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Sample records for pyridoxine

  1. Genetics Home Reference: pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy is a condition that involves seizures beginning in ...

  2. Synthesis of Some Pyridoxine and Pyridoxal Halophosphonates

    OpenAIRE

    Elshani, Sadik; Butula, Ljubica; Matijević-Sosa, Julija

    1996-01-01

    A new series of pyridoxine and pyridoxal chloro and fluorophosphonates have been synthesized. Partially protected pyridoxine 1, 2 or pyridoxal 4 reacted with methyl phosphonic dichloride in the presence of triethylamine at -10 °C. Thus, the following chlorophosphonate derivatives were obtained: 3,4'-0-isopropylidenepyridoxine-5'-0- methylchlorophosphonate (5), 4',5'-0-isobutylidenepyridoxine-3-0- methylchlorophosphonate (6), and monoethylacetalpyridoxal-3-0- methylchlorophosphonate (7). Simil...

  3. Pyridoxine deficiency in adult patients with status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Hina N; Eugene Ramsay, Richard; Khan, Fawad; Sabharwal, Vivek; Irland, Megan

    2015-11-01

    An 8-year-old girl treated at our facility for superrefractory status epilepticus was found to have a low pyridoxine level at 5 μg/L. After starting pyridoxine supplementation, improvement in the EEG for a 24-hour period was seen. We decided to look at the pyridoxine levels in adult patients admitted with status epilepticus. We reviewed the records on patients admitted to the neurological ICU for status epilepticus (SE). Eighty-one adult patients were identified with documented pyridoxine levels. For comparison purposes, we looked at pyridoxine levels in outpatients with epilepsy (n=132). Reported normal pyridoxine range is >10 ng/mL. All but six patients admitted for SE had low normal or undetectable pyridoxine levels. A selective pyridoxine deficiency was seen in 94% of patients with status epilepticus (compared to 39.4% in the outpatients) which leads us to believe that there is a relationship between status epilepticus and pyridoxine levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Seizures and paroxysmal events: symptoms pointing to the diagnosis of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy and pyridoxine phosphate oxidase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, B.; Baumgartner, M.; Mills, P.B.; Clayton, P.T.; Jakobs, C.; Keller, E.; Wohlrab, G.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: We report on seizures, paroxysmal events, and electroencephalogram (EEG) findings in four female infants with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) and in one female with pyridoxine phosphate oxidase deficiency (PNPO). Method: Videos and EEGs were analysed and compared with videos of seizures and

  5. Pyridoxine-Dependent Epilepsy: An Expanding Clinical Spectrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Karnebeek, Clara D. M.; Tiebout, Sylvia A.; Niermeijer, Jikkemien; Poll-The, Bwee Tien; Ghani, Aisha; Coughlin, Curtis R.; van Hove, Johan L. K.; Richter, Jost Wigand; Christen, Hans Juergen; Gallagher, Renata; Hartmann, Hans; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy is a rare autosomal recessive epileptic encephalopathy caused by antiquitin (ALDH7A1) deficiency. In spite of adequate seizure control, 75% of patients suffer intellectual developmental disability. Antiquitin deficiency affects lysine catabolism resulting in

  6. Long-Term Outcome in Pyridoxine-Dependent Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Levinus A.; Halbertsma, Feico J..; Houterman, Saskia; Wevers, Ron A.; Vreeswijk, Charlotte; Jakobs, Cornelis; Struys, Eduard; van der Hoeven, Johan H.; Sival, Deborah A.; Willemsen, Michel A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The long-term outcome of the Dutch pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy cohort and correlations between patient characteristics and follow-up data were retrospectively studied. Method: Fourteen patients recruited from a national reference laboratory were included (four males, 10 females, from 11 families; median age at assessment 6y; range 2y…

  7. Long-term outcome in pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bok, L.A.; Halbertsma, F.J.; Houterman, S.; Wevers, R.A.; Vreeswijk, C.M.J.M.; Jakobs, C.; Struys, E.; van der Hoeven, J.H.; Sival, D.A.; Willemsen, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim  The long-term outcome of the Dutch pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy cohort and correlations between patient characteristics and follow-up data were retrospectively studied. Method  Fourteen patients recruited from a national reference laboratory were included (four males, 10 females, from 11

  8. Effect of pyridoxine deficiency on cholesterogenesis in rats fed different levels of protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Mitsuko; Iwami, Tamako

    1977-01-01

    Hepatic cholesterol contents in rats fed a 70% or 20% casein diet with or without pyridoxine was determined. In the case of the 70% casein group, pyridoxine-deficient rats showed a higher content than the control. The increment was mainly due to the accumulation of an ester form of the cholesterol. On the other hand, pyridoxine-deficient rats in the 20% casein group showed a slightly lower content. The cholesterol content in liver microsomal fractions was lower in the 20%-casein pyridoxine-deficient group and serum cholesterol level was lower in the 70%-casein pyridoxine-deficient group than those in respective control groups. Incorporation of [ 14 C] acetate into cholesterol was studied using liver slices, and significant stimulation was observed in pyridoxine-deficient rat fed a 20% or 70% casein diet. There was no difference in intestinal cholesterogenesis between the control and the deficient groups. (auth.)

  9. Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy due to antiquitin deficiency: achieving a favourable outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, R.; Pereira, C.; Rodrigues, F.; Alfaite, C.; Garcia, P.; Robalo, C.; Fineza, I.; Goncalves, O.; Struys, E.A.; Salomons, G.S.; Jakobs, C.A.J.M.; Diogo, L.

    2013-01-01

    We report 4 pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy patients in which good outcome was determined in three. The 4 patients were male and aged from 7 to 24 years old (from three unrelated Caucasian families). A clinical diagnosis of neonatal pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy was confirmed by biochemical and

  10. Pyridoxine-Dependent Epilepsy in Zebrafish Caused by Aldh7a1 Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pena, Izabella A; Roussel, Yann; Daniel, Kate; Mongeon, Kevin; Johnstone, Devon; Weinschutz Mendes, Hellen; Bosma, Marjolein; Saxena, Vishal; Lepage, Nathalie; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Dyment, David A; van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda; Bui, Tuan Vu; Boycott, Kym M.; Ekker, Marc; MacKenzie, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) is a rare disease characterized by mutations in the lysine degradation gene ALDH7A1 leading to recurrent neonatal seizures, which are uniquely alleviated by high doses of pyridoxine or pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (vitamin B6 vitamers). Despite treatment,

  11. Alanine metabolism in pyridoxine-depleted rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Mitsuko; Abe, Midori

    1976-01-01

    Alanine metabolism in normal and pyridoxine-deficient rats was studied in vivo and in vitro. Incorporation of 14 C-alanine into various liver components was determined and no difference was shown between normal and deficient animals in the incorporation into liver homogenates, lipid, protein and plasma glucose. Using the liver slice system, gluconeogenic activity from alanine or pyruvate was 40% lower in deficient rats compared with the activity of normal rats. However, inhibition was completely removed by the addition of 2-oxoglutarate to alanine. Penicillamine did not affect glucose formation from alanine in the liver slice. (auth.)

  12. Clinical features and the management of pyridoxine-dependent and pyridoxine-responsive seizures: review of 63 North American cases submitted to a patient registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, Gregory J; Hagland, Shawn P; Wiltse, Anna M; Gospe, Sidney M

    2009-06-01

    To facilitate clinical research on pyridoxine-dependent seizures (PDS), a rare disease registry was established for affected patients in the United States and Canada. From 1999 to 2007, 63 cases, ranging in age from 11 months to 40 years, were registered. All registered cases were diagnosed with PDS by their physicians using clinical criteria. Seventy percent of the cases presented with neonatal seizures, and the mean lag time between presentation and diagnosis was 313 days. Pyridoxine treatment regimens were varied, ranging from 50 to 2,500 mg per day (1.4 to 67.8 mg/kg/day). While 47 of the cases were seizure-free on pyridoxine monotherapy, over time, eight other cases also required the concomitant use of anticonvulsants for effective seizure control, while the remainder continued to have recurrent seizures, despite the use of pyridoxine and multiple anticonvulsants. Our review of this collection of cases suggests that, for some registered individuals, either pyridoxine may be acting as an adjunctive anticonvulsant or the patient may have developed a secondary etiology for seizures. In addition, some of these cases may have pyridoxine-responsive seizures (PRS) rather than pyridoxine-dependency. Four adult and seven school-aged cases were described as developmentally normal, while the other cases had a variety of neurodevelopmental handicaps. Twenty-five percent of the cases required the pharmacologic treatment of behavioral symptoms. Clinicians caring for neonates and other young patients with intractable seizures do not necessarily consider PDS as an etiology; therefore, certain cases may be undiagnosed or diagnosed late in the course of their evaluation and treatment. As the diagnosis of PDS can now be confirmed by genetic and biochemical testing, formal screening protocols for this disorder should be developed. Patients previously diagnosed with PDS by clinical criteria should also receive confirmatory testing.

  13. Effect Of Pyridoxine Injection In Japanese Quail Eggs On HATCHABILITY, Performance And Some Physiological Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELSAYED, M.A.; WAKWAK, M.M.; MAHROSE, KH.M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out at the poultry farm found in the Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Sharkia Governorate, Egypt, during January 2009. A total number of two hundreds and seventy five quail eggs were used in an experiment of a completely randomized design to estimate hatchability percentage, chick weight at hatch, growth performance, some blood parameters and carcass traits of Japanese quails as affected by injecting their eggs with pyridoxine. Eggs were divided into 5 groups (55 eggs each); the first group (without injection) was served as control while the second group was injected in the width end of the egg with 500 μl saline. The third, fourth and fifth groups were injected in the width end of the Japanese quail eggs with 40, 80 and 120 μg pyridoxine, respectively, dissolved in 500 μl saline. Hatchability percentage, live body weight, daily body weight gain and some organ weights (liver, gizzard and heart) were studied. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected for analyses. It was observed that the groups of quail eggs received 120 μg pyridoxine injection recorded the highest hatchability percent. Chick weight at hatch was non-significantly affected by saline solution injection. The birds hatched from the groups of quail eggs received 120μg pyridoxine recorded the highest live body weight, especially during the 2 nd and 3 rd weeks of age. The daily body weight gain was significantly affected by pyridoxine injection only during the intervals of 1 to 2, 3 to 4 and from 1 to 6 weeks of age. Serum total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations were highly significantly elevated in the birds hatched from the groups of quail eggs received 120μg pyridoxine than other groups. Serum AST activity was highly significantly increased in the birds hatched from the groups of quail eggs received 40 μg pyridoxine than other groups while serum ALT activity and calcium concentration were non

  14. Continuous xylanase production with Aspergillus nidulans under pyridoxine limitation using a trickle bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Michael; Prade, Rolf A; Segato, Fernando; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Wilkins, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    A trickle bed reactor (TBR) with recycle was designed and tested using Aspergillus nidulans with a pyridoxine marker and over-expressing/secreting recombinant client xylanase B (XynB). The pyridoxine marker prevented the fungus from synthesizing its own pyridoxine and fungus was unable to grow when no pyridoxine was present in the medium; however, enzyme production was unaffected. Uncontrolled mycelia growth that led to clogging of the TBR was observed when fungus without a pyridoxine marker was used for XynB production. Using the fungus with pyridoxine marker, the TBR was operated continuously for 18 days and achieved a XynB output of 41 U/ml with an influent and effluent flow rate of 0.5 ml/min and a recycle flow rate of 56 ml/min. Production yields in the TBR were 1.4 times greater than a static tray culture and between 1.1 and 67 times greater than yields for SSF enzyme production stated in the literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [The determination of pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6) according to European Pharmacopoeia 4.0].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, N; Surmann, J P

    2006-05-01

    Determination of pyridoxine hydrochloride according to the European Pharmacopoeia 4.0 In the Ph.Eur. 4.0 assay pyridoxine hydrochloride is titrated by sodium hydroxide 0.1 mol x 1(-1) in ethanolic solution. The impossibility of a correct evaluation of the titration curve is shown both in theory and practice. The new method in Ph.Eur. 4.04 is an acidimetric titration of the base chloride. In a mixture of formic acid/acetic anhydride the titration is made by perchloric acid. Because some critical points in this assay an alternative method is developed. This method is robust and should give results with high accuracy.

  16. [Effects of excess pyridoxine-HCl on growth and urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in weaning rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Itoh, Keiko; Shibata, Katsumi

    2009-04-01

    To determine the tolerable upper intake level of pyridoxine-HCl in humans, we investigated the effects of excess pyridoxine-HCl administration on body weight gain, food intake, tissue weight, and urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in weaning rats. The weaning rats were freely fed ordinary diet containing 0.0007% pyridoxine-HCl (control diet) or the same diet with 0.1%, 0.5%, 0.8% or 1.0% pyridoxine-HCl for 30 days. The body weight gain in the 0.8% and 1.0% groups, and the total food intake in the 1.0% group were significantly lower than those in the control group. The urinary excretion of pantothenic acid in the pyridoxine-HCl added groups were higher than that in the control group, while excessive pyridoxine-HCl intake did not affect the urinary excretion of other water-soluble vitamins. These results showed that the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for pyridoxine-HCl was 0.1% in diet, corresponding to 90 mg/kg body weight/day, and lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL) was 0.5% in diet, corresponding to 450 mg/kg body weight/day.

  17. Genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (ALDH7A1 deficiency)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, Philippa B; Footitt, Emma J; Mills, Kevin A

    2010-01-01

    to antiepileptic drugs; (ii) in infants with multisystem pathology, the response to pyridoxine may not be instant and obvious; and (iii) structural brain abnormalities may co-exist and be considered sufficient cause of epilepsy, whereas the fits may be a consequence of antiquitin deficiency and are then responsive...

  18. Simultaneous chemometric determination of pyridoxine hydrochloride and isoniazid in tablets by multivariate regression methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç, Erdal; Ustündağ, Ozgür; Baleanu, Dumitru

    2010-08-01

    The sole use of pyridoxine hydrochloride during treatment of tuberculosis gives rise to pyridoxine deficiency. Therefore, a combination of pyridoxine hydrochloride and isoniazid is used in pharmaceutical dosage form in tuberculosis treatment to reduce this side effect. In this study, two chemometric methods, partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR), were applied to the simultaneous determination of pyridoxine (PYR) and isoniazid (ISO) in their tablets. A concentration training set comprising binary mixtures of PYR and ISO consisting of 20 different combinations were randomly prepared in 0.1 M HCl. Both multivariate calibration models were constructed using the relationships between the concentration data set (concentration data matrix) and absorbance data matrix in the spectral region 200-330 nm. The accuracy and the precision of the proposed chemometric methods were validated by analyzing synthetic mixtures containing the investigated drugs. The recovery results obtained by applying PCR and PLS calibrations to the artificial mixtures were found between 100.0 and 100.7%. Satisfactory results obtained by applying the PLS and PCR methods to both artificial and commercial samples were obtained. The results obtained in this manuscript strongly encourage us to use them for the quality control and the routine analysis of the marketing tablets containing PYR and ISO drugs. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (ALDH7A1 deficiency)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, Philippa B; Footitt, Emma J; Mills, Kevin A

    2010-01-01

    Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy was recently shown to be due to mutations in the ALDH7A1 gene, which encodes antiquitin, an enzyme that catalyses the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent dehydrogenation of l-alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde/L-Delta1-piperideine 6-carboxylate. However, whilst t...

  20. Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy owing to antiquitin deficiency - mutation in the ALDH7A1 gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagadeesh, S.; Suresh, B.; Murugan, V.; Suresh, S.; Salomons, G.S.; Struys, E.A.; Jacobs, C.

    2013-01-01

    Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) is an inborn error of metabolism resulting from antiquitin deficiency. There is marked elevation of a-amino adipic semi-aldehyde (aAASA), piperidine-6-carboxylate (P6C) and pipecolic acid. The diagnosis can be confirmed by identifying the mutation in the ALDH7A1

  1. Genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (ALDH7A1 deficiency)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, P.B.; Footitt, E.J.; Mills, K.A.; Tuschl, K.; Aylett, S.; Varadkar, S.; Hemingway, C.; Marlow, N.; Rennie, J.; Baxter, P.; Dulac, O.; Nabbout, R.; Craigen, W.J.; Schmitt, B.; Feillet, F.; Christensen, E.; de Lonlay, P.; Pike, M.G.; Hughes, M.I.; Struijs, E.A.; Jakobs, C.; Zuberi, S.M.; Clayton, P.T.

    2010-01-01

    Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy was recently shown to be due to mutations in the ALDH7A1 gene, which encodes antiquitin, an enzyme that catalyses the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent dehydrogenation of l-α-aminoadipic semialdehyde/l-Δ

  2. Oral pyridoxine can substitute for intravenous pyridoxine in managing patients with severe poisoning with isoniazid and rifampicin fixed dose combination tablets: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilrukshi, M D S A; Ratnayake, C A P; Gnanathasan, C A

    2017-08-08

    Fixed drug combination of isoniazid and rifampicin is a rare cause of poisoning even in endemic countries for tuberculosis infection. Severe poisoning can cause severe morbidity and mortality if not treated promptly. Though intravenous pyridoxine is the preferred antidote for severe standard isoniazid poisoning it is not freely available even in best of care centers. We describe a case of severe poisoning with fixed drug combination of isoniazid and rifampicin successfully managed with oral pyridoxine at national hospital of Sri Lanka. A 22 year old, Sri Lankan female presented to a local hospital 1 h after self-ingestion of 28 tablets of fixed drug combination of isoniazid and rifampicin which contained 4.2 g of standard isoniazid and 7.2 g of rifampicin. One and half hours after ingestion she developed generalized tonic-clonic seizure with loss of consciousness. She was given intravenous diazepam 5 mg immediately and transferred to national hospital of Sri Lanka, for further care. Upon arrival to tertiary care hospital in 3.5 h of poisoning she had persistent vomiting, dizziness and headache. On examination, she was drowsy but arousable, orange-red discoloration of the body was noted even with the dark skin complexion. She also had orange-red colour urine and vomitus. Pulse rate was 104 beats/min, blood pressure 130/80 mmHg, respiratory rate was 20 breaths/min. The arterial blood gas analysis revealed compensated metabolic acidosis and mildly elevated lactic acid level. Considering the clinical presentation with neurological toxicity and the large amount of isoniazid dose ingested, crushed oral tablets of pyridoxine 4.2 g (equal to standard isoniazid dose ingested) administered immediately via a nasogastric tube since intravenous preparation was not available in the hospital. Simultaneously forced diuresis using intravenous 0.9% saline was commenced in order to enhance excretion of toxic metabolites via kidneys. She had no recurrence of seizures but had

  3. Treatment of premenstrual tension syndrome with Vitex agnus castus controlled, double-blind study versus pyridoxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzen, C; Reuter, H D; Repges, R; Böhnert, K J; Schmidt, U

    1997-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the efficacy and tolerability of a new solid formulation (capsules) of Agnolyt®(*)) in a randomized, controlled trial versus pyridoxine in women with PMTS over a period of three treatment cycles (Vitex agnus castus (VAC): 1 capsule + 1 placebo capsule/day, n = 90; pyridoxine (B6): 2 capsules day, n = 85). The therapeutic response was assessed using the premenstrual tension syndrome scale (PMTS scale), the recording of six characteristic complaints of the syndrome, and the clinical global impression scale (CGI scale). Upon completion of the trial, efficacy of the treatment was assessed by the physician as well as by the patient. On the PMTS scale, treatment with VAC and B6 produced a reduction in score points from 15.2 to 5.1 (-47,4%) and from 11.9 to 5.1 (-48%)(*), respectively. In comparison with pyridoxine, VAC caused a considerably more marked alleviation of typical PMTS complaints, such as breast tenderness, edema, inner tension, headache, constipation, and depression. Analogous results were obtained with the CGI scale. In both treatment groups, efficacy was rated as at least adequate by more than 80% of the investigators; however, VAC treatment was rated as excellent by 24.5% and pyridoxine treatment by 12.1% of the investigators. According to the patients' assessment, 36.1% of the cases in the VAC group and 21.3% in the pyridoxine group were free from complaints. Adverse events (gastrointestinal and lower abdominal complaints, skin manifestations and transitory headache) occurred in 5 patients under B6 and in 12 patients under VAC. Serious adverse events were not observed. The results of the present study confirm the efficacy and safety of Agnolyt® capsules in the treatment of PMTS. Copyright © 1997 Gustav Fischer Verlag. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of pyridoxine as a countermeasure for in-flight loss of lean body mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Joyce A.

    1992-01-01

    Ground based and in flight research has shown that humans, under conditions of microgravity, sustain a loss of lean body tissue (protein) and changes in several biological processes including, reductions in red blood cell mass, and neurotransmitters. The maintenance of muscle mass, the major component of lean body mass, is required to meet the needs of space station EVAs. Central to the biosynthesis of amino acids, the building blocks of protein, is pyridoxine (vitamin B-6). Muscle mass integrity requires the availability of vitamin B-6 for protein metabolism and neurotransmitter synthesis. Furthermore, the formation of red blood cells require pyridoxine as a cofactor in the biosynthesis of hemoglobin, a protein that carries oxygen to tissues. In its active form, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), vitamin B-6 serves as a link between amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism through intermediates of glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In addition to its role in energy metabolism, PLP is involved in the biosynthesis of hemoglobin and neurotransmitter which are necessary for neurological functions. Alterations in pyridoxine metabolism may affect countermeasures designed to overcome some of these biochemical changes. The focus of this research is to determine the effects of microgravity on the metabolic utilization of vitamin B-6, integrating nutrition as an integral component of the countermeasure (exercise) to maintain lean body mass and muscle strength. The objectives are: 1) to determine whether microgravity effects the metabolic utilization of pyridoxine and 2) to quantitate changes in B-6 vitamer distribution in tissue and excreta relative to loss of lean body tissue. The rationale for this study encompasses the unique challenge to control biochemical mechanisms effected during space travel and the significance of pyridoxine to maintain and counter muscle integrity for EVA activities. This experiment will begin to elucidate the importance of biochemical

  5. Novel homozygous missense mutation in ALDH7A1 causes neonatal pyridoxine dependent epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coci, Emanuele G; Codutti, Luca; Fink, Christian; Bartsch, Sophie; Grüning, Gunnar; Lücke, Thomas; Kurth, Ingo; Riedel, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    Pyridoxine dependent epilepsy (PDE) (OMIM#266100) is a neonatal form of epilepsy, caused by dysfunction of the enzyme α-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH7A1 or Antiquitin). This enzyme converts α-aminoadipic semialdehyde (α-AASA) into α-aminoadipate (AAA), a critical step in the lysine metabolism of the brain. ALDH7A1 dysfunction causes an accumulation of α-AASA and δ 1 -piperideine-6-carboxylic acid (P6C), which are in equilibrium with each other. P6C binds and inactivates pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the active form of pyridoxine. Individuals affected by ALDH7A1 deficiency show pre-natal and post-natal seizures, which respond to oral pyridoxine but not to other pediatric anti-epileptic drugs. We discovered a novel missense mutation (c.566G > A, p.Gly189Glu) in homozygous state residing in the NAD+ binding domain coding region of exon 6 and affecting an highly conserved amino acid residue. The seizures stopped under post-natal pyridoxine therapy, nevertheless a longer follow-up is needed to evaluate the intellectual development of the child, who is additionally treated with oral l-arginine since the 13th month of life. Developmental delay with or without structural cortex abnormalities were reported in several patients. A brain MRI scan revealed hyperintense white matter in the right cerebellum compatible with cerebellar gliosis. Taken together, our studies enlarge the group of missense pathogenic mutations of ALDH7A1 gene and reveal a novel cerebellar finding within the PDE patients cohort. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Doxylamine succinate–pyridoxine hydrochloride (Diclegis for the management of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuangchamnong N

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nina Nuangchamnong, Jennifer Niebyl Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa, IA, USA Abstract: Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP is common and often undertreated, in part due to fears of adverse effects of medications on the fetus during early pregnancy. In April 2013, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved doxylamine succinate 10 mg and pyridoxine hydrochloride (a vitamin B6 analog 10 mg as a delayed-release combination pill called Diclegis for the treatment of NVP. Diclegis is currently the only medication that is FDA-approved for the indication of NVP. This review addresses the historical context, safety, efficacy, pharmacology, and practical role of doxylamine and pyridoxine for the management of NVP. The reintroduction of this doxylamine–pyridoxine combination pill into the American market fills a therapeutic gap in the management of NVP left by the removal of the same active drugs marketed over 30 years ago in the form of Bendectin. The substantial amount of safety data accumulated over the years makes it one of the few drugs that qualify for FDA Pregnancy Category A status. In the hierarchical approach to pharmacological treatment of NVP, the combination of doxylamine and pyridoxine should thus be first-tier. Keywords: doxylamine, pyridoxine, vitamin B6, nausea, vomiting, pregnancy

  7. Metabolism of fatty acids and the levels of ketone bodies in the livers of pyridoxine-deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomikawa, Shuzo; Okada, Mitsuko

    1978-01-01

    Lipid metabolism was examined in rats fed a high-protein pyridoxine-deficient diet, and their livers were found to contain large amounts of lipids, mainly in the forms of triglycerides and cholesteryl ester. The contents of ketone bodies in the livers of pyridoxine-deficient and the control rats were similar. Their NAD + /NADH ratios, calculated from the amounts of ketone bodies, were also similar in pyridoxine-deficient and control groups when the animals were fed, but the ratio in pyridoxine-deficient rats was lower than that of control rats when the animals were starved. After injection of 14 C-linoleic acid, the amounts of expired 14 CO 2 in pyridoxine-deficient and control rats were similar. The pattern of incorporations of 14 C-linoleic acid into various lipid components of the livers were examined; incorporation into the phospholipid fraction was similar in control and deficient rats, but the incorporation into the triglyceride fraction was slower, and the incorporation into cholesterol was faster in deficient animals than in controls. (auth.)

  8. MexiB 6 AS A RESULT OF FORTIFICATION OF ETHYLMETHYLHYDROXYPYRIDINE SUCCINATE WITH MAGNESIUM AND PYRIDOXINE: PROTEOME EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Gromova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate (EMHPS  depends on the concentration and activity of proteomic proteins. To provide the body with magnesium and pyridoxine is an important condition for the efficacy of EMHPS because these micronutrients are essential for maintaining neuronal function.Objective: to analyze the biological effects of pyridoxineand magnesium-dependent proteins providing the molecular mechanisms of multi-targeted action of EMHPS,  pyridoxine, and magnesium.Material and methods. Proteins that interact with both pyridoxine and magnesium were found in the genomic and proteomic databases. A list of 78 vitamin B6-dependent proteins, which is based on the available human genome records in NCBIPROTEIN, EMBL,  UNIPROT,  and HumanProteomeMap databases, was analyzed using a functional binding assay. The same assay was also applied to analyze a list 720 magnesium-dependent proteins.Results. The analysis has shown that 78 pyridoxine-dependent proteomic proteins are necessary for: 1 the synthesis and processing of amino acids; 2 cell energy metabolism (ATP synthesis, and 3 the synthesis of neurotransmitters and neuronal membranes. MexiB 6 has numerous synergistic interactions between the molecules of EMHPS,  pyridoxine, and magnesium. The combination of the components of EMHPS,  pyridoxine and magnesium in MexiB 6 (triple synergism allows prediction that the drug has more pronounced clinical effects than the molecules of EMHPS,  which emerges in its antihypoxic and antioxidant activities, the improvement of synaptic transmission of a signal, the neutralization of homocysteine, and the regulation of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism (restoration of cell sensitivity to insulin and carbohydrates in patients with atherosclerosis and in those at risk for diabetes mellitus or obesity. Pyridoxineand magnesium-induced potentiation of the effects of EMHPS may enhance its activity.

  9. Effects of gamma-radiation on some components of food and agricultural products (pyridoxine, folic acid, methionine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehlehtseanu, I.

    1974-01-01

    the effects of gamma radiation on individual components of food and agricultural products (Pyridoxine, folic acid, methionine) were investigated. Some of the studies have provided support for the hypothesis that the structural changes occurring in separately irradiated components of a foodstuff are greater than those taking place in the same components when present in the foodstuff. Results of irradiating pyridoxine and pyridoxal in an aqueous medium; of folic acid in aqueous solutions and in solid state; and of methionine in aqueous solutions and solid state, are given. (E.T.)

  10. Long-Term Follow-up of a Successfully Treated Case of Congenital Pyridoxine-Dependent Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Proudfoot, Malcolm; Jardine, Philip; Straukiene, Agne; Noad, Rupert; Parrish, Andrew; Ellard, Sian; Weatherby, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal recessive disorders affecting pyridoxine (vitamin B6) metabolism are a rare but well-recognized cause of neonatal seizures. Antiquitin deficiency, caused by mutations in ALDH7A1, is a disorder of the lysine degradation pathway causing accumulation of an intermediate that complexes with pyridoxal phosphate. Reports of long-term follow-up of neonatal pyridoxine-dependent seizures (PDS) remain scarce and prognostic information is varied. We report a case of PDS in a 47-year-old lady wh...

  11. Radiolysis of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) in aqueous solution under different conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albarran, Guadalupe; Ramirez-Cahero, Fernando; Aliev, Roustam

    2008-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of pyridoxine (1 mM) without or with additive of K 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ] (2.5 mM) were gamma-irradiated at different doses and dose rate of 2.16 kGy/h in the absence of air, in the presence of air or by their saturation with N 2 O. The radiolytic products were analyzed with HPLC, mass spectrometry and UV spectroscopy. 2,4,5-Trihydroxymethyl-3-pyridinol, pyridoxal, isopyridoxal and 6-hydroxypyridoxine were formed by radiolysis in the absence of K 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ], and their concentrations were much higher in samples saturated with N 2 O. Pyridoxi-3,6-quinone was found by radiolysis under all the above-mentioned conditions but only in the presence of K 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ]. Besides, the pyridoxal formation increased in the presence of this oxidizing agent. G values of pyridoxal formation and pyridoxine degradation were quantified. Some details of the radiolytic product formation were discussed

  12. Radiolysis of pyridoxine (vitamin B{sub 6}) in aqueous solution under different conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albarran, Guadalupe [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico 04510, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: albarran@nucleares.unam.mx; Ramirez-Cahero, Fernando; Aliev, Roustam [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico 04510, D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-05-15

    Aqueous solutions of pyridoxine (1 mM) without or with additive of K{sub 3}[Fe(CN){sub 6}] (2.5 mM) were gamma-irradiated at different doses and dose rate of 2.16 kGy/h in the absence of air, in the presence of air or by their saturation with N{sub 2}O. The radiolytic products were analyzed with HPLC, mass spectrometry and UV spectroscopy. 2,4,5-Trihydroxymethyl-3-pyridinol, pyridoxal, isopyridoxal and 6-hydroxypyridoxine were formed by radiolysis in the absence of K{sub 3}[Fe(CN){sub 6}], and their concentrations were much higher in samples saturated with N{sub 2}O. Pyridoxi-3,6-quinone was found by radiolysis under all the above-mentioned conditions but only in the presence of K{sub 3}[Fe(CN){sub 6}]. Besides, the pyridoxal formation increased in the presence of this oxidizing agent. G values of pyridoxal formation and pyridoxine degradation were quantified. Some details of the radiolytic product formation were discussed.

  13. Profound neonatal hypoglycemia and lactic acidosis caused by pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, Saadet; Horvath, Gabriella A; Coulter-Mackie, Marion; Nelson, Tanya; Waters, Paula J; Sargent, Michael; Struys, Eduard; Jakobs, Cornelis; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; Connolly, Mary B

    2012-05-01

    Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) was first described in 1954. The ALDH7A1 gene mutations resulting in α-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency as a cause of PDE was identified only in 2005. Neonatal epileptic encephalopathy is the presenting feature in >50% of patients with classic PDE. We report the case of a 13-month-old girl with profound neonatal hypoglycemia (0.6 mmol/L; reference range >2.4), lactic acidosis (11 mmol/L; reference range A (p.Val278Val), and a novel putative pathogenic missense mutation c.1192G>C (p.Gly398Arg) in the ALDH7A1 gene. She has been seizure-free since 1.5 months of age on treatment with pyridoxine alone. She has motor delay and central hypotonia but normal language and social development at the age of 13 months. This case is the first description of a patient with PDE due to mutations in the ALDH7A1 gene who presented with profound neonatal hypoglycemia and lactic acidosis masquerading as a neonatal-onset gluconeogenesis defect. PDE should be included in the differential diagnosis of hypoglycemia and lactic acidosis in addition to medically refractory neonatal seizures.

  14. Influence of concentration on the radiolytic decomposition of thiamine, riboflavin, and pyridoxine in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Albarrán

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin loss during irradiation has been claimed as a critical area in food irradiation technology, especially that of thiamine (B1, which has been considered as the most sensitive to radiation. Although it has been suggested that no vitamin deficiency could result from consuming irradiated food, a long debate on the loss of vitamins and other nutrients during food irradiation has been maintained by the lack of experimental studies monitoring decomposition rates at different concentrations and doses. Since thiamine, riboflavin, and pyridoxine are labile vitamins, this study has focused on their radiolytic decomposition in dilute aqueous solutions in the presence of air. The decomposition process was followed by HPLC and UV-spectroscopy. The results obtained in aqueous solutions showed a dependence of the decomposition as a nonlinear function of the dose. Of these three compounds, the decomposition was higher for thiamine than for riboflavin and even less in pyridoxine.

  15. Determination and correlation of pyridoxine hydrochloride solubility in different binary mixtures at temperatures from (278.15 to 313.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Dandan; Li, Xiaona; Wang, Haisheng; Wang, Yan; Du, Shichao; Yu, Bo; Liu, Yumin; Xu, Shijie; Gong, Junbo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of pyridoxine hydrochloride in three binary mixtures was determined. • Experimental solubility of pyridoxine hydrochloride was correlated by four models. • Mixing thermodynamics of pyridoxine hydrochloride were calculated and discussed. - Abstract: The solubility of pyridoxine hydrochloride in binary solvent mixtures, including (acetone + water), (methanol + water) and (ethanol + water), was measured over temperature range from (278.15 to 313.15) K by a gravimetric method at atmospheric pressure (P = 0.1 MPa). The solubility increased with increasing temperature in binary solvent mixtures at constant solvent composition. Besides, the dissolving capacity of pyridoxine hydrochloride in the three binary solvent mixtures at constant temperature ranked as (methanol + water > ethanol + water > acetone + water) in general, partly depending on the polarity of the solvents. Additionally, the modified Apelblat equation, van’t Hoff equation, CNIBS/R–K model and Jouyban–Acree model were used to correlate the solubility data in binary mixtures, it turned out that all the selected thermodynamic models could give satisfactory results. Furthermore, the mixing thermodynamic properties of pyridoxine hydrochloride in different binary solvent mixtures were also calculated and discussed. The results indicate that the mixing process of pyridoxine hydrochloride in the selected solvents is exothermic.

  16. Simultaneous Determination of Pyridoxine and Riboflavin in Energy Drinks by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Andre´s, P.; Escuder-Gilabert, L.; Martín-Biosca, Y.; Sagrado, S.; Medina-Herna´ndez, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks, as familiar consumer products, have been widely used in laboratory courses to help promote student interest, as well as to connect lecture concepts with laboratory work. Energy drinks contain B vitamins: pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and riboflavin (vitamin B2) of which amounts are high enough to be of concern. In this work, a fast and…

  17. Analytical Method Validation and Determination of Pyridoxine, Nicotinamide, and Caffeine in Energy Drinks Using Thin Layer Chromatography-Densitometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentinus Dika Octa Riswanto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Food supplement which contains vitamins and stimulants such as caffeine were classified as energy drink. TLC-densitometry method was chosen to determine the pyridoxine, nicotinamide, and caffeine in the energy drink sample. TLC plates of silica gel 60 F254 was used as the stationary phase and methanol : ethyl acetate : ammonia 25% (134:77:10 was used as the mobile phase. The correlation coefficient for each pyridoxine, nicotinamide, and caffeine were 0.9982, 0.9997, and 0.9966, respectively. Detection and quantitation limits of from the three analytes were 4.05 and 13.51 µg/mL; 13.15 and 43.83 µg/mL; 5.43 and 18.11 µg/mL, respectively. The recovery of pyridoxine, nicotinamide, and caffeine were within the required limit range of 95-105%. The percent of RSD were below the limit value of 5.7% for caffeine and nicotinamide and 8% for pyridoxine. The content amount of pyridoxine in the sample 1 and 2 were 33.59 ± 0.981 and 30.29 ± 2.061 µg/mL, respectively. The content amount of nicotinamide in the sample 1 and 2 were 106.53 ± 3.521 and 98.20 ± 3.648 µg/mL, respectively. The content amount of caffeine in the sample 1 and 2 were 249.50 ± 5.080 and 252.80 ± 2.640 µg/mL, respectively. Robustness test results showed that the most optimal method conditions should be applied for the analysis.

  18. The Postprandial Anti-Hyperglycemic Effect of Pyridoxine and Its Derivatives Using In Vitro and In Vivo Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuk Hwa Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, we investigated the inhibitory activity of pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine, against various digestive enzymes such as α-glucosidases, sucrase, maltase, and glucoamylase. Inhibition of these enzymes involved in the absorption of disaccharide can improve post-prandial hyperglycemia due to a carbohydrate-based diet. Pyridoxal (4.14 mg/mL of IC50 had the highest rat intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, followed by pyridoxamine and pyridoxine (4.85 and 5.02 mg/mL of IC50, respectively. Pyridoxal demonstrated superior inhibition against maltase (0.38 mg/mL IC50 and glucoamylase (0.27 mg/mLIC50. In addition, pyridoxal showed significant higher α-amylase inhibitory activity (10.87 mg/mL of IC50 than that of pyridoxine (23.18 mg/mL of IC50. This indicates that pyridoxal can also inhibit starch hydrolyzing by pancreatic α-amylase in small intestine. Based on these in vitro results, the deeper evaluation of the anti-hyperglycemic potential of pyridoxine and its derivatives using Sprague-Dawley (SD rat models, was initiated. The post-prandial blood glucose levels were tested two hours after sucrose/starch administration, with and without pyridoxine and its derivatives. In the animal trial, pyridoxal (p < 0.05 had a significantly reduction to the postprandial glucose levels, when compared to the control. The maximum blood glucose levels (Cmax of pyridoxal administration group were decreased by about 18% (from 199.52 ± 22.93 to 164.10 ± 10.27, p < 0.05 and 19% (from 216.92 ± 12.46 to 175.36 ± 10.84, p < 0.05 in sucrose and starch loading tests, respectively, when compared to the control in pharmacodynamics study. The pyridoxal administration significantly decreased the minimum, maximum, and mean level of post-prandial blood glucose at 0.5 h after meals. These results indicate that water-soluble vitamin pyridoxine and its derivatives can decrease blood glucose level via the inhibition of carbohydrate

  19. Simultaneous determination of riboflavin and pyridoxine by UHPLC/LC-MS in UK commercial infant meal food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, Nazanin; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Pullen, Frank S; Snowden, Martin J; Tetteh, John

    2012-12-15

    An assay for the simultaneous quantitative determination of riboflavin and pyridoxine in eight different complementary infant meal products has been developed in order to (1) estimate the daily intake of these vitamins from commercial infant food consumption, and (2) ascertain their nutritional suitability relative to dietary guidelines for the 6-9 months age group. The method involves mild hydrolysis of the foods, an extraction of the supernatant by centrifugation followed by quantitative determination using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. Separation of the two water soluble vitamins is achieved within one minute and the resultant sample is also LC-MS compatible. Despite wide individual differences between brands (p=6.5e-12), no significant differences were observed in the level of pyridoxine between the meat and vegetable-based varieties (p=0.7) per 100g of commercial infant food. Riboflavin was not detected in any of the samples where the detection limit was below 0.07 μg/mL. In terms of the Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI) of pyridoxine for 6-9 months old infants, the complementary infant meal products analysed herein provided less than 15% of the RNI values with mean (SD) values of 12.87 (± 4.46)% and 13.88 (± 4.97)% for the meat- and vegetable-based recipes, respectively. The estimated total daily intake of riboflavin and pyridoxine from the consumption of commercial complementary food was found to be satisfactory and in accordance with the Dietary Reference Values (DRVs). The intake of both riboflavin and pyridoxine was estimated to be mainly derived from the consumption of formula milk which could be a cause of concern if the quality of an infant's milk diet is compromised by an inadequate or lack of supplemented milk intake. The results of this study suggest that the selected commercial complementary infant foods in the UK market may not contain the minimum levels of riboflavin and pyridoxine required for the labelling declaration of the

  20. Direct and indirect effects of RNA interference against pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase genes in Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, ShuoHao; Yao, LiLi; Zhang, JianYun; Huang, LongQuan

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin B6 comprises six interconvertible pyridine compounds (vitamers), among which pyridoxal 5'-phosphate is a coenzyme involved in a high diversity of biochemical reactions. Humans and animals obtain B6 vitamers from diet, and synthesize pyridoxal 5'-phosphate by pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase. Currently, little is known on how pyridoxal 5'-phosphate biosynthesis is regulated, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate is supplied to meet their requirement in terms of cofactor. Bombyx mori is a large silk-secreting insect, in which protein metabolism is most active, and the vitamin B6 demand is high. In this study, we successfully down-regulated the gene expression of pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase by body cavity injection of synthesized double-stranded small interfering RNA to 5th instar larvae of Bombyx mori, and analyzed the gene transcription levels of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate dependent enzymes, phosphoserine aminotransferase and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase. Results show that the gene expression of pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase has a greater impact on the gene transcription of enzymes using pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a cofactor in Bombyx mori. Our study suggests that pyridoxal 5'-phosphate biosynthesis and dynamic balance may be regulated by genetic networks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of pyrithioxine and pyridoxine on individual behavior, social interactions, and learning in rats malnourished in early postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikal, K; Benesová, O; Franková, S

    1976-04-15

    Low protein (LP) or low calorie (LC) dietary regimens were applied in early postnatal life(1st-40th day of life) in male rats. After nutritional rehabilitation, open-field behavior in larger more illuminated boxes (HI, high intensity stimulus), and smaller, less illuminated boxes (HI, high intensity stimulus), and smaller, less illuminated boxes (HI, high intensity stimulus), and smaller, less illuminated boxes (HI, high intensity stimulus), dyadic interactions, and learning ability were investigated in these animals as adults (between the 200th to 300th day of life). LP malnutrition induced an increase of open-field activity with features of sterotypy both in LI and HI situations, an increase number of intersignal reactions during learning procedures without changes in other registered criteria of learning ability (latency, number of correct responses), and an increase of aggressive behavior in pair interaction. LC rats revealed only significant inhibition in LI--open-field activity and a slightly increased number in intersignal reactions during avoidance learning. With the aim of preventing previously described long-term deviations in early malnourished rats, some groups of animals with the above-mentioned early calorie or protein deficits were treated with pyrithioxine (Encephabol Merck) or pyridoxine in 10 doses of 40 mg/kg i.p. administered in the period when nutritional rehabilitation was carried out (between the 40th--50th day of life). The treatment with pyrithioxine reduced significantly behavioral disturbances in adult LP rats except the increase of intersignal reactions which was even potentiated. Pyridoxine was less effective but normalized the increase number of intersignal reactions both in LP and LC rats. The effect of pyridoxine of adult LC rats was interesting. There was significant improvement in all registered parameters of avoidance learning and a significant increase of sexual acts was recorded.

  2. Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy initially responsive to phenobarbital Epilepsia por dependência de piridoxina inicialmente responsiva ao fenobarbital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Lin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy is a rare autossomal recessive disorder characterized by recurrent seizures that are not controlled by anticonvulsant medications but remits after administration of pyridoxine. We report on a 30 day-old girl who presented with seizures during the first day of life, initially responsive to anticonvulsant therapy, which remitted within two weeks. Seizures were characterized as multifocal myoclonic jerks of upper and lower limbs associated with buccal-lingual oral movements and eyelid blinking. Laboratory and neuroimaging studies were normal. Electroencephalographic record demonstrated a abnormal background activity with high-voltage epileptic discharges and a burst-suppression pattern. The seizures ceased after oral administration of pyridoxine, but recurred after withdrawal, confirming the diagnosis.A epilepsia por dependência de piridoxina é uma doença autossômica recessiva rara caracterizada por crises recorrentes refratárias a tratamento medicamentoso, mas que remitem após a administração de piridoxina. Relatamos o caso de menina de 30 dias de vida que iniciou crises convulsivas desde o primeiro dia de vida, inicialmente responsivas a tratamento com drogas anticonvulsivantes, mas que reiniciaram após a segunda semana de vida. As crises eram caracterizadas por movimentos clônicos erráticos de membros superiores e inferiores associados a movimentos oromandibulares e piscamentos. Exames laboratoriais e de neuroimagem foram normais. O exame eletrencefalográfico evidenciou atividade de base desorganizada com descargas epilépticas de alta voltagem associadas a um padrão de surto-supressão. As crises cessaram após a administração de piridoxina e recorreram após a sua retirada, confirmando o diagnóstico.

  3. The distribution of thiamin and pyridoxine in the western tropical North Atlantic Amazon River plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Pualani Barada

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available B-vitamins are recognized as essential organic growth factors for many organisms, although little is known about their abundance and distribution in marine ecosystems. Despite their metabolic functions regulating important enzymatic reactions, the methodology to directly measure different B-vitamins in aquatic environments has only recently been developed. Here, we present the first direct measurements of two B-vitamins, thiamin (B1 and pyridoxine (B6, in the Amazon River plume-influenced Western Tropical North Atlantic (WTNA Ocean, an area known to have high productivity, carbon (C and dinitrogen (N2 fixation, and C sequestration. The vitamins B1 and B6 ranged in concentrations from undetectable to 230 pM and 40 pM, respectively. Significantly higher concentrations were measured in the surface plume water at some stations and variation with salinity was observed, suggesting a possible riverine influence on those B-vitamins. The influences of vitamins B1 and B6 on biogeochemical processes such as C and N2 fixation were investigated using a linear-regression model that indicated that the availability of those organic factors could affect these rates in the WTNA. In fact, significant increases in C fixation and N2 fixation were observed with increasing vitamin B1 concentrations at some low and mesohaline stations (stations 9.1 and 1; p value <0.017 and <0.03, respectively. N2 fixation was also found to have a significant positive correlation with B1 concentrations at station 1 (p value = 0.029, as well as vitamin B6 at station 9.1 (p value <0.017. This work suggests that there can be a dynamic interplay between essential biogeochemical rates (C and N2 fixation and B-vitamins, drawing attention to potential roles of B-vitamins in ecosystem dynamics, community structure, and global biogeochemistry.

  4. Growth Patterns in the Irish Pyridoxine Nonresponsive Homocystinuria Population and the Influence of Metabolic Control and Protein Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Orla; Coughlan, Aoife; Grant, Tim; McNulty, Jenny; Clark, Anne; Deverell, Deirdre; Mayne, Philip; Hughes, Joanne; Monavari, Ahmad; Knerr, Ina; Crushell, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    A low methionine diet is the mainstay of treatment for pyridoxine nonresponsive homocystinuria (HCU). There are various guidelines for recommended protein intakes for HCU and clinical practice varies. Poor growth has been associated with low cystine levels. This retrospective review of 48 Irish pyridoxine nonresponsive HCU patients assessed weight, height, body mass index (BMI), protein intake, and metabolic control up to 18 years at nine set time points. Patients diagnosed through newborn screening (NBS) were compared to late diagnosed (LD) patients. At 18 years the LD group ( n = 12, mean age at diagnosis 5.09 years) were heavier (estimated effect +4.97 Kg, P = 0.0058) and taller (estimated effect +7.97 cm P = 0.0204) than the NBS group ( n = 36). There was no difference in growth rate between the groups after 10 years of age. The HCU population were heavier and taller than the general population by one standard deviation with no difference in BMI. There was no association between intermittently low cystine levels and height. Three protein intake guidelines were compared; there was no difference in adult height between those who met the lowest of the guidelines (Genetic Metabolic Dietitians International) and those with a higher protein intake.

  5. Pyridoxine Supplementation Improves the Activity of Recombinant Glutamate Decarboxylase and the Enzymatic Production of Gama-Aminobutyric Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Huang

    Full Text Available Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD catalyzes the irreversible decarboxylation of L-glutamate to the valuable food supplement γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA. In this study, GAD from Escherichia coli K12, a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP-dependent enzyme, was overexpressed in E. coli. The GAD produced in media supplemented with 0.05 mM soluble vitamin B6 analog pyridoxine hydrochloride (GAD-V activity was 154.8 U mL-1, 1.8-fold higher than that of GAD obtained without supplementation (GAD-C. Purified GAD-V exhibited increased activity (193.4 U mg-1, 1.5-fold higher than that of GAD-C, superior thermostability (2.8-fold greater than that of GAD-C, and higher kcat/Km (1.6-fold higher than that of GAD-C. Under optimal conditions in reactions mixtures lacking added PLP, crude GAD-V converted 500 g L-1 monosodium glutamate (MSG to GABA with a yield of 100%, and 750 g L-1 MSG with a yield of 88.7%. These results establish the utility of pyridoxine supplementation and lay the foundation for large-scale enzymatic production of GABA.

  6. Growth Patterns in the Irish Pyridoxine Nonresponsive Homocystinuria Population and the Influence of Metabolic Control and Protein Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orla Purcell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A low methionine diet is the mainstay of treatment for pyridoxine nonresponsive homocystinuria (HCU. There are various guidelines for recommended protein intakes for HCU and clinical practice varies. Poor growth has been associated with low cystine levels. This retrospective review of 48 Irish pyridoxine nonresponsive HCU patients assessed weight, height, body mass index (BMI, protein intake, and metabolic control up to 18 years at nine set time points. Patients diagnosed through newborn screening (NBS were compared to late diagnosed (LD patients. At 18 years the LD group (n=12, mean age at diagnosis 5.09 years were heavier (estimated effect +4.97 Kg, P=0.0058 and taller (estimated effect +7.97 cm P=0.0204 than the NBS group (n=36. There was no difference in growth rate between the groups after 10 years of age. The HCU population were heavier and taller than the general population by one standard deviation with no difference in BMI. There was no association between intermittently low cystine levels and height. Three protein intake guidelines were compared; there was no difference in adult height between those who met the lowest of the guidelines (Genetic Metabolic Dietitians International and those with a higher protein intake.

  7. Aromatic Amino Acid Decarboxylase Deficiency Not Responding to Pyridoxine and Bromocriptine Therapy: Case Report and Review of Response to Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Alfadhel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC deficiency (MIM #608643 is an autosomal recessive inborn error of monoamines. It is caused by a mutation in the DDC gene that leads to a deficiency in the AADC enzyme. The clinical features of this condition include a combination of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin deficiencies, and a patient may present with hypotonia, oculogyric crises, sweating, hypersalivation, autonomic dysfunction, and progressive encephalopathy with severe developmental delay. We report the case of an 8-month-old boy who presented with the abovementioned symptoms and who was diagnosed with AADC deficiency based on clinical, biochemical, and molecular investigations. Treatment with bromocriptine and pyridoxine showed no improvement. These data support the findings observed among previously reported cohorts that showed poor response of this disease to current regimens. Alternative therapies are needed to ameliorate the clinical complications associated with this disorder.

  8. Simultaneous determination of niacin and pyridoxine at trace levels by using diode array high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sel, Sabriye; Öztürk Er, Elif; Bakırdere, Sezgin

    2017-12-01

    A highly sensitive and simple diode-array high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of niacin and pyridoxine in pharmaceutical drugs, tap water, and wastewater samples. To determine the in vivo behavior of niacin and pyridoxine, analytes were subjected to simulated gastric conditions. The calibration plots of the diode-array high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry method showed good linearity over a wide concentration range with close to 1.0 correlation coefficients for both analytes. The limit of detection/limit of quantitation values for liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry analysis were 1.98/6.59 and 1.3/4.4 μg/L for niacin and pyridoxine, respectively, while limit of detection/limit of quantitation values for niacin and pyridoxine in high-performance liquid chromatography analysis were 3.7/12.3 and 5.7/18.9 μg/L, respectively. Recovery studies were also performed to show the applicability of the developed methods, and percentage recovery values were found to be 90-105% in tap water and 94-97% in wastewater for both analytes. The method was also successfully applied for the qualitative and quantitative determination of niacin and pyridoxine in drug samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Highly sensitive interference-free electrochemical determination of pyridoxine at graphene modified electrode: Importance in Parkinson and Asthma treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, M Amal; Gowthaman, N S K; John, S Abraham

    2016-07-15

    To reduce the side effects in the medication of Parkinson and Asthma, pyridoxine (PY) is administered along with l-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl alanine (l-dopa) and theophylline (TP), respectively. However, excessive dosage of PY leads to nervous disorder. Thus, a sensitive and selective electrochemical method was developed for the determination of PY in the presence of major interferences including TP, l-dopa, ascorbic acid (AA) and riboflavin (RB) using electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) film modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) in this paper. The ERGO fabrication process involves the nucleophilic substitution of graphene oxide at basic pH on amine terminal of 1,6-hexadiamine which was pre-assembled on GCE followed by electrochemical reduction. The electrocatalytic activity of the ERGO modified electrode was examined towards the oxidation of PY. It greatly enhanced the oxidation current of PY in contrast to bare and GO modified GCEs due to facile electron transfer besides π-π interaction between ERGO film and PY. Since TP and l-dopa drugs antagonize the drug action of PY, ERGO modified GCE was also used for the simultaneous determination of PY and l-dopa and PY and TP. Further, the selective determination of PY in the presence of other water soluble vitamins such as ascorbic acid and riboflavin was also demonstrated. Using amperometry, detection of 100nM PY was achieved and the detection limit was found to be 5.6×10(-8)M (S/N=3). The practical application of the present method was demonstrated by determining the concentration of PY in human blood serum and commercial drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The biomarker-based validity of a food frequency questionnaire to assess the intake status of folate, pyridoxine and cobalamin among Iranian primary breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirouzpanah, S; Taleban, F-A; Mehdipour, P; Atri, M; Hooshyareh-rad, A; Sabour, S

    2014-03-01

    Folate, pyridoxine and cobalamin are coenzymatically essential in one-carbon methyl metabolism, and their deficiencies could explain some alterations during breast carcinogenesis. We aimed to evaluate the validity of folate, pyridoxine and cobalamin estimates from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) on the basis of their corresponding fasting plasma biomarkers, in breast cancer (BC) patients. In a prospective, consecutive case series, 149 women with primary BC aged between 30 and 69 years as a representative sample of Iranian women with BC were recruited. The 136-item FFQ was used for the validity assay. Fasting plasma folate and cobalamin were tested by automated electrochemiluminescence. The high-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was used to determine the plasma levels of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) and total homocysteine (tHcy). Area under the curve (AUC) for assessing the diagnostic accuracy of folate-related data through an FFQ was 0.74 (Pfasting plasma concentrations. Our data supported the validity of new FFQ to rank individuals by dietary intake status of folate and cobalamin.

  11. Fluconazole-Pyridoxine Bis-Triazolium Compounds with Potent Activity against Pathogenic Bacteria and Fungi Including Their Biofilm-Embedded Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsel R. Garipov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two novel quaternary ammonium salts, bis-triazolium derivatives of fluconazole and pyridoxine, were synthesized by reaction of fluconazole with pyridoxine-based synthetic intermediates. The leading compound demonstrated pronounced antimycotic and antibacterial in vitro activity, comparable to or exceeding that of the reference antifungal (fluconazole, terbinafine and antibacterial/antiseptic (miramistin, benzalkonium chloride agents. In contrast to many antimicrobials, the leading compound was also active against biofilm-embedded staphylococci and Escherichia coli. While no biofilm structure destruction occurred, all compounds were able to diffuse into the matrix and reduce the number of colony-forming units by three orders of magnitude at 16 × MBC. The leading compound was significantly less toxic than miramistin and benzalkonium chloride and more toxic than the reference antifungal drugs. The obtained results make the described chemotype a promising starting point for the development of new broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapies with powerful effect on fungal and bacterial pathogens including their biofilm-embedded forms.

  12. Effects of a leucine and pyridoxine-containing nutraceutical on body weight and composition in obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemel MB

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael B Zemel,1,2 Antje Bruckbauer11NuSirt Sciences Inc, 2Nutrition Department, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USABackground: We recently demonstrated leucine to modulate energy partitioning between adipose tissue and muscle. Further, leucine exhibits a synergy with B6, resulting in reduced adipocyte lipid storage coupled with increased muscle fat oxidation. Accordingly, a nutraceutical (NuShape™ containing 2.25 g leucine and 30 mg B6 increased fat oxidation by > 30 g/day in a 28-day randomized controlled trial. The present study evaluated the long-term efficacy of this combination in modulating body weight and composition.Methods: Two 24-week, placebo-controlled, randomized trials, one with weight maintenance (n = 20 and one hypocaloric (-500 kcal/day; n = 24, were conducted using the nutraceutical Nushape in obese subjects.Results: The supplement resulted in fat loss in the maintenance study (-1.12 ± 0.36 and -1.82 ± 0.70 kg at 12 and 24 weeks, P < 0.01 versus placebo while no change was found in the placebo group. In the hypocaloric study, the supplement group lost up to twice as much weight (6.18 ± 1.02 versus 3.40 ± 0.81 kg at 12 weeks and 8.15 ± 1.33 versus 5.25 ± 1.13 kg at 24 weeks, P < 0.01 and fat (4.96 ± 0.61 versus 2.31 ± 0.53 kg at 12 weeks and 7.00 ± 0.95 versus 4.22 ± 0.74 kg at 24 weeks, P < 0.01 than the placebo group.Conclusion: This nutraceutical combination results in significant fat loss in the absence of caloric restriction and markedly enhances weight and fat loss by 50%–80% over a 24-week period.Keywords: leucine, vitamin B6, pyridoxine, fat loss, weight loss, caloric restriction, adiposity, body composition

  13. Non-covalent interactions between {N,N′-bis[(2-pyridinyl)methylene]-1, 2-benzenediamine]-bis(nitrato)}Cu(II) with pyridoxine hydrochloride in methanol at T = (298.15, 308.15 and 318.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahman, Dhiraj; Sinha, Biswajit

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Methanolic solution of pyridoxine hydrochloride used as solvent. • {N,N′-bis[(2-pyridinyl)methylene]-1, 2-benzenediamine]-bis(nitrato)}Cu(II) used as solute. • Partial molar volumes and viscosity B-coefficients of the solute were determined. • Weak 1:1 association between the complex and pyridoxine hydrochloride found. • Non-covalent interactions and Cu(II) complex acts as a net structure maker in the ternary solutions. - Abstract: Non-covalent interactions between of {N,N′-bis[(2-pyridinyl)methylene]-1, 2-benzenediamine]-bis(nitrato)}Cu(II) with pyridoxine hydrochloride in methanol were investigated by a combination of physico-chemical and spectrophotometric methods at T = (298.15, 308.15 and 318.15) K under ambient pressure. From measured density and viscosity data the apparent molar volume (ϕ V ), the slope (S V ∗ ), standard partial molar volume (ϕ V 0 ), standard transfer volume (Δ t ϕ V 0 ), isobaric apparent molar expansibility (ϕ E ), standard isobaric partial molar expansibility (ϕ E 0 ), the viscosity B-coefficient, its temperature derivative (∂B/∂T), solvation number (S n ) were calculated and discussed on the basis of specific or non-specific (solute + cosolute) and (solute + solvent) interactions. Thermodynamics of viscous flow were discussed on the basis of the transition state theory. Spectrophotometric results indicated 1:1 (solute + cosolute) interaction between the complex and pyridoxine hydrochloride

  14. Doxylamine and Pyridoxine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It works by blocking the action of certain natural substances in the body that may contribute to ... of the eyes) difficulty urinating or painful urination fast, irregular, or ... the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  15. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of a pyridoxine 5′-phosphate oxidase from Mycobacterium smegmatis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Colin J.; Taylor, Matthew C.; Tattersall, David B.; French, Nigel G.; Carr, Paul D.; Ollis, David L.; Russell, Robyn J.; Oakeshott, John G.

    2008-01-01

    Good-quality crystals of selenomethionine-substituted Msmeg-3380 were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique and diffracted to 1.2 Å using synchrotron radiation. Pyridoxine 5′-phosphate oxidases (PNPOxs) are known to catalyse the terminal step in pyridoxal 5′-phosphate biosynthesis in a flavin mononucleotide-dependent manner in humans and Escherichia coli. Recent reports of a putative PNPOx from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Rv1155, suggest that the cofactor or catalytic mechanism may differ in Mycobacterium species. To investigate this, a putative PNPOx from M. smegmatis, Msmeg-3380, has been cloned. This enzyme has been recombinantly expressed in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. Good-quality crystals of selenomethionine-substituted Msmeg-3380 were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique and diffracted to 1.2 Å using synchrotron radiation

  16. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of a pyridoxine 5′-phosphate oxidase from Mycobacterium smegmatis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Colin J., E-mail: colin.jackson@csiro.au; Taylor, Matthew C.; Tattersall, David B.; French, Nigel G. [CSIRO Entomology, Black Mountain, ACT 2601 (Australia); Carr, Paul D.; Ollis, David L. [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Russell, Robyn J.; Oakeshott, John G. [CSIRO Entomology, Black Mountain, ACT 2601 (Australia)

    2008-05-01

    Good-quality crystals of selenomethionine-substituted Msmeg-3380 were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique and diffracted to 1.2 Å using synchrotron radiation. Pyridoxine 5′-phosphate oxidases (PNPOxs) are known to catalyse the terminal step in pyridoxal 5′-phosphate biosynthesis in a flavin mononucleotide-dependent manner in humans and Escherichia coli. Recent reports of a putative PNPOx from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Rv1155, suggest that the cofactor or catalytic mechanism may differ in Mycobacterium species. To investigate this, a putative PNPOx from M. smegmatis, Msmeg-3380, has been cloned. This enzyme has been recombinantly expressed in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. Good-quality crystals of selenomethionine-substituted Msmeg-3380 were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique and diffracted to 1.2 Å using synchrotron radiation.

  17. The Effects of Methionine-Enriched and Vitamins (Folate, Pyridoxine and Cobalamine-Deficient Diet on Exploratory Activity in Rats - A Brief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijailovic Natasa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of increased homocysteine levels induced by methionine nutritional overload (twice as standard and deficiency of the vitamins folate, pyridoxine and cobalamine, which plays an important role in homocysteine metabolism in anxiety-related behaviour, expressed by means of exploratory activity in rats. Twenty-three male Wistar albino rats (4 weeks old, 100±15 g body weight were divided into three groups: control (n=8, methionine-enriched (Meth+, 7.7 g of methionine/kg chow, n=7 and methionine-enriched vitamin-deficient (Meth+Vit-, 7.7 g of methionine/ kg chow, deficient in folate, pyridoxine and cobalamine - 0.08, 0.01 and 0.01 mg/kg, n=8. All animals had free access to food and water for 30 days. Behavioural testing was performed using the elevated plus maze (EPM test. Standard parameters for vertical exploratory activity, the number of rearings and the number of head-dippings, as well as the total exploratory activity (summarizing overall exploratory activity in the EPM were significantly reduced following 30 days of methionine nutritional overload (p<0.05, p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively. A methionine-enriched diet coupled with a reduction in some B vitamins resulted in a more pronounced decline in exploratory drive observed in the EPM test compared to the control (p<0.01. The decline in total exploratory activity associated with vitamin deficiency was significant compared to the Meth+ group (p<0.05. The results of this study highlight the important role of homocysteine in the modulation of exploratory activity in rats. Decreased exploratory drive induced by both a methionine-enriched and vitamin-deficient diet could be attributed to an anxiogenic effect of hyperhomocysteinemia.

  18. Characterization of the first knock-out aldh7a1 zebrafish model for pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy using CRISPR-Cas9 technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabinyakov, Nikita; Bullivant, Garrett; Cao, Feng; Fernandez Ojeda, Matilde; Jia, Zheng Ping; Wen, Xiao-Yan; Dowling, James J; Salomons, Gajja S; Mercimek-Andrews, Saadet

    2017-01-01

    Pyridoxine dependent epilepsy (PDE) is caused by likely pathogenic variants in ALDH7A1 (PDE-ALDH7A1) and inherited autosomal recessively. Neurotoxic alpha-amino adipic semialdehyde (alpha-AASA), piperideine 6-carboxylate and pipecolic acid accumulate in body fluids. Neonatal or infantile onset seizures refractory to anti-epileptic medications are clinical features. Treatment with pyridoxine, arginine and lysine-restricted diet does not normalize neurodevelopmental outcome or accumulation of neurotoxic metabolites. There is no animal model for high throughput drug screening. For this reason, we developed and characterized the first knock-out aldh7a1 zebrafish model using CRISPR-Cas9 technology. Zebrafish aldh7a1 mutants were generated by using a vector free method of CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis. Genotype analysis of aldh7a1 knock-out zebrafish was performed by high resolution melt analysis, direct sequencing and QIAxcel system. Electroencephalogram was performed. Alpha-AASA, piperideine 6-carboxylate and pipecolic acid, were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Our knock-out aldh7a1 zebrafish has homozygous 5 base pair (bp) mutation in ALDH7A1. Knock-out aldh7a1 embryos have spontaneous rapid increase in locomotion and a rapid circling swim behavior earliest 8-day post fertilization (dpf). Electroencephalogram revealed large amplitude spike discharges compared to wild type. Knock-out aldh7a1 embryos have elevated alpha-AASA, piperideine 6-carboxylate and pipecolic acid compared to wild type embryos at 3 dpf. Knock-out aldh7a1 embryos showed no aldh7a1 protein by western blot compared to wild type. Our knock-out aldh7a1 zebrafish is a well characterized model for large-scale drug screening using behavioral and biochemical features and accurately recapitulates the human PDE-ALDH7A1 disease.

  19. Validation of a rapid micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of isoniazid and pyridoxine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemutlu, E; Celebier, M; Uyar, B; Altinöz, S

    2007-07-01

    An efficient and reliable micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of isoniazid (ISO) and pyridoxine hydrochloride (PYR) in pharmaceutical formulations. A chemometric two level full factorial design approach was used to search for the optimum conditions of separation. Three parameters were selected for this study: the buffer pH, the buffer concentration and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) concentrations. Resolution, peak symmetry and analysis time were established as response. The two analytes were separated within 6 min with the optimized conditions: 50 mM borate buffer, 25 mM SDS pH 7.8, 35 degrees C, at 50 mbar 4s injection and 30 kV by using a fused silica capillary (72 cm effective length, 50 microm i.d.). The detection wavelength was set to 205 nm. Meloxicam was used as internal standard. The method was validated with respect to stability, linearity range, limit of quantitation and detection, precision, accuracy, specificity and robustness. The detection limits of the method were 1.0 microg mL(-1) for ISO and 0.40 microg mL(-1) for PYR and the method was linear at least in the range of 3.0-100 microg mL(-1) for ISO and 1.0-100 microg mL(-1) for PYR with excellent correlation coefficients (0.9995 for ISO and 0.9998 for PYR). Relative standard deviations (R.S.D.s) of the described method ranged between 0.54 and 2.27% for intra-day precision and between 0.65 and 2.69% for inter-day precision. The developed method was applied to the tablet form of ISO and PYR-containing the pharmaceutical preparations and the data were compared with obtained from the standard addition method. No statistically significant difference was found.

  20. In vitro and in vivo gene therapy with CMV vector-mediated presumed dog beta-nerve growth factor in pyridoxine-induced neuropathy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jin Young; Choi, Jung Hoon; Shin, Il Seob; Choi, Eun Wha; Hwang, Cheol Yong; Lee, Sang Koo; Youn, Hwa Young

    2008-12-01

    Due to the therapeutic potential of gene therapy for neuronal injury, many studies of neurotrophic factors, vectors, and animal models have been performed. The presumed dog beta-nerve growth factor (pdbeta-NGF) was generated and cloned and its expression was confirmed in CHO cells. The recombinant pdbeta-NGF protein reacted with a human beta-NGF antibody and showed bioactivity in PC12 cells. The pdbeta-NGF was shown to have similar bioactivity to the dog beta-NGF. The recombinant pdbeta-NGF plasmid was administrated into the intrathecal space in the gene therapy group. Twenty-four hours after the vector inoculation, the gene therapy group and the positive control group were intoxicated with excess pyridoxine for seven days. Each morning throughout the test period, the dogs' body weight was taken and postural reaction assessments were made. Electrophysiological recordings were performed twice, once before the experiment and once after the test period. After the experimental period, histological analysis was performed. Dogs in the gene therapy group had no weight change and were normal in postural reaction assessments. Electrophysiological recordings were also normal for the gene therapy group. Histological analysis showed that neither the axons nor the myelin of the dorsal funiculus of L4 were severely damaged in the gene therapy group. In addition, the dorsal root ganglia of L4 and the peripheral nerves (sciatic nerve) did not experience severe degenerative changes in the gene therapy group. This study is the first to show the protective effect of NGF gene therapy in a dog model.

  1. Dietary pyridoxine deficiency reduced growth performance and impaired intestinal immune function associated with TOR and NF-κB signalling of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary pyridoxine (PN) deficiency on growth performance, intestinal immune function and the potential regulation mechanisms in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were fed six diets containing graded levels of PN (0.12-7.48 mg/kg) for 70 days. After that, a challenge test was conducted by infection of Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 days. The results showed that compared with the optimal PN level, PN deficiency: (1) reduced the production of innate immune components such as lysozyme (LZ), acid phosphatase (ACP), complements and antimicrobial peptides and adaptive immune components such as immunoglobulins in three intestinal segments of young grass carp (P TOR) signalling [TOR/ribosomal protein S6 kinases 1 (S6K1) and eIF4E-binding proteins (4E-BP)] in three intestinal segments of young grass carp; (3) up-regulated the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) [not in the proximal intestine (PI) and distal intestine (DI)], IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-15 and IL-17D [(rather than interferon γ2 (IFN-γ2)] partly relating to nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signalling [IκB kinase β (IKKβ) and IKKγ/inhibitor of κBα (IκBα)/NF-κB (p65 and c-Rel)] in three intestinal segments of young grass carp. These results suggest that PN deficiency could impair the intestinal immune function, and the potential regulation mechanisms were partly associated with TOR and NF-κB signalling pathways. In addition, based on percent weight gain (PWG), the ability against enteritis and LZ activity, the dietary PN requirements for young grass carp were estimated to be 4.43, 4.75 and 5.07 mg/kg diet, respectively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, D-biotin and pumpkin seed oil and maintenance of normal hair pursuant to Article 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following two applications from Nutrilinks Sarl, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health...... claim related to a combination of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, D-biotin and pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo L.) and maintenance of normal hair. The Panel considers that the specified combination is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effects are “contributes to reduce......, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, D-biotin and pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo L.) and maintenance of normal hair....

  3. Comparative ANNs with Different Input Layers and GA-PLS Study for Simultaneous Spectrofluorimetric Determination of Melatonin and Pyridoxine HCl in the Presence of Melatonin’s Main Impurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer M. Alanazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin (MLT has many health implications, therefore it is important to develop specific analytical methods for the determination of MLT in the presence of its main impurity, N-{2-[1-({3-[2-(acetylaminoethyl]-5-methoxy-1H-indol-2-yl}methyl-5-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl]ethyl}acetaamide (DMLT and pyridoxine HCl (PNH as a co-formulated drug. This work describes simple, sensitive, and reliable four multivariate calibration methods, namely artificial neural network preceded by genetic algorithm (GA-ANN, principal component analysis (PCA-ANN and wavelet transform procedures (WT-ANN as well as partial least squares preceded by genetic algorithm (GA-PLS for the spectrofluorimetric determination of MLT and PNH in the presence of DMLT. Analytical performance of the proposed methods was statistically validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision and specificity. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the assay of MLT in laboratory prepared mixtures containing up to 15% of DMLT and in commercial MLT tablets with recoveries of no less than 99.00%. No interference was observed from common pharmaceutical additives and the results compared favorably with those obtained by a reference method.

  4. 21 CFR 184.1676 - Pyridoxine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE...)(31) of this chapter; plant protein products as defined in § 170.3(n)(33) of this chapter; and snack...

  5. Aplicação de métodos de calibração multivariada para a determinação simultânea de riboflavina (VB2, tiamina (VB1, piridoxina (VB6 e nicotinamida (VPP UV spectrophotrometry and chemometrics methods for simultaneous determinations of riboflavin (VB2, thiamine (VB1, pyridoxine (VB6 and nicotinamide (VPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela C. Barthus

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the artificial neural networks (ANN and partial least squares (PLS regression were applied to UV spectral data for quantitative determination of thiamin hydrochloride (VB1, riboflavin phosphate (VB2, pyridoxine hydrochloride (VB6 and nicotinamide (VPP in pharmaceutical samples. For calibration purposes, commercial samples in 0.2 mol L-1 acetate buffer (pH 4.0 were employed as standards. The concentration ranges used in the calibration step were: 0.1 - 7.5 mg L-1 for VB1, 0.1 - 3.0 mg L-1 for VB2, 0.1 - 3.0 mg L-1 for VB6 and 0.4 - 30.0 mg L-1 for VPP. From the results it is possible to verify that both methods can be successfully applied for these determinations. The similar error values were obtained by using neural network or PLS methods. The proposed methodology is simple, rapid and can be easily used in quality control laboratories.

  6. Study on fluorescence spectra of thiamine, riboflavin and pyridoxine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Xiao, Xue; Zhao, Xuesong; Hu, Lan; Lv, Caofang; Yin, Zhangkun

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the intrinsic fluorescence characteristics of vitamin B1, B2 and B6 measured with 3D fluorescence Spectrophotometer. Three strong fluorescence areas of vitamin B2 locate at λex/λem=270/525nm, 370/525nm and 450/525nm, one fluorescence areas of vitamin B1 locates at λex/λem=370/460nm, two fluorescence areas of vitamin B6 locate at λex/λem=250/370nm and 325/370nm were found. The influence of pH of solution to the fluorescence profile was also discussed. Using the PARAFAC algorithm, 10 vitamin B1, B2 and B6 mixed solutions were successfully decomposed, and the emission profiles, excitation profiles, central wavelengths and the concentration of the three components were retrieved precisely through about 5 iteration times.

  7. Pyridoxine responsive megaloblastic anaemia in pregnancy: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In pregnancy megaloblastic anaemia commonly results from folic acid deficiency partly due to placenta transfer to fetus, but mainly because of increased folate catabolism due to cleavage of folate coenzymes in rapidly proliferating tissues. Cobalamin deficiency causing megaloblastic anaemia has been described in infants ...

  8. Protective Therapies for Monomethylhydrazine: Comparison of Pyridoxine and Physical Restraint in the Monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    Pharmaco1, Exp. Ther. 140:133. 14. Meldrum , B. S. (1975). Epilepsy and y-aminobutyric acid -mediated inhibition. Int. Rev. Neurobiol. 17:1-36. 15. Rougeul, A...within the context of established neurochemical influences of the hydrazines on synthesis of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, gamma amino- butyric acid ...pyridoxal phosphate, a reaction which absorbs this coenzyme in the synthesis of glutamic acid decar- boxylase (GAD) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA

  9. Neuroprotection of Grape Seed Extract and Pyridoxine against Triton-Induced Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba M. Abdou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Triton WR-1339 administration causes neurotoxicity. Natural products and herbal extracts can attenuate cerebral injury. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective role of grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 against triton-induced neurotoxicity. Thirty-five adult male albino rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain, weighing 140–145 g, were divided into five groups: control, triton, grape seed extract + triton, grape seed extract + triton + vitamin B6, and vitamin B6 + triton. The hematological and biochemical analyses were carried out. Alteration in iNOS mRNA gene expression was determined using reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis. In addition, qualitative DNA fragmentation was examined using agarose gel electrophoresis. Triton-treatment caused significant disturbances in the hematological parameters, the neurological functions, and the antioxidant profile. Also, triton significantly increased the iNOS mRNA expression and DNA damage. Our results showed that grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 could attenuate all the examined parameters. These natural substances could exhibit protective effects against triton-induced neurological damage because of their antioxidative and antiapoptotic capacities.

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of AAMS amidohydrolase, the final enzyme in degradation pathway I of pyridoxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Jun; Yoshida, Hiromi; Chu, Huy Nhat; Yoshikane, Yu; Kamitori, Shigehiro; Yagi, Toshiharu

    2009-01-01

    Recombinant α-(N-acetylaminomethylene)succinic acid amidohydrolase from M. loti MAFF303099 was crystallized and diffraction data were collected at 2.7 Å resolution. α-(N-Acetylaminomethylene)succinic acid (AAMS) amidohydrolase from Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099, which is involved in a degradation pathway of vitamin B 6 and catalyzes the degradation of AAMS to acetic acid, ammonia, carbon dioxide and succinic semialdehyde, has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli. To elucidate the reaction mechanism based on the tertiary structure, the recombinant enzyme was purified and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 8000 as precipitant. A crystal of the enzyme belonged to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 393.2, b = 58.3, c = 98.9 Å, β = 103.4°, and diffraction data were collected to 2.7 Å resolution. The V M value and calculation of the self-rotation function suggested that three dimers with a threefold symmetry were possibly present in the asymmetric unit

  11. Chemical stability study of vitamins thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine and ascorbic acid in parenteral nutrition for neonatal use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this work was to study the vitamins B1, B2, B6 and C stability in a pediatric formulation containing high amounts of calcium in the presence of organic phosphate, amino acids, glucose, sodium chloride, magnesium sulfate, pediatric vitamins and trace elements under different conditions using developed and validated analytical methods. Methods The study was carried out during 72 h with formulations packaged in recommended storage temperature (4°C) and 25°C, with and without photoprotection. Results The results showed that the methodologies used for assessing the chemical stability of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and C in the formulation were selective, linear, precise and accurate. The vitamins could be considered stable in the formulation during the three days of study if stored at 4°C. When stored at 25°C vitamin C presented instability after 48 h. Conclusion The pediatric formulation containing high amount of calcium in the presence of organic phosphate, amino acids, glucose, sodium chloride, magnesium sulphate, pediatric vitamins and trace elements packaged in bag-type trilaminate presented a shelf life of the 72 h, when maintained under refrigeration, between 2°C and 8°C. This shelf life was measured considering the vitamins studied. Further studies are needed including all the vitamins present in this formulation. PMID:21569609

  12. Chemical stability study of vitamins thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine and ascorbic acid in parenteral nutrition for neonatal use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabral Lúcio M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this work was to study the vitamins B1, B2, B6 and C stability in a pediatric formulation containing high amounts of calcium in the presence of organic phosphate, amino acids, glucose, sodium chloride, magnesium sulfate, pediatric vitamins and trace elements under different conditions using developed and validated analytical methods. Methods The study was carried out during 72 h with formulations packaged in recommended storage temperature (4°C and 25°C, with and without photoprotection. Results The results showed that the methodologies used for assessing the chemical stability of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and C in the formulation were selective, linear, precise and accurate. The vitamins could be considered stable in the formulation during the three days of study if stored at 4°C. When stored at 25°C vitamin C presented instability after 48 h. Conclusion The pediatric formulation containing high amount of calcium in the presence of organic phosphate, amino acids, glucose, sodium chloride, magnesium sulphate, pediatric vitamins and trace elements packaged in bag-type trilaminate presented a shelf life of the 72 h, when maintained under refrigeration, between 2°C and 8°C. This shelf life was measured considering the vitamins studied. Further studies are needed including all the vitamins present in this formulation.

  13. Surface-Enhanced Infrared Spectra of Nicotinic Acid and Pyridoxine on Copper Substrates: What Is the Effect of Temperature and Deposition Conditions?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kokaislová, A.; Parchaňský, Václav; Matějka, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 47 (2015), s. 26526-26539 ISSN 1932-7447 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : absorption spectroscopy SEIRAS * Raman scattering * in situ Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.509, year: 2015

  14. ORF Alignment: NC_000962 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... Structure Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Pyridoxine ... 5'-Phosphate Oxidase At 1.8 A Resolution p...db|1XXO|A ... Chain A, X-Ray Crystal Structure Of Mycobacterium ... Tuberculosis Pyridoxine 5'

  15. ORF Alignment: NC_002755 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... Structure Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Pyridoxine ... 5'-Phosphate Oxidase At 1.8 A Resolution p...db|1XXO|A ... Chain A, X-Ray Crystal Structure Of Mycobacterium ... Tuberculosis Pyridoxine 5'

  16. Efeitos de diferentes níveis das vitaminas tiamina, riboflavina e piridoxina sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte Effects of different levels of thiamine, riboflavin and pyridoxine on broiler performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Pozzobon de Souza

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para analisar os efeitos de níveis altos e baixos das vitaminas tiamina (B1, riboflavina (B2 e piridoxina (B6 sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte. Um total de 576 pintos de corte de um dia, foram distribuídos em desenho experimental trifatorial (2³, inteiramente casualizado onde dois níveis (alto e baixo de cada vitamina foram testados: vitamina B1 (A=3 mg/kg; B=2 mg/kg, vitamina B2 (A=6 mg/kg; B=4 mg/kg e vitamina B6 (A=4,5 mg/kg; B=3 mg/kg. Deste modo, dezoito aves por tratamento (8, em quatro repetições, foram distribuídas em boxes sobre piso e receberam dietas isonutritivas, variando somente em relação às vitaminas estudadas. Os dados foram submetidos a análise de variância e teste de Tukey. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas (P>0,05 entre os tratamentos para todos os parâmetros estudados. Portanto, os resultados deste trabalho sugerem que os níveis das vitaminas B1, B2 e B6, para frangos de corte, podem ser reduzidos em até 66% dos níveis atualmente utilizados, sem prejuízo na performance dos mesmos.An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effècts of high and low levels of vitamins thiamine (B1 ribofiavin (B2 andpyridoxin (B3 on the performance of boilers. A total of 576 day old broiler chicks of both sexes was distributed in a trifactorial (23 completely randomized experimental desing, where two levels (high and low} of each vitamin were tested: vitamin B1 (A=3 mg/kg; B=2 mg/kg; vitamin B2 (A=6 mg/kg; B=4 mg/kg and vitamin B6 (A=4,5 mg/kg; B=3 mg/kg. Therefore, eighteenth birds in each treatment (8, in four replications, were distributed in floor pens andreceived isonutritious diets, varying only in respect to the vitamins studied. Data were submitted to the analysis of variance and Tukey test. No significant differences (P>0.05 among treatments were observed for all parameters studied. Then, the results from this work suggest that the levels of vitamins B1, B2 and B6, for broilers, can be lowered to 66% of the usual levels actually used, without reduction in the performance of broilers.

  17. Penetapan Kadar Campuran Isoniazid dan Vitamin B6 dalam Sediaan Tablet Campuran Etambutol, Isoniazid dan Vitamin B6 Secara Spektrofotometri Derivatif dengan Metode Zero Crossing

    OpenAIRE

    Daulay, Elisa Fitri

    2016-01-01

    The compound of isoniazid and pyridoxine hydrochloride is one of combination in tablet. Determination of content of isoniazid and pyridoxine hydrochloride in tablet where not found in monography, either in the fourth edition Farmakope Indonesia (1995) or USP (United States Pharmacopeia) 30th edition (2007) that requires an analysis method that meets the test of validity in determining the content. The purpose of this research is to determine isoniazid and pyridoxine hydrochloride mixture us...

  18. Natural Versus Synthetic Vitamin B Complexes in Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-12

    Healthy; Thiamine and Niacin Deficiency States; Pyridoxine Deficiency; Folic Acid Deficiency Anemia, Dietary; Vitamin B 12 Deficiency; Peroxidase; Defect; Polyphenols; Oxidative Stress; Homocystine; Metabolic Disorder

  19. The Effects of Cobalt-60 Gamma Radiation on Vitamin B{sub 6} and Folic Acid; Effets des rayons gamma (cobalt-60) sur la vitamine B{sub 6} et l’acide folique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galatzeanu, I.; Antoni, F. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1967-09-15

    A study has been made of the behaviour of pyridoxine and folic acid, including structural changes, after {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation. The irradiation of pyridoxine (vitamin B{sub 6}) and folic acid in aqueous solutions leads to their partial or total destruction, depending on the dose. The irradiation of pyridoxine and folic acid in the solid state mainly results in the elimination of hydrogen atoms (free radicals). After dissolving the irradiated samples in acid solutions it was observed that the irradiated molecule was renewed through replacement of the eliminated hydrogen atoms, which depend on the pH-value of the solution. This gives the possibility of sterilizing both pyridoxine and folic acid in the solid state by irradiation at 2 Mrad. Most of the radiolysis products of pyridoxine and folic acid irradiated in solution and in the solid state have been separated and identified by means of chromatography (paper and thin layer) and cellulose column electrophoresis. Electron spin resonance was used to determine the concentration and nature of the free radicals after irradiation of pyridoxine and folic acid in the solid state. (author) [French] On a Studie le comportement de la pyridoxine et de l'acide folique apres exposition aux rayons gamma ({sup 60}Co) et les changements dans leurs structures. L'irradiation de la pyridoxine (Vitamine B{sub 6}) et de l'acide folique en solutions aqueuses enttarne leur destruction partielle ou totale selon la dose. L'irradiation de la pyridoxine et de l'acide folique á l'etat solide enttarne principalement l'elimination d'atomes d'hydrogene (radicaux libres). Par dissolution des echanrilions irradies dans des solutions acides, on a observe un renouvellement de la molecule irradiee par remplacement des atomes d'hydrogene elimines qui est fonction du pH de la solution, ce qui permet de radiosteriliser a 2 Mrad á l'etat solide tant la pyridoxine que l'acide folique. On a separe et identifie la majorite des produits de radiolyse

  20. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... If you are an older adult, have dark skin, or are exposed to insufficient ultraviolet band radiation ( ... Vitamins B-3 (niacin): flushing, redness of the skin, upset stomach. B-6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine): ...

  1. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate). AAFP cites two ... flushing, redness of the skin, upset stomach. B-6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine): Nerve damage to the ...

  2. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... variety of biological processes, including growth, digestion, and nerve function. There are 13 vitamins that the body ... upset stomach. B-6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine): Nerve damage to the limbs, which may cause numbness, ...

  3. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... thinners, talk to your doctor before taking vitamin E or vitamin K pills. Water-soluble Vitamins B-3 (niacin): flushing, redness of the skin, upset stomach. B-6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine): ...

  4. The Synthesis of some B6 Vitamin Halophosphates

    OpenAIRE

    Elshani, S.; Butula, Lj.; Butula, I.; Vikić-Topić, D.; Berton, A.; Iriarte, A.

    1991-01-01

    A series of new halo-derivates of pyridoxine-3-O- or 5’-0-phosphates and pyridoxal-3-O- or 5’-0-phosphates have been synthesized. In the reaction of partially protected pyridoxine and pyridoxal (3-5) with phosphorusoxychlo- ride in the presence of triethylamine, the following dichlorophosphates were obtained: 3,4’-0-isopropylidenepyridoxine-5’-0-dichlorophosphate (6), 4,5’-0- isobutilidenepyridoxine-3-O-dichlorophosphate (7), and monoethylacetal-3-O- dicholorophosphate (8). Dichlorophosphates...

  5. Molecular basis of ornithine aminotransferase deficiency in B-6-responsive and -nonresponsive forms of gyrate atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, V.; McClatchey, A.I.; Ramesh, N.; Benoit, L.A.; Berson, E.L.; Shih, V.E.; Gusella, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    Gyrate atrophy (GA), a recessive eye disease involving progressive loss of vision due to chorioretinal degeneration, is associated with a deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme ornithine aminotransferase with consequent hyperornithinemia. Genetic heterogeneity of GA has been suggested by the demonstration that administration of pyridoxine to increase the level of pyridoxal phosphate, a cofactor of OATase, reduces hyperornithinemia in a subset of patients. The authors have cloned and sequences cDNAs for OATase from two GA patients, one responsive and one nonresponsive to pyridoxine treatment. The respective cDNAs contained different single missense mutations, which were sufficient to eliminate OATase activity when each cDNA was tested in a eukaryotic expression system. However, like the enzyme in fibroblasts from the pyridoxine-responsive patient, OATase encoded by the corresponding cDNA from this individual showed a significant increase in activity when assayed in the presence of an increased pyridoxal phosphate concentration. These data firmly establish that both pyridoxine responsive and nonresponsive forms of GA result from mutations in the OATase structural gene. Moreover, they provide a molecular characterization of the primary lesion in a pyridoxine-responsive genetic disorder

  6. Isoniazid toxicosis in dogs: 137 cases (2004-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Dustin R; Lee, Justine A; Wismer, Tina A; Diniz, Pedro Paulo V P; Murtaugh, Robert J

    2017-09-15

    OBJECTIVE To establish the minimum toxic dose of isoniazid in dogs, characterize the clinical signs and outcomes for dogs following isoniazid ingestion, and determine whether IV administration of pyridoxine to dogs with isoniazid toxicosis is protective against death. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 137 dogs with isoniazid toxicosis. PROCEDURES The electronic database of the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Animal Poison Control Center was reviewed from January 2004 through December 2014 to identify dogs with isoniazid toxicosis. For each dog identified, information extracted from the medical record included signalment, estimated dose of isoniazid ingested, clinical signs, treatment, and outcome. Follow-up communication with pet owners or primary care veterinarians was performed when necessary to obtain missing information. RESULTS Clinical signs of isoniazid toxicosis were observed in 134 of 137 (98%) dogs and included seizures (n = 104), CNS signs without seizures (94), and gastrointestinal (41), cardiovascular (19), urogenital (4), and respiratory (1) abnormalities. Of the 87 dogs for which the outcome was available, 61 survived, 18 died, and 8 were euthanized. Probability of survival was positively associated with body weight and IV administration of pyridoxine and negatively associated with dose of isoniazid ingested and presence of seizures. Dogs that received pyridoxine IV were 29 times as likely to survive as dogs that did not receive pyridoxine IV. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated rapid diagnosis of isoniazid toxicosis and prompt treatment of affected dogs with pyridoxine and other supportive care were imperative for achieving a successful outcome.

  7. Vitamin B6, cancer and irradiation studies over a period of 25 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladner, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    The work of Langendorff et collab. and our own results underlined the significance of Vitamin B 6 deficiency in radiation-induced responses and processes following whole-body exposure. Novel biochemical methods allowed to confirm Vitamin B 6 deficiency both during local radiotherapy and in patients with progressed cancer stages. This biochemical Vitamin B 6 deficiency was removed in patients with gynaecological tumours by administration of Vitamin B 6 (Pyridoxine, 300 mg/d) during radiotherapy. Results obtained from over 5,000 female patients revealed that combined radiotherapy (intracavitary Curie irradiation and external high voltage irradiation) not only was tolerated much better according to patients' self-ratings but also that long-term results (5 year healing rate) was improved by pyridoxine administered during radiotherapy. Based on these results we recommend vitamin B 6 (pyridoxine) to be administered additionally as a radiation protection substance during radiotherapy. (orig.) [de

  8. Separation of three water-soluble vitamins by poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchannel electrophoresis with electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Yun; Zhang, Qian-Li; Lian, Hong-Zhen; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2007-09-01

    A method for rapid separation and sensitive determination of three water-soluble vitamins, pyridoxine, ascorbic acid (VC), and p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) has been developed by PDMS microchannel electrophoresis integrated with amperometric detection. After treatment of the microchip with oxygen plasma, the peak shapes of the three analytes were essentially improved. Pyridoxine, VC, and PABA were well separated within only 80 s in a running buffer of 20 mM borate solution (pH 8.5). Good linearity was obtained within the concentration range of 2-200 microM for the three water-soluble vitamins. The detection limits were 1.0 microM for pyridoxine and VC, and 1.5 microM for PABA. The proposed method has been successfully applied to real human urine sample, without solid phase extraction, with recoveries of 80-122% for the three water-soluble vitamins.

  9. Environmental influences on familial discordance of phenotype in people with homocystinuria: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maillot Francois

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Non-heritable factors may have an influence on the clinical expression of monogenic inherited metabolic diseases. Case presentation This is a case report of a man whose mother had been diagnosed late in childhood with pyridoxine responsive homocystinuria with lens dislocation and neurodevelopmental delay. These severe complications were not observed in her son who was pyridoxine unresponsive but who had been treated appropriately since early infancy. Conclusion The phenotype of people with homocystinuria can be discordant within a family, with variability in metabolic and clinical expression depending upon both the genotype and therapeutic interventions. Offspring of people with homocystinuria should be screened in early infancy and, if positive, treated appropriately whether they have pyridoxine responsive or unresponsive disease.

  10. Atypical Vitamin B-6 Deficiency A Rare Cause of Unexplained Neonatal and Infantile Epilepsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumgart, A.; von Spiczak, S.; Verhoeven-Duif, N. M.

    2014-01-01

    ALDH7A1 and PNPO deficiencies are rare inborn errors of vitamin B-6 metabolism causing perinatal seizure disorders. The phenotypic variability, however, is broad. To assess the frequency of these deficiencies in unexplained infantile epilepsy, we screened 113 patients for mutations in both genes...... pyridoxine treatment. "Hidden" vitamin B-6 deficiencies might be rare but treatable causes of unexplained epilepsy extending beyond the classical phenotypes........ We identified 1 patient with an epilepsy phenotype resembling Dravet syndrome and likely pathogenic mutations in ALDH7A1. Presenting features were highly atypical of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, including febrile seizures, response to anticonvulsive drugs, and periods of seizure freedom without...

  11. Massive venlafaxine overdose resulted in a false positive Abbott AxSYM (R) urine immunoassay for phencyclidine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bond, GR; Steele, PE; Uges, DRA

    2003-01-01

    Case report: A 13-yr-old girl overdosed on 48 x 150 mg venlafaxine (Effexor XR(R)). She was taking venlafaxine regularly for depression. Her only other medications included topical Benzamycin and pyridoxine 50 mg daily for acne. The Abbott AxSYM(R) assay was positive only for phencyclidine, but

  12. Callus and cell suspension cultures of carnation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1972-01-01

    Callus cultures of carnation, Dianthus caryophyllus L. ev. G. J. Sim, were grown on a synthetic medium of half strength Murashige and Skoog salts, 3 % sucrose, 100 mg/l of myo-inositol, 0.5 mg/l each of thiamin, HCl, pyridoxin, HCl and nicotinic acid and 10 g/l agar. Optimal concentrations...

  13. Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activities of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    of metal ions with vitamin.111: Synthesis and infrared spectra of metal complexes with pyridoxamine and pyridoxine. Inorg. Chim. Acta, 46, 191-197. Gary, J and Adeyemo, A (1981) Interaction of vitamin B1 with Zn(II), Cd (II) and Hg(II) in. Deuterated Dimethyl Sulfoxide. Inorg. Chim. Acta, 55, 93-98. Gohzalez-vergara, E ...

  14. Effect of consumption of red wine, spirits and beer on serum homocysteine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, M.S. van der; Ubbink, J.B.; Sillanaukee, P.; Nikkari, S.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2000-01-01

    Serum homocysteine increases after moderate consumption of red wine and spirits, but not after moderate consumption of beer. Vitamin B6 in beer seems to prevent the alcohol-induced rise in serum homocysteine. Chemicals/CAS: Homocysteine, 454-28-4; Pyridoxine, 65-23-6

  15. 21 CFR 310.545 - Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., powdered extract Betaine hydrochloride Bismuth subcarbonate Bismuth subgallate Black radish powder Blessed... Pineapple enzymes Plantago seed Potassium citrate Pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6) Riboflavin Rice... the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act), for which an approved new drug application under...

  16. Effect of amino acids and vitamins on laccase production by the bird's nest fungus Cyathus bulleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Shikha; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2002-08-01

    Various amino acids, their analogues and vitamins have shown stimulatory as well as inhibitory effects on laccase production by Cyathus bulleri. DL-methionine, DL-tryptophan, glycine and DL-valine stimulated laccase production, while L-cysteine monohydrochloride completely inhibited the enzyme production. Among vitamins tested biotin, riboflavin and pyridoxine hydrochloride were found to induce laccase production.

  17. Effect of amino acids and vitamins on laccase production by the bird's nest fungus Cyathus bulleri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shikha Dhawan; Ramesh Chander Kuhad [University of Delhi, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Microbiology

    2002-08-01

    Various amino acids, their analogues and vitamins have shown stimulatory as well as inhibitory effects on laccase production by Cyathus bulleri. DL-methionine, DL-tryptophan, glycine and DL-valine stimulated laccase production, while L-cysteine monohydrochloride completely inhibited the enzyme production. Among vitamins tested biotin, riboflavin and pyridoxine hydrochloride were found to induce laccase production. (author)

  18. Antitubercular drug poisoning in a pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Dutta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old female in her third month of pregnancy, presented with generalised tonic clonic seizures, metabolic acidosis and coma following suicidal ingestion of antitubercular medication. We successfully managed the case with pyridoxine, sodium bicarbonate and mechanical ventilation.

  19. Plasma concentrations of water.soluble vitamins in metabolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Vitamins B1 (thiamine), B3 (niacin), B6 (pyridoxine), and C (ascorbic acid) are vital for energy, carbohydrate, lipid, and amino acid metabolism and in the regulation of the cellular redox state. Some studies have associated low levels of water.soluble vitamins with metabolic syndrome and its various components.

  20. Preparação e caracterização espectroscópica de complexos de boro: uma proposta para uma prática integrada de química inorgânica Preparation and spectroscopic characterization of boron complexes: a proposal for an integrated inorganic laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Eberhard Bessler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a proposal for an undergraduate second or third year inorganic laboratory course, the present paper describes the preparation of three representative boron complexes: potassium tetrafluoroborate, pyridoxin boron complex and potassium bis(oxalatoborate. The complexes are characterised by infrared and multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H, 11B and 19F where isotopic effects are demonstrated.

  1. Evaluation of nutritional properties of tissue cultured sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mineral compositions of the parents and regenerants of the cultivars were not significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) except for Zinc in Mtama 1 cultivar and Iron in both El‐Gardam and Mtama 1 cultivars. B‐vitamins showed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) for both thiamine and Pyridoxine in El‐Gardam and Seredo.

  2. Typical and atypical phenotypes of PNPO deficiency with elevated CSF and plasma pyridoxamine on treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ware, T.L.; Earl, J.; Salomons, G.S.; Struys, E.A.; Peters, H.L.; Howell, K.B.; Pitt, J.J.; Freeman, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    Pyridox(am)ine phosphate oxidase (PNPO) deficiency causes severe early infantile epileptic encephalopathy and has been characterized as responding to pyridoxal-5′-phosphate but not to pyridoxine. Two males with PNPO deficiency and novel PNPO mutations are reported and their clinical, metabolic, and

  3. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Balachandran C; Srinivas C; Shenoy S

    1991-01-01

    A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  4. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  5. Effects of dietary vitamin B6 supplementation on fillet fatty acid composition and fatty acid metabolism of rainbow trout fed vegetable oil based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senadheera, Shyamalie D; Turchini, Giovanni M; Thanuthong, Thanongsak; Francis, David S

    2012-03-07

    Fish oil replacement in aquaculture feeds results in major modifications to the fatty acid makeup of cultured fish. Therefore, in vivo fatty acid biosynthesis has been a topic of considerable research interest. Evidence suggests that pyridoxine (vitamin B(6)) plays a role in fatty acid metabolism, and in particular, the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA has been demonstrated in mammals. However, there is little information on the effects of dietary pyridoxine availability in fish fed diets lacking LC-PUFA. This study demonstrates a relationship between dietary pyridoxine supplementation and fatty acid metabolism in rainbow trout. In particular, the dietary pyridoxine level was shown to modulate and positively stimulate the activity of the fatty acid elongase and Δ-6 and Δ-5 desaturase enzymes, deduced by the whole-body fatty acid balance method. This activity was insufficient to compensate for a diet lacking in LC-PUFA but does highlight potential strategies to maximize this activity in cultured fish, especially when fish oil is replaced with vegetable oils.

  6. HPLC analysis of water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6) in in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... B6 (pyridoxine HCl) were higher in in vitro germinated seedlings. Thus, vitamin production was age and culture conditions dependent, which is discussed in detail. The study revealed that the germinated chickpea grains can be used for human consumption with value addition of vitamin B-group in the diet of vegetarians.

  7. New-Onset Psychosis in a Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis Patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    He also displayed negativisim with paranoid delusions and insomnia. He was managed by a psychiatrist with anti-psychotic drugs. The dose of cycloserine was also reduced while that of pyridoxine was increased. He remained in a state of periodic confusion and psychosis for nine days after which his condition ameliorated ...

  8. Suture supported P C IOL in a homocystinuric child.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatti S

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A homocystinuric child presented with a secondary pupillary block glaucoma due to anteriorly subluxated lens. After removal of the subluxated lens, a suture supported posterior chamber IOL was implanted. Postoperative complication of cerebral venous thrombosis following general anaesthesia was managed with high doses of pyridoxine special diet and drugs.

  9. Urinary AASA excretion is elevated in patients with molybdenum cofactor deficiency and isolated sulphite oxidase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, P.B.; Footitt, E.J.; Ceyhan, S.; Waters, P.J.; Jakobs, C.A.J.M.; Clayton, P.T.; Struijs, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of α-aminoadipic semialdehyde is an important tool in the diagnosis of antiquitin deficiency (pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy). However continuing use of this test has revealed that elevated urinary excretion of α-aminoadipic semialdehyde is not only found in patients with

  10. Au-CuO core-shell nanoparticles design and development for the selective determination of Vitamin B6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Deivasigamani Ranjith; Manoj, Devaraj; Santhanalakshmi, Jayadevan; Shim, Jae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Seed mediated growth of Au-CuO core-shell nanoparticle. • Au-CuO core-shell nanoparticle provided good peak current for pyridoxine. • Au-CuO/MWCNTs/GC exhibited excellent vitamin B 6 peak separation with other vitamin. - Abstract: This paper reports the synthesis of gold (core)-copper oxide (shell) nanoparticles using a simple seed mediated growth method. Pre-synthesized Au nanoparticles were used as seed materials for copper oxide shell growth, which were shown to be effective for Au-CuO core-shell formation. The novelty of this assembly strategy is that the exploitation of the Cu-ligand, which is thermolyzed on the Au nanoseed surface, results in the formation of CuO. Au-CuO core-shell nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The as prepared Au-CuO was used to fabricate a Au-CuO/MWCNTs/GC-modified electrode, which was applied to Vitamin B 6 (pyridoxine) determination by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The MWCNTs enhance the pyridoxine oxidation rate by increasing the peak current with Au-CuO, hence pyridoxine oxidized lower operating potentials. The Au-CuO/MWCNTs/GC-modified electrode showed excellent electrochemical performance towards pyridoxine (PY) in the presence of other typical vitamins, such as riboflavin, ascorbic acid and uric acid. The linear calibration graph was obtained over the PY concentration range of 0.79 μM–18.4 μM and the detection limit (S/N = 3) was 0.15 μM. The Au-CuO/MWCNTs/GC-modified electrode showed good stability, repeatability and recovery of real sample analysis

  11. [Neurotropic effect of B vitamins in the complex treatment of pain syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavlovskaya, O A

    Combined vitamin preparations in therapeutic doses are used, along with simple analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), muscle and epidural blockade, for the relief of acute pain. It is recommended to use the B vitamin preparation neuromultivit. The tablet form of this preparation contains vitamin thiamine hydrochloride (100 mg), pyridoxine hydrochloride (200 mg), cyanocobalamin (0.2 mg), and injectable form includes thiamine hydrochloride (100mg), pyridoxine hydrochloride (100 mg), cyanocobalamin (1 mg). The efficacy of neuromultivit in a two stage scheme (intramuscular injections of 2 ml daily for 5-10 days with further injections 2-3 times a week for 2-3 weeks at the initial stage and 1 tablet 3 times a day for 4 weeks at the second stage) was shown.

  12. Synthesis of B6 vitamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučijak Nevena Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of vitamin B6 has been known since its discovery in the 1940's. Chemical tests, elestrometric titration determinations, and absorption spectrum studies showed that this vitamin exists in three major chemical forms: pyridoxine (an alcohol, pyridoxal (an aldehyde, and pyridoxamine (a primary amine. Vitamin B6 is needed for more than 100 enzymes involved in protein metabolism, and it is assumed that this vitamin is cofactor of metabolic processes more important than any other substance. A deficiency of vitamin B6 in the human diet leads to severe disorders. Vitamin B6 is necessary for the proper function of the immune and nervous system, and helps the body convert protein to energy. This paper describes the history, properties and applications of vitamin B6, elucidation of chemical structure, and different procedures for synthesis of pyridoxine and pyridoxamine.

  13. feeding value of processed horse eye bean meal as alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    ; Vitamin D3 2,000000I.U; Vitamin E 20,000IU; Vitamin K 2,250mg; Thiamine 1,750mg;. Riboflavin B 5,000mg; Pyridoxine B6 2,750mg; Anti oxidant 125g; Niacin 27,500mg; Vitamin B12 15mg; Panthotenic acids 7,500mg; Biotin 50mg; Choline ...

  14. Preparation of Silica Nanoparticles Loaded with Nootropics and Their In Vivo Permeation through Blood-Brain Barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Jampilek, Josef; Zaruba, Kamil; Oravec, Michal; Kunes, Martin; Babula, Petr; Ulbrich, Pavel; Brezaniova, Ingrid; Opatrilova, Radka; Triska, Jan; Suchy, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier prevents the passage of many drugs that target the central nervous system. This paper presents the preparation and characterization of silica-based nanocarriers loaded with piracetam, pentoxifylline, and pyridoxine (drugs from the class of nootropics), which are designed to enhance the permeation of the drugs from the circulatory system through the blood-brain barrier. Their permeation was compared with non-nanoparticle drug substances (bulk materials) by means of an i...

  15. Simplified preparation of a phosphatase inhibitor and further studies of its action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, S P; Schaltenbrand, W E

    1978-05-01

    1-Pyrrolidinecarbothioic acid (2-pyridylmethylene) hydrazide chelates Zn2+ but not Mg2+. This compound is about twice as effective as EDTA for inhibiting alkaline phosphatase from calf mucosa, and approx. 1000-fold more effective than EDTA for inhibiting acid phosphatase from wheat germ. The compound did not inhibit pyridoxine kinase activity in human leucocytes at the highest concentration tested (33 micron). Therefore it may be a useful tool for either examining or eliminating the effects of phosphatases in complex enzyme systems.

  16. Emergency department management of children with acute isoniazid poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, R A; Brownstein, D

    1986-06-01

    We suggest that the following therapeutic regimen be followed in cases of isoniazid poisoning in children. In cases of intractable seizure activity in a child which remains unexplained, consider isoniazid poisoning. Give pyridoxine as an intravenous bolus to all children in whom isoniazid toxicity is suspected, who exhibit seizure activity and are known to have been exposed to isoniazid, or who have a history of ingesting one gram or more of isoniazid. It should be given on a gram-for-gram basis, and the clinician need not await serum isoniazid levels before administering pyridoxine. It can be safely given at a rate of five grams per three minutes in a 50 ml volume. In fact, serum isoniazid determinations are not available in many emergency departments and have not been shown to correlate closely with symptomatology. When available, serum isoniazid levels at best are subject to variability owing to sampling procedures (serum protein must be removed within two hours of sampling). The result is that serum isoniazid levels play only a minor role in the emergency department management of isoniazid poisoning. To potentiate the antidotal effects of pyridoxine, diazepam (0.1 mg/kg) may be given intravenously, preferably at a second intravenous site. Because the lactic acidosis seen after seizures resolves spontaneously, and because metabolic alkalosis may result following excess lactate loading, administration of bicarbonate is usually not necessary, and may be harmful in some cases. After pyridoxine treatment, syrup of ipecac may be given to empty the stomach.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Experimente ueber den Einflusse von Metaboliten und Antimetaboliten am Modell von Trichomonas Vaginalis. VI. (Experiments on the Influence of Metabolites and Antimetabolites on the Model of Trichomonas Vaginalis. VI. Communication: Effect of Vitamins and Vitamin-Like Substances),

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of substances (folic acid, axerophtol, tokopherol and others) stimulate the growth of Trichomonas vaginalis and, therefore, are very well...group of vitamins (thiamine, lactoflavin, pyridoxine and others) are without recognizeable effect upon the growth of Trichomonas vaginalis . The third...inhibiting effect upon the growth of Trichomonas vaginalis . Further investigations with these substances within a combined inhibition system seem to be important. (Modified author abstract)

  18. Confirmation of mutations in PROSC as a novel cause of vitamin B 6 -dependent epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plecko, Barbara; Zweier, Markus; Begemann, Anaïs; Mathis, Deborah; Schmitt, Bernhard; Striano, Pasquale; Baethmann, Martina; Vari, Maria Stella; Beccaria, Francesca; Zara, Federico; Crowther, Lisa M; Joset, Pascal; Sticht, Heinrich; Papuc, Sorina Mihaela; Rauch, Anita

    2017-12-01

    Vitamin-B 6 -dependent epilepsies are a heterogenous group of treatable disorders due to mutations in several genes ( ALDH7A1, PNPO, ALPL or ALDH4A1 ). In neonatal seizures, defects in ALDH7A1 and PNPO explain a major fraction of cases. Very recently biallelic mutations in PROSC were shown to be a novel cause in five families. We identified four further unrelated patients harbouring a total of six different mutations, including four novel disease mutations. Vitamin B 6 plasma profiles on pyridoxine did not enable the differentiation of patients with PROSC mutations. All four patients were normocephalic and had normal cranial imaging. Pyridoxine monotherapy allowed complete seizure control in one, while two patients had occasional febrile or afebrile seizures and one needed additional valproate therapy for photosensitive seizures. Two patients underwent a controlled pyridoxine withdrawal with signs of encephalopathy within a couple of days. Three had favourable outcome with normal intellectual properties at age 12.5, 15.5 and 30 years, respectively, while one child had marked developmental delay at age 27 months. The clinical and electroencephalographic phenotype in patients with PROSC mutations was indistinguishable from ALDH7A1 and PNPO deficiency. We therefore confirm PROSC as a novel gene for vitamin-B 6 -dependent epilepsy and delineate a non-specific plasma vitamin B 6 profile under pyridoxine treatment. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Disease: H00982 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H00982 Sideroblastic anemia, including: Pyridoxine-refractory autosomal recessive sideroblastic anemia... (PRARSA); X-linked sideroblastic anemia (XLSA); X-linked sideroblastic anemia with atax...ia (ASAT) Sideroblastic anemias are a group of disorders characterized by anemia with the emergence of ring ...sideroblasts in the bone marrow. Inherited sideroblastic anemia is a rare and het..., Furuyama K ... TITLE ... Hereditary sideroblastic anemia: pathophysiology and gen

  20. Macromolecular basis for homocystein-induced changes in proteoglycan structure in growth and arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCully, K S

    1972-01-01

    Cell culture monolayers deficient in cystathionine synthetase bound more inorganic sulfate than normal cell monolayers during growth to confluence; this was correlated with the production of granular proteoglycan by the abnormal cells and fibrillar proteoglycan by normal cells. Homocysteine was demonstrated to be an active precursor of esterified sulfate, confirming our previous finding of this sulfation pathway in liver. The cell cultures deficient in cystathionine synthetase were found to assume an abnormal cellular distribution on the surface of the culture dish, resembling the distribution assumed by neoplastic cells with loss of contact inhibition; the degree of abnormality of the cellular distribution was correlated with the amount of granular proteoglycan produced by the cells and the amount of inorganic sulfate binding by the cell monolayers. Pyridoxine was found to increase the growth rate of cell cultures from a patient with pyridoxineresponsive homocystinuria and to increase the production of fibrillar proteoglycan by the cells; no effect of pyridoxine was observed in the cell cultures from a patient who failed to respond to pyridoxine therapy. The findings suggest that the change in macromolecular conformation of cellular proteoglycans from fibrillar to granular is due to increased sulfation of the carbohydrate envelope of the molecule. The significance of the findings is related to the pathogenesis of homocystinuria, the phenomenon of contact inhibition, the action of growth hormone and initiation of arteriosclerotic plaques.

  1. Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in royal jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Presoto Ana Elisa F

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly is used as a food supplement, popularly known as rich in B vitamins. The present work has two objectives: firstly, to apply simultaneous quantitative determination by High Performance Liquid Chromatography of thiamin (vitamin B1, riboflavin (vitamin B2 and pyridoxine (vitamin B6 and secondly to compare the obtained data with the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI values. The values obtained showed no thiamin, a range from 20 to 171 ng g-1 of riboflavin and from 408 to 2 188 ng g-1 of pyridoxine in royal jelly. According to the Food and Nutrition Board (2000, the DRI of these vitamins varies from 0.2-1.4 mg for thiamin; 0.3-1.6 mg for riboflavin and 0.1-2.0 mg for pyridoxine, depending on age and sex. According to these recommendations, royal jelly is not a good source of vitamins B1, B2 or B6 as these vitamins appear only on order of ng g-1. The proposed method can be used in routine analysis for royal jelly, having the advantage of being simple, fast and reliable.

  2. Differential Control Efficacies of Vitamin Treatments against Bacterial Wilt and Grey Mould Diseases in Tomato Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeum Kyu Hong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt and grey mould in tomato plants are economically destructive bacterial and fungal diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. Various approaches including chemical and biological controls have been attempted to arrest the tomato diseases so far. In this study, in vitro growths of bacterial R. solanacearum and fungal B. cinerea were evaluated using four different vitamins including thiamine (vitamin B1, niacin (vitamin B3, pyridoxine (vitamin B6, and menadione (vitamin K3. In planta efficacies of the four vitamin treatments on tomato protection against both diseases were also demonstrated. All four vitamins showed different in vitro antibacterial activities against R. solanacearum in dose-dependent manners. However, treatment with 2 mM thiamine was only effective in reducing bacterial wilt of detached tomato leaves without phytotoxicity under lower disease pressure (10⁶ colony-forming unit [cfu]/ml. Treatment with the vitamins also differentially reduced in vitro conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea. The four vitamins slightly reduced the conidial germination, and thiamine, pyridoxine and menadione inhibited the mycelial growth of B. cinerea. Menadione began to drastically suppress the conidial germination and mycelial growth by 5 and 0.5 mM, respectively. Grey mould symptoms on the inoculated tomato leaves were significantly reduced by pyridoxine and menadione pretreatments one day prior to the fungal challenge inoculation. These findings suggest that disease-specific vitamin treatment will be integrated for eco-friendly management of tomato bacterial wilt and grey mould.

  3. Differential Control Efficacies of Vitamin Treatments against Bacterial Wilt and Grey Mould Diseases in Tomato Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeum Kyu; Kim, Hyeon Ji; Jung, Heesoo; Yang, Hye Ji; Kim, Do Hoon; Sung, Chang Hyun; Park, Chang-Jin; Chang, Seog Won

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial wilt and grey mould in tomato plants are economically destructive bacterial and fungal diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and Botrytis cinerea , respectively. Various approaches including chemical and biological controls have been attempted to arrest the tomato diseases so far. In this study, in vitro growths of bacterial R. solanacearum and fungal B. cinerea were evaluated using four different vitamins including thiamine (vitamin B1), niacin (vitamin B3), pyridoxine (vitamin B6), and menadione (vitamin K3). In planta efficacies of the four vitamin treatments on tomato protection against both diseases were also demonstrated. All four vitamins showed different in vitro antibacterial activities against R. solanacearum in dose-dependent manners. However, treatment with 2 mM thiamine was only effective in reducing bacterial wilt of detached tomato leaves without phytotoxicity under lower disease pressure (10 6 colony-forming unit [cfu]/ml). Treatment with the vitamins also differentially reduced in vitro conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea . The four vitamins slightly reduced the conidial germination, and thiamine, pyridoxine and menadione inhibited the mycelial growth of B. cinerea . Menadione began to drastically suppress the conidial germination and mycelial growth by 5 and 0.5 mM, respectively. Grey mould symptoms on the inoculated tomato leaves were significantly reduced by pyridoxine and menadione pretreatments one day prior to the fungal challenge inoculation. These findings suggest that disease-specific vitamin treatment will be integrated for eco-friendly management of tomato bacterial wilt and grey mould.

  4. Changes in renal uptake of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) in stone-forming rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAfee, J.G.; Thomas, F.D.; Roskopf, M.; Ritter, K.; Lyons, B.; Lilien, O.M.; Schoonmaker, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    A pyridoxine (vitamin B6)-deficient diet in rats was used as a model of early renal lithiasis to find out if stone-formers could be identified from control animals by differences in the biodistribution of Tc-99m MDP. The mean renal uptake of this agent at 3 hours was about 70% higher in test animals than in controls, but there was considerable overlap between the upper limits of the normal range and lower values in stone-formers. If these results were valid for humans, the metabolic abnormality in males with early stone-forming disease could not be identified with certainty by in vivo measurements of Tc-99m MDP renal uptake alone. However, the skeletal uptake of MDP in the stone-forming animals was depressed by 28 to 35%, compared with control rats. Consequently, the renal to skeletal MDP concentration ratio was invariably elevated in stone-formers beyond the 95 percentile normal range. Unexpectedly, 76% of the pyridoxine-deficient animals had a higher accumulation of MDP in the myocardium than the upper limit of the normal range. The pyridoxine-deficient diet induced no remarkable early changes in the biodistribution or renal clearance of I-131 Hippuran

  5. Determination of cystathionine beta-synthase activity in human plasma by LC-MS/MS: potential use in diagnosis of CBS deficiency.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Krijt, Jakub

    2011-02-01

    Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) deficiency is usually confirmed by assaying the enzyme activity in cultured skin fibroblasts. We investigated whether CBS is present in human plasma and whether determination of its activity in plasma could be used for diagnostic purposes. We developed an assay to measure CBS activity in 20 μL of plasma using a stable isotope substrate - 2,3,3-(2)H serine. The activity was determined by measurement of the product of enzyme reaction, 3,3-(2)H-cystathionine, using LC-MS\\/MS. The median enzyme activity in control plasma samples was 404 nmol\\/h\\/L (range 66-1,066; n = 57). In pyridoxine nonresponsive CBS deficient patients, the median plasma activity was 0 nmol\\/ho\\/L (range 0-9; n = 26), while in pyridoxine responsive patients the median activity was 16 nmol\\/hour\\/L (range 0-358; n = 28); this overlapped with the enzyme activity from control subject. The presence of CBS in human plasma was confirmed by an in silico search of the proteome database, and was further evidenced by the activation of CBS by S-adenosyl-L-methionine and pyridoxal 5\\'-phosphate, and by configuration of the detected reaction product, 3,3-(2)H-cystathionine, which was in agreement with the previously observed CBS reaction mechanism. We hypothesize that the CBS enzyme in plasma originates from liver cells, as the plasma CBS activities in patients with elevated liver aminotransferase activities were more than 30-fold increased. In this study, we have demonstrated that CBS is present in human plasma and that its catalytic activity is detectable by LC-MS\\/MS. CBS assay in human plasma brings new possibilities in the diagnosis of pyridoxine nonresponsive CBS deficiency.

  6. B-Vitamin Intake from Diet and Supplements and Breast Cancer Risk in Middle-Aged Women: Results from the Prospective NutriNet-Santé Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egnell, Manon; Fassier, Philippine; Lécuyer, Lucie; Zelek, Laurent; Vasson, Marie-Paule; Hercberg, Serge; Latino-Martel, Paule; Galan, Pilar; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Touvier, Mathilde

    2017-05-13

    Experimental studies suggest a protective effect of B-vitamins on breast cancer risk, potentially modulated by alcohol intake. However, epidemiological studies are limited, especially regarding non-folate B-vitamins. Furthermore, few studies included quantitative assessment of supplemental intake. This prospective study aimed to investigate the associations between intakes of B-vitamins (dietary, supplemental, total) and breast cancer risk. 27,853 women aged ≥45 years from the NutriNet-Santé cohort (2009-2016) were included, with a median follow-up time of 4.2 years. Dietary data were collected using repeated 24 h records. A specific questionnaire assessed dietary supplement use over a 12-month period. A composition database of 8000 supplements was developed. Associations were characterized by multivariable Cox models, and 462 incident breast cancers were diagnosed. Dietary (HR Q4vs.Q1 = 0.74 (0.55, 0.99), P -trend = 0.05), supplemental (HR Q4vs.Q1 = 0.61 (0.38, 0.98), P -trend = 0.05), and total (HR Q4vs.Q1 = 0.67 (0.50, 0.91), P -trend = 0.01) pyridoxine intakes were inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Total thiamin intake was borderline inversely associated with breast cancer risk (HR per 1-unit increment = 0.78 (0.61, 1.00), P = 0.05). Statistically significant interactions between alcohol consumption and B-vitamin (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, folate, and cobalamin) supplemental intake were observed, the latter being inversely associated with breast cancer risk in non-to-low alcohol drinkers but not in higher drinkers. This large prospective study, including quantitative assessment of supplemental intake, suggests a potential protective effect of pyridoxine and thiamin on breast cancer risk in middle-aged women.

  7. Protective effects of B vitamins and antioxidants on the risk of arsenic-related skin lesions in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotska, Lydia B; Chen, Yu; Graziano, Joseph H; Parvez, Faruque; van Geen, Alexander; Howe, Geoffrey R; Ahsan, Habibul

    2008-08-01

    An estimated 25-40 million of the 127 million people of Bangladesh have been exposed to high levels of naturally occurring arsenic from drinking groundwater. The mitigating effects of diet on arsenic-related premalignant skin lesions are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of the vitamin B group (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, and cobalamin) and antioxidants (vitamins A, C, and E) on arsenic-related skin lesions. We performed a cross-sectional study using baseline data from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS), 2000-2002, with individual-level, time-weighted measures of arsenic exposure from drinking water. A total of 14,828 individuals meeting a set of eligibility criteria were identified among 65,876 users of all 5,996 tube wells in the 25-km(2) area of Araihazar, Bangladesh; 11,746 were recruited into the study. This analysis is based on 10,628 subjects (90.5%) with nonmissing dietary data. Skin lesions were identified according to a structured clinical protocol during screening and confirmed with further clinical review. Riboflavin, pyridoxine, folic acid, and vitamins A, C, and E significantly modified risk of arsenic-related skin lesions. The deleterious effect of ingested arsenic, at a given exposure level, was significantly reduced (ranging from 46% reduction for pyridoxine to 68% for vitamin C) for persons in the highest quintiles of vitamin intake. Intakes of B-vitamins and antioxidants, at doses greater than the current recommended daily amounts for the country, may reduce the risk of arsenic-related skin lesions in Bangladesh.

  8. On the influence of ionizing irradiation on the vitamin B6 metabolism in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler-Klosa, G.

    1981-01-01

    In 50 female patients suffering from an endometrium carcinoma in stage I to IV, the vitamin B 6 level was determined by the erythrocytic glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT), and its activation coefficients at different instants before and during radiation therapy were calculated. Simultaneously the haemoglobin content of the blood and the behaviour of the leukocytes and thrombocytes was investigated under the high voltage irradiation. To 49 patients 300 mg pyridoxin were administered perorally every day during the irradiation treatment which lasted several weeks. It resulted that in endometrium carcinomas the vitamin B 6 levels in the blood are decreased, and in proceeded stages more often vitamin B 6 deficits are observed. Even after daily administrations of vitamin B 6 the values of the activation coefficients of the erythrocytic glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase only slowly return to normal. Thus apparently relatively high pyridoxin doses seem to be necessary in order to remove the irradiation-induced vitamin B 6 disorder. After daily oral administration of 300 mg pyridoxin in no case a biochemical vitamin B 6 deficit under radiation therapy was observed. The leukocytes show under radiotherapy the expected decrease. Leukopenia requiring the discontinuation of interruption of the radiation treatment did not occur during vitamin B 6 administration. A careful control of the thrombocytes is also under vitamin B 6 administration necessary, but fatal thrombocytoponia could not be observed. With reference to the haemoglobin content in most cases a decrease was found, which apparently can not be prevented by the application of vitamin B 6 . An influence on the vitamin B 6 level by the patient's age could not be found. Finally it has to be indicated that by determining the activation coefficient of the erythrocytic glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, indirectly the vitamin B 6 deficiency can be detected without any serious disturbance for the patient. (orig./MG) [de

  9. ПАТОГЕНЕТИЧЕСКОЕ И КЛИНИЧЕСКОЕ ОБОСНОВАНИЕ КОМПЛЕКСНОЙ ПРОФИЛАКТИКИ ГИПЕРГОМОЦИСТЕИНЕМИИ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. Ю. Андрианова

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Review is devoted to the role of vitamins B6 (pyridoxine, B9 (folic acid and B12 (cyanocobalamin in homocysteine metabolism as well as the effects of this vitamin complex for prophylaxis and treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia in cardiological, and neurological and obstetric practice. Unreasonableness of isolate folic acid usage without vitamins B6 and B12 to reduce homocysteine plasma levels and clinical consequences of such approach are noted. It is shown that parenteral administration of vitamin B complex (5 mg B6 + 1,05 mg B9 + 1,0 mg B12 is preferable in some clinical cases.

  10. Repletion of Zinc and Iron Deficiencies Improves Cognition of Premenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Principal Investigator: Sandstead, Harold H. Contract No. DAMD17-95-C-5112 g11) + K2 exp( -g21) + K3 exp (-g31), where t is time in days, explained...Folic acid, vitamin B12, pyridoxine, and homocystine are being measured in blood before and after treatment to determine effects of repletion of...K^ exp( -gx t) + K2 exp( -g2 t) + K3 exp (-g3 t), where t is time in days. Since the change of the third term during 24 hours was about 10 %, NIR

  11. Dynamics of B group vitamins - the exametabolits of algae in lake Drukshiai - the cooler of Ignalina NPP in 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlapkauskaite, G.; Pashkauskas, R.

    1995-01-01

    The investigations on 6 B group vitamins were carried out in the water of Lake Drukshiai in 1994. The results indicated that quantitative structure of the vitamins varied during seasons in different areas depths of the lake depending on the biomass of phytoplankton and their dominants. The vitamins balance characteristic to natural water basins was disturbed after the NPP operation. In summer of 1994 the amount of vitamins decreased and the deficit of biotin, thiamin and pyridoxine was observed to compare with 1992-1993. Therefore, the disturbance of stability in metabolic processes in which these vitamins take part may occur. (author). 11 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  12. Hydrazine levels in formulations of hydralazine, isoniazid, and phenelzine over a 2-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovering, E G; Matsui, F; Curran, N M; Robertson, D L; Sears, R W

    1983-08-01

    Hydrazine levels in formulations of hydralazine, isoniazid, and phenelzine have been measured over a 2-year period under ambient conditions and under temperature and humidity stress. Hydralazine tablets are stable under ambient conditions, but the hydrazine level in an injectable formulation increased from 4.5 to 10 micrograms/ml over a 23-month period. Isoniazid tablets are also stable, but hydrazine levels in an elixir and a pyridoxine combination product doubled to 44 micrograms/ml and 19 micrograms/tablet, respectively. Levels in phenelzine tablets appeared to remain constant at approximately 60 micrograms/tablet, with considerable tablet-to-tablet variation.

  13. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency presenting as a rash.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crushell, Ellen

    2012-09-01

    We report on the case of a 2-year-old girl recently diagnosed with Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency who originally presented in the neonatal period with a distinctive rash. At 11 weeks of age she developed seizures, she had acquired microcephaly and developmental delay. The rash deteriorated dramatically following commencement of phenobarbitone; both rash and seizures abated following empiric introduction of pyridoxine and folinic acid as treatment of possible vitamin responsive seizures. We postulate that phenobarbitone in combination with MTHFR deficiency may have caused her rash to deteriorate and subsequent folinic acid was helpful in treating the rash and preventing further acute neurological decline as commonly associated with this condition.

  14. [Actual vitamin and main foodstuffs consumption by recovered patients suffered from hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasanova, G M; Tutel'ian, A V

    2011-01-01

    Actual consumption of vitamins A, E, beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, thiamin, pyridoxine and main foodstuffs by recovered patients suffered from hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome has been given. Frequency analysis of foodstuffs consumption was used to study actual nourishment of recovered patients. Surplus consumption of fat mainly due to the use of saturated fatty acids, deficiency of poly unsaturated fatty acids, surplus sugar consumption and predominance of proteins of animal origin over proteins of vegetable origin in ration has been revealed. Deficiency of water soluble vitamins equals to 41,6-78,7% of all examined patients, deficiency of fat water soluble vitamins is lower (21,4-38,3%).

  15. Effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wronkowska Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on the changes in the total phenolic compounds, rutin, vitamin B and C, tocopherol, phytic acid and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats was studied. The roasted groats contained reduced level of studied bioactive compounds as compared to raw groats. In this study was evidenced that the solidstate fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus enhanced water soluble vitamins (thiamine, pyridoxine and L-ascorbic acid as well as tocopherols contents. In contrast the decrease of the inositol hexaphosphate, phenolic compounds, the rutin content and antioxidant capacity determined by ACL and ABTS methods was noticed.

  16. New Methods for the Analysis of Water-Soluble Vitamins in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Frederic; Giménez, Ester Campos; Konings, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Water-soluble vitamins (WSVs) are a group of organic compounds which are essential micronutrients. WSVs could be divided between the B complex group and vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid). Within the B complex group, eight vitamins are recognized: vitamins B1 (thiamin), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin or niacinamide), B5 (pantothenic acid), B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, or pyridoxamine), B7 (biotin), B9 (folic acid), and B12 (various cobalamins). This paper reviews the new methods for the analysis of these vitamins, with a focus on infant formula and adult nutritionals.

  17. Connective tissue integrity is lost in vitamin B-6-deficient chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, P. G.; Yamauchi, M.; Mahuren, J. D.; Coburn, S. P.; Muniz, O. E.; Howell, D. S.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to characterize further the connective tissue disorder produced by pyridoxine (vitamin B-6) deficiency, as previously evidenced by electron microscopy. Following the second post-natal week, fast growing male chicks were deprived of pyridoxine for a 1-mo period. Six weeks post-natally, blood concentrations in the experimental deficiency group had declined to deficiency levels as registered by low concentrations of pyridoxal phosphate (coenzyme form) in erythrocytes, but did not reach levels associated with neurological symptoms. Light microscopic study showed abnormalities in the extracellular matrix of the connective tissues. Collagen cross-links and the aldehyde contents were not significantly lower in cartilage and tendon collagens of vitamin B-6-deficient animals than in age-matched controls; also, their proteoglycan degrading protease and collagenase activities measured in articular cartilages were not greater. Thus, proteolysis was an unlikely alternative mechanism to account for the loss of connective tissue integrity. These results point to the need for further investigation into adhesive properties of collagen associated proteoglycans or other proteins in vitamin B-6-deficient connective tissue.

  18. Effect of auxin on xylem tracheids differentiation in decapitated stems of Pinus silvestris L. and its interaction with some vitamins and growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Wodzicki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of several vitamins and substances known as important agents in regulation of cell metabolism upon secondary xylem differentiation were studied in interaction with auxin (IAA as applied in lanoline to decapitated stems of 5-year-old Pinus silvestris trees in early and late-summer. Tested substances were: gibberellic acid, kinetin, nicotinic acid, thiamine, pyridoxine, calcium panthotenate, choline chloride, riboflavin, inositol, ascorbic acid, vitamin, A (alcohol, vitamin A (ester, saponin. None of the effects of these substances appeared significant enough to indicate the involvement in the seasonal variation of the response of cambium or differentiating tracheids to auxin. However, several effects, especially those of inositol, vitamin A and pyridoxine upon cambial xylem production and further stages of tracheid differentiation were observed. Auxin (IAA affected cambial activity and subsequent differentiation of tracheids during the earliest stages of cell ontogenesis. At these stages auxin treatment induced quantitative expression of the developmental processes involving radial growth and secondary wall formation by tracheids. In this respect, auxin did not affect cells advanced in differentiation, however, it proved to be an essential factor in the completion of the full cycle of tracheid ontogenesis.

  19. Improvement of classification of real estate of railway transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Людмила Володимирівна Гайова

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It was proposed a method of determining the optimum ratio of doses of the most pronounced therapeutic effect and minimal side effects.The aim of the study was to conduct morphological evaluation of lesions of internal organs (lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen after treatment of experimental tuberculosis of guinea pigs different ratios of doses of isoniazid and pyridoxine hydro- chloride.Methods: 50 guinea pigs infection dose of 1 mg Mycobacterium death porpoises from generalized tuberculosis occurs after an average of 45 days, at infection doses of 0.1–0.01 mg – after 60–70 days. Smaller doses of 0.0001 and 0.000001 mg cause chronic disease that ends in death.Results: The optimal therapeutic effect is obtained by treating animals with experimental tuberculosis isoniazid at a dose of 32 mg/kg of vitamin B6 and5 mg/kg body weight of the animal, thus completely disappeared phenomenon specific inflammation in the lungs, liver, kidneys and spleen. This phenomenon also disappeared perifocal nonspecific inflammation. Disappeared dystrophic and necrotic changes in the studied organs.Conclusions: In the experiment Shuttle "INH – pyridoxine hydrochloride" 32 and 5 mg/kg respectively leads to a lack of specific and non-specific manifestations of inflammation in the lungs, liver, kidneys and spleen

  20. Surface-enhanced vibrational spectroscopy of B vitamins: what is the effect of SERS-active metals used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaislová, A; Matějka, P

    2012-05-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy and surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy are analytical tools suitable for the detection of small amounts of various analytes adsorbed on metal surfaces. During recent years, these two spectroscopic methods have become increasingly important in the investigation of adsorption of biomolecules and pharmaceuticals on nanostructured metal surfaces. In this work, the adsorption of B-group vitamins pyridoxine, nicotinic acid, folic acid and riboflavin at electrochemically prepared gold and silver substrates was investigated using Fourier transform SERS spectroscopy at an excitation wavelength of 1,064 nm. Gold and silver substrates were prepared by cathodic reduction on massive platinum targets. In the case of gold substrates, oxidation-reduction cycles were applied to increase the enhancement factor of the gold surface. The SERS spectra of riboflavin, nicotinic acid, folic acid and pyridoxine adsorbed on silver substrates differ significantly from SERS spectra of these B-group vitamins adsorbed on gold substrates. The analysis of near-infrared-excited SERS spectra reveals that each of B-group vitamin investigated interacts with the gold surface via a different mechanism of adsorption to that with the silver surface. In the case of riboflavin adsorbed on silver substrate, the interpretation of surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectra was also helpful in investigation of the adsorption mechanism.

  1. Pyridoxal phosphate as a probe of the cytoplasmic domains of transmembrane proteins: Application to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Ramirez, B.; Martinez-Carrion, M.

    1989-01-01

    A novel procedure has been developed to specifically label the cytoplasmic domains of transmembrane proteins with the aldehyde pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP). Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor (AcChR) vesicles were loaded with [ 3 H]pyridoxine 5-phosphate ([ 3 H]PNP) and pyridoxine-5-phosphate oxidase, followed by intravesicular enzymatic oxidation of [ 3 H]PNP at 37 degree C in the presence of externally added cytochrome c as a scavenger of possible leaking PLP product. The four receptor subunits were labeled whether the reaction was carried out on the internal surface or separately designed to mark the external one. On the other hand, the relative pyridoxylation of the subunits differed in both cases, reflecting differences in accessible lysyl residues in each side of the membrane. Even though there are no large differences in the total lysine content among the subunits and there are two copies of the α-subunit, internal surface labeling by PLP was greatest for the highest molecular weight (δ) subunit, reinforcing the concept that the four receptor subunits are transmembranous and may protrude into the cytoplasmic face in a fashion that is proportional to their subunit molecular weight. Yet, the labeling data do not fit well to any of the models proposed for AcChR subunit folding. The method described can be used for selective labeling of the cytoplasmic domains of transmembrane proteins in sealed membrane vesicles

  2. Effect of water soluble vitamins on Zn transport of Caco-2 cells and their implications under oxidative stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupe, Rashmi Santosh; Agte, Vaishali Vilas

    2010-02-01

    The role of different water soluble vitamins in Zn metabolism beyond intestinal Zn absorption is poorly explored. Using Caco-2 cells, effects of different vitamins on intestinal Zn transport and their implications under oxidative stress (OS) were investigated. Cells were apically treated with Zn (25 muM) and vitamins (Folic acid (FA), Nicotinic acid (NA), Ascorbic acid (AA), riboflavin, thiamine, pyridoxine) for 60 min. The effect of most promising vitamins on zinc transport, antioxidant enzymes (Catalase, Glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase), and intracellular OS status (ROS generation and mitochondrial transmembrane potential) were investigated. OS was generated by tert-butyl hydro peroxide and results for each vitamin were compared with respective Zn containing controls with and without OS. Without OS, Zn transport was slightly enhanced in presence of NA, while it was significantly reduced by thiamine, riboflavin, and pyridoxine. Under OS, NA significantly (P vitamins. With Zn + FA + OS, enzyme activities decreased maximally, with twofold increase in 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCF-DA) (P < 0.01) and lowering of rhodamine fluorescence (P < 0.05). In Zn + AA + OS, DCF-DA fluorescence increased (P < 0.05) but with NA, cellular enzymes, and antioxidant profile were improved. Results for the first time demonstrate advantageous effects of NA and deleterious consequences of FA with no effect by AA on Zn transport, especially under OS. These observed changes in the transport of Zn seem to have an impact on OS markers.

  3. Ion-pair cloud-point extraction: a new method for the determination of water-soluble vitamins in plasma and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Rouhollah; Elyasi, Najmeh S

    2014-10-01

    A novel, simple, and effective ion-pair cloud-point extraction coupled with a gradient high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for determination of thiamine (vitamin B1 ), niacinamide (vitamin B3 ), pyridoxine (vitamin B6 ), and riboflavin (vitamin B2 ) in plasma and urine samples. The extraction and separation of vitamins were achieved based on an ion-pair formation approach between these ionizable analytes and 1-heptanesulfonic acid sodium salt as an ion-pairing agent. Influential variables on the ion-pair cloud-point extraction efficiency, such as the ion-pairing agent concentration, ionic strength, pH, volume of Triton X-100, extraction temperature, and incubation time have been fully evaluated and optimized. Water-soluble vitamins were successfully extracted by 1-heptanesulfonic acid sodium salt (0.2% w/v) as ion-pairing agent with Triton X-100 (4% w/v) as surfactant phase at 50°C for 10 min. The calibration curves showed good linearity (r(2) > 0.9916) and precision in the concentration ranges of 1-50 μg/mL for thiamine and niacinamide, 5-100 μg/mL for pyridoxine, and 0.5-20 μg/mL for riboflavin. The recoveries were in the range of 78.0-88.0% with relative standard deviations ranging from 6.2 to 8.2%. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Pyridox(am)ine-5-Phosphate Oxidase Deficiency Treatable Cause of Neonatal Epileptic Encephalopathy With Burst Suppression: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Andrea; Aziz, Aly S; Mutch, Carly; Lewis, Jillian; Go, Cristina Y; Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, Saadet

    2015-08-01

    Pyridox(am)ine-5-phosphate oxidase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of pyridoxine metabolism. Intractable neonatal epileptic encephalopathy is the classical presentation. Pyridoxal-5-phosphate or pyridoxine supplementation improves symptoms. We report a patient with myoclonic and tonic seizures at the age of 1 hour. Pyridoxal-5-phosphate was started on the first day of life and seizures stopped at the age of 3 days, but encephalopathy persisted for 4 weeks. She had normal neurodevelopmental outcome at the age of 12 months on pyridoxal-5-phosphate monotherapy. She had novel homozygous pathogenic frameshift mutation (c.448_451del;p.Pro150Argfs*27) in the PNPO gene. Long-lasting encephalopathy despite well-controlled clinical seizures does neither confirm nor exclude pyridox(am)ine-5-phosphate oxidase deficiency. Normal neurodevelopmental outcome of our patient emphasizes the importance of pyridoxal-5-phosphate treatment. Pyridox(am)ine-5-phosphate oxidase deficiency should be included in the differential diagnosis of Ohtahara syndrome and neonatal myoclonic encephalopathy as a treatable underlying cause. In addition, we reviewed the literature for pyridox(am)ine-5-phosphate oxidase deficiency and summarized herein all confirmed cases. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Quantification of vitamin B6 vitamers in human cerebrospinal fluid by ultra performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, M. van der; Albersen, M.; Koning, T.J. de; Visser, G.; Middendorp, A.; Bosma, M.; Verhoeven-Duif, N.M.; Sain-van der Velden, M.G.M. de

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We present a sensitive UPLC–MS/MS method for quantification of B6 vitamers in human CSF. ► Our method is very accurate since stable isotope labeled internal standards are used. ► We present data on light sensitivity, temperature dependence and rostrocaudal gradient. ► With PN supplementation, concentrations of PL, PM, PN and PA in CSF are increased. ► Our fully validated method is suitable for implementation in a diagnostic setting. - Abstract: Since vitamin B6 is essential for normal functioning of the central nervous system, there is growing need for sensitive analysis of B6 vitamers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This manuscript describes the development and validation of a rapid, sensitive and accurate method for quantification of the vitamin B6 vitamers pyridoxal (PL), pyridoxamine (PM), pyridoxine (PN), pyridoxic acid (PA), pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP), pyridoxamine 5′-phosphate (PMP) and pyridoxine 5′-phosphate (PNP) in human CSF. The method is based on ultra performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) with a simple sample preparation procedure of protein precipitation using 50 g L −1 trichloroacetic acid containing stable isotope labeled internal standards: PL-D 3 for PL and PM, PN- 13 C 4 for PN, PA-D 2 for PA and PLP-D 3 for the phosphorylated vitamers. B6 vitamers were separated (Acquity HSS-T3 UPLC column) with a buffer containing acetic acid, heptafluorobutyric acid and acetonitrile. Positive electrospray ionization was used to monitor transitions m/z 168.1 → 150.1 (PL), 169.1 → 134.1 (PM), 170.1 → 134.1 (PN), 184.1 → 148.1 (PA), 248.1 → 150.1 (PLP), 249.1 → 232.1 (PMP) and 250.1 → 134.1 (PNP). The method was validated at three concentration levels for each B6 vitamer in CSF. Recoveries of the internal standards were between 93% and 96%. Intra- and inter-assay variations were below 20%. Accuracy tests showed deviations from 3% (PN) to 39% (PMP). Limits of quantification were

  6. EFFECT OF VITAMINS A AND B6 ON AQUACULTURAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR KOI (CYPRINUS CARPIO KOI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Beloshapka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the effect of vitamins A (retinol and B6 (pyridoxine on aquacultural and biological parameters of young-of-the-year koi (Cyprinus carpio koi. Methodology. The study was conducted in laboratory conditions based at the Bila Tserkva experimental hydrobiological station of the Institute of Hydrobiology of NAS of Ukraine in 2015. To achieve the objectives of the research, we used morphometric analysis methods. We performed the studies of the variable-based changes of the basic morphological and biological parameters of young-of-the-year koi carp koi under similar culture conditions. To perform the work, we used four groups of young-of-the-year koi carp with mean initial weight of 1.4±0.07 grams at the age of 30 days with the same number of individuals (25 fish in each group. One group was the control group (group 1, while three others were experimental groups, which were fed by starting compound feeds supplemented with vitamins A and B6. We examined and compared the effect of powdered water-soluble vitamin B6 with 99.0% weight content of pyridoxine hydrochloride, as well as a complex of vitamins A and B6, encapsulated in polymeric carriers on biological parameters of fingerlings of young-of-the-year koi carp. Findings. The study results showed that the addition of pyridoxine and retinol to fish feed significantly improves the survival rate of young-of-the-year koi carp by 12.0% and 16.0% respectively. We detected the general positive effect of experimental vitamin supplements, particularly of two forms of vitamin B6 on survival and weight, total body length, standard body length and the largest body height of young-of-the-year koi carp. However, for the majority of the studied parameters of fingerling weight and length, the best performance was observed when using vitamin B6, encapsulated in polymeric carriers. Originality. The aquacultural and biological parameters of young-of-the-year koi carp after feeding them with feeds

  7. HPLC analysis of vitamin B6 in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.-M. OLLILAINEN

    2008-12-01

    origin was mainly comprised of glycosidically bound pyridoxine derivatives. These bound analytes are normally not taken into account in traditional analytical methods, and food composition tables lack the data of glycosylated pyridoxine. The role of the glycosylated pyridoxines need to be clarified in terms of their analytical and physiological nature. If, as it is currently assumed, the availability of the bound forms is limited for humans, the role of vegetables, cereals and other foods of plant origin as a source of vitamin B6, as well as the analytical methods should be reassessed.;

  8. Quantification of vitamin B6 vitamers in human cerebrospinal fluid by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, M. van der, E-mail: M.vanderHam-3@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Albersen, M., E-mail: M.Albersen@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Koning, T.J. de, E-mail: T.deKoning@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Pediatric Metabolic Diseases, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC03.063.0, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Visser, G., E-mail: G.Visser-4@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Pediatric Metabolic Diseases, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC03.063.0, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Middendorp, A., E-mail: Alfred_Middendorp@waters.com [Waters Chromatography B.V., Florijnstraat 19, Postbus 379, 4870 AJ Etten-Leur (Netherlands); Bosma, M., E-mail: M.Bosma@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Verhoeven-Duif, N.M., E-mail: N.Verhoeven@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Sain-van der Velden, M.G.M. de, E-mail: M.G.deSain@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Metabolic Diseases and Netherlands Metabolomics Center, University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, Huispost KC02.069.1, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for quantification of B6 vitamers in human CSF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our method is very accurate since stable isotope labeled internal standards are used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present data on light sensitivity, temperature dependence and rostrocaudal gradient. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With PN supplementation, concentrations of PL, PM, PN and PA in CSF are increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our fully validated method is suitable for implementation in a diagnostic setting. - Abstract: Since vitamin B6 is essential for normal functioning of the central nervous system, there is growing need for sensitive analysis of B6 vitamers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This manuscript describes the development and validation of a rapid, sensitive and accurate method for quantification of the vitamin B6 vitamers pyridoxal (PL), pyridoxamine (PM), pyridoxine (PN), pyridoxic acid (PA), pyridoxal 5 Prime -phosphate (PLP), pyridoxamine 5 Prime -phosphate (PMP) and pyridoxine 5 Prime -phosphate (PNP) in human CSF. The method is based on ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) with a simple sample preparation procedure of protein precipitation using 50 g L{sup -1} trichloroacetic acid containing stable isotope labeled internal standards: PL-D{sub 3} for PL and PM, PN-{sup 13}C{sub 4} for PN, PA-D{sub 2} for PA and PLP-D{sub 3} for the phosphorylated vitamers. B6 vitamers were separated (Acquity HSS-T3 UPLC column) with a buffer containing acetic acid, heptafluorobutyric acid and acetonitrile. Positive electrospray ionization was used to monitor transitions m/z 168.1 {yields} 150.1 (PL), 169.1 {yields} 134.1 (PM), 170.1 {yields} 134.1 (PN), 184.1 {yields} 148.1 (PA), 248.1 {yields} 150.1 (PLP), 249.1 {yields} 232.1 (PMP) and 250.1 {yields} 134.1 (PNP). The method was validated at three concentration levels for each B6 vitamer in CSF

  9. Quantification of vitamin B6 vitamers in human cerebrospinal fluid by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ham, M; Albersen, M; de Koning, T J; Visser, G; Middendorp, A; Bosma, M; Verhoeven-Duif, N M; de Sain-van der Velden, M G M

    2012-01-27

    Since vitamin B6 is essential for normal functioning of the central nervous system, there is growing need for sensitive analysis of B6 vitamers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This manuscript describes the development and validation of a rapid, sensitive and accurate method for quantification of the vitamin B6 vitamers pyridoxal (PL), pyridoxamine (PM), pyridoxine (PN), pyridoxic acid (PA), pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP) and pyridoxine 5'-phosphate (PNP) in human CSF. The method is based on ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) with a simple sample preparation procedure of protein precipitation using 50 g L(-1) trichloroacetic acid containing stable isotope labeled internal standards: PL-D(3) for PL and PM, PN-(13)C(4) for PN, PA-D(2) for PA and PLP-D(3) for the phosphorylated vitamers. B6 vitamers were separated (Acquity HSS-T3 UPLC column) with a buffer containing acetic acid, heptafluorobutyric acid and acetonitrile. Positive electrospray ionization was used to monitor transitions m/z 168.1→150.1 (PL), 169.1→134.1 (PM), 170.1→134.1 (PN), 184.1→148.1 (PA), 248.1→150.1 (PLP), 249.1→232.1 (PMP) and 250.1→134.1 (PNP). The method was validated at three concentration levels for each B6 vitamer in CSF. Recoveries of the internal standards were between 93% and 96%. Intra- and inter-assay variations were below 20%. Accuracy tests showed deviations from 3% (PN) to 39% (PMP). Limits of quantification were in the range of 0.03-5.37 nM. Poor results were obtained for quantification of PNP. The method was applied to CSF samples of 20 subjects and two patients on pyridoxine supplementation. Using minimal CSF volumes this method is suitable for implementation in a routine diagnostic setting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Studies on the radiation chemistry of biomolecules in aqueous solution with specific objective of minimizing their radiolytic degradation. Coordinated programme for Asia and the Pacific Region on radiation sterilization practices significant to local medical supplies and conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana Rao, K.

    1979-01-01

    As part of a study of radiolytic degradation of pharmaceuticals during radiosterilization, the basic radiation chemistry of the B-group vitamins, nicotinamide, pyridoxin, riboflavin and thiamine, and the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with these same materials has been investigated. The various aspects studied were - radiolysis under controlled conditions, effects of phase, temperature, pH and nature and concentration of additives. Some of the conclusions are: 1) with oxygen saturated aqueous solutions containing glucose, the radiolytic degradation of the vitamins is reduced: 2) results a similar for N 2 O saturated aqueous solutions; 3) in glucose-containing solutions, the protective effect is considerably modified at higher temperatures; and 4) irradiation of air-saturated aqueous solutions in the frozen state leads to reduced decomposition. It is concluded that in the presence of oxygen, in frozen matrices at low temperature, it appears possible to reduce the radiolytic breakdown of vitamins to low levels

  11. Radiation sterilization of vitamins - studies on the radiolysis and radiation protection of vitamins in aqueous systems and the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.N.; Moorthy, P.N.; Kishore, K.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation sterilization of pharmaceutical products may cause their radiation degradation and loss in their potency. Radiation degradation may even give rise to new products whose effects on the organisms could be different from the parent substances. Extent of radiolytic decomposition of vitamins thiamine, nicotinamide, riboflavine and pyridoxine was studied under controlled conditions so that either only the hydrated electrons (esub(aq)) or only hydrogen atom (H) and hydroxyl radical react with these molecules. Experiments were also conducted in which scavengers for these species were added to reduce radiolytic degradation of the vitamins. It was found that irradiation of vitamins in the frozen aqueous state and with addition of glucose reduces radiolytic degradation and their irradiation in dry solid state causes no detectable damage. The last finding indicates that the best method for radiation sterilization of vitamin preparations may be to irradiate the components in the dry solid state and then compound them together. (M.G.B.)

  12. Food, medicinal and environmental values of mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus

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    O. M. Alekseenko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the literature review describing food, medicinal and ecological properties of the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom. It is shown that the mushroom is adequate foodstuff for human beings. It provides with proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and mineral salts. Protein of the oyster mushrooms’ mycothallus contains 18 amino acids, eight of which were essential (isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, threonine, and valine. Therapeutic value of the mushroom is characterised by a content of water-soluble (thiamine B1, riboflavin B2, niacin, B5, PP, pyridoxine B6, biotin B7, ascorbic and pantothenic acid and liposoluble (calciferol, ergosterol, tocopherol vitamins. The considerable gains from the farm wastes use for the mushrooms raising with subsequent application of the substrate in plant cultivation and animal husbandry are stated.

  13. Photo-physical and interactional behavior of two members of group B vitamins in different solvent media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakerhamidi, M. S.; Zare Haghighi, L.; Seyed Ahmadian, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, absorption and fluorescence spectra of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) and vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) were recorded in solvents with different polarity, at room temperature. These vitamins' photo-physical behavior depends strongly on the solvent's nature along with different attached groups in their structures. In order to investigate the solvent-solute interactions and environmental effect on spectral variations, linear solvation energy relationships concept, suggested by Kamlet and Taft was used. Solvatochromic method was also used for measuring the ground and excited state dipole moments of these vitamins. According to our experimental results, dipole moment of these groups of vitamins in excited state is larger than ground state. Furthermore, obtained photo-physical and interactional properties of used vitamins can give important information on how this group of vitamins behaves in biological systems.

  14. Supramolecular Encapsulation of Vitamin B6 by Macrocyclic Nanocontainer Cucurbit[7]uril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanying Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pharmaceutically and biologically relevant molecule, pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6, was encapsulated inside the cavity of a molecular container, cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7], in aqueous solution. The CB[7] based “nanocapsule” of vitamin B6 has been investigated for the first time, via 1H NMR and UV-visible spectroscopic titrations (including Job’s plot and ab initio molecular modeling. The results have demonstrated that vitamin B6 forms stable host-guest complexes within CB[7] in 1 : 1 stoichiometry, with a binding affinity of (4.0±0.5×103 M−1. Such a nanocapsule could potentially find application in vitamin B6 formulation for the purpose of enhancing the stability, absorption, and delivery of this important vitamin.

  15. The synthesis of tritium-labelled vitamin B-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babain, V.A.; Kaminskij, Yu.L.; Nagorskij, A.I.; Rozenberg, S.G.

    1992-01-01

    Specimens of pyridoxine (B-6 vitamin) labelled by tritium are obtained due to techniques of liquid-phase and solid-phase heterogeneous isotopic exchange with gaseous tritium over palladium catalysts. [ 3 H] molar activity of the vitamin obtained due to liquid-phase exchange constitutes 925-1295 TBq/mole, due to solid-phase one - 1.85-2.96 PBq/mole. 60 % of tritium are localized in 2-CH 3 -group, 25 % - in 4-C 2 HOH-group, 15 % - in 6H in the vitamin specimen obtained due to liquid-phase exchange, while at solid-phase exchange it is localized respectively as 36, 37 and 25 %

  16. NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH BENEFITS OF BUCKWHEAT

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    Martina Danihelová

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat represents a raw material interesting in term of its nutritional and health beneficial suitability. Buckwheat grain is a source of valuable proteins, starch with low glycemic index or high amount of unsaturated fatty acids. It contains compounds with prophylactic value, too. Buckwheat is one of the richest sources of flavonoids. The highest content of dietary fibre is in bran fraction, where it counts for 40 %. Present phytosterols are usefull in lowering blood cholesterol. Buckwheat is better source of magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, zinc, manganese and copper than other cereals. Among vitamins the most abundant is pyridoxin. Buckwheat is effective in management of many diseases, mainly cardiovascular and digestion disorders, cancer, diabetes and obesity. In the last decades buckwheat is an interesting material not only for development of new functional foods, but for the preparation of concentrates with healing buckwheat components, too.doi:10.5219/206

  17. Thiamin is decomposed due to Anaphe spp. entomophagy in seasonal ataxia patients in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimune, T; Watanabe, Y; Okazaki, H; Akai, H

    2000-06-01

    A fairly high activity of a relatively heat-resistant thiaminase was detected and characterized from the pupae of an African silkworm Anaphe spp. which had been the putative cause of a seasonal ataxia and impaired consciousness in Nigerians. The thiaminase in the buffer extract of Anaphe pupae was type I (thiamin: base 2-methyl-4-aminopyrimidine methyl transferase EC 2.5.1.2), and the optimal temperature and pH were 70 degrees C and 8.0-8.5, respectively. Based on gel filtration chromatography, the molecules were estimated to be 200 kDa. Second substrates which could be utilized by the thiaminase were pyridoxine, amino acids, glutathione, taurine and 4-aminopyridine. Thiamin phosphate esters were inactive as substrates. This is the first report describing an insect thiaminase. Our results indicate the necessity of thorough heat treatment for the detoxification of the African silkworm, making the worm a safe source of high-quality protein.

  18. Radiometric-microbiologic assay fo vitamin B-6: analysis of plasma samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilarte, T.R.; McIntyre, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    A radiometric microbiologic assay for the analysis of vitamin B-6 in plasma was developed. The method is based on the measurement of 14CO2 generated from the metabolism of DL-l-14C-valine (L-l-14C-valine) by Kloeckera brevis. The assay is specific for the biologically active forms of the vitamin, that is, pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine, and their respective phosphorylated forms. The biologically inert vitamin B-6 metabolite (4-pyridoxic acid) did not generate a response at concentrations tested. The radiometric technique was shown to be sensitive to the 1 nanogram level. Reproducibility and recovery studies gave good results. Fifteen plasma samples were assayed using the radiometric and turbidimetric techniques. The correlation coefficient was r . 0.98. Turbid material or precipitated debris did not interfere with the radiometric microbiologic assay, thus allowing for simplification of assay procedure

  19. Impact of

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    K. Velmurugan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The uses of biodiesel in diesel engines result in reduction of exhaust emissions, though many researchers described that the biodiesel produces higher NOx emissions than diesel, which is detract from the inflation of the market for these fuels. The aim of the present study was to analyze the experimental exploration of the three antioxidants DEA (Di-Ethyl Amine, PHC (Pyridoxine Hydro Chloride and TBHQ (Tert Butyl Hydro Quinone on engine emission and performance of a single cylinder diesel engine fueled with methyl ester of mango seed. The experiment is conducted with different antioxidant concentrations of mango seed methyl ester mixtures (100, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm.The results exhibited that PHC is effectual in controlling NOx emissions than TBHQ and DEA.

  20. Gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina with hyper-ornithinemia responsive to vitamin B6: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javadzadeh Alireza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gyrate atrophy of the retina and choroid is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disease, characterized by progressive chorioretinal atrophy that results in progressive deterioration of peripheral and night vision and leading to blindness. Case presentation This report presents a case of a 28-year-old man consulting for a progressive fall of visual acuity with hemeralopia. Eye fundoscopy showed regions of confluent rounded chorioretinal atrophy. The visual field and retinal angiography were altered. A high level of plasma ornithine (629 nmol/mL was detected and a diagnosis of gyrate atrophy of the retina and choroid was made. The patient was treated with high dose Pyridoxine supplement (300 mg/d for 6 months and the ornithine level of his serum was successfully reduced. Conclusion The exact mechanism of chorioretinal atrophy in hyper-ornithinemia is not known and a small percentage of the affected people respond to Vitamin B6 supplementation.

  1. October 2014 critical care case of the month: a skin rash in the ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raschke RA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Abstract truncated after first page. History of Present Illness: A 28 year old man was admitted to an outside hospital with an ethylene glycol overdose in an apparent suicide attempt. At that time the patient was delirious and vomiting. He had a severe metabolic acidosis and a creatinine of 2.1 mg/dL. He was intubated, a nasogastric tube was placed, and he was transferred to the toxicology service. PMH, FH, SH: There was no significant past medical history. Family history was noncontributory. He was a nonsmoker who recently had a fight with his girlfriend prompting the suicide attempt. Physical Examination: Vital signs were stable and he was sedated and nasally intubated receiving mechanical ventilation. There were no other significant findings on physical examination. Which of the following can be used for ethylene glycol poisoning? 1. Ethanol; 2. Fomezipole; 3. Hemodialysis; 4. Pyridoxine; 5. All of the above ...

  2. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to KF2BL20 and maintenance of normal hair pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    and contributes to reduce hair loss”. The target population proposed by the applicant is healthy adults in the general population. The Panel considers that maintenance of normal hair is a beneficial physiological effect. The applicant identified one single arm study as being pertinent to the health claim...... related to KF2BL20, which is a combination of keratin, copper, zinc, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine and D-biotin, and maintenance of normal hair. The Panel considers that KF2BL20 is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “helps to reinforce hair strength and normal hair function....... The Panel notes that this study was uncontrolled and considers that no conclusions can be drawn from this study for the scientific substantiation of the claim. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of KF2BL20 and maintenance of normal hair....

  3. An unusual cause of abdominal pain.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mc Cabe, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    A 26-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with abdominal pain, diarrhoea, anorexia and haematemesis. The patient was previously diagnosed with latent tuberculosis (TB). On examination, his abdomen was diffusely tender, with localised guarding in the right iliac fossa. CT imaging of his abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a low volume of ascites, diffuse studding of the peritoneum, omental caking and several bulky low-density lymph nodes in the retroperitoneum. A laparoscopy was performed to obtain a peritoneal biopsy. Histology demonstrated fragments of peritoneum with necrotising granulomatous inflammatory infiltrate in keeping with an infectious process, favouring TB. He was commenced on rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol and pyridoxine under the direct observed therapy by the infectious diseases team. In view of his extensive peritoneal involvement, he was empirically started on high-dose prednisolone for symptomatic control and to reduce complications related to peritoneal adhesions.

  4. The substrate oxidation mechanism of pyranose 2-oxidase and other related enzymes in the glucose-methanol-choline superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongnate, Thanyaporn; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2013-07-01

    Enzymes in the glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductase superfamily catalyze the oxidation of an alcohol moiety to the corresponding aldehyde. In this review, the current understanding of the sugar oxidation mechanism in the reaction of pyranose 2-oxidase (P2O) is highlighted and compared with that of other enzymes in the GMC family for which structural and mechanistic information is available, including glucose oxidase, choline oxidase, cholesterol oxidase, cellobiose dehydrogenase, aryl-alcohol oxidase, and pyridoxine 4-oxidase. Other enzymes in the family that have been newly discovered or for which less information is available are also discussed. A large primary kinetic isotope effect was observed for the flavin reduction when 2-d-D-glucose was used as a substrate, but no solvent kinetic isotope effect was detected for the flavin reduction step. The reaction of P2O is consistent with a hydride transfer mechanism in which there is stepwise formation of d-glucose alkoxide prior to the hydride transfer. Site-directed mutagenesis of P2O and pH-dependence studies indicated that His548 is a catalytic base that facilitates the deprotonation of C2-OH in D-glucose. This finding agrees with the current mechanistic model for aryl-alcohol oxidase, glucose oxidase, cellobiose dehydrogenase, methanol oxidase, and pyridoxine 4-oxidase, but is different from that of cholesterol oxidase and choline oxidase. Although all of the GMC enzymes share similar structural folding and use the hydride transfer mechanism for flavin reduction, they appear to have subtle differences in the fine-tuned details of how they catalyze substrate oxidation. © 2013 The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 FEBS.

  5. Lysine Restriction and Pyridoxal Phosphate Administration in a NADK2 Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tort, Frederic; Ugarteburu, Olatz; Torres, Maria Angeles; García-Villoria, Judit; Girós, Marisa; Ruiz, Angeles; Ribes, Antonia

    2016-11-01

    We report the case of a 10-year-old Spanish girl with mutations in NADK2 Prenatal central nervous system abnormalities showed ventriculomegaly, colpocephaly, and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. At birth, axial hypotonia, uncoordinated movements, microcephaly, and generalized cerebellar atrophy were detected. Metabolic investigations revealed high lysine, lactate, and pipecolic acid levels in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Pyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in fibroblasts were normal. Beginning at birth she received biotin, thiamine, and carnitine supplementation. A lysine-restricted diet was started when she was 1 month old. Because pipecolic acid was high, pyridoxine was added to treatment. At 3 years old, astatic myoclonic epilepsy appeared, with no response to levetiracetam. We switched pyridoxine to pyridoxal phosphate, with electroclinical improvement. Because the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes III and IV was slightly low in muscle, other cofactors such as ubidecarenone, idebenone, vitamin E, and creatine were added to the treatment. At 8 years old, plasma acylcarnitine testing was performed, and high levels of 2-trans, 4-cis-decadienoylcarnitine were found. Whole exome sequencing identified a homozygous splice site mutation in NADK2 (c.956+6T>C; p.Trp319Cysfs*21). This substitution generates exon skipping, leading to a truncated protein. In fact, NADK2 messenger RNA and the corresponding protein were almost absent. Now, at 10 years of age she presents with ataxia and incoordination. She has oromotor dysphasia but is able to understand fluid language and is a very friendly girl. We hypothesize that the patient's clinical improvement could be due to her lysine-restricted diet together with cofactors and pyridoxal phosphate administration. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. High prevalence of mild hyperhomocysteinemia and folate, B/sub 12/ and B/sub 6/ deficiencies in an urban population in Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakub, M.; Iqbal, M.P.; Kakepoto, G.N.; Rafique, G.; Memon, Y.; Azam, I.; Mehboobali, N.; Parveen, S.

    2010-01-01

    To find out the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia, and deficiencies of folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 in an urban population in Karachi, Pakistan. Methodology: In a pre and post experimental study, eight hundred and seventy-two apparently healthy adults (aged 18-60 years; 355 males and 517 females) were recruited from a low-income urban locality in East of Karachi from February 2006 to March 2007. Fasting venous blood was obtained. Serum was analyzed for folate and vitamin B12. Plasma was analyzed for pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, co enzymic form of B6) and total homocysteine. A group of vitamin-deficient individuals (n=194) was given 3-week supplementation with folic acid (5mg/ day), methylcobalamin (0.5mg/day) and pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6, 50 mg/day). After supplementation, serum/plasma levels of folate, vitamin B12, PLP and homocysteine were again determined. Prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia (>15 mu mol/l) was 32%. Similarly percent values of folate deficiency (<3.5ng/ml), vitamin B6 deficiency (PLP<20 nmol/l) and vitamin B12 deficiency (<200pg/ml) in the study population were 27.5%, 33.7% and 9.74%, respectively. Hyperhomocysteinemia was associated with male sex, folate deficiency, vitamin B12 deficiency [OR (95%CI), 8.3(5.7-12.1); 2.5(1.76-3.58); 2.6(1.5-4.5), respectively]. A 3-week supplementation with folic acid, methylcobalamin and pyridoxine hydrochloride in vitamin deficient subjects decreased plasma homocysteine levels by 37%. High prevalence estimates of folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 deficiencies appear to be the major determinants of hyperhomocysteinemia in a low income general population in Karachi. (author)

  7. Optimization of culture conditions for gamma-aminobutyric acid production in fermented adzuki bean milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Yi Song

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA, a nonprotein amino acid, is widely distributed in nature and fulfills several physiological functions. In this study, various lactic acid strains commonly used to produce fermented milk products were inoculated into adzuki bean milk for producing GABA. The high GABA producing strain was selected in further experiment to improve the GABA production utilizing culture medium optimization. The results demonstrated that adzuki bean milk inoculated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG increased GABA content from 0.05 mg/mL to 0.44 mg/mL after 36 hours of fermentation, which showed the greatest elevation in this study. Furthermore, the optimal cultural condition to adzuki bean milk inoculated with L. rhamnosus GG to improve the GABA content was performed using response surface methodology. The results showed that GABA content was dependent on the addition of galactose, monosodium glutamate, and pyridoxine with which the increasing ratios of GABA were 23–38%, 24–68%, and 8–36%, respectively. The optimal culture condition for GABA production of adzuki bean milk was found at the content of 1.44% galactose, 2.27% monosodium glutamate, and 0.20% pyridoxine. Under the optimal cultural condition, the amount of GABA produced in the fermented adzuki bean milk was 1.12 mg/mL, which was 22.4-fold higher than that of the unfermented adzuki bean milk (0.05 mg/100 mL. The results suggested that the optimized cultural condition of adzuki bean milk inoculated with L. rhamnosus GG can increase GABA content for consumers as a daily supplement as suggested.

  8. Bioavailability of vitamin B-6 from rat diets containing wheat bran or cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, C.A.; Betschart, A.A.; Oace, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Bioavailability of vitamin B-6 (B-6) in the total diet was studied in male, weanling Sprague-Dawley rats fed fiber-free (FF) diets with 0.2 or 6.9 mg pyridoxine/kg diet (0-, 2- or 6.9-PYR), 20% wheat bran (WB) diets with 3.9- or 5.5-PYR or 7% cellulose (C) diets with 0- or 2-PYR for 28 d. Body weight gain (mean +/- SEM) with 0-PYR was 70 +/- 9.0 and 81.2 +/- 4.2 g for FF and C, respectively. All other groups gained 170-180 g. Urinary excretion of 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA), a major B-6 metabolite, for FF groups was 1.31 +/- 0.22, 2.26 +/- 0.28 and 6.39 +/- 1.73 micrograms/24 h, at 0-, 2- and 6.9-PYR, respectively. Rats fed WB diets excreted 4.99 +/- 0.58 and 9.81 +/- 0.76 micrograms/24 h (3.9- and 5.5-PYR, respectively) and those fed C diets excreted 1.46 +/- 0.34 and 2.69 +/- 0.72 micrograms/24 h (0- and 2-PYR). There was increasing turnover and shorter biological half-life of [ 14 C]pyridoxine (1 mu Ci injected on d 1) with increasing dietary B-6. Growth, 4-PA and 14 C turnover data indicated that WB contributed to B-6 intake of these rats. Cellulose acted as a simple dietary diluent and had no effect on indices of B-6 status. These data suggest that dietary fiber, as cellulose or the indigestible component of wheat bran, does not adversely affect the bioavailability of vitamin B-6

  9. Spectrofluorimetric determination of some water-soluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Abdel-Maaboud I; Mohamed, Horria A; Abdel-Latif, Niveen M; Mohamed, Marwa R

    2011-01-01

    Two simple and sensitive spectrofluorimetric methods were developed for determination of three water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, and B6) in mixtures in the presence of cyanocobalamin. The first one was for thiamine determination, which depends on the oxidation of thiamine HCl to thiochrome by iodine in an alkaline medium. The method was applied accurately to determine thiamine in binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures with pyridoxine HCl, riboflavin, and cyanocobalamin without interference. In the second method, riboflavin and pyridoxine HCl were determined fluorimetrically in acetate buffer, pH 6. The three water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, and B6) were determined spectrofluorimetrically in binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures in the presence of cyanocobalamin. All variables were studied in order to optimize the reaction conditions. Linear relationship was obeyed for all studied vitamins by the proposed methods at their corresponding lambda(exc) or lambda(em). The linear calibration curves were obtained from 10 to 500 ng/mL; the correlation ranged from 0.9991 to 0.9999. The suggested procedures were applied to the analysis of the investigated vitamins in their laboratory-prepared mixtures and pharmaceutical dosage forms from different manufacturers. The RSD range was 0.46-1.02%, which indicates good precision. No interference was observed from common pharmaceutical additives. Good recoveries (97.6 +/- 0.7-101.2 +/- 0.8%) were obtained. Statistical comparison of the results with reported methods shows excellent agreement and indicates no significant difference in accuracy and precision.

  10. Novel phenotypes of pyridox(am)ine-5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency and high prevalence of c.445_448del mutation in Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiao; Chang, Xingzhi; Zhang, Yuehua; Yang, Zhixian

    2017-08-01

    To analyze the clinical and genetic characteristics of Chinese patients with pyridox(am)ine-5'-phosphate oxidase (PNPO) deficiency. The clinical presentations and the responses to treatments were analyzed in 4 patients. Blood and urinary metabolic screenings, electroencephalogram (EEG), brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and epilepsy-related genes detection were performed in all patients. Patient 1 and 2 were identical twin brothers, who were born at 35 +5 w gestation with a sign of encephalopathy. Their seizures started within the first day and could not be controlled by pyridoxine or pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) completely. Patient 3 presented seizures at 5 months, responding well to pyridoxine. Seizures in patient 4 began at 40 days after birth and were controlled by valproic acid and topiramate. EEG showed atypical hypsarrhythmia or multifocal epileptiform discharges in 3 patients, and showed normality in patient 4. MRI showed nonspecific abnormality or normality. Blood metabolic screening showed multiple amino acids level abnormalities in all cases. Urinary metabolic screening showed vanillactic acid prominently elevated in 3 patients. Genetic analysis revealed 5 mutations of PNPO, three of which were novel. The mutation c.445_448del was carried by the twins and patient 3. Assessment of psychomotor development indicated severe delay in 3 patients and borderline to mild delay in patient 3. This is the first time to report patients with PNPO deficiency diagnosed by gene analysis in China. The novel clinical characteristics and novel mutations found here expanded the phenotypes and genotypes of this disease. Further, the frameshift mutation c.445_448del might be high prevalence in PNPO deficiency in Chinese patients.

  11. Systemic Manifestations in Pyridox(am)ine 5'-Phosphate Oxidase Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, Réjean M; Patel, Archana A; Walsh, Brian; Baumer, Fiona M; Shah, Ankoor S; Peters, Jurriaan M; Rodan, Lance H; Agrawal, Pankaj B; Pearl, Phillip L; Takeoka, Masanori

    2017-11-01

    Pyridoxine is converted to its biologically active form pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P5P) by the enzyme pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase and serves as a cofactor in nearly 200 reactions in the central nervous system. Pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency leads to P5P dependent epilepsy, typically a neonatal- or infantile-onset epileptic encephalopathy treatable with P5P or in some cases, pyridoxine. Following identification of retinopathy in a patient with pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency that was reversible with P5P therapy, we describe the systemic manifestations of pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency. A series of six patients with homozygous mutations of PNPO, the gene coding pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase, were evaluated in our center over the course of two years for phenotyping of neurological and systemic manifestations. Five of six were born prematurely, three had anemia and failure to thrive, and two had elevated alkaline phosphatase. A movement disorder was observed in two children, and a reversible retinopathy was observed in the most severely affected infant. All patients had neonatal-onset epilepsy and were on a continuum of developmental delay to profound encephalopathy. Electroencephalographic features included background slowing and disorganization, absent sleep features, and multifocal and generalized epileptiform discharges. All the affected probands carried a homozygous PNPO mutation (c.674 G>T, c.686 G>A and c.352G>A). In addition to the well-described epileptic encephalopathy, pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency causes a range of neurological and systemic manifestations. A movement disorder, developmental delay, and encephalopathy, as well as retinopathy, anemia, and failure to thrive add to the broadening clinical spectrum of P5P dependent epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Wilson's disease: an analysis of 28 Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolpho Truffa Kleine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Clinical-laboratory and evolutionary analysis of twenty-eight patients with Wilson's disease. METHODS: Twenty-eight children (twelve females and sixteen males with Wilson's disease were evaluated retrospectively between 1987 and 2009, with a follow-up of 72 months (1 - 240 months. The clinical, laboratory, and histologic features at diagnosis were recorded at the end of the study. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 11 years (2 - 18 years. Twelve patients were asymptomatic, seven had hepatitis symptoms, five had raised aminotransferase levels, three had hepatomegaly associated with neurological disorders, one had fulminant hepatitis with hemolytic anemia, and six patients presented with a Kayser-Fleischer ring. A histological analysis revealed that six children had chronic hepatitis, seven had cirrhosis, two had steatosis, one had portal fibrosis, and one had massive necrosis. The treatment consisted of D-penicillamine associated with pyridoxine for 26 patients. Adverse effects were observed in the other two patients: one presented with uncontrollable vomiting and the other demonstrated elastosis perforans serpiginosa. At the end of the study, all 26 treated patients were asymptomatic. Twenty-four of the patients were treated with D-penicillamine and pyridoxine, and two were treated with trientine and zinc sulfate. A liver transplant was performed in one patient with fulminant hepatitis, but the final patient died 48 hours after admission to the intensive care unit. CONCLUSIONS: Family screenings associated with early treatment are important in preventing Wilson's disease symptoms and potentially fatal disease progression. The study suggests that Wilson's disease must be ruled out in children older than two years presenting with abnormal levels of hepatic enzymes because of the heterogeneity of symptoms and the encouraging treatment results obtained so far.

  13. Prophylactic drug management for febrile seizures in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Offringa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Febrile seizures occurring in a child older than one month during an episode of fever affect 2% to 4% of children in Great Britain and the United States and recur in 30%. Rapid-acting antiepileptics and antipyretics given during subsequent fever episodes have been used to avoid the adverse effects of continuous antiepileptic drugs. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of antiepileptic and antipyretic drugs used prophylactically to treat children with febrile seizures. METHODS Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011. Issue 3; MEDLINE (1966 to May 2011; EMBASE (1966 to May 2011; Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE (May 2011. No language restrictions were imposed. We also contacted researchers in the field to identify continuing or unpublished studies. Selection criteria: Trials using randomized or quasi-randomized patient allocation that compared the use of antiepileptic or antipyretic agents with each other, placebo or no treatment. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors (RN and MO independently applied pre-defined criteria to select trials for inclusion and extracted the pre-defined relevant data, recording methods for randomization, blinding and exclusions. Outcomes assessed were seizure recurrence at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36 months and at age 5 to 6 years in the intervention and non-intervention groups, and adverse medication effects. The presence of publication bias was assessed using funnel plots. MAIN RESULTS Thirty-six articles describing 26 randomized trials with 2740 randomized participants were included. Thirteen interventions of continuous or intermittent prophylaxis and their control treatments were analyzed. Methodological quality was moderate to poor in most studies. We could not do a meta-analysis for 8 of the 13 comparisons due to insufficient numbers of trials. No significant benefit for valproate, pyridoxine

  14. Reevaluation of Meta-analysis on prophylactic drug management for recurrence of febrile seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan LIAO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the efficiency and safety of drugs to prevent the recurrence of febrile seizures (FS.  Methods Relevant literatures were searched via PubMed, EMBASE/SCOPUS, EBSCO-CINAHL, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from December 1997 to November 2014 using the following keywords: febrile seizure OR febrile convulsion, recurrence, prevention OR prophylaxis, medicine OR medication. Publication type was limited to Meta-analysis. Extract the relevant information of Meta-analysis, such as characteristics of objects, types of study design, number of clinical trials, number of cases, search strategies, databases, information of methodology (methods of randomization, concealment, blinding, withdrawal and exit, follow-up time, heterogeneity analysis, subgroup analysis and outcome assessment, etc. Quality of Reporting of Meta-analyses (QUOROM and Oxman-Guyatt Overview Quality Assessment Questionnaire (OQAQ were used to assess the quality of included Meta-analyses. Jadad decision was used to assess inclusion and exclusion criteria, search strategies, effectiveness evaluation, data extraction and data analysis, to explore reliable evidence of evidence-based medicine.  Results Eventually, four Meta-analyses were included after screening of all the literatures that can be searched out. Among those Meta-analyses, the Meta-analysis of Offringa and Newton (2012 was relatively more reliable. The results suggesed that no clinically important benefits were found in administering intermittent oral or rectal diazepam, oral phenobarbitone, phenytoin, valproate, pyridoxine, buprofen, diclofenac and acetominophen to children with FE. Only one clinical trial reported that intermittent oral clobazam could reduce the recurrence of FE in comparing with placebo at 6-month follow-up (RR = 0.360, 95% CI: 0.200-0.640; P = 0.000, but it should be verified by more randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Among 4 Meta-analyses included in this study

  15. Pyridoxal-5'-phosphate deficiency is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia regardless of antioxidant, thiamine, riboflavin, cobalamine, and folate status in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-López, Jorge; Florea, Daniela; Quintero-Osso, Bartolomé; de la Cruz, Antonio Pérez; Rodríguez-Elvira, Manuel; Del Pozo, Elena Planells

    2016-06-01

    Critically ill patients develop severe stress, inflammation and a clinical state that may raise the utilization and metabolic replacement of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate decreasing their body reserves. This study was designed to assess the nutritional pyridoxal-5'-phosphate status in critical care patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome, comparing them with a group of healthy people, and studying it's association with factors involved in the pyridoxine and other B vitamins metabolism, as the total antioxidant capacity and Hcy as cardiovascular risk biomarker. Prospective, multicentre, comparative, observational and analytic study. One hundred and three critically ill patients from different hospitals, and eighty four healthy subjects from Granada, Spain, all with informed consent. Data from daily nutritional assessment, ICU severity scores, clinical and nutritional parameters, antioxidant status and homocysteine levels was taken at admission and at the seventh day of the ICU stay. Thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine and folate status proved deficient in a large number of patients, being significantly lower in comparison with control group, and significantly decreased at 7th day of ICU stay. Higher homocysteine was observed in patients compared with control group (p < 0.05) where 31.5 and 26.8 percent of subjects presented hyperhomocysteinemia at initial and final of study, respectively. Antioxidant status was lower than control group in two periods analysed, and decreased at 7th day of ICU stay (p < 0.05) being associated with PLP deficiency. PLP deficiency was also correlated with hyperhomocysteinemia at two times measured (r. -0.73, p < 0.001; r. -0.69, p < 0.001, respectively), showing at day 7 an odds ratio of 6.62 in our multivariate model. Critically ill patients with SIRS show deficient B vitamin and low antioxidant statuses. Despite association found between PLP deficiency and low antioxidant status in critically ill patients, PLP deficiency

  16. [Using a multicomponent functional food in IBS patients with constipation a comparative controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipenko, V I; Teplyuk, D A; Shakhovskaya, A K; Isakov, V A; Vorobyova, V M; Vorobyova, I S; Sarkisyan, V A; Kochetkova, A A; Mikheeva, G A; Yudina, A V

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is highly prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder associated with decrease in quality of life and a high social cost. Diet is one of several therapeutic options in IBS treatment; therefore the development and clinical evaluation of innovative functional food for IBS patients are actual. Instant drink containing 4 g inulin, 4 mg menthol and 2 mg of pyridoxine (in daily dose) has been evaluated. 49 patients 18-68 (41.5±16.5) years old fulfilling the Rome III criteria for IBS-C were randomly assigned into two groups: one received standard diet plus two drinks per day for 2 weeks and control group received standard diet. Response to therapy was recorded daily using Likert scale of abdominal pain, bloating and feeling of incomplete bowel emptying, frequency of bowel movement, Bristol stool scale, and quality of life was assessed by IBSQoL questionnaire before and after the treatment. The consumption of the drink with inulin and menthol contributed to a significant positive effect on the stool parameters (from 0.91±0.73 to 1.12±0.45 bowel movements per day in stool frequency, p=0.05, from 2.68±1.63 to 3.43±1.27 index Bristol scale, p=0.05), reduced the severity of abdominal pain (from 1.78±0.58 to 1.47?0.61 Likert scale points, p=0.05), bloating (from 2.22±0.83 to 1.53±0.71 points ofLikertscale,p= 0.01) and a sense of incomplete bowelemptying (from 2.22 ± 0.88 to 1.61± 0.81 points of Likert scale, p=0.001), as well as increased the quality of life (from 75.3± 12.0 to 83.3±6.7%, p=0.05), but a significant part of patients (10 of 25) complained the appearance of heartburn after the start of the treatment. In conclusion, the consumption of the functional drink containing inulin, menthol and pyridoxine is associated with improve in stool parameters, abdominal pain, Bristol scale index and increase in quality of life in patients with IBS-C, but produce noticeable heartburn. Changes in functional drink composition are needed to

  17. Rapid determination of the various native forms of vitamin B6 and B2 in cow's milk using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A; Schreiner, M G; Mayer, H K

    2017-06-02

    As the formation of pyridoxal phosphate, the active cofactor of vitamin B 6 , is dependent on riboflavin 5-phosphate, we propose a fast and simple ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of the native B 6 vitamers pyridoxal, pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, their mono phosphorus esters and 4-pyridoxic acid as well as vitamin B 2 as riboflavin and its phosphorus ester riboflavin 5-phosphate in milk. Separation was achieved under 6.0min by reversed-phase and pH gradient elution. Sample preparation was optimized regarding various acids and pH levels. Changes in those parameters led to significant deviations of sample matrix breakdown efficiency. The optimized method was then validated regarding specificity, accuracy, precision, linearity, range, detection and quantification limits. As the method performed satisfactory, is was used to study commercial liquid cow's milk (n=31), regarding effects of the employed preservation technique (pasteurization, extended shelf-life, ultra-high temperature) on the composition and content of B 6 and B 2 vitamers. In cow's milk, vitamin B 6 mostly consists of pyridoxal and its phosphate ester, with pyridoxal phosphate being the bulk component. The catabolite of the vitamin B 6 metabolism, 4-pyridoxic acid was present in significant amounts in all studied samples, with up to 2.69μmolL -1 . Vitamin B 2 was present as riboflavin and its phosphate ester up to 12.86μmolL -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Rice flakes produced from commercial wild rice: Chemical compositions, vitamin B compounds, mineral and trace element contents and their dietary intake evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumczynski, Daniela; Koubová, Eva; Šenkárová, Lenka; Orsavová, Jana

    2018-10-30

    Non-traditional wild rice flakes were analysed for chemical composition, vitamin B compounds, α-tocopherol, mineral and trace elements. Dietary intakes of vitamins, minerals and trace elements were evaluated using FAO/WHO and Institute of Medicine regulations. Wild rice flakes proved to be significant contributors of pyridoxine, pantothenic and folic acids, niacin, thiamine, chromium, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, zinc, copper, molybdenum and iron to essential dietary intakes values. Toxic dietary intake values for aluminium, cadmium, tin and mercury were less than 33%, which complies the limits for adults set by FAO/WHO for toxic elements intake related to the body weight of 65 kg for females and 80 kg for males taking 100 g of flakes as a portion. However, concentrations of Hg reaching between 3.67 and 12.20 µg/100 g in flakes exceeded the average Hg value of 0.27-1.90 μg/100 g in cereals consumed in the EU. It has to be respected in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neuroprotective impact of a vitamin trace element composition - a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial with healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muss, Claus; Mosgoeller, Wilhelm; Endler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Neurotoxic metabolites and oxidative and nitrosative stress reactions play a crucial role in the pathways leading to neuronal cell death and neurodegeneration. The bioavailability of the many antioxidant ingredients a vitamin and trace element composition was investigated, to reveal the neuroprotective (preventive) potential of the composition. We recruited 159 healthy volunteers, assigned them randomly and double blind to a placebo and verum group. Physicians excluded volunteers with severe chronic diseases or interfeering medications. 142 participants finished the six month trial. Laboratory parameters were determined 1) before participation, and 2) after three and 3) six months. We confirmed the bioavailability of ingredients, and determined metabolic parameters associated with the integrity of the blood brain barrier, mitochondrial deficiency (Q 10), neurodegeneration (homocystein), and antioxidative capacity (e.g. lipidperoxidation), and superoxiddismutase activity. Starting from baseleine, after three months neuroprotective ingredients increased within their physiological borders, folic acid (p<0.003), pyridoxin (p<0.001), cobalamin (p=0.001), and the fat soluble vitamin tocopherol (p<0.001). In parallel, homocytein decreased after 3 and 6 months (p<0.001, and p<0.025, respectively). Other paramters like zinc reacted slower, significant changes were observed only after 6 months. The observed metabolic changes and alteration of the oxidative status after 3 and six month of regular intake underlines the compositions' potential to ameliorate neurodegenerative processes. We conclude that the subsitution of vitamins and trace-elements with natural source in a proper manner may be effective for neuroprotection in healthy population.

  20. [Alcohol intake--a two-edged sword. Part 1: metabolism and pathogenic effects of alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströhle, Alexander; Wolters, Maike; Hahn, Andreas

    2012-08-01

    From the biomedical point of view alcohol is a Janus-faced dietary component with a dose-dependent effect varying from cardiovascular protection to cytotoxicity. Alcohol is absorbed in the upper gastrointestinal tract by passive diffusion, is quickly distributed throughout body water and is mostly eliminated through oxidation. The enzymatically-catalyzed oxidative degradation to acetaldehyde and further to acetate is primarily localized in the liver. In case of a low blood alcohol concentration (0.5 per thousand) are increasingly oxidized by the microsomal ethanoloxidizing system (MEOS). Alcohol consumption induces several metabolic reactions as well as acute effects on the central nervous system. Chronic alcohol consumption to some extent irreparably damages nearly every organ with the liver being particularly concerned. There are three stages of alcohol-induced liver disease (fatty liver, alcohol hepatitis, liver cirrhosis) and the liver damages mainly result from reaction products of alcohol degradation (acetaldehyde, NADH and reactive oxygen species). An especially dreaded clinical complication of the alcohol-induced liver disease is the hepatic encephalopathy. Its pathogenesis is a multifactorial and self-perpetuating process with the swelling of astrocytes being a crucial point. Swollen astrocytes induce several reactions such as oxidative/nitrosative stress, impaired signal transduction, protein modifications and a modified gene expression profile. The swelling of astrocytes and the change in neuronal activity are attributed to several neurotoxins, especially ammonia and aromatic amino acids. In alcohol addicted subjects multiple micronutrient deficiencies are common. The status of folic acid, thiamine, pyridoxine and zinc is especially critical.

  1. Estimation of the effect of food irradiation on total dietary vitamin availability as compared with dietary allowances: study for Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaiz, P.; Ladomery, L.G.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate whether irradiation treatment of all foods, for which this treatment is of recognised technological usefulness, would have any detrimental effect on total dietary vitamin availability for consumption by the Argentinian population. Per capita availability of foods produced in or imported into Argentina that could be usefully irradiated and which are usually consumed in the country was recorded from FAO food balance sheets. The vitamin content of the foods and the vitamin losses occurring under good irradiation practices were gathered from the literature. The nutritional impact of vitamin losses due to irradiation was estimated by comparing results to the Recommended Dietary Allowances of the US National Research Council. The vitamins studied were: A, D, E, K, ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, biotin, cyanocobalamin, folacin and pantothenic acid. Results showed that, even if irradiation was applied to every food which could be usefully treated, vitamin availabilities would exceed 100% of the respective RDA and so no adverse nutritional impact would be expected, except for folacin and vitamin D. However, typical availabilities of folate and vitamin D are less than the RDA. Synthesis of vitamin D in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol would suggest no nutritional problem. Available data on folic acid losses due to food irradiation are incomplete and suggest the need for further experimental research

  2. Delayed diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis in a pregnant Nigerian: A case report

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    Isa Samson Ejiji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous meningitis (TBM is the most severe form of tuberculosis and is commoner in those with immunsuppression. Diagnosis continues to be difficult particularly in resource limited settings, and this may be truer in the setting of pregnancy. We report the case of a pregnant Nigerian who was diagnosed late with atypical features of TBM complicated by cerebral infarction. High index of suspicion and early administration of anti-tuberculous medications as daily therapy according to the national treatment guidelines: 600 mg Rifampicin, 300 mg Isoniazid, 1.2g Pyrazinamide and 800 mg Ethambutol plus 50 mg pyridoxine and 0.4 mg/kg body weight/day dexamethasone which was tapered weekly led to a slow but sustained clinical improvement. The relationship between pregnancy, susceptibility to TBM and presenting features of TBM requires further exploration. Clinicians should also be aware of atypical presentation of TBM in pregnancy, and the suspicion of TBM may be sufficient grounds to initiate empirical anti-tuberculous therapy.

  3. Stability of hydrophilic vitamins mixtures in the presence of electrolytes and trace elements for parenteral nutrition: a nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccello-Barretta, Gloria; Balzano, Federica; Aiello, Federica; Falugiani, Niccolò; Desideri, Ielizza

    2015-03-25

    In total parenteral nutrition (TPN), especially in the case of preterm infants, simultaneous administration of vitamins and trace elements is still a problematic issue: guidelines put in evidence the lack of specific documentation. In this work NMR spectroscopy was applied to the study of vitamins (pyridoxine hydrochloride, thiamine nitrate, riboflavin-5'-phosphate and nicotinamide) stability in presence of salts and trace elements. Vitamins in D2O were first analyzed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy in absence of salts and trace elements; changes in chemical shifts or in diffusion coefficients, measured by NMR DOSY technique, were analyzed. The effects of salts and trace elements on single vitamins and on their admixtures were then investigated by performing quantitative analyses during 48h. Selected vitamins are subject to intermolecular interactions. No degradative effects were observed in presence of salts and trace elements. Only riboflavin-5'-phosphate is subject to precipitation in presence of divalent cations; however, at low concentration and in presence of other vitamins this effect was not observed. Solutions analyzed, in the condition of this study, are stable for at least 48h and vitamins and trace elements can be administered together in TPN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A study of effective atomic numbers and electron densities of some vitamins for electron, H, He and C ion interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükyıldız, M.

    2017-09-01

    The radiological properties of some vitamins such as Retinol, Beta-carotene, Riboflavin, Niacin, Niacinamide, Pantothenic acid, Pyridoxine, Pyridoxamine, Pyridoxal, Biotin, Folic acid, Ascorbic acid, Cholecalciferol, Alpha-tocopherol, Gamma-tocopherol, Phylloquinone have been investigated with respect to total electron interaction and some heavy charged particle interaction as means of effective atomic numbers (Z_{eff}) and electron densities (N_{eff}) for the first time. Calculations were performed for total electron interaction and heavy ions such as H, He and C ion interactions in the energy region 10keV-10MeV by using a logarithmic interpolation method. Variations in Z_{eff}'s and N_{eff}'s of given vitamins have been studied according to the energy of electron or heavy charged particles, and significant variations have been observed for all types of interaction in the given energy region. The maximum values of Z_{eff} have been found in the different energy regions for different interactions remarkably and variations in N_{eff} seem approximately to be the same with variation in Z_{eff} for the given vitamins as expected. Z_{eff} values of some vitamins were plotted together and compared with each other for electron, H, He and C interactions and the ratios of Z_{eff}/ have been changed in the range of 0.25-0.36, 0.20-0.36, 0.22-0.35 and 0.20-0.35 for electron, H, He and C interactions, respectively.

  5. Primary hyperoxaluria in infants

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    Manel Jellouli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The infantile form of primary hyperoxaluria type-1 (PH-1 is characterized by a rapid progression to the end-stage renal disease (ESRD due to both increased oxalate load and reduced glomerular filtration rate. In the literature, data on this form are limited. The purpose of this study is to analyze retrospectively the clinical, biological, and radiological features of children who were diagnosed with PH-1 during the 1styear of life. We reviewed the records of all children with PH-1 diagnosed and followed-up at our department between January 1995 and December 2013. Among them, only infants younger than 12 months of age were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Fourteen infants with the median age of two months were enrolled in the study. At diagnosis, 11 patients had ESRD. All patients had nephrocalcinosis and two of them had calculi. The diagnosis was established in nine patients on the basis of the positive family history of PH-1, bilateral nephrocalcinosis, and quantitative crystalluria. In four patients, the diagnosis was made with molecular analysis of DNA. Kidney biopsy contributed to the diagnosis in one patient. During follow-up, two patients were pyridoxine sensitive and preserved renal function. Seven among 11 patients who had ESRD died, four patients are currently undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Children with infantile PH and ESRD are at high risk of early death. Peritoneal dialysis is not a treatment of choice. Combined liver-kidney transplantation is mandatory.

  6. Potentiometric application of boron- and phosphorus-doped glassy carbon electrodes

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    ZORAN V. LAUSEVIC

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Acomparative study was carried out of the potentiometric application of boronand phosphorus-doped and undoped glassy carbon samples prepared at the same heat treatment temperature (HTT 1000°C. The electrochemical activities of the obtained electrode materials were investigated on the example of argentometric titrations. It was found that the electrochemical behaviour of the doped glassy carbon samples are very similar to a Sigri (undoped glassy carbon sample (HTT 2400°C. The experiments showed that the potentiometric response depends on the polarization mode, the nature of the sample, the pretreatment of the electrode surface, and the nature of the supporting electrolyte. The amounts of iodide, bromide, and of chloridewere determined to be 1.27 mg, 0.80 mg and 0.54 mg, respectively, with a maximum relative standard deviation of less than 1.1%. The obtained results are in good agreement with the results of comparative potentiometric titrations using a silver indicator electrode. The titrationmethod was applied to the indirect determination of pyridoxine hydrochloride, i.e., vitamin B6.

  7. Hepatoprotective Effect of Metadoxine on Acetaminophen-induced Liver Toxicity in Mice

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    Parvin Mazraati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metadoxine (pyridoxine pyrrolidone carboxylate is considered to be a beneficial agent for the treatment of experimental hepatotoxicity due to alcohol, CCl4, and bile duct ligation. Hence, the therapeutic effect of metadoxine and N-acetylcysteine (NAC as reference drug was investigated in mice exposed to acute hepatotoxicity induced by a single oral toxic dose of acetaminophen (650 mg/kg. Materials and Methods: Metadoxine (200 and 400 mg/kg and NAC (300 mg/kg were given orally (p. o., 2 h after acetaminophen administration. Serum aminotransferases, aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total bilirubin, hepatic glutathione (GSH, and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were determined for evaluating the extent of hepatotoxicity due to acetaminophen and its protection by metadoxine. Results: Findings indicated that metadoxine significantly reduced the level of serum ALT, AST, and ALP but not total bilirubin which increased by acetaminophen intoxication. Administration of metadoxine also attenuated oxidative stress by suppressing lipid peroxidation (MDA and prevented the depletion of reduced GSH level which caused by acetaminophen toxicity. Besides, metadoxine ameliorated histopathological hepatic tissue injury induced by acetaminophen. Conclusion: In most parameters examined, the effect of metadoxine was comparable to NAC. Hence, metadoxine could be considered as a beneficial therapeutic candidate to protect against acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity.

  8. Benefits of combined preventive therapy with co-trimoxazole and isoniazid in adults living with HIV: time to consider a fixed-dose, single tablet coformulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Anthony D; Lawn, Stephen D; Suthar, Amitabh B; Granich, Reuben

    2015-12-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the main intervention needed to reduce morbidity and mortality and to prevent tuberculosis in adults living with HIV. However, in most resource-limited countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, ART is started too late to have an effect with substantial early morbidity and mortality, and in high tuberculosis burden settings ART does not reduce the tuberculosis risk to that reported in individuals not infected with HIV. Co-trimoxazole preventive therapy started before or with ART, irrespective of CD4 cell count, reduces morbidity and mortality with benefits that continue indefinitely. Isoniazid preventive therapy as an adjunct to ART prevents tuberculosis in high-exposure settings, with long-term treatment likely to be needed to sustain this benefit. Unfortunately, both preventive therapies are underused in low-income and high-burden settings. ART development has benefited from patient-centred simplification with several effective regimens now available as a one per day pill. We argue that co-trimoxazole and isoniazid should also be combined into a single fixed-dose pill, along with pyridoxine (vitamin B6), that would be taken once per day to help with individual uptake and national scale-up of therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Do not overlook acute isoniazid poisoning in children with status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caksen, Hüseyin; Odabas, Dursun; Erol, Mehmet; Anlar, Omer; Tuncer, Oguz; Atas, Bülent

    2003-02-01

    A previously healthy 2-year-old girl was admitted with generalized convulsive status epilepticus. She was in a stupor and could respond only to painful stimuli. She also had severe metabolic acidosis. Although initial liver function tests were normal, they were found to be moderately high on the fifth day of admission; however, they dropped to their normal ranges on the twelfth day of admission. Initially, the patient was diagnosed as having idiopathic status epilepticus, and classic anticonvulsant agents, including diazepam, phenytoin, and then phenobarbital, were given. However, her seizures did not subside, and diazepam infusion was initiated. After initiation of diazepam infusion, the seizures were completely controlled. On the fourth day of admission, her parents said that she had accidentally received 20 tablets (a total dose of 2000 mg) of isoniazid just before admission to our hospital. Later, we injected 200 mg of pyridoxine intravenously. During follow-up, her general condition improved, and anticonvulsant agents were discontinued because an electroencephalogram was found to be norma. She was discharged from the hospital on the twelfth day of admission. At the fourth month of follow-up, she was seizure free. Because of this case, we would like to re-emphasize that acute isoniazid poisoning should also be considered in a child with unexplained status epilepticus.

  10. 4-Pyridoxic Acid in the Spent Dialysate: Contribution to Fluorescence and Optical Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalle, Sigrid; Tanner, Risto; Arund, Jürgen; Tomson, Ruth; Luman, Merike; Fridolin, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    In this work we estimated the contribution of the fluorescence of 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA) to the total fluorescence of spent dialysate with the aim of evaluating the on-line monitoring of removal of this vitamin B-6 metabolite from the blood of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Spectrofluorometric analysis of spent dialysate, collected from hemodialysis and hemodiafiltration sessions of 10 patients receiving regularly pyridoxine injections after dialysis treatment, was performed in the range of Ex/Em 220-500 nm. 4-PA in dialysate samples was identified and quantified using HPLC with fluorescent and MS/MS detection. Averaged HPLC chromatogram of spent dialysate had many peaks in the wavelength region of Ex320/Em430 nm where 4-PA was the highest peak with contribution of 42.2±17.0% at the beginning and 47.7±18.0% in the end of the dialysis. High correlation (R = 0.88-0.95) between 4-PA concentration and fluorescence intensity of spent dialysate was found in the region of Ex310-330/Em415-500 nm, respectively. 4-PA elimination from the blood of ESRD patients can be potentially followed using monitoring of the fluorescence of the spent dialysate during dialysis treatments.

  11. 4-Pyridoxic Acid in the Spent Dialysate: Contribution to Fluorescence and Optical Monitoring.

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    Sigrid Kalle

    Full Text Available In this work we estimated the contribution of the fluorescence of 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA to the total fluorescence of spent dialysate with the aim of evaluating the on-line monitoring of removal of this vitamin B-6 metabolite from the blood of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD.Spectrofluorometric analysis of spent dialysate, collected from hemodialysis and hemodiafiltration sessions of 10 patients receiving regularly pyridoxine injections after dialysis treatment, was performed in the range of Ex/Em 220-500 nm. 4-PA in dialysate samples was identified and quantified using HPLC with fluorescent and MS/MS detection.Averaged HPLC chromatogram of spent dialysate had many peaks in the wavelength region of Ex320/Em430 nm where 4-PA was the highest peak with contribution of 42.2±17.0% at the beginning and 47.7±18.0% in the end of the dialysis. High correlation (R = 0.88-0.95 between 4-PA concentration and fluorescence intensity of spent dialysate was found in the region of Ex310-330/Em415-500 nm, respectively.4-PA elimination from the blood of ESRD patients can be potentially followed using monitoring of the fluorescence of the spent dialysate during dialysis treatments.

  12. Inherited disorders of brain neurotransmitters: pathogenesis and diagnostic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska, Krystyna; Kuśmierska, Katarzyna; Demkow, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Neurotransmitters (NTs) play a central role in the efficient communication between neurons necessary for normal functioning of the nervous system. NTs can be divided into two groups: small molecule NTs and larger neuropeptide NTs. Inherited disorders of NTs result from a primary disturbance of NTs metabolism or transport. This group of disorders requires sophisticated diagnostic procedures. In this review we discuss disturbances in the metabolism of tetrahydrobiopterin, biogenic amines, γ-aminobutyric acid, foliate, pyridoxine-dependent enzymes, and also the glycine-dependent encephalopathy. We point to pathologic alterations of proteins involved in synaptic neurotransmission that may cause neurological and psychiatric symptoms. We postulate that synaptic receptors and transporter proteins for neurotransmitters should be investigated in unresolved cases. Patients with inherited neurotransmitters disorders present various clinical presentations such as mental retardation, refractory seizures, pyramidal and extrapyramidal syndromes, impaired locomotor patterns, and progressive encephalopathy. Every patient with suspected inherited neurotransmitter disorder should undergo a structured interview and a careful examination including neurological, biochemical, and imaging.

  13. Determination of vitamin B6 bioavailability in animal tissues using intrinsic and extrinsic labeling in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ink, S.L.; Gregory, J.F. III; Sartain, D.B.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of thermal processing on the bioavailability of vitamin B 6 in liver and muscle was examined by radioisotopic enrichment of these tissues. Rats were fed a single gelled test meal containing rat liver or muscle intrinsically enriched by vascular perfusion with [ 3 H]vitamin B 6 or a gelled test meal containing [ 3 H]pyridoxine (PN). Diets were extrinsically enriched with [ 14 C]PN to permit a direct comparison of enrichment methods. Absorption and metabolism were examined by analysis of tissues and excreta 24 h after the test meal had been consumed. The bioavailability of [ 3 H]B 6 vitamers in the raw tissues was equivalent to that of [ 3 H]PN in controls. Thermal processing of the tissues (121 0 C, 45 min) induced destruction of 25-30% of the [ 3 H]B 6 vitamers and weakly reduced (≤10%) the utilization of the remaining[ 3 H]B 6 vitamers. The presence of monosodium glutamate (MSG) during thermal processing did not alter the results. The utilization of [ 14 C]PN was unaffected by diet composition. These data demonstrate the high bioavailability of vitamin B 6 in animal-derived foods and support the use of isotopic enrichment methods as an alternative to conventional bioassay procedures

  14. Homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta synthase deficiency

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    Rao T

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A two year-old male child presented with cutis marmorata congenita universalis, brittle hair, mild mental retardation, and finger spasms. Biochemical findings include increased levels of homocysteine in the blood-106.62 µmol/L (normal levels: 5.90-16µmol/L. Biochemical tests such as the silver nitroprusside and nitroprusside tests were positive suggesting homocystinuria. The patient was treated with oral pyridoxine therapy for three months. The child responded well to this therapy and the muscle spasms as well as skin manifestations such as cutis marmorata subsided. The treatment is being continued; the case is reported here because of its rarity. Homocysteinuria arising due to cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of methionine metabolism that produces increased levels of urinary homocysteine and methionine It manifests itself in vascular, central nervous system, cutaneous, and connective tissue disturbances and phenotypically resembles Marfan′s syndrome. Skin manifestations include malar flush, thin hair, and cutis reticulata / marmorata.

  15. Continuous aryl alcohol oxidase production under growth-limited conditions using a trickle bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Planas, Oscar; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Prade, Rolf A; Müller, Michael; Wilkins, Mark R

    2018-05-01

    An A. nidulans strain with a pyridoxine marker was used for continuous production of aryl alcohol oxidase (AAO) in a trickle bed reactor (TBR). Modified medium with reduced zinc, no copper, and 5 g/L ascorbic acid that reduced melanin production and increased AAO productivity under growth limited conditions was used. Two air flow rates, 0.11 L/min (0.1 vvm) and 1.1 L/min (1.0 vvm) were tested. More melanin formation and reduced protein productivity were observed with air flow rate of 1.1 L/min. Three random packings were used as support for the fungus inside the TBR column, two of which were hydrophobic and one which was hydrophilic, and three different dilution rates were tested. The use of GEA BCN 030 hydrophobic packing resulted in greater AAO yield and productivity than the other packings. Increasing dilution rates favored melanin formation and citric, lactic and succinic acid accumulation, which decreased AAO yield and productivity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Kinetics of Glycoxidation of Bovine Serum Albumin by Glucose, Fructose and Ribose and Its Prevention by Food Components

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    Izabela Sadowska-Bartosz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the kinetics of the glycoxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA as a model protein by three sugars: glucose, fructose and ribose, using fluorometric measurements of the content of advanced glycation end products (AGEs, protein-bound fructosamine, dityrosine, N'-formylkynurenine, kynurenine, tryptophan, the content of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, protein carbonyl groups, as well as thiol groups. Moreover, the levels of glycoalbumin and AGEs were determined by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Based on the kinetic results, the optimal incubation time for studies of the modification of the glycoxidation rate by additives was chosen, and the effects of 25 compounds of natural origin on the glycoxidation of BSA induced by various sugars were examined. The same compounds were found to have different effects on glycoxidation induced by various sugars, which suggests caution in extrapolation from experiments based on one sugar to other sugars. From among the compounds tested, the most effective inhibitors of glycoxidation were: polyphenols, pyridoxine and 1-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid.

  17. Clinical management of carbamazepine intoxication during anti-tubercular treatment: a case report

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    Massimo Calderazzo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 67-year-old man with medical history of focal post-stroke seizure and type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with carbamazepine, clobazam, gliclazide, insulin glargine, and omeprazole we visited for the onset in the last 7 days of asthenia, cough with mucus, breathing difficulty, chest pain, and weight loss. After clinical and laboratory tests, pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed, and a treatment with isoniazid, ethambutol, pyrazinamide rifampicin, and pyridoxine was started. Therapeutic drug monitoring of tuberculosis treatment documented that all drugs were in normal therapeutic range. Four days after the beginning of the treatment, we documented the improvement of fever, and three days later the patient showed sleepiness, visual disorder and asthenia. Clinical and pharmacological evaluation suggested a carbamazepine toxicity probably related to a drug interaction (Drug Interaction Probability Scale score = 6. The impossibility to switch carbamazepine for another antiepileptic drug, due to a resistant form of seizure, induced the discontinuation of tuberculosis treatment, resulting in the normalization of serum carbamazepine levels in one day (10 µg/ml and in the worsening of fever, requiring a new clinical and pharmacological evaluation. The titration dosage of carbamazepine and its therapeutic drug monitoring allowed to continue the treatment with both antitubercular drugs and carbamazepine, without the development of adverse drug reactions. To date, tuberculosis treatment was stopped and clinical evaluation, radiology and microbiology assays documented the absence of tubercular infection and no seizures appeared (carbamazepine dosage 800 mg/bid; serum levels 9.5 µg/ml.

  18. Effect of Diclofenac with B Vitamins on the Treatment of Acute Pain Originated by Lower-Limb Fracture and Surgery

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    Héctor A. Ponce-Monter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of diclofenac, for the treatment of acute pain originated by lower-limb fracture and surgery, with that of diclofenac plus B vitamins. This was a single-center, prospective, randomized, and double-blinded clinical trial. Patients with lower-limb closed fractures rated their pain on a 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS. Patients were then randomized to receive diclofenac or diclofenac plus B vitamins (thiamine, pyridoxine, and cyanocobalamin intramuscularly twice daily. Patient evaluations of pain intensity were recorded throughout two periods: twenty-four hours presurgery and twenty-four hours postsurgical. One hundred twenty-two patients completed the study. The subjects' assessments of limb pain on the VAS showed a significant reduction from baseline values regardless of the treatment group. Diclofenac plus B vitamins combination was more effective to reduce the pain than diclofenac alone. The results showed that the addition of B vitamins to diclofenac increased its analgesic effect. The novelty of this paper consists in that diclofenac and diclofenac plus B vitamins were useful for treatment of acute pain originated by lower-limb fracture and surgery.

  19. Vitamins and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Ramos, Roxana; Ana Laura, Guadarrama-López; Elina, Martínez-Carrillo Beatriz; Donají, Benítez-Arciniega Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    The present review evaluates the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus and individual or combined vitamins. Antioxidant vitamins A, C and E are found decreased in diabetic subjects, possibly due to an increased need to control the excessive oxidative stress produced by abnormalities in glucose metabolism. On the other hand, retinol binding protein exerts a modulating effect, as it has adipokine functions. With respect to the B group vitamins, thiamin, pyridoxine and biotin have been found decreased but the mechanisms are not clear, however supplementation has shown some improvement of the metabolic control in diabetic patients. The absorption of folic acid and vitamin B12 is importantly decreased by the prolongued use of metformin, which is the first choice drug in uncomplicated diabetes, thus these two nutrients have been found deficient in the disease and most probably need to be supplemented regularly. On the other hand, vitamin D is considered a risk factor for the development of diabetes as well as its complications, particularly cardiovascular ones. Although some studies have found an association of vitamin K intake with glucose metabolism further research is needed. Studies on the use of multivitamin supplements have shown unconclusive results. After reviewing the evidence, no real recommendation on the use of vitamin supplements in type 2 diabetes mellitus can be issued, however patients using metformin during prolongued periods may need folic acid and vitamin B12. PMID:25388747

  20. A Metabolic Study on Colon Cancer Using 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

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    Zahra Zamani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Colorectal carcinoma is the third cause of cancer deaths in the world. For diagnosis, invasive methods like colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy are used, and noninvasive screening tests are not very accurate. We decided to study the potential of 1HNMR spectroscopy with metabolomics and chemometrics as a preliminary noninvasive test. We obtained a distinguishing pattern of metabolites and metabolic pathways between colon cancer patient and normal. Methods. Sera were obtained from confirmed colon cancer patients and the same number of healthy controls. Samples were sent for 1HNMR spectroscopy and analysis was carried out Chenomex and MATLAB software. Metabolites were identified using Human Metabolic Data Base (HDMB and the main metabolic cycles were identified using Metaboanalyst software. Results. 15 metabolites were identified such as pyridoxine, orotidine, and taurocholic acid. Main metabolic cycles involved were the bile acid biosynthesis, vitamin B6 metabolism, methane metabolism, and glutathione metabolism. Discussion. The main detected metabolic cycles were also reported earlier in different cancers. Our observations corroborated earlier studies that suggest the importance of lowering serum LCA/DCA and increasing vitamin B6 intake to help prevent colon cancer. This work can be looked upon as a preliminary step in using 1HNMR analysis as a screening test before invasive procedures.

  1. Preparation of Silica Nanoparticles Loaded with Nootropics and Their In Vivo Permeation through Blood-Brain Barrier

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    Josef Jampilek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier prevents the passage of many drugs that target the central nervous system. This paper presents the preparation and characterization of silica-based nanocarriers loaded with piracetam, pentoxifylline, and pyridoxine (drugs from the class of nootropics, which are designed to enhance the permeation of the drugs from the circulatory system through the blood-brain barrier. Their permeation was compared with non-nanoparticle drug substances (bulk materials by means of an in vivo model of rat brain perfusion. The size and morphology of the nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The content of the drug substances in silica-based nanocarriers was analysed by elemental analysis and UV spectrometry. Microscopic analysis of visualized silica nanocarriers in the perfused brain tissue was performed. The concentration of the drug substances in the tissue was determined by means of UHPLC-DAD/HRMS LTQ Orbitrap XL. It was found that the drug substances in silica-based nanocarriers permeated through the blood brain barrier to the brain tissue, whereas bulk materials were not detected in the brain.

  2. Preparation of silica nanoparticles loaded with nootropics and their in vivo permeation through blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jampilek, Josef; Zaruba, Kamil; Oravec, Michal; Kunes, Martin; Babula, Petr; Ulbrich, Pavel; Brezaniova, Ingrid; Opatrilova, Radka; Triska, Jan; Suchy, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier prevents the passage of many drugs that target the central nervous system. This paper presents the preparation and characterization of silica-based nanocarriers loaded with piracetam, pentoxifylline, and pyridoxine (drugs from the class of nootropics), which are designed to enhance the permeation of the drugs from the circulatory system through the blood-brain barrier. Their permeation was compared with non-nanoparticle drug substances (bulk materials) by means of an in vivo model of rat brain perfusion. The size and morphology of the nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The content of the drug substances in silica-based nanocarriers was analysed by elemental analysis and UV spectrometry. Microscopic analysis of visualized silica nanocarriers in the perfused brain tissue was performed. The concentration of the drug substances in the tissue was determined by means of UHPLC-DAD/HRMS LTQ Orbitrap XL. It was found that the drug substances in silica-based nanocarriers permeated through the blood brain barrier to the brain tissue, whereas bulk materials were not detected in the brain.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on the B vitamins of pork chops and chicken breasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.B. Jr.; Thayer, D.W.; Jenkins, R.K.; Phillips, J.G.; Ackerman, S.A.; Beecher, G.R.; Holden, J.M.; Morrow, F.D.; Quirbach, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of low-dose gamma irradiation on the content of thiamine (B 1 ), riboflavin (B 2 ), niacin, pyridoxine (B 6 ) and cobalamin (B 12 ) in pork chops, and thiamine, riboflavin and niacin in chicken breasts. Over the range of dose and temperature studied (0.49-6.65 kGy from -20 to 20 0 C) it was possible to derive a mathematical expression for predicting losses. A calculation was made of the effect of the loss of thiamine, riboflavin and niacin due to irradiation on overall loss of these vitamins in the American diet. Losses of riboflavin and niacin were of the order of a fraction of a per cent. The calculated loss at 1.0kGy of thiamine in cooked pork was only 1.5%. There were initial increases with radiation doses up to 2-4 kGy in measured concentrations of riboflavin and niacin in pork and chicken. Increases were highly significant, and of concern to the study of radiation effects and the chemical method of determination of these vitamins. (author)

  4. Determination of Cinchona alkaloids and Vitamin B6 by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatti, R.; Gioia, M.G.; Cavrini, V.

    2004-01-01

    A simple and specific method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of the four major Cinchona alkaloids and their dihydroderivatives and pyridoxine hydrochloride (Vitamin B 6 ) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (λ em =420 nm with λ ex =330 nm). The chromatographic separation was performed on a Phenomenex Prodigy ODS column (5 μm, 250 mmx3.2 mm i.d.), recommended for basic compounds, under isocratic reversed-phase conditions. The method allowed a good peak shape and an effective resolution of the tested compounds. The extraction of alkaloids from the Cinchona succirubra bark was carried out in mild and fast conditions (ambient temperature, 20 min) by ultrasonication. The procedure showed to be advantageous respect to a reference method, which involved Soxhlet extraction. The results were compared statistically by means of the Student's t-test and the variance ratio F-test; no significant difference was found. The method was reproducible (relative standard deviations in the range of 1.0-5.0% for the different alkaloids) and gave quantitative recovery of alkaloids added to bark samples (97.8-105%). For additional informations a photoreactor was arranged between the analytical column and the detector and the online post-column photochemical conversion (irradiation=254 nm) was investigated. Vitamin B 6 was shown to be highly photosensitive, giving significantly different fluorescence spectra with and without UV irradiation. The proposed method was successfully applied to the quality control of Cinchona bark, liquid extract and cosmetics

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin B6 content in two varieties of Brazilian beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincée, H.; Bognár, A.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of 60 Co gamma rays on the content of several B-vitamins in two varieties of Brazilian beans has been studied. Carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca) and Macaçar beans (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, var. Macaçar) were irradiated at doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy, and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The content of vitamin B 1 , B 2 and B 6 was analysed by HPLC. In addition, the optimum cooking time was established for each dose and bean variety. A taste panel evaluated sensory properties. Only slight changes were measured for thiamine and riboflavin, whereas a dose-dependent decrease was noted for pyridoxine, which, however, was significant only at the highest doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Cooking time was considerably reduced with increasing radiation dose, but accompanied by a loss of the sensory quality. However, at the disinfestation dose up to 1 kGy, acceptable ratings were obtained for the sensory evaluation. In conclusion, for insect disinfestation of Brazilian beans radiation processing is a promising technology

  6. Validation of the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised Using Biomarkers in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli B. D. Toffano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised (BHEI-R can be used to determine overall dietary patterns. We assessed the BHEI-R scores in children and adolescents, aged from 9 to 13 years old, and associated its component scores with biomarkers of health and dietary exposure. Three 24-h recalls were used to generate BHEI-R. Biomarkers were analyzed in plasma and red blood cells. Correlation tests, agreement, and covariance analyses were used to associate BHEI-R components with biomarkers. Data from 167 subjects were used. The strongest correlations were between fruits, vegetables and legumes with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, and β-carotene intakes. Milk and dairy correlated with plasma retinol and pyridoxine. All components rich in vegetable and animal protein sources correlated with plasma creatine. Total BHEI-R scores were positively associated with intakes of omega-6, omega-3, fiber and vitamin C, and inversely associated with energy and saturated fat intakes of individuals. Plasma β-carotene and riboflavin biomarkers were positively associated with total BHEI-R. An inadequate food consumption pattern was captured by both biomarkers of health and dietary exposure. BHEI-R was validated for the above dietary components and can be associated with metabolomics and nutritional epidemiological data in future pediatric studies.

  7. The B vitamins nicotinamide (B3) and riboflavin (B2) stimulate metamorphosis in larvae of the deposit-feeding polychaete Capitella teleta: implications for a sensory ligand-gated ion channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Robert T; Pechenik, Jan A; Biggers, William J; Scavo, Gia; Lehman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Marine sediments can contain B vitamins, presumably incorporated from settled, decaying phytoplankton and microorganisms associated with decomposition. Because B vitamins may be advantageous for the energetically intensive processes of metamorphosis, post-metamorphic growth, and reproduction, we tested several B vitamins to determine if they would stimulate larvae of the deposit-feeding polychaete Capitella teleta to settle and metamorphose. Nicotinamide and riboflavin individually stimulated larvae of C. teleta to settle and metamorphose, generally within 1-2 hours at nicotinamide concentrations as low as 3 µM and riboflavin concentrations as low as 50 µM. More than 80% of the larvae metamorphosed within 30 minutes at a nicotinamide concentration of 7 µM. The pyridine channel agonist pyrazinecarboxamide also stimulated metamorphosis at very low concentrations. In contrast, neither lumichrome, thiamine HCl, pyridoxine HCl, nor vitamin B12 stimulated larvae of C. teleta to metamorphose at concentrations as high as 500 µM. Larvae also did not metamorphose in response to either nicotinamide or pyrazinecarboxamide in calcium-free seawater or with the addition of 4-acetylpyridine, a competitive inhibitor of the pyridine receptor. Together, these results suggest that larvae of C. teleta are responding to nicotinamide and riboflavin via a chemosensory pyridine receptor similar to that previously reported to be present on crayfish chela and involved with food recognition. Our data are the first to implicate B vitamins as possible natural chemical settlement cues for marine invertebrate larvae.

  8. Investigation of complexing of vitamine B-6 with rare earth ions by PMR and luminescent spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buiklinskij, V.D.; Zelenov, V.I.; Zolin, V.F.; Koreneva, L.G.; Panyushkin, V.T.

    1981-01-01

    To investigate the complexing of pyridoxine (P), pyridoxal (PL) and pyridoxamine (PM) with lanthanide ions the changes of PMR spectra of ligands in the presence of cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, europium, gadolinium ions, as well as luminescence and absorption spectra of europium in the presence of ligands are used. Using the optical spectroscopy it has been shown that the PL and PM complexes do not have axial symmetry. The values of parameters of the crystalline field of the second order, determining the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility of europium complexes are evaluated. With an aid of PMR and luminescence spectroscopy it is shown that lanthanide ions coordinate the hydroxy groups of ligands. In the case of P and especially PL oxygen of the substituent in position 4 takes part in the coordination. Using the PMR spectroscopy the difference of the substituent location near C4 in the PM complex from its location in the P and PL complexes as well as the difference in the position of lanthanide ion in the complexes of all the three ligands are detected. The reasons for the differences above are discussed [ru

  9. Genome and metabolic network of Candidatus Phaeomarinobacter ectocarpi Ec32, a new candidate genus of Alphaproteobacteria frequently associated with brown algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon M Dittami

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhizobiales and related orders of Alphaproteobacteria comprise several genera of nodule-inducing symbiotic bacteria associated with plant roots. Here we describe the genome and the metabolic network of Candidatus Phaeomarinobacter ectocarpi Ec32, a member of a new candidate genus closely related to Rhizobiales and found in association with cultures of the filamentous brown algal model Ectocarpus. The Ca. P. ectocarpi genome encodes numerous metabolic pathways that may be relevant for this bacterium to interact with algae. Notably, it possesses a large set of glycoside hydrolases and transporters, which may serve to process and assimilate algal metabolites. It also harbors several proteins likely to be involved in the synthesis of algal hormones such as auxins and cytokinins, as well as the vitamins pyridoxine, biotin, and thiamine. As of today, Ca. P. ectocarpi has not been successfully cultured, and identical 16S rDNA sequences have been found exclusively associated with Ectocarpus. However, related sequences (≥ 97% identity have also been detected free-living and in a Fucus vesiculosus microbiome barcoding project, indicating that the candidate genus Phaeomarinobacter may comprise several species, which may colonize different niches.

  10. Potential mechanisms of diet therapy for fibrocystic breast conditions show inadequate evidence of effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, N K; Lampe, J W

    2000-11-01

    Fibrocystic breast conditions, formerly referred to as fibrocystic breast disease, affect about half of all women and typically present as any combination of breast nodularity, swelling, and pain. We reviewed the literature to evaluate evidence supporting nutrition interventions commonly recommended for fibrocystic breast conditions by health care providers. Randomized, controlled studies of the effectiveness of caffeine restriction fail to support any benefit in fibrocystic breast conditions. Similarly, evidence supporting evening primrose oil, vitamin E, or pyridoxine as treatments for the discomforts of fibrocystic breast conditions is insufficient to draw conclusions about effectiveness. Dietary alterations that influence the intermediate markers for fibrocystic breast conditions include low-fat (15% to 20% energy), high-fiber (30 g/day), and soy isoflavone regimens. However, our findings provide no solid evidence for secondary prevention or treatment of fibrocystic breast conditions through a dietary approach. Health care providers should limit recommendations to proven diet therapies supported by randomized, placebo-controlled trials, given the instability inherent in fibrocystic breast conditions and the near 20% placebo effect associated with intervention. Because excessive estrogen or altered sensitivity to estrogen is the dominant theory of etiology, interventions that may modulate endogenous steroid hormones warrant further investigation as potential treatments for symptomatic fibrocystic breast conditions.

  11. Multiple Roles for UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 in Regulating Gene Expression and Metabolite Accumulation in Arabidopsis under Solar Ultraviolet Radiation1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Luis O.; Brosché, Mikael; Vainonen, Julia; Jenkins, Gareth I.; Wargent, Jason J.; Sipari, Nina; Strid, Åke; Lindfors, Anders V.; Tegelberg, Riitta; Aphalo, Pedro J.

    2013-01-01

    Photomorphogenic responses triggered by low fluence rates of ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B; 280–315 nm) are mediated by the UV-B photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8). Beyond our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of UV-B perception by UVR8, there is still limited information on how the UVR8 pathway functions under natural sunlight. Here, wild-type Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the uvr8-2 mutant were used in an experiment outdoors where UV-A (315–400 nm) and UV-B irradiances were attenuated using plastic films. Gene expression, PYRIDOXINE BIOSYNTHESIS1 (PDX1) accumulation, and leaf metabolite signatures were analyzed. The results show that UVR8 is required for transcript accumulation of genes involved in UV protection, oxidative stress, hormone signal transduction, and defense against herbivores under solar UV. Under natural UV-A irradiance, UVR8 is likely to interact with UV-A/blue light signaling pathways to moderate UV-B-driven transcript and PDX1 accumulation. UVR8 both positively and negatively affects UV-A-regulated gene expression and metabolite accumulation but is required for the UV-B induction of phenolics. Moreover, UVR8-dependent UV-B acclimation during the early stages of plant development may enhance normal growth under long-term exposure to solar UV. PMID:23250626

  12. Different Polar Metabolites and Protein Profiles between High- and Low-Quality Japanese Ginjo Sake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Takahashi

    Full Text Available Japanese ginjo sake is a premium refined sake characterized by a pleasant fruity apple-like flavor and a sophisticated taste. Because of technical difficulties inherent in brewing ginjo sake, off-flavors sometimes occur. However, the metabolites responsible for off-flavors as well as those present or absent in higher quality ginjo sake remain uncertain. Here, the relationship between 202 polar chemical compounds in sake identified using capillary electrophoresis coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry and its organoleptic properties, such as quality and off-flavor, was examined. First, we found that some off-flavored sakes contained higher total amounts of metabolites than other sake samples. The results also identified that levels of 2-oxoglutaric acid and fumaric acid, metabolites in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, were highly but oppositely correlated with ginjo sake quality. Similarly, pyridoxine and pyridoxamine, co-enzymes for amino transferase, were also highly but oppositely correlated with ginjo sake quality. Additionally, pyruvic acid levels were associated with good quality as well. Compounds involved in the methionine salvage cycle, oxidative glutathione derivatives, and amino acid catabolites were correlated with low quality. Among off-flavors, an inharmonious bitter taste appeared attributable to polyamines. Furthermore, protein analysis displayed that a diversity of protein components and yeast protein (triosephosphate isomerase, TPI leakage was linked to the overall metabolite intensity in ginjo sake. This research provides insight into the relationship between sake components and organoleptic properties.

  13. Liquid chromatographic determination with fluorescence detection of B6 vitamers and riboflavin in milk and pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatti, R.; Gioia, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    A simple, reliable and selective high performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection at different programmed wavelengths has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of B 6 vitamers (pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, 4-pyridoxic acid, pyridoxal, pyridoxine and pyridoxamine) and Vitamin B 2 in commercial vitaminized milk and in woman milk. The chromatographic separations were performed on a reversed phase octyl column by using a mobile phase consisting of sodium pentanesulfonate in 1% acetic acid-methanol-tetrahydrofuran under gradient elution conditions. The fluorescence intensity of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate was enhanced by post-column photochemical conversion, giving significantly different fluorescence spectra by a on-line photoreactor switched OFF and ON under irradiation at 254 nm. In addition, a simple and rapid method in isocratic conditions without the need of photochemical conversion was proposed for the analysis of Vitamin B 6 and Vitamin B 2 in pharmaceuticals. Linearity, precision, recovery, selectivity and sensitivity were found satisfactory for each analysed compound. Quantitation limits ranged from 26 to 240 fmol

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin B6 content in two varieties of Brazilian beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincee, H.; Bognar, A.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of 60 Co gamma rays on the content of several B-vitamins in two varieties of Brazilian beans has been studied. Carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca) and Macacar beans (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, var. Macacar) were irradiated at doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy, and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The content of vitamin B 1 , B 2 and B 6 was analysed by HPLC. In addition, the optimum cooking time was established for each dose and bean variety. A taste panel evaluated sensory properties. Only slight changes were measured for thiamine and riboflavin, whereas a dose-dependent decrease was noted for pyridoxine, which, however, was significant only at the highest doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Cooking time was considerably reduced with increasing radiation dose, but accompanied by a loss of the sensory quality. However, at the disinfestation dose up to 1 kGy, acceptable ratings were obtained for the sensory evaluation. In conclusion, for insect disinfestation of Brazilian beans radiation processing is a promising technology

  15. Overexpression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jun Yong; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Do Jin; Lee, Hyung Ho; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Suh, Se Won, E-mail: sewonsuh@snu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-01

    Erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase from P. aeruginosa was crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.20 Å resolution. The enzyme erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase catalyses the conversion of erythronate-4-phosphate to 3-hydroxy-4-phospho-hydroxy-α-ketobutyrate. It belongs to the d-isomer-specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase family. It is essential for de novo biosynthesis of vitamin B{sub 6} (pyridoxine). Erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a homodimeric enzyme consisting of two identical 380-residue subunits, has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli with a C-terminal purification tag and crystallized at 297 K using 0.7 M ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.4 M ammonium tartrate, 0.1 M sodium citrate pH 5.6 and 10 mM cupric chloride. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.20 Å from a crystal grown in the presence of NADH. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 84.77, b = 101.28, c = 142.58 Å. A dimeric molecule is present in the asymmetric unit, giving a crystal volume per protein weight (V{sub M}) of 3.64 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 66%.

  16. Overexpression, crystallization and preliminary X-­ray crystallographic analysis of erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jun Yong; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Do Jin; Lee, Hyung Ho; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Suh, Se Won

    2006-01-01

    The enzyme erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase catalyses the conversion of erythronate-4-phosphate to 3-hydroxy-4-phospho-hydroxy-α-ketobutyrate. It belongs to the d-isomer-specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase family. It is essential for de novo biosynthesis of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine). Erythronate-4-­phosphate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a homodimeric enzyme consisting of two identical 380-residue subunits, has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli with a C-terminal purification tag and crystallized at 297 K using 0.7 M ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.4 M ammonium tartrate, 0.1 M sodium citrate pH 5.6 and 10 mM cupric chloride. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.20 Å from a crystal grown in the presence of NADH. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 84.77, b = 101.28, c = 142.58 Å. A dimeric molecule is present in the asymmetric unit, giving a crystal volume per protein weight (V M) of 3.64 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 66%. PMID:16511285

  17. Overexpression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jun Yong; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Do Jin; Lee, Hyung Ho; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Suh, Se Won

    2006-02-01

    The enzyme erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase catalyses the conversion of erythronate-4-phosphate to 3-hydroxy-4-phospho-hydroxy-alpha-ketobutyrate. It belongs to the D-isomer-specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase family. It is essential for de novo biosynthesis of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine). Erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a homodimeric enzyme consisting of two identical 380-residue subunits, has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli with a C-terminal purification tag and crystallized at 297 K using 0.7 M ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.4 M ammonium tartrate, 0.1 M sodium citrate pH 5.6 and 10 mM cupric chloride. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.20 A from a crystal grown in the presence of NADH. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 84.77, b = 101.28, c = 142.58 A. A dimeric molecule is present in the asymmetric unit, giving a crystal volume per protein weight (VM) of 3.64 A3 Da(-1) and a solvent content of 66%.

  18. Overexpression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jun Yong; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Do Jin; Lee, Hyung Ho; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Suh, Se Won

    2006-01-01

    Erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase from P. aeruginosa was crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.20 Å resolution. The enzyme erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase catalyses the conversion of erythronate-4-phosphate to 3-hydroxy-4-phospho-hydroxy-α-ketobutyrate. It belongs to the d-isomer-specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase family. It is essential for de novo biosynthesis of vitamin B 6 (pyridoxine). Erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a homodimeric enzyme consisting of two identical 380-residue subunits, has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli with a C-terminal purification tag and crystallized at 297 K using 0.7 M ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.4 M ammonium tartrate, 0.1 M sodium citrate pH 5.6 and 10 mM cupric chloride. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.20 Å from a crystal grown in the presence of NADH. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 84.77, b = 101.28, c = 142.58 Å. A dimeric molecule is present in the asymmetric unit, giving a crystal volume per protein weight (V M ) of 3.64 Å 3 Da −1 and a solvent content of 66%

  19. Chromatographic Analysis of a Multicomponent Mixture of B1, B6, B12, Benfotiamine, and Diclofenac; Part I: HPLC and UPLC Methods for the Simultaneous Quantification of These Five Components in Tablets and Capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayed, Ahmed Salah; Hegazy, Maha Abdel-Monem; Wahab, Nada Sayed Abdel

    2016-11-01

    New, simple, highly sensitive, precise, and accurate gradient reversed-phase chromatographic methods were developed using HPLC and ultra-HPLC (UPLC) systems for the determination of five components, namely thiamine, pyridoxine, cyanocobalamin, benfotiamine, and diclofenac in tablets and capsules. The methods were compared for their efficiency in the separation and determination of these five compounds using two different C18 columns (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm; and 100 × 4.6 mm, 2.6 μm) for HPLC and UPLC, respectively. Chromatographic separation was performed with a mobile phase containing acetonitrile and 0.025 M phosphate buffer (pH 3.5), with a gradient program and a flow rate of 1.5 and 1.0 mL/min for both methods, respectively. The methods were validated according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. Linearity was achieved in the range of 5.00 to 150.00 μg/mL for each of the five compounds. Ruggedness and intermediate precision were confirmed by different analysts on different columns on different days. Moreover, the components were subjected to an accelerated stability study under acidic, alkaline, and oxidative stress conditions and no interfering peaks were observed. The five compounds were efficiently separated in <20 min by HPLC, whereas for UPLC, separation was achieved in <8 min, which dramatically decreased the consumption of organic solvents.

  20. Screening Natural Content of Water-Soluble B Vitamins in Fish: Enzymatic Extraction, HILIC Separation, and Tandem Mass Spectrometric Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Niladri Sekhar; Kumar, K Ashok; Ajeeshkumar, K K; Kumari, K R Remya; Vishnu, K V; Anandan, Rangasamy; Mathew, Suseela; Ravishankar, C N

    2017-05-01

    Despite the potential of LC with tandem MS (MS/MS) in improving sensitivity and selectivity, analytical methods are scarce for the determination of protein-bound and phosphorylated forms of B vitamins in food. This prompted us to develop a method for LC-MS/MS determination of naturally occurring nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, thiamine, pyridoxine, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, biotin, folic acid, and cyanocobalamin in fish. Baseline separation of the vitamins was achieved in a hydrophilic interaction LC condition. An ultrasonication-assisted enzymatic extraction protocol for sample preparation was optimized and validated. The time required for extraction was significantly reduced (to 4 h), while maintaining good extraction efficiency. Acetonitrile content (80%, v/v) in the prepared sample was found to be optimum for excellent peak shape and sensitivity. The dynamic linear range of the vitamins ranged from 2.5 to 500 ng/g, and the regression coefficient values were greater than 0.99. LOQ values ranged from 0.4 to 50 ng/g for the different vitamins. The spike recovery values at 50 and 100 ng/g ranged from 87.5 to 97.5%. The intra- and interday precision values were satisfactory. Accuracy of the developed method was determined by analysis of a Certified Reference Material. The method could also be used for unambiguous determination of the natural content of the target vitamins in fish.

  1. Dietary intake of the water-soluble vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and C in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, A; Halkjaer, J; van Gils, C H; Buijsse, B; Verhagen, H; Jenab, M; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Ericson, U; Ocké, M C; Peeters, P H M; Touvier, M; Niravong, M; Waaseth, M; Skeie, G; Khaw, K T; Travis, R; Ferrari, P; Sanchez, M J; Agudo, A; Overvad, K; Linseisen, J; Weikert, C; Sacerdote, C; Evangelista, A; Zylis, D; Tsiotas, K; Manjer, J; van Guelpen, B; Riboli, E; Slimani, N; Bingham, S

    2009-11-01

    To describe the intake of vitamins thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), B6 (pyridoxine), B12 (cobalamine) and C (ascorbic acid) and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons aged between 35 and 74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall using a computerized interview software programme (EPIC-SOFT). Intakes of the four B vitamins and vitamin C were estimated using the standardized EPIC Nutrient Database (ENDB). Mean intakes were adjusted for age and weighted by season and day of recall. Intake of B vitamins did not vary considerably between centres, except in the UK health-conscious cohort, in which substantially higher intakes of thiamine and lower intakes of vitamin B12 were reported compared with other centres. Overall, meat was the most important contributor to the B vitamins in all centres except in the UK health-conscious group. Vitamin C showed a clear geographical gradient, with higher intakes in the southern centres as compared with the northern ones; this was more pronounced in men than in women. Vegetables and fruits were major contributors to vitamin C in all centres, but juices and potatoes were also important sources in the northern centres. This study showed no major differences across centres in the mean intakes of B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, B6, B12), whereas a tendency towards a north-south gradient was observed for vitamin C.

  2. Determination of water-soluble vitamins in infant milk and dietary supplement using a liquid chromatography on-line coupled to a corona-charged aerosol detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Sillero, Isabel; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2013-10-25

    A simple and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of seven water-soluble vitamins (thiamine, folic acid, nicotinic acid, ascorbic acid, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine and biotin) was developed by high performance liquid chromatographic separation and corona-charged aerosol detection. The water-soluble vitamins were separated on a Lichrosorb RP-C18 column under isocratic conditions with a mobile phase consisting of 0.05 M ammonium acetate:methanol 90:10 (v/v) at the flow rate 0.5 mL min(-1). The vitamins were extracted from the infant milk (liquid and powder format) using a precipitation step with 2.5 M acetic acid remaining the analyte in the supernatant. As far as dietary supplements are concerned, only a dilution with distilled water was required. The detection limits ranged from 0.17 to 0.62 mg L(-1) for dietary supplements and 1.7 to 6.5 mg L(-1) for milk samples. The precision of the method was evaluated in terms of relative standard deviation (%, RSD) under repeatability and reproducibility conditions, being the average values for each parameter 2.6 and 2.7 for dietary supplements and 4.3 and 4.6 for milk samples. The optimized method was applied to different infant milk samples and dietary supplements. The results of the analysis were in good agreement with the declared values. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Simultaneous detection of water-soluble vitamins using the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemond Godbless Dadzie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The water-soluble vitamins (WSV: ascorbic acid (vitamin C, thiamine (B1, riboflavin (B2, niacin (B3, panthothenic acid (B5, pyridoxine, and pyridoxal (B6, folic acid (B9, biotin(B8 , and B12 are very essential in the diet of humankind. As a result of ever increasing pressures from both consumers and legal enforcers, to specify accurately nutritive compositions of WSV that are present in food materials, many researchers have attempted to fill this niche through the provision of highly sensitive and rapid high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC procedures. In view of the health benefits of WSV, a replete of HPLC methods have been developed for simultaneous determination of their contents in nature and fortified food samples, nutritional supplements, as well as blood plasmas. The rate of losses of these vitamins during food processing and analysis, in addition to their transient dynamics, presents complexities in developing a highly sensitive HPLC procedure for their simultaneous separations and assays. This review critically assesses the different HPLC procedures developed by researchers and available in the open literature for simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins (WSV in dried tropical fruits materials. The study revealed that not a single chromatographic run developed by researchers can simultaneously elute all the WSV at a time. However, the HPLC procedures that are capable of determining all the WSV were coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS, thus making the set-up expensive.

  4. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of eight water-soluble vitamins in multivitamin formulations and human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Suyog S; Srivastava, Ashwini K

    2013-01-01

    A simple, precise, and rapid RPLC method has been developed without incorporation of any ion-pair reagent for the simultaneous determination of vitamin C (C) and seven B-complex vitamins, viz, thiamine hydrochloride (B1), pyridoxine hydrochloride (B6), nicotinamide (B3), cyanocobalamine (B12), folic acid, riboflavin (B2), and 4-aminobenzoic acid (Bx). Separations were achieved within 12.0 min at 30 degrees C by gradient elution on an RP C18 column using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of 15 mM ammonium formate buffer and 0.1% triethylamine adjusted to pH 4.0 with formic acid and acetonitrile. Simultaneous UV detection was performed at 275 and 360 nm. The method was validated for system suitability, LOD, LOQ, linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, and robustness in accordance with International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The developed method was implemented successfully for determination of the aforementioned vitamins in pharmaceutical formulations containing an individual vitamin, in their multivitamin combinations, and in human urine samples. The calibration curves for all analytes showed good linearity, with coefficients of correlation higher than 0.9998. Accuracy, intraday repeatability (n = 6), and interday repeatability (n = 7) were found to be satisfactory.

  5. Chemometric methods for the simultaneous determination of some water-soluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Abdel-Maaboud I; Mohamed, Horria A; Mohamed, Niveen A; El-Zahery, Marwa R

    2011-01-01

    Two spectrophotometric methods, derivative and multivariate methods, were applied for the determination of binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures of the water-soluble vitamins thiamine HCI (I), pyridoxine HCI (II), riboflavin (III), and cyanocobalamin (IV). The first method is divided into first derivative and first derivative of ratio spectra methods, and the second into classical least squares and principal components regression methods. Both methods are based on spectrophotometric measurements of the studied vitamins in 0.1 M HCl solution in the range of 200-500 nm for all components. The linear calibration curves were obtained from 2.5-90 microg/mL, and the correlation coefficients ranged from 0.9991 to 0.9999. These methods were applied for the analysis of the following mixtures: (I) and (II); (I), (II), and (III); (I), (II), and (IV); and (I), (II), (III), and (IV). The described methods were successfully applied for the determination of vitamin combinations in synthetic mixtures and dosage forms from different manufacturers. The recovery ranged from 96.1 +/- 1.2 to 101.2 +/- 1.0% for derivative methods and 97.0 +/- 0.5 to 101.9 +/- 1.3% for multivariate methods. The results of the developed methods were compared with those of reported methods, and gave good accuracy and precision.

  6. Simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins in SRM 1849 Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula powder by liquid chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Robert J; Wolf, Wayne R

    2010-05-01

    Assessing dietary intake of vitamins from all sources, including foods, dietary supplements, and fortified foods, would be aided considerably by having analytical methodologies that are capable of simultaneous determination of several vitamins. Vitamins naturally present in foods may occur in different chemical forms, with levels ranging over several orders of magnitude. Vitamins in dietary supplements and fortified foods, however, are typically added in a single chemical form, and matrix issues are usually not as complex. These sources should thus be relatively amenable to approaches that aim for simultaneous determination of multiple vitamins. Our recent work has focused on development of liquid chromatography (LC)-UV/fluorescence and LC-tandem mass spectrometry methods for the simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins (thiamine, niacin, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid, folic acid, biotin, and riboflavin) in dietary supplement tablets and fortified foods, such as formula powders and breakfast cereals. As part of the validation of our methods and collaboration in characterization of a new NIST SRM 1849 Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula powder, we report data on SRM 1849 using isotope dilution mass spectrometric methods. Use of available NIST Standard Reference Materials(R) as test matrices in our method development and validation gives a benchmark for future application of these methods. We compare three chromatographic approaches and provide data on stability of vitamin standard solutions for LC-based multiple vitamin determinations.

  7. Biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and water soluble vitamins in culantro (Eryngium foetidum L. plantlets as affected by low doses of gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Abd El-Hamid ALY

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Explants obtained from in-vitro propagated plantlets of Culantro (Eryngium foetidum L. were exposed to four dose levels of γ-irradiation (0.0, 10.0, 20.0 and 40.0 Gy to investigate the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and water soluble vitamins in Culantro fresh plantlets. Among six identified phenolic compounds, the content of p-cumaric acid was the highest in the extracts, followed by caffeic acid, coumarin, benzoic acid, salicylic acid and apigenin. Significant increases were observed at dose 40.0 Gy (61.66 mg/g d.w. for flavonoids, 18.02 mg/g d.w, for flavonone and 5.06 mg/g d.w for anthocyanin compared to control. On the other hand, the flavonols were decreased by increasing the irradiation dose. Vitamin C was increased in irradiated samples and this increase was in correlation with irradiation dose level. Thiamin, riboflavin and nicotinic acid were enhanced by the applied dose level 10 Gy. In addition, folic acid was enhanced by the dose levels 20 and 40 Gy and not detected for the control and 10 Gy treatments. Meanwhile, pyridoxine was decreased by increasing the irradiation dose level. The results obtained suggested that both low doses of γ-irradiation and tissue culture technique could be used to produce plantlets with high amount of phenolic compounds and water soluble vitamins.

  8. HILIC separation and quantitation of water-soluble vitamins using diol column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatapanis, Andreas E; Fiamegos, Yiannis C; Stalikas, Constantine D

    2009-04-01

    Hydrophilic interaction liquid-chromatography (HILIC) in conjunction with diode array detection has been applied for the separation of selected-water-soluble vitamins using an end-capped HILIC-diol column. Vitamins with significant biological importance, such as thiamine (B(1)), riboflavin (B(2)), nicotinic acid (B(3)), nicotinamide (B(3)), pyridoxine (B(6)), folic acid (B(9)), cyanocobalamin (B(12)) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) were simultaneously separated. Chromatographic conditions including type and percentage of organic modifier in the mobile phase, pH, type and concentration of buffer salt and flow rate were investigated. ACN was shown to offer superior separation for the compounds tested as compared to methanol, isopropanol and THF. Isocratic separation and analysis were achieved for six vitamins (B(1), B(2), nicotinic acid/nicotinamide, B(6) and C) at ACN-H(2)O 90:10, containing ammonium acetate 10 mM, triethylamine 20 mM, pH 5.0, using a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, while a gradient was necessary to resolve a mixture of all eight water-soluble vitamins. The HILIC method was validated and successfully applied to the analysis of a pharmaceutical formulation and an energy drink negating the need for time consuming clean-up steps.

  9. Simultaneous determination of eight water-soluble vitamins in supplemented foods by liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Garballo, Antonio; Morales, Juan C; García-Ayuso, Luis E

    2006-06-28

    A fast, simple, and reliable method for the isolation and determination of the vitamins thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, folic acid, cyanocobalamin, and ascorbic acid in food samples is proposed. The most relevant advantages of the proposed method are the simultaneous determination of the eight more common vitamins in enriched food products and a reduction of the time required for quantitative extraction, because the method consists merely of the addition of a precipitation solution and centrifugation of the sample. Furthermore, this method saves a substantial amount of reagents as compared with official methods, and minimal sample manipulation is achieved due to the few steps required. The chromatographic separation is carried out on a reverse phase C18 column, and the vitamins are detected at different wavelengths by either fluorescence or UV-visible detection. The proposed method was applied to the determination of water-soluble vitamins in supplemented milk, infant nutrition products, and milk powder certified reference material (CRM 421, BCR) with recoveries ranging from 90 to 100%.

  10. Impact of Dissolved Oxygen during UV-Irradiation on the Chemical Composition and Function of CHO Cell Culture Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Sarah M; Todorovic, Biljana; Dare, Emma V; Begum, Afroza; Guillemette, Simon; Wenger, Andrew; Saxena, Priyanka; Campbell, J Larry; Sasges, Michael; Aucoin, Marc G

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is advantageous as a sterilization technique in the biopharmaceutical industry since it is capable of targeting non-enveloped viruses that are typically challenging to destroy, as well as smaller viruses that can be difficult to remove via conventional separation techniques. In this work, we investigated the influence of oxygen in the media during UV irradiation and characterized the effect on chemical composition using NMR and LC-MS, as well as the ability of the irradiated media to support cell culture. Chemically defined Chinese hamster ovary cell growth media was irradiated at high fluences in a continuous-flow UV reactor. UV-irradiation caused the depletion of pyridoxamine, pyridoxine, pyruvate, riboflavin, tryptophan, and tyrosine; and accumulation of acetate, formate, kynurenine, lumichrome, and sarcosine. Pyridoxamine was the only compound to undergo complete degradation within the fluences considered; complete depletion of pyridoxamine was observed at 200 mJ/cm2. Although in both oxygen- and nitrogen-saturated media, the cell culture performance was affected at fluences above 200 mJ/cm2, there was less of an impact on cell culture performance in the nitrogen-saturated media. Based on these results, minimization of oxygen in cell culture media prior to UV treatment is recommended to minimize the negative impact on sensitive media.

  11. Impact of the Bolsa Família Program on energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes: Study of the Northeast and Southeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiara SPERANDIO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the impact of the Bolsa Família Program on the energy and nutrient intakes of beneficiaries from the Brazilian Northeast and Southeast regions. Methods: The study used data from the 2008-2009 Pesquisa de Orçamento Famíliar, which assessed individual food intake on two nonconsecutive days of individuals aged more than 10 years. Based the personal information booklet, food intake values were transformed into nutritional values (energy and nutrients. Analysis of the impact measure was preceded by propensity score matching, a technique that matches some socioeconomic characteristics of beneficiaries and nonbeneficiaries. Once the score was calculated, the impact of the Bolsa Família Program was estimated by nearest neighbor matching. Results: The program increased energy and macronutrient intakes and decreased calcium and vitamin A, D, E, and C intakes of adolescent beneficiaries in both regions. Adult beneficiaries from the Southeast region increased their fiber, iron, and selenium intakes, and those from the Northeast region decreased their energy, lipid, added sugar, sodium, zinc, vitamin E, and pyridoxine intakes. Conclusion: The results show a positive impact of the program on the energy and macronutrient intakes, and a negative impact on the intakes of most study micronutrients, especially in adolescents, which reinforce the importance of implementing intersectoral actions to improve the nutritional quality of the Bolsa Família Program beneficiaries' diet.

  12. Vincristine-induced neuropathy in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Oman: Frequent autonomic and more severe cranial nerve involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Hanan F; AlFutaisi, Amna; Zacharia, Mathew; Elshinawy, Mohamed; Mevada, Surekha T; Alrawas, Abdulhakim; Khater, Doaa; Jaju, Deepali; Wali, Yasser

    2017-12-01

    Vincristine (VCR) induced peripheral neuropathy is a common complication in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). A retrospective data analysis over an interval of 10 years (2006-2016) of all children with ALL seen at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital was carried out. Electronic medical records of eligible patients were reviewed. Patients with clinical evidence of neuropathy and abnormal nerve conduction studies (NCSs) were included in the study. Nineteen (nine females and 10 males) out of 103 pediatric patients developed VCR-related neuropathy, and their age ranged between 2.5 and 14 years. Symptoms started after 2-11 doses of VCR. All 19 patients had documented peripheral neuropathy on NCSs. The autonomic nervous system and cranial nerves affection was relatively common in our patients; two presented with bradycardia, two patients with unexplained tachycardia, and five had abdominal pain and constipation, complicated by typhlitis in two patients. One patient developed unilateral hearing loss. Two patients developed severe life-threatening cranial nerve involvement with bilateral ptosis and recurrent laryngeal nerve involvement presented as vocal cord paralysis, hoarseness of voice, frequent chocking, and aspiration episodes. Peripheral neuropathy was the commonest form of VCR-related neuropathy. Autonomic neuropathy was relatively common in our patients. Cranial neuropathy is a serious side effect of VCR that can be severe, involving multiple cranial nerves and needs prompt recognition and management. Concomitant administration of pyridoxine and pyridostigmine does not seem to protect against further neurological damage in some patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Dramatic effect of levetiracetam in early-onset epileptic encephalopathy due to STXBP1 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilena, Robertino; Striano, Pasquale; Traverso, Monica; Viri, Maurizio; Cristofori, Gloria; Tadini, Laura; Barbieri, Sergio; Romeo, Antonino; Zara, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Syntaxin Binding Protein 1 (STXBP1) mutations determine a central neurotransmission dysfunction through impairment of the synaptic vesicle release, thus causing a spectrum of phenotypes varying from syndromic and non-syndromic epilepsy to intellectual disability of variable degree. Among the antiepileptic drugs, levetiracetam has a unique mechanism of action binding SV2A, a glycoprotein of the synaptic vesicle release machinery. We report a 1-month-old boy manifesting an epileptic encephalopathy with clonic seizures refractory to phenobarbital, pyridoxine and phenytoin that presented a dramatic response to levetiracetam with full epilepsy control and EEG normalization. Genetic analysis identified a novel de novo heterozygous mutation (c.[922A>T]p.[Lys308(∗)]) in the STXBP1 gene that severely affects the protein. The observation of a dramatic efficacy of levetiracetam in a case of STXBP1 epileptic encephalopathy refractory to other antiepileptic drugs and considerations regarding the specific mechanism of action of levetiracetam modulating the same system affected by STXBP1 mutations support the hypothesis that this drug may be able to reverse specifically the disease epileptogenic abnormalities. Further clinical observations and laboratory studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis and eventually lead to consider levetiracetam as the first choice treatment of patients with suspected or confirmed STXBP1-related epilepsies. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of sodium channel blockers in SCN2A early infantile epileptic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilena, Robertino; Striano, Pasquale; Gennaro, Elena; Bassi, Laura; Olivotto, Sara; Tadini, Laura; Mosca, Fabio; Barbieri, Sergio; Zara, Federico; Fumagalli, Monica

    2017-04-01

    Recent clinical evidence supports a targeted therapeutic approach for genetic epileptic encephalopathies based on the molecular dysfunction. A 2-day-old male infant presented with epileptic encephalopathy characterized by burst-suppression EEG background and tonic-clonic migrating partial seizures. The condition was refractory to phenobarbital, pyridoxine, pyridoxal phosphate and levetiracetam, but a dramatic response to an intravenous loading dose of phenytoin was documented by video-EEG monitoring. Over weeks phenytoin was successfully switched to carbamazepine to prevent seizure relapses associated with difficulty in maintaining proper blood levels of phenytoin. Genetic analysis identified a novel de novo heterozygous mutation (c.[4633A>G]p.[Met1545Val]) in SCN2A. At two years and three months of age the patient is still seizure-free on carbamazepine, although a developmental delay is evident. Sodium channel blockers represent the first-line treatment for confirmed or suspected SCN2A-related epileptic encephalopathies. In severe cases with compatible electro-clinical features we propose a treatment algorithm based on a test trial with high dose intravenous phenytoin followed in case of a positive response by carbamazepine, more suitable for long-term maintenance treatment. Because of their rarity, collaborative studies are needed to delineate shared therapeutic protocols for EIEE based on the electro-clinical features and the presumed underlying genetic substrate. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Delayed diagnosis of homocystinuria presenting as bilateral congenital lens subluxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelić-Vuković Marija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Homocystinuria is an autosomal recessively inherited defect leading to hyperhomocysteinemia and associated with ocular manifestations, mainly myopia and ectopia lentis. Case outline. A 26-year-old male with secondary glaucoma due to bilateral lens subluxation was admitted to the Department of vitreoretinal surgery. Horizontal nystagmus, bilateral lens subluxation, and bilateral amblyopia were first discovered at the age of three years. Preoperative laboratory workup revealed elevated levels of homocysteine. Bilateral pars plana lensectomy and vitrectomy followed by a sulcus fixation of the intraocular lens (ALCON MA60 Acrysof IOL were performed. The patient was prescribed folic acid, methionine, and pyridoxine, and was urged to maintain a methionine-low diet. After a bilateral lensectomy and sulcus fixation of the intraocular lens and a methionine restriction therapy combined with vitamin B6, B9, and B12 supplementation, his condition improved greatly. Conclusion. In this report of a rare case we emphasize the importance of examining differential diagnoses of lens subluxation, since early intervention can prevent serious complications.

  16. What level of plasma homocyst(e)ine should be treated? Effects of vitamin therapy on progression of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with homocyst(e)ine levels above and below 14 micromol/L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackam, D G; Peterson, J C; Spence, J D

    2000-01-01

    High levels of plasma homocyst(e)ine (H[e]) are associated with increased vascular risk. Treatment is being contemplated, but the level at which patients should be treated is not known. We compared the response of carotid plaque to vitamin therapy in patients with H(e) above and below 14 micromol/L, a level commonly regarded as high enough to warrant treatment. Two-dimensional B-mode ultrasound measurement of carotid plaque was used to assess the response to vitamin therapy with folic acid 2.5 mg, pyridoxine 25 mg, and cyanocobalamin 250 microg daily, in 101 patients with vascular disease (51 with initial plasma levels above, and 50 below 14 micromol/L). Among patients with plasma H(e) >14 micromol/L, the rate of progression of plaque area was 0.21 +/- 0.41 cm2/year before vitamin therapy, and -0.049 +/- 0.24 cm2/year after vitamin therapy (P2 = .0001; paired t test). Among patients with levels ine and atherosclerosis and, taken with epidemiologic evidence, suggest that in patients with vascular disease, the level to treat may be <9 micromol/L.

  17. Patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease: how low should plasma homocyst(e)ine levels go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, J D

    2001-01-01

    Plasma homocyst(e)ine level is a strong independent risk factor for vascular disease. The spelling of homocyst(e)ine reflects that what is measured, and what constitutes the risk factor; it includes homocysteine, homocystine (the dimer of homocysteine) and mixed cysteine-homocysteine disulfide. Homocyst(e)ine levels above 10.2 micro mol/L are associated with a doubling of coronary risk, and levels above 20 micro mol/L are associated with a 9.9-fold increase in risk compared with levels below 9 micro mol/L. The mechanisms by which homocyst(e)ine promotes vascular disease include increased thrombosis, consumption of nitric oxide, endothelial injury, and reduced thrombolysis. Homocyst(e)ine is an independent predictor of carotid atherosclerosis. Vitamin therapy with folate, pyridoxine (vitamin B(6)), and cyanocobalamin (vitamin B(12)) reduces blood levels of homocyst(e)ine, improves endothelial function, reduces levels of fibrinogen and lipoprotein(a), improves thrombolysis, and in uncontrolled clinical observation, leads to regression of carotid plaque. These lines of evidence support a causal relationship between homocyst(e)ine and atherosclerosis, and suggest that in patients with vascular disease, an appropriate target level for therapy may be below 9 or 10 micro mol/L. Randomized controlled studies are under way to determine whether vitamin therapy is effective in secondary prevention of myocardial infarction and stroke.

  18. An LC-MS/MS-Based Method for the Quantification of Pyridox(am)ine 5'-Phosphate Oxidase Activity in Dried Blood Spots from Patients with Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Matthew P; Footitt, Emma J; Papandreou, Apostolos; Uudelepp, Mari-Liis; Pressler, Ronit; Stevenson, Danielle C; Gabriel, Camila; McSweeney, Mel; Baggot, Matthew; Burke, Derek; Stödberg, Tommy; Riney, Kate; Schiff, Manuel; Heales, Simon J R; Mills, Kevin A; Gissen, Paul; Clayton, Peter T; Mills, Philippa B

    2017-09-05

    We report the development of a rapid, simple, and robust LC-MS/MS-based enzyme assay using dried blood spots (DBS) for the diagnosis of pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase (PNPO) deficiency (OMIM 610090). PNPO deficiency leads to potentially fatal early infantile epileptic encephalopathy, severe developmental delay, and other features of neurological dysfunction. However, upon prompt treatment with high doses of vitamin B 6 , affected patients can have a normal developmental outcome. Prognosis of these patients is therefore reliant upon a rapid diagnosis. PNPO activity was quantified by measuring pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) concentrations in a DBS before and after a 30 min incubation with pyridoxine 5'-phosphate (PNP). Samples from 18 PNPO deficient patients (1 day-25 years), 13 children with other seizure disorders receiving B 6 supplementation (1 month-16 years), and 37 child hospital controls (5 days-15 years) were analyzed. DBS from the PNPO-deficient samples showed enzyme activity levels lower than all samples from these two other groups as well as seven adult controls; no false positives or negatives were identified. The method was fully validated and is suitable for translation into the clinical diagnostic arena.

  19. Neonatal epileptic encephalopathy caused by mutations in the PNPO gene encoding pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Philippa B; Surtees, Robert A H; Champion, Michael P; Beesley, Clare E; Dalton, Neil; Scambler, Peter J; Heales, Simon J R; Briddon, Anthony; Scheimberg, Irene; Hoffmann, Georg F; Zschocke, Johannes; Clayton, Peter T

    2005-04-15

    In the mouse, neurotransmitter metabolism can be regulated by modulation of the synthesis of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and failure to maintain pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) levels results in epilepsy. This study of five patients with neonatal epileptic encephalopathy suggests that the same is true in man. Cerebrospinal fluid and urine analyses indicated reduced activity of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase and other PLP-dependent enzymes. Seizures ceased with the administration of PLP, having been resistant to treatment with pyridoxine, suggesting a defect of pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase (PNPO). Sequencing of the PNPO gene identified homozygous missense, splice site and stop codon mutations. Expression studies in Chinese hamster ovary cells showed that the splice site (IVS3-1g>a) and stop codon (X262Q) mutations were null activity mutations and that the missense mutation (R229W) markedly reduced pyridox(am)ine phosphate oxidase activity. Maintenance of optimal PLP levels in the brain may be important in many neurological disorders in which neurotransmitter metabolism is disturbed (either as a primary or as a secondary phenomenon).

  20. An LC–MS/MS-Based Method for the Quantification of Pyridox(am)ine 5′-Phosphate Oxidase Activity in Dried Blood Spots from Patients with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We report the development of a rapid, simple, and robust LC–MS/MS-based enzyme assay using dried blood spots (DBS) for the diagnosis of pyridox(am)ine 5′-phosphate oxidase (PNPO) deficiency (OMIM 610090). PNPO deficiency leads to potentially fatal early infantile epileptic encephalopathy, severe developmental delay, and other features of neurological dysfunction. However, upon prompt treatment with high doses of vitamin B6, affected patients can have a normal developmental outcome. Prognosis of these patients is therefore reliant upon a rapid diagnosis. PNPO activity was quantified by measuring pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) concentrations in a DBS before and after a 30 min incubation with pyridoxine 5′-phosphate (PNP). Samples from 18 PNPO deficient patients (1 day–25 years), 13 children with other seizure disorders receiving B6 supplementation (1 month–16 years), and 37 child hospital controls (5 days–15 years) were analyzed. DBS from the PNPO-deficient samples showed enzyme activity levels lower than all samples from these two other groups as well as seven adult controls; no false positives or negatives were identified. The method was fully validated and is suitable for translation into the clinical diagnostic arena. PMID:28782931

  1. Massive hemoptysis and complete unilateral lung collapse in pregnancy due to pulmonary tuberculosis with good maternal and fetal outcome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masukume, Gwinyai; Sengurayi, Elton; Moyo, Phinot; Feliu, Julio; Gandanhamo, Danboy; Ndebele, Wedu; Ngwenya, Solwayo; Gwini, Rudo

    2013-08-22

    We report an extremely rare case of massive hemoptysis and complete left-sided lung collapse in pregnancy due to pulmonary tuberculosis in a health care worker with good maternal and fetal outcome. A 33-year-old human immuno deficiency virus seronegative African health care worker in her fourth pregnancy with two previous second trimester miscarriages and an apparently healthy daughter from her third pregnancy presented coughing up copious amounts of blood at 18 weeks and two days of gestation. She had a cervical suture in situ for presumed cervical weakness. Computed tomography of her chest showed complete collapse of the left lung; subsequent bronchoscopy was apparently normal. Her serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin, tests for autoimmune disease and echocardiography were all normal. Her lung re-inflated spontaneously. Sputum for acid alcohol fast bacilli was positive; our patient was commenced on anti-tuberculosis medication and pyridoxine. At 41 weeks and three days of pregnancy our patient went into spontaneous labor and delivered a live born female baby weighing 2.6 kg with APGAR scores of nine and 10 at one and five minutes respectively. She and her baby are apparently doing well about 10 months after delivery. It is possible to have massive hemoptysis and complete unilateral lung collapse with spontaneous resolution in pregnancy due to pulmonary tuberculosis with good maternal and fetal outcome.

  2. Effects of vitamin nutrition on the immune response of hatchery-reared salmonids. Annual report, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leith, D.; Holmes, J.; Kaattari, S.; Yui, M.; Jones, T.

    1985-09-01

    Results demonstrate that immunological assays. Lymphocytes from both of the major lymphoid organs (spleen and anterior kidney) produce significant in vitro antibody responses to the antigen, trinitrophenyl-lipopolysaccharide. These cells also demonstrate significant mitogenic stimulation (proliferation) in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, phytohemagglutinin, and to a novel mitogen, Vibrio anguillarum extract. As an assessment of cell-mediated immunity, we have found that lymphocytes are capable of responding in a mixed lymphocyte reaction as demonstrated by increased incorporation of tritiated thymidine. Results also indicate that phagocytosis can be quantified by the uptake of radioiodinated Renibacterium salmoninarum and that production of migration inhibition factor (MIF)-like activity can be induced in immunized animals. Polyclonal activation of chinook lymphocytes was elicited by both Vibrio anguillarum extract and E. coli lipopolysaccharide. Groups of spring chinook salmon were fed a formula diet containing five dietary levels of pyridoxine (15, 30, 60, 120, and 1500 mg/kg diet). Data collected on growth and feed efficiency in the first eighteen weeks show no significant difference between these formulations. 46 refs., 20 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Riboflavin-responsive trimethylaminuria in a patient with homocystinuria on betaine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Nigel J; Allen, Elizabeth K; Kirk, Richard J; Sharrard, Mark J; Smith, Edwin J

    2012-01-01

    A 17-year-old female patient with pyridoxine non-responsive homocystinuria, treated with 20 g of betaine per day, developed a strong body odour, which was described as fish-like. Urinary trimethylamine (TMA) was measured and found to be markedly increased. DNA mutation analysis revealed homozygosity for a common allelic variant in the gene coding for the TMA oxidising enzyme FMO3. Without changing diet or betaine therapy, riboflavin was given at a dose of 200 mg per day. An immediate improvement in her odour was noticed by her friends and family and urinary TMA was noted to be greatly reduced, although still above the normal range.Gradual further reductions in TMA (and odour) have followed whilst receiving riboflavin. Throughout this period, betaine compliance has been demonstrated by the measurement of dimethylglycine (DMG) excretion, which has been consistently increased. Marked excretions of DMG when the odour had subsided also demonstrate that DMG was not the source of the odour.This patient study raises the possibility that betaine may be converted to TMA by intestinal flora to some degree, resulting in a significant fish odour when oxidation of TMA is compromised by FMO3 variants. The possibility exists that the body odour occasionally associated with betaine therapy for homocystinuria may not be related to increased circulating betaine or DMG, but due to a common FMO3 mutation resulting in TMAU. Benefits of riboflavin therapy for TMAU for such patients would allow the maintenance of betaine therapy without problematic body odour.

  4. The B Vitamins Nicotinamide (B3) and Riboflavin (B2) Stimulate Metamorphosis in Larvae of the Deposit-Feeding Polychaete Capitella teleta: Implications for a Sensory Ligand-Gated Ion Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Robert T.; Pechenik, Jan A.; Biggers, William J.; Scavo, Gia; Lehman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Marine sediments can contain B vitamins, presumably incorporated from settled, decaying phytoplankton and microorganisms associated with decomposition. Because B vitamins may be advantageous for the energetically intensive processes of metamorphosis, post-metamorphic growth, and reproduction, we tested several B vitamins to determine if they would stimulate larvae of the deposit-feeding polychaete Capitella teleta to settle and metamorphose. Nicotinamide and riboflavin individually stimulated larvae of C. teleta to settle and metamorphose, generally within 1–2 hours at nicotinamide concentrations as low as 3 µM and riboflavin concentrations as low as 50 µM. More than 80% of the larvae metamorphosed within 30 minutes at a nicotinamide concentration of 7 µM. The pyridine channel agonist pyrazinecarboxamide also stimulated metamorphosis at very low concentrations. In contrast, neither lumichrome, thiamine HCl, pyridoxine HCl, nor vitamin B12 stimulated larvae of C. teleta to metamorphose at concentrations as high as 500 µM. Larvae also did not metamorphose in response to either nicotinamide or pyrazinecarboxamide in calcium-free seawater or with the addition of 4-acetylpyridine, a competitive inhibitor of the pyridine receptor. Together, these results suggest that larvae of C. teleta are responding to nicotinamide and riboflavin via a chemosensory pyridine receptor similar to that previously reported to be present on crayfish chela and involved with food recognition. Our data are the first to implicate B vitamins as possible natural chemical settlement cues for marine invertebrate larvae. PMID:25390040

  5. Urgent Living-Donor Liver Transplantation in a Patient With Concurrent Active Tuberculosis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, B-H; Park, J-I; Lee, S-G

    2018-04-01

    Although active tuberculosis (TB) is considered a contraindication for liver transplantation (LT), this is the only treatment in patients with liver failure and concurrent active TB. We report a case with successful urgent living-donor LT for irreversible liver failure in the presence of active TB. A 48-year-old man, with a history of decompensated alcoholic liver cirrhosis, was presented with stupor. At admission, his consciousness had deteriorated to semi-coma, and his renal function also rapidly deteriorated to hepatorenal syndrome. A preoperative computed tomography scan of the chest revealed several small cavitary lesions in both upper lobes, and acid-fast bacillus stain from his sputum was graded 2+. Adenosine deaminase levels from ascites were elevated, suggesting TB peritonitis. A first-line anti-TB drug regimen was started immediately (rifampin, isoniazid, levofloxacin, and amikacin). An urgent living-donor LT was performed 2 days later. After LT, the regimen was changed to second-line anti-TB drugs (amikacin, levofloxacin, cycloserine, and pyridoxine). The sputum acid-fast bacillus stain tested negative on postoperative day 10. His liver function remained well preserved, even after the reversion to first-line anti-TB treatment. The patient recovered without any anti-TB medication-related complications and was discharged. LT can be prudently performed as a life-saving option, particularly for patients with liver failure and concurrent active TB. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Utilization of solid coffee waste as a substrate for microbial protein production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arue, C; Bahar, S

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of using the solid waste from the instant coffee processing industry (NESCAFE) as a substrate for the production of protein from fungi imperfecti in order to be used as an animal feed supplement was studied. Studies on the selected fungi, Paecilomyces elegans, Aspergillus oryzae and Fusarium oxysporum showed that F. oxysporum produces significantly higher protein levels than the other fungi studied. The fungus was grown in batch on the acid hydrolyzed coffee medium. Maximal values for sugar utilization and mycelium production (3-4 mg/ml) were obtained on 0.5% (w/v) acid hydrolyzed substrate (4% w/v) supplemented with 0.05% (w/v) potassium phosphate and 0.2% (w/v) yeast extract. Supplementary nitrogen was not necessary. The fungus was found to require pyridoxine and inositol. Addition of 1.5% (w/v) glucose to the medium increased the biomass production, indicating that the carbon source may be a limiting factor. 37 references.

  7. Liver enzymes serum levels in patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Bezerra Cavalcanti Sette

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed the literature regarding the serum levels of the enzymes aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase in patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis with and without viral hepatitis. Original articles published up to January 2013 on adult patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis were selected. These articles contained the words “transaminases” “aspartate aminotransferase” “alanine aminotransferase” “gamma glutamyl transferase,” “liver enzymes”, AND “dialysis” OR “hemodialysis”. A total of 823 articles were retrieved. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 49 articles were selected. The patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis had reduced serum levels of aminotransferases due to hemodilution, lower pyridoxine levels, or elevated homocysteine levels. The chronic kidney disease patients on hemodialysis infected with the hepatitis C virus also had lower aminotransferase levels compared with the infected patients without chronic kidney disease. This reduction is in part due to decreased viremia caused by the dialysis method, the production of a hepatocyte growth factor and endogenous interferon-α, and lymphocyte activation, which decreases viral action on hepatocytes. Few studies were retrieved on gamma-glutamyl transferase serum levels; those found reported that there were no differences between the patients with or without chronic kidney disease. The serum aminotransferase levels were lower in the patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis (with or without viral hepatitis than in the patients with normal renal function; this reduction has a multifactorial origin.

  8. Treatments for hyperemesis gravidarum and nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: a systematic review and economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Amy; McParlin, Catherine; Robson, Stephen C; Beyer, Fiona; Moloney, Eoin; Bryant, Andrew; Bradley, Jennifer; Muirhead, Colin; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Norman, Justine; Simpson, Emma; Swallow, Brian; Yates, Laura; Vale, Luke

    2016-10-01

    -three studies (75 reports) met the inclusion criteria. For RCTs, 33 and 11 studies had a low and high risk of bias respectively. For the remainder ( n  = 20) it was unclear. The non-randomised studies ( n  = 9) were low quality. There were 33 separate comparators. The most common were acupressure versus placebo ( n  = 12); steroid versus usual treatment ( n  = 7); ginger versus placebo ( n  = 6); ginger versus vitamin B6 ( n  = 6); and vitamin B6 versus placebo ( n  = 4). There was evidence that ginger, antihistamines, metoclopramide (mild disease) and vitamin B6 (mild to severe disease) are better than placebo. Diclectin ® [Duchesnay Inc.; doxylamine succinate (10 mg) plus pyridoxine hydrochloride (10 mg) slow release tablet] is more effective than placebo and ondansetron is more effective at reducing nausea than pyridoxine plus doxylamine. Diclectin before symptoms of NVP begin for women at high risk of severe NVP recurrence reduces risk of moderate/severe NVP compared with taking Diclectin once symptoms begin. Promethazine is as, and ondansetron is more, effective than metoclopramide for severe NVP/HG. I.v. fluids help correct dehydration and improve symptoms. Dextrose saline may be more effective at reducing nausea than normal saline. Transdermal clonidine patches may be effective for severe HG. Enteral feeding is effective but extreme method treatment for very severe symptoms. Day case management for moderate/severe symptoms is feasible, acceptable and as effective as inpatient care. For all other interventions and comparisons, evidence is unclear. The economic analysis was limited by lack of effectiveness data, but comparison of costs between treatments highlights the implications of different choices. The main limitations were the quantity and quality of the data available. There was evidence of some improvement in symptoms for some treatments, but these data may not be transferable across disease severities. Methodologically sound and

  9. Utilização da farinha de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp na elaboração de produtos de panificação Utilization of cowpea flour in the development of bakery products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline de Macêdo Gonçalves Frota

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo enriquecer produtos de panificação do tipo biscoito e rocambole com farinha de feijão-caupi (FFC, avaliar sua aceitabilidade e composição química, incluindo o conteúdo dos minerais (ferro, zinco, magnésio, potássio e fósforo e das vitaminas (tiamina e piridoxina. Foram desenvolvidas três formulações de biscoito contendo 10, 20 e 30% FFC e duas formulações de rocambole contendo 10 e 20% FFC. Observou-se um aumento no teor protéico do biscoito 30% FFC e do rocambole 20% FFC e na quantidade de cinzas dos biscoitos 20 e 30% FFC e rocambole 20% FFC, quando comparados às formulações padrão. O teor dos minerais analisados e de piridoxina aumentou à medida que FFC foi adicionada, enquanto a concentração de tiamina aumentou somente no rocambole 20% FFC. O biscoito com 10% FFC apresentou maior aceitação (84,4%, dentre os biscoitos formulados com FFC, além disso, os rocamboles com 10 e 20% FFC tiveram boa aceitação (86,7 e 77,8%, respectivamente. Todas as formulações contendo FFC tiveram notas superiores a 6, mostrando que os produtos foram aceitos sensorialmente. Desta forma, a adição de FFC visando melhorar o valor nutritivo de formulações à base de cereais é viável.This work had as objective to enrich bakery products (biscuit and rocambole or Brazilian roll with cowpea flour (CF to analyze their acceptability and chemical composition including mineral contents (iron, zinc, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus and vitamins (thiamine and pyridoxine. Three formulations of biscuits containing 10, 20, and 30% CF and two formulations of Brazilian rolls with 10 and 20% CF were developed. It was observed an increase in the protein contents of the 30% CF biscuits and 20% CF Brazilian roll, as well as in the ash value of 20 and 30% CF biscuits and 20% CF Brazilian roll, when compared to a standard formulation. The concentration of minerals and pyridoxine analyzed increased with the addition of

  10. Lemon (Citrus limon, Burm.f.) essential oil enhances the trans-epidermal release of lipid-(A, E) and water-(B6, C) soluble vitamins from topical emulsions in reconstructed human epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgimigli, L; Gabbanini, S; Berlini, E; Lucchi, E; Beltramini, C; Bertarelli, Y L

    2012-08-01

    Topical bioavailability of lipid- and water-soluble vitamins is a critical issue for protecting or anti-ageing formulations. Using 17-day-old SkinEthic(®) reconstructed human epidermis, we investigated (at 34°C) the role of lemon EO in enhancing the penetration of α-tocopherol (E) and retinyl acetate (A), pyridoxine (B(6)) and ascorbic acid (C), released from O/W or W/O emulsions. D-limonene, α-pinene and p-cymene (65.9, 2.2 and 0.5%w/w of the oil) had skin permeability coefficients Ps (10(-3) cm h(-1)) of 0.56 ± 0.03 (or 0.73 ± 0.02), 0.72 ± 0.05 (or 0.98 ± 0.05) and 0.84 ± 0.04 (or 1.14 ± 0.04), respectively, when incorporated in a W/O (or O/W) emulsion. Vitamins B6, C and A had Ps values of (3.0 ± 0.4) × 10(-3), (7.9 ± 0.6) × 10(-3) and (0.37 ± 0.02) × 10(-5) cm h(-1), respectively, and their flux through the skin was enhanced by a factor of 4.1, 3.4 and 5.8, respectively, in the presence of lemon EO. The penetration of vitamin E was nine-fold enhanced. Lemon EO produced only reversible modification of TEWL, and it is a safe and effective penetration enhancer for topical administration of lipid- and water-soluble vitamins. © 2012 The Authors. ICS © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  11. Neuropathological mechanisms of seizures in autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Eugene Frye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript reviews biological abnormalities shared by autism spectrum disorder (ASD and epilepsy. Two neuropathological findings are shared by ASD and epilepsy: abnormalities in minicolumn architecture and -aminobutyric acid (GABA. The peripheral neuropil, which is the region that contains the inhibition circuits of the minicolumns, has been found to be decreased in the post-mortem ASD brain. ASD and epilepsy are associated with inhibitory GABA neurotransmission abnormalities including reduced GABAA and GABAB subunit expression. These abnormalities can elevate the excitation-to-inhibition balance, resulting in hyperexcitablity of the cortex and, in turn, increases the risk of seizures. Medical abnormalities associated with both epilepsy and ASD are discussed. These include specific genetic syndromes, specific metabolic disorders including disorders of energy metabolism and GABA and glutamate neurotransmission, mineral and vitamin deficiencies, heavy metal exposures and immune dysfunction. Many of these medical abnormalities can result in an elevation of the excitatory-inhibitory balance. Fragile X is linked to dysfunction of the mGluR5 receptor and Fragile X, Angelman and Rett syndromes are linked to a reduction in GABAA receptor expression. Defects in energy metabolism can reduce GABA interneuron function. Both pyridoxine dependent seizures and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency cause GABA deficiencies while urea cycle defects and phenylketonuria cause abnormalities in glutamate neurotransmission. Mineral deficiencies can cause glutamate and GABA neurotransmission abnormalities and heavy metals can cause mitochondrial dysfunction which disrupts GABA metabolism. Thus, both ASD and epilepsy are associated with similar abnormalities that may alter the excitatory-to-inhibitory balance of the cortex. These parallels may explain the high prevalence of epilepsy in ASD and the elevated prevalence of ASD features in individuals with

  12. Density, speed of sound, viscosity and refractive index properties of aqueous solutions of vitamins B1.HCl and B6.HCl at temperatures (278.15, 288.15, and 298.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhondge, Sudhakar S.; Deshmukh, Dinesh W.; Paliwal, Lalitmohan J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Study of aqueous solutions of vitamins B 1 .HCl and B 6 .HCl at different temperatures has been presented. ► These are important vitamins. ► Different interactions among solute and solvents have been investigated. ► The results are interpreted in terms of water structure making and breaking effects due to cations. -- Abstract: The experimental values of density (ρ), speed of sound (u), absolute viscosity (η) and refractive index (n D ) properties are reported for aqueous solutions of thiamine hydrochloride (vitamin B 1 .HCl) and pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B 6 .HCl) within the concentration range (0.01 to 0.55) mol ⋅ kg −1 at three different temperatures, viz. T/K = 278.15, 288.15, and 298.15. Using experimental data, different derived parameters such as the apparent molar volume of solute (ϕ V ), isentropic compressibility of solution (β S ), apparent molar isentropic compressibility of solute (ϕ KS ) and relative viscosity of solution (η r ) have been computed. The limiting values of apparent molar volume (ϕ V 0 ) and apparent molar isentropic compressibility (ϕ KS 0 ) have been obtained. The limiting apparent molar expansivity (ϕ E 0 ) of solute, coefficient of thermal expansion (α ∗ ) and hydration numbers (n h ) of above vitamins in the aqueous medium have also been estimated. The experimental values of relative viscosity are used to calculate the Jones–Dole equation viscosity A and B coefficients for the hydrochlorides. The temperature coefficients of B i.e. (dB/dT) for these solutes have been used to study water structure making and breaking effects due to cations. Further, a discussion is made on the basis of solute–solute and solute–solvent interactions

  13. Detection in superheated water chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chienthavorn, O.

    1999-11-01

    Superheated water has been used successfully as an eluent in liquid chromatography and has been coupled to various modes of detection, ultraviolet (UV), fluorescence, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). A number of compounds were examined on poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) (PS-DVB), polybutadiene (PBD), and octadecylsilyl bonded silica (ODS) column with isothermal and temperature programmes. The PS-DVB column was mostly used throughout the project as it was the most stable. Not only pure water could serve as superheated water mobile phase; inorganic buffered water and ion-pairing reagent with a concentration of 1-3 mM of the buffer and reagent were also exploited. It was shown that the pH could be controlled during the separation without salt precipitation and the separations followed a conventional reversed-phase HPLC method. Results from fluorescence detection showed good separation of a series of vitamins, such as pyridoxine, riboflavin, thiamine, and some analgesics. The relationship of riboflavin using the detection was linear and the detection limit was seven times higher than that of a conventional method. Simultaneous separation and identification using superheated water chromatography-NMR was demonstrated. With using a stop flow method, NMR spectra of model drugs, namely barbiturates, paracetamol, caffeine and phenacetin were obtained and the results agreed with reference spectra, confirming a perfect separation. A demonstration to obtain COSY spectrum of salicylamide was also performed. The method was expanded to the coupling of superheated water LC to NMR-MS. Results from the hyphenated detection method showed that deuteration and degradation happened in the superheated water conditions. The methyl group hydrogens of pyrimidine ring of sulfonamide and thiamine were exchanged with deuterium. Thiamine was decomposed to 4-methyl-5-thiazoleethanol and both were deuterated under the conditions. (author)

  14. Antiretroviral therapy provided to HIV-infected Malawian women in a randomized trial diminishes the positive effects of lipid-based nutrient supplements on breast-milk B vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lindsay H; Hampel, Daniela; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; York, Emily R; Adair, Linda S; Flax, Valerie L; Tegha, Gerald; Chasela, Charles S; Kamwendo, Debbie; Jamieson, Denise J; Bentley, Margaret E

    2015-12-01

    Little information is available on B vitamin concentrations in human milk or on how they are affected by maternal B vitamin deficiencies, antiretroviral therapy, or maternal supplementation. The objective was to evaluate the effects of antiretroviral therapy and/or lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) on B vitamin concentrations in breast milk from HIV-infected women in Malawi. Breast milk was collected from 537 women recruited within the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study at 2 or 6 wk and 24 wk postpartum. Women were assigned to receive antiretrovirals and LNSs, antiretrovirals only, LNSs only, or a control. Antiretrovirals and LNSs were given to the mothers from weeks 0 to 28. The antiretrovirals were zidovudine/lamivudine and nelfinavir or lopinavir/ritonavir. LNSs provided 93-118% of the Recommended Dietary Allowances of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, and vitamin B-12. Infants were exclusively breastfed. LNSs increased milk concentrations of all vitamins except thiamin, whereas antiretrovirals lowered concentrations of nicotinamide, pyridoxal, and vitamin B-12. Although antiretrovirals alone had no significant effect on riboflavin concentrations, they negatively affected the LNS-induced increase in this vitamin. Thiamin was not influenced by the study interventions. Concentrations of all B vitamins were much lower than usually accepted values. All B vitamins were low in milk, and all but thiamin were increased by maternal supplementation with LNSs. Antiretrovirals alone decreased concentrations of some B vitamins in milk. When LNS was given in addition to antiretrovirals, the negative effect of antiretrovirals offset the positive effect of LNSs for all vitamins except thiamin. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00164762. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. The chaperone role of the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and its implications for rare diseases involving B6-dependent enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellini, Barbara; Montioli, Riccardo; Oppici, Elisa; Astegno, Alessandra; Voltattorni, Carla Borri

    2014-02-01

    The biologically active form of the B6 vitamers is pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), which plays a coenzymatic role in several distinct enzymatic activities ranging from the synthesis, interconversion and degradation of amino acids to the replenishment of one-carbon units, synthesis and degradation of biogenic amines, synthesis of tetrapyrrolic compounds and metabolism of amino-sugars. In the catalytic process of PLP-dependent enzymes, the substrate amino acid forms a Schiff base with PLP and the electrophilicity of the PLP pyridine ring plays important roles in the subsequent catalytic steps. While the essential role of PLP in the acquisition of biological activity of many proteins is long recognized, the finding that some PLP-enzymes require the coenzyme for refolding in vitro points to an additional role of PLP as a chaperone in the folding process. Mutations in the genes encoding PLP-enzymes are causative of several rare inherited diseases. Patients affected by some of these diseases (AADC deficiency, cystathionuria, homocystinuria, gyrate atrophy, primary hyperoxaluria type 1, xanthurenic aciduria, X-linked sideroblastic anaemia) can benefit, although at different degrees, from the administration of pyridoxine, a PLP precursor. The effect of the coenzyme is not limited to mutations that affect the enzyme-coenzyme interaction, but also to those that cause folding defects, reinforcing the idea that PLP could play a chaperone role and improve the folding efficiency of misfolded variants. In this review, recent biochemical and cell biology studies highlighting the chaperoning activity of the coenzyme on folding-defective variants of PLP-enzymes associated with rare diseases are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Estruturação de cristais de gelo em soluções aquosas contendo solutos diversos Ice crystals structuring in water solutions containing different solutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLÉCIA SILVA CARNEIRO

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Existe uma grande demanda de conhecimentos na área de criopreservação de frutos tropicais com vistas a reduzir os danos celulares provocados por cristais de gelo durante o congelamento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a capacidade de estruturação de cristais de gelo. Soluções aquosas contendo arabinose, glicose, piridoxina, creatina, metionina, lisina e arginina, foram submetidas a congelamento lento em ar estático e as amostras resultantes examinadas por microscopia ótica sob luz polarizada. Os açúcares arabinose e glicose provocaram nos cristais de gelo estruturações que variaram de uma configuração hexagonal a uma arbórea, dentre outras. Vitaminas hidrossolúveis e compostos hidrofílicos ou hidrofóbicos favoreceram a formação de arranjamentos circulares filamentosos.There is a great demand for information about the cryopreservation of tropical fruits to reduce cell damage caused by ice crystals during freezing. The objective of this work was to study the structuring capacity of ice cristals. Water solutions having arabinose, glucose, pyridoxine, creatine, methionine, lysine and arginine were submitted to a slow freezing process and the resulting samples were examined under an optical microscope under polarized light. Sugars (arabinose and glucose caused a range of structures, from hexagonal to tree-like configurations, among others. Water soluble vitamins and hydrophilic or hydrophobic compounds favored the formation of needles arranged in a circular-type manner.

  17. Autism, an extreme challenge to integrative medicine. Part 2: medical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Parris M

    2002-12-01

    Autism and allied autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) present myriad behavioral, clinical, and biochemical abnormalities. Parental participation, advanced testing protocols, and eclectic treatment strategies have driven progress toward cure. Behavioral modification and structured education are beneficial but insufficient. Dietary restrictions, including removal of milk and other casein dairy products, wheat and other gluten sources, sugar, chocolate, preservatives, and food coloring are beneficial and prerequisite to benefit from other interventions. Individualized IgG or IgE testing can identify other troublesome foods but not non-immune mediated food sensitivities. Gastrointestinal improvement rests on controlling Candida and other parasites, and using probiotic bacteria and nutrients to correct dysbiosis and decrease gut permeability. Detoxification of mercury and other heavy metals by DMSA/DMPS chelation can have marked benefit. Documented sulfoxidation-sulfation inadequacies call for sulfur-sulfhydryl repletion and other liver p450 support. Many nutrient supplements are beneficial and well tolerated, including dimethylglycine (DMG) and a combination of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and magnesium, both of which benefit roughly half of ASD cases. Vitamins A, B3, C, and folic acid; the minerals calcium and zinc; cod liver oil; and digestive enzymes, all offer benefit. Secretin, a triggering factor for digestion, is presently under investigation. Immune therapies (pentoxifyllin, intravenous immunoglobulin, transfer factor, and colostrum) benefit selected cases. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids offer great promise. Current pharmaceuticals fail to benefit the primary symptoms and can have marked adverse effects. Individualized, in-depth clinical and laboratory assessments and integrative parent-physician-scientist cooperation are the keys to successful ASD management.

  18. B vitamin and/or ω-3 fatty acid supplementation and cancer: ancillary findings from the supplementation with folate, vitamins B6 and B12, and/or omega-3 fatty acids (SU.FOL.OM3) randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Valentina A; Touvier, Mathilde; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Julia, Chantal; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge

    2012-04-09

    To advance knowledge about the cancer-chemopreventive potential of individual nutrients, we investigated the effects of B vitamin and/or ω-3 fatty acid supplements on cancer outcomes among survivors of cardiovascular disease. This was an ancillary study of the Supplementation With Folate, Vitamins B(6) and B(12) and/or Omega-3 Fatty Acids (SU.FOL.OM3) secondary prevention trial (2003-2009). In all, 2501 individuals aged 45 to 80 years were randomized in a 2 × 2 factorial design to one of the following 4 daily supplementation groups: (1) 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (0.56 mg), pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B(6); 3 mg) and cyanocobalamin (vitamin B(12); 0.02 mg); (2) eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (600 mg) in a 2:1 ratio; (3) B vitamins and ω-3 fatty acids; or (4) placebo. Overall and sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs regarding the cancer outcomes were estimated with Cox proportional hazards models. After 5 years of supplementation, incident cancer was validated in 7.0% of the sample (145 events in men and 29 in women), and death from cancer occurred in 2.3% of the sample. There was no association between cancer outcomes and supplementation with B vitamins (HR, 1.15 [95% CI, 0.85-1.55]) and/or ω-3 fatty acids (HR, 1.17 [95% CI, 0.87-1.58]). There was a statistically significant interaction of treatment by sex, with no effect of treatment on cancer risk among men and increased cancer risk among women for ω-3 fatty acid supplementation (HR, 3.02 [95% CI, 1.33-6.89]). We found no beneficial effects of supplementation with relatively low doses of B vitamins and/or ω-3 fatty acids on cancer outcomes in individuals with prior cardiovascular disease. Trial Registration  isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN41926726.

  19. Application of GC-MS for the detection of lipophilic compounds in diverse plant tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellmann Hanjo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of metabolite profiling has been around for decades and technical innovations are now enabling it to be carried out on a large scale with respect to the number of both metabolites measured and experiments carried out. However, studies are generally confined to polar compounds alone. Here we describe a simple method for lipophilic compounds analysis in various plant tissues. Results We choose the same preparative and instrumental platform for lipophilic profiling as that we routinely use for polar metabolites measurements. The method was validated in terms of linearity, carryover, reproducibility and recovery rates, as well as using various plant tissues. As a first case study we present metabolic profiling of Arabidopsis root and shoot tissue of wild type (C24 and mutant (rsr4-1 plants deficient on vitamin B6. We found significant alterations in lipid constituent contents, especially in the roots, which were characterised by dramatic increases in several fatty acids, thus providing further hint for the role of pyridoxine in oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. The second example is the lipophilic profiling of red and green tomato fruit cuticles of wild type (Alisa Craig and the DFD (delayed fruit deterioration mutant, which we compared and contrasted with the more focused wax analysis of these plants reported before. Conclusion We can rapidly and reliably detect and quantify over 40 lipophilic metabolites including fatty acids, fatty alcohols, alkanes, sterols and tocopherols. The method presented here affords a simple and rapid, yet robust complement to previously validated methods of polar metabolite profiling by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry.

  20. Inadequacy of vitamins and minerals among high-school pupils in Ouarzazate, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzid, Karim; Baali, Abdellatif; Vimard, Patrice; Levy-Desroches, Susan; Cherkaoui, Mohamed; López, Pilar Montero

    2014-08-01

    To assess micronutrient intakes and the prevalence of inadequacy in a sample of high-school pupils in Ouarzazate, Morocco. Food records were compiled over three non-consecutive days by pre-trained pupils. Micronutrient intakes were estimated using the DIAL software, adapted to include foods commonly eaten in Morocco. The prevalence of inadequacy was estimated by the proportion of individuals with intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins B12, A and K, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, folate, ascorbic acid, iodine, Ca, Mg and P; below the Adequate Intake (AI) level for pantothenic acid, biotin, Na and K; and using the probability approach for Fe. Data were adjusted for intra-individual variation with exclusion of under-reporters. Ouarzazate, a semi-urban region situated on the southern slopes of the High Atlas with little industrial development but an important tourism sector. A self-selected sample of 312 pupils aged 15-19 years from the five public high schools. After exclusion of under-reporters, 293 remained for analysis. The highest proportions of below-EAR/AI intakes were seen for pantothenic acid (girls 85·1 %, boys 78·0 %), biotin (boys 83·1 %, girls 79·4 %), thiamin (boys 66·9 %), folate (girls 93·1 %, boys 74·6 %), iodine (boys 94·9 %, girls 88·0 %) and Ca (girls 83·4 %, boys 74·6 %). Na intake was generally in excess whereas K intake was below the AI level. In general, girls had better-quality diets than boys, who appeared to consume more 'empty calories'. Our findings suggest that in this population of Moroccan adolescents, nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating habits and correct micronutrient inadequacies. To provide reliable and precise estimates of nutrient intakes, an update of Moroccan food composition databases is urgently needed. We recommend that national authorities address these issues.

  1. Interactions and encapsulation of vitamins C, B3, and B6 with dendrimers in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisselier, Elodie; Liang, Liyuan; Dalko-Csiba, Maria; Ruiz, Jaime; Astruc, Didier

    2010-05-25

    Titrations of commercial diaminobutane (DAB) and polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers by vitamins C (ascorbic acid, AA), B(3) (nicotinic acid), and B(6) (pyridoxine) were monitored by (1)H NMR spectroscopy using the chemical shifts of both dendrimer and vitamin protons and analyzed by comparison with the titration of propylamine. Quaternarizations of the terminal primary amino groups and intradendritic tertiary amino groups, which are nearly quantitative with vitamin C, were characterized by more or less sharp variations (Deltadelta) of the (1)H chemical shift (delta) at the equivalence points. The peripheral primary amino groups of the DAB dendrimers were quaternarized first, but not selectively, whereas a sharp chemical-shift variation was recorded for the inner methylene protons near the tertiary amines, thereby indicating encapsulation, when all the dendritic amines were quaternarized. With DAB-G5-64-NH(2), some excess acid is required to protonate the inner amino groups, presumably because of basicity decrease due to excess charge repulsion. On the other hand, this selectivity was not observed with PAMAM dendrimers. The special case of the titration of the dendrimers by vitamin B(6) indicates only dominant supramolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions and no quaternarization, with core amino groups being privileged, which indicates the strong tendency to encapsulate vitamins. With vitamin B(3), a carboxylic acid, titration of DAB-G3-16-NH(2) shows that only six peripheral amino groups are protonated on average, even with excess vitamin B(3), because protonation is all the more difficult due to increased charge repulsion, as positive charges accumulate around the dendrimer. Inner amino groups interact with this vitamin, however, thus indicating encapsulation presumably with supramolecular hydrogen bonding without much charge transfer.

  2. Saudi experience with classic homocystinuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Essa, M.; Ozand, P.T.; Rashed, M.

    1998-01-01

    Classic homocystinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency. The clinical, radiological and neurophysiological findings of classic homcystinuria diagnosed at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFSH and RC) are presented in this report. Twenty-four patients (15 females and 9 males) were referred to KFSH and RC for work-up of mental retardation, seizures, thrombo-embolic episodes and dislocation of the ocular lenses. The common clinical findings included ectopia lentis (20 patients), skeletal system involvement (18 patients), vascular system involvement (9patients), and mental retardation (all patients to varying degrees). Unusual findings consisted of a patient who developed severe lower gastrointestinal bleeding, a patient with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, probably due to vasculopathy, and other having severe bronchiectasis, which may have been due to fibrillin disruption, and required the resection of a lobe of lung. The parents of 21 patients were first-degree relatives, and 19 patients had one or more family members affected by the same disease. All patients had markedly elevated plasma levels of methionine. Cystathionine synthase activity in the fibroblast was measured in 25% of the patients and was deficient. Only four patients responded to pyridoxine and their methionine level decreased to almost normal range. The aim of this study was to increase the awareness of this disease in the scientific and medical community, in particular in the general pediatrician working in Saudi Arabia who first encounters the clinical manifestations of disease. Early detection through tandem mass spectrometry of blood spot screening and treatment are important and may prevent the major complications of this disease. (author)

  3. Vitex agnus-castus extracts for female reproductive disorders: a systematic review of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Die, M Diana; Burger, Henry G; Teede, Helena J; Bone, Kerry M

    2013-05-01

    Vitex agnus-castus L. (chaste tree; chasteberry) is a popular herbal treatment, predominantly used for a range of female reproductive conditions in Anglo-American and European practice. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence for the efficacy and safety of Vitex extracts from randomised, controlled trials investigating women's health.Eight databases were searched using Latin and common names for Vitex and phytotherapeutic preparations of the herb as a sole agent, together with filters for randomised, controlled trials or clinical trials. Methodological quality was assessed according to the Cochrane risk of bias and Jadad scales, as well as the proposed elaboration of CONSORT for reporting trials on herbal interventions.Thirteen randomised, controlled trials were identified and twelve are included in this review, of which eight investigated premenstrual syndrome, two premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and two latent hyperprolactinaemia. For premenstrual syndrome, seven of eight trials found Vitex extracts to be superior to placebo (5 of 6 studies), pyridoxine (1), and magnesium oxide (1). In premenstrual dysphoric disorder, one study reported Vitex to be equivalent to fluoxetine, while in the other, fluoxetine outperformed Vitex. In latent hyperprolactinaemia, one trial reported it to be superior to placebo for reducing TRH-stimulated prolactin secretion, normalising a shortened luteal phase, increasing mid-luteal progesterone and 17β-oestradiol levels, while the other found Vitex comparable to bromocriptine for reducing serum prolactin levels and ameliorating cyclic mastalgia. Adverse events with Vitex were mild and generally infrequent. The methodological quality of the included studies varied, but was generally moderate-to-high. Limitations include small sample sizes in some studies, heterogeneity of conditions being treated, and a range of reference treatments.Despite some methodological limitations, the results from randomised

  4. Proteomic profiling reveals that resveratrol inhibits HSP27 expression and sensitizes breast cancer cells to doxorubicin therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Díaz-Chávez

    Full Text Available The use of chemopreventive natural compounds represents a promising strategy in the search for novel therapeutic agents in cancer. Resveratrol (3,4',5-trans-trihydroxystilbilene is a dietary polyphenol found in fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants that exhibits chemopreventive and antitumor effects. In this study, we searched for modulated proteins with preventive or therapeutic potential in MCF-7 breast cancer cells exposed to resveratrol. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis we found significant changes (FC >2.0; p≤0.05 in the expression of 16 proteins in resveratrol-treated MCF-7 cells. Six down-regulated proteins were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS as heat shock protein 27 (HSP27, translationally-controlled tumor protein, peroxiredoxin-6, stress-induced-phosphoprotein-1, pyridoxine-5'-phosphate oxidase-1 and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase; whereas one up-regulated protein was identified as triosephosphate isomerase. Particularly, HSP27 overexpression has been associated to apoptosis inhibition and resistance of human cancer cells to therapy. Consistently, we demonstrated that resveratrol induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Apoptosis was associated with a significant increase in mitochondrial permeability transition, cytochrome c release in cytoplasm, and caspases -3 and -9 independent cell death. Then, we evaluated the chemosensitization effect of increasing concentrations of resveratrol in combination with doxorubicin anti-neoplastic agent in vitro. We found that resveratrol effectively sensitize MCF-7 cells to cytotoxic therapy. Next, we evaluated the relevance of HSP27 targeted inhibition in therapy effectiveness. Results evidenced that HSP27 inhibition using RNA interference enhances the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin. In conclusion, our data indicate that resveratrol may improve the therapeutic effects of doxorubicin in part by cell death induction. We propose that potential modulation of HSP27

  5. Proteomic profiling reveals that resveratrol inhibits HSP27 expression and sensitizes breast cancer cells to doxorubicin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Chávez, José; Fonseca-Sánchez, Miguel A; Arechaga-Ocampo, Elena; Flores-Pérez, Ali; Palacios-Rodríguez, Yadira; Domínguez-Gómez, Guadalupe; Marchat, Laurence A; Fuentes-Mera, Lizeth; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Gariglio, Patricio; López-Camarillo, César

    2013-01-01

    The use of chemopreventive natural compounds represents a promising strategy in the search for novel therapeutic agents in cancer. Resveratrol (3,4',5-trans-trihydroxystilbilene) is a dietary polyphenol found in fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants that exhibits chemopreventive and antitumor effects. In this study, we searched for modulated proteins with preventive or therapeutic potential in MCF-7 breast cancer cells exposed to resveratrol. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis we found significant changes (FC >2.0; p≤0.05) in the expression of 16 proteins in resveratrol-treated MCF-7 cells. Six down-regulated proteins were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) as heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), translationally-controlled tumor protein, peroxiredoxin-6, stress-induced-phosphoprotein-1, pyridoxine-5'-phosphate oxidase-1 and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase; whereas one up-regulated protein was identified as triosephosphate isomerase. Particularly, HSP27 overexpression has been associated to apoptosis inhibition and resistance of human cancer cells to therapy. Consistently, we demonstrated that resveratrol induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Apoptosis was associated with a significant increase in mitochondrial permeability transition, cytochrome c release in cytoplasm, and caspases -3 and -9 independent cell death. Then, we evaluated the chemosensitization effect of increasing concentrations of resveratrol in combination with doxorubicin anti-neoplastic agent in vitro. We found that resveratrol effectively sensitize MCF-7 cells to cytotoxic therapy. Next, we evaluated the relevance of HSP27 targeted inhibition in therapy effectiveness. Results evidenced that HSP27 inhibition using RNA interference enhances the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin. In conclusion, our data indicate that resveratrol may improve the therapeutic effects of doxorubicin in part by cell death induction. We propose that potential modulation of HSP27 levels using natural

  6. Delayed development, death and abnormal thyroglobulin in rats maintained on low-iodine diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Middlesworth, L.

    1976-01-01

    Rats weaned on Remington Low Iodine Diet (0.006 to 0.009 μgI/g) grew poorly, were very slow to breed, and 83% of their pups died in the neonatal period. A large iodide supplement (100μgI/d) improved growth of the females to almost normal but did not improve growth of males. With the iodide supplement they bred at an earlier age than rats fed the low iodide Remington diet but still 73% of the pups died before weaning. The addition of a vitamin mixture (biotin, vitamin B 12 , E, patothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamine and pyridoxine) to Remington Diet resulted in delayed pregnancies but 86% survival of offspring. A more nutritious low-iodine diet with a 'complete' mineral and vitamin supplement improved growth and survival, and the litters were delivered at the normal time. However, this more complete diet contained more iodine than the Remington diet. During the neonatal period, all the low iodine diets resulted in offspring that were unable to make T 3 as readily as adults fed the same diet. Pups from dams fed the Remington diet had thyroblobulin with lower sedimentation constants (18S and 12S) than was found in normal newborns. This unfolded and dissociated thyroglobulin may be an inadequate source of thyroid hormones, but it may hydrolyse more rapidly than normal 19S thyroglobulin. It is concluded that rats raised on a diet severely deficient in iodine were unable to litter until they were older than normal rats, and the survival of the offspring was poor unless the diet was supplemented with a vitamin mixture. The synthesis of thyroid hormones in low iodine neonatal rats was more severely impaired than in adults. (author)

  7. Mise au point d'une technique de culture in vitro d'embryons immatures de Phaseolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Schmit

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of an in vitro culture technique for immature Phaseolus embryos. In the interspecific crosses Phaseolus polyanthus (or P. coccineus (i? x P. vulgaris, the hybrid embryos abort very early. Therefore, it is essentiel to develop an in vitro culture technique that allows the rescue of beau embryos at globular or early heart-shaped stages. After several trials conceming the salts composition, the sugar rate and the amino acid concentration of différent in vitro culture media, a technique has been developed for heart-shaped Phaseolus embryos. This technique consists of two stages. In a first step, embryos are cultivated under darkness until their germination on a medium containing the salts of Gamborg et al. (1968, 400 mg . 1` (5mM - 1 -' NHNO,, 1 mg . 1-' thiamine HCI, 5 mg . l` nicotinic acid, 0.5 mg - l` pyridoxine, 1,000 mg . l` -glutamine, 1,000 mg . l` casein hydrolysate, 100 mg . l` myo-inositol, 0.028 mg . P N6-benzyladenine, 30 g . l` sucrase, and 8 g -1-' DIFCO agar. After germination, the embryos are cultivated under light on a second medium that does not contain any NHNO, complément and is poorer in amino acids (100 mg • 1-' L-glutamine. Developed with six deys old heart-shaped embryos of the P. vulgaris Bico de Ouro (NI 637 variety, this technique has proved its efficiency with other P. vulgaris and P. polyanthus génotypes. It allows an average régénération rate of 30% from the total number of cultivated embryos.

  8. Evaluate the impact of hospital types on the availability of antidotes for the management of acute toxic exposures and poisonings in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sohaim, Sulaiman I; Awang, Rahmat; Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Rashid, Sazaroni M D; Hashim, Sirajuddin

    2012-03-01

    The availability of antidotes may be considered essential and lifesaving in the management of certain poisonings. Surveys carried out in a number of countries have demonstrated inadequate availability of a variety of poisoning antidotes. The purpose of this study was to determine the availability of antidote stocking at hospitals, based on published guidelines for antidote stocking, and to evaluate the impact of hospital types on the availability of antidotes for the management of acute toxic exposures and poisonings in Malaysia. A questionnaire on the availability of antidotes was sent to all government accident and emergency departments in Malaysia. The list of commonly required antidotes and essential drugs was compiled from published guidelines. Collected data were analysed in SPSS version 16 using descriptive and comparative analysis. The response rate was 59.06%. None of the responding hospitals stocked all of the antidotes on the lists. In relation to hospital type, there was great variability in the availability of antidotes (there were significant differences between hospitals for 13 antidotes). The availabilities of most antidotes were far better in the General Hospitals and the District Hospitals with specialists compared to District Hospitals without specialists. Calcium gluconate, sodium bicarbonate, atropine sulphate, naloxone, flumazenil, vitamin K, and pyridoxine were available at all general hospitals. Atropine sulphate and naloxone were available at all district hospitals with specialists. Most Malaysian government hospitals stocked some important antidotes. Raising awareness of the importance of antidotes by education, regular review of antidote storage, distribution plans, and appropriate legislation might provide solutions. Coordination between Malaysian hospitals and the National Poison Centre at Universiti Sains Malaysia is also important.

  9. Relationship between junk foods intake and weight in 6-7 years old children, Shahin Shahr and Meymeh, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, Leila; Ghiasvand, Reza; Ashrafi, Maryam; Ashrafzadeh, Elnaz; Askari, Gholamreza; Shiranian, Afshin; Hasanzadeh, Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Healthy nutrition is very important considering the weight status especially in children. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between junk foods intake and weight in 6-7-years old children. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in Shahin Shahr and Meymeh, Iran, in 2009. Anthropometrics measures were done and 24-hour food recall used for dietary information and analyzed with food processor 2 and then compared with dietary reference intakes 2008 (DRI). Findings: 61.1 percent of the subjects were residing in dormitories and 12.7 percent were marred. Prevalence of overweight or obesity and abdominal obesity was 6.9 percent and 46.1 percent respectively. Mean (±SD) systolic blood pressure was 105.2 ± 15.6 mm/Hg and diastolic was 62.2 ± 10.4 mm/Hg. Totally, 3.9 percent of the subjects had hypertension. The analysis of food intake indicate that (B12, folate, magnesium, potassium, calcium) with level below the recommended ones, and (vitamin C, E, pantothenic acid, B1, B3, phosphate, zinc) with up levels the recommended ones, and energy intake, macronutrient, vitamin A, pyridoxine, iron, selenium were in general appropriate. Conclusion: These results indicated appropriate level of macronutrients intake and unbalance mainly existed in micronutrients. It is recommended to increase intake important food groups such as dairy, vegetable, fruit that include good source of micronutrients, and also it is suggested that need for strategies can improve competence in the area of nutrition. PMID:24083252

  10. Bacterial communities associated with biofouling materials used in bench-scale hydrocarbon bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mailem, Dina; Kansour, Mayada; Radwan, Samir

    2015-03-01

    Biofouling material samples from the Arabian (Persian) Gulf, used as inocula in batch cultures, brought about crude oil and pure-hydrocarbon removal in a mineral medium. Without any added nitrogen fertilizers, the hydrocarbon-removal values were between about 10 and 50 %. Fertilization with NaNO3 alone or together with a mixture of the vitamins thiamine, pyridoxine, vitamin B12, biotin, riboflavin, and folic acid increased the hydrocarbon-removal values, to reach 90 %. Biofouling material samples harbored total bacteria in the magnitude of 10(7) cells g(-1), about 25 % of which were hydrocarbonoclastic. These numbers were enhanced by NaNO3 and vitamin amendment. The culture-independent analysis of the total bacterioflora revealed the predominance of the gammaproteobacterial genera Marinobacter, Acinetobacter, and Alcanivorax, the Flavobacteriia, Flavobacterium, Gaetbulibacter, and Owenweeksia, and the Alphaproteobacteria Tistrella, Zavarzinia, and others. Most of those bacteria are hydrocarbonoclastic. Culture-dependent analysis of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria revealed that Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, Dietzia maris, and Gordonia bronchialis predominated in the fouling materials. In addition, each material had several more-specific hydrocarbonoclastic species, whose frequencies were enhanced by NaNO3 and vitamin fertilization. The same samples of fouling materials were used in four successive crude-oil-removal cycles without any dramatic loss of their hydrocarbon-removal potential nor of their associated hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. In the fifth cycle, the oil-removal value was reduced by about 50 % in only one of the studied samples. This highlights how firmly biofouling materials were immobilizing the hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria.

  11. Impact of ultra-processed foods on micronutrient content in the Brazilian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Canella, Daniela Silva; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of consuming ultra-processed foods on the micronutrient content of the Brazilian population's diet. METHODS This cross-sectional study was performed using data on individual food consumption from a module of the 2008-2009 Brazilian Household Budget Survey. A representative sample of the Brazilian population aged 10 years or over was assessed (n = 32,898). Food consumption data were collected through two 24-hour food records. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between the nutrient content of the diet and the quintiles of ultra-processed food consumption - crude and adjusted for family income per capita. RESULTS Mean daily energy intake per capita was 1,866 kcal, with 69.5% coming from natural or minimally processed foods, 9.0% from processed foods and 21.5% from ultra-processed foods. For sixteen out of the seventeen evaluated micronutrients, their content was lower in the fraction of the diet composed of ultra-processed foods compared with the fraction of the diet composed of natural or minimally processed foods. The content of 10 micronutrients in ultra-processed foods did not reach half the content level observed in the natural or minimally processed foods. The higher consumption of ultra-processed foods was inversely and significantly associated with the content of vitamins B12, vitamin D, vitamin E, niacin, pyridoxine, copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, selenium and zinc. The reverse situation was only observed for calcium, thiamin and riboflavin. CONCLUSIONS The findings of this study highlight that reducing the consumption of ultra-processed foods is a natural way to promote healthy eating in Brazil and, therefore, is in line with the recommendations made by the Guia Alimentar para a População Brasileira (Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population) to avoid these foods.

  12. Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Jeremy

    2010-01-07

    ; vitamin A; vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) plus magnesium; and vitamin C.

  13. Data representing two separate LC-MS methods for detection and quantification of water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins in tears and blood serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khaksari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Two separate liquid chromatography (LC-mass spectrometry (MS methods were developed for determination and quantification of water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins in human tear and blood serum samples. The water-soluble vitamin method was originally developed to detect vitamins B1, B2, B3 (nicotinamide, B5, B6 (pyridoxine, B7, B9 and B12 while the fat-soluble vitamin method detected vitamins A, D3, 25(OHD3, E and K1. These methods were then validated with tear and blood serum samples. In this data in brief article, we provide details on the two LC-MS methods development, methods sensitivity, as well as precision and accuracy for determination of vitamins in human tears and blood serum. These methods were then used to determine the vitamin concentrations in infant and parent samples under a clinical study which were reported in "Determination of Water-Soluble and Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Tears and Blood Serum of Infants and Parents by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry DOI:10.1016/j.exer.2016.12.007 [1]". This article provides more details on comparison of vitamin concentrations in the samples with the ranges reported in the literature along with the medically accepted normal ranges. The details on concentrations below the limits of detection (LOD and limits of quantification (LOQ are also discussed. Vitamin concentrations were also compared and cross-correlated with clinical data and nutritional information. Significant differences and strongly correlated data were reported in [1]. This article provides comprehensive details on the data with slight differences or slight correlations.

  14. Simultaneous determination of some water-soluble vitamins and preservatives in multivitamin syrup by validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidović, Stojanka; Stojanović, Biljana; Veljković, Jelena; Prazić-Arsić, Ljiljana; Roglić, Goran; Manojlović, Dragan

    2008-08-22

    HPLC stability-indicating method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of some water-soluble vitamins (ascorbic acid, thiamine hydrochloride, riboflavin-5'-phosphate sodium, pyridoxine hydrochloride, nicotinamide, D(+)-panthenol) and two preservatives (methylparaben and sodium benzoate) in multivitamin syrup preparation. Water-soluble vitamins, preservatives and their degradants were separated on Zorbax SB-Aq (C(18)) (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) column at an ambient temperature. Combined isocratic and gradient elution was performed with a mobile phase consisting of 0.0125 M hexane-1-sulfonic acid sodium salt in 0.1% (m/v) o-phosphoric acid, pH 2.4-2.5 (solvent A) and acetonitrile (solvent B) at the flow-rate 1 ml min(-1). Starting with solvent A an isocratic elution was performed for 15 min, then the composition was changed to 85% of A and 15% of B during the next 20 min and it was constant for 5 min, then the composition was changed to 70% of A and 30% of B during next 15 min and it was constant for 5 min and finally was changed to 100% of A as at the beginning of the elution. Detection was performed with diode array detector at 210, 230 and 254 nm. Multivitamin syrup preparation was subjected to stress testing (forced degradation) in order to demonstrate that degradants from the vitamins, preservatives and/or product excipients do not interfere with the quantification of vitamins and preservatives. Typical validation characteristics: selectivity, accuracy, precision, linearity, range, limit of quantification and limit of detection were evaluated for vitamins and preservatives.

  15. Data representing two separate LC-MS methods for detection and quantification of water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins in tears and blood serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaksari, Maryam; Mazzoleni, Lynn R; Ruan, Chunhai; Kennedy, Robert T; Minerick, Adrienne R

    2017-04-01

    Two separate liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS) methods were developed for determination and quantification of water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins in human tear and blood serum samples. The water-soluble vitamin method was originally developed to detect vitamins B 1 , B 2 , B 3 (nicotinamide), B 5 , B 6 (pyridoxine), B 7 , B 9 and B 12 while the fat-soluble vitamin method detected vitamins A, D 3 , 25(OH)D 3, E and K 1 . These methods were then validated with tear and blood serum samples. In this data in brief article, we provide details on the two LC-MS methods development, methods sensitivity, as well as precision and accuracy for determination of vitamins in human tears and blood serum. These methods were then used to determine the vitamin concentrations in infant and parent samples under a clinical study which were reported in "Determination of Water-Soluble and Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Tears and Blood Serum of Infants and Parents by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry DOI:10.1016/j.exer.2016.12.007 [1]". This article provides more details on comparison of vitamin concentrations in the samples with the ranges reported in the literature along with the medically accepted normal ranges. The details on concentrations below the limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) are also discussed. Vitamin concentrations were also compared and cross-correlated with clinical data and nutritional information. Significant differences and strongly correlated data were reported in [1]. This article provides comprehensive details on the data with slight differences or slight correlations.

  16. Development and application of novelty pretreatment method for the concurrent quantitation of eleven water-soluble B vitamins in ultrafiltrates after renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirkus, Dorota; Jakubus, Aleksandra; Owczuk, Radosław; Stepnowski, Piotr; Paszkiewicz, Monika

    2017-02-01

    Continous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is particularly recommended for septic shock patients in intensive care units. The CRRT technique used most frequently is high volume continuous veno-venous haemofiltration. It provides a high rate of clearance of uremic toxins and inflammatory cytokines. However, it should also be taken into account that substances important for homeostasis may be concurrently unintentionally removed. Accordingly, water-soluble vitamins can be removed during continuous renal replacement therapy, and the estimate of the loss is critical to ensure appropriate supplementation. The aim of this work was to develop a simple methodology for a purification step prior to the LC-MS/MS determination of water-soluble vitamins in ultrafiltrate samples. For this purpose, two types of resin and a mix of resins were used as sorbents for the purification step. Moreover, parameters such as the amount of resin and the extraction time were optimized. The LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for final determination of 11 vitamins. The results demonstrated the high purification capability of DEAE Sephadex resin with recoveries between 65 and 101% for water-soluble vitamins from ultrafiltrate samples. An optimized method was applied to assess the loss of B-group vitamins in patients after 24h of renal replacement therapy. The loss of vitamins B2, B6 pyridoxamine, B6 pyridoxal, B7, B1, and B5 in ultrafiltrates was similar in all patients. In the native ultrafiltrates, vitamins B6 pyridoxine, B9 and B12 were not detected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Single-laboratory validation of a high-performance liquid chromatographic-diode array detector-fluorescence detector/mass spectrometric method for simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins in multivitamin dietary tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei; Atkinson, Renata; Wolf, Wayne R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a single-laboratory validated (SLV) method using high-performance liquid chromatography with different detectors [diode array detector (DAD); fluorescence detector (FLD); and mass spectrometry (MS)] for determination of 7 B-complex vitamins (B1-thiamin, B2-riboflavin, B3-nicotinamide, B6-pyridoxine, B9-folic acid, pantothenic acid, and biotin) and vitamin C in multivitamin/multimineral dietary supplements. The method involves the use of a reversed-phase octadecylsilyl column (4 microm, 250 x 2.0 mm id) and a gradient mobile phase profile. Gradient elution was performed at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. After a 5 min isocratic elution at 100% A (0.1% formic acid in water), a linear gradient to 50% A and 50% B (0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile) at 15 min was employed. Detection was performed with a DAD as well as either an FLD or a triple-quadrupole MS detector in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. SLV was performed using Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3280 Multivitamin/Multimineral Tablets, being developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, with support by the Office of Dietary Supplements of the National Institutes of Health. Phosphate buffer (10 mM, pH 2.0) extracts of the NIST SRM 3280 were analyzed by the liquid chromatographic (LC)-DAD-FLDIMS method. Following extraction, the method does not require any sample cleanup/preconcentration steps except centrifugation and filtration.

  18. Evaluation of synergistic antimicrobial effect of vitamins (A, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, D, E and K) with antibiotics against resistant bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Shakeel; Ashraf, M Adnan; Sajid, M; Shahzad, Aqeel; Rafique, Azhar; Mahmood, M Shahid

    2018-02-02

    Multiple drug resistant super bugs of Acinetobacter baumannii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are becoming challenge for healthcare professionals. In this study, vitamins were evaluated for synergistic activity with the antibiotics. Synergistic effect between antibiotic and stock solutions of vitamins is evaluated by using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay. Distilled water and propylene glycol were used as solvent for water soluble vitamins and fat-soluble vitamins respectively. The final concentration of 10mg/ml of each water-soluble vitamin B1 (Thiamine), B2 (Riboflavin), B6 (Pyridoxine) B12 (Methylcobalamin), C (Ascorbic acid) and 0.1mg/ml of each fat soluble vitamin A (retinol), D (cholecalciferol) E (αTocopherol) K (Menadione) were used with the antibiotics. The results depicted that vitamin K and E have better synergistic activity with piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem and doripenem antibiotics against A. baumannii. While vitamin B1, B2 and B12 showed remarkable synergistic activity with linezolid against MRSA. Vitamin B1 was further tested to have better synergism with antibiotics oxacillin, tetracycline, rifampicin and linezolid against MRSA. The fat-soluble vitamins E and K were good in synergism against Gram negative A. baumannii while water soluble vitamins as B1, B2 and B12 were effective against MRSA but not against A. baumannii. This synergistic action of vitamins with the antibiotics can be used as a tool to treat multiple drug resistant super bugs with further evaluation at molecular level. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A review of traditional and novel treatments for seizures in autism spectrum disorder: findings from a systematic review and expert panel.

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    Frye, Richard E; Rossignol, Daniel; Casanova, Manuel F; Brown, Gregory L; Martin, Victoria; Edelson, Stephen; Coben, Robert; Lewine, Jeffrey; Slattery, John C; Lau, Chrystal; Hardy, Paul; Fatemi, S Hossein; Folsom, Timothy D; Macfabe, Derrick; Adams, James B

    2013-09-13

    Despite the fact that seizures are commonly associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the effectiveness of treatments for seizures has not been well studied in individuals with ASD. This manuscript reviews both traditional and novel treatments for seizures associated with ASD. Studies were selected by systematically searching major electronic databases and by a panel of experts that treat ASD individuals. Only a few anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) have undergone carefully controlled trials in ASD, but these trials examined outcomes other than seizures. Several lines of evidence point to valproate, lamotrigine, and levetiracetam as the most effective and tolerable AEDs for individuals with ASD. Limited evidence supports the use of traditional non-AED treatments, such as the ketogenic and modified Atkins diet, multiple subpial transections, immunomodulation, and neurofeedback treatments. Although specific treatments may be more appropriate for specific genetic and metabolic syndromes associated with ASD and seizures, there are few studies which have documented the effectiveness of treatments for seizures for specific syndromes. Limited evidence supports l-carnitine, multivitamins, and N-acetyl-l-cysteine in mitochondrial disease and dysfunction, folinic acid in cerebral folate abnormalities and early treatment with vigabatrin in tuberous sclerosis complex. Finally, there is limited evidence for a number of novel treatments, particularly magnesium with pyridoxine, omega-3 fatty acids, the gluten-free casein-free diet, and low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic simulation. Zinc and l-carnosine are potential novel treatments supported by basic research but not clinical studies. This review demonstrates the wide variety of treatments used to treat seizures in individuals with ASD as well as the striking lack of clinical trials performed to support the use of these treatments. Additional studies concerning these treatments for controlling seizures in individuals

  20. A review of traditional and novel treatments for seizures in autism spectrum disorder: Findings from a systematic review and expert panel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Eugene Frye

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that seizures are commonly associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, the effectiveness of treatments for seizures has not been well studied in individuals with ASD. This manuscript reviews both traditional and novel treatments for seizures associated with ASD. Studies were selected by systematically searching major electronic databases and by a panel of experts that treat ASD individuals. Only a few anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs have undergone carefully controlled trials in ASD, but these trials examined outcomes other than seizures. Several lines of evidence point to valproate, lamotrigine and levetiracetam as the most effective and tolerable AEDs for individuals with ASD. Limited evidence supports the use of traditional non-AED treatments, such as the ketogenic and modified Atkins diet, multiple subpial transections and immunomodulation and neurofeedback treatments. Although specific treatments may be more appropriate for specific genetic and metabolic syndromes associated with ASD and seizures, there are few studies which have documented the effectiveness of treatments for seizures for specific syndromes. Limited evidence supports L-carnitine, multivitamins and N-acetyl-L-cysteine in mitochondrial disease and dysfunction, folinic acid in cerebral folate abnormalities and early treatment with vigabatrin in tuberous sclerosis complex. Finally, there is limited evidence for a number of novel treatments, particularly magnesium with pyridoxine, omega-3 fatty acids, the gluten-free casein-free diet and transcranial magnetic simulation. Zinc and L-carnosine are potential novel treatments supported by basic research but not clinical studies. This review demonstrates the wide variety of treatments used to treat seizures in individuals with ASD as well as the striking lack of clinical trials performed to support the use these treatments. Additional studies concerning these treatments for controlling seizures in individuals with ASD

  1. RP-HPLC Determination of vitamins B1, B3, B6, folic acid and B12 in multivitamin tablets

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    SOTE VLADIMIROV

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Asimple and sensitive reversed-phase, ion-pair HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of B-group vitamins, thiamine chloride hydrochloride (B1, nicotinamide (B3, pyridoxine hydrochloride (B6 and folic acid in Pentovit® coated tablets. The cyanocobalamine (B12 was determined separately, because of its low concentration in the investigated multivitamin preparation. RP-HPLC analysis was performed with a LKB 2150 HPLC system, equipped with a UV/VIS Waters M484 detector. The procedures for the determination of B1, B2, B6 and folic acid were carried out on a Supelcosil ABZ+ (15 cm 4.6 mm; 5 µm column with methanol-5mM heptanesulphonic acid sodium salt 0.1%triethylamine TEA(25:75 V/V; pH 2.8 as themobile phase. For the determination of B12 a Suplex pKb-100 (15 cm 4.6 mm; 5 µm column andmethanol–water (22:78 V/V as themobile phase were used. The column effluentsweremonitored at 290 nm for B 1, B3, B6 and folic acid, and at 550 nm for B12. The obtained results and statistical parameters for all the investigated vitamins of the B-group in Pentovit® coated tablets were satisfactory and ranged from 90.4 % to 108.5 % (RSD. from 0.5% to 4.1 %. The parameters for the validation of the methods are given.

  2. Metabolite profile of koji amazake and its lactic acid fermentation product by Lactobacillus sakei UONUMA.

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    Oguro, Yoshifumi; Nishiwaki, Toshikazu; Shinada, Ryota; Kobayashi, Kazuya; Kurahashi, Atsushi

    2017-08-01

    The koji amazake is a traditional sweet Japanese beverage. It has been consumed for over a thousand years in Japan; nonetheless, little is yet known of the ingredients in koji amazake. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the metabolites of koji amazake using a metabolomics approach. Additionally, we reformed the flavor of koji amazake by lactic acid fermentation (LAF-amazake) using Lactobacillus sakei UONUMA, which was isolated from snow caverns. The purpose of this article is to identify the ingredients in these beverages. In LAF-amazake and koji amazake, sugars, amino acids, organic acids, and vitamin B complex were determined in the two beverages, and over 300 compounds were detected in total. Thirteen saccharides were identified including two unknown trisaccharides, and there were no differences in these between the two beverages. In LAF-amazake, lactic acid, vitamin B2 (riboflavin), B3 (nicotinic acid and nicotinamide), and B6 (pyridoxine) were significantly increased as compared to koji amazake, whereas malate and glutamine decreased. These results suggested that LAF, malolactic fermentation, and glutamine deamidation occurred simultaneously in LAF-amazake. L. sakei UONUMA strains produced these vitamins. Moreover, it was surprising that acetylcholine, a well-known neurotransmitter, was newly generated in LAF-amazake. Here, we have succeeded in reforming the flavor of koji amazake and obtained these metabolic data on the two beverages. The present study could provide useful basic information for promoting functional analyses of koji amazake and LAF-amazake for human health. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Evaluation of qualitative properties of amaranth (Amaranthus)].

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    Gajewska, Regina; Lebiedzińska, Anna; Malinowska, Ewa; Szefer, Piotr

    2002-01-01

    The work contains results of determination of protein, fat, carbohydrates, water, ash, energy value, B group vitamins (B1, B2, PP, B6) and minerals (Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Na, K, Cu, Mn, Zn, Co, Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb) in three products of amaranth. The nutrients components were determined by general approved analytical methods. Vitamins group B were determined using microbiological methods. Minerals like Ca, Mg, Fe, Na, K, Cu, Mn, Zn, Co, Ni, Cr, Cd and Pb were determined using the flame AAS method. Phosphorus was determined spectrophotometrically as phosphates with ammonium molybdate. Mean percentage content of protein, fat, caborhydrates, water and ash in products of amaranth examined (seeds, meal, expanded seeds "popping") were: 13.5-14.4; 7.1-7.6; 63.8-71.7; 3.0-12.3; 3.1-3.4 respectively; there energy value expressed in Kcal/100 g were 373-412. Vitamins content in products of amaranth (mg/100 g) were: 0.019-0.029 thiamin; 0.100-0.143 riboflavin; 1.02-1.20 niacinamide and 0.563-0.615 pyridoxin. The levels (mg/100 g) of minerals were as follow: 204-223 Ca; 712-792 P; 8.3-9.7 Fe; 200-235 Mg; 2.9-3.1 Zn; 1.03-1.38 Cu; 3.78-4.54 Mn; 6.30-8.42 Na; 318-337 K; 0.040-0.055 Cr; 0.185-0.292 Ni and 0.045-0.051 Co. Mean contents of cadmium ranged 5-9 micrograms/100 g and lead 27-35 micrograms/100 g in examined products of amaranth.

  4. Subtle abnormalities of gait detected early in vitamin B6 deficiency in aged and weanling rats with hind leg gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, M C; Cochary, E F; Sadowski, J A

    1990-04-01

    Motor abnormalities have been observed in every species made vitamin B6 deficient, and have been detected and quantified early in vitamin B6 deficiency in young adult female Long-Evans rats with hind leg gait analysis. Our objective was to determine if hind leg gait analysis could be used to detect vitamin B6 deficiency in weanling (3 weeks) and aged (23 months) Fischer 344 male rats. Rats (n = 10 per group) were fed: the control diet ad libitum (AL-CON); the control diet devoid of added pyridoxine hydrochloride (DEF); or the control diet pair-fed to DEF (PF-CON). At 10 weeks, plasma pyridoxal phosphate concentration confirmed deficiency in both age groups. Gait abnormalities were detected in the absence of gross motor disturbances in both aged and weanling DEF rats at 2-3 weeks. Width of step was significantly reduced (16%, p less than 0.003) in DEF aged rats compared to AL- and PF-CON. This pattern of response was similar to that reported previously in young adult rats. In weanling rats, pair feeding alone reduced mean width of step (+/- SEM) by 25% compared to ad libitum feeding (2.7 +/- 0.1 vs 3.6 +/- 0.1 cm for PF- vs AL-CON, respectively, p less than 0.05). In DEF weanling rats, width (3.0 +/- 0.1 cm) was increased compared to PF-CON (11%, p less than 0.05) but decreased compared to AL-CON (16%, p less than 0.05). Width of step was significantly altered early in B6 deficiency in rats of different ages and strains and in both sexes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. The effect of dietary supplements on clinical aspects of autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogou, Maria; Kolios, George

    2017-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is associated with significant social and financial burden and no definite treatment for this entity has been identified, yet. In recent years there has been an increasing interest in the use of dietary interventions as a complementary therapeutic option for these patients. The aim of this systematic review is to provide high evidence level literature data about the effect of dietary supplements on clinical aspects of children with autism. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using Pubmed as the medical database source. Randomized controlled trials conducted in pediatric populations and including measures of clinical outcomes were considered. A total of 17 eligible prospective studies were selected. Types of dietary supplements evaluated in these studies included amino acids, fatty acids and vitamins/minerals. N-acetylcysteine was shown to exert a beneficial effect on symptoms of irritability. On the other hand, literature data about the efficacy of d-cycloserine and pyridoxine-magnesium supplements was controversial. No significant effect was identified for fatty acids, N,N-dimethylglycine and inositol. Literature data about ascorbic acid and methyl B12 was few, although some encouraging results were found. No serious adverse events were reported in the vast majority of the studies, while the prevalence of adverse reactions was similar between treatment and placebo groups. The use of dietary supplements in children with autism seems to be a safe practice with encouraging data about their clinical efficacy. More studies are needed to further investigate this issue. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of sideroblastic anemias: from defective heme synthesis to abnormal RNA splicing.

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    Cazzola, Mario; Malcovati, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The sideroblastic anemias are a heterogeneous group of inherited and acquired disorders characterized by the presence of ring sideroblasts in the bone marrow. X-linked sideroblastic anemia (XLSA) is caused by germline mutations in ALAS2. Hemizygous males have a hypochromic microcytic anemia, which is generally mild to moderate and is caused by defective heme synthesis and ineffective erythropoiesis. XLSA is a typical iron-loading anemia; although most patients are responsive to pyridoxine, treatment of iron overload is also important in the management of these patients. Autosomal recessive sideroblastic anemia attributable to mutations in SLC25A38, a member of the mitochondrial carrier family, is a severe disease: patients present in infancy with microcytic anemia, which soon becomes transfusion dependent. Conservative therapy includes regular red cell transfusion and iron chelation, whereas allogenic stem cell transplantation represents the only curative treatment. Refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS) is a myelodysplastic syndrome characterized mainly by anemia attributable to ineffective erythropoiesis. The clinical course of RARS is generally indolent, but there is a tendency to worsening of anemia over time, so that most patients become transfusion dependent in the long run. More than 90% of these patients carry somatic mutations in SF3B1, a gene encoding a core component of the RNA splicing machinery. These mutations cause misrecognition of 3' splice sites in downstream genes, resulting in truncated gene products and/or decreased expression attributable to nonsense-mediated RNA decay; this explains the multifactorial pathogenesis of RARS. Variants of RARS include refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia and ring sideroblasts, and RARS associated with marked thrombocytosis; these variants involve additional genetic lesions. Inhibitors of molecules of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily have been shown recently to target ineffective

  7. Intensive care management of status epilepticus

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    Nidhi Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Status epilepticus (SE is a life-threatening neurological emergency that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. SE may be classified into convulsive and non-convulsive types, based on the presence of rhythmic jerking of the extremities. Clinically, tonic-clonic convulsive SE (CSE is divided into four subsequent stages: Early, established, refractory and super-refractory. Initial elements of resuscitation include airway protection, haemodynamic resuscitation and seizure control. Further treatment should then be guided by the diagnostic workup. Rapid treatment of early SE is achieved with intravenous (IV lorazepam or intramuscular midazolam. In established SE, IV antiepileptic drugs (AEDs (phenytoin/fosphenytoin, valproate, levetiracetam, phenobarbital are most commonly used, but there is no Class I evidence for choosing one over the other. Considered overall, cumulative data from the literature are consistent with valproate and levetiracetam, being a safe and effective therapeutic alternative to phenobarbital and phenytoin for treatment of established SE. Refractory SE (RSE and super-RSE are treated with anaesthetic medications (propofol, midazolam, thiopental/pentobarbital, ketamine, non-anaesthetic drugs (lidocaine, magnesium, pyridoxine, AEDs (levetiracetam, lacosamide, topiramate, lacosamide, pregabalin, gabapentin and other cause-directed treatments with low success rates. Potential non-pharmacologic interventions to be considered in super-RSE include hypothermia, electroconvulsive therapy, ketogenic diet, immunomodulatory treatments, emergency resective epilepsy surgery, cerebrospinal fluid drainage and vagal nerve or deep brain stimulation or transcranial magnetic stimulation. Diagnosis of non-CSE requires continuous electroencephalography and involves a high index of suspicion in all patients with an altered mental status of unclear cause or with a prolonged postictal state. Treatment options include addressing underlying causes and

  8. Consequences of a Deficit in Vitamin B6 Biosynthesis de Novo for Hormone Homeostasis and Root Development in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boycheva, Svetlana; Dominguez, Ana; Rolcik, Jakub; Boller, Thomas; Fitzpatrick, Teresa B.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B6 (pyridoxal 5′-phosphate) is an essential cofactor of many metabolic enzymes. Plants biosynthesize the vitamin de novo employing two enzymes, pyridoxine synthase1 (PDX1) and PDX2. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), there are two catalytically active paralogs of PDX1 (PDX1.1 and PDX1.3) producing the vitamin at comparable rates. Since single mutants are viable but the pdx1.1 pdx1.3 double mutant is lethal, the corresponding enzymes seem redundant. However, the single mutants exhibit substantial phenotypic differences, particularly at the level of root development, with pdx1.3 being more impaired than pdx1.1. Here, we investigate the differential regulation of PDX1.1 and PDX1.3 by identifying factors involved in their disparate phenotypes. Swapped-promoter experiments clarify the presence of distinct regulatory elements in the upstream regions of both genes. Exogenous sucrose (Suc) triggers impaired ethylene production in both mutants but is more severe in pdx1.3 than in pdx1.1. Interestingly, Suc specifically represses PDX1.1 expression, accounting for the stronger vitamin B6 deficit in pdx1.3 compared with pdx1.1. Surprisingly, Suc enhances auxin levels in pdx1.1, whereas the levels are diminished in pdx1.3. In the case of pdx1.3, the previously reported reduced meristem activity combined with the impaired ethylene and auxin levels manifest the specific root developmental defects. Moreover, it is the deficit in ethylene production and/or signaling that triggers this outcome. On the other hand, we hypothesize that it is the increased auxin content of pdx1.1 that is responsible for the root developmental defects observed therein. We conclude that PDX1.1 and PDX1.3 play partially nonredundant roles and are differentially regulated as manifested in disparate root growth impairment morphologies. PMID:25475669

  9. Obtaining plant Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim. Hack and Miscanthus sinensis Andersson in vitro culture by indirect morphogenesis

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    С. М. Гонтаренко

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To obtain Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim. Hack and Miscanthus sinensis Andersson in vitro culture by indirect morphogenesis. Methods. Biotechnological procedures, mathematical and statistical analyses. Results. Composition of nutrient medium was developed intended for induction of callusogenesis from Miscanthus seeds with a poor germination and viability of seedlings – Murashige and Skoog (MS medium was modified for the amount of macroelements (half-dose that was supplemented with amino acids (300 mg/l of glutamic acid, 50 mg/l of aspartic acid, 5 mg/l of tyrosine, 3 mg/l of arginine, 2 mg/l of hydroxyproline and plant growth regulators [2,5 mg/l of 2.4D (2.4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 0,6 mg/l of BAP (6-Benzyl-aminopurine and 0,3 mg/l of ABA (Abscisic acid]. Composition of nutrient medium was developed for regeneration of microplants from callus – agar MS medium was modified for the amount of macroelements (half-dose supplemented with vitamins: 10 mg/l of thiaminum, 1,0 mg/l of pyridoxine, 1,0 mg/l of nicotinic acid (by White, 1,0 mg/l of ascorbic acid, 250 mg/l of glutamic acid, 2,0 mg/l of BAP, 0,3 mg/l of NAA (Naphthaleneacetic acid. On this medium, 100% regeneration of M. sacchariflorus (Maxim. Hack and 50% regeneration of M. sinensis Andersson was obtained. Due to media modification aimed at initiating callusogenesis and microplants regeneration, reproduction factor of M. sinensis was increased 20 times at the average, M. sacchariflorus – 35–40 times. Conclusions. Plants of M. sacchariflorus (Maxim. Hack and M. sinensis Andersson were obtained in vitro culture by initiation of callusogenes and microplants regeneration from the Miscanthus seeds with poor germination and viability on nutrient media of certain composition.

  10. Extreme intrafamilial variability of Saudi brothers with primary hyperoxaluria type 1

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    Alfadhel M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Majid Alfadhel,1 Khalid A Alhasan,2 Mohammed Alotaibi,3 Khalid Al Fakeeh41Division of Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Division of Nephrology Department of Pediatrics, King Saud University King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Radiology, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Division of Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1 is characterized by progressive renal insufficiency culminating in end-stage renal disease, and a wide range of clinical features related to systemic oxalosis in different organs. It is caused by autosomal recessive deficiency of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase due to a defect in AGXT gene.Case report: Two brothers (one 6 months old; the other 2 years old presented with acute renal failure and urinary tract infection respectively. PH1 was confirmed by high urinary oxalate level, demonstration of oxalate crystals in bone biopsy, and pathogenic homozygous known AGXT gene mutation. Despite the same genetic background, same sex, and shared environment, the outcome of the two siblings differs widely. While one of them died earlier with end-stage renal disease and multiorgan failure caused by systemic oxalosis, the older brother is pyridoxine responsive with normal development and renal function.Conclusion: Clinicians should be aware of extreme intrafamilial variability of PH1 and international registries are needed to characterize the genotype-phenotype correlation in such disorder.Keywords: primary hyperoxaluria, oxalosis, PH1, intrafamilial variability

  11. COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENTS IN VITAMIN B12 AND FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCIES AND HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA

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    P. R. Kamchatnov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin metabolic disorders can cause diverse dysfunctions of both the peripheral and central nervous systems. There is conclusive evidence that cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiencies may lead to diminished cognitive functions even to the extent of developing dementia. Cognitive impairments may be accompanied by involvement of other regions of the central nervous system, the corticospinal tract in particular, less frequently by brainstem and cerebellar disorders. Changes in nervous system functions in the presence of cyanocobalamin deficiency may predominate in the clinical picture, ahead of the occurrence of hematological changes. The paper considers the possible mechanisms for involvement of brain neurons in deficiency of cyanocobalamin and in that of folic acid in particular in patients with hyperhomocysteinemia. The low serum concentration of folic acid or cyanocobalamin in the elderly raises the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease in future (by almost twice and vascular dementia. The authors give the results of randomized clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of the vitamins used in patients with cognitive impairments. Thus, there are data that the use of cyanocobalamin in patients with lacunar infarcts and moderate cognitive impairments may give rise to their complete recovery and reduce the risk of depressive disorders. Intramuscular cyanocobalamin used in a daily dose of 1000 μg for 5 days, then 1000 μg once monthly is demonstrated to be efficacious. This therapy may be effective in patients with different types of dementia and cognitive diminution, primarily in those with these conditions and its serum concentration of less 150 pmol/l. Among the side effects while taking folic acid, there may be higher incidence rates of convulsive attacks. A number of trials have shown the efficacy of cyanocobalamin, pyridoxine, and folic acid in preventing acute cerebral ischemic episodes; however, not all the investigations

  12. Validación del método analítico para la determinación de 3 vitaminas hidrosolubles en un suplemento vitamínico

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    Iverlis Díaz Polanco

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados obtenidos en la validación de un método analítico por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución, para la determinación de tiamina mononitrato, piridoxina clorhidrato y nicotinamida en el suplemento nutricional neovitamin II, el cual se diseñó para separar las vitaminas entre sí, con la utilización de una columna RP-18 de 25 cm y un detector UV-Visible. Dicho método se empleó para el control de la calidad y la estabilidad de este producto. El método fue validado siguiendo una metodología de trabajo elaborada previamente en un Protocolo de Validación, donde se analizaron diferentes parámetros como son: linealidad, exactitud, precisión, selectividad, límites de detección y cuantificación, adecuación del sistema y estabilidad de las soluciones. Se obtuvieron resultados satisfactorios y se comprobó de esta forma la validez del método analítico.The results obtained in the validation of an anlytical method by high resolution liquid chromatography for the determination of thiamine mononitrate, pyridoxine hydrochloride and nicotinamide in the Neovitamin dietary supplement are presented. It was designed to separate vitamins among themselves, using a RP-18 column of 25 cm and a UV Visible detector. This method was used for controlling the quality and stability of the product. This method was validated according to a working methodology that was previously prepared in a Validation Protocol where paramaters such as lineality, accuracy, precision, selectivity, limits of detection and quantitation, system adequacy and the solution stability were analyzed. The results were satisfactory and the validity of the analytical method was proved.

  13. IMPACT OF THE FORM OF MEDICATION ON TREATMENT ADHERENCE IN RESPIRATORY TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS

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    T. E. Tyulkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study: to investigate treatment adherence in respiratory tuberculosis patients depending on the choice of therapy.Subjects and methods: retrospective full-design study. The case histories of adult new tuberculosis cases who were treated in TB Dispensary in 2015 were analyzed. The groups were formed based on the intake of combined drugs with fixed doses (1 tablet contained 60 mg of isoniazid, 120 mg of rifampicin, 300 mg of pyrazinamide, 225 mg of ethambutol, and 20 mg of pyridoxine – Group 1 (n = 38; or separate tablets in the doses as per drug use instructions (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol – Group 2 (n = 78. The groups were compatible as per sex, age, and clinical manifestations of tuberculosis. Patients from Group 1 with the weight of 60 kg received 5 tablets and patients from Group 2 received more than 12 tablets. Patients' adherence to treatment was assessed as per regularity of intake and number of doses during the intensive phase of treatment.Results. Patients from Group 1 were regularly taking anti-tuberculosis drugs, while in Group 2 there were interruptions of treatment (7-21 days in 12 (15.4% patients. In Group, the intensive phase increased up to 90.2 ± 30.6 doses and in Group 2 this increase made 131.6 ± 65.4 doses due to late sputum conversion. In Group 1, sputum conversion was achieved during the first month of treatment in 60% of patients; and in Group 2 – in 10% of cases (p = 0.044. The frequency of transaminase elevation as a side effect was higher in Group 1, but it did not result in discontinuation of drugs. Thus, the intake of combined medication with fixed doses improved tuberculosis patients' adherence to treatment.

  14. Dietary patterns in Brazilian patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a cross-sectional study

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    Silvia Marinho Ferolla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with diet. Our aim was to investigate the dietary patterns of a Brazilian population with this condition and compare them with the recommended diet. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 96 non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients before any dietetic counseling. All patients underwent abdominal ultrasound, biochemical tests, dietary evaluations, and anthropometric evaluations. Their food intake was assessed by a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and 24-hour food recall. RESULTS: The median patient age was 53 years, and 77% of the individuals were women. Most (67.7% participants were obese, and a large waist circumference was observed in 80.2% subjects. Almost 70% of the participants had metabolic syndrome, and 62.3% presented evidence of either insulin resistance or overt diabetes. Most patients (51.5, 58.5, and 61.7%, respectively exceeded the recommendations for energy intake, as well as total and saturated fat. All patients consumed less than the amount of recommended monounsaturated fatty acids, and 52.1 and 76.6% of them consumed less polyunsaturated fatty acids and fiber, respectively, than recommended. In most patients, the calcium, sodium, potassium, pyridoxine, and vitamin C intake did not meet the recommendations, and in 10.5-15.5% of individuals, the tolerable upper limit intake for sodium was exceeded. The patients presented a significantly high intake of meats, fats, sugars, legumes (beans, and vegetables and a low consumption of cereals, fruits, and dairy products compared with the recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: Although patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease exhibited high energy and lipid consumption, most of them had inadequate intake of some micronutrients. The possible role of nutrient-deficient intake in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease warrants investigation.

  15. Intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Hamid M

    2011-08-01

    Our knowledge of the mechanisms and regulation of intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins under normal physiological conditions, and of the factors/conditions that affect and interfere with theses processes has been significantly expanded in recent years as a result of the availability of a host of valuable molecular/cellular tools. Although structurally and functionally unrelated, the water-soluble vitamins share the feature of being essential for normal cellular functions, growth and development, and that their deficiency leads to a variety of clinical abnormalities that range from anaemia to growth retardation and neurological disorders. Humans cannot synthesize water-soluble vitamins (with the exception of some endogenous synthesis of niacin) and must obtain these micronutrients from exogenous sources. Thus body homoeostasis of these micronutrients depends on their normal absorption in the intestine. Interference with absorption, which occurs in a variety of conditions (e.g. congenital defects in the digestive or absorptive system, intestinal disease/resection, drug interaction and chronic alcohol use), leads to the development of deficiency (and sub-optimal status) and results in clinical abnormalities. It is well established now that intestinal absorption of the water-soluble vitamins ascorbate, biotin, folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, riboflavin and thiamin is via specific carrier-mediated processes. These processes are regulated by a variety of factors and conditions, and the regulation involves transcriptional and/or post-transcriptional mechanisms. Also well recognized now is the fact that the large intestine possesses specific and efficient uptake systems to absorb a number of water-soluble vitamins that are synthesized by the normal microflora. This source may contribute to total body vitamin nutrition, and especially towards the cellular nutrition and health of the local colonocytes. The present review aims to outline our current

  16. The effect of bleaching agents on the degradation of vitamins and carotenoids in spray-dried whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, M A; Park, C W; Drake, M A

    2017-10-01

    Previous research has shown that bleaching affects flavor and functionality of whey proteins. The role of different bleaching agents on vitamin and carotenoid degradation is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of bleaching whey with traditional annatto (norbixin) by hydrogen peroxide (HP), benzoyl peroxide (BP), or native lactoperoxidase (LP) on vitamin and carotenoid degradation in spray-dried whey protein concentrate 80% protein (WPC80). An alternative colorant was also evaluated. Cheddar whey colored with annatto (15 mL/454 L of milk) was manufactured, pasteurized, and fat separated and then assigned to bleaching treatments of 250 mg/kg HP, 50 mg/kg BP, or 20 mg/kg HP (LP system) at 50°C for 1 h. In addition to a control (whey with norbixin, whey from cheese milk with an alternative colorant (AltC) was evaluated. The control and AltC wheys were also heated to 50°C for 1 h. Wheys were concentrated to 80% protein by ultrafiltration and spray dried. The experiment was replicated in triplicate. Samples were taken after initial milk pasteurization, initial whey formation, after fat separation, after whey pasteurization, after bleaching, and after spray drying for vitamin and carotenoid analyses. Concentrations of retinol, a-tocopherol, water-soluble vitamins, norbixin, and other carotenoids were determined by HPLC, and volatile compounds were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sensory attributes of the rehydrated WPC80 were documented by a trained panel. After chemical or enzymatic bleaching, WPC80 displayed 7.0 to 33.3% reductions in retinol, β-carotene, ascorbic acid, thiamin, α-carotene, and α-tocopherol. The WPC80 bleached with BP contained significantly less of these compounds than the HP- or LP-bleached WPC80. Riboflavin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, nicotinic acid, and cobalamin concentrations in fluid whey were not affected by bleaching. Fat-soluble vitamins were reduced in all wheys by more than 90

  17. Hydrosoluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Jasvinder; Kvarnberg, David

    2014-01-01

    The hydrosoluble vitamins are a group of organic substances that are required by humans in small amounts to prevent disorders of metabolism. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the biochemical, physiologic and nutritional aspects of the water-soluble vitamins. Deficiency of these particular vitamins, most commonly due to inadequate nutrition, can result in disorders of the nervous system. Many of these disorders have been successfully prevented in developed countries; however, they are still common in developing countries. Of the hydrosoluble vitamins, the nervous system depends the most on vitamins B and C (ascorbic acid) for proper functioning. The B group vitamins include thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin or niacinamide (vitamin B3), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), pyridoxine or pyridoxal (vitamin B6) and cobalamin (vitamin B12). Clinical findings depend upon the deficiency of the underlying vitamin; generally, deficiency symptoms are seen from a combination rather than an isolated vitamin deficiency. True hereditary metabolic disorders and serious deficiency-associated diseases are rare and in general limited to particular geographic regions and high-risk groups. Their recognition is truly important as that determines the appropriate therapeutic management. The general availability of vitamins to practically everyone and several national health programs have saved many lives and prevented complications. However, there has been some apprehension for several decades about how harmless generous dosages of these vitamins are. Overt overdosages can cause vitamin toxicity affecting various body systems including the nervous system. Systemically, vitamin toxicity is associated with nonspecific symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and skin rash which are common with any acute or chronic vitamin overdose. At a national level, recommended daily allowances for vitamins become policy statements. Nutrition policy has far

  18. Nitro-spojevi kao otapala, lijekovi, međuprodukti i eksplozivi

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    Mutak, S.

    2007-03-01

    was used in the production of various active pharmaceuticals, such as pyridoxine hydrochloride, metronidazole, methoprolol tartarate, chlortalidone, dinitroisosorbide and lampren. Further synthetic processes were developed in which purchased nitro compounds were used as intermediates for the production of active compounds with nitro or other functional groups.In 1991 when the war broke out in Croatia, some PLIVA chemists were involved in the development and production of explosives from nitro compounds. Thanks to the broad experience and tradition in organic synthesis, within a short time, a laboratory procedure was developed, a semi-production plant on a separate location was adapted and production of the most powerful brisant explosive, octogen had started. Later, an industrial process for the production of pentrite was developed and its trial production started. During this period, laboratory procedures for some other explosives were developed.

  19. Evaluation and comparison of the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in garlic (Allium sativum L.

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    Marianna Lenková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. is one of the oldest cultivated plants in the world and highly valued throughout the ages as a culinary spice. It is a hardy perennial belonging to the Alliaceae family. The garlic bulb is the most commonly used portion of the plant, composed of 5 - 20 individual. It is a very good source of manganese, selenium, vitamin C and vitamin B6 (pyridoxine. In addition, garlic is a good source of other minerals, including phosphorous, calcium, potassium, iron and copper. Many of the perceived therapeutic effects of garlic are thought to be due to its active ingredient allicin. This sulphur-containing compound gives garlic its distinctive pungent smell and taste. Garlic possesses antiviral, antibacterial, anti-fungal properties allowing it to stand against all infections. This work has focused on the evaluation and comparison of total content of polyphenols and antioxidant activity in five varieties of garlic - Mojmír, Záhorský, Lukan, Havran and Makoi. Samples of plant material were collected at the stage of full maturity in the area of Nitra. The total content of polyphenols was determined using the spectrophotometric method of Folin-Ciocalteu agents. Determined the content of total polyphenols in garlic were in the range 621.13 mg.kg-1 (Záhorský to 763.28 mg.kg-1 (Havran. Total polyphenols content in garlic declined in the following order: Havran >Mojmír >Makoi >Lukan >Záhorský. Antioxidant activity was measured by the spectrophotometric method using a compound DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl. Statistically significant highest value of antioxidant was recorded in 20.22% (Mojmír and the lowest value was in 13.61% (Záhorský. The values of antioxidant activity observed in the varieties of garlic may be arranged as follows: Mojmír >Havran >Lukan >Makoi >Záhorský. In all the analysed varieties of garlic was confirmed by the strong dependence of the antioxidant activity and the total content of polyphenols.

  20. Studies on improving ostrich egg hatch ability and its relation with some factors affecting embryonic development during artificial incubation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, N.S.I.

    2012-01-01

    the air sac through the width end of the egg. The materials tested were: amino acid 121 proline, two of vitamin B complex pyridoxine and biotin and two of fat soluble vitamins Vit.D3 and Vit. E and one essential fatty acid (linolenic acid).

  1. The production of (14C) oxalate during the metabolism of (14C) carbohydrates in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofe, A M; James, H M; Bais, R; Edwards, J B; Conyers, R A

    1980-04-01

    Oxalate (14C) was produced during the metabolism of (U-14C) carbohydrates in hepatocytes isolated from normal rats. At 10 mM, the order of oxalate production was fructose > glycerol > xylitol > sorbitol greater than or equal to glucose in the ratio 10 : 4 : 3 : 1 : 1. This difference between oxalate production from fructose and glucose was reflected in their rates of utilisation, glucose being poorly metabolised in hepatocytes from fasted rats. Fructose was rapidly metabolised, producing glucose, lactate and pyruvate as the major metabolites. Glycerol, xylitol and sorbitol were metabolised at half the rate of fructose, the major metabolites being glucose, lactate and glycerophosphate. The marked similarity in the pattern of intermediary metabolites produced by these polyols was not, however, reflected in the rates of oxalate production. Hepatic polyol metabolism resulted in high levels of cytosolic NADH, as indicated by elevated lactate : pyruvate and glycerophosphate : dihydroxyacetone phosphate ratios. The artificial electron acceptor, phenazine methosulphate (PMS) stimulated oxalate production from the polyols, particularly xylitol. In the presence of PMS, the order of oxalate production was fructose greater than or equal to xylitol > glycerol > sorbitol in the ratio 10 : 10 : 6 : 2. The production of glucose, lactate and pyruvate from the polyols was also stimulated by PMS, whereas the general metabolism of fructose, including oxalate production, was little affected. Oxalate (14C) was produced from (1-14C), (2-14C) and (6-14C) but not (3,4-14C) glucose in hepatocytes isolated from non-fasted, pyridoxine-deficient rats. Whilst this labelling pattern is consistent with oxalate being produced by a number of pathways, it is suggested that metabolism via hydroxypyruvate is a major route for oxalate production from various carbohydrates, with perhaps the exception of xylitol, which appears to have an alternative mechanism for oxalate production. The observation that

  2. B-vitamin status and concentrations of homocysteine in Austrian omnivores, vegetarians and vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzak, D; Singer, I; Männer, M; Rust, P; Genser, D; Wagner, K-H; Elmadfa, I

    2006-01-01

    -planned vegan diet. Vitamins B(12) and B(2) may need attention in the strict vegan diet, especially regarding elevated homocysteine levels in plasma. Pyridoxine status appeared to be independent of the diet. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. CLAE-PI aplicada ao doseamento de vitaminas do complexo B em misturas: fundamentação e validação de método Ion-pair HPLC applied to the assay of the vitamin B group mixture: theorical bases and method validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Maria Donato

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Um método simples e rápido para determinação simultânea das vitaminas nicotinamida, tiamina, piridoxina, riboflavina e pantotenato de cálcio, em associação com minerais, foi desenvolvido por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, utilizando a técnica de pareamento iônico, coluna C-8 Perkin Elmer (150 x 4,6 mm DI, partícula 5 mm, poro 80 Å e detector de ultravioleta (210 e 270 nm. A fase móvel composta de água e metanol (894:106, contendo 10 mM de hexanossulfonato de sódio, 0,5% de ácido acético e 0,1% de trietilamina a pH 3,5 promoveu excelente separação das vitaminas. O método foi aplicado com sucesso à forma farmacêutica de comprimidos e drágeas, contendo também minerais. Linearidade, precisão, recuperação e especificidade foram satisfatórias. A taxa de recuperação do método foi de 98% a 102% e os desvios padrão relativos encontrados variaram entre 0,9 e 2,5%.A rapid and simple method for the simultaneous determination of nicotinamide, thiamine, pyridoxine, riboflavin and calcium pantothenate, associated with minerals was developed by high performance liquid chromatography. These vitamins were simultaneously assayed by reversed-phase ion-pair HPLC with C-8 column Perkin Elmer (150 x 4.6 mm, 5 mm, 80 Å and UV detection (210 and 270 nm. A mobile phase of water-methanol (894:106, 10 mM hexanesulfonate, 0,5% acetic acid and 0,1% triethylamine at pH 3.5 allowed the most satisfactory separation of these vitamins. The method was successfully applied to the determination of vitamins in tablets and coated tablets. Linearity, precision, recovery and specificity were always satisfactory. The average recoveries were from 98% to 102% and the relative standard deviations were between 0.9 to 2.5%.

  4. Vitamin B6 deficient plants display increased sensitivity to high light and photo-oxidative stress

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    Rumeau Dominique

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin B6 is a collective term for a group of six interconvertible compounds: pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine and their phosphorylated derivatives. Vitamin B6 plays essential roles as a cofactor in a range of biochemical reactions. In addition, vitamin B6 is able to quench reactive oxygen species in vitro, and exogenously applied vitamin B6 protects plant cells against cell death induced by singlet oxygen (1O2. These results raise the important question as to whether plants employ vitamin B6 as an antioxidant to protect themselves against reactive oxygen species. Results The pdx1.3 mutation affects the vitamin B6 biosynthesis enzyme, pyridoxal synthase (PDX1, and leads to a reduction of the vitamin B6 concentration in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. Although leaves of the pdx1.3 Arabidopsis mutant contained less chlorophyll than wild-type leaves, we found that vitamin B6 deficiency did not significantly impact photosynthetic performance or shoot and root growth. Chlorophyll loss was associated with an increase in the chlorophyll a/b ratio and a selective decrease in the abundance of several PSII antenna proteins (Lhcb1/2, Lhcb6. These changes were strongly dependent on light intensity, with high light amplifying the difference between pdx1.3 and the wild type. When leaf discs were exposed to exogenous 1O2, lipid peroxidation in pdx1.3 was increased relative to the wild type; this effect was not observed with superoxide or hydrogen peroxide. When leaf discs or whole plants were exposed to excess light energy, 1O2-mediated lipid peroxidation was enhanced in leaves of the pdx1.3 mutant relative to the wild type. High light also caused an increased level of 1O2 in vitamin B6-deficient leaves. Combining the pdx1.3 mutation with mutations affecting the level of 'classical' quenchers of 1O2 (zeaxanthin, tocopherols resulted in a highly photosensitive phenotype. Conclusion This study demonstrates that vitamin B6 has a function in

  5. Consequences of a deficit in vitamin B6 biosynthesis de novo for hormone homeostasis and root development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boycheva, Svetlana; Dominguez, Ana; Rolcik, Jakub; Boller, Thomas; Fitzpatrick, Teresa B

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B(6) (pyridoxal 5'-phosphate) is an essential cofactor of many metabolic enzymes. Plants biosynthesize the vitamin de novo employing two enzymes, pyridoxine synthase1 (PDX1) and PDX2. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), there are two catalytically active paralogs of PDX1 (PDX1.1 and PDX1.3) producing the vitamin at comparable rates. Since single mutants are viable but the pdx1.1 pdx1.3 double mutant is lethal, the corresponding enzymes seem redundant. However, the single mutants exhibit substantial phenotypic differences, particularly at the level of root development, with pdx1.3 being more impaired than pdx1.1. Here, we investigate the differential regulation of PDX1.1 and PDX1.3 by identifying factors involved in their disparate phenotypes. Swapped-promoter experiments clarify the presence of distinct regulatory elements in the upstream regions of both genes. Exogenous sucrose (Suc) triggers impaired ethylene production in both mutants but is more severe in pdx1.3 than in pdx1.1. Interestingly, Suc specifically represses PDX1.1 expression, accounting for the stronger vitamin B6 deficit in pdx1.3 compared with pdx1.1. Surprisingly, Suc enhances auxin levels in pdx1.1, whereas the levels are diminished in pdx1.3. In the case of pdx1.3, the previously reported reduced meristem activity combined with the impaired ethylene and auxin levels manifest the specific root developmental defects. Moreover, it is the deficit in ethylene production and/or signaling that triggers this outcome. On the other hand, we hypothesize that it is the increased auxin content of pdx1.1 that is responsible for the root developmental defects observed therein. We conclude that PDX1.1 and PDX1.3 play partially nonredundant roles and are differentially regulated as manifested in disparate root growth impairment morphologies. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Oils of insects and larvae consumed in Africa: potential sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids

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    Womeni Hilaire Macaire

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the beneficial aspects of some insects consumed in sub-Saharan Africa, based on examples of insects consumed in Cameroon, to present their potential as sources of lipids and essential fatty acids. In Africa, termites, larvae of raphia weevil, caterpillars, crickets, bees, maggots, butterflies, weevil, etc. are significant sources of food. These insects belong mainly to the orders of : Isoptera, Orthoptera, Dictyoptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera. Depending on the species, insects are rich in proteins, minerals (K, Ca, Mg, Zn, P, Fe and/or vitamins (thiamine/B1, riboflavine/B2, pyridoxine/B6, acid pantothenic, niacin. The composition of oils extracted from the following six insects consumed in Cameroon was investigated : larvaes of raphia weevil (Rhynchophorus phoenicis, crickets (Homorocoryphus nitidulus, grasshopper (Zonocerus variegates, termites (Macrotermes sp., a variety of caterpillars (Imbrasia sp. and an unidentified caterpillar from the forest (UI carterpillar. The extraction yields of oil were 53.75%, 67.25%, 9.12%, 49.35%, 24.44% and 20.17% respectively for raphia weevil larvae, crickets, devastating crickets, termites, Imbrasia and UI caterpillar. The oil from raphia weevil mainly contains 37.60% of palmitoleic acid and 45.46% of linoleic acid. The oil from crickets is principally made up of palmitoleic acid (27.59%, linoleic acid (45.63% and α-linolenic acid (16.19%. The oil from grasshoppers is composed of palmitoleic acid (23.83%, oleic acid (10.71%, linoleic acid (21.07%, α-linolenic acid (14.76% and γ-linolenic acid (22.54%. The main components of termite oil are : palmitic acid (30.47%, oleic acid (47.52% and linoleic acid (8.79%. Palmitic acid (36.08% and linolenic acid (38.01% are the two dominant fatty acids of Imbrasia oil. As Imbrasia oil, UI caterpillar oil is composed of palmitic acid (30.80% and linolenic acid (41.79%. Stearic acid (7.04%, oleic acid

  7. Recurrence of Crystalline Nephropathy after Kidney Transplantation in APRT Deficiency and Primary Hyperoxaluria

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    Guillaume Bollée

    2015-09-01

    deficiency, stones may be confused with uric acid stones, unless specialized techniques are used (infrared spectroscopy or X-ray crystallography for urinary crystals or stone analysis; Fourier transform infrared microscopy for crystals in kidney biopsy. Where these are unavailable, and for confirmation, the diagnosis can be made by measurement of enzyme activity in red blood cell lysates or by genetic testing. In patients with primary hyperoxaluria, levels of urinary and plasma oxalate; and the presence of nearly pure calcium oxalate monohydrate in stones, which often also have an unusually pale colour and unorganized structure, increase diagnostic suspicion. Molecular genetic testing is the criterion measure. Lifelong allopurinol therapy, with high fluid intake if appropriate, may stabilize kidney function in APRT deficiency; if ESRD has occurred or is near, results with kidney transplantation after initiation of allopurinol are excellent. In primary hyperoxaluria recognized before ESRD, pyridoxine treatment and high fluid intake may lead to a substantial decrease in urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation and prevent renal failure. In non-responsive patients or those recognized later in their disease, liver transplantation cures the underlying defect and should be considered when the GFR falls below 30 ml/min/1.73 m 2 ; in those which or near ESRD, liver transplantation and intensive dialysis before kidney transplantation may be considered to reduce the total body oxalate burden before kidney transplantation. Limitations: The availability of diagnostic tests varies between countries and centres. Data on long term outcomes after kidney transplantation are limited, especially for APRT deficiency patients. Implications: Increasing transplant physicians knowledge of APRT deficiency and primary hyperoxaluria should enable them to implement adequate diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, thereby achieving good outcomes after kidney transplantation.

  8. Method of propagation, stimulation of rhizomes growth in vitro culture and adaptation in the open ground for the genus Miscanthus representatives

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    С. М. Гонтаренко

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To develop a method of propagation, stimulation of rhizomes growth in vitro culture for the genus Miscanthus representatives and their adaptation in the open field without the use of greenhouse complexes for acclimatization and completion of growing. Methods. Biotechnological procedures, mathematical and statistical analyses. Results. Prescription of nutrient medium was developed for explants inoculation, sprouts propagation, rhizomes growth stimulation in vitro. Such sterile explants as seeds, buds to be removed from rhizomes, parts of  stems with bud were placed on modified media with mineral portion by Murashige and Skoog (MS that contained 0,5–1 dose of macroelements and one dose of microelements,  vitamins (10 mg/l of thia­minum, 1,0 mg/l of pyridoxine, 1,0 mg/l of nicotinic acid and 1,0 mg/l of ascorbic acid supplemented with amino acids (250 mg/l of glutamic acid, 3 mg/l of tyrosine, 3 mg/l of arginine, 2 mg/l of hydroxyproline, plant growth regulators [0,5–1,0 mg/l of GA (gibberelline acid, 0,2 mg/l of 6-BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine, 0,1 mg/l of NAA (α-naphtylacetic acid] in different variations. After seed germination, buds emerging and sprouts formation 1–2 cm in height, for propagation purpose they were passivated on the medium of other composition that differed from previous one by the content and ratio of growth regulators, especially by a high concentration of cytokinins [6-BAP (0,4–0,5 mg/l, kinetin (0,5 mg/l, adenine (0,5 mg/k] in different variations in presence of GA (0,2 mg/l. In order to stimulate rhizomes growth, microclones were transferred on media with other composition and ratio growth regulators (6-BAP (0,2–0,3 mg/l + GA (0,5–1,0 mg/l or 6-BAP (0,2–0,3 mg/l + GA (0,5–1,0 mg/l + NAA (0,1 mg/l,  in other words,  with a high content of gibberellins. After the formation of rhizomes 10–15 cm in length, miscanthus plants were planted out in the open ground. Stimulation of

  9. Mastalgia cíclica pré-menstrual: placebo versus outras drogas Pre-menstrual cyclic mastalgia

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    Laurival A. De Luca

    2006-08-01

    compound of retinol, pyridoxine chlorhydrate and tocopherol acetate. METHODS: The study is a prospective, controlled, triple blinded, randomized trial. From 259 patients, 81 were selected in order to follow rigid criteria of inclusion. They were divided into three groups of 27 patients, taking aspirin, vitamins or placebo respectively. The number of patients in each group was considered satisfactory for statistical analysis. Pain was scored as Grade 1 (without pain, Grade II (moderate pain and Grade III (severe pain. The Tukey test was applied for comparison of results (statistical significance 5%. RESULTS: Clinical parameters, age, weight, BMI, parity and lactation period were similar for each group. There was a decrease of pain intensity in all groups, that was even more pronounced for the placebo group. DISCUSSION: Emphasis was given to symptomatic treatment of cyclic premenstrual mastalgia with symptoms considered to be the expression of a physiological process that can be treated with simple drugs or placebo. Usual therapeutic approaches with several drugs are criticized, including results and contraindications. CONCLUSION: This study based upon acceptable trial methodology (randomized, triple blinded, placebo controlled, prospective did not show significant differences in the treatment of cyclic mastalgia.

  10. Enhanced Prophylaxis plus Antiretroviral Therapy for Advanced HIV Infection in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, James; Musiime, Victor; Szubert, Alex J; Mallewa, Jane; Siika, Abraham; Agutu, Clara; Walker, Simon; Pett, Sarah L; Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Mutsa; Lugemwa, Abbas; Kaunda, Symon; Karoney, Mercy; Musoro, Godfrey; Kabahenda, Sheila; Nathoo, Kusum; Maitland, Kathryn; Griffiths, Anna; Thomason, Margaret J; Kityo, Cissy; Mugyenyi, Peter; Prendergast, Andrew J; Walker, A Sarah; Gibb, Diana M

    2017-07-20

    In sub-Saharan Africa, among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the rate of death from infection (including tuberculosis and cryptococcus) shortly after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is approximately 10%. In this factorial open-label trial conducted in Uganda, Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya, we enrolled HIV-infected adults and children 5 years of age or older who had not received previous ART and were starting ART with a CD4+ count of fewer than 100 cells per cubic millimeter. They underwent simultaneous randomization to receive enhanced antimicrobial prophylaxis or standard prophylaxis, adjunctive raltegravir or no raltegravir, and supplementary food or no supplementary food. Here, we report on the effects of enhanced antimicrobial prophylaxis, which consisted of continuous trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole plus at least 12 weeks of isoniazid-pyridoxine (coformulated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in a single fixed-dose combination tablet), 12 weeks of fluconazole, 5 days of azithromycin, and a single dose of albendazole, as compared with standard prophylaxis (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole alone). The primary end point was 24-week mortality. A total of 1805 patients (1733 adults and 72 children or adolescents) underwent randomization to receive either enhanced prophylaxis (906 patients) or standard prophylaxis (899 patients) and were followed for 48 weeks (loss to follow-up, 3.1%). The median baseline CD4+ count was 37 cells per cubic millimeter, but 854 patients (47.3%) were asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic. In the Kaplan-Meier analysis at 24 weeks, the rate of death with enhanced prophylaxis was lower than that with standard prophylaxis (80 patients [8.9% vs. 108 [12.2%]; hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55 to 0.98; P=0.03); 98 patients (11.0%) and 127 (14.4%), respectively, had died by 48 weeks (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.99; P=0.04). Patients in the enhanced-prophylaxis group had

  11. Evaluación dietética de micronutrientes en niños entre 10 y 14 meses de edad Dietetic evaluation of micronutrients in children aged 10-14 months old

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    Mayleni Carrillo Selles

    2008-12-01

    behavioral development is complex. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the contribution of vitamins and minerals to the diet of children aged 10-14 months old living in Havana City. METHODS. A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to September 2005 in health areas of Centro Habana, Marianao and Plaza de la Revolución municipalities. 80 children aged 10-14 months old were evaluated with the previous authorization of their parents. They were selected at random and no symptoms of disease were present at the moment of the study. The data were collected in dietetic surveys for 3 days in a row and they were processed in the CERES automated system. RESULTS. Levels of vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamine, pyridoxine, folic acid, calcium and zinc adjusted to the nutritional recommendations for children at this age were found. The iron intake in food was deficient. CONCLUSIONS. Generally, the main food consumed by children proved to be good sources of vitamins and minerals, although the deficient iron intake shows the need to study the frequency of appearance of iron-deficiency anemia in infants of Havana City and to use this research as a baseline for the implementation of new strategies to enrich the food for children at these ages.

  12. Rearing the southern green stink bug using an artificial dry diet and an artificial plant Criação do percevejo-verde usando dieta artificial seca e planta artificial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTÔNIO RICARDO PANIZZI

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and greenhouse studies were conducted with an artificial dry diet to rear nymphs, and with an artificial plant as substrate for egg laying by the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.. The artificial diet was composed of: soybean protein (15 g; potato starch (7.5 g; dextrose (7.5 g; sucrose (2.5 g; cellulose (12.5 g; vitamin mixture (niacinamide 1 g, calcium pantothenate 1 g, thiamine 0.25 g, riboflavin 0.5 g, pyridoxine 0.25 g, folic acid 0.25 g, biotin 0.02 mL, vitamin B12 1 g - added to 1,000 mL of distilled water (5.0 mL; soybean oil (20 mL; wheat germ (17.9 g; and water (30 mL. Nymphs showed normal feeding behavior when fed on the artificial diet. Nymphal development time was longer than or similar to that of nymphs fed on soybean pods. Total nymphal mortality was low (ca. 30%, both for nymphs reared on the artificial diet, and for nymphs fed on soybean pods. At adult emergence, fresh body weights were significantly (PForam conduzidos estudos em laboratório e em casa de vegetação, com uma dieta artificial seca para a criação de ninfas e com um modelo de planta artificial como substrato para a colocação de ovos por adultos do percevejo-verde, Nezara viridula (L.. Os componentes da dieta artificial foram: proteína de soja (15 g; fécula de batata (7,5 g; dextrose (7,5 g; sacarose (2,5 g; celulose (12,5 g; mistura vitamínica (niacinamida 1 g, pantotenato de cálcio 1 g, tiamina 0,25 g, riboflavina 0,5 g, piridoxina 0,25 g, ácido fólico 0,25 g, biotina 0,02 mL, vitamina B12 1 g, adicionada em 1.000 mL de água destilada (5,0 mL; óleo de soja (20 mL; germe de trigo (17,9 g; e água (30 mL. As ninfas alimentaram-se normalmente da dieta, embora o tempo de desenvolvimento tenha sido em um caso, maior, e em outro, semelhante, ao das ninfas que se alimentaram de vagens da soja. A mortalidade total das ninfas foi baixa (ca. 30%, tanto na dieta como na vagem de soja. Na emergência, os adultos apresentaram peso fresco

  13. From tryptophan to hydroxytryptophan: reflections on a busy life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Hans

    2009-01-01

    , plays an important role in wound healing and stress management. Pyridoxal phosphate is the cofactor for the enzyme histidine decarboxylase required for histamine synthesis and similarly serves as a cofactor for hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase, the enzyme that is part of the pathway to serotonin synthesis. Investigations into these pathways led to interesting findings: brain concentrations of serotonin could be increased by supplementing the diet of rats with tryptophan and pyridoxine; the elevated brain serotonin levels had behavioral consequences. Alcohol craving, addiction, and withdrawal symptoms are affected by serotonin concentrations in the brain, and alleviation of these conditions can be achieved with simultaneous administration of serotonin and dopamine agonists. In the midst of our early amino acid studies, we serendipitously also became involved with lipid metabolism in relation to atherosclerosis and blood cholesterol in a chicken model. This work led to the recognition that soluble fibers, like pectin, had strong cholesterol-lowering properties that were beneficial in lowering the incidence of coronary plaque formation. The research success that I have enjoyed has been coupled with the gift of three accomplished children who are making important contributions as professionals in their fields of endeavor. My wife and I are also blessed with 10 wonderful grandchildren, our pride and joy!

  14. New genome sequence data and molecular tools promote the use of photosynthetic and edible cyanobacteria in bioregenerative systems to support human space exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, Natalie; Morin, Nicolas; Janssen, Paul; Mergeay, Max

    genetic elements, i.e., insertion elements, transposons and introns, which are evidence of past genetic rearrangements. The PCC 8005 genome seems to posses most or all the necessary genes for the biosynthesis of (1) essential amino acids of the aspartate, pyruvate, and aromatic families, (2) important vitamins includ-ing thiamine (B1), panthotenate (B5), pyridoxine (B6), folic acid (B9), cobalamin (B12), and biotin (H), (3) essential poly-unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid and -linolenic acid, and (4) nutritional pigments such as beta-carotene. However, many biosynthesis genes did not cluster together or form operonic structures, but seem to be scattered throughout the genome. No biosynthesis pathways for the major cyanotoxins (e.g. microcystine, anatoxin), toxic to humans, were detected so far in the PCC 8005 genome. But genes for the potential synthesis of an antimicrobial toxin, a novel cytotoxic cyclic peptide similar to patellamides, were detected. Irradiation experiments highlighted a high resilience of Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005 towards ionizing radiation. Exposure to high acute doses of 60 Co gamma radiation up to 3200 Gy did not affect the viability or the photosynthetic efficiency of the cells afterwards. However, cells exposed to doses above 400 Gy did show a reduced proliferation rate afterwards. Chronic ex-posure during cultivation, to low doses (genome sequence of this fascinating cyanobacterium will enable us to understand, predict, monitor and control the photosynthetic and metabolic pathways that are of relevance to its use in life-support systems in space, or on Earth. Ackowledgments: The sequence analysis of strain PCC8005 was funded by the European Space Agency ESA/ESTEC through the MELGEN-2 contract, as part of the MELiSSA project (11717/06/NL/Sfe-MELiSSA). Annotation was supported by the ARTANN consortium consisting of volunteer researchers from several independent organisations: SCK•CEN (B), CNRS (F), INRA (F), Institut Pasteur (F), the

  15. Hiperoxalúria primária com insuficiência renal crônica terminal em lactente Primary hyperoxaluria with endstage renal failure in an infant

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    Célia S. Macedo

    2002-04-01

    the disease. In France, the prevalence is about 1.05/million and the incidence rate is 0.12/million/year. A survey, performed in international specialized centers in 1999, documented 78 cases in infants; in 14% of them the initial onset symptom was uremia. The rarity and severity of the disease justify the description of this case.Results: a girl presenting vomiting and failure to thrive within the first months of life developed endstage renal failure at 6 months of age. She was being treated with dialysis. At 8 months of age, she was referred for investigation. She was undernourished and the laboratory examinations showed urea (69mg/dl, creatinine (2.2 mg/dl and creatinine clearance (12.5 ml/min/1.73m²SA. The routine urinalysis was normal, the renal ultrasound showed increased echogenicity in both kidneys; the dosage of urinary oxalate was 9.2mg/kg/day or 0.55mmol/1.73m²SA; the urinary oxalate/creatinine ratio was 0.42. Renal biopsy showed calcium oxalate crystals throughout the renal parenchyma. The radiograph of long bones showed osteopathy and the ophthalmic examination showed flecked retinopathy. The child was treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and administration of pyridoxine was initiated.Conclusions: primary hyperoxaluria should be considered as a differential diagnosis for endstage renal failure in infants, especially if there are no symptoms of other diseases.

  16. The Possibility of Inducing Resistance in Tomato against Rhizoctonia solani and some of its Mechanisms

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    F. Nikraftar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum is one of the most important crops worldwide, which suffers from several destructive diseases. Rhizoctonia solani is a necrotrophic fungus which is known as the causal agent of tomato damping-off, seed rot, root and crown rot diseases. Control of this phytopathogenic fungus is very difficult due to its long-term survival in the soil, high level of genetic diversity in R. solani populations and the lake of complete resistance in plants to the pathogen. Although partial genetic resistance to Rhizoctonia diseases has been reported, no major gene responsible for resistance has been found so far. Most of the traditional cultivars, planted in tomato-growing areas, are susceptible to Rhizoctonia diseases. Therefore, an intensive use of other crop protection methods such as an application of chemicals or biological agent which are capable of activating plant defense responses seems to be necessary to suppress the disease damage in tomato fields. The growing concern on negative environmental effects of fungicides and the appearance of fungicide- resistant pathogens led to increased research interest in the alternative protection methods. Among these novel disease management strategies, induced resistance (IR has emerged as a potential supplement in plant protection trials. Materials and Methods: The cultivar CH Falat was used as a susceptible tomato genotype to R. solani. The seeds were surface sterilized with 1% sodium hypochlorite for 1min, rinsed 3 times with sterile distilled water and incubated for 5 days on a wet sterile filter paper in Petri dishes. Germinated seeds were each sown in plastic pots filled with autoclaved commercial potting soil and kept in greenhouse conditions. The tomato leaves were treated with various concentrations of thiamine, pyridoxine, and homoserine lactones and inoculated with the pathogen. Disease symptoms were evaluated at 5 days post-inoculation (dpi and the most effective

  17. Ingestão inadequada de nutrientes na população de idosos do Brasil: Inquérito Nacional de Alimentação 2008-2009 Ingestión inadecuada de nutrientes en la población de ancianos de Brasil: pesquisa nacional de alimentación 2008-2009 Inadequate nutrient intake among the Brazilian elderly: National Dietary Survey 2008-2009

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    Rosângela Alves Pereira

    2013-02-01

    -variables sexo y región. Las prevalencias de inadecuación de ingestión de micronutrientes se estimaron según sexo y región utilizando el método de la EAR como punto de corte. RESULTADOS: Elevadas prevalencias de inadecuación (>50% se observaron para las vitaminas E, D, A, calcio, magnesio y piridoxina en ambos sexos. En todas las regiones, se observó 100% de inadecuación de vitamina E. Vitamina D obtuvo porcentajes de inadecuación próximos a 100% en todas las regiones, excepto para la región Norte. Las prevalencias de inadecuación de vitamina A fueron superiores a 70% en las regiones Norte, Noreste y Centro-oeste. Calcio y magnesio fueron los minerales con mayor prevalencia de ingestión inadecuada (>80% en todas las regiones. CONCLUSIONES: Ancianos brasileños presentaban elevada inadecuación de ingestión de nutrientes, reconocidos como protectores contra enfermedades crónicas.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake in the Brazilian elderly. METHODS: This study was based on data from the National Dietary Survey, part of the Household Budget Survey 2008-2009. All individuals aged 60 and over, totaling 4,322 individuals, were included. Individual food intake was obtained from food records from two non-consecutive days. The habitual intake for each nutrient was estimated by the National Cancer Institute method, in which sex and region were included as covariates. The prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake was estimated stratified by sex and region using the EAR method to define cut-off points. RESULTS: A high prevalence of inadequate intake (> 50% of vitamins E, D and A, calcium, magnesium and pyridoxine was observed for both sexes. In all regions, 100% inadequate vitamin E intake was observed. Vitamin D showed almost 100% inadequate intake except in the North region. The prevalence of inadequate vitamin A intake was higher than 70% in the North, Northeast, and Midwest regions. Among the minerals evaluated, calcium and magnesium showed

  18. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezioso, Domenico; Strazzullo, Pasquale; Lotti, Tullio; Bianchi, Giampaolo; Borghi, Loris; Caione, Paolo; Carini, Marco; Caudarella, Renata; Ferraro, Manuel; Gambaro, Giovanni; Gelosa, Marco; Guttilla, Andrea; Illiano, Ester; Martino, Marangella; Meschi, Tiziana; Messa, Piergiorgio; Miano, Roberto; Napodano, Giorgio; Nouvenne, Antonio; Rendina, Domenico; Rocco, Francesco; Rosa, Marco; Sanseverino, Roberto; Salerno, Annamaria; Spatafora, Sebastiano; Tasca, Andrea; Ticinesi, Andrea; Travaglini, Fabrizio; Trinchieri, Alberto; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Zattoni, Filiberto

    2015-07-07

    stone risk profile is uncertain. Sports beverage do not affect the urinary stone risk profile. HYPEROXALURIA: A diet low in oxalate and/or a calcium intake normal to high (800-1200 mg/day for adults) reduce the urinary excretion of oxalate, conversely a diet rich in oxalates and/or a diet low in calcium increase urinary oxalate. A restriction in protein intake may reduce the urinary excretion of oxalate although a vegetarian diet may lead to an increase in urinary oxalate. Adding bran to a diet low in oxalate cancels its effect of reducing urinary oxalate. Conversely, the addition of supplements of fruit and vegetables to a mixed diet does not involve an increased excretion of oxalate in the urine. The intake of pyridoxine reduces the excretion of oxalate. HYPERURICOSURIA: In patients with renal calcium stones the decrease of the urinary excretion of uric acid after restriction of dietary protein and purine is suggested although not clearly demonstrated. HYPOCITRATURIA: The administration of alkaline-citrates salts is recommended for the medical treatment of renal stone-formers with hypocitraturia, although compliance to this treatment is limited by gastrointestinal side effects and costs. Increased intake of fruit and vegetables (excluding those with high oxalate content) increases citrate excretion and involves a significant protection against the risk of stone formation. Citrus (lemons, oranges, grapefruit, and lime) and non citrus fruits (melon) are natural sources of dietary citrate, and several studies have shown the potential of these fruits and/or their juices in raising urine citrate levels. There are enought basis to advice an adequate fluid intake also in children. Moderate dietary salt restriction and implementation of potassium intake are useful in limiting urinary calcium excretion whereas dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for children with nephrolithiasis. It seems reasonable to advice a balanced consumption of fruit and vegetables and a low

  19. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Prezioso

    2015-07-01

    different origin decreases calciuria, but their impact on the urinary stone risk profile is uncertain. Sports beverage do not affect the urinary stone risk profile. Hyperoxaluria: A diet low in oxalate and/or a calcium intake normal to high (800-1200 mg/day for adults reduce the urinary excretion of oxalate, conversely a diet rich in oxalates and/or a diet low in calcium increase urinary oxalate. A restriction in protein intake may reduce the urinary excretion of oxalate although a vegetarian diet may lead to an increase in urinary oxalate. Adding bran to a diet low in oxalate cancels its effect of reducing urinary oxalate. Conversely, the addition of supplements of fruit and vegetables to a mixed diet does not involve an increased excretion of oxalate in the urine. The intake of pyridoxine reduces the excretion of oxalate. Hyperuricosuria: In patients with renal calcium stones the decrease of the urinary excretion of uric acid after restriction of dietary protein and purine is suggested although not clearly demonstrated. Hypocitraturia: The administration of alkaline-citrates salts is recommended for the medical treatment of renal stone-formers with hypocitraturia, although compliance to this treatment is limited by gastrointestinal side effects and costs. Increased intake of fruit and vegetables (excluding those with high oxalate content increases citrate excretion and involves a significant protection against the risk of stone formation. Citrus (lemons, oranges, grapefruit, and lime and non citrus fruits (melon are natural sources of dietary citrate, and several studies have shown the potential of these fruits and/or their juices in raising urine citrate levels. Children: There are enought basis to advice an adequate fluid intake also in children. Moderate dietary salt restriction and implementation of potassium intake are useful in limiting urinary calcium excretion whereas dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for children with nephrolithiasis. It seems

  20. Examining food additives and spices for their anti-oxidant ability to counteract oxidative damage due to chronic exposure to free radicals from environmental pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raul A., III

    form of vitamin E Carrot seed is a natural antioxidant. Total Phenolic content in extracts was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) reagent method. Results were expressed as micrograms of galic acid equivalents (GAE). Weed -- Anethum Graveolens: Dill weed contains numerous plant derived chemical compounds that are known to have been anti-oxidant, disease preventing, and health promoting properties. This popular herb contains no cholesterol and low in calories. Nonetheless, it holds many antioxidants, vitamins like niacin, pyridoxine, etc. and dietary fibers. Dill seeds contain many essential volatile oils such as d-carvone, clillapiol, DHC, eugenol, limonene, terpinene, and myristicin. Dill is also rich in many vital vitamins, including folic acid, riboflavin, vitamin A, 13-carotene, vitamin C, that is essential for optimum metabolism in the human body. Dill weed is a good source of minerals like potassium, calcium manganese, iron, and magnesium. Ammi -- Ammi visnaga L.: Eleven flavonols have been isolated from the aerial parts of Ammi visnaga L. from which four aglycones, four monoglycosides, two diglycosides and one triglycoside. Ammi oil evaluation was done by the antioxidant power of 1,11-diphenyl-2picrylhydrazal (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. DPPH is a stable free radical, which changes its colour from violet to yellow upon reduction by the process of electron donation. The scavenging potential of the antioxidants present in E.O.A seeds can thus be determined by their degree of discoloration to yellow. As per data obtained through experiment, it was seen that scavenging effect of DPPH radical increased with increasing the concentration of essential oil (1.25-10micro1).E.O.A. The E.O.A. has shown considerable reducing power) They exhibited moderate scavenging activity when compared with ascorbic acid (standards). The ability of samples to scavenge DPPH radical was determined on the basis of their concentration providing % effect. Parsley Seed -- Petroselinum