M.; Willit, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    In response to a Congressional mandate to prepare a roadmap for the development of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) technology, a Technical Working Group comprised of members from various DOE laboratories was convened in March 1999 for the purpose of preparing that part of the technology development roadmap dealing with the separation of certain radionuclides for transmutation and the disposal of residual radioactive wastes from these partitioning operations. The Technical Working Group for ATW Separations Technologies and Waste Forms completed its work in June 1999, having carefully considered the technology options available. A baseline process flowsheet and backup process were identified for initial emphasis in a future research, development and demonstration program. The baseline process combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to permit the efficient separation of the uranium, technetium, iodine and transuranic elements from the light water reactor (LWR) fuel in the head-end step. The backup process is an all- pyrochemical system. In conjunction with the aqueous process, the baseline flowsheet includes a pyrochemical process to prepare the transuranic material for fabrication of the ATW fuel assemblies. For the internal ATW fuel cycle the baseline process specifies another pyrochemical process to extract the transuranic elements, Tc and 1 from the ATW fuel. Fission products not separated for transmutation and trace amounts of actinide elements would be directed to two high-level waste forms, one a zirconium-based alloy and the other a glass/sodalite composite. Baseline cost and schedule estimates are provided for a RD and D program that would provide a full-scale demonstration of the complete separations and waste production flowsheet within 20 years

  2. Preparation of a technology development roadmap for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) System : report of the ATW separations technologies and waste forms technical working group.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, E.; Duguid, J.; Henry, R.; Karell, E.; Laidler, J.; McDeavitt, S.; Thompson, M.; Toth, M.; Williamson, M.; Willit, J.

    1999-08-12

    In response to a Congressional mandate to prepare a roadmap for the development of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) technology, a Technical Working Group comprised of members from various DOE laboratories was convened in March 1999 for the purpose of preparing that part of the technology development roadmap dealing with the separation of certain radionuclides for transmutation and the disposal of residual radioactive wastes from these partitioning operations. The Technical Working Group for ATW Separations Technologies and Waste Forms completed its work in June 1999, having carefully considered the technology options available. A baseline process flowsheet and backup process were identified for initial emphasis in a future research, development and demonstration program. The baseline process combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to permit the efficient separation of the uranium, technetium, iodine and transuranic elements from the light water reactor (LWR) fuel in the head-end step. The backup process is an all- pyrochemical system. In conjunction with the aqueous process, the baseline flowsheet includes a pyrochemical process to prepare the transuranic material for fabrication of the ATW fuel assemblies. For the internal ATW fuel cycle the baseline process specifies another pyrochemical process to extract the transuranic elements, Tc and 1 from the ATW fuel. Fission products not separated for transmutation and trace amounts of actinide elements would be directed to two high-level waste forms, one a zirconium-based alloy and the other a glass/sodalite composite. Baseline cost and schedule estimates are provided for a RD&D program that would provide a full-scale demonstration of the complete separations and waste production flowsheet within 20 years.

  3. Osteoporosis treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazianas, Michael; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The findings of the Women's Health Initiative study in 2002 marginalized the use of hormone replacement therapy and established bisphosphonates as the first line of treatment for osteoporosis. Denosumab could be used in selected patients. Although bisphosphonates only maintain the structure of bone...... to their benefits/harm ratio. Treatment of osteoporosis is a long process, and many patients will require treatment with more than one type of drug over their lifetime....

  4. Fuel debris characterization and treatment technologies development for TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. 2012 annual research and development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-03-01

    simulated debris with UO 2 and MOX. In the Project of 'Treatment technology development of fuel debris (2-(3)-3)', scenario study for fuel debris management was performed and a draft of the whole image of scenarios was developed, analysis technologies of actual fuel debris was studied and the alkaline resolution method using Na 2 O 2 was defined as the most likely to be applied as a part of analysis technologies, and fundamental studies were carried out on dissolution of fuel debris in nitric acid as aqueous process and in molten salt as pyrochemical process. (author)

  5. Antihypertensive treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer; Mogensen, C E

    1987-01-01

    This study was undertaken to clarify whether antihypertensive treatment has any effect on the rate of progression of kidney disease in patients with incipient diabetic nephropathy. Six insulin-dependent diabetic men with incipient nephropathy (urinary albumin excretion above 15 micrograms....../min and total protein excretion below 0.5 g/24 h) were first given metoprolol (200 mg daily) with the subsequent addition of hydroflumethiazide. At the start of antihypertensive treatment, mean patient age was 32 +/- 4.2 years (SD) and mean duration of diabetes was 18 +/- 1.2 years. The patients were followed...... with repeated measurements of urinary albumin excretion for a mean of 5.4 +/- 3.1 years prior to, and for 4.7 +/- 1.3 years (SD) during treatment. Mean arterial blood pressure declined significantly during treatment, e.g., the values at 6 months before initiation of treatment being compared with values during...

  6. [Headache Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Hans Christoph; Holle-Lee, Dagny; Nägel, Steffen; Gaul, Charly

    2017-03-01

    A precondition for the successful treatment of headaches is the correct headache diagnosis. Triptans are effective for attack treatment of migraine and cluster headache. However, there are not effective for the treatment of tension-type headache. For the prevention of frequent episodic migraine betablockers, flunarizine, topiramate and amitriptyline are recommended. For the prevention of chronic migraine evidence is only available for onabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate. For prophylactic treatment of tension-type headaches tricyclic antidepressants are used. In cluster headache verapamil (in combination with steroids) is the most frequently used prophylactic agent. This article focusses on the current acute and prophylactic treatment of common headache syndromes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, D.; Hooper, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    In the treatment of wastes, such as liquid radioactive effluents, it is known to remove radionuclides by successive in situ precipitation of cobalt sulphide, an hydroxide, barium sulphate and a transition element ferrocyanide, followed by separation of the thereby decontaminated effluent. In this invention, use is made of precipitates such as obtained above in the treatment of further fresh liquid radioactive effluent, when it is found that the precipitates have additional capacity for extracting radionuclides. The resulting supernatant liquor may then be subjected to a further precipitation treatment such as above. Decontamination factors for radionuclides of Ce, Ru, Sr and Cs have been considerably enhanced. (author)

  8. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cognitive-behavioral therapy ), relaxation therapy , hypnotherapy , and biofeedback therapy . Psychological treatments can also be combined. Review of well- ... Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics ... Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation Techniques for IBS Take Part in Online ...

  9. Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day before releasing it back to the environment. Treatment plants reduce pollutants in wastewater to a level nature can handle. Wastewater is used water. It includes substances such as human waste, food ...

  10. Depression Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3286 After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Depression Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... How Do I Know if I Am Experiencing Depression? The following questions may help you determine if ...

  11. Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one that is tailored to your symptoms. article Protecting your eyesight when taking Plaquenil Some lupus treatments have the potential for eye health side-effects. Know the warning signs. article ​ ...

  12. Intermediate treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; Wayne D. Shepperd

    1985-01-01

    Intermediate treatments are those applied after a new stand is successfully established and before the final harvest. These include not only intermediate cuttings - primarily thinning - but also fertilization, irrigation, and protection of the stand from damaging agents.

  13. Rotavirus Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rotavirus Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rotavirus Home About Rotavirus Symptoms Transmission Treatment Photos Vaccination ...

  14. Sewage Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.

  15. ESCHARS TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cioc Liliana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article carry out a modern research and principles of the main solutions for the treatment of eschars, including cleaning solutions for wound debridement, dressings, antibiotics, surgery and adjuvant therapies. The approach taken to achieve the research is justified by the fact that, despite current interest and progress in medicine, surgery, medical care and education for self-care, pressure sores remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality, affecting in particular, people with prolonged immobilization and the elderly. The conclusions of the paper are oriented towards to analysis of the efficiency of each treatment solutions presented in active control eschars and negative effects they generate.

  16. Pyroprocessing of oxidized sodium-bonded fast reactor fuel - An experimental study of treatment options for degraded EBR-II fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, S.D.; Gese, N.J. [Separations Department, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Wurth, L.A. [Zinc Air Inc., 5314-A US Hwy 2 West, Columbia Falls, MT 59912 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    An experimental study was conducted to assess pyrochemical treatment options for degraded EBR-II fuel. As oxidized material, the degraded fuel would need to be converted back to metal to enable electrorefining within an existing electro-metallurgical treatment process. A lithium-based electrolytic reduction process was studied to assess the efficacy of converting oxide materials to metal with a particular focus on the impact of zirconium oxide and sodium oxide on this process. Bench-scale electrolytic reduction experiments were performed in LiCl-Li{sub 2}O at 650 C. degrees with combinations of manganese oxide (used as a surrogate for uranium oxide), zirconium oxide, and sodium oxide. In the absence of zirconium or sodium oxide, the electrolytic reduction of MnO showed nearly complete conversion to metal. The electrolytic reduction of a blend of MnO-ZrO{sub 2} in LiCl - 1 wt% Li{sub 2}O showed substantial reduction of manganese, but only 8.5% of the zirconium was found in the metal phase. The electrolytic reduction of the same blend of MnO-ZrO{sub 2} in LiCl - 1 wt% Li{sub 2}O - 6.2 wt% Na{sub 2}O showed substantial reduction of manganese, but zirconium reduction was even less at 2.4%. This study concluded that ZrO{sub 2} cannot be substantially reduced to metal in an electrolytic reduction system with LiCl - 1 wt% Li{sub 2}O at 650 C. degrees due to the perceived preferential formation of lithium zirconate. This study also identified a possible interference that sodium oxide may have on the same system by introducing a parasitic and cyclic reaction of dissolved sodium metal between oxidation at the anode and reduction at the cathode. When applied to oxidized sodium-bonded EBR-II fuel (e.g., U-10Zr), the prescribed electrolytic reduction system would not be expected to substantially reduce zirconium oxide, and the accumulation of sodium in the electrolyte could interfere with the reduction of uranium oxide, or at least render it less efficient.

  17. Waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutson, G.V.

    1996-01-01

    Numerous types of waste are produced by the nuclear industry ranging from high-level radioactive and heat-generating, HLW, to very low-level, LLW and usually very bulky wastes. These may be in solid, liquid or gaseous phases and require different treatments. Waste management practices have evolved within commercial and environmental constraints resulting in considerable reduction in discharges. (UK)

  18. Catalytic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindley, W T.R.

    1931-04-18

    An apparatus is described for the catalytic treatment of liquids, semi-liquids, and gases comprising a vessel into which the liquid, semi-liquid, or gas to be treated is introduced through a common inlet to a chamber within the vessel whence it passes to contact with a catalyst through radially arranged channels or passages to a common outlet chamber.

  19. Antimicrobials Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosinos, Eleftherios H.; Skandamis, Panagiotis N.; Mataragas, Marios

    The use of antimicrobials is a common practice for preservation of foods. Incorporation, in a food recipe, of chemical antimicrobials towards inhibition of spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms results in the compositional modification of food. This treatment is nowadays undesirable for the consumer, who likes natural products. Scientific community reflecting consumers demand for natural antimicrobials has made efforts to investigate the possibility to use natural antimicrobials such us bacteriocins and essential oils of plant origin to inhibit microbial growth.

  20. Wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđel N. Kitanović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life on Earth in the future will largely depend on the amount of safe water. As the most fundamental source of life, water is relentlessly consumed and polluted. To halt this trend, many countries are taking extensive measures and investing substantial resources in order to stop the contamination of water and return at least tolerably good water quality to nature. The goal of water purification is to obtain clean water with the sewage sludge as a by-product. Clean water is returned to nature, and further treatment of sludge may be subject to other procedures. The conclusion of this paper is simple. The procedure with purified water is easily achievable, purified water is discharged into rivers, lakes and seas, but the problem of further treatment of sludge remains. This paper presents the basic methods of wastewater treatment and procedures for processing the products from contaminated water. The paper can serve as a basis for further elaboration. Water Pollution In order to ensure normal life of living creatures, the water in which they live or the water they use must have a natural chemical composition and natural features. When, as a result of human activities, the chemical composition of water and the ratio of its chemical elements significantly change, we say that water is polluted. When the pollutants come from industrial plants, we are talking about industrial wastewater, and when they come from households and urban areas, we are talking about municipal wastewater. Both contain a huge amount of pollutants that eventually end up in rivers. Then, thousands of defenseless birds, fish and other animals suffer, and environmental consequences become immeasurable. In addition, the waste fed to the water often ends up in the bodies of marine animals, so they can return to us as food. Thermal water pollution also has multiple effects on the changes in the wildlife composition of aquatic ecosystems. Polluted water can be purified by

  1. Incontinence Treatment: Biofeedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback Surgical Treatments Newer Treatment Options Tips on Finding ... Treatment Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback Surgical Treatments Newer Treatment Options Tips on Finding ...

  2. [Pharmacological treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola Manchola, Enrique; Álaba Trueba, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic degenerative and inflammatory process leading to synapticdysfunction and neuronal death. A review about the pharmacological treatment alternatives is made: acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI), a nutritional supplement (Souvenaid) and Ginkgo biloba. A special emphasis on Ginkgo biloba due to the controversy about its use and the approval by the European Medicines Agency is made. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: reprocessing of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel containing U-233 and thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W. Jr.; Blanco, R.E.; Finney, B.C.; Hill, G.S.; Moore, R.E.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1976-05-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of various radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from a model high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel reprocessing plant and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. The study is designed to assist the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in defining the term as low as reasonably achievable as it applies to this nuclear facility. The base case is representative of conceptual, developing technology of head-end graphite-burning operations and of extensions of solvent-extraction technology of current designs for light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel reprocessing plants. The model plant has an annual capacity of 450 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM, where heavy metal is uranium plus thorium), as charged to about fifty 1000-MW(e) HTGRs. Additional radwaste treatment systems are added to the base-case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The capital and annual costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding reductions in dose commitments are calculated for each case. In the final analysis, the cost/benefit of each case, calculated as additional cost of radwaste system divided by the reduction in dose commitment, is tabulated or the dose commitment is plotted with cost as the variable. The status of each of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed

  4. Nineteenth annual actinide separations conference: Conference program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronson, M.

    1995-01-01

    This report contains the abstracts from the conference presentations. Sessions were divided into the following topics: Waste treatment; Spent fuel treatment; Issues and responses to Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board 94-1; Pyrochemical technologies; Disposition technologies; and Aqueous separation technologies

  5. Nineteenth annual actinide separations conference: Conference program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronson, M. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    This report contains the abstracts from the conference presentations. Sessions were divided into the following topics: Waste treatment; Spent fuel treatment; Issues and responses to Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board 94-1; Pyrochemical technologies; Disposition technologies; and Aqueous separation technologies.

  6. Fluorination of incinerator ash by hydrofluorination or ammonium bifluoride fusion for plutonium recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, S.D.; Gray, J.H.; Kent, S.J.; Apgar, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Incinerator ash containing small quantities of plutonium has been accumulating across the defense complex for many years. Although the total Pu inventory is small, the ash is a nondiscardable residue which presents storage and accountability difficulties. The work discussed here is the result of a joint exploratory effort between members of Savannah River Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory to compare two proposed pyrochemical pretreatments of incinerator ash prior to aqueous processing. These experiments attempted to determine the relative effectiveness of hydrofluorination and ammonium bifluoride fusion as head-end operations for a two step aqueous recovery method. The two pretreatments are being considered as possible second generation enhancements for the New Special Recovery Facility nearing operation at Savannah River Plant. Experimental results and potential engineering concerns are discussed. 3 figs.

  7. Platform treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammazi, Rochdi; M'henni, Wafa

    2008-01-01

    Our project consists of making of a punt forms test for the radioactive treatment in the research's unit of the CNSTN .First a complete functional analysis is carried out, this analysis comprises a comparative study between our work and a design already established in a preparatory project, it emphasizes the failures whose made proof the old design .Second the metallurgical study which must lead on the choice of materials is in its turn carried out. Thirdly the design with all the details and the plans is carried out by the intermediary of the software CATIA. This design is accompanied by the various bodies's dimensioning and the calculation of the various states of stresses to which the parts of the system are subjected: buckling, inflection fourthly an automatic study is carried out, this study contains the automation's step of the system using the software, SIMATIC STEP 7. It also contains the choice of the various position and velocity pick-ups. Finally we will finish by the presentation of maintenance and safety's instructions of the system and the operator working in this research's . (Author)

  8. Advanced and sustainable fuel cycles for innovative reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glatz, J. P.; Malmbeck, R.; Purroy, D. S.; Soucek, P.; Inoue, T.; Uozumi, K.

    2007-01-01

    reprocessing facility with improved economics and the higher radiation stability of the molten salt media are some of the arguments in favour of pyro-reprocessing. Adaptations of this technology exist for the treatment of both oxide and nitride fuels. The flowsheet for the treatment of nitride fuels is similar to that of metal fuel. In the case of oxides a head-end reduction step is needed. It can be performed by direct electroreduction, where the heat generating fission products are removed and the fissile materials are recovered as an alloy, which can be again directly reprocessed by electrorefining. The present paper describes the progress made at ITU - mainly in the frame of the network projects mentioned above - in developing the grouped actinide recycling concept with a view to the sustainability goals described above for innovative reactor systems. In the frame of these projects, reprocessing of EBRII type metallic alloy fuel with 2% of Am and 5% of lanthanides (U 6 0Pu 2 0-Zr 1 0Am 2 Nd 3 .5Y 0 .5Ce 0 .5Gd 0 .5) is being carried out by electrorefining at ITU. An excellent grouped separation of actinides from lanthanides (An/Ln mass ratio = 2400) had been obtained. The high neutron capture of lanthanides and their possibly detrimental interaction with the cladding material implies that they must be separated. In this sense the choice of the cathode material for the actinide recovery is essential and it could be shown that aluminium is an excellent material for a pyrochemical partitioning process. The results are confirmed in conditions simulating the scaling up (multiple run) of the process, with an accumulation of Ln in the salt. One of the major goals is the minimization of actinide losses and to thereby reduce significantly the radiotoxicity of the waste produced. The results shown here represent the first demonstration of an efficient grouped actinide recovery from realistic metallic fuels and are therefore an important step in achieving the sustainability goals of

  9. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in ... driving infractions. The good news is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children ...

  10. Treatment goals and treatment in exercise therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuijderduin, W.M.; Dekker, J.

    1994-01-01

    In the present study a quantitative description is given of treatment in exercise therapy according to Cesar and according to Mensendieck. Information was gathered from saurvey on exercise therapy in the Netherlands. Characteristics of treatment are described including treatment goals, emphasis of

  11. Treatment diary for botulinum toxin spasticity treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Bo; Iversen, Helle K; Frederiksen, Inge M S

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a treatment diary for patients receiving spasticity treatment including botulinum toxin injection and physiotherapy and/or occupational therapy. The diary focuses on problems triggered by skeletal muscle overactivity; agreed goals for treatment and the patient...

  12. Development of the scientific concept of the phosphate methods for actinide-containing waste handling (pyrochemical fuel reprocessing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlova, A.I.; Orlova, V.A.; Skiba, O.V.; Bychkov, A.V.; Volkov, Yu.F.; Lukinykh, A.N.; Tomilin, S.V.; Lizin, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The crystallochemical phosphate concept in question is developed successfully in the new pyro-electrochemical reprocessing technology of irradiated fuel in molten chlorides of alkaline elements at one of the leading scientific nuclear centers - Research Institute of Atomic Reactors. Irradiated fuel is dissolved in molten chlorides of alkaline elements by mean of treating by chlorine. Then uranium and plutonium dioxides are removed electrochemically. The melt, when used many times, is contaminated by the residual actinide and contains fission products and the so called 'process' elements. This melt is unacceptable for future use. Phosphate methods can be applied for the solution of the following tasks: a) reprocessing (purification) of molten chloride salt solvents; b) conversion of the spent chloride melts to the insoluble stable crystalline product for safe storage and disposal. Within the framework of task 'a' phosphate methods may be realized by the several ways: 1) phosphate concentrating of impurities and their extraction from molten chlorides into solid phase by mean of chemical precipitation, co-precipitation, ion exchange and other chemical interactions, 2) conversion of precipitated waste phosphates to stable crystalline phosphate powders or ceramics for safe storage and disposal. (authors)

  13. Feasibility of Th-U separation through a pyrochemical route in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakhui, Gurudas; Ghosh, Suddhasattwa; Prabhakara Reddy, B.; Nagarajan, K.

    2014-01-01

    Molten salt electrorefining is a high temperature electrometallurgical process developed for the reprocessing of spent UPu-Zr fuel employing LiCl-KCl as the electrolyte. A possible application of this high temperature electrochemical process could be in the separation of U from Th matrix for Th based fuels. It therefore becomes important to investigate the reduction behaviour of Th 4+ in the molten salt and compare with that of U 3+ . The present study is on the electrochemical behaviour of Th 4+ in LiCl-KCl. Electrochemical studies were also carried out on the LiCl-KCl-UCl 3 -ThCl 4 system using transient electrochemical techniques. The cyclic voltammograms for Th 4+ /Th redox couple at various scan rates at 723 K is shown. Reduction of Th 4+ to Th was found to be quasi-reversible at lower scan rates and irreversible at higher scan rates using cyclic voltammetry and convolution voltammetry. The number of electrons transferred for the reduction process was calculated to be ∼ 4 using various techniques like cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and convolution voltammetry

  14. Advanced reprocessing developments in Europe contribution of European projects ACSEPT and ACTINET-I3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, S.; Poinssot, C. [CEA DEN, Nuclear Energy Div., RadioChemistry and Processes Dept., F-30207Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Geist, A. [KIT-INE (Germany); Cassayre, L. [CIEMAT (Spain); Rhodes, C. [NNL-UK (United Kingdom); Ekberg, C. [CHALMERS (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    Nuclear energy has more than ever to demonstrate that it can contribute safely and on a sustainable way to answer the international increase in energy needs. Actually, in addition to an increased safety of the reactors themselves, its acceptance is still closely associated to our capability to reduce the lifetime of the nuclear waste, to manage them safely and to propose options for a better use of the natural resources. Spent fuel reprocessing can help to reach these objectives. But this cannot be achieved only by optimizing industrial processes through engineering studies. It is of a primary importance to increase our fundamental knowledge in actinide sciences in order to build the future of nuclear energy on reliable and scientifically-founded results, and therefore meet the needs of the future fuel cycles in terms of fabrication and performance of fuels, reprocessing and waste management. At the European level, both the collaborative project ACSEPT and the Integrated Infrastructure Initiative ACTINET-I3 work together to improve our knowledge in actinides chemistry and therefore develop advanced separation processes. These tools are complementary and work in close connection on some specific issues such as the understanding of the selectivity of extracting organic ligands. By offering trans-national access to the main nuclear research facility in Europe, ACTINET-I3 aims at increasing the knowledge in actinide sciences by gathering all the expertise available in European nuclear research institutes or university and giving them the opportunity to come and work in hot-labs (ITU, Atalante...) or beamlines (ESFR, ANKA, PSI) ACSEPT is focused on the development of advanced separation processes, both aqueous and pyrochemical. Head-end steps, fuel re-fabrication, solvent treatment, waste management are also taken into account. In aqueous process development, the SANEX and innovative SANEX flowsheets demonstration were successfully achieved. Chemical systems were

  15. Ankle Sprain Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Ankle Sprain Treatment Page Content Article Body Acute ankle and ... Pediatrics summarizing the treatment phases of rehabilitation for ankle sprain. Phase Summary Description I Phase I treatment involves ...

  16. Working during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000834.htm Working during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. Many people continue to work throughout their cancer treatment. Cancer, or the side effects of treatment, may ...

  17. After Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Better Home Your Health Resources Healthcare Management After Cancer Treatment After Cancer Treatment Share Print From the day you were diagnosed ... of the questions you may have after your cancer treatment ends. Path to well being Will I need ...

  18. Hepatitis C: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Home » Hepatitis C » Hepatitis C Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Hepatitis C Treatment for Veterans and the Public Treatment ...

  19. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... can be addressed as quickly as possible. Recurrent breast cancer If the cancer does return after treatment for ...

  20. Treatment Options for Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other places in the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  1. Tuberculosis (TB): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Training Home Conditions Tuberculosis (TB) Tuberculosis: Treatment Tuberculosis: Treatment Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask ... or bones is treated longer. NEXT: Preventive Treatment Tuberculosis: Diagnosis Tuberculosis: History Clinical Trials For more than ...

  2. NIAAA Alcohol Treatment Navigator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What Is Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD)? What Types of Alcohol Treatment Are Available? ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What is alcohol use disorder (AUD)? A health condition that can improve with ...

  3. Water Treatment Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This team researches and designs desalination, water treatment, and wastewater treatment systems. These systems remediate water containing hazardous c hemicals and...

  4. Optimizing clozapine treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Damkier, P; Lublin, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Clozapine treatment remains the gold standard for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but treatment with clozapine is associated with several side-effects that complicate the use of the drug. This clinical overview aims to provide psychiatrists with knowledge about how to optimize clozapine...... treatment. Relevant strategies for reducing side-effects and increasing the likelihood of response are discussed....

  5. Teaching Treatment Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Linda

    1993-01-01

    Describes approach to teaching treatment planning that author has used successfully in both seminars and graduate courses. Clarifies nature and importance of systematic treatment planning, then describes context in which treatment planning seems more effectively taught, and concludes with step-by-step plan for teaching treatment planning.…

  6. [Preprosthetic orthodontic treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prahl-Andersen, B.; Prahl, C.; Baat, C. de; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of a preprosthetic orthodontic treatment is to position the teeth in such a way that a treatment with (fixed) dental prostheses is made possible or simplified or to affect the result of this treatment positively. Conceivable preprosthetic orthodontic treatments are: correcting primary

  7. Land Treatment Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  8. IV treatment at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other IV treatments you may receive after you leave the hospital include: Treatment for hormone deficiencies Medicines for severe nausea that cancer chemotherapy or pregnancy may cause Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for pain (this is IV ...

  9. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV Treatment: The Basics Last Reviewed: March 22, 2018 ...

  10. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Toggle search Toggle navigation Quick Links Family Resources ADHD Resource Center Resource Centers Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Resource ... Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having ...

  11. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toggle search Toggle navigation Quick Links Family Resources ADHD Resource Center Resource Centers Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Resource ... Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having ...

  12. Nasal Wash Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Alternative Therapies Nasal Wash Treatment Nasal Wash Treatment Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer Patient The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines for preparing water used in a nasal wash are listed below. Many ...

  13. Research Areas: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of more effective and less toxic treatments is fundamental to improving outcomes for patients with cancer. NCI is leading efforts on several fronts to develop and evaluate new cancer treatments.

  14. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... news is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ability to pay attention and control their behavior. The right care can help them grow, learn, and feel ...

  15. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... drugs is recommended. References National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer treatment (PDQ): Stages of prostate cancer. Updated July 31, ...

  16. Cancer treatment - preventing infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation - preventing infection; Bone marrow transplant - preventing infection; Cancer treatment - immunosuppression ... this is a short-lived side effect of cancer treatment. Your provider may give you medicines to help ...

  17. Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  18. Atrial Fibrillation: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Atrial Fibrillation Atrial Fibrillation: Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents Treatment for atrial fibrillation depends on how often you have symptoms, how ...

  19. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compulsive Disorder Resource Center Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child ... ADHD. They know that biological substances in the brain, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, play a role ...

  20. Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment for information on diagnosis , staging , and treatment. Polycythemia Vera Key Points Polycythemia vera is a disease ... blood tests are used to diagnose polycythemia vera. Polycythemia vera is a disease in which too many ...

  1. Cholesterol - drug treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000314.htm Cholesterol - drug treatment To use the sharing features on ... treatment; Hardening of the arteries - statin Statins for Cholesterol Statins reduce your risk of heart disease, stroke, ...

  2. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also have higher rates of cigarette and drug addiction, and more driving infractions. The good news is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ability ...

  3. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and drug addiction, and more driving infractions. The good news is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ...

  4. Treatment of Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Funding IFFGD Symposium reports Industry Council Contact Us Treatment of Gas You are here: Home Symptoms & Causes Intestinal Gas ... Controlling Intestinal Gas Foods That May Cause Gas Treatment of Gas Tips on Controlling Gas Adapted from IFFGD Publication # ...

  5. HIV: Treatment and Comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Rokx (Casper)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractClinicians worldwide strive to improve HIV care for their patients. Antiretroviral therapy prevents HIV related mortality and is lifelong. A clinical evaluation of these treatment strategies is necessary to identify strategies that may jeopardize treatment effectiveness and patient

  6. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resource Center Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD ... can help the child identify his or her strengths and build on them. Therapy can also help ...

  7. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Support AACAP Medical Students and Residents Toggle Child Psychiatry Residents (Fellows) Early Career Psychiatrists Medical Student ... Centers Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Resource Center Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, ...

  8. Antimicrobial Treatments and Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    To limit exposure to indoor biological contamination a risk-management approach which employs various antimicrobial treatments can effectively control contaminants and reduce exposure. Antimicrobial treatment of biological contaminants, especially mold in buildings, it is often n...

  9. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Providers, Emergency Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  10. Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The actual treatment areas for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

  11. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Demand Maintenance of Certification and Lifelong Learning Modules Online CME Pathways ... Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having trouble with friendships. Family life may also suffer. Untreated ADHD can ...

  12. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ... to pay attention and control their behavior. The right care can help them grow, learn, and feel ...

  13. Health Issues and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Information For… Media Policy Makers Health Issues & Treatments Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... people with spina bifida are exactly alike. Health issues and treatments for people with spina bifida will ...

  14. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compulsive Disorder Resource Center Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child ... ADHD will continue to benefit from it as teenagers. In fact, many adults with ADHD also find ...

  15. Inventtional treatment of varicocele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ji Hoon [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Varicocele is a dilatation of the veins in the pampiniform plexus and manifests as mass-effect, pain, testicular atrophy, or male infertility. Traditionally, surgical treatment has been the mainstay of treatment of varicocele, while interventional treatment, which is endovascular embolization of the testicular vein, has been gaining popularity recently. In this review, diagnosis of the disease, indications and procedure details of interventional treatment, results, and complications are discussed.

  16. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having trouble with friendships. Family life ... speak. Contents What is ADHD? How Common is ADHD? Common Signs and Symptoms Getting Treatment Supporting School Success The Teenage Years Working ... Connect ...

  17. Distributed Treatment Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgonc, David; Plante, Luke

    2017-10-01

    This section presents a review of the literature published in 2016 on topics relating to distributed treatment systems. This review is divided into the following sections with multiple subsections under each: constituent removal; treatment technologies; and planning and treatment system management.

  18. [Strongyloidosis. Part IX. Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroczan, Wiesław

    2002-01-01

    The treatment of chronic and massive (uncomplicated) and severe (complicated) disseminated strongyloidosis, was presented from the historical point of view. The sequence of achievements in regard of treatment of the gentian violet, dithiazine iodide, benzimidazoles (thiabendazole, mebendazole, albendazole, cambendazole), ivermectin and cyclosporin A, was described. The recommendations for treatment of strongyloidosis are also given.

  19. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ability to pay attention and control their behavior. The right care can help them grow, learn, and ... and help the child function at a normal level. Treatment may include ...

  20. Treatment of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronetskij, I.B.

    1990-01-01

    Peculiarities of thyroid cancer, producing direct influence on selection of treatment procedure are enumerated. It is shown that surgical treatment is the determining way of treatment, which is supplemented with hormonotherapy in case of differentiated forms of the tumor. In case of anaplasia cancer, sarcomas, propagation of tumor beyond the limits of the organ, inoperable processes, treatment of recurrences and functional inactivity of bone metastases the remote control gamma-therapy should be performed. Therapy by radioactive iodine is shown for the treatment of remote iodine-concentrating metastases for devitalization of residual thyroid tissue after thyroidectomy

  1. Endoscopic root canal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshonov, Joshua; Michaeli, Eli; Nahlieli, Oded

    2009-10-01

    To describe an innovative endoscopic technique for root canal treatment. Root canal treatment was performed on 12 patients (15 teeth), using a newly developed endoscope (Sialotechnology), which combines an endoscope, irrigation, and a surgical microinstrument channel. Endoscopic root canal treatment of all 15 teeth was successful with complete resolution of all symptoms (6-month follow-up). The novel endoscope used in this study accurately identified all microstructures and simplified root canal treatment. The endoscope may be considered for use not only for preoperative observation and diagnosis but also for active endodontic treatment.

  2. Treatment Option Overview (Kaposi Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Childhood Vascular Tumors Treatment Research Kaposi Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Kaposi Sarcoma ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  3. Treatment of Epileptic Encephalopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Simona; Sisodiya, Sanjay M

    2017-01-01

    Epileptic encephalopathies represent the most severe epilepsies, with onset in infancy and childhood and seizures continuing in adulthood in most cases. New genetic causes are being identified at a rapid rate. Treatment is challenging and the overall outcome remains poor. Available targeted treatments, based on the precision medicine approach, are currently few. To provide an overview of the treatment of epileptic encephalopathies with known genetic determinants, including established treatment, anecdotal reports of specific treatment, and potential tailored precision medicine strategies. Genes known to be associated to epileptic encephalopathy were selected. Genes where the association was uncertain or with no reports of details on treatment, were not included. Although some of the genes included are associated with multiple epilepsy phenotypes or other organ involvement, we have mainly focused on the epileptic encephalopathies and their antiepileptic treatments. Most epileptic encephalopathies show genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity. The treatment of seizures is difficult in most cases. The available evidence may provide some guidance for treatment: for example, ACTH seems to be effective in controlling infantile spams in a number of genetic epileptic encephalopathies. There are potentially effective tailored precision medicine strategies available for some of the encephalopathies, and therapies with currently unexplained effectiveness in others. Understanding the effect of the mutation is crucial for targeted treatment. There is a broad range of disease mechanisms underlying epileptic encephalopathies, and this makes the application of targeted treatments challenging. However, there is evidence that tailored treatment could significantly improve epilepsy treatment and prognosis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Treatment of Functional Constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Karami

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Childhood constipation is ofton a long_term problem requiring treatment over months or years. There is no single treatment metod for constipation and many children do not respond and continue to have chronic problems. Treatment is consisted of: Disimpaction,Drug adminstration , Diet modilation, and behaverial therapy. It is necessary in all cases that not responding to conventional therapy, un diagnosed organic causes, non proper drug, short course therapy, behaverial disorder and withholding should be considered. Internal anal achalasia, Neural tube defect, Neurointestinal dysplasia. and food allergy are the most important predisposing factors in treatment failer . PEG is drug of choice for treatment and therapy must be continued for several months or years. Psycologic consulting should be considered in patients with severe behaverial disorder.   Key words: Children, Functional Constipation, Treatment.

  5. Hyperthermia treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagendijk, J.J.W.

    2000-01-01

    The development of hyperthermia, the treatment of tumours with elevated temperatures in the range of 40-44 deg. C with treatment times over 30 min, greatly benefits from the development of hyperthermia treatment planning. This review briefly describes the state of the art in hyperthermia technology, followed by an overview of the developments in hyperthermia treatment planning. It particularly highlights the significant problems encountered with heating realistic tissue volumes and shows how treatment planning can help in designing better heating technology. Hyperthermia treatment planning will ultimately provide information about the actual temperature distributions obtained and thus the tumour control probabilities to be expected. This will improve our understanding of the present clinical results of thermoradiotherapy and thermochemotherapy, and will greatly help both in optimizing clinical heating technology and in designing optimal clinical trials. (author)

  6. Equal treatment of shareholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Equal treatment of shareholders is regulated in Art.269 of Company Act (2011 of Republic of Serbia. Equal treatment of shareholders means that all shareholders are to be treated equally under same circumstances. Obligation to treat all shareholders equally rests on all company bodies, predominantly general meeting. The standard whether an action violates the principle of equal treatment of all shareholders regarding the main rights of shareholders (such as voting right etc. is the nominal value of shares, or the equal treatment per person regarding ancillary rights (such as right to speak in shareholders' meeting etc.. Any action deviating from this standard is unlawful if the unequal treatment is not justified on the facts. If the principle of equal treatment is violated by general meeting resolution, such resolution may be annulled by the court.

  7. Anaerobic treatment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehnke, B.; Bischofsberger, W.; Seyfried, C.F.

    1993-01-01

    This practical and theoretical guide presents the current state of knowledge in anaerobic treatment of industrial effluents with a high organic pollutant load and sewage sludges resulting from the treatment of municipal and industrial waste water. Starting from the microbiological bases of anaerobic degradation processes including a description and critical evaluation of executed plants, the book evolves the process-technical bases of anaerobic treatment techniques, derives relative applications, and discusses these with reference to excuted examples. (orig./UWA). 232 figs [de

  8. Greywater Treatment and Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Ekrem ÜSTÜN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study, to examine grey water treatment and reuse. For this aim, previous literature studies been research on and interpreted. Project began with study of physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the gray water. At the second part; grey water treatment and reuse were examined. At the third part; the technologies used for the methods treatment of gray water were explained. Then from costs and previous studies about grey water reuse were mentioned.

  9. The treatment of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klopper, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    The clinical picture of hyperthyroidism varies considerably and the diagnosis can easily be missed. The treatment of hyperthyroidism needs to be individualized, taking the patient's condition and preferences into account. There are three possible methods of treating hyperthyroidism, namely, medical treatment, including the use of beta-blockers and other antithyroid medications; surgery, and radio-iodine treatment. These three methods are briefly discussed. 3 refs., 3 tabs

  10. Ebola vaccine and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Ayato

    2015-01-01

    Filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg viruses) cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. No effective prophylaxis or treatment for filovirus diseases is yet commercially available. The recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa has accelerated efforts to develop anti-Ebola virus prophylaxis and treatment, and unapproved drugs were indeed used for the treatment of patients during the outbreak. This article reviews previous researches and the latest topics on vaccine and therapy for Ebola virus disease.

  11. Herbal Treatment in Menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigdem Gun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The digest has been prepared to review available clinical evidence on herbs used in treatment of menopause symptoms. Effectiveness of Humulus lupulus, Vitex agnus-castus, Dioskorea vilosa, Linum usitatissimum, Pinus pinaster, cruciferous vegetables, Cimicifuga racemosa L., Angelica sinensis, Oenothera biennis L., Hypericum perforatum L., Panax ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, Glycine soja, Trifolium pratense and Piper methysticum herbs were assessed for treatment of menopausal symptoms in the studies. Herbs used as alternative supplementary treatment for menopause symptoms have been found to have a limited effect. Thus more studies are warranted to assess effectiveness of herbal treatments for menopausal symptoms. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(4.000: 520-530

  12. Waste Water Treatment Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.E.K.

    2004-01-01

    A wastewater treatment plant to treat both the sanitary and industrial effluent originated from process, utilities and off site units of the refinery is described. The purpose is to obtain at the end of the treatment plant, a water quality that is in compliance with contractual requirements and relevant environmental regulations. first treatment (pretreatment). Primary de-oiling, Equalization, Neutralization, Secondary de-oiling. Second treatment (Biological), The mechanism of BOD removal, Biological flocculation, Nutrient requirements, Nitrification, De-nitrification, Effect of temperature, Effect of ph, Toxicity

  13. Addic tion treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-01-29

    Jan 29, 2009 ... it does leave the profitability and viability of the more orthodox treatment centres at risk, and they now often seek improved income streams by sourcing patients from abroad. This effectively subsidises local patients whose treatment intervention is remunerated by discounted medical aid rates. South Africa is ...

  14. Treatment versus proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, David Woodrow Mattson

    2010-01-01

    Persons suffering from mental illness, retardation or other disturbances who commit crimes in Denmark cannot be punished, but are instead sentenced to treatment. In the past, these sentences were always indeterminate, meaning that treatment regimens were only terminated when psychiatrists judged ...

  15. Bell's Palsy Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Bell's Palsy Sections What Is Bell's Palsy? Bell's Palsy Symptoms Bell's Palsy Treatment Bell's Palsy Treatment Leer en Español: Tratamiento de la parálisis ...

  16. Treatments for Sleep Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contributing medical factors Non-drug strategies Medications Common sleep changes Many people with Alzheimer’s experience changes in ... at night. Subscribe now Non-drug treatments for sleep changes Non-drug treatments aim to improve sleep ...

  17. [Psychiatric treatment sentences.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, Hanne; Nordentoft, Merete; Agerbo, Esben

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Previous Danish studies of the increasing number of sentences to psychiatric treatment (SPT) have compared prevalent populations of persons undergoing treatment with incident measures of reported crimes. Examining the period 1990-2006, we studied incident sentences, taking the type...

  18. Treatment preference in hypochondriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J; Vincent, N; Furer, P; Cox, B; Kjernisted, K

    1999-12-01

    Promising cognitive-behavioral and medication treatments for hypochondriasis are in the early stages of evaluation. Little is known about the treatment preferences and opinions of individuals seeking help for this problem. In this exploratory study, 23 volunteers from the community with a DSM-IV diagnosis of hypochondriasis were recruited through a newspaper advertisement. Participants were presented with a survey which included balanced descriptions of both a medication and a cognitive-behavioral treatment for intense illness concerns (hypochondriasis). The brief descriptions of the treatments discussed the time commitment required as well as the major advantages and disadvantages of each. Results showed that, relative to medication treatment, cognitive-behavioral treatment was predicted to be more effective in both the short and long terms and was rated as more acceptable. Psychological treatment was indicated as the first choice by 74% of respondents, medication by 4%, and 22% indicated an equal preference. Forty-eight percent of respondents would only accept the psychological treatment.

  19. Immunotherapy in multimodality treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Application of immunotherapy for treatment of oncologic patients is considered. Monoclonal antibodies (MCA) are used for immunotherapy both independently and as carriers of various toxins, chemopreparations and radioactive isotopes. It is shown that immunotherapy should be considered as one of additional methods of multimodulity treatment of patients with malignant tumors

  20. Cradle Cap: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cradle cap Treatment Cradle cap usually doesn't require medical treatment. It clears up on its own within a few months. In the meantime, wash ... tips can help you control and manage cradle cap. Gently rub your baby's scalp with your fingers ...

  1. Current obesity drug treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio C. Mancini

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological treatment of obesity is an area of sudden changes,development of new drugs and treatment propositions. This articlepresents information on physiological agents that are currentlybeing used as well as drugs that were widely used but are nomore available.

  2. Radwaste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehn, L.; Breza, M.; Pekar, A.

    2000-01-01

    In this lecture is given the basic information, that is concerning on the RAW treatment and long term disposal of the treated RAW in repository at Mochovce. Then here is given the basic technical and technological information, that is concerning bituminization, plant, the vitrification unit, center for the RAW-treatment (BSC) and repository at Mochovce. (authors)

  3. Cyberknife stereotactic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lief, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    The topic discussed included, among others, the following: cyberknife capabilities; autonomous robotics; continuous image guidance; flexible robotics maneuverability; Dynamic motion targeting; intelligent patient positioning; 4D treatment optimization and planning system; X-ray sources; robotic manipulator; linear accelerator; MultiPlan treatment planning system; radiosurgery vs radiotherapy; radiation system delivery comparison; simplified contouring; plan optimization; QA and commissioning. (P.A.)

  4. Treatment of Schizoaffective Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Cascade, Elisa; Kalali, Amir H.; Buckley, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the range of treatments prescribed for schizoaffective disorder. The data show that the majority of those treated, 87 percent, receive two or more pharmaceutical classes. From a therapeutic class perspective, 93 percent of schizoaffective disorder patients receive an antipsychotic, 48 percent receive a mood disorder treatment, and 42 percent receive an antidepressant. An expert commentary is also included.

  5. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... They also have higher rates of cigarette and drug addiction, and more driving infractions. The good news is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children ... and develop new drugs for ADHD. It is important to confer with ...

  6. Treatment strategies in mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenhaar, Frank; Akin, Cem; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Treatment recommendations for mastocytosis are based mostly on expert opinion rather than evidence obtained from controlled clinical trials. In this article, treatment options for mastocytosis are presented, with a focus on the control of mediator-related symptoms in patients with indolent disease....

  7. Proceedings of DAE-BRNS biennial symposium on emerging trends in separation science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, P.N.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Goswami, A.

    2012-01-01

    The symposium on emerging trends in separation science and technology was held during 27 February -1 March, 2012. An attempt has been made to cover a wide range of topics in the symposium including design and synthesis of solvents/resins, development of separation equipment's, separation the nuclear fuel cycle, emerging separation technologies, electrochemical and pyrochemical separations, treatment of industrial effluents, isotope separations, membrane science and technology, radiochemical separations, water treatment and recycling, bioremediation and speciation. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  8. Adjunctive steroid treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshin, André; Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus; Meyer, Christian N

    2007-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate local guidelines regarding early steroid treatment in adult community acquired bacterial meningitis, and assess the actual treatment given and its correlation to clinical outcome. Patient outcome was obtained retrospectively from the medical records of 210 adults...... admitted to 47 hospitals in Denmark during 2002-2004 (population 5.4 million) and was combined with results from a questionnaire regarding treatment guidelines in these hospitals. In 36 of 47 departments responding to the questionnaire, 21 recommended early steroid treatment, but none did so initially...... during 2002. Early steroid treatment was given to 15% of patients and was given more often when recommended locally (41% vs 11%, OR=5.7 (2.4-13.5)). Unfavourable outcome was demonstrated rarely in patients treated with early steroids compared to the non-steroid group (17% vs 42%, p

  9. Radiation treatment of foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, T.; Huebner, G.

    1990-10-01

    In addition to fundamental demands on radiation and safety engineering of irradiation facilities, the necessity arises to optimize irradiation conditions by using facilities to capacity and thus reducing irradiation costs. The following subjects are dealt with in detail: rehabilitation of a pilot plant for radiation treatment of onions; examination of radiation resistance of components and equipment parts of food irradiation facilities; chemical dosimetry; relative measurement of the intensity of radioactive sources; thermo- and chemiluminescence to prove irradiation of foodstuffs; radiation induced sprout inhibition of potatoes; laboratory tests of delayed maturation of tomatoes; radiation treatment of strawberries; radiation treatment of forage; radiation induced sprout inhibition of acid-treated onions; radiation treatment of starch and potatoe products; radiation treatment of cosmetics; the universal radiation source UNI 88/26 for gamma irradiation facilities; microbiological aspects of food irradiation, and introduction of chicken irradiation on an industrial scale. (BBR) [de

  10. Emerging treatments in alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falto-Aizpurua, Leyre; Choudhary, Sonal; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-12-01

    Alopecia is a common concern encountered in the medical practice. Treatment approach varies according to the type and severity of alopecia. However, available treatment options have limited efficacy and several adverse effects. Presently, there are different treatment options being studied to overcome these limitations. Additionally, cellular pathways involved in the pathophysiology of alopecia are further being clarified to potentially target pathogenic molecules. We searched the literature for recently published articles discussing new treatment options as well as mechanisms involved in alopecia. We discuss the use of stem cells, growth factors, cellular pathways and robotic hair transplant, among other emerging therapies used for alopecia. Future looks very promising and new effective treatments such as janus kinase inhibitors could possibly be available for alopecia areata. The stem-cell technology is advancing and companies involved in hair follicle neogenesis are starting clinical trials on patients with androgenetic alopecia.

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Ewing Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ewing Sarcoma Treatment Osteosarcoma Treatment Research Ewing Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Ewing Sarcoma ... started or in another part of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types ...

  12. Life After Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... know what to expect after treatment ends. Emotional effects of treatment The last day of treatment It is normal to have different feelings, emotions and fears after treatment ends. Not everyone feels ...

  13. Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V S Saxena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy includes surgery, vagal nerve stimulation, ketogenic diet, and other alternative/complementary therapies, e.g., yoga, Ayurveda, electroencephalography (EEG biofeedback technique, aerobic exercise, music therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, acupuncture, and herbal remedies (traditional Chinese medicine. Alternative therapies, despite the term, should not be considered as an alternative to antiepileptic medication; they complement accepted drug treatment. Alternative therapies like yoga, through techniques that relax the body and mind, reduce stress, improve seizure control, and also improve quality of life. Ketogenic diet is a safe and effective treatment for intractable epilepsies; it has been recommended since 1921. The diet induces ketosis, which may control seizures. The most successful treatment of epilepsy is with modern antiepileptic drugs, which can achieve control of seizures in 70-80% cases. Patients opt for alternative therapies because they may be dissatisfied with antiepileptic drugs due to their unpleasant side effects, the long duration of treatment, failure to achieve control of seizures, cultural beliefs and, in the case of women, because they wish to get pregnant Surgical treatment may lead to physical and psychological sequelae and is an option only for a minority of patients. This article presents supportive evidence from randomized controlled trials done to assess the benefit of non-pharmacological treatment.

  14. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-01-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies. - Highlights: ► The history of phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is given. ► Generic PI treatments in use today are discussed. ► Suggestions for future research are presented. ► A dose of 250 Gy for most insects may suffice.

  15. Oral health: orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martonffy, Andrea Ildiko

    2015-01-01

    Improper tooth alignment due to crowding, malocclusion, and missing teeth can cause difficulties with eating and speech, and premature wear. It is estimated that more than 20% of children would benefit from orthodontic treatment to correct these conditions, many of which will persist into adulthood if not corrected. Orthodontic care is gaining popularity among adults for similar concerns, as well as for correction of cosmetic issues. The psychological effects of malocclusion should not be ignored. The American Association of Orthodontists recommends that all children undergo evaluation at the first recognition of an orthodontic condition and no later than age 7 years. Some children will need early treatment to help eliminate developing conditions and improve the foundations of the bite, which can ease later treatment in adolescence. For others, treatment in adolescence without early treatment is recommended. Standard cemented braces or clear, removable aligners may be used, depending on the patient's corrective needs. Average treatment time is approximately 2 years; this may be shortened by the use of accelerative techniques. Routine preventive dental care should be continued during the treatment period. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  16. [Treatment of selective mutism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melfsen, Siebke; Warnke, Andreas

    2007-11-01

    Selective mutism is a communication disorder of childhood in which the child does not speak in specific social situations despite the ability to speak in other situations. A literature review was completed in order to provide practical guidelines for the assessment and treatment of children with selective mutism. There are many different behavioral approaches in the treatment of this disorder, e.g. contingency management, shaping, stimulus fading, escape-avoidance, self-modeling, learning theory approaches. A clearer diagnostic understanding of the disorder as part of anxiety or oppositional disorders needs to be realized prior to generalize an effective treatment for this disorder.

  17. [Esthetic treatment of varicosities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vin, F

    2000-06-01

    Telangiectasia is dilatation of the subpapillary venous plexus of the epidermis of the lower limbs, which can lead to aesthetic embarrassment. Before treating telangiectasia, patient history and clinical examination help establishing its origin. It can be with isolated, associated reticular drainage veins, or be part of superficial venous insufficiency. Several types of treatment have been proposed. Microsclerotherapy is the most effective and least costly. Muller's phlebectomy can be performed when telangiectasia is fed by large reticular veins, either afferent or efferent. Treatment by laser and pulsed light appear best reserved to treatment of finer venous dilatations, either complementary or after failure of sclerotherapy.

  18. [Treatment possibilities and treatment results in pneumoconioses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, W T

    1983-01-01

    Some types of pneumoconiosis, such as asbestosis, are characterized by marked restrictive functional patterns. Treatment is begun when definite arterial hypoxemia appears, since the inhalation of oxygen clearly lowers pulmonary artery pressure. It is also important that the onset of concomitant airway obstruction is recognized promptly. From the sociomedical standpoint the most significant pneumoconiosis continues to be the miner's anthracosilicosis. The functional pattern of this pneumoconiosis is clearly airway obstruction, and such anthracosilicotic airway obstruction responds like all other forms of airway obstruction to antiobstructive therapy. The fundamentals of this therapy, which is based on the use of bronchodilators, adrenal cortical hormones and antibiotics, are described.

  19. Traditional preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient...... options....

  20. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having trouble with friendships. Family life ... ADHD? Common Signs and Symptoms Getting Treatment Supporting School Success The Teenage Years Working Together Resources Connect ...

  1. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... reduce symptoms and help the child function at a normal level. Treatment may include medication, therapy, family support, educational support, or a combination of these. A major study sponsored by ...

  2. Varicose vein - noninvasive treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spider veins. These are small varicose veins. Salt water (saline) or a chemical solution is injected into the varicose vein. The vein will harden and then disappear. Laser treatment can be used on the surface of the skin. Small bursts ...

  3. Electrochemical treatment of graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podlovilin, V.I.; Egorov, I.M.; Zhernovoj, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    In the course of investigating various modes of electrochemical treatment (ECT) it has been found that graphite anode treatment begins under the ''glow mode''. A behaviour of some marks of graphite with the purpose of ECT technique development in different electrolytes has been tested. Electrolytes have been chosen of three types: highly alkaline (pH 13-14), neutral (pH-Z) and highly acidic (pH 1-2). For the first time parallel to mechanical electroerosion treatment, ECT of graphite and carbon graphite materials previously considered chemically neutral is proposed. ECT of carbon graphite materials has a number of advantages as compared with electroerrosion and mechanical ones with respect to the treatment rate and purity (ronghness) of the surface. A small quantity of sludge (6-8%) under ECT is in highly alkali electrolytes.

  4. Electrochemical treatment of graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podlovilin, V.I.; Egorov, I.M.; Zhernovoj, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    In the course of investigating various modes of electroche-- mical treatment (ECT) it has been found that graphite anode treatment begins under the ''glow mode''. A behaviour of some marks of graphite with the purpose of ECT technique development in different electrolytes has been tested. Electrolytes have been chosen of three types: highly alkaline (pH 13-14), neutral (pH-Z) and highly acidic (pH 1-2). For the first time parallel to mechanical electroerosion treatment ECT graphite and carbon graphite materials previously considered chemically neutral is proposed. ECT of carbon graphite materials has a number of advantages as compared with electroerrosion and mechanical ones this is treatment rate and purity (ronghness) of the surface. A sMall quantity of sludge (6-8%) under ECT is in highly alkali electrolytes

  5. Parathyroid Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the following rare disorders that are inherited (passed down from parent to child): Familial isolated hyperparathyroidism (FIHP). Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome . Treatment with radiation therapy may increase the risk of ...

  6. Plague Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Plague Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics ...

  7. Treatment and Follow Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close Celiac Disease Understanding Celiac Disease What is Celiac Disease? Symptoms Screening and Diagnosis Treatment and Follow-Up Dermatitis ... you find the right healthcare practitioner to discuss symptoms, diagnose, and ... Our nationwide Healthcare Practitioner Directory lists primary care ...

  8. Alternative Menopause Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... menopausal symptoms. These include estrogen—still the most effective treatment for many menopausal symptoms—non-estrogen prescription drugs, and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). What is CAM? CAM refers to practices ...

  9. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to help find the medication and dosage that will work best for your child. Different medications work ... effects. Before medication treatment begins, your child’s doctor will do a thorough health evaluation. The doctor should ...

  10. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and drug addiction, and more driving infractions. The good news is that effective treatment is available . With ... to use point systems or charts to reward good behavior. When a child becomes too unruly or ...

  11. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ability to pay attention and control their behavior. The ... therapy. Since individual needs vary, however, you should work with your child’s doctor to help find most ...

  12. Head Lice: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before treatment using the hot water (130°F) laundry cycle and the high heat drying cycle. Clothing ... does not imply endorsement by the Public Health Service or by the U.S. Department of Health and ...

  13. Patient Treatment File (PTF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This database is part of the National Medical Information System (NMIS). The Patient Treatment File (PTF) contains a record for each inpatient care episode provided...

  14. Treatment-Resistant Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on your own, talk to your doctor or mental health professional. Depression treatment may be unsuccessful until you address your substance use. Manage stress. Relationship issues, financial problems, an unhappy work life and many other issues can all contribute ...

  15. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ADHD will continue to benefit from it as teenagers. In fact, many adults with ADHD also find ... and Symptoms Getting Treatment Supporting School Success The Teenage Years Working Together Resources Connect With Us Contact ...

  16. Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howes, Oliver D; McCutcheon, Rob; Agid, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research and clinical translation in schizophrenia is limited by inconsistent definitions of treatment resistance and response. To address this issue, the authors evaluated current approaches and then developed consensus criteria and guidelines. METHOD: A systematic review of randomize...

  17. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... children with ADHD benefit from taking medication. Medications do not cure ADHD. Medications can control ADHD symptoms ... Before medication treatment begins, your child’s doctor will do a thorough health evaluation. The doctor should continue ...

  18. Treatment of Acoustic Neuroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Learn Treatment Options Overview English English Arabic Catalan Chinese (Simplified) Chinese (Traditional) Danish French German Greek ... for delivering stereotactic radiation have improved, an increasing number of patients have chosen to receive stereotactic radiosurgery ...

  19. Wastewater Treatment in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur

    treatment in these regions. However, designing, constructing and operating wastewater collection systems in the Arctic is challenging because of e.g. permafrost conditions, hard rock surfaces, freezing, limited quantity of water and high costs of electricity, fuel and transportation, as well as a settlement...... or water saving toilets. This opens up for co-treatment of organic waste fractions. Freezing and thawing has also been recognised as being a cost-effective wastewater treatment method in cold regions. Thus it was chosen to concentrate on the effect of the mentioned processes, namely freezing, anaerobic...... spreading of nutrients, diseases and potential pollution issues. Due to the above mentioned challenges alternative treatment methods are needed, especially in small and remotely located communities. Decentralized solutions are well suited for Greenland. Ideal solutions should reduce the need for expensive...

  20. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ability to pay attention and control their ... therapy helps the family develop a plan to improve a child’s behavior. For example, parents can learn ...

  1. Acid Mine Drainage Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fripp, Jon

    2000-01-01

    .... Acid mine drainage (AMD) can have severe impacts to aquatic resources, can stunt terrestrial plant growth and harm wetlands, contaminate groundwater, raise water treatment costs, and damage concrete and metal structures...

  2. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have been prescribing them for more than 60 years. More recently, non-stimulant medications have become available ... Symptoms Getting Treatment Supporting School Success The Teenage Years Working Together Resources Connect With Us Contact Us ...

  3. Dairy wastewater treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... treatment processes to treat dairy wastewater such as activated sludge system .... Gas chromatograph. (Perkin Elmer, Auto system XL), equipped with thermal conductivity ..... Enzymatic hydrolysis of molasses. Bioresour. Tech.

  4. Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Individual permits for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)...

  5. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and help the child function at a normal level. Treatment may include medication, therapy, family support, educational support, or a combination of these. A major study sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health ...

  6. Glaucoma: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Symptoms, Treatment and Research Past Issues / Spring 2015 ... vision, without any pain. Photo courtesy of NEI Glaucoma Symptoms At first, open-angle glaucoma has no ...

  7. Childhood Astrocytomas Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the base of the brain. It controls body temperature, hunger, and thirst. Visual pathway : The group of ... the tumor may cause severe physical, emotional, or learning problems, a biopsy is done and more treatment ...

  8. The presentation and treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    tion of single collocations proposals are made for an implicit presentation of complex ... function lexicographers often include items to illustrate the typical use of the ... they have no items explicitly addressed at them to elevate them to treatment.

  9. Treatment of personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Anthony W; Gunderson, John; Mulder, Roger

    2015-02-21

    The evidence base for the effective treatment of personality disorders is insufficient. Most of the existing evidence on personality disorder is for the treatment of borderline personality disorder, but even this is limited by the small sample sizes and short follow-up in clinical trials, the wide range of core outcome measures used by studies, and poor control of coexisting psychopathology. Psychological or psychosocial intervention is recommended as the primary treatment for borderline personality disorder and pharmacotherapy is only advised as an adjunctive treatment. The amount of research about the underlying, abnormal, psychological or biological processes leading to the manifestation of a disordered personality is increasing, which could lead to more effective interventions. The synergistic or antagonistic interaction of psychotherapies and drugs for treating personality disorder should be studied in conjunction with their mechanisms of change throughout the development of each. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Addic tion treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-01-29

    Jan 29, 2009 ... to make any inroads in addressing this important public health problem: • Why does ... health insurance industry is delighted, as competition between various facilities .... the selection of a treatment programme for a particular ...

  11. Treatment of Essential Tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for PATIENTS and their FAMILIES TREATMENT OF ESSENTIAL TREMOR This fact sheet is provided to help you understand which therapies help treat essential tremor. Neurologists from the American Academy of Neurology are ...

  12. Thalassemia: Complications and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir If I have thalassemia, how does it affect my body? Since your ... like flu shots and other vaccines. How is thalassemia treated? The type of treatment a person receives ...

  13. Treatment with radioactive drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, I.R.

    1978-01-01

    The use of 131 I in the treatment of thyroid diseases is described. The therapeutic possibilities of application for ther radionuklide, e.g. phosphorus 32, gold 198, or yttrium 90 are discussed. (VJ) [de

  14. Cancer treatment - early menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premature menopause; Ovarian insufficiency - cancer ... Cancer treatments that can cause early menopause include: Surgery. Having both ovaries removed causes menopause to happen right away. If you are age 50 or younger, your provider may ...

  15. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase ... is based on the type of nonmelanoma skin cancer or other skin condition diagnosed: Basal cell carcinoma Enlarge Basal cell ...

  16. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... into the evening. ADHD medications can have side effects. Before medication treatment begins, your child’s doctor will ... should continue to monitor your child for side effects. A majority of children who benefit from medication ...

  17. TREATMENT OF TOXOPLASMOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening tests of various kinds of compounds were carried out with the purpose of obtaining new drugs for toxoplasmosis . Compounds tested were 66...Nitro-4’-formylamino-difenylsulfone might be effective in treatments of human toxoplasmosis . (Author)

  18. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... level. Treatment may include medication, therapy, family support, educational support, or a combination of these. A major ... For example, parents can learn to use point systems or charts to reward good behavior. When a ...

  19. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  20. Lewy Body Disease Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may experience severe neuroleptic sensitivity, such as worsening cognition, heavy sedation, increased or possibly irreversible parkinsonism, or ... addition to these forms of therapy and treatment, music and aroma therapy can also reduce anxiety and ...

  1. Techniques of Wastewater Treatment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of Chemical Engineering in UDCT and works ... tional methods of treatment. Currently the need is ... temperature causes the organic molecule to undergo oxidative degradation. ... When ultrasound is applied to effluent, water undergoes ther-.

  2. Thermal plasma waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heberlein, Joachim; Murphy, Anthony B

    2008-01-01

    Plasma waste treatment has over the past decade become a more prominent technology because of the increasing problems with waste disposal and because of the realization of opportunities to generate valuable co-products. Plasma vitrification of hazardous slags has been a commercial technology for several years, and volume reduction of hazardous wastes using plasma processes is increasingly being used. Plasma gasification of wastes with low negative values has attracted interest as a source of energy and spawned process developments for treatment of even municipal solid wastes. Numerous technologies and approaches exist for plasma treatment of wastes. This review summarizes the approaches that have been developed, presents some of the basic physical principles, provides details of some specific processes and considers the advantages and disadvantages of thermal plasmas in waste treatment applications. (topical review)

  3. Treatment of anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Bandelow, Borwin; Michaelis, Sophie; Wedekind, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder/agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, and others) are the most prevalent psychiatric disorders, and are associated with a high burden of illness. Anxiety disorders are often underrecognized and undertreated in primary care. Treatment is indicated when a patient shows marked distress or suffers from complications resulting from the disorder. The treatment recommendations given in this article are based on guidelines, meta-analyses...

  4. Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bošnjak-Pašić, Marija; Vidrih, Branka; Miškov, Snježana; Demarin, Vida

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, characterized by multifocal inflammatory destruction of myelin, axonal damage and loss of oligodendrocytes. The disease is carried through two stages: inflammatory and degenerative. The most common form of disease in approximately 85% of the cases is RRMS (relapsing-remitting form). The treatment of MS is divided into: treatment of the acute phase of illness, prevention of new relapses and di...

  5. Portable treatment systems study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas.

  6. Current Treatments of Bruxism

    OpenAIRE

    Guaita, Marc; H?gl, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Opinion statement Despite numerous case reports, the evidence for treatment of bruxism is still low. Different treatment modalities (behavioral techniques, intraoral devices, medications, and contingent electrical stimulation) have been applied. A clinical evaluation is needed to differentiate between awake bruxism and sleep bruxism and rule out any medical disorder or medication that could be behind its appearance (secondary bruxism). A polysomnography is required only in a few cases of slee...

  7. Portable treatment systems study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas

  8. Treatment of Schizoaffective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the range of treatments prescribed for schizoaffective disorder. The data show that the majority of those treated, 87 percent, receive two or more pharmaceutical classes. From a therapeutic class perspective, 93 percent of schizoaffective disorder patients receive an antipsychotic, 48 percent receive a mood disorder treatment, and 42 percent receive an antidepressant. An expert commentary is also included. PMID:19724749

  9. Endovascular treatment in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Akira; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    There is an increased risk of stroke during pregnancy and the puerperium. Decisions should be made immediately upon transfer to each institution, particularly with respect to when and how to treat the patient. This review highlights the feasibility of endovascular treatment in pregnancy. Most of the pharmaceutical agents and therapeutic devices used in clinical practice can be utilized in pregnant patients. Comprehensive information on the benefits and risks of treatment should be explained to the patient and her family, with particular attention to the safety of the mother and fetus. Radiation exposure to the fetus is also a concern; the hazard can be minimized with optimal protection. Several studies have demonstrated that conventional procedures do not cause serious radiation exposure exceeding the threshold of safety to the fetus. Endovascular therapy can be safely performed for the treatment of acute stroke as in non-pregnant patients with adequate attention to pharmaceutical agents and shielding from radiation. In contrast to therapy for acute stroke, preventive endovascular treatment for asymptomatic lesions remains controversial. Several conditions, such as cerebral aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations, are known to bleed more frequently in pregnancy, but whether the benefits of preventive treatment outweigh the associated risks is unknown. The decision for preventive treatment should be carefully made on a case-by-case basis after extensive discussion with the patient. (author)

  10. 40 CFR 133.105 - Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment. 133.105 Section 133.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.105 Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment...

  11. HORMONAL TREATMENT IN UROGYNECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolf Lukanović

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hormonal treatment in urogynecology is based on the knowledge, that urinary and reproductive tracts have common embriologic origin and are also linked anatomically and functionally. Both systems are functioning and changing due to sex steroids influence. Decreased estrogen concentrations are connected to metabolic and trophic changes in all organs with estrogen receptors, i.e. also in urogenital tract. Atrophy of urogenital system in postmenopause is a common causative factor for stress urinary incontinence (SUI and urge incontinence (UUI. In both estrogen replacement treatment have been introduced, but meta-analyses of the available literature indicate that estrogen therapy is effective only if given vaginaly. Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI occur in postmenopause often as a consequence of structural changes in urinary and reproductive tract to lowered immune protection and colonization with eneterobacteria. In RUTI too, estrogen replacement treatment have been used with the results similar to those with SUI and UUI. Effectiveness of estrogen treatment was evident only in topically applied vaginaly, while oral administration has the same effectiveness as placebo. Conclusions. Structural changes in urogenital tract in postmenopause are the results of estrogen depletion. Estrogen replacement is effective in cases of SUI, UUI and RUTI if it is applied topicaly, the efffect being influenced by the type of estrogen used and duration of treatment.

  12. Hyperthyroidism: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jeri R; Wheeler, Stephen F

    2005-08-15

    The proper treatment of hyperthyroidism depends on recognition of the signs and symptoms of the disease and determination of the etiology. The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is Graves' disease. Other common causes include thyroiditis, toxic multinodular goiter, toxic adenomas, and side effects of certain medications. The diagnostic workup begins with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level test. When test results are uncertain, measuring radionuclide uptake helps distinguish among possible causes. When thyroiditis is the cause, symptomatic treatment usually is sufficient because the associated hyperthyroidism is transient. Graves' disease, toxic multinodular goiter, and toxic adenoma can be treated with radioactive iodine, antithyroid drugs, or surgery, but in the United States, radioactive iodine is the treatment of choice in patients without contraindications. Thyroidectomy is an option when other treatments fail or are contraindicated, or when a goiter is causing compressive symptoms. Some new therapies are under investigation. Special treatment consideration must be given to patients who are pregnant or breastfeeding, as well as those with Graves' ophthalmopathy or amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism. Patients' desires must be considered when deciding on appropriate therapy, and dose monitoring is essential.

  13. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-07-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies.

  14. Computerized radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laarse, R. van der.

    1981-01-01

    Following a general introduction, a chain consisting of three computer programs which has been developed for treatment planning of external beam radiotherapy without manual intervention is described. New score functions used for determination of optimal incidence directions are presented and the calculation of the position of the isocentre for each optimum combination of incidence directions is explained. A description of how a set of applicators, covering fields with dimensions of 4 to 20 cm, for the 6 to 20 MeV electron beams of a MEL SL75-20 linear accelerator was developed, is given. A computer program for three dimensional electron beam treatment planning is presented. A microprocessor based treatment planning system for the Selectron remote controlled afterloading system for intracavitary radiotherapy is described. The main differences in treatment planning procedures for external beam therapy with neutrons instead of photons is discussed. A microprocessor based densitometer for plotting isodensity lines in film dosimetry is described. A computer program for dose planning of brachytherapy is presented. Finally a general discussion about the different aspects of computerized treatment planning as presented in this thesis is given. (Auth.)

  15. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallman, Guy J [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Weslaco, TX (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies. (author)

  16. Preventive Migraine Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review: This article reviews the evidence base for the preventive treatment of migraine. Recent Findings: Evidence-based guidelines for the preventive treatment of migraine have recently been published by the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) and the Canadian Headache Society (CHS), providing valuable guidance for clinicians. Strong evidence exists to support the use of metoprolol, timolol, propranolol, divalproex sodium, sodium valproate, and topiramate for migraine prevention, according to the AAN. Based on best available evidence, adverse event profile, and expert consensus, topiramate, propranolol, nadolol, metoprolol, amitriptyline, gabapentin, candesartan, Petasites (butterbur), riboflavin, coenzyme Q10, and magnesium citrate received a strong recommendation for use from the CHS. Summary: Migraine preventive drug treatments are underutilized in clinical practice. Principles of preventive treatment are important to improve compliance, minimize side effects, and improve patient outcomes. Choice of preventive treatment of migraine should be based on the presence of comorbid and coexistent illness, patient preference, reproductive potential and planning, and best available evidence. PMID:26252585

  17. Treatment Deployment Evaluation Tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. A. Rynearson; M. M. Plum

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the final disposition of legacy spent nuclear fuel (SNF). As a response, DOE's National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) has been given the responsibility for the disposition of DOE-owned SNF. Many treatment technologies have been identified to treat some forms of SNF so that the resulting treated product is acceptable by the disposition site. One of these promising treatment processes is the electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) currently in development; a second is an Acid Wash Decladding process. The NSNFP has been tasked with identifying possible strategies for the deployment of these treatment processes in the event that a treatment path is deemed necessary. To support the siting studies of these strategies, economic evaluations are being performed to identify the least-cost deployment path. This model (tool) was developed to consider the full scope of costs, technical feasibility, process material disposition, and schedule attributes over the life of each deployment alternative. Using standard personal computer (PC) software, the model was developed as a comprehensive technology economic assessment tool using a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis methodology. Model development was planned as a systematic, iterative process of identifying and bounding the required activities to dispose of SNF. To support the evaluation process, activities are decomposed into lower level, easier to estimate activities. Sensitivity studies can then be performed on these activities, defining cost issues and testing results against the originally stated problem

  18. Deciding treatment for miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette Linnet; Graungaard, Anette H; Husted, Gitte R

    2015-01-01

    understanding of the women's reactions. In relation to theory about informed consent, our findings suggest that women need more understanding of the treatments before making a decision. This study is limited due to a small sample size, but it generates important findings that need to be examined in a larger...... to gain insight into this process and the circumstances that may affect it. METHOD: A qualitative study using a grounded theory approach. Data were obtained through semi-structured interviews with six women who had chosen and completed either surgical, medical or expectant treatment for miscarriage...... sample. CONCLUSION: Frequently, women did not use information provided about treatment pros and cons in their decision-making process. Because of unspoken thoughts, and women's needs being unexplored by healthcare professionals, information did not target women's needs and their reasoning remained...

  19. Treatment Algorithm for Ameloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhumati Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastoma is the second most common benign odontogenic tumour (Shafer et al. 2006 which constitutes 1–3% of all cysts and tumours of jaw, with locally aggressive behaviour, high recurrence rate, and a malignant potential (Chaine et al. 2009. Various treatment algorithms for ameloblastoma have been reported; however, a universally accepted approach remains unsettled and controversial (Chaine et al. 2009. The treatment algorithm to be chosen depends on size (Escande et al. 2009 and Sampson and Pogrel 1999, anatomical location (Feinberg and Steinberg 1996, histologic variant (Philipsen and Reichart 1998, and anatomical involvement (Jackson et al. 1996. In this paper various such treatment modalities which include enucleation and peripheral osteotomy, partial maxillectomy, segmental resection and reconstruction done with fibula graft, and radical resection and reconstruction done with rib graft and their recurrence rate are reviewed with study of five cases.

  20. Treatment of midfacial fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.

    2007-01-01

    Fractures of the midface constitute half of all traumas involving facial bones. Computed tomography is very useful in primary diagnosis. Isolated fractures of the nasal bone and lateral midfacial structures may be diagnosed sufficiently by conventional X-rays. An exact description of the fracture lines along the midfacial buttresses is essential for treatment planning. For good aesthetics and function these have to be reconstructed accurately, which can be checked with X-rays. The treatment of midfacial fractures has been revolutionized over the last two decades. A stable three-dimensional reconstruction of the facial shape is now possible and the duration of treatment has shortened remarkably. The frequently occurring isolated fractures in the lateral part of the midface may be treated easily and effectively by semisurgical methods such as the Gillies procedure or hook-repositioning. (orig.)

  1. Treatment decisions under ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Loïc; Bleichrodt, Han; Eeckhoudt, Louis

    2013-05-01

    Many health risks are ambiguous in the sense that reliable and credible information about these risks is unavailable. In health economics, ambiguity is usually handled through sensitivity analysis, which implicitly assumes that people are neutral towards ambiguity. However, empirical evidence suggests that people are averse to ambiguity and react strongly to it. This paper studies the effects of ambiguity aversion on two classical medical decision problems. If there is ambiguity regarding the diagnosis of a patient, ambiguity aversion increases the decision maker's propensity to opt for treatment. On the other hand, in the case of ambiguity regarding the effects of treatment, ambiguity aversion leads to a reduction in the propensity to choose treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Emerging treatment of endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboubakr Elnashar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Current treatment of endometriosis is mainly based on surgery and ovarian suppressive agents (oral contraceptives, progestins, GnRh agonist and androgenic agents. Hormonal treatments are often associated with unwanted effects, delayed conception and recurrence of disease and symptoms when stopped. For these reasons, new drugs that aim new targets are required to cause regression of the disease & symptoms without adverse hypo-estrogenic effects. This review aims to provide an update on the new drugs used for treatment of endometriosis. These include the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device, GnRH antagonists, aromatase inhibitors, selective estrogen-receptor modulators, progesterone antagonist, selective progesterone receptor modulators, angiogenesis inhibitors, and immunomodulatory drugs.

  3. Cancer treatment: what's ahead?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, T.

    2005-01-01

    Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy are standard modalities for cancer treatment. Biological therapy (immunotherapy, biotherapy, or biological response modifier therapy) is a comparatively novel addition to this armamentarium. Biological therapies use the body's immune system, either directly or indirectly, to fight cancer or to lessen the side effects that may be caused by some cancer treatments. Biological therapeutic agents include interferons, interleukins, colony-simulating factors, monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, gene therapy, and nonspecific immunomodulating agents. A promising form of cancer treatment is immunotherapy. Immunotherapy for cancer is essentially the stimulation of the immune system through a variety of reagents such as vaccines, infusion of T-cells, or cytokines. These reagents act through one of several mechanisms including stimulating the anti-tumour response, decreasing suppressor mechanisms, altering tumour cells to increase their immunogenicity and making them more susceptible to immunologic defenses, and improving tolerance to cytotoxic agents or radiotherapy. This review describes some novel approaches in the immunotherapy in cancer. (author)

  4. Epilepsy treatment and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubkov, Sarah; Friedman, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Creativity can be defined as the ability to understand, develop, and express, in a systematic fashion, novel orderly relationships. It is sometimes difficult to separate cognitive skills requisite for the creative process from the drive that generates unique new ideas and associations. Epilepsy itself may affect the creative process. The treatment of epilepsy and its comorbidities, by altering or disrupting the same neural networks through antiseizure drugs (ASDs), treatment of epilepsy comorbidities, ablative surgery, or neurostimulation may also affect creativity. In this review, we discuss the potential mechanisms by which treatment can influence the creative process and review the literature on the consequences of therapy on different aspects of creativity in people with epilepsy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Epilepsy, Art, and Creativity". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hyperthyroidism: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravets, Igor

    2016-03-01

    Hyperthyroidism is an excessive concentration of thyroid hormones in tissues caused by increased synthesis of thyroid hormones, excessive release of preformed thyroid hormones, or an endogenous or exogenous extrathyroidal source. The most common causes of an excessive production of thyroid hormones are Graves disease, toxic multinodular goiter, and toxic adenoma. The most common cause of an excessive passive release of thyroid hormones is painless (silent) thyroiditis, although its clinical presentation is the same as with other causes. Hyperthyroidism caused by overproduction of thyroid hormones can be treated with antithyroid medications (methimazole and propylthiouracil), radioactive iodine ablation of the thyroid gland, or surgical thyroidectomy. Radioactive iodine ablation is the most widely used treatment in the United States. The choice of treatment depends on the underlying diagnosis, the presence of contraindications to a particular treatment modality, the severity of hyperthyroidism, and the patient's preference.

  6. Alopecia areata: Treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kasumagić-Halilović

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Alopecia areata (AA is a common cause of reversible hair loss afflictingapproximately1-2%ofthegeneralpopulation. It commonly present as round patches of hair loss which can be the firstmanifestationofamoreseverealopecia totalis or universalis. The cause of AA is unknown although most evidence supports the hypothesis that AA is an immunologically mediated disease. Treatment of AA may be divided into four different categories of widely accepted therapeutic modalities: immune inhibitors (steroid or psoralen and UVA light- PUVA, topicalsensitizers (squaric acid dibutylester and diphenylcyclopropenone, non-specificirritants(anthralinandthevasodilatator minoxidil. Improved future treatments may be immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory or they may otherwise protect hair follicles from the injurious effects of inflammation.Theaimofthisarticleistoreviewavailable data on current and potential agents for the treatment of AA.

  7. Childhood vitiligo: Treatment paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrinder Jit Kanwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo differs from the adults by showing a higher incidence in females, segmental vitiligo being more common and less frequent association with other systemic autoimmune and endocrine disorders.Childhood vitiligo is often associated with a marked psychosocial and long lasting effect on the self-esteem of the affected children and their parents, hence an adequate treatment is very essential. Treatment of vitiligo is indeed a tough challenge for the dermatologists′ more so in the background of childhood vitiligo. Although multiple therapeutic modalities are available in the therapeutic armamentarium, not all can be used in children. This brief report updates regarding various therapies available in the treatment of childhood vitiligo.

  8. New treatments for gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapa, Janet B; Pillinger, Michael H

    2010-05-01

    Gout is a commonly occurring medical condition that can lead to significant morbidity. Therapies available for the treatment of both acute and chronic gouty arthritis have not changed significantly since the 1960s. Although these treatments are well established, they are often contraindicated in the presence of various different comorbidities, including diabetes, renal insufficiency, hypertension and gastrointestinal disease, all of which can occur frequently in patients with gout. Therefore, new treatments are needed. This review describes recent advances in therapeutics for gout, including drugs designed to reduce levels of urate and to inhibit acute or chronic inflammation. While some of these strategies are currently available, others are undergoing regulatory evaluation or are at earlier stages of development.

  9. Amblyopia update: new treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagge, Aldo; Nelson, Leonard B

    2016-09-01

    This review article is an update on the current treatments for amblyopia. In particular, the authors focus on the concepts of brain plasticity and their implications for novel treatment strategies for both children and adults affected by amblyopia. A variety of strategies has been developed to treat amblyopia in children and adults. New evidence on the pathogenesis of amblyopia has been obtained both in animal models and in clinical trials. Mainly, these studies have challenged the classical concept that amblyopia becomes untreatable after the 'end' of the sensitive or critical period of visual development, because of a lack of sufficient plasticity in the adult brain. New treatments for amblyopia in children and adults are desirable and should be encouraged. However, further studies should be completed before such therapies are widely accepted into clinical practice.

  10. Novel preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    A number of novel preventive treatment options which, as with traditional methods, can be differentiated into 3 categories of prevention (primary, secondary and tertiary), have been and are being currently investigated. Those reviewed are either commercially available or appear relatively close...... of these techniques show considerable promise and dentists should be aware of these developments and follow their progress, the evidence for each of these novel preventive treatment options is currently insufficient to make widespread recommendations. Changes in dental practice should be explored to see how oral...

  11. Thyroxin hormone suppression treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the important modalities of treatment of thyroid cancer (TC) after surgery is the administration of thyroxin as an adjuvant treatment. The analysis supports the theory that thyroid suppression plays an important role in patient management. 300 μg of thyroxin, as this is an adequate dose for suppression is given. Ideally the dose should be tailored by testing s-TSH levels. However, since a large number of the patients come from out station cities and villages this is impractical. We therefore depend on clinical criteria of hyperthyroid symptoms and adjust the dose. Very few patients need such adjustment

  12. Dermatological laser treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moerk, N.J.; Austad, J.; Helland, S.; Thune, P.; Volden, G.; Falk, E.

    1991-01-01

    The article reviews the different lasers used in dermatology. Special emphasis is placed on the treatment of naevus flammeus (''portwine stain'') where lasers are the treatment of choice. Argon laser and pulsed dye laser are the main lasers used in vascular skin diseases, and the article focuses on these two types. Copper-vapour laser, neodymium-YAG laser and CO 2 laser are also presented. Information is provided about the availability of laser technology in the different health regions in Norway. 5 refs., 2 figs

  13. Treatment of hay fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, S F

    1989-01-01

    The range of treatments for hay fever available to the general practitioner has changed considerably in recent years. New antihistamines have addressed the problem of sedation and moved towards one daily dose; nasally applied corticosteroids avoid the need for systemic steroid therapy and its potential adverse effect; and regulatory decisions have set a trend away from immunotherapy in general practice. However, knowledge about the mechanism of action of immunotherapy is increasing and new developments with improved safety profiles include allergen polymers, allergoids, oral immunotherapy and nasal immunotherapy. Choice of treatment depends, as always, on the individual circumstances of the patient and his or her disease. PMID:2556545

  14. Experimental pavement delineation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryden, J. E.; Lorini, R. A.

    1981-06-01

    Visibility and durability of materials used to delineate shoulders and medians adjacent to asphalt pavements were evaluated. Materials evaluated were polysulfide and coal tar epoxies, one and two component polyesters, portland cement, acrylic paints, modified-alkyd traffic paint, preformed plastic tape, and thermoplastic markings. Neat applications, sand mortars, and surface treatments were installed in several geometric patterns including cross hatches, solid median treatments, and various widths of edge lines. Thermoplastic pavement markings generally performed very well, providing good visibility under adverse viewing conditions for at least 4 years. Thermoplastic 4 in. wide edge lines appear to provide adequate visibility for most conditions.

  15. Approaches to methadone treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvinen, Margaretha

    2008-01-01

    and does not focus on the consequences of drug use alone but also on their problematic relationship to drugs (legal as well as illegal). Furthermore, the users’ attitudes towards methadone are far more ambivalent than the staff's. For the users, methadone is not just medicine; it is also a dependence...... in the model are three dimensions (1) treatment goals at the methadone centres (abstinence vs. stabilisation) (2) treatment focus (focus on addiction vs. focus on the consequences of addiction) and (3) conceptualisation of methadone (methadone as similar to or different from heroin). The paper shows......-producing and ‘dangerous’ drug....

  16. Current treatment of retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is a highly malignant intraocular tumor of childhood which requires prompt treatment once the diagnosis has been established. The traditionally accepted methods include enucleation, external irradiation, scleral plaque irradiation, photocoagulation, cryotherapy, chemotherapy. This article will provide an update on the modern methods of treatment which are available for retinoblastoma. It is based largely on personal experience with approximately 200 new patients with retinoblastoma who were evaluated and treated between 1974 and 1984 in the Oncology Service of Wills Eye Hospital with an overall survival of 97%. This article will be an overall review which will not go into statistical detail. (Auth.)

  17. LCA of Wastewater Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred

    2018-01-01

    of LCA studies addressing wastewater treatment have from the very first published cases, been on energy and resource consumption. In recent time, the use of characterisation has increased and besides global warming potential, especially eutrophication is in focus. Even the toxicity-related impact......The main purpose of wastewater treatment is to protect humans against waterborne diseases and to safeguard aquatic bio-resources like fish. The dominating environmental concerns within this domain are indeed still potential aquatic eutrophication/oxygen depletion due to nutrient/organic matter...

  18. Alopecia areata: medical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alopecia areata (AA is a non-scarring, autoimmune, inflammatory, relapsing hair loss affecting the scalp and/or body. In acute-phase AA, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells infiltrated in the juxta-follicular area. In chronic-phase AACD8+ T cells dominated the infiltrate around hair bulbs which contributes to the prolonged state of hair loss. Treatments include mainly corticosteroids, topical irritants, minoxidil, cytotoxic drugs and biologicals. This review highlights mainly the pathomechanism and pathology, classifications and associated diseases with regard to their importance for current and future treatment.

  19. Completion of treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lief, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    The outline of the lecture included the following topics: entering prescription; plan printout; print and transfer DDR; segment BEV; export to R and V; physician approval; and second check. Considerable attention, analysis and discussion. The summary is as follows: Treatment planning completion is a very responsible process which requires maximum attention; Should be independently checked by the planner, physicist, radiation oncologist and a therapist; Should not be done in a last minute rush; Proper communication between team members; Properly set procedure should prevent propagation of an error by one individual to the treatment: the error should be caught by somebody else. (P.A.)

  20. Encounters in cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2014-01-01

    Based on extensive ethnographic material from in-depth interviews with Danish cancer patients after treatment, this study analyzes their stories to explore how interactions with the physician configures and situates a need for rehabilitation. We identify three themes in the illness stories: (1...... by this encounter. The significance of the social encounters in cancer treatment is elucidated through this analysis, and we demonstrate how the need for recognition of the complex effects of cancer on one's life is central to counter experiences of objectification and dehumanization....

  1. Robotic control architecture development for automated nuclear material handling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, R.D.; Hurd, R.; Couture, S.; Wilhelmsen, K.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is engaged in developing automated systems for handling materials for mixed waste treatment, nuclear pyrochemical processing, and weapon components disassembly. In support of these application areas there is an extensive robotic development program. This paper will describe the portion of this effort at LLNL devoted to control system architecture development, and review two applications currently being implemented which incorporate these technologies

  2. Treatment Options for Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... come back) after it has been treated. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  3. Treatment Options for Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... special light. Certain factors affect prognosis and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options ... age and general health of the patient. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Prostate Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Myelodysplastic Syndromes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... special light. Certain factors affect prognosis and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options ... age and general health of the patient. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Esophageal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  7. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  8. Treatment Option Overview (Penile Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Vulvar Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Pancreatic Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Adrenocortical Carcinoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect the prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  12. Stroke Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition Stroke Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition A healthy diet can reduce your risk for ... Treatment How does a stroke affect eating and nutrition? Stroke can devastate a person's nutritional health because ...

  13. Cancer treatment: dealing with pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000827.htm Cancer treatment - dealing with pain To use the sharing features ... test, can cause pain. Treatment. Many types of cancer treatments can cause pain, including chemotherapy , radiation , and surgery. ...

  14. Treatment Options for Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  15. Treatment Options for Kaposi Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  16. Treatment Options for Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... the brain where it was first found. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  17. Radiation treatment of benign diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitan, J.B.; Flatby, J.; Backe, S.; Lundgren, L.

    1984-01-01

    The report deals with an estimation of the volume of radiation treatment of benign diseases in Norway and gives a survey of the subjective opinion of patients regarding the result of the treatment. Reported subjective recovery after radiation treatment seems to be at the same level as recovery without treatment. For an indication of the objective effect of radiation treatment of benign diseases, the subjective effect of this treatment has to be compared with objective findings

  18. Hand Eczema: Treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Tamara Theresia; Agner, Tove

    2017-01-01

    Hand eczema is a common disease, it affects young people, is often work-related, and the burden of the disease is significant for the individual as well as for society. Factors to be considered when choosing a treatment strategy are, among others, whether the eczema is acute or chronic, the sever...

  19. Treatment Options in Kleptomania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lut Tamam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Kleptomania is a rare disorder with inability or great difficulty in resisting impulses of stealing. People with this disorder are compelled to steal things, generally things of little or no value. This disorder usually begins during puberty and usually last until late adulthood; in some cases lasts throughout the person's life. People with this disorder are likely to have a comorbid conditions like mood disorders. Individuals with the disorder are usually referred for treatment due to the comorbid psychiatric complaints rather than kleptomanic behaviour per se. On the other hand literature lacks of studies about the treatment of kleptomania. A wide variety of therapeutic strategies have been proposed for its treatment, among them psychoanalytic oriented psychotherapy, behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy. Some medications that are used for people diagnosed with kleptomania are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, mood stabilizers and opioid antagonists. There is evidence from numerous case studies that a variety of cognitive behavioral therapy techniques are effective in the treatment of kleptomania and it is favored over other approaches such as psychodynamic and psychoanalytic therapies. Studies to date suggest that cognitive behavioral therapy when used in combination with medication, is more effective than medication alone.

  20. Hydrophobic treatment of concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J. de; Polder, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the maintenance policy of the Dutch Ministry of Transport, Civil Engineering Division, hydrophobic treatment of concrete was considered as an additional protective measure against penetration of aggressive substances, for instance deicing salts in bridge decks. A set of tests was designed

  1. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about themselves. The goal of any type of ADHD treatment is to reduce symptoms and help the child ... it as teenagers. In fact, many adults with ADHD also find that medication can be helpful. Therapy and Other Support A psychiatrist or other qualified ...

  2. Water Treatment Technology - Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on filtration provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purposes of sedimentation basins and flocculation…

  3. [Balneotherapy and osteoarthritis treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrille, Christian Roques

    2012-09-01

    Balneotherapy is a complementary form of medicine which uses natural thermal mineral resources in situ. It provides patients with osteoarthritis with a full treatment to ease pain and improve functions in the long-term without causing any significant therapeutic risks.

  4. Dental Treatment Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... collect debris and saliva in patient’s mouth during treatment. • When having restorations (fillings) done, a rubber dam can be used to isolate teeth and keep the dentist’s water and restorative materials from getting near the throat. ...

  5. Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story: Leukemia/Lymphoma Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents For an enhanced version of this page please turn Javascript on. Leukemia Symptoms Frequent infections Fever and chills Anemia Easy ...

  6. Multidimension Treatment Foster Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maiken; Hansen, Helle; Deding, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Dette notat er en kort opsamling af den nyeste forskning af effekterne af Multidimension Treatment Foster Care (herefter MTFC). SFI lavede i 2010 en oversigt over forskningen om effekterne af MTFC i forbindelse med udarbejdelsen af en projektbeskrivelse. Dette notat sammenfatter den nyeste...

  7. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Common Signs and Symptoms Getting Treatment Supporting School Success The Teenage Years Working Together Resources Connect With Us Contact Us info@advsol.com My Profile Donate About AACAP Copyright © Advanced Solutions International . {1} ##LOC[OK]## {1} ##LOC[OK]## ##LOC[Cancel]## { ...

  8. Radiation treatment of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The techniques involved in the treatment of food by ionising radiation are explained. Radiation plant design, nutrition, microbiology and standards for irradiated foods are discussed. The potential applications for food irradiation in Australia are in the fields of quarantine control to disinfest fruit from fruit fly or mangoes from seed weevil, and decontamination of dried foods such as spices

  9. Marijuana Neurobiology and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkashef, Ahmed; Vocci, Frank; Huestis, Marilyn; Haney, Margaret; Budney, Alan; Gruber, Amanda; el-Guebaly, Nady

    2008-01-01

    Marijuana is the number one illicit drug of abuse worldwide and a major public health problem, especially in the younger population. The objective of this article is to update and review the state of the science and treatments available for marijuana dependence based on a pre-meeting workshop that was presented at ISAM 2006. At the workshop,…

  10. Treatments for Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Pietro, Nina C; Whiteley, Louise Emma; Mizgalewicz, Ania

    2013-01-01

    The Internet is a major source of health-related information for parents of sick children despite concerns surrounding quality. For neurodevelopmental disorders, the websites of advocacy groups are a largely unexamined source of information. We evaluated treatment information posted on nine highly...

  11. IBS Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 01 July 2017 Print A short bout of abdominal pain and diarrhea or constipation now and then is not unusual. But long-term or recurring symptoms are not normal. They may signal irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) – and are generally treatable. IBS Treatments Depend ...

  12. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ability to pay attention and control their behavior. The right care can ... with ADHD cope with daily problems, pay better attention, and learn to control ... develop a plan to improve a child’s behavior. For example, parents can learn ...

  13. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ADHD? Common Signs and Symptoms Getting Treatment Supporting School Success The Teenage Years Working Together Resources Connect With Us Contact Us info@advsol.com My Profile Donate About AACAP Copyright © Advanced Solutions International . {1} ##LOC[OK]## {1} ##LOC[OK]## ##LOC[Cancel]## { ...

  14. Plasma treatment of onychomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zilan; Roe, Jeff; Grammer, Tim; Him, Yeon-Ho; Graves, David B.

    2015-09-01

    Onychomycosis or fungal infection of the toenail or fingernail is a common affliction. Approximately 10% of the world's adult population is estimated to suffer from onychomycosis. Current treatment options such as topical creams, oral drugs, or laser treatments are generally limited by a variety of problems. We present results for an alternative onychomycosis treatment scheme using atmospheric pressure cold air plasmas. Using thinned cow hoof as a model nail material, we tested the ability of various plasma sources to act through the model nail to eradicate either bacteria or fungus deposited on the opposite side. Following 20 minute exposure to a surface microdischarge (SMD) device operating in room air, we observed a ~ 2 log reduction of E. coli. A similar result was obtained against T. rubrum after 45 min plasma treatment. NOx species concentration penetrating through the model nail as well as uptake into the nail were measured as a function of nail thickness. We propose that these plasma-generated species, or perhaps their reaction products, are responsible for at least part of the observed anti-microbial effect. We also explore the use of ultraviolet light acting in synergy with plasma-generated chemical species.

  15. Post-treatment CIN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bais, Aagje G; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Rebolj, Mateja

    2009-01-01

    We investigated in a randomised clinical trial whether addition of hrHPV testing (high-risk human papillomavirus) to cytological follow-up after treatment for high-grade CIN (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3) can lead to a better selection of women at risk for residual/recurrent CIN. We...

  16. The Treatment of Vaginismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, George; Stuart, Freida; Maurice, William L.; Garry, Matthew

    1977-01-01

    The treatment of vaginismus was the subject of grand rounds in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Vancouver General Hospital. Staff members of the UBC Sex Therapy Unit participated in the presentation of a case of unconsummated marriage. PMID:21304871

  17. Irrigation in endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basrani, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    The primary endodontic treatment goal is to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal system. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed and new delivery systems are introduced.

  18. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... should work with your child’s doctor to help find most effective treatment for your child. Medications Most ... to confer with your child’s doctor to help find the medication and dosage that will work best ...

  19. Water Treatment Technology - Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on wells provides instructional materials for five competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: dug, driven, and chilled wells, aquifer types, deep well…

  20. Pediatric Neurodevelopmental Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Ricardo; McCauley, Brandon; Szczech Moser, Christy

    2016-01-01

    Over 70 years ago Dr. Karel Bobath and his wife Bertha Bobath began to craft the therapeutic intervention now known as neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT). This edition of Reviews, Tools, and Resources will highlight a historical review of research studies that have been completed, current websites, books, and blogs focusing on NDT.

  1. Treatment of pterygium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shobha

    Chemotherapy. Over the years, various chemotherapeutic agents have been used in the treatment of pterygium. All were applied as adjuvant therapy with the .... from other countries thereby adding to the cost of surgery. This is as a result of the present paucity of tissue banks on the continent. The advantages of. AMT over ...

  2. Fertility Treatments for Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on: The underlying cause of the problem The woman's age Her history of previous pregnancies How long she has had infertility issues The presence or absence of male factor infertility Fertility treatments are most likely to benefit women whose infertility is due to problems with ovulation. ...

  3. Treatment of vinasses - recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Andrés Castro Moreno

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this minireview is to give an overview of treatments that have been applied on the vinasse, residue from the alcoholic fermentation; appoint some of its advantages and disadvantages, and then submit recirculation, as one of the best options from an economic point of view and easy implementation, for those who are not interested in the ethanol byproducts.

  4. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... therapy. Since individual needs vary, however, you should work with your child’s doctor to help find most effective treatment for ... help find the medication and dosage that will work best for your child. Different medications work for different individuals. Some of ...

  5. Treatment Options for Narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barateau, Lucie; Lopez, Régis; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-05-01

    Narcolepsy type 1 and narcolepsy type 2 are central disorders of hypersomnolence. Narcolepsy type 1 is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy and is associated with hypocretin-1 deficiency. On the other hand, in narcolepsy type 2, cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels are normal and cataplexy absent. Despite major advances in our understanding of narcolepsy mechanisms, its current management is only symptomatic. Treatment options may vary from a single drug that targets several symptoms, or multiple medications that each treats a specific symptom. In recent years, narcolepsy treatment has changed with the widespread use of modafinil/armodafinil for daytime sleepiness, antidepressants (selective serotonin and dual serotonin and noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors) for cataplexy, and sodium oxybate for both symptoms. Other psychostimulants can also be used, such as methylphenidate, pitolisant and rarely amphetamines, as third-line therapy. Importantly, clinically relevant subjective and objective measures of daytime sleepiness are required to monitor the treatment efficacy and to provide guidance on whether the treatment goals are met. Associated symptoms and comorbid conditions, such as hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, disturbed nighttime sleep, unpleasant dreams, REM- and non REM-related parasomnias, depressive symptoms, overweight/obesity, and obstructive sleep apnea, should also be taken into account and managed, if required. In the near future, the efficacy of new wake-promoting drugs, anticataplectic agents, hypocretin replacement therapy and immunotherapy at the early stages of the disease should also be evaluated.

  6. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  7. Malaria prevention and treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to allow prompt and accurate treatment of malaria in areas out .... It is essential to seek medical advice promptly if ... Not ideal for machine operators, drivers or those that work at heights .... with food that contains oil e.g. chips, bread and butter.

  8. Treatment of subclinical hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Peter D; Andreassen, Mikkel; Petersen, Claus L

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate structure and function of the heart in subclinical hyperthyroidism (SH) before and after obtaining euthyroidism by radioactive iodine treatment, using high precision and observer-independent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology. METHODS...

  9. Treatment strategies for acromegaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Pereira, Alberto M.

    2005-01-01

    Acromegaly is a chronic debilitating disorder caused by a growth hormone (GH)-producing pituitary adenoma. Active acromegaly is associated with a two- to fourfold increased mortality risk, mainly from cardiovascular disease. Transsphenoidal surgery is considered as the treatment of choice because of

  10. Treatment of plutonium contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuma, J.

    1983-01-01

    Three kinds of plutonium contaminations were considered: skin contamination; contaminated wounds; contamination by inhalation. The treatment of these contaminations was studied for insoluble (oxide and metal forms) and soluble plutonium (complexes). The use of DTPA and therapeutic problems encountered with stable plutonium complexes were analyzed. The new possibilities of internal decontamination using Puchel and LICAM were evaluated [fr

  11. Principled Missing Data Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kyle M; Little, Todd D

    2018-04-01

    We review a number of issues regarding missing data treatments for intervention and prevention researchers. Many of the common missing data practices in prevention research are still, unfortunately, ill-advised (e.g., use of listwise and pairwise deletion, insufficient use of auxiliary variables). Our goal is to promote better practice in the handling of missing data. We review the current state of missing data methodology and recent missing data reporting in prevention research. We describe antiquated, ad hoc missing data treatments and discuss their limitations. We discuss two modern, principled missing data treatments: multiple imputation and full information maximum likelihood, and we offer practical tips on how to best employ these methods in prevention research. The principled missing data treatments that we discuss are couched in terms of how they improve causal and statistical inference in the prevention sciences. Our recommendations are firmly grounded in missing data theory and well-validated statistical principles for handling the missing data issues that are ubiquitous in biosocial and prevention research. We augment our broad survey of missing data analysis with references to more exhaustive resources.

  12. Adherence to antidepressant treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2007-01-01

    Depression is a common disorder with painful symptoms and, frequently, social impairment and decreased quality of life. The disorder has a tendency to be long lasting, often with frequent recurrence of symptoms. The risk of relapse and the severity of the symptoms may be reduced by correct...... of dependence of antidepressant medicine, have a great influence on adherence to treatment....

  13. [Prophylactic treatments of migraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massiou, H

    2000-01-01

    Prophylactic treatment is mainly intended to reduce the frequency of migraine attacks. It is usually proposed to patients who suffer from two or more attacks per month. It should also be considered in patients who suffer from less frequent, but prolonged, disabling attacks with a poor response to abortive treatment, and who consider that their quality of life is reduced between attacks. Excessive intake of acute medication, more than twice a week, is a strong indication for prophylactic treatment. In order to obtain a good compliance to treatment, the patient must be informed of the expected efficacy of the drugs, and of their most frequent side effects. Thus, the choice of a prophylactic drug is made together with the patient. Based on the results of published controlled trials, the main prophylactic drugs are some betablockers, methysergide, pizotifene, oxetorone, flunarizine, amitriptyline, NSAIDs, and sodium valproate. Some less evaluated drugs such as aspirin, DHE, indoramine, verapamil, may be useful. Other substances such as riboflavin and new antiepileptic dugs are being evaluated. The choice of the drug to start with depends on several considerations. The first step is to make sure that there are no contra indications, and no possible interaction with the abortive medications. Then, possible side effects will be taken into account, for example, weight gain is a problem for most young women and patients who practice sports may not tolerate betablockers. Associated pathologies have to be checked. For example, a hypertensive migraine sufferers may benefit from betablockers; in a patient who suffers both from migraine and tension type headaches or from depression, amitriptyline is the first choice drug. The type of migraine should also be considered; for instance, in frequent attacks with aura, aspirin is recommended and betablockers avoided. In most cases, prophylaxis should be given as monotherapy, and it is often necessary to try successively several drugs

  14. Treatment of tinea capitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, S M; Nahata, M C

    1997-03-01

    To review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, mycology, clinical presentation, and pharmacotherapy of tinea capitis, and describe the role of newer antimycotic agents. A MEDLINE search restricted to English-language articles published from 1966 through 1996 and journal references were used in preparing this review. The data on mycology, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects, and drug interactions were obtained from controlled studies and case reports appearing in the literature. Both open-label and comparative studies were evaluated to assess the efficacy of antimycotics in the treatment of this infection. Griseofulvin is the drug of choice in the treatment of tinea capitis. Newer agents with greater efficacy or shorter treatment durations continue to be explored. Ketoconazole, the first azole studied for efficacy in tinea capitis, has not demonstrated any clinical advantage over griseofulvin in several controlled clinical trials. Itraconazole is effective, but the available data are limited to case reports and a single uncontrolled study. Terbinafine similarly has shown promise in the treatment of tinea capitis, but the oral formulation was only recently approved in the US. Existing studies reflect the results in infection with pathogens not seen in the US. Both itraconazole and terbinafine achieve high concentrations in the hair and stratum corneum that persist for several weeks following drug administration. This may enable shorter courses of therapy; however, comparative studies need to be conducted in the US. Tinea capitis remains the most common dermatophyte infection in young urban children. Oral antifungal therapy is required for effective treatment, often for several months. The combination of griseofulvin with a selenium sulfide shampoo continues to be the mainstay of therapy until more experience is gained with the newer antimycotics.

  15. Personality does not predict treatment preference, treatment experience does: a study of four complementary pain treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasche, Gerhard; Melchart, Herbert; Leitner, Daniela; Marktl, Wolfgang

    2007-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which personality and treatment experience affect patients' appraisals of 4 complementary treatments for chronic pain. A total of 232 chronic pain patients (164 females, 68 males, average age 56.6 years) visiting a spa clinic in Austria returned a questionnaire on patient characteristics and personality (autonomy, depressiveness, assertiveness, self-control) as well as attitudes towards (i.e. appealing, effective, pleasant) and experience of the treatments. Results were analysed by use of linear regression analysis and confidence intervals. Although all treatments were appraised positively, the passive treatments (thermal water tub baths, classical massage) were favoured more than the active treatments (relaxation training or exercise therapy). Treatment appraisal was not predicted by any of the personality traits but to a large extent by treatment experience. Relaxing, not unpleasant treatments were the most highly esteemed treatments. How strenuous or tiring a treatment was only had a minor effect on its appraisal. Neither do dependent, passive patients prefer passive treatments, nor do conscientious patients prefer active treatments. Instead, the appraisal of treatments that induce specific somatosensory sensations is largely determined by treatment experiences, i.e. what the treatment feels like. Despite the popularity of CAM which encompasses many experientially intensive treatments, treatment experience has to date been a neglected topic of treatment research.

  16. Treatment-refractory anxiety; definition, risk factors, and treatment challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Byrne, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A sizable proportion of psychiatric patients will seek clinical evaluation and treatment for anxiety symptoms reportedly refractory to treatment. This apparent lack of response is either due to “pseudo-resistance” (a failure to have received and adhered to a recognized and effective treatment or treatments for their condition) or to true “treatment resistance.” Pseudo-resistance can be due to clinician errors in selecting and delivering an appropriate treatment effectively, or to patient nonadherence to a course of treatment. True treatment resistance can be due to unrecognized exogenous anxiogenic factors (eg, caffeine overuse, sleep deprivation, use of alcohol or marijuana) or an incorrect diagnosis (eg, atypical bipolar illness, occult substance abuse, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder). Once the above factors are eliminated, treatment should focus on combining effective medications and cognitive behavioral therapy, combining several medications (augmentation), or employing novel medications or psychotherapies not typically indicated as first-line evidence-based anxiety treatments. PMID:26246793

  17. Treatment-refractory anxiety; definition, risk factors, and treatment challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Byrne, Peter

    2015-06-01

    A sizable proportion of psychiatric patients will seek clinical evaluation and treatment for anxiety symptoms reportedly refractory to treatment. This apparent lack of response is either due to "pseudo-resistance" (a failure to have received and adhered to a recognized and effective treatment or treatments for their condition) or to true "treatment resistance." Pseudo-resistance can be due to clinician errors in selecting and delivering an appropriate treatment effectively, or to patient nonadherence to a course of treatment. True treatment resistance can be due to unrecognized exogenous anxiogenic factors (eg, caffeine overuse, sleep deprivation, use of alcohol or marijuana) or an incorrect diagnosis (eg, atypical bipolar illness, occult substance abuse, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder). Once the above factors are eliminated, treatment should focus on combining effective medications and cognitive behavioral therapy, combining several medications (augmentation), or employing novel medications or psychotherapies not typically indicated as first-line evidence-based anxiety treatments.

  18. Waste management in IFR [Integral Fast Reactor] fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.R.; Battles, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The fuel cycle of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) has important potential advantage for the management of high-level wastes. This sodium-cooled, fast reactor will use metal fuels that are reprocessed by pyrochemical methods to recover uranium, plutonium, and the minor actinides from spent core and blanket fuel. More than 99% of all transuranic (TRU) elements will be recovered and returned to the reactor, where they are efficiently burned. The pyrochemical processes being developed to treat the high-level process wastes are capable of producing waste forms with low TRU contents, which should be easier to dispose of. However, the IFR waste forms present new licensing issues because they will contain chloride salts and metal alloys rather than glass or ceramic. These fuel processing and waste treatment methods can also handle TRU-rich materials recovered from light-water reactors and offer the possibility of efficiently and productively consuming these fuel materials in future power reactors

  19. Mechanical Biological Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilitewski, B-; Oros, Christiane; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    The basic processes and technologies of composting and anaerobic digestion, as described in the previous chapters, are usually used for specific or source-separated organic waste flows. However, in the 1990s mechanical biological waste treatment technologies (MBT) were developed for unsorted...... or residual waste (after some recyclables removed at the source). The concept was originally to reduce the amount of waste going to landfill, but MBT technologies are today also seen as plants recovering fuel as well as material fractions. As the name suggests the technology combines mechanical treatment...... technologies (screens, sieves, magnets, etc.) with biological technologies (composting, anaerobic digestion). Two main technologies are available: Mechanical biological pretreatment (MBP), which first removes an RDF fraction and then biologically treats the remaining waste before most of it is landfilled...

  20. Treatment of autoinflammatory diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ter Haar, Nienke; Lachmann, Helen; Özen, Seza

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the response to treatment of autoinflammatory diseases from an international registry and an up-to-date literature review. METHODS: The response to treatment was studied in a web-based registry in which clinical information on anonymised patients with autoinflammatory...... diseases was collected retrospectively as part of the Eurofever initiative. Participating hospitals included paediatric rheumatology centres of the Paediatric Rheumatology International Trial Organisation network and adult centres with a specific interest in autoinflammatory diseases. The following...... diseases were included: familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS), mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD), pyogenic arthritis pustulosis acne (PAPA) syndrome, deficiency of interleukin-1...

  1. Camptodactyly: early nonoperative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pajardi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyse the classifications and the conservative protocols used by hand surgery operative’s units and published in the last 15 years. To draw a comparison between those classifications and protocols and the ones used in our unit. Material and Methods: The published conservative treatments have been analysed and then our protocol has been described through the analysis of three cases currently treated in our division. Results: It has been highlighted that camptodactyly classifications are not homogeneous. Moreover, in conservative treatment, different typology and posology of splints have been adopted. Our unit uses the Foucher’s classification to define the type of splint that it is necessary. Conclusions: Despite the authors choose different types of splint, they agree that in the most cases of camptodactily the initial approach is conservative. In our unit static and dynamic splints are made directly on the patient’s hand and they are monitored with goniometrical measurements, obtaining great results.

  2. Treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Chuji

    1976-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is equipped with such atomic energy facilities as a power test reactor, four research reactors, a hot laboratory, and radioisotope-producing factory. All the radioactive wastes but gas generated from these facilities are treated by the waste treatment facilities established in JAERI. The wastes carried into JAERI through Japan Radioisotope Association are also treated there. Low level water solution is treated with an evaporating apparatus, an ion-exchange apparatus, and a cohesive precipitating apparatus, while medium level solution is treated with an evaporating apparatus, and low level combustible solid is treated with an incinerating apparatus. These treated wastes and sludges are mixed with Portland cement in drum cans to solidify, and stored in a concrete pit. The correct classification and its indication as well as the proper packing for the wastes are earnestly demanded by the treatment facilities. (Kobatake, H.)

  3. Tank waste treatment science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaFemina, J.P.; Blanchard, D.L.; Bunker, B.C.; Colton, N.G.; Felmy, A.R.; Franz, J.A.; Liu, J.; Virden, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Remediation efforts at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site require that many technical and scientific principles be combined for effectively managing and disposing the variety of wastes currently stored in underground tanks. Based on these principles, pretreatment technologies are being studied and developed to separate waste components and enable the most suitable treatment methods to be selected for final disposal of these wastes. The Tank Waste Treatment Science Task at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is addressing pretreatment technology development by investigating several aspects related to understanding and processing the tank contents. The experimental work includes evaluating the chemical and physical properties of the alkaline wastes, modeling sludge dissolution, and evaluating and designing ion exchange materials. This paper gives some examples of results of this work and shows how these results fit into the overall Hanford waste remediation activities. This work is part of series of projects being conducted for the Tank Waste Remediation System

  4. Electrocoagulation in Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huijuan; Zhao, Xu; Qu, Jiuhui

    Electrocoagulation (EC) is an electrochemical method of treating polluted water where sacrificial anodes corrode to release active coagulant precursors (usually aluminum or iron cations) into solution. At the cathode, gas evolves (usually as hydrogen bubbles) accompanying electrolytic reactions. EC needs simple equipments and is designable for virtually any size. It is cost effective and easily operable. Specially, the recent technical improvements combined with a growing need for small-scale water treatment facilities have led to a revaluation of EC. In this chapter, the basic principle of EC was introduced first. Following that, reactions at the electrodes and electrode assignment were reviewed; electrode passivation process and activation method were presented; comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation was performed; typical design of the EC reactors was also described; and factors affecting electrocoagulation including current density, effect of conductivity, temperature, and pH were introduced in details. Finally, application of EC in water treatment was given in details.

  5. Internal radioactive contamination treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobajas, L. M.

    1998-01-01

    In a radiological emergency, the internal radioactive contamination becomes a therapeutic urgency and must be established as fast as possible. Just when a radioactive contamination accident occurs, it is difficult to know exactly the amount of radioactive materials absorbed and to estimate the dose received.. The decision to be taken after the incorporation of the radioactive material depends on the method and on the Radiological Protection Department collaboration. Any treatment achieving a reduction of the doses received or expected will be useful. The International Radiological Protection Commission doesn't recommend the use of the dose limit, to decide about the intervention necessity. However the LIA can be used as the reference point to establish the necessity and reach of the treatment. The object of the present work, is to introduce the general principles to carry out the internal people decontamination, under the last international recommendations. (Author) 4 refs

  6. Family Weight School treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowicka, Paulina; Höglund, Peter; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of a Family Weight School treatment based on family therapy in group meetings with adolescents with a high degree of obesity. METHODS: Seventy-two obese adolescents aged 12-19 years old were referred to a childhood obesity center by pediatricians...... and school nurses and offered a Family Weight School therapy program in group meetings given by a multidisciplinary team. Intervention was compared with an untreated waiting list control group. Body mass index (BMI) and BMI z-scores were calculated before and after intervention. RESULTS: Ninety percent...... group with initial BMI z-score 3.5. CONCLUSIONS: Family Weight School treatment model might be suitable for adolescents with BMI z...

  7. MOCVD waste gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geelen, A. van; Bink, P.H.M.; Giling, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    A large scale production of GaAs based solar cells with MOCVD will give rise to a considerable use of arsine. Therefore a gas treatment system is needed to convert the waste gases into less toxic compounds. In this study seven different gas treatment systems for MOCVD are compared by quantifying the environmental aspects. The systems are divided in wet systems, adsorption systems and thermal systems. The smallest amount of waste is produced by adsorption and thermal systems. Adsorption systems use the smallest amount of energy. The amount of primary materials used for the equipment varies per system. All systems are safe, but adsorption systems are simplest. At the moment, adsorption systems are probably the best choice from an environmental point of view. Nevertheless thermal systems have some potential advantages which make them interesting for the future

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of haemorrhoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buntzen, Steen; Christensen, Peter Quist; Khalid, Ali

    2013-01-01

    These guidelines provide a review of diagnosis, conservative and surgical treatment of haemorrhoids with primary focus on the surgical treatment. In symptomatic hemorrhoids it is recommended, that conservative treatment is used as basic treatment regardless of grading. The vast majority of grade II...

  9. MIDLINE DIASTEMA: TREATMENT OPTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Kumar; Pradnya; Varsha; Sumeet; Fareedi

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT : Maxillary midline diastema is a common esthetic problem in mixed and permanent dentition. The space can occur either as a transient malocclusion or created by developmental, pathological or iatrogenic factors. Many innovative therapies are available from restorative procedures such as composite build-up to surgery (fr enectomies) and Orthodontics is available. Treatment depends upon the correct diagnosis of its etiology and early intervention relevant ...

  10. Treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontenla, D.P.

    2008-01-01

    All aspects of treatment planning in radiotherapy are discussed in detail. Included are, among others, machine data and their acquisition, photon dose calculations and tests thereof, criteria of acceptability, sources of uncertainties, from 2D to 3D and from 3D to IMRT, dosimetric measurements for RTP validation, frequency of QA tests and suggested tolerances for TPS, time and staff requirements, model based segmentation, multi-dimensional radiotherapy (MD C RT), and biological IMRT process. (P.A.)

  11. Medicine Of Water Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jeong Rae

    1987-02-01

    This book deals with the medicine of water handling, which includes medicine for dispersion and cohesion, zeta-potential, congelation with Shalze Hardy's law, inorganic coagulants, inorganic high molecule coagulants, aid coagulant such as fly ash and sodium hydroxide, and effect of aluminum and iron on cohesion of clay suspension, organic coagulants like history of organic coagulants, a polyelectrolyte, coagulants for cation, and organic polymer coagulant, heavy metal and cyan exfoliants, application of drugs of water treatment.

  12. Impetigo: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman-Adams, Holly; Banvard, Christine; Juckett, Gregory

    2014-08-15

    Impetigo is the most common bacterial skin infection in children two to five years of age. There are two principal types: nonbullous (70% of cases) and bullous (30% of cases). Nonbullous impetigo, or impetigo contagiosa, is caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes, and is characterized by honey-colored crusts on the face and extremities. Impetigo primarily affects the skin or secondarily infects insect bites, eczema, or herpetic lesions. Bullous impetigo, which is caused exclusively by S. aureus, results in large, flaccid bullae and is more likely to affect intertriginous areas. Both types usually resolve within two to three weeks without scarring, and complications are rare, with the most serious being poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Treatment includes topical antibiotics such as mupirocin, retapamulin, and fusidic acid. Oral antibiotic therapy can be used for impetigo with large bullae or when topical therapy is impractical. Amoxicillin/clavulanate, dicloxacillin, cephalexin, clindamycin, doxycycline, minocycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and macrolides are options, but penicillin is not. Natural therapies such as tea tree oil; olive, garlic, and coconut oils; and Manuka honey have been anecdotally successful, but lack sufficient evidence to recommend or dismiss them as treatment options. Treatments under development include minocycline foam and Ozenoxacin, a topical quinolone. Topical disinfectants are inferior to antibiotics and should not be used. Empiric treatment considerations have changed with the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, with methicillin-resistant S. aureus, macrolide-resistant streptococcus, and mupirocin-resistant streptococcus all documented. Fusidic acid, mupirocin, and retapamulin cover methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and streptococcal infections. Clindamycin proves helpful in suspected methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole covers methicillin-resistant S

  13. Surgical treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bult, Mariëlle J F; van Dalen, Thijs; Muller, Alex F

    2008-02-01

    More than half of the European population are overweight (body mass index (BMI) > 25 and or = 30 kg/m2). Being overweight and obesity are becoming endemic, particularly because of increasing nourishment and a decrease in physical exercise. Insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cholelithiasis, certain forms of cancer, steatosis hepatis, gastroesophageal reflux, obstructive sleep apnea, degenerative joint disease, gout, lower back pain, and polycystic ovary syndrome are all associated with overweight and obesity. The endemic extent of overweight and obesity with its associated comorbidities has led to the development of therapies aimed at weight loss. The long-term effects of diet, exercise, and medical therapy on weight are relatively poor. With respect to durable weight reduction, bariatric surgery is the most effective long-term treatment for obesity with the greatest chances for amelioration and even resolution of obesity-associated complications. Recent evidence shows that bariatric surgery for severe obesity is associated with decreased overall mortality. However, serious complications can occur and therefore a careful selection of patients is of utmost importance. Bariatric surgery should at least be considered for all patients with a BMI of more than 40 kg/m2 and for those with a BMI of more than 35 kg/m2 with concomitant obesity-related conditions after failure of conventional treatment. The importance of weight loss and results of conventional treatment will be discussed first. Currently used operative treatments for obesity and their effectiveness and complications are described. Proposed criteria for bariatric surgery are given. Also, some attention is devoted to more basic insights that bariatric surgery has provided. Finally we deal with unsolved questions and future directions for research.

  14. [Prediabetes, definition and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolz, Manuel; Dhane, Yasmin

    2017-10-01

    Prediabetes corresponds to high levels of glycaemia on an empty stomach and/or lower tolerance to glucose. It is necessary to detect and treat it in order to prevent type 2 diabetes and its long-term morbidity-mortality. Several clinical trials, based notably on modifying the patient's lifestyle, have shown that prevention is possible. Bariatric surgery could constitute a favoured treatment option in prediabetic obese patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Ionizing radiation quarantine treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Hallman, Guy J.

    1998-01-01

    Irradiation is a viable quarantine disinfestation treatment which has been studied for 40 years although it has received very little commercial use. Two principal obstacles to commercial application, 1) the fact that insects are not killed immediately, and 2) consumer opposition to irradiation, have been allayed to some extent, but the remaining impediment to large-scale commercial use is development of approved protocols by government regulatory agencies in importing countries. The United St...

  16. Improving Treatment of Giardiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.B. Yershova

    2015-09-01

    The ability of Macmiror to be eliminated by the kidneys almost completely, without involvement of the liver detoxification reserves, is equally important. An examination of the state of eubiosis in children receiving Macmiror has shown a positive effect of the drug on the intestinal microflora. Based on the individual results of the study and review of the literature data, it was found that Macmiror is one of the most effective and safe drug in the treatment of giardiasis.

  17. Treatment of waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A method of treating radioactive waste to substantially reduce the volume and which is especially useful in the treatment of material which includes radioactive halogens such as 131 I, is described. A fluidised bed incinerator and calciner are used to reduce all the liquid and combustible solid waste to anhydrous granular solids, all of which is carried by fluidizing gases into an off-gas system designed for their collection. (U.K.)

  18. Waste treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesanmi, C.A

    2009-01-01

    Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is designed to provide appropriate systems for processing, immobilization and storage of low and medium radioactive waste arising from the operation of the research facilities of the Nuclear Technology Centre (NTC). It will serve as central collection station processing active waste generated through application of radionuclide in science, medicine and industry in the country. WTP building and structures will house the main waste processing systems and supporting facilities. All facilities will be interconnected. The interim storage building for processed waste drums will be located separately nearby. The separate interim storage building is located near the waste treatment building. Considering the low radiation level of the waste, storage building is large with no solid partitioning walls and with no services or extra facilities other than lighting and smoke alarm sensors. The building will be designed such that drums(200-1)are stacked 3 units high using handling by fork lift truck. To prevent radiation exposure to on-site personnel, the interim storage building will be erected apart from waste treatment plant or other buildings. The interim storage building will also be ready for buffer storage of unconditioned waste waiting for processing or decay and for storage material from the WTP

  19. Obesity Treatment Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ianosi Edith

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a disease with severe health consequences and increased risk of mortality. The most commonly used criteria to assess the presence and the severity of obesity are body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and the presence of the health conditions caused or worsened by obesity. Worldwide obesity has more than doubled in the last 4 decades. Obesity is the second of the leading preventable causes of death worldwide (after smoking. Obesity has a plurifactorial pathogenesis. The central perturbation consists in the imbalance between calories intake and calories consumption (by inappropriate diet and sedentary lifestyle. Identification of all the ethiological factors is important for treatment and prophylaxis. Weight loss benefits are multiple and important: improvement in glicemic control and in plasma lipid levels, blood presure control, obstructiv sleep apneea reduction, improvement in management of daily activities and profesional performances, increase quality of life, reduction in mortality. Overweight or obese patient will complete a diagnostic and a treatment program. Treatment of obesity claims a targeted multidimensional therapy: weight and lifestyle management, diet, sustained physical activity in daily life, exercise, decrease life stressors, smoking cessation, drug therapy, bariatric surgery psichological, familial and social suport. Weight loss program must be carefully planned, adapted to the patient’s abilities and comorbidities and supervised by a nutritionist and a physiotherapist.

  20. [Treatment of compulsive buying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, A; de Zwaan, M

    2008-08-01

    Although compulsive buying is receiving increasing attention in research, it is largely ignored in clinical practice. Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is defined as excessive and mostly senseless spending or excessive shopping impulses that cause marked distress, interfere with social or occupational functioning, and often results in financial problems. It is currently conceptualized as an "impulse control disorder not otherwise specified" (ICD-10 F63.9). CBD is associated with significant psychiatric co-morbidity particularly mood and anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, binge eating disorder, substance use disorders, personality disorders, and other impulse control disorders. Previous research indicates that many compulsive buyers also suffer from compulsive hoarding. There is no evidence-based treatment approach for CBD and treatment research on this topic is limited. Open label trials suggest that antidepressants could improve compulsive buying. However, small randomized controlled trials failed to demonstrate significant improvement over Placebo and the high placebo-response rate prevents any definitive statement on the efficacy of antidepressants. Two controlled cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) trials reported that group CBT is significantly more effective compared to waiting list control groups in the treatment of compulsive buying. Clinical and therapeutic implications are discussed.

  1. Comprehensive supernate treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, B.Z.; Collins, J.L.; Davidson, D.J.; Anderson, K.K.; Chase, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    This task involves the recovery of the liquid (supernatant or supernate) portions of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Melton Valley Storage Tank waste in a hot cell and treatment of the supernate to separate and remove the radionuclides. The supernate is utilized in testing various sorbent materials for removing cesium, strontium, and technetium from the highly alkaline, saline solutions. Batch tests are used to evaluate and select the most promising materials for supernate treatment to reduce the amount of waste for final disposal. Once the sorbents have been selected based on the results from the batch tests, small column tests are made to verify the batch data. Additional data from these tests can be used for process design. The sorption tests emphasize evaluation of newly developed sorbents and engineered forms of sorbents. Methods are also evaluated for recovering the radionuclides from the sorbents, including evaluating conditions for eluting ion exchange resins. A final report will summarize the results and compare the results with those of other investigators, along with recommendations for separating and concentrating radionuclides from DOE storage tank supernates at Oak Ridge and other sites. Documentation of the data and the significance of the findings will be compared, and recommendations will be provided to likely users of the data in EM-30. This program also provides input to the supernate treatment process demonstration projects at ORNL

  2. [Pharmacological treatment of obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomis Barbará, R

    2004-01-01

    The pharmacological treatment of obesity should be considered when cannot be achieved a 10% weight loss with diet therapy and physical activity. The drugs effective in obesity treatment may act by different mechanisms such as reduction in food intake, inhibition of fat absorption, increase of thermogenesis and stimulation of adipocyte apoptosis. At present, we only have two marketed drugs for obesity treatment. Sibutramine is an inhibitor of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonina reuptake which inhibits food intake and increases thermogenesis. Sibutramine administration for a year can induce a weight loss of 4-7%. Its main side effects are hypertension, headache, insomnia and constipation. Orlistat is an inhibitor of pancreatic lipase which is able to block the absorption of 30% of ingested fat. Its administration induces weight loss and reduction of ulterior weight regain. Also, this drug improves hypertension dyslipdaemia and helps to prevent diabetes in 52% of cases when administered over four years. The increase in frequency of stools and interference with vitamin absorption are its main side effects. Glucagon-like peptide 1, which increases insulin sensitivity and satiety, adiponectin and PPAR-gamma agonists which reduce insulin resistance and modulates adipocyte generation are the basis for future therapeutic approaches of obesity. Phosphatase inhibitors induce PPAR-gamma phosphorylation and UCP-1 expression leading to an increase in thermogenesis and reduction in appetite.

  3. Coal pile leachate treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, E C; Kimmitt, R R

    1982-09-01

    The steam plant located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory was converted from oil- to coal-fired boilers. In the process, a diked, 1.6-ha coal storage yard was constructed. The purpose of this report is to describe the treatment system designed to neutralize the estimated 18,000 m/sup 3/ of acidic runoff that will be produced each year. A literature review and laboratory treatability study were conducted which identified two treatment systems that will be employed to neutralize the acidic runoff. The first, a manually operated system, will be constructed at a cost of $200,000 and will operate for an interim period of four years. This system will provide for leachate neutralization until a more automated system can be brought on-line. The second, a fully automated system, is described and will be constructed at an estimated cost of $650,000. This automated runoff treatment system will ensure that drainage from the storage yard meets current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Standards for pH and total suspended solids, as well as future standards, which are likely to include several metals along with selected trace elements.

  4. Ayahuasca and cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenberg, Eduardo E

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensively review the evidence regarding the use of ayahuasca, an Amerindian medicine traditionally used to treat many different illnesses and diseases, to treat some types of cancer. An in-depth review of the literature was conducted using PubMed, books, institutional magazines, conferences and online texts in nonprofessional sources regarding the biomedical knowledge about ayahuasca in general with a specific focus in its possible relations to the treatment of cancer. At least nine case reports regarding the use of ayahuasca in the treatment of prostate, brain, ovarian, uterine, stomach, breast, and colon cancers were found. Several of these were considered improvements, one case was considered worse, and one case was rated as difficult to evaluate. A theoretical model is presented which explains these effects at the cellular, molecular, and psychosocial levels. Particular attention is given to ayahuasca's pharmacological effects through the activity of N,N-dimethyltryptamine at intracellular sigma-1 receptors. The effects of other components of ayahuasca, such as harmine, tetrahydroharmine, and harmaline, are also considered. The proposed model, based on the molecular and cellular biology of ayahuasca's known active components and the available clinical reports, suggests that these accounts may have consistent biological underpinnings. Further study of ayahuasca's possible antitumor effects is important because cancer patients continue to seek out this traditional medicine. Consequently, based on the social and anthropological observations of the use of this brew, suggestions are provided for further research into the safety and efficacy of ayahuasca as a possible medicinal aid in the treatment of cancer.

  5. Acupuncture as anticancer treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Frączek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mystery of Traditional Chinese Medicine has been attracting people for years. Acupuncture, ranked among the most common services of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, has recently gained a lot of interest in the scientific world. Contemporary researchers have been continuously trying to shed light on its possible mechanism of action in human organism. Numerous studies pertaining to acupuncture’s application in cancer symptoms or treatment-related side effects management have already been published. Moreover, since the modern idea of acupuncture’s immunomodulating effect seems to be promising, scientists have propounded a concept of its potential application as part of direct anti-tumor therapy. In our previous study we summarized possible use of acupuncture in management of cancer symptoms and treatment-related ailments, such as chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, pain, xerostomia, vasomotor symptoms, neutropenia, fatigue, anxiety, insomnia, lymphoedema after mastectomy and peripheral neuropathy. This article reviews the studies concerning acupuncture as a possible tool in modern anticancer treatment.

  6. Mine water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komissarov, S V

    1980-10-01

    This article discusses composition of chemical compounds dissolved or suspended in mine waters in various coal basins of the USSR: Moscow basin, Kuzbass, Pechora, Kizelovsk, Karaganda, Donetsk and Chelyabinsk basins. Percentage of suspended materials in water depending on water source (water from water drainage system of dust suppression system) is evaluated. Pollution of mine waters with oils and coli bacteria is also described. Recommendations on construction, capacity of water settling tanks, and methods of mine water treatment are presented. In mines where coal seams 2 m or thicker are mined a system of two settling tanks should be used: in the upper one large grains are settled, in the lower one finer grains. The upper tank should be large enough to store mine water discharged during one month, and the lower one to store water discharged over two months. Salty waters from coal mines mining thin coal seams should be treated in a system of water reservoirs from which water evaporates (if climatic conditions permit). Mine waters from mines with thin coal seams but without high salt content can be treated in a system of long channels with water plants, which increase amount of oxygen in treated water. System of biological treatment of waste waters from mine wash-houses and baths is also described. Influence of temperature, sunshine and season of the year on efficiency of mine water treatment is also assessed. (In Russian)

  7. [Treatment of amblyopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Noorden, G K

    1990-01-01

    Animal experiments have explored the structural and functional alterations of the afferent visual pathways in amblyopia and have emphasized the extraordinary sensitivity of the immature visual system to abnormal visual stimulation. The practical consequences of these experiments are obvious: early diagnosis of amblyopia and energetic occlusion therapy as early in life as possible. At the same time, measures must be taken to prevent visual deprivation amblyopia in the occluded eye. After successful treatment, alternating penalization with two pairs of spectacles is recommended. Pleoptics involves an enormous commitment in terms of time, personnel and costs. In view of the fact that the superiority of this treatment over occlusion therapy has yet to be proven, the current value of pleoptics appears dubious. Moreover, overtreated patients may end up with intractable diplopia. Diverging opinions exist with regard to the use of penalization as a primary treatment of amblyopia. We employ it only in special cases as an alternative to occlusion therapy. Visual deprivation in infancy caused by opacities of the ocular media, especially when they occur unilaterally, must be eliminated, and deprivation amblyopia must be treated without delay to regain useful vision. Brief periods of bilateral occlusion are recommended to avoid the highly amblyopiogenic imbalance between binocular afferent visual input. Future developments will hopefully include new objective methods to diagnose amblyopia in preverbal children and infants. The application of positron emission tomography is perhaps the first step in the direction of searching for new approaches to this problem.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Treatment of complicated grief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Rosner

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the death of a loved one, a small group of grievers develop an abnormal grieving style, termed complicated or prolonged grief. In the effort to establish complicated grief as a disorder in DSM and ICD, several attempts have been made over the past two decades to establish symptom criteria for this form of grieving. Complicated grief is different from depression and PTSD yet often comorbid with other psychological disorders. Meta-analyses of grief interventions show small to medium effect sizes, with only few studies yielding large effect sizes. In this article, an integrative cognitive behavioral treatment manual for complicated grief disorder (CG-CBT of 25 individual sessions is described. Three treatment phases, each entailing several treatment strategies, allow patients to stabilize, explore, and confront the most painful aspects of the loss, and finally to integrate and transform their grief. Core aspects are cognitive restructuring and confrontation. Special attention is given to practical exercises. This article includes the case report of a woman whose daughter committed suicide.

  9. Treatment for amphetamine withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoptaw, Steven J; Kao, Uyen; Heinzerling, Keith; Ling, Walter

    2009-04-15

    Few studies examined treatments for amphetamine withdrawal, although it is a common problem among amphetamine users. Its symptoms, in particular intense craving, may be a critical factor leading to relapse to amphetamine use. In clinical practice, medications for cocaine withdrawal are commonly used to manage amphetamine withdrawal although the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of these two illicit substances are different. To assess the effectiveness of pharmacological alone or in combination with psychosocial treatment for amphetamine withdrawals on discontinuation rates, global state, withdrawal symptoms, craving, and other outcomes. MEDLINE (1966 - 2008), CINAHL (1982 - 2008), PsycINFO (1806 - 2008), CENTRAL (Cochrane Library 2008 issue 2), references of obtained articles. All randomised controlled and clinical trials evaluating pharmacological and or psychosocial treatments (alone or combined) for people with amphetamine withdrawal symptoms. Two authors evaluated and extracted data independently. The data were extracted from intention-to-treat analyses. The Relative Risk (RR) with the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was used to assess dichotomous outcomes. The Weighted Mean Difference (WMD) with 95% CI was used to assess continuous outcomes. Four randomised controlled trials (involving 125 participants) met the inclusion criteria for the review. Two studies found that amineptine significantly reduced discontinuation rates and improved overall clinical presentation, but did not reduce withdrawal symptoms or craving compared to placebo. The benefits of mirtazapine over placebo for reducing amphetamine withdrawal symptoms were not as clear. One study suggested that mirtazapine may reduce hyperarousal and anxiety symptoms associated with amphetamine withdrawal. A more recent study failed to find any benefit of mirtazapine over placebo on retention or on amphetamine withdrawal symptoms. No medication is effective for treatment of amphetamine

  10. Interferon Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Alajbegovic, Azra; Deljo, Dervis; Alajbegovic, Salem; Djelilovic-Vranic, Jasminka; Todorovic, Ljubica; Tiric-Campara, Merita

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In the treatment of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) differ: treatment of relapse, treatment slow the progression of the disease (immunomodulators and immunosuppression), and symptomatic treatment. The aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the application of interferon therapy in the treatment of MS-E: Process the disease, patients with multiple sclerosis who have passed the commission for multiple sclerosis at the Neurology Clinic of Clinical Center of Sarajevo University as a refere...

  11. Presolidification treatment of decontamination wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habayeb, M.A.

    1982-02-01

    Unsatisfactory leaching performance of several solidified decontamination solutions indicated a need for presolidification treatments to reduce the water sensitivity of the active chemicals. Chemical treatments examined in this work include pH adjustment, precipitation and oxidation-reduction reactions. The reactions involved in these treatments are discussed. The most suitable presolidification treatment for each decontamination solution has been identified. Further research is needed to test the effectivenss of these treatments

  12. INSTRUMENTAL TREATMENT OF AMBLYOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. F. Lavrent’ev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop a device with broad functionality for treatment amblyopia. methods. Analysis of functionality and technical characteristics of devices for amblyopia treatment and the development of multifunctional apparatus. results. The full-color light transmitters (i.e., LEDs are used in device. It provides the radiation withfull color spectrum. There are several directions of movement of stimuli which are presented on the display: horizontally from left to right or from right to left, vertically bottom-up or top-down, multidirectionally from the center of the display to the periphery or from the periphery of the display to the center, in a circumferential or helical pattern clockwise or counterclockwise. The period of motion of the stimuli varies from 0.25 to 4 seconds in increments of 0.25 seconds. Pulse modulation is 0-20 Hz. Light intensity is 0.1-3.0 cd. The duration of one treatment session is 1-7 min. The characteristic property of the device is multiprogram operating, i.e., several modes are switched consistently in the course of one session. Operating modes are customized for each patient. Computer control provides reprogramming of the device when assigning new tasks. Light-emitting display can be placed in the cone or be made as external component (rectangular-, quadratic-, or round-shaped. Conclusions. Stimulation of visual analyzer is performed with full-color light stimuli which move in various directions or rotate. Adjustment of modulation frequency and movement rate of the stimuli allows to change stimulation mode temporally and spatially. The device can be used in clinical and domestic settings to treat amblyopia, myopia and computer vision syndrome as well as to prevent eye fatigue.

  13. Current Treatments of Bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaita, Marc; Högl, Birgit

    2016-02-01

    Despite numerous case reports, the evidence for treatment of bruxism is still low. Different treatment modalities (behavioral techniques, intraoral devices, medications, and contingent electrical stimulation) have been applied. A clinical evaluation is needed to differentiate between awake bruxism and sleep bruxism and rule out any medical disorder or medication that could be behind its appearance (secondary bruxism). A polysomnography is required only in a few cases of sleep bruxism, mostly when sleep comorbidities are present. Counselling with regard to sleep hygiene, sleep habit modification, and relaxation techniques has been suggested as the first step in the therapeutic intervention, and is generally considered not harmful, despite low evidence of any efficacy. Occlusal splints are successful in the prevention of dental damage and grinding sounds associated with sleep bruxism, but their effects on reducing bruxism electromyographic (EMG) events are transient. In patients with psychiatric and sleep comorbidities, the acute use of clonazepam at night has been reported to improve sleep bruxism, but in the absence of double-blind randomized trials, its use in general clinical practice cannot be recommended. Severe secondary bruxism interfering with speaking, chewing, or swallowing has been reported in patients with neurological disorders such as in cranial dystonia; in these patients, injections of botulinum toxin in the masticatory muscles may decrease bruxism for up to 1-5 months and improve pain and mandibular functions. Long-term studies in larger and better specified samples of patients with bruxism, comparing the effects of different therapeutic modalities on bruxism EMG activity, progression of dental wear, and orofacial pain are current gaps of knowledge and preclude the development of severity-based treatment guidelines.

  14. Treatment of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Bradford T; Onysko, Mary K; Stob, Christian M; Hazlewood, Kathleen A

    2011-06-15

    Alzheimer disease is the most common form of dementia, affecting nearly one-half [corrected] of Americans older than 85 years. It is characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive decline. Amyloid plaque accumulation, neurofibrillary tau tangles, and depletion of acetylcholine are among the pathologic manifestations of Alzheimer disease. Although there are no proven modalities for preventing Alzheimer disease, hypertension treatment, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, physical activity, and cognitive engagement demonstrate modest potential. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are first-line medications for the treatment of Alzheimer disease, and are associated with mild improvements in cognitive function, behavior, and activities of daily living; however, the clinical relevance of these effects is unclear. The most common adverse effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, confusion, and cardiac arrhythmias. Short-term use of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist memantine can modestly improve measures of cognition, behavior, and activities of daily living in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer disease. Memantine can also be used in combination with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Memantine is generally well tolerated, but whether its benefits produce clinically meaningful improvement is controversial. Although N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can slow the progression of Alzheimer disease, no pharmacologic agents can reverse the progression. Atypical antipsychotics can improve some behavioral symptoms, but have been associated with increased mortality rates in older patients with dementia. There is conflicting evidence about the benefit of selegiline, testosterone, and ginkgo for the treatment of Alzheimer disease. There is no evidence supporting the beneficial effects of vitamin E, estrogen, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy.

  15. Ayahuasca and cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo E Schenberg

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Comprehensively review the evidence regarding the use of ayahuasca, an Amerindian medicine traditionally used to treat many different illnesses and diseases, to treat some types of cancer. Methods: An in-depth review of the literature was conducted using PubMed, books, institutional magazines, conferences and online texts in nonprofessional sources regarding the biomedical knowledge about ayahuasca in general with a specific focus in its possible relations to the treatment of cancer. Results: At least nine case reports regarding the use of ayahuasca in the treatment of prostate, brain, ovarian, uterine, stomach, breast, and colon cancers were found. Several of these were considered improvements, one case was considered worse, and one case was rated as difficult to evaluate. A theoretical model is presented which explains these effects at the cellular, molecular, and psychosocial levels. Particular attention is given to ayahuasca’s pharmacological effects through the activity of N,N-dimethyltryptamine at intracellular sigma-1 receptors. The effects of other components of ayahuasca, such as harmine, tetrahydroharmine, and harmaline, are also considered. Conclusion: The proposed model, based on the molecular and cellular biology of ayahuasca’s known active components and the available clinical reports, suggests that these accounts may have consistent biological underpinnings. Further study of ayahuasca’s possible antitumor effects is important because cancer patients continue to seek out this traditional medicine. Consequently, based on the social and anthropological observations of the use of this brew, suggestions are provided for further research into the safety and efficacy of ayahuasca as a possible medicinal aid in the treatment of cancer.

  16. Prevention, not just treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, G L; Hilling, L

    1998-03-01

    A tragic burden of disease, disability, and death has resulted from smoking. The role of pulmonary rehabilitation is not only in treatment and rehabilitation of lung disease but in the prevention of lung disease. The skills of the pulmonary rehabilitation specialist should be used in the earlier detection and prevention of lung disease through primary and secondary prevention. The spirometer must gain acceptance in the medical community as the early tool to evaluate lung health, not the chest radiograph or the stethoscope. The lung age formula and sputum pap smears are just a few of the evaluation tools used to detect and motivate susceptible individuals. Prevention is the key to enhancing lung health.

  17. Disinfection by electrohydraulic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M; Soike, K

    1967-04-28

    Electrohydraulic treatment was applied to suspensions of Escherichia coli, spores of Bacillus subtilis var. niger, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and bacteriophage T2 at an input energy that, in most cases, was below the energy required to sterilize. The input energy was held relatively constant for each of these microorganisms, but the capacitance and voltage were varied. Data are presented which show the degree of disinfection as a function of capacitance and voltage. In all cases, the degree of disinfection for a given input energy increases as both capacitance and voltage are lowered.

  18. The treatment of effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wormser, G.; Rodier, J.; Robien, E. de; Fernandez, N.

    1964-01-01

    For several years the French Atomic Energy Commission has been studying with interest problems presented by radio-active effluents. Since high activities have not yet received a definite solution we will deal only, in this paper, with the achievements and research concerning low and medium activity effluents. In the field of the achievements, we may mention the various effluent treatment stations which have been built in France; a brief list will be given together with an outline of their main new features. Thus in particular the latest treatment stations put into operation (Grenoble, Fontenay-aux-Roses, Cadarache) will be presented. From all these recent achievements three subjects will be dealt with in more detail. 1 - The workshop for treating with bitumen the sludge obtained after concentration of radionuclides. 2 - The workshop for treating radioactive solid waste by incineration. 3 - A unit for concentrating radio-active liquid effluents by evaporation. In the field of research, several topics have been undertaken, a list will be given. In most cases the research concerns the concentration of radionuclides with a view to a practical and low cost storage, a concentration involving an efficient decontamination of the aqueous liquids in the best possible economic conditions. For improving the treatments leading to the concentration of nuclides, our research has naturally been concerned with perfecting the treatments used in France: coprecipitation and evaporation. In our work we have taken into account in particular two conditions laid down in the French Centres. 1 - A very strict sorting out of the effluents at their source in order to limit in each category the volume of liquid to be dealt with. 2 - The necessity for a very complete decontamination due to the high population density in our country. In the last past we present two original methods for treating liquid effluents. 1 - The use of ion-exchange resins for liquids containing relatively many salts. The

  19. [Medicamental treatment of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotstra, F; Lestienne, S; De Nayer, A

    2010-09-01

    Antipsychotics play a key role in biologic therapy of schizophrenia. Following the first-generation neuroleptics, associated with many extrapyramidal side effects (severe dystonias, parkinsonian syndrome, akatisia and late dyskinesia) altering patients' compliance to the treatment, one can now find a new generation of molecules considered as atypical antipsychotics because they rarely cause neurological complications. This propriety provides a better compliance, along with a clear decrease of late dyskinesia risk but the effectiveness compared to ordinary molecules is still questioned. However, some of them can cause an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Some molecules such as benzodiazepines and some antidepressants can also be prescribed to cure schizophrenic patients.

  20. Storytelling in drug treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    that professionals activate to make sense of inauthenticity: (1) professionals routinely refer to what this study labels the story of institutional conformism, portraying institutionalized clients who have developed a habit of saying the “right” things rather than the “real” things, (2) in the somewhat taboo story...... of ulterior motives, clients are interpreted as making inauthentic claims because they want to obtain something externally from drug treatment (e.g., avoid prison or work training programs), and (3) the story of disorders explains inauthenticity as a result of pathology. The study illuminates how...

  1. Treatment of amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S Y; Pepys, M B; Hawkins, P N

    1995-08-01

    Amyloidosis is the extracellular deposition of normally soluble autologous protein in a characteristic abnormal fibrillar form. Systemic amyloidosis and some local forms are progressive, cause major morbidity, and are often fatal. No treatment specifically causes the resolution of amyloid deposits, but therapy that reduces the supply of amyloid fibril precursor proteins can improve survival and preserve organ function. Major regression of amyloid occurs in at least a proportion of such cases, suggesting that the clinical improvement reflects mobilization of amyloid. The clearest evidence for regression of amyloid has been obtained in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis patients with AA amyloidosis treated with chlorambucil. This drug suppresses the acute phase production of serum amyloid A protein, the precursor of AA amyloid fibrils, and is associated with remission of proteinuria and greatly improved survival. In many such patients, scintigraphy with serum amyloid P component shows major regression of amyloid over 12 to 36 months and frequently reveals a discrepancy between the local amyloid load and organ dysfunction. Measurement of target organ function is therefore not an adequate method for monitoring treatment aimed at promoting the resolution of amyloid. In monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis the aim of treatment is to suppress the underlying B-cell clone and, therefore, production of the amyloid fibril precursor protein. This can be difficult to achieve or sustain and, since the prognosis is so poor, many patients die before benefits of therapy are realized. A recent development has been the introduction of liver transplantation as treatment for familial amyloid polyneuropathy caused by transthyretin gene mutations. This leads to the disappearance of variant transthyretin from the plasma and halts progression of the neurologic disease. Features of autonomic neuropathy frequently ameliorate, and improvement in peripheral motor nerve function

  2. Wastewater treatment models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    description of biological phosphorus removal, physicalchemical processes, hydraulics and settling tanks. For attached growth systems, biofilm models have progressed from analytical steady-state models to more complex 2D/3D dynamic numerical models. Plant-wide modeling is set to advance further the practice......The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...

  3. Wastewater Treatment Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2008-01-01

    description of biological phosphorus removal, physical–chemical processes, hydraulics, and settling tanks. For attached growth systems, biofilm models have progressed from analytical steady-state models to more complex 2-D/3-D dynamic numerical models. Plant-wide modeling is set to advance further......The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...

  4. Treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, M.

    1986-01-01

    The data pertinent to 101 patients with Hodgkin's disease who had been subjected to splenectomy and combined radiation therapy and chemotherapy are analyzed. The efficacy of the treatment was relatively dependent on the initial localization and the degree of the generalization and appresiveness of the disease. Acceleration of the disease gene realization stemmed from totally deranged antitumor immunity. The modern therapeutic remedies have reached the peak of their potentialities. This prompt the necessity of the search for new, still unknown biological methods, permitting the attainment of a more complete demalignancy

  5. Heat treatment furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  6. Treatment strategies for transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.J.; Swanson, J.L.; Ross, W.A.; Allen, R.P.; Yasutake, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of treatment options or strategies for transuranic wastes expected to be generated at a commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Six potential options were analyzed, ranging from no treatment to maximum volume reduction and high quality waste forms. Economics for the total management of these (treatment, transportation, disposal) indicate life-cycle savings for extensive treatment are as high as $1.7 billion for 70,000 MTU. Evaluations of the waste processing and waste forms support the selection of a number of the extensive waste treatments. It is concluded that there are significant incentives for extensive treatment of transuranic wastes

  7. Treatment strategies for transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.J.; Ross, W.A.; Swanson, J.L.; Allen, R.P.; Yasutake, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of treatment options or strategies for transuranic wastes expected to be generated at a commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Six potential options were analyzed, ranging from no treatment to maximum volume reduction and high quality waste forms. Economics for the total management of these wastes (treatment, transportation, disposal) indicate life-cycle savings for extensive treatment are as high as $1.7 billion for 70,000 MTU. Evaluations of the waste processing and waste forms support the selection of a number of the extensive waste treatments. It is concluded that there are significant incentives for extensive treatment of transuranic wastes

  8. Treatment of adolescent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeck, Katharine S; Lister, Natalie B; Gow, Megan L; Baur, Louise A

    2018-04-13

    The increased prevalence of adolescent obesity and associated short-term and long-term complications emphasize the need for effective treatment. In this Review, we aim to describe the evidence for, and elements of, behaviour management and adjunctive therapies and highlight the opportunities and challenges presented by obesity management in adolescence. The broad principles of treatment include management of obesity-associated complications; a developmentally appropriate approach; long-term behaviour modification (dietary change, increased physical activity, decreased sedentary behaviours and improved sleep patterns); long-term weight maintenance strategies; and consideration of the use of pharmacotherapy, more intensive dietary therapies and bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery should be considered in those with severe obesity and be undertaken by skilled bariatric surgeons affiliated with teams experienced in the medical and psychosocial management of adolescents. Adolescent obesity management strategies are more reliant on active participation than those for childhood obesity and should recognize the emerging autonomy of the patient. The challenges in adolescent obesity relate primarily to the often competing demands of developing autonomy and not yet having attained neurocognitive maturity.

  9. Dietary treatment of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Pita Lottenberg

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The fast global increased prevalence of obesity has been classifiedas an epidemics by the World Health Organization. The etiology ofobesity is very complex and involves genetic and environmentalfactors. One of the main factors that trigger obesity is sedentarylife, as well as the great availability of fat-rich foods that present ahigh energy density. According to the NHANES II, although thepopulation has decreased the ingestion of fat, the total consumptionof food has increased. The main factors that influence in choice offood are flavor, followed by cost, convenience and, finally, itsnutritional value. The dietary treatment of obesity should haverealistic goals concerning weight loss rate and amount. It issuggested to prescribe a balanced low-calorie diet, emphasizingmostly the quality of foods by using the food pyramid. Therefore,patients may learn the appropriate criteria to select food and makehealthy choices. The dietary treatment of obesity also includesthe use of behavioral techniques directed at dietary education,thus resulting in choice of healthy foods with adequate energyvalue.

  10. TREATMENT OF HIP DYSPLASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian ICLEANU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this thesis, our purpose is to show that using physiotherapy on patients with hip dysplasia from the very beginning, in the first months of life, helps treating them faster. Common literature proposes to use physiotherapy on patients with hip dysplasia either after their recovery or in the terminal phase of recovery, claiming that any earlier intervention will prolong the hip recovery. The effects of hip dysplasia reflect over the whole musculoskeletal system, while it hinders the knees (genu valgum, the ankles (ankle valgus, calcaneal valgus and the spine (scoliosis especially at the lumbar level. The most spectacular are at the hip level, that is why we made an analytical evaluation only for this joint. To show the importance of physiotherapy for children with hip dysplasia we started from the hypothesis: untimely treatment for children with hip dysplasia has improved results in functional recovery and in obtaining a better stability, without the necessity of orthopedics or surgical interventions. The research methods used in this study are: the observation method, the bibliographic study method, the experimental method, the graphics method and the statistical mathematical method to process the data and to represent the results graphically. In the end, the results obtained are significantly different from the initial evaluations and we came to the conclusion that starting an untimely analytical kinetic treatment and globally personalizing it to every patient improves stability and biomechanical parameters for the hip.

  11. Achalasia: Treatment Options Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemijntje A Hoogerwerf

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of all current forms of treatment of achalasia is to enable the patient to eat without disabling symptoms such as dysphagia, regurgitation, coughing or choking. Historically, this has been accomplished by mechanical disruption of the lower esophageal sphincter fibres, either by means of pneumatic dilation (PD or by open surgical myotomy. The addition of laparoscopic myotomy and botulinum toxin (BTX injection to the therapeutic armamentarium has triggered a recent series of reviews to determine the optimal therapeutic approach. Both PD and BTX have excellent short term (less than three months efficacy in the majority of patients. New data have been published that suggest that PD and BTX (with repeat injections can potentially obtain long term efficacy. PD is still considered the first-line treatment by most physicians; its main disadvantage is risk of perforation. BTX injection is evolving as an excellent, safe option for patients who are considered high risk for more invasive procedures. Laparoscopic myotomy with combined antireflux surgery is an increasingly attractive option in younger patients with achalasia, but long term follow-up studies are required to establish its efficacy and the potential for reflux-related sequelae.

  12. Behavioral treatment of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Táki Athanássios Cordas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Great population studies do not confirm the hypothesis that atypical personality of obese would exist. Obeses in the generalpopulation do not present more psychological disturbs thanthe ones that are not obeses. Obeses adolescents and adultsare discriminated in their academic and professional lifes. Thissocial, cultural, economic and affective impoverishment seemsto be directly related to the gravity of their obesity, what means,higher the ICM (Index of Corporal Mass, bigger are thepsychological problems. This abandonment contributes to thebig risk of unchain psychiatric pictures as depression, anxyetdisturbs, drugs and alcoholic excessive consumption andalimentary disturbs. Obeses of the general population do notpresent more psychological or psychiatric symptoms than theclinical population of obeses (obeses under treatment, presentmore clinical and psychiatric problems, mainly compulsoryalimentary standards. Some studies indicate that there is alinear relation between the ICM and the highest frequency ofalimentary compulsory behavior or bulimic episode. Thepsychiatric patients negative body perception added to theirother negative perceptions about their performance in searchingsocial interaction increase the trend to the isolation. Thepsychiatric picture presence in the bariatric surgery preoperatoryin a III degree overweight pacient has not to be facedas absolute surgery counter indication since such procedurecan be the difference between giving a better life quality orwaiting for a potentially lethal complication. We cannot forgetthat the obesity itself, due to the common associatedcomorbidyties, loads a great lethality potential. The surgerycounter-indication could be relative, it depending on how muchthe psychiatric disturbs interfere on the treatment andconditioned to the rigorous psychiatric control in the anteriorand post surgical period.

  13. Anaerobic treatment in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Borghi, M; Solisio, C; Ferrailo, G

    1984-02-01

    In Italy, environmental protection and energy conservation have become very important since the increase in oil prices. The law requires that all waste waters have a B.O.D. of 40 mg/l by 1986 so there has been an expansion of purification plants since 1976, using anaerobic digestion. The report deals with the current state of anaerobic treatment in Italy with particular reference to (1) animal wastes. In intensive holdings, anaerobic digestion leads to a decrease in pollution and an increase in biogas generation which can be used to cover the energy demand of the process. The factors which influence the builders of digestors for farms are considered. (2) Non toxic industrial wastes. These are the waste waters emanating from the meat packing, brewing, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Particular reference is made to the distillery plants using anaerobic treatment prior to aerobic digestion. (3) Urban wastes. The advantages and the disadvantages are considered and further research and development is recommended. 20 references.

  14. Nanotechnology in cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironidou-Tzouveleki, Maria; Imprialos, Konstantinos; Kintsakis, Athanasios

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current evolutions on nanotechnology and its applications on cancer theragnostics.Rapid advances and emerging technologies in nanotechnology are having a profound impact on cancer treatment. Applications of nanotechnology, which include liposomes, nanoparticles, polymeric micelles, dendrimers, nanocantilever, carbon nanotubes and quantum dots have significantly revolutionized cancer theragnostics. From a pharmaceutical viewpoint, it is critical that the biodistribution of active agents has to be controlled as much as possible. This aspect is vital in order to assure the proper efficiency and safety of the anticancer agents. These biocompatible nanocomposites provide specific biochemical interactions with receptors expressed on the surface of cancer cells. With passive or active targeting strategies, an increased intracellular concentration of drugs can be achieved in cancer cells , while normal cells are being protected from the drug simultaneously. Thus, nanotechnology restricts the extent of the adverse effects of the anticancer therapy. Treatment for metastatic breast cancer, sarcoma in AIDS patients, ovarian and lung cancer is already on market or under final phases of many clinical trials, showing remarkable results. As nanotechnology is perfected, side effects due to normal cell damage will decrease, leading to better results and lengthening patient's survival.

  15. Treatment of severe tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurikainen, E; Johansson, R; Akaan-Penttilä, E; Haapaniemi, J

    2000-01-01

    In 1995-96 we selected a group of 26 patients who were suffering from severe invalidating idiopathic tinnitus (IT) in order to evaluate the efficacy of rehabilitation and some alternative therapies. All patients were assessed thoroughly by means of audiology and radiology regarding any objective cause for the symptom. In order to help patients control their symptom by increasing knowledge and adding supportive elements, they were given basic education (presentations of the anatomy and physiology of the ear and hearing system, psychological and social aspects of IT, guided and non-guided group discussions, relaxation therapy, physiotherapy, music therapy) for 4 months, comprising one 2-h session bi-weekly. This type of group therapy was found to be extremely helpful, although no objective evaluation revealed effects on IT sensation (VAS) or psychometric measures (SLC-90). In a second limb of the study, the same patients attended a 6-day intensive course in a spa. The purpose was to evaluate the possible usefulness of the widely recommended alternative therapies for IT. All patients had an opportunity to sample the treatments. Six months later only a few had tried any of these treatments, but all reported that the lessons were the most helpful in association with supportive group discussions. The results indicated that none of these therapies can be recommended, based on rational medical practise.

  16. Treatment of Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurlan, Roger M

    2014-01-01

    Tourette's syndrome (TS) consists of chronic motor and phonic tics and characteristically begins in childhood. The tics can be disabling and commonly associated behavioral comorbities such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), can also cause problems in daily functioning. The underlying etiology and neurobiology of TS remain unknown although genetic factors appear to be important, cortical control of basal ganglia motor function appears to be disturbed and neurochemical abnormalities, particularly involving dopamine neurotransmission, are likely present. The treatment of TS involves appropriate education and support. Tics can be treated with habit reversal cognitive behavioral therapy, medications (most commonly alpha agonists and antipsychotics), local intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin and some severe, refractory cases have responded to deep brain stimulation surgery (DBS). It is important to appropriately diagnose and treat comorbid behavioral disorders that are disrupting function. OCD can be treated with cognitive behavioral therapy, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and atypical antipsychotics. DBS has become a treatment option for patients with disabling OCD despite other therapies. ADHD is treated with appropriate classroom accommodations, behavioral therapy, alpha agonists, atomoxetine or methylphenidate-containing stimulant drugs.

  17. Mochovce waste treatment centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedliak, D.; Endrody, J.

    2000-01-01

    The first unit of the Mochovce NPP (WWER 440 MW) was put in a test operation in October 1998. The second unit with the same power output was put in the test operation in March 2000. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic in its Decision No. 318/98 of 28 October 1998, by which an agreement with the operation of the Unit 1 of the Mochovce. Nuclear Power Plant was issued, requires to start the construction of the Liquid Radioactive Waste Treatment Centre until January 2004. The subject of this presentation is a system description of the Liquid Radioactive Waste (LRW) management in the Mochovce NPP. The initial part is dedicated to a short description of the radioactive waste management legislation requirements. Then the presentation continues with an information about the LRW production in the Mochovce NPP, LRW sources, chemical and radiochemical attributes, description of storage. The presentation also provides real values of its production in a comparison with the design data. The LRW production minimization principles are also mentioned there. Another part deals with the basic requirements for the technology proposal of the liquid RW treatment, especially concerning the acceptance criteria at the Republic RW Repository Mochovce. The final part is devoted to a short description of the investment procedure principles - design preparation levels and a proposed construction schedule of the centre. (authors)

  18. 2-22 Study of Oxidation/reduction Volatilization Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan; Cunmin[1; Cao; Shiwei[1; Tian; Yuan[1; Qin; Zhi[1

    2015-01-01

    As an advanced dry head-end processing of spent fuel reprocessing, the oxidation-reduction volatilization technology will use for pulverizing uranium oxide ceramic pellets, decladding, and removal of most of volatile and semi-volatile fission elements, 3H, 14C, Kr, Xe, I, Cs, Ru and Tc, from fuel prior to main treatment process. The AIROX and ORIOX process, including circulation of oxidation in oxygen atmosphere and reduction in hydrogen atmosphere, researched on international at present, is considered to be the first choice for head-end processing.

  19. Sodium aluminum-iron phosphate glass-ceramics for immobilization of lanthanide oxide wastes from pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovsky, S. V.; Stefanovsky, O. I.; Kadyko, M. I.; Nikonov, B. S.

    2018-03-01

    Sodium aluminum (iron) phosphate glass ceramics containing of up to 20 wt.% rare earth (RE) oxides simulating pyroprocessing waste were produced by melting at 1250 °C followed by either quenching or slow cooling to room temperature. The iron-free glass-ceramics were composed of major glass and minor phosphotridymite and monazite. The iron-bearing glass-ceramics were composed of major glass and minor monazite and Na-Al-Fe orthophosphate at low waste loadings (5-10 wt.%) and major orthophosphate and minor monazite as well as interstitial glass at high waste loadings (15-20 wt.%). Slowly cooled samples contained higher amount of crystalline phases than quenched ones. Monazite is major phase for REs. Leach rates from the materials of major elements (Na, Al, Fe, P) are 10-5-10-7 g cm-2 d-1, RE elements - lower than 10-5 g cm-2 d-1.

  20. Treatment Options for Actinic Keratosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends mostly on ... helped by lip balm or petroleum jelly . Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Vaginal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on the ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  2. Treatment Option Overview (Anal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect the prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on the ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  3. Intensive treatment models and coercion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlenschlaeger, Johan; Thorup, Anne; Petersen, Lone

    2007-01-01

    . Hospital-based Rehabilitation, an intensified inpatient treatment model, Integrated Treatment, an intensified model of Assertive Community Treatment, and standard treatment were compared for patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Ninety-four patients with first-episode schizophrenia......Little evidence exists concerning the optimal treatment for patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and the effect on traditional outcomes. The aim was to investigate whether optimal treatment models have an effect on the level of use of coercion and on traditional outcomes......-spectrum disorders estimated to benefit from long-term hospitalization were included consecutively from the Copenhagen OPUS-trial and randomized to the three treatment models. At 1-year follow-up, Hospital-based Rehabilitation and Integrated Treatment had better scores on symptoms in the negative dimension...

  4. Building 107 for surface treatment

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2018-01-01

    A brand new state-of-the-art building hosting laboratories for the surface treatment of vacuum equipment and workshops for the manufacturing and treatment of printed circuit boards was completed in 2017.

  5. Integrative medicine for cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000932.htm Integrative medicine for cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... help relieve common side effects of cancer or cancer treatment, such as fatigue, anxiety, pain, and nausea. Some ...

  6. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Head and neck cancer overview What are my ... and neck cancer. For updated information on new cancer treatments that are available, you should discuss these issues ...

  7. Dry mouth during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000032.htm Dry mouth during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some cancer treatments and medicines can cause dry mouth. Symptoms you ...

  8. Safe drinking during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000060.htm Drinking water safely during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. During and right after your cancer treatment, your body may not be able to protect ...

  9. Topical Acne Treatments and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topical Acne Treatments In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to topical acne treatments may increase the risk for birth defects ...

  10. Transient thyrotoxicosis during nivolumab treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooten, M. J.; van den Berg, G.; Glaudemans, A. W. J. M.; Hiltermann, T. J. N.; Groen, H. J. M.; Rutgers, A.; Links, T. P.

    Two patients presented with transient thyrotoxicosis within 2-4 weeks after starting treatment with nivolumab. This thyrotoxicosis turned into hypothyroidism within 6-8 weeks. Temporary treatment with a beta blocker may be sufficient.

  11. Precision Medicine in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision medicine helps doctors select cancer treatments that are most likely to help patients based on a genetic understanding of their disease. Learn about the promise of precision medicine and the role it plays in cancer treatment.

  12. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... does the current evidence say about treatment for PTSD? Read Psych Health Evidence Briefs , which summarize available ... first-line and emerging PTSD treatments. Psychotherapy for PTSD According to the VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline ...

  13. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... items) Training (1 item) Other Treatments (15 items) Alzheimer’s Disease (2 items) Coping with Traumatic Events (3 items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression discuss how ...

  14. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 3 items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression ... why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective ...

  15. Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal is the first volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment, presenting an integrated view of water quality and wastewater treatment. The book covers the following topics: wastewater characteristics (flow and major constituents) impact of wastewater discharges to rivers and lakes overview of wastewater treatment systems complementary items in planning studies. This book, with its clear and practical approach, lays the foundations f...

  16. Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment is the second volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment, and focusses on the unit operations and processes associated with biological wastewater treatment. The major topics covered are: microbiology and ecology of wastewater treatment reaction kinetics and reactor hydraulics conversion of organic and inorganic matter sedimentation aeration The theory presented in this volume forms the basis upon which the other books...

  17. Extracorporeal treatment for thallium poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Nolin, Thomas D; Goldfarb, David S

    2012-01-01

    The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl).......The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl)....

  18. Azathioprine treatment during lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, L.A.; Dahlerup, J.F.; Nielsen, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thiopurines are widely used to maintain remission in inflammatory bowel disease. Treatment during pregnancy is generally recommended to improve the chance of a normal birth outcome, but advice concerning breastfeeding is conflicting. Aim To estimate the exposure of breastfed infants...... to 6-mercaptopurine, as a metabolite of azathioprine, from maternal milk. METHODS: Eight lactating women with inflammatory bowel disease receiving maintenance therapy with azathioprine 75-200 mg daily were studied. Milk and plasma samples were obtained 30 and 60 min after drug administration and hourly...... for the following 5 h. RESULTS: The variation in the bioavailability of the drug was reflected in a wide range of peak plasma values of 6-mercaptopurine within the first 3 h. A similar curve, but with an hour's delay and at significantly lower concentrations varying from 2-50 microg/L, was seen in maternal milk...

  19. Osteoporosis: diagnosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valino, J.; Mendoza, B.; Bozzola, J.; Vignolo, J.

    1997-01-01

    Osteoporosis represents an important problem in Public Health. It is defined a decrease in bone mass with changes in its microstructure and increased rich of fracture. This bone mass is under the influence of genetic, ethnic, nutrition environment and cultural factors. Usually, osteoporosis is asymptomatic until the occurrence of fracture that are the main morbidity element. Its study implies conventional radiologic methods, bone densitometry, bone remodelation markers and bone biopsy. The importance of prevention must be noted, as well as its treatment on the basis of exercise, calcium and hormonal substitution in the post menopause woman. Other drugs are vitamin D, bifosfonates, calcitonin and fluorine; the factors involved in bone growth on the course of experimentation [es

  20. Medical treatment of concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Justin M

    2014-08-01

    A concussion is a brain injury, a change in function induced by traumatic forces. The incidence of concussion is increasing, likely due to increased awareness and improvement in recognition. Speech and language pathology professionals working in schools may encounter patients who have suffered concussions. At the root of concussion pathophysiology is altered metabolism and an acquired energy deficit. The mainstay of treatment for concussion is cognitive and physical rest, allowing for normalization of the metabolism and correction of the energy deficit. Once recovered, the student may need accommodations to successfully return to school without added difficulty and should follow a return to play protocol to return to athletics safely. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.