Sample records for pyrite surface characterization

  1. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiang-Huai.


    The objective of this project is to conduct extensive studies on the surface reactivity of pyrite by using electrochemical, surface analysis, potentiometric and calorimetric titration, and surface hydrophobicity characterization techniques and to correlate the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface with the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. The products as well as their structure, the mechanisms and the kinetics of the oxidation of coal-pyrite surfaces and their interaction with various chemical reagents will be systematically studied and compared with that of mineral-pyrite and synthetic pyrite to determine the correlation between the surface reactivity of pyrite and the bulk chemical properties of pyrite and impurities. The surface chemical studies and the studies of floatability of coal-pyrite and the effect of various parameters such as grinding media and environment, aging under different atmospheres, etc. on thereof, are directed at identifying the causes and possible solutions of the pyrite rejection problems in coal cleaning.

  2. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies. First annual report, September 1, 1990--August 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiang-Huai


    The objective of this project is to conduct extensive studies on the surface reactivity of pyrite by using electrochemical, surface analysis, potentiometric and calorimetric titration, and surface hydrophobicity characterization techniques and to correlate the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface with the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. The products as well as their structure, the mechanisms and the kinetics of the oxidation of coal-pyrite surfaces and their interaction with various chemical reagents will be systematically studied and compared with that of mineral-pyrite and synthetic pyrite to determine the correlation between the surface reactivity of pyrite and the bulk chemical properties of pyrite and impurities. The surface chemical studies and the studies of floatability of coal-pyrite and the effect of various parameters such as grinding media and environment, aging under different atmospheres, etc. on thereof, are directed at identifying the causes and possible solutions of the pyrite rejection problems in coal cleaning.

  3. Nucleic acid interactions with pyrite surfaces (United States)

    Mateo-Martí, E.; Briones, C.; Rogero, C.; Gomez-Navarro, C.; Methivier, Ch.; Pradier, C. M.; Martín-Gago, J. A.


    The study of the interaction of nucleic acid molecules with mineral surfaces is a field of growing interest in organic chemistry, origin of life, material science and biotechnology. We have characterized the adsorption of single-stranded peptide nucleic acid (ssPNA) on a natural pyrite surface, as well as the further adsorption of ssDNA on a PNA-modified pyrite surface. The characterization has been performed by means of reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. The N(1s) and S(2p) XPS core level peaks of PNA and PNA + DNA have been decomposed in curve-components that we have assigned to different chemical species. RAIRS spectra recorded for different concentrations show the presence of positive and negative adsorption bands, related to the semiconducting nature of the surface. The combination of the information gathered by these techniques confirms that PNA adsorbs on pyrite surface, interacting through nitrogen-containing groups of the nucleobases and the iron atoms of the surface, instead of the thiol group of the molecule. The strong PNA/pyrite interaction inhibits further hybridization of PNA with complementary ssDNA, contrary to the behavior reported on gold surfaces.

  4. Pyrite Stability Under Venus Surface Conditions (United States)

    Kohler, E.; Craig, P.; Port, S.; Chevrier, V.; Johnson, N.


    Radar mapping of the surface of Venus shows areas of high reflectivity in the Venusian highlands, increasing to 0.35 ± 0.04 to 0.43 ± 0.05 in the highlands from the planetary average of 0.14 ± 0.03. Iron sulfides, specifically pyrite (FeS2), can explain the observed high reflectivity. However, several studies suggest that pyrite is not stable under Venusian conditions and is destroyed on geologic timescales. To test the stability of pyrite on the Venusian surface, pyrite was heated in the Venus simulation chamber at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to average Venusian surface conditions, and separately to highland conditions under an atmosphere of pure CO2 and separately under an atmosphere of 96.5% CO2, 3.5% N2 and 150 ppm SO2. After each run, the samples were weighed and analyzed using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) to identify possible phase changes and determine the stability of pyrite under Venusian surface conditions. Under a pure CO2 atmosphere, the Fe in pyrite oxidizes to form hematite which is more stable at higher temperatures corresponding to the Venusian lowlands. Magnetite is the primary iron oxide that forms at lower temperatures corresponding to the radar-bright highlands. Our experiments also showed that the presence of atmospheric SO2 inhibits the oxidation of pyrite, increasing its stability under Venusian conditions, especially those corresponding to the highlands. This indicates that the relatively high level of SO2 in the Venusian atmosphere is key to the stability of pyrite, making it a possible candidate for the bright radar signal in the Venusian highlands.

  5. Spectroscopic study of cystine adsorption on pyrite surface: From vacuum to solution conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Arenillas, M.; Mateo-Marti, E., E-mail:


    Highlights: • Successful adsorption of cystine on pyrite surface under several conditions. • Detailed XPS spectroscopic characterization of cystine adsorption on pyrite surface. • Spectroscopy evidence, oxidation and anoxic conditions adjust molecular adsorption. • Molecular chemistry on pyrite is driven depending on the surrounding conditions. • The cystine/pyrite(100) model is in good agreement with Wächtershäuser’s theory. - Abstract: We characterized the adsorption of cystine molecules on pyrite surface via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Anoxic conditions were simulated under ultra-high-vacuum conditions. In contrast, to simulate oxidation conditions, the molecules were adsorbed on pyrite surface from solution. A novel comparative analysis revealed remarkable differences with respect to molecular adsorption and surface chemistry induced by environmental conditions. Molecular adsorption under anoxic conditions was observed to be more favorable, concentrating a large number of molecules on the surface and two different chemical species. In contrast, the presence of oxygen induced an autocatalytic oxidation process on the pyrite surface, which facilitated water binding on pyrite surface and partially blocked molecular adsorption. Pyrite is a highly reactive surface and contains two crucial types of surface functional groups that drive molecular chemistry on the surface depending on the surrounding conditions. Therefore, the system explored in this study holds interesting implications for supporting catalyzed prebiotic chemistry reactions.

  6. Spectroscopic study of cystine adsorption on pyrite surface: From vacuum to solution conditions (United States)

    Sanchez-Arenillas, M.; Mateo-Marti, E.


    We characterized the adsorption of cystine molecules on pyrite surface via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Anoxic conditions were simulated under ultra-high-vacuum conditions. In contrast, to simulate oxidation conditions, the molecules were adsorbed on pyrite surface from solution. A novel comparative analysis revealed remarkable differences with respect to molecular adsorption and surface chemistry induced by environmental conditions. Molecular adsorption under anoxic conditions was observed to be more favorable, concentrating a large number of molecules on the surface and two different chemical species. In contrast, the presence of oxygen induced an autocatalytic oxidation process on the pyrite surface, which facilitated water binding on pyrite surface and partially blocked molecular adsorption. Pyrite is a highly reactive surface and contains two crucial types of surface functional groups that drive molecular chemistry on the surface depending on the surrounding conditions. Therefore, the system explored in this study holds interesting implications for supporting catalyzed prebiotic chemistry reactions.

  7. The Adsorption of Cu Species onto Pyrite Surface and Its Effect on Pyrite Flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang


    Full Text Available The adsorption of Cu species onto pyrite surface and its effect on flotation were investigated by using microflotation tests, first-principle calculations, and XPS surface analysis. The results indicated that the flotation of pyrite appears to be activated with CuSO4 only at alkaline pH, while being depressed at acidic and neutral pH. The adsorption of copper ions on pyrite surface was pH-dependent, and the adsorption magnitude of copper ions at alkaline pH is higher than that at acidic and neutral pH due to a strong interaction between O atom in Cu(OH2 and surface Fe atom except for the interaction between Cu atom and surface S atom. At acidic and neutral pH, there is only an interaction between Cu atom and surface S atom. The adsorption was relatively weak, and more copper ions in solution precipitated the collector and depressed the flotation of pyrite. XPS analysis confirmed that more copper ionic species (Cu(I and Cu(II are adsorbed on the pyrite surface at alkaline pH than that at acidic and neutral pH.

  8. Pyrite Surface after Thiobacillus ferrooxidans Leaching at 30℃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In order to investigate the effect of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans on the oxidation of pyrite, two parallel experiments, which employed H2SO4 solutions and acidic solutions inoculated with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, were designed and carried out at 30℃. The initial pH of the two solutions was adjusted to 2.5 by dropwise addition of concentrated sulphuric acid. The surfaces of pyrite before exposure to leaching solutions and after exposure to the H2SO4 solutions and acidic solutions inoculated with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There were a variety of erosion patterns by Thiobacillusferrooxidans on the bio-leached pyrite surfaces. A conclusion can be drawn that the oxidation of pyrite might have been caused by erosion of the surfaces.Attachment of the bacteria to pyrite surfaces resulted in erosion pits, leading to the oxidation of pyrite.It is possible that the direct mechanism plays the most important role in the oxidation of pyrite. The changes in iron ion concentrations of both the experimental solutions with time suggest that Thiobacillus ferrooxidans can enhance greatly the oxidation of pyrite.

  9. Using airborne hyperspectral data to characterize the surface pH and mineralogy of pyrite mine tailings (United States)

    Zabcic, N.; Rivard, B.; Ong, C.; Mueller, A.


    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a key concern of the mining industry due to its impact on the quality of water and soils surrounding mine waste deposits. Acid mine drainage derives from the oxidation of metal sulphides, e.g. pyrite (FeS2), exposed to oxygen and water. The leachate acidity is capable of releasing heavy metals contained in the mining waste rock, which can affect water quality and lead to metal enrichment in sediments and potentially resulting in ecosystem degradation. Predicting tailings leachate pH is key to the management of sulfide-bearing mine wastes and is an emerging remote sensing application with limited studies having been realized. Such a capability would supplement traditional methods (i.e. ground surveys) that are challenging to implement due to the extent and large volume of mine waste. This study reports regional scale tailings mineral maps generated from airborne hyperspectral information of the Sotiel-Migollas complex in Spain and pinpoints sources of AMD. The extraction of spectral endmembers from imagery revealed twenty six endmembers for tailings material that represent mostly mineral mixtures. From these, eleven spectral groups were defined, each encompassing minor variations in mineral mixtures. The mineral maps resulting from the use of these endmembers for the detailed investigation of four tailings serve as indicators of the metal, sulphate, and pH levels of the AMD solution at the time of mineral precipitation. Predicted mineralogy was assessed using spectra from samples collected in the field and associated X-ray diffraction measurements. We also discuss the relative merits of the minerals maps of this study and soil leachate pH maps that we previously reported for the same locality using the same airborne data. The pH maps tend to provide predictions consistent with the mineralogy predicted from the mineral maps and the field and laboratory evidence. The pH maps offer information on the pH conditions of the tailings thus giving

  10. Electrodeposition of dixanthogen(TETD) on pyrite surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei-zhong; QIN Wen-qing; SUN Wei; QIU Guan-zhou


    The electrochemical reaction of xanthate on the surface of pyrite was studied using cyclic voltammogrametry, chronopotentiometry and rotating-disc electrode measurements. Experimental results demonstrate that the first step in the reaction is electrochemical adsorption of xanthate ion, and then the adsorbed ion associates with a xanthate ion from the solution and forms a dixanthogen on the pyrite electrode surface. The diffusion coefficient of butyl xanthate on pyrite electrode surface can be determined to be about 1.09×10-6 cm2/s. Using the galvanostatic technique, the kinetic parameters of oxidation of the butyl xanthate ion on the pyrite surface are calculated as Ja=200 μA/cm2, β= 0.203 and J0=27.1 μA/cm2.

  11. Investigation of pyrite surface state by DFT and AFM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    先永骏; 聂琪; 文书明; 刘建; 邓久帅


    The surface states of pyrite (FeS2) were theoretically investigated using first principle calculation based on the density functional theory (DFT). The results indicate that both the (200) and (311) surfaces of pyrite undergo significant surface atom relaxation after geometry optimization, which results in a considerable distortion of the surface region. In the normal direction, i.e., perpendicular to the surface, S atoms in the first surface layer move outward from the bulk, while Fe atoms move toward the bulk, forming an S-rich surface. The surface relaxation processes are driven by electrostatic interaction, which is evidenced by a relative decrease in the surface energy after surface relaxation. Such a relaxation process is visually interpreted through the qualitative analysis of molecular mechanics. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis reveals that only sulfur atom is visible on the pyrite surface. This result is consistent with the DFT data. Such S-rich surface has important influence on the flotation properties of pyrite.

  12. Characterization and separation of pyrite from Abu Tartur black shale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrahim S.S.; El Kammar A.M.; Guda A.M.


    This work aimed for pyrite separation from Abu Tartur black shale as a source of sulfur to be an added economic value of Abu Tartur area. The considered samples in the present work were collected from a core drilled in Abu Tartur plateau representing the pyrite-rich black shale of the U. Cretaceous age. Sample characterization was carried out using petrographic microscope, XRD, DTA/DTG, C/S and XRF techniques. Clay minerals, silt-sized quartz, calcite, and hematite were the main minerals associating pyr-ite (5.34%). Liberation behavior of the sample was about 80%below 5 lm. Sample processing was achieved through one-day soaking followed by classification using 1 inch Mozley hydro-cyclone where about 35.5% by weight went to underflow and 64.5% went to overflow. The underflow product was subjected to an advanced gravity separation process using SB-40 Falcon Concentrator through a CCD statistical design prepared by Design-Expert 6.0 software proposed to opti-mize the separation process through a study for the effects of frequency (Hz) and water pressure (Psi) on both assay and recovery of the sulfur-rich heavy fraction. A heavy concentrate weighed 10.90%with inorganic sulfur content reached 11.37%(21.24%pyrite) with overall recovery (50.01%) was obtained after two cleaning at the optimum conditions.

  13. SEM and AFM images of pyrite surfaces after bioleaching by the indigenous Thiobacillus thiooxidans. (United States)

    Liu, H-L; Chen, B-Y; Lan, Y-W; Cheng, Y-C


    The bioleaching mechanism of pyrite by the indigenous Thiobacillus thiooxidans was examined with the aid of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the pyrite surface. The presence of pyrite eliminated the lag phase during growth of this microorganism. This was due to the stimulatory effect on cell growth of the slight amount of Cu2+ that had leached from the pyrite. Zn2+ was found to be much more readily solubilized than Cu2+. The efficiency of bioleaching was four times higher than that of chemical leaching. SEM images provided evidence of direct cell attachment onto the pyrite surface, thereby enhancing the bioleaching rate. Furthermore, extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) were found on the pyrite surface after 4 days of oxidation. AFM images showed that the pyrite surface area positively correlated with the oxidation rate. A combination of direct and indirect mechanism is probably responsible for the oxidation of pyrite by T. thiooxidans.

  14. Bio-leaching effects of Leptospirillum ferriphilum on the surface chemical properties of pyrite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Leptospirillum ferriphilum cultured using different energy sources(either soluble ferrous ion or pyrite) changed the surface properties of pyrite.Cell adsorption,zeta-potential,hydrophobicty,FT-IR spectra and surface morphology were investigated.Adhesion of bacterial cells to the pyrite surface is a fast process.Furthermore,the adsorption of cells grown in pyrite is greater than of cells grown in soluble ferrous ion.The Iso-Electric Point(IEP) of pyrite treated with L.ferriphilum approaches that of the cell...

  15. Oxygen adsorption on pyrite (100) surface by density functional theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟; 胡岳华; 邱冠周; 覃文庆


    Pyrite (FeS2) bulk and (100) surface properties and the oxygen adsorption on the surface were studied by using density functional theory methods. The results show that in the formation of FeS2 (100) surface, there exists a process of electron transfer from Fe dangling bond to S dangling bond. In this situation, surface Fe and S atoms have more ionic properties. Both Fe2+ and S2- have high electrochemistry reduction activity, which is the base for oxygen adsorption. From the viewpoint of adsorption energy, the parallel form oxygen adsorption is in preference.The result also shows that the state of oxygen absorbed on FeS2 surface acts as peroxides rather than O2.

  16. Surface electrochemical control for fine coal and pyrite separation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsworth, M.E.; Bodily, D.M.; Hu, Weibai; Chen, Wanxiong; Huang, Qinping; Liang, Jun; Riley, A.M.; Li, Jun; Wann, Jyi-Perng; Zhong, Tingke; Zhu, Ximeng


    Laboratory flotation tests were carried out on three coals and on coal pyrite. Floatability measurements included natural floatability, flotation with a xanthate collector and salt flotation. The ranking of the floatability of the three coals were: Upper Freeport > Pittsburgh > Illinois. The floatability of mineral pyrite and coal pyrite increased markedly with xanthate concentration, but decreased with increased pH. In general, coal pyrite was more difficult to float than mineral pyrite. This was attributed to the presence of surface carbonaceous and mineral matter, since floatability of coal pyrite improved by acid pretreatment. Flotation tests demonstrated that the floatability of coal and mineral pyrite was greatly enhanced by the presence of an electrolyte. Flotation was also enhanced by the addition of modifiers such as CuSO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2} and EDTA. Lime additions markedly reduced the floatability of coal pyrite. Enhanced floatability of coal pyrite resulted when the pyrite was anodically oxidized in a specially constructed electrochemical flotation cell Pretreatment in potential ranges previously observed for polysulfide and sulfur film formation resulted in the enhanced floatability. While interesting trends and influences, both chemical and electrochemical, markedly improved the floatability of coal, there is little hope for reverse flotation as an effective technology for coal/coal-pyrite separations. The effects of poor liberation and entrainment appear overriding.

  17. Pyrite surface interaction with selected organic aqueous species under anoxic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bebié Joakim


    Full Text Available The interaction between low-molecular weight organic compounds and pyrite under anoxic conditions has been studied using a combination of electrophoresis and batch sorption experiments. The results suggest that acetate, carbamide, ethylamine, formamide, purine, D-ribose, and adenine, as well as the amino acids alanine, cysteine and glycine, interact within the electrophoretic shearplane of the pyrite surface. The observed surface interaction between the negatively charged surface of pyrite and the organic aqueous species takes place regardless of the formal charge of the aqueous species of interest. This indicates that the interaction of organic molecules with pyrite surfaces under anoxic conditions is dictated by interactions with specific surface sites (thiol or iron surface sites rather than electrostatic forces. Dissolved metals typically enhance the interaction of the organics species. This enhancement is either due to an alteration in the distribution of thiol and iron groups on the pyrite surface or by the formation of ternary surface complexes.

  18. Control of pyrite surface chemistry in physical coal cleaning. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luttrell, G.H.; Yoon, R.H.; Richardson, P.E.


    In Part I, Surface Chemistry of Coal Pyrite the mechanisms responsible for the inefficient rejection of coal pyrite were investigated using a number of experimental techniques. The test results demonstrate that the hydrophobicity of coal pyrite is related to the surface products formed during oxidation in aqueous solutions. During oxidation, a sulfur-rich surface layer is produced in near neutral pH solutions. This surface layer is composed mainly of sulfur species in the form of an iron-polysulfide along with a smaller amount of iron oxide/hydroxides. The floatability coal pyrite increases dramatically in the presence of frothers and hydrocarbon collectors. These reagents are believed to absorb on the weakly hydrophobic pyrite surfaces as a result of hydrophobic interaction forces. In Part III, Developing the Best Possible Rejection Schemes, a number of pyrite depressants were evaluated in column and conventional flotation tests. These included manganese (Mn) metal, chelating agents quinone and diethylenetriamine (DETA), and several commercially-available organic depressants. Of these, the additives which serve as reducing agents were found to be most effective. Reducing agents were used to prevent pyrite oxidation and/or remove oxidation products present on previously oxidized surfaces. These data show that Mn is a significantly stronger depressant for pyrite than quinone or DETA. Important factors in determining the pyrite depression effect of Mn include the slurry solid content during conditioning, the addition of acid (HCl), and the amount of Mn. The acid helps remove the oxide layer from the surface of Mn and promotes the depression of pyrite by Mn.

  19. Retention and reduction of uranium on pyrite surface; Retention et reduction de l'uranium a la surface de la pyrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eglizaud, N


    In the hypothesis of a storage of the spent fuel in a deep geological formation, understanding the uranium dispersion in the environment is important. Pyrite is a reducing mineral present in the Callovo-Oxfordian argilites, the geological formation actually studied for such a storage. However, pyrite impact on uranium migration has already been poorly studied. The aim of the study was to understand the mechanisms of uranium(VI) retention and reduction on the pyrite surface (FeS{sub 2}). Solution chemistry was therefore coupled with solid spectroscopic studies (XPS and Raman spectroscopy). All uranium-pyrite interactions experiments were performed under an anoxic atmosphere, in a glove box. Pyrite dissolution under anoxic conditions releases sulfoxy-anions and iron(II), which can then be adsorbed on the pyrite surface. This adsorption was confirmed by interaction experiments using iron(II) isotopic dilution. Uranium(VI) is retained by an exchange reaction with iron(II) adsorbed on sulphur sites, with a maximal amount of sorbed uranium at pH {>=} 5.5. Cobalt(II) and europium(III) are also adsorbed on the pyrite surface above pH 5.5 confirming then that reduction is not required for species to adsorb on pyrite. When the concentration of uranium retained is lower than 4 x 10{sup -9} mol g{sup -1}, an oxidation-reduction reaction leads to the formation of a uranium (VI) (IV) mixed oxide and to solid sulphur (d.o. {>=} -I). During this reaction, iron remains mostly at the +II oxidation degree. The reaction products seem to passivate the pyrite surface: at higher amounts of retained uranium, the oxidation-reduction reaction is no longer observed. The surface is saturated by the retention of (3.4 {+-} 0.8) x 10{sup -7} mol L{sup -1} of uranium(VI). Modelling of uranium sorption at high surface coverage ({>=} 4 x 10{sup -9} mol g{sup -1}) by the Langmuir model yields an adsorption constant of 8 x 10{sup 7} L mol{sup -1}. Finally, a great excess of uranium(VI) above the

  20. Fabrication and characterization of PDLLA/pyrite composite bone scaffold for osteoblast culture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lifang Zhang; Yanyan Zheng; Chengdong Xiong


    A series of highly interconnected porous poly(D,L-lactide acid) (PDLLA)/pyrite (Zi-Ran-Tong, FeS2) scaffold containing 5–20% of pyrite was fabricated by particle leaching combined with the thermal-induced phase separation method. Pyrite (FeS2, named as Zi-Ran-Tong in Chinese medicine), as a traditional Chinesemedicine, has been used in the Chinese population to treat bone diseases and to promote bone healing. The mechanical properties of the PDLLA scaffold were significantly enhanced after the addition of pyrite. The osteoblastic ROS17/2.8 cell line was used and seeded on the PDLLA/pyrite scaffold to study its potential to support the growth of osteoblastic cells and to estimate the optimal dose of pyrite for bone tissue engineering. The effects of pyrite on cell proliferation and differentiation were evaluated by 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and alkaline phosphatase activity assay. The cells on the porous composite scaffold formed a continuous layer on the outer and inner surface observed by scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscope. The results strongly suggested that the PDLLA/pyrite composite scaffold could stimulate the growth of ROS17/2.8 cells in vitro and it could be potentially used as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

  1. DFT study on the galvanic interaction between pyrite (100) and galena (100) surfaces (United States)

    Ke, Baolin; Li, Yuqiong; Chen, Jianhua; Zhao, Cuihua; Chen, Ye


    The galvanic interaction between pyrite and galena surface has been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) method. The calculated results show that galvanic interactions between pyrite and galena surface are decreased with the increase of contact distance. The galvanic interactions still occurs even the distance larger than the sum of two atoms radius (≈2.8 Å), and the limit distance of galvanic interaction between galena and pyrite surface is about 10 Å, which is consistent with the quantum tunneling effect. Through Mulliken charge population calculation, it is found that electrons transfer from galena to pyrite. For galena surface, Pb 6s and 6p states lose electrons and S 3p state loses a small amount of electrons, which causes the electron loss of galena. For pyrite surface, Fe 4p state obtains large numbers of electrons, resulting in the decrease of positive charge of Fe atom. However, the 3p state of S atom loses a small numbers of electrons. The reactivity of mineral surface has also been studied by calculating the frontier orbitals of minerals. Results suggest that the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) coefficients of galena are increased whereas those of pyrite are decreased with the enhancing galvanic interaction, indicating that the oxidation of galena surface would be enhanced due to the galvanic interaction. The Fukui indices and dual descriptor values of surface atoms suggest that the nucleophilicity of the galena surface increases, meanwhile, the electrophilicity of pyrite surface increases with the decrease of the contact distance. In addition, the density of states (DOS) of atoms results show that the activity of electrons in Pb 6s and 6p orbitals enhances while the activity of electrons in Fe 3d orbitals weaken due to the galvanic contact between minerals.

  2. Enhanced bioleaching on attachment of indigenous acidophilic bacteria to pyrite surface (United States)

    Wi, D. W.; Cho, K. H.; Kim, B. J.; Choi, N. C.; Park, C. Y.


    In recent years, bioleaching has been widely applied on an industrial scale due to the advantages of low cost and environment friendliness. The direct contact mechanism of bioleaching assumes the action of a metal sulfide-attached cell oxidizing the mineral by an enzyme system with oxygen to sulfate and metal cations. Fundamental surface properties of sulfide particles and leaching-bacteria in bioleaching play the key role in the efficiency of this process. The aim of this work is to investigate of direct contact bioleaching mechanism on pyrite through attachment properties between indigenous acidophilic bacteria and pyrite surfaces. The bacteria were obtained from sulfur hot springs, Hatchobaru thermal electricity plant in Japan. And pyrite was collected from mine waste from Gwang-yang abandoned gold mines, Korea. In XRD analyses of the pyrite, x-ray diffracted d-value belong to pyrite was observed. The indigenous acidophilic bacteria grew well in a solution and over the course of incubation pH decreased and Eh increased. In relation to a bacterial growth-curve, the lag phase was hardly shown while the exponential phase was very fast. Bioleaching experiment result was showed that twenty days after the indigenous acidophilic bacteria were inoculated to a pyrite-leaching medium, the bacterial sample had a greater concentration of Fe and Zn than within the control sample. In SEM-EDS analyses, rod-shaped bacteria and round-shaped microbes were well attached to the surface of pyrite. The size of the rod-shaped bacteria ranged from 1.05~1.10 ? to 4.01~5.38 ?. Round-shaped microbes were more than 3.0 ? in diameter. Paired cells of rod-shaped bacteria were attached to the surface of pyrite linearly.

  3. Dynamics of electrodeposition of tetraethylthioram disulphide(TETD) on pyrite surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The electrode process of pyrite in diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) solution pH 11.4 was investigated by using cyclic voltammetry, potentiostatic and ehronopotentiometry. Tetraethylthioram disulphide (TETD) was electrodeposited on pyrite electrode surface as the electrode potential is higher than 0.2 V. The relationship of the current density caused by diffusion and reaction time can be ascertained as i = 1/(9.08×10-5 + 4.77 × 10-3 t0.5 ), and the diffusion coefficient of DDTC on pyrite surface is about 3.72×10-6 cm2/s.At pH 11.4, the thickness of TETD adsorbed on pyrite surface is about 1.63 molecule layer. The electrochemical dynamics equation of the reduction of TETD on pyrite surface is given as η = 0.116- 0.0641og[1-(t/τ)0.5]. The kinetic parameters were determined as follows: the exchange current density (io) is 3.08μA/cm2; the transmission coefficient(α) is 0.462.

  4. Synchrotron Spectroscopic Studies of the Reaction of Cleaved Pyrite ( {FeS2}) Surfaces with Cr(VI) Solutions (United States)

    Doyle, C. S.; Kendelewicz, T.; Bostick, B. C.; Brown, G. E.


    Pyrite is one of the most common sulfide ores, and the separation of valuable sulfide minerals from it has been an area of considerable interest for a long time. This extraction has led to a large quantity of pyrite waste, typically remaining in mine tailings piles which can interact with oxygen and surface water. The oxidation of pyrite under these conditions leads to the commonly known environmental problem of acid mine drainage, with acidification of surface waters, and the release of potentially toxic metals remaining within the pyrite matrix. A microscopic understanding of this oxidation process is extremely important and has been the aim of a number of studies. We apply the methods of synchrotron based surface science to this problem, utilizing surface sensitive photoemission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy to study the surface species present on the pyrite surface at the initial stages of oxidation. We have reacted pyrite surfaces with solutions containing chromate. Chromium exists in solution in two principal valence states, trivalent Cr(III) and hexavalent Cr(VI). Hexavalent chromium is itself considered an environmental problem due to its high toxicity and solubility, and thus mobility, whilst trivalent chromium is much less toxic and relatively insoluble. Hexavalent chromate is a strong oxidizing agent, and will react rapidly with the pyrite surface allowing the identification of oxidized iron and sulfur surface species. The possibility of using pyrite as a means of reducing chromate, and at the same time using chromate to passivate the pyrite surface to further oxidation through the buildup of a non-reactive iron-chromium (oxy)hydroxide layer will be investigated. The work was performed on rods cut from a natural pyrite single crystal from the Logroño region of Spain. The rods were then fractured over a reaction vessel, producing a fresh (100) surface for each experiment. The pyrite surfaces were reacted with 50 μM Cr(VI) solutions for 5 minutes at

  5. Sulfur amino acids and alanine on pyrite (100) by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy: Surface or molecular role? (United States)

    Sanchez-Arenillas, M.; Galvez-Martinez, S.; Mateo-Marti, E.


    This paper describes the first successful adsorption of the cysteine, cystine, methionine and alanine amino acids on the pyrite (100) surface under ultra-high vacuum conditions with crucial chemical adsorption parameters driving the process. We have demonstrated by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) that the surface pretreatment annealing process on pyrite surfaces is a critical parameter driving surface reactivity. The presence of enriched monosulfide species on the pyrite (100) surface favours the amino acid NH2 chemical form, whereas a longer annealing surface pretreatment of over 3 h repairs the sulfur vacancies in the pyrite, enriching disulfide species on the pyrite surface, which promotes NH3+ adsorption due to the sulfur vacancies in the pyrite being replaced by sulfur atom dimers (S22-) on the surface. Furthermore, even if the surface chemistry (monosulfide or disulfide species enrichment) is the main factor promoting a partial conversion from NH2 to NH3+ species, the unique chemical structure of each amino acid provides a particular fingerprint in the process.

  6. Further studies of the effects of oxidation on the surface properties of coal and coal pyrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Miguel Nicolas [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The objective of this research was to investigate the oxidation behavior of coal and coal pyrite and to correlate the changes in the surface properties induced by oxidation, along with the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of these organic and inorganic materials, with the behavior in physical coal cleaning processes. This provide more fundamental knowledge for understanding the way in which different factors interact in a medium as heterogeneous as coal. Fourteen coal samples of different ranks ranging from high to medium sulfur content were studied by dry oxidation tests at different temperatures and humidities, and by wet oxidation tests using different oxidizing agents. The concentration of surface oxygen functional groups was determined by ion-exchange methods. The changes in the coal composition with oxidation were analyzed by spectroscopic techniques. The wettability of as-received and oxidized coal and coal pyrite samples was assessed by film flotation tests. The electrokinetic behavior of different coals and coal pyrite samples was studied by electrokinetic tests using electrophoresis. Possible oxidation mechanisms have been proposed to explain the changes on the coal surface induced by different oxidation treatments.

  7. Further studies of the effects of oxidation on the surface properties of coal and coal pyrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, M.N.


    The objective of this research was to investigate the oxidation behavior of coal and coal pyrite and to correlate the changes in the surface properties induced by oxidation, along with the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of these organic and inorganic materials, with the behavior in physical coal cleaning processes. This provide more fundamental knowledge for understanding the way in which different factors interact in a medium as heterogeneous as coal. Fourteen coal samples of different ranks ranging from high to medium sulfur content were studied by dry oxidation tests at different temperatures and humidities, and by wet oxidation tests using different oxidizing agents. The concentration of surface oxygen functional groups was determined by ion-exchange methods. The changes in the coal composition with oxidation were analyzed by spectroscopic techniques. The wettability of as-received and oxidized coal and coal pyrite samples was assessed by film flotation tests. The electrokinetic behavior of different coals and coal pyrite samples was studied by electrokinetic tests using electrophoresis. Possible oxidation mechanisms have been proposed to explain the changes on the coal surface induced by different oxidation treatments.

  8. Effect of Surface Oxidation on Interfacial Water Structure at a Pyrite (100) Surface as Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Jiaqi; Miller, Jan D.; Dang, Liem X.; Wick, Collin D.


    In the first part of this paper, a Scanning Electron Microscopy and contact angle study of a pyrite surface (100) is reported describing the relationship between surface oxidation and the hydrophilic surface state. In addition to these experimental results, the following simulated surface states were examined using Molecular Dynamics Simulation (MDS): fresh unoxidized (100) surface; polysulfide at the (100) surface; elemental sulfur at the (100) surface. Crystal structures for the polysulfide and elemental sulfur at the (100) surface were simulated using Density Functional Theory (DFT) quantum chemical calculations. The well known oxidation mechanism which involves formation of a metal deficient layer was also described with DFT. Our MDS results of the behavior of interfacial water at the fresh and oxidized pyrite (100) surfaces without/with the presence of ferric hydroxide include simulated contact angles, number density distribution for water, water dipole orientation, water residence time, and hydrogen-bonding considerations. The significance of the formation of ferric hydroxide islands in accounting for the corresponding hydrophilic surface state is revealed not only from experimental contact angle measurements but also from simulated contact angle measurements using MDS. The hydrophilic surface state developed at oxidized pyrite surfaces has been described by MDS, on which basis the surface state is explained based on interfacial water structure. The Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), of the DOE funded work performed by Liem X. Dang. Battelle operates the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for DOE. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by BES.

  9. Multiscale characterization of pyritized plant tissues in blueschist facies metamorphic rocks (United States)

    Bernard, Sylvain; Benzerara, Karim; Beyssac, Olivier; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.


    Pyritized plant tissues with well-preserved morphology were studied in rocks from Vanoise (western Alps, France) that experienced high-pressure, low-temperature metamorphic conditions in the blueschist facies during the Alpine orogeny. Organic and inorganic phases composing these fossils were characterized down to the nanometer scale by Raman microspectroscopy, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The graphitic but disordered organic matter composing these fossils is chemically and structurally homogeneous and mostly contains aromatic functional groups. Its original chemistry remains undefined likely because it was significantly transformed by diagenetic processes and/or thermal degradation during metamorphism. Various mineral phases are closely associated with this organic matter, including sulphides such as pyrite and pyrrhotite, carbonates such as ankerite and calcite, and iron oxides. A tentative time sequence of formation of these diverse mineral phases relative to organic matter decay is proposed. The absence of traces of organic matter sulphurization, the pervasive pyritization of the vascular tissues and the presence of ankerite suggest that the depositional/diagenetic environment of these metasediments was likely rich in reactive iron. Fe-sulphides and ankerite likely precipitated early and might have promoted the preservation of the fossilized biological soft tissues by providing mechanical resistance to compaction during diagenesis and subsequent metamorphism. In contrast, iron oxides which form rims of 100-nm in thickness at the interface between organic matter and Fe-sulphides may result from metamorphic processes. This study illustrates that it may be possible in some instances to deconvolve metamorphic from diagenetic imprints and opens new avenues to better constrain processes that may allow the preservation of organic fossils during diagenesis and metamorphism.

  10. [Characterization of oxidation on pyrite by in situ attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy]. (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Chen, Yong-Heng; Liu, Juan; Wang, Chun-Lin


    Pyrite is one of common natural minerals in the environment, which is easily oxidated and is the main source of acidity mine drainage (AMD). The study on the oxidation of pyrite is helpful to comprehend the mechanism of its pollution. In the present paper, the oxidation of pyrite under the condition of air and water was respectively investigated by the attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) through the designing experiment on the formation of carbon dioxide by the reaction of carbonate in pyrite with sulfuric acid formed by the oxidation of pyrite. The CO2 measurement by in situ ATR indicated that the oxidation rate of pyrite both in the air and in water both reduced by time and the latter reduced more obviously than the former, which indicates that the oxidation rate of pyrite in water is slower than that in the air. In the ATR measurement, the double absorption peaks at 2 350 cm(-1) that indicates CO2 have high selectivity, and permits the in situ analysis.

  11. Overall hydrochemical characterization of the Iberian Pyrite Belt. Main acid mine drainage-generating sources (Huelva, SW Spain) (United States)

    Grande, J. A.; de la Torre, M. L.; Cerón, J. C.; Beltrán, R.; Gómez, T.


    SummaryAMD is an anthropogenic process caused by sulfide mineralization and the increase in the contact surface due to mining activity and grain-size reduction. In Spain, the contamination comes from the metal sulfide mines in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB). Spreading over an area 230 km long and approximately 50 km wide, it is one of the largest metallogenic regions in the world, with massive sulfide reserves of about 1700 Mt. In the present study we will characterize AMD contamination processes in the IPB, especially by As, by identifying the sources responsible for these processes (active mines and effluents from mines and slag heaps) in the basins of the Tinto and Odiel rivers. It is also the aim of this study to discover the mineral associations of the deposits. The study of the AMD process generating source is complemented with hydrochemical characterization of the effluents produced, which will be carried out by means of sample-taking and subsequent chemical analysis and statistical treatment (cluster analysis). Characteristics in common with samples taken in other AMD-affected watercourses are observed in the seven zones defined in the study area. With respect to the samples studied, obvious differences can also be found. These differences are inherent to the mineral associations, watershed and distance to the generating source and, ultimately, to the affected area, and the type, intensity and duration of the mine treatment process developed in the acid-producing area.

  12. Pyrite oxidation by microbial consortia (United States)

    Bostick, B. C.; Revill, K. L.; Doyle, C.; Kendelewicz, T.; Brown, G. E.; Spormann, A. M.; Fendorf, S.


    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is formed through pyrite oxidation, which produces acidity and releases toxic metals associated with pyrite and other sulfide minerals. Microbes accelerate pyrite oxidation markedly, thereby playing a major role in the production of AMD. Here, we probe pyrite oxidation by consortia of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and thiooxidans using surface-sensitive photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy and compare them with surfaces oxidized through chemical and single species cultures. Microbial oxidation resulted in the formation of distinct oxidized surface species distributed non-uniformly over the pyrite surface; consortia produced a surface both more heterogeneous and more oxidized. In contrast, chemical oxidation proceeds without the build-up of passivating oxidation products. Surface morphology was not correlated with sites of nucleation or oxidation in any obvious manner. These results demonstrate that microbial oxidation occurs through a similar mechanism to chemical oxidation, but that the presence of complex microbial communities may impact the manner by which pyrite oxidation proceeds.

  13. Quantifying Fenton reaction pathways driven by self-generated H2O2 on pyrite surfaces (United States)

    Gil-Lozano, C.; Davila, A. F.; Losa-Adams, E.; Fairén, A. G.; Gago-Duport, L.


    Oxidation of pyrite (FeS2) plays a significant role in the redox cycling of iron and sulfur on Earth and is the primary cause of acid mine drainage (AMD). It has been established that this process involves multi-step electron-transfer reactions between surface defects and adsorbed O2 and H2O, releasing sulfoxy species (e.g., S2O32-, SO42-) and ferrous iron (Fe2+) to the solution and also producing intermediate by-products, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and other reactive oxygen species (ROS), however, our understanding of the kinetics of these transient species is still limited. We investigated the kinetics of H2O2 formation in aqueous suspensions of FeS2 microparticles by monitoring, in real time, the H2O2 and dissolved O2 concentration under oxic and anoxic conditions using amperometric microsensors. Additional spectroscopic and structural analyses were done to track the dependencies between the process of FeS2 dissolution and the degradation of H2O2 through the Fenton reaction. Based on our experimental results, we built a kinetic model which explains the observed trend of H2O2, showing that FeS2 dissolution can act as a natural Fenton reagent, influencing the oxidation of third-party species during the long term evolution of geochemical systems, even in oxygen-limited environments.

  14. Peptide synthesis in aqueous environments: the role of extreme conditions and pyrite mineral surfaces on formation and hydrolysis of peptides. (United States)

    Schreiner, Eduard; Nair, Nisanth N; Wittekindt, Carsten; Marx, Dominik


    A comprehensive study of free energy landscapes and mechanisms of COS-mediated polymerization of glycine via N-carboxy anhydrides (NCAs, "Leuchs anhydrides") and peptide hydrolysis at the water-pyrite interface at extreme thermodynamic conditions is presented. Particular emphasis is set on the catalytic effects of the mineral surface including the putative role of the ubiquitous sulfur vacancy defects. It is found that the mere presence of a surface is able to change the free energetics of the elementary reaction steps. This effect can be understood in terms of a reduction of entropic contributions to the reactant state by immobilizing the reactants and/or screening them from bulk water in a purely geometric ("steric") sense. Additionally, the pyrite directly participates chemically in some of the reaction steps, thus changing the reaction mechanism qualitatively compared to the situation in bulk water. First, the adsorption of reactants on the surface can preform a product-like structure due to immobilizing and scaffolding them appropriately. Second, pyrite can act as a proton acceptor, thus replacing water in this role. Third, sulfur vacancies are found to increase the reactivity of the surface. The finding that the presence of pyrite speeds up the rate-determining step in the formation of peptides with respect to the situation in bulk solvent while stabilizing the produced peptide against hydrolysis is of particular interest to the hypothesis of prebiotic peptide formation at hydrothermal aqueous conditions. Apart from these implications, the generality of the studied organic reactions are of immediate relevance to many fields such as (bio)geochemistry, biomineralization, and environmental chemistry.

  15. Gold deposition on pyrite and the common sulfide minerals: An STM/STS and SR-XPS study of surface reactions and Au nanoparticles (United States)

    Mikhlin, Yuri L.; Romanchenko, Alexander S.


    Gold species spontaneously deposited on pyrite and chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, galena, sphalerite from HAuCl 4 solutions at room temperature, as well as the state of the reacted mineral surfaces have been characterized using synchrotron radiation X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SR-XPS), scanning tunneling microscopy and tunneling spectroscopy (STM/STS). The deposition of silver from 10 -4 M AgNO 3 has been examined for comparison. Gold precipitates as metallic nanoparticles (NPs) from about 3 nm to 30 nm in diameter, which tends to aggregate forming larger particles, especially on pyrite. The Au 4f binding energies increase up to 1 eV with decreasing size of individual Au 0 NPs, probably due to the temporal charging in the final state. Concurrently, a positive correlation between the tunneling current and the particle size was found in STS. Both these size effects were observed for unusually large, up to 20 nm Au particles. In contrast, silver deposited on the minerals as nanoparticles of semiconducting sulfide showed no shifts of photoelectron lines and different tunneling spectra. The quantity of gold deposited on pyrite and other minerals increased with time; it was lower for fracture surfaces and it grew if minerals were moderately pre-oxidized, while the preliminary leaching in Fe(III)-bearing media inhibited the following Au deposition. After the contact of polished minerals with 10 -4 M AuCl4- solution (pH 1.5) for 10 min, the gold uptake changed in the order CuFeS 2 > ZnS > PbS > FeAsS > FeS 2 > Fe 7S 8. It was noticed that the open circuit (mixed) potentials of the minerals varied in approximately the same order, excepting chalcopyrite. We concluded that the potentials of minerals were largely determined by Fe(II)/Fe(III) couple, whereas the reduction of gold complexes had a minor effect. As a result, the deposition of gold, although it proceeded via the electrochemical mechanism, increased with decreasing potential. This suggests, in particular, that the

  16. Synthesis, characterization and processing of cubic iron pyrite nanocrystals in a photovoltaic cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam Khan, M., E-mail:; Sarker, J.C.; Lee, Seunyong; Mangham, Scott C.; Manasreh, M.O.


    Cubic iron pyrite (fool's gold) nanocrystals with an average diameter of ∼60 nm were grown in an oleylamine ligand which acts as a solvent and surfactant without the utilization of alkyl phosphine and phosphonic acids at 230 °C in a Schlenk flask. For the first time photoluminescence properties of such cubic nanocrystals were analyzed at 77 K, showing band gaps of 1.71 eV. However, UV–Vis spectra shows a band gap of 1.41 eV for the same nanocrystals, close to the direct band gap (1.38 eV) of reported pyrite materials. The discrepancy of 0.3 eV in absorption (UV–Vis) and emission spectra (PL) are attributed to the phonon coupling (stokes shift). The prepared cubic nanocrystals were well suited for an inexpensive thin film solar cells and further processed and spin casted with a synthesized CdSe quantum dots in chloroform solvent as a bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell in order to get photovoltaic responses in real devices. We successfully report here an efficiency of 0.5% with the J{sub SC} of 3.7 mA/cm{sup −2} and V{sub OC} of 0.16 mV with a cell structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/FeS{sub 2}:CdSe/Au. The morphology and optoelectronic properties are elucidated by SEM, TEM, TEM-EDS, XRD, micro-Raman spectra, IV curve and micro-PL techniques. - Highlights: • Excellent cubic iron pyrite nanocrystals are synthesized by using an oleylamine ligand. • First time PL spectra were used to measure band gaps of such colloidal cubic nanocrytsals. • Pyrite ink was made in suitable solvent to fabricate practical devices. • A successful 0.5% efficiency is reported in bulk-heterojunction cell with CdSe QDs.

  17. Final Technical Report. Reactivity of Iron-Bearing Minerals and CO2 Sequestration and Surface Chemistry of Pyrite. An Interdisciplinary Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strongin, Daniel [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)


    Over the course of the scientific program, two areas of research were pursued: reactions of iron oxides with supercritical CO2 and sulfide and surface reactivity of pyrite. The latter area of interest was to understand the chemistry that results when supercritical CO2 (scCO2 ) with H2 S and/or SO2 in deep saline formations (DFS) contacts iron bearing minerals. Understanding the complexities the sulfur co-injectants introduce is a critical step in developing CO2 sequestration as a climate-mitigating strategy. The research strategy was to understand macroscopic observations of this chemistry with an atomic/molecular level view using surface analytical techniques. Research showed that the exposure of iron (oxyhdr)oxides (which included ferrihydrite, goethite, and hematite) to scCO2 in the presence of sulfide led to reactions that formed siderite (FeCO3). The results have important implications for the sequestration of CO2 via carbonation reactions in the Earth’s subsurface. An earlier area of focus in the project was to understand pyrite oxidation in microscopic detail. This understanding was used to understand macroscopic observations of pyrite reactivity. Results obtained from this research led to a better understanding how pyrite reacts in a range of chemical environments. Geochemical and modern surface science techniques were used to understand the chemistry of pyrite in important environmental conditions. The program relied on a strong integration the results of these techniques to provide a fundamental understanding to the macroscopic chemistry exhibited by pyrite in the environment. Major achievements during these studies included developing an understanding of the surface sites on pyrite that controlled its reactivity under oxidizing conditions. In particular sulfur anion vacancies and/or ferric sites were sites of reactivity. Studies also showed that the

  18. Bioflotation of pyrite with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaoxian Song; Yimin Zhang; Shouci Lu


    Bioflotation of pyrite with bacteria Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in the presence or absence of potassium ethyl xanthate was studied on a pure pyrite through microflotation and electrophoretic light scattering measurements. The experimental results showed that in the absence of xanthate, pyrite flotation is slightly enhanced by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. However, with xanthate as a collector, pyrite flotation is strongly depressed after being exposed to the bacteria. The longer is the time when the pyrite is exposed to the bacteria, the stronger the depression is. The mechanism of the depression might be due to the formation of the biofilms of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans on pyrite surfaces, preventing the adsorption of xanthate on pyrite surfaces in the form of dixanthogen or xanthate ions.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The experimental studies on the microbial flotation of a pure pyrite sample using Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was conducted in the laboratory. The results indicate that Thiobacillus ferrooaidans has strong depression effect on the flotation of pyrite. Thiobacillus f errooxidans can adsorb on the surface of pyrite in a very short time (a few min. ), changing the surface from hydrophobic into hydrophilic and making the pyrite particles to lose their floatability. Therefore, Thiobacillus ferrooxidans is an effective microbial depressant of pyrite. It has also been pointed out that the depression of pyrite by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans is caused by the adsorption of the microbial colloids, but not by the oxidation effect.

  20. Nickel mobilization in a groundwater well field: Release by pyrite oxidation and desorption from manganese oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Dieke; Larsen, Flemming


    is furthermore characterized by enhanced Mn2+ concentrations. Apparently nickel accumulates on manganese oxides during pyrite oxidation. When the water table rises again, partially oxidized pyritic layers are resubmerged, and due to an insufficient supply of oxygen, the oxidation of Fe2+ released during pyrite...... oxidation becomes incomplete. The mobilized Fe2+ may reduce manganese oxides and thereby release large amounts of Ni2+ to the groundwater. Calculations using a surface complexation model indicate retardation of nickel to be strongly affected by bulk water composition. At the background groundwater...

  1. Study of CO adsorption on perfect and defective pyrite(100)surfaces by density functional theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yudong Du; Wenkai Chen; Yongfan Zhang; Xin Guo


    First-principles calculations based on density functional theory(DFT)and the generalized gradient approximation(GGA)have been used to study the adsorption of CO molecule on the perfect and defective FeS2(100)surfaces.The defective Fe2S(100)surfaces are caused by sulfur deficiencies.Slab geometry and periodic boundary conditions are employed with partial relaxations of atom positions in calculations.Two molecular orientations,C-and O-down,at various distinct sites have been considered.Total energy calculations indicated that no matter on perfect or deficient surfaces,the Fe position is relatively more favored than the S site with the predicted binding energies of 120.8 kJ/mol and 140.8 kJ/mol,respectively.Moreover,CO was found to be bound to Fe atom in vertical configuration.The analysis of density of states and vibrational frequencies before and after adsorption showed clear changes of the C-O bond.

  2. Depressing effect of hydroxamic polyacrylamide on pyrite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张剑锋; 胡岳华; 王淀佐; 徐竞


    The performance of hydroxamic polyacrylamide(HPAM) in mineral flotation was tested on the samples of calcite, diaspore and pyrite. It is found that HPAM expresses intensive depression on pyrite and can be used as effective depressants for pyrite. The depression mechanism of HPAM to pyrite was investigated by the determination of contact angle, zeta potential, adsorptive capacity for collectors and infrared spectrum. A lower contact angle,more negative zeta potential, less xanthate adsorptive capacity, and the formation of chemical bonding were determined, which reveals that the strong chemical interactions exist between HPAM and pyrite surface. The group electronegativity of HPAM was calculated to explain the differences of interaction between reagent and minerals.

  3. Pyrite Iron Sulfide Solar Cells Made from Solution Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Matt [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)


    This document summarizes research done under the SunShot Next Generation PV II project entitled, “Pyrite Iron Sulfide Solar Cells Made from Solution,” award number DE-EE0005324, at the University of California, Irvine, from 9/1/11 thru 11/30/16. The project goal was to develop iron pyrite (cubic FeS2) as an absorber layer for solution-processible p-n heterojunction solar cells with a pathway to >20% power conversion efficiency. Project milestones centered around seven main Tasks: (1) make device-quality pyrite thin-films from solar ink; (2) develop an ohmic bottom contact with suitable low resistivity; (3) produce a p-n heterojunction with VOC > 400 mV; (4) make a solar cell with >5% power conversion efficiency; (5) use alloying to increase the pyrite band gap to ~1.2-1.4 eV; (6) produce a p-n heterojunction with VOC > 500 mV; and finally (7) make a solar cell with >10% power conversion efficiency. In response to project findings, the Tasks were amended midway through the project to focus particular effort on passivating the surface of pyrite in order to eliminate excessively-strong surface band bending believed to be responsible for the low VOC of pyrite diodes. Major project achievements include: (1) development and detailed characterization of several new solution syntheses of high-quality thin-film pyrite, including two “molecular ink” routes; (2) demonstration of Mo/MoS2 bilayers as good ohmic bottom contacts to pyrite films; (3) fabrication of pyrite diodes with a glass/Mo/MoS2/pyrite/ZnS/ZnO/AZO layer sequence that show VOC values >400 mV and as high as 610 mV at ~1 sun illumination, although these high VOC values ultimately proved irreproducible; (4) established that ZnS is a promising n-type junction partner for pyrite; (5) used density functional theory to show that the band gap of pyrite can be increased from ~1.0 to a more optimal 1.2-1.3 eV by alloying with oxygen; (6) through extensive measurements of ultrahigh

  4. The energetics of the reductive citric acid cycle in the pyrite-pulled surface metabolism in the early stage of evolution. (United States)

    Kalapos, Miklós Péter


    The chemoautotrophic theory concerning the origin of life postulates that a central role is played in the prebiotic chemical machinery by a reductive citric acid cycle operating without enzymes. The crucial point in this scenario is the formation of pyrite from hydrogen sulfide and ferrous sulfide, a reaction suggested to be linked to endergonic reactions, making them exergonic. This mechanism is believed to provide the driving force for the cycle to operate as a carbon dioxide fixation network. The present paper criticizes the thermodynamic calculations and their presentation in the original version of the archaic reductive citric acid cycle [Wächtershäuser, 1990. Evolution of the first metabolic cycles. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 87, 200-204.]. The most significant differences between the Wächtershäuser hypothesis and the present proposal: Wächtershäuser did not consider individual reactions in his calculations. A particularly questionable feature is the involvement of seven molecules of pyrite which does not emerge as a direct consequence of the chemical reactions presented in the archaic reductive citric acid cycle. The involvement of a considerable number of sulfur-containing organic intermediates as building blocks is also disputed. In the new scheme of the cycle proposed here, less free energy is liberated than hypothesized by Wächtershäuser, but it has the advantages that the free energy changes for the individual reactions can be calculated, the number of pyrite molecules involved in the cycle is reduced, and fewer sulfur-containing intermediates are required for the cycle to operate. In combination with a plausible route for the anaplerotic reactions [Kalapos, 1997a. Possible evolutionary role of methylglyoxalase pathway: anaplerotic route for reductive citric acid cycle of surface metabolists. J. Theor. Biol. 188, 201-206.], this new presentation of the cycle assigns a special meaning to hydrogen sulfide formation in the early stage of biochemical

  5. The effect of quartz on the flotation of pyrite depressed by serpentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Feng


    Full Text Available The effect of quartz particles on the flotation of pyrite depressed by serpentine has been investigated through flotation tests, adsorption tests, zeta potential measurements and DLVO calculation. The results show that the presence of hydrophilic serpentine slimes on pyrite surface reduces collector adsorption and results in lower recovery of pyrite. The finer the serpentine slime is, the lower the pyrite recovery will be. Quartz particles do not interfere with pyrite flotation. However, the addition of quartz particles increases the adsorption of collector on pyrite surface and limits the detrimental effect of serpentine on pyrite flotation. The fine-grained quartz is more effective. Zeta potential measurements and DLVO calculation illustrate that the zeta potential of quartz is more negative than that of pyrite and the attraction force between serpentine and quartz is stronger than force between serpentine and pyrite, thus some serpentine slimes were transferred from pyrite surface to quartz in the process of attrition.

  6. Effects of selective handling of pyritic, acid-forming materials on the chemistry of pore gas and ground water at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Clarion County, PA, USA (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles A.; Dugas, Diana L.; Brady, Keith; Kovalchuck, Thomas E.


    A change from dragline to “selective handling” mining methods at a reclaimed surface coal mine in western Pennsylvania did not significantly affect concentrations of metals in ground water because oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of siderite were not abated. Throughout the mine, placement of pyritic material near the land surface facilitated the oxidation of pyrite, causing the consumption of oxygen (O2) and release of acid, iron, and sulfate ions. Locally in the unsaturated zone, water sampled within or near pyritic zones was acidic, with concentrations of sulfate exceeding 3,000 milligrams per liter (mg/L). However, acidic conditions generally did not persist below the water table because of neutralization by carbonate minerals. Dissolution of calcite, dolomite, and siderite in unsaturated and saturated zones produced elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, iron, and manganese. Alkalinity concentrations of 600 to 800 mg/L as CaCO3 were common in water samples from the unsaturated zone in spoil, and alkalinities of 100 to 400 mg/L as CaCO3 were common in ground-water samples from the underlying saturated zone in spoil and bedrock. Saturation indices indicated that siderite could dissolve in water throughout the spoil, but that calcite dissolution or precipitation could occur locally. Calcite dissolution could be promoted as a result of pyrite oxidation, gypsum precipitation, and calcium ion exchange for sodium. Calcite precipitation could be promoted by evapotranspiration and siderite dissolution, and corresponding increases in concentrations of alkalinity and other solutes. Partial pressures of O2 (Po2) and CO2 (Pco2) in spoil pore gas indicated that oxidation of pyrite and precipitation of ferric hydroxide, coupled with dissolution of calcite, dolomite, and siderite were the primary reactions affecting water quality. Highest vertical gradients in Po2, particularly in the near-surface zone (0-1 m), did not correlate

  7. Interfacial interaction of bio-leaching of pyrite mineral

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Guo-hua; WANG nui; SUO Jun; QIU Guan-zhou; HAO Ye


    Electrokinetic and contact angle measurements were used to discuss the interracial interaction on bio-leaching of pyrite mineral. Surface energy parameters of pyrite mineral and thiobaeillus ferrooxidans were Gbtained by calculating according to formula of Young's equation and contact angle measurements. The results show that surface energy of thiobacillus ferrooxidans is much higher than that of pyrite mineral, and the reaction of pyrite mineral with thiobacillus ferrooxidans causes the reduction of the pyrite surface energy. The interfacial interaction energies between pyrite mineral and thiobacillus ferrooxidans were also obtained based onpolar interfacial interaction theory and electrokinetic and contact angle measurements. The thermodynamics approach only considering Lifshitz-van der Waals and Lewis acid-base interaction fails to explain the adhesion behavior of the bacteria, but theextended Derjaguin-Landan-Verwey-Overbeek theory concerning Lifshitz-van der Waals and Lewis acid-base and the electrostatic can exactly predict interracial interaction.

  8. Photoanodic reactions at natural pyrite(100) studied by photocalorimetry: internal quantum and energy efficiencies and Peltier heats after different surface treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaaf, N.-S.; Dohrmann, J.K. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie; Seeliger, W.; Tributsch, H. [Hahn-Meitner-Inst., Berlin (Germany). Abt. Solare Energetik


    Photoanodic oxidation of I{sup -}, Fe(CN){sup 4-}{sub 6}, and Fe{sup 2+} at the (100)-face of a natural pyrite electrode (n-type FeS{sub 2}) has been investigated by photocalorimetry at 633 nm. The internal and external quantum efficiencies, {eta}{sub a} and {eta}{sub c}, respectively, the maximal internal efficiency, L{sub G}, for conversion of optical into electrical energy, the Peltier heat, Q{sub PE}, of the electrode process, and the reflectivity, R, of the electrode-solution interface have been determined at cathodically activated pyrite and (for I{sup -}, and Fe{sup 2+}) after additional treatment of the electrode with pyrazine or (1 H-benzotriazol-1-yl)-methylisocyanide (btic), L{sub G}, {eta}{sub a}, and {eta}{sub c} decrease in the order I{sup -} > Fe(CN){sup 4}{sub 6} > Fe{sup 2+}. At the bare electrode L{sub G} was 0.6% for I{sup -} 0.2% for Fe(CN){sup 4}{sub 6}, and 0.02% for Fe{sup 2+}. Adsorption of pyrazine and btic affects {eta}{sub a} and L{sub G} for oxidation of I{sup -}, without changing Q{sub PE} (-0.09 eV) and R (67%). With btic, L{sub G} increased to 0.9%. For oxidation of Fe{sup 2+}, the adsorbates diminish {eta}{sub a} and L{sub G} and shift Q{sub PE} from -0.24 eV at the bare electrode to -0.13 eV (pyrazine) and +0.23 eV (btic). The effects demonstrate different pathways for charge transfer from I{sup -} and Fe{sup 2+} to the electrode. The shift of Q{sub PE} for oxidation of Fe{sup 2+} is attributed to adsorbate-induced differences in the hydration entropies of the pyrite surface. (orig.) 27 refs.

  9. Catalytic activity of pyrite for coal liquefaction reaction; Tennen pyrite no shokubai seino ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, K.; Kozu, M.; Okada, T.; Kobayashi, M. [Nippon Coal Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Since natural pyrite is easy to obtain and cheap as coal liquefaction catalyst, it is to be used for the 150 t/d scale NEDOL process bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant. NEDO and NCOL have investigated the improvement of catalytic activity of pulverized natural pyrite for enhancing performance and economy of the NEDOL process. In this study, coal liquefaction tests were conducted using natural pyrite catalyst pulverized by dry-type bowl mill under nitrogen atmosphere. Mechanism of catalytic reaction of the natural pyrite was discussed from relations between properties of the catalyst and liquefaction product. The natural pyrite provided an activity to transfer gaseous hydrogen into the liquefaction product. It was considered that pulverized pyrite promotes the hydrogenation reaction of asphaltene because pulverization increases its contact rate with reactant and the amount of active points on its surface. It was inferred that catalytic activity of pyrite is affected greatly by the chemical state of Fe and S on its surface. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Utilization of coal-derived pyrite by electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Deng-xin; M.Makino; GAO Jin-sheng; MENG Fan-l ing


    The utilization of coal-derived pyrite by electrolysis was studie d. It is obvious that the sulfur and Fe in pyrite can be electrolyzed into Fe 3+ and SO2-4, and the no pollutant is drained off. In this paper, the infl uence of conditions, including electrolysis potential, time, temperature, the acidity of electrolysis solutions, the concentration of adding agent, the concentration of pyrite, and the rate of conversion of pyrite (Cr) was investigated. Cr increase s with the rise of potential, time, temperature, acidity and the concentration o f additive agent, but decreases with the rise of concentration of pyrite. At th e certain conditions (at the potential of 3.0 V, temperature of 298 K, time of 12 h , the concentration of MnSO4 of 6%, concentration of pyrite of 4%, and concent ra tion of acid of 10%), Cr is high to 93%. In the same time, the mechanism of elec trolysis of pyrite was provided. The electrolysis of pyrite is actually the r ecycle of Mn ion between anodic surface and pyrite. At last, the production of F eSO4*7H2O through electrolysis of pyrite was introduced.

  11. Utilization of coal-derived pyrite by electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李登新; M.Makinot; 高晋生; 孟繁玲


    The utilization of coal-derived pyrite by electrolysis was studied. It is obvious that the sulfur and Fe in pyrite can be electrolyzed into Fe3+ and SO2-4, and the no pollutant is drained off. In this paper, the influence of conditions, including electrolysis potential, time, temperature, the acidity of electrolysis solutions, the concentration of adding agent, the concentration of pyrite, and the rate of conversion of pyrite (Cr) was investigated. Cr increases with the rise of potential, time, temperature, acidity and the concentration of additive agent, but decreases, with the rise of concentration of pyrite. At the certain conditions (at the potential of 3.0 V, temperature of 298 K, time of 12 h, the concentration of MnSO4 of 6%, concentration of pyrite of 4%, and concentration of acid of 10%), Cr is high to 93%. In the same time, the mechanism of electrolysis of pyrite was provided. The electrolysis of pyrite is actually the recycle of Mn ion between anodic surface and pyrite. At last, the production of FeSO4·7H2O through electrolysis of pyrite was introduced.

  12. Pyrite oxidation in the presence of hematite and alumina: I. Batch leaching experiments and kinetic modeling calculations. (United States)

    Tabelin, Carlito Baltazar; Veerawattananun, Suchol; Ito, Mayumi; Hiroyoshi, Naoki; Igarashi, Toshifumi


    Pyrite is one of the most common and geochemically important sulfide minerals in nature because of its role in the redox recycling of iron (Fe). It is also the primary cause of acid mine drainage (AMD) that is considered as a serious and widespread problem facing the mining and mineral processing industries. In the environment, pyrite oxidation occurs in the presence of ubiquitous metal oxides, but the roles that they play in this process remain largely unknown. This study evaluates the effects of hematite (α-Fe2O3) and alumina (α-Al2O3) on pyrite oxidation by batch-reactor type experiments, surface-sensitive characterization of the oxidation layer and thermodynamic/kinetic modeling calculations. In the presence of hematite, dissolved sulfur (S) concentration dramatically decreased independent of the pH, and the formation of intermediate sulfoxy anionic species on the surface of pyrite was retarded. These results indicate that hematite minimized the overall extent of pyrite oxidation, but the kinetic model could not explain how this suppression occurred. In contrast, pyrite oxidation was enhanced in the alumina suspension as suggested by the higher dissolved S concentration and stronger infrared (IR) absorption bands of surface-bound oxidation products. Based on the kinetic model, alumina enhanced the oxidative dissolution of pyrite because of its strong acid buffering capacity, which increased the suspension pH. The higher pH values increased the oxidation of Fe(2+) to Fe(3+) by dissolved O2 (DO) that enhanced the overall oxidative dissolution kinetics of pyrite. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A study of the interfacial chemistry of pyrite and coal in fine coal cleaning using flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Chengliang [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)


    Surface oxidation, surface charge, and flotation properties have been systematically studied for coal, coal-pyrite and ore-pyrite. Electrochemical studies show that coal-pyrite exhibits much higher and more complex surface oxidation than ore-pyrite and its oxidation rate depends strongly on the carbon/coal content. Flotation studies indicate that pyrites have no self-induced floatability. Fuel oil significantly improves the floatability of coal and induces considerable flotation for coal-pyrite due to the hydrophobic interaction of fuel oil with the carbon/coal inclusions on the pyrite surface. Xanthate is a good collector for ore-pyrite but a poor collector for coal and coal-pyrite. The results from thermodynamic calculations, flotation and zeta potential measurements show that iron ions greatly affect the flotation of pyrite with xanthate and fuel oil. Various organic and inorganic chemicals have been examined for depressing coal-pyrite. It was found, for the first time, that sodium pyrophosphate is an effective depressant for coal-pyrite. Solution chemistry shows that pyrophosphate reacts with iron ions to form stable iron pyrophosphate complexes. Using pyrophosphate, the complete separation of pyrite from coal can be realized over a wide pH range at relatively low dosage.

  14. Pyrite Oxidation Related to Pyritic Minesite Spoils and Its Controls:A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑作平; H.H.GERKE; 等


    Pyrite oxidation is considered to be a main contribution to the acidification of minesite spoils and the generation of the Acid Mine Drainage(AMD) which has become the greatest threat to the ecological environment,In this paper,pyrite oxidation and its controls are reviewed with respect to the latest literature,conceptual Model and empirical rate law model with reference to indoor experiments are classified and presented to describe pyrite oxidation in heterogeneous minesite spoil piles.The influences of Thiobacillus(T) ferrooxidans on pyrite oxidation are simply summarized.In order to prevent the generation of the AMD,three approaches including the addition of alkali to minesite spoil,use of dry covers,and coating on the minesite spilk surface,are discussed.

  15. Pyrite oxidation by thermophilic archaebacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, L.; Olsson, G.; Holst, O.; Karlsson, H.T. (Lund Univ. (Sweden))


    Three species of thermophilic archaebacteria of the genera Sulfolobus (Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and S. solfataricus) and Acidianus (Acidianus brierleyi) were tested for their ability to oxidize pyrite and to grow autotropbically on pyrite, to explore their potential for use in coal desulfurization. Only A. brierleyi was able to oxidize and grow autotrophically on pyrite. Jarosite was formed during the pyrite oxidation, resulting in the precipitation of sulfate and iron. The medium composition affected the extent of jarosite formation.

  16. Selective separation of pyrite and chalcopyrite by biomodulation. (United States)

    Chandraprabha, M N; Natarajan, K A; Modak, Jayant M


    Selective separation of pyrite from other associated ferrous sulphides at acidic and neutral pH has been a challenging problem. This paper discusses the utility of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans for the selective flotation of chalcopyrite from pyrite. Consequent to interaction with bacterial cells, pyrite remained depressed even in the presence of potassium isopropyl xanthate collector while chalcopyrite exhibited significant flotability. However, when the minerals were conditioned together, the selectivity achieved was poor due to the activation of pyrite surface by the copper ions in solution. The selectivity was improved when the sequence of conditioning with bacterial cells and collector was reversed, since the bacterial cells were able to depress collector interacted pyrite effectively, while having negligible effect on chalcopyrite. The observed behaviour is analysed and discussed in detail. The separation obtained was significant both at acidic and alkaline pH. This selectivity achieved was retained when the minerals were interacted with both bacterial cells and collector simultaneously.

  17. Isolation and characterization of a novel Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans strain from the Chilean Altiplano: attachment and biofilm formation on pyrite at low temperature. (United States)

    Barahona, Sergio; Dorador, Cristina; Zhang, Ruiyong; Aguilar, Pablo; Sand, Wolfgang; Vera, Mario; Remonsellez, Francisco


    Microorganisms are used to aid the extraction of valuable metals from low-grade sulfide ores in mines worldwide, but relatively little is known about this process in cold environments. This study comprises a preliminary analysis of the bacterial diversity of the polyextremophilic acid River Aroma located in the Chilean Altiplano, and revealed that Betaproteobacteria was the most dominant bacterial group (Gallionella-like and Thiobacillus-like). Taxa characteristic of leaching environments, such Acidithiobacillus and Leptospirillum, were detected at low abundances. Also, bacteria not associated with extremely acidic, metal-rich environments were found. After enrichment in iron- and sulfur-oxidizing media, we isolated and identified a novel psychrotolerant Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans strain ACH. This strain can grow using ferrous iron, sulfur, thiosulfate, tetrathionate and pyrite, as energy sources. Optimal growth was observed in the presence of pyrite, where cultures reached a cell number of 6.5 · 10(7) cells mL(-1). Planktonic cells grown with pyrite showed the presence of extracellular polymeric substances (10 °C and 28 °C), and a high density of cells attached to pyrite grains were observed at 10 °C by electron microscopy. The attachment of cells to pyrite coupons and the presence of capsular polysaccharides were visualized by using epifluorescence microscopy, through nucleic acid and lectin staining with Syto(®)9 and TRITC-Con A, respectively. Interestingly, we observed high cell adhesion including the formation of microcolonies within 21 days of incubation at 4 °C, which was correlated with a clear induction of capsular polysaccharides production. Our data suggests that attachment to pyrite is not temperature-dependent in At. ferrivorans ACH. The results of this study highlight the potential of this novel psychrotolerant strain in oxidation and attachment to minerals under low-temperature conditions.

  18. An improved pyrite pretreatment protocol for kinetic and isotopic studies (United States)

    Mirzoyan, Natella; Kamyshny, Alexey; Halevy, Itay


    An improved pyrite pretreatment protocol for kinetic and isotopic studies Natella Mirzoyan1, Alexey Kamyshny Jr.2, Itay Halevy1 1Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel 2Geological and Environmental Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel Pyrite is one of the most abundant and widespread of the sulfide minerals with a central role in biogeochemical cycles of iron and sulfur. Due to its diverse roles in the natural and anthropogenic sulfur cycle, pyrite has been extensively studied in various experimental investigations of the kinetics of its dissolution and oxidation, the isotopic fractionations associated with these reactions, and the microbiological processes involved. Pretreatment of pyrite for removal of oxidation impurities to prevent experimental artifacts and inaccuracies is often practiced. While numerous pyrite-cleaning methods have been used in experiments, a common pyrite pretreatment method, often used to investigate pyrite chemistry by the isotopic fractionations associated with it, includes several rinses by HCl, acetone and deionized water. Elemental sulfur (S0) is a common product of incomplete pyrite oxidation. Removal of S0 is desirable to avoid experimental biases associated with its participation in pyrite transformations, but is more complicated than the removal of sulfate. Although rinsing with an organic solvent is in part aimed at removing S0, to the best of our knowledge, the extraction efficiency of S0 in existing protocols has not been assessed. We have developed and tested a new protocol for elemental sulfur removal from the surface of pyrite by ultrasonication with warm acetone. Our data demonstrate the presence of large fractions of S0 on untreated pyrite particle surfaces, of which only approximately 60% was removed by the commonly used pretreatment method. The new protocol described here was found to be more efficient at S0 removal than the commonly used method

  19. Surface characterization of silicate bioceramics. (United States)

    Cerruti, Marta


    The success of an implanted prosthetic material is determined by the early events occurring at the interface between the material and the body. These events depend on many surface properties, with the main ones including the surface's composition, porosity, roughness, topography, charge, functional groups and exposed area. This review will portray how our understanding of the surface reactivity of silicate bioceramics has emerged and evolved in the past four decades, owing to the adoption of many complementary surface characterization tools. The review is organized in sections dedicated to a specific surface property, each describing how the property influences the body's response to the material, and the tools that have been adopted to analyse it. The final section introduces the techniques that have yet to be applied extensively to silicate bioceramics, and the information that they could provide.

  20. Pyritization in the Gaojiashan Biota

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI YaoPing; HUA Hong


    The Late Sinian (Ediacaran) Gaojiashan Biota was a soft-bodied fossil-Lagerst(a)tte dominated by substantial pyritized, three-dimensionally preserved tubular and conotubular fossils. Soft-tissue pyritization is extremely scarce in the fossil records, especially in the Precambrian, therefore it has very important and unique significance for the study of pyritization in the Gaojiashan Biota. Early pyritization played a pivotal role in the fossil preservation and two main factors ensured the successful pyritization of the fossils, namely rapid burial and permineralization. The former was controlled by secular storm deposition, and the latter was achieved by sufficient supply of available iron from sediments. SEM data of Conotubus demonstrate two types of preservation of the tubes (defined as type A and type B, respectively). In type A, pyritization took place relatively earlier and completely preserved both tube wall and coelom, but no detailed structure. While in type B, pyritization took place somewhat later and preserved the integrated tube wall, but partially the coelom. The size frequency distribution of the pyrite framboids suggests that pyritization took place in two different environments with entire different oxygen content.

  1. Greigite: a true intermediate on the polysulfide pathway to pyrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benning Liane G


    Full Text Available Abstract The formation of pyrite (FeS2 from iron monosulfide precursors in anoxic sediments has been suggested to proceed via mackinawite (FeS and greigite (Fe3S4. Despite decades of research, the mechanisms of pyrite formation are not sufficiently understood because solid and dissolved intermediates are oxygen-sensitive and poorly crystalline and therefore notoriously difficult to characterize and quantify. In this study, hydrothermal synchrotron-based energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (ED-XRD methods were used to investigate in situ and in real-time the transformation of mackinawite to greigite and pyrite via the polysulfide pathway. The rate of formation and disappearance of specific Bragg peaks during the reaction and the changes in morphology of the solid phases as observed with high resolution microscopy were used to derive kinetic parameters and to determine the mechanisms of the reaction from mackinawite to greigite and pyrite. The results clearly show that greigite is formed as an intermediate on the pathway from mackinawite to pyrite. The kinetics of the transformation of mackinawite to greigite and pyrite follow a zero-order rate law indicating a solid-state mechanism. The morphology of greigite and pyrite crystals formed under hydrothermal conditions supports this conclusion and furthermore implies growth of greigite and pyrite by oriented aggregation of nanoparticulate mackinawite and greigite, respectively. The activation enthalpies and entropies of the transformation of mackinawite to greigite, and of greigite to pyrite were determined from the temperature dependence of the rate constants according to the Eyring equation. Although the activation enthalpies are uncharacteristic of a solid-state mechanism, the activation entropies indicate a large increase of order in the transition state, commensurate with a solid-state mechanism.

  2. Nannobacteria and the formation of framboidal pyrite: Textural evidence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Robert L Folk


    Study of sedimentary pyrite in the form of framboids, euhedral crystals or metasomatic masses has revealed that their surfaces are commonly covered with spheroids of about 50 nm. This applies to all the examples studied, from modern to Proterozoic. These spheroids are interpreted as the pyritized corpses of nannobacterial cells; if correct, this indicates that precipitation of iron sulfide was performed by these dwarf forms of bacteria, often associated with decaying organic matter.

  3. Pyrite oxidation by sulfolobus acidocaldarius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobita, M.; Yokozeki, M.; Nishikawa, N.; Kawakami, Y. (Institute of Research and Innovation, Kashiwa (Japan). Dept. of Biotechnology)


    Two strains of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, a thermoacidophilic archaebacterium, were examined for their pyrite-oxidizing ability. S. acidocaldarius ATCC 33909 was shown to possess iron-oxidizing activity by ferrous sulfate oxidizing experiments, but S. acidocaldarius No. 7 did not have it. Pyrite-oxidizing rate of S. acidocaldarius ATCC 33909 was 1.6-fold higher than that of strain 7 though they had a similar level of self-oxidizing ability. These results show that the iron-oxidizing activity accelerates pyrite oxidation.

  4. Surface characterization of platinum electrodes. (United States)

    Solla-Gullón, José; Rodríguez, Paramaconi; Herrero, Enrique; Aldaz, Antonio; Feliu, Juan M


    The quantitative analysis of the different surface sites on platinum samples is attempted from pure voltammetric data. This analysis requires independent knowledge of the fraction of two-dimensional (111) and (100) domains. Specific site-probe reactions are employed to achieve this goal. Irreversibly-adsorbed bismuth and tellurium have been revealed to be sensitive to the presence of (111) terrace domains of different width whereas almost all sites involved in (100) ordered domains have been characterized through germanium adatoms. The experimental protocol follows that used with well-defined single-crystal electrodes and, therefore, requires careful control of the surface cleanliness. Platinum basal planes and their vicinal stepped surfaces have been employed to obtain calibration plots between the charge density measured under the adatom redox peak, specific for the type of surface site, and the corresponding terrace size. The evaluation of the (100) bidimensional domains can also be achieved using the voltammetric profiles, once the fraction of (111) ordered domains present in the polyoriented platinum has been determined and their featureless contribution has been subtracted from the whole voltammetric response. Using that curve, it is possible to perform a deconvolution of the adsorption states of the polycrystalline sample different from those related to (111) domains. The fraction of (100)-related states in the deconvoluted voltammogram can then be compared to that expected from the independent estimation coming from the charge involved in the redox process undergone by the irreversibly-adsorbed germanium and thus check the result of the deconvolution. The information about the surface-site distribution can also be applied to analyze the voltammetric profile of nanocrystalline platinum electrodes.

  5. Pyrite oxidation by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Dragiša S.


    Full Text Available The kinetic model of pyrite particle dissolution by the action of bacteria Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in a shaken Erlenmeyer flask was presented. The model agreed well with the experimental data for the extracted iron and the number of cells in the liquid phase. The specific growth rate of the adsorbed cells was evaluated (μA = 1,6 d-1 by fitting the experimental data to the model curve. Also, the relevance of the two proposed mechanisms for the bacterial dissolution of sulphide (direct and indirect was discussed, indicating that the indirect one was dominant. The adsorption process of A. ferrooxidans to the pyrite surface was well correlated by a Langmuir type isotherm.

  6. Enabling iron pyrite (FeS2) and related ternary pyrite compounds for high-performance solar energy applications (United States)

    Caban Acevedo, Miguel

    The success of solar energy technologies depends not only on highly efficient solar-to-electrical energy conversion, charge storage or chemical fuel production, but also on dramatically reduced cost, to meet the future terawatt energy challenges we face. The enormous scale involved in the development of impactful solar energy technologies demand abundant and inexpensive materials, as well as energy-efficient and cost-effective processes. As a result, the investigation of semiconductor, catalyst and electrode materials made of earth-abundant and sustainable elements may prove to be of significant importance for the long-term adaptation of solar energy technologies on a larger scale. Among earth-abundant semiconductors, iron pyrite (cubic FeS2) has been considered the most promising solar energy absorber with the potential to achieve terawatt energy-scale deployment. Despite extensive synthetic progress and device efforts, the solar conversion efficiency of iron pyrite has remained below 3% since the 1990s, primarily due to a low open circuit voltage (V oc). The low photovoltage (Voc) of iron pyrite has puzzled scientists for decades and limited the development of cost-effective solar energy technologies based on this otherwise promising semiconductor. Here I report a comprehensive investigation of the syntheses and properties of iron pyrite materials, which reveals that the Voc of iron pyrite is limited by the ionization of a high density of intrinsic bulk defect states despite high density surface states and strong surface Fermi level pinning. Contrary to popular belief, bulk defects most-likely caused by intrinsic sulfur vacancies in iron pyrite must be controlled in order to enable this earth-abundant semiconductor for cost-effective and sustainable solar energy conversion. Lastly, the investigation of iron pyrite presented here lead to the discovery of ternary pyrite-type cobalt phosphosulfide (CoPS) as a highly-efficient earth-abundant catalyst material for

  7. Interfacial electrokinetic characteristics before and after bioleaching microorganism adhesion to pyrite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-she; WANG Zhao-hui; CHEN Hong; ZHANG Yan-hua


    Zeta potentials of pyrite and Acidithiobacillusferrooxidans cultured by sulfur in different levels of ionic strength and pH values were measured by Coulter Delsa 440SX zeta potential determinator. Meanwhile, the effects of bacterial adhesion and bacterial concentration on zeta potential of pyrite after adsorption were investigated. The results show that with the increase of ionic strength,zeta potentials of pyrite decrease in the range of pH 2.5-10.5 and the isoelectric point(IEP) of mineral shifts to the left. It is also found that the specific adsorption on pyrite of chloride ion can affect zeta potentials of pyrite sharply. As bacterial adsorption occurs,IEP of pyrite shifts towards that of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans; as bacterial concentration is increscent, this tendency is even larger and more obvious. Finally, a reasonable explanation for above-mentioned experimental phenomena was given by electrical double layer model and surface ionization model.

  8. Iron Phosphate Coating:A Novel Approach to Controlling Pyrite Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A novel coating technique was develped for controlling pyrite oxidation .The technique involved leaching pyrite particles with a solution containing low concentrations of phosphate and hydrogen peroxide.During the leaching rpocess,the iron released from pyrite by hydrogen proxide was precipitated by phosphate as a ferric phosphate coating .This coating was shown to be able to effectively prevent pyirte from oxidation and it could be established at the expense of only surface portions of pyrite.The emergence of this technique could provide a unique potential route for abating acid mine draingage and reclaiming sulfide-containing degraded mining land.

  9. Pyritization of the Coastal Sediments in the Kelantan Plains in the Malay Peninsula during the Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S.K. Enio


    Full Text Available Problem statement: For a number of geological reasons a proportion of the present coastal plains in the Malay Peninsula were inundated by seawater in the past when pyrite in some of the soils is believed to have been mineralized. Random survey of these sites showed a unique distribution and depth of pyritic layer in the soils along the coastal plains. A study was conducted in order to explain the mechanism of pyritization in the sediments of the present day coastal plains in Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia. Approach: Soil surveys were conducted and soils were sampled and analyzed. Spatial distribution of the pyritic soils was used to construct an imaginary line to indicate the probable position of the shoreline when the sea level was at its highest. Results: Results of the study showed that soils containing pyrite occur sporadically in the plains. This pyrite occurs in the soils at varying depth; some soils have pyritic layer below 2 m from the surface (northern region, while others have pyrite in the surface horizon (southern region. Pyrite was formed by the reaction of ferrous and sulfide ions which were respectively reduced from ferric ions (sediments and sulfate (seawater ions, respectively. In the middle of the study area, pyritic layer overlain by peaty materials were observed. Conclusion: The presence of pyrite in the soils can be used as an evidence for sea level rise in the area during the Holocene. This pyrite is assumed to have been formed about 6,000 years BP when the sea level rose 3-5 m above the present. Its oxidation has caused untold damage to the productivity of the paddy soils in the area.

  10. Oxidation of pyrite: Consequences and significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Mile D.


    Full Text Available This paper presents the most important studies on the oxidation of pyrite particularly in aqueous solutions. The consequences of pyrite oxidation was examined, as well as its importance, from both the technical-technological and environmental points of view. The oxidation of pyrite was considered in two parts. The spontaneous oxidation of pyrite in nature was described in the first part, with this part comprising pyrite oxidation in deposits depots and mines. It is explained how way natural electrochemical processes lead to the decomposition of pyrite and other minerals associated with pyrite. The oxidation of pyrite occurring during technological processes such as grinding, flotation and leaching, was shown in the second part. Particular emphasis was placed on the oxidation of pyrite during leaching. This part includes the leaching of sulphide and oxide ores, the leaching of pyrite coal and the leaching of refractory gold-bearing ores (pressure oxidation, bacterial oxidation, oxidation by means of strong oxidants and the electrolysis of pyrite suspensions. Various mechanisms of pyrite oxidation and of the galvanic interaction of pyrite with other sulphide minerals are shown.

  11. Mechanism of separating pyrite and dolomite by flotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anping Liu; Wen Ni; Wei Wu


    To study the mechanism of separating pyrite and dolomite by flotation, the acting mechanisms of WHL depressor and both the minerals were studied by means of thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), Fourier transform infrareddiffuse reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-DRS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that WHL formed metal salts with metal ions dissolved in water from dolomite and pyrite, which then deposited on their surfaces. Both of the minerals could be depressed by WHL. In the process of flotation, sulfur was created besides the WHL being absorbed on the surface of the sulfur concentrate, and its recovery rate was slightly affected.

  12. Pyrite synthesis via polysulfide compounds (United States)

    Luther, George W., III


    The reactions of Fe(II) and Fe(III) solutions with polysulfide solutions prepared from freshly synthesized Na 2S x ( x = 2, 4, 5) were studied at 25 and 100°C over the pH range 5.5 to 8. Direct and instantaneous pyrite formation was not observed in any reaction. High temperature reactions are nearly quantitative over periods of four hours with Fe(II) and polysulfide solutions. The rate of reaction at room temperature is comparable to that found by RICKARD (1975), and the observations reported here are in agreement with his mechanism of pyrite formation. Based on the polarographic results of these reactions and previous work, a refinement of the mechanism which includes dissolved iron sulfide complexes is proposed. Every reaction of equimolar amounts of polysulfide and Fe(II) gave the kinetic product "FeS" (an example of the Ostwald step rule). Polarographic results demonstrate that the "FeS" initially formed consists of (1) a complex of the form Fe(SH) + and (2) solid FeS. When excess polysulfide is present, a complex of form [Fe(SH) S x] - is present. This complex should readily allow for (1) the reduction of polysulfide by sulfide which produces S 22- in unprotonated form, and (2) the change of Fe(II) from high spin to low spin during the formation of pyrite. The reduction of polysulfide by sulfide was proposed by RICKARD (1975), but at the pH of the solutions studied herein, S 22- in solution should be protonated. The 22- ion is critical in the formation and structure of pyrite ( TOSSEL et al., 1981). The proposed complex allows for a cyclic intermediate which cleaves the reacting polysulfide to form S 22- unprotonated. As this process occurs, there is a change in the spin state of the Fe(II) from the high spin t 2g4e g2 to the low spin t 2g6 state which is an electron configuration exhibiting kinetic inertness. On change of the Fe(II) spin state, the complex irreversibly decomposes to form pyrite. The complex may be a cluster complex containing two or more

  13. Hydrogeologic and environmental impact of amjhore pyrite mines, India (United States)

    Choubey, Vishnu D.; Rawat, Rajendra K.


    Drainage from active and inactive pyrite mines has produced chemical and physical pollution of both ground- and surface water in Amjhore region. In the present case, chemical pollution is caused by exposing pyrite minerals to oxidation or leaching, resulting in undesirable concentrations of dissolved materials. Pyrite mining suddenly exposed large quantities of sulfides to direct contact with oxygen, and oxidation proceeds rapidly, resulting in acidity and release of metal (Fe) and sulfates to the water system, eventually resulting in water pollution in the region. The magnitude and impact of the problem is just being recognized and, as the present and the future projected demand for clean water is of top priority, the present studies were undertaken. Mine drainage includes water flowing from the surface and underground mines and runoff or seepage from the pyrite mines. This article describes the various hydrologic factors that control acid water formation and its transport. The mine drainage is obviously a continuing source of pollution and, therefore, remedial measures mainly consisting of a double-stage limestone-lime treatment technique have been suggested. The present results will be used to develop an alternative and more effective abatement technology to mitigate acid production at the source, namely, the technique of revegetation of the soil cover applied to the waste mine dump material. Water quality change is discussed in detail, with emphasis on acidity formed from exposed pyrite material and on increase in dissolved solids. Preventive and treatment measures are recommended.

  14. Hydrogeological and environmental impact of Amjhore pyrite mines, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, V.D.; Rawat, R.K. (Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India))

    Drainage from active and inactive pyrite mines has produced chemical and physical pollution of both ground and surface water in Amjhore region. In the present case, chemical pollution is caused by exposing pyrite minerals to oxidation or leaching, resulting in undesirable concentrations of dissolved materials. Pyrite mining suddenly exposed large quantities of sulfides to direct contact with oxygen, and oxidation proceeds rapidly, resulting in acidity and release of metal (Fe) and sulfates to the water system, eventually resulting in water pollution in the region. The magnitude and impact of the problem is just being recognized and, as the present and the future projected demand for problem demand for clean water is of top priority, the present studies were undertaken. Mine drainage includes water flowing from the surface and underground mines and runoff or seepage from the pyrite mines. This article describes the various hydrologic factors that control acid water formation and its transport. The mine drainage is obviously a continuing source of pollution and, therefore, remedial measures mainly consisting of a double-stage limestone-lime treatment technique have been suggested. The present results will be used to develop an alternative and more effective abatement technology to mitigate acid production at the source, namely, the technique of revegetation of the soil cover applied to the waste mine dump material. Water quality change is discussed in detail, with emphasis on acidity formed from exposed pyrite material and on increase in dissolved solids. Preventive and treatment measures are recommended.

  15. Carrier-microencapsulation using Si-catechol complex for suppressing pyrite floatability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, R.K.T.; Satur, J.; Hiroyoshi, N.; Ito, M.; Tsunekawa, M. [Hokkaido University, Hokkaido (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering


    Pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) is a common sulfide mineral associated with valuable metal minerals and coal, and it is rejected as a gangue mineral using physical separation techniques such as froth flotation and discharged into tailing pond. In the flotation, pyrite is frequently entrapped in the froth due to its hydrophobic nature. Formation of acid mine drainage due to the air-oxidation of pyrite in the tailing pond is also a serious problem. The authors have proposed carrier-microencapsulation (CME) as a method for suppressing both the floatability and oxidation of pyrite. In this method, pyrite is coated with a thin layer of metal oxide or hydroxide using catechol solution as a carrier combined with metal ions. The layer converts the pyrite surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic and acts as a protective coating against oxidation. The present study demonstrates the effect of CME using Si-catechol complex to suppress the pyrite floatability: The bubble pick-up experiments showed that attachment of pyrite particles to air bubble is suppressed by the CME treatment at pH 4-10, Si-catechol complex concentration over 0.5 mol m{sup -3} and treatment time within 2 min. The Hallimond tube flotation experiments showed that the pyrite floatability is suppressed by the CME treatment even in the presence of typical flotation collectors such as kerosene and xanthate. SEM-EDX analysis confirmed that Si present on the pyrite surface treated by Si-catechol complex, implying that SiO{sub 2} or SiOH{sub 4} layer formed by the CME treatment convert the pyrite surface hydrophobic to hydrophilic.

  16. Pyritized ooids from the Arabian Sea basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.; Rao, Ch.M.; Reddy, N.P.C.

    . Occurrence of pyrite at turbidite intervals suggests that pyritization in high organic carbon and H2S abundant environments was mainly controlled by the supply of reactive iron. From the distribution of pyrite in the core it is inferred that reactive iron...

  17. Quantitative surface characterization using a Nomarski microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brug, H. van; Booij, S.M.; Fähnle, O.W.; Bijl, R.J.M. van der


    The use of a Nomarski microscope for the characterization of surface features will be presented. Since a Nomarski microscope measures slope values, the shape of a surface can be followed quantitatively. Besides, a Nomarski microscope can be used to analyze surface roughness in terms of rms value and

  18. Radioactive Ions for Surface Characterization

    CERN Multimedia


    The collaboration has completed a set of pilot experiments with the aim to develop techniques for using radioactive nuclei in surface physics. The first result was a method for thermal deposition of isolated atoms (Cd, In, Rb) on clean metallic surfaces. \\\\ \\\\ Then the diffusion history of deposited Cd and In atoms on two model surfaces, Mo(110) and Pd(111), was followed through the electric field gradients (efg) acting at the probe nuclei as measured with the Perturbed Angular Correlation technique. For Mo(110) a rather simple history of the adatoms was inferred from the experiments: Atoms initially landing at terrace sites diffuse from there to ledges and then to kinks, defects always present at real surfaces. The next stage is desorption from the surface. For Pd a scenario that goes still further was found. Following the kink stage the adatoms get incorporated into ledges and finally into the top surface layer. For all these five sites the efg's could be measured.\\\\ \\\\ In preparation for a further series o...

  19. The mechanisms of pyrite oxidation and leaching: A fundamental perspective (United States)

    Chandra, A. P.; Gerson, A. R.


    Pyrite is the earth's most abundant sulfide mineral. Its frequent undesirable association with minerals of economic value such as sphalerite, chalcopyrite and galena, and precious metals such as gold necessitates costly separation processes such as leaching and flotation. Additionally pyrite oxidation is a major contributor to the environmental problem of acid rock drainage. The surface oxidation reactions of pyrite are therefore important both economically and environmentally. Significant variations in electrical properties resulting from lattice substitution of minor and trace elements into the lattice structure exist between pyrite from different geographical locations. Furthermore the presence of low coordination surface sites as a result of conchoidal fracture causes a reduction in the band gap at the surface compared to the bulk thus adding further electrochemical variability. Given the now general acceptance after decades of research that electrochemistry dominates the oxidation process, the geographical location, elemental composition and semi-conductor type (n or p) of pyrite are important considerations. Aqueous pyrite oxidation results in the production of sulfate and ferrous iron. However other products such as elemental sulfur, polysulfides, hydrogen sulfide, ferric hydroxide, iron oxide and iron(III) oxyhydroxide may also form. Intermediate species such as thiosulfate, sulfite and polythionates are also proposed to occur. Oxidation and leach rates are generally influenced by solution Eh, pH, oxidant type and concentration, hydrodynamics, grain size and surface area in relation to solution volume, temperature and pressure. Of these, solution Eh is most critical as expected for an electrochemically controlled process, and directly correlates with surface area normalised rates. Studies using mixed mineral systems further indicate the importance of electrochemical processes during the oxidation process. Spatially resolved surface characterisation of fresh

  20. Surfaces. [characterization of surface properties for predicting bond quality (United States)

    Buckley, D. H.


    Techniques for the characterization of surface cleanliness and roughness for predicting the quality of an adhesive bond are outlined. Generally, smooth surfaces are only available from cleavage of crystalline materials along a natural cleavage plane. Films must be deposited on metal surfaces to achieve the same smoothness. Once the surfaces are clean, however, reaction with the ambient atmosphere becomes likely through diffusive and absorption processes, producing asperities. Electron diffraction, Auger electron, and X ray emission spectroscopy are used to characterize surface condition. Once the surface is observed to be clean, the application of an adhesive will usually prohibit separation along the adhesive; separation is then confined to the weaker of the two materials. Finally, the use of polytetrafluorothylene adhesive to test the adhesion between polymers and metal surfaces is described.

  1. Enhanced Characterization of Niobium Surface Topography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xu, Hui Tian, Charles Reece, Michael Kelley


    Surface topography characterization is a continuing issue for the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) particle accelerator community. Efforts are underway to both to improve surface topography, and its characterization and analysis using various techniques. In measurement of topography, Power Spectral Density (PSD) is a promising method to quantify typical surface parameters and develop scale-specific interpretations. PSD can also be used to indicate how chemical processes modifiesy the roughnesstopography at different scales. However, generating an accurate and meaningful topographic PSD of an SRF surface requires careful analysis and optimization. In this report, polycrystalline surfaces with different process histories are sampled with AFM and stylus/white light interferometer profilometryers and analyzed to indicate trace topography evolution at different scales. evolving during etching or polishing. Moreover, Aan optimized PSD analysis protocol will be offered to serve the SRF surface characterization needs is presented.

  2. Relationship between pyrite Stability and arsenic mobility during aquifer storage and recovery in southwest central Florida. (United States)

    Jones, Gregg W; Pichler, Thomas


    Elevated arsenic concentrations are common in water recovered from aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) systems in west-central Florida that store surface water. Investigations of the Suwannee Limestone of the Upper Floridan aquifer, the storage zone for ASR systems, have shown that arsenic is highest in pyrite in zones of high moldic porosity. Geochemical modeling was employed to examine pyrite stability in limestone during simulated injections of surface water into wells open only to the Suwannee Limestone with known mineralogy and water chemistry. The goal was to determine if aquifer redox conditions could be altered to the degree of pyrite instability. Increasing amounts of injection water were added to native storage-zone water, and resulting reaction paths were plotted on pyrite stability diagrams. Native storage-zone water plotted within the pyrite stability field, indicating that conditions were sufficiently reducing to allow for pyrite stability. Thus, arsenic is immobilized in pyrite, and its groundwater concentration should be low. This was corroborated by analysis of water samples, none of which had arsenic concentrations above 0.036 microg/L. During simulation, however, as injection/native storage-zone water ratios increased, conditions became less reducing and pyrite became unstable. The result would be release of arsenic from limestone into storage-zone water.

  3. Optical Characterization of Nanostructured Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft

    spectrum; the new method only evaluates the color of the reflected light using a standard RGB color camera. Color scatterometry provides the combined advantages of spectroscopic scatterometry, which provides fast evaluations, and imaging scatterometry that provides an overview image from which small...... implementation, a range of complementing characterization methods is needed to perform high-speed quality control of the nanostructures. This thesis concerns the development of a new method for fast in-line characterization of periodic nanostructures. The focus is on optical scatterometry, which uses inverse......, with trapezoidal profiles approximately ~200 nm high and with periods between 600 nm and 5000 nm. The heights and filling factors are determined with an accuracy of ~8 %, while the sidewall slopes have larger uncertainties due to a lower influence on the reflected light. The thesis also evaluates the use...

  4. Manipulation of pyrite colonization and leaching by iron-oxidizing Acidithiobacillus species. (United States)

    Bellenberg, Sören; Barthen, Robert; Boretska, Mariia; Zhang, Ruiyong; Sand, Wolfgang; Vera, Mario


    In this study, the process of pyrite colonization and leaching by three iron-oxidizing Acidithiobacillus species was investigated by fluorescence microscopy, bacterial attachment, and leaching assays. Within the first 4-5 days, only the biofilm subpopulation was responsible for pyrite dissolution. Pyrite-grown cells, in contrast to iron-grown cells, were able to oxidize iron(II) ions or pyrite after 24 h iron starvation and incubation with 1 mM H₂O₂, indicating that these cells were adapted to the presence of enhanced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are generated on metal sulfide surfaces. Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans SS3 and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans R1 showed enhanced pyrite colonization and biofilm formation compared to A. ferrooxidans (T). A broad range of factors influencing the biofilm formation on pyrite were also identified, some of them were strain-specific. Cultivation at non-optimum growth temperatures or increased ionic strength led to a decreased colonization of pyrite. The presence of iron(III) ions increased pyrite colonization, especially when pyrite-grown cells were used, while the addition of 20 mM copper(II) ions resulted in reduced biofilm formation on pyrite. This observation correlated with a different extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) composition of copper-exposed cells. Interestingly, the addition of 1 mM sodium glucuronate in combination with iron(III) ions led to a 5-fold and 7-fold increased cell attachment after 1 and 8 days of incubation, respectively, in A. ferrooxidans (T). In addition, sodium glucuronate addition enhanced pyrite dissolution by 25%.

  5. Microbial acceleration of aerobic pyrite oxidation at circumneutral pH. (United States)

    Percak-Dennett, E; He, S; Converse, B; Konishi, H; Xu, H; Corcoran, A; Noguera, D; Chan, C; Bhattacharyya, A; Borch, T; Boyd, E; Roden, E E


    Pyrite (FeS2 ) is the most abundant sulfide mineral on Earth and represents a significant reservoir of reduced iron and sulfur both today and in the geologic past. In modern environments, oxidative transformations of pyrite and other metal sulfides play a key role in terrestrial element partitioning with broad impacts to contaminant mobility and the formation of acid mine drainage systems. Although the role of aerobic micro-organisms in pyrite oxidation under acidic-pH conditions is well known, to date there is very little known about the capacity for aerobic micro-organisms to oxidize pyrite at circumneutral pH. Here, we describe two enrichment cultures, obtained from pyrite-bearing subsurface sediments, that were capable of sustained cell growth linked to pyrite oxidation and sulfate generation at neutral pH. The cultures were dominated by two Rhizobiales species (Bradyrhizobium sp. and Mesorhizobium sp.) and a Ralstonia species. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing and genome reconstruction indicated the presence of Fe and S oxidation pathways in these organisms, and the presence of a complete Calvin-Benson-Bassham CO2 fixation system in the Bradyrhizobium sp. Oxidation of pyrite resulted in thin (30-50 nm) coatings of amorphous Fe(III) oxide on the pyrite surface, with no other secondary Fe or S phases detected by electron microscopy or X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Rates of microbial pyrite oxidation were approximately one order of magnitude higher than abiotic rates. These results demonstrate the ability of aerobic microbial activity to accelerate pyrite oxidation and expand the potential contribution of micro-organisms to continental sulfide mineral weathering around the time of the Great Oxidation Event to include neutral-pH environments. In addition, our findings have direct implications for the geochemistry of modern sedimentary environments, including stimulation of the early stages of acid mine drainage formation and mobilization of pyrite-associated metals

  6. Biogenic syngenetic pyrite from tuffaceous sedimentary RF3-V rocks (United States)

    Kozyreva, Irina; Nikulova, Natalia


    Biogenic framboidal pyrite was found in intraformational tuffaceous sedimentary gravelites, within basic volcanites (RF3-V) in Subpolar Urals (Sablya Ridge). Pyrite grains (Fe 44.07-44,33, S 50.22-53.31 wt. %) are composed of ball-like microconcretions, sometimes intergrown with crystals of pentagondodecahedron and cubic habit. The microconcretions (20 to 40 mcm) are roundish and composed of microcrystals, which end faces form spherical surface. The nuclei of the microconcretions are represented by frambohedrons 4-5 mcm in size, which are pyritized cells of sulphate-reducing colonial coccoid microfossils. The formation of the frambohedrons occurred synchronously to sedimentation in stagnant reducing environment at interaction of biogenic hydrogen sulphide with water-dissolved iron. The biogenic hydrogen sulphide is reduced by microorganisms in the conditions of free and unrestricted access of dissolved sulphate ions sourced from sulphur of fumarole gases. Iron came from washed-out basic volcanites. The growth of outer radial parts of microconcretions occurred during compaction of sediments in diagenetic stage. The quantity of dissolved sulphate and iron during pyrite formation exceeded possibilitites of bacterial "starters" which resulted in the formation of pyrites of other morphological varieties. This is confirmed by the accretion of concentric rays of the concretions and cubic microcrystals of pyrite in the aggregate grains. The formation of tuffaceous sediments occurred during temporary decrease of volcanic activity in a continuous linear water flow with stagnant areas composed of water-displaced pebbles from underlying metaterrigenous rocks (RF 1-2), which were exposed beyond the development area of volcanic strata, unchanged clasts of recent and synchronously formed basic and medium volcanites with participation of air-driven ashes and influence of volcanic gases in the presence of sulphate-reducing bacteria. The work is financially supported by the Program

  7. Traceable surface characterization using replica moulding technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasparin, Stefania; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tosello, Guido


    Characterization of ultra-finely finished surfaces (e.g. mirrored surfaces or polished specimens) is nowadays challenging due to possible part damage if a contact instrument is used or due to scattered light if the measurements are performed with optical instruments. In order to prevent these pro...

  8. Fractal characterization of fracture surfaces in concrete (United States)

    Saouma, V.E.; Barton, C.C.; Gamaleldin, N.A.


    Fractal geometry is used to characterize the roughness of cracked concrete surfaces through a specially built profilometer, and the fractal dimension is subsequently correlated to the fracture toughness and direction of crack propagation. Preliminary results indicate that the fracture surface is indeed fractal over two orders of magnitudes with a dimension of approximately 1.20. ?? 1990.

  9. Surface characterization based upon significant topographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, J; Grime, D; Blateyron, F, E-mail: [Digital Surf, 16 rue Lavoisier, F-25000 Besancon (France)


    Watershed segmentation and Wolf pruning, as defined in ISO 25178-2, allow the detection of significant features on surfaces and their characterization in terms of dimension, area, volume, curvature, shape or morphology. These new tools provide a robust way to specify functional surfaces.

  10. Integrated biomechanical and topographical surface characterization (IBTSC) (United States)

    Löberg, Johanna; Mattisson, Ingela; Ahlberg, Elisabet


    In an attempt to reduce the need for animal studies in dental implant applications, a new model has been developed which combines well-known surface characterization methods with theoretical biomechanical calculations. The model has been named integrated biomechanical and topographical surface characterization (IBTSC), and gives a comprehensive description of the surface topography and the ability of the surface to induce retention strength with bone. IBTSC comprises determination of 3D-surface roughness parameters by using 3D-scanning electron microscopy (3D-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), and calculation of the ability of different surface topographies to induce retention strength in bone by using the local model. Inherent in this integrated approach is the use of a length scale analysis, which makes it possible to separate different size levels of surface features. The IBTSC concept is tested on surfaces with different level of hierarchy, induced by mechanical as well as chemical treatment. Sequential treatment with oxalic and hydrofluoric acid results in precipitated nano-sized features that increase the surface roughness and the surface slope on the sub-micro and nano levels. This surface shows the highest calculated shear strength using the local model. The validity, robustness and applicability of the IBTSC concept are demonstrated and discussed.

  11. Integrated biomechanical and topographical surface characterization (IBTSC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Löberg, Johanna, E-mail: [Dentsply Implants, Box 14, SE-431 21 Mölndal (Sweden); Mattisson, Ingela [Dentsply Implants, Box 14, SE-431 21 Mölndal (Sweden); Ahlberg, Elisabet [Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)


    In an attempt to reduce the need for animal studies in dental implant applications, a new model has been developed which combines well-known surface characterization methods with theoretical biomechanical calculations. The model has been named integrated biomechanical and topographical surface characterization (IBTSC), and gives a comprehensive description of the surface topography and the ability of the surface to induce retention strength with bone. IBTSC comprises determination of 3D-surface roughness parameters by using 3D-scanning electron microscopy (3D-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), and calculation of the ability of different surface topographies to induce retention strength in bone by using the local model. Inherent in this integrated approach is the use of a length scale analysis, which makes it possible to separate different size levels of surface features. The IBTSC concept is tested on surfaces with different level of hierarchy, induced by mechanical as well as chemical treatment. Sequential treatment with oxalic and hydrofluoric acid results in precipitated nano-sized features that increase the surface roughness and the surface slope on the sub-micro and nano levels. This surface shows the highest calculated shear strength using the local model. The validity, robustness and applicability of the IBTSC concept are demonstrated and discussed.

  12. Surface characterization of carbohydrate microarrays. (United States)

    Scurr, David J; Horlacher, Tim; Oberli, Matthias A; Werz, Daniel B; Kroeck, Lenz; Bufali, Simone; Seeberger, Peter H; Shard, Alexander G; Alexander, Morgan R


    Carbohydrate microarrays are essential tools to determine the biological function of glycans. Here, we analyze a glycan array by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to gain a better understanding of the physicochemical properties of the individual spots and to improve carbohydrate microarray quality. The carbohydrate microarray is prepared by piezo printing of thiol-terminated sugars onto a maleimide functionalized glass slide. The hyperspectral ToF-SIMS imaging data are analyzed by multivariate curve resolution (MCR) to discern secondary ions from regions of the array containing saccharide, linker, salts from the printing buffer, and the background linker chemistry. Analysis of secondary ions from the linker common to all of the sugar molecules employed reveals a relatively uniform distribution of the sugars within the spots formed from solutions with saccharide concentration of 0.4 mM and less, whereas a doughnut shape is often formed at higher-concentration solutions. A detailed analysis of individual spots reveals that in the larger spots the phosphate buffered saline (PBS) salts are heterogeneously distributed, apparently resulting in saccharide concentrated at the rim of the spots. A model of spot formation from the evaporating sessile drop is proposed to explain these observations. Saccharide spot diameters increase with saccharide concentration due to a reduction in surface tension of the saccharide solution compared to PBS. The multivariate analytical partial least squares (PLS) technique identifies ions from the sugars that in the complex ToF-SIMS spectra correlate with the binding of galectin proteins.

  13. Isolation and characterization of bacteria on the drainage water from Ratones mine and its behaviour on pyrite; Aislamiento y caracterizacion de bacterias en aguas de la mina de ratones y su comportamiento con pirita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merino, J. L.; Saez, R. M.


    This paper describes some of the studies made about iron and sulfur oxidizing bacteria on the drainage water from Ratones mine. Different liquid and solid media were utilized as well as some energy sources, ferrous sulphate, thiosulfate and sulfur. Some experiment were al so realized on museum grade pyrite aimed at determining the possibilities of applying the mentioned bacteria on the leaching of pyrite and subsequently on the leaching of uranium ores. (Author) 27 refs.

  14. Iron pyrite thin films synthesized from an Fe(acac)3 ink. (United States)

    Seefeld, Sean; Limpinsel, Moritz; Liu, Yu; Farhi, Nima; Weber, Amanda; Zhang, Yanning; Berry, Nicholas; Kwon, Yon Joo; Perkins, Craig L; Hemminger, John C; Wu, Ruqian; Law, Matt


    Iron pyrite (cubic FeS2) is a promising candidate absorber material for earth-abundant thin-film solar cells. Here, we report on phase-pure, large-grain, and uniform polycrystalline pyrite films that are fabricated by solution-phase deposition of an iron(III) acetylacetonate molecular ink followed by sequential annealing in air, H2S, and sulfur gas at temperatures up to 550 °C. Phase and elemental compositions of the films are characterized by conventional and synchrotron X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). These solution-deposited films have more oxygen and alkalis, less carbon and hydrogen, and smaller optical band gaps (E(g) = 0.87 ± 0.05 eV) than similar films made by chemical vapor deposition. XPS is used to assess the chemical composition of the film surface before and after exposure to air and immersion in water to remove surface contaminants. Optical measurements of films rich in marcasite (orthorhombic FeS2) show that marcasite has a band gap at least as large as pyrite and that the two polymorphs share similar absorptivity spectra, in excellent agreement with density functional theory models. Regardless of the marcasite and elemental impurity contents, all films show p-type, weakly activated transport with curved Arrhenius plots, a room-temperature resistivity of ~1 Ω cm, and a hole mobility that is too small to measure by Hall effect. This universal electrical behavior strongly suggests that a common defect or a hole-rich surface layer governs the electrical properties of most FeS2 thin films.

  15. Absorption mapping for characterization of glass surfaces. (United States)

    Commandré, M; Roche, P; Borgogno, J P; Albrand, G


    The surface quality of bare substrates and preparation procedures take on an important role in optical coating performances. The most commonly used techniques of characterization generally give information about roughness and local defects. A photothermal deflection technique is used for mapping surface absorption of fused-silica and glass substrates. We show that absorption mapping gives specific information on surface contamination of bare substrates. We present experimental results concerning substrates prepared by different cleaning and polishing techniques. We show that highly polished surfaces lead to the lowest values of residual surface absorption. Moreover the cleaning behavior of surfaces of multicomponent glasses and their optical performance in terms of absorption are proved to be different from those of fused silica.

  16. Pyrite sulfur isotopes reveal glacial-interglacial environmental changes (United States)

    Pasquier, Virgil; Sansjofre, Pierre; Rabineau, Marina; Revillon, Sidonie; Houghton, Jennifer; Fike, David A.


    The sulfur biogeochemical cycle plays a key role in regulating Earth’s surface redox through diverse abiotic and biological reactions that have distinctive stable isotopic fractionations. As such, variations in the sulfur isotopic composition (δ34S) of sedimentary sulfate and sulfide phases over Earth history can be used to infer substantive changes to the Earth’s surface environment, including the rise of atmospheric oxygen. Such inferences assume that individual δ34S records reflect temporal changes in the global sulfur cycle; this assumption may be well grounded for sulfate-bearing minerals but is less well established for pyrite-based records. Here, we investigate alternative controls on the sedimentary sulfur isotopic composition of marine pyrite by examining a 300-m drill core of Mediterranean sediments deposited over the past 500,000 y and spanning the last five glacial-interglacial periods. Because this interval is far shorter than the residence time of marine sulfate, any change in the sulfur isotopic record preserved in pyrite (δ34Spyr) necessarily corresponds to local environmental changes. The stratigraphic variations (>76‰) in the isotopic data reported here are among the largest ever observed in pyrite, and are in phase with glacial-interglacial sea level and temperature changes. In this case, the dominant control appears to be glacial-interglacial variations in sedimentation rates. These results suggest that there exist important but previously overlooked depositional controls on sedimentary sulfur isotope records, especially associated with intervals of substantial sea level change. This work provides an important perspective on the origin of variability in such records and suggests meaningful paleoenvironmental information can be derived from pyrite δ34S records.

  17. Galvanic interaction between galena and pyrite in an open system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Li; LI Heping; XU Liping


    Galvanic interactions between sulfide minerals have very important influences on hydrometallurgical processes, the supergene enrichment of sulfides and the formation of acid mine drainage. By changing the concentrations of Fe3 + , the pH values, status of the flowing of the solution and the solution salinity ( e. g. the concentrations of Na2 SO4 ) and monitoring the galvanic currents and potentials, studies were conducted in this work on the galvanic interaction between pyrite acting as the anode and galena acting as the cathode. The results indicated that the concentrations of Fe3 + , pH values and the flowing of the solution exhibit a great effect on the galvanic interaction of galena-pyrite couple, while the salinity of the solution has only a slight influence on the interaction. The experiments also revealed that in case cracks exist on the surface of pyrite electrode, the potential of pyrite will decrease so sharply as to be lower than that of galena under the same experimental condition. The experimental results were explained in terms of the Butler-Volume equation and the theory of mixed potential.

  18. Role of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical in pyrite oxidation by molecular oxygen (United States)

    Schoonen, Martin A. A.; Harrington, Andrea D.; Laffers, Richard; Strongin, Daniel R.


    Hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical are readily formed during the oxidation of pyrite with molecular oxygen over a wide range of pH conditions. However, pretreatment of the pyrite surface influences how much of the intermediates are formed and their fate. Acid-washed pyrite produces significant amounts of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical when suspended in air-saturated water. However, the hydrogen peroxide concentration shows an exponential decrease with time. Suspensions made with partially oxidized pyrite yield significantly lower amounts of hydrogen peroxide product. The presence of Fe(III)-oxide or Fe(III)-hydroxide patches facilitates the conversion of hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water. Hence, the degree to which a pyrite surface is covered with patches of Fe(III)-oxide or Fe(III)-hydroxide patches is an important control on the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in solution. Hydrogen peroxide appears to be an important intermediate in the four-electron transfer from pyrite to molecular oxygen. Addition of catalase, an enzyme that decomposes hydrogen peroxide to water and molecular oxygen, to a pyrite suspension reduces the oxidation rate by 40%. By contrast, hydroxyl radical does not appear to play a significant role in the oxidation mechanism. It is estimated on the basis of a molecular oxygen and sulfate mass balance that 5-6% of the molecular oxygen is consumed without forming sulfate.

  19. Adsorção de xantatos sobre pirita Adsorption of xanthate on pyrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Garcia Penha


    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of adsorption of xanthate with alkyl chain of two (C2XK, four (C4XK and eight (C8XK atoms of carbon, on pyrite from Santa Catarina, Brazil. The results showed that pyrite surface changes from hydrophilic to hydrophobic when xanthate is adsorbed increasing the contact angle to 35º for C2XK, and to 90º for C4XK and C8XK. The rate of flotation of pyrite particles after adsorption increases with the increase of the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain in agreement with the results of contact angle measurements.

  20. Surface science tools for nanomaterials characterization

    CERN Document Server


    Fourth volume of a 40volume series on nano science and nanotechnology, edited by the renowned scientist Challa S.S.R. Kumar. This handbook gives a comprehensive overview about Surface Science Tools for Nanomaterials Characterization. Modern applications and state-of-the-art techniques are covered and make this volume an essential reading for research scientists in academia and industry.

  1. Adhesion to bovine dentin--surface characterization. (United States)

    Ruse, N D; Smith, D C


    X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) were used to characterize the dentin surface, to determine the effects of different pre-conditioning procedures on the elemental composition of the dentin surface, and to investigate the interaction between dentin and a dentin bonding agent (ScotchBond) by studying the changes in the elemental composition of dentin as a result of the interaction. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize sample surface morphology, which was then correlated with surface elemental composition. The results showed that: (a) the elemental composition of the smear layer was similar to that of the underlying dentin; (b) cleaning with hydrogen-peroxide did not produce any modification in the elemental composition of the dentin surface; and (c) acid-etching led to an almost complete demineralization of the dentin, leaving behind an organic-rich surface. The results suggest that bonding systems that use acid-etching as a pre-conditioning procedure should be based on agents able to interact with the organic components of dentin, since bonding agents that rely on a chelation-to-calcium reaction are unlikely to be successful. The investigation of the interaction between the bonding agent and dentin led to a postulated adhesive-bonding reaction mechanism and suggested a partially cohesive failure in the bonding agent during fracturing of a dentin-bonding-agent-bonded assembly.

  2. Flocculation of Pyrite Fines in Aqueous Suspensions with Corn Starch to Eliminate Mechanical Entrainment in Flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ge


    Full Text Available The hydrophilic flocculation of pyrite fines in aqueous suspensions with corn starch was studied by measuring particle size distribution, microscopy observation and micro-flotation. Furthermore, the interaction of corn starch with pyrite was investigated by determining the adsorption density and based on zeta potential measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS analysis in this work. The results of the particle size distribution measurement show that corn starch can effectively aggregate pyrite fines, and the pyrite floccules (flocs are sensitive to mechanical stirring. The micro-flotation results suggest that the mechanical entrainment of pyrite fines in flotation can be effectively eliminated through the formation of large-size flocs. The zeta potential of pyrite particles decreases with the addition of corn starch. The XPS results prove that carboxyl groups are generated on the digested corn starch, and both iron hydroxyl compounds and ferrous disulfide on the pyrite surface can chemically interact with the corn starch digested by sodium hydroxide.

  3. Selective separation of arsenopyrite from pyrite by biomodulation in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. (United States)

    Chandraprabha, M N; Natarajan, K A; Somasundaran, P


    Effective methods for selective separation using flotation or flocculation of arsenopyrite from pyrite by biomodulation using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans are presented here. Adhesion of the bacterium to the surface of arsenopyrite was very slow compared to that to pyrite, resulting in a difference in surface modification of the minerals subsequent to interaction with cells. The cells were able to effectively depress pyrite flotation in presence of collectors like potassium isopropyl xanthate and potassium amyl xanthate. On the other hand the flotability of arsenopyrite after conditioning with the cells was not significantly affected. The activation of pyrite by copper sulfate was reduced when the minerals were conditioned together, resulting in better selectivity. Selective separation could also be achieved by flocculation of biomodulated samples.

  4. Scattered surface charge density: A tool for surface characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Naydenov, Borislav


    We demonstrate the use of nonlocal scanning tunneling spectroscopic measurements to characterize the local structure of adspecies in their states where they are significantly less perturbed by the probe, which is accomplished by mapping the amplitude and phase of the scattered surface charge density. As an example, we study single-H-atom adsorption on the n-type Si(100)-(4 × 2) surface, and demonstrate the existence of two different configurations that are distinguishable using the nonlocal approach and successfully corroborated by density functional theory. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  5. Flotation and Adsorption of a New Polysaccharide Depressant on Pyrite and Talc in the Presence of a Pre-Adsorbed Xanthate Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Deng


    Full Text Available The flotation and adsorption of a new polysaccharide konjac gum (KG on pyrite and talc in the presence of pre-adsorbed potassium butyl xanthate (PBX is investigated. The micro-flotation results show that KG is a quality depressant for talc and that conditioning the minerals initially with PBX before KG will increase the recovery difference between pyrite and talc. The results of artificially mixing the minerals show that compared with adding KG before PBX, when minerals are pre-adsorbed with PBX, the grade and the recovery of sulfur (S increases by 1.96% and 5.44%, respectively. The contact angle results show that the addition of PBX before KG will increase the contact angles of pyrite, but the addition order of KG/PBX has little influence on the contact angles of talc. The adsorption tests show that KG can adsorb on pyrite and talc surfaces, while PBX can only adsorb on the pyrite surface. The addition order of KG/PBX affects the adsorption of KG and PBX on the pyrite surface but not on the talc surface. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra analysis further demonstrates the chemical adsorption of KG on pyrite and talc surfaces, while PBX chemisorbs on the pyrite surface. Based on these analyses, a schematic illustration of the reagent adsorption forms on pyrite and talc surfaces is drawn to explain the competitive adsorption of KG and PBX on mineral surfaces.

  6. Ultrasonic ash/pyrite liberation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yungman, B.A.; Buban, K.S.; Stotts, W.F.


    The objective of this project was to develop a coal preparation concept which employed ultrasonics to precondition coal prior to conventional or advanced physical beneficiation processes such that ash and pyrite separation were enhanced with improved combustible recovery. Research activities involved a series of experiments that subjected three different test coals, Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8, and Upper Freeport, ground to three different size fractions (28 mesh [times] 0, 200 mesh [times] 0, and 325 mesh [times] 0), to a fixed (20 kHz) frequency ultrasonic signal prior to processing by conventional and microbubble flotation. The samples were also processed by conventional and microbubble flotation without ultrasonic pretreatment to establish baseline conditions. Product ash, sulfur and combustible recovery data were determined for both beneficiation processes.

  7. Interaction between pyrite and cysteine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-she; WANG Zhao-hui; LI Bang-mei; ZHANG Yan-hua


    The adsorption mechanism of cysteine on pyrite was studied by amounts adsorbed, FTIR and XRD measurements. The results obtained by adsorption experiment suggest that as the mass ratio of mineral to cysteine mp/mc is greater than 5, the amounts adsorbed on mineral is stable after adsorption for 15 min and cysteine adsorbing with mp/mc shows the same tendency. It can be inferred by its Langmuir-type adsorption isotherm that chemical interaction governs the entire adsorption process. The results from FTIR and XRD prove that the functional groups of cysteine appear with blue shift of their characteristic adsorption peak in FTIR spectrum; meanwhile, the lattice constant obviously decreases and the widening of crystal planes such as (210), (220) and (211) is found after cysteine adsorbing on mineral.

  8. Computational characterization of ordered nanostructured surfaces (United States)

    Mohieddin Abukhdeir, Nasser


    A vital and challenging task for materials researchers is to determine relationships between material characteristics and desired properties. While the measurement and assessment of material properties can be complex, quantitatively characterizing their structure is frequently a more challenging task. This issue is magnified for materials researchers in the areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology, where material structure is further complicated by phenomena such as self-assembly, collective behavior, and measurement uncertainty. Recent progress has been made in this area for both self-assembled and nanostructured surfaces due to increasing accessibility of imaging techniques at the nanoscale. In this context, recent advances in nanomaterial surface structure characterization are reviewed including the development of new theory and image processing methods.

  9. Bio-oxidation of pyrite, chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper deals with the bio-oxidation processes by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans of pyrite, chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite. Our experimental results show distinctive bio-oxidation characteristics for the three sulfide minerals. In the presence of A. ferrooxidans, the sulfide oxidation rates generally decrease in the order of pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite and pyrite. The pH during bio-oxidation of pyrite tends to decrease as a whole, whereas a rise-fall pattern was recorded for both chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite in their pH variations. No deposition was observed during the bio-oxidation of pyrite, suggesting a possible link to lower pH value in the process. However, large amounts of jarosite and element sulfur were determined in the bio-oxidation processes of chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite. A. ferrooxidans individuals were found directly as attachments to erosion pits on the smooth surface of pyrite. The erosion pits are similar to the bacterium in shape and length, and thus are probably products of dissolution of organic acid secreted by the cells on the mineral surface. More complicatedly, biofilm exists on the surfaces of chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite. This type of structured community of A. ferrooxidans is enclosed in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and covered with the deposition generated in the bio-oxidation processes of chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite. Different bio-oxidation processes of pyrite, chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite may be linked mainly to characteristics of individual minerals and the pH in the reaction solution of the bio-oxidation system.

  10. A silica/fly ash-based technology for controlling pyrite oxidation. Semi-annual, March 1, 1996 - August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelou, V.P. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)


    The overall objective is to develop methodologies by which metasilicate or fly ash may produce an effective coating on pyrite surfaces for inhibiting pyrite oxidation. During the past six months, the investigators produced wet chemistry evidence demonstrating that pyrite-HCO{sub 3} complexes promote pyrite oxidation. This is an important finding for their over all strategy in controlling pyrite oxidation because it suggests that pyrite microencapsulation is important in order to control oxidation in near cirumneutral pH environments produced by addition of alkaline material, e.g., fly ash. In their previous studies, the investigators reported that pyrite microencapsulation could be carried out by reacting pyrite with a pH buffered solution and in the presence of metasilicate. The coating formed on the surface of pyrite appeared to be an amorphous iron-oxide-silicate material which inhibited pyrite oxidation. During this past six months, the investigators evaluated: the molecular mechanisms of silicate adsorption by iron oxide; the effects of silicate on the bulk and surface properties of iron oxides; and the effect of silicate on metal-cation adsorption properties by iron oxides.

  11. Characterization of surface hydrophobicity of engineered nanoparticles. (United States)

    Xiao, Yao; Wiesner, Mark R


    The surface chemistry of nanoparticles, including their hydrophobicity, is a key determinant of their fate, transport and toxicity. Engineered NPs often have surface coatings that control the surface chemistry of NPs and may dominate the effects of the nanoparticle core. Suitable characterization methods for surface hydrophobicity at the nano-scale are needed. Three types of methods, surface adsorption, affinity coefficient and contact angle, were investigated in this study with seven carbon and metal based NPs with and without coatings. The adsorption of hydrophobic molecules, Rose Bengal dye and naphthalene, on NPs was used as one measure of hydrophobicity and was compared with the relative affinity of NPs for octanol or water phases, analogous to the determination of octanol-water partition coefficients for organic molecules. The sessile drop method was adapted for measuring contact angle of a thin film of NPs. Results for these three methods were qualitatively in agreement. Aqueous-nC(60) and tetrahydrofuran-nC(60) were observed to be more hydrophobic than nano-Ag coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone or gum arabic, followed by nano-Ag or nano-Au with citrate-functionalized surfaces. Fullerol was shown to be the least hydrophobic of seven NPs tested. The advantages and limitations of each method were also discussed.

  12. A kinetic assessment of substantial oxidation by sulfolobus acidocaldarius in pyrite dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitaya, V.B.; Koizumi, J.; Toda, K. (King Mongkuts Institute of Technology, Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)


    The relative contributions of biological and chemical reactions to the total rate of pyrite oxidation in the presence of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius were studied on the basis of experimental work coupled with mathematical modeling. Kinetic constants for the individual reactions were determined in independent experiments. The specific growth rate of cells on the pyrite surface, which is the only unknown parameter, was assumed to be [mu](s) 0.1 h[sup -1] and justified by the agreement of the simulated results of a proposed model and the experimental results. The model includes: reversible adsorption, biological dissolution of pyrite by the adsorbed cells, chemical dissolution of pyrite accompanied by the reduction of ferric ions to ferrous ions, biochemical oxidation of ferrous ions to ferric ions by free cells, and change of the surface area of pyrite particles. It is suggested that the contributions of direct (biological) and indirect (chemical) reaction to the total rate of pyrite oxidation were in a ratio of 2:1.

  13. Characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, L.C.; Ishida, Takanobu.


    The characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces has been accomplished through the use of four major electrochemical techniques. These were chronoamperometry, chronopotentiommetry, cyclic voltammetry, and linear sweep voltammetry. A systematic study on the under-potential deposition of several transition metals has been performed. The most interesting of these were: Ag, Cu, Cd, and Pb. It was determined, by subjecting the platinum electrode surface to a single potential scan between {minus}0.24 and +1.25 V{sub SCE} while stirring the solution, that the electrocatalytic activity would be regenerated. As a consequence of this study, a much simpler method for producing ultra high purity water from acidic permanganate has been developed. This method results in water that surpasses the water produced by pyrocatalytic distillation. It has also been seen that the wettability of polycrystalline platinum surfaces is greatly dependent on the quantity of oxide present. Oxide-free platinum is hydrophobic and gives a contact angle in the range of 55 to 62 degrees. We have also modified polycrystalline platinum surface with the electrically conducting polymer poly-{rho}-phenylene. This polymer is very stable in dilute sulfuric acid solutions, even under applied oxidative potentials. It is also highly resistant to electrochemical hydrogenation. The wettability of the polymer modified platinum surface is severely dependent on the choice of supporting electrolyte chosen for the electrochemical polymerization. Tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate produces a film that is as hydrophobic as Teflon, whereas tetraethylammonium perchlorate produces a film that is more hydrophilic than oxide-free platinum.

  14. Surface Characterization of Virulent Treponema pallidum (United States)

    Alderete, John F.; Baseman, Joel B.


    Characterization of the surface of Treponema pallidum was accomplished by [125I]lactoperoxidase-catalyzed iodination of intact organisms and sensitive radioimmunoprecipitation and gel electrophoresis technology. At least 11 outer membrane proteins with molecular weights ranging from 89,000 (89K) to 20K were identified, and all elicited high titers of antibody in experimentally infected rabbits. Proteins of 89.5K, 29.5K, and 25.5K previously implicated as ligands involved in attachment (J. B. Baseman and E. C. Hayes, J. Exp. Med. 151:573-586, 1980) were found to reside on the treponemal surface. Low levels of the 89.5K treponemal protein were released by high salt concentrations, whereas the remaining comigrating material was neither radioiodinated nor released with selective detergents. Other lower-molecular-weight (60K, 45K, and 30K) surface proteins were extracted with octyl glucoside detergent, suggesting their hydrophobic interaction with the external membrane. The molecular organization of surface proteins was studied by employing the cross-linker dithiobis(succinimidyl)-propionate, and data suggested the presence of a highly fluid envelope resulting in random collisions by the surface proteins. The biological function of the treponemal outer envelope proteins was evaluated using, as the indicator system, adherence of T. pallidum to monolayer cultures of eucaryotic cells. Trypsin treatment of motile, freshly harvested organisms decreased the extent of surface parasitism to normal rabbit testicular cells, reinforcing the idea of the proteinaceous nature and role of treponemal ligands for attachment. Other data supported functional and antigenic relatedness among the implicated ligands. Finally, brief periodate treatment of human epithelial (HEp-2) and normal rat testicular cells as well as casein-elicited rabbit peritoneal macrophages significantly reduced the extent of treponemal parasitism, suggesting a role of specific host membrane molecules as mediators of

  15. Action time effect of lime on its depressive ability for pyrite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tichang Sun


    Two sample groups of bulk concentrates consisting mainly of pyrite and chalcopyrite from Daye and Chenghchao Mines in Hubei Province of China were used to investigate the effect of the action time of lime on its depressive ability for pyrite. The experimental results conducted with different samples and collectors showed that the action time between lime and pyrite markedly influences the depressive ability of lime. The depressive ability of lime increased with the action time increasing. It was also proved that the depressive results obtained at a large lime dosage after a shorter action time are similar to those obtained at a small lime dosage after a longer action time. The increase of depressive ability of lime after a longer action time is because that there are different mechanisms in different action time. The composition on the surface of pyrite acted for different time with lime was studied by using ESCA (Electron Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis). The results showed that iron hydroxide and calcium sulphate formed on the pyrite surface at the presence of lime in the pulp but the amounts of iron hydroxide and calcium sulphate were different at different action time. At the beginning action time the compound formed on the pyrite surface was mainly calcium sulphate and almost no iron hydroxide formed; but with the action time increasing, iron hydroxide formed. The longer the action time, the more iron hydroxide and the less calcium sulphate formed. It was considered that the stronger depressive ability of lime after a longer action time is because more iron hydroxide forms on the pyrite surface.

  16. Heterocoagulation of chalcopyrite and pyrite minerals in flotation separation. (United States)

    Mitchell, Timothy K; Nguyen, Anh V; Evans, Geoffrey M


    Heterocoagulation between various fine mineral particles contained within a mineral suspension with different structural and surface chemistry can interfere with the ability of the flotation processes to selectively separate the minerals involved. This paper examines the interactions between chalcopyrite (a copper mineral) and pyrite (an iron mineral often bearing gold) as they approach each other in suspensions with added chemicals, and relates the results to the experimental data for the flotation recovery and selectivity. The heterocoagulation was experimentally studied using the electrophoretic light scattering (ELS) technique and was modelled by incorporating colloidal forces, including the van der Waals, electrostatic double layer and hydrophobic forces. The ELS results indicated that pyrite has a positive zeta potential (zeta) up to its isoelectric point (IEP) at approximately pH 2.2, while chalcopyrite has a positive zeta up to its IEP at approximately pH 5.5. This produces heterocoagulation of chalcopyrite with pyrite between pH 2.2 and pH 5.5. The heterocoagulation was confirmed by the ELS spectra measured with a ZetaPlus instrument from Brookhaven and by small-scale flotation experiments.

  17. Spatial Mapping for Managing Oxidized Pyrite (FeS2 in South Sumatra Wetlands, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Edi Armanto


    Full Text Available The research aimed to analyze spatial mapping for managing oxidized pyrite (FeS2 in South Sumatra wetlands, Indonesia. The field observations are done by exploring several transect on land units. The field description refers to Soil Survey Staff (2014. Water and soil samples were taken from selected key areas for laboratory analysis. The vegetation data was collected by making sample plots (squares method placed on each vegetation type with plot sizes depending on the vegetation type, namely 10 x 10 m for secondary forests and 5 x 5 m for shrubs and grass. The observations of surface water level were done during the river receding with units of m above sea level (m asl. The research results showed that pyrite formation is largely determined by the availability of natural vegetation as Sulfur (S donors, climate and uncontrolled water balance and supporting fauna such as crabs and mud shrimp.  Climate and water balance as well as supporting faunas is the main supporting factors to accelerate the process of pyrite formation. Oxidized pyrite serves to increase soil acidity, becomes toxic to fish ponds and arable soils, plant growth and disturbing the water and soil nutrient balances. Oxidized pyrite is predominantly accelerated by the dynamics of river water and disturbed natural vegetation by human activities.  The pyrite oxidation management approach is divided into three main components of technologies, namely water management, land management and commodity management.

  18. Degradation of off-gas toluene in continuous pyrite Fenton system. (United States)

    Choi, Kyunghoon; Bae, Sungjun; Lee, Woojin


    Degradation of off-gas toluene from a toluene reservoir and a soil vapor extraction (SVE) process was investigated in a continuous pyrite Fenton system. The removal of off-gas toluene from the toluene reservoir was >95% by 8h in the pyrite Fenton system, while it was ∼97 % by 3h in classic Fenton system and then rapidly decreased to initial level by 8h. Continuous consumption of low Fe(II) concentration dissolved from pyrite surface (0.05-0.11 mM) was observed in the pyrite Fenton system, which can lead to the effective and successful removal of the gas-phase toluene due to stable production of OH radical (OH). Inhibitor and spectroscopic test results showed that OH was a dominant radical that degraded gas-phase toluene during the reaction. Off-gas toluene from the SVE process was removed by 96% in the pyrite Fenton system, and remnant toluene from rebounding effect was treated by 99%. Main transformation products from toluene oxidation were benzoic acid (31.4%) and CO2 (38.8%) at 4h, while traces of benzyl alcohol (1.3%) and benzaldehyde (0.7%) were observed. Maximum operation time of continuous pyrite Fenton system was estimated to be 56-61 d and its optimal operation time achieving emission standard was 28.9 d. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Copper-arsenic decoupling in an active geothermal system: A link between pyrite and fluid composition (United States)

    Tardani, Daniele; Reich, Martin; Deditius, Artur P.; Chryssoulis, Stephen; Sánchez-Alfaro, Pablo; Wrage, Jackie; Roberts, Malcolm P.


    -ray maps and SIMS depth vs. isotope concentration profiles reveal that pyrites from the TGS are characterized by chemical zoning where the studied elements occur in different mineralogical forms. Arsenic and Co occur as structurally bound elements in pyrite, Cu and Au in pyrite can occur as both solid solution and submicron-sized particles of chalcopyrite and native Au (or Au tellurides), respectively. Pyrites from the deeper propylitic zone do not show significant zonation and high Cu-(Co)-As concentrations correlate with each other. In contrast, well-developed zonations were detected in pyrite from the shallow argillic alteration zone, where Cu(Co)-rich, As-depleted cores alternate with Cu(Co)-depleted, As-rich rims. These microanalytical data were contrasted with chemical data of fluid inclusions in quartz and calcite veins (high Cu/As ratios) and borehole fluid (low Cu/As ratios) reported at the TGS, showing a clear correspondence between Cu and As concentrations in pyrite-forming fluids and chemical zonation in pyrite. These observations provide direct evidence supporting the selective partitioning of metals into pyrite as a result of changes in ore-forming fluid composition, most likely due to separation of a single-phase fluid into a low-density vapor and a denser brine, capable of fractionating Cu and As.

  20. A plateau-valley separation method for multifunctional surfaces characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Kühle, A.; De Chiffre, Leonardo


    Turned multifunctional surfaces are a new typology of textured surfaces presenting a flat plateau region and deterministically distributed lubricant reservoirs. Existing standards are not suitable for the characterization of such surfaces, providing at times values without physical meaning. A new...

  1. Morphology, origin and infrared microthermometry of fluid inclusions in pyrite from the Radka epithermal copper deposit, Srednogorie zone, Bulgaria (United States)

    Kouzmanov, Kalin; Bailly, Laurent; Ramboz, Claire; Rouer, Olivier; Bény, Jean-Michel


    Pyrite samples from the Radka epithermal, replacement type, volcanic rock-hosted copper deposit, Bulgaria, have been studied using near-infrared (IR) microscopy. Two generations of pyrite based on their textures, composition and behaviour in IR light can be distinguished. Electron microprobe analyses, X-ray elemental mapping and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to study the relationship between crystal zoning, trace element contents and IR transmittance of pyrite. The observed crystal zoning is related to variable arsenic contents in massive fine-grained and colloform pyrite from the early pyrite-quartz assemblage, and cobalt contents in pyrite crystals from the late quartz-pyrite vein assemblage. There is a negative correlation between trace element content and IR transmittance of pyrite. The IR transparency of pyrite is thus a sensitive indicator of changes in trace element concentrations. Fluid inclusions have only been found in the second pyrite generation. Scanning electron microscopy observations on open fluid inclusion cavities permitted the crystallographic features of vacuoles to be determined. A characteristic feature of primary fluid inclusions in pyrite is a negative crystal habit, shaped mainly by {100}, {111} and {210}. This complicated polyhedral morphology is the reason for the observed opacity of some isometric primary inclusions. Secondary fluid inclusion morphology depends on the nature of the surface of the healed fracture. Recognition of the primary or secondary origin of fluid inclusions is enhanced by using crystallographically oriented sections. Microthermometric measurements of primary inclusions indicate that the second pyrite generation was deposited at maximum P-T conditions of 400 °C and 430 bar and from a fluid of low bulk salinity (3.5-4.6 wt%), possibly KCl-dominant. There are large ranges for homogenisation temperatures in secondary inclusions because of necking-down processes. Decrepitation features of some of

  2. Bacterial Disproportionation of Elemental Sulfur Inferred from a Field Study of Stable-Isotope Fractionations between Elemental Sulfur and Pyrite (United States)

    Hardisty, D.; Pratt, L. M.; Olyphant, G. A.; Bell, J.; Johnson, A.


    Elemental sulfur (ES) is a common product of pyrite oxidation during acid mine drainage (AMD), but bacterial disproportionation of ES has not previously been inferred in acidic environments. Pore water profiles were collected seasonally within a coal-mine waste deposit, Minnehaha, in Southwest Indiana that has been abandoned for over 30 years. Geochemical characterization and modeling were used to assess how the interactions between the sulfur and iron cycle are affected by seasonally dynamic hydrologic conditions. Pore waters were collected seasonally and concentrations of Fe-species and sulfur isotopic compositions of sulfate were determined. Additionally, a sediment core was collected and used for sequential extraction and isotopic characterization of solid-phase sulfur species including elemental sulfur (δ34Ses), pyrite (δ34Spy), acid-volatile sulfides, water-soluble sulfates, and acid-soluble sulfates. The dominant disulfide phase was found to be pyrite through x-ray diffraction of an additional sediment core. Sulfur isotope fractionations between δ34Spy and δ34Ses (Δ34Ses-py) of up to -33% are inferred to indicate bacterial disproportionation of ES in the presence of a non-limiting sulfide 'scrub' Fe(III). The initial isotopic composition, following formation from pyrite oxidation, is inferred from δ34Spy, found to be ≈ 8.75% at the study site. Although ES has previously been found to accumulate in acidic Fe(III)-rich pore waters, ES is typically assumed to account for less than 1% of the oxidized sulfur pool and measurements of the ES isotopic composition are often neglected during field studies of acid AMD. The pore waters at Minnehaha were seasonally suboxic with sharp transitions from Fe(III)- to Fe(II)- dominated conditions near the phreatic surface. It is hypothesized that the sulfide product of ES disproportionation, fractionated by up to -8.6%, is immediately re-oxidized to ES near the redox gradient via reaction with Fe(III). Sulfide re

  3. Thermal characterization of nanoporous 'black silicon' surfaces (United States)

    Nichols, Logan; Duan, Wenqi; Toor, Fatima


    In this work we characterize the thermal conductivity properties of nanoprous `black silicon' (bSi). We fabricate the nanoporous bSi using the metal assisted chemical etching (MACE) process utilizing silver (Ag) metal as the etch catalyst. The MACE process steps include (i) electroless deposition of Ag nanoparticles on the Si surface using silver nitrate (AgNO3) and hydrofluoric acid (HF), and (ii) a wet etch in a solution of HF and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The resulting porosity of bSi is dependent on the ratio of the concentration of HF to (HF + H2O2); the ratio is denoted as rho (ρ). We find that as etch time of bSi increases the thermal conductivity of Si increases as well. We also analyze the absorption of the bSi samples by measuring the transmission and reflection using IR spectroscopy. This study enables improved understanding of nanoporous bSi surfaces and how they affect the solar cell performance due to the porous structures' thermal properties.

  4. Influence of the sulfur species reactivity on biofilm conformation during pyrite colonization by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. (United States)

    Lara, René H; García-Meza, J Viridiana; Cruz, Roel; Valdez-Pérez, Donato; González, Ignacio


    Massive pyrite (FeS₂) electrodes were potentiostatically modified by means of variable oxidation pulse to induce formation of diverse surface sulfur species (S(n)²⁻, S⁰). The evolution of reactivity of the resulting surfaces considers transition from passive (e.g., Fe(1-x )S₂) to active sulfur species (e.g., Fe(1-x )S(2-y ), S⁰). Selected modified pyrite surfaces were incubated with cells of sulfur-oxidizing Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans for 24 h in a specific culture medium (pH 2). Abiotic control experiments were also performed to compare chemical and biological oxidation. After incubation, the attached cells density and their exopolysaccharides were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLMS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) on bio-oxidized surfaces; additionally, S(n)²⁻/S⁰ speciation was carried out on bio-oxidized and abiotic pyrite surfaces using Raman spectroscopy. Our results indicate an important correlation between the evolution of S(n)²⁻/S⁰ surface species ratio and biofilm formation. Hence, pyrite surfaces with mainly passive-sulfur species were less colonized by A. thiooxidans as compared to surfaces with active sulfur species. These results provide knowledge that may contribute to establishing interfacial conditions that enhance or delay metal sulfide (MS) dissolution, as a function of the biofilm formed by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.

  5. Distribution of arsenic, selenium, and other trace elements in high pyrite Appalachian coals: evidence for multiple episodes of pyrite formation (United States)

    Diehl, S.F.; Goldhaber, M.B.; Koenig, A.E.; Lowers, H.A.; Ruppert, L.F.


    Pennsylvanian coals in the Appalachian Basin host pyrite that is locally enriched in potentially toxic trace elements such as As, Se, Hg, Pb, and Ni. A comparison of pyrite-rich coals from northwestern Alabama, eastern Kentucky, and West Virginia reveals differences in concentrations and mode of occurrence of trace elements in pyrite. Pyrite occurs as framboids, dendrites, or in massive crystalline form in cell lumens or crosscutting veins. Metal concentrations in pyrite vary over all scales, from microscopic to mine to regional, because trace elements are inhomogeneously distributed in the different morphological forms of pyrite, and in the multiple generations of sulfide mineral precipitates. Early diagenetic framboidal pyrite is usually depleted in As, Se, and Hg, and enriched in Pb and Ni, compared to other pyrite forms. In dendritic pyrite, maps of As distribution show a chemical gradient from As-rich centers to As-poor distal branches, whereas Se concentrations are highest at the distal edges of the branches. Massive crystalline pyrite that fills veins is composed of several generations of sulfide minerals. Pyrite in late-stage veins commonly exhibits As-rich growth zones, indicating a probable epigenetic hydrothermal origin. Selenium is concentrated at the distal edges of veins. A positive correlation of As and Se in pyrite veins from Kentucky coals, and of As and Hg in pyrite-filled veins from Alabama coals, suggests coprecipitation of these elements from the same fluid. In the Kentucky coal samples (n = 18), As and Se contents in pyrite-filled veins average 4200 ppm and 200 ppm, respectively. In Alabama coal samples, As in pyrite-filled veins averages 2700 ppm (n = 34), whereas As in pyrite-filled cellular structures averages 6470 ppm (n = 35). In these same Alabama samples, Se averages 80 ppm in pyrite-filled veins, but was below the detection limit in cell structures. In samples of West Virginia massive pyrite, As averages 1700 ppm, and Se averages 270

  6. Characterization of Surface Modification of Polyethersulfone Membrane (United States)

    Surface modification of polyethersulfone (PES) membrane surface using UV/ozone-treated grafting and interfacial polymerization on membrane surface was investigated in order to improve the resistance of membrane surface to protein adsorption. These methods of surface modification were compared in te...

  7. Attenuation of pyrite oxidation with a fly ash pre-barrier: Reactive transport modelling of column experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lopez, R.; Cama, J.; Nieto, J.M.; Ayora, C.; Saaltink, M.W. [University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain). Dept. of Geology


    Conventional permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for passive treatment of groundwater contaminated by acid mine drainage (AMD) use limestone as reactive material that neutralizes water acidity. However, the limestone-alkalinity potential ceases as inevitable precipitation of secondary metal-phases on grain surfaces occurs, limiting its efficiency. In the present study, fly ash derived from coal combustion is investigated as an alternative alkalinity generating material for the passive treatment of AMD using solution-saturated column experiments. Unlike conventional systems, the utilization of fly ash in a pre-barrier to intercept the non-polluted recharge water before this water reacts with pyrite-rich wastes is proposed. Chemical variation in the columns was interpreted with the reactive transport code RETRASO. In parallel, kinetics of fly ash dissolution at alkaline pH were studied using flow-through experiments and incorporated into the model. In a saturated column filled solely with pyritic sludge-quartz sand (1: 10), oxidation took place at acidic conditions (pH 3.7). According to SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} release and pH, pyrite dissolution occurred favourably in the solution-saturated porous medium until dissolved O{sub 2} was totally consumed. In a second saturated column, pyrite oxidation took place at alkaline conditions (pH 10.45) as acidity was neutralized by fly ash dissolution in a previous level. At this pH Fe release from pyrite dissolution was immediately depleted as Fe-oxy(hydroxide) phases that precipitated on the pyrite grains, forming Fe-coatings (microencapsulation). With time, pyrite microencapsulation inhibited oxidation in practically 97% of the pyritic sludge. Rapid pyrite-surface passivation decreased its reactivity, preventing AMD production in the relatively short term.

  8. Characterization and robust filtering of multifunctional surfaces using ISO standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Kasper Storgaard; Godi, Alessandro; De Chiffre, Leonardo


    to the multi-process production method involved. A series of MUFU surfaces were characterized by using the ISO 13565 standard for stratified surfaces and it is shown that the standard in some cases is inadequate for the characterization of a MUFU surface. To improve the filtering of MUFU surfaces, the robust...... Gaussian regression filtering technique described in ISO 16610-31 is analyzed and discussed. By slight modifications it is shown how the robust Gaussian regression filter can be applied to remove the form and find a suitable reference surface for further characterization of the MUFU surfaces...

  9. The Application of Marker Based Segmentation for Surface Texture Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Pin Nuraini binti


    Full Text Available Structured surfaces have been increasingly used in industry for a variety of applications, including improving the tribological properties of the surfaces. Surface metrology plays an important role in this discipline since with the help of surface metrology technology, surface texture can be measured, visualize and quantified. Traditional surface texture parameters, such as roughness and waviness, cannot be related to the function for structured surfaces due to the less statistical description and little information. Therefore, a new approaches based on characterizing the structured surface is introduces where this paper focus on type of edges grain surface. To identify features, it is a must to detect the location of the edges and segmented the features based on the detected edges. Hence characterization of surface texture segmentation based on the edges detection is developing using Marker Based segmentation and it is prove that this method is possible to be used in order to characterize the structured surface.

  10. A demonstration of an affinity between pyrite and organic matter in a hydrothermal setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holm Nils G


    Full Text Available Abstract One of the key-principles of the iron-sulphur world theory is to bring organic molecules close enough to interact with each other, using the surface of pyrite as a substrate in a hydrothermal setting. The present paper explores the relationship of pyrite and organic matter in a hydrothermal setting from the geological record; in hydrothermal calcite veins from Carboniferous limestones in central Ireland. Here, the organic matter is accumulated as coatings around, and through, pyrite grains. Most of the pyrite grains are euhedral-subhedral crystals, ranging in size from ca 0.1-0.5 mm in diameter, and they are scattered throughout the matrix of the vein calcite. The organic matter was deposited from a hydrothermal fluid at a temperature of at least 200°C, and gives a Raman signature of disordered carbon. This study points to an example from a hydrothermal setting in the geological record, demonstrating that pyrite can have a high potential for the concentration and accumulation of organic materials.

  11. Pyrite Formation in Organic-rich Clay, Calcitic and Coal-Forming Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gordana DEVI(C); Petar PFENDT; Branimir JOVAN(C)I(C)EVI(C); Zoran POPOVIC


    The early diagenetic characteristics of pyrite formation processes in a Miocene freshwater sequence of mixed sediments (coal fragments in clays, sandstones or shales) alternating with continuous brown coal layers was investigated. Based on abundant minerals, the following main sedimentary environments were distinguished: the illite-montmorillonitic (I-M), calcitic (Ct) and coal-forming environment (CL). For these hydrogeochemically differing environments the effects of limiting factors on the pyrite formation process (availability of sulphate and Fe, amount of organic matter and participation of organic sulphur) were assessed by correlation analysis. Significant differences in the effects of these limiting factors in the particular environments were observed. These differences were explained taking in account the different oxidative activity, Fe-complex and surface complex forming properties of hnmic substances in dependence of pH of environment and the abundance of sorptionally active clay minerals. In environments having a relatively low pH and containing clay minerals (I-Mand CL-environments) the oxidative activity of humic substances (Hs) on pyrite precursors was greatly prevented however pyrite formation depended on reactive Fe availability as the consequence of complex formation. On the contrary, in environments with a relatively high pH, as it was the calcitic,the oxidative activity of Hs was greatly enhanced, thus oxidizing the sulfur precursors of pyrite. The oxidation degree of organic matter was probably also a consequence of the differing activity of the humic electron-acceptors.

  12. Ferruginous Microspherules in Bauxite at Maochang, Guizhou Province, China: Products of Microbe-Pyrite Interaction?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yuefei; WANG Rucheng; LU Jianjun; LI Yiliang


    The Maochang bauxite in Guizhou Province is one of the important aluminum ore deposits in southwestern China. Ferruginous spherules, measuring about a few microns across, were found in the transitional layer of the deposit. The EDS and XRD results show that the microspherules are composed mostly of iron (hydr)oxide minerals (goethite) with only weak presence of aluminum and silicon.Occasionally, some pyrite micrograins with dissolved surface are found associated with goethite within the spherules. It is thus suggested that microspherules are linked to pyrite oxidization. It is also thought that microbial activities contribute not only to pyrite oxidization, but also to ball-like assemblage of the iron (hydr)oxides. The mechanism of the formation of ferruginous microspherules is also believed to be important in studying geomicrobiology of bauxite.

  13. Characterization techniques for surface-micromachined devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, W.P.; Smith, N.F.; Irwin, L.; Tanner, D.M.


    Using a microengine as the primary test vehicle, the authors have examined several aspects of characterization. Parametric measurements provide fabrication process information. Drive signal optimization is necessary for increased microengine performance. Finally, electrical characterization of resonant frequency and quality factor can be more accurate than visual techniques.

  14. Pyrite (FeS 2) oxidation: A sub-micron synchrotron investigation of the initial steps (United States)

    Chandra, Anand P.; Gerson, Andrea R.


    Pyrite is an environmentally significant mineral being the major contributor to acid rock drainage. Synchrotron based SPEM (scanning photoelectron microscopy) and micro-XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) have been used to characterise fresh and oxidised pyrite (FeS 2) with a view to understanding the initial oxidation steps that take place during natural weathering processes. Localised regions of the pyrite surface containing Fe species of reduced coordination have been found to play a critical role. Such sites not only initiate the oxidation process but also facilitate the formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radical species, which then lead the S oxidation process. Four different S species are found to be present on fresh fractured pyrite surfaces: S 22-(bulk) (4-fold coordination), S 22-(surface) (3-fold coordination), S 2- and S 0/S n2- (metal deficient sulfide and polysulfide respectively). These species were found to be heterogeneously distributed on the fractured pyrite surface. Both O 2 and H 2O gases are needed for effective oxidation of the pyrite surface. The process is initiated when O 2 dissociatively and H 2O molecularly adsorb onto the surface Fe sites where high dangling bond densities exist. H 2O may then dissociate to produce rad OH radicals. The adsorption of these species leads to the formation of Fe-oxy species prior to the formation of sulfoxy species. Evidence suggests that Fe-O bonds form prior to Fe-OH bonds. S oxidation occurs through interactions of rad OH radicals formed at the Fe sites, with formation of SO 42- occurring via S 2O 32-/SO 32- intermediates. The pyrite oxidation process is electrochemical in nature and was found to occur in patches, where site specific adsorption of O 2 and H 2O has occurred. Fe and S oxidation was found to occur within the same area of oxidation probably in atomic scale proximity. Furthermore, the O in SO 42- arises largely from H 2O; however, depending on the surface history, SO 42- formed early in

  15. Semiconductor Surface Characterization by Scanning Probe Microscopies (United States)


    potentiometry (STP)8 and ballistic electron emission microscopy (BEEM)9 which allow mapping of lateral surface potential and local subsurface Schottky...A.P.Fein. "Tunneling Spectroscopy of the Si(1 1 1)2xl Surface", Surf.Sci. 181, 295- 306, 1987. 8. P.Muralt, D.W.Pohl, "Scanning tunneling potentiometry

  16. Egypt satellite images for land surface characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    Satellite images provide information on the land surface properties. From optical remote sensing images in the blue, green, red and near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum it is possible to identify a large number of surface features. The report briefly describes different satellite...

  17. Electrochemical Properties for Co-Doped Pyrite with High Conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchao Liu


    Full Text Available In this paper, the hydrothermal method was adopted to synthesize nanostructure Co-doped pyrite (FeS2. The structural properties and morphology of the synthesized materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. Co in the crystal lattice of FeS2 could change the growth rate of different crystal planes of the crystal particles, which resulted in various polyhedrons with clear faces and sharp outlines. In addition, the electrochemical performance of the doping pyrite in Li/FeS2 batteries was evaluated using the galvanostatic discharge test, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results showed that the discharge capacity of the doped material (801.8 mAh·g−1 with a doping ratio of 7% was significantly higher than that of the original FeS2 (574.6 mAh·g−1 because of the enhanced conductivity. Therefore, the doping method is potentially effective for improving the electrochemical performance of FeS2.

  18. Surficial phase-identification and structural profiles from weathered natural pyrites: A grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Yuanfeng [State Key Laboratory of Mineral Deposits Research, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of Earth Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)], E-mail:; Pan, Yuguan [State Key Laboratory of Mineral Deposits Research, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xue Jiyue; Su Guizhen [Department of Earth Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)


    Five pyrites with original crystal face (1 0 0) with different tarnish colours were selected from one pyrite-bearing ore sample from Tongling multi-metal deposit, Anhui, China. They are henna mottled with dark violet, yellow mottled with red, yellow, blue mottled with violet and reddish brown in surface colour. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffractometry (GIXRD) was used to study the phases formed or precipitated on the surface of pyrite (1 0 0) face during chemical weathering. By changing the incident angle, GIXRD can provide information on the changes in the mineral phases from the surface as a function of depth. Products formed or precipitated on the surface of pyrite (1 0 0) face are one or several sulfur or iron-bearing hydrated oxides and include gypsum, jalpaite, goethite, goldichite. The sulfur-bearing minerals present on the surface imply the oxidation of sulfur to sulfate, or the reduction of sulfur to sulfide. By analyzing a series of GIXRD patterns obtained at different angles of incidence for a single pyrite, the mineral assemblage differs from the surface into the body of the crystal. Taking the reddish brown sample as an example, four diffraction profiles at 2.575, 2.2105, 1.9118 and 1.613 A are present in the pattern of a 2{sup o} incident angle experiment whereas they cannot be found at a GIXRD angle smaller than 0.6{sup o}.

  19. Characterization and robust filtering of multifunctional surfaces using ISO standards (United States)

    Friis, K. S.; Godi, A.; De Chiffre, L.


    Engineered surfaces containing lubrication pockets and directional surface texture can decrease wear and friction in sliding or rolling contacts. A new generation of multifunctional (MUFU) surfaces has been created by hard machining followed by robot-assisted polishing. The production method allows for a large degree of freedom in specifying surface topography defined by frequency, depth and volume of the lubricant retention valleys, as well as the amount of load bearing area and the surface roughness. The surfaces cannot readily be characterized by means of conventional roughness parameters due to the multi-process production method involved. A series of MUFU surfaces were characterized by using the ISO 13565 standard for stratified surfaces and it is shown that the standard in some cases is inadequate for the characterization of a MUFU surface. To improve the filtering of MUFU surfaces, the robust Gaussian regression filtering technique described in ISO 16610-31 is analyzed and discussed. By slight modifications it is shown how the robust Gaussian regression filter can be applied to remove the form and find a suitable reference surface for further characterization of the MUFU surfaces—even for surfaces with a moderate to small plateau region.

  20. Evidence for microbial dissolution of pyrite from the Lower Cambrian oolitic limestone, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Liu


    Full Text Available The oxidative dissolution of the sulphide mineral pyrite (FeS2 has been of significant interest since it affects global geochemical cycles, generates acid mine drainage, and is used in industrial metal extraction. Several different groups of prokaryotes are known to catalyze the dissolution of pyrite and use the free energy generated from the oxidation, which may result in the dissolution of the mineral and the precipitation of the secondary ferric iron minerals either on the cell surface or is separated from the cells. However, straightforward evidence for such metabolic process in the ancient sediments is rare. Here we report pyrite crystals from the Lower Cambrian oolitic limestones that show indications of microbial erosion in various degrees. Erosion pits and tubular micro-tunnels with characteristic shapes and sizes in our samples are generally similar to those obtained from the laboratory studies on the oxidative dissolution of pyrite by iron-oxidizing bacteria. Diagenetic examination demonstrates that the bioerosion predates the consolidation of the limestone. In addition, bacillus-sized and -shaped microfossils encrusted with iron oxides are present in our samples, which are very likely to be fossilized sheaths produced by iron-oxidizing bacteria. Our findings indicate that the microbial oxidative dissolution of pyrite existed in the Cambrian shallow marine carbonate sediments. Furthermore, we suggest that characteristic pitting patterns on the pyrite crystals from ancient sediments are an important clue to trace the evolution of life, in particular, the evolution of metabolism like microbial iron oxidation in the remote past on our planet, independent of biomarkers, isotopic signals and body fossils as well.

  1. Effects of pyrite on the spontaneous combustion of coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Deng; Xiaofeng Ma; Yutao Zhang; Yaqing Li; Wenwen Zhu


    Pyrite has a significant effect on the spontaneous combustion of coal. The presence of pyrite can change the propensity of coal towards spontaneous combustion. The influences of various pyrite contents on the parameters of spontaneous combustion, such as index gases, temperature and released heat etc., were investigated in this study. Coal samples with different pyrite contents (0%, 3%, 5%, 7%and 9%) were made by mixing coal and pyrite. The oxidation experiments under temperature-programmed condition were carried out to test the release rate of gaseous oxidation products at different temperatures. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was employed to measure the intensity of heat release during coal oxidation for various pyrite contents. The results indicate that pyrite can nonlinearly accelerate the process of spontaneous combustion. The coal sample with a pyrite content of 5% has the largest CO release rate and oxygen adsorption as well. However, the coal sample with a pyrite content of 7% has the largest rate of heat flow according to the results from the DSC tests. Pyrite contents of 5%–7% in coal has the most significant effects on spontaneous combustion within the range of this study. The conclusions are conducive to the evaluation and control for the spontaneous combustion of coal.

  2. Topographic characterization of nanostructures on curved polymer surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Petersen, Jan C.; Taboryski, Rafael J.


    The availability of portable instrumentation for characterizing surface topography on the micro- and nanometer scale is very limited. Particular the handling of curved surfaces, both concave and convex, is complicated or not possible on current instrumentation. However, the currently growing use ...... surfaces in vibration prone production facilities has not previously been reported in the literature, and therefore has great novelty potential....... that the instrument can characterize and validate the micro- and nanoscale topography directly in the production facility, as the interruptive time delay induced from shipping to an external facility is not compatible with present large-scale production routines. Satisfactory characterization of nanostructured curved...

  3. Nanoscale characterization of surfaces and interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    DiNardo, N John


    Derived from the highly acclaimed series Materials Science and Technology, this book provides in-depth coverage of STM, AFM, and related non-contact nanoscale probes along with detailed applications, such as the manipulation of atoms and clusters on a nanometer scale. The methods are described in terms of the physics and the technology of the methods and many high-quality images demonstrate the power of these techniques in the investigation of surfaces and the processes which occur on them.Topics include:Semiconductor Surfaces and Interfaces * Insulators * Layered Compounds * Charg

  4. Influence Factors of Fractal Characterization of Reciprocating Sliding Wear Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周新聪; 冯伟; 严新平; 萧汉梁


    The principal purpose of this paper is to investigate influence factors of fractal characterization of reciprocating sliding wear surfaces.The wear testing was completed to simulate the real running condition of the diesel engine 8NVD48A-2U.The test results of wear surface morphology dimension characterization show that wear surface profiles have statistical self-affine fractal characteristics.In general, there are no effects of the profilometer sampling spacing and sampling length and evaluation length on the fractal dimensions of the surfaces.However, if the evaluation length is too short, the structure function logarithm of the surface profile is scattered.The sampling length acting as a filter is an important part of the fractal dimension measurement.If the sampling length is too short, the evaluation of the fractal dimension will have a larger standard deviation.The continuous wavelet transform can be used to improve surface profile dimension characterization.

  5. High-resolution (SIMS) versus bulk sulfur isotope patterns of pyrite in Proterozoic microbialites with diverse mat textures (United States)

    Gomes, M. L.; Fike, D. A.; Bergmann, K.; Knoll, A. H.


    Sulfur (S) isotope signatures of sedimentary pyrite preserved in marine rocks provide a rich suite of information about changes in biogeochemical cycling associated with the evolution of microbial metabolisms and oxygenation of Earth surface environments. Conventionally, these S isotope records are based on bulk rock measurements. Yet, in modern microbial mat environments, S isotope compositions of sulfide can vary by up to 40‰ over a spatial range of ~ 1 mm. Similar ranges of S isotope variability have been found in Archean pyrite grains using both Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and other micro-analytical techniques. These micron-scale patterns have been linked to changes in rates of microbial sulfate reduction and/or sulfide oxidation, isotopic distillation of the sulfate reservoir due to microbial sulfate reduction, and post-depositional alteration. Fine-scale mapping of S isotope compositions of pyrite can thus be used to differentiate primary environmental signals from post-depositional overprinting - improving our understanding of both. Here, we examine micron-scale S isotope patterns of pyrite in microbialites from the Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic Sukhaya Tunguska Formation and Neoproterozoic Draken Formation in order to explore S isotope variability associated with different mat textures and pyrite grain morphologies. A primary goal is to link modern observations of how sulfide spatial isotope distributions reflect active microbial communities present at given depths in the mats to ancient processes driving fine-sale pyrite variability in microbialites. We find large (up to 60‰) S isotope variability within a spatial range of less than 2.5cm. The micron-scale S isotope measurements converge around the S isotope composition of pyrite extracted from bulk samples of the same microbialites. These micron-scale pyrite S isotope patterns have the potential to reveal important information about ancient biogeochemical cycling in Proterozoic mat environments

  6. Characterization of multifunctional surfaces during fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Friis, Kasper Storgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo


    The multifunctional surfaces herein studied are intended for carrying high loads as well as providing lubrication. They are produced by hard turning, creating a periodic pattern that will constitute the lubricant channels, followed by accurate Robot Assisted Polishing to smooth the tops...

  7. Pyrite nanoparticles as a Fenton-like reagent for in situ remediation of organic pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Gil-Lozano


    Full Text Available The Fenton reaction is the most widely used advanced oxidation process (AOP for wastewater treatment. This study reports on the use of pyrite nanoparticles and microparticles as Fenton reagents for the oxidative degradation of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc as a representative contaminant. Upon oxidative dissolution in water, pyrite (FeS2 particles can generate H2O2 at their surface while simultaneously promoting recycling of Fe3+ into Fe2+ and vice versa. Pyrite nanoparticles were synthesized by the hot injection method. The use of a high concentration of precursors gave individual nanoparticles (diameter: 20 nm with broader crystallinity at the outer interfaces, providing a greater number of surface defects, which is advantageous for generating H2O2. Batch reactions were run to monitor the kinetics of CuPc degradation in real time and the amount of H2O2. A markedly greater degradation of CuPc was achieved with nanoparticles as compared to microparticles: at low loadings (0.08 mg/L and 20 h reaction time, the former enabled 60% CuPc removal, whereas the latter enabled only 7% removal. These results confirm that the use of low concentrations of synthetic nanoparticles can be a cost effective alternative to conventional Fenton procedures for use in wastewater treatment, avoiding the potential risks caused by the release of heavy metals upon dissolution of natural pyrites.

  8. Fractal characterization of surface electrical discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egiziano, L.; Femia, N.; Lupo' , G.; Tucci, V. (Salerno Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Ingegneria Elettronica Naples Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Ingegneria Elettrica)


    The concepts of fractal geometry have been usefully applied to describe several physical processes whose growth mechanisms are characterized by complex topological structures. The fractal characterization of electrical discharges taking place at the air/solid dielectric interface is considered in this paper. A numerical procedure allowing the reproduction the typical discharge patterns, known as Lichtenberg figures, is presented: the growth process of the discharge is simulated by solving iteratively the Laplace equation with moving boundary conditions and by considering two power probability laws whose exponents determine the ramification level of the structure. The discharge patterns are then considered as fractal sets and their characteristic parameters are determined. The dependence of the typical structures on the two exponents of the probability laws are also discussed.

  9. Characterization of aluminum surfaces: Sorption and etching (United States)

    Polkinghorne, Jeannette Clera

    Aluminum, due to its low density and low cost, is a key material for future lightweight applications. However, like other structural materials, aluminum is subject to various forms of corrosion damage that annually costs the United States approximately 5% of its GNP [1]. The main goal is to investigate the effects of various solution anions on aluminum surfaces, and specifically probe pit initiation and inhibition. Using surface analysis techniques including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, results have been correlated with those obtained from electrochemical methods and a radiolabeling technique developed in the Wieckowski laboratory. Analysis of data has indicated that important variables include type of anion, solution pH, and applied electrode potential. While aggressive anions such as chloride are usually studied to elucidate corrosion processes to work ultimately toward inhibition, its corrosive properties can be successfully utilized in the drive for higher energy and smaller-scale storage devices. Fundamental information gained regarding anion interaction with the aluminum surface can be applied to tailor etch processes. Standard electrochemical techniques and SEM are respectively used to etch and analyze the aluminum substrate. Aluminum electrolytic capacitors are comprised of aluminum anode foil covered by an anodically grown aluminum oxide dielectric film, electrolytic paper impregnated with electrolyte, and aluminum cathode foil. Two main processes are involved in the fabrication of aluminum electrolytic capacitors, namely etching and anodic oxide formation. Etching of the anode foil results in a higher surface area (up to 20 times area enlargement compared to unetched foil) that translates into a higher capacitance gain, permitting more compact and lighter capacitor manufacture. Anodic oxide formation on the anode, creates the required dielectric to withstand high voltage operation. A

  10. Thermoacidophilic archaea for pyrite oxidation in coal desulphurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Liselotte


    The desulfurization of low-sulfur coals has been demonstrated with the thermoacidophilic archaeon Acidianus brierleyi. A. brierleyi facilitates the removal of inorganic sulfur from coal and oxidizes mineral pyrite. The results imply that the mechanism behind microbial coal desulfurization and pyrite oxidation is a combination of biotic and abiotic leaching of pyrite. The extent of sulfur removal is dependent on the type of coal and is closely related to he amount of pyritic sulfur in the coal. Studies have shown that neither ash content nor heating value were dramatically affected by the microbial treatment. The use of the archaea Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and Sulfolobus solfataricus, as well as the mesophilic bacteria Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and several Pseudomonas species, has also been studied for coal desulfurization and mineral pyrite oxidation. The archaea and Pseudomonas species did not grow autotrophically on mineral pyrite neither did they oxidize pyrite in coal. The oxidation rate was, however, 5-10 times less than with A. brierleyi on mineral pyrite. The rate of sulfur removal from coal was in the same range as for A. brierleyi which indicates that different reactions are rate limiting in coal depyritization than in mineral pyrite oxidation. 133 refs, 18 figs, 3 tabs

  11. Characterizing Surface Transport Barriers in the South China Sea (United States)


    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Characterizing Surface Transport Barriers in the mathematical methods for detecting key Lagrangian transport structures in velocity field data sets for spatially complex, time- dependent, ocean...surface flows. Such transport structures are typically not inherently obvious in snapshots of the Eulerian velocity field and require analysis

  12. Characterization of Pectin Nanocoatings at Polystyrene and Titanium Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurzawska, Katarzyna; Dirscherl, Kai; Yihua, Yu;


    study was to physically characterize and compare polystyrene and titanium surfaces nanocoated with different Rhamnogalacturonan-Is (RG-I) and to visualize RG-I nanocoatings. RG-Is from potato and apple were coated on aminated surfaces of polystyrene, titianium discs and titanium implants...... wettability, without any major effect on surface roughness (Sa, Sdr). Furthermore, we demonstrated that it is possible to visualize the pectin RG-Is molecules and even the nanocoatings on titanium surfaces, which have not been presented before. The comparison between polystyrene and titanium surface showed...

  13. All inorganic iron pyrite nano-heterojunction solar cells (United States)

    Kirkeminde, Alec; Scott, Randall; Ren, Shenqiang


    The large absorption coefficient of iron pyrite (FeS2) nanocrystals coupled with their low-cost and vast-abundance shows great promise as a potential photovoltaic absorber. Here, we demonstrate that bulk heterojunction (BHJ) nanostructures consisting of 80 nm FeS2 nanocubes (NCs) and 4 nm CdS quantum dot (QD) matrix, lead to a well-defined percolation network, which significantly improved open-circuit voltage (Voc) to 0.79 V and power conversion efficiency of 1.1% under AM 1.5 solar illumination. The localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) arising from p-type colloidal FeS2 NCs exhibit plasmonic photoelectron conversion. Our approach can be applied to a wide range of colloidal nanocrystals exhibiting the LSPRs effect and is compatible with solution processing, thereby offering a general tactic to enhancing the efficiency of all inorganic BHJ solar cells and LSPRs-based NIR photodetectors.The large absorption coefficient of iron pyrite (FeS2) nanocrystals coupled with their low-cost and vast-abundance shows great promise as a potential photovoltaic absorber. Here, we demonstrate that bulk heterojunction (BHJ) nanostructures consisting of 80 nm FeS2 nanocubes (NCs) and 4 nm CdS quantum dot (QD) matrix, lead to a well-defined percolation network, which significantly improved open-circuit voltage (Voc) to 0.79 V and power conversion efficiency of 1.1% under AM 1.5 solar illumination. The localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) arising from p-type colloidal FeS2 NCs exhibit plasmonic photoelectron conversion. Our approach can be applied to a wide range of colloidal nanocrystals exhibiting the LSPRs effect and is compatible with solution processing, thereby offering a general tactic to enhancing the efficiency of all inorganic BHJ solar cells and LSPRs-based NIR photodetectors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32097e

  14. Arsenopyrite and pyrite bioleaching: evidence from XPS, XRD and ICP techniques. (United States)

    Fantauzzi, Marzia; Licheri, Cristina; Atzei, Davide; Loi, Giovanni; Elsener, Bernhard; Rossi, Giovanni; Rossi, Antonella


    In this work, a multi-technical bulk and surface analytical approach was used to investigate the bioleaching of a pyrite and arsenopyrite flotation concentrate with a mixed microflora mainly consisting of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray-induced Auger electron spectroscopy mineral surfaces investigations, along with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy and carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur determination (CHNS) analyses, were carried out prior and after bioleaching. The flotation concentrate was a mixture of pyrite (FeS(2)) and arsenopyrite (FeAsS); after bioleaching, 95% of the initial content of pyrite and 85% of arsenopyrite were dissolved. The chemical state of the main elements (Fe, As and S) at the surface of the bioreactor feed particles and of the residue after bioleaching was investigated by X-ray photoelectron and X-ray excited Auger electron spectroscopy. After bioleaching, no signals of iron, arsenic and sulphur originating from pyrite and arsenopyrite were detected, confirming a strong oxidation and the dissolution of the particles. On the surfaces of the mineral residue particles, elemental sulphur as reaction intermediate of the leaching process and precipitated secondary phases (Fe-OOH and jarosite), together with adsorbed arsenates, was detected. Evidence of microbial cells adhesion at mineral surfaces was also produced: carbon and nitrogen were revealed by CHNS, and nitrogen was also detected on the bioleached surfaces by XPS. This was attributed to the deposition, on the mineral surfaces, of the remnants of a bio-film consisting of an extra-cellular polymer layer that had favoured the bacterial action.

  15. Characterization of micro machined surface from TRIP/TWIP steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaga M.


    Full Text Available In this contribution micro machining induced changes in surface morphology, including phase transformation from fcc-austenite into hcp- and bcc-martensite as well as defined surface topography of TRIP/TWIP steel was characterized by scanning electron microscopy using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD technique. For this, applying micro milling and micro grinding processes with tool diameter of 45 µm, structures were machined into flat specimen surfaces of X30MnAl17–1 steel in defined areas previously characterized by EBSD.

  16. Geochemistry of Early Frasnian (Late Devonian) pyrite-ammonoid level in the Kostomłoty Basin, Poland, and a new proxy parameter for assessing the relative amount of syngenetic and diagenetic pyrite (United States)

    Pisarzowska, Agnieszka; Berner, Zsolt A.; Racki, Grzegorz


    Pyrite geochemistry (isotope and trace element composition, degree of pyritization, S/Corg ratio) was used in context of selected lithogeochemical parameters (major and trace elements, including sulphur, organic carbon, and δ13C of carbonate carbon) to constrain fluctuations in depositional conditions during the Early to Middle Frasnian carbon isotopic perturbation (punctata Event) in the Kostomłoty Basin, Poland. Based on the ratio between the sum of oxyanionic elements and transition metals in pyrite, a new proxy parameter (index of syngenetic pyrite, ISYP) is proposed for assessing the relative amount of syngenetic pyrite in a sample. The distribution of the ISYP along the Kostomłoty - Małe Górki section (upper Szydłówek to the basal Kostomłoty beds) is in concert with conclusions inferred from paleoecologic data and other geochemical parameters (degree of pyritization, S/Corg, δ34Spyrite). According to these, the lower segment of the Szydłówek Beds was deposited in a normally oxygenated environment, but undergoing increasing primary productivity in surface water, as indicated by an increase in δ13Ccarb and in Cu/Zr ratio in bulk rock, which triggered the periodic deposition of sediments slightly enriched in organic matter, notably within the pyrite-ammonoid level (= Goniatite Level). Fluctuating, but in general high S/Corg ratios, DOPR values and ISYP values suggest that during this time - against the background of a generally dysoxic environment - shorter or longer lasting episodes of more restricted (anoxic and possibly even euxinic) bottom water conditions developed. Low sedimentation rates enabled a continuous and practically unlimited supply of sulphate during bacterial sulphate reduction (BSR), which in turn led to a strong depletion of pyrite sulphur in 34S in this interval (constantly around -29‰). In contrast, below and above the Goniatite Level, higher δ34S values (up to + 3‰), are compatible with closed system conditions and higher

  17. Pyritic ash-flow tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada -- A discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, S.I.; Larson, L.T.; Noble, D.C. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)


    Textural and mineralogic evidence exists for at least one episode of widespread hydrothermal alteration of volcanic rocks deep in Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Despite this evidence, Castor et al. infer that most of the pyrite found in tuffs at Yucca Mountain was introduced as ejecta (lithic fragments) incorporated during the eruptions of the tuffs, rather than by in-situ hydrothermal activity. Their conclusions appear to be based on their observation that most of the pyrite resides in unaltered to variably altered and veined lithic fragments, whereas pyrite-bearing veins are absent in the tuff matrix, titanomagnetite and mafic phenocrysts in the matrix are generally not replaced by pyrite, and feldspar phenocrysts in the pyritic tuff matrix are generally unaltered. Castor et al. dismiss the much smaller quantities of pyrite disseminated in the tuff matrix, including relatively rare pyritized hornblende and biotite grains, as xenolithic as well. The pyritic tuffs belong to large-volume, subalkaline rhyolite ash-flow units (ca. > 150 to 250 km{sup 3} each). The interpretation of Castor et al. has broad implications for the temperature, fO{sub 2} and fS{sub 2} of major ash flow eruptions. Pyrite origin also bears on the nature of past fluid flow and water-rock reactions at Yucca Mountain, which in turn are important factors in assessing the potential for currently undiscovered mineral resources in the area of the proposed nuclear waste repository. We have studied core and cuttings from the same drill holes studied by Castor et al., as well as other drill holes. It is our contention that the inconsistent lateral and stratigraphic distribution of the pyrite, textural features of the pyrite, and phase stability considerations are incompatible with the {open_quotes}lithic{close_quotes} origin of Castor et al., and are more reasonably explained by in-situ formation from hydrothermal fluids containing low, but geochemically significant, concentrations of reduced sulfur.

  18. Surface Sensitive Techniques for Advanced Characterization of Luminescent Materials. (United States)

    Swart, Hendrik C


    The important role of surface sensitive characterization techniques such as Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), time of flight scanning ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) for the characterization of different phosphor materials is discussed in this short review by giving selective examples from previous obtained results. AES is used to monitor surface reactions during electron bombardment and also to determine the elemental composition of the surfaces of the materials, while XPS and TOF-SIMS are used for determining the surface chemical composition and valence state of the dopants. The role of XPS to determine the presence of defects in the phosphor matrix is also stated with the different examples. The role of HRTEM in combination with Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) for nanoparticle characterization is also pointed out.

  19. Derivation of S and Pb in phanerozoic intrusion-related metal deposits from neoproterozoic sedimentary pyrite, Great Basin, United States (United States)

    Vikre, P.G.; Poulson, S.R.; Koenig, A.E.


    The thick (???8 km), regionally extensive section of Neoproterozoic siliciclastic strata (terrigenous detrital succession, TDS) in the central and eastern Great Basin contains sedimentary pyrite characterized by mostly high d34S values (-11.6 to 40.8%, derived from reduction of seawater sulfate, and by markedly radiogenic Pb isotopes ( 207Pb/204Pb derivation of deposit S and Pb from TDS pyrite. Minor element abundances in TDS pyrite (e.g., Pb, Zn, Cu, Ag, and Au) compared to sedimentary and hydrothermal pyrite elsewhere are not noticeably elevated, implying that enrichment in source minerals is not a precondition for intrusion-related metal deposits. Three mechanisms for transferring components of TDS sedimentary pyrite to intrusion-related metal deposits are qualitatively evaluated. One mechanism involves (1) decomposition of TDS pyrite in thermal aureoles of intruding magmas, and (2) aqueous transport and precipitation in thermal or fluid mixing gradients of isotopically heavy S, radiogenic Pb, and possibly other sedimentary pyrite and detrital mineral components, as sulfide minerals in intrusion-related metal deposits. A second mechanism invokes mixing and S isotope exchange in thermal aureoles of Pb and S exsolved from magma and derived from decomposition of sedimentary pyrite. A third mechanism entails melting of TDS strata or assimilation of TDS strata by crustal or mantle magmas. TDS-derived or assimilated magmas ascend, decompress, and exsolve a mixture of TDS volatiles, including isotopically heavy S and radiogenic Pb from sedimentary pyrite, and volatiles acquired from deeper crustal or mantle sources. In the central and eastern Great Basin, the wide distribution and high density of small to mid-sized vein, replacement, and skarn intrusion-related metal deposits in lower Paleozoic rocks that contain TDS sedimentary pyrite S and Pb reflect (1) prolific Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary magmatism, (2) a regional, substrate reservoir of S and Pb in

  20. Fractal characterization and wettability of ion treated silicon surfaces (United States)

    Yadav, R. P.; Kumar, Tanuj; Baranwal, V.; Vandana, Kumar, Manvendra; Priya, P. K.; Pandey, S. N.; Mittal, A. K.


    Fractal characterization of surface morphology can be useful as a tool for tailoring the wetting properties of solid surfaces. In this work, rippled surfaces of Si (100) are grown using 200 keV Ar+ ion beam irradiation at different ion doses. Relationship between fractal and wetting properties of these surfaces are explored. The height-height correlation function extracted from atomic force microscopic images, demonstrates an increase in roughness exponent with an increase in ion doses. A steep variation in contact angle values is found for low fractal dimensions. Roughness exponent and fractal dimensions are found correlated with the static water contact angle measurement. It is observed that after a crossover of the roughness exponent, the surface morphology has a rippled structure. Larger values of interface width indicate the larger ripples on the surface. The contact angle of water drops on such surfaces is observed to be lowest. Autocorrelation function is used for the measurement of ripple wavelength.

  1. The Guadiamar soils: characterization and evolution of soils affected by the pyrite sludge; Los suelos del Guadiamar: estudios de caracterizacion y de la evolucion de los suelos contaminados por el lodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, C.; Anton-Pacheco, C.; Barettino, D.; Lopez Pamo, E. [Instituto Geologico y Minero de Espana. Madrid (Spain); Cabrera, F.; Fernandez, J. E.; Giron, I. F.; Moreno, F. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (Spain); Fernandez, A. M.; Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Pelayo, M.; Rivas, P.; Villar, M. V. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain); Giraldez, J. V.; Vanderlinden, K. [Universidad de Cordoba (Spain); Ordonez, R. [CIFA. Cordoba (Spain)


    The study of the geochemical background shows the evidence of high contents in heavy metals in the soils from the affected area of the Guadimar basin before the Aznalcollar mine spill. This means a previous contamination due to the Aznalcollar mineralizations, and above all, to the intense mining works of the last two decades. Two areas been defined, with different geochemical background: Guadiamar alluvial soils and soils over the marsh deposits in the southern area of the affected zone. These southern soils have, higher contents of iron, zinc and copper and slightly lower of lead and arsenic, compared to the contents from the alluvial. The soils of the affected area of the Guadiamar basin are quite heterogeneous and show a high spatial variability of its physical and mineralogical characteristics. Once the sludge removal operations are finished, a high spatial variability of the concentration of soils of different elements related to the contamination has been observed. This variability is observed at a very small scale, so that in a few metres this concentrations vary in some order of magnitude. This variability is also related to the remnant sludge, because the cleanup did not remove the whole of the mining waste, and this remaining part has been incorporated to the soils during the soil remediation operations. At a basin scale, an important increase of the contaminant concentrations has been observed in the upper part of the soils. This concentration mean values are from 3 to 6 times the geochemical background levels, depending on the element considered. These increase are higher for zinc, and lower for lead, arsenic and copper, in that order. The concentrations of these elements in soils decrease with the depth. The highest concentrations for arsenic and lead were observed in the zone where the pyritic sludge was deposited, whereas the highest zinc concentrations are determined in the southern part, where the acid water were retained. After the soil

  2. Surface Characterization: what has been done , what has been learnt?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Kneisel


    Electromagnetic fields penetrate only a distance of {approx} 60 nm into the surface of a superconductor such as niobium. Therefore it is obvious that the condition of a cavity surface will affect the performance of this cavity. In at least the last 30 years niobium surfaces as used in superconducting accelerating cavities have been investigated by surface characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The objective of all these investigations was to establish correlations between surface conditions and cavity performances such as surface resistance and accelerating gradients. Much emphasis was placed on investigating surface topography and the oxidation states of niobium under varying conditions such as buffered chemical polishing, electropolishing, oxipolishing, high temperature heat treatment, post-purification heat treatment and in-situ baking. Additional measurements were conducted to characterize the behavior of a niobium surface more relevant to rf cavities such as resonant (multipacting) and non-resonant (field emission) electron loading. A large amount of knowledge has been extracted by all these investigations; nevertheless, there is still a lack of reproducibility in cavity performance when applying the ''best'' process to a cavity surface and no clear correlation has been established between niobium surface features and cavity performance. This contribution gives a review of the attempts to characterize niobium surfaces over the last three decades and tries to extract the ''white spots'' in our knowledge.

  3. Arsenic chemistry with sulfide, pyrite, zero-valent iron, and magnetite (United States)

    Sun, Fenglong

    The aim of this thesis is to study the immobilization reactions of arsenic in water. Since compounds containing iron or sulfide are common in most natural and engineered systems, the research focused on the redox reactions and adsorption of arsenic with sulfide, pyrite, zero-valent iron (ZVI), and magnetite which were studied through wet chemistry methods and spectroscopic techniques. The kinetic and thermodynamic information of the reactions of As(V) with S(-II), As(V)/As(III) with pyrite and surface-oxidized pyrite, As(V) with ZVI and acid-treated ZVI, As(III) with magnetite was used to identify mechanisms. The necessity to maintain strictly anoxic conditions was emphasized for the study of arsenic redox chemistry with sulfides and ZVI. The major findings of this research can be stated as follows. First, dissolved sulfide reduced As(V) to lower valences to form a yellow precipitate at acidic pH. The reaction involved the formation of thioarsenic intermediate species. Dissolved O2, granular activated carbon (GAC) and dissolved Fe(II) inhibited the removal of As(V) by sulfide. Elemental sulfur catalyzed the reduction of As(V) by sulfide, which implied the possible benefit of using sulfur-loaded GAC for arsenic removal. Possible reaction mechanisms were discussed. Second, As(III) adsorbed on pristine pyrite over a broader pH range than on surface-oxidized pyrite, while As(V) adsorbed over a narrower pH range with pristine pyrite. As(V) was completely reduced to As(III) on pristine pyrite at acidic pH but not at higher pH. The reduction was first-order with respect to As(V). As(V) was not reduced on surface-oxidized pyrite at pH = 4--11. The different behaviors of As(V) and As(III) on pristine and surface oxidized pyrite determines the toxicity and mobility of arsenic under oxic/anoxic environments. Third, commercial ZVI reduced As(V) to As(III) at low pH (treated ZVI reduced As(V) to As(0), indicated by wet chemical analyses and by XANES/EXAFS, which could result in

  4. Simulation of electrocatalytic hydrogen production by a bioinspired catalyst anchored to a pyrite electrode. (United States)

    Zipoli, Federico; Car, Roberto; Cohen, Morrel H; Selloni, Annabella


    The possibility of using the active site, the [FeFe](H) cluster, of the bacterial di-iron hydrogenases as a catalyst for hydrogen production from water by electro- or photocatalysis is of current scientific and technological interest. We present here a theoretical study of hydrogen production by a modified [FeFe](H) cluster stably linked to a pyrite electrode immersed in acidified water. We employed state-of-the-art electronic-structure and first-principles molecular-dynamics methods. We found that a stable sulfur link of the cluster to the surface analogous to that linking the cluster to its enzyme environment cannot be made. However, we have discovered a modification of the cluster which does form a stable, tridentate link to the surface. The pyrite electrode readily produces hydrogen from acidified water when functionalized with the modified cluster, which remains stable throughout the hydrogen production cycle.

  5. Identification and characterization of the surface proteins of Clostridium difficile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dailey, D.C.


    Several clostridial proteins were detected on the clostridial cell surface by sensitive radioiodination techniques. Two major proteins and six minor proteins comprised the radioiodinated proteins on the clostridial cell surface. Cellular fractionation of surface radiolabeled C. difficile determined that the radioiodinated proteins were found in the cell wall fraction of C. difficile and surprisingly were also present in the clostridial membrane. Furthermore, an interesting phenomenon of disulfide-crosslinking of the cell surface proteins of C. difficile was observed. Disulfide-linked protein complexes were found in both the membrane and cell wall fractions. In addition, the cell surface proteins of C. difficile were found to be released into the culture medium. In attempts to further characterize the clostridial proteins recombinant DNA techniques were employed. In addition, the role of the clostridial cell surface proteins in the interactions of C. difficile with human PMNs was also investigated.

  6. Surface characterization of InP using photoluminescence (United States)

    Chang, R. R.; Iyer, R.; Lile, D. L.


    Photoluminescence (PL) measurements have been performed on InP samples in situ during various surface treatments including chemical etching, wet anodization, and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition. It was found, in agreement with previously published results, that the magnitude of the PL signal varies markedly with surface treatment due presumably to changes in either surface-state density, and/or surface potential. In an attempt to assess the effectiveness of this noninvasive method as a tool for characterizing and monitoring the progressive development of a semiconductor surface during processing, a number of experiments on InP have been performed. The results indicate that although some uncertainty may exist in assigning a mechanism for the PL change in any given experiment, the general trend appears to be that surface degradation results in a reduced signal. As a result, process steps which enhance the PL intensity are likely to be beneficial in the preparation of a high-quality interface.

  7. Hard X-ray photoelectron and X-ray absorption spectroscopy characterization of oxidized surfaces of iron sulfides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhlin, Yuri, E-mail: [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of sciences, Akademgorodok, 50/24, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Tomashevich, Yevgeny [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of sciences, Akademgorodok, 50/24, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Vorobyev, Sergey [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of sciences, Akademgorodok, 50/24, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Siberian Federal University, Svobodny pr. 79, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 (Russian Federation); Saikova, Svetlana [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny pr. 79, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 (Russian Federation); Romanchenko, Alexander [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of sciences, Akademgorodok, 50/24, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Félix, Roberto [Renewable Energy, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Lise-Meitner-Campus, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany)


    Highlights: • Pyrite and pyrrhotite in-air abraded and etched in aqueous Fe{sup 3+} solution were studied. • HAXPES (2 keV-6 keV) and Fe K-, S K-edge XANES (TEY and PFY mode) were measured. • Outer “polysulfide”, strongly S-excessive layers are no more than 1–4 nm thick. • “Metal-depleted” layers depend on the treatment and differ for pyrite and pyrrhotite. • Extended nearly-stoichiometric “defective” underlayers were detected using TEY XANES. - Abstract: Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) using an excitation energy range of 2 keV to 6 keV in combination with Fe K- and S K-edge XANES, measured simultaneously in total electron (TEY) and partial fluorescence yield (PFY) modes, have been applied to study near-surface regions of natural polycrystalline pyrite FeS{sub 2} and pyrrhotite Fe{sub 1−x}S before and after etching treatments in an acidic ferric chloride solution. It was found that the following near-surface regions are formed owing to the preferential release of iron from oxidized metal sulfide lattices: (i) a thin, no more than 1–4 nm in depth, outer layer containing polysulfide species, (ii) a layer exhibiting less pronounced stoichiometry deviations and low, if any, concentrations of polysulfide, the composition and dimensions of which vary for pyrite and pyrrhotite and depend on the chemical treatment, and (iii) an extended almost stoichiometric underlayer yielding modified TEY XANES spectra, probably, due to a higher content of defects. We suggest that the extended layered structure should heavily affect the near-surface electronic properties, and processes involving the surface and interfacial charge transfer.

  8. Characterization of complementary electric field coupled resonant surfaces (United States)

    Hand, Thomas H.; Gollub, Jonah; Sajuyigbe, Soji; Smith, David R.; Cummer, Steven A.


    We present angle-resolved free-space transmission and reflection measurements of a surface composed of complementary electric inductive-capacitive (CELC) resonators. By measuring the reflection and transmission coefficients of a CELC surface with different polarizations and particle orientations, we show that the CELC only responds to in-plane magnetic fields. This confirms the Babinet particle duality between the CELC and its complement, the electric field coupled LC resonator. Characterization of the CELC structure serves to expand the current library of resonant elements metamaterial designers can draw upon to make unique materials and surfaces.

  9. Synthesis, Characterization, and Surface Initiated Polymerization of Carbazole Functionalized Isocyanides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Erik; Lim, Eunhee; Gowda, Chandrakala M.; Liscio, Andrea; Fenwick, Oliver; Tu, Guoli; Palermo, Vincenzo; Gelder, de Rene; Cornelissen, Jeroen J.L.M.; Eck, van Ernst R.H.; Kentgens, Arno P.M.; Cacialli, Franco; Nolte, Roeland J.M.; Samori, Paolo; Huck, Wilhelm T.S.; Rowan, Alan E.


    We describe the design and synthesis of carbazole functionalized isocyanides and the detailed investigation of their properties. Characterization by solid state NMR, CD, and IR spectroscopic techniques reveals that the polymer has a well-defined helical architecture. Surface-initiated polymerization

  10. Characterization of novel silane coatings on titanium implant surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matinlinna, Jukka P; Tsoi, James Kit‐Hon; de Vries, Jacob; Busscher, Hendrik


    Objectives This in vitro study describes and characterizes a developed novel method to produce coatings on Ti. Hydrophobic coatings on substrates are needed in prosthetic dentistry to promote durable adhesion between luting resin cements and coated Ti surfaces. In implant dentistry the hydrophobic c

  11. Bulk and surface characterization of novel photoresponsive polymeric systems (United States)

    Venkataramani, Shivshankar

    This dissertation presents a detailed characterization of two important classes of photoresponsive polymers-polydiacetylenes (PDAs) and azopolymers. Bulk and surface characterization techniques were used to evaluate the structure-property relationships of the PDAs and surface characterization, in particular-atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to characterize the azopolymers. PDAs from bis-alkylurethanes of 5,7 dodecadiyn 1,12-diol (viz.,) ETCD, IPUDO and PUDO are of particular interest in view of reports of reversible thermochromic and photochromic phase transitions in these materials. Thermochromism in the above PDAs is associated with a first order phase transition involving expansion of the crystallographic unit cell, the preservation of the urethane hydrogen bonding and possibly some relief of mechanical strain upon heating. Insights into thermochromism obtained from studies of nonthermochromic forms of PDA-ETCD are discussed. Some of the bulk characterization experiments reported In the literature are repeated. The motivation to investigate the surface morphology of the PDA single crystals using AFM was derived from Raman spectroscopy studies of various PDAs in which dispersion of the Raman spectrum indicating surface heterogeneity was observed. Micron scale as well as molecularly resolved images were obtained The micron scale images indicated a variable surface of the crystals. The molecularly resolved images showed a well defined 2-D lattice and are interpreted in terms of known crystallographic data. The surface parameters obtained from AFM measurements are similar to those determined from X-ray diffraction. During an attempt of AFM imaging of IPUDO crystals exposed to 254 nm ultraviolet light, it was observed that these crystals undergo a "macroscopic shattering". In the interest of rigorously defining conditions for photochromism, this research has undertaken a combined study of the surface morphology of the above mentioned PDA crystals by AFM and the

  12. Material, Mechanical, and Tribological Characterization of Laser-Treated Surfaces (United States)

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Kumar, Aditya; Bhushan, Bharat; Aleem, B. J. Abdul


    Laser treatment under nitrogen assisting gas environment of cobalt-nickel-chromium-tungsten-based superalloy and high-velocity oxygen-fuel thermal spray coating of nickel-chromium-based superalloy on carbon steel was carried out to improve mechanical and tribological properties. Superalloy surface was preprepared to include B4C particles at the surface prior to the laser treatment process. Material and morphological changes in the laser-treated samples were examined using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Residual stresses present at the surface region of the laser-treated layer were determined from the XRD data. The microhardness of the laser-treated surface was measured by indentation tests. Fracture toughness of the coating surfaces before and after laser treatment were also measured using overload indentation tests. Macrowear and macrofriction characterization were carried out using pin-on-disk tests.

  13. Biohydrometallurgical process to produce the coagulant ferric sulfate from the pyrite present in coal tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colling, A.V.; Santos Menezes dos, J.C.S.; Silveira, P.S.; Schneider, I.A.H. [South Rio Grande Federal Univ., Porto Alegre (Brazil). Graduate Program in Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Technology Center


    This paper presented details of a biohydrometallurgical study conducted to characterize the production of a ferric sulfate coagulate from pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) contained in coal tailings. Leaching experiments were conducted with coal tailings samples from the Santa Catarina mining site in Brazil. The experiments were conducted for sterile and non-sterile samples, as well as samples inoculated with acidophilic bacteria and acidophilic bacteria with the addition of nutrients. Samples were collected weekly in order to analyze total iron, sulfate, and the amounts of Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans bacteria. An analysis of the samples showed that the pyrite oxidation, iron sulfate production, and quantities of bacteria were higher in the column inoculated with the bacteria and nutrient additions. The samples produced an aqueous solution that was rich in ferric sulfate. Water treatment tests demonstrated that the resulting coagulant is as efficient as conventionally-produced coagulants. 8 refs., 2 tab., 2 figs.

  14. Pyrite thermochemistry, ash agglomeration, and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akan-Etuk, A.; Diaz, R.; Niksa, S.


    The objective of the present work is to introduce an experimental program that will eventually lead to time-resolved iron ash composition over the technological operating domain. The preceding literature survey suggests two important stipulations on any such experimental program. The first stipulation is that good control must be established over the operating conditions, to accurately quantify their effects. The other is that data must be obtained rapidly, to thoroughly cover the important operating domain. This work presents a series of studies that has characterized the desulfurization of pyrite during the early stages of combustion. An experimental system was established and used to monitor the effects of oxygen, temperature, and residence time on the evolution of condensed phase products of the combustion of pure pyrite. (VC)

  15. Pyrite thermochemistry, ash agglomeration, and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akan-Etuk, A.; Diaz, R.; Niksa, S.


    The objective of the present work is to introduce an experimental program that will eventually lead to time-resolved iron ash composition over the technological operating domain. The preceding literature survey suggests two important stipulations on any such experimental program. The first stipulation is that good control must be established over the operating conditions, to accurately quantify their effects. The other is that data must be obtained rapidly, to thoroughly cover the important operating domain. This work presents a series of studies that has characterized the desulfurization of pyrite during the early stages of combustion. An experimental system was established and used to monitor the effects of oxygen, temperature, and residence time on the evolution of condensed phase products of the combustion of pure pyrite. (VC)

  16. Ultrasonic characterization of shot-peened metal surfaces (United States)

    Lavrentyev, Anton I.; Veronesi, William A.


    Shot peening is a well-known method for extending the fatigue life of metal components by introducing near-surface compressive residual stresses. The capability to nondestructively evaluate near-surface residual stress would greatly aid the assurance of proper fatigue life in shot-peened components. This paper describes our work on near-surface residual stress measurement by an ultrasonic surface wave method. In this method, a variation of ultrasonic surface wave speed with shot peening intensity is measured. Since the effective wave penetration depth is inversely related to the excitation frequency, the method has the potential to provide the stress-depth profile. The paper presents results from an ultrasonic characterization study of shot peened Al-7075 and Waspaloy surfaces. Rayleigh wave velocity measurements by a V(z)-curve method were made on smooth and shot peened samples using line-focus ultrasonic transducers. Several factors were found to contribute to the surface wave velocity measurements: surface roughness, near-surface grain reorientation (texture), dislocation density increase, and residual stress. In this paper we estimate quantitatively the effects of each factor and discuss how these effects can be separated and accounted for during residual stress measurement.

  17. Redox potential (Eh) and anion effects of pyrite (FeS 2 ) leaching at pH 1 (United States)

    Chandra, Anand P.; Gerson, Andrea R.


    Pyrite plays the central role in the environmental issue of acid rock drainage. Natural weathering of pyrite results in the release of sulphuric acid which can lead to further leaching of heavy and toxic metals from other associated minerals. Understanding how pyrite reacts in aqueous solution is critical to understanding the natural weathering processes undergone by this mineral. To this end an investigation of the effect of solution redox potential (Eh) and various anions on the rate of pyrite leaching under carefully controlled conditions has been undertaken. Leaching of pyrite has been shown to proceed significantly faster at solution Eh of 900 mV (SHE) than at 700 mV, at pH 1, for the leach media of HCl, H 2SO 4 and HClO 4. The predominant effect of Eh suggests electrochemical control of pyrite leaching with similar mechanism(s) at Eh of 700 and 900 mV albeit with different kinetics. Leach rates at 700 mV were found to decrease according to HClO 4 > HCl > H 2SO 4 while at 900 mV the leach rate order was HCl > HClO 4 > H 2SO 4. Solution Fe 3+ activity is found to continually increase during all leaches; however, this is not accompanied by an increase in leach rate. Synchrotron based photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) measurements showed a localised distribution of adsorbed and oxidised surface species highlighting that pyrite oxidation and leaching is a highly site specific process mediated by adsorption of oxidants onto specific surface sites. It appears that rates may be controlled, in part, by the propensity of acidic anions to bind to the surface, which varies according to SO42->Cl->ClO4-, thus reducing the reactive or effective surface area. However, anions may also be involved in specific reactions with surface leach products. Stoichiometric dissolution data (Fe/S ratio), XPS and XRD data indicate that the highest leach rates (in HCl media at 900 mV Eh) correlate with relatively lower surface S abundance. Furthermore, there are indications that

  18. Magnetic pyrite cinder as an efficient heterogeneous ozonation catalyst and synergetic effect of deposited Ce. (United States)

    Wu, Deli; Liu, Ying; He, Hongping; Zhang, Yalei


    Heterogeneous catalytic ozonation was emerged to be a promising alternative in the mineralization of various persistent organic pollutants in recent decades. Magnetic pyrite cinder (PyC), which was employed as the catalyst in our investigation, was further deposited by Ce (Ce-PyC) to enhance its catalytic activity in the degradation of aqueous reactive black 5 (RB5). The results showed that additional 17.39%, 42.12% mineralization efficiency was obtained by O3/PyC, O3/Ce-PyC, respectively, in the degradation of RB5 compared to that of O3 alone under identical experimental condition. The reaction mechanism involved the enhanced mineralization of aqueous RB5 at the catalyst-solution interface via hydroxyl radicals produced by the reaction between O3 and catalyst surface. Besides surface hydroxyl, surface Ce(Ⅲ) was crucial for Ce-PyC in the enhanced generation of hydroxyl radicals. More surprisingly, it was found that both PyC and Ce-PyC could exert quite stable catalytic activity in a wide pH range from 3 to 10, which was supposed to be combined with inherently comprised various metal oxide, such as Fe2O3, Fe3O4, MnO2 and CuO. Ozone utilization evaluation demonstrated that PyC and Ce-PyC facilitated effective ozone decomposition, as ozone utilization efficiency (mgTOC/mgO3) of O3/PyC and O3/Ce-PyC increased 64.0%, 155.0%, respectively, compared to that of O3 alone. This investigation provided an effective alternative in the resource utilization of PyC, which was traditionally characterized as a waste material.

  19. Surface Characterization of Plasma-modified Poplar Veneer: Dynamic Wettability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Tang


    Full Text Available The dynamic wettability of plasma-modified poplar veneer was investigated with sessile adhesive droplets using a wetting model. Dynamic contact angle, instantaneous and equilibrium contact angles, and their rates of change (K-value were used to illustrate the dynamic wetting process. The experiment consisted of selecting treatment parameters (type of gas, power that would lead to the increased wettability of wood. Three resin systems, urea-formaldehyde (UF, phenol-formaldehyde (PF, and diphenylmethylene diisocyanate (MDI, were evaluated. Based on the wetting model, the K-value was used to interpret the kinetics of wetting. The higher the K-value, the faster the contact angle reaches equilibrium, and the faster the liquid penetrates and spreads. Therefore, the model was helpful for characterizing the dynamic wettability of wood surfaces modified with different plasma treatments. The K-values of plasma-treated veneer surfaces at different plasma power levels and with different gases (such as O2, N2, Ar, air, and NH3 were 458% to 653% and 332% to 528% higher than those of untreated veneer surfaces, respectively. In addition, the K-values of the three resins on the oxygen plasma-treated veneer surfaces were 38% to 1204% higher than those on the untreated veneer surfaces. Therefore, this method was helpful for characterizing the dynamic wettability of veneer surfaces modified with plasma treatment.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of hierarchical nanostructured smart adhesion surfaces. (United States)

    Lee, Hyungoo; Bhushan, Bharat


    The mechanics of fibrillar adhesive surfaces of biological systems such as a Lotus leaf and a gecko are widely studied due to their unique surface properties. The Lotus leaf is a model for superhydrophobic surfaces, self-cleaning properties, and low adhesion. Gecko feet have high adhesion due to the high micro/nanofibrillar hierarchical structures. A nanostructured surface may exhibit low adhesion or high adhesion depending upon fibrillar density, and it presents the possibility of realizing eco-friendly surface structures with desirable adhesion. The current research, for the first time uses a patterning technique to fabricate smart adhesion surfaces: single- and two-level hierarchical synthetic adhesive structure surfaces with various fibrillar densities and diameters that allows the observation of either the Lotus or gecko adhesion effects. Contact angles of the fabricated structured samples were measured to characterize their wettability, and contamination experiments were performed to study for self-cleaning ability. A conventional and a glass ball attached to an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip were used to obtain the adhesive forces via force-distance curves to study scale effect. A further increase of the adhesive forces on the samples was achieved by applying an adhesive to the surfaces.

  1. Heterogeneous sono-Fenton-like process using nanostructured pyrite prepared by Ar glow discharge plasma for treatment of a textile dye. (United States)

    Khataee, Alireza; Gholami, Peyman; Vahid, Behrouz


    The plasma-treated pyrite (PTP) nanostructures were prepared from natural pyrite (NP) utilizing argon plasma due to its sputtering and cleaning effects resulting in more active surface area. The NP and PTP were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. The performance of the PTP was greater than NP for treatment of Reactive Red 84 (RR84) by the heterogeneous sono-Fenton process. The optimum amounts of main operational parameters were obtained as PTP of 4 g/L, initial dye concentration of 10 mg/L, pH of 5, and ultrasonic power of 300 W after 120 min of reaction time. Also, the effects of enhancers, and inorganic salts and t-butanol as hydroxyl radical scavengers on the degradation efficiency were investigated. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis (GC-MS) was applied for detection of some degradation intermediates. Environmentally friendly plasma modification of the NP, in situ production of H2O2 and OH radicals, low leached iron concentration and repeated reusability at the milder pH are the significant benefits of the PTP utilization.

  2. Surface characterization of self-assembled N-Cu nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristina, Lucila J.; Moreno-Lopez, Juan C. [Laboratorio de Superficies e Interfaces, Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, (S3000GLN) Santa Fe (Argentina); Sferco, Silvano J. [Laboratorio de Superficies e Interfaces, Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, (S3000GLN) Santa Fe (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Bioquimica y Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Ciudad Universitaria, C.C. 242, (S3000ZAA) Santa Fe (Argentina); Passeggi, Mario C.G.; Vidal, Ricardo A. [Laboratorio de Superficies e Interfaces, Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, (S3000GLN) Santa Fe (Argentina); Ferron, Julio, E-mail: [Laboratorio de Superficies e Interfaces, Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, (S3000GLN) Santa Fe (Argentina); Departamento de Materiales, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829,(S3000AOM) Santa Fe (Argentina)


    We report on the process of low energy N{sub 2}{sup +} implantation and annealing of a Cu(0 0 1) surface. Through AES we study the N diffusion process as a function of the substrate temperature. With STM and LEIS we characterize the surface morphology and the electronic structure is analyzed with ARUPS. Under annealing (500 < T < 700 K) N migrates to the surface and reacts forming a Cu{sub x}N compound that decomposes at temperatures above 700 K. LEIS measurements show that N locates on the four-fold hollow sites of the Cu(0 0 1) surface in a c(2 Multiplication-Sign 2) arrangement. Finally, a gap along the [0 0 1] azimuthal direction is determined by ARUPS. DFT calculations provide support to our conclusions.

  3. Evolution of the transfer function characterization of surface scatter phenomena (United States)

    Harvey, James E.; Pfisterer, Richard N.


    Based upon the empirical observation that BRDF measurements of smooth optical surfaces exhibited shift-invariant behavior when plotted versus    o , the original Harvey-Shack (OHS) surface scatter theory was developed as a scalar linear systems formulation in which scattered light behavior was characterized by a surface transfer function (STF) reminiscent of the optical transfer function (OTF) of modern image formation theory (1976). This shift-invariant behavior combined with the inverse power law behavior when plotting log BRDF versus log   o was quickly incorporated into several optical analysis software packages. Although there was no explicit smooth-surface approximation in the OHS theory, there was a limitation on both the incident and scattering angles. In 1988 the modified Harvey-Shack (MHS) theory removed the limitation on the angle of incidence; however, a moderate-angle scattering limitation remained. Clearly for large incident angles the BRDF was no longer shift-invariant as a different STF was now required for each incident angle. In 2011 the generalized Harvey-Shack (GHS) surface scatter theory, characterized by a two-parameter family of STFs, evolved into a practical modeling tool to calculate BRDFs from optical surface metrology data for situations that violate the smooth surface approximation inherent in the Rayleigh-Rice theory and/or the moderate-angle limitation of the Beckmann-Kirchhoff theory. And finally, the STF can be multiplied by the classical OTF to provide a complete linear systems formulation of image quality as degraded by diffraction, geometrical aberrations and surface scatter effects from residual optical fabrication errors.

  4. Magnetic properties related to thermal treatment of pyrite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Detailed rock magnetic experiments were conducted on high-purity natural crystalline pyrite and its products of thermal treatments in both argon and air atmospheres. In argon atmosphere (reducing environment), the pyrite is altered by heating to magnetite and pyrrhotite; the latter is stable in argon atmosphere, and has coercive force and coercivity of remanence of ~20 and ~30 mT, respectively. Whereas in air, the pyrite is ultimately oxidized to hematite. First order reversal curve (FORC) diagram of the end product shows that the remanence coercivity of hematite is up to ~1400 mT. The corresponding thermal transformation process of pyrite in air can be simply summarized as pyrite→ pyrrhotite→magnetite→hematite. These results are helpful for understanding of sedimentary magnetism, secondary chemical remanence and meteorolite magnetic properties.

  5. Magnetic properties related to thermal treatment of pyrite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lei; PAN YongXin; LI JinHua; QIN HuaFeng


    Detailed rock magnetic experiments were conducted on high-purity natural crystalline pyrite and its products of thermal treatments in both argon and air atmospheres. In argon atmosphere (reducing environment), the pyrite is altered by heating to magnetite and pyrrhotite; the latter is stable in argon atmosphere, and has coercive force and coercivity of remanence of ~20 and ~30 mT, respectively.Whereas in air, the pyrite is ultimately oxidized to hematite. First order reversal curve (FORC) diagram of the end product shows that the remanence coercivity of hematite is up to ~1400 mT. The corresponding thermal transformation process of pyrite in air can be simply summarized as pyrite→pyrrhotite→magnetite→hematite. These results are helpful for understanding of sedimentary magnetism, secondary chemical remanence and meteorolite magnetic properties.

  6. Surface characterization of commercial oral implants on the nanometer level. (United States)

    Svanborg, Lory Melin; Andersson, Martin; Wennerberg, Ann


    Lately, there has been a growing interest in how the presence of nanometer structures on a bone integrated implant surface influences the healing process. Recent in vitro studies have revealed an increased osteoblast response to different nanophase surfaces. Some commercial implant brands claim their implants have nanometer structures. However, at present, there are no studies where the nano topography of today's commercially available oral implants has been investigated. The aim of this study was to characterize commercial oral implants on the nanometer level and to investigate whether or not the nanometer surface roughness was correlated to the more well-known micrometer roughness on the implants. Twelve different commercial screw-shaped oral implants with various surface modifications were examined using scanning electron microscopy and a white light interferometer. The interferometer is suitable for detection of nanoscale roughness in the vertical dimension; however, limitation exists on the horizontal due to the wavelength of the light. A 1 x 1 microm Gaussian filter was found to be useful for identifying nm roughness with respect to height deviation. The results demonstrated that an implant that was smooth on the micrometer level was not necessarily smooth on the nanometer level. Different structures in the nanometer scale was found on some of the implants, indicating that to fully understand the relationship between the properties of an implant surface and its osseointegration behavior, a characterization at the nanometer scale might be relevant.

  7. Comparison of optical methods for surface roughness characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Hansen, Poul Erik; Pilny, Lukas;


    We report a study of the correlation between three optical methods for characterizing surface roughness: a laboratory scatterometer measuring the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF instrument), a simple commercial scatterometer (rBRDF instrument), and a confocal optical profiler....... For each instrument, the effective range of spatial surface wavelengths is determined, and the common bandwidth used when comparing the evaluated roughness parameters. The compared roughness parameters are: the root-mean-square (RMS) profile deviation (Rq), the RMS profile slope (Rdq), and the variance...

  8. Rapid method to determine proximate analysis and pyritic sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, M.W.; Hyman, M.


    The use of thermomagnetogravimetry has been proposed as an alternative to the ASTM methods for measuring the pyritic sulphur content of coal and for proximate analysis. This paper presents a comparison of the results of thermogravimetry for proximate analysis and thermomagnetometry for pyritic sulphur with ASTM values on the same samples. The thermomagnetogravimetric technique is quicker and easier than the ASTM methods, and of comparable accuracy.

  9. Surface characterization of silver and palladium modified glassy carbon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aleksandra A Perić-Grujić; Olivera M Nešković; Miomir V Veljković; Zoran V Laušević; Mila D Laušević


    In this work, the influence of silver and palladium on the surface of undoped, boron doped and phosphorus doped glassy carbon has been studied. The silver and palladium concentrations in solution, after metal deposition, were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The morphology of metal coatings was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. In order to investigate the nature and thermal stability of surface oxygen groups, temperature-programmed desorption method combined with mass spectrometric analyses, was performed. The results obtained have shown that silver and palladium spontaneously deposit from their salt solutions at the surface of glassy carbon samples. Silver deposits have dendrite structure, whilst palladium forms separate clusters. The highest amount of both silver and palladium deposits at the surface of sample containing the highest quantity of surface oxide complexes. It has been concluded that carboxyl groups and structure defects are responsible for metal reduction. Calculated desorption energies have shown that the surface modification by metal deposition leads to the formation of more stable surface of undoped and doped glassy carbon samples.

  10. Isolation and characterization of bacteria resistant to metallic copper surfaces. (United States)

    Santo, Christophe Espírito; Morais, Paula Vasconcelos; Grass, Gregor


    Metallic copper alloys have recently attracted attention as a new antimicrobial weapon for areas where surface hygiene is paramount. Currently it is not understood on a molecular level how metallic copper kills microbes, but previous studies have demonstrated that a wide variety of bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Clostridium difficile, are inactivated within minutes or a few hours of exposure. In this study, we show that bacteria isolated from copper alloy coins comprise strains that are especially resistant against the toxic properties exerted by dry metallic copper surfaces. The most resistant of 294 isolates were Gram-positive staphylococci and micrococci, Kocuria palustris, and Brachybacterium conglomeratum but also included the proteobacterial species Sphingomonas panni and Pseudomonas oleovorans. Cells of some of these bacterial strains survived on copper surfaces for 48 h or more. Remarkably, when these dry-surface-resistant strains were exposed to moist copper surfaces, resistance levels were close to those of control strains and MICs for copper ions were at or below control strain levels. This suggests that mechanisms conferring resistance against dry metallic copper surfaces in these newly isolated bacterial strains are different from well-characterized copper ion detoxification systems. Furthermore, staphylococci on coins did not exhibit increased levels of resistance to antibiotics, arguing against coselection with copper surface resistance traits.

  11. Electrochemical characterization of organosilane-functionalized nanostructured ITO surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruna, R., E-mail:; Palacio, F.; López, M. [SIC, Departament d' Enginyeries: Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Pérez, J. [Nanobioengineering Group, Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), Baldiri Reixac 15-21, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Mir, M. [Nanobioengineering Group, Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), Baldiri Reixac 15-21, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Monforte de Lemos 3-5 Pabellón 11, E-28029 Madrid (Spain); Blázquez, O.; Hernández, S.; Garrido, B. [MIND-IN" 2UB, Departament d' Enginyeries: Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)


    The electroactivity of nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO) has been investigated for its further use in applications such as sensing biological compounds by the analysis of redox active molecules. ITO films were fabricated by using electron beam evaporation at different substrate temperatures and subsequently annealed for promoting their crystallization. The morphology of the deposited material was monitored by scanning electron microscopy, confirming the deposition of either thin films or nanowires, depending on the substrate temperature. Electrochemical surface characterization revealed a 45 % increase in the electroactive surface area of nanostructured ITO with respect to thin films, one third lower than the geometrical surface area variation determined by atomic force microscopy. ITO surfaces were functionalized with a model organic molecule known as 6-(ferrocenyl)hexanethiol. The chemical attachment was done by means of a glycidoxy compound containing a reactive epoxy group, the so-called 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxy-silane. ITO functionalization was useful for determining the benefits of nanostructuration on the surface coverage of active molecules. Compared to ITO thin films, an increase in the total peak height of 140 % was observed for as-deposited nanostructured electrodes, whereas the same measurement for annealed electrodes resulted in an increase of more than 400 %. These preliminary results demonstrate the ability of nanostructured ITO to increase the surface-to-volume ratio, conductivity and surface area functionalization, features that highly benefit the performance of biosensors.

  12. Characterization and reactivity of sodium aluminoborosilicate glass fiber surfaces (United States)

    Ortiz Rivera, Lymaris; Bakaev, Victor A.; Banerjee, Joy; Mueller, Karl T.; Pantano, Carlo G.


    Multicomponent complex oxides, such as sodium aluminoborosilicate glass fibers, are important materials used for thermal insulation in buildings and homes. Although the surface properties of single oxides, such as silica, have been extensively studied, less is known about the distribution of reactive sites at the surface of multicomponent oxides. Here, we investigated the reactivity of sodium aluminoborosilicate glass fiber surfaces for better understanding of their interface chemistry and bonding with acrylic polymers. Acetic acid (with and without a 13C enrichment) was used as a probe representative of the carboxylic functional groups in many acrylic polymers and adhesives. Inverse gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (IGC-MS), and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), were used to characterize the fiber surface reactions and surface chemical structure. In this way, we discovered that both sodium ions in the glass surface, as well as sodium carbonate salts that formed on the surface due to the intrinsic reactivity of this glass in humid air, are primary sites of interaction with the carboxylic acid. Surface analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the presence of sodium carbonates on these surfaces. Computer simulations of the interactions between the reactive sites on the glass fiber surface with acetic acid were performed to evaluate energetically favorable reactions. The adsorption reactions with sodium in the glass structure provide adhesive bonding sites, whereas the reaction with the sodium carbonate consumes the acid to form sodium-carboxylate, H2O and CO2 without any contribution to chemical bonding at the interface.

  13. Evolution of biofilms during the colonization process of pyrite by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. (United States)

    González, Dulce M; Lara, René H; Alvarado, Keila N; Valdez-Pérez, Donato; Navarro-Contreras, Hugo R; Cruz, Roel; García-Meza, Jessica Viridiana


    We have applied epifluorescence principles, atomic force microscopy, and Raman studies to the analysis of the colonization process of pyrite (FeS(2)) by sulfuroxidizing bacteria Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans after 1, 15, 24, and 72 h. For the stages examined, we present results comprising the evolution of biofilms, speciation of S (n) (2-) /S(0) species, adhesion forces of attached cells, production and secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and its biochemical composition. After 1 h, highly dispersed attached cells in the surface of the mineral were observed. The results suggest initial non-covalent, weak interactions (e.g., van der Waal's, hydrophobic interactions), mediating an irreversible binding mechanism to electrooxidized massive pyrite electrode (eMPE), wherein the initial production of EPS by individual cells is determinant. The mineral surface reached its maximum cell cover between 15 to 24 h. Longer biooxidation times resulted in the progressive biofilm reduction on the mineral surface. Quantification of attached cell adhesion forces indicated a strong initial mechanism (8.4 nN), whereas subsequent stages of mineral colonization indicated stability of biofilms and of the adhesion force to an average of 4.2 nN. A variable EPS (polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins) secretion at all stages was found; thus, different architectural conformation of the biofilms was observed during 120 h. The main EPS produced were lipopolysaccharides which may increase the hydrophobicity of A. thiooxidans biofilms. The highest amount of lipopolysaccharides occurred between 15-72 h. In contrast with abiotic surfaces, the progressive depletion of S (n) (2-) /S(0) was observed on biotic eMPE surfaces, indicating consumption of surface sulfur species. All observations indicated a dynamic biooxidation mechanism of pyrite by A. thiooxidans, where the biofilms stability and composition seems to occur independently from surface sulfur species depletion.

  14. Semiconductor Surface Characterization Using Transverse Acoustoelectric Voltage versus Voltage Measurements. (United States)


    Das, R. T. Webster and B. Davari, "SAW Characterization of Photo- Voltaic Solar Cell", Electrochemical Society Extended Abstracts, Vol. 79-1, Spring...Measurement of Carrier Generation Rate in Semiconductors", presented at the 153rd Meeting of the Electrochemical Society , Seattle, Washington, May 21-26...Ion-implanted Silicon by Surface Acoustic Waves", presented at the Electrochemical Society Meeting, May 6-11, 1979, Boston, Massachusetts. 6. P. Das, M

  15. Surface topography characterization of automotive cylinder liner surfaces using fractal methods (United States)

    Lawrence K, Deepak; Ramamoorthy, B.


    This paper explores the use of fractal approaches for the possible characterization of automotive cylinder bore surface topography by employing methods such as differential box counting method, power spectral method and structure function method. Three stage plateau honing experiments were conducted to manufacture sixteen cylinder liner surfaces with different surface topographies, for the study. The three fractal methods are applied on the image data obtained using a computer vision system and 3-D profile data obtained using vertical scanning white light interferometer from the cylinder liner surfaces. The computed fractal parameters (fractal dimension and topothesy) are compared and correlated with the measured 3-D Abbott-Firestone curve parameters (Sk, Spk, Svk, Sr1 and Sr2) that are currently used for the surface topography characterization cylinder liner surfaces. The analyses of the results indicated that the fractal dimension (D) computed using the vision data as well as 3-D profile data by employing three different fractal methods consistantly showed a negative correlation with the functional surface topographical parameters that represents roughness at peak (Spk),core (Sk) and valley (Svk) regions and positive correlation with the upper bearing area (Sr1) and lower bearing area (Sr2) of the automotive of cylinder bore surface.

  16. Hydrothermal vents as a source of pyrite and trace metal- containing mineral nanoparticles to the ocean (United States)

    Gartman, A.; Yucel, M.; Luther, G. W.


    The pathways by which metals from hydrothermal vents may be transported through the ocean are still largely unknown. We demonstrate that pyrite nanoparticles as small as 4nm aggregate into nanoframboids of 50-350nm and are emitted from high temperature black smokers from vents at Lau Basin and the East Pacific Rise. These nanoparticles, which contain other metals including copper, are characterized via chemical methods as well as by using a combination of physical chemical techniques (TEM, SEM-EDS and EELS). Data indicate that the metal sulfide nanoparticles from Lau Basin, a back arc basin and EPR 9N, a fast spreading mid ocean ridge, have similar morphology. We report that laboratory hydrothermal syntheses can reproduce the size and morphology of the natural pyrite nanoparticles. Laboratory oxidation experiments show that these synthesized pyrite nanoparticles are stable in oxic seawater for months, and thus provide a potential transport mechanism for iron far from vent sources. These nanoparticles as well as others including iron silicates, which have also been identified, likely influence the transport of iron and other elements from the hydrothermal environment to the ocean. Hydrothermal vents serve as nanoparticle 'factories' that fertilize the ocean with metals that are important in a variety of biogeochemical processes.

  17. Synthesis and adsorption/photocatalysis performance of pyrite FeS2 (United States)

    Liu, Shuling; Li, Miaomiao; Li, Shu; Li, Honglin; Yan, Lu


    FeS2 crystallites were synthesized successfully via a solvothermal method, using potassium ferrocyanide K4[Fe(CN)6]·3H2O as Fe source, sulfur powder as S source in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as dispersant. And potassium carbonate provided an alkaline environment. The phase and morphology of the products were characterized by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the temperature and solvent ratio (V:VO) play a crucial role in the formation of FeS2 with a cubic phase structure (pyrite). Then based on a series of experiments, the possible formation mechanism of pyrite FeS2 crystallites was proposed. In addition, research also showed that the as-prepared pyrite FeS2 crystallites could high-efficiently absorb or photocatalytically degrade some organic dyes such as Methylene blue (MB), Safranine T, Methyl orange (MO), Rhodamine B (Rh B) and Pyronine B. Furthermore, the adsorption and photocatalytic degradation abilities of FeS2 for organic dyes were also compared.

  18. Molecular engineering and characterization of self-assembled biorecognition surfaces (United States)

    Pan, Sheng

    . The surface reaction process was systematically characterized by ESCA. In vitro cell adhesion studies demonstrated that the designed surfaces had the capability to stimulate cell attachment and spreading, even in the absence of serum proteins. The biospecific recognition between the surface and the cell receptors was attributed to the appropriate chemical environment and statistical pattern matching between the randomly distributed R+G+D groups on the surface and cell receptors.

  19. Multiple focused EMAT designs for improved surface breaking defect characterization (United States)

    Thring, C. B.; Fan, Y.; Edwards, R. S.


    Ultrasonic Rayleigh waves can be employed for the detection of surface breaking defects such as rolling contact fatigue and stress corrosion cracking. Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs) are well suited to this technique as they can directly generate Rayleigh waves within the sample without the requirement for wedges, and they are robust and inexpensive compared to laser ultrasonics. Three different EMAT coil types have been developed, and these are compared to assess their ability to detect and characterize small (down to 0.5 mm depth, 1 mm diameter) surface breaking defects in aluminium. These designs are: a pair of linear meander coils used in a pseudo-pulse-echo mode, a pair of focused meander coils also used in pseudo-pulse-echo mode, and a pair of focused racetrack coils used in pitch-catch mode. The linear meander coils are able to detect most of the defects tested, but have a much lower signal to noise ratio and give limited sizing information. The focused meander coils and the focused racetrack coils can detect all defects tested, but have the advantage that they can also characterize the defect sizes on the sample surface, and have a stronger sensitivity at their focal point. Measurements using all three EMAT designs are presented and compared for high resolution imaging of surface-breaking defects.

  20. Characterization of treated porcelain surfaces via dynamic contact angle analysis. (United States)

    Phoenix, R D; Shen, C


    Successful porcelain repair requires conditioning of porcelain surfaces. Conditioning is intended to facilitate wetting by repair materials and improve interfacial bonding. The objective of this investigation was to determine the effects of selected surface treatments upon the wettability of a representative feldspathic porcelain. Dynamic contact angle analysis and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the effects of such treatments. Standardized porcelain specimens were subjected to the following five treatment regimens: (1) control (no treatment); (2) airborne particle abrasion using 50 microns aluminum oxide; (3) etching with ammonium bifluoride gel; (4) etching with acidulated phosphate fluoride gel; and (5) etching with hydrofluoric acid gel. Following treatment, specimens were cleansed and dried. Advancing contact angles were quantified using dynamic contact angle analysis. Mean values and 95% confidence intervals were (in degrees): control, 63.8 +/- 2.7; ammonium bifluoride, 39.4 +/- 2.0; airborne particle abrading, 29.1 +/- 2.9; acidulated phosphate fluoride, 24.9 +/- 1.7; and hydrofluoric acid, 16.5 +/- 1.2. Significant differences were found between all treatment groups (P = .05). Subsequent scanning electron microscopy examination of treated surfaces indicated lesser contact angles were associated with surfaces displaying deeper and wider grooves. Apparently, the resultant increase in surface area produces increased wettability. It is inferred that an increase in surface area may correspond to enhanced resin-porcelain bonding.

  1. Pyrite as a proxy for the identification of former coastal lagoons in semiarid NE Brazil (United States)

    Ferreira, Tiago O.; Nóbrega, Gabriel N.; Albuquerque, Antonia G. B. M.; Sartor, Lucas R.; Gomes, Irlene S.; Artur, Adriana G.; Otero, Xosé L.


    This work aimed to test the suitability of pyrite (FeS2) as a proxy for reconstructing past marine environmental conditions along the semiarid coast of Brazil. Morphological description combined with physicochemical analyses including Fe partitioning were conducted for soil depth profiles (30 and 60 cm depths) at three sites in two contrasting lagoons of the state of Ceará: a suspected former lagoon that would have been transformed into a freshwater "lake" at a site vegetated by Juncus effusus (site P1), and another lagoon with connection to the sea at sites vegetated by J. effusus (site P2) or Portulaca oleracea (site P3). Soil samples were collected in September 2010. Site P3 had more reducing conditions, reaching Eh values of -132 mV in the surface layer (0-10 cm), whereas minimum values for the P1 and P2 sites were +219 and +85 mV, respectively. Lower pyritic Fe values were found at site P1, with a degree of pyritization (DOP) ranging from 10 to 13%. At sites P2 and P3, DOP ranged from 9 to 67% and from 55 to 72%, respectively. These results are consistent with an interruption of tidal channels by eolian dune migration inducing strong changes in the hydrodynamics and physicochemical characteristics (lower salinity, oxidizing conditions) of these sites, causing the dieback of suspected former mangroves and a succession to freshwater marshes with an intermediate salt marsh stage. Together with other physicochemical signatures, pyrite can evidently serve as a useful proxy in tracking environmental changes in such ecotones, with implications for coastal management.

  2. Biogeochemistry of pyrite and iron sulfide oxidation in marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schippers, A.; Jørgensen, BB


    Pyrite (FeS2) and iron monosulfide (FeS) play a central role in the sulfur and iron cycles of marine sediments, They may be buried in the sediment or oxidized by O-2 after transport by bioturbation to the sediment surface. FeS2 and FeS may also be oxidized within the anoxic sediment in which NO3......-, Fe(III) oxides, or MnO2 are available as potential electron acceptors. In chemical experiments, FeS2 and FeS were oxidized by MnO2 but not with NO3- or amorphous Fe(III) oxide (Schippers and Jørgensen, 2001). Here we also show that in experiments with anoxic sediment slurries, a dissolution of tracer......-marked (FeS2)-Fe-55 occurred with MnO2 but not with NO3- or amorphous Fe(III) oxide as electron acceptor. To study a thermodynamically possible anaerobic microbial FeS, and FeS oxidation with NO3- or amorphous Fe(III) oxide as electron acceptor, more than 300 assays were inoculated with material from several...

  3. Pyrite and pyritic mill tailing as a source of iron in a calcareous iron-deficient soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrau, E.M.; Berg, W.A.


    Mill wastes from ore processing, particularly acid-forming pyrites, often pose disposal problems. This greenhouse study evaluated pyrite and a pyritic mill tailing as Fe sources on an Fe-deficient calcareous soil. Pyrite and tailing <0.1 mm in diameter were applied at rates of 45 and 135 metric ton/ha. Controls, 200 and 600 ppM Fe as Fe/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ and 5 and 15 ppM Fe as FeEDDHA, were used as standards. The treatments were seeded with sudangrass (Sorghum vulgare sudanense) and six successive crops were harvested. Sudangrass yields increased 160 to 200% with pyrite and tailing treatments; these yields were significantly greater than the control and were comparable to yields from the other Fe sources. The 5 ppM FeEDDHA treatment, however, increased yield for only the first two crops. Plant-available soil Fe measured by DTPA extraction increased with all Fe treatments, while the levels of DTPA-extractable Zn and Mn remained the same or increased slightly. DTPA-extractable Cu doubled with the high rate of pyrite addition. The concentration of Fe in the plants remained the same or increased slightly with the Fe treatments, while concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Mn all decreased.

  4. Surface characterization and surface electronic structure of organic quasi-one-dimensional charge transfer salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sing, M.; Schwingenschlögl, U.; Claessen, R.


    We have thoroughly characterized the surfaces of the organic charge-transfer salts TTF-TCNQ and (TMTSF)(2)PF6 which are generally acknowledged as prototypical examples of one-dimensional conductors. In particular x-ray-induced photoemission spectroscopy turns out to be a valuable nondestructive d...

  5. A simple surface treatment and characterization of AA 6061 aluminum alloy surface for adhesive bonding applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleema, N., E-mail: [National Research Council of Canada (ATC-NRC), 501 Boulevard University East, Saguenay, Quebec G7H 8C3 (Canada); Sarkar, D.K. [Centre Universitaire de Recherche sur l' Aluminium (CURAL), University of Quebec at Chicoutimi (UQAC), 555 Boulevard University East, Saguenay, Quebec G7H 2B1 (Canada); Paynter, R.W. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique Energie Materiaux Telecommunications (INRS-EMT), 1650 Boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Gallant, D.; Eskandarian, M. [National Research Council of Canada (ATC-NRC), 501 Boulevard University East, Saguenay, Quebec G7H 8C3 (Canada)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A very simple surface treatment method to achieve excellent and durable aluminum adhesive bonding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our method involves simple immersion of aluminum in very dilute NaOH solution at room temperature with no involvement of strong acids or multiple procedures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface analysis via various surface characterization techniques showed morphological and chemical modifications favorable for obtaining highly durable bond strengths on the treated surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Safe, economical, reproducible and simple method, easily applicable in industries. - Abstract: Structural adhesive bonding of aluminum is widely used in aircraft and automotive industries. It has been widely noted that surface preparation of aluminum surfaces prior to adhesive bonding plays a significant role in improving the strength of the adhesive bond. Surface cleanliness, surface roughness, surface wettability and surface chemistry are controlled primarily by proper surface treatment methods. In this study, we have employed a very simple technique influencing all these criteria by simply immersing aluminum substrates in a very dilute solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and we have studied the effect of varying the treatment period on the adhesive bonding characteristics. A bi-component epoxy adhesive was used to join the treated surfaces and the bond strengths were evaluated via single lap shear (SLS) tests in pristine as well as degraded conditions. Surface morphology, chemistry, crystalline nature and wettability of the NaOH treated surfaces were characterized using various surface analytical tools such as scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX), optical profilometry, infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and contact angle goniometry. Excellent adhesion characteristics with complete cohesive failure

  6. Degradation of tyrosol by a novel electro-Fenton process using pyrite as heterogeneous source of iron catalyst. (United States)

    Ammar, Salah; Oturan, Mehmet A; Labiadh, Lazhar; Guersalli, Amor; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Oturan, Nihal; Brillas, Enric


    Tyrosol (TY) is one of the most abundant phenolic components of olive oil mill wastewaters. Here, the degradation of synthetic aqueous solutions of 0.30 mM TY was studied by a novel heterogeneous electro-Fenton (EF) process, so-called EF-pyrite, in which pyrite powder was the source of Fe(2+) catalyst instead of a soluble iron salt used in classical EF. Experiments were performed with a cell equipped with a boron-doped diamond anode and a carbon-felt cathode, where TY and its products were destroyed by hydroxyl radicals formed at the anode surface from water oxidation and in the bulk from Fenton's reaction between Fe(2+) and H2O2 generated at the cathode. Addition of 1.0 g L(-1) pyrite provided an easily adjustable pH to 3.0 and an appropriate 0.20 mM Fe(2+) to optimize the EF-pyrite treatment. The effect of current on mineralization rate, mineralization current efficiency and specific energy consumption was examined under comparable EF and EF-pyrite conditions. The performance of EF-pyrite was 8.6% superior at 50 mA due to self-regulation of soluble Fe(2+) by pyrite. The TY decay in this process followed a pseudo-first-order kinetics. The absolute rate constant for TY hydroxylation was 3.57 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1), as determined by the competition kinetics method. Aromatic products like 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and catechol, as well as o-benzoquinone, were identified by GC-MS and reversed-phase HPLC. Short-chain aliphatic carboxylic acids like maleic, glycolic, acetic, oxalic and formic were quantified by ion-exclusion HPLC. Oxalic acid was the major and most persistent product found. Based on detected intermediates, a plausible mineralization pathway for TY by EF-pyrite was proposed.

  7. Geochemical characteristics of pyrite in Duolanasayi gold deposit, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guodong; XIAO Huiliang; WANG Henian; ZHOU Jiyuan


    The Duolanasayi gold deposit, 60 km NW of Habahe County, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, is a mid-large-scale gold deposit controlled by brittle-ductile shearing, and superimposed by albitite veins and late-stage magma hydrothermal solutions. There are four types of pyrite, which are contained in the light metamorphosed rocks (limestone, siltstone), altered-mineralized rocks (chlorite-schist, altered albite-granite, mineralized phyllite), quartz veins and carbonatite veinlets. The pyrite is the most common ore mineral. The Au-barren pyrite is present mainly in a simple form and gold-bearing pyrite is present mainly in a composite form. From the top downwards, the pyrite varies in crystal form from {100} and {210}+{100} to {210}+{100}+{111} to {100}+{111}. Geochemical studies indicate that the molecular contents of pyrite range from Fe1.057S2 to Fe0.941S2. Gold positively correlates with Mn, Sr, Zn, Te, Pb, Ba and Ag. There are four groups of trace elements: Fe-Cu-Sr-Ag, Au-Te-Co, As-Pb-Zn and Mn-V-Ti-Ba-Ni-Cr in pyrite. The REE characteristics show that the total amount of REE (ΣREE) ranges from 32.35×10 -6 to 132.18×10 -6; LREE/HREE, 4.466-9.142; (La/Yb)N, 3.719-11.133; (Eu/Sm)N, 0.553-1.656; (Sm/Nd)N, 0.602-0.717; La/Yb, 6.26-18.75; δEu, 0.628-2.309; δCe, 0.308-0.816. Sulfur isotopic compositions (δ 34S=-2.46‰--7.02‰) suggest that the sulfur associated with gold mineralization was derived from the upper mantle or lower crust.

  8. Chemical characterization of the surface sites of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowkes, F.M.; Kardos, K.; Riddle, F.L. Jr.; Cole, D.A.


    We propose to do experimental studies in four related areas concerning the acid-base properties of coal surfaces: (1) develop high precision flow microcalorimetric methods for determining the concentrations and strengths of the acidic and basic surface sites of coal powders: (2) develop photo-acoustic FTIR and solid-state NMR spectral shift techniques for determination of the concentrations and strengths of acidic and basic surface sites of coal powders; (3) determine the concentrations and strengths of the acidic and basic surface sites of some of the well-characterized coal samples from Argonne National Labs., comparing the coal samples before and after demineralization treatments with HCl and HF; (4) study the effects of surface acidity and basicity on the coal/water interface, with emphasis on the role of interfacial acid-base interactions in the adsorption of ions, surfactants and coal/water slurry stabilizers. From measured heats of interaction, a reasonable estimate can be made of the most prevalent functional groups in coal. This quarter, heats of adsorption of phenols and pyridines were investigated. 2 tabs. (CBS)

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Plasma Cu Surface Modified Stainless Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiangyu; TANG Bin; FAN Ailan; MA Yong; TIAN Linhai


    Cu modified layer was prepared on the surface of AISI304 stainless steel by plasma surface alloying technique.The effects of processing parameters on the thickness,surface topography,microstructure and chemical composition of Cu modified layer were characterized using glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES),scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).The experimental results show that the surface modified layer is a duplex layer (deposited + diffused layer) with thickness of about 26 μm under the optimum process parameters.The modified layer is mainly composed of a mixture of Cu and expanded austenite phase.The ball-on-disk results show that the modified layer possesses low friction coefficients (0.25) and excellent wear resistance (wear volume 0.005× 109 μm3).The Cu modified layer is very effective in killing the bacteria S.aureus.Meanwhile,no viable S.aureus is found after 3 h (100% killed) by contact with the Cu alloyed surface.

  10. Surface microstructure of bitumen characterized by atomic force microscopy. (United States)

    Yu, Xiaokong; Burnham, Nancy A; Tao, Mingjiang


    Bitumen, also called asphalt binder, plays important roles in many industrial applications. It is used as the primary binding agent in asphalt concrete, as a key component in damping systems such as rubber, and as an indispensable additive in paint and ink. Consisting of a large number of hydrocarbons of different sizes and polarities, together with heteroatoms and traces of metals, bitumen displays rich surface microstructures that affect its rheological properties. This paper reviews the current understanding of bitumen's surface microstructures characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Microstructures of bitumen develop to different forms depending on crude oil source, thermal history, and sample preparation method. While some bitumens display surface microstructures with fine domains, flake-like domains, and dendrite structuring, 'bee-structures' with wavy patterns several micrometers in diameter and tens of nanometers in height are commonly seen in other binders. Controversy exists regarding the chemical origin of the 'bee-structures', which has been related to the asphaltene fraction, the metal content, or the crystallizing waxes in bitumen. The rich chemistry of bitumen can result in complicated intermolecular associations such as coprecipitation of wax and metalloporphyrins in asphaltenes. Therefore, it is the molecular interactions among the different chemical components in bitumen, rather than a single chemical fraction, that are responsible for the evolution of bitumen's diverse microstructures, including the 'bee-structures'. Mechanisms such as curvature elasticity and surface wrinkling that explain the rippled structures observed in polymer crystals might be responsible for the formation of 'bee-structures' in bitumen. Despite the progress made on morphological characterization of bitumen using AFM, the fundamental question whether the microstructures observed on bitumen surfaces represent its bulk structure remains to be addressed. In addition

  11. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Harris, G.; Sotillo, F.; Diao, J. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA)); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA)); Hu, Weibai; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (USA)); Choudhry, V.; Sehgal, R.; Ghosh, A. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (USA))


    The primary objective of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve near total pyritic-sulfur removal at 90% Btu recovery, using coal samples procured from six major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Work this quarter concentrated on the following: washability studies, which included particle size distribution of the washability samples, and chemical analysis of washability test samples; characterization studies of induction time measurements, correlation between yield, combustible-material recovery (CMR), and heating-value recovery (HVR), and QA/QC for standard flotation tests and coal analyses; surface modification and control including testing of surface-modifying reagents, restoration of hydrophobicity to lab-oxidized coals, pH effects on coal flotation, and depression of pyritic sulfur in which pyrite depression with calcium cyanide and pyrite depression with xanthated reagents was investigated; flotation optimization and circuitry included staged reagent addition, cleaning and scavenging, and scavenging and middling recycling. Weathering studies are also discussed. 19 figs., 28 tabs.

  12. Facet Model and Mathematical Morphology for Surface Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abidi, B.R.; Goddard, J.S.; Hunt, M.A.; Sari-Sarraf, H.


    This paper describes an algorithm for the automatic segmentation and representation of surface structures and non-uniformities in an industrial setting. The automatic image processing and analysis algorithm is developed as part of a complete on-line web characterization system of a papermaking process at the wet end. The goal is to: (1) link certain types of structures on the surface of the web to known machine parameter values, and (2) find the connection between detected structures at the beginning of the line and defects seen on the final product. Images of the pulp mixture (slurry), carried by a fast moving table, are obtained using a stroboscopic light and a CCD camera. This characterization algorithm succeeded where conventional contrast and edge detection techniques failed due to a poorly controlled environment. The images obtained have poor contrast and contain noise caused by a variety of sources. After a number of enhancement steps, conventional segmentation methods still f ailed to detect any structures and are consequently discarded. Techniques tried include the Canny edge detector, the Sobel, Roberts, and Prewitt's filters, as well as zero crossings. The facet model algorithm, is then applied to the images with various parameter settings and is found to be successful in detecting the various topographic characteristics of the surface of the slurry. Pertinent topographic elements are retained and a filtered image computed. Carefully tailored morphological operators are then applied to detect and segment regions of interest. Those regions are then selected according to their size, elongation, and orientation. Their bounding rectangles are computed and represented. Also addressed in this paper are aspects of the real time implementation of this algorithm for on-line use. The algorithm is tested on over 500 images of slurry and is found to segment and characterize nonuniformities on all 500 images.

  13. Enhancement of surface properties for coal beneficiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chander, S.; Aplan, F.F.


    This report will focus on means of pyrite removal from coal using surface-based coal cleaning technologies. The major subjects being addressed in this study are the natural and modulated surface properties of coal and pyrite and how they may best be utilized to facilitate their separation using advanced surface-based coal cleaning technology. Emphasis is based on modified flotation and oil agglomerative processes and the basic principles involved. The four areas being addressed are: (1) Collectorless flotation of pyrite; (2) Modulation of pyrite and coal hydrophobicity; (3) Emulsion processes and principles; (4) Evaluation of coal hydrophobicity.

  14. Characterization of Floating Surface Layers of Lipids and Lipopolymers by Surface-Sensitive Scattering (United States)

    Krüger, Peter; Lösche, Mathias

    Nanotechnology and molecular (bio-)engineering are making ever deepening inroads into everybodys daily life. Physicochemical and biotechnological achievements in the design of physiologically active supramolecular assemblies have brought about the quest for their submolecular-level characterization. We employ surface-sensitive scattering techniques for the investigation of planar lipid membranes - floating monolayers on aqueous surfaces - to correlate structural, functional and dynamic aspects of biomembrane models. This chapter surveys recent work on the submolecular structure of floating phospholipid monolayers - where the advent of third-generation synchrotron X-ray sources has driven the development of realistic, submolecular-scale quasi-chemical models - as well as of more complex systems: cation binding to anionic lipid surfaces; conformational changes of lipopolymers undergoing phase transitions; the conformational organization of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositides, as examples of physiologically important lipids; and the adsorption of peptides (neuropeptide Y, NPY) or solvents (dimethylsulfoxide, DMSO) onto phospholipid surface layers.

  15. Fast Characterization of Moving Samples with Nano-Textured Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Morten Hannibal; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Karamehmedović, Mirza; Garnæs, Jørgen


    We characterize nano-textured surfaces by optical diffraction techniques using an adapted commercial light microscope with two detectors, a CCD camera and a spectrometer. The acquisition and analyzing time for the topological parameters height, width, and sidewall angle is only a few milliseconds of a grating. We demonstrate that the microscope has a resolution in the nanometer range, also in an environment with many vibrations, such as a machine floor. Furthermore, we demonstrate an easy method to find the area of interest with the integrated CCD camera.

  16. Microanalytical characterization of surface decoration in Majolica pottery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, R. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Havana (Cuba); Schalm, O. [Micro and Trace Analysis Center, University of Antwerp (Belgium); Janssens, K. [Micro and Trace Analysis Center, University of Antwerp (Belgium); Arrazcaeta, R. [Gabinete de Arqueologia, Oficina del Historiador de la Ciudad de la Habana (OHCH) (Cuba); Espen, P. van [Micro and Trace Analysis Center, University of Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail:


    This paper presents the results of the characterization of the surface finishing works in archaeological pottery fragments belonging to several Majolica types. The homogeneity, thickness and inclusions of both ground glaze and color decorations were, among other characteristics, inspected by scanning electron microscopy X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX). The identification of the main constituents in the decoration motifs was performed by means of scanning micro X-ray fluorescence analysis. Additionally, compositional classification based on non-destructive quantitative analysis of the ground glaze was performed.

  17. Characterization of surface EMG signals using improved approximate entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei-ting; WANG Zhi-zhong; REN Xiao-mei


    An improved approximate entropy (ApEn) is presented and applied to characterize surface electromyography (sEMG)signals. In most previous experiments using nonlinear dynamic analysis, this certain processing was often confronted with the problem of insufficient data points and noisy circumstances, which led to unsatisfactory results. Compared with fractal dimension as well as the standard ApEn, the improved ApEn can extract information underlying sEMG signals more efficiently and accurately. The method introduced here can also be applied to other medium-sized and noisy physiological signals.

  18. A review of the fundamental studies of the copper activation mechanisms for selective flotation of the sulfide minerals, sphalerite and pyrite. (United States)

    Chandra, A P; Gerson, A R


    A review of the considerable, but often contradictory, literature examining the specific surface reactions associated with copper adsorption onto the common metal sulfide minerals sphalerite, (Zn,Fe)S, and pyrite (FeS(2)), and the effect of the co-location of the two minerals is presented. Copper "activation", involving the surface adsorption of copper species from solution onto mineral surfaces to activate the surface for hydrophobic collector attachment, is an important step in the flotation and separation of minerals in an ore. Due to the complexity of metal sulfide mineral containing systems this activation process and the emergence of activation products on the mineral surfaces are not fully understood for most sulfide minerals even after decades of research. Factors such as copper concentration, activation time, pH, surface charge, extent of pre-oxidation, water and surface contaminants, pulp potential and galvanic interactions are important factors affecting copper activation of sphalerite and pyrite. A high pH, the correct reagent concentration and activation time and a short time delay between reagent additions is favourable for separation of sphalerite from pyrite. Sufficient oxidation potential is also needed (through O(2) conditioning) to maintain effective galvanic interactions between sphalerite and pyrite. This ensures pyrite is sufficiently depressed while sphalerite floats. Good water quality with low concentrations of contaminant ions, such as Pb(2+)and Fe(2+), is also needed to limit inadvertent activation and flotation of pyrite into zinc concentrates. Selectivity can further be increased and reagent use minimised by opting for inert grinding and by carefully choosing selective pyrite depressants such as sulfoxy or cyanide reagents. Studies that approximate plant conditions are essential for the development of better separation techniques and methodologies. Improved experimental approaches and surface sensitive techniques with high spatial

  19. Surface characterization of silver-doped bioactive glass. (United States)

    Vernè, E; Di Nunzio, S; Bosetti, M; Appendino, P; Brovarone, C Vitale; Maina, G; Cannas, M


    A bioactive glass belonging to the system SiO(2)-CaO-Na(2)O was doped with silver ions by ion exchange in molten salts as well as in aqueous solution. The ion exchange in the solution was done to check if it is possible to prepare an antimicrobial material using a low silver content. The doped glass was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, SEM observation, EDS analysis, bioactivity test (soaking in a simulated body fluid), leaching test (GFAAS analyses) and cytotoxicity test. It is demonstrated that these surface silver-doped glasses maintain, or even improve, the bioactivity of the starting glass. The measured quantity of released silver into simulated body fluid compares those reported in literature for the antibacterial activity and the non-cytotoxic effect of silver. Cytotoxicity tests were carried out to understand the effect of the doped surfaces on osteogenic cell adhesion and proliferation.

  20. Surface Characterization of Glass Fiber by Inverse Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xiaohua; LI Bin; SHI Baoli; GUO Xuefei; JIA Lina


    The surface properties of glass fiber were quantificationally analyzed by inverse gas chromatography (IGC). Five n-alkanes (C6, C7, C8, C9, and C10) were chosen as apolar probes to characterize the dispersive component of surface free energy. Trichloromethane (CHCl3), acetone,and tetrahydrofuran (THF) were chosen as polar probes to detect the Lewis acid-base parameters. It is found that the dispersive components of free energy are 32.3, 30.5, 27.5, and 26.9 Mj/m2 at 70,80, 90, and 100 ℃, respectively. The Lewis acidic number Ka of the glass fiber is 0.512 4, and the basic number Kb is 2.862. The results mean the glass fiber is a Lewis basic material.

  1. Characterization of Flexible RF Microcoil Dedicated to Surface Mri

    CERN Document Server

    Woytasik, M; Raynaud, J -S; Poirier-Quinot, M; Dufour-Gergam, E; Grandchamp, J -P; Darrasse, L; Robert, P; Gilles, J -P; Martincic, E; Girard, O


    In Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), to achieve sufficient Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), the electrical performance of the RF coil is critical. We developed a device (microcoil) based on the original concept of monolithic resonator. This paper presents the used fabrication process based on micromoulding. The dielectric substrates are flexible thin films of polymer, which allow the microcoil to be form fitted to none-plane surface. Electrical characterizations of the RF coils are first performed and results are compared to the attempted values. Proton MRI of a saline phantom using a flexible RF coil of 15 mm in diameter is performed. When the coil is conformed to the phantom surface, a SNR gain up to 2 is achieved as compared to identical but planar RF coil. Finally, the flexible coil is used in vivo to perform MRI with high spatial resolution on a mouse using a small animal dedicated scanner operating at in a 2.35 T.

  2. Theoretical characterization of formamide on the inner surface of montmorillonite (United States)

    Shi, Jing; Lou, Zhaoyang; Yang, Mingli; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Houbin; Meng, Yingfeng


    Density functional theory calculations were performed to characterize the low-lying structures of formamide (FA) and protonated formamide (FAH) in the interlayer space of montmorillonite (MMT). The interactions among FA/FAH, H2O, Na+, and the inner surface of MMT were systematically analyzed. The carbonyl-O of FA/FAH has strong coulomb interaction with Na+, while its amide-H forms hydrogen bonds (HBs) with water and MMT surface. The adsorption of FA is promoted by H2O, which exhibits a cooperative adsorption effect by enhancing the FA-Na+ coulomb interaction and by forming HBs with FA. Our study reveals the structural basis of FA/FAH as an intercalator for MMT splitting.

  3. Arsenic incorporation into authigenic pyrite, Bengal Basin sediment, Bangladesh (United States)

    Lowers, H.A.; Breit, G.N.; Foster, A.L.; Whitney, J.; Yount, J.; Uddin, Md. N.; Muneem, Ad. A.


    Sediment from two deep boreholes (???400 m) approximately 90 km apart in southern Bangladesh was analyzed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), total chemical analyses, chemical extractions, and electron probe microanalysis to establish the importance of authigenic pyrite as a sink for arsenic in the Bengal Basin. Authigenic framboidal and massive pyrite (median values 1500 and 3200 ppm As, respectively), is the principal arsenic residence in sediment from both boreholes. Although pyrite is dominant, ferric oxyhydroxides and secondary iron phases contain a large fraction of the sediment-bound arsenic between approximately 20 and 100 m, which is the depth range of wells containing the greatest amount of dissolved arsenic. The lack of pyrite in this interval is attributed to rapid sediment deposition and a low sulfur flux from riverine and atmospheric sources. The ability of deeper aquifers (>150 m) to produce ground water with low dissolved arsenic in southern Bangladesh reflects adequate sulfur supplies and sufficient time to redistribute the arsenic into pyrite during diagenesis.

  4. Pyrite oxidation under simulated acid rain weathering conditions. (United States)

    Zheng, Kai; Li, Heping; Wang, Luying; Wen, Xiaoying; Liu, Qingyou


    We investigated the electrochemical corrosion behavior of pyrite in simulated acid rain with different acidities and at different temperatures. The cyclic voltammetry, polarization curve, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results showed that pyrite has the same electrochemical interaction mechanism under different simulated acid rain conditions, regardless of acidity or environmental temperature. Either stronger acid rain acidity or higher environmental temperature can accelerate pyrite corrosion. Compared with acid rain having a pH of 5.6 at 25 °C, the prompt efficiency of pyrite weathering reached 104.29% as the acid rain pH decreased to 3.6, and it reached 125.31% as environmental temperature increased to 45 °C. Increasing acidity dramatically decreases the charge transfer resistance, and increasing temperature dramatically decreases the passivation film resistance, when other conditions are held constant. Acid rain always causes lower acidity mine drainage, and stronger acidity or high environmental temperatures cause serious acid drainage. The natural parameters of latitude, elevation, and season have considerable influence on pyrite weathering, because temperature is an important influencing factor. These experimental results are of direct significance for the assessment and management of sulfide mineral acid drainage in regions receiving acid rain.

  5. Formation and characterization of infrared absorbing copper oxide surfaces (United States)

    Arslan, Burcu; Demirci, Gökhan; Erdoğan, Metehan; Karakaya, İshak


    Copper oxide formation has been investigated to combine the advantages of producing different size and shapes of coatings that possess good light absorbing properties. An aqueous blackening solution was investigated and optimum composition was found as 2.5 M NaOH and 0.225 M NaClO to form velvet copper oxide films. A two-step oxidation mechanism was proposed for the blackening process by carefully examining the experimental results. Formation of Cu2O was observed until the entire copper surface was covered at first. In the second step, Cu2O surface was further oxidized to CuO until the whole Cu2O surface was covered by CuO. Therefore, blackened copper surfaces consisted of Cu2O/CuO duplex oxides. Characterization of the coatings were performed in terms of microstructure, phase analysis, chemical state, infrared specular and total reflectivity by SEM, XRD, XPS, FTIR and UV-vis spectrophotometry, respectively.

  6. Mineralization and trace element distribution in pyrite using EMPA in exploration drill holes from Cheshmeh Zard gold district, Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Alaminia


    systems were recognized east of Arghash. The estimated resources are about 2 million metric tons of potential ore with an average of 1.9 g/t Au (Samadi, 2001;Ashrafpour et al., 2012. Multiple intrusive events are recognized in the region including Precambrian to post-Oligocene-Miocene igneous rocks (Alaminia et al., 2013a. This includes the Arghash diorite pluton, upper Cretaceous granitoids (minor diorite, mainly quartz monzodiorite and granodiorite, early Eocene granite and several lamprophyre and small intrusions of quartz monzodiorite porphyries. Volcanicsinclude andesite, dacite, pillow basalt and tuffs. Sedimentary rocks are conglomerate and minor limestone. Gold veins are hosted by intermediate to silicic volcanic rocks, tuffs, granite, granodiorite, and conglomerate. Veins consist of calcite and quartz. The main alteration zones mapped at the surface and underground are sericite-quartz-pyrite-calcite, withsilicified, propylitic, argillic, and carbonate zones. The mineralization associated with sericiticalteration and silicificationoccurs asveinlets and disseminated in the propylitic zone. Gangue minerals are quartz, chalcedony, calcite, adularia, illite, and kaolinite. Mineralization occurs as veinlets, breccia filling and disseminated. The veinlets are comprised of pyrite, arsenopyrite, minor chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, magnetite and hematite. Pyrite is the main sulfide mineral in the hypogene ore. Samples were collected with the objective of studying the pyrite in the Au (III vein systems. All samples were therefore pyrite rich. The paragenesiswas determined to show four stages of mineralization based on the following microscopic observations: 1. an initial pyrite veinlet stage with associated quartz, chlorite, epidote. Pyrite is fine to medium grained, anhedral and gold-poor. 2. a second pyritic stage (polymetallic sulfide stage contains pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite, quartz and chalcedony, minor adularia and arsenopyrite. 3. An As

  7. Pyrite oxidation in the presence of hematite and alumina: II. Effects on the cathodic and anodic half-cell reactions. (United States)

    Tabelin, Carlito Baltazar; Veerawattananun, Suchol; Ito, Mayumi; Hiroyoshi, Naoki; Igarashi, Toshifumi


    The oxidative dissolution of pyrite is an important process in the redox recycling of iron (Fe) and is well-known for its role in the formation of acid mine drainage (AMD), which is considered as the most serious and widespread problem after the closure of mines and mineral processing operations. Because this process requires the movement of electrons, common metal oxides in nature that have either semiconducting (e.g., hematite) or insulating (e.g., alumina) properties may have strong effects on it. In this study, changes in the electrochemical behavior of pyrite in the presence of hematite and alumina were investigated. Results showed that the formation of surface-bound species directly influenced the anodic and cathodic half-cell reactions as well as the transfer of electrons between these sites. Pyrite pretreated in the air became anodically more reactive than that pretreated in oxygenated water, but the type of oxidizing media had little effect on the cathodic half-cell reaction. The presence of hematite and alumina during pretreatment also had strong effects on the electrochemical properties of pyrite. Chronoamperometry measurements suggest that hematite and alumina enhanced the anodic half-cell reaction but suppressed the cathodic half-cell reaction of pyrite oxidation. Increased anodic half-cell reaction in the presence of hematite could be attributed to electron "bridging" and catalytic effects of this mineral. In contrast, the effects of alumina on the anodic half-cell reaction were indirect and could be explained by the formation of Fe(3+)-oxyhydroxide surface species during pretreatment. Suppression of the cathodic half-cell reaction by both minerals was attributed to their "protective" effect on cathodic sites. Our results also point to the cathodic half-cell reaction as the rate determining-step of the overall oxidative dissolution process.

  8. Surface characterization and stability of an epoxy resin surface modified with polyamines grafted on polydopamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaubroeck, David, E-mail: [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), imec and Ghent University, Technologiepark 914A, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Vercammen, Yannick; Van Vaeck, Luc [Biomolecular and Analytical Mass Spectrometry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Vanderleyden, Els; Dubruel, Peter [Polymer Chemistry and Biomaterials Research Group, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S4 bis, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vanfleteren, Jan [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), imec and Ghent University, Technologiepark 914A, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium)


    This paper reports on polydopamine and polyamine surface modifications of an etched epoxy cresol novolac (ECN) resin using the ‘grafting to’ method. Three different polyamines are used for the grafting reactions: branched polyethyleneimine (B-PEI), linear polyethyleneimine (L-PEI) and diethylenetriamine (DETA). These modifications are compared to control materials prepared via direct deposition of polyamines. The stability of the modifications toward a concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl) environment is evaluated. The modified surfaces are characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight static secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-S-SIMS).

  9. Hard X-ray photoelectron and X-ray absorption spectroscopy characterization of oxidized surfaces of iron sulfides (United States)

    Mikhlin, Yuri; Tomashevich, Yevgeny; Vorobyev, Sergey; Saikova, Svetlana; Romanchenko, Alexander; Félix, Roberto


    Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) using an excitation energy range of 2 keV to 6 keV in combination with Fe K- and S K-edge XANES, measured simultaneously in total electron (TEY) and partial fluorescence yield (PFY) modes, have been applied to study near-surface regions of natural polycrystalline pyrite FeS2 and pyrrhotite Fe1-xS before and after etching treatments in an acidic ferric chloride solution. It was found that the following near-surface regions are formed owing to the preferential release of iron from oxidized metal sulfide lattices: (i) a thin, no more than 1-4 nm in depth, outer layer containing polysulfide species, (ii) a layer exhibiting less pronounced stoichiometry deviations and low, if any, concentrations of polysulfide, the composition and dimensions of which vary for pyrite and pyrrhotite and depend on the chemical treatment, and (iii) an extended almost stoichiometric underlayer yielding modified TEY XANES spectra, probably, due to a higher content of defects. We suggest that the extended layered structure should heavily affect the near-surface electronic properties, and processes involving the surface and interfacial charge transfer.

  10. The role of dissolved molecular oxygen in abiotic pyrite oxidation under acid pH conditions - Experiments with {sup 18}O-enriched molecular oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidel, Claudia, E-mail: [Institute of Mineralogy, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Brennhausgasse 14, 09599 Freiberg (Germany); Tichomirowa, Marion [Institute of Mineralogy, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Brennhausgasse 14, 09599 Freiberg (Germany)


    }{sub SO{sub 4}}-O{sub 2} value indicated that the oxidation of dissolved Fe{sup 2+} by O{sub 2} did not play an important role. Furthermore, the lack of {sup 32}S enrichment in SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} compared to pyrite indicated that the oxidation of adsorbed Fe{sup 2+} by O{sub 2} should not be a dominant mechanism, although it may be catalyzed onto the pyrite surface. Hence, O{sub 2} should accept electrons predominantly from pyrite.

  11. Chemical surface modification of porous silicon with palladium and characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanungo, J.; Maji, S.; Saha, H. [IC Design and Fabrication Centre, Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Basu, S., E-mail: [IC Design and Fabrication Centre, Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)


    Porous silicon (PS) was formed on p-type crystalline silicon of (1 0 0) orientation and 2-5 OMEGA cm resistivity by the electrochemical anodization method using HF and ethanol as the electrolyte. Adjusting the current density and the HF concentration in the electrolyte the porosity of the samples were varied from 40% to 60%. The porous silicon surface was modified with PdCl{sub 2} solution by a low cost chemical method. Both the unmodified and the modified PS were thoroughly characterized by the EDAX analysis, the digital X-ray image mapping and the XPS study. Electrical characteristics were performed by the I-V measurements for both the lateral and the sandwich structures using Al metal contact. The I-V characteristics of the modified PS for all the porosity were more reproducible compared to the unmodified PS surfaces. It was further observed that the conductivity increased with the increasing porosity for the Pd-modified surfaces whereas it decreased for the unmodified PS.

  12. Study of possibilities of pyrite content reduction in black coals from the Mecsek Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petho, S.; Bokanyi, L.


    Certain parts of the pyrite content of coals can be removed by physical methods in inorganic form. The pyrite content of the Hungarian black coals as well as the pyrite distribution, as a function of density and grain size, are discussed. Based on literature data and laboratory experiments the pyrite content reduction by means of flotation, magnetic and gravitation enrichment is dealt with. Conclusions are drawn on how to apply these different procedures in black coal processing in Hungary.

  13. Electrochemical synthesis and surface characterization of (pyrrole+2-methylfuran) copolymer (United States)

    Djaouane, Linda; Nessark, Belkacem; Sibous, Lakhdar


    Electrochemical copolymerization of pyrrole (Py) and 2-methylfuran (2 MF) was performed on platinum and ITO substrates in acetonitrile/lithium perchlorate solution, using cyclic voltammetry method. The electrochemical behavior of the modified electrode surface by polypyrrole, poly(2-methylfuran) homopolymers and (pyrrole+2-methylfuran) copolymer was characterized by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), UV-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cyclic voltammetry shows anodic and cathodic peaks which are characteristic of the oxidation and the reduction of the formed films. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy confirmed the results obtained by cyclic voltammetry. AFM and SEM analyses proved as well that the morphology and the electrochemical properties of the polypyrrole film are modified in the presence of 2-methylfuran.

  14. Surface Characterization of a Paper Web at the Wet End

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abidi, B.R.; Goddard, J.S.; Sari-Sarraf, H.


    We present an algorithm for the detection and representation of structures and non-uniformities on the surface of a paper web at the wet end (slurry). This image processing/analysis algorithm is developed as part of a complete on-line web characterization system. Images of the slurry, carried by a fast moving table, are obtained using a stroboscopic light and a CCD camera. The images have very poor contrast and contain noise from a variety of sources. Those sources include the acquisition system itself, the lighting, the vibrations of the moving table being imaged, and the scattering water from the same table's movement. After many steps of enhancement, conventional edge detection methods were still inconclusive and were discarded. The facet model algorithm, is applied to the images and is found successful in detecting the various topographic characteristics of the surface of the slurry. Pertinent topographic elements are retained and a filtered image is computed based on the general appearance and characteristics of the structures in question. Morphological operators are applied to detect and segment regions of interest. Those regions are then filtered according to their size, elongation, and orientation.Their bounding rectangles are computed and superimposed on the original image. Real time implementation of this algorithm for on-line use is also addressed in this paper. The algorithm is tested on over 500 images of slurry and is found to detect nonuniformities on all 500 images. Locating and characterizing all different size structures is also achieved on all 500 images of the web.

  15. Pyrite multiple-sulfur isotope evidence for rapid expansion and contraction of the early Paleoproterozoic seawater sulfate reservoir (United States)

    Scott, Clint; Wing, Boswell A.; Bekker, Andrey; Planavsky, Noah J.; Medvedev, Pavel; Bates, Steven M.; Yun, Misuk; Lyons, Timothy W.


    Earth's oxygenation is often described in terms of two unidirectional steps at the beginning and end of the Proterozoic Eon, separated by a long-lived intermediate redox state. Recent work defines a more complicated path to oxygenation, exemplified by an apparent drop in oxidation state following the early Paleoproterozoic Lomagundi carbon isotope excursion. The timing of this proposed drop in oxidation state is not well constrained, and it is not clear how it relates to redox conditions during the remainder of the Proterozoic. Here we present a study of pyrite multiple-sulfur isotopes, supported by Fe speciation and organic carbon isotopes, from early Paleoproterozoic black shales. We find evidence for the rapid expansion of the seawater sulfate reservoir during the Great Oxidation Event at ca. 2.3 Ga followed by a subsequent contraction in the size of the seawater sulfate reservoir at ca. 2.05 Ga. This scenario is consistent with the emerging view of a rise and fall in surface oxidation state during the early Paleoproterozoic. Comparison of our new data to other records of the seawater sulfate reservoir suggests that the elevated sulfate concentrations that characterize the early Paleoproterozoic did not return until the late Neoproterozoic.

  16. Semiconductor electrochemistry of coal pyrite. Final technical report, September 1990--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osseo-Asare, K.; Wei, D.


    This project is concerned with the physiochemical processes occuring at the pyrite/aqueous interface, in the context of coal cleaning, desulfurization, and acid mine drainage. The use of synthetic particles of pyrite as model electrodes to investigate the semiconductor electrochemistry of pyrite is employed.

  17. Interfacial characterization and analytical applications of chemically-modified surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianhong [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The goal of this work is to explore several new strategies and approaches to the surface modification and the microscopic characterization of interfaces in the areas mainly targeting sensor technologies that are of interest to environmental control or monitoring, and scanning probe microscopies techniques that can monitor interfacial chemical reactions in real time. Centered on the main theme, four specific topics are presented as four chapters in this dissertation following the general introduction. Chapter 1 describes the development of two immobilization schemes for covalently immobilizing fluoresceinamine at cellulose acetate and its application as a pH sensing film. Chapter 2 investigates the applicability of SFM to following the base-hydrolysis of a dithio-bis(succinimidylundecanoate) monolayer at gold in situ. Chapter 3 studies the mechanism for the accelerated rate of hydrolysis of the dithio-bis(succinimidylundecanoate) monolayer at Au(111) surface. Chapter 4 focuses on the development of an electrochemical approach to the elimination of chloride interference in Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) analysis of waste water. The procedures, results and conclusions are described in each chapter. This report contains the introduction, references, and general conclusions. Chapters have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base. 95 refs.

  18. Surface characterization after subaperture reactive ion beam etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miessler, Andre; Arnold, Thomas; Rauschenbach, Bernd [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung (IOM), Leipzig (Germany)


    In usual ion beam etching processes using inert gas (Ar, Xe, Kr..) the material removal is determined by physical sputtering effects on the surface. The admixture of suitable gases (CF{sub 4}+O{sub 2}) into the glow discharge of the ion beam source leads to the generation of reactive particles, which are accelerated towards the substrate where they enhance the sputtering process by formation of volatile chemical reaction products. During the last two decades research in Reactive Ion Beam Etching (RIBE) has been done using a broad beam ion source which allows the treatment of smaller samples (diameter sample < diameter beam). Our goal was to apply a sub-aperture Kaufman-type ion source in combination with an applicative movement of the sample with respect to the source, which enables us to etch areas larger than the typical lateral dimensions of the ion beam. Concerning this matter, the etching behavior in the beam periphery plays a decisive role and has to be investigated. We use interferometry to characterize the final surface topography and XPS measurements to analyze the chemical composition of the samples after RIBE.

  19. Contribution of microorganisms to the oxidation of pyrite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arkesteyn, G.J.M.W.


    Optimum conditions for the accumulation of substantial amounts of pyrite (FeS 2 ) in the sediment are found in estuarine areas, especially in the tropics. In such areas anaerobic conditions prevail owing to continuous saturation with water. There is an abundant supply of organic matter, i

  20. Surface Material Characterization from Multi-band Optical Observations (United States)

    Hall, D.


    Ground-based optical and radar sites routinely acquire resolved images of satellites. These resolved images provide the means to construct accurate wire-frame models of the observed body, as well as an understanding of its orientation as a function of time. Unfortunately, because such images are typically acquired in a single spectral band, they provide little information on the types of materials covering the satellite's various surfaces. Detailed surface material characterization generally requires spectrometric and/or multi-band photometric measurements. Fortunately, many instruments provide such multi-band information (e.g., spectrographs and multi-channel photometers). However, these sensors often measure the brightness of the entire satellite, with no spatial resolution at all. Because such whole-body measurements represent a summation of contributions from many reflecting surfaces, an ―un-mixing‖ or inversion process must be employed to determine the materials covering each of the satellite's individual sub-components. The first section of this paper describes the inversion theory required to retrieve satellite surface material properties from temporal sequences of whole-body multi-band brightness measurements. The inversion requires the following as input: 1) a set of multi-band measurements of a satellite's reflected-sunlight brightness, 2) the satellite's wire-frame model, including each major component capable of reflecting sunlight, 3) the satellite's attitude, specifying the body’s orientation at the time of each multi-band measurement, and 4) a database of bi-directional reflection distribution functions for a set of candidate surface materials. As output, the inversion process yields estimates of the fraction of each major satellite component covered by each candidate material. The second section of the paper describes several tests of the method by applying it to simulated multi-band observations of a cubical satellite with different materials

  1. An experimental study on the geochemical behavior of highly siderophile elements (HSE) and metalloids (As, Se, Sb, Te, Bi) in a mss-iss-pyrite system at 650 °C: A possible magmatic origin for Co-HSE-bearing pyrite and the role of metalloid-rich phases in the fractionation of HSE (United States)

    Cafagna, Fabio; Jugo, Pedro J.


    Pyrite, the most abundant sulfide in the Earth's crust, is an accessory mineral in several magmatic sulfide deposits. Although most pyrite is hydrothermal, previous experimental studies have shown that pyrite can also have a primary magmatic origin, by exsolving from monosulfide solid solution (mss) during cooling of a sulfide melt, if sulfur fugacity is sufficiently high. Pyrite from some localities has significant amounts of Co, and complex zonation in some low-melting-point chalcophile elements (LMCE), such as As, Se, Sb, Te, Bi (henceforth referred to as metalloids) and some platinum-group elements (PGE: Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt). However, the origin of such pyrite and the causes of zonation are not clear. Because the distribution of some of these elements is heterogeneous and seems to be developed in concentric zones, the zonation has been interpreted to represent growth stages, some of them secondary and caused partly by hydrothermal fluids. Better constraints on the origin of Co-PGE-bearing pyrite could help unravel the geochemical processes affecting the sulfide assemblages in which it is found; thus, an experimental study was undertaken to characterize pyrite formation in magmatic sulfide environments and its relationship with metalloids and highly siderophile elements (HSE: PGE, Re, Au). Natural pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, pentlandite and elemental S were mixed and doped with approximately 50 ppm of each HSE. A mixture of metalloids was added at 0.2 wt.% or 3 wt.% to aliquots of sulfide mixtures. Starting materials were sealed in evacuated silica tubes and fused at 1200 °C. The temperature was subsequently reduced to 750 °C (at 60 °C/h), then to 650 °C (at 0.5 °C/h) to produce relatively large euhedral pyrite crystals, then quenched. The experiments were analyzed using reflected light, SEM, EPMA and LA-ICP-MS. Experimental products contained euhedral pyrite, mss, intermediate solid solution (iss) and metalloid-rich phases, interpreted as quench product

  2. X-ray absorption near the edge structure and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies on pyrite prepared by thermally sulfurizing iron films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hui; Liu Ying-Shu; Wang Bao-Yi; Wei Long; Kui Re-Xi; Qian Hai-Jie


    This paper reports how pyrite films were prepared by thermal sulfurization of magnetron sputtered iron films and characterized by x-ray absorption near edge structure spectra and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on a 4B9B beam line at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The band gap of the pyrite agrees well with the optical band gap obtained by a spectrophotometer. The octahedral symmetry of pyrite leads to the splitting of the d orbit into t2g and eg levels. The high spin and low spin states were analysed through the difference of electron exchange interaction and the orbital crystal field. Only when the crystal field splitting is higher than 1.5 eV, the two weak peaks above the white lines can appear, and this was approved by experiments in the present work.

  3. Structural characterization of surface glycans from Clostridium difficile. (United States)

    Reid, Christopher W; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Li, Jianjun; Jarrell, Harold C; Logan, Susan M; Brisson, Jean-Robert


    Whole-cell high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR was employed to survey the surface polysaccharides of a group of clinical and environmental isolates of Clostridium difficile. Results indicated that a highly conserved surface polysaccharide profile among all strains studied. Multiple additional peaks in the anomeric region were also observed which prompted further investigation. Structural characterization of the isolated surface polysaccharides from two strains confirmed the presence of the conserved water soluble polysaccharide originally described by Ganeshapillai et al. which was composed of a hexaglycosyl phosphate repeat consisting of [→6)-β-D-Glcp-(1-3)-β-D-GalpNAc-(1-4)-α-D-Glcp-(1-4)-[β-D-Glcp(1-3]-β-D-GalpNAc-(1-3)-α-D-Manp-(1-P→]. In addition, analysis of phenol soluble polysaccharides revealed a similarly conserved lipoteichoic acid (LTA) which could be detected on whole cells by HR-MAS NMR. Conventional NMR and mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the structure of this LTA consisted of the repeat unit [→6)-α-D-GlcpNAc-(1-3)-[→P-6]-α-D-GlcpNAc-(1-2)-D-GroA] where GroA is glyceric acid. The repeating units were linked by a phosphodiester bridge between C-6 of the two GlcNAc residues (6-P-6). A minor component consisted of GlcpN-(1-3) instead of GlcpNAc-(1-3) in the repeat unit. Through a 6-6 phosphodiester bridge this polymer was linked to →6)-β-D-Glcp-(1-6)-β-D-Glcp-(1-6)-β-D-Glcp-(1-1)-Gro, with glycerol (Gro) substituted by fatty acids. This is the first report of the utility of HR-MAS NMR in the examination of surface carbohydrates of Gram positive bacteria and identification of a novel LTA structure from Clostridium difficile.

  4. A novel magnetic 4A zeolite adsorbent synthesised from kaolinite type pyrite cinder (KTPC) (United States)

    Wang, Weiqing; Feng, Qiming; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Guofan; Liu, Jing; Huang, Yang


    As a solid waste, kaolinite type pyrite cinder (KTPC) is a special pyrite cinder, its mineral components include metakaolin and magnetite, and the chemical compositions of these minerals include SiO2, Al2O3, FeO and Fe2O3. In this study, a novel magnetic 4A zeolite adsorbent was synthesised from KTPC using the hydrothermal method, and the optimum hydrothermal synthesis conditions were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by determining the specific surface area (SSA) and the saturated cation exchange adsorption capacity (SCEAC) to Cs+. Under the optimum hydrothermal synthesis conditions, the magnetic 4A zeolite adsorbent can be synthesised with high crystallinity, and the SSA and SCEAC to Cs+ are 24.49 m2/g and 106.63 mg/g, respectively. The further characterisations of pore size distribution, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), thermogravimetry-derivative thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTG-DTA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were performed. The results revealed that magnetic particles are coated onto the zeolite surface and further form magnetic aggregates, and the existing magnetic particles in KTPC do not change their crystal structure and do not affect the synthesis of the 4A zeolite. In addition, the synthesised 4A zeolite adsorbent can be used as a magnetic adsorbent in wastewater treatment with high magnetic sensitivity and is thermally stable up to approximately 900 °C.

  5. The pyrite-type high-pressure form of FeOOH (United States)

    Nishi, Masayuki; Kuwayama, Yasuhiro; Tsuchiya, Jun; Tsuchiya, Taku


    Water transported into Earth’s interior by subduction strongly influences dynamics such as volcanism and plate tectonics. Several recent studies have reported hydrous minerals to be stable at pressure and temperature conditions representative of Earth’s deep interior, implying that surface water may be transported as far as the core-mantle boundary. However, the hydrous mineral goethite, α-FeOOH, was recently reported to decompose under the conditions of the middle region of the lower mantle to form FeO2 and release H2, suggesting the upward migration of hydrogen and large fluctuations in the oxygen distribution within the Earth system. Here we report the stability of FeOOH phases at the pressure and temperature conditions of the deep lower mantle, based on first-principles calculations and in situ X-ray diffraction experiments. In contrast to previous work suggesting the dehydrogenation of FeOOH into FeO2 in the middle of the lower mantle, we report the formation of a new FeOOH phase with the pyrite-type framework of FeO6 octahedra, which is much denser than the surrounding mantle and is stable at the conditions of the base of the mantle. Pyrite-type FeOOH may stabilize as a solid solution with other hydrous minerals in deeply subducted slabs, and could form in subducted banded iron formations. Deep-seated pyrite-type FeOOH eventually dissociates into Fe2O3 and releases H2O when subducted slabs are heated at the base of the mantle. This process may cause the incorporation of hydrogen into the outer core by the formation of iron hydride, FeHx, in the reducing environment of the core-mantle boundary.

  6. Hydrochemical and stable isotope indicators of pyrite oxidation in carbonate-rich environment; the Hamersley Basin, Western Australia (United States)

    Dogramaci, Shawan; McLean, Laura; Skrzypek, Grzegorz


    Sulphur (S) is a commonly occurring element in most aquifers, primarily in oxidised (sulphates) and reduced (sulphides) forms. Sulphides often constitute a risk to groundwater quality due to acid rock drainage, especially in catchments that are subject to mining excavations or groundwater injection. However, in semi-arid regions detection of the acid rock drainage risk can be challenging and traditional methods based on observations of increasing SO4 concentrations or SO4/Cl ratios in surface and groundwater, are not necessarily applicable. In addition, decreasing pH, usually accompanying pyrite oxidation, can be masked by the high pH-neutralisation capacity of carbonate and silicate minerals. Analysis of 73 surface and groundwater samples from different water bodies and aquifers located in the Hamersley Basin, Western Australia found that most of the samples are characterised by neutral pH but there was also a large spatial variability in the dissolved sulphate (SO4) concentrations that ranged from 1 mg/L to 15,000 mg/L. Not surprisingly, groundwater in aquifers that contained pyrite had high sulphate concentrations (>1000 mg/L). This was associated with low δ34SSO4 values (+1.2‰ to +4.6‰) and was consistent with the values obtained from aquifer matrix pyritic rock samples (-1.9‰ to +4.4‰). It was also found that the SO4 concentrations and acidity levels were not only dependent on δ34SSO4 values and existence of pyrite but also on the presence of carbonate minerals in the aquifer matrix. The groundwater in aquifers containing both pyrite and carbonate minerals had a neutral pH and was also saturated with respect to gypsum and had high magnesium concentrations of up to 2200 mg/L suggesting de-dolomitisation as the process buffering the acidity generated by pyrite oxidation. Based on the findings from this study, a classification scheme has been developed for identification of the acid rock drainage contribution to groundwater that encompasses a myriad of

  7. Deciphering a multistage history affecting U-Cu(-Fe) mineralization in the Singhbhum Shear Zone, eastern India, using pyrite textures and compositions in the Turamdih U-Cu(-Fe) deposit (United States)

    Pal, Dipak C.; Barton, Mark D.; Sarangi, A. K.


    The ˜200-km-long intensely deformed Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ) in eastern India hosts India’s largest U and Cu deposits and related Fe mineralization. The SSZ separates an Archaean cratonic nucleus to the south from a Mesoproterozoic fold belt in the North and has a complex geologic history that obscures the origin of the contained iron-oxide-rich mineral deposits. This study investigates aspects of the history of mineralization in the SSZ by utilizing new petrographic and electron microprobe observations of pyrite textures and zoning in the Turamdih U-Cu(-Fe) deposit. Mineralization at Turamdih is hosted in intensively deformed quartz-chlorite schist. Sulfides and oxides include, in inferred order of development: (a) magmatic Fe(-Ti-Cr) oxide and Fe-Cu(-Ni) sulfide minerals inferred to be magmatic (?) in origin; followed by (b) uranium, Fe-oxide, and Fe-Cu(-Co) sulfide minerals that predate most or all ductile deformation, and are inferred to be of hydrothermal origin; and (c) Fe-Cu sulfides that were generated during and postdating ductile deformation. These features are associated with the formation of three compositionally and texturally distinct pyrites. Pyrite (type-A), typically in globular-semiglobular composite inclusions of pyrite plus chalcopyrite in magnetite, is characterized by very high Ni content (up to 30,700 ppm) and low Co to Ni ratios (0.01-0.61). The textural and compositional characteristics of associated chalcopyrite and rare pyrrhotite suggest that this pyrite could be linked to the magmatic event via selective replacement of magmatic pyrrhotite. Alternatively, this pyrite and associated sulfide inclusions might be cogenetic with hydrothermal Fe-oxide. Type-B pyrite that forms elongate grains and irregular relics and cores of pyrite with high Co contents (up to 23,630 ppm) and high Co to Ni ratios (7.2-140.9) are interpreted to be related to hydrothermal mineralization predating ductile deformation. A third generation of pyrite (type C

  8. Characterization of the Eimeria maxima sporozoite surface protein IMP1. (United States)

    Jenkins, M C; Fetterer, R; Miska, K; Tuo, W; Kwok, O; Dubey, J P


    The purpose of this study was to characterize Eimeria maxima immune-mapped protein 1 (IMP1) that is hypothesized to play a role in eliciting protective immunity against E. maxima infection in chickens. RT-PCR analysis of RNA from unsporulated and sporulating E. maxima oocysts revealed highest transcription levels at 6-12h of sporulation with a considerable downregulation thereafter. Alignment of IMP1 coding sequence from Houghton, Weybridge, and APU-1 strains of E. maxima revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms that in some instances led to amino acid changes in the encoded protein sequence. The E. maxima (APU-1) IMP1 cDNA sequence was cloned and expressed in 2 different polyHis Escherichia coli expression vectors. Regardless of expression vector, recombinant E. maxima IMP1 (rEmaxIMP1) was fairly unstable in non-denaturing buffer, which is consistent with stability analysis of the primary amino acid sequence. Antisera specific for rEmaxIMP1 identified a single 72 kDa protein or a 61 kDa protein by non-reducing or reducing SDS-PAGE/immunoblotting. Immunofluorescence staining with anti-rEmaxIMP1, revealed intense surface staining of E. maxima sporozoites, with negligible staining of merozoite stages. Immuno-histochemical staining of E. maxima-infected chicken intestinal tissue revealed staining of E. maxima developmental stages in the lamnia propia and crypts at both 24 and 48 h post-infection, and negligible staining thereafter. The expression of IMP1 during early stages of in vivo development and its location on the sporozoite surface may explain in part the immunoprotective effect of this protein against E. maxima infection.

  9. Trace metal pyritization variability in response to mangrove soil aerobic and anaerobic oxidation processes. (United States)

    Machado, W; Borrelli, N L; Ferreira, T O; Marques, A G B; Osterrieth, M; Guizan, C


    The degree of iron pyritization (DOP) and degree of trace metal pyritization (DTMP) were evaluated in mangrove soil profiles from an estuarine area located in Rio de Janeiro (SE Brazil). The soil pH was negatively correlated with redox potential (Eh) and positively correlated with DOP and DTMP of some elements (Mn, Cu and Pb), suggesting that pyrite oxidation generated acidity and can affect the importance of pyrite as a trace metal-binding phase, mainly in response to spatial variability in tidal flooding. Besides these aerobic oxidation effects, results from a sequential extraction analyses of reactive phases evidenced that Mn oxidized phase consumption in reaction with pyrite can be also important to determine the pyritization of trace elements. Cumulative effects of these aerobic and anaerobic oxidation processes were evidenced as factors affecting the capacity of mangrove soils to act as a sink for trace metals through pyritization processes.

  10. Comparative Mössbauer study of the oxidation of pyrite under different conditions (United States)

    Gracia, M.; Gancedo, J. R.; Martínez-Alonso, A.; Tascón, J. M. D.


    Samples of pyrite-rich brown coal from As Pontes and Meirama coalfields (Spain) were oxidized either by air at atmospheric pressure or by a cool oxygen plasma generated by radiofrequency activation. Despite the very different nature and characteristics of the oxidizing media, in both cases the RT Mössbauer spectra were easily fitted to two doublets, whose parameters matched those of pyrite and jarosite (hydrated iron (III) sulphate). The extent of pyrite oxidation to jarosite was monitored by the relative spectral areas of pyrite and jarosite doublets. Both, air and plasma, oxidized pyrite to the same extent and in a similar way, in contrast to coal organic matter, which was scarcely modified by air but completely oxidized by the plasma at the same temperature (ca. 423 K). The incomplete oxidation of pyrite by plasma is attributed to the action of a thin calcium sulphate layer which hinders the access of activated oxygen to small pyrite crystals.

  11. Comparative Moessbauer study of the oxidation of pyrite under different conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracia, M.; Gancedo, J.R.; Martinez-Alonso, A.; Tascon, J.M.D. (Instituto de Quimica Fisica ' Rocasolano' , Madrid (Spain))


    Samples of pyrite-rich brown coal from As Pontes and Meirama coalfields (Spain) were oxidized either by air at atmospheric pressure or by a cool oxygen plasma generated by radiofrequency activation. Despite the very different nature and characteristics of the oxidizing media, in both cases the RT Moessbauer spectra were easily fitted to two doublets, whose parameters matched those of pyrite and jarosite (hydrated iron (III) sulphate). The extent of pyrite oxidation to jarosite was monitored by the relative spectral areas of pyrite and jarosite doublets. Both, air and plasma, oxidized pyrite to the same extent and in a similar way, in contrast to coal organic matter, which was scarcely modified by air but completely oxidized by the plasma at the same temperature (ca. 423 K). The incomplete oxidation of pyrite by plasma is attributed to the action of a thin calcium sulphate layer which hinders the access of activated oxygen to small pyrite crystals. 18 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  12. Surface characterization and direct bioelectrocatalysis of multicopper oxidases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivnitski, Dmitri M., E-mail: ivnitski@unm.ed [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque 87131 (United States)] [Air Force Research Laboratory, AFRL/RXQL, Microbiology and Applied Biochemistry, Tyndall Air Force Base, FL 32403 (United States); Khripin, Constantine [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque 87131 (United States); Luckarift, Heather R. [Air Force Research Laboratory, AFRL/RXQL, Microbiology and Applied Biochemistry, Tyndall Air Force Base, FL 32403 (United States)] [Universal Technology Corporation, 1270 N. Fairfield Road, Dayton, OH 45432 (United States); Johnson, Glenn R. [Air Force Research Laboratory, AFRL/RXQL, Microbiology and Applied Biochemistry, Tyndall Air Force Base, FL 32403 (United States); Atanassov, Plamen, E-mail: plamen@unm.ed [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque 87131 (United States)


    Multicopper oxidases (MCO) have been extensively studied as oxygen reduction catalysts for cathodic reactions in biofuel cells. Theoretically, direct electron transfer between an enzyme and electrode offers optimal energy conversion efficiency providing that the enzyme/electrode interface can be engineered to establish efficient electrical communication. In this study, the direct bioelectrocatalysis of three MCO (Laccase from Trametes versicolor, bilirubin oxidase (BOD) from the fungi Myrothecium verrucaria and ascorbate oxidase (AOx) from Cucurbita sp.) was investigated and compared as oxygen reduction catalysts. Protein film voltammetry and electrochemical characterization of the MCO electrodes showed that DET had been successfully established in all cases. Atomic force microscopy imaging and force measurements indicated that enzyme was immobilized as a monolayer on the electrode surface. Evidence for three clearly separated anodic and cathodic redox events related to the Type 1 (T1) and the trinculear copper centers (T2, T3) of various MCO was observed. The redox potential of the T1 center was strongly modulated by physiological factors including pH, anaerobic and aerobic conditions and the presence of inhibitors.

  13. Solution-based Syntheses of Iron Pyrite Thin Films for Photovoltaic and Protein Foot-printing Applications (United States)

    El Makkaoui, Mohammed

    , Irvine. A thin film of pyrite nano-crystals is spray deposited (Video in supplementary ) onto a shape memory polymer that is then thermally treated with a heat gun, causing the sheet to retract and stiffen as the nanocrystalline layer crumples and integrates into the polyolefin, forming a mechanically robust and highly reactive laminate of pyrite nano-crystals. Micro-wells are thermoformed into the laminate under negative pressure. ˙OH dose-oxidation response relationship were established via varying the H2O 2 concentration and reaction time. The flexibility, cost effectiveness and scalability of this platform enables integration into macro-structural analysis systems. Pyrite shrink laminates and hydrazine ink films were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Raman Spectroscopy. Drop deposition oxidation experiments and MALDI-TOF "Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight" Mass Spectroscopy of protein aliquots reacted on PSWL were conducted in the Brenowitz lab at the department of biochemistry at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York.

  14. Enhancement of surface properties for coal beneficiation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chander, S.; Aplan, F.F.


    This report will focus on means of pyrite removal from coal using surface-based coal cleaning technologies. The major subjects being addressed in this study are the natural and modulated surface properties of coal and pyrite and how they may best be utilized to facilitate their separation using advanced surface-based coal cleaning technology. Emphasis is based on modified flotation and oil agglomerative processes and the basic principles involved. The four areas being addressed are: (1) Collectorless flotation of pyrite; (2) Modulation of pyrite and coal hydrophobicity; (3) Emulsion processes and principles; (4) Evaluation of coal hydrophobicity.

  15. A contribution to the surface characterization of alkali metal sulfates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantauzzi, Marzia; Rigoldi, Americo; Elsener, Bernhard; Atzei, Davide; Rossi, Antonella, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Full electronic characterization of alkali metals sulfates by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray induced Auger electron spectroscopy. • Curve-fitting of SKLL signals makes possible to clarify the role of the cation in the series of alkali metal sulfates. • Differences in the binding energies and Auger parameter are discussed in terms of the electronic properties and the polarizability of the cation. • The line intensities are analyzed and a thorough quantitative analysis is presented. - Abstract: The analytical characterization of surfaces of sulfur-bearing samples that present sulfides, polysulfides and/or elemental sulfur as reaction products can be difficult by simply relying on the binding energy of the S2p X-ray photoelectron signals, due to the small chemical shifts. In such cases the Auger parameter concept can be used to distinguish among different chemical states, but this requires a model to curve fit complex Auger SKLL signals in order to resolve the contributions arising from sulfur in different chemical states on the surface. With this scope a detailed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray induced Auger electron spectroscopy (XAES) surface analytical study of the group IA sulfates is presented in this paper. Sulfates were chosen as model compounds for curve fitting the X-ray induced SKLL spectra since in these compounds sulfur is present in a unique chemical state. For the first time the multicomponent SKLL spectra are fitted with model functions consisting of an intense {sup 1}D and a low intensity {sup 1}S contribution with constant energy difference of 8 eV. It was found that the kinetic energy of the SK{sub 2,3}L{sub 2,3} ({sup 1}D) line increases from 2105.1 ± 0.1 to 2107.5 ± 0.2 eV whereas the corresponding S2p{sub 3/2} binding energy decreases from 169.5 ± 0.1 eV for Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} to 167.8 ± 0.1 eV for Cs{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Shifts to lower binding energy values are observed also for S2p, S2s and O1

  16. Source of arsenic-bearing pyrite in southwestern Vermont, USA: Sulfur isotope evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mango, Helen, E-mail: [Department of Natural Sciences, Castleton State College, 233 South Street, Castleton, VT 05735 (United States); Ryan, Peter, E-mail: [Department of Geology, Middlebury College, 276 Bicentennial Way, Middlebury, VT 05753 (United States)


    Arsenic-bearing pyrite is the source of arsenic in groundwater produced in late Cambrian and Ordovician gray and black slates and phyllites in the Taconic region of southwestern Vermont, USA. The aim of this study is to analyze the sulfur isotopic composition of this pyrite and determine if a relationship exists between pyrite δ{sup 34}S and arsenic content. Pyrite occurs in both sedimentary/diagenetic (bedding-parallel layers and framboids) and low-grade metamorphic (porphyroblast) forms, and contains up to > 2000 ppm As. The sulfur isotopic composition of arsenic-bearing pyrite ranges from − 5.2‰ to 63‰. In the marine environment, the sulfur in sedimentary pyrite becomes increasingly enriched in {sup 34}S as the geochemical environment becomes increasingly anoxic. There is a positive correlation between δ{sup 34}S and arsenic content in the Taconic pyrite, suggesting that uptake of arsenic by pyrite increased as the environment became more reducing. This increased anoxia may have been due to a rise in sea level and/or tectonic activity during the late Cambrian and Ordovician. Low-grade metamorphism appears to have little effect on sulfur isotope composition, but does correlate with lower arsenic content in pyrite. New groundwater wells drilled in this region should therefore avoid gray and black slates and phyllites that contain sedimentary/diagenetic pyrite with heavy δ{sup 34}S values. - Highlights: • Pyrite is the source of arsenic in groundwater in the Taconic region of Vermont, USA. • As-bearing pyrite δ{sup 34}S = – 5.2 to 63‰ with higher {sup 34}S as environment becomes more anoxic. • High sea level, tectonic activity create anoxia, with incorporation of As into pyrite. • New wells should avoid slate/phyllite containing sedimentary pyrite with heavy δ{sup 34}S.

  17. A proposed new type of arsenian pyrite: Composition, nanostructure and geological significance (United States)

    Deditius, Artur P.; Utsunomiya, Satoshi; Renock, Devon; Ewing, Rodney C.; Ramana, Chintalapalle V.; Becker, Udo; Kesler, Stephen E.


    This report describes a new form of arsenian pyrite, called As3+-pyrite, in which As substitutes for Fe [(Fe,As)S2], in contrast to the more common form of arsenian pyrite, As1--pyrite, in which As1- substitutes for S [Fe(As,S)2]. As3+-pyrite has been observed as colloformic overgrowths on As-free pyrite in a hydrothermal gold deposit at Yanacocha, Peru. XPS analyses of the As3+-pyrite confirm that As is present largely as As3+. EMPA analyses show that As3+-pyrite incorporates up to 3.05 at % of As and 0.53 at. %, 0.1 at. %, 0.27 at. %, 0.22 at. %, 0.08 at. % and 0.04 at. % of Pb, Au, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Co, respectively. Incorporation of As3+ in the pyrite could be written like: As+yAu+1-y(□)⇔2Fe; where Au+ and vacancy (□) help to maintain the excess charge. HRTEM observations reveal a sharp boundary between As-free pyrite and the first overgrowth of As3+-pyrite (20-40 nm thick) and co-linear lattice fringes indicating epitaxial growth of As3+-pyrite on As-free pyrite. Overgrowths of As3+-pyrite onto As-free pyrite can be divided into three groups on the basis of crystal size, 8-20 nm, 100-300 nm and 400-900 nm, and the smaller the crystal size the higher the concentration of toxic arsenic and trace metals. The Yanacocha deposit, in which As3+-pyrite was found, formed under relatively oxidizing conditions in which the dominant form of dissolved As in the stability field of pyrite is As3+; in contrast, reducing conditions are typical of most environments that host As1--pyrite. As3+-pyrite will likely be found in other oxidizing hydrothermal and diagenetic environments, including high-sulfidation epithermal deposits and shallow groundwater systems, where probably kinetically controlled formation of nanoscale crystals such as observed here would be a major control on incorporation and release of As3+ and toxic heavy metals in oxidizing natural systems.

  18. 77 FR 5813 - Cardiovascular Metallic Implants: Corrosion, Surface Characterization, and Nickel Leaching... (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cardiovascular Metallic Implants: Corrosion, Surface... public workshop entitled ``Cardiovascular Metallic Implants: Corrosion, Surface Characterization, and... implants are made of metals and may be susceptible to corrosion, it is unclear whether the...

  19. Protein footprinting by pyrite shrink-wrap laminate. (United States)

    Leser, Micheal; Pegan, Jonathan; El Makkaoui, Mohammed; Schlatterer, Joerg C; Khine, Michelle; Law, Matt; Brenowitz, Michael


    The structure of macromolecules and their complexes dictate their biological function. In "footprinting", the solvent accessibility of the residues that constitute proteins, DNA and RNA can be determined from their reactivity to an exogenous reagent such as the hydroxyl radical (·OH). While ·OH generation for protein footprinting is achieved by radiolysis, photolysis and electrochemistry, we present a simpler solution. A thin film of pyrite (cubic FeS2) nanocrystals deposited onto a shape memory polymer (commodity shrink-wrap film) generates sufficient ·OH via Fenton chemistry for oxidative footprinting analysis of proteins. We demonstrate that varying either time or H2O2 concentration yields the required ·OH dose-oxidation response relationship. A simple and scalable sample handling protocol is enabled by thermoforming the "pyrite shrink-wrap laminate" into a standard microtiter plate format. The low cost and malleability of the laminate facilitates its integration into high throughput screening and microfluidic devices.

  20. Surface mineralization and characterization of tobacco mosaic virus biotemplated nanoparticles (United States)

    Freer, Alexander S.

    The genetically engineered tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) has been utilized as a biotemplate in the formation of nanoparticles with the intent of furthering the understanding of the biotemplated nanoparticles formed in the absence of an external reducing agent. Specifically, the work aims to provide better knowledge of the final particle characteristics and how these properties could be altered to better fit the need of functional devices. Three achievements have been accomplished including a method for controlling final particle size, characterizing the resistivity of palladium coated TMV, and the application of TMV as an additive in nanometric calcium carbonate synthesis. Until the last 5 years, formation of metal nanoparticles on the surface of TMV has always occurred with the addition of an external reducing agent. The surface functionalities of genetically engineered TMV allow for the reduction of palladium in the absence of an external reducing agent. This process has been furthered to understand how palladium concentration affects the final coating uniformity and thickness. By confirming an ideal ratio of palladium and TMV concentrations, a uniform coat of palladium is formed around the viral nanorod. Altering the number of palladium coating cycles at these concentrations allows for a controllable average diameter of the final nanorods. The average particle diameter was determined by small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis by comparing the experimental results to the model of scattering by an infinitely long cylinder. The SAXS results were confirmed through transmission electron microscopy images of individual Pd-TMV nanorods. Secondly, methodologies to determine the electrical resistivity of the genetically engineered TMV biotemplated palladium nanoparticles were created to provide valuable previously missing information. Two fairly common nanoelectronic characterization techniques were combined to create the novel approach to obtain the desired

  1. Effect of processing history of pyrite on its leaching kinetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵中伟; 李洪桂; 孙培梅; 李运姣; 霍广生


    Different researchers often attained scattered kinetic results for the same leaching process. Usually, the difference is ascribed to the variation in mineral resource, chemical composition and, accuracy of experimental methods, while less attention is paid to the sample processing history. The present study shows that processing history of pyrite sample can cause great changes in its physico-chemical properties. Crushing, grinding and milling lead to an increase of the leachability of pyrite and the leaching becomes less temperature dependence owing to the decreasing of apparent activation energy of the reaction. The activation energy for its leaching in H2SO4-HNO3 solution is depressed from 73.9 to 47.5kJ/mol after being activated through vibrating milling for 40min. On the contrary, aging causes the reverse change owing to the release of extra inner energy stored during mechanical treatments. Thus activity of pyrite will decrease towards its original value. Surely the processing history of concentrate sample should be taken into consideration when studying the kinetics of leaching reaction.

  2. Characterization of Sea Lettuce Surface Functional Groups by Potentiometric Titrations (United States)

    Ebling, A. M.; Schijf, J.


    In pursuit of our ultimate goal to better understand the prodigious capacity of the marine macroalga Ulva lactuca (sea lettuce) for adsorbing a broad range of dissolved trace metals from seawater, we performed an initial characterization of its surface functional groups. Specifically, the number of distinct functional groups as well as their individual bulk concentrations and acid dissociation constants (pKas) were determined by potentiometric titrations in NaCl solutions of various ionic strengths (I = 0.01-5.0 M), under inert nitrogen atmosphere at 25°C. Depending on the ionic strength, Ulva samples were manually titrated down to pH 2 or 3 with 1 N HCl and then up to pH 10 with 1 N NaOH in steps of 0.1-0.2 units, continuously monitoring pH with a glass combination electrode. Titrations of a dehydrated Ulva standard reference material (BCR-279) were compared with fresh Ulva tissue cultured in our laboratory. A titration in filtered natural seawater was also compared with one in an NaCl solution of equal ionic strength. Equilibrium constants for the ionization of water in NaCl solutions as a function of ionic strength were obtained from the literature. Fits to the titration data ([H]T vs. pH) were performed with the FITEQL4.0 computer code using non-electrostatic 3-, 4-, and 5-site models, either by fixing ionic strength at its experimental value or by allowing it to be extrapolated to zero, while considering all functional group pKas and bulk concentrations as adjustable parameters. Since pKas and bulk concentrations were found to be strongly correlated, the latter were also fixed in some cases to further constrain the pKas. Whereas these calculations are currently ongoing, preliminary results point to three, possibly four, functional groups with pKas of about 4.1, 6.3, and 9.5 at I = 0. Bulk concentrations of the three groups are very similar, about 5-6×10-4 mol/g based on dry weight, which suggests that all are homogeneously distributed over the surface and

  3. Effect of capping ligands on the optical properties and electronic energies of iron pyrite FeS{sub 2} nanocrystals and solid thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Guangmei, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials of Ministry of Education of the People' s Republic of China, Research Centre of Advanced Materials Science and Technology of Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030024 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Solar Cell Materials and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China); State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan 610054 (China); Xie, Rongwei; Wang, Heng; Zhang, Jitao; Yang, Yongzhen; Wang, Hua; Li, Xuemin [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials of Ministry of Education of the People' s Republic of China, Research Centre of Advanced Materials Science and Technology of Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030024 (China); Liu, Xuguang [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials of Ministry of Education of the People' s Republic of China, Research Centre of Advanced Materials Science and Technology of Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030024 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030024 (China); Xu, Bingshe [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials of Ministry of Education of the People' s Republic of China, Research Centre of Advanced Materials Science and Technology of Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030024 (China)


    In this work, the optical and electronic properties of iron pyrite FeS{sub 2} nanocrystals and solid thin films with various capping ligands were systematically investigated by UV–Vis–NIR absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and current density–voltage characteristic measurements. The iron pyrite nanocrystals with various ligands have an indirect band gap of around 1.05 eV and broad absorption spanning into the near-infrared region, exhibiting favorable optical properties for their photovoltaic applications. The electron affinities and ionization potentials of FeS{sub 2} nanocrystals determined through cyclic voltammetry measurements show strong ligand dependence. An energy level shift of up to 190 meV was obtained among the pyrite nanocrystals capped with the ligands employed in this work. The iron pyrite nanocrystal films capped with iodide and 1,2-ethanedithiol exhibit the largest band edge energy shift and conductivity, respectively. Our results not only provide several useful optical and electronic parameters of pyrite nanocrystals for their further use in optoelectronic devices as active layers and/or infrared optical absorption materials, but also highlight the relationship between their surface chemistry and electronic energies. - Highlights: • The energy levels of FeS{sub 2} nanocrystals with various ligands were determined via electrochemical measurements. • The energy levels of FeS{sub 2} nanocrystals showed strong ligand-dependence. • An energy level shift of up to 190 meV was obtained for the pyrite nanocrystals studied in the work. • The conductivities of FeS{sub 2} nanocrystals with different ligands were obtained by current density–voltage measurements.

  4. Source of arsenic-bearing pyrite in southwestern Vermont, USA: sulfur isotope evidence. (United States)

    Mango, Helen; Ryan, Peter


    Arsenic-bearing pyrite is the source of arsenic in groundwater produced in late Cambrian and Ordovician gray and black slates and phyllites in the Taconic region of southwestern Vermont, USA. The aim of this study is to analyze the sulfur isotopic composition of this pyrite and determine if a relationship exists between pyrite δ(34)S and arsenic content. Pyrite occurs in both sedimentary/diagenetic (bedding-parallel layers and framboids) and low-grade metamorphic (porphyroblast) forms, and contains up to >2000 ppm As. The sulfur isotopic composition of arsenic-bearing pyrite ranges from -5.2‰ to 63‰. In the marine environment, the sulfur in sedimentary pyrite becomes increasingly enriched in (34)S as the geochemical environment becomes increasingly anoxic. There is a positive correlation between δ(34)S and arsenic content in the Taconic pyrite, suggesting that uptake of arsenic by pyrite increased as the environment became more reducing. This increased anoxia may have been due to a rise in sea level and/or tectonic activity during the late Cambrian and Ordovician. Low-grade metamorphism appears to have little effect on sulfur isotope composition, but does correlate with lower arsenic content in pyrite. New groundwater wells drilled in this region should therefore avoid gray and black slates and phyllites that contain sedimentary/diagenetic pyrite with heavy δ(34)S values.

  5. Characterization of Pectin Nanocoatings at Polystyrene and Titanium Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurzawska, Katarzyna; Dirscherl, Kai; Yihua, Yu


    wettability, without any major effect on surface roughness (Sa, Sdr). Furthermore, we demonstrated that it is possible to visualize the pectin RG-Is molecules and even the nanocoatings on titanium surfaces, which have not been presented before. The comparison between polystyrene and titanium surface showed...

  6. Experimental characterization of micromilled surfaces by large range AFM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bariani, Paolo; Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard


    Surface generation by ball nose micromilling can be simulated based on technological parameters (ball nose radius, axial and radial depth of cut, feed rate, cutting speed). However, surface 3D topography of such surfaces often widely differs from the simulated one due to the distinctive behaviour...

  7. Characterization of neutrophil adhesion to different titanium surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Campos; R C N Melo; L P Silva; E N Aquino; M S Castro; W Fontes


    Although titanium (Ti) is known to elicit a foreign body response when implanted into humans, Ti implant healing resembles normal wound healing in terms of inflammatory cell recruitment and inflammation persistence. Rough implant surfaces may present better conditions for protein adsorption and for the adhesion of platelets and inflammatory cells such as neutrophils. Implanted biomedical devices initially interact with coagulating blood; however, direct contact between the oxide layer of the implant and neutrophils has not been completely described. The aim of the present study is to compare the behaviours of neutrophils in direct contact with different Ti surfaces. Isolated human neutrophils were placed into contact with Ti discs, which had been rendered as `smooth' or `rough', following different surface treatments. Scanning electron microscopy and flow cytometry were used to measure cell adhesion to the surfaces and exposure of membrane proteins such as CD62L and CD11b. Topographic roughness was demonstrated as higher for SLA treated surfaces, measured by atomic force microscopy and elemental analysis was performed by energy dispersive X-ray, showing a similar composition for both surfaces. The adhesion of neutrophils to the `rough' Ti surface was initially stronger than adhesion to the `smooth' surface. The cell morphology and adhesion marker results revealed clear signs of neutrophil activation by either surface, with different neutrophil morphological characteristics being observed between the two surface types. Understanding the cellular mechanisms regulating cell–implant interactions should help researchers to improve the surface topography of biomedical implant devices.

  8. Chalcopyrite dissolution: Scanning photoelectron microscopy examination of the evolution of sulfur species with and without added iron or pyrite (United States)

    Li, Yubiao; Qian, Gujie; Brown, Paul L.; Gerson, Andrea R.


    Dissolution and oxidation of sulfide minerals play key roles in both acid and metalliferous rock drainage and supergene enrichment. Surface speciation heterogeneity, critical to understanding mechanisms of mineral sulfide dissolution, has to date largely not been considered. To this end synchrotron scanning photoelectron microscopy (SPEM) was employed to examine freshly fractured and partially dissolved chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) surfaces (pH 1.0 HClO4 solution, redox potential 650 mV relative to a standard hydrogen electrode, 75 °C). S2- (bulk), S22- and Sn2- were found to be present on all samples at varying concentrations. Oxidation was observed to take place heterogeneously at the sub-micron scale. As compared to chalcopyrite partially dissolved for 5 days, extended dissolution to 10 days did not show appreciably enhanced oxidation of surface species; however surface roughness increased markedly due to the growth/overlap of oxidised sulfur species. On addition of 4 mM iron both S0 and SO42- were observed but not SO32-, indicating that the greater Fe3+ activity/concentration promotes heterogeneous sulfur oxidation. On contact of pyrite (FeS2) with chalcopyrite, significantly greater chalcopyrite surface oxidation was observed than for the other systems examined, with S0, SO32- and SO42- being identified heterogeneously across the surface. It is proposed that chalcopyrite oxidative dissolution is enhanced by increasing its cathodic area, e.g. contacting with pyrite, while increased Fe3+ activity/concentration also contributes to increased dissolution rates. The high degree of surface heterogeneity of these surface products indicates that these surfaces are not passivated by their formation. These results suggest that chalcopyrite dissolution will be accelerated when in contact with pyrite at solution redox potential intermediate between the rest potentials of chalcopyrite and pyrite (560 mV and 660 mV, respectively) and/or iron rich acidic waters with resulting

  9. Pyrite framboids associated with the Mesozoic Jehol Biota in northeastern China: Implications for microenvironment during early fossilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Despite of the recent influx of reports describing important fossil specimens from the Mesozoic Jehol Biota, detailed information on the mechanism of fossilization and paleoenvironment in which these fossils were deposited is scanty. We present an analysis of microenvironment based upon scanning electron microscope observations of in situ pyrite framboids and microcrystallines of plant and vertebrate feather fossils in the Jehol Biota. Pyrite microcrystallines and framboids occur extensively inside and on surface of plant fossils.Framboids found on feathers and in sedimentary matrix were in a lower abundance. These framboids have diameters ranging from 6 μm to 31 μm with an average of 20 μm, indicating a dysoxic aqueous condition with free oxygen level less than 30 μmol/L for the microenvironment where these framboids were formed. The outgrowth of framboids inside plant tissues suggests the presence of water molecules and free oxygen at the cellular level during pyritization; the relative timing between tissue decay and framboid formation implies a rapid tissue degradation occurred during the very early stage of fossilization. This line of reasoning is consistent with the observation that cell level structure of plant fossils from these deposits is rarely preserved. We propose a "fossil envelop" model to accommodate the different geochemical conditions between the microenvironment surrounding the fossil material and the macroenvironment of background lake bottom water.

  10. Deep subsurface sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in the Iberian Pyrite Belt revealed through geochemistry and molecular biomarkers. (United States)

    Puente-Sánchez, F; Moreno-Paz, M; Rivas, L A; Cruz-Gil, P; García-Villadangos, M; Gómez, M J; Postigo, M; Garrido, P; González-Toril, E; Briones, C; Fernández-Remolar, D; Stoker, C; Amils, R; Parro, V


    The Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB, southwest of Spain), the largest known massive sulfide deposit, fuels a rich chemolithotrophic microbial community in the Río Tinto area. However, the geomicrobiology of its deep subsurface is still unexplored. Herein, we report on the geochemistry and prokaryotic diversity in the subsurface (down to a depth of 166 m) of the Iberian Pyritic belt using an array of geochemical and complementary molecular ecology techniques. Using an antibody microarray, we detected polymeric biomarkers (lipoteichoic acids and peptidoglycan) from Gram-positive bacteria throughout the borehole. DNA microarray hybridization confirmed the presence of members of methane oxidizers, sulfate-reducers, metal and sulfur oxidizers, and methanogenic Euryarchaeota. DNA sequences from denitrifying and hydrogenotrophic bacteria were also identified. FISH hybridization revealed live bacterial clusters associated with microniches on mineral surfaces. These results, together with measures of the geochemical parameters in the borehole, allowed us to create a preliminary scheme of the biogeochemical processes that could be operating in the deep subsurface of the Iberian Pyrite Belt, including microbial metabolisms such as sulfate reduction, methanogenesis and anaerobic methane oxidation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Control and characterization of textured, hydrophobic ionomer surfaces (United States)

    Wang, Xueyuan

    Polymer thin films are of increasing interest in many industrial and technological applications. Superhydrophobic, self-cleaning surfaces have attracted a lot of attention for their application in self-cleaning, anti-sticking coatings, stain resistance, or anti-contamination surfaces in diverse technologies, including medical, transportation, textiles, electronics and paints. This thesis focuses on the preparation of nanometer to micrometer-size particle textured surfaces which are desirable for super water repellency. Textured surfaces consisting of nanometer to micrometer-sized lightly sulfonated polystyrene ionomer (SPS) particles were prepared by rapid evaporation of the solvent from a dilute polymer solution cast onto silica. The effect of the solvent used to spin coat the film, the molecular weight of the ionomer, and the rate of solvent evaporation were investigated. The nano-particle or micron-particle textured ionomer surfaces were prepared by either spin coating or solution casting ionomer solutions at controlled evaporation rates. The surface morphologies were consistent with a spinodal decomposition mechanism where the surface first existed as a percolated-like structure and then ripened into droplets if molecular mobility was retained for sufficient time. The SPS particles or particle aggregates were robust and resisted deformation even after annealing at 120°C for one week. The water contact angles on as-prepared surfaces were relatively low, ~ 90° since the polar groups in ionomer reduce the surface hydrophobicity. After chemical vapor deposition of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane, the surface contact angles increased to ~ 109° on smooth surfaces and ~140° on the textured surfaces. Water droplets stuck to these surfaces even when tilted 90 degrees. Superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared by spraying coating ionomer solutions and Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane onto textured surfaces. The

  12. Model study of pyrite demineralization by hydrogen peroxide oxidation at 30 {sup o}C in the presence of metal ions (Ni{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+} and Sn{sup 2+})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borah, Dipu [Department of Chemistry, Pragjyotika J. College, Titabar 785 630, Assam (India); Baruah, Mrinal K.; Gogoi, Probin C. [Department of Chemistry, NNS College, Titabar 785 630, Assam (India)


    Dissolution of pyrite involving oxidation by hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in the presence of metal ions (Ni{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+} and Sn{sup 2+}) has been investigated. Before oxidation, pure and well crystalline structure of the acid washed pyrite sample, used in the present investigation, was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis. Oxidation of pyrite was examined by the determination of soluble sulfur. The rate of oxidation of pyrite with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is best represented by determining the rates of total soluble sulfur production. Each experiment was carried out for short (1-4 h) and extended (24 h) time periods. Pyrite is oxidized by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (1:1) up to the extent of 31.3% at short time period, which however remained the same even at extended time period. Increased amount of soluble sulfur has been observed when pyrite was oxidized by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (1:1) in the presence of Ni{sup 2+} or Co{sup 2+} or Sn{sup 2+} ion at short time period. The effectiveness of these metal ions in relation to pyrite oxidation at short time period decreases in the order Co{sup 2+}>Sn{sup 2+}>Ni{sup 2+}, while at extended time period the order is Co{sup 2+}>Ni{sup 2+}>Sn{sup 2+}. With Co{sup 2+} ion, the highest pyrite oxidation is obtained both at short (34.0%) and extended (35.0%) time period, while it is the lowest 31.3% with Ni{sup 2+} ion at short time and 25.3% with Sn{sup 2+} ion at extended time period. The effect of chloride ion on the rate of oxidation of pyrite is not pronounced in the metal ion containing systems. Substantial depletion in the concentration of externally added metal ions is in good agreement with the level of oxidation and infers certain adsorption or precipitation of metal ions on pyrite surface. The results of this study throw a new light of the influence of metal ions in the dissolution of pyrite in oxidation systems and has considerable applications in fields of demineralization, desulfurization and environmental

  13. Surface characterization of polymers by inverse gas chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available An inverse gas chromatographic (IGC study of the sorption properties of macroporous crosslinked poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, PGME, and PGME modified with ethylene diamine, PGME-en, was presented. At infinite dilution, the thermodynamic parameters of adsorption, the dispersive components of the surface free energies, the acid/base constants and the interaction parameters for the initial and modified copolymer samples were investigated. The adsorption isotherms determined by IGC under conditions of finite surface coverage were used to estimate the surface area, the isosteric heat of adsorption and the adsorption energy distribution on the surface of the initial and modified copolymer samples.

  14. AFM characterization of the shape of surface structures with localization factor. (United States)

    Bonyár, Attila


    Although with the use of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) methods the topographical imaging of surfaces is now widely available, the characterization of surface structures, especially their shape, and the processes which change these features is not trivial with the existing surface describing parameters. In this work the application of a parameter called localization factor is demonstrated for the quantitative characterization of surface structures and for processes which alter the shape of these structures. The theory and optimal operation range of this parameter are discussed with three application examples: microstructure characterization of gold thin films, characterization of the changes in the grain structure of these films during thermal annealing, and finally, characterization of the oxidation processes on a polished tin surface.

  15. STM characterization of MOVPE-prepared silicon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinschmidt, Peter; Brueckner, Sebastian; Luczak, Johannes; Supplie, Oliver; Dobrich, Anja; Doescher, Henning; Hannappel, Thomas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany)


    The clean Si(100) surface reconstructs by forming dimers, thus reducing the number of dangling bonds at the surface. In the MOVPE environment hydrogen is commonly used as process gas, which leads to a monohydride silicon surface with a 2 x 1 unit cell consisting of H-Si-Si-H dimers. Even so, the quality of the surface can vary dramatically depending on process conditions. In general, annealing in hydrogen leads to a two-domain surface structure with monoatomic steps, where the resulting structure also strongly depends on misorientation. We find process conditions for preparation of Si(100) surfaces with 0.1 , 2 and 6 offcut where a strong preference for one domain is obtained, making the resulting surfaces ideal substrates for III-V-on-Si epitaxy. A process consisting of deoxidation, homoepitaxial buffer layer growth and annealing is found to result in D{sub A}-type double layer steps for 0.1 , and D{sub B}-type double layer steps for 6 offcut. The identical process leads to single layer steps for 2 offcut. Here, we obtain D{sub A}-type double layer steps by a modified process which includes a slow cooling phase after the annealing step. Our results, verified by scanning tunneling microscopy, low energy electron diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, are in sharp contrast to the clean and the hydrogenated Si(100) surface prepared in UHV.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Laine


    Full Text Available Model surfaces of alkyl ketene dimer (AKD and alkenyl succinic anhyd-ride (ASA were prepared by casting and spin-coating methods. The surface chemical composition and surface topography were investigated by XPS, ellipsometry, AFM and contact angle studies. Spin-coating resulted in layered structure of AKD and ASA surfaces; the molecular layer thickness of both AKD and ASA was found to be ca. 2.5 nm. To achieve a covering surface layer, an average thickness of ca. 35 nm was required. The rms roughness of the created surfaces was 1 - 6 nm. Colloidal probe adhesion measurements were performed to verify that the roughness was in a range suitable for these measurements. The high reactivity of ASA with water generated stability problems with the ASA layers and it has to be recognized that surface force measurements with ASA in aqueous environment are very difficult, if not impossible. How-ever, surfaces created in this way were found to be useful in providing explanations of earlier ASA adhesion studies. The contact angle measurements on ASA layers also indicated that it might be possible to asses the hydrolysis rate issues through a set of similar measurements.

  17. Preparation and characterization of low-defect surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, T.O.


    Silver crystal surfaces with low defect densities were prepared electrochemically from aqueous solutions using capillary-growth techniques. These surfaces had low rates for the nucleation of new silver layers. The impedance of these inert silver/aqueous silver nitrate interfaces was used to determine silver adatom concentration and water dipole reorientation energetics.

  18. Characterization of the normal microbiota of the ocular surface. (United States)

    Willcox, Mark D P


    The ocular surface is continually exposed to the environment and as a consequence to different types of microbes, but whether there is a normal microbiota of the ocular surface remains unresolved. Using traditional microbial culture techniques has shown that microbiota, or whether the microbiota are only transiently present. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Speciation of arsenic in pyrite by micro-X-ray absorption fine- structure spectroscopy (XAFS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paktunc, D. (CCM)


    Pyrite (FeS2) often contains variable levels of arsenic, regardless of the environment of formation. Arsenian pyrite has been reported in coals, sediments and ore deposits. Arsenian pyrite having As concentrations of up to 10 wt % in sedimentary rocks (Kolker et al. 1997), about 10 wt% in gold deposits (Fleet et al. 1993), 12 wt % in a refractory gold ore (Paktunc et al. 2006) and 20 wt % in a Carlin-type gold deposit in Nevada (Reich et al. 2005) have been reported. Arsenian pyrite is the carrier of gold in hydrothermal Carlin-type gold deposits, and gold concentrations of up to 0.9 wt % have been reported (Reich et al. 2005; Paktunc et al. 2006). In general, high Au concentrations correlate with As-rich zones in pyrite (Paktunc et al. 2006). Pyrite often ends up in mining and metallurgical wastes as an unwanted mineral and consititutes one of the primary sources of As in the wastes. Arsenic can be readily released to the environment due to rapid oxidative dissolution of host pyrite under atmospheric conditions. Pyrite is also the primary source of arsenic in emissions and dust resulting from combustion of bituminous coals. Despite the importance of arsenian pyrite as a primary source of anthropogenic arsenic in the environment and its economic significance as the primary carrier of gold in Carlin-type gold deposits, our understanding of the nature of arsenic in pyrite is limited. There are few papers dealing with the mode of occurrence of arsenic by bulk XAFS in a limited number of pyrite-bearing samples. The present study documents the analysis of pyrite particles displaying different morphologies and a range of arsenic and gold concentrations to determine the nature and speciation of arsenic.

  20. Gamma-ray computed tomography to characterize soil surface sealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, L.F.Luiz F. E-mail:; Macedo, Jose R. de; Souza, Manoel D. de; Bacchi, Osny O.S.; Reichardt, Klaus


    The application of sewage sludge as a fertilizer on soils may cause compacted surface layers (surface sealing), which can promote changes on soil physical properties. The objective of this work was to study the use of gamma-ray computed tomography, as a diagnostic tool for the evaluation of this sealing process through the measurement of soil bulk density distribution of the soil surface layer of samples subjected to sewage sludge application. Tomographic images were taken with a first generation tomograph with a resolution of 1 mm. The image analysis opened the possibility to obtain soil bulk density profiles and average soil bulk densities of the surface layer and to detect the presence of soil surface sealing. The sealing crust thickness was estimated to be in the range of 2-4 mm.

  1. SRF Cavity Surface Topography Characterization Using Replica Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Xu, M.J. Kelley, C.E. Reece


    To better understand the roll of topography on SRF cavity performance, we seek to obtain detailed topographic information from the curved practical cavity surfaces. Replicas taken from a cavity interior surface provide internal surface molds for fine Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and stylus profilometry. In this study, we confirm the replica resolution both on surface local defects such as grain boundary and etching pits and compare the surface uniform roughness with the aid of Power Spectral Density (PSD) where we can statistically obtain roughness parameters at different scales. A series of sampling locations are at the same magnetic field chosen at the same latitude on a single cell cavity to confirm the uniformity. Another series of sampling locations at different magnetic field amplitudes are chosen for this replica on the same cavity for later power loss calculation. We also show that application of the replica followed by rinsing does not adversely affect the cavity performance.

  2. Fast Characterization of Moving Samples with Nano-Textured Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten Hannibal; Hansen, Poul-Erik; Zalkovskij, Maksim;


    Characterization of structures using conventional optical microscopy is restricted by the diffraction limit. Techniques like atomic force and scanning electron microscopy can investigate smaller structures but are very time consuming. We show that using scatterometry, a technique based on optical...

  3. Fast Characterization of Moving Samples with Nano-Textured Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten Hannibal; Hansen, Poul-Erik; Zalkovskij, Maksim


    Characterization of structures using conventional optical microscopy is restricted by the diffraction limit. Techniques like atomic force and scanning electron microscopy can investigate smaller structures but are very time consuming. We show that using scatterometry, a technique based on optical...

  4. The role of isomorphous substitutions in natural selenides belonging to the pyrite group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindi, Luca [Museo di Storia Naturale, sez. di Mineralogia e Litologia, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze (Italy)], E-mail:; Cipriani, Curzio [Museo di Storia Naturale, sez. di Mineralogia e Litologia, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze (Italy); Pratesi, Giovanni [Museo di Storia Naturale, sez. di Mineralogia e Litologia, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze (Italy); Trosti-Ferroni, Renza [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze (Italy)


    The present paper reports chemical and structural data of selenide minerals belonging to the pyrite group. Eighteen samples of minerals in this group with variable chemical composition (7 samples of penroseite, NiSe{sub 2}; 10 samples of krutaite, CuSe{sub 2}; 1 sample of trogtalite, CoSe{sub 2}) were studied by means of X-ray single-crystal diffraction and electron microprobe. On the basis of information gained from the chemical characterization, we can conclude that a complete solid solution between NiSe{sub 2} and CuSe{sub 2} exists in nature with the absence of pure end-members. Although verified only for the Ni-rich members, we also infer a solid solution between NiSe{sub 2} and CoSe{sub 2}. The unit-cell parameters were modeled using a multiple regression method as a function of the Co, Ni, and Cu contents.

  5. Paleoredoc and pyritization of soft-bodied fossils in the Ordovician Frankfort Shale of New York

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, Una C.; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Hammarlund, Emma U.


    Multiple beds in the Frankfort Shale (Upper Ordovician, New York State), including the original "Beecher's Trilobite Bed," yield fossils with pyritized soft-tissues. A bed-by-bed geochemical and sedimentological analysis was carried out to test previous models of soft-tissue pyritization by inves......Multiple beds in the Frankfort Shale (Upper Ordovician, New York State), including the original "Beecher's Trilobite Bed," yield fossils with pyritized soft-tissues. A bed-by-bed geochemical and sedimentological analysis was carried out to test previous models of soft-tissue pyritization...

  6. Hot-Water Deposition of Pyritic Stromatolite and Its Relation to Biomineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Pyritic stromatolite, a rich pyrite ore, is scattered as reef masses in sedex deposits of the Proterozoic Yanshan rift trough. The pyritic stromatolite consists of a core and alternating concentric rims of light colloidal pyrite and dark organic materials. The concentric rims are cemented together by trichomes highly similar to the trichomic microorganisms inhabiting substantively around the black chimneys on the current sea beds while the core is composed chiefly of groups of thermophilous sulphur bacteria. Biomarkers for the molecules of pyritic stromatolite include pristane, phytane, regular isoprenoids paraffin, methyl-heptadecyl, and so on. This study reveals the existence of methane-yielding bacteria in the pyritic stromatolite and reflects the evolution of thermophilous thallophyta.Long pulsation of mineralizing thermal solutions venting up along contemporaneous faults in rift troughs contributed greatly not just to the reproduction of thermophilous organisms living around the vents, but to their adsorption of Fe2+ from the solutions in a reducing environment. Pyritic stromatolite constantly took shape through metabolism and reduction of these organisms. Owing to the uneven development of the organic communities close to the vents or the hydrothermal plumes, pyritic stromatolite occurred eventually as scattered reef masses. This mineralizing mechanism may be summarized as the following procedure: flowing of hydrothermal fluids associated with submarine exhalation(r) adsorption and metabolism of thermophilous micro-organisms(r) reduction of organic materials(r) formation of deposits of pyritic stromatolite.

  7. Reactivity of Dazomet, a Hydraulic Fracturing Additive: Hydrolysis and Interaction with Pyrite (United States)

    Consolazio, N.; Lowry, G. V.; Karamalidis, A.; Hakala, A.


    The Marcellus Shale is currently the largest shale gas formation in play across the world. The low-permeability formation requires hydraulic fracturing to be produced. In this process, millions of gallons of water are blended with chemical additives and pumped into each well to fracture the reservoir rock. Although additives account for less than 2% of the fracking fluid mixture, they amount to hundreds of tons per frack job. The environmental properties of some of these additives have been studied, but their behavior under downhole conditions is not widely reported in the peer-reviewed literature. These compounds and their reaction products may return to the surface as produced or waste water. In the event of a spill or release, this water has the potential to contaminate surface soil and water. Of these additives, biocides may present a formidable challenge to water quality. Biocides are toxic compounds (by design), typically added to the Marcellus Shale to control bacteria in the well. An assessment of the most frequently used biocides indicated a need to study the chemical dazomet under reservoir conditions. The Marcellus Shale contains significant deposits of pyrite. This is a ubiquitous mineral within black shales that is known to react with organic compounds in both oxic and anoxic settings. Thus, the objective of our study was to determine the effect of pyrite on the hydrolysis of dazomet. Liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-QQQ) was used to calculate the loss rate of aqueous dazomet. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the reaction products. Our experiments show that in water, dazomet rapidly hydrolyses in water to form organic and inorganic transformation products. This reaction rate was unaffected when performed under anoxic conditions. However, with pyrite we found an appreciable increase in the removal rate of dazomet. This was accompanied by a corresponding change in the distribution of observed

  8. Polymer surface modification and characterization of particulate calcium carbonate fillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui Miao


    The efficacy of the surface treatment of particulate fillers depends on the chemical character of the components, on the method and conditions of the treatment, and on the amount of the treating agent. Here, the ultra-fine calcium carbonate is surface treated with 1, 2, 3 and 4 wt.% polyacrylic acid (PAA) synthesized by ourselves, which has strong ionic interaction and is an efficient surface modifier. The PAA coated filler is submitted to the measurement of the surface bonded amount, bonding efficacy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and inverse gas chromatography. Maximum efficacy is expected at the monolayer coverage of the surface, which is about 0.6 wt.% according to the calculation based on the way they are aligned and is basically in agreement with the 'substrate overlayer' model based on the mole ratio of C{sup 286} and C{sup 290} taking no account of the possible underestimation because of the inaccuracy or because of the CH{sub x} contamination present originally on the CaCO{sub 3}. The initial decrease of the mole ratio of C{sup 290}/O and C{sup 290}/Ca with the surface bonded PAA may indicate that the bonding interaction between the polymer and the filler surface is the leaving of one molecular carbon dioxide. The IGC measurement shows that there is a considerable surface tension falling in the case of the PAA modified filler compared with the reference. An abnormal high surface energy in the case of filler treated with 4% PAA is observed.

  9. Effect of treatment time on characterization and properties of nanocrystalline surface layer in copper induced by surface mechanical attrition treatment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Farzad Kargar; M Laleh; T Shahrabi; A Sabour Rouhaghdam


    Nanocrystalline surface layers were synthesized on pure copper by means of surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) at various treatment times. The microstructural features of the surface layers produced by SMAT were systematically characterized by optical microscopy (OM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Hardness and surface roughness measurements were also carried out. It is found that the thickness of the deformed layer increased from 50 to 500 m with increasing treatment time from 10 to 300 min, while the average grain size of the top surface layer decreased from 20 to 7 nm. Hardness of the all SMATed samples decreased with depth. Furthermore, the hardness of the top surface layer of the SMATed samples was at least two times higher than that of the un-treated counterpart. Surface roughness results showed different trend with treatment time. Amounts of PV and a values first sharply increased and then decreased.

  10. 3D Human cartilage surface characterization by optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Brill, Nicolai; Riedel, Jörn; Schmitt, Robert; Tingart, Markus; Truhn, Daniel; Pufe, Thomas; Jahr, Holger; Nebelung, Sven


    Early diagnosis and treatment of cartilage degeneration is of high clinical interest. Loss of surface integrity is considered one of the earliest and most reliable signs of degeneration, but cannot currently be evaluated objectively. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is an arthroscopically available light-based non-destructive real-time imaging technology that allows imaging at micrometre resolutions to millimetre depths. As OCT-based surface evaluation standards remain to be defined, the present study investigated the diagnostic potential of 3D surface profile parameters in the comprehensive evaluation of cartilage degeneration. To this end, 45 cartilage samples of different degenerative grades were obtained from total knee replacements (2 males, 10 females; mean age 63.8 years), cut to standard size and imaged using a spectral-domain OCT device (Thorlabs, Germany). 3D OCT datasets of 8  ×  8, 4  ×  4 and 1  ×  1 mm (width  ×  length) were obtained and pre-processed (image adjustments, morphological filtering). Subsequent automated surface identification algorithms were used to obtain the 3D primary profiles, which were then filtered and processed using established algorithms employing ISO standards. The 3D surface profile thus obtained was used to calculate a set of 21 3D surface profile parameters, i.e. height (e.g. Sa), functional (e.g. Sk), hybrid (e.g. Sdq) and segmentation-related parameters (e.g. Spd). Samples underwent reference histological assessment according to the Degenerative Joint Disease classification. Statistical analyses included calculation of Spearman’s rho and assessment of inter-group differences using the Kruskal Wallis test. Overall, the majority of 3D surface profile parameters revealed significant degeneration-dependent differences and correlations with the exception of severe end-stage degeneration and were of distinct diagnostic value in the assessment of surface integrity. None of the 3D

  11. Surface characterization of pretreated and microbial-treated populus cross-sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolbert, Allison K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The first objective of this thesis is to illustrate the advantages of surface characterization in biomass utilization studies. The second objective is to gain insight into the workings of potential consolidated bioprocessing microorganisms on the surface of poplar samples. The third objective is to determine the impact biomass recalcitrance has on enzymatic hydrolysis and microbial fermentation in relation to the surface chemistry.

  12. Ultrafast Coherent Control and Characterization of Surface Reactions using FELs

    CERN Document Server

    Ogasawara, Hirohito; Nordlund, Dennis


    The microscopic understanding of surface chemistry requires a detailed understanding of the dynamics of elementary processes at surfaces. The ultrashort electron pulse obtained in the linear accelerator to feed the FEL can be used for generation of coherent synchrotron radiation in the low energy THz regime. With the current parameters for LCLS this corresponds to radiation with energy corresponding to excitations of low-energy vibrational modes of molecules on surfaces or phonons in substrates. The coherent radiation can coherently manipulate atoms or molecules on surfaces. In this respect a chemical reaction can be initiated by coherent atomic motion along a specific reaction coordinate. Since the THz radiation is generated from the same source as the FEL radiation full-time synchronization for pump-probe experiments will be possible. The possibility to perform time-resolved X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (XES) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurements as a probe of chemical dynamics is an exciti...

  13. Surface characterization of bacterial cells relevant to the mineral industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, PK; Rao, KH

    Bacteria belonging to the Acidithiobacilli group are widely used in the mineral processing industry in bioleaching and biobeneficiation operations. Paenibacillus polymyxa has also found application in biobeneficiation studies. Microbial adhesion to mineral surface is an essential step,for both

  14. Some issues on atomic force microscopy based surface characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yu-hang; HUANG Wen-hao


    Influences of tip radius and sampling interval on applying atomic force microscopy(AFM)in quantitative surface evaluations are investigated by numerical simulations and experiments. Several evaluation parameters of surfaces ranging from amplitude to functional parameters are studied. Numerical and experimental results are in good agreements. The accuracy of estimating tip radius on random rough surface with Gaussian distribution of heights using a blind reconstruction method is also discussed theoretically. It is found that the accuracy is greatly depending on the ratio of actual tip radius to rootmean-square (rms) radius of curvature. To obtain an accurate estimation of tip radius under Gaussian rough surface, the ratio has to be larger than 3/2.

  15. Surface modification and characterization of aramid fibers with hybrid coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jianrui; Zhu, Yaofeng; Ni, Qingqing; Fu, Yaqin, E-mail:; Fu, Xiang


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Aramid fibers modification sizing synthesized by sol–gel in the absence of water. • The strength and interfacial adhesion property of modified fibers were improved. • Modified fibers show a special surface structure. • The mechanism explains the function of structure. - Abstract: Aramid fibers were modified through solution dip-coating and interfacial in situ polymerization using a newly synthesized SiO{sub 2}/shape memory polyurethane (SiO{sub 2}/SMPU) hybrid. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the synthesized SiO{sub 2}/SMPU hybrid successfully coated the fiber surface. The surface morphology of the aramid fibers and the single fiber tensile strength and interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of the composites were determined. The IFSS of the fiber coated with the hybrid improved by 45%, which benefited from a special “pizza-like” structure on the fiber surface.

  16. Evaluating structure selection in the hydrothermal growth of FeS2 pyrite and marcasite (United States)

    Kitchaev, Daniil A.; Ceder, Gerbrand


    While the ab initio prediction of the properties of solids and their optimization towards new proposed materials is becoming established, little predictive theory exists as to which metastable materials can be made and how, impeding their experimental realization. Here we propose a quasi-thermodynamic framework for predicting the hydrothermal synthetic accessibility of metastable materials and apply this model to understanding the phase selection between the pyrite and marcasite polymorphs of FeS2. We demonstrate that phase selection in this system can be explained by the surface stability of the two phases as a function of ambient pH within nano-size regimes relevant to nucleation. This result suggests that a first-principles understanding of nano-size phase stability in realistic synthesis environments can serve to explain or predict the synthetic accessibility of structural polymorphs, providing a guideline to experimental synthesis via efficient computational materials design.

  17. Quantitative characterization of surface topography using spectral analysis (United States)

    Jacobs, Tevis D. B.; Junge, Till; Pastewka, Lars


    Roughness determines many functional properties of surfaces, such as adhesion, friction, and (thermal and electrical) contact conductance. Recent analytical models and simulations enable quantitative prediction of these properties from knowledge of the power spectral density (PSD) of the surface topography. The utility of the PSD is that it contains statistical information that is unbiased by the particular scan size and pixel resolution chosen by the researcher. In this article, we first review the mathematical definition of the PSD, including the one- and two-dimensional cases, and common variations of each. We then discuss strategies for reconstructing an accurate PSD of a surface using topography measurements at different size scales. Finally, we discuss detecting and mitigating artifacts at the smallest scales, and computing upper/lower bounds on functional properties obtained from models. We accompany our discussion with virtual measurements on computer-generated surfaces. This discussion summarizes how to analyze topography measurements to reconstruct a reliable PSD. Analytical models demonstrate the potential for tuning functional properties by rationally tailoring surface topography—however, this potential can only be achieved through the accurate, quantitative reconstruction of the PSDs of real-world surfaces.

  18. Study of initial stage of mechanochemical transformation in pyrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paneva D.


    Full Text Available The initial stage of transformation of pyrite to Fe(II-sulfate as a result of mechanical milling is studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS, Infrared (IR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS techniques. A degree of conversion of 0.071 is achieved in the time interval of 0 36 min. The kinetic data satisfy the equation of a shrinking core reaction 1-(1-α1/3=kt. The reaction is of the first order. The calculated rate constant is k=6.434.10-4 min-1. .

  19. Molecular Ink Processed Iron Pyrite Thin Films for Photovoltaics


    Weber, Amanda Sue


    Thin-film photovoltaics (PV) have the potential to supply our future energy needs, but the dominant commercial thin film technologies rely on rare or toxic elements that may limit their capacity to scale to the terawatt levels of electricity generation needed to impact global energy demand. Iron pyrite (FeS2) is a promising, earth-abundant material that has a suitable band gap of 0.95 eV, a large optical absorption coefficient, and adequate carrier diffusion lengths for use in PV. Unfortunate...

  20. Spatial characterization of nanotextured surfaces by visual color imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Murthy, Swathi; Madsen, Morten H.


    We present a method using an ordinary color camera to characterize nanostructures from the visual color of the structures. The method provides a macroscale overview image from which micrometer-sized regions can be analyzed independently, hereby revealing long-range spatial variations of the struc......We present a method using an ordinary color camera to characterize nanostructures from the visual color of the structures. The method provides a macroscale overview image from which micrometer-sized regions can be analyzed independently, hereby revealing long-range spatial variations...

  1. Characterization of surface relief gratings of submicron period (United States)

    Logofătu, P. C.; Apostol, D.; Castex, Marie-Claude; Apostol, Ileana; Damian, V.; Iordache, Iuliana; Müller, Raluca


    This paper deals with optical characterization of photo-polymer gratings for parameter control. The gratings were obtained using the photoinduced single step inscription of refractive optical elements technique. The optical characterization was done by measuring the specular and diffracted orders of a laser beam incident on the grating. This technique is specifically known as scatterometry. The laser was a He-Ne with 633 nm wavelength. The measured diffraction efficiencies contain information about the parameters to be determined of the grating, such as pitch, linewidth and shape of the ridges.

  2. Characterization of surface runoff from a subtropics urban catchment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jin-liang; DU Peng-fei; AO Chi-tan; LEI Mui-heong; ZHAO Dong-quan; HO Man-him; WANG Zhi-shi


    Characteristics of surface runoff from a 0.14-km2 urban catchment with separated sewer in Macau was investigated. Water quality measurements of surface runoff were carried out on five rainfall events during the period of August to November, 2005. Water quality parameters such as pH, turbidity, TSS, COD, TN, Zn, Pb, and Cu were analyzed. The results show that TN and COD are the major pollutants from surface runoff with mean concentration of 8.5 and 201.4 mg/L, both over 4-fold higher compared to the Class V surface water quality standard developed by China SEPA. Event mean concentration (EMC) for major pollutants showed considerable variations between rainfall events. The largest rainfall event with the longest length of antecedent dry weather period (ADWP) produced the highest EMC of TN, TSS and COD. From the pollutographs analysis, the peak concentration of TN precedes the peak runoff flow rate for all three rainfall events. The tendency of the concentration of TSS, turbidity and COD changing with runoff flow varies between rainfall events. The relationship between TSS and other parameters were analyzed to evaluate the efficiency of the physical treatment process to control the surface runoff in the urban catchment. Based on the correlation of parameters with TSS, high treatment efficiency of TSS, TN and COD was expected. The most significant event in term of first flush is the one with the strongest rainfall intensity and longest length of ADWP. TN always showed first flush phenomenon in all three rainfall events, which suggested that the surface runoff in the early stage of surface runoff should be dealt with for controlling TN losses during rainfall events.

  3. Ultrafast Coherent Control and Characterization of Surface Reactions using FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogasawara, Hirohito; Nordlund, Dennis a Nilsson, Anders; /SLAC, SSRL


    The microscopic understanding of reactions at surfaces requires an in-depth knowledge of the dynamics of elementary processes on an ultrafast timescale. This can be accomplished using an ultrafast excitation to initiate a chemical reaction and then probe the progression of the reaction with an ultrashort x-ray pulse from the FEL. There is a great potential to use atom-specific spectroscopy involving core levels to probe the chemical nature, structure and bonding of species on surfaces. The ultrashort electron pulse obtained in the linear accelerator to feed the X-ray FEL can also be used for generation of coherent synchrotron radiation in the low energy THz regime to be used as a pump. This radiation has an energy close to the thermal excitations of low-energy vibrational modes of molecules on surfaces and phonons in substrates. The coherent THz radiation will be an electric field pulse with a certain direction that can collectively manipulate atoms or molecules on surfaces. In this respect a chemical reaction can be initiated by collective atomic motion along a specific reaction coordinate. If the coherent THz radiation is generated from the same source as the X-ray FEL radiation, full-time synchronization for pump-probe experiments will be possible. The combination of THz and X-ray spectroscopy could be a unique opportunity for FEL facilities to conduct ultrafast chemistry studies at surfaces.

  4. Surface properties of solids and surface acoustic waves: Application to chemical sensors and layer characterization (United States)

    Krylov, V. V.


    A general phenomenological approach is given for the description of mechanical surface properties of solids and their influence on surface acoustic wave propogation. Surface properties under consideration may be changes of the stress distribution in subsurface atomic layers, the presence of adsorbed gas molecules, surface degradation as a result of impacts from an aggressive environment, damage due to mechanical manufacturing or polishing, deposition of thin films or liquid layers, surface corrugations, etc. If the characteristic thickness of the affected layers is much less than the wavelengths of the propagating surface waves, then the effects of all these irregularities can be described by means of non-classical boundary conditions incorporating the integral surface parameters such as surface tension, surface moduli of elasticity and surface mass density. The effect of surface properties on the propagation of Rayleigh surface waves is analysed in comparison with the results of traditional approaches, in particular with Auld's energy perturbation method. One of the important implications of the above-mentioned boudnary conditions is that they are adequate for the description of the effect of rarely distributed adsorbed atoms or molecules. This allows, in particular, to obtain a rigorous theoretical description of chemical sensors using surface acoustic waves and to derive analytical expressions for their sensitivity.

  5. Pendant bubble method for an accurate characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces. (United States)

    Ling, William Yeong Liang; Ng, Tuck Wah; Neild, Adrian


    The commonly used sessile drop method for measuring contact angles and surface tension suffers from errors on superhydrophobic surfaces. This occurs from unavoidable experimental error in determining the vertical location of the liquid-solid-vapor interface due to a camera's finite pixel resolution, thereby necessitating the development and application of subpixel algorithms. We demonstrate here the advantage of a pendant bubble in decreasing the resulting error prior to the application of additional algorithms. For sessile drops to attain an equivalent accuracy, the pixel count would have to be increased by 2 orders of magnitude.

  6. Leaching of pyrite by acidophilic heterotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria in pure and mixed cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacelar-Nicolau, P.; Johnson, D.B. [Univ. of Wales, Bangor (United Kingdom). School of Biological Sciences


    Seven strains of heterotrophic iron-oxidizing acidophilic bacteria were examined to determine their abilities to promote oxidative dissolution of pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) when they were grown in pure cultures and in mixed cultures with sulfur-oxidizing Thiobacillus spp. Only one of the isolates (strain T-24) oxidized pyrite when it was grown in pyrite-basal salts medium. However, when pyrite-containing cultures were supplemented with 0.02% (wt/vol) yeast extract, most of the isolates oxidized pyrite, and one (strain T-24) promoted rates of mineral dissolution similar to the rates observed with the iron-oxidizing autotroph Thiobacillus ferroxidans. Pyrite oxidation by another isolate (strain T-21) occurred in cultures containing between 0.005 and 0.05% (wt/vol) yeast extract but was completely inhibited in cultures containing 0.5% yeast extract. Ferrous iron was also needed for mineral dissolution by the iron-oxidizing heterotrophs, indicating that these organisms oxidize pyrite via the indirect mechanism. Mixed cultures of three isolates (strains T-21, T-232, and T-24) and the sulfur-oxidizing autotroph Thiobacillus thiooxidans promoted pyrite dissolution; since neither strains T-21 and T-23 nor T. thiooxidans could oxidize this mineral in yeast extract-free media, this was a novel example of bacterial synergism. Mixed cultures of strains T-21 and T-23 and the sulfur-oxidizing mixotroph Thiobacillus acidophilus also oxidized pyrite but to a lesser extent than did mixed cultures containing T. thiooxidans. Pyrite leaching by strain T -23 grown in an organic compound-rich medium and incubated either shaken or unshaken was also assessed. The potential environmental significance of iron-oxidizing heterotrophs in accelerating pyrite oxidation is discussed.

  7. Sedimentary pyrite δ34S differs from porewater sulfide in Santa Barbara Basin: Proposed role of organic sulfur (United States)

    Raven, Morgan Reed; Sessions, Alex L.; Fischer, Woodward W.; Adkins, Jess F.


    Santa Barbara Basin sediments host a complex network of abiotic and metabolic chemical reactions that knit together the carbon, sulfur, and iron cycles. From a 2.1-m sediment core collected in the center of the basin, we present high-resolution profiles of the concentrations and isotopic compositions of all the major species in this system: sulfate, sulfide (∑H2S), elemental sulfur (S0), pyrite, extractable organic sulfur (OS), proto-kerogen S, total organic and dissolved inorganic carbon, and total and reducible iron. Below 10 cm depth, the core is characterized by low apparent sulfate reduction rates (biogeochemical cycles and redox structure in sedimentary paleoenvironments.

  8. Superparamagnetic bead interactions with functionalized surfaces characterized by an immunomicroarray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skottrup, Peter Durand; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Moresco, Jacob Lange;


    SiO2 performed better than polyethylene glycol-modified surfaces Two beads, Masterbeads and M-280 beads, were found to give superior results compared with other bead types. Antibody/ antigen interactions, Illustrated by C-reactive protein, were best performed with Masterbeads The results provide...

  9. Electrochemical and surface characterization of a nickel-titanium alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, Dirk; Veldhuizen, AG; de Vries, J; Busscher, HJ; Uges, DRA; van Horn, James


    For clinical implantation purposes of shape memory metals the nearly equiatomic nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy is generally used. In this study, the corrosion properties and surface characteristics of this alloy were investigated and compared with two reference controls, AISI 316 LVM stainless steel a

  10. Industrial characterization of nano-scale roughness on polished surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Hansen, Poul-Erik; Pilny, Lukas


    We report a correlation between the scattering value “Aq” and the ISO standardized roughness parameter Rq. The Aq value is a measure for surface smoothness, and can easily be determined from an optical scattering measurement. The correlation equation extrapolates the Aq value from a narrow...

  11. Characterization and use of crystalline bacterial cell surface layers (United States)

    Sleytr, Uwe B.; Sára, Margit; Pum, Dietmar; Schuster, Bernhard


    Crystalline bacterial cell surface layers (S-layers) are one of the most common outermost cell envelope components of prokaryotic organisms (archaea and bacteria). S-layers are monomolecular arrays composed of a single protein or glycoprotein species and represent the simplest biological membranes developed during evolution. S-layers as the most abundant of prokaryotic cellular proteins are appealing model systems for studying the structure, synthesis, genetics, assembly and function of proteinaceous supramolecular structures. The wealth of information existing on the general principle of S-layers have revealed a broad application potential. The most relevant features exploited in applied S-layer research are: (i) pores passing through S-layers show identical size and morphology and are in the range of ultrafiltration membranes; (ii) functional groups on the surface and in the pores are aligned in well-defined positions and orientations and accessible for chemical modifications and binding functional molecules in very precise fashion; (iii) isolated S-layer subunits from a variety of organisms are capable of recrystallizing as closed monolayers onto solid supports (e.g., metals, polymers, silicon wafers) at the air-water interface, on lipid films or onto the surface of liposomes; (iv) functional domains can be incorporated in S-layer proteins by genetic engineering. Thus, S-layer technologies particularly provide new approaches for biotechnology, biomimetics, molecular nanotechnology, nanopatterning of surfaces and formation of ordered arrays of metal clusters or nanoparticles as required for nanoelectronics.

  12. Surface characterization of titanium alloys sterilized for biomedical applications (United States)

    Hernández de Gatica, Norma L.; Jones, Gary L.; Gardella, Joseph A.


    The high biocompatibility of Ti and Ti-based implants is closely related to the properties of the surface oxide formed during the implant preparation stages. During the machining process, the metal is exposed to the ambient atmosphere and oxidized. This surface oxide layer may be modified during the subsequent implant preparation steps: cleaning and sterilization. In this study, surface elemental and chemical information as well as the thickness of the oxide layer are evaluated for the Ti-6Al-4V alloy before and after different sterilization procedures: UV radiation, steam autoclaving, and radio-frequency glow-discharge (RFGD) treatment in argon atmosphere. The analytical techniques used are: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS or ESCA) and the scanning Auger microprobe (SAM). The results of this study indicate that among steam autoclaving, UV radiation and RFGD treatment, the latter yields cleaner surfaces. Also, depth profiles of the specimens treated with RFGD in argon showed an increase in the oxide layer thickness with respect to the values observed for non-sterilized samples.

  13. Investigation on the micromilled surface characterization through replica technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baruffi, Federico; Parenti, P.; Cacciatore, F.


    . This represents an open issue that, in some cases, can be tackled by adopting the replication technology. The method consists in obtaining the replicated surface and performing its measurement using suitable measuring systems. This paper evaluates the actual performance of a commercial replication product...

  14. Electrochemical and surface characterization of a nickel-titanium alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, Dirk; Veldhuizen, AG; de Vries, J; Busscher, HJ; Uges, DRA; van Horn, James


    For clinical implantation purposes of shape memory metals the nearly equiatomic nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy is generally used. In this study, the corrosion properties and surface characteristics of this alloy were investigated and compared with two reference controls, AISI 316 LVM stainless steel a

  15. Surface characterization of current composites after toothbrush abrasion. (United States)

    Takahashi, Rena; Jin, Jian; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji; Hickel, Reinhard; Kunzelmann, Karl-Heinz


    The present study was designed to evaluate the surface roughness and the gloss of current composites before and after toothbrush abrasion. We assessed forty dimensionally standardized composite specimens (n=8/group) from five composites: two nanohybrids (i. e., IPS Empress Direct Enamel and IPS Empress Direct Dentin), two microhybrids (i. e., Clearfil AP-X and Filtek Z250) and one organically modified ceramics (Admira). All of the specimens were polished with 4000-grid silicon carbide papers. Surface roughness was measured with a profilometer and gloss was measured with a glossmeter before and after powered toothbrush abrasion with a 1:1 slurry (dentifrice/tap water) at 12,000 strokes in a toothbrush simulator. There was a significant increase in the surface roughness and a reduction in gloss after toothbrush abrasion in all of the composites except Clearfil AP-X (p<0.05). Simple regression analysis showed that there was not an association between the surface roughness and the gloss (R(2)=0.191, p<0.001).

  16. Characterization of large area nanostructured surfaces using AFM measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, Matteo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tosello, Guido;


    magnitude of the 3D surface amplitude parameters chosen for the analysis, when increasing the Al purity from 99,5% to 99,999%. AFM was then employed to evaluate the periodical arrangements of the nano structured cells. Image processing was used to estimate the average areas value, the height variation...

  17. Surface characterization of bacterial cells relevant to the mineral industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, PK; Rao, KH


    Bacteria belonging to the Acidithiobacilli group are widely used in the mineral processing industry in bioleaching and biobeneficiation operations. Paenibacillus polymyxa has also found application in biobeneficiation studies. Microbial adhesion to mineral surface is an essential step,for both biobe

  18. Surface Characterization of Polymer Blends by XPS and ToF-SIMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Ming Chan


    Full Text Available The surface properties of polymer blends are important for many industrial applications. The physical and chemical properties at the surface of polymer blends can be drastically different from those in the bulk due to the surface segregation of the low surface energy component. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and time-of-flight secondary mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS have been widely used to characterize surface and bulk properties. This review provides a brief introduction to the principles of XPS and ToF-SIMS and their application to the study of the surface physical and chemical properties of polymer blends.

  19. Biological characterization of implant surfaces - in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira Soares

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectiveEvaluate the biological performance of titanium alloys grade IV under different surface treatments: sandblasting and double etching (Experimental surface 1; Exp1, NEODENT; surface with wettability increase (Experimental surface 2; Exp2, NEODENT on response of preliminary differentiation and cell maturation.Material and methodImmortalized osteoblast cells were plated on Exp1 and Exp2 titanium discs. The polystyrene plate surface without disc was used as control group (C. Cell viability was assessed by measuring mitochondrial activity (MTT at 4 and 24 h (n = 5, cell attachment was performed using trypan blue exclusion within 4 hours (n = 5, serum total protein and alkaline phosphatase normalization was performed at 4, 7 and 14 days (n = 5. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey test.ResultThe values of cell viability were: 4h: C– 0.32±0.01A; Exp1– 0.34±0.08A; Exp2– 0.29±0.03A. 24h: C– 0.43±0.02A; Exp1– 0.39±0.01A; Exp2– 0.37±0.03A. The cell adhesion counting was: C– 85±10A; Exp1- 35±5B; Exp2– 20±2B. The amounts of serum total protein were 4d: C– 40±2B; Exp1– 120±10A; Exp2– 130±20A. 7d: C– 38±2B; Exp1– 75±4A; Exp2– 70±6A. 14 d: C– 100±3A; Exp1– 130±5A; Exp2– 137±9A. The values of alkaline phosphatase normalization were: 4d: C– 2.0±0.1C; Exp1– 5.1±0.8B; Exp2– 9.8±2.0A. 7d: C– 1.0±0.01C; Exp1– 5.3±0.5A; Exp2– 3.0±0.3B. 14 d: C– 4.1±0.3A; Exp1– 4.4±0.8A; Exp2– 2.2±0.2B. Different letters related to statistical differences.ConclusionThe surfaces tested exhibit different behavior at dosage of alkaline phosphatase normalization showing that the Exp2 is more associated with induction of cell differentiation process and that Exp1 is more related to the mineralization process.

  20. Comparison of Different Methods for Determination of Pyrite Oxidation Rate in Wate Rock Pile at Mine Doyon, Quebec, Canada (United States)

    Sracek, O.; Nicholson, R.; Gélinas, P.; Lefebvre, R.


    Mine Doyon is a gold mine located close to Noranda, Québec, Canada. The South waste rock pile contains mostly highly friable sericite schists with pyrite content up to 7 wt percent. Oxidation of pyrite resulted in the production of acid mine drainage with pH values of about 2.0, and sulfate concentrations in pore water above 200 g/L. The waste rock material is characterized by high permeability allowing thermally driven convective supply of oxygen at temperatures reaching up to 67oC close to the slopes of the pile. Several methods for the determination of pyrite oxidation rate (POR) in waste rock have been compared and evaluated. Methods based on data collected in situ such as the interpretation of oxygen concentration profiles in waste rock pile and pyrite concentrations in solid phase were compared with the oxygen consumption method (OCM) in the laboratory. Analytical 1-D solution based on oxygen and temperature profiles in the pile was used for preliminary determination of POR. Analytical modeling results were used as an input for 2-D numerical model using TOUGH AMD. POR values based on pyrite mass balance (PMB) in solid phase were also calculated, assuming that average pyrite content in the deep, almost non-oxidized zone of the pile represents pre-oxidation conditions. Calculations were performed for prismatic columns with 1 m2 base. An approach based on dissolved sulfate mass balance was not used because of the lack of data from early stage of the pile and the non-conservative behavior of sulfate (precipitation of gypsum and jarosite in the pile). Finally, the oxygen consumption method (OCM) in the laboratory was based on oxygen concentration decline in headspace of closed chamber, where samples of waste rock sprinkled by water were located. Both fresh samples from mining operation and partially weathered samples collected in the pile were used. A range of POR values (mol(O2).kg-1.s-1) were obtained from the various methods. At Site 6 on the slope of the pile

  1. Surface grafted chitosan gels. Part II. Gel formation and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chao; Thormann, Esben; Claesson, Per M.


    Responsive biomaterial hydrogels attract significant attention due to their biocompatibility and degradability. In order to make chitosan based gels, we first graft one layer of chitosan to silica, and then build a chitosan/poly(acrylic acid) multilayer using the layer-by-layer approach. After...... cross-linking the chitosan present in the polyelectrolyte multilayer, poly(acrylic acid) is partly removed by exposing the multilayer structure to a concentrated carbonate buffer solution at a high pH, leaving a surface-grafted cross-linked gel. Chemical cross-linking enhances the gel stability against......-linking density. The amount of poly(acrylic acid) trapped inside the surface grafted films was found to decrease with decreasing cross-linking density, as confirmed in situ using TIRR, and ex situ by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements on dried films. The responsiveness of the chitosan-based gels...

  2. Atomic-level imaging, processing and characterization of semiconductor surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmerski, L.L.


    A method for selecting and removing single specific atoms from a solid material surface uses photon biasing to break down bonds that hold the selected atom in the lattice and to reduce barrier effects that hold the atom from transferring to a probe. The photon bias is preferably light or other electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength and frequency that approximately matches the wave function of the target atom species to be removed to induce high energy, selective thermionic-like vibration. An electric field potential is then applied between the probe and the surface of the solid material to pull the atom out of the lattice and to transfer the atom to the probe. Different extrinsic atoms can be installed in the lattice sites that are vacated by the removed atoms by using a photon bias that resonates the extrinsic atom species, reversing polarity of the electric field, and blowing gas comprising the extrinsic atoms through a hollow catheter probe. 8 figs.

  3. Atomic-level imaging, processing and characterization of semiconductor surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmerski, Lawrence L. (Lakewood, CO)


    A method for selecting and removing single specific atoms from a solid material surface uses photon biasing to break down bonds that hold the selected atom in the lattice and to reduce barrier effects that hold the atom from transferring to a probe. The photon bias is preferably light or other electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength and frequency that approximately matches the wave function of the target atom species to be removed to induce high energy, selective thermionic-like vibration. An electric field potential is then applied between the probe and the surface of the solid material to pull the atom out of the lattice and to transfer the atom to the probe. Different extrinsic atoms can be installed in the lattice sites that are vacated by the removed atoms by using a photon bias that resonates the extrinsic atom species, reversing polarity of the electric field, and blowing gas comprising the extrinsic atoms through a hollow catheter probe.

  4. Optical Measurement System for Motion Characterization of Surface Mount Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Song; AN Bing; ZHANG Tong-jun; XIE Yong-jun


    Advanced testing methods for the dynamics of mechanical microdevices are necessary to develop reliable,marketable microelectromechanical systems. A system for measuring the nanometer motions of microscopic structures has been demonstrated. Stop-action images of a target have been obtained with computer microvision,microscopic interferometry,and stroboscopic illuminator. It can be developed for measuring the in-plane-rigid-body motions,surface shapes,out-of-plane motions and deformations of microstructures. A new algorithm of sub-pixel step length correlation template matching is proposed to extract the in-plane displacement from vision images. Hariharan five-step phase-shift interferometry algorithm and unwrapping algorithms are adopted to measure the out-of-plane motions. It is demonstrated that the system can measure the motions of solder wetting in surface mount technology(SMT).

  5. Quantifying adhesion of acidophilic bioleaching bacteria to silica and pyrite by atomic force microscopy with a bacterial probe. (United States)

    Diao, Mengxue; Taran, Elena; Mahler, Stephen; Nguyen, Tuan A H; Nguyen, Anh V


    The adhesion of acidophilic bacteria to mineral surfaces is an important phenomenon in bioleaching processes. In this study, functionalized colloidal probes covered by bioleaching bacterial cells (Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans) were developed and used to sense specific adhesion forces to a silica surface and a pyrite surface in various solutions. Experimentally, recorded retraction curves of A. thiooxidans revealed sawtooth features that were in good agreement with the wormlike chain model, while that of L. ferrooxidans exhibited stair-step separation. The magnitudes of adhesion forces and snap-off distances were strongly influenced by the ionic strength and pH. Macroscopic surface properties including hydrophobicity and surface potential for bacterial cells and substrata were measured by a sessile drop method and microelectrophoresis. The ATR-FTIR spectra indicated the presence of different types of biopolymers on two strains of bacteria.

  6. Chemical and Molecular Characterization of Biofilm on Metal Surfaces

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.

    used molecular approach to assess the development of biofilm (White and Benson, 1984; Khandekar and Johns, 1991; Bhosle and Wagh, 1997). We have used a multi-parameter approach based on biological, chemical, biochemical and molecular constituents... to assess development of conditioning film and biofilm on metal surfaces (Bhosle et al., 1989; Bhosle et al., 1990; Sonak and Bhosle, 1995; Bhosle and Wagh, 1997, D?Souza and Bhosle, 2003). This chapter is a compilation of relevant information...

  7. Europa: Characterization and interpretation of global spectral surface units (United States)

    Nelson, M.L.; McCord, T.B.; Clark, R.N.; Johnson, T.V.; Matson, D.L.; Mosher, J.A.; Soderblom, L.A.


    The Voyager global multispectral mosaic of the Galilean satellite Europa (T. V. Johnson, L. A. Soderblom, J. A. Mosher, G. E. Danielson, A. F. Cook, and P. Kupferman, 1983, J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5789-5805) was analyzed to map surface units with similar optical properties (T. B. McCord, M. L. Nelson, R. N. Clark, A. Meloy, W. Harrison, T. V. Johnson, D. L. Matson, J. A. Mosher, and L. Soderblom, 1982, Bull Amer. Astron. Soc. 14, 737). Color assignments in the unit map are indicative of the spectral nature of the unit. The unit maps make it possible to infer extensions of the geologic units mapped by B. K. Lucchitta and L. A. Soderblom (1982, in Satellites of Jupiter, pp. 521-555, Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson) beyond the region covered in the high-resolution imagery. The most striking feature in the unit maps is a strong hemispheric asymmetry. It is seen most clearly in the ultraviolet/violet albedo ratio image, because the asymmetry becomes more intense as the wavelength decreases. It appears as if the surface has been darkened, most intensely in the center of the trailing hemisphere and decreasing gradually, essentially as the cosine of the angle from the antapex of motion, to a minimum in the center of the leading hemisphere. The cosine pattern suggests that the darkening is exogenic in origin and is interpreted as evidence of alteration of the surface by ion bombardment from the Jovian magnetosphere. ?? 1986.

  8. Surfactant-Assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis of Single Phase Pyrite FeS2 Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadia, Cyrus; Wu, Yue; Gul, Sheraz; Volkman, Steven; Guo, Jinghua; Alivisatos, Paul


    Iron pyrite nanocrystals with high purity have been synthesized through a surfactant-assisted hydrothermal reaction under optimum pH value. These pyrite nanocrystals represent a new group of well-defined nanoscale structures for high-performance photovoltaic solar cells based on non-toxic and earth abundant materials.

  9. Isotopic and microbiological signatures of pyrite-driven denitrification in a sandy aquifer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.-C.; Slomp, C.P.; Broers, H.P.; Bostick, B.; Passier, H.F.; Böttcher, M.E.; Omoregie, E.O.; Lloyd, J.R.; Polya, D.A.; Van Cappellen, P.


    Denitrificationdriven by pyrite oxidation can play a major role in the removal of nitrate from groundwater systems. As yet, limited information is available on the interactions between the micro-organisms and aqueous and mineral phases in aquifers where pyrite oxidation is occurring. In this study,

  10. Intermediary sulfur compounds in pyrite oxidation: implications for bioleaching and biodepyritization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schippers, A.; Rohwerder, T.; Sand, W. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Botanik und Botanischer Garten


    Accumulation of elemental sulfur during pyrite oxidation lowers the efficiency of coal desulfurization and bioleaching. In the case of pyrite bioleaching by Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, an iron(II)-ion-oxidizing organism without sulfur-oxidizing capacity, from the pyritic sulfur moiety about 10% elemental sulfur, 2% pentathionate, and 1% tetrathionate accumulated by a recently described cyclic pyrite oxidation mechanism. In the case of pure cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and mixed cultures of L. ferrooxidans and T. thiooxidans, pyrite was nearly completely oxidized to sulfate because of the capacity of these cultures to oxidize both iron(II) ions and sulfur compounds. Pyrite oxidation in acidic solutions, mediated chemically by iron(III) ion, resulted in an accumulation of similar amounts of sulfur compounds as obtained with L. ferrooxidans. Changes of pH to values below 2 or in the iron ion concentration are not decisive for diverting the flux of sulfur compounds. The literature on pyrite bioleaching is in agreement with the findings indicating that the chemistry of direct and indirect pyrite leaching is identical. (orig.)

  11. Bio-reduction of pyrite investigated in a gas lift loop reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, A.; Weijden, van der R.D.; Weert, van G.; Kondos, P.; Buisman, C.J.N.


    To liberate gold from refractory pyrite, oxidative destruction techniques that consume lots of energy and generate acidic waste streams are custom. As an alternative the “bio-reduction” of pyrite is proposed and investigated in this study. Bio-reduction is an anaerobic process based on sulfate/sulfu

  12. A new procedure for characterizing textured surfaces with a deterministic pattern of valley features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Kühle, A; De Chiffre, Leonardo


    In recent years there has been the development of a high number of manufacturing methods for creating textured surfaces which often present deterministic patterns of valley features. Unfortunately, suitable methodologies for characterizing them are lacking. Existing standards cannot in fact...


    Three transects along a groundwater/surface water interface were characterized for spatial distributions of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons and geochemical conditions to evaluate the natural bioremediation potential of this environmental system. Partly on the basis of ground p...

  14. On the optimal choice of wavelet function for multiscale honed surface characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezghani, S; Mansori, M El [Arts and Metiers ParisTech, LMPF, rue St Dominique - BP 508, 51006 Chalons-en-Champagne (France); Sabri, L [RENAULT S.A.S., Direction de la Mecanique/Direction de l' Ingenierie Process, Rueil Malmaison, Paris (France); Zahouani, H, E-mail: [Ecole Centrale de Lyon, LTDS UMR CNRS 5513, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69131 Ecully Cedex (France)


    Multiscale surface topography characterization is mostly suited than standard approaches because it is more adapted to the multi-stage process generation. Wavelet transform represents a power tool to perform the multiscale decomposition of the surface topography in a wide range of wavelength. However, characterization results depend closely on the topography data acquisition instrument (resolution, height accuracy, sensitivity...) and also on the wavelet analysis method (discrete or continuous transform). In particular, the choice of wavelet function can have significant effect on the analysis results. In this paper, we present experimental work on a number of popular wavelets functions with the aim of finding wavelets that exhibit optimal description of honed surface features when continuous wavelet transform is used. We demonstrate that the regularity property of wavelet function has a significant influence on the characterization performances. This comparative study shows also that the Morlet wavelet is the more adapted wavelet basis function for multiscale characterization of honed surfaces using continuous wavelet transform.

  15. Framboidal and idiomorphic pyrite in the upper Maastrichtian sedimentary rocks at Gabal Oweina, Nile Valley, Egypt: Formation processes, oxidation products and genetic implications to the origin of framboidal pyrite (United States)

    Soliman, Mamdouh F.; El Goresy, Ahmed


    The upper Maastrichtian organic-rich sediments studied at Gabal Oweina, Egypt, are moderately enriched in syngenetic and diagenetic pyrite. Pyrite occurs mostly as layers or bands, group of lamina, lenses, diagenetic intercalated pockets, burrow fills and disseminated individual pyrite framboids and crystals within the host sediments. The pyritic thin bands and lamina consist mostly of unconsolidated to compact-oriented pyrite (oriented along the bedding planes) in gypsiferous-clayey matrix and less common as poorly oriented pyrite crystallites. In several cases, pyrite crystals of the latter type depict zoning, fracturing and micro-concretions. Pyritic burrow fills are composed mainly of pyrite, phosphatic ooids, microfossils, glauconitic grains, poorly graphitized carbon and native sulfur. Pyrite replaces minerals other than gypsum, sulfur or carbon. It also replaces microfossils thus turning some of the phosphatic ooids and microfossils to pyritized pseudomorphs. None of the studied phosphate ooids or framboids contains any mackinawite, pyrrhotite or greigite. Based on the microscopic and SEM observations of the micro-textures of disseminated pyrite found at Gabal Oweina section, four morphological forms of primary pyrite could be identified: (1) Grouped multiple-framboids; (2) Individual framboids; (3) Pyrite idiomorphic crystal overgrowths on framboids and (4) Single and aggregates of euhedral pyrite crystals. The multiple-framboid formation may have emerged from three successive processes: nucleation and growth of individual aggregates of the microcrystals to form combined micro-framboids (the growth of framboids); and followed by grouping of the several pyrite framboids. Direct pyrite nucleation (shell formation), crystallization, and aggregation processes might complete a single framboid. The disseminated single and aggregated euhedral pyrite crystals bear evidence indicating that their formation was via nucleation and growth of pyrite crystallites and

  16. The coupled geochemistry of Au and As in pyrite from hydrothermal ore deposits (United States)

    Deditius, Artur P.; Reich, Martin; Kesler, Stephen E.; Utsunomiya, Satoshi; Chryssoulis, Stephen L.; Walshe, John; Ewing, Rodney C.


    The ubiquity of Au-bearing arsenian pyrite in hydrothermal ore deposits suggests that the coupled geochemical behaviour of Au and As in this sulfide occurs under a wide range of physico-chemical conditions. Despite significant advances in the last 20 years, fundamental factors controlling Au and As ratios in pyrite from ore deposits remain poorly known. Here we explore these constraints using new and previously published EMPA, LA-ICP-MS, SIMS, and μ-PIXE analyses of As and Au in pyrite from Carlin-type Au, epithermal Au, porphyry Cu, Cu-Au, and orogenic Au deposits, volcanogenic massive sulfide (VHMS), Witwatersrand Au, iron oxide copper gold (IOCG), and coal deposits. Pyrite included in the data compilation formed under temperatures from ∼30 to ∼600 °C and in a wide variety of geological environments. The pyrite Au-As data form a wedge-shaped zone in compositional space, and the fact that most data points plot below the solid solubility limit defined by Reich et al. (2005) indicate that Au1+ is the dominant form of Au in arsenian pyrite and that Au-bearing ore fluids that deposit this sulfide are mostly undersaturated with respect to native Au. The analytical data also show that the solid solubility limit of Au in arsenian pyrite defined by an Au/As ratio of 0.02 is independent of the geochemical environment of pyrite formation and rather depends on the crystal-chemical properties of pyrite and post-depositional alteration. Compilation of Au-As concentrations and formation temperatures for pyrite indicates that Au and As solubility in pyrite is retrograde; Au and As contents decrease as a function of increasing temperature from ∼200 to ∼500 °C. Based on these results, two major Au-As trends for Au-bearing arsenian pyrite from ore deposits are defined. One trend is formed by pyrites from Carlin-type and orogenic Au deposits where compositions are largely controlled by fluid-rock interactions and/or can be highly perturbed by changes in temperature and

  17. Transport and degradation of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in the pyritic Rabis Creek aquifer, Denmark (United States)

    Hinsby, K.; Hojberg, A.L.; Engesgaard, P.; Jensen, K.H.; Larsen, F.; Plummer, L.N.; Busenberg, E.


    Vertical profiles of the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113 penetrating aerobic and anaerobic parts of a shallow sandy aquifer show that the CFC gases are degraded in the groundwater in a pyritic sand aquifer at Rabis Creek, Denmark. Two-dimensional solute transport simulations with either zero-order or first-order degradation in the anaerobic zone corroborate this interpretation. The transport model was previously calibrated against detailed tritium profiles in the same wells. First-order degradation is found to best match the observed CFC profiles yielding an approximate half-life of a few months for CFC-11. Degradation is not as clearly recognized for CFC-12 and CFC-113, but it may occur with rates corresponding to a half-life of a few years or more. Data indicate a geochemical control of the CFC concentration gradient at the redox front and that denitrification and denitrifiers are not of major importance for the observed CFC degradation. The responsible mechanism behind the observed degradation is not known but we suggest that reductive dehalogenation by surface-bound Fe(II) on pyrite possibly enhanced by the presence of Fe(III)-bearing weathering products (green rust) may be a plausible mechanism. The observed data and the performed simulations confirm the potential application of the CFC gases as age-dating tools in the aerobic part of the investigated aquifer, but also that CFC data must be analyzed carefully before it is used as a dating tool in reducing aquifers because degradation may have occurred. The use of multiple or alternative tracers should be considered in anaerobic environments. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Phase Stability and Stoichiometry in Thin Film Iron Pyrite: Impact on Electronic Transport Properties. (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Scott, Tom; Socha, Tyler; Nielsen, David; Manno, Michael; Johnson, Melissa; Yan, Yuqi; Losovyj, Yaroslav; Dowben, Peter; Aydil, Eray S; Leighton, Chris


    The use of pyrite FeS2 as an earth-abundant, low-cost, nontoxic thin film photovoltaic hinges on improved understanding and control of certain physical and chemical properties. Phase stability, phase purity, stoichiometry, and defects, are central in this respect, as they are frequently implicated in poor solar cell performance. Here, phase-pure polycrystalline pyrite FeS2 films, synthesized by ex situ sulfidation, are subject to systematic reduction by vacuum annealing (to 550 °C) to assess phase stability, stoichiometry evolution, and their impact on transport. Bulk probes reveal the onset of pyrrhotite (Fe(1-δ)S) around 400 °C, rapidly evolving into the majority phase by 425 °C. This is supported by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on (001) crystals, revealing surface Fe(1-δ)S formation as low as 160 °C, with rapid growth near 400 °C. The impact on transport is dramatic, with Fe(1-δ)S minority phases leading to a crossover from diffusive transport to hopping (due to conductive Fe(1-δ)S nanoregions in an FeS2 matrix), followed by metallicity when Fe(1-δ)S dominates. Notably, the crossover to hopping leads to an inversion of the sign, and a large decrease in magnitude of the Hall coefficient. By tracking resistivity, magnetotransport, magnetization, and structural/chemical parameters vs annealing, we provide a detailed picture of the evolution in properties with stoichiometry. A strong propensity for S-deficient minority phase formation is found, with no wide window where S vacancies control the FeS2 carrier density. These findings have important implications for FeS2 solar cell development, emphasizing the need for (a) nanoscale chemical homogeneity, and (b) caution in interpreting carrier types and densities.

  19. Characterization and Properties of Nanostructured Surface Layer in a Low Carbon Steel Subjected to Surface Mechanical Attrition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A nanostructured surface layer was synthesized on a Iow carbon steel by using surface mechanical attrition (SMA)technique. The refined microstructure of the surface layer was characterized by means of different techniques,and the hardness variation along the depth was examined. Experimental results show that the microstructure isinhomogeneous along the depth. In the region from top surface to about 40μm deep, the grain size increases fromabout 10 nm to 100 nm. In the adjacent region of about 40~80μm depth, the grain size increases from about 100nm to 1000 nm. The grain refinement can be associated with the activity of dislocations. After the SMA treatment,the hardness of the surface layer is enhanced significantly compared with that of the original sample, which canprimarily be attributed to the grain refinement.

  20. Surface Characterization of Laser Surface Melted NiTi Shape Memory Alloy in Hanks' Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUIZhen-duo; ZHUSheng-li; MANHauchung; YANGXian-jin


    The surface of Ti-50.8Ni at% shape memory alloy was melted by an Nd-YAG laser. The Ti/Ni and Ti4+/ Tiatomic concentration ratios at the surface were changed significantly. The Ni ion release rate of the laser melted surface was much lower than that of the mechanical polished samples. A calcium-phosphorous layer with high Ca/P ratio was detected after immersion in Hanks' solution.

  1. Surface Characterization of Laser Surface Melted NiTi Shape Memory Alloy in Hanks' Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Zhen-duo; ZHU Sheng-li; MAN Hauchung; YANG Xian-jin


    The surface of Ti-50.8Ni at% shape memory alloy was melted by an Nd-YAG laser. The Ti/Ni and Ti4+/Ti atomic concentration ratios at the surface were changed significantly. The Ni ion release rate of the laser melted surface was much lower than that of the mechanical polished samples. A calcium-phosphorous layer with high Ca/P ratio was detected after immersion in Hanks' solution.

  2. Lipid extraction and esterification for microalgae-based biodiesel production using pyrite (FeS2). (United States)

    Seo, Yeong Hwan; Sung, Mina; Oh, You-Kwan; Han, Jong-In


    In this study, pyrite (FeS2) was used for lipid extraction as well as esterification processes for microalgae-based biodiesel production. An iron-mediated oxidation reaction, Fenton-like reaction, produced an expected degree of lipid extraction, but pyrite was less effective than FeCl3 commercial powder. That low efficiency was improved by using oxidized pyrite, which showed an equivalent lipid extraction efficiency to FeCl3, about 90%, when 20 mM of catalyst was used. Oxidized pyrite was also employed in the esterification step, and converted free fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters under acidic conditions; thus, the fatal problem of saponification during esterification with alkaline catalysts was avoided, and esterification efficiency over 90% was obtained. This study clearly showed that pyrite could be utilized as a cheap catalyst in the lipid extraction and esterification steps for microalgae-based biodiesel production.

  3. Occurrence and Geological Genesis of Pyrites in Late Paleozoic Coals in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘大锰; 杨起; 等


    The occurrence and geological genesis of pyrites in Late Paleozoic colas of North china have been systematically studied in terms of coal petrology,coal chemistry,elemental geochemistry and sulfur isotope geochemistry.The results suggest that eight types of pyrite,i.e.,framboidal,automorphic graular,oolitic,massive,homogeneous spherical,allotriomorphic,nodular,joint-and fisure-filling pyrintes can be subdivided under the microscope,Four generations of pyrite are also reconized according to the shape,size,coexisting assemblage,spacial distribution relationship with macerals,the contents of sulfur and iron.atomic S/Fe ratios and associated elements in pryites.Sulfur in Late Palozoic colas of North China is of diverse source as evidenced by sulfur isotope variations in the pyrites.The δ34S values of pyrite generated at the early stage ted to be negative,and at the late stage,positive.

  4. Characterizing developing adverse pressure gradient flows subject to surface roughness (United States)

    Brzek, Brian; Chao, Donald; Turan, Özden; Castillo, Luciano


    An experimental study was conducted to examine the effects of surface roughness and adverse pressure gradient (APG) on the development of a turbulent boundary layer. Hot-wire anemometry measurements were carried out using single and X-wire probes in all regions of a developing APG flow in an open return wind tunnel test section. The same experimental conditions (i.e., T ∞, U ref, and C p) were maintained for smooth, k + = 0, and rough, k + = 41-60, surfaces with Reynolds number based on momentum thickness, 3,000 carefully designed such that the x-dependence in the flow field was known. Despite this fact, only a very small region of the boundary layer showed a balance of the various terms in the integrated boundary layer equation. The skin friction computed from this technique showed up to a 58% increase due to the surface roughness. Various equilibrium parameters were studied and the effect of roughness was investigated. The generated flow was not in equilibrium according to the Clauser (J Aero Sci 21:91-108, 1954) definition due to its developing nature. After a development region, the flow reached the equilibrium condition as defined by Castillo and George (2001), where Λ = const, is the pressure gradient parameter. Moreover, it was found that this equilibrium condition can be used to classify developing APG flows. Furthermore, the Zagarola and Smits (J Fluid Mech 373:33-79, 1998a) scaling of the mean velocity deficit, U ∞δ*/δ, can also be used as a criteria to classify developing APG flows which supports the equilibrium condition of Castillo and George (2001). With this information a ‘full APG region’ was defined.

  5. Characterization of the interaction between AFM tips and surface nanobubbles. (United States)

    Walczyk, Wiktoria; Schönherr, Holger


    While the presence of gaseous enclosures observed at various solid-water interfaces, the so-called "surface nanobubles", has been confirmed by many groups in recent years, their formation, properties, and stability have not been convincingly and exhaustively explained. Here we report on an atomic force microscopy (AFM) study of argon nanobubbles on highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) in water to elucidate the properties of nanobubble surfaces and the mechanism of AFM tip-nanobubble interaction. In particular, the deformation of the nanobubble-water interface by the AFM tip and the question whether the AFM tip penetrates the nanobubble during scanning were addressed by this combined intermittent contact (tapping) mode and force volume AFM study. We found that the stiffness of nanobubbles was smaller than the cantilever spring constant and comparable with the surface tension of water. The interaction with the AFM tip resulted in severe quasi-linear deformation of the bubbles; however, in the case of tip-bubble attraction, the interface deformed toward the tip. We tested two models of tip-bubble interaction, namely, the capillary force and the dynamic interaction model, and found, depending on the tip properties, good agreement with experimental data. The results showed that the tip-bubble interaction strength and the magnitude of the bubble deformation depend strongly on tip and bubble geometry and on tip and substrate material, and are very sensitive to the presence of contaminations that alter the interfacial tension. In particular, nanobubbles interacted differently with hydrophilic and hydrophobic AFM tips, which resulted in qualitatively and quantitatively different force curves measured on the bubbles in the experiments. To minimize bubble deformation and obtain reliable AFM results, nanobubbles must be measured with a sharp hydrophilic tip and with a cantilever having a very low spring constant in a contamination-free system.

  6. Surface plasmon resonance characterization of calspermin-calmodulin binding kinetics. (United States)

    Murphy, Andrew J; Kemp, Fred; Love, John


    We cloned, expressed, and purified a chimeric fusion between a soluble green fluorescent protein (smGFP) and the calmodulin binding protein calspermin. We have shown that the fusion protein, labeled smGN, has a K(i) in the calmodulin-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity assay of 1.97 nM, i.e., 3800 times smaller than that of the commonly used calmodulin inhibitor W7. Association and dissociation rate constants (k(a) and k(d)) and the dissociation equilibrium constant (K(D)) of smGN for calmodulin were determined using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The k(a)=1.24 x 10(6)M(-1)s(-1), the k(d)=5.49 x 10(-3)s(-1), and the K(D)=4.42 x 10(-9)M. We also found that the GFP moiety was important for successfully binding calspermin to the surface of the CM5 flow cell at a sufficiently high concentration for SPR, and that this procedure may be used for SPR analysis of other acidic polypeptides, whose pIliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, indicating a high level of specificity. We conclude that the high affinity and specific binding between smGN and calmodulin make it an easily localized recombinant alternative to chemical calmodulin inhibitors.

  7. Surface characterization of Laponite-Poly(ethylene oxide) nanocomposite films (United States)

    Stefanescu, Eduard A.; Negulescu, Ioan I.; Daly, William H.; Donose, Bogdan C.; Nguyen, Anh V.


    The aim of the present work is to understand how ionic strength of precursor polymer-clay gels influences the final structure of multilayered nanocomposite films fabricated from such gels. We have prepared three aqueous precursor gels containing 3wt% LRD, 2wt% PEO and 95wt% water, in which the salt concentrations were kept at 0X, 1X and 3X with X = 5.57 * 10^- 5 g NaCl/mL. The Laponite (LRD) - PEO multilayered films (LRD60%-PEO40%) were fabricated by manually spreading and drying each gel on a glass slide. Prior to the AFM measurements the polymer-clay composite films where freeze-dried by immersion in liquid nitrogen until they were totally degassed. Frozen samples where then fractured and left for additional drying for 24 hours in a desiccator. The imaging procedure employed here was tapping-mode AFM. Distinct features were identified on the layered transversal surface of the films, and were attributed to the different salt concentrations in the samples. Addition of salt increases the adhesion and compactness properties of the nanoparticles, as a more uniform side surface can be observed after freeze-fracturing the materials.

  8. Using Impedance Measurements to Characterize Surface Modified with Gold Nanoparticles (United States)

    MacKay, Scott; Abdelrasoul, Gaser N.; Tamura, Marcus; Yan, Zhimin


    With the increased practice of preventative healthcare to help reduce costs worldwide, sensor technology improvement is vital to patient care. Point-of-care (POC) diagnostics can reduce time and lower labor in testing, and can effectively avoid transporting costs because of portable designs. Label-free detection allows for greater versatility in the detection of biological molecules. Here, we describe the use of an impedance-based POC biosensor that can detect changes in the surface modification of a micro-fabricated chip using impedance spectroscopy. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been employed to evaluate the sensing ability of our new chip using impedance measurements. Furthermore, we used impedance measurements to monitor surface functionalization progress on the sensor’s interdigitated electrodes (IDEs). Electrodes made from aluminum and gold were employed and the results were analyzed to compare the impact of electrode material. GNPs coated with mercaptoundecanoic acid were also used as a model of biomolecules to greatly enhance chemical affinity to the silicon substrate. The portable sensor can be used as an alternative technology to ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. This system has advantages over PCR and ELISA both in the amount of time required for testing and the ease of use of our sensor. With other techniques, larger, expensive equipment must be utilized in a lab environment, and procedures have to be carried out by trained professionals. The simplicity of our sensor system can lead to an automated and portable sensing system.

  9. Surface Characterization of pNIPAM Under Varying Absolute Humidity (United States)

    Chhabra, Arnav; Kanapuram, Ravitej; Leva, Harrison; Trejo, Juan; Kim, Tae Jin; Hidrovo, Carlos


    Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) has become ubiquitously known as a ``smart'' polymer, showing many promising applications in tissue engineering and drug delivery systems. These applications are particularly reliant on its trenchant, thermally induced hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition that occurs at the lower critical solution temperature (LCST). This feature imparts the pNIPAM programmable adsorption and release capabilities, thus eliminating the need for additional enzymes when removing cells from pNIPAM coated surfaces and leaving the extracellular matrix proteins of the cells largely untouched. The dependence of the LCST on molecular weight, solvent systems, and various salts has been studied extensively. However, what has not been explored is the effect of humidity on the characteristic properties of the polymer, specifically the LCST and the magnitude of the hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition. We studied the surface energy variation of pNIPAM as a function of humidity by altering the absolute humidity and keeping the ambient temperature constant. Our experiments were conducted inside a cuboidal environmental chamber with control over the temperature and humidity inside the chamber. A controlled needle was employed to dispense size-regulated droplets. Throughout this process, a CCD camera was used to image the droplet and the static contact angle was determined using image processing techniques. The behavior of pNIPAM as a function of humidity is presented and discussed.

  10. Remnant colloform pyrite at the haile gold deposit, South Carolina: A textural key to genesis (United States)

    Foley, N.; Ayuso, R.A.; Seal, R.R.


    Auriferous iron sulfide-bearing deposits of the Carolina slate belt have distinctive mineralogical and textural features-traits that provide a basis to construct models of ore deposition. Our identification of paragenetically early types of pyrite, especially remnant colloform, crustiform, and layered growth textures of pyrite containing electrum and pyrrhotite, establishes unequivocally that gold mineralization was coeval with deposition of host rocks and not solely related to Paleozoic tectonic events. Ore horizons at the Haile deposit, South Carolina, contain many remnants of early pyrite: (1) fine-grained cubic pyrite disseminated along bedding; (2) fine- grained spongy, rounded masses of pyrite that may envelop or drape over pyrite cubes; (3) fragments of botryoidally and crustiform layered pyrite, and (4) pyritic infilling of vesicles and pumice. Detailed mineral chemistry by petrography, microprobe, SEM, and EDS analysis of replaced pumice and colloform structures containing both arsenic compositional banding and electrum points to coeval deposition of gold and the volcanic host rocks and, thus, confirms a syngenetic origin for the gold deposits. Early pyrite textures are present in other major deposits of the Carolina slate belt, such as Ridgeway and Barite Hill, and these provide strong evidence for models whereby the sulfide ores formed prior to tectonism. The role of Paleozoic metamorphism was to remobilize and concentrate gold and other minerals in structurally prepared sites. Recognizing the significance of paragenetically early pyrite and gold textures can play an important role in distinguishing sulfide ores that form in volcanic and sedimentary environments from those formed solely by metamorphic processes. Exploration strategies applied to the Carolina slate belt and correlative rocks in the eastern United States in the Avalonian basement will benefit from using syngenetic models for gold mineralization.

  11. Semiconductor electrochemistry of coal pyrite. Final technical report, September 1990--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osseo-Asare, K.; Wei, Dawei


    This project seeks to advance the fundamental understanding of the physico-chemical processes occurring at the pyrite/aqueous interface, in the context of coal cleaning, coal desulfurization, and acid mine drainage. Central to this research is the use of synthetic microsize particles of pyrite as model microelectrodes to investigate the semiconductor electrochemistry of pyrite. The research focuses on: (a) the synthesis of microsize particles of pyrite in aqueous solution at room temperature, (b) the formation of iron sulfide complex, the precursor of FeS or FeS{sub 2}, and (c) the relationship between the semiconductor properties of pyrite and its interfacial electrochemical behavior in the dissolution process. In Chapter 2, 3 and 4, a suitable protocol for preparing microsize particles of pyrite in aqueous solution is given, and the essential roles of the precursors elemental sulfur and ``FeS`` in pyrite formation are investigated. In Chapter 5, the formation of iron sulfide complex prior to the precipitation of FeS or FeS{sub 2} is investigated using a fast kinetics technique based on a stopped-flow spectrophotometer. The stoichiometry of the iron sulfide complex is determined, and the rate and formation constants are also evaluated. Chapter 6 provides a summary of the semiconductor properties of pyrite relevant to the present study. In Chapters 7 and 8, the effects of the semiconductor properties on pyrite dissolution are investigated experimentally and the mechanism of pyrite dissolution in acidic aqueous solution is examined. Finally, a summary of the conclusions from this study and suggestions for future research are presented in Chapter 9.

  12. Surface characterization and wear behaviour of laser surface melted AISI 316L stainless steel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, A


    Full Text Available The present study concerns an in depth investigation of the influence of laser surface melting of AISI 316L stainless steel using Ar and N2 as shrouding atmosphere. Laser surface melting has been carried out using a 5 kW continuous wave (CW) fibre...

  13. Characterization of highly anisotropic three-dimensionally nanostructured surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Daniel


    Generalized ellipsometry, a non-destructive optical characterization technique, is employed to determine geometrical structure parameters and anisotropic dielectric properties of highly spatially coherent three-dimensionally nanostructured thin films grown by glancing angle deposition. The (piecewise) homogeneous biaxial layer model approach is discussed, which can be universally applied to model the optical response of sculptured thin films with different geometries and from diverse materials, and structural parameters as well as effective optical properties of the nanostructured thin films are obtained. Alternative model approaches for slanted columnar thin films, anisotropic effective medium approximations based on the Bruggeman formalism, are presented, which deliver results comparable to the homogeneous biaxial layer approach and in addition provide film constituent volume fraction parameters as well as depolarization or shape factors. Advantages of these ellipsometry models are discussed on the example ...

  14. The volcanic-sedimentary sequence of the Lousal deposit, Iberian Pyrite Belt (Portugal) (United States)

    Rosa, Carlos; Rosa, Diogo; Matos, Joao; Relvas, Jorge


    dominant fragmentation mechanism. Unlike many locations of the IPB, fiamme-rich pyroclastic units were not identified at Lousal. The ore deposits occur in close proximity with this volcanic centre that may have driven hydrothermal circulation that led to ore formation. The volcanic rocks show intense chloritic alteration, indicating that the mineralizing event occurred after most of the rhyolitic units have emplaced. The massive sulfides show abundant sedimentary structures which is not typical in the massive sulfide deposits of the IPB. The Lousal 50 Mt massive sulfide deposit consists of at least 11 ore bodies and was exploited until 1988 mainly for pyrite. The ores mined averaged 0.7% Cu, 0.8%Pb e 1.4%Zn (Strauss, 1971). These relatively low base metal grades led to an evaluation of the contents and distribution of high-tech element in the ore bodies, which would improve the economic viability of mining the deposit. This evaluation is currently focusing on the distribution and mineralogy of selenium, as ores mined in the past were known to be rich in this element. This work benefits from research projects INCA (PTDC/CTE-GIN/67027/2006; Characterization of crucial mineral resources for the development of renewable energy technologies: The Iberian Pyrite Belt ores as a source of indium and other high-technology elements) and project ARCHYMEDES II (POCTI/CTA/45873/2002), both funded by the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia. REFERENCES Strauss, G.K., 1970. Sobre la geologia de la provincia piritifera del Suroeste de la Peninsula Iberica y sus yacimientos, en especial sobre la mina de pirita de Lousal (Portugal): Memoria del IGME 77, 1-266. Tornos, F., 2006. Environment of formation and styles of volcanogenic massive sulfides: The Iberian Pyrite Belt. Ore Geology Reviews 28, 259-307.

  15. Characterization Investigation Study: Volume 3, Radiological survey of surface soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solow, A.J.; Phoenix, D.R.


    The Feed Materials Production Center was constructed to produce high purity uranium metal for use at various Department of Energy facilities. The waste products from these operations include general uncontaminated scrap and refuse, contaminated and uncontaminated metal scrap, waste oils, low-level radioactive waste, co-contaminated wastes, mixed waste, toxic waste, sludges from water treatment, and fly ash from the steam plant. This material is estimated to total more than 350,000 cubic meters. Other wastes stored in this area include laboratory chemicals and other combustible materials in the burn pit; fine waste stream sediments in the clear well; fly ash and waste oils in the two fly ash areas; lime-alum sludges and boiler plant blowdown in the lime sludge ponds; and nonradioactive sanitary waste, construction rubble, and asbestos in the sanitary landfill. A systematic survey of the surface soils throughout the Waste Storage Area, associated on-site drainages, and the fly ash piles was conducted using a Field Instrument for Detecting Low-Energy Radiation (FIDLER). Uranium is the most prevalent radioactive element in surface soil; U-238 is the principal radionuclide, ranging from 2.2 to 1790 pCi/g in the general Waste Storage Area. The maximum values for the next highest activity concentrations in the same area were 972 pCi/g for Th-230 and 298 pCi/g for U-234. Elevated activity concentrations of Th-230 were found along the K-65 slurry line, the maximum at 3010 pCi/g. U-238 had the highest value of 761 pCi/g in the drainage just south of pit no. 5. The upper fly ash area had the highest radionuclide activity concentrations in the surface soils with the maximum values for U-238 at 8600 pCi/g, U-235 at 2190 pCi/g, U-234 at 11,400 pCi/g, Tc-99 at 594 pCi/g, Ra-226 at 279 pCi/g, and Th-230 at 164 pCi/g.

  16. Captive bubble and sessile drop surface characterization of a submerged aquatic plant, Hydrilla verticillata (United States)

    The surface energy parameters of the invasive aquatic weed, Hydrilla verticillata, were determined using contact angle measurements using two different methods. The abaxial and adaxial surfaces of the leaves and stem were characterized for the weed while submerged in water using captive air and octa...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    In this study, adhesion and spreading of human skin fibroblasts on gradient surfaces of dichlorodimethylsilane (DDS) coupled to glass was investigated. Gradient surfaces were prepared by the diffusion technique and characterized by the Wilhelmy plate technique for their wettability and by scanning x

  18. Validation of in-line surface characterization by light scattering in Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Bissacco, Giuliano; De Chiffre, Leonardo


    The suitability of a commercial scattered light sensor for in-line characterization of fine surfaces in the roughness range Sa 1 – 30 nm generated by the Robot Assisted Polishing (RAP) was investigated and validated. A number of surfaces were generated and directly measured with the scattered lig...

  19. Oxidation of CO and surface properties of well characterized Pt{sub 3}Sn bimetallic alloy surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamenkovic, V.; Arenz, M.; Blizanac, B. B.; Ross, P. N.; Markovic, N. M. [University of California-Berkeley, Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The Pt{sub 3}Sn alloy is known to be one of the most active systems for carbon monoxide oxidation. This paper continues the effort begun earlier to explore the link between macroscopic level properties of the Pt{sub 3}Sn(hkl) surfaces in an electrochemical environment and in-situ atomic level characterization. Specifically, the work reported here entails a further examination of the Pt{sub 3}Sn(110) interface in an electrochemical environment as part of a detailed study of structural effects on electrocatalysis. Alloy surfaces have been characterized in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) by Auger electron microscopy, low energy ion scattering spectroscopy (LEISS) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). Surface electrochemistry of carbon monoxide was studied in-situ by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Result showed that in contrast to the Pt{sub 3}Sn(111) surface, changes in band morphology and vibrational properties are clearly absent on the Pt{sub 3}Sn(110) surface. In the case of the Pt{sub 3}Sn(hkl)-CO interaction, not only electronic effects, but also other factors, such as surface structure and intermolecular repulsion between adsorbed CO species were found to be responsible for high catalytic activity. 40 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Dynamical modeling and characterization of a surface micromachined microengine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.L.; Sniegowski, J.J.; LaVigne, G.L.; McWhorter, P.J.


    The practical implementation of the surface micromachined microengine [1,2] to perform useful microactuation tasks requires a thorough understanding of the dynamics of the engine. This understanding is necessary in order to create appropriate drive signals, and to experimentally measure fundamental quantities associated with the engine system. We have developed and applied a dynamical model of the microengine and used it to accomplish three objectives: (1) drive inertial loads in a controlled fashion, i.e. specify and achieve a desired time dependent angular position of the output gear,( 2) minimize stress and frictional forces during operation, and (3) as a function of time, experimentally determine forces associated with the output gear, such as the load torque being applied to the output gear due to friction.

  1. Surface grafted chitosan gels. Part II. Gel formation and characterization. (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Thormann, Esben; Claesson, Per M; Tyrode, Eric


    Responsive biomaterial hydrogels attract significant attention due to their biocompatibility and degradability. In order to make chitosan based gels, we first graft one layer of chitosan to silica, and then build a chitosan/poly(acrylic acid) multilayer using the layer-by-layer approach. After cross-linking the chitosan present in the polyelectrolyte multilayer, poly(acrylic acid) is partly removed by exposing the multilayer structure to a concentrated carbonate buffer solution at a high pH, leaving a surface-grafted cross-linked gel. Chemical cross-linking enhances the gel stability against detachment and decomposition. The chemical reaction between gluteraldehyde, the cross-linking agent, and chitosan was followed in situ using total internal reflection Raman (TIRR) spectroscopy, which provided a molecular insight into the complex reaction mechanism, as well as the means to quantify the cross-linking density. The amount of poly(acrylic acid) trapped inside the surface grafted films was found to decrease with decreasing cross-linking density, as confirmed in situ using TIRR, and ex situ by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements on dried films. The responsiveness of the chitosan-based gels with respect to pH changes was probed by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and TIRR. Highly cross-linked gels show a small and fully reversible behavior when the solution pH is switched between pH 2.7 and 5.7. In contrast, low cross-linked gels are more responsive to pH changes, but the response is fully reversible only after the first exposure to the acidic solution, once an internal restructuring of the gel has taken place. Two distinct pKa's for both chitosan and poly(acrylic acid), were determined for the cross-linked structure using TIRR. They are associated with populations of chargeable groups displaying either a bulk like dissociation behavior or forming ionic complexes inside the hydrogel film.

  2. Characterization of a new class of surface micromachined pumps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galambos, Paul C.


    This is the latest in a series of LDRD's that we have been conducting with Florida State University/Florida A&M University (FSU/FAMU) under the campus executive program. This research builds on the earlier projects; ''Development of Highly Integrated Magnetically and Electrostatically Actuated Micropumps'' (SAND2003-4674) and ''Development of Magnetically and Electrostatically Driven Surface Micromachined Pumps'' (SAND2002-0704P). In this year's LDRD we designed 2nd generation of surface micromachined (SMM) gear and viscous pumps. Two SUMMiT{trademark} modules full of design variations of these pumps were fabricated and one SwIFT{trademark} module is still in fabrication. The SwIFT{trademark} fabrication process results in a transparent pump housing cover that will enable visualization inside the pumps. Since the SwIFT{trademark} pumps have not been tested as they are still in fabrication, this report will focus on the 2nd generation SUMMiT{trademark} designs. Pump testing (pressure vs. flow) was conducted on several of the SUMMiT{trademark} designs resulting in the first pump curve for this class of SMM pumps. A pump curve was generated for the higher torque 2nd generation gear pump designed by Jason Hendrix of FSU. The pump maximum flow rate at zero head was 6.5 nl/s for a 30V, 30 Hz square wave signal. This level of flow rate would be more than adequate for our typical SMM SUMMiT{trademark} or SwIFT{trademark} channels which have typical volumes on the order of 50 pl.

  3. Electron backscatter diffraction characterization of laser-induced periodic surface structures on nickel surface (United States)

    Sedao, Xxx; Maurice, Claire; Garrelie, Florence; Colombier, Jean-Philippe; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Quey, Romain; Blanc, Gilles; Pigeon, Florent


    We report on the structural investigation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) generated in polycrystalline nickel target after multi-shot irradiation by femtosecond laser pulses. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is used to reveal lattice rotation caused by dislocation storage during LIPSS formation. Localized crystallographic damages in the LIPSS are detected from both surface and cross-sectional EBSD studies. A surface region (up to 200 nm) with 1-3° grain disorientation is observed in localized areas from the cross-section of the LIPSS. The distribution of the local disorientation is inhomogeneous across the LIPSS and the subsurface region.

  4. Characterization of ultra-fine surfaces produced by robot assisted polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gasparin, Stefania; Sobiecki, Rene;


    Polishing is the final processing steps in many high precision applications as for example bearings, moulds and dies. The paper describes a new robot assisted polishing (RAP) machine and the characterization techniques employed to measure the polished surfaces. Focus is given to the comparison...... of different measuring principles applied to polished surfaces. Finally the progression of the surface topography during RAP polishing is investigated and documented....

  5. 3D scanning electron microscopy applied to surface characterization of fluorosed dental enamel. (United States)

    Limandri, Silvina; Galván Josa, Víctor; Valentinuzzi, María Cecilia; Chena, María Emilia; Castellano, Gustavo


    The enamel surfaces of fluorotic teeth were studied by scanning electron stereomicroscopy. Different whitening treatments were applied to 25 pieces to remove stains caused by fluorosis and their surfaces were characterized by stereomicroscopy in order to obtain functional and amplitude parameters. The topographic features resulting for each treatment were determined through these parameters. The results obtained show that the 3D reconstruction achieved from the SEM stereo pairs is a valuable potential alternative for the surface characterization of this kind of samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Electron backscatter diffraction characterization of laser-induced periodic surface structures on nickel surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedao, Xxx, E-mail: [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, Université Jean Monnet, 42000 St-Etienne (France); Maurice, Claire [Laboratoire Georges Friedel, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, 42023 St-Etienne (France); Garrelie, Florence; Colombier, Jean-Philippe; Reynaud, Stéphanie [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, Université Jean Monnet, 42000 St-Etienne (France); Quey, Romain; Blanc, Gilles [Laboratoire Georges Friedel, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, 42023 St-Etienne (France); Pigeon, Florent [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, Université Jean Monnet, 42000 St-Etienne (France)


    Graphical abstract: -- Highlight: •Lattice rotation and its distribution in laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) and the subsurface region on a nickel substrate are revealed using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). -- Abstract: We report on the structural investigation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) generated in polycrystalline nickel target after multi-shot irradiation by femtosecond laser pulses. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is used to reveal lattice rotation caused by dislocation storage during LIPSS formation. Localized crystallographic damages in the LIPSS are detected from both surface and cross-sectional EBSD studies. A surface region (up to 200 nm) with 1–3° grain disorientation is observed in localized areas from the cross-section of the LIPSS. The distribution of the local disorientation is inhomogeneous across the LIPSS and the subsurface region.

  7. Ultrasonic ash/pyrite liberation. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yungman, B.A.; Buban, K.S.; Stotts, W.F.


    The objective of this project was to develop a coal preparation concept which employed ultrasonics to precondition coal prior to conventional or advanced physical beneficiation processes such that ash and pyrite separation were enhanced with improved combustible recovery. Research activities involved a series of experiments that subjected three different test coals, Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8, and Upper Freeport, ground to three different size fractions (28 mesh {times} 0, 200 mesh {times} 0, and 325 mesh {times} 0), to a fixed (20 kHz) frequency ultrasonic signal prior to processing by conventional and microbubble flotation. The samples were also processed by conventional and microbubble flotation without ultrasonic pretreatment to establish baseline conditions. Product ash, sulfur and combustible recovery data were determined for both beneficiation processes.

  8. Synthesis, surface characterization, and biointeraction studies of low-surface energy side-chain polyetherurethanes (United States)

    Porter, Stephen Christopher


    New segmented polyetherurethanes (PEUs) with low surface energy hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon side-chains attached to the polymer hard segments were synthesized. The surface chemistry of solvent cast polymer films was studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, and dynamic contact angle (DCA) measurements. Increases in the overall density and length of the alkyl side-chains within the PEUs resulted in greater side-chain concentrations at the polymer surface. PEUs bearing long alkyl (> C10 ) and perfluorocarbon side-chains were found to posses surfaces with highly enriched side-chain concentrations relative to the bulk polymer. In PEUs with significant side-chain surface enrichment, the relatively polar hard segment blocks were shown to reside in high concentrations just below the side-chain enriched surface layer. Furthermore, DCA measurements demonstrated that the surface of the alkyl side-chain PEUs did not undergo significant rearrangement when placed into an aqueous environment, whereas the surface of a hard segment model polymer bearing C18 sidechains (PEU-C18-HS) did. Hydrogen bonding within the PEUs was examined using FTIR and was shown to be disrupted by the addition of side-chains; an effect dependent on the density but not on the length of the side-chains. Heteropolymer blends comprised of mixtures of high side-chain density and side-chain free PEUs were compared with homopolymers having the same overall side-chain concentration as the blends. Significantly more surface enrichment of side-chains was found in the heteropolymer blends whereas hydrogen bonding nearly the same as in the homopolymers. Adsorption of native and delipidized human serum albumin (HSA) from pure solution and blood plasma; the elutabilty of adsorbed HSA; and static platelet adhesion to plasma preadsorbed surfaces, were all examined on alkyl side-chain PEUs. Several polymers with high C18 side-chain densities displayed increased

  9. Characterization of surface properties of a solid plate using nonlinear Lamb wave approach. (United States)

    Deng, Mingxi


    A nonlinear Lamb wave approach is presented for characterizing the surface properties of a solid plate. This characterization approach is useful for some practical situations where ultrasonic transducers cannot touch the surfaces to be inspected, e.g. the inside surfaces of sealed vessels. In this paper, the influences of changes in the surface properties of a solid plate on the effect of second-harmonic generation by Lamb wave propagation were analyzed. A surface coating with the different properties was used to simulate changes in the surface properties of a solid plate. When the areas and thicknesses of coatings on the surface of a given solid plate changed, the amplitude-frequency curves both of the fundamental waves and the second harmonics by Lamb wave propagation were measured under the condition that Lamb waves had a strong nonlinearity. It was found that changes in the surface properties might clearly affect the efficiency of second-harmonic generation by Lamb wave propagation. The Stress Wave Factors (SWFs) in acousto-ultrasonic technique were used for reference, and the definitions of the SWFs of Lamb waves were introduced. The preliminary experimental results showed that the second-harmonic SWF of Lamb wave propagation could effectively be used to characterize changes in the surface properties of the given solid plate.

  10. Structural characterization and Hirshfeld surface analysis of racemic baclofen (United States)

    Maniukiewicz, Waldemar; Oracz, Monika; Sieroń, Lesław


    The crystal structure of baclofen, (R,S) [4-amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl)butanoic acid], (C10H12ClNO2, Mr = 213.66) has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The title compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbca (No. 61) with a = 9.2704(5), b = 7.0397(4), c = 30.4015(15) Å, V = 1984.0(2) Å3 and Z = 8. The molecules exist as zwitterions, adopting a gauche conformation with respect to the Cαsbnd Cβ bond, and held in a cross-linked chain arrangement by strong Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds and Csbnd Cl⋯π interactions. The electrostatic molecular potential as well as the intermolecular interactions of the title compound were analyzed by the Hirshfeld surfaces. The FT-IR spectrum is also reported. The DTA, TG and DTG results indicate that baclofen is stable up to 205 °C.

  11. Surface ozone characterization at Larsemann Hills and Maitri, Antarctica. (United States)

    Ali, Kaushar; Trivedi, D K; Sahu, S K


    Data are analyzed in terms of daily average ozone, its diurnal variation and its relation with meteorological parameters like dry bulb temperature (T), wet bulb temperature (Tw), atmospheric pressure and wind speed based on measurement of these parameters at two Indian Antarctic stations (Larsemann Hills, and Maitri) during 28th Indian Scientific Expedition of Antarctica (ISEA) organized during Antarctic summer of the year 2008-09. The work has been carried out to investigate summer time ozone level and its day-to-day and diurnal variability at these coastal locations and to highlight possible mechanism of ozone production and destruction. The result of the analysis indicates that daily average ozone concentration at Larsemann Hills varied from ~13 and ~20ppb with overall average value of ~16ppb and at Maitri, it varied from ~16 and ~21ppb with overall average value of ~18ppb. Photochemistry is found to partially contribute occasionally to the surface layer ozone at both the stations. Lower concentration of ozone at Maitri during beginning of the observational days may be due to destruction of ozone through activated halogens, whereas higher ozone on latter days may be due to photochemistry and advective transport from east to south-east areas. Ozone concentration during blizzard episodes at both the stations is reduced due to slow photochemical production of ozone, its photochemical removal and removal through deposition of ozone molecules on precipitation particles. Diurnal variation of ozone at Larsemann Hills and Maitri has been found to be absent.

  12. Characterization of adhesion associated surface properties of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Bartková, G; Ciznár, I; Lehotská, V; Kernová, T


    Escherichia coli was isolated from the urine of patients with pyelonephritis, with urinary tract infections other than pyelonephritis and with asymptomatic bacteriuria. Surface properties of the strains were analyzed by the salting-out aggregation test (SAT), hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC), Congo red binding (Crb), agglutination of erythrocytes (MRHA) and latex particles covered by digalactoside (PF) and by adherence to tissue culture cells. In addition, a DNA probe for the pap gene was used. The DNA probe detected the highest proportion of strains with pap gene in the group of patients with pyelonephritis, lower in the urinary tract infections other than pyelonephritis and the lowest in the group with asymptomatic bacteriuria. Tests for P-fimbriae (PF, MRHA) showed a similar distribution. Hydrophobicity measured by SAT and by HIC did not show differences among the tested groups of strains. The results suggest that factors other than the P-fimbriae and hydrophobicity may contribute to the persistence of E. coli in the urinary tract.

  13. Characterization of Major Surface Protease Homologues of Trypanosoma congolense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Marcoux


    Full Text Available Trypanosomes encode a family of proteins known as Major Surface Metalloproteases (MSPs. We have identified six putative MSPs encoded within the partially sequenced T. congolense genome. Phylogenic analysis indicates that T. congolense MSPs belong to five subfamilies that are conserved among African trypanosome species. Molecular modeling, based on the known structure of Leishmania Major GP63, reveals subfamily-specific structural variations around the putative active site despite conservation of overall structure, suggesting that each MSP subfamily has evolved to recognize distinct substrates. We have cloned and purified a protein encoding the amino-terminal domain of the T. congolense homologue TcoMSP-D (most closely related to Leishmania GP63. We detect TcoMSP-D in the serum of T. congolense-infected mice. Mice immunized with the amino-terminal domain of TcoMSP-D generate a persisting IgG1 antibody response. Surprisingly, a low-dose challenge of immunized mice with T. congolense significantly increases susceptibility to infection, indicating that immunity to TcoMSP-D is a factor affecting virulence.

  14. Molecular Characterization of Bacterial Respiration on Minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, Robert C.


    anomalous dispersion (MAD) phasing; 4. An acid-stable red cytochrome with a novel absorbance peak at 579 nm was purified from cell-free extracts of L. ferriphilum. Functional studies demonstrated that this cytochrome was an important component of the aerobic iron respiratory chain in this organism; 5. The specific adhesion of At. ferrooxidans to pyrite is mediated by an extracellular protein that was identified as aporusticyanin. The adhesion of At. ferrooxidans to minerals was characterized by high affinity binding that exhibited a high specificity for pyrite over other sulfide minerals. The principal biopolymer involved in this high-affinity adhesion to pyrite was isolated by mineral affinity chromatography and identified as aporusticyanin. The adhesion of purified aporusticyanin to minerals was observed to adhere to different mineral with a pattern of reactivity identical to that observed with the intact bacterium. Further, preincubation of pyrite with excess exogenous aporusticyanin served to inhibit the adherence of intact cells to the surface of the mineral, indicating that the protein and the cells adhered to the pyrite in a mutually exclusive manner. Taken together, these observations support a model where aporusticyanin located on the surface of the bacterial cell acts as a mineral-specific receptor for the initial adherence of At. ferrooxidans to solid pyrite; 6. The specific adhesion of L. ferriphilum to pyrite was mediated by a different acid-stable extracellular protein than aporusticyanin; and 7. A prototype integrating cavity absorption meter (ICAM) was assembled to determine whether this novel spectrophotometer could be used to study cellular respiration in situ.

  15. Characterization of Different on the Oxidation Behaviours Surface States and Its Effects of Alloy 690TT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiming Zhang; Jianqiu Wang; En-Hou Han; Wei Ke


    Alloy 690TT samples with four kinds of surface states were prepared: 1) ground to 400 grit; 2) ground to 1500 grit; 3) mechanically polished (MP) and 4) electro-polished (EP). The surface morphologies and the surface skin layers' microstructures of these samples were characterized systematically using various methods and the effects of surface states on the oxidation behaviours of Alloy 690TT were also discussed. The results showed that surface roughness and micro-hardness decreased gradually from the ground to EP surfaces. The grains in the near-surface layers of the ground and MP surfaces had been refined and the residual strains were also very high. The dislocations on the ground surfaces were mainly parallel dislocation lines. The thickness of the superficial cold-worked layers decreased gradually from the ground surfaces to polished surfaces. The oxide morphologies and oxidation rate depended greatly on the surface states of samples. Cold-working by grinding treatments could benefit the outward diffusion of metallic atoms and the nucleation of surface oxides and then accelerate the growth of surface oxide films.

  16. Particulate Pyrite Autotrophic Denitrification (PPAD) for Remediation of Nitrate-contaminated Groundwater (United States)

    Tong, S.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, L. C.; Henderson, M.; Feng, C.; Ergas, S. J.


    The rapid movement of human civilization towards urbanization, industrialization, and increased agricultural activities has introduced a large amount of nitrate into groundwater. Nitrate is a toxic substance discharged from groundwater to rivers and leads to decreased dissolved oxygen and eutrophication. For this experiment, an electron donor is needed to convert nitrate into non-toxic nitrogen gas. Pyrite is one of the most abundant minerals in the earth's crust making it an ideal candidate as an electron donor. The overall goal of this research was to investigate the potential for pyrite to be utilized as an electron donor for autotrophic denitrification of nitrate-contaminated groundwater. Batch studies of particulate pyrite autotrophic denitrification (PPAD) of synthetic groundwater (100 mg NO3--N L-1) were set up with varying biomass concentration, pyrite dose, and pyrite particle size. Reactors were seeded with mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (VSS) from a biological nitrogen removal wastewater treatment facility. PPAD using small pyrite particles (treatment and promoted the utilization of pyrite in the field of environmental remediation.

  17. Scanning tunneling microscopy characterization of the geometric and electronic structure of hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces (United States)

    Kaiser, W. J.; Bell, L. D.; Hecht, M. H.; Grunthaner, F. J.


    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) methods are used to characterize hydrogen-terminated Si surfaces prepared by a novel method. The surface preparation method is used to expose the Si-SiO2 interface. STM images directly reveal the topographic structure of the Si-SiO2 interface. The dependence of interface topography on oxide preparation conditions observed by STM is compared to the results of conventional surface characterization methods. Also, the electronic structure of the hydrogen-terminated surface is studied by STM spectroscopy. The near-ideal electronic structure of this surface enables direct tunnel spectroscopy measurements of Schottky barrier phenomena. In addition, this method enables probing of semiconductor subsurface properties by STM.

  18. Formation and Characterization of Stacked Nanoscale Layers of Polymers and Silanes on Silicon Surfaces (United States)

    Ochoa, Rosie; Davis, Brian; Conley, Hiram; Hurd, Katie; Linford, Matthew R.; Davis, Robert C.


    Chemical surface patterning at the nanoscale is a critical component of chemically directed assembly of nanoscale devices or sensitive biological molecules onto surfaces. Complete and consistent formation of nanoscale layers of silanes and polymers is a necessary first step for chemical patterning. We explored methods of silanizing silicon substrates for the purpose of functionalizing the surfaces. The chemical functionalization, stability, flatness, and repeatability of the process was characterized by use of ellipsometry, water contact angle, and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). We found that forming the highest quality functionalized surfaces was accomplished through use of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Specifically, surfaces were plasma cleaned and hydrolyzed before the silane was applied. A polymer layer less then 2 nm in thickness was electrostatically bound to the silane layer. The chemical functionalization, stability, flatness, and repeatability of the process was also characterized for the polymer layer using ellipsometry, water contact angle, and AFM.

  19. Undefined freeform surfaces having deterministic structure: issues of their characterization for functionality and manufacture (United States)

    Whitehouse, David J.


    There is an increasing use of surfaces which have structure, an increase in the use of freeform surfaces, and most importantly an increase in the number of surfaces having both characteristics. These can be called multi-function surfaces, where more than one function is helped by the geometrical features: the structure can help one, the freeform another. Alternatively, they can be complementary to optimize a single function, but in all cases both geometries are involved. This paper examines some of the problems posed by having such disparate geometries on one surface; in particular, the methods of characterization needed to help understand the functionality and also to some extent their manufacture. This involves investigating ways of expressing how local and global geometric features of undefined freeform surfaces might influence function and how surface structure on top of or in series with the freeform affects the nature of the characterization. Some methods have been found of identifying possible strategies for tackling the characterization problem, based in part on the principles of least action and on the way that nature has solved the marriage of flexible freeform geometry and structure on surfaces.

  20. Abundances and isotopic compositions of rhenium and osmium in pyrite samples from the Huaibei coalfield, Anhui, China (United States)

    Liu, Gaisheng; Chou, C.-L.; Peng, Z.; Yang, G.


    Two pyrite samples from the Shihezi Formation (Lower Permian), Huaibei coalfield, Anhui, China, have been analyzed for abundances and isotopic compositions of rhenium and osmium using negative thermal ion mass spectrometry. The Re-Os ages of the pyrites are 64.4 and 226 Ma, which are younger than the formation age of the coal seam. The pyrite samples may consist of pyrite formed at various stages during the history of coal formation. The ??Osvalues of the two pyrite samples are +17 and +18, respectively. Such high ??Osvalues are reported for the first time for recycles crustal materials from a sedimentary basin. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  1. Geochemical investigation of the galvanic effects during oxidation of pyrite and base-metals sulfides. (United States)

    Chopard, Aurélie; Plante, Benoît; Benzaazoua, Mostafa; Bouzahzah, Hassan; Marion, Philippe


    Predicting the water quality at mine sites is of significant importance for developing mines with respect for the environment. Acid mine drainage (AMD) occurs when sulfides are in contact with oxygen and water, and several parameters and mechanisms influence final drainage quality. Galvanic interactions influence the reactivity of sulfide minerals, which act as semi-conductors. These galvanic interactions have been insufficiently studied in the context of AMD generation. In this study, the influence of pyrite on the reactivity of sphalerite and chalcopyrite was investigated. Five blends, comprised of free grains of quartz/pyrite, quartz/chalcopyrite, quartz/sphalerite, quartz/pyrite/chalcopyrite, and quartz/pyrite/sphalerite, were subjected to geochemical testing. Five weathering cells were monitored over a 200-day period during which they were leached twice weekly. Leachates were analyzed for pH, Eh, electrical conductivity, and sulfate and metal concentrations. The results of these analyses showed that galvanic interactions occurred between free sulfide grains. Pyrite was galvanically protected over the full testing period in the quartz/pyrite/chalcopyrite blend, and partially protected in the quartz/pyrite/sphalerite blend. Moreover, the release of Cu from chalcopyrite and Zn, Mn, and Cd from sphalerite was accelerated in the presence of pyrite. This work provides a better understanding of the influence of pyrite on chalcopyrite and sphalerite reactivity by highlighting the galvanic effects. In the future, to improve the reliability of AMD prediction tests, galvanic interactions should be considered in both the prediction of the acid generation potential and the estimation of metal and metalloid release rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Preparation and surface characterization of HMDI-activated 316L stainless steel for coronary artery stents. (United States)

    Chuang, T-W; Chen, M-H; Lin, F-H


    Poor compatibility between blood and metallic coronary artery stents is one reason for arterial restenosis. Immobilization of anticoagulant agents on the stent's surface is feasible for improving compatibility. We examined possible surface-coupling agents for anticoagulant agent immobilization. Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) and 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTS) were examined as surface-coupling agents to activate 316L stainless steel (e.g., stent material). The activated surface was characterized using Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscope (AFM), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) assay. In FTIR analysis, HMDI and APTS were both covalently linked to 316L stainless steel. In AFM analysis, it was found that the HMDI-activated surface was smoother than the APTS-activated one. In SPR test, the shift of SPR angle for the APTS-activated surface was much higher than that for the HMDI-activated surface after being challenged with acidic solution. TNBS assay was used to determine the amount of immobilized primary amine groups. The HMDI-activated surface was found to consist of about 1.32 micromol/cm(2) amine group, whereas the APTS-activated surface consisted of only 0.89 micromol/cm(2) amine group. We conclude that the HMDI-activated surface has more desirable surface characteristics than the APTS-activated surface has, such as chemical stability and the amount of active amine groups.

  3. Functionalized titanium oxide surfaces with phosphated carboxymethyl cellulose: characterization and bonelike cell behavior. (United States)

    Pasqui, Daniela; Rossi, Antonella; Di Cintio, Federica; Barbucci, Rolando


    The performance of dental or orthopedic implants is closely dependent on surface properties in terms of topography and chemistry. A phosphated carboxymethylcellulose containing one phosphate group for each disaccharide unit was synthesized and used to functionalize titanium oxide surfaces with the aim to improve osseointegration with the host tissue. The modified surfaces were chemically characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The investigation of the surface topography was performed by atomic force microscopy measurements before and after the polysaccharide coating. In vitro biological tests using osteoblastlike cells demonstrated that functionalized TiO(2) surfaces modulated cell response, in terms of adhesion, proliferation,and morphology. Phosphated carboxymethylcellulose promoted better cell adhesion and significantly enhanced their proliferation. The morphology of cells was polygonal and more spread on this type of modified surface.These findings suggest that the presence of a phosphate polysaccharide coating promotes osteoblast growth on the surface potentially improving biomaterial osseointegration.

  4. Atomic force microscopy characterization of the surface wettability of natural fibres (United States)

    Pietak, Alexis; Korte, Sandra; Tan, Emelyn; Downard, Alison; Staiger, Mark P.


    Natural fibres represent a readily available source of ecologically friendly and inexpensive reinforcement in composites with degradable thermoplastics, however chemical treatments of fibres are required to prepare feasible composites. It is desirable to characterize the surface wettability of fibres after chemical treatment as the polarity of cellulose-based fibres influences compatibility with a polymer matrix. Assessment of the surface wettability of natural fibres using conventional methods presents a challenge as the surfaces are morphologically and chemically heterogeneous, rough, and can be strongly wicking. In this work it is shown that under atmospheric conditions the adhesion force between an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip and the fibre surface can estimate the water contact angle and surface wettability of the fibre. AFM adhesion force measurements are suitable for the more difficult surfaces of natural fibres and in addition allow for correlations between microstructural features and surface wettability characteristics.

  5. Surface characterization and antifouling properties of nanostructured gold chips for imaging surface plasmon resonance biosensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, S.; Pellacani, P.; Beek, van T.A.; Zuilhof, H.; Nielen, M.W.F.


    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) optical sensing is a label-free technique for real-time monitoring of biomolecular interactions. Recently, a portable imaging SPR (iSPR) prototype instrument, featuring a nanostructured gold chip, has been developed. In the present work, we investigated the crucial

  6. Quantification of Pyritic Sulfur of One Colombian Coal by Mössbauer Spectroscopy (United States)

    Reyes, F.; Pérez Alcázar, G. A.; Barraza, J. M.; Bohórquez, A.; Tabares, J. A.


    The aim of this work was to identify and quantify by means of Mössbauer spectroscopy the amount of pyritic sulfur in coal samples of the Guachinte mine, Valle, Colombia. For the quantification a calibration curve for pyritic sulfur content vs. relative spectral area ratio of sulfur and pure (99.99%) Fe-powder was obtained, using Mössbauer spectroscopy. The samples used in the calibration were the representative ones of the fractions obtained after one and two hydrocyclonic removal processes of a homogeneous sample of raw coal. A linear relationship was obtained and used to determine the amount of pyritic sulfur of the original coal.

  7. Surface proteome analysis and characterization of surface cell antigen (Sca or autotransporter family of Rickettsia typhi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandra T Sears

    Full Text Available Surface proteins of the obligate intracellular bacterium Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine or endemic typhus fever, comprise an important interface for host-pathogen interactions including adherence, invasion and survival in the host cytoplasm. In this report, we present analyses of the surface exposed proteins of R. typhi based on a suite of predictive algorithms complemented by experimental surface-labeling with thiol-cleavable sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin and identification of labeled peptides by LC MS/MS. Further, we focus on proteins belonging to the surface cell antigen (Sca autotransporter (AT family which are known to be involved in rickettsial infection of mammalian cells. Each species of Rickettsia has a different complement of sca genes in various states; R. typhi, has genes sca1 thru sca5. In silico analyses indicate divergence of the Sca paralogs across the four Rickettsia groups and concur with previous evidence of positive selection. Transcripts for each sca were detected during infection of L929 cells and four of the five Sca proteins were detected in the surface proteome analysis. We observed that each R. typhi Sca protein is expressed during in vitro infections and selected Sca proteins were expressed during in vivo infections. Using biotin-affinity pull down assays, negative staining electron microscopy, and flow cytometry, we demonstrate that the Sca proteins in R. typhi are localized to the surface of the bacteria. All Scas were detected during infection of L929 cells by immunogold electron microscopy. Immunofluorescence assays demonstrate that Scas 1-3 and 5 are expressed in the spleens of infected Sprague-Dawley rats and Scas 3, 4 and 5 are expressed in cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis. Sca proteins may be crucial in the recognition and invasion of different host cell types. In short, continuous expression of all Scas may ensure that rickettsiae are primed i to infect mammalian cells should the flea bite a host, ii to remain

  8. The topographic development and areal parametric characterization of a stratified surface polished by mass finishing (United States)

    Walton, Karl; Blunt, Liam; Fleming, Leigh


    Mass finishing is amongst the most widely used finishing processes in modern manufacturing, in applications from deburring to edge radiusing and polishing. Processing objectives are varied, ranging from the cosmetic to the functionally critical. One such critical application is the hydraulically smooth polishing of aero engine component gas-washed surfaces. In this, and many other applications the drive to improve process control and finish tolerance is ever present. Considering its widespread use mass finishing has seen limited research activity, particularly with respect to surface characterization. The objectives of the current paper are to; characterise the mass finished stratified surface and its development process using areal surface parameters, provide guidance on the optimal parameters and sampling method to characterise this surface type for a given application, and detail the spatial variation in surface topography due to coupon edge shadowing. Blasted and peened square plate coupons in titanium alloy are wet (vibro) mass finished iteratively with increasing duration. Measurement fields are precisely relocated between iterations by fixturing and an image superimposition alignment technique. Surface topography development is detailed with ‘log of process duration’ plots of the ‘areal parameters for scale-limited stratified functional surfaces’, (the Sk family). Characteristic features of the Smr2 plot are seen to map out the processing of peak, core and dale regions in turn. These surface process regions also become apparent in the ‘log of process duration’ plot for Sq, where lower core and dale regions are well modelled by logarithmic functions. Surface finish (Ra or Sa) with mass finishing duration is currently predicted with an exponential model. This model is shown to be limited for the current surface type at a critical range of surface finishes. Statistical analysis provides a group of areal parameters including; Vvc, Sq, and Sdq

  9. Micro and nanostructural characterization of surfaces and interfaces of Portland cement mortars using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, M.F.O.; Brandao, P.R.G., E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), MG (Brazil)


    The characterization of Portland cement mortars is very important in the study the interfaces and surfaces that make up the system grout/ceramic block. In this sense, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive (X-ray) spectrometer are important tools in investigating the morphology and chemical aspects. However, more detailed topographic information can be necessary in the characterization process. In this work, the aim was to characterize topographically surfaces and interfaces of mortars applied onto ceramic blocks. This has been accomplished by using the atomic force microscope (AFM) - MFP-3D-SA Asylum Research. To date, the results obtained from this research show that the characterization of cementitious materials with the help of AFM has an important contribution in the investigation and differentiation of hydrated calcium silicates (CSH), calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2, ettringite and calcium carbonate by providing morphological and micro topographical data, which are extremely important and reliable for the understanding of cementitious materials. (author)

  10. Full-field dynamic characterization of superhydrophobic condensation on biotemplated nanostructured surfaces. (United States)

    Ölçeroğlu, Emre; Hsieh, Chia-Yun; Rahman, Md Mahamudur; Lau, Kenneth K S; McCarthy, Matthew


    While superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces have been shown to promote condensation heat transfer, the successful implementation of these coatings relies on the development of scalable manufacturing strategies as well as continued research into the fundamental physical mechanisms of enhancement. This work demonstrates the fabrication and characterization of superhydrophobic coatings using a simple scalable nanofabrication technique based on self-assembly of the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) combined with initiated chemical vapor deposition. TMV biotemplating is compatible with a wide range of surface materials and applicable over large areas and complex geometries without the use of any power or heat. The virus-structured coatings fabricated here are macroscopically superhydrophobic (contact angle >170°) and have been characterized using environmental electron scanning microscopy showing sustained and robust coalescence-induced ejection of condensate droplets. Additionally, full-field dynamic characterization of these surfaces during condensation in the presence of noncondensable gases is reported. This technique uses optical microscopy combined with image processing algorithms to track the wetting and growth dynamics of 100s to 1000s of microscale condensate droplets simultaneously. Using this approach, over 3 million independent measurements of droplet size have been used to characterize global heat transfer performance as a function of nucleation site density, coalescence length, and the apparent wetted surface area during dynamic loading. Additionally, the history and behavior of individual nucleation sites, including coalescence events, has been characterized. This work elucidates the nature of superhydrophobic condensation and its enhancement, including the role of nucleation site density during transient operation.

  11. Quantitative roughness characterization and 3D reconstruction of electrode surface using cyclic voltammetry and SEM image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhillon, Shweta; Kant, Rama, E-mail:


    Area measurements from cyclic voltammetry (CV) and image from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to characterize electrode statistical morphology, 3D surface reconstruction and its electroactivity. SEM images of single phased materials correspond to two-dimensional (2D) projections of 3D structures, leading to an incomplete characterization. Lack of third dimension information in SEM image is circumvented using equivalence between denoised SEM image and CV area measurements. This CV-SEM method can be used to estimate power spectral density (PSD), width, gradient, finite fractal nature of roughness and local morphology of the electrode. We show that the surface morphological statistical property like distribution function of gradient can be related to local electro-activity. Electrode surface gradient micrographs generated here can provide map of electro-activity sites. Finally, the densely and uniformly packed small gradient over the Pt-surface is the determining criterion for high intrinsic electrode activity.

  12. Characterization and flip angle calibration of 13C surface coils for hyperpolarization studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rie Beck; Gutte, Henrik; Larsen, Majbrit M E

    The aim of the present work is to address the challenge of optimal The aim of the present work is to address the challenge of optimal flflip angle calibration of ip angle calibration of C surface coils in C surface coils in hyperpolarization studies. To this end, we characterize the spatial pro h......-to-noise ratio for hyperpolarized C magnetic resonance C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging.......The aim of the present work is to address the challenge of optimal The aim of the present work is to address the challenge of optimal flflip angle calibration of ip angle calibration of C surface coils in C surface coils in hyperpolarization studies. To this end, we characterize the spatial pro...

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Porous Yttrium Oxide Powders with High Specific Surface Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The porous cubic yttrium oxides with high specific surface area were prepared by the explosive decomposition of yttrium nitrate and its complex formed with methyl salicylate. The specific surface area and properties of powders synthesized at various temperatures were characterized using BET, X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectra (IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicate that the highest specific surface area is found to be 65.37 m2*g-1 at the calcination temperature of 600 ℃, and then decreases to 20.33 m2*g-1 with the calcination temperature rising from 600 to 900 ℃. The powders show strong surface activity for adsorping water and carbon dioxide in air, which also decreases with the rising calcination temperature. The drop both on the surface area and surface activity of samples at higher temperatures may be due to pore-narrowing(sintering) effects.

  14. Surface modification and characterization for dispersion stability of inorganic nanometer-scaled particles in liquid media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidehiro Kamiya and Motoyuki Iijima


    Full Text Available Inorganic nanoparticles are indispensable for science and technology as materials, pigments and cosmetics products. Improving the dispersion stability of nanoparticles in various liquids is essential for those applications. In this review, we discuss why it is difficult to control the stability of nanoparticles in liquids. We also overview the role of surface interaction between nanoparticles in their dispersion and characterization, e.g. by colloid probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM. Two types of surface modification concepts, post-synthesis and in situ modification, were investigated in many previous studies. Here, we focus on post-synthesis modification using adsorption of various kinds of polymer dispersants and surfactants on the particle surface, as well as surface chemical reactions of silane coupling agents. We discuss CP-AFM as a technique to analyze the surface interaction between nanoparticles and the effect of surface modification on the nanoparticle dispersion in liquids.

  15. Surface modification and characterization for dispersion stability of inorganic nanometer-scaled particles in liquid media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Hidehiro; Iijima, Motoyuki, E-mail: [Institute of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)


    Inorganic nanoparticles are indispensable for science and technology as materials, pigments and cosmetics products. Improving the dispersion stability of nanoparticles in various liquids is essential for those applications. In this review, we discuss why it is difficult to control the stability of nanoparticles in liquids. We also overview the role of surface interaction between nanoparticles in their dispersion and characterization, e.g. by colloid probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM). Two types of surface modification concepts, post-synthesis and in situ modification, were investigated in many previous studies. Here, we focus on post-synthesis modification using adsorption of various kinds of polymer dispersants and surfactants on the particle surface, as well as surface chemical reactions of silane coupling agents. We discuss CP-AFM as a technique to analyze the surface interaction between nanoparticles and the effect of surface modification on the nanoparticle dispersion in liquids. (topical review)

  16. Surface Roughness Characterization of Niobium Subjected to Incremental BCP and EP Processing Steps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui Tian; Guihem Ribeill; Charles Reece; Michael Kelley


    The surface of niobium samples polished under incremental Buffered Chemical Polish (BCP) and Electro-Polishing (EP) have been characterized through Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and stylus profilometry across a range of length of scales. The results were analyzed using Power Density Spectral (PSD) technique to determine roughness and characteristic dimensions. This study has shown that the PSD method is a valuable tool that provides quantitative information about surface roughness at different length scales.

  17. Using SMOS brightness temperature and derived surface-soil moisture to characterize surface conditions and validate land surface models. (United States)

    Polcher, Jan; Barella-Ortiz, Anaïs; Piles, Maria; Gelati, Emiliano; de Rosnay, Patricia


    The SMOS satellite, operated by ESA, observes the surface in the L-band. On continental surface these observations are sensitive to moisture and in particular surface-soil moisture (SSM). In this presentation we will explore how the observations of this satellite can be exploited over the Iberian Peninsula by comparing its results with two land surface models : ORCHIDEE and HTESSEL. Measured and modelled brightness temperatures show a good agreement in their temporal evolution, but their spatial structures are not consistent. An empirical orthogonal function analysis of the brightness temperature's error identifies a dominant structure over the south-west of the Iberian Peninsula which evolves during the year and is maximum in autumn and winter. Hypotheses concerning forcing-induced biases and assumptions made in the radiative transfer model are analysed to explain this inconsistency, but no candidate is found to be responsible for the weak spatial correlations. The analysis of spatial inconsistencies between modelled and measured TBs is important, as these can affect the estimation of geophysical variables and TB assimilation in operational models, as well as result in misleading validation studies. When comparing the surface-soil moisture of the models with the product derived operationally by ESA from SMOS observations similar results are found. The spatial correlation over the IP between SMOS and ORCHIDEE SSM estimates is poor (ρ 0.3). A single value decomposition (SVD) analysis of rainfall and SSM shows that the co-varying patterns of these variables are in reasonable agreement between both products. Moreover the first three SVD soil moisture patterns explain over 80% of the SSM variance simulated by the model while the explained fraction is only 52% of the remotely sensed values. These results suggest that the rainfall-driven soil moisture variability may not account for the poor spatial correlation between SMOS and ORCHIDEE products. Other reasons have to

  18. Preparation and characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces based on hexamethyldisilazane-modified nanoporous alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanli Deniz


    Full Text Available Abstract Superhydrophobic nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (alumina surfaces were prepared using treatment with vapor-phase hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS. Nanoporous alumina substrates were first made using a two-step anodization process. Subsequently, a repeated modification procedure was employed for efficient incorporation of the terminal methyl groups of HMDS to the alumina surface. Morphology of the surfaces was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, showing hexagonally ordered circular nanopores with approximately 250 nm in diameter and 300 nm of interpore distances. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance analysis showed the presence of chemically bound methyl groups on the HMDS-modified nanoporous alumina surfaces. Wetting properties of these surfaces were characterized by measurements of the water contact angle which was found to reach 153.2 ± 2°. The contact angle values on HMDS-modified nanoporous alumina surfaces were found to be significantly larger than the average water contact angle of 82.9 ± 3° on smooth thin film alumina surfaces that underwent the same HMDS modification steps. The difference between the two cases was explained by the Cassie-Baxter theory of rough surface wetting.

  19. Electronic, thermodynamic and elastic properties of pyrite RuO_2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Ze-Jin; Guo Yun-Dong; Wang Guang-Chang; Li Jin; Dai Wei; Liu Jin-Chao; Cheng Xin-Lu; Yang Xiang-Dong


    This paper calculates the elastic, thermodynamic and electronic properties of pyrite (Pa3) RuO_2 by the plane-wave pseudopotential density functional theory (DFT) method. The lattice parameters, normalized elastic constants, Cauchy pressure, brittle-ductile relations, heat capacity and Debye temperature are successfully obtained. The Murnaghan equation of state shows that pyrite RuO_2 is a potential superhard material. Internal coordinate parameter increases with pressure, which disagrees with experimental data. An analysis based on electronic structure and the pseudogap reveals that the bonding nature in RuO_2 is a combination of covalent, ionic and metallic bonding. A study of the elastic properties indicates that the pyrite phase is isotropic under usual conditions. The relationship between brittleness and ductility shows that pyrite RuO_2 behaves in a ductile matter at zero pressure and the degree of ductility increases with pressure.

  20. Geological significance of componential characteristics of pyrite from Shibaqinghao gold deposit in central Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yihong Liang; Hongying Zhang; Yanhua Ma


    There are two types of gold ore in Shibaqinghao gold deposit, mylonite ore and quartz vein ore. Pyrite accompanying with native gold in mylonite ore has Fe from 43.66 to 45.32 wt% and S from 52.64 to 53.55 wt%. It is clear that this kind of pyrite is poor in both sulphur and iron. That means that the mylonite ore may be related to metamorphic water. Pyrite in the quartz vein ore has Fe from 44.38 to 45.30 wt% and S from 53.08 to 54.00 wt%. It means that this kind of pyrite is poor in iron but rich in sulphur, while the quartz vein ore may be related to magma water.

  1. New method for the simultaneous determination of pyrite content and proximate analysis in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylmer, D.M.; Rowe, M.W.


    A combined thermogravimetric and thermomagnetometric procedure using inert, oxidising and reducing gases is described. It is shown to give good agreement with the ASTM methods and to have advantages over the latter, especially as regards occluded or weathered pyrite.

  2. The role of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria Thiobacillus thiooxidans in pyrite weathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, K.; Tsunekawa, M.; Ohtsuka, T.; Konno, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering


    The paper investigates the role of the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria Thiobacillus thiooxidans in pyrite weathering in order to clarify the effects of the bacteria on the dissolution behavior of pyrite and the formation of secondary minerals using Raman spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) in addition to solution analysis. It was found that T. thiooxidans, when present with the iron-oxidizing bacteria Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, enhanced the dissolution of Fe and S species for pyrite, whereas T. thiooxidans alone did not oxidize pyrite. Enhancement of the consumption of elemental sulfur and regeneration of Fe(II) ions were also observed with T. thiooxidans together with T. ferrooxidans, while this did not occur with T. ferrooxidans alone.

  3. Chalcophile Siderophile Trace Element Systematics of Hydrothermal Pyrite from Martian Regolith Breccia NWA 7533 (United States)

    Lorand, J.-P.; Hewins, R. H.; Humayun, M.; Remusat, L.; Zanda, B.; La, C.; Pont, S.


    Martian impact breccia NWA 7533 contains hydrothermal pyrite. Laser ablation ICPMS analyses show that its chalcophile siderophile element content was inherited from both early meteorite bombardment and later hydrothermal inputs from H2S fluids.

  4. Modification and characterization of aluminum nitride surfaces for an acoustic wave biosensor (United States)

    Rosenberger, Leland W.

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) is a piezoelectric material that is being developed for use in a surface acoustic wave sensor for the detection of bacteria in fluid media. An AlN film is deposited on a sapphire or silicon substrate. After conductor deposition, an electronic signal is applied across the device and the signal is modified by changes in the mass immobilized on the sensor surface. Bacteria are immobilized on the surface by antibodies specific to the bacterial species. The problem addressed in this dissertation is how to form a bridge between the inorganic surface and the antibodies. The approach used is to form a new chemical layer on the AlN by using silanes. Functional groups on the silane surface can then be used as anchor points for the antibodies. This approach was carried out in three steps: (1) characterize the AlN surface, (2) explore four surface treatment methods that prepare the AlN surface for silanization and (3) silanize the resulting surface. AlN films were deposited by a Plasma Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy method. The films were characterized by RHEED, X-ray diffraction, air/water contact angle, atomic force microscopy (AFM), ellipsometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The four surface treatment methods explored were: immersion in boiling water, exposure to laser light, immersion in piranha solution and treatment with plasma. Samples were characterized by contact angle, AFM and XPS. Plasma treatment was preferred because it prepared the surface most effectively, without any loss of sub-surface AlN. Samples of AlN were silanized with two types of silane, along with silicon controls. Samples were characterized by contact angle, AFM and XPS. The effectiveness of silanes on AlN was equal to or somewhat less than that observed on silicon. AlN samples were also co-deposited with two different silanes and then the end group on one of the silanes was chemically modified. This demonstrated that the density of functional groups on the

  5. Assisted phytoremediation of mixed metal(loid)-polluted pyrite waste: effects of foliar and substrate IBA application on fodder radish. (United States)

    Vamerali, Teofilo; Bandiera, Marianna; Hartley, William; Carletti, Paolo; Mosca, Giuliano


    Exogenous application of plant-growth promoting substances may potentially improve phytoremediation of metal-polluted substrates by increasing shoot and root growth. In a pot-based study, fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiformis Pers.) was grown in As-Zn-Cu-Co-Pb-contaminated pyrite waste, and treated with indolebutyric acid (IBA) either by foliar spraying (10 mgL(-1)), or by direct application of IBA to the substrate (0.1 and 1 mgkg(-1)) in association, or not, with foliar spraying. With the exception of foliar spraying, IBA reduced above-ground biomass, whilst direct application of IBA to the substrate surface reduced root biomass (-59%). Trace element concentrations were generally increased, but removals (mg per plant) greatly reduced with IBA application, together with greater metal leaching from the substrate. It is concluded that, in our case, IBA had a negative effect on plant growth and phytoextraction of trace elements, possibly due to unsuitable root indoleacetic acid concentration following soil IBA application, the direct chelating effect of IBA and the low microbial activity in the pyrite waste affecting its breakdown.

  6. Pyrite Genesis During Early Diagenesis in Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段伟民; 陈丽蓉


    The content and isotopic compositions of different sulphur species in pore-water and solid phases have been examined on five sediment cores taken from muddy sediment region in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. Relationships among these data have been investigated with the combination of morphology of mineral pyrite and organic matter so as to role out the diagenetic behaviour of sulphur species at the early stage of diagenesis in modern marine sediment and the origin of pyrite formation.

  7. Preparation of pyrite-coated sand grains for research on roll-type uranium deposits (United States)

    Gent, Carol A.


    Ordinary quartz sand grains can be coated with pyrite for use in laboratory experiments on the genetic geochemistry of roll-type uranium deposits. The sand is first added to a ferric chloride solution. The slow addition of sodium hydroxide to the mixture gives the sand grains an iron oxide coating. This coating is then converted to pyrite by reaction with hydrogen sulfide, thus yielding a product suitable for experimental use.

  8. The Fe removal through mineralogical phase transformation of pyrite by physicochemical method (United States)

    Kim, BongJu; Cho, Kanghee; Jo, JiYu; Bak, GeonYeong; Choi, NagChoul; Park*, Cheonyoung


    Gold is often associated with sulfide minerals (arsenopyrite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, galena) as ''invisible'' gold that is thought to consist either of submicrometer metallic particles or to be bound to sulfur in metal sulfide lattice. Pyrite is one of the major minerals accumulating gold in most ores, although a solubility of Au in nonarsenian pyrite is minor, and increased concentrations of gold are associated with arsenic content and iron deficiency. The objective of this study was to investigate the Fe removal through mineralogical phase transformation of pyrite by physical treatment (high frequency) and chemical leaching (ammonia solvent). The high frequency treatment experiment for the pyrite showed that (1) the pyrite phase was transformed pyrrhotite and magnetite, (2) mass loss of the sample by volatilization of included sulfur(S) in pyrite. The treated pyrite by high frequency was observed rim structure from photomicrograph result. Fe removal experiments for were performed under various conditions of high frequency exposure (10~60min), grain size (+140 mesh~-325mesh), sulfuric acid concentration (0.5~3.0M), ammonia sulfate concentration (1.7~6.8M), hydrogen peroxide concentration (0.5~3.0M). Increasing the high frequency exposure produced a positive effect on Fe removal in arsenopyrite. The highest percentage Fe removal of 95.53% was obtained under the following conditions by ammonia solvent: grain size = -325mesh, sulfuric acid concentration = 2.0M, ammonia sulfate concentration = 5.1M, hydrogen peroxide concentration = 1.0M. This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment(MOE) as "Advanced Technology Program for Environmental Industry".

  9. Application of fuel cell for pyrite and heavy metal containing mining waste (United States)

    Keum, H.; Ju, W. J.; Jho, E. H.; Nam, K.


    Once pyrite and heavy metal containing mining waste reacts with water and air it produces acid mine drainage (AMD) and leads to the other environmental problems such as contamination of surrounding soils. Pyrite is the major source of AMD and it can be controlled using a biological-electrochemical dissolution method. By enhancing the dissolution of pyrite using fuel cell technology, not only mining waste be beneficially utilized but also be treated at the same time by. As pyrite-containing mining waste is oxidized in the anode of the fuel cell, electrons and protons are generated, and electrons moves through an external load to cathode reducing oxygen to water while protons migrate to cathode through a proton exchange membrane. Iron-oxidizing bacteria such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, which can utilize Fe as an electron donor promotes pyrite dissolution and hence enhances electrochemical dissolution of pyrite from mining waste. In this study mining waste from a zinc mine in Korea containing 17 wt% pyrite and 9% As was utilized as a fuel for the fuel cell inoculated with A. ferrooxidans. Electrochemically dissolved As content and chemically dissolved As content was compared. With the initial pH of 3.5 at 23℃, the dissolved As concentration increased (from 4.0 to 13 mg/L after 20 d) in the fuel cell, while it kept decreased in the chemical reactor (from 12 to 0.43 mg/L after 20 d). The fuel cell produced 0.09 V of open circuit voltage with the maximum power density of 0.84 mW/m2. Dissolution of As from mining waste was enhanced through electrochemical reaction. Application of fuel cell technology is a novel treatment method for pyrite and heavy metals containing mining waste, and this method is beneficial for mining environment as well as local community of mining areas.

  10. Raman Spectroscopic Characterization of the Feldspars: Implications for Surface Mineral Characterization in Planetary Exploration (United States)

    Freeman, J. J.; Wang, Alian; Kuebler, K. E.; Haskin, L. A.


    The availability in the last decade of improved Raman instrumentation using small, stable, intense lasers, sensitive CCD array detectors, and advanced fast grating systems enabled us to develop the Mars Microbeam Raman Spectrometer (MMRS), a field-portable Raman spectrometer with precision and accuracy capable of identifying minerals and their different compositions. For example, we can determine Mg cation ratios in pyroxenes and olivines to +/-0.1 on the basis of Raman peak positions. Feldspar is another major mineral formed in igneous systems whose characterization is important for determining rock petrogenesis and alteration. From their Raman spectral pattern, feldspars can be readily distinguished from ortho- and chain-silicates and from other tecto-silicates such as quartz and zeolites. We show here how well Raman spectral analysis can distinguish among members within the feldspar group.

  11. Progressive oxidation of pyrite in five bituminous coal samples: An As XANES and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic study (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Huggins, Frank E.


    Naturally occurring pyrite commonly contains minor substituted metals and metalloids (As, Se, Hg, Cu, Ni, etc.) that can be released to the environment as a result of its weathering. Arsenic, often the most abundant minor constituent in pyrite, is a sensitive monitor of progressive pyrite oxidation in coal. To test the effect of pyrite composition and environmental parameters on the rate and extent of pyrite oxidation in coal, splits of five bituminous coal samples having differing amounts of pyrite and extents of As substitution in the pyrite, were exposed to a range of simulated weathering conditions over a period of 17 months. Samples investigated include a Springfield coal from Indiana (whole coal pyritic S = 2.13 wt.%; As in pyrite = detection limit (d.l.) to 0.06 wt.%), two Pittsburgh coal samples from West Virginia (pyritic S = 1.32–1.58 wt.%; As in pyrite = d.l. to 0.34 wt.%), and two samples from the Warrior Basin, Alabama (pyritic S = 0.26–0.27 wt.%; As in pyrite = d.l. to 2.72 wt.%). Samples were collected from active mine faces, and expected differences in the concentration of As in pyrite were confirmed by electron microprobe analysis. Experimental weathering conditions in test chambers were maintained as follows: (1) dry Ar atmosphere; (2) dry O2 atmosphere; (3) room atmosphere (relative humidity ∼20–60%); and (4) room atmosphere with samples wetted periodically with double-distilled water. Sample splits were removed after one month, nine months, and 17 months to monitor the extent of As and Fe oxidation using As X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, respectively. Arsenic XANES spectroscopy shows progressive oxidation of pyritic As to arsenate, with wetted samples showing the most rapid oxidation. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy also shows a much greater proportion of Fe3+ forms (jarosite, Fe3+ sulfate, FeOOH) for samples stored under wet conditions, but much less

  12. Characterization and analysis of surface notches on Ti-alloy plates fabricated by additive manufacturing techniques (United States)

    Chan, Kwai S.


    Rectangular plates of Ti-6Al-4V with extra low interstitial (ELI) were fabricated by layer-by-layer deposition techniques that included electron beam melting (EBM) and laser beam melting (LBM). The surface conditions of these plates were characterized using x-ray micro-computed tomography. The depth and radius of surface notch-like features on the LBM and EBM plates were measured from sectional images of individual virtual slices of the rectangular plates. The stress concentration factors of individual surface notches were computed and analyzed statistically to determine the appropriate distributions for the notch depth, notch radius, and stress concentration factor. These results were correlated with the fatigue life of the Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloys from an earlier investigation. A surface notch analysis was performed to assess the debit in the fatigue strength due to the surface notches. The assessment revealed that the fatigue lives of the additively manufactured plates with rough surface topographies and notch-like features are dominated by the fatigue crack growth of large cracks for both the LBM and EBM materials. The fatigue strength reduction due to the surface notches can be as large as 60%-75%. It is concluded that for better fatigue performance, the surface notches on EBM and LBM materials need to be removed by machining and the surface roughness be improved to a surface finish of about 1 μm.

  13. Mineralogy, geochemistry and pyrite content of Bulgarian subbituminous coals, Pernik Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostova, I.; Petrov, O.; Kortenski, J. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. of Applied Mineralogy


    The mineralogy and geochemistry of Pernik subbituminous coals (coal bed A) and some genetic peculiarities related to the mineral formation were studied. The mineral matter of the coal consists chiefly of pyrite, kaolinite, siderite, quartz and calcite. Other minerals (dolomite, ankerite, plagioclase and some sulphates) are present in minor amounts, some occurring as accessory single crystals. Pyrite is them main mineral in these coals and exhibits a large array of textures and morphology. Isolated and clustered euhedral, bacterial and inorganic framboidal, cluster-like, homogeneous and microconcretional massive, infilling and replacing anhedral, and cleat-filling and fracture-filling infiltrational pyrite types were observed. Four stages of mineralization were distinguished: pyrite-kaolinite, pyrite, pyrte-siderite and sulphate stages. The amount of pyrite present in two sections of coal bed A was determined by quantitative powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The concentrations of 37 trace elements were determined. As, Cu, Co, Ni, Zn, Pb, V, Ti, Mo Rb, Cr and Mn are typomorphic for this coal. On the basis of their relation to organic or inorganic matter, four groups of trace elements were subdivided; and on the basis of cluster analysis four associations were differentiated. 19 refs., 31 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Research on Genesis of Pyrite near the Permian-Triassic Boundary in Meishan, Zhejiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yao-fa; TANG Yue-gang; CHOU Chen-lin


    The content and crystal forms of pyrite and sulfur isotope composition of pyrite sulfur as well as its vertical distribution near the Permian-Triassic (P/T) boundary in the Meishan section, Changxing county, Zhejiang province, China were studied using geological, petrological, mineralogical and geochemical methods (techniques). The result showed that the genesis of abundant pyrites in bed 24e2 at the uppermost part of the Changxing Formation in the Meishan section may be related to volcanic activity. In bed 24e2 of the Meishan section, pyrite has its highest content of 1.84% and the sulfur isotope composition has the highest δ34S value at +2.2‰ which is very similar to that of the average value of volcanic gas. There are some volcanic products such as β-quartz, siliceous cylinders and siliceous spherules which coexisted with pyrites in beds 24e2 and 24f. It can be concluded that a large quantity of volcanic ash fell into the South China Sea and was incorporated into marine sediments during the formation of limestone at the uppermost part of the Changxing Formation. The volcanic eruption with massive amounts of H2S and SO2 gas at the end of the Permian period resulted in the enrichment of H2S in the South China Sea areas. The reaction of H2S with reactive iron minerals formed the mass of abundant pyrites.

  15. An Intrinsic Characterization of Bonnet Surfaces Based on a Closed Differential Ideal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Bracken


    Full Text Available The structure equations for a two-dimensional manifold are introduced and two results based on the Codazzi equations pertinent to the study of isometric surfaces are obtained from them. Important theorems pertaining to isometric surfaces are stated and a theorem due to Bonnet is obtained. A transformation for the connection forms is developed. It is proved that the angle of deformation must be harmonic, and that the differentials of many of the important variables generate a closed differential ideal. This implies that a coordinate system exists in which many of the variables satisfy particular ordinary differential equations, and these results can be used to characterize Bonnet surfaces.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. V. Panin; H.-G. Chun; A.R. Shugurov; S. V. Panin; N. V. Pykhtin


    The changes in surface topography of thin conducting Ag films under high-density current condition are studied by optical and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM).It is established that the loss of conductivity in specimens occurs through depletion of the material due to their overheating and electromigration process. It has been shown that the r.m.s. Roughness, the fractal dimension of voids and the fractal dimension of the surface allow complete numerical characterization of surface topography changes in thin Ag films.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of PEG-like Structures on Nitinol Surface under ECR-cold-plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jun; WANG Jianhua; Tong Sheyi


    The synthesis and characterization of PEG-like macromolecular structures on Nitinol surface from tri (ethylene glycol) dimethyl-ether under ECR-cold-plasma conditions were discussed. It was demonstrated that based on high-resolution ESCA, ATR-FTIR and contact angle investigations, the deposited PEG-like layers are composed mainly of -CH2-CH2-O- linkages. These structures have a relatively low contact angle. Compared to the unmodified surfaces, the plasma-treated Nitinol surfaces are more hydrophilic. Plasma enhanced coatings of PEG-like layers can prevent Ni ion from releasing, thereby improving the biocompatibility of Nitinol.

  18. Radio Frequency Surface Impedance Characterization System for Superconducting Samples at 7.5 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binping Xiao, Charles Reece, Michael Kelley, Larry Phillips, Rongli Geng, Haipeng Wang, Frank Marhauser


    A radio frequency (RF) surface impedance characterization (SIC) system that uses a sapphire-loaded Nb cavity operating at 7.5 GHz has been fabricated to measure the RF surface impedance of flat superconducting samples. Currently, the SIC system can make direct calorimetric surface impedance measurements in the central 0.8 cm2 area of 5 cm diameter disk samples in a temperature range from 2 to 20 K, exposed to a magnetic flux density of up to 14 mT. As an application, we present the measurement results for a bulk Nb sample.

  19. Characterization methodology for pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors using surface photovoltage spectroscopy (United States)

    Solodky, S.; Leibovitch, M.; Ashkenasy, N.; Hallakoun, I.; Rosenwaks, Y.; Shapira, Yoram


    Pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor structures have been characterized using surface photovoltage spectroscopy and numerical simulations. According to the effect of the electric fields in different regions of the device on the surface photovoltage spectra, a simple empirical model that correlates the spectral parameters and electrical parameters of the structure has been developed. The spectra and their analysis are shown to provide values for the electrical parameters of the structure. The sensitivity of the technique to the device electrical parameters is shown by three different examples. In these examples, the differences in doping level and surface charge have been monitored as well as the nonuniformity of doping level across the wafer.

  20. Electro-generative mechanism for simultaneous leaching of pyrite and MnO2 in presence of A. ferrooxidans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A dual cell system was used to study the output power, output voltage, galvanic polarization of anode and cathode, and the relationship between the electric quantity(Q) and some factors, such as the dissolved Fe2+ magnitude, the time in the electrogenerative simultaneous leaching with bacteria(BEGSL) and without bacteria(EGSL). A three-electrode system was adopted to study their individual self-corrosion current, which was smaller compared with the galvanic current. The results show that the output power and voltage in BEGSL are higher than those in EGSL. The accumulated sulfur on the surface of sulfides produced in BEGSL can be oxidized by A. ferrooxidans, and the ratio of biologic electric quantity reaches 51.50% in 72 h. The first stage both in EGSL and in BEGSL is the dissolution of pyrite on the surface to ferrous ion and sulfur element, which was oxidized by A. ferrooxidans in the further procedure.

  1. [XRD, FTIR and XPS analysis of oxidized particles from Dongshengmiao pyrite-polymetallic sulfide deposit, inner Mongolia]. (United States)

    Yuan, Xue-Ling; Cao, Jian-Jin; Xie, Fang-Yan; Yang, Xiao-Jie; Yan, Hong-Bin; Lai, Pei-Xin; Wang, Zheng-Hai; Zeng, Jian-Nian


    In the present paper, characteristics of material compositions, phase structures, surface element states, and transformation mechanism of oxidized particles from Dongshengmiao pyrite-polymetallic sulfide deposit were studied using modern analytical testing technology including XRD, FTIR and XPS. The results show that the samples consist of gypsum, calcite, quartz, muscovite, goethite, organic matter, etc. Primary ore in deep oxidation zone mainly under went such processes as oxidization, hydrolysis, dehydration and carbonation. Compared to the surface oxidation zone of arid and extremely arid regions in the northwestern China, the oxidation process and oxidizing condition of the deep oxidation zone were less complex. New mineral type was also not found, and extensively developed sulfate minerals were rare to be seen. The research results can not only be applied to mineral identification of oxidized particles from this type of ore deposit but also play an important role in ore exploration, mining, mineral processing, etc.

  2. The mobilization of toxic trace elements due to pyrite oxidation at the mega-nourishment The Sand Motor, the Netherlands (United States)

    Pit, I.; Doodeman, L.; Van Heteren, S.; van Bruggen, M.; Griffioen, J.


    Pilot project "The Sand Motor" is a 21.5 million m3 nourishment of sandy sediment situated along the coast of the Netherlands close to The Hague (figure 1). It was constructed in 2011 and initially spans the shore over a 2.4 km stretch and extends up to 1 km offshore creating a hook-shaped peninsula. Due to wind, waves and currents the Sand Motor will gradually change in shape and eventually be fully incorporated into the dunes and beach. This concept is expected to be more environmentally friendly compared to traditional beach and shoreface nourishments. The aim of this project is to understand how oxidation changed the geochemistry of the sediment applied and to address possible toxic element mobilization. The sediment was taken 10 km out of shore from the sea floor, which was at a depth of 20 m. Grab samples of the upper 25 cm seabed analyzed for geochemical mapping of Southern North Sea sediments, show locally high contents of sulfur, iron and trace elements like arsenic indicating presence of pyrite with impurities. Sediment was removed to a maximum depth of 6 m below sea floor, reaching different geological layers including bog iron ore layers. Different degrees of pyrite oxidation are expected with depth at the Sand Motor. First, minimum oxidation when sediment was deposited from the ship directly by opening the bottom floor, which is now present under water at the deepest part of the nourishment. Second, limited oxidation when sediment was applied from the ship under high pressure through the air, and settled below sea level. Last, maximum oxidation when the same method was used but the sediment remains located in a surface layer having a maximum height of 4 m above sea level. At the Sand Motor, samples were taken of surface water, pore water and sediment from the surface to a depth of 10 m, the bottom of the nourishment. Analyses show that pyrite oxidation has occurred above sea level and mobilization of arsenic is present up to a maximum concentration of

  3. Polymer surface functionalities that control human embryoid body cell adhesion revealed by high throughput surface characterization of combinatorial material microarrays. (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Mei, Ying; Hook, Andrew L; Taylor, Michael; Urquhart, Andrew J; Bogatyrev, Said R; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G; Davies, Martyn C; Alexander, Morgan R


    High throughput materials discovery using combinatorial polymer microarrays to screen for new biomaterials with new and improved function is established as a powerful strategy. Here we combine this screening approach with high throughput surface characterization (HT-SC) to identify surface structure-function relationships. We explore how this combination can help to identify surface chemical moieties that control protein adsorption and subsequent cellular response. The adhesion of human embryoid body (hEB) cells to a large number (496) of different acrylate polymers synthesized in a microarray format is screened using a high throughput procedure. To determine the role of the polymer surface properties on hEB cell adhesion, detailed HT-SC of these acrylate polymers is carried out using time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), pico litre drop sessile water contact angle (WCA) measurement and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A structure-function relationship is identified between the ToF SIMS analysis of the surface chemistry after a fibronectin (Fn) pre-conditioning step and the cell adhesion to each spot using the multivariate analysis technique partial least squares (PLS) regression. Secondary ions indicative of the adsorbed Fn correlate with increased cell adhesion whereas glycol and other functionalities from the polymers are identified that reduce cell adhesion. Furthermore, a strong relationship between the ToF SIMS spectra of bare polymers and the cell adhesion to each spot is identified using PLS regression. This identifies a role for both the surface chemistry of the bare polymer and the pre-adsorbed Fn, as-represented in the ToF SIMS spectra, in controlling cellular adhesion. In contrast, no relationship is found between cell adhesion and wettability, surface roughness, elemental or functional surface composition. The correlation between ToF SIMS data of the surfaces and the cell adhesion demonstrates

  4. NMR characterization of hydrocarbon adsorption on calcite surfaces: A first principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevilaqua, Rochele C. A.; Miranda, Caetano R. [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, UFABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Rigo, Vagner A. [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, UFABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, UTFPR, Cornélio Procópio, PR (Brazil); Veríssimo-Alves, Marcos [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, UFABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Física, ICEx, Universidade Federal Fluminense, UFF, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)


    The electronic and coordination environment of minerals surfaces, as calcite, are very difficult to characterize experimentally. This is mainly due to the fact that there are relatively few spectroscopic techniques able to detect Ca{sup 2+}. Since calcite is a major constituent of sedimentary rocks in oil reservoir, a more detailed characterization of the interaction between hydrocarbon molecules and mineral surfaces is highly desirable. Here we perform a first principles study on the adsorption of hydrocarbon molecules on calcite surface (CaCO{sub 3} (101{sup ¯}4)). The simulations were based on Density Functional Theory with Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SS-NMR) calculations. The Gauge-Including Projector Augmented Wave method was used to compute mainly SS-NMR parameters for {sup 43}Ca, {sup 13}C, and {sup 17}O in calcite surface. It was possible to assign the peaks in the theoretical NMR spectra for all structures studied. Besides showing different chemical shifts for atoms located on different environments (bulk and surface) for calcite, the results also display changes on the chemical shift, mainly for Ca sites, when the hydrocarbon molecules are present. Even though the interaction of the benzene molecule with the calcite surface is weak, there is a clearly distinguishable displacement of the signal of the Ca sites over which the hydrocarbon molecule is located. A similar effect is also observed for hexane adsorption. Through NMR spectroscopy, we show that aromatic and alkane hydrocarbon molecules adsorbed on carbonate surfaces can be differentiated.

  5. Gold nanoparticles assisted characterization of amine functionalized polystyrene multiwell plate and glass slide surfaces (United States)

    Dharanivasan, Gunasekaran; Rajamuthuramalingam, Thangavelu; Michael Immanuel Jesse, Denison; Rajendiran, Nagappan; Kathiravan, Krishnan


    We demonstrated citrate-capped gold nanoparticles assisted characterization of amine functionalized polystyrene plate and glass slide surfaces through AuNPs staining method. The effect of AuNPs concentration on the characterization of amine modified surfaces was also studied with different concentration of AuNPs (ratios 1.0-0.0). 3-Aminopropylyl triethoxy silane has been used as amine group source for the surface modification. The interactions of AuNPs on modified and unmodified surfaces were investigated using atomic force microscopy and the dispersibility, and the aggregation of AuNPs was analyzed using UV-visible spectrophotometer. Water contact angle measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to further confirmation of amine modified surfaces. The aggregation of AuNPs in modified multiwell plate leads to the color change from red to purple and they are found to be adsorped on the modified surfaces. Aggregation and adsorption of AuNPs on the modified surfaces through the electrostatic interactions and the hydrogen bonds were revealed by XPS analysis. Remarkable results were found even in the very low concentration of AuNPs (ratio 0.2). This AuNPs staining method is simple, cost-effective, less time consuming, and required very low concentration of AuNPs. These results can be read out through the naked eye without the help of sophisticated equipments.

  6. Surface topography characterization using an atomic force microscope mounted on a coordinate measuring machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Hansen, H.N; Kofod, N


    The paper describes the construction, testing and use of an integrated system for topographic characterization of fine surfaces on parts having relatively big dimensions. An atomic force microscope (AFM) was mounted on a manual three-coordinate measuring machine (CMM) achieving free positioning...

  7. Combining Theory and Experiment to Characterize the Atomic Structures of Surface-Deposited Au309 Clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curley, B.C.; Johnston, R.L.; Young, N.P.; Li, Z.; Di Vece, M.; Palmer, R.E.; Bleloch, A.l.


    Gold clusters with icosahedral, decahedral, and cuboctahedral shell structures, have been studied using the Gupta many-body potential, to aid in the structural characterization of surface-deposited Au309 clusters using high-angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-ST

  8. Near-surface geophysical characterization of Holocene faults conducive to geothermal flow near Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudley, Colton; Dorsey, Alison; Louie, John [UNR; Schwering, Paul; Pullammanappallil, Satish


    Colton Dudley, Alison Dorsey, Paul Opdyke, Dustin Naphan, Marlon Ramos, John Louie, Paul Schwering, and Satish Pullammanappallil, 2013, Near-surface geophysical characterization of Holocene faults conducive to geothermal flow near Pyramid Lake, Nevada: presented at Amer. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists, Pacific Section Annual Meeting, Monterey, Calif., April 19-25.

  9. Early diagenetic pyrite morphology in a mudstone-dominated succession: the Lower Jurassic Cleveland Ironstone Formation, eastern England (United States)

    Taylor, K. G.; Macquaker, J. H. S.


    Diagenetic pyrite in the mudstones and ironstones of the Lower Jurassic Cleveland Ironstone Formation of eastern England exhibits two distinct morphologies: framboidal pyrite, commonly associated with organic matter, and euhedral pyrite, associated with detrital clay pellets. These two morphologies are mutually exclusive in occurrence. Framboidal pyrite is present in clay-rich mudstones, ooidal ironstones, apatite-rich units and some silt-rich mudstones. Euhedral pyrite is present in silt-rich and sand-rich mudstones. δ34S isotopic analysis of six samples of pyrite suggests that both types of pyrite morphology precipitated during early diagenesis from porewaters with open access to overlying sea-water, although both probably acted as sites for continued pyrite precipitation during burial. It is proposed that framboidal pyrite precipitated from iron-dominated porewaters at sites of sulfide supply (i.e. in the region of organic matter as a result of bacterial sulfate reduction) where, locally, sulfide production rates were high enough for porewaters to reach supersaturation with respect to FeS. Euhedral pyrite also precipitated from iron-dominated porewaters, but sulfide production rates from organic matter was such that FeS saturation was not reached at the sites of sulfide production. Instead, euhedral pyrite was precipitated directly from porewater when FeS2 saturation was reached. The control over pyrite morphology was probably the amount and reactivity of the organic matter within the deposited sediments. The sand-rich mudstones contained less reactive organic matter due to clastic dilution and deposition in shallower environments with O2-rich bottom waters. The ironstones and apatite-rich units were deposited under very low sedimentation rates, and as a result organic matter contents were very low and iron reduction dominated early diagenesis, which inhibited sulfate-reduction. The presence of minor framboidal pyrite within these units, however, suggests that

  10. Surface characterization and chemical analysis of bamboo substrates pretreated by alkali hydrogen peroxide. (United States)

    Song, Xueping; Jiang, Yan; Rong, Xianjian; Wei, Wei; Wang, Shuangfei; Nie, Shuangxi


    The surface characterization and chemical analysis of bamboo substrates by alkali hydrogen peroxide pretreatment (AHPP) were investigated in this study. The results tended to manifest that AHPP prior to enzymatic and chemical treatment was potential for improving accessibility and reactivity of bamboo substrates. The inorganic components, organic solvent extractives and acid-soluble lignin were effectively removed by AHPP. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that the surface of bamboo chips had less lignin but more carbohydrate after pre-treatment. Fiber surfaces became etched and collapsed, and more pores and debris on the substrate surface were observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Brenauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) results showed that both of pore volume and surface area were increased after AHPP. Although XRD analysis showed that AHPP led to relatively higher crystallinity, pre-extraction could overall enhance the accessibility of enzymes and chemicals into the bamboo structure.

  11. Characterization of metal contacts on and surfaces of cadmium zinc telluride

    CERN Document Server

    Bürger, A; Chattopadhyay, K; Shi, D; Morgan, S H; Collins, W E; James, R B


    In the past several years significant progress has been made in building a database of physical properties for detector quality Cd sub x Zn sub 1 sub - sub x Te (CZT) (x=0.1-0.2) crystal material. CZT's high efficiency combined with its room temperature operation make the material an excellent choice for imaging and spectroscopy in the 10-200 keV energy range. For detector grade material, superior crystallinity and high bulk resistivity are required. The surface preparation during the detector fabrication plays a vital role in determining the contact characteristics and the surface leakage current, which are often the dominant factors influencing its performance. This paper presents a surface and contact characterization study aimed at establishing the effects of the surface preparation steps prior to contacting (polishing and chemical etching), the choice of the metal and contact deposition technique, and the surface oxidation process. A photoconductivity mapping technique is used for studying the effects of...

  12. Mycorrhizal Fungal Community of Poplars Growing on Pyrite Tailings Contaminated Site near the River Timok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Katanić


    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Mycorrhizal fungi are of high importance for functioning of forest ecosystems and they could be used as indicators of environmental stress. The aim of this research was to analyze ectomycorrhizal community structure and to determine root colonization rate with ectomycorrhizal, arbuscular mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi of poplars growing on pyrite tailings contaminated site near the river Timok (Eastern Serbia. Materials and Methods: Identification of ectomycorrhizal types was performed by combining morphological and anatomical characterization of ectomycorrhizae with molecular identification approach, based on sequencing of the nuclear ITS rRNA region. Also, colonization of poplar roots with ectomycorrhizal, arbuscular mycorrhizal and dark septated endophytic fungi were analysed with intersection method. Results and Conclusions: Physico-chemical analyses of soil from studied site showed unfavourable water properties of soil, relatively low pH and high content of heavy metals (copper and zinc. In investigated samples only four different ectomycorrhizal fungi were found. To the species level were identified Thelephora terrestris and Tomentella ellisi, while two types remained unidentified. Type Thelephora terrestris made up 89% of all ectomycorrhizal roots on studied site. Consequently total values of Species richness index and Shannon-Weaver diversity index were 0.80 and 0.43, respectively. No structures of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were recorded. Unfavourable environmental conditions prevailing on investigated site caused decrease of ectomycorrhizal types diversity. Our findings point out that mycorrhyzal fungal community could be used as an appropriate indicator of environmental changes.

  13. Evaluation of surface analysis methods for characterization of trace metal surface contaminants found in silicon IC manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebold, A.C.; Maillot, P.; Gordon, M.; Baylis, J.; Chacon, J.; Witowski, R. (SEMATECH, Austin, TX (United States)); Arlinghaus, H. (Atom Sciences, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)); Knapp, J.A.; Doyle, B.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))


    A major topic at recent silicon-based integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing symposia is the pursuit of decreased contamination levels. The aim is to remove contamination from both processes and materials. In conjunction with this effort, characterization methods are being pushed to lower and lower detection limits. In this paper, we evaluate surface analysis methods used to determine the concentration of inorganic contamination on unpatterned Si wafers. We compare sampling depths, detection limits, and applicability of each method for use in support of Si IC manufacturing. This comparison is further limited to Fe and Cu which are transition metal contaminants associated with manufacturing yield loss. The surface analysis methods included in this evaluation are: Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF or TRXRF); Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS); two post-ionization'' methods Surface Analysis by Laser Ionization (SALI) and Sputter Initiated Resonant Ionization Spectroscopy (SIRIS); Heavy Ion Backscattering Spectroscopy (HIBS); and Vapor Phase Phase Decomposition (VPD) based methods Atomic Absorption (VPD-AA) along with VPD-TXRF. Sets of 6 in. Si wafers with concentration levels between 10{sup 9} atoms/cm{sup 2} and 10{sup 12} atoms/cm{sup 2} Fe and Cu were characterized by TXRF, SIMS, SIRIS, and HIBS. This data allows estimation of detection limits (DLs) and relative method accuracy. In Section 1 we describe each surface analysis method and the circumstance under which it would be used to support Si IC manufacturing. The equipment used for this comparison and the 150 mm Si wafer set are described in Section 2. Results from each method are contrasted in Section 3. Finally, a conclusion is presented in Section 4.

  14. Potentialities of some surface characterization techniques for the development of titanium biomedical alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Vanzillotta


    Full Text Available Bone formation around a metallic implant is a complex process that involves micro- and nanometric interactions. Several surface treatments, including coatings were developed in order to obtain faster osseointegration. To understand the role of these surface treatments on bone formation it is necessary to choose adequate characterization techniques. Among them, we have selected electron microscopy, profilometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS to describe them briefly. Examples of the potentialities of these techniques on the characterization of titanium for biomedical applications were also presented and discussed. Unfortunately more than one technique is usually necessary to describe conveniently the topography (scanning electron microsocopy, profilometry and/or AFM and the chemical state (XPS of the external layer of the material surface. The employment of the techniques above described can be useful especially for the development of new materials or products.

  15. Surface characterization of nanomaterials and nanoparticles: Important needs and challenging opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, Donald R.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Johnson, Grant E.; Laskin, Julia; Lai, Jinfeng; Mueller, Karl; Munusamy, Prabhakaran; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Wang, Hongfei; Washton, Nancy [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, EMSL, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Elder, Alison; Baisch, Brittany L. [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York (United States); Karakoti, Ajay; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V. N. T. [Battelle Science and Technology India, Pune, Maharashtra (India); Moon, DaeWon [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daeju (Korea, Republic of)


    This review examines characterization challenges inherently associated with understanding nanomaterials and the roles surface and interface characterization methods can play in meeting some of the challenges. In parts of the research community, there is growing recognition that studies and published reports on the properties and behaviors of nanomaterials often have reported inadequate or incomplete characterization. As a consequence, the true value of the data in these reports is, at best, uncertain. With the increasing importance of nanomaterials in fundamental research and technological applications, it is desirable that researchers from the wide variety of disciplines involved recognize the nature of these often unexpected challenges associated with reproducible synthesis and characterization of nanomaterials, including the difficulties of maintaining desired materials properties during handling and processing due to their dynamic nature. It is equally valuable for researchers to understand how characterization approaches (surface and otherwise) can help to minimize synthesis surprises and to determine how (and how quickly) materials and properties change in different environments. Appropriate application of traditional surface sensitive analysis methods (including x-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopies, scanning probe microscopy, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy) can provide information that helps address several of the analysis needs. In many circumstances, extensions of traditional data analysis can provide considerably more information than normally obtained from the data collected. Less common or evolving methods with surface selectivity (e.g., some variations of nuclear magnetic resonance, sum frequency generation, and low and medium energy ion scattering) can provide information about surfaces or interfaces in working environments (operando or in situ) or information not provided by more traditional methods. Although these methods may

  16. Attachment of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferriphilum cultured under varying conditions to pyrite, chalcopyrite, low-grade ore and quartz in a packed column reactor. (United States)

    Africa, Cindy-Jade; van Hille, Robert P; Harrison, Susan T L


    The attachment of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferriphilum spp. grown on ferrous medium or adapted to a pyrite mineral concentrate to four mineral substrata, namely, chalcopyrite and pyrite concentrates, a low-grade chalcopyrite ore (0.5 wt%) and quartzite, was investigated. The quartzite represented a typical gangue mineral and served as a control. The attachment studies were carried out in a novel particle-coated column reactor. The saturated reactor containing glass beads, which were coated with fine mineral concentrates, provided a quantifiable surface area of mineral concentrate and maintained good fluid flow. A. ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum spp. had similar attachment characteristics. Enhanced attachment efficiency occurred with bacteria grown on sulphide minerals relative to those grown on ferrous sulphate in an ore-free environment. Selective attachment to sulphide minerals relative to gangue materials occurred, with mineral adapted cultures attaching to the minerals more efficiently than ferrous grown cultures. Mineral-adapted cultures showed highest levels of attachment to pyrite (74% and 79% attachment for A. ferrooxidans and L. ferriphilum, respectively). This was followed by attachment of mineral-adapted cultures to chalcopyrite (63% and 58% for A. ferrooxidans and L. ferriphilum, respectively). A. ferrooxidans and L. ferriphilum exhibited lower levels of attachment to low-grade ore and quartz relative to the sulphide minerals.

  17. Surface-treated commercially pure titanium for biomedical applications: Electrochemical, structural, mechanical and chemical characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Erika S.; Matos, Adaias O.; Beline, Thamara [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); IBTN/Br—Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine—Brazilian Branch (Brazil); Marques, Isabella S.V. [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); Sukotjo, Cortino [Department of Restorative Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Dentistry, 801 S Paulina, Chicago, IL, USA, 60612 (United States); IBTN—Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine (United States); Mathew, Mathew T. [IBTN—Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Illinois, College of Medicine at Rockford, 1601 Parkview Avenue, Rockford, IL, USA, 61107 (United States); Rangel, Elidiane C.; Cruz, Nilson C. [IBTN/Br—Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine—Brazilian Branch (Brazil); Laboratory of Technological Plasmas, Engineering College, Univ Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av Três de Março, 511, Sorocaba, São Paulo 18087-180 (Brazil); Mesquita, Marcelo F.; Consani, Rafael X. [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); and others


    Modified surfaces have improved the biological performance and biomechanical fixation of dental implants compared to machined (polished) surfaces. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the surface properties of titanium (Ti) as a function of different surface treatment. This study investigated the role of surface treatments on the electrochemical, structural, mechanical and chemical properties of commercial pure titanium (cp-Ti) under different electrolytes. Cp-Ti discs were divided into 6 groups (n = 5): machined (M—control); etched with HCl + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (Cl), H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (S); sandblasted with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Sb), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} followed by HCl + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (SbCl), and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} followed by H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (SbS). Electrochemical tests were conducted in artificial saliva (pHs 3; 6.5 and 9) and simulated body fluid (SBF—pH 7.4). All surfaces were characterized before and after corrosion tests using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive microscopy, X-ray diffraction, surface roughness, Vickers microhardness and surface free energy. The results indicated that Cl group exhibited the highest polarization resistance (R{sub p}) and the lowest capacitance (Q) and corrosion current density (I{sub corr}) values. Reduced corrosion stability was noted for the sandblasted groups. Acidic artificial saliva decreased the R{sub p} values of cp-Ti surfaces and produced the highest I{sub corr} values. Also, the surface treatment and corrosion process influenced the surface roughness, Vickers microhardness and surface free energy. Based on these results, it can be concluded that acid-etching treatment improved the electrochemical stability of cp-Ti and all treated surfaces behaved negatively in acidic artificial saliva. - Highlights: • Characterization of surface treatment for biomedical implants was investigated. • Sandblasting reduced the corrosion stability of cp

  18. Characterizing Geothermal Surface Manifestation Based on Multivariate Geostatistics of Ground Measurements Data (United States)

    Ishaq; Nur Heriawan, Mohamad; Saepuloh, Asep


    Mt. Wayang Windu is one of geothermal field located in West Java, Indonesia. The characterization of steam spots at surface manifestation zones based on the soil physical measurements of the area is presented in this study. The multivariate geostatistical methods incorporating the soil physical parameter data were used to characterize the zonation of geothermal surface manifestations. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of spatial estimation method of multivariate geostatistics using Ordinary Cokriging (COK) to characterize the physical properties of geothermal surface manifestations at Mt. Wayang Windu. The COK method was selected because this method is favorable when the secondary variables has more number than the primary variables. There are four soil physical parameters used as the basis of COK method, i.e. Electrical Conductivity, Susceptibility, pH, and Temperature. The parameters were measured directly at and around geothermal surface manifestations including hot springs, fumaroles, and craters. Each location of surface manifestations was measured about 30 points with 30 x 30 m grids. The measurement results were analyzed by descriptive statistics to identify at the nature of data. The correlation among variables was analyzed using linear regression. When the correlation coefficient among variables is higher, the estimation results is expected to have better Linear Coregionalization Model (LCM). LCM was used to analyze the spatial correlation of each variable based on their variogram and cross-variogram model. In oder to evaluate the performance of multivariate geostatistical using COK method, a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) was performed. Estimation result using COK method is well applicable for characterizing the surface physics parameters of radar images data.

  19. Interaction of limestone grains and acidic solutions from the oxidation of pyrite tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, M. [Departamento de Edafologia, EPS-CITE IIB, Canada San Urbano, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain)]. E-mail:; Martin, F. [Departamento de Edafologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18002 Granada (Spain); Garcia, I. [Departamento de Edafologia, EPS-CITE IIB, Canada San Urbano, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Bouza, P. [Centro Nacional Patagonico, CONICEF, Boulevard Brown s/n, 9120 Puerto Madryn, Chubut (Argentina); Dorronsoro, C. [Departamento de Edafologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18002 Granada (Spain); Aguilar, J. [Departamento de Edafologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18002 Granada (Spain)


    To characterise the coatings formed and to analyse element partitioning between the aqueous and solid phase, suspensions were prepared with four grain sizes of limestone and three different amounts of acidic solution from oxidized pyrite tailings. In all cases, red coatings with three different layers covered the grain surface, sealing off the acidic solution. The inner layer was composed mainly of basaluminite, the middle layer of schwertmannite, and the outer layer of gypsum and jarosite. Zn, Cd and Tl were co-precipitated by Fe and Al; As and Pb were co-precipitated almost completely by Fe; and Cu formed mainly Cu sulphates. All trace elements reached almost total precipitation at pH 6.3, but the precipitation of As and Pb tended to decrease as the pH rose. Consequently, liming should be calculated so that the soil pH does not exceed 6.3. This calculation should take into account that the armouring of the limestone grains can cause underestimations in the amount of liming material needed. - Basaluminite, schwertmannite and jarosite armored the limestone grains, and almost all trace elements co-precipitated, but the precipitation of As and Pb tended to decrease as the pH rose.

  20. Phytoremediation trials on metal- and arsenic-contaminated pyrite wastes (Torviscosa, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamerali, Teofilo [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Parma, Viale G.P. Usberti 11/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)], E-mail:; Bandiera, Marianna; Coletto, Lucia; Zanetti, Federica [Department of Environmental Agronomy and Crop Sciences, University of Padova, Viale dell' Universita 16, 35020 Legnaro - Padova (Italy); Dickinson, Nicholas M. [Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool, L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Mosca, Giuliano [Department of Environmental Agronomy and Crop Sciences, University of Padova, Viale dell' Universita 16, 35020 Legnaro - Padova (Italy)


    At a site in Udine, Italy, a 0.7 m layer of As, Co, Cu, Pb and Zn contaminated wastes derived from mineral roasting for sulphur extraction had been covered with an unpolluted 0.15 m layer of gravelly soil. This study investigates whether woody biomass phytoremediation is a realistic management option. Comparing ploughing and subsoiling (0.35 m depth), the growth of Populus and Salix and trace element uptake were investigated in both pot and field trials. Species differences were marginal and species selection was not critical. Impaired above-ground productivity and low translocation of trace elements showed that bioavailable contaminant stripping was not feasible. The most significant finding was of coarse and fine roots proliferation in surface layers that provided a significant sink for trace elements. We conclude that phytostabilisation and effective immobilisation of metals and As could be achieved at the site by soil amelioration combined with woody species establishment. Confidence to achieve a long-term and sustainable remediation requires a more complete quantification of root dynamics and a better understanding of rhizosphere processes. - In As- and metal-contaminated pyrite wastes, contaminant stripping is not feasible, and root foraging and quantification of root dynamics holds the key to stabilisation in woody species.

  1. Environmental regulatory failure and metal contamination at the Giap Lai pyrite mine, Northern Vietnam. (United States)

    Håkan Tarras-Wahlberg, N; Nguyen, Lan T


    The causes for the failure in enforcement of environmental regulations at the Giap Lai pyrite mine in northern Vietnam are considered and the environmental impacts that are associated with this mine are evaluated. It is shown that sulphide-rich tailings and waste rock in the mining area represent significant sources of acid rock drainage (ARD). The ARD is causing elevated metal levels in downstream water bodies, which in turn, represent a threat to both human health and to aquatic ecosystems. Metal concentrations in impacted surface waters have increased after mine closure, suggesting that impacts are becoming progressively more serious. No post-closure, remediation measures have been applied at the mine, in spite of the existence of environmental legislation and both central and regional institutions charged with environmental supervision and control. The research presented here provides further emphasis for the recommendation that, while government institutions may need to be strengthened, and environmental regulations need to be in place, true on the ground improvement in environmental quality in Vietnam and in many other developing countries require an increased focus on promoting public awareness of industrial environmental issues.

  2. Tensiometric Characterization of Superhydrophobic Surfaces As Compared to the Sessile and Bouncing Drop Methods. (United States)

    Hisler, Valentin; Jendoubi, Hiba; Hairaye, Camille; Vonna, Laurent; Le Houérou, Vincent; Mermet, Frédéric; Nardin, Michel; Haidara, Hamidou


    We have considered in this work the Wilhelmy plate tensiometer to characterize the wetting properties of two model surface textures: (i) a series of three superhydrophobic micropillared surfaces and (ii) a series of two highly water-repellent surfaces microtextured with a femtosecond laser. The wetting forces obtained on these surfaces with the Wilhelmy plate technique were compared to the contact angles of water droplets measured with the sessile drop technique and to the bouncing behavior of water droplets recorded at a high frame rate. We showed that it is possible with this technique to directly measure triple-line anchoring forces that are not accessible with the commonly used sessile drop technique. In addition, we have demonstrated on the basis of the bouncing drop experiments wetting transitions induced by the specific test conditions associated with the Wilhelmy plate tensiometer for the two series of textured surfaces. Finally, the tensiometer technique is proposed as an alternative test for characterizing the wetting properties of highly liquid-repellent surface, especially under immersion conditions.

  3. Pulsed supersonic molecular beam for characterization of chemically active metal-organic complexes at surfaces (United States)

    Lear, Amanda M.

    Metal-organic coordination networks (MOCNs) at surfaces consist of a complex of organic ligands bound to an atomic metal center. The MOCNs, when chosen appropriately, can form highly-ordered arrays at surfaces. Ultra-high vacuum surface studies allow control of surface composition and provide 2D growth restrictions, which lead to under-coordinated metal centers. These systems provide an opportunity to tailor the chemical function of the metal centers due to the steric restrictions imposed by the surface. Tuning the adsorption/desorption energy at a metal center and developing a cooperative environment for catalysis are the key scientific questions that motivate the construction of a molecular beam surface analysis system. Characterization of the created systems can be performed utilizing a pulsed supersonic molecular beam (PSMB) in unison with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. A PSMB allows for the highly controlled delivery of reactants with well-defined energy to a given platform making it possible to elucidate detailed chemical tuning information. In this thesis, a summary of prior theoretical molecular beam derivations is provided. Design considerations and an overview of the construction procedure for the current molecular beam apparatus, including initial characterization experiments, are presented. By impinging an Ar beam on a Ag(111) surface, the location of the specular angle (˜65°) and rough sample perimeter coordinates were determined. Additionally, surface analysis experiments, mainly Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), were performed to investigate the oxidation of epitaxial graphene on the SiC(0001) surface utilizing an oxygen cracking method. The AES experiments are described in detail and highlight the challenges that were faced when several different graphene samples were used for the oxygen adsorption/desorption experiments.

  4. Modification of the cellulosic component of hemp fibers using sulfonic acid derivatives: Surface and thermal characterization. (United States)

    George, Michael; Mussone, Paolo G; Bressler, David C


    The aim of this study was to characterize the surface, morphological, and thermal properties of hemp fibers treated with two commercially available, inexpensive, and water soluble sulfonic acid derivatives. Specifically, the cellulosic component of the fibers were targeted, because cellulose is not easily removed during chemical treatment. These acids have the potential to selectively transform the surfaces of natural fibers for composite applications. The proposed method proceeds in the absence of conventional organic solvents and high reaction temperatures. Surface chemical composition and signature were measured using gravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). XPS data from the treated hemp fibers were characterized by measuring the reduction in O/C ratio and an increase in abundance of the C-C-O signature. FTIR confirmed the reaction with the emergence of peaks characteristic of disubstituted benzene and amino groups. Grafting of the sulfonic derivatives resulted in lower surface polarity. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that treated fibers were characterized by lower percent degradation between 200 and 300 °C, and a higher initial degradation temperature.

  5. Characterization of Boroaluminosilicate Glass Surface Structures by B k-edge NEXAFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R Schaut; R Lobello; K Mueller; C Pantano


    Techniques traditionally used to characterize bulk glass structure (NMR, IR, etc.) have improved significantly, but none provide direct measurement of local atomic coordination of glass surface species. Here, we used Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) as a direct measure of atomic structure at multicomponent glass surfaces. Focusing on the local chemical structure of boron, we address technique-related issues of calibration, quantification, and interactions of the beam with the material. We demonstrate that beam-induced adsorption and structural damage can occur within the timeframe of typical measurements. The technique is then applied to the study of various fracture surfaces where it is shown that adsorption and reaction of water with boroaluminosilicate glass surfaces induces structural changes in the local coordination of boron, favoring B{sup IV} species after reaction.

  6. Structure and Surface Characterization of Nanostructured Tio2 Coatings Deposited Via HVOF Thermal Spray Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryamossadat Bozorgtabar


    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide coatings were deposited by high velocity oxy-fuel spraying (HVOF with the use of agglomerated P25/20 nano-powder and different spraying parameters (e.g. fuel/flow ratio to determine their influence on the microstructure, crystalline structure and surface feature of the coatings. The microstructure of as-sprayed TiO2 coatings was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Surface features were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The results showed that the fuel and oxygen flow ratio have an important influence on the microstructure, anatase content, surface chemical state and surface feature of the TiO2 coatings

  7. Migration characterization of Ga and In adatoms on dielectric surface in selective MOVPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟杰; 张佰君; 韩小标; 林佳利; 胡国亨; 柳铭岗; 杨亿斌; 陈杰; 吴志盛; 刘扬


    Migration characterizations of Ga and In adatoms on the dielectric surface in selective metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) were investigated. In the typical MOVPE environment, the selectivity of growth is preserved for GaN, and the growth rate of GaN micro-pyramids is sensitive to the period of the patterned SiO2 mask. A surface migration induced model was adopted to figure out the effective migration length of Ga adatoms on the dielectric surface. Different from the growth of GaN, the selective area growth of InGaN on the patterned template would induce the deposition of InGaN polycrystalline particles on the patterned SiO2 mask with a long period. It was demonstrated with a scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscopy that the In adatoms exhibit a shorter migration length on the dielectric surface.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of large specific surface area nanostructured amorphous silica materials. (United States)

    Marquez-Linares, Francisco; Roque-Malherbe, Rolando M A


    Large specific surface area materials attract wide attention because of their applications in adsorption, catalysis, and nanotechnology. In the present study, we describe the synthesis and characterization of nanostructured amorphous silica materials. These materials were obtained by means of a modification of the Stobe-Fink-Bohn (SFB) method. The morphology and essential features of the synthesized materials have been studied using an automated surface area and pore size analyzer and scanning electron microscopy. The existence of a micro/mesoporous structure in the obtained materials has been established. It was also found that the obtained particle packing materials show large specific surface area up to 1,600 m2/g. (To our best knowledge, there is no any reported amorphous silica material with such a higher specific surface area.) The obtained materials could be useful in the manufacture of adsorbents, catalyst supports, and other nanotechnological applications.

  9. Multi-scale microstructural characterization of micro-textured Ti-6Al-4V surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soboyejo, W.O.; Mercer, C.; Allameh, S.; Nemetski, B. [Princeton Materials Inst., NJ (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Marcantonio, N. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Div. of Engineering; Ricci, J.L. [Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Orthodontics


    This paper presents the results of a multi-scale microstructural characterization of micro-textured Ti-6Al-4V surfaces that are used in biomedical implants. The hierarchies of substructural and microstructural features associated with laser micro-texturing, mechanical polishing and surface blasting with alumina pellets are elucidated via atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy (OM). The nano-scale roughness profiles for the different surface textures are characterized via AFM. Sub-micron precipitates and dislocation substructures associated with wrought processing and laser processing are revealed by TEM. OM and SEM micro- and mesoscale images of the groove structures and then described before discussing the implications of the result for the optimization of laser processing schemes. The implications of the results are examined for the fabrication of micro-textured surfaces that will facilitate the self organization of proteins, and the attachment of mammalian cells to the Ti-6Al-4V surfaces in biomedical implants. (orig.)

  10. Synthesis, surface characterization and optical properties of 3-thiopropionic acid capped ZnS:Cu nanocrystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashish Tiwari; S A Khan; R S Kher


    3-Thiopropionic acid (TPA) capped ZnS:Cu nanocrystals have been successfully synthesized by simple aqueous method. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed the particle size to be 4.2 nm. Surface characterization of the nanocrystals by FTIR spectroscopy has been done and the structure for surface bound TPA based on spectral analysis was proposed. The optical studies were done using UV-VIS spectroscopy and particle size and diameter polydispersity index (DPI) were calculated. Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum reveals emission related to the transition from conduction band of ZnS to 2 level of Cu2+. Electron microscopy was also done by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  11. Characterization of thiol-functionalised silica films deposited on electrode surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Cesarino


    Full Text Available Thiol-functionalised silica films were deposited on various electrode surfaces (gold, platinum, glassy carbon by spin-coating sol-gel mixtures in the presence of a surfactant template. Film formation occurred by evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA involving the hydrolysis and (cocondensation of silane and organosilane precursors on the electrode surface. The characterization of such material was performed by IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG, elemental analysis (EA, atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and cyclic voltammetry (CV.

  12. N and Cr ion implantation of natural ruby surfaces and their characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, K. Sudheendra; Sahoo, Rakesh K.; Dash, Tapan [CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar 751013 (India); Magudapathy, P.; Panigrahi, B.K. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Nayak, B.B.; Mishra, B.K. [CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar 751013 (India)


    Highlights: • Cr and N ion implantation on natural rubies of low aesthetic quality. • Cr-ion implantation improves colour tone from red to deep red (pigeon eye red). • N-ion implantation at fluence of 3 × 10{sup 17} causes blue coloration on surface. • Certain extent of amorphization is observed in the case of N-ion implantation. - Abstract: Energetic ions of N and Cr were used to implant the surfaces of natural rubies (low aesthetic quality). Surface colours of the specimens were found to change after ion implantation. The samples without and with ion implantation were characterized by diffuse reflectance spectra in ultra violet and visible region (DRS-UV–Vis), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and nano-indentation. While the Cr-ion implantation produced deep red surface colour (pigeon eye red) in polished raw sample (without heat treatment), the N-ion implantation produced a mixed tone of dark blue, greenish blue and violet surface colour in the heat treated sample. In the case of heat treated sample at 3 × 10{sup 17} N-ions/cm{sup 2} fluence, formation of colour centres (F{sup +}, F{sub 2}, F{sub 2}{sup +} and F{sub 2}{sup 2+}) by ion implantation process is attributed to explain the development of the modified surface colours. Certain degree of surface amorphization was observed to be associated with the above N-ion implantation.

  13. Morpho-chemical characterization and surface properties of carcinogenic zeolite fibers. (United States)

    Mattioli, Michele; Giordani, Matteo; Dogan, Meral; Cangiotti, Michela; Avella, Giuseppe; Giorgi, Rodorico; Dogan, A Umran; Ottaviani, Maria Francesca


    Erionite belonging to the zeolite family is a human health-hazard, since it was demonstrated to be carcinogenic. Conversely, offretite family zeolites were suspected carcinogenic. Mineralogical, morphological, chemical, and surface characterizations were performed on two erionites (GF1, MD8) and one offretite (BV12) fibrous samples and, for comparison, one scolecite (SC1) sample. The specific surface area analysis indicated a larger availability of surface sites for the adsorption onto GF1, while SC1 shows the lowest one and the presence of large pores in the poorly fibrous zeolite aggregates. Selected spin probes revealed a high adsorption capacity of GF1 compared to the other zeolites, but the polar/charged interacting sites were well distributed, intercalated by less polar sites (Si-O-Si). MD8 surface is less homogeneous and the polar/charged sites are more interacting and closer to each other compared to GF1. The interacting ability of BV12 surface is much lower than that found for GF1 and MD8 and the probes are trapped in small pores into the fibrous aggregates. In comparison with the other zeolites, the non-carcinogenic SC1 shows a poor interacting ability and a lower surface polarity. These results helped to clarify the chemical properties and the surface interacting ability of these zeolite fibers which may be related to their carcinogenicity.

  14. Multi-scale characterization of surface blistering morphology of helium irradiated W thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.J., E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Zhu, H.L. [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Wan, Q. [Institute of Structural Mechanics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); Peng, M.J. [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Ran, G., E-mail: [School of Energy Research, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Tang, J.; Yang, Y.Y.; Liao, J.L.; Liu, N. [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China)


    Highlights: • Multi-scale blistering morphology of He irradiated W film was studied. • This complex morphology was first characterized by wavelet transform approach. - Abstract: Surface blistering morphologies of W thin films irradiated by 30 keV He ion beam were studied quantitatively. It was found that the blistering morphology strongly depends on He fluence. For lower He fluence, the accumulation and growth of He bubbles induce the intrinsic surface blisters with mono-modal size distribution feature. When the He fluence is higher, the film surface morphology exhibits a multi-scale property, including two kinds of surface blisters with different characteristic sizes. In addition to the intrinsic He blisters, film/substrate interface delamination also induces large-sized surface blisters. A strategy based on wavelet transform approach was proposed to distinguish and extract the multi-scale surface blistering morphologies. Then the density, the lateral size and the height of these different blisters were estimated quantitatively, and the effect of He fluence on these geometrical parameters was investigated. Our method could provide a potential tool to describe the irradiation induced surface damage morphology with a multi-scale property.

  15. Interdigitated silver-polymer-based antibacterial surface system activated by oligodynamic iontophoresis - an empirical characterization study. (United States)

    Shirwaiker, Rohan A; Wysk, Richard A; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Voigt, Robert C; Carrion, Hector; Nembhard, Harriet Black


    There is a pressing need to control the occurrences of nosocomial infections due to their detrimental effects on patient well-being and the rising treatment costs. To prevent the contact transmission of such infections via health-critical surfaces, a prophylactic surface system that consists of an interdigitated array of oppositely charged silver electrodes with polymer separations and utilizes oligodynamic iontophoresis has been recently developed. This paper presents a systematic study that empirically characterizes the effects of the surface system parameters on its antibacterial efficacy, and validates the system's effectiveness. In the first part of the study, a fractional factorial design of experiments (DOE) was conducted to identify the statistically significant system parameters. The data were used to develop a first-order response surface model to predict the system's antibacterial efficacy based on the input parameters. In the second part of the study, the effectiveness of the surface system was validated by evaluating it against four bacterial species responsible for several nosocomial infections - Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus faecalis - alongside non-antibacterial polymer (acrylic) control surfaces. The system demonstrated statistically significant efficacy against all four bacteria. The results indicate that given a constant total effective surface area, the system designed with micro-scale features (minimum feature width: 20 μm) and activated by 15 μA direct current will provide the most effective antibacterial prophylaxis.

  16. PANIC - A surface science package for the in situ characterization of a near-Earth asteroid

    CERN Document Server

    Schindler, Karsten; Reddy, Vishnu; Weber, Andreas; Gruska, Stefan; Fasoulas, Stefanos


    This paper presents the results of a mission concept study for an autonomous micro-scale surface lander also referred to as PANIC - the Pico Autonomous Near-Earth Asteroid In Situ Characterizer. The lander is based on the shape of a regular tetrahedron with an edge length of 35 cm, has a total mass of approximately 12 kg and utilizes hopping as a locomotion mechanism in microgravity. PANIC houses four scientific instruments in its proposed baseline configuration which enable the in situ characterization of an asteroid. It is carried by an interplanetary probe to its target and released to the surface after rendezvous. Detailed estimates of all critical subsystem parameters were derived to demonstrate the feasibility of this concept. The study illustrates that a small, simple landing element is a viable alternative to complex traditional lander concepts, adding a significant science return to any near-Earth asteroid (NEA) mission while meeting tight mass budget constraints.

  17. Nanoscale characterization of carbazole-indole copolymers modified carbon fiber surfaces. (United States)

    Sarac, A Sezai; Serantoni, Marina; Tofail, Syed A M; Cunnane, Vincent J


    Polycarbazole, carbazole and indole containing copolymers were electrochemically coated onto carbon fiber. The resulting polymers and copolymers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Characterization of the thin polymer films were performed on the polymer-coated surface of the carbon fiber. Therefore, the results obtained could elucidate the relationship between the initial feed monomer ratio, the resulting polymer/copolymer film morphology and the surface structure formed. The thickness increase (in diameter) was 0.3 and 0.9 microm, for two different composition of carbazole/indole on the carbon fiber. The carbon fibers coated with copolymer thin films were from 6.5 to 8.2 microm in diameter (from AFM measurement).

  18. New Method to Characterize Degradation of First Surface Aluminum Reflectors: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, F.; Heller, P.; Meyen, S.; Pitz-Paal, R.; Kennedy, C.; Fernandez-Garcia, A.; Schmucker, M.


    This paper reports the development of a new optical instrument capable of characterizing the aging process of enhanced first surface aluminum reflectors for concentrating solar power (CSP) application. Samples were exposed outdoors at different sites and in accelerated exposure tests. All samples exposed outdoors showed localized corrosion spots. Degradation originated from points of damage in the protective coating, but propagated underneath the protective coating. The degraded samples were analyzed with a microscope and with a newly designed space-resolved specular reflectometer (SR)2 that is capable of optically detecting and characterizing the corrosion spots. The device measures the specular reflectance at three acceptance angles and the wavelengths with spatial resolution using a digital camera's CMOS sensor. It can be used to measure the corrosion growth rate during outdoor and accelerated exposure tests. These results will allow a correlation between the degraded mirror surface and its specular reflectance.

  19. Synthesis, Characterization, Topographical Modification, and Surface Properties of Copoly(Imide Siloxane)s (United States)

    Wohl, Christopher J.; Atkins, Brad M.; Belcher, Marcus A.; Connell, John W.


    Novel copoly(imide siloxane)s were synthesized from commercially available aminopropyl terminated siloxane oligomers, aromatic dianhydrides, and diamines. This synthetic approach produced copolymers with well-defined siloxane blocks linked with imide units in a random fashion. The copoly(amide acid)s were characterized by solution viscosity and subsequently used to cast thin films followed by thermal imidization in an inert atmosphere. Thin films were characterized using contact angle goniometry, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, confocal and optical microscopy, and tensile testing. Adhesion of micronsized particles was determined quantitatively using a sonication device. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) moieties lowered the copolymer surface energy due to migration of siloxane moieties to the film s surface, resulting in a notable reduction in particle adhesion. A further reduction in particle adhesion was achieved by introducing topographical features on a scale of several to tens of microns by a laser ablation technique.

  20. Pyrite Oxidation in Leaching Process of Radionuclides and Heavy Metals from Uranium Mill Tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Pyrite is a sensitive mineral in the geological environment, and its oxidation produces an important geochemical and environmental effect on the control of the redox and pH conditions. Column experiment results were used for modeling the geochemical processes in uranium mill tailings under lcaching conditions. Oxidation of pyrite dominates the control of the tailings leaching process. The experimental and modeling results show that the leachate chemistry changes substantially with the decrease in pyrite consumption. In the initial stage of the leaching experiment, the pyrite is consumed several hundred times greater than that in the later stages, for much more oxygen is present in the tailings in the initial stage. As the experiment continues, the tailings is gradually saturated with water and the oxygen concentration greatly decreases and so does pyrite consumption. The experimental and modeling results are useful for the design of mill tailing decommissioning., oxidation process and transport of radioactive nuclides and heavy metals can be constrained by controlling the oxygen concentration of tailings and the infiltration of meteoric water.

  1. Trace element mapping of pyrite from Archean gold deposits – A comparison between PIXE and EPMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agangi, A., E-mail: [University of Johannesburg, Department of Geology, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Przybyłowicz, W., E-mail: [Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics & Applied Computer Science, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Hofmann, A., E-mail: [University of Johannesburg, Department of Geology, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa)


    Chemical zoning of pyrites can record the evolution of mineralising fluids at widely varying P–T conditions ranging from diagenesis to medium-grade metamorphism. If preserved, zoning can reveal growth textures, brecciation and veining, resorption and recrystallisation events, thus shedding light on the processes that contributed to ore formation. Chemical zoning of sulfides is invisible in optical microscopy, but can be studied by chemical etching, high-contrast back-scattering electron images, and elemental imaging. In this study we compared micro-PIXE and WDS-EPMA elemental maps on the chemically zoned pyrites in mineralised vein-bearing samples from the Sheba and Fairview gold mines in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Elemental images show complex distribution of trace elements, suggesting multiple events of pyrite crystallisation and gold deposition. EPMA maps show fine-scale variations reflecting growth and recrystallisation textures marked, in particular, by variations of As, Ni, and Co. In PIXE maps, gold occurs both as finely-distributed and discrete inclusions, suggesting incorporation in the pyrite structure as solid solution, and deposition as electrum inclusions, respectively. Micro-PIXE and EPMA provide complementary information, forming together a powerful tool to obtain information on chemical zoning of pyrites in ore deposits.

  2. New method for the simultaneous determination of pyrite content and proximate analysis in coal and lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylmer, D.M.


    The new method combines thermogravimetry and thermomagnetometry and utilizes inert, oxidizing, and reducing gases. Results by the new technique are compared to the ASTM method, one set obtained by the author on a Fisher Coal Analyzer and one set by the Coal Research Laboratory of the Pennsylvania State University. Comparison of thermo-magneto-gravimetric-analysis with the ASTM method indicates good agreement and comparable accuracy. These studies show that the thermo-magneto-gravimetric-analysis are: 1) ease of determination of both proximate analysis and pyrite, which permits use of unskilled technicians; 2) widespread availability of the apparatus; 3) cost effectiveness due to use of unskilled operators; 4) automation, presently available for proximate analysis on some commercial instruments and is easily accomplished for pyrite analysis, as well; 5) advantage over pyrite analysis by the ASTM method in two situations: first, when pyrite is totally surrounded by acid-insoluble organic-material and secondly where significant amounts of pyrite have been oxidized to FeSO/sub 4/; and 6) a permanent record of the measurements, which are continuous, is made in contrast to the ASTM method which records only initial and final conditions.

  3. [Limestone and pyrite-limestone constructed wetlands for treating river water]. (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Rui-hua; Li, Jie; Hu, Jun-song; Sun, Qian-qian


    Polluted river water was treated with limestone and pyrite-limestone subsurface horizontal constructed wetlands. The aims were to know the performance of two wetlands on removal of common pollutants, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, and analyze the actions of these minerals. The relationship between hydraulic retention time and purification performance of two constructed wetlands was studied. The optimal hydraulic retention time for pollutant removal was about 3 d, The average removal efficiency of COD, TN and TP were 51%, 70% and 95%, respectively. With same influent and hydraulic loading, the average removal efficiency of COD, NH4+ -N, TN and TP were 53.93%, 82.13%, 66%, 50.9%, and 51.66%, 77.43%, 72.06%, 97.35% for limestone and pyrite-limestone constructed wetlands, respectively. There were few differences between limestone and pyrite-limestone wetlands on COD removal, but the nitrogen and phosphorus removal of pyrite-limestone constructed wetland was higher than that of limestone constructed wetland. The phosphorus removal of pyrite-limestone wetland was more efficiency and stable, not affected by temperature.

  4. Characterization of atrial natriuretic peptide degradation by cell-surface peptidase activity on endothelial cells (United States)

    Frost, S. J.; Whitson, P. A.


    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a fluid-regulating peptide hormone that promotes vasorelaxation, natriuresis, and diuresis. The mechanisms for the release of ANP and for its clearance from the circulation play important roles in modulating its biological effects. Recently, we have reported that the cell surface of an endothelial cell line, CPA47, could degrade 125I-ANP in the presence of EDTA. In this study, we have characterized this degradation of 125I-ANP. The kinetics of ANP degradation by the surface of CPA47 cells were first order, with a Km of 320 +/- 60 nM and Vmax of 35 +/- 14 pmol of ANP degraded/10 min/10(5) cells at pH 7.4. ANP is degraded by the surface of CPA47 cells over a broad pH range from 7.0-8.5. Potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor and bestatin inhibited 125I-ANP degradation, suggesting that this degradative activity on the surface of CPA47 cells has exopeptidase characteristics. The selectivity of CPA47 cell-surface degradation of ANP was demonstrated when 125I-ANP degradation was inhibited in the presence of neuropeptide Y and angiotensin I and II but not bradykinin, bombesin, endothelin-1, or substance P. The C-terminal amino acids phe26 and tyr28 were deduced to be important for ANP interaction with the cell-surface peptidase(s) based on comparison of the IC50 of various ANP analogues and other natriuretic peptides for the inhibition of ANP degradation. These data suggest that a newly characterized divalent cation-independent exopeptidase(s) that selectively recognizes ANP and some other vasoactive peptides exists on the surface of endothelial cells.

  5. Characterization of Aerosols and Atmospheric Parameters From Space-Borne and Surface-Based Remote Sensing (United States)


    Characterization Of Aerosols And Atmospheric Parameters From Space-Borne And Surface-Based Remote Sensing Si-Chee Tsay Yoram J. Kaufman 301-614-6188...term goal for this project is threefold: (i) to develop remote sensing procedures for determinng aerosol loading and optical properties over land and...can lead to the best results. OBJECTIVES In preparation for the era of hyperspectral sensors in remote sensing , we need to establish a climatology of

  6. Surface modification and characterization for dispersion stability of inorganic nanometer-scaled particles in liquid media


    Kamiya, Hidehiro; Iijima, Motoyuki


    Inorganic nanoparticles are indispensable for science and technology as materials, pigments and cosmetics products. Improving the dispersion stability of nanoparticles in various liquids is essential for those applications. In this review, we discuss why it is difficult to control the stability of nanoparticles in liquids. We also overview the role of surface interaction between nanoparticles in their dispersion and characterization, e.g. by colloid probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM). Two...

  7. Monitoring the Extent of Contamination from Acid Mine Drainage in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Spain Using Hyperspectral Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuncion Riaza


    Full Text Available Monitoring mine waste from sulfide deposits by hyperspectral remote sensing can be used to predict surface water quality by quantitatively estimating acid drainage and metal contamination on a yearly basis. In addition, analysis of the mineralogy of surface crusts rich in soluble salts can provide a record of annual humidity and temperature. In fact, temporal monitoring of salt efflorescence from mine wastes at a mine site in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (Huelva, Spain has been achieved using hyperspectral airborne Hymap data. Furthermore, climate variability estimates are possible based on oxidation stages derived from well-known sequences of minerals, by tracing sulfide oxidation intensity using archive spectral libraries. Thus, airborne and spaceborne hyperspectral remote sensing data can be used to provide a short-term record of climate change, and represent a useful set of tools for assessing environmental geoindicators in semi-arid areas. Spectral and geomorphological indicators can be monitored on a regular basis through image processing, supported by field and laboratory spectral data. In fact, hyperspectral image analysis is one of the methods selected by the Joint Research Centre of the European Community (Ispra, Italy to study abandoned mine sites, in order to assess the enforcement of the European Mine Waste Directive (2006/21/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council 15 March 2006 on the management of waste from extractive industries (Official Journal of the European Union, 11 April 2006. The pyrite belt in Andalucia has been selected as one of the core mission test sites for the PECOMINES II program (Cracow, November 2005, using imaging spectroscopy; and this technique is expected to be implemented as a monitoring tool by the Environmental Net of Andalucía (REDIAM, Junta de Andalucía, Spain.

  8. The characterization of the antibacterial efficacy of an electrically activated silver ion-based surface system (United States)

    Shirwaiker, Rohan A.

    There have been growing concerns in the global healthcare system about the eradication of pathogens in hospitals and other health-critical environments. The problem has been aggravated by the overuse of antibiotics and antimicrobial agents leading to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant superbugs such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) which are difficult to kill. Lower immunity of sick patients coupled with the escalating concurrent problem of antibiotic-resistant pathogens has resulted in increasing incidences of hospital acquired (nosocomial) infections. There is an immediate need to control the transmission of such infections, primarily in healthcare environments, by creating touch-contact and work surfaces (e.g., door knobs, push plates, countertops) that utilize alternative antibacterial materials like the heavy metal, silver. Recent research has shown that it is silver in its ionic (Ag+ ) and not elemental form that is antibacterial. Thus, silver-based antibacterial surfaces have to release silver ions directly into the pathogenic environment (generally, an aqueous media) in order to be effective. This dissertation presents the study and analysis of a new silver-based surface system that utilizes low intensity direct electric current (LIDC) for generation of silver ions to primarily inhibit indirect contact transmission of infections. The broader objective of this research is to understand the design, and characterization of the electrically activated silver ion-based antibacterial surface system. The specific objectives of this dissertation include: (1) Developing a comprehensive system design, and identifying and studying its critical design parameters and functional mechanisms. (2) Evaluating effects of the critical design parameters on the antibacterial efficacy of the proposed surface system. (3) Developing a response surface model for the surface system performance. These objectives are

  9. Functionalization of oxidized silicon surfaces with methyl groups and their characterization (United States)

    Schmohl, A.; Khan, A.; Hess, P.


    Oxidized silicon surfaces were functionalized with chemically bonded methyl end groups and characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with the attenuated total reflection (ATR) method, contact angle measurements, scanning force microscopy (SFM), and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Detailed results are presented for trimethylsilyl (TMS) and pentamethyldisilyl (PMDS) terminated surfaces, which were prepared by silanization with suitable chloro compounds. The IR spectra of the TMS-terminated surface exhibit two CH stretching peaks at 2904 and 2963 cm -1. In the thermal desorption experiments desorption of trimethylsilanol and methane was observed at 550 ∘C. The IR spectra of the PMDS-terminated surface show two CH stretching peaks at 2898 and 2955 cm -1. The thermal desorption spectra indicate cleavage of Si-Si bonds and desorption of trimethylsilane at 530 ∘C. The wetting behavior, adhesion, and mechanical properties were studied by contact angle measurements and SFM. The results are compared with the well-defined Si(111)-(1×1):H surface and a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on a silicon surface with long hydrocarbon chains, prepared with octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS, H 3C(CH 2) 17SiCl 3). The water contact angle was 82 ∘ for TMS and 85 ∘ for PMDS end groups. The friction forces measured for the TMS- and PMDS-terminated surfaces were comparable and about 3 times higher than that of the H-terminated silicon and the OTS-SAM surface. The corresponding friction coefficients were 0.17, 0.18, 0.34, and 0.45 for Si(111)-(1×1):H, OTS SAM, TMS, and PMDS surfaces, respectively.

  10. The effect of pulse venting on anaerobic oxidation of methane and pyrite formation in the cold seep environment, offshore SW Taiwan (United States)

    Cheng, Wan-Yen; Lin, Saulwood; Tseng, Yi-Ting; Chen, NeiChen; Hsieh, I.-Chih


    AOM (Anaerobic oxidation of methane) is a key process in seep environment. Sulfate was consumed during oxidation of methane or organic matter with pyrite as a major end product in the anoxic marine environment. Typical changes observed in the pore water include an increase of methane with depth beneath the SMTZ (sulfate methane transition zone), as a result of diffusion and/or advection, and appearances of a dissolved sulfide maximum underneath a dissolved iron peak with depth. A number of other related biogeochemical processes and end products may register their respective changes in sediments as a result of AOM and related reactions. However, flux, time and duration of gas migration may have changed by either long term processes, e.g., tectonic activities and/or climatic induced sea level changes, or short term, e.g., tidal variations. There is relatively little study addressing termination of gas migrations and subsequent changes in the seep environments. In this study, we will present our study on a seep environment where pulses of gas migration may have occurred with a number of chemical anomalies in sediments. We have collected pore water and sediments for their chemical compositions of sulfate, dissolved sulfide, chloride, organic carbon, carbonate carbon and pyrite as well as echo sounding for flares, and towcam for sea surface topography and benthic community. Our results show that methane gas may have migrated in sediments in carrying out AOM reaction and pyrite formation, however, gas migration may have been relatively short and in pulses. Pulses of gas migration resulted in little or even no sulfate reduction in pore water, but with appearance of dissolved sulfide as well as very high concentrations of pyrite in sediments. Flares were observed but not constantly at the site where chemical anomalies were observed. Pulses of gas migration may come from solid gas hydrate formation and dissociation as evidence from pore water chloride enrichment and

  11. Statistical analysis of surface lineaments and fractures for characterizing naturally fractured reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Genliang; George, S.A.; Lindsey, R.P.


    Thirty-six sets of surface lineaments and fractures mapped from satellite images and/or aerial photos from parts of the Mid-continent and Colorado Plateau regions were collected, digitized, and statistically analyzed in order to obtain the probability distribution functions of natural fractures for characterizing naturally fractured reservoirs. The orientations and lengths of the surface linear features were calculated using the digitized coordinates of the two end points of each individual linear feature. The spacing data of the surface linear features within an individual set were, obtained using a new analytical sampling technique. Statistical analyses were then performed to find the best-fit probability distribution functions for the orientation, length, and spacing of each data set. Twenty-five hypothesized probability distribution functions were used to fit each data set. A chi-square goodness-of-fit test was used to rank the significance of each fit. A distribution which provides the lowest chi-square goodness-of-fit value was considered the best-fit distribution. The orientations of surface linear features were best-fitted by triangular, normal, or logistic distributions; the lengths were best-fitted by PearsonVI, PearsonV, lognormal2, or extreme-value distributions; and the spacing data were best-fitted by lognormal2, PearsonVI, or lognormal distributions. These probability functions can be used to stochastically characterize naturally fractured reservoirs.

  12. Role of surface roughness characterized by fractal geometry on laminar flow in microchannels (United States)

    Chen, Yongping; Zhang, Chengbin; Shi, Mingheng; Peterson, G. P.


    A three-dimensional model of laminar flow in microchannels is numerically analyzed incorporating surface roughness effects as characterized by fractal geometry. The Weierstrass-Mandelbrot function is proposed to characterize the multiscale self-affine roughness. The effects of Reynolds number, relative roughness, and fractal dimension on laminar flow are all investigated and discussed. The results indicate that unlike flow in smooth microchannels, the Poiseuille number in rough microchannels increases linearly with the Reynolds number, Re, and is larger than what is typically observed in smooth channels. For these situations, the flow over surfaces with high relative roughness induces recirculation and flow separation, which play an important role in single-phase pressure drop. More specifically, surfaces with the larger fractal dimensions yield more frequent variations in the surface profile, which result in a significantly larger incremental pressure loss, even though at the same relative roughness. The accuracy of the predicted Poiseuille number as calculated by the present model is verified using experimental data available in the literature.

  13. A new systematic and quantitative approach to characterization of surface nanostructures using fuzzy logic (United States)

    Al-Mousa, Amjed A.

    Thin films are essential constituents of modern electronic devices and have a multitude of applications in such devices. The impact of the surface morphology of thin films on the device characteristics where these films are used has generated substantial attention to advanced film characterization techniques. In this work, we present a new approach to characterize surface nanostructures of thin films by focusing on isolating nanostructures and extracting quantitative information, such as the shape and size of the structures. This methodology is applicable to any Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) data, such as Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) data which we are presenting here. The methodology starts by compensating the AFM data for some specific classes of measurement artifacts. After that, the methodology employs two distinct techniques. The first, which we call the overlay technique, proceeds by systematically processing the raster data that constitute the scanning probe image in both vertical and horizontal directions. It then proceeds by classifying points in each direction separately. Finally, the results from both the horizontal and the vertical subsets are overlaid, where a final decision on each surface point is made. The second technique, based on fuzzy logic, relies on a Fuzzy Inference Engine (FIE) to classify the surface points. Once classified, these points are clustered into surface structures. The latter technique also includes a mechanism which can consistently distinguish crowded surfaces from those with sparsely distributed structures and then tune the fuzzy technique system uniquely for that surface. Both techniques have been applied to characterize organic semiconductor thin films of pentacene on different substrates. Also, we present a case study to demonstrate the effectiveness of our methodology to identify quantitatively particle sizes of two specimens of gold nanoparticles of different nominal dimensions dispersed on a mica surface. A comparison

  14. N and Cr ion implantation of natural ruby surfaces and their characterization (United States)

    Rao, K. Sudheendra; Sahoo, Rakesh K.; Dash, Tapan; Magudapathy, P.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Nayak, B. B.; Mishra, B. K.


    Energetic ions of N and Cr were used to implant the surfaces of natural rubies (low aesthetic quality). Surface colours of the specimens were found to change after ion implantation. The samples without and with ion implantation were characterized by diffuse reflectance spectra in ultra violet and visible region (DRS-UV-Vis), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and nano-indentation. While the Cr-ion implantation produced deep red surface colour (pigeon eye red) in polished raw sample (without heat treatment), the N-ion implantation produced a mixed tone of dark blue, greenish blue and violet surface colour in the heat treated sample. In the case of heat treated sample at 3 × 1017 N-ions/cm2 fluence, formation of colour centres (F+, F2, F2+ and F22+) by ion implantation process is attributed to explain the development of the modified surface colours. Certain degree of surface amorphization was observed to be associated with the above N-ion implantation.

  15. Multiscale analysis of replication technique efficiency for 3D roughness characterization of manufactured surfaces (United States)

    Jolivet, S.; Mezghani, S.; El Mansori, M.


    The replication of topography has been generally restricted to optimizing material processing technologies in terms of statistical and single-scale features such as roughness. By contrast, manufactured surface topography is highly complex, irregular, and multiscale. In this work, we have demonstrated the use of multiscale analysis on replicates of surface finish to assess the precise control of the finished replica. Five commercial resins used for surface replication were compared. The topography of five standard surfaces representative of common finishing processes were acquired both directly and by a replication technique. Then, they were characterized using the ISO 25178 standard and multiscale decomposition based on a continuous wavelet transform, to compare the roughness transfer quality at different scales. Additionally, atomic force microscope force modulation mode was used in order to compare the resins’ stiffness properties. The results showed that less stiff resins are able to replicate the surface finish along a larger wavelength band. The method was then tested for non-destructive quality control of automotive gear tooth surfaces.

  16. Quantitative characterization of the surface topography of rolled sheets by laser scanning microscopy and fourier transformation (United States)

    Gjønnes, Liv


    The surface of twin-roll cast aluminum sheets undergoes dramatic changes during cold rolling. This is mainly due to variables in the roll gap, topography of the rolls, lubrication, material properties, and in particular the initial structure and topography of the cast sheet. Therefore, it is important to have means to quantitatively describe the changes in the surface structure of each pass and from pass to pass in order to optimize the desired final surface structure. To achieve this, the laser scanning microscope (LSM) with its confocal technique has been employed to image the three-dimensional (3-D) topography and to digitize the image for further computer analysis. The digitization of the image is primarily motivated by the need to introduce a Fourier transformation of the surface topography. The method is effective in describing qualitative periodic trends in the surface features. Information is gained on the shape and periodicities as well as roughness directionality. For instance, grooves and cross hatches and their remnants can be followed from one pass to the other. Important characteristics of the surface topography such as rolling ridges and shingles can also easily be characterized.

  17. Quantitative characterization of the fracture surface of Si single crystals by confocal microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, Y.B.; Hsia, K.J.; Lange, D.A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)


    Experiments are conducted to study the dislocation nucleation conditions at the crack tip in {l_brace}110{r_brace}<110> oriented Si single crystals. Specimens with surface cracks are first statically loaded at elevated temperatures for a prolonged period of time to initiate and move dislocations away from the crack tip, then cooled down to room temperature and loaded to fracture to measure the fracture toughness. Fractographic analysis of the fracture surfaces is performed. Distinct wavy patterns on the fracture surface at the initial cleavage crack front are observed, which is attributed to the existence of local mixed mode 1/mode 3 stresses resulting from the inhomogeneous dislocation activity. Confocal microscopy is employed to quantify the fracture surface roughness. The results show that the increase of fracture toughness is directly associated with the increased area of the rough surface, which is characterized by the roughness number or the fractal dimension increment. The results also demonstrate that dislocation nucleation can occur only at discrete sites. The spacing between these dislocation nucleation sources is of the order of 1 {micro}m. A simple model is developed for the relationship between the fracture toughness and the surface roughness parameters, which is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  18. Characterizing Surfaces of the Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Ilmenite with Scanning Probe Microcopies (United States)

    Wilkins, R.; Powell, Kirk St. A.


    Ilmenite (FeTiO3) is a wide bandgap semiconductor with an energy gap of about 2.5eV. Initial radiation studies indicate that ilmenite has properties suited for radiation tolerant applications, as well as a variety of other electronic applications. Two scanning probe microscopy methods have been used to characterize the surface of samples taken from Czochralski grown single crystals. The two methods, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), are based on different physical principles and therefore provide different information about the samples. AFM provides a direct, three-dimensional image of the surface of the samples, while STM give a convolution of topographic and electronic properties of the surface. We will discuss the differences between the methods and present preliminary data of each method for ilmenite samples.

  19. Characterization on Contacting Surfaces of MEMS Electrostatic Switches by SEM, EDXA, and XPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Afinogenov


    Full Text Available We focus on the origin and sources of surface contamination and defects causing the failure of MEMS electrostatic switches. The morphology, and elemental and chemical compositions of the contacting surfaces, conducting paths, and other parts of switches have been characterized by means of SEM, EDXA, and XPS in order to understand the difference between the data collected for the devices that had passed the electrical conductivity test and those found to be defective. C, O, Al, Ca, Ti, Cu, and some other impurities were detected on the details of defective switches. Contrariwise, the working switches were found to be clean, at least on the level of EDXA and XPS sensitivity. The main sources of surface contamination and defects were incompletely deleted sacrificial layers, substrate materials, and electrolytes employed for Rh plating of the contacts. The negative influence of foreign microparticles, especially alumina and copper oxides, on the conductivity and porosity of contacts was highlighted.

  20. Cellulose whiskers: preparation, characterization and surface modification; Whiskers de celulose: preparacao, caracterizacao e modificacao de superficie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Marcia O.; Ferrarezi, Marcia M.F.; Goncalves, Maria C., E-mail: [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)


    The main objectives of this work were to produce cellulose whiskers (from cotton fibers) by acid hydrolysis and subsequently modify the surface of these whiskers with 3-iso-cyanate-propyltrietoxy-silane. Cellulose whiskers structures were characterized by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared and their morphologies were investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Due to the hydrophilic nature of native cellulose, the formation of cellulose whisker nanocomposites is limited to water-soluble polymers. The applied methodology for surface modification of the whiskers allowed to obtain nanofibers with