Sample records for pyrocatechol

  1. Irreversible inhibition of jack bean urease by pyrocatechol. (United States)

    Kot, Mirosława; Zaborska, Wiesława


    Pyrocatechol was studied as an inhibitor of jack bean urease in 20 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, 25 degrees C. The inhibition was monitored by an incubation procedure in the absence of substrate and reaction progress studies in the presence of substrate. It was found that pyrocatechol acted as a time- and concentration dependent irreversible inactivator of urease. The dependence of the residual activity of urease on the incubation time showed that the rate of inhibition increased with time until there was total loss of enzyme activity. The inactivation process followed a non-pseudo-first order reaction. The obtained reaction progress curves were found to be time-dependent. The plots showed that the rate of the enzyme reaction in the final stages reached zero. From protection experiments it appeared that thiol-compounds such as L-cysteine, 2-mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol prevented urease from pyrocatechol inactivation as well as the substrate, urea, and the competitive inhibitor boric acid. These results proved that the urease active site was involved in the pyrocatechol inactivation.

  2. Reaction of pyrocatechol and resorcinol with styrene in the presence of aluminum phenolate

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    Kozlikovskii, Y.B.; Butov, S.A.; Koshchii, V.A.


    The alkylation of pyrocatechol and resorcinol with styrene in the presence of aluminum phenolate leads to a mixture of isomeric (..cap alpha..-methylbenzyl)dihydroxybenzenes, in which the ortho-alkylation products as a rule predominate.

  3. Iron oxide and pyrocatechol: a spectroscopy study of the reaction products

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    Wagner José Barreto


    Full Text Available The reaction of 1,2-dihydroxy-benzene (pyrocatechol (C6H6O2 with iron oxide (Fe2O3 and sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3 in aqueous medium (pH 7 was investigated. Pyrocatechol suffers autoxidation and coordinates with Fe3+ in solution. The presence of S2O3(2- in solution was fundamental to generate and stabilize the pyrocatechol oxidation products as o-semiquinones. This compound was isolated and its structure characterized using FT-IR, EPR and UV-Vis Spectroscopy as [CTA][Fe(SQ2(Cat]. A thermal mass loss mechanism was proposed based on Thermogravimetric Analysis (TG to support the structural characterization.

  4. Propagation failures, breathing fronts, and nonannihilation collisions in the ferroin-bromate-pyrocatechol system. (United States)

    Harati, Mohammad; Wang, Jichang


    The emergence of propagating pulses was investigated with the photosensitive ferroin-bromate-pyrocatechol reaction in capillary tubes, in which various interesting spatiotemporal behaviors such as propagation failure, breathing fronts, and transitions between propagating pulses and fronts have been observed. Rather than a mutual annihilation, the collision of a propagating pulse and a growing front forces the front to recede gradually. A phase diagram in the pyrocatechol-bromate concentration space shows that the pulse instabilities take place throughout the conditions at which the system generates wave activities, suggesting that the presence of coupled autocatalytic feedbacks may facilitate the onset of pulse instabilities.

  5. Chemical analysis of rutile - a pyrocatechol violet spectrophotometric procedure for the direct microdetermination of zirconium (United States)

    Meyrowitz, Robert


    The ZrO2 content of rutile is determined spectrophotometrically by a direct pyrocatechol violet procedure. The sample is decomposed by potassium pyrosulfate fusion in a transparent quartz crucible, and a sulfuric acid solution of the melt is used for the determination at a pH of 5.1. Of the elements commonly present in rutile, only titanium and niobium occur in concentrations large enough to interfere. Titanium and niobium interference is overcome by adding the titanium and niobium contents of the sample to the standard zirconium solutions used for the standard zirconium curve. The absorbance is measured at 570 nm. Beer's law is obeyed within the range of 0.05-1.50 ppm ZrO2. In the presence of 50 ppm TiO2, the range is 0.15-1.50 ppm ZrO2 . The tolerances of 47 elements were determined. The sensitivity is 0.0058 ug Zr/cm2 . The variables in the method were studied, and typical results are given for commercial rutile concentrates.

  6. Indirect differential pulse voltammetric determination of aluminum by a pyrocatechol violet-modified electrode

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    Chen, G.; Bi, S.; Dai, L.; Cao, M.; Chen, Y. Wang, X. [Nanjing Univ. (China)


    Aluminum is one of the abundant elements in the earth`s crust. It has been considered to be a causative agent for various neurological disorders such as Alzheimer Senile, presenile dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It is also very harmful to plants and aquatic organisms. Therefore, the determination of Al is very important. A Pyrocatechol Violet (PCV) modified electrode for the voltammetric determination of aluminum is reported. The modified electrode is simply prepared by dip-coating a pyrolytic graphite electrode in a NaAc-HAc buffer solution of PCV. Optimum experimental conditions for aluminum determination include a 0.2 mol/L NaAc-HAc buffer solution of pH 4.8, a PCV concentration of 0.02 mol/L used to modify the electrode and the use of differential-pulse mode for measurement. The peak currents of differential pulse voltammograms (DPV) decrease with the addition of Al into the buffer solution while the peak potentials remain the same. The decreasing value of peak current {Delta}i{sub p} is linear with Al concentration in the range of 1{times}10{sup {minus}8} to 1{times}10{sup {minus}7} mol/L and 1{times}10{sup {minus}7} to 1{times}10{sup {minus}6} mol/L. The detection limit is 5{times}10{sup {minus}9} mol/L and the relative standard deviation for 4{times}10{sup {minus}8} mol/L Al is 2.9% (n=8). The stability of this electrode is satisfactory. No serious interference is found. This method has been applied to determine Al in drinking water samples.

  7. Kinetic Approach to the Mechanism of Redox Reaction of Pyrocatechol Violet and Nitrite Ion in Aqueous Hydrochloric Acid

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    A. Adetoro


    Full Text Available The kinetics of the oxidation of Pyrocatechol violet (PCVH by nitrite ion (NO2- in aqueous acidic medium has been studied at 24±1ºC, I = 0.50 mol/dm3(NaCl, [H+] = 1.0×10-3 mol/dm3. The reaction is first order to [PCVH] and half order to [NO2-]. The redox reaction displayed a 1:1 stoichiometry and obeys the rate law: d[PCVH]/dt = (a + b[H+] [PCVH][NO2-]½. The second-order rate constant increases with increase in acid concentration and ionic strength. This system displayed positive salt effect while spectroscopic investigation and Michaelis-Menten plot showed evidence of intermediate complex formation in the course of the reaction. A plausible mechanism has been proposed for the reaction.

  8. Determination of aluminium in molybdenum and tungsten metals, iron, steel and ferrous and non-ferrous alloys with pyrocatechol violet. (United States)

    Donaldson, E M


    A method for determining 0.001-0.10% of aluminium in molybdenum and tungsten metals is described. After sample dissolution, aluminium is separated from the matrix materials by chloroform extraction of its acetylacetone complex, at pH 6.5, from an ammonium acetate-hydrogen peroxide medium, then back-extracted into 12M hydrochloric add. Following separation of most co-extracted elements, except for beryllium and small amounts of chroinium(III) and copper(II), by a combined ammonium pyrrolidincdithiocarbamate-cupfen-on-chlorofonn extraction, aluminium is determined spectrophotometrically with Pyrocatechol Violet at 578 nm. Chromium interferes during colour development but beryllium, in amounts equivalent to the aluminium concentration, does not cause significant error in the results. Interference from copper(II) is eliminated by reduction with ascorbic acid. The proposed method is also applicable to iron, steel, ferrovanadium, and copper-base alloys after preliminary removal of the matrix elements by a mercury cathode separation.

  9. On-line preconcentration of copper as its pyrocatechol violet complex on Chromosorb 105 for flame atomic absorption spectrometric determinations

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    Buke, Berrin [Chemistry Department, Science and Arts Faculty, Pamukkale University, 20020 Denizli (Turkey); Divrikli, Umit [Chemistry Department, Science and Arts Faculty, Pamukkale University, 20020 Denizli (Turkey)], E-mail:; Soylak, Mustafa [Chemistry Department, Science and Arts Faculty, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Elci, Latif [Chemistry Department, Science and Arts Faculty, Pamukkale University, 20020 Denizli (Turkey)


    An on-line solid phase extraction method for the preconcentration and determination of Cu(II) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) has been described. It is based on the adsorption of copper(II) ion onto a home made mini column of Chromosorb 105 resin loaded with pyrocatechol violet at the pH range of 5.0-8.0, then eluted with 1 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3}. Several parameters, such as pH of the sample solution, amount of Chromosorb 105 resin, volume of sample and eluent, type of eluent, flow rates of sample and eluent, governing the efficiency and throughput of the method were evaluated. The concentration of the copper ion detected after preconcentration was in agreement with the added amount. At optimized conditions, for 15 min of preconcentration time (30 mL of sample volume), the system achieved a detection limit of 0.02 {mu}g L{sup -1}, with relative standard deviation 1.1% at 0.03 {mu}g mL{sup -1} copper. The present method was found to be applicable to the preconcentration of Cu(II) in natural water samples.

  10. Poly(pyrocatechol-3,5-disodiumsulfonate)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite for simultaneous determination of dopamine, ascorbic acid and uric acid. (United States)

    Xue, Ying; Zhao, Hong; Wu, Zhijiao; Li, Xiangjun; He, Yujian; Yuan, Zhuobin


    A novel poly(pyrocatechol-3,5-disodiumsulfonate)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PPD/MWCNT) composite film modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was fabricated and successfully used to simultaneously determine ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). Owing to the synergistic effects of PPD and MWCNTs, the electrochemical responses of AA, DA and UA at PPD/MWCNTs/GCE were clearly superior to those at bare GCE. Additionally, the PPD/MWCNTs composite film could reduce the potential overlap of AA, DA and UA so as to favor simultaneous determination of the three substances. Under the optimum conditions, the linear calibration curves of AA, DA and UA were obtained by differential pulse voltammetry in the range of 10-1000, 1-100 and 4-1200 microM, and the detection limits were 5, 0.5 and 0.5 microM (S/N = 3) respectively. The results showed PPD/MWCNTs/GCE possessed good reproducibility and stability, and it could be applied to determine UA in human urine with satisfying recovery by standard addition method.

  11. Correlation of electronic transitions and redox potentials measured for pyrocatechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, pyrogallol, and gallic acid with results of semi-empirical molecular orbital computations A useful interpretation tool (United States)

    Carter, Melvin Keith


    Cyclic voltammogram (CV) electrochemical measurements for pyrocatechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, pyrogallol, and gallic acid in strong alkaline solution produced observable oxidation-reduction potentials for each hydroxy group present except for resorcinol. UV absorption spectra were also observed for the diluted solutions. Semi-empirical molecular orbital computations were conducted for these molecules of C2 v point group symmetry to determine the character and energies to aid interpretation of the experimental results. CV oxidation removed a π-electron by a radiationless π-π* transition followed by an electron shift from a negative oxygen to the positive aromatic π-system indicated by an observable σ-π* transition. Simple semi-empirical computations correlated with measured excited electronic states during electron transfer.

  12. Spectral and electrooptical absorption and emission studies on internally hydrogen bonded benzoxazole 'double' derivatives: 2,5-bis(benzoxazolyl)hydroquinone (BBHQ) and 3,6-bis(benzoxazolyl)pyrocatechol (BBPC). Single versus double proton transfer in the excited BBPC revisited

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    Wortmann, R.; Lebus, S.; Reis, H. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Mainz, Jakob-Welder-Weg 11, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Grabowska, A.; Kownacki, K. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, 44/52 Kasprzaka, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Jarosz, S. [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, 44/52 Kasprzaka, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland)


    Ground and excited state dipole moments and polarizabilities of 2,5-bis(benzoxazolyl)hydroquinone (BBHQ) and 3,6-bis(benzoxazolyl)pyrocatechol (BBPC) are determined by means of electrooptical absorption and emission measurements. BBHQ is found to exhibit a small, while BBPC a large increase of the static polarizability in the Franck-Condon (FC) excited singlet state. The change of the dipole moments upon excitation to the FC state is zero within experimental error. However, both molecules show dipole moments in the fluorescent states of their phototautomers, of about 5 D, the major component being parallel to the long molecular axis. The experimental and theoretical results strongly suggest that the fluorescent species of BBHQ and BBPC are monoketo-tautomers created by single proton transfer in the course of the excited state relaxation. For BBPC this was confirmed by a comparative photophysical study with its monomethoxy-derivative (MeBBPC), in which one active proton is replaced by the CH{sub 3} group. These results lead to the revision of previous conclusions [Grabowska et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 177 (1991) 17] stating that BBPC undergoes a double proton transfer in the excited state. For BBHQ the previously found single proton transfer mechanism of tautomerization is fully confirmed. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  13. Studies on the Electrochemistry of Dopamine at a Pyrocatechol Sulfonephthalein Modified Glassy Carbon electrode

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    The electrochemical response of dopamine(DA)at a pyrocaterchol fulfonephthalein modified glassy carbon(PS/GC)electrode is reported.The electrode can be used as a detector for the determination of dopamine with a high stability and a good sensitivity.The cyclic voltammetric results indicated that there was a couple of well-defined redox peakds for dopamine at the PS/GC electrode with Epa=200mV,Epc=mV and the formal potential E0'=157.5 mV(vs.SCE) at 100 mV/s in the buffer solution of pH7.0. The PS/GC electrode can also be used to separate the electrochemical responses of ascorbic acid and DA by 54 mV with the differential pulse voltammetry.Under the selected conditions,the oxidation peak currents are linear with DA concetration in the range of 5.0×10-6 to 5.0×10-4 mol/L,and the detection limit is 1.0×10-6mol/L at S/N=3.Normalized with concentration,the Relative sensitivity of dopamine to ascorbic acid reaches ca.30.8:1.

  14. Influence of iron complexes on formation of photosynthetic apparatus and outcome of genetic changes at the gamma irradiated seeds of wheat

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    E. N. Shamilov


    Full Text Available Influence of various doses of γ-irradiation on biosynthesis of chlorophyll and carotinoids, and also on a progress of mitotic divisions of meristematic cells of root hairs at sprouting wheat seeds at the presence of pyrocatechol, iron pyrocatecholat, thiocarbamide, iron thiocarbamide, rutine, iron rutinate, juglon and iron juglonate was studied. There was revealed that iron pyrocatecholate, iron rutinate, juglon and iron juglonate possess appreciable radioprotective properties which stimulate adaptive biosynthesis of chlorophyll and carotinoids, and also considerably reduce a number of chromosomal aberrations under irradiation.

  15. [Isolation and purification of Mn-peroxidase from Azospirillum brasilense Sp245]. (United States)

    Kupriashina, M A; Selivanov, N Iu; Nikitina, V E


    Homogenous Mn-peroxidase of a 26-fold purity grade was isolated from a culture of Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 cultivated on a medium containing 0.1 mM pyrocatechol. The molecular weight of the enzyme is 43 kD as revealed by electrophoresis in SDS-PAAG. It was shown that the use of pyrocatechol and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzotiazoline-6-sulfonate) at concentrations of 0.1 and I mM as inductors increased the Mn-peroxidase activity by a factor of 3.

  16. Polarographic methods of investigation of radiochemical transformations of phenol compounds induced by gamma radiation

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    Norbaev, N.


    Electron polarography was used for studies on radiochemical changes in phenol compounds following exposure to gamma radiation. The amount of quinones 3 to 4 h after irradiation increased in chlorogenic acid, pyrocatechol, and quercetin; the amount of quinones decreased 24 h after irradiation. (HLW)

  17. Flame AAS determination of lead in water with flow-injection preconcentration and speciation using functionalized cellulose sorbent. (United States)

    Naghmush, A M; Pyrzyńska, K; Trojanowicz, M


    The on-line solid phase extraction of trace amount of lead in flow-injection system with flame AAS detection was investigated using cellulose sorbents with phosphonic acid and carboxymethyl groups, C(18) sorbent non-modified and modified with Pyrocatechol Violet or 8-quinolinol, commercial chelating sorbents Chelex 100 and Spheron Oxin 1000, non-polar sorbent Amberlite XAD-2 modified with Pyrocatechol Violet and several cation-exchange resins. The best dynamic characteristics of retention were observed for functionalized cellulose sorbents. For Cellex P assumed as optimum sorbent, elution with a separate fractions of nitric acid and ethanol allows the differentiation between tetraalkyllead and sum of inorganic lead and organolead species of smaller number of alkyl groups. The detection limit for the determination of inorganic Pb(II) was estimated as 0.17 microg/l. at preconcentration from 50 ml sample at a flow rate of 7 ml/min.

  18. [A new benzaldehyde from aerial part of Rehmannia glutinosa]. (United States)

    Zou, Yan; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Jie-kun; Cheng, Qian; Ye, Xian-sheng; Li, Ping; Zhang, Wei-ku; Li, Yong-ji


    A new benzaldehyde, 3-hydroxy-4-(4-(2-hydroxyethyl) phenoxy) henzaldehyde(1), together with six known compounds, including isovanillic acid(2), pyrocatechol(3), glutinosalactone A(4), chrysoeriol(5), apigenin(6) and luteolin(7) were isolated from aerial part of Rehmannia glutinosa. The compounds were isolated by macroporous resin, silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and HPLC chromatographies. The chemical structures of 1-7 were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis (MS, 1D NMR and 2D NMR).

  19. Comparison of complexation properties of humic acids and simple organic ligands

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    Martina Klucakova*


    Full Text Available Simple organic compounds as citric acid, phthalic acid, salicylicacid, EDTA, hydroquinone and pyrocatechol were used as structural models of active sites of humic acids. Combination of high resolution ultrasound spectrometry with potentiometry,conductometry and UV/VIS spectrometry were utilized forcomplexation of copper (II ions by humic acids and modelcompounds. Changes in the slope of measured quantities were used to find the saturation of binding. Ultrasound spectrometry showed follow changes of hydration of interacting species. The differences observed for individual model compounds show that there are active centres not only with various strength and stability of formed complexes but also with their various rigidity and ability of conformational changes.

  20. The arils characterization of five different pomegranate (Punica granatum) genotypes stored after minimal processing technology. (United States)

    Ghasemnezhad, Mahmood; Zareh, Somayeh; Shiri, Mohammad Ali; Javdani, Zahra


    In this study, the quality of minimally processed different Iranian pomegranate genotypes was investigated during storage at 4 °C for 14 days. The results showed that at the end of storage time, the lowest microbial count was found on the arils of "Torsh Syabe Lorestan" genotype. There was a significant difference in titratable acidity, total soluble solids, total anthocyanin, catechin, and quercetin content in most genotypes after 14-day cold storage; while no difference was found between studied genotypes in antioxidant capacity, total phenolic, and flavonoid content. In general, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of pomegranate arils gradually decreased over storage time. Diphenolase activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme with dopamine hydrochloride substrate and peroxidase (POD) decreased over storage time, whereas diphenolase activity of PPO with pyrocatechol substrate significantly increased. The lowest diphenolase activity with dopamine hydrochloride and pyrocatechol substrates, as well as POD activity was found in Torsh Syabe Lorestan. The results suggested that the genotype of Torsh Syabe Lorestan, which showed the lowest microbial count on the arils and enzymes, could be more appropriate for minimal processing technology.

  1. Synthesis and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibition activities of two new synthetic bromophenols and their methoxy derivatives (United States)

    Cui, Yongchao; Shi, Dayong; Hu, Zhiqiang


    3-bromo-4,5-bis(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl)-1,2-benzenediol ( 1) is a natural bromophenol isolated from the red algae Rhodomela confervoides that exhibits significant inhibition against protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). Based on its activity, we synthesized two new synthetic bromophenols and their methoxy derivatives from vanillin using the structure of natural bromophenol 1 as a scaffold. The structures of these bromophenols were elucidated from 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and high resolution electron ionization mass spectrometry as 2,3-dibromo-1-(2'-bromo-6'-(3″,4″-dimethoxybenzyl)-3',4'-dimethoxybenzyl)-4,5-dimethoxybenzene ( 2), 2,3-dibromo-1-(2'-bromo-6'-(2″-bromo-4″,5″-dimethoxybenzyl)-3',4'-dimethoxybenzyl)-4,5-dimethoxybenzene ( 3), 3,4-dibromo-5-(2'-bromo-6'-(2″-bromo-4″,5″-dihydroxybenzyl)-3',4'-dihydroxybenzyl)pyrocatechol ( 4) and 3,4-dibromo-5-(2'-bromo-6'-(3″,4″-dihydroxybenzyl)-3',4'-dihydroxybenzyl)pyrocatechol ( 5). PTP1B inhibition activities of these compounds were evaluated using a colorimetric assay, and compounds 3 and 4 demonstrated interesting activity against PTP1B.

  2. Dopamine functionalized-CdTe quantum dots as fluorescence probes for l-histidine detection in biological fluids. (United States)

    Shi, Fanping; Liu, Siyu; Su, Xingguang


    In this paper, we developed dopamine functionalized-CdTe quantum dots as fluorescence probes for the determination of l-histidine. Firstly, CdTe was covalently linked to dopamine to form a kind of fluorescence sensor with pyrocatechol structure on the surface. The photoluminescence intensity of CdTe-dopamine (QDs-DA) could be quenched by Ni(2+) due to the strong coordination interaction between the pyrocatechol structure of QDs-DA and Ni(2+). In the presence of l-histidine, Ni(2+) preferred to bind with l-histidine due to high affinity of Ni(2+) to l-histidine and the photoluminescence intensity of QDs-DA was recovered. The recovered photoluminescence intensity of QDs-DA was proportional to the concentration of l-histidine in the ranges of 1.0×10(-6)-1.0×10(-4)mol L(-1) and the detection limit was 5.0×10(-7)mol L(-1) respectively. The established method showed a good selectivity for l-histidine among other common amino acids, and it was applied for determination of l-histidine in human serum sample with satisfactory results.

  3. Graphene incorporated, N doped activated carbon as catalytic electrode in redox active electrolyte mediated supercapacitor (United States)

    Gao, Zhiyong; Liu, Xiao; Chang, Jiuli; Wu, Dapeng; Xu, Fang; Zhang, Lingcui; Du, Weimin; Jiang, Kai


    Graphene incorporated, N doped activated carbons (GNACs) are synthesized by alkali activation of graphene-polypyrrole composite (G-PPy) at different temperatures for application as electrode materials of supercapacitors. Under optimal activation temperature of 700 °C, the resultant samples, labeled as GNAC700, owns hierarchically porous texture with high specific surface area and efficient ions diffusion channels, N, O functionalized surface with apparent pseudocapacitance contribution and high wettability, thus can deliver a moderate capacitance, a high rate capability and a good cycleability when used as supercapacitor electrode. Additionally, the GNAC700 electrode demonstrates high catalytic activity for the redox reaction of pyrocatechol/o-quinone pair in H2SO4 electrolyte, thus enables a high pseudocapacitance from electrolyte. Under optimal pyrocatechol concentration in H2SO4 electrolyte, the electrode capacitance of GNAC700 increases by over 4 folds to 512 F g-1 at 1 A g-1, an excellent cycleability is also achieved simultaneously. Pyridinic- N is deemed to be responsible for the high catalytic activity. This work provides a promising strategy to ameliorate the capacitive performances of supercapacitors via the synergistic interaction between redox-active electrolyte and catalytic electrodes.

  4. Kinetics and thermodynamics of the thermal inactivation of polyphenol oxidase in an aqueous extract from Agaricus bisporus. (United States)

    Gouzi, Hicham; Depagne, Christophe; Coradin, Thibaud


    The kinetics and thermodynamics of the thermal inactivation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in an aqueous extract from mushroom Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Imbach was studied, using pyrocatechol as a substrate. Optimal conditions for enzymatic studies were determined to be pH 7.0 and 35-40 °C. The kinetics of PPO-catalyzed oxidation of pyrocatechol followed the Haldane model with an optimum substrate concentration of 20 mM. Thermal inactivation of PPO was examined in more detail between 50 and 73 °C and in relation to exposure time. Obtained monophasic kinetics were adequately described by a first-order model, with significant inactivation occurring with increasing temperature (less than 10% preserved activity after 6 min at 65 °C). Arrhenius plot determination and calculated thermodynamic parameters suggest that the PPO in aqueous extract from Agaricus bisporus mushroom is a structurally robust yet temperature-sensitive biocatalyst whose inactivation process is mainly entropy-driven.

  5. Metabolite profiling of (14)C-omacetaxine mepesuccinate in plasma and excreta of cancer patients. (United States)

    Nijenhuis, Cynthia M; Lucas, Luc; Rosing, Hilde; Robertson, Philmore; Hellriegel, Edward T; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, And Jos H


    Omacetaxine mepesuccinate (hereafter referred to as omacetaxine) is a protein translation inhibitor approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for adult patients with chronic myeloid leukemia with resistance and/or intolerance to two or more tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The objective was to investigate the metabolite profile of omacetaxine in plasma, urine and faeces samples collected up to 72 h after a single 1.25-mg/m(2) subcutaneous dose of (14)C-omacetaxine in cancer patients. High-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (MS) (high resolution) in combination with off-line radioactivity detection was used for metabolite identification. In total, six metabolites of omacetaxine were detected. The reactions represented were mepesuccinate ester hydrolysis, methyl ester hydrolysis, pyrocatechol conversion from the 1,3-dioxole ring. Unchanged omacetaxine was the most prominent omacetaxine-related compound in plasma. In urine, unchanged omacetaxine was also dominant, together with 4'-DMHHT. In feces very little unchanged omacetaxine was found and the pyrocatechol metabolite of omacetaxine, M534 and 4'-desmethyl homoharringtonine (4'-DMHHT) was the most abundant metabolites. Omacetaxine was extensively metabolized, with subsequent renal and hepatic elimination of the metabolites. The low levels of the metabolites found in plasma indicate that the metabolites are unlikely to contribute materially to the efficacy and/or toxicity of omacetaxine.

  6. Monodisperse silica nanoparticles coated with gold nanoparticles as a sorbent for the extraction of phenol and dihydroxybenzenes from water samples based on dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction: Response surface methodology. (United States)

    Khezeli, Tahere; Daneshfar, Ali


    A selective and sensitive method was developed based on dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction for the extraction of hydroquinone, resorcinol, pyrocatechol and phenol from water samples prior to high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. SiO2 , SiO2 @MPTES, and SiO2 @MPTES@Au nanoparticles (MPTES = 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane) were synthesized and characterized by scanning electronic microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermogravimetric analysis, and infrared spectroscopy. Variables such as the amount of sorbent (mg), pH and ionic strength of sample the solution, the volume of eluent solvent (μL), vortex and ultrasonic times (min) were investigated by Plackett-Burman design. The significant variables optimized by a Box-Behnken design were combined by a desirability function. Under optimized conditions, the calibration graphs of phenol and dihydroxybenzenes were linear in a concentration range of 1-500 μg/L, and with correlation coefficients more than 0.995. The limits of detection for hydroquinone, resorcinol, pyrocatechol, and phenol were 0.54, 0.58, 0.46, and 1.24 μg/L, and the limits of quantification were 1.81, 1.93, 1.54, and 4.23 μg/L, respectively. This procedure was successfully employed to determine target analytes in spiked water samples; the relative mean recoveries ranged from 93.5 to 98.9%.

  7. 1,6-二氯二苯并-对-二噁英的合成与表征%Synthesis and characterization of 1,6-dichlorodibenzyl para-dioxin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敬; 张学良; 郝双红; 孙家隆


    As a kind of special fat-soluble organic compounds with high toxicity, dioxin is severely harmful to environment and human health.Besides, 1,6-dichloro-dibenzyl para-dioxin as a precursor of dioxin often exists in some pesticides, and its content in pesticides usually needs to be monitored before putting into use.Thus pyrocatechol was chlorinated with sulfonyl chloride yielding intermediate 4-chloro-pyrocatechol; then 4-chloro-pyrocatechol was allowed to react with 2,6-dichloro-nitrobenzene to give the title compound.The purity of the recrystalized final product was determined by means of high performance liquid chromatography and its structure was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 13C NMR) spectroscopy.Results indicate that the target product has a purity of 99.76%.%二噁英是一类毒性极大的特殊脂溶性有机化合物,严重污染环境和危害人类健康.1,6-二氯二苯并-对-二噁英是一种二噁英的前驱体,常作为杂质存在于某些农药产品中,在农药使用前需检测其含量.为此,采用磺酰氯氯化邻苯二酚得到中间产物4-氯邻苯二酚,再将中间产物与2,6-二氯硝基苯反应得到1,6-二氯二苯并-对-二噁英.利用高效液相色谱分析了产物的纯度,并通过气相色谱、核磁共振谱(1H NMR和13C NMR)对合成的目标物进行了表征.结果表明,目标产物柱层析品的纯度为99.76%.


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    Fedotov О. V.


    Full Text Available General content of polyphenols, carotenoids and melanin in basidiomycetes carpophorus was determined. 50 species were studied, 27 of which belong to the Polyporales form and 23 are to the Agaricales form. In order to determine the total content of phenolic substances spectrophotometric methods were used. Polyphenols were studied in alcoholic extracts through the modified Folin-Chokalteu procedure; melanin — by alkaline hydrolysis and calculated using a calibration curve (by pyrocatechol, carotenoids were studied in acetone extracts and calculated by the Vetshteyn formula. Statistical and cluster analysis of the data enabled to identify species of basidiomycetes that are perspective for biotechnology. The most promising in terms of total polyphenols, carotenoids and melanins of poliporal basidiomycetes are species Fomes fomentarius, Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum and Laetiporus sulphureus, and among agarikal fungi — Fistulina hepatica, Flammulina velutipes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Stropharia rugosoannulata, Agrocybe cylindracea and Tricholoma flavovirens. These species of Basidiomycetes were isolated in pure mycelia culture to find out their biosynthetic activity.

  9. Antioxidant, Anticholinesterase and Antibacterial Activities of Jurinea consanguinea DC

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    Hülya Öztürk


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antibacterial activities of the petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Jurinea consanguinea DC. (Asteraceae. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of these crude extracts were determined as pyrocatechol and quercetin equivalents, respectively. The methanol extract which possessed almost the same effect with the chloroform extract in b -carotene-linoleic acid system exhibited higher free radical scavenging activity than a standard compound, BHT, at 100 and 200 m g/mL concentrations. The petroleum ether extract showed the highest acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity among the tested extracts. The methanol extract exhibited higher butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity than galantamine at all concentrations (94% inhibition at 200 m g/mL. The antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined by the disc diffusion method. The chloroform extract showed moderate activity against B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus.

  10. Robust Alginate-Catechol@Polydopamine Free-Standing Membranes Obtained from the Water/Air Interface. (United States)

    Ponzio, Florian; Le Houerou, Vincent; Zafeiratos, Spyridon; Gauthier, Christian; Garnier, Tony; Jierry, Loic; Ball, Vincent


    The formation of polydopamine composite membranes at the water/air interface using different chemical strategies is reported. The use of either small molecules (urea, pyrocatechol) or polymers paves the way to understand which kind of compounds can be used for the formation of PDA-composite free-standing membranes produced at the water/air interface. On the basis of these screening results, we have found that alginate grafted with catechol groups allows the formation of robust free-standing films with asymmetric composition, stimuli-responsiveness, and self-healing properties. The stickiness of these membranes depends on the relative humidity, and its adhesion behavior on PDMS was characterized using the JKR method. Thus, alginate-catechol polydopamine films appear as a new class of PDA composites, mechanically robust through covalent cross-linking and based on fully biocompatible constituting partners. These results open the door to potential applications in the biomedical field.

  11. Perlite filtration of phenolic compounds from cigarette smoke. (United States)

    Rostami-Charati, Faramarz; Robati, Gholamreza Moradi; Naghizadeh, Farhad; Hosseini, Shahnaz; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad


    Adsorption of phenolic compounds and chemical analysis of them from a local production cigarette (named by Farvardin cigarette) smoke have been investigated by using perlite filtration. In this research, the mainstream smoke was tested by three filtration methods: Perlite filter, Cambridge filter and general cigarette filter. Then the used filter was extracted by pure methanol as solvent. After that, the extracted solution was analysed by GC-MS. By this consideration, the phenolic derivatives such as phenol, hydroquinone, resorcinol, pyrocatechol, m-cresol, p-cresol and o-cresol were detected. The structure of the perlite filtration after absorption was studied by SEM. In addition, its chemical structure was investigated by XRD and XRF.

  12. Stabilization of coacervate systems by products of abiogenic oxidation of low-molecular-weight compounds using the energy of. gamma. radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evreinova, T.N.; Kuzin, A.M.; Kryukova, L.M.; Kameneva, T.G.; Khrust, Yu.R.


    The purpose of the study was to determine the possibility of stabilization of protein-carbohydrate and protein-nucleic acid systems by products of the abiogenic oxidation of pyrocatechol, pyrogallol, and o-dianisidine using the energy of gamma radiation. The protein-nucleic acid system was produced by mixing the following reagents: histone, DNA, acetate buffer, and a solution of oxidized compounds. The protein-carbohydrate system was produced by mixing the following reagents: histone, gum arabic, acetate buffer, and a solution of oxidized compounds. Results indicated that the stabilization of coacervate systems occurs when stabilizing low-molecular-weight compounds of the type of quinones and the imino form of o-dianisidine are included in them. These compounds may be formed under the action of physical factors without the participation of enzymes. (HLW)

  13. Electrochemistry of Hydroquinone Derivatives at Metal and Iodine-modified Metal Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The difference in the electrochemical behavior of hydroquinone and pyrocatechol at platinum and gold surfaces was analyzed using voltammetry and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the hydroquinone derivatives are adsorbed on a gold surface with vertical orientation, which makes the electron transfer between the bulk species and the electrode surface easier than that in the case of flat adsorption of hydroquinone derivatives that occurs at a platinum electrode. The formation of the vertical conformation and the rapid process of electron transfer were also confirmed by quantum chemistry calculations. In addition, the pre-adsorbed iodine on the electrodes played a key role on the adsorbed configuration and electron transfer of redox species.

  14. Purification and characterisation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from eggplant (Solanum melongena). (United States)

    Mishra, Bibhuti B; Gautam, Satyendra; Sharma, Arun


    Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is a very rich source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), which negatively affects its quality upon cutting and postharvest processing due to enzymatic browning. PPO inhibitors, from natural or synthetic sources, are used to tackle this problem. One isoform of PPO was 259-fold purified using standard chromatographic procedures. The PPO was found to be a 112 kDa homodimer. The enzyme showed very low K(m) (0.34 mM) and high catalytic efficiency (3.3×10(6)) with 4-methyl catechol. The substrate specificity was in the order: 4-methyl catechol>tert-butylcatechol>dihydrocaffeic acid>pyrocatechol. Cysteine hydrochloride, potassium metabilsulphite, ascorbic acid, erythorbic acid, resorcylic acid and kojic acid showed competitive inhibition, whereas, citric acid and sodium azide showed mixed inhibition of PPO activity. Cysteine hydrochloride was found to be an excellent inhibitor with the low inhibitor constant of 1.8 μM.

  15. Influences of the Populus deltoids seedlings treated with exogenous methyl jasmonate on the growth and development of Lymantria dispar larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zeng-hui; ZHAO Ling; YANG Di; SHEN Ying-bai; SHEN Fan-yi


    Lyantria dispar larvae were fed with the leaves of Populus deltoids seedlings exposed to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) for 24 h. The growth and development of the larvae were investigated, and phenolics contents in treated leaves including pyrocatechol, caffeic acid, coumarin, ferulic acid and benzoic acid were also surveyed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results indicated that approximate digestibility, efficiency of conversion of ingested food, efficiency of conversion of digested food, and weight of the larvae were inhibited obviously, especially from the sixth day, which may result from the increase of total phenolics contents in treated leaves. This result provides strong supports for MeJA acting as the airborne signal molecule between woody plants.

  16. Investigation of the effect of organic solvents on kinetic parameters in metal catalyzed reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The effects of acetone and acetonitrile on the kinetic parameters of azorubin S oxidation by hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by manganese(II, pyrocatechol violet oxidation by hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by copper(II, and carminic acid oxidation by hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by copper(II and activated by bifenox, were examined. It was established that the examined solvents exhibit various effects on the kinetic parameters of the above said reactions. In a11 instances a change in the solvent concentration effects both the anthalpy and the entropy contributions to the free activation energy during the transition of the system into the active state, as well as the constant of the active complex formed at this point.

  17. Demir ve Alüminyumun Doğal Sularda UV Spektrofotometrik Tayini İçin Yöntem Geliştirilmesi ve Elde Edilen Verilerin Kemometrik Kalibrasyon Yöntemleriyle Değerlendirilmesi

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    A. Hakan AKTAŞ


    Full Text Available In this study, principal component analysis method (PCA, principal component regression method (PCR, partial least squares method (PLS of chemometry calibration methods, are successfully realized on quantitation of Fe³⁺ and Al³⁺ present at natural water. The data gathered from UV- Visible Spectroscopy are evaluated chemometrically. In the application two distinctive ligand chrome azurol S (CAS and pyrocatechol violet (PCV are tested and studies are proceeded with CAS due to more stable results that are obtained. Optimum parameters (ligand amount, pH, waiting period, relation between metal concentration and absorbance, foreign ion effect and conditions of Fe³⁺ and Al³⁺ CAS and their complexes are determined with spectrophotometric methods. After the optimum conditions are provided, spectrophotometric determinations of natural water including Fe³⁺ and Al³⁺ are realized and obtained data are evaluated as chemometry

  18. New insight into monitoring degradation products during the TiO2-photocatalysis process by multivariate molecular spectroscopy. (United States)

    Stets, Sandra; do Amaral, Bianca; Bach, Larissa; Nagata, Noemi; Peralta-Zamora, Patricio G


    This study focuses on the feasibility of a spectroscopic multivariate method for monitoring the concentration of phenol and its main degradation products during heterogeneous photocatalysis. Phenolic compounds were chosen as model to evaluate the degradation process due to their toxicity and persistence in the environment and also their well-known degradation pathway. The predictive capability of the multivariate method developed by partial least squares regression (PLSR) over the spectral range of 200-350 nm was satisfactory, allowing mean predicted errors below 5.0 % in the simultaneous determination of the target compounds using six latent variables and smoothing spectra. Suitable results were reported for the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone, resorcinol, pyrocatechol, and p-benzoquinone in accordance to the chromatographic method. Characteristics such as simplicity, low cost, and fast data acquisition are remarkable in this procedure, which makes it appropriate for this type of analytical control.

  19. Evernia prunastri and Pseudoevernia furfuraceae lichens and their major metabolites as antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer agents. (United States)

    Kosanić, Marijana; Manojlović, Nedeljko; Janković, Slobodan; Stanojković, Tatjana; Ranković, Branislav


    The aim of this study is to investigate chemical composition of acetone extracts of the lichens Evernia prunastri and Pseudoevernia furfuraceae and in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities of these extracts and some their major metabolites. HPLC-UV method was used for identification of secondary metabolites. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, reducing power and determination of total phenolic compounds. As a result of the study physodic acid had largest antioxidant activities. Total content of phenol in extracts was determined as pyrocatechol equivalent. The antimicrobial activity was estimated by determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration by the broth microdilution method. The most active was also physodic acid. Anticancer activity was tested against FemX (human melanoma) and LS174 (human colon carcinoma) cell lines using MTT method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Solid phase extraction of iron and lead in environmental matrices on amberlite xad-1180/pv

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    Mustafa Soylak


    Full Text Available A solid phase extraction procedure using Amberlite XAD-1180/Pyrocatechol violet (PV chelating resin for the determination of iron and lead ions in various environmental samples was established. The procedure is based on the sorption of lead(II and iron(III ions onto the resin at pH 9, followed by elution with 1 mol/L HNO3 and determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The influence of alkaline, earth alkaline and some transition metals, as interferents, are discussed. The recoveries for the spiked analytes were greater than 95%. The detection limits for lead and iron by FAAS were 0.37 µg/L and 0.20 µg/L, respectively. Validation of the method described here was performed by using three certified reference materials (SRM 1515 Apple Leaves, SRM 2711 Montana Soil and NRCC-SLRS-4 Riverine Water. The procedure was successfully applied to natural waters and human hair.

  1. Determination of Antioxidant, Anticholinesterase, Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activities and Fatty Acid Profiles of 10 Anatolian Klasea Cass. Species

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    Gülsen Tel


    Full Text Available In search of new natural fatty acid sources, extract of 10 different Turkish Klasea species were studies. Fatty acids of Klasea species were studied by GC and GC-MSD. Oleic acid (4.8-45.8%, palmitic acid (15.6-51.8%, linoleic acid (0.3-45.5%, palmitoleic acid (0.8-28.4% and linolenic acid (15.6-34.6% were the main fatty acids elucidated. All extracts were also subjected to acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, tyrosinase, β-carotene-linoleic acid, DPPH • scavenging, CUPRAC and ferrous ion-chelating ability activities. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents were determined as quercetin and pyrocatechol equivalents. All extracts showed significant antioxidant activity in all tests, except hexane extracts of K. serratuloides and K. cerinthifolia that showed weak inhibition against BChE and AChE. The hexane extract of K. coriaceae and methanol extract of K. serratuloides exhibited notable tyrosinase inhibitory activity.

  2. Varying nanoparticle pseudostationary phase plug length during capillary electrophoresis† (United States)

    Subramaniam, Varuni; Griffith, Lindsay; Haes, Amanda J.


    Capillary electrophoresis based separations of the hypothesized Parkinson’s disease biomarkers dopamine, epinephrine, pyrocatechol, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), glutathione, and uric acid are performed in the presence of a 1 nM 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid functionalized gold (Au@MUA) nanoparticle pseudostationary phase plug. Au@MUA nanoparticles are monitored in the capillary and remain stable in the presence of electrically-driven flow. Migration times, peak areas, and relative velocity changes (vs. no pseudostationary) are monitored upon varying (1) the Au@MUA nanoparticle pseudostationary phase plug length at a fixed separation voltage and (2) the separation voltage for a fixed Au@MUA nanoparticle pseudostationary phase plug length. For instance, the migration times of positively charged dopamine and epinephrine increase slightly as the nanoparticle pseudostationary phase plug length increases with concomitant decreases in peak areas and relative velocities as a result of attractive forces between the positively charged analytes and the negatively charged nanoparticles. Migration times for neutral pyrocatechol and slightly negative L-DOPA did not exhibit significant changes with increasing nanoparticle pseudostationary plug length; however, reduction in peak areas for these two molecules were evident and attributed to non-specific interactions (i.e. hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions) between the biomarkers and nanoparticles. Moreover, negatively charged uric acid and glutathione displayed progressively decreasing migration times and peak areas and as a result, increased relative velocities with increasing nanoparticle pseudostationary phase plug length. These trends are attributed to partitioning and exchanging with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid on nanoparticle surfaces for uric acid and glutathione, respectively. Similar trends are observed when the separation voltage decreased thereby suggesting that nanoparticle-biomarker interaction

  3. Adsorption and detection of some phenolic compounds by rice husk ash of Kenyan origin. (United States)

    Mbui, Damaris N; Shiundu, Paul M; Ndonye, Rachel M; Kamau, Geoffrey N


    Rice husk ash (RHA) obtained from a rice mill in Kenya has been used as an inexpensive and effective adsorbent (and reagent) for the removal (and detection) of some phenolic compounds in water. The abundantly available rice mill waste was used in dual laboratory-scale batch experiments to evaluate its potential in: (i) the removal of phenol, 1,3-dihydroxybenzene (resorcinol) and 2-chlorophenol from water; and (ii) the detection of 1,2-dihydroxybenzene (pyrocatechol) and 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene (pyrogallol) present in an aqueous medium. The studies were conducted using synthetic water with different initial concentrations of the phenolic compounds. The effects of different operating conditions (such as contact time, concentration of the phenolic compounds, adsorbent quantity, temperature, and pH) were assessed by evaluating the phenolic compound removal efficiency as well as the extent of their color formation reactions (where applicable). RHA exhibits reasonable adsorption capacity for the phenolic compounds and follows both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Adsorption capacities of 1.53 x 10(-4), 8.07 x 10(-5), and 1.63 x 10(-6) mol g(-1) were determined for phenol, resorcinol and 2-chlorophenol, respectively. Nearly 100% adsorption of the phenolic compounds was possible and this depended on the weight of RHA employed. For the detection experiments, pyrocatechol and pyrogallol present in water formed coloured complexes with RHA, with the rate of colour formation increasing with temperature, weight of RHA, concentration of the phenolic compounds and sonication. This study has proven that RHA is a useful agricultural waste product for the removal and detection of some phenolic compounds.

  4. Chemical Constituents of Sophora japonica Leaves%槐叶化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁义平; 束晓云; 唐于平


    Objective:To study the chemical constituents in the leaves of Sophora japonica. Method:The constituents were isolated by column chromatography and their structures were elucidated by physico-chemical properties and spectroscopic analysis. Result: Fifteen compounds were isolated and identified as quercetin ( 1 ),kaempferol (2) , isorhamnetin (3), genistein ( 4 ) , prunetin (5) , daidzein ( 6 ), calycosin (7), pyrocatechol (8) , protocatechuric acid (9), eicosyl behenate (10) , eicosanol ( 11 ), behenic acid (12) ,β-sitosterol (13) ,stigmasterol ( 14 ) and daucosterol ( 15 ). Conclusion: All of the constituents are obtained in the leaves of S. japonica; among them, compounds 7-10, 12 and 14 are reported in this species for the first time. The results are helpful for the comprehensive utilization of pagoda tree resources.%目的:研究槐Sophora japonica L.叶的化学成分.方法:采用有机溶剂提取,反复硅胶柱色谱和重结晶法进行分离纯化,根据化合物的理化性质和波谱数据鉴定其结构.结果:从槐叶二氯甲烷萃取部分共分离得到了3个黄酮醇,4个异黄酮以及8个其他类成分,分别鉴定为槲皮素(quercetin,1),山柰酚(kaempferol,2),异鼠李素(isorhamnetin,3),染料木素(genistein,4),樱黄素(prunetin,5),大豆黄素(daidzein,6),毛蕊异黄酮(calycosin,7),儿茶酚(pyrocatechol,8),原儿茶酸(protocatechuric acid,9),二十二烷酸二十烷酯(eicosyl behenate,10),二十醇(eicosanol,11),二十二烷酸(behenic acid,12),β-谷甾醇(β-sitosterol,13),豆甾醇(stigmasterol,14)和胡萝卜苷(daucosterol,15).结论:这些化合物均为首次从槐叶中分离得到,其中化合物7~10,12,14为首次从该种植物中分得,这些研究为槐叶及槐资源的综合利用提供了基础.

  5. Studies on phenolic acid constituents of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus fruits%无梗五加果酚酸类化学成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖扬; 王立波; 金刚; 孙锐; 胡希; 杨春娟


    To study the chemical constituents of the fruits from Acanthopanax sessiliflorus,the seperation was carried out on the column chromatography of silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS and preparative liquid chro-matography. Their structures were elucidated on basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. Eight phenolic acid compounds were isolated and identified as tyrosol(1) ,p-hydrocoumaric arid(2),protocate-chuic aldehyde(3) ,caffeic acid(4) ,4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone(5) ,gallic acid(6) ,4-hydroxy-benzoic acid(7), pyrocatechol (8). Compound 5 was isolated from the family of Araliaceae for the first time. Compound 2 was isolated from Acanthopanax genus for the first time, and compounds 1,7,8 were isolated from Acanthopanax sessiliflorus for the first time.%目的 对五加科五加属植物无梗五加果的化学成分进行研究.方法 采用硅胶柱色谱法、Sephadex LH-20柱色谱法、ODS柱色谱法以及制备液相色谱法对无梗五加果的化学成分进行分离,根据化合物的理化性质及波谱数据鉴定其结构.结果 分离得到8个已知的酚酸类化合物,分别为对羟基苯乙醇( tyrosol,1)、对羟基苯丙酸(p-hydrocoumaric acid,2)、原儿茶醛(protocatechuic aldehyde,3)、咖啡酸(caffeic acid,4)、4-(3,4-二羟基苯基)-2-丁酮[4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone,5]、没食子酸(gallic acid,6)、对羟基苯甲酸(4-hydroxybenzoic acid,7)、邻苯二酚(pyrocatechol,8).结论 化合物5为首次从五加科植物中分离得到,化合物2为首次从五加属植物中分离得到,化合物1、7、8为从该植物中首次分离得到.

  6. 喜光花叶的化学成分研究(Ⅱ)%Studies on Chemical Constituents from the Leaves of Actephila merrilliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐贝; 陈光英; 宋小平; 韩长日; 宋鑫明; 钟琼芯


    从喜光花Actephila merrilliana叶中分离得到12个化合物,通过理化方法和波谱数据分别鉴定为stigmastan-4-en-6β-ol-3-one (1)、东莨菪内酯(2)、萘(3)、对二甲氨基苯甲醛(4)、邻苯二甲酸-二(2-乙基-辛基)酯(5)、邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(6)、O-methylmoschatoline (7)、2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde(8)、4-dimethylamino-pyridine (9)、D-甘露糖醇(10)、胆固醇(11)、邻苯二酚(12).以上所有化合物均首次从该属植物中分离得到.%Twelve compounds were isolated from the leaves of Actephila merrilliana. On the basis of physicochemical properties and spectroscopic analysis, their structures were identified as stigmastan-4-en-6β-ol-3-one (1) , scopoletin (2) ,naphthalene (3) ,4-dimethylamino-benzaldehyde (4) ,[ (bis(2-ethyloctyl) phthalate] (5) ,dibutyl phthalate (6) , O-methylmoschatoline (7) ,2-hydroxy-l-naphthaldehyde(8) ,4-dimethylamino-pyridine (9) ,D-mannitol (10) , cholesterol (11) ,pyrocatechol (12). All compounds are reported for the first time from the Actephila genus.

  7. Spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of uranium(VI) in water samples after mixed micelle-mediated extraction. (United States)

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Afkhami, Abbas; Mousavi, Afrouz


    A cloud point extraction process using mixed micelle of the cationic surfactant CTAB and non-ionic surfactant TritonX-114 to extract uranium(VI) from aqueous solutions was investigated. The method is based on the color reaction of uranium with pyrocatechol violet in the presence of potassium iodide in hexamethylenetetramine buffer media and mixed micelle-mediated extraction of complex. The optimal extraction and reaction conditions (e.g. surfactant concentration, reagent concentration, effect of time) were studied and the analytical characteristics of the method (e.g. limit of detection, linear range, preconcentration, and improvement factors) were obtained. Linearity was obeyed in the range of 0.20-10.00ng mL(-1) of uranium(VI) ion and the detection limit of the method is 0.06ng mL(-1). The interference effect of some anions and cations was also tested. The method was applied to the determination of uranium(VI) in tap water, waste-water and well water samples.

  8. In vitro acaricidal properties of Semecarpus anacardium fruit and Datura stramonium leaf extracts against acaricide susceptible (IVRI-I line) and resistant (IVRI-V line) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. (United States)

    Ghosh, Srikant; Tiwari, Shashi Shankar; Srivastava, Sharad; Kumar, Sachin; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Nagar, Gaurav; Kumar, K G Ajith; Kumar, Rajesh; Rawat, A K S


    In an attempt to identify plants having anti-tick properties, the 95% ethanolic and 50% hydro-ethanolic extracts of the fruits of Semecarpus anacardium and leaves of Datura stramonium were evaluated against reference tick lines of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The 95% ethanolic extracts of S. anacardium and D. stramonium caused 50% and 20% mortality, respectively, within 72 h of treatment by adult immersion test. The LC90 value of the ethanolic fruit extract of S. anacardium was determined as 13.5% (CI 12.05-15.12). The extract was also found efficacious (73.3%±3.3%) against the multi-acaricide-resistant IVRI-V line of R.(B.) microplus. The S. anacardium extract significantly affected the reproductive physiology of treated ticks by inhibiting the oviposition and was found safe. The HPTLC fingerprinting profile revealed the presence of pyrocatechol as a marker compound. The acaricidal property of S. anacardium against chemical acaricide-resistant R. (B.) microplus was discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Aminoparathion: a highly reactive metabolite of parathion. 1. Reactions with polyphenols and polyphenol oxidase. (United States)

    Rung, Bruno; Schwack, Wolfgang


    Spiking of tomato and apple fruits with parathion at different levels of about 1-4 mg/kg irradiation and under simulated sunlight conditions resulted in nearly complete photodegradation within 13 h, but extractable parathion degradation products could not be found in any case. However, after irradiation of an unrealistically spiked apple (134 mg/kg) different photoproducts including aminoparathion (AP) were detectable by HPLC, proving that the hitherto postulated photochemistry of parathion indeed takes place in the fruit cuticle environment. Besides the photoreduction pathway it was shown for the first time that AP is also easily formed by reduction of the primary photoproduct nitrosoparathion with thiols (cysteine, glutathione), while ascorbic acid only leaves hydroxylaminoparathion. In the presence of polyphenols, AP was effectively bound to quinone intermediates formed by both silver oxide and polyphenol oxidases. For pyrocatechol, a disubstituted o-quinone derivative could be isolated as a dark red addition product and structurally be elucidated. However, in the presence of caffeic acid, catechol, naringin, and quercetin, respectively, insoluble dark colored polymers precipitated within 48 h, while in the supernatants AP was not detectable any more. Polymer-bound and nonextractable AP was proven by transesterification with sodium ethoxide releasing O,O,O-triethyl thiophosphate which was determined by GC. Additionally, AP itself was a substrate for polyphenol oxidases, resulting in a quinone imine intermediate which in turn reacted with excessive AP yielding deep red colored di- and trimerization products.

  10. Preparation, surface characteristics, and electrochemical double-layer capacitance of KOH-activated carbon aerogels and their O- and N-doped derivatives (United States)

    Zapata-Benabithe, Zulamita; Carrasco-Marín, Francisco; Moreno-Castilla, Carlos


    Carbon aerogels are obtained by carbonizing organic aerogels prepared by polycondensation reaction of resorcinol or pyrocatechol with formaldehyde. They are KOH-activated at two KOH/carbon ratios to increase pore volume and surface area. Selected samples are also surface-treated to introduce oxygen and nitrogen functionalities. The objectives are to investigate the effect of porosity and surface functionalities on the electrochemical capacitance of the carbon and activated carbon aerogels. Samples are characterized by N2 and CO2 adsorption at -196 and 0 °C, respectively, immersion calorimetry, temperature-programmed desorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in order to determine their surface area, porosity, and surface chemistry. Two series of samples are obtained: one micro-mesoporous and the other basically microporous. A surface area up to 1935 m2 g-1 was obtained after KOH activation. Electrochemical double-layer capacitance was studied by cyclovoltammetry and chronopotentiometry with a three-electrode cell, using Ag/AgCl as reference electrode. Gravimetric capacitance at 0.125 A g-1 is related to N2 adsorption-measured micropore volume and mean size and to particle density. The highest gravimetric capacitance, 220 F g-1, is obtained with two O- and N-doped samples. Volumetric capacitance of 123 F cm-3, double the value generally needed for applications in small-volume systems, is obtained with a largely microporous oxygen-doped activated carbon aerogel.

  11. Enhancement by catechols of hydroxyl-radical formation in the presence of ferric ions and hydrogen peroxide. (United States)

    Iwahashi, H; Morishita, H; Ishii, T; Sugata, R; Kido, R


    The effect of caffeic acid, a kind of catechol, on the Fenton reaction was examined by using the ESR spin trapping technique. Caffeic acid enhanced the formation of hydroxyl radicals in the reaction mixture, which contained caffeic acid, hydrogen peroxide, ferric chloride, EDTA, and potassium phosphate buffer. Chlorogenic acid, which is an ester of caffeic acid with quinic acid, also stimulated the formation of the hydroxyl radicals. Quinic acid did not stimulate the reaction, suggesting that the catechol moiety in chlorogenic acid is essential to the enhancement of the hydroxyl-radical formation. Indeed, other catechols and related compounds such as pyrocatechol, gallic acid, dopamine, and noradrenaline effectively stimulated the formation of the hydroxyl radicals. The above results confirm the idea that the catechol moiety is essential to the enhancement. Ferulic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid, and salicylic acid had no effect on the formation of the hydroxyl radicals. The results indicate that the enhancement by the catechols of the formation of hydroxyl radicals is diminished if a methyl ester is formed at the position of the hydroxyl group of the catechol. In the absence of iron chelators such as EDTA, DETAPAC, desferrioxamine, citrate, and ADP, formation of hydroxyl radicals was not detected, suggesting that chelators are essential to the reaction. The enhancement of the formation of hydroxyl radicals is presumably due to the reduction of ferric ions by the catechols. Thus, the catechols may exert deleterious effects on biological systems if chelators such as EDTA, DETAPAC, desferrioxamine, citrate, and ADP are present.

  12. Substrate catalysis enhances single-enzyme diffusion. (United States)

    Muddana, Hari S; Sengupta, Samudra; Mallouk, Thomas E; Sen, Ayusman; Butler, Peter J


    We show that diffusion of single urease enzyme molecules increases in the presence of urea in a concentration-dependent manner and calculate the force responsible for this increase. Urease diffusion measured using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy increased by 16-28% over buffer controls at urea concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 1 M. This increase was significantly attenuated when urease was inhibited with pyrocatechol, demonstrating that the increase in diffusion was the result of enzyme catalysis of urea. Local molecular pH changes as measured using the pH-dependent fluorescence lifetime of SNARF-1 conjugated to urease were not sufficient to explain the increase in diffusion. Thus, a force generated by self-electrophoresis remains the most plausible explanation. This force, evaluated using Brownian dynamics simulations, was 12 pN per reaction turnover. These measurements demonstrate force generation by a single enzyme molecule and lay the foundation for a further understanding of biological force generation and the development of enzyme-driven nanomotors.

  13. Quantification of aluminium in soil of the Solimões Formation, Acre State, Brazil

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    Thiago Andrade Bernini


    Full Text Available The variety of soils in the State of Acre is wide and their chemical profiles are still not fully understood. The nature of the material of origin of these soils is indicated by the high aluminium (Al content, commonly associated with high calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg contents. The study objective was to use different methods to quantify Al in soils from toposequences formed from material of a sedimentary nature originating from the Solimões Formation, in Acre, Brazil. Trenches were opened at three distinct points in the landscape: shoulder, backslope and footslope positions. Soil samples were collected for physical, chemical, mineralogical analyses. The Al content was quantified using different methods. High Al contents were found in most of these horizons, associated with high Ca and Mg levels, representing the predominant cations in the sum of exchangeable bases. The mineralogy indicates that the soils are still in a low weathering phase, with the presence of significant quantities of 2:1 minerals. Similar Al contents were determined by the methods of NaOH titration, xylenol orange spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. However, no consistent data were obtained by the pyrocatechol violet method. Extraction with KCl overestimated the exchangeable Al content due to its ability to extract the non-exchangeable Al present in the smectite interlayers. It was observed that high Al contents are related to the instability of the hydroxyl-Al smectite interlayers.

  14. Production of bio-oil rich in acetic acid and phenol from fast pyrolysis of palm residues using a fluidized bed reactor: Influence of activated carbons. (United States)

    Jeong, Jae-Yong; Lee, Uen-Do; Chang, Won-Seok; Jeong, Soo-Hwa


    In this study, palm residues were pyrolyzed in a bench-scale (3kg/h) fast pyrolysis plant equipped with a fluidized bed reactor and bio-oil separation system for the production of bio-oil rich in acetic acid and phenol. Pyrolysis experiments were performed to investigate the effects of reaction temperature and the types and amounts of activated carbon on the bio-oil composition. The maximum bio-oil yield obtained was approximately 47wt% at a reaction temperature of 515°C. The main compounds produced from the bio-oils were acetic acid, hydroxyacetone, phenol, and phenolic compounds such as cresol, xylenol, and pyrocatechol. When coal-derived activated carbon was applied, the acetic acid and phenol yields in the bio-oils reached 21 and 19wt%, respectively. Finally, bio-oils rich in acetic acid and phenol could be produced separately by using an in situ bio-oil separation system and activated carbon as an additive.

  15. Production of hydrogen peroxide by polyphenols and polyphenol-rich beverages under quasi-physiological conditions. (United States)

    Akagawa, Mitsugu; Shigemitsu, Tomoko; Suyama, Kyozo


    To investigate the ability of the production of H(2)O(2) by polyphenols, we incubated various phenolic compounds and natural polyphenols under a quasi-physiological pH and temperature (pH 7.4, 37 degrees C), and then measured the formation of H(2)O(2) by the ferrous ion oxidation-xylenol orange assay. Pyrocatechol, hydroquinone, pyrogallol, 1,2,4-benzenetriol, and polyphenols such as catechins yielded a significant amount of H(2)O(2). We also examined the effects of a metal chelator, pH, and O(2) on the H(2)O(2)-generating property, and the generation of H(2)O(2) by the polyphenol-rich beverages, green tea, black tea, and coffee, was determined. The features of the H(2)O(2)-generating property of green tea, black tea, and coffee were in good agreement with that of phenolic compounds, suggesting that polyphenols are responsible for the generation of H(2)O(2) in beverages. From the results, the possible significances of the H(2)O(2)-generating property of polyphenols for biological systems are discussed.

  16. Feijoa sellowiana Berg fruit juice: anti-inflammatory effect and activity on superoxide anion generation. (United States)

    Monforte, Maria T; Fimiani, Vincenzo; Lanuzza, Francesco; Naccari, Clara; Restuccia, Salvatore; Galati, Enza M


    Feijoa sellowiana Berg var. coolidge fruit juice was studied in vivo for the anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenin-induced paw edema test and in vitro for the effects on superoxide anion release from neutrophils in human whole blood. The fruit juice was analyzed by the high-performance liquid chromatography method, and quercetin, ellagic acid, catechin, rutin, eriodictyol, gallic acid, pyrocatechol, syringic acid, and eriocitrin were identified. The results showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity of F. sellowiana fruit juice, sustained also by an effective antioxidant activity observed in preliminary studies on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. In particular, the anti-inflammatory activity edema inhibition is significant since the first hour (44.11%) and persists until the fifth hour (44.12%) of the treatment. The effect on superoxide anion release was studied in human whole blood, in the presence of activators affecting neutrophils by different mechanisms. The juice showed an inhibiting response on neutrophils basal activity in all experimental conditions. In stimulated neutrophils, the higher inhibition of superoxide anion generation was observed at concentration of 10(-4) and 10(-2) mg/mL in whole blood stimulate with phorbol-myristate-13-acetate (PMA; 20% and 40%) and with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP; 15% and 48%). The significant reduction of edema and the inhibition of O2(-) production, occurring mainly through interaction with protein-kinase C pathway, confirm the anti-inflammatory effect of F. sellowiana fruit juice.

  17. A colorimetric indicator-displacement assay for cysteine sensing based on a molecule-exchange mechanism. (United States)

    Xue, Zhonghua; Fu, Xiaoxia; Rao, Honghong; Hassan Ibrahim, Mohammed; Xiong, Lulu; Liu, Xiuhui; Lu, Xiaoquan


    In this study, we developed an ingenious yet effective strategy for cysteine detection. The colorimetric cysteine assay is established through an indicator displacement process, where Cu(2+) and pyrocatechol violet (PV) was employed as receptor and indicator, respectively. Proof-of-concept trials demonstrated that the stronger binding affinity of Cu(2+) receptor toward cysteine than PV indicator endowed our colorimetric sensor with high selectivity and excellent sensitivity as well as with a lower detection limit (4.60μM and 120µM, S/N =3) by UV-visible spectroscopy and the naked eye as the signal readout, respectively. More importantly, the proposed molecule-exchange process in the indicator displacement process could be successfully used to the fabrication of a colorimetric INHIBIT logic gate and even converted into a facile naked eye analysis through paper-based analytical devices for conveniently and reliably detecting cysteine (CySH) in practical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. In vitro antioxidant activity of Vetiveria Zizanioides root extract. (United States)

    Subhadradevi, Varadharajan; Asokkumar, Kuppusamy; Umamaheswari, Muthuswamy; Sivashanmugam, Andichettiarthirumalasia; Sankaranand, Rajakannu


    Free radicals induce numerous diseases by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. It has been reported that some of the extracts from plants possess antioxidant properties capable of scavenging free radicals in vivo. Vetiveria zizanioides belonging to the family Gramineae, is a densely tufted grass which is widely used as a traditional plant for aromatherapy, to relieve stress, anxiety, nervous tension and insomnia. In this regard, the roots of V zizanioides was extracted with ethanol and used for the evaluation of various in vitro antioxidant activities such as reducing power ability, superoxide anion radical scavenging activity, deoxyribose degradation assay, total antioxidant capacity, total phenolics and total flavonoid composition. The various antioxidant activities were compared with suitable antioxidants such as butyl hydroxy toluene, ascorbic acid, quercetin, alpha tocopherol, pyrocatechol and curcumin respectively. The generation of free radicals O2, H2O2 OH and N O were effectively scavenged by the ethanolic extract of V zizanioides. In all these methods, the extract showed strong antioxidant activity in a dose dependent manner. The results obtained in the present study clearly indicates that V zizanioides scavenges free radicals, ameliorating damage imposed by oxidative stress in different disease conditions and serve as a potential source of natural antioxidant. The study provides a proof for the ethnomedical claims and reported biological activities. The plant has, therefore, very good therapeutic and antioxidant potential.

  19. Germanium recovery from gasification fly ash: evaluation of end-products obtained by precipitation methods. (United States)

    Arroyo, Fátima; Font, Oriol; Fernández-Pereira, Constantino; Querol, Xavier; Juan, Roberto; Ruiz, Carmen; Coca, Pilar


    In this study the purity of the germanium end-products obtained by two different precipitation methods carried out on germanium-bearing solutions was evaluated as a last step of a hydrometallurgy process for the recovery of this valuable element from the Puertollano Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) fly ash. Since H(2)S is produced as a by-product in the gas cleaning system of the Puertollano IGCC plant, precipitation of germanium as GeS(2) was tested by sulfiding the Ge-bearing solutions. The technological and hazardous issues that surround H(2)S handling conducted to investigate a novel precipitation procedure: precipitation as an organic complex by adding 1,2-dihydroxy benzene pyrocatechol (CAT) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) to the Ge-bearing solutions. Relatively high purity Ge end-products (90 and 93% hexagonal-GeO(2) purity, respectively) were obtained by precipitating Ge from enriched solutions, as GeS(2) sulfiding the solutions with H(2)S, or as organic complex with CAT/CTAB mixtures and subsequent roasting of the precipitates. Both methods showed high efficiency (>99%) to precipitate selectively Ge using a single precipitation stage from germanium-bearing solutions.

  20. Essential Structural Requirements and Additive Effects for Flavonoids to Scavenge Methylglyoxal. (United States)

    Shao, Xi; Chen, Huadong; Zhu, Yingdong; Sedighi, Rashin; Ho, Chi-Tang; Sang, Shengmin


    Reactive dicarbonyl species, such as methylglyoxal (MGO), are considered as the major precursors of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are believed to be one of the physiological causes of diabetes and its complications. Scavenging of reactive dicarbonyl species using naturally occurring flavonoids has been proposed as an effective way to prevent diabetic complications. To elucidate the structural requirements of flavonoids in scavenging MGO, seven flavonoids (quercetin, luteolin, epicatechin, genistein, daidzein, apigenin, and phloretin) and five sub-components of the flavonoids (gallic acid, phloroglucinol, pyrogallol, pyrocatechol, and resorcinol) were examined in this study. Our results showed the following: (1) 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene (pyrogallol) has higher MGO scavenging activity than 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene and 1,2- and 1,3-dihydroxybenzene, and substitution at position 5 of pyrogallol diminished the scavenging activity, indicating that position 5 is the active site of pyrogallol; (2) the A ring is the active site of flavonoids in contributing the MGO-trapping efficacy, and the hydroxyl group at C-5 on the A ring enhances the trapping efficacy; (3) the double bond between C-2 and C-3 on the C ring could facilitate the trapping efficacy; and (4) the number of hydroxyl groups on the B ring does not significantly influence the trapping efficacy. In addition, we found there is an additive effect in MGO trapping by two common flavonoids, quercetin and phloretin, indicating that flavonoid-enriched foods and beverages hold great promise to prevent the development of diabetic complications.

  1. Phytochemical composition and gastroprotective effect of Feijoa sellowiana Berg fruits from Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Monforte


    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the fruit of Feijoa sellowiana Berg var. coolidge and gorgiona, cultured in Sicily, for its gastroprotective effect, in association with performing phytochemical evaluation. Methods: By means of HPLC, vitamin E complex and polyphenol compounds were determined. The gastroprotective effect was investigated on ethanol-induced ulcers in rats, with sucralfate as reference drug. Samples of gastric mucosae, stained by periodic acid-Shiff and haematoxylin/ eosin, were observed by light microscopy. Results: In pulp and peel samples of both varieties of fruit α, β and γ tocopherols were identified, while δ was only in var. coolidge. In whole fruit of two varieties, catechin, eriodictyol, eriocitrin, pyrocatechol, quercetin, rutin, ellagic, gallic and syringic acid were determined. The fruit showed gastroprotective effect (ulcer index: var. coolidge=1.07, var. gorgiona=1.02. The efficacy was comparable to that of sucralfate (ulcer index 1.10. Histological examination confirmed the inhibition of ulcerogenic activity of the ethanol. Conclusions: Active principles of Feijoa sellowiana can play an important role in human diet and show beneficial effects on various diseases, particularly those caused by oxidative processes resulting in cell damage. The amount of polyphenols and vitamin E complex confirms the nutritional value of this fruit, grown in pedoclimatic condition very different from the origin area.

  2. Role of degradation products of chlorogenic acid in the antioxidant activity of roasted coffee. (United States)

    Kamiyama, Masumi; Moon, Joon-Kwan; Jang, Hae Won; Shibamoto, Takayuki


    Antioxidant activities of brewed coffees prepared from six commercial brands ranged from 63.13 ± 1.01 to 96.80 ± 1.68% at the highest levels tested. Generally, the degree of antioxidant activity of the brewed coffee was inversely proportional to the total chlorogenic acid concentration. A sample obtained from the major chlorogenic acid, 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA), heated at 250 °C exhibited potent antioxidant activity (79.12 ± 2.49%) at the level of 10 μg/mL, whereas unheated 5-CQA showed only moderate antioxidant activity (44.41 ± 0.27%) at the level of 100 μg/mL. Heat produced relatively high levels of pyrocatechol (2,809.3 μg/g) and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (46.4 μg/g) from 5-CQA, and their antioxidant activity levels were 76.57 ± 3.00 and 98.63 ± 0.01%, respectively. The results of the present study suggest that roasting degrades chlorogenic acids to form potent antioxidants and thus plays an important role in the preparation of high-antioxidant low-acid coffee.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthiah PL


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Aim: The present study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activities of the leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon belonging to the family Rutaceae. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activities of the hydroethanolic extracts have been evaluated by using different in vitro assays and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, ascorbic acid, curcumin, quercetin, etc. In addition, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in these extracts were determined as pyrocatechol and quercetin equivalents respectively. Among the extracts assayed, 4 extracts (leaf and peel extracts of C.aurantium , peel and fruit extracts of C.limetta had effective H donor ability, reducing power ability, metal chelating activity, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant activity depends upon concentration and increased with increasing amount of the extracts. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities may be attributed to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds present in the extracts. Result: The results obtained in the present study indicate that the leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon serve as the potential source of natural antioxidants. Keywords: Antioxidant; Citrus aurantium; Citrus limetta; Citrus limon; free radical; Rutaceae.

  4. Effect of phenobarbital pretreatment on benzene biotransformation in the rat. Pt. 2. 9. 000 g supernatant and isolated perfused liver versus living rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gut, I.; Hatle, K.; Zizkova, L.


    Factors responsible for different quantitative effect of phenobarbital (PB) pretreatment on benzene metabolism to phenol in vivo and in vitro were studied in male Wistar rats. A more than 4-fold increase of benzene metabolism was observed with 9,000 g supernatant of liver homogenate, 2.8- to 4-fold increase with isolated perfused liver; phenol formation in vivo after oral benzene was increased by PB 2-fold, but only shortly following benzene administration and the enhancement rapidly diminished to 1.15-fold increase in the total excreted phenol. Benzene concentrations in 9,000 g supernatant incubations were 2 mM, those with isolated perfused livers were up to 4 mM, but those in blood in vivo were below 0.3 mM; the effect of PB induction in vivo disappeared along with decreasing benzene and increasing phenol blood concentrations which surpassed benzene 2-3 h after oral benzene administration. The effect of benzene concentration on the manifestation of PB induction is also supported by almost a 2-fold increased phenol formation in PB rats over controls in vivo after repeated administration of benzene. The elimination of radioactive metabolites of orally administered benzene-/sup 14/C, in urine was markedly inhibited by intraperitoneal administration of phenol, but not by pyrocatechol, resorcinol or hydroquinol suggesting that phenol might inhibit benzene metabolism in vivo especially when its concentration exceeds that of benzene.

  5. Complexation of mercury(II) ions with humic acids in tundra soils (United States)

    Vasilevich, R. S.; Beznosikov, V. A.; Lodygin, E. D.; Kondratenok, B. M.


    The interaction mechanisms of mercury(II) ions with preparations of humic acids (HAs) isolated from organic horizons of surface-gleyed soils (Haplic Stagnosol (Gelic, Siltic)) of shrub tundra and hydromorphic peat gley soils (Histic Cryosol (Reductaquic, Siltic)) of moss-lichen tundra have been studied. The particular features of the interactions between the mercury(II) ions and the HAs are related to the molecular structure of the HAs, the mercury concentration range, and the environmental parameters. The fixation of mercury(II) ions into stable coordination compounds is most efficient in the pH range of 2.5-3.5. At the element concentrations below 0.50 μmol/dm3, the main complexing sites of HAs are their peripheral aminoacid functional groups. Pyrocatechol, salicylate, and phenolic groups from the nuclear moiety of molecules interact in the concentration range of 0.0005-0.50 mmol/dm3; the physical sorption of mercury hydroxo complexes by the surface of HAs is the main process occurring in the system.

  6. Evaluation of metal concentration and antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer potentials of two edible mushrooms Lactarius deliciosus and Macrolepiota procera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Kosanić


    Full Text Available This study is designed for the determination of metal concentrations, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer potential of two edible mushrooms Lactarius deliciosus and Macrolepiota procera. Concentrations of nine metals are determined and all metals are present in the allowable concentrations in the tested mushrooms except Cd in M. procera. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by free radical scavenging and reducing power. M. procera extract had more potent free radical scavenging activity (IC50=311.40 μg/mL than L. deliciosus extract. Moreover, the tested extracts had effective reducing power. The total content of phenol in the extracts was examined using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent and obtained values expressed as pyrocatechol equivalents. Further, the antimicrobial potential was determined with a microdilution method on 15 microorganisms. Among the tested species, extract of L. deliciosus showed a better antimicrobial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 2.5 mg/mL to 20 mg/mL. Finally, the cytotoxic activity was tested using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method on human epithelial carcinoma HeLa cells, human lung carcinoma A549 cells, and human colon carcinoma LS174 cells. Extract of both mushrooms expressed similar cytotoxic activity with IC50 values ranging from 19.01 μg/mL to 80.27 μg/mL.

  7. Determination of aluminium in iron, steel and ferrous and non-ferrous alloys by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry after a mercury-cathode separation and extraction of the aluminium-acetylacetone complex. (United States)

    Donaldson, E M


    A method for determining 0.0005% or more of total aluminium in high- and low-alloy steels, iron and ferrovanadium is described. Iron, chromium and other matrix elements are separated from aluminium by electrolysis with a mercury cathode and aluminium is separated from tungsten, titanium, vanadium and phosphate by chloroform extraction of its acetylacetone complex at pH 6.5 from an ammonium acetate-hydrogen peroxide medium. The extract is evaporated to dryness and organic material is destroyed with nitric and perchloric acids. Aluminium is determined by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry in a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame, at 309.3 nm, in a 5% v/v perchloric acid medium containing 1000 mug of sodium per ml. Acid-soluble and acid-insoluble aluminium can also be determined. The method is also applicable to copper- and nickel-base alloys. Results obtained by this method are compared with those obtained spectrophotometrically with Pyrocatechol Violet, after the separations described above followed by the separation of the residual co-extracted iron and copper by a combined ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate-cupferron-chloroform extraction from 10% v/v hydrochloric acid medium.

  8. 茉莉酸甲酯和水杨酸甲酯诱导杨树叶片内酚酸含量的变化%A change of phenolic acids content in poplar leaves induced by methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安钰; 沈应柏; 吴丽娟; 张志翔


    The contents of seven different phenolic acids such as gallic acid, catechinic acid, pyrocatechol, caffeic acid, coumaric acid, ferulic acid and benzoic acid in the poplar leaves (Populus Simonii×Populus Pyramibalis c.v and Populus deltoids) suffocated by Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and Methyl salicylate (MeSA) were monitored for analyzing their functions in interplant communications by using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC).The results showed that the contents of phenolic acids had obviously difference in leaves exposed to either MeSA or MeJA.When P.deltoides leaves exposed to MeJA or MeSA, the level of gallic acid, coumaric acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and benzoic acid was increased, gallic acid in leaves treated with MeJA comes to a peak at 24 h while to a peak at 12-d having leaves treated with MeSA.When P.Simonii ×P.Pyramibalis c.v leaves were exposed to MeJA or MeSA, the level of gallic acid, pyrocatechol and ferulic acid was increased; The catechinic acid and benzoic acid had a little drop; The caffeic acid and coumaric acid were undetected in both suffocated and control leaves.This changed pattern indicated that MeJA and MeSA can act as airborne signals to induce defense response of plants.%用茉莉酸甲酯(MeJa)及水杨酸甲酯(MeSa)熏蒸合作杨(P. Simonii×P. Pyramibalis c.v)和黑杨(P. deltoids)植株,采用高效液相色谱技术(HPLC)检测杨树叶片内没什子酸、儿茶酸、邻苯二酚、咖啡酸、香豆酸、阿魏酸和苯甲酸的含量变化,分析MeJa与MeSa诱导植物叶片内酚酸含量的差异.结果表明:在不同的处理条件下,不同酚酸含量存在显著差异.MeJA及MeSa熏蒸后的黑杨叶片内没什子酸、香豆酸、咖啡酸、阿魏酸和苯甲酸含量均增加,且没什子酸含量在MeJa处理24 h后达到最大量,在MeSa处理12天后达到最大量.MeJa及MeSa熏蒸后的合作杨叶片内没什子酸、邻苯二酚和阿魏酸含量也增加,儿茶酸和苯甲酸含量略有下降,

  9. A strategy for selective detection based on interferent depleting and redox cycling using the plane-recessed microdisk array electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Feng [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Yan Jiawei, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Lu Miao [Pen-Tung Sah Micro-Nano Technology Research Center, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Zhou Yongliang; Yang Yang; Mao Bingwei [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)


    plane-recessed microdisk array electrodes are verified by detecting dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid and detecting pyrocatechol in the presence of hydroquinone, i.e., the electrodes can work regardless of the reversibility of interfering species.

  10. Speciation of chromium using chronoamperometric biosensors based on screen-printed electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo-Pérez, Ana, E-mail:; Domínguez-Renedo, Olga, E-mail:; Alonso-Lomillo, MAsunción, E-mail:; Arcos-Martínez, MJulia, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Chronoamperometric determination of Cr(III) on tyrosinase based biosensors using SPCEs. • Chronoamperometric determination of Cr(VI) on GOx based biosensors using SPCEs. • High degree of sensitivity and selectivity in the analysis of both chromium species. • Bipotentiostatic chronoamperometric determination of both chromium species in the same sample. - Abstract: Chronoamperometric assays based on tyrosinase and glucose oxidase (GOx) inactivation have been developed for the monitoring of Cr(III) and Cr(VI). Tyrosinase was immobilized by crosslinking on screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) containing tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as electron transfer mediator. The tyrosinase/SPC{sub TTF}E response to pyrocatechol is inhibited by Cr(III). This process, that is not affected by Cr(VI), allows the determination of Cr(III) with a capability of detection of 2.0 ± 0.2 μM and a reproducibility of 5.5%. GOx modified screen-printed carbon platinised electrodes (SPC{sub Pt}Es) were developed for the selective determination of Cr(VI) using ferricyanide as redox mediator. The biosensor was able to discriminate two different oxidation states of chromium being able to reject Cr(III) and to detect the toxic species Cr(VI). Chronoamperometric response of the biosensor towards glucose decreases with the presence of Cr(VI), with a capability of detection of 90.5 ± 7.6 nM and a reproducibility of 6.2%. A bipotentiostatic chronoamperometric biosensor was finally developed using a tyrosinase/SPC{sub TTF}E and a GOx/SPC{sub Pt}E connected in array mode for the simultaneous determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in spiked tap water and in waste water from a tannery factory samples.

  11. Inhibition of bromophenols against PTP1B and anti-hyperglycemic effect of Rhodomela confervoides extract in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI DaYong; XU Feng; HE Juan; LI Jing; FAN Xiao; HAN LiJun


    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) plays an important role as s negative regulator in insulin signaling pathways.PTP1B is an effective target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.Four bromophenol derivatives from red algae Rhodomela confervoides,2,2',3,3'-tetrabromo-4,4',5,5"-tetra-hydroxydiphenyl methane (1),3-bormo-4,5-bis(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl) pyrocatechol (2),bis(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl) ether (3) and 2,2",3-tribromo-3",4,4",5-tetrahydroxy-6"-ethyloxy-methyldiphenylmethane (4) showed significant inhibitory activity against PTP1B (IC50 were 2.4,1.7,1.5 and 0.84 μmol/L,respectively) as potential therapeutical agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.The anti-hyperglycemic effects of the ethanol extracts from R.confervoides on streptozoto-cin-induced diabetes (STZ-diabetes) in male Wistar rats fed with high fat diet were investigated.The STZ-diabetic rats treated with medium-dose and high-dose alga extracts showed remarkable reductions in fasting blood glucose (FBG) as compared with the STZ-diabetic control.The results indicate that the in vivo anti-hyperglycemic activity of the R.confervoides extracts can be partially attributed to the in-hibitory actions against PTP1B of the bromophenol derivatives and that may be of clinical importance in improving the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  12. 冷冻处理对日本柳杉边材炭化的影响%Effect of Pretreatment with Freezhing on Carbonization of Sugi ( Cryptomeria japonica ) Sapwood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁保旺; 杜冠华; 松井隆尚; 松下洋一; 菅本和宽


    将冷冻处理前后的日本柳杉边材在400℃下进行炭化,得到了木醋液、木焦油和木炭.与没有处理相比,虽然处理过边材的木焦油的收率几乎不变,木醋液的收率显示增加倾向,但是木炭的收率有减少迹象.用毛细管气相色谱法对得到的木醋液中的11种成分进行了定量分析.与无处理相比较后,发现处理过边材木醋液中的甲醇、脂肪酸及糠醛(呋喃甲醛)的收量有了变化,但是5-羟甲基糠醛、麦芽酚、苯酚、邻苯二酚及愈创苯酚的收量几乎没有变化.%Sugi sapwoods at different moisture content after and before freezing treatment were carbonized at 400 ℃ to afford wood-vinegar, wood-tar and charcoal. Yield of wood-vinegar prepared from the treated wood tended to increase, and yield of charcoal indicated opposite tendency, but yield of wood-tar was almost constant. 11 components in wood-vinegar obtained from the Sugi sapwoods after and before treatment were determined by capillary gas chromatography (capillary GC). The change in amounts of methanol, carboxylic acids and 2 - furaldehyde in wood-vinegar from the treated sapwood was observed, but amounts of 5 - hydroxymethyl - 2 - furaldehyde, maltol, phenols, pyrocatechol, and guaiacols were almost constant.

  13. [Development of trace metal ion analysis]. (United States)

    Kobayashi, J


    Analyses of trace biologically essential or toxic ionic compounds found in the environment are very important. However, the lack of sensitivity and interference caused by coexisting components are often serious problems. To determine trace levels of metal ions without the above problems, new preconcentration and analytical methods have been developed. Firstly, three methods for the selective preconcentration of metal ions are shown below: 1) 3-Chloropyridazine-6-carbohydrazide was immobilized on glass beads supports to be used as a column packing material. Multi-metal ions were concentrated on the column and eluted selectively with several buffers and hydrochloric acid. The eluate was analyzed off-line by flame atomized-atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). This method was able to determine sub-ppb levels of cupper- and cadmium-ions in environmental samples. 2) Salicylideneamino-2-thiophenol was immobilized on the supports. Aluminum ion was concentrated selectively on the column and eluted with nitric acid. The eluate was analyzed off-line by flameless-AAS or on-line by flow injection analysis using pyrocatechol violet for a post-column colorimetric reagent. These methods were able to determine ppb-ppt levels of aluminium in environmental samples and were suitable for its state-analysis. 3) Bathocuproinesulfonic acid was immobilized on the supports. Copper ion was concentrated selectively on the column and eluted with nitric acid. The eluate was analyzed on-line by flow injection analysis using bathocuproinesulfonic acid. This method was able to determine sub-ppb levels of copper in environmental samples. On the other hand, to analyze simultaneously trace metal ions and anions, capillary electrophoresis was performed using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as an electrolyte component. Simultaneous determination of several ions in mineral waters was achieved by the system.

  14. 双孢蘑菇酶促褐变特性及褐变的控制%Enzymatic Browning Characteristics and Control of Button Mushroom(Agaricus bisporus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王相友; 王健; 朱继英; 赵亚


    In order to effectively inhibit enzymatic browning in Agaricus bisporus,effects of pH values,temperature,substrate concentration and inhibitors on polyphenol oxidase(PPO) activity from Agaricus bisporus were studied.The results showed that the optimum pH value and temperature for PPO activity from Agaricus bisporus were 6.8 and 15-20℃ using pyrocatechol as substrate.The Michaelis constant of PPO was Km = 0.1072 mol/L.Computational imaging analysis showed that mixture of 0.30 mmol/L sodium sulfite,0.06% ascorbic acid and 0.05% acetic acid had effective inhibition on enzymatic browning in Agaricus bisporus.%为有效控制双孢蘑菇褐变,研究pH值、温度、底物浓度以及抑制剂对双孢蘑菇的多酚氧化酶(polyphenoloxidase,PPO)活性的影响。结果表明:以邻苯二酚为底物,双孢蘑菇PPO最适反应pH6.8,最适反应温度20℃,最适反应底物浓度为0.06mol/L,米氏常数Km为0.1072mol/L。采用计算机图像处理技术对双孢蘑菇褐变程度进行定量检测,得出对双孢蘑菇贮藏保鲜效果较好的褐变抑制剂及其最佳配比为0.30mmol/L半胱氨酸、0.06%抗坏血酸、0.05%乙酸。

  15. Expression and characteristics of manganese peroxidase from Ganoderma lucidum in Pichia pastoris and its application in the degradation of four dyes and phenol. (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Guo, Meng-Yuan; Gao, Yan-Hua; Bai, Xiao-Hui; Zhou, Xuan-Wei


    Manganese peroxidase (MnP) of white rot basidiomycetes, an extracellular heme enzyme, is part of a peroxidase superfamily that is capable of degrading the different phenolic compounds. Ganoderma, a white rot basidiomycete widely distributed worldwide, could secrete lignin-modifying enzymes (LME), including laccase (Lac), lignin peroxidases (LiP) and MnP. After the selection of a G. lucidum strain from five Ganoderma strains, the 1092 bp full-length cDNA of the MnP gene, designated as G. lucidum MnP (GluMnP1), was cloned from the selected strain. We subsequently constructed an eukaryotic expression vector, pAO815:: GlMnP, and transferred it into Pichia pastoris SMD116. Recombinant GluMnP1 (rGluMnP1) was with a yield of 126 mg/L and a molecular weight of approximately 37.72 kDa and a specific enzyme activity of 524.61 U/L. The rGluMnP1 could be capable of the decolorization of four types of dyes and the degradation of phenol. Phenol and its principal degradation products including hydroquinone, pyrocatechol, resorcinol, benzoquinone, were detected successfully in the experiments. The rGluMnP1 could be effectively expressed in Pichia pastoris and with a higher oxidation activity. We infer that, in the initial stages of the reaction, the catechol-mediated cycle should be the principal route of enzymatic degradation of phenol and its oxidation products. This study highlights the potential industrial applications associated with the production of MnP by genetic engineering methods, and the application of industrial wastewater treatment.

  16. Impact of estrogenic compounds on DNA integrity in human spermatozoa: Evidence for cross-linking and redox cycling activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennetts, L.E.; De Iuliis, G.N.; Nixon, B.; Kime, M.; Zelski, K. [ARC Centre of Excellence in Biotechnology and Development and Discipline of Biological Sciences, University of Newcastle, NSW (Australia); McVicar, C.M.; Lewis, S.E. [Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Queen' s University, Belfast (United Kingdom); Aitken, R.J. [ARC Centre of Excellence in Biotechnology and Development and Discipline of Biological Sciences, University of Newcastle, NSW (Australia)], E-mail:


    A great deal of circumstantial evidence has linked DNA damage in human spermatozoa with adverse reproductive outcomes including reduced fertility and high rates of miscarriage. Although oxidative stress is thought to make a significant contribution to DNA damage in the male germ line, the factors responsible for creating this stress have not been elucidated. One group of compounds that are thought to be active in this context are the estrogens, either generated as a result of the endogenous metabolism of androgens within the male reproductive tract or gaining access to the latter as a consequence of environmental exposure. In this study, a wide variety of estrogenic compounds were assessed for their direct effects on human spermatozoa in vitro. DNA integrity was assessed using the Comet and TUNEL assays, lesion frequencies were quantified by QPCR using targets within the mitochondrial and nuclear ({beta}-globin) genomes, DNA adducts were characterized by mass spectrometry and redox activity was monitored using dihydroethidium (DHE) as the probe. Of the estrogenic and estrogen analogue compounds evaluated, catechol estrogens, quercetin, diethylstilbestrol and pyrocatechol stimulated intense redox activity while genistein was only active at the highest doses tested. Other estrogens and estrogen analogues, such as 17{beta}-estradiol, nonylphenol, bisphenol A and 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene were inactive. Estrogen-induced redox activity was associated with a dramatic loss of motility and, in the case of 2-hydroxyestradiol, the induction of significant DNA fragmentation. Mass spectrometry also indicated that catechol estrogens were capable of forming dimers that can cross-link the densely packed DNA strands in sperm chromatin, impairing nuclear decondensation. These results highlight the potential importance of estrogenic compounds in creating oxidative stress and DNA damage in the male germ line and suggest that further exploration of these compounds in the aetiology of

  17. The antitumor effect of bromophenol derivatives in vitro and Leathesia nana extract in vivo (United States)

    Shi, Dayong; Li, Jing; Guo, Shuju; Su, Hua; Fan, Xiao


    To investigate the antitumor effect of bromophenol derivatives in vitro and Leathesia nana extract in vivo, six bromophenol derivatives 6-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl)-2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxy benzyl methyl ether (1), (+)-3-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-4-bromo-5,6-dihydroxy-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran (2), 3-bromo-4-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl)-5-methoxymethyl-pyrocatechol (3), 2,2',3,3'-tetrabromo-4,4',5,5'-tetrahydroxy-diphenylmethane (4), bis(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl) ether (5), 2,2',3-tribromo-3',4,4',5-tetrahydroxy-6'-ethyloxymethyldiphenylmethane (6) were isolated from brown alga Leathesia nana, and their cytotoxicity were tested by MTT assays in human cancer cell lines A549, BGC-823, MCF-7, B16-BL6, HT-1080, A2780, Bel7402 and HCT-8. Their inhibitory activity against protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) with over-expression of c-kit was analyzed also by ELISA. The antitumor activity of ethanolic extraction of Leathesia nana (EELN) was evaluated on S180-bearing mice. All compounds showed very potent cytotoxicity against all of the eight cancer cell lines with IC50 below 10 μg/mL. In PTK inhibition study, all bromophenol derivatives showed moderate inhibitory activity and compounds 2, 5 and 6 showed significant bioactivity with the inhibition ratio of 77.5%, 80.1% and 71.4%, respectively. Pharmacological studies reveal that EELN could inhibit the growth of Sarcoma 180 tumor and increase the indices of thymus and spleen to improve the immune system remarkably in vivo. Results indicated that the bromophenol derivatives and EELN can be used as potent antitumor agents for PTK over-expression of c-kit and considered in a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of cancer.

  18. The antitumor effect of bromophenol derivatives in vitro and Leathesia nana extract in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Dayong; LI Jing; GUO Shuju; SU Hua; FAN Xiao


    To investigate the antitumor effect of bromophenol derivatives in vitro and Leathesia nana extract in vivo, six bromophenol derivatives 6-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl)-2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxy benzyl methyl ether (1), (+)-3-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-4-bromo-5,6-dihydroxy-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran (2), 3-bromo-4-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl)-5-methoxymethyl-pyrocatechol (3),2,2',3,3'-tetrabromo-4,4',5,5'-tetrahydroxy-diphenylmethane (4), bis(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl) ether (5), 2,2',3-tribromo-3',4,4',5-tetrahydroxy-6'-ethyloxymethyldiphenylmethane (6) were isolated from brown alga Leathesia nana, and their cytotoxicity were tested by MTr assays in human cancer cell lines A549, BGC-823, MCF-7, B16-BL6, HT-1080, A2780, Bel7402 and HCT-8. Their inhibitory activity against protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) with over-expression of c-kit was analyzed also by ELISA. The antitumor activity of ethanolic extraction of Leathesia nana (EELN) was evaluated on S180-bearing mice.All compounds showed very potent cytotoxicity against all of the eight cancer cell lines with IC50 below 10 μg/mL. In PTK inhibition study, all bromophenol derivatives showed moderate inhibitory activity and compounds 2, 5 and 6 showed significant bioactivity with the inhibition ratio of 77.5%, 80.1% and 71.4%,respectively. Pharmacological studies reveal that EELN could inhibit the growth of Sarcoma 180 tumor and increase the indices of thymus and spleen to improve the immune system remarkably in vivo. Results indicated that the bromophenoi derivatives and EELN can be used as potent antitumor agents for PTK over-expression of c-kit and considered in a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of cancer.

  19. Phytochemical composition and gastroprotective effect of Feijoa sellowiana Berg fruits from Sicily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Teresa Monforte; Francesco Lanuzza; Fabio Mondello; Clara Naccari; Simona Pergolizzi; Enza Maria Galati


    Objective: To assess the fruit of Feijoa sellowiana Berg var. coolidge and gorgiona, cultured in Sicily, for its gastroprotective effect, in association with performing phytochemical evaluation.Methods:The gastroprotective effect was investigated on ethanol-induced ulcers in rats, with sucralfate as reference drug. Samples of gastric mucosae, stained by periodic acid-Shiff and haematoxylin/eosin, were observed by light microscopy.Results:By means of HPLC, vitamin E complex and polyphenol compounds were determined. identified, while δ was only in var. coolidge. In whole fruit of two varieties, catechin, eriodictyol, eriocitrin, pyrocatechol, quercetin, rutin, ellagic, gallic and syringic acid were determined. The fruit showed gastroprotective effect (ulcer index: var. coolidge=1.07, var. gorgiona=1.02). The efficacy was comparable to that of sucralfate (ulcer index 1.10). Histological examination confirmed the inhibition of ulcerogenic activity of the ethanol.Conclusions:In pulp and peel samples of both varieties of fruit α, β and γ tocopherols were and show beneficial effects on various diseases, particularly those caused by oxidative processes resulting in cell damage. The amount of polyphenols and vitamin E complex confirms the nutritional value of this fruit, grown in pedoclimatic condition very different from the origin area. Active principles of Feijoa sellowiana can play an important role in human diet and show beneficial effects on various diseases, particularly those caused by oxidative processes resulting in cell damage. The amount of polyphenols and vitamin E complex confirms the nutritional value of this fruit, grown in pedoclimatic condition very different from the origin area.

  20. Cytisus scoparius link - A natural antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandyopadhyay Arun


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent investigations have shown that the antioxidant properties of plants could be correlated with oxidative stress defense and different human diseases. In this respect flavonoids and other polyphenolic compounds have gained the greatest attention. The plant Cytisus scoparius contains the main constituent of flavone and flavonals. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activities of extract of aerial part of Cytisus scoparius. Methods The plant extract was tested for DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl, 2-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging, nitric oxide radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, antilipid peroxidation assay, reducing power and total phenol content. Results The extract exhibited scavenging potential with IC50 value of 1.5 μg/ml, 116.0 μg/ml and 4.7 μg/ml for DPPH, nitric oxide and superoxide anion radicals. The values were found to lesser than those of vitamin C, rutin, and curcumin, as standards. The extract showed 50% protection at the dose of 104.0 μg/ml in lipid peroxidation induced by Fe2+/ ascorbate system in rat liver microsomal preparation. There is decrease in hydroxyl radical generation with IC50 value of 27.0 μg/ml when compared with standard vitamin E. The reducing power of the extract depends on the amount of extract. A significant amount of polyphenols could be detected by the equivalent to 0.0589 μg of pyrocatechol from 1 mg of extract. Conclusion The results obtained in the present study indicate that hydro alcoholic extract of aerial part of Cytisus scoparius is a potential source of natural antioxidants.

  1. In vitro antioxidant activity of pet ether extract of black pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ramnik


    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of different fractions (R1, R2 and R3 obtained from pet ether extract of black pepper fruits (Piper nigrum Linn. Materials and Methods: The fractions R1, R2 and R3 were eluted from pet ether and ethyl acetate in the ratio of 6:4, 5:5 and 4:6, respectively. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical, and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the extract. Results: The free radical scavenging activity of the different fractions of pet ether extract of P. nigrum (PEPN increased in a concentration dependent manner. The R3 and R2 fraction of PEPN in 500 µg/ml inhibited the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion by 60.48±3.33% and 58.89±2.51%, respectively. In DPPH free radical scavenging assay, the activity of R3 and R2 were found to be almost similar. The R3 (100µg/ml fraction of PEPN inhibited 55.68±4.48% nitric oxide radicals generated from sodium nitroprusside, whereas curcumin in the same concentration inhibited 84.27±4.12%. Moreover, PEPN scavenged the superoxide radical generated by the Xanthine/Xanthine oxidase system. The fraction R2 and R3 in the doses of 1000µg/ml inhibited 61.04±5.11% and 63.56±4.17%, respectively. The hydroxyl radical was generated by Fenton′s reaction. The amounts of total phenolic compounds were determined and 56.98 µg pyrocatechol phenol equivalents were detected in one mg of R3. Conclusions: P. nigrum could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant.

  2. Determination of trace amounts of lead and manganese in water samples after simultaneous preconcentration onto modified amberlite XAD-4 resin. (United States)

    Mobarakeh, Sayed Zia Mohammadi; Afzali, Darush; Taher, Mohammad Ali; Dargahi, Roza


    A procedure for simultaneous separation and preconcentration of trace amounts of manganese and lead has been proposed. It is based on the adsorption of manganese and lead ions onto a column of Amberlite XAD-4 resin loaded with pyrocatechol reagent. Manganese and lead were quantitatively retained on the column in the pH range 4.0-6.5 at a flow rate of 2 mL/min. The manganese and lead ions were eluted with 5.0 mL of 4 M HNO3 solutions. Manganese and lead were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. In this case, 100.0 ng manganese and 1000.0 ng lead were concentrated in the column from 800 mL of aqueous sample, where their concentrations were as low as 0.125 and 1.25 ng/mL, respectively. Seven replicate determinations of mixtures of 1.0 microg/mL manganese and 2.0 microg/mL lead in the final solution gave a mean absorbance of 0.1926 and 0.0832 with RSD values of +/- 1.1 and +/- 1.2%, respectively. The LODs were 1.76 ng/mL for Mn(ll) and 37.28 ng/mL for Pb(ll) (3 delta(bl)/m) in the final solution, with a preconcentration factor of 160. Sensitivities for 1% absorbance for Mn(ll) and Pb(ll) were 7.0 and 74.7 ng/mL, respectively. The interference of a large number of anions and cations has been studied and the optimized conditions were used for determination of trace amounts of manganese and lead in various environmental and standard samples.

  3. N-benzoylated 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane and their copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes: Spectral, magnetic, electrochemical, crystal structure, catalytic and antimicrobial studies (United States)

    Nirmala, G.; Rahiman, A. Kalilur; Sreedaran, S.; Jegadeesh, R.; Raaman, N.; Narayanan, V.


    A series of N-benzoylated cyclam ligands incorporating three different benzoyl groups 1,4,8,11-tetra-(benzoyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (L 1), 1,4,8,11-tetra-(2-nitrobenzoyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (L 2) and 1,4,8,11-tetra-(4-nitrobenzoyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (L 3) and their nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes are described. Crystal structure of L 1 is also reported. The ligands and complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, electronic, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral studies. N-benzoylation causes red shift in the λmax values of the complexes. The cyclic voltammogram of the complexes of ligand L 1 show one-electron, quasi-reversible reduction wave in the region -1.00 to -1.04 V, whereas that of L 2 and L 3 show two quasi-reversible reduction peaks. Nickel complexes show one-electron quasi-reversible oxidation wave at a positive potential in the range +1.05 to +1.15 V. The ESR spectra of the mononuclear copper(II) complexes show four lines, characteristic of square-planar geometry with nuclear hyperfine spin 3/2. All copper(II) complexes show a normal room temperature magnetic moment values μeff 1.70-1.73 BM which is close to the spin-only value of 1.73 BM. Kinetic studies on the oxidation of pyrocatechol to o-quinone using the copper(II) complexes as catalysts and hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenylphosphate using the copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes as catalysts were carried out. All the ligands and their complexes were also screened for antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and human pathogenic fungi.

  4. Spectrophotometric determination of phenol in the presence of congeners by multivariated calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The generation of poly-hydroxilated transient species during the photochemical treatment of phenol usually impedes the spectrophotmetric monitoring of its degradation process. Frequently, the appearance of compounds such as pyrocatechol, hydroquinone and benzoquinone produces serious spectral interference, which hinder the use of the classical univariate calibration process. In this work, the use of multivariate calibration is proposed to permit the spectrophotometric determination of phenol in the presence of these intermediates. Using 20 synthetic mixtures containing phenol and the interferents, a calibration model was developed by using a partial least square regression process (PLSR and processing the absorbance signal between 180 and 300 nm. The model was validated by using 3 synthetic mixtures. In this operation, typical errors lower than 3% were observed. Close correlation between the results obtained by liquid chromatography and the proposed method was also observed.A geração de espécies transientes polihidroxiladas, durante o tratamento fotoquímico de fenol, geralmente impede a utilização de espectrofotometria UV-VIS no monitoramento do processo de degradação. Freqüentemente, o surgimento de espécies como pirocatecol, hidroquinona e benzoquinona produz sérios problemas de interferências espectral, os quais inviabilizam a utilização de processos clássico de calibração univariada. Neste trabalho esta se propondo a utilização de processos de calibração multivariada para viabilizar a determinação espectrofotométrica de fenol na presença destes intermediários. O modelo de calibração multivariada foi desenvolvido por regressão de mínimos quadrados parciais (PLSR, utilizando-se 20 misturas sintéticas contendo fenol e interferentes e processando-se o sinal de absorbância obtido entre 180 e 300 nm. O modelo foi validado utilizando-se um conjunto de 3 misturas sintéticas, o que levou à obtenção de erros de

  5. 白木香果皮化学成分及其生物活性研究%Chemical constituents from pericarps of Aquilaria sinensis and their biological activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴; 陶美华; 陈玉婵; 高晓霞; 谭毓治; 章卫民


    .sinensis and identified as isorhamnetin 3-O-(6"-O-(Z)-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1),buddlenoid A (2),7-methoxy-4'-hydroxyisoflavone (3),luteolin (4),trans-p-coumaric acid ethyl eater (5),costunolide (6),epifriedelanol (7),stigmasterol (8),p-hydroxybenzoate (9),and pyrocatechol (10).Conclusion Compounds 1-3,5,6,9,and 10 are first isolated from the plant and compounds 1-3,5,and 6 are isolated from the plants of genus Aquilaria Lam.for the first time.Compound 6 exhibits the significant cytotoxic activities against the above four cell lines and compounds 1 and 4 show some antibacterial activities against S.aureus and E.coli.