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Sample records for pyridones

  1. Synthesis of azo pyridone dyes

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    Mijin Dušan Ž.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of all colorants which are used nowdays are azo dyes and pigments, and among them arylazo pyridone dyes (and pigments have became of interest in last several decades due to the high molar extinction coefficient, and the medium to high light and wet fastness properties. They find application generally as disperse dyes. The importance of disperse dyes increased in the 1970s and 1980s due to the use of polyester and nylon as the main synthetic fibers. Also, disperse dyes were used rapidly since 1970 in inks for the heat-transfer printing of polyester. The main synthetic route for the preparation of azo dyes is coupling reaction between an aromatic diazo compound and a coupling component. Of all dyes manufactured, about 60% are produced by this reaction. Arylazo pyridone dyes can be prepared from pyridone moiety as a coupling component, where substituent can be on nitrogen, and diazonim salts which can be derived from different substituted anilines or other heterocyclic derivatives. In addition, arylazo dyes containing pyridone ring can be prepared from arylazo diketones or arylazo ketoesters (obtained by coupling β-diketones or β-ketoesters with diazonim salts by condensation with cyanoacetamide. Disazo dyes can be prepared by tetrazotizing a dianiline and coupling it with a pyridone or by diazotizing aniline and coupling it with a dipyridone. Trisazo dyes can be also prepared by diazotizing of aniline and coupling it with a tripyridone or by hexazotizing a trianiline and coupling it with a pyridone. The main goal of this paper is to give a brief review on the synthesis of arylazo pyridone dyes due to the lack of such reviews. In addition, some properties of arylazo pyridone dyes as light fastness and azo-hydrazon tautomerism are disccused.

  2. Rhodium-catalyzed chemo-, regio-, and enantioselective addition of 2-pyridones to terminal allenes.

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    Li, Changkun; Kähny, Matthias; Breit, Bernhard

    2014-12-08

    A rhodium-catalyzed chemo-, regio-, and enantioselective addition of 2-pyridones to terminal allenes to give branched N-allyl 2-pyridones is reported. Preliminary mechanistic studies support the hypothesis that the reaction was initiated from the more acidic 2-hydroxypyridine form, and the initial kinetic O-allylation product was finally converted into the thermodynamically more stable N-allyl 2-pyridones. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Isolation of 2-pyridone alkaloids from a New Zealand marine-derived penicillium species.

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    de Silva, E Dilip; Geiermann, Anna-Skrollan; Mitova, Maya I; Kuegler, Philipp; Blunt, John W; Cole, Anthony L J; Munro, Murray H G

    2009-03-27

    Fermentation of a Penicillium sp. isolated from a surface-sterilized thallus segment of the brown alga Xiphophora gladiata, collected from Macrocarpa Point, Otago, New Zealand, in half-strength potato dextrose broth led to the isolation and characterization of three alkaloids: the known N-hydroxy-2-pyridone, PF1140 (1), and two new 2-pyridones, 2 and 3.

  4. [Chloroquine analogues from benzofuro- and benzothieno[3,2-b]-4-pyridone-2-carboxylic acid esters].

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    Gölitzer, K; Meyer, H; Jomaa, H; Wiesner, J

    2004-08-01

    The amides 7 were synthesized from the annulated methyl 4-pyridone-2-carboxylates 4 via the carboxylic acids 5 and their acid chlorides by reacting with the novaldiamine base 6. The alcohol 8b, obtained from DIBAH reduction of the ester 4b, was transformed to the chloromethyl derivative 9 which reacted with 6 and 18-crown-6 leading to the 2-novaldiaminomethyl-4-pyridone 10. Compound 10 was obtained with higher yield from DIBAH reduction of the amide 7b. The substances 7 and 10 were inactive when tested against the chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain Dd2.

  5. Fragment-Based, Structure-Enabled Discovery of Novel Pyridones and Pyridone Macrocycles as Potent Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal Domain (BET) Family Bromodomain Inhibitors

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    Wang, Le; Pratt, John K.; Soltwedel, Todd; Sheppard, George S.; Fidanze, Steven D.; Liu, Dachun; Hasvold, Lisa A.; Mantei, Robert A.; Holms, James H.; McClellan, William J.; Wendt, Michael D.; Wada, Carol; Frey, Robin; Hansen, T.Matthew; Hubbard, Robert; Park, Chang H.; Li, Leiming; Magoc, Terrance J.; Albert, Daniel H.; Lin, Xiaoyu; Warder, Scott E.; Kovar, Peter; Huang, Xiaoli; Wilcox, Denise; Wang, Rongqi; Rajaraman, Ganesh; Petros, Andrew M.; Hutchins, Charles W.; Panchal, Sanjay C.; Sun, Chaohong; Elmore, Steven W.; Shen, Yu; Kati, Warren M.; McDaniel, Keith F. (AbbVie)

    2017-03-24

    Members of the BET family of bromodomain containing proteins have been identified as potential targets for blocking proliferation in a variety of cancer cell lines. A two-dimensional NMR fragment screen for binders to the bromodomains of BRD4 identified a phenylpyridazinone fragment with a weak binding affinity (1, Ki = 160 μM). SAR investigation of fragment 1, aided by X-ray structure-based design, enabled the synthesis of potent pyridone and macrocyclic pyridone inhibitors exhibiting single digit nanomolar potency in both biochemical and cell based assays. Advanced analogs in these series exhibited high oral exposures in rodent PK studies and demonstrated significant tumor growth inhibition efficacy in mouse flank xenograft models.

  6. Synthesis of 6-Substituted 2(1H)-Pyridon-3-yl C-2'-Deoxyribonucleosides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chapuis, Hubert Jean; Kubelka, Tomáš; Joubert, Nicolas; Pohl, Radek; Hocek, Michal

    -, č. 9 (2012), s. 1759-1767 ISSN 1434-193X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400550902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : nucleosides * pyridones * cross - coupling * Heck reaction Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.344, year: 2012

  7. Oxidative C-H Activation Approach to Pyridone and Isoquinolone through an Iron-Catalyzed Coupling of Amides with Alkynes.

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    Matsubara, Tatsuaki; Ilies, Laurean; Nakamura, Eiichi

    2016-02-04

    An iron catalyst combined with a mild organic oxidant promotes both C-H bond cleavage and C-N bond formation, and forms 2-pyridones and isoquinolones from an alkene- or arylamide and an internal alkyne, respectively. An unsymmetrical alkyne gives the pyridone derivative with high regioselectivity, this could be due to the sensitivity of the reaction to steric effects because of the compact size of iron. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Isolation and characterization of 2-pyridone alkaloids and alloxazines from Beauveria bassiana.

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    Andrioli, W J; Lopes, A A; Cavalcanti, B C; Pessoa, C; Nanayakkara, N P D; Bastos, J K

    2017-08-01

    Two novel compounds bearing heterocyclic nitrogen, 2-pyridone alkaloid (1) and alloxazine derivative (2), along with the known pretenellin B (3), pyridovericin (4) and lumichrome (5) were isolated from a culture of the entomopathogenic fungal strain Beauveria bassiana. The chemical structures of 2-pyridone alkaloid and alloxazine derivative were established on the basis of the interpretation of spectroscopic data. The isolated compounds were evaluated in a panel of five cancer cell lines and pyridovericin exhibited cytotoxicity (IC 50 , μM) against cancer cell lines: HL-60 (25.9 ± 0.3), HCT8 (34.6 ± 3.6), MDA-MB435 (34.8 ± 3.8) and SF295 (31.1 ± 0.6). Considering that other pyridone compounds display good cytotoxic activity, it would be suggested to obtain new semi synthetic derivatives of pyridovericin, for the development of new cytotoxic chemical entities.

  9. Rhodium(I)-Complexes Catalyzed 1,4-Conjugate Addition of Arylzinc Chlorides to N-Boc-4-pyridone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fenghai; McGilvary, Matthew A; Jeffries, Malcolm C; Graves, Briana N; Graham, Shekinah A; Wu, Yuelin

    2017-05-01

    Rhodium(I)-complexes catalyzed the 1,4-conjugate addition of arylzinc chlorides to N -Boc-4-pyridone in the presence of chlorotrimethylsilane (TMSCl). A combination of [RhCl(C₂H₄)₂]₂ and BINAP was determined to be the most effective catalyst to promote the 1,4-conjugate addition reactions of arylzinc chlorides to N -Boc-4-pyridone. A broad scope of arylzinc reagents with both electron-withdrawing and electron-donating substituents on the aromatic ring successfully underwent 1,4-conjugate addition to N -Boc-4-pyridone to afford versatile 1,4-adducts 2-substituted-2,3-dihydropyridones in good to excellent yields (up to 91%) and excellent ee (up to 96%) when ( S )-BINAP was used as chiral ligand.

  10. Pyridones as NNRTIs against HIV-1 mutants: 3D-QSAR and protein informatics

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    Debnath, Utsab; Verma, Saroj; Jain, Surabhi; Katti, Setu B.; Prabhakar, Yenamandra S.

    2013-07-01

    CoMFA and CoMSIA based 3D-QSAR of HIV-1 RT wild and mutant (K103, Y181C, and Y188L) inhibitory activities of 4-benzyl/benzoyl pyridin-2-ones followed by protein informatics of corresponding non-nucleoside inhibitors' binding pockets from pdbs 2BAN, 3MED, 1JKH, and 2YNF were analysed to discover consensus features of the compounds for broad-spectrum activity. The CoMFA/CoMSIA models indicated that compounds with groups which lend steric-cum-electropositive fields in the vicinity of C5, hydrophobic field in the vicinity of C3 of pyridone region and steric field in aryl region produce broad-spectrum anti-HIV-1 RT activity. Also, a linker rendering electronegative field between pyridone and aryl moieties is common requirement for the activities. The protein informatics showed considerable alteration in residues 181 and 188 characteristics on mutation. Also, mutants' isoelectric points shifted in acidic direction. The study offered fresh avenues for broad-spectrum anti-HIV-1 agents through designing new molecules seeded with groups satisfying common molecular fields and concerns of mutating residues.

  11. A green approach to the production of 2-pyridone derivatives promoted by infrared irradiation

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    Hernandez, F.; De la Cruz, F.; Lopez, J.; Pena, E.; Vazquez, M. A. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Dapartamento de Quimica, Noria Alta s/n, 36050 Guanajuato, Gto. (Mexico); Delgado, F. [IPN, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, Departamento de Quimica Organica, Prol. Carpio y Plan de Ayala s/n, 11340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Alcaraz, Y.; FRobles, J.; Martinez A, M., E-mail: mvazquez@ugto.mx [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Farmacia, Noria Alta s/n, 36050 Guanajuato, Gto. (Mexico)

    2014-10-01

    An alternative is presented by promoting a reaction with infrared irradiation to obtain different 4-aryl-3-cyano-5-ethoxycarbonyl-6-methyl-2-pyridone derivatives 9 a-k. The process was carried out with a green approach from the corresponding 4 H-pyrans, using mild reaction conditions and infrared irradiation as the energy source. In the first stage, the reaction produced 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine-2-one derivatives 8 a-k, followed by an oxidative step to afford the target molecules in good yields. The structure of products 9 a-k was confirmed by Ft-IR, {sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopic techniques and X-ray diffraction. It was found that the efficiency of the reaction depends on the catalyst and the solvent, as well as on the aldehyde substituents. (Author)

  12. A green approach to the production of 2-pyridone derivatives promoted by infrared irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, F.; De la Cruz, F.; Lopez, J.; Pena, E.; Vazquez, M. A.; Delgado, F.; Alcaraz, Y.; FRobles, J.; Martinez A, M.

    2014-01-01

    An alternative is presented by promoting a reaction with infrared irradiation to obtain different 4-aryl-3-cyano-5-ethoxycarbonyl-6-methyl-2-pyridone derivatives 9 a-k. The process was carried out with a green approach from the corresponding 4 H-pyrans, using mild reaction conditions and infrared irradiation as the energy source. In the first stage, the reaction produced 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine-2-one derivatives 8 a-k, followed by an oxidative step to afford the target molecules in good yields. The structure of products 9 a-k was confirmed by Ft-IR, 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR spectroscopic techniques and X-ray diffraction. It was found that the efficiency of the reaction depends on the catalyst and the solvent, as well as on the aldehyde substituents. (Author)

  13. Synthesis, structure and solvatochromic properties of some novel 5-arylazo-6-hydroxy-4-phenyl-3-cyano-2-pyridone dyes

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    Alimmari Adel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A series of some novel arylazo pyridone dyes was synthesized from the corresponding diazonium salt and 6-hydroxy-4-phenyl-3-cyano-2-pyridone using a classical reaction for the synthesis of the azo compounds. Results The structure of the dyes was confirmed by UV-vis, FT-IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopic techniques and elemental analysis. The solvatochromic behavior of the dyes was evaluated with respect to their visible absorption properties in various solvents. Conclusions The azo-hydrazone tautomeric equilibration was found to depend on the substituents as well as on the solvent. The geometry data of the investigated dyes were obtained using DFT quantum-chemical calculations. The obtained calculational results are in very good agreement with the experimental data.

  14. Biomolecule Analogues 2-Hydroxypyridine and 2-Pyridone Base Pairing on Ice Nanoparticles.

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    Rubovič, Peter; Pysanenko, Andriy; Lengyel, Jozef; Nachtigallová, Dana; Fárník, Michal

    2016-07-14

    Ice nanoparticles (H2O)N, N ≈ 450 generated in a molecular beam experiment pick up individual gas phase molecules of 2-hydroxypyridine and 2-pyridone (HP) evaporated in a pickup cell at temperatures between 298 and 343 K. The mass spectra of the doped nanoparticles show evidence for generation of clusters of adsorbed molecules (HP)n up to n = 8. The clusters are ionized either by 70 eV electrons or by two photons at 315 nm (3.94 eV). The two ionization methods yield different spectra, and their comparison provides an insight into the neutral cluster composition, ionization and intracluster ion-molecule reactions, and cluster fragmentation. Quite a few molecules were reported not to coagulate on ice nanoparticles previously. The (HP)n cluster generation on ice nanoparticles represents the first evidence for coagulating of molecules and cluster formation on free ice nanoparticles. For comparison, we investigate the coagulation of HP molecules picked up on large clusters ArN, N ≈ 205, and also (HP)n clusters generated in supersonic expansions with Ar buffer gas. This comparison points to a propensity for the (HP)2 dimer generation on ice nanoparticles. This shows the feasibility of base pairing for model of biological molecules on free ice nanoparticles. This result is important for hypotheses of the biomolecule synthesis on ice grains in the space. We support our findings by theoretical calculations that show, among others, the HP dimer structures on water clusters.

  15. Synthesis, structure and solvatochromic properties of 3-cyano-4,6-diphenyl-5-(3- and 4-substituted phenylazo-2-pyridones

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    NINA TODOROVIĆ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of some new pyridone arylazo dyes was synthesized from the corresponding diazonium salts and 3-cyano-4,6-diphenyl-2-pyridone using the classical reaction for the synthesis of the azo compounds. The structures of these dyes were confirmed by UV–Vis, FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectroscopic techniques. The solvatochromism of the dyes was evaluated with respect to visible absorption properties in various solvents. The effects of solvent dipolarity/polarizability and solvent/solute hydrogen bonding interactions were analyzed by means of the linear solvation energy relationship concept proposed by Kamlet and Taft. The 2-pyridone/2-hydroxypiridine tautomeric equilibration was found to depend on the substituents as well as on the solvents.

  16. Synthesis and investigation of solvent effects on the ultraviolet absorption spectra of 5-substituted-4-methyl-3-cyano-6-hydroxy-2-pyridones

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    NATASA V. VALENTIC

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A number of 5-substituted-4-methyl-3-cyano-6-hydroxy-2-pyridones from cyanoacetamide and the corresponding alkyl ethyl acetoacetates were synthesized according to modified literature procedures. The alkyl ethyl acetoacetates were obtained by the reaction of C-alkylation of ethyl acetoacetate. An investigation of the reaction conditions for the synthesis of 4-methyl-3-cyano-6-hydroxy-2-pyridone from cyanoacetamide and ethyl acetoacetate in eight different solvents was also performed. The ultraviolet absorption spectra of synthesized pyridones were measured in nine different solvents in the range 200–400 nm. The effects of solvent polarity and hydrogen bonding on the absorption spectra are interpreted by means of linear solvation energy relationships using a general equation of the form n = n0 + sp* + aa + bb, where p* is a measure of the solvent polarity, a is the scale of the solvent hydrogen bond donor acidities and b is the scale of the solvent hydrogen bond acceptor basicities.

  17. Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis of substituted arylazo pyridone dyes in photocatalytic system: Experimental and theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dostanić, J., E-mail: jasmina@nanosys.ihtm.bg.ac.rs [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Catalysis and Chemical Engineering, Njegoševa 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Lončarević, D. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Catalysis and Chemical Engineering, Njegoševa 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Zlatar, M. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Chemistry, Njegoševa 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Vlahović, F. [University of Belgrade, Innovation center of the Faculty of Chemistry, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Jovanović, D.M. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Catalysis and Chemical Engineering, Njegoševa 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2016-10-05

    Highlights: • Electronic effects of para substituted arylazo pyridone dyes. • Linear relationship between Hammett σ{sub p} constants and dyes photoreactivity. • The photocatalytic reactions facilitated by el.-acceptors and retarded by el.-donors. • Fukui functions to analyze the reactivity on concurrent sites within a molecule. • Hydroxyl radicals sustain attack from two reaction sites, depending on a substituent type. - Abstract: A series of arylazo pyridone dyes was synthesized by changing the type of the substituent group in the diazo moiety, ranging from strong electron-donating to strong electron-withdrawing groups. The structural and electronic properties of the investigated dyes was calculated at the M062X/6-31 + G(d,p) level of theory. The observed good linear correlations between atomic charges and Hammett σ{sub p} constants provided a basis to discuss the transmission of electronic substituent effects through a dye framework. The reactivity of synthesized dyes was tested through their decolorization efficiency in TiO{sub 2} photocatalytic system (Degussa P-25). Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis revealed a strong correlation between reactivity of investigated dyes and Hammett substituent constants. The reaction was facilitated by electron-withdrawing groups, and retarded by electron-donating ones. Quantum mechanical calculations was used in order to describe the mechanism of the photocatalytic oxidation reactions of investigated dyes and interpret their reactivities within the framework of the Density Functional Theory (DFT). According to DFT based reactivity descriptors, i.e. Fukui functions and local softness, the active site moves from azo nitrogen atom linked to benzene ring to pyridone carbon atom linked to azo bond, going from dyes with electron-donating groups to dyes with electron-withdrawing groups.

  18. Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis of substituted arylazo pyridone dyes in photocatalytic system: Experimental and theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dostanić, J.; Lončarević, D.; Zlatar, M.; Vlahović, F.; Jovanović, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electronic effects of para substituted arylazo pyridone dyes. • Linear relationship between Hammett σ_p constants and dyes photoreactivity. • The photocatalytic reactions facilitated by el.-acceptors and retarded by el.-donors. • Fukui functions to analyze the reactivity on concurrent sites within a molecule. • Hydroxyl radicals sustain attack from two reaction sites, depending on a substituent type. - Abstract: A series of arylazo pyridone dyes was synthesized by changing the type of the substituent group in the diazo moiety, ranging from strong electron-donating to strong electron-withdrawing groups. The structural and electronic properties of the investigated dyes was calculated at the M062X/6-31 + G(d,p) level of theory. The observed good linear correlations between atomic charges and Hammett σ_p constants provided a basis to discuss the transmission of electronic substituent effects through a dye framework. The reactivity of synthesized dyes was tested through their decolorization efficiency in TiO_2 photocatalytic system (Degussa P-25). Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis revealed a strong correlation between reactivity of investigated dyes and Hammett substituent constants. The reaction was facilitated by electron-withdrawing groups, and retarded by electron-donating ones. Quantum mechanical calculations was used in order to describe the mechanism of the photocatalytic oxidation reactions of investigated dyes and interpret their reactivities within the framework of the Density Functional Theory (DFT). According to DFT based reactivity descriptors, i.e. Fukui functions and local softness, the active site moves from azo nitrogen atom linked to benzene ring to pyridone carbon atom linked to azo bond, going from dyes with electron-donating groups to dyes with electron-withdrawing groups.

  19. Modulation of α-synuclein fibrillization by ring-fused 2-pyridones: templation and inhibition involve oligomers with different structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Istvan; Sellstedt, Magnus; Weise, Christoph; Nordvall, Lina-Maria; Krishna Prasad, G; Olofsson, Anders; Larsson, Göran; Almqvist, Fredrik; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla

    2013-04-15

    In a recent study we discovered that a ring-fused 2-pyridone compound triggered fibrillization of a key protein in Parkinson's disease, α-synuclein. To reveal how variations in compound structure affect protein aggregation, we now prepared a number of strategic analogs and tested their effects on α-synuclein amyloid fiber formation in vitro. We find that, in contrast to the earlier templating effect, some analogs inhibit α-synuclein fibrillization. For both templating and inhibiting compounds, the key species formed in the reactions are α-synuclein oligomers that contain compound. Despite similar macroscopic appearance, the templating and inhibiting oligomers are distinctly different in secondary structure content. When the inhibitory oligomers are added in seed amounts, they inhibit fresh α-synuclein aggregation reactions. Our study demonstrates that small chemical changes to the same central fragment can result in opposite effects on protein aggregation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. CB 1/2 dual agonists with 3-carbamoyl 2-pyridone derivatives as antipruritics: reduction of CNS side effects by introducing polar functional groups.

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    Odan, Masahide; Ishizuka, Natsuki; Hiramatsu, Yoshiharu; Inagaki, Masanao; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Mitsumori, Susumu; Morioka, Yasuhide; Soga, Masahiko; Deguchi, Masashi; Yasui, Kiyoshi; Arimura, Akinori

    2012-04-15

    Our lead compound 1 showed high affinity for both CB1 and CB2 receptors, suggesting the possibility of inducing psychoactive side effects through the CB1 receptor in the brain. To solve this issue, polar functional groups were introduced at the 3-position of the pyridone core of compound 1 to find CB1/2 dual agonists such as 17 and 20 which did not show any CNS side effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Some Novel Thiazole, Pyridone, Pyrazole, Chromene, Hydrazone Derivatives Bearing a Biologically Active Sulfonamide Moiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Elham S.; Abdel Fattah, Azza M.; Attaby, Fawzy A.; Al-Shayea, Oqba N.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed for the synthesis of new heterocyclic compounds incorporating sulfamoyl moiety suitable for use as antimicrobial agents via a versatile, readily accessible N-[4-(aminosulfonyl)phenyl]-2-cyanoacetamide (3). The 2-pyridone derivatives were obtained via reaction of cyanoacetamide with acetylacetone or arylidenes malononitrile. Cycloaddition reaction of cyanoacetamide with salicyaldehyde furnished chromene derivatives. Diazotization of 3 with the desired diazonium chloride gave the hydrazone derivatives 13a–e. Also, the reactivity of the hydrazone towards hydrazine hydrate to give Pyrazole derivatives was studied. In addition, treatment of 3 with elemental sulfur and phenyl isothiocyanate or malononitrile furnished thiazole and thiophene derivatives respectively. Reaction of 3 with phenyl isothiocyanate and KOH in DMF afforded the intermediate salt 17 which reacted in situ with 3-(2-bromoacetyl)-2H-chromen-2-one and methyl iodide afforded the thiazole and ketene N,S-acetal derivatives respectively. Finally, reaction of 3 with carbon disulfide and 1,3-dibromopropane afforded the N-[4-(aminosulfonyl) phenyl]-2-cyano-2-(1,3-dithian-2-ylidene)acetamide product 22. All newly synthesized compounds were elucidated by considering the data of both elemental and spectral analysis. The compounds were evaluated for both their in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities and showed promising results. PMID:24445259

  2. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Some Novel Thiazole, Pyridone, Pyrazole, Chromene, Hydrazone Derivatives Bearing a Biologically Active Sulfonamide Moiety

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    Elham S. Darwish

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed for the synthesis of new heterocyclic compounds incorporating sulfamoyl moiety suitable for use as antimicrobial agents via a versatile, readily accessible N-[4-(aminosulfonylphenyl]-2-cyanoacetamide (3. The 2-pyridone derivatives were obtained via reaction of cyanoacetamide with acetylacetone or arylidenes malononitrile. Cycloaddition reaction of cyanoacetamide with salicyaldehyde furnished chromene derivatives. Diazotization of 3 with the desired diazonium chloride gave the hydrazone derivatives 13a–e. Also, the reactivity of the hydrazone towards hydrazine hydrate to give Pyrazole derivatives was studied. In addition, treatment of 3 with elemental sulfur and phenyl isothiocyanate or malononitrile furnished thiazole and thiophene derivatives respectively. Reaction of 3 with phenyl isothiocyanate and KOH in DMF afforded the intermediate salt 17 which reacted in situ with 3-(2-bromoacetyl-2H-chromen-2-one and methyl iodide afforded the thiazole and ketene N,S-acetal derivatives respectively. Finally, reaction of 3 with carbon disulfide and 1,3-dibromopropane afforded the N-[4-(aminosulfonyl phenyl]-2-cyano-2-(1,3-dithian-2-ylideneacetamide product 22. All newly synthesized compounds were elucidated by considering the data of both elemental and spectral analysis. The compounds were evaluated for both their in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities and showed promising results.

  3. New α-Pyridones with Quorum-Sensing Inhibitory Activity from Diversity-Enhanced Extracts of a Streptomyces sp. Derived from Marine Algae.

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    Du, Yuqi; Sun, Jian; Gong, Qianhong; Wang, Yi; Fu, Peng; Zhu, Weiming

    2018-02-28

    Four new α-pyrones (1-4) and eight known analogues (5-12) were identified from the secondary metabolites of Streptomyces sp. OUCMDZ-3436 derived from the marine green algae Enteromorpha prolifera. Seven new α-pyridones (14-20) were constructed by diversity-oriented synthesis, which has been an effective approach to expanding the chemical space of natural-product-like compounds. Compounds 16, 17, 19, and 20 were found to have inhibitory effect on the gene expression controlled by quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa QSIS-lasI.

  4. 4(1H)-Pyridone and 4(1H)-Quinolone Derivatives as Antimalarials with Erythrocytic, Exoerythrocytic, and Transmission Blocking Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastyrskyi, Andrii; Kyle, Dennis E.; Manetsch, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases are the second leading cause of deaths in the world with malaria being responsible for approximately the same amount of deaths as cancer in 2012. Despite the success in malaria prevention and control measures decreasing the disease mortality rate by 45% since 2000, the development of single-dose therapeutics with radical cure potential is required to completely eradicate this deadly condition. Targeting multiple stages of the malaria parasite is becoming a primary requirement for new candidates in antimalarial drug discovery and development. Recently, 4(1H)-pyridone, 4(1H)-quinolone, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridone, and phenoxyethoxy-4(1H)-quinolone chemotypes have been shown to be antimalarials with blood stage activity, liver stage activity, and transmission blocking activity. Advancements in structure-activity relationship and structure-property relationship studies, biological evaluation in vitro and in vivo, as well as pharmacokinetics of the 4(1H)-pyridone and 4(1H)-quinolone chemotypes will be discussed. PMID:25116582

  5. Physico - chemical investigation on Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), UO2+2 and VO+2 ions-O-(-N-3,5-dichloro-α-pyridone imino)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Praveen; Trivedi, Pradeep; Mehta, R.K.

    1983-01-01

    Studies on the interaction of newly synthesised ligand, O-(N-3, 5-dichloro-α-pyridone imino) benzene sulphonic acid (H 2 PB) with Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), UO 2 +2 and VO +2 have been carried out potentiometrically. Many physico-chemical studies on thermodynamics, elemental analysis, molecular weight, magnetic moment, conductance, electronic and IR spectra have also been made on the solid chelates and their adducts. The dissociation constants of H 2 PB and stabilities of its bivalent chelates have been evaluated potentiometrically at 25deg, 35deg and 45degC in aqueous medium (0.01M, 0.05M and 0.1M NaClO 4 ) by Bjerrum's method. The stability sequence is in agreement with the Irving-William's rule. (author)

  6. 4-Pyridone-3-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribonucleoside Triphosphate (4PyTP, a Novel NAD+ Metabolite Accumulating in Erythrocytes of Uremic Children: A Biomarker for a Toxic NAD+ Analogue in Other Tissues?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Carrey

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We have identified a novel nucleotide, 4-pyridone 3/5-carboxamide ribonucleoside triphosphate (4PyTP, which accumulates in human erythrocytes during renal failure. Using plasma and erythrocyte extracts obtained from children with chronic renal failure we show that the concentration of 4PyTP is increased, as well as other soluble NAD+ metabolites (nicotinamide, N1-methylnicotinamide and 4Py-riboside and the major nicotinamide metabolite N1-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2PY, with increasing degrees of renal failure. We noted that 2PY concentration was highest in the plasma of haemodialysis patients, while 4PyTP was highest in erythrocytes of children undergoing peritoneal dialysis: its concentration correlated closely with 4Py-riboside, an authentic precursor of 4PyTP, in the plasma. In the dialysis patients, GTP concentration was elevated: similar accumulation was noted previously, as a paradoxical effect in erythrocytes during treatment with immunosuppressants such as ribavirin and mycophenolate mofetil, which deplete GTP through inhibition of IMP dehydrogenase in nucleated cells such as lymphocytes. We predict that 4Py-riboside and 4Py-nucleotides bind to this enzyme and alter its activity. The enzymes that regenerate NAD+ from nicotinamide riboside also convert the drugs tiazofurin and benzamide riboside into NAD+ analogues that inhibit IMP dehydrogenase more effectively than the related ribosides: we therefore propose that the accumulation of 4PyTP in erythrocytes during renal failure is a marker for the accumulation of a related toxic NAD+ analogue that inhibits IMP dehydrogenase in other cells.

  7. Expeditious synthesis of coumarin-pyridone conjugates molecules ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RAJNI KHAJURIA

    2017-09-06

    Sep 6, 2017 ... Compound 2k showed good inhibitory potential against the tested yeasts organisms. ... HO. O. Me. OH. Pavietin. Anti-fungal. N. O. ABT 719. Anti-bacterial. F. Me. N ...... 2-one1a-ounderwent NH4OAc catalyzed Michael addi-.

  8. Biomolecule Analogues 2-Hydroxypyridine and 2-Pyridone Base Pairing on Ice Nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rubovič, Peter; Pysanenko, Andriy; Lengyel, Jozef; Nachtigallová, Dana; Fárník, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 27 (2016), s. 4720-4730 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-14082S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : doped nanoparticles * argon * biomolecule s Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.847, year: 2016

  9. Locations and Reorientations of Multi-Ring-Fused 2-Pyridones in Ganglioside G(M1) Micelles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šachl, Radek; Rosenbaum, E.; Sellstedt, M.; Almqvist, F.; Johansson, L. B. A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 5 (2011), s. 1662-1667 ISSN 0743-7463 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/1090 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : direct energy transfer * fluorescent probe * polymer mycelles Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.186, year: 2011

  10. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of chromone-linked 2-pyridone fused with 1,2,4-triazoles, 1,2,4-triazines and 1,2,4-triazepines ring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Tarik El-Sayed; Ibrahim, Magdy Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Three series of novel fused nitrogen heterocyclic systems such as 1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a ] pyridines (5-7 and 9), pyrido[1,2-b][1,2,4]triazines (10, 11, 13 and 15), and pyrido[1,2-b][1,2,4]triazepines (17, 18, 20 and 22) linked with a chromone moiety were synthesized from the key intermediate 1,6-diamino-(6-chloro-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3,5- dicarbonitrile (4) with some electrophilic reagents. The structures of the novel compounds were established by elemental analyses and spectral data. All the products were also screened in vitro for their antimicrobial activity. Compounds 7, 9 and 15 showed the highest activities when compared with the reference drugs. (author)

  11. Discovery of new nanomolar inhibitors of GPa: Extension of 2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridinyl-3-yl amide-based GPa inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, Wendy A; Jenkins, Ian D; Karis, N David; Healy, Peter C

    2017-02-15

    Glycogen Phosphorylase (GP) is a functionally active dimeric enzyme, which is a target for inhibition of the conversion of glycogen to glucose-1-phosphate. In this study we report the design and synthesis of 14 new pyridone derivatives, and seek to extend the SAR analysis of these compounds. The SAR revealed the minor influence of the amide group, importance of the pyridone ring both spatially around the pyridine ring and for possible π-stacking, and confirmed a preference for inclusion of 3,4-dichlorobenzyl moieties, as bookends to the pyridone scaffold. Upon exploring a dimer strategy as part of the SAR analysis, the first extended 2-oxo-dihydropyridinyl-3-yl amide nanomolar based inhibitors of GPa (IC 50  = 230 and 260 nM) were identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Taichunamides: Prenylated Indole Alkaloids from Aspergillus taichungensis (IBT 19404)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagiyama, Ippei; Kato, Hikaru; Nehira, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Seven new prenylated indole alkaloids, taichunamides A–G, were isolated from the fungus Aspergillus taichungensis (IBT 19404). Taichunamides A and B contained an azetidine and 4‐pyridone units, respectively, and are likely biosynthesized from notoamide S via (+)‐6‐epi‐stephacidin A. Taichunamides...... these cores within the three species likely arise from an intramolecular hetero Diels–Alder reaction....

  13. Multicomponent ternary cocrystals of the sulfonamide group with pyridine-amides and lactams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini

    2015-11-04

    SMBA was selected as a bifunctional sulfa drug to design ternary cocrystals with pyridine amides and lactam coformers. Supramolecular assembly of five ternary cocrystals of p-sulfonamide benzoic acid with nicotinamide and 2-pyridone is demonstrated and reproducible heterosynthons are identified for crystal engineering.

  14. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 125; Issue 6. Mesostructured SBA-15-Pr-SO3H: An efficient solid acid catalyst for one-pot and solvent-free synthesis of 3,4-dihydro-2-pyridone derivatives. Ghodsi Mohammadi Ziarani Somayeh Mousavi Negar Lashgari Alireza Badiei. Regular Articles Volume 125 ...

  15. Diastereoselective multicomponent synthesis of dihydropyridones with an isocyanide functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paravidino, M.; Bon, R.S.; Scheffelaar, R.; Vugts, D.J.; Znabet, A.; Schmitz, R.F.; de Kanter, F.J.J.; Lutz, M.; Spek, A.L; Groen, M.B.; Orru, R.V.A.

    2006-01-01

    In a search for new multicomponent strategies leading to valuable small heterocycles, a new highly diastereoselective four-component reaction (4CR) was found in which a phosphonate, nitriles, aldehydes, and isocyanoacetates combine to afford functionalized 3-isocyano-3,4-dihydro-2-pyridones. In this

  16. Binary and ternary cocrystals of sulfa drug acetazolamide with pyridine carboxamides and cyclic amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini

    2016-03-01

    A novel design strategy for cocrystals of a sulfonamide drug with pyridine carboxamides and cyclic amides is developed based on synthon identification as well as size and shape match of coformers. Binary adducts of acetazolamide (ACZ) with lactams (valerolactam and caprolactam, VLM, CPR), cyclic amides (2-pyridone, labeled as 2HP and its derivatives MeHP, OMeHP) and pyridine amides (nicotinamide and picolinamide, NAM, PAM) were obtained by manual grinding, and their single crystals by solution crystallization. The heterosynthons in the binary cocrystals of ACZ with these coformers suggested a ternary combination for ACZ with pyridone and nicotinamide. Novel supramolecular synthons of ACZ with lactams and pyridine carboxamides are reported together with binary and ternary cocrystals for a sulfonamide drug. This crystal engineering study resulted in the first ternary cocrystal of acetazolamide with amide coformers, ACZ-NAM-2HP (1:1:1).

  17. Binary and ternary cocrystals of sulfa drug acetazolamide with pyridine carboxamides and cyclic amides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Bolla

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel design strategy for cocrystals of a sulfonamide drug with pyridine carboxamides and cyclic amides is developed based on synthon identification as well as size and shape match of coformers. Binary adducts of acetazolamide (ACZ with lactams (valerolactam and caprolactam, VLM, CPR, cyclic amides (2-pyridone, labeled as 2HP and its derivatives MeHP, OMeHP and pyridine amides (nicotinamide and picolinamide, NAM, PAM were obtained by manual grinding, and their single crystals by solution crystallization. The heterosynthons in the binary cocrystals of ACZ with these coformers suggested a ternary combination for ACZ with pyridone and nicotinamide. Novel supramolecular synthons of ACZ with lactams and pyridine carboxamides are reported together with binary and ternary cocrystals for a sulfonamide drug. This crystal engineering study resulted in the first ternary cocrystal of acetazolamide with amide coformers, ACZ–NAM–2HP (1:1:1.

  18. Cyanoacetanilides intermediates in heterocyclic synthesis. Part 6: Preparation of some hitherto unknown 2-oxopyridine, bipyridine, isoquinoline and chromeno[3,4-c]pyridine containing sulfonamide moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousry A. Ammar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of cyanoacetanilide derivative 1 with tetracyanoethylene (2 in dioxane/triethylamine furnished 2-pyridone derivative 6. Aminopyridine 9 was obtained by cyclization of compound 1 with ketene dithioacetal 7/EtONa. Cyclocondensation of 1 with malononitrile and/or acetylacetone (1:1 M ratio gave pyridine derivatives 11 and 13. Ternary condensation of compound 1, aliphatic aldehydes and malononitrile (1:1:1 M ratio yielded the 2-pyridones 20a and b. Bipyridines 22a–c were prepared by refluxing of compound 21 with active methylene reagents. Cyclization of chromene derivatives 24 and 28 with malononitrile produced the novel chromeno[3,4-c]pyridine 26 and pyrano[3′,2′:6,7]chromeno[3,4-c]pyridine 29.

  19. A Novel Non-Peptidic Agonist of the Ghrelin Receptor with Orexigenic Activity In vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Cavada, Elena; Pardo, Leticia M.; Kandil, Dalia; Torres-Fuentes, Cristina; Clarke, Sarah L.; Shaban, Hamdy; McGlacken, Gerard P.; Schellekens, Harriet

    2016-11-01

    Loss of appetite in the medically ill and ageing populations is a major health problem and a significant symptom in cachexia syndromes, which is the loss of muscle and fat mass. Ghrelin is a gut-derived hormone which can stimulate appetite. Herein we describe a novel, simple, non-peptidic, 2-pyridone which acts as a selective agonist for the ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a). The small 2-pyridone demonstrated clear agonistic activity in both transfected human cells and mouse hypothalamic cells with endogenous GHS-R1a receptor expression. In vivo tests with the hit compound showed significant increased food intake following peripheral administration, which highlights the potent orexigenic effect of this novel GHS-R1a receptor ligand.

  20. The discovery of glycine and related amino acid-based factor Xa inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohrt, Jeffrey T.; Filipski, Kevin J.; Cody, Wayne L.; Bigge, Christopher F.; La, Frances; Welch, Kathleen; Dahring, Tawny; Bryant, John W.; Leonard, Daniele; Bolton, Gary; Narasimhan, Lakshmi; Zhang, Erli; Peterson, J. Thomas; Haarer, Staci; Sahasrabudhe, Vaishali; Janiczek, Nancy; Desiraju, Shrilakshmi; Hena, Mostofa; Fiakpui, Charles; Saraswat, Neerja; Sharma, Raman; Sun, Shaoyi; Maiti, Samarendra N.; Leadley, Robert; Edmunds, Jeremy J. (Naeja); (Pfizer)

    2010-12-03

    Herein, we report on the identification of three potent glycine and related amino acid-based series of FXa inhibitors containing a neutral P1 chlorophenyl pharmacophore. A X-ray crystal structure has shown that constrained glycine derivatives with optimized N-substitution can greatly increase hydrophobic interactions in the FXa active site. Also, the substitution of a pyridone ring for a phenylsulfone ring in the P4 sidechain resulted in an inhibitor with enhanced oral bioavailability.

  1. Binary and ternary cocrystals of sulfa drug acetazolamide with pyridine carboxamides and cyclic amides

    OpenAIRE

    Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini

    2016-01-01

    A novel design strategy for cocrystals of a sulfonamide drug with pyridine carboxamides and cyclic amides is developed based on synthon identification as well as size and shape match of coformers. Binary adducts of acetazolamide (ACZ) with lactams (valerolactam and caprolactam, VLM, CPR), cyclic amides (2-pyridone, labeled as 2HP and its derivatives MeHP, OMeHP) and pyridine amides (nicotinamide and picolinamide, NAM, PAM) were obtained by manual grinding, and their single crystals by solutio...

  2. Pharmacokinetics of pirfenidone after topical administration in rabbit eye

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Guoying; Lin, Xianchai; Zhong, Hua; Yang, Yangfan; Qiu, Xuan; Ye, Chengtian; Wu, Kaili; Yu, Minbin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Pirfenidone (5-methyl-1-phenyl-2-[1H]-pyridone) is a new, broad-spectrum agent that has an inhibition effect on the proliferation, migration, and collagen contraction of human Tenon’s fibroblasts, and thus modulating the wound healing process of glaucoma filtering surgical site. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of topically administered pirfenidone (0.5%) in rabbit eyes. Methods Pirfenidone solution (50 μl) was instilled into the rabbit’s conjunctival sac. The rabbits were...

  3. Efficient sonochemical synthesis of alkyl 4-aryl-6-chloro-5-formyl-2-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3-carboxylate derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Enrique; Rodríguez, Hortensia; Coro, Julieta; Niebla, Vladimir; Rodríguez, Alfredo; Martínez-Alvarez, Roberto; de Armas, Hector Novoa; Suárez, Margarita; Martín, Nazario

    2012-03-01

    A facile, efficient and environment-friendly protocol for the synthesis of 6-chloro-5-formyl-1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives has been developed by the convenient ultrasound-mediated reaction of 2(1H)pyridone derivatives with the Vilsmeier-Haack reagent. This method provides several advantages over current reaction methodologies including a simpler work-up procedure, shorter reaction times and higher yields. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Studies on solution conformations and mechanism of action of amrinone and milrinone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedle, E.E.; Elzey, T.K.; Kauffman, R.F.; Hayes, J.S.; Robertson, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    There are two structural differences between the positive inotropes amrinone (A) and milrinone (M): (1) M has a pyridone 2-methyl substituent and; (2) the pyridone 5-amino substituent of A is replaced with a nitrile in M. SAR studies confirmed that the 2-methyl substituent is responsible for the dramatically increased potency of M relative to A (canine i.v. ED 50 's=37 and 1891 μg/kg, respectively). Both M and A inhibited canine heart PDEase III (IC 50 's=12 and 150μM, respectively). Moreover, in a series of M/A congeners, the correlation between in vitro PDEase III IC 50 's and in vivo inotropic ED 50 's was highly significant (r = 0.98, p 13 C- and 1 H-NMR spectra of A and M and have used the chemical shifts of the pyridone C-4 protons as conformational reporters. These studies revealed that the C-4 protons of methyl containing congeners (M-like) experience a 0.38-0.53 ppm upfield shift relative to the corresponding proton resonance in unmethylated congeners (A-like). These data suggest there are marked, methyl-induced differences in the solution conformations of A and M

  5. Studies on solution conformations and mechanism of action of amrinone and milrinone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beedle, E.E.; Elzey, T.K.; Kauffman, R.F.; Hayes, J.S.; Robertson, D.W.

    1986-03-05

    There are two structural differences between the positive inotropes amrinone (A) and milrinone (M): (1) M has a pyridone 2-methyl substituent and; (2) the pyridone 5-amino substituent of A is replaced with a nitrile in M. SAR studies confirmed that the 2-methyl substituent is responsible for the dramatically increased potency of M relative to A (canine i.v. ED/sub 50/'s=37 and 1891 ..mu..g/kg, respectively). Both M and A inhibited canine heart PDEase III (IC/sub 50/'s=12 and 150..mu..M, respectively). Moreover, in a series of M/A congeners, the correlation between in vitro PDEase III IC/sub 50/'s and in vivo inotropic ED/sub 50/'s was highly significant (r = 0.98, p < 0.01). In the crystal-state, the methyl substituent of M induces a marked alteration in its 3-dimensional topology relative to A. They have now completely assigned the /sup 13/C- and /sup 1/H-NMR spectra of A and M and have used the chemical shifts of the pyridone C-4 protons as conformational reporters. These studies revealed that the C-4 protons of methyl containing congeners (M-like) experience a 0.38-0.53 ppm upfield shift relative to the corresponding proton resonance in unmethylated congeners (A-like). These data suggest there are marked, methyl-induced differences in the solution conformations of A and M.

  6. Reaction of acyclic enaminones with methoxymethylene meldrum's acid: synthetic and structural implications

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha,Silvio; Silva,Viviane C. da; Napolitano,Hamilton B.; Lariucci,Carlito; Vencato,Ivo

    2003-01-01

    The reaction of acyclic enaminones with methoxymethylene Meldrum's acid afforded N-adduct and/or C-adduct of enaminones in moderate to good yields. The regiochemistry of this reaction depends on the N-amino substituent of the enaminone. The C-adduct is a precursor to 2-pyridones. X-ray analysis of two N-adducts were investigated and the Z-s-Z configuration assigned. A reação de enaminonas com o derivado metoximetilênico do ácido de Meldrum forneceu N-adutos e/ou C-adutos das enaminonas, em...

  7. Anxiogenic properties of an inverse agonist selective for α3 subunit-containing GABAA receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Atack, John R; Hutson, Peter H; Collinson, Neil; Marshall, George; Bentley, Graham; Moyes, Christopher; Cook, Susan M; Collins, Ian; Wafford, Keith; McKernan, Ruth M; Dawson, Gerard R

    2005-01-01

    α3IA (6-(4-pyridyl)-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-carbomethoxy-1-methyl-1H-pyridin-2-one) is a pyridone with higher binding and functional affinity and greater inverse agonist efficacy for GABAA receptors containing an α3 rather than an α1, α2 or α5 subunit. If doses are selected that minimise the occupancy at these latter subtypes, then the in vivo effects of α3IA are most probably mediated by the α3 subtype.α3IA has good CNS penetration in rats and mice as measured using a [3H]Ro 15-1788 in vivo bi...

  8. Early metabolic adaptation in C57BL/6 mice resistant to high fat diet induced weight gain involves an activation of mitochondrial oxidative pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulangé, Claire L; Claus, Sandrine P; Chou, Chieh J; Collino, Sebastiano; Montoliu, Ivan; Kochhar, Sunil; Holmes, Elaine; Rezzi, Serge; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Dumas, Marc E; Martin, François-Pierre J

    2013-04-05

    We investigated the short-term (7 days) and long-term (60 days) metabolic effect of high fat diet induced obesity (DIO) and weight gain in isogenic C57BL/6 mice and examined the specific metabolic differentiation between mice that were either strong-responders (SR), or non-responders (NR) to weight gain. Mice (n = 80) were fed a standard chow diet for 7 days prior to randomization into a high-fat (HF) (n = 56) or a low-fat (LF) (n = 24) diet group. The (1)H NMR urinary metabolic profiles of LF and HF mice were recorded 7 and 60 days after the diet switch. On the basis of the body weight gain (BWG) distribution of HF group, we identified NR mice (n = 10) and SR mice (n = 14) to DIO. Compared with LF, HF feeding increased urinary excretion of glycine conjugates of β-oxidation intermediate (hexanoylglycine), branched chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism intermediates (isovalerylglycine, α-keto-β-methylvalerate and α-ketoisovalerate) and end-products of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) metabolism (N1-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide, N1-methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide) suggesting up-regulation of mitochondrial oxidative pathways. In the HF group, NR mice excreted relatively more hexanoylglycine, isovalerylglycine, and fewer tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate (succinate) in comparison to SR mice. Thus, subtle regulation of ketogenic pathways in DIO may alleviate the saturation of the TCA cycle and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism.

  9. Enzymatic synthesis of vitamin B6 precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prlainović Nevena Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 3-Cyano-4-ethoxymethyl-6-methyl-2-pyridone is an important precursor in the synthesis of vitamin B6, obtained in the addition reaction between 2-cyanoacetamide and 1-ethoxy-2,4-pentanedione catalyzed by lipase from Candida rugosa (triacylglycerol ester hydrolases, EC 3.1.1.3. This work shows new experimental data and mathematical modeling of lipase catalyzed synthesis of 3-cyano-4-ethoxymethyl-6-methyl-2-pyridone, starting from 1-ethoxy-2,4-pentanedione and 2-cyanoacetamide. Kinetic measurements were done at 50 oC with enzyme concentration of 1.2 % w/v. Experimental results were fitted with two kinetic models: the ordered bi-ter and ping-pong bi-ter model, and the initial rates of the reaction were found to correlate best with a ping-pong bi-ter mechanism with inhibition by 2-cyanoacetamide. Obtained specificity constants indicated that lipase from C. rugosa had higher affinity towards 1-ethoxy-2,4-pentanedione and less bulky substrates. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172013, br. III 46010 and br. 172049

  10. Discovery of 1-(4-((3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)propyl)amino)benzyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2(1H)-one, an orally active multi-target agent for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Peng, Zhangzhe; Lu, Miaomiao; Xiong, Xuan; Chen, Zhuo; Li, Qianbin; Cheng, Zeneng; Jiang, Dejian; Tao, Lijian; Hu, Gaoyun

    2018-01-15

    Oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis can cause irreversible damage on cell structure and function of kidney and are key pathological factors in Diabetic Nephropathy (DN). Therefore, multi-target agents are urgently need for the clinical treatment of DN. Using Pirfenidone as a lead compound and based on the previous research, two novel series (5-trifluoromethyl)-2(1H)-pyridone analogs were designed and synthesized. SAR of (5-trifluoromethyl)-2(1H)-pyridone derivatives containing nitrogen heterocyclic ring have been established for in vitro potency. In addition, compound 8, a novel agent that act on multiple targets of anti-DN with IC 50 of 90μM in NIH3T3 cell lines, t 1/2 of 4.89±1.33h in male rats and LD 50 >2000mg/kg in mice, has been advanced to preclinical studies as an oral treatment for DN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ligand-accelerated non-directed C-H functionalization of arenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Verma, Pritha; Xia, Guoqin; Shi, Jun; Qiao, Jennifer X.; Tao, Shiwei; Cheng, Peter T. W.; Poss, Michael A.; Farmer, Marcus E.; Yeung, Kap-Sun; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2017-11-01

    The directed activation of carbon-hydrogen bonds (C-H) is important in the development of synthetically useful reactions, owing to the proximity-induced reactivity and selectivity that is enabled by coordinating functional groups. Palladium-catalysed non-directed C-H activation could potentially enable further useful reactions, because it can reach more distant sites and be applied to substrates that do not contain appropriate directing groups; however, its development has faced substantial challenges associated with the lack of sufficiently active palladium catalysts. Currently used palladium catalysts are reactive only with electron-rich arenes, unless an excess of arene is used, which limits synthetic applications. Here we report a 2-pyridone ligand that binds to palladium and accelerates non-directed C-H functionalization with arene as the limiting reagent. This protocol is compatible with a broad range of aromatic substrates and we demonstrate direct functionalization of advanced synthetic intermediates, drug molecules and natural products that cannot be used in excessive quantities. We also developed C-H olefination and carboxylation protocols, demonstrating the applicability of our methodology to other transformations. The site selectivity in these transformations is governed by a combination of steric and electronic effects, with the pyridone ligand enhancing the influence of sterics on the selectivity, thus providing complementary selectivity to directed C-H functionalization.

  12. Urinary metabolomic profiling in mice with diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus after treatment with metformin, vildagliptin and their combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelantová, Helena; Bugáňová, Martina; Holubová, Martina; Šedivá, Blanka; Zemenová, Jana; Sýkora, David; Kaválková, Petra; Haluzík, Martin; Železná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Kuzma, Marek

    2016-08-15

    Metformin, vildagliptin and their combination are widely used for the treatment of diabetes, but little is known about the metabolic responses to these treatments. In the present study, NMR-based metabolomics was applied to detect changes in the urinary metabolomic profile of a mouse model of diet-induced obesity in response to these treatments. Additionally, standard biochemical parameters and the expression of enzymes involved in glucose and fat metabolism were monitored. Significant correlations were observed between several metabolites (e.g., N-carbamoyl-β-alanine, N1-methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide, N1-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide, glucose, 3-indoxyl sulfate, dimethylglycine and several acylglycines) and the area under the curve of glucose concentrations during the oral glucose tolerance test. The present study is the first to present N-carbamoyl-β-alanine as a potential marker of type 2 diabetes mellitus and consequently to demonstrate the efficacies of the applied antidiabetic interventions. Moreover, the elevated acetate level observed after vildagliptin administration might reflect increased fatty acid oxidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tandem pseudopericyclic reactions: [1,5]-X sigmatropic shift/6pi-electrocyclic ring closure converting N-(2-X-carbonyl)phenyl ketenimines into 2-X-quinolin-4(3H)-ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajarín, Mateo; Ortín, María-Mar; Sanchez-Andrada, Pilar; Vidal, Angel

    2006-10-13

    N-(2-X-Carbonyl)phenyl ketenimines undergo, under mild thermal conditions, [1,5]-migration of the X group from the carbonyl carbon to the electron-deficient central carbon atom of the ketenimine fragment, followed by a 6pi-electrocyclic ring closure of the resulting ketene to provide 2-X-substituted quinolin-4(3H)-ones in a sequential one-pot manner. The X groups tested are electron-donor groups, such as alkylthio, arylthio, arylseleno, aryloxy, and amino. When involving alkylthio, arylthio, and arylseleno groups, the complete transformation takes place in refluxing toluene, whereas for aryloxy and amino groups the starting ketenimines must be heated at 230 degrees C in a sealed tube in the absence of solvent. The mechanism for the conversion of these ketenimines into quinolin-4(3H)-ones has been studied by ab initio and DFT calculations, using as model compounds N-(2-X-carbonyl)vinyl ketenimines bearing different X groups (X = F, Cl, OH, SH, NH(2), and PH(2)) converting into 4(3H)-pyridones. This computational study afforded two general reaction pathways for the first step of the sequence, the [1,5]-X shift, depending on the nature of X. When X is F, Cl, OH, or SH, the migration occurs in a concerted mode, whereas when X is NH(2) or PH(2), it involves a two-step sequence. The order of migratory aptitudes of the X substituents at the acyl group is predicted to be PH(2) > Cl > SH > NH(2) > F> OH. The second step of the full transformation, the 6pi-electrocyclic ring closure, is calculated to be concerted and with low energy barriers in all the cases. We have included in the calculations an alternative mode of cyclization of the N-(2-X-carbonyl)vinyl ketenimines, the 6pi-electrocyclic ring closure leading to 1,3-oxazines that involves its 1-oxo-5-aza-1,3,5-hexatrienic system. Additionally, the pseudopericyclic topology of the transition states for some of the [1,5]-X migrations (X = F, Cl, OH, SH), for the 6pi-electrocyclization of the ketene intermediates to the 4

  14. Major mechanistic differences between the reactions of hydroxylamine with phosphate di- and tri-esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Michelle; Wanderlind, Eduardo H; Mora, José R; Moreira, Raphaell; Kirby, Anthony J; Nome, Faruk

    2013-10-07

    Hydroxylamine reacts as an oxygen nucleophile, most likely via its ammonia oxide tautomer, towards both phosphate di- and triesters of 2-hydroxypyridine. But the reactions are very different. The product of the two-step reaction with the triester TPP is trapped by the NH2OH present in solution to generate diimide, identified from its expected disproportionation and trapping products. The reaction with H3N(+)-O(-) shows general base catalysis, which calculations show is involved in the breakdown of the phosphorane addition-intermediate of a two-step reaction. The reactivity of the diester anion DPP(-) is controlled by its more basic pyridyl N. Hydroxylamine reacts preferentially with the substrate zwitterion DPP(±) to displace first one then a second 2-pyridone, in concerted S(N)2(P) reactions, forming O-phosphorylated products which are readily hydrolysed to inorganic phosphate. The suggested mechanisms are tested and supported by extensive theoretical calculations.

  15. Anion Photoelectron Spectroscopy of the Homogenous 2-Hydroxypyridine Dimer Electron Induced Proton Transfer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlk, Alexandra; Stokes, Sarah; Wang, Yi; Hicks, Zachary; Zhang, Xinxing; Blando, Nicolas; Frock, Andrew; Marquez, Sara; Bowen, Kit; Bowen Lab JHU Team

    Anion photoelectron spectroscopic (PES) and density functional theory (DFT) studies on the dimer anion of (2-hydroxypyridine)2-are reported. The experimentally measured vertical detachment energy (VDE) of 1.21eV compares well with the theoretically predicted values. The 2-hydroxypyridine anionic dimer system was investigated because of its resemblance to the nitrogenous heterocyclic pyrimidine nucleobases. Experimental and theoretical results show electron induced proton transfer (EIPT) in both the lactim and lactam homogeneous dimers. Upon electron attachment, the anion can serve as the intermediate between the two neutral dimers. A possible double proton transfer process can occur from the neutral (2-hydroxypyridine)2 to (2-pyridone)2 through the dimer anion. This potentially suggests an electron catalyzed double proton transfer mechanism of tautomerization. Research supported by the NSF Grant No. CHE-1360692.

  16. A General Cp*CoIII -Catalyzed Intramolecular C-H Activation Approach for the Efficient Total Syntheses of Aromathecin, Protoberberine, and Tylophora Alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchen, Andreas; Knecht, Tobias; Koy, Maximilian; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Glorius, Frank

    2017-09-07

    Herein, we report a Cp*Co III -catalyzed C-H activation approach as the key step to create highly valuable isoquinolones and pyridones as building blocks that can readily be applied in the total syntheses of a variety of aromathecin, protoberberine, and tylophora alkaloids. This particular C-H activation/annulation reaction was achieved with several terminal as well as internal alkyne coupling partners delivering a broad scope with excellent functional group tolerance. The synthetic applicability of this protocol reported herein was demonstrated in the total syntheses of two Topo-I-Inhibitors and two 8-oxyprotoberberine cores that can be further elaborated into the tetrahydroprotoberberine and the protoberberine alkaloid core. Moreover these building blocks were also transformed to six different tylophora alkaloids in expedient fashion. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Copper-Catalyzed Chan-Lam Cyclopropylation of Phenols and Azaheterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosa, Joseph; O'Duill, Miriam L; Holcomb, Matthew; Boulous, Mark N; Patman, Ryan L; Wang, Fen; Tran-Dubé, Michelle; McAlpine, Indrawan; Engle, Keary M

    2018-04-06

    Small molecules containing cyclopropane-heteroatom linkages are commonly needed in medicinal chemistry campaigns yet are problematic to prepare using existing methods. To address this issue, a scalable Chan-Lam cyclopropylation reaction using potassium cyclopropyl trifluoroborate has been developed. With phenol nucleophiles, the reaction effects O-cyclopropylation, whereas with 2-pyridones, 2-hydroxybenzimidazoles, and 2-aminopyridines the reaction brings about N-cyclopropylation. The transformation is catalyzed by Cu(OAc) 2 and 1,10-phenanthroline and employs 1 atm of O 2 as the terminal oxidant. This method is operationally convenient to perform and provides a simple, strategic disconnection toward the synthesis of cyclopropyl aryl ethers and cyclopropyl amine derivatives bearing an array of functional groups.

  18. Impact of novel palmitoylated prolactin-releasing peptide analogs on metabolic changes in mice with diet-induced obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Pražienková

    Full Text Available Analogs of anorexigenic neuropeptides, such as prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP, have a potential as new anti-obesity drugs. In our previous study, palmitic acid attached to the N-terminus of PrRP enabled its central anorexigenic effects after peripheral administration. In this study, two linkers, γ-glutamic acid at Lys11 and a short, modified polyethylene glycol at the N-terminal Ser and/or Lys11, were applied for the palmitoylation of PrRP31 to improve its bioavailability. These analogs had a high affinity and activation ability to the PrRP receptor GPR10 and the neuropeptide FF2 receptor, as well as short-term anorexigenic effect similar to PrRP palmitoylated at the N-terminus. Two-week treatment with analogs that were palmitoylated through linkers to Lys11 (analogs 1 and 2, but not with analog modified both at the N-terminus and Lys11 (analog 3 decreased body and liver weights, insulin, leptin, triglyceride, cholesterol and free fatty acid plasma levels in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Moreover, the expression of uncoupling protein-1 was increased in brown fat suggesting an increase in energy expenditure. In addition, treatment with analogs 1 and 2 but not analog 3 significantly decreased urinary concentrations of 1-methylnicotinamide and its oxidation products N-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide and N-methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide, as shown by NMR-based metabolomics. This observation confirmed the previously reported increase in nicotinamide derivatives in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and the effectiveness of analogs 1 and 2 in the treatment of these disorders.

  19. Pharmacological effect of Ageratina pichinchensis on wound healing in diabetic rats and genotoxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Cerecero, Ofelia; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Díaz-García, Edgar Rolando; Tortoriello, Jaime

    2014-10-28

    Among the main causes affecting the wound healing process, we find diabetes mellitus, which is due to the occurrence of a prolonged inflammation phase, defects in angiogenesis, and a diminution in fibroblast proliferation. The species Ageratina pichinchensis has been utilized in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of skin wounds. Pharmacological models have demonstrated that an extract obtained from this species improves wound healing and, through a clinical study, it was evidenced that the extract (in a pharmaceutical form) is effective in the treatment of patients with chronic venous ulcers. The 7-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-galactin compound was recently identified as responsible for the pharmacological activity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the wound healing activity of an aqueous extract and another hexane-ethyl acetate extract from Ageratina pichinchensis (both standardized in the active compound) in a diabetic foot ulcer rat model, as well as evaluating the possible genotoxic effects produced by the same species. Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were submitted (under anesthesia with pentobarbital) to a circular lesion on the skin (excisional) on the rear of the paw. All animals were topically treated daily until healing. 5-methyl-1 phenyl-2-(1H) Pyridone was used as a positive control treatment. Once the wound was healed, a skin sample was obtained and utilized for histopathological analysis. The possible genotoxic effects produced by the extract, in a model of spermatozoid viability and morphology, were evaluated. The results showed that 100% of animals treated with Ageratina pichinchensis extracts presented wound healing between days 4 and 11 of treatment, while in the positive control group (treated with 5-methyl-1 phenyl-2-(1H) pyridone) and in the negative control group (vehicle), only 70% and 40%, respectively, exhibited wound healing at day 11. Histological analysis demonstrated evidences of an active regenerative

  20. Urinary Excretion of Niacin Metabolites in Humans After Coffee Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Jonathan Isaak; Gömpel, Katharina; Bakuradze, Tamara; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Richling, Elke

    2018-04-01

    Coffee is a major natural source of niacin in the human diet, as it is formed during coffee roasting from the alkaloid trigonelline. The intention of our study was to monitor the urinary excretion of niacin metabolites after coffee consumption under controlled diet. We performed a 4-day human intervention study on the excretion of major niacin metabolites in the urine of volunteers after ingestion of 500 mL regular coffee containing 34.8 μmol nicotinic acid (NA) and 0.58 μmol nicotinamide (NAM). In addition to NA and NAM, the metabolites N 1 -methylnicotinamide (NMNAM), N 1 -methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2-Py), and nicotinuric acid (NUA) were identified and quantified in the collected urine samples by stable isotope dilution analysis (SIVA) using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Rapid urinary excretion was observed for the main metabolites (NA, NAM, NMNAM, and 2-Py), with t max values within the first hour after ingestion. NUA appeared in traces even more rapidly. In sum, 972 nmol h -1 of NA, NAM, NMNAM, and 2-Py were excreted within 12 h after coffee consumption, corresponding to 6% of the ingested NA and NAM. The results indicate regular coffee consumption to be a source of niacin in human diet. © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Structural aspects of inotropic bipyridine binding. Crystal structure determination to 1.9 A of the human serum transthyretin-milrinone complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtczak, A; Luft, J R; Cody, V

    1993-03-25

    The crystal structure of human transthyretin (TTR) complexed with milrinone (2-methyl-5-cyano-3,4'-bipyridin-6(1H)-one), a positive inotropic cardiac agent, has been refined to R = 17.4% for 8-1.9-A resolution data. This report provides the first detailed description of protein interactions for an inotropic bipyridine agent which is an effective thyroid hormone binding competitor to transthyretin. Milrinone is bound along the 2-fold axis in the binding site with its substituted pyridone ring located deep within the channel of the two identical binding domains of the TTR tetramer. In this orientation the 5-cyano group occupies the same site as the 3'-iodine in the TTR complex with 3,3'-diiodothyronine (Wojtczak, A., Luft, J., and Cody, V. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 353-357), which is 3.5 A deeper in the channel than thyroxine (Blake, C. C. F., and Oately, S. J., (1977) Nature 268, 115-120). These structural results confirm computer modeling studies of milrinone structural homology with thyroxine and its TTR binding interactions and explain the effectiveness of milrinone competition for thyroxine binding to TTR. To understand the weaker binding affinity of the parent inotropic drug, amrinone (5-amino-3,4'-bipyridin-6(1H)-one), modeling studies of its TTR binding were carried out which indicate that the 5-amino group cannot participate in strong interactions with TTR and the lack of the 2-methyl further weakens amrinone binding.

  2. N-doped polypyrrole-based porous carbons for CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevilla, Marta; Valle-Vigon, Patricia; Fuertes, Antonio B. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), P.O. Box 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain)

    2011-07-22

    Highly porous N-doped carbons have been successfully prepared by using KOH as activating agent and polypyrrole (PPy) as carbon precursor. These materials were investigated as sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture. The activation process was carried out under severe (KOH/PPy = 4) or mild (KOH/PPy = 2) activation conditions at different temperatures in the 600-800 C range. Mildly activated carbons have two important characteristics: i) they contain a large number of nitrogen functional groups (up to 10.1 wt% N) identified as pyridonic-N with a small proportion of pyridinic-N groups, and ii) they exhibit, in relation to the carbons prepared with KOH/PPy = 4, narrower micropore sizes. The combination of both of these properties explains the large CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities of mildly activated carbon. In particular, a very high CO{sub 2} adsorption uptake of 6.2 mmol.g{sup -1} (0 C) was achieved for porous carbons prepared with KOH/PPy = 2 and 600 C (1700 m{sup 2}.g{sup -1}, pore size {approx} 1 nm and 10.1 wt% N. Furthermore, we observed that these porous carbons exhibit high CO{sub 2} adsorption rates, a good selectivity for CO{sub 2}-N{sub 2} separation and it can be easily regenerated. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Nitrogen-doped carbon monolith for alkaline supercapacitors and understanding nitrogen-induced redox transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da-Wei; Li, Feng; Yin, Li-Chang; Lu, Xu; Chen, Zhi-Gang; Gentle, Ian R; Lu, Gao Qing; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2012-04-23

    A nitrogen-doped porous carbon monolith was synthesized as a pseudo-capacitive electrode for use in alkaline supercapacitors. Ammonia-assisted carbonization was used to dope the surface with nitrogen heteroatoms in a way that replaced carbon atoms but kept the oxygen content constant. Ammonia treatment expanded the micropore size-distributions and increased the specific surface area from 383 m(2) g(-1) to 679 m(2) g(-1). The nitrogen-containing porous carbon material showed a higher capacitance (246 F g(-1)) in comparison with the nitrogen-free one (186 F g(-1)). Ex situ electrochemical spectroscopy was used to investigate the evolution of the nitrogen-containing functional groups on the surface of the N-doped carbon electrodes in a three-electrode cell. In addition, first-principles calculations were explored regarding the electronic structures of different nitrogen groups to determine their relative redox potentials. We proposed possible redox reaction pathways based on the calculated redox affinity of different groups and surface analysis, which involved the reversible attachment/detachment of hydroxy groups between pyridone and pyridine. The oxidation of nitrogen atoms in pyridine was also suggested as a possible reaction pathway. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Synthesis of Some Novel Heterocyclic and Schiff Base Derivatives as Antimicrobial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. Azab

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of 2,3-diaryloxirane-2,3-dicarbonitriles 1a–c with different nitrogen nucleophiles, e.g., hydrazine, methyl hydrazine, phenyl hydrazine, hydroxylamine, thiosemicarbazide, and/or 2-amino-5-phenyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole, afforded pyrazole, isoxazole, pyrrolotriazine, imidazolothiadiazole derivatives 2–5, respectively. Reacting pyrazoles 2a–c with aromatic aldehydes and/or methyl glycinate produced Schiff’s bases 7a–d and pyrazolo[3,4-b]-pyrazinone derivative 8, respectively. Treating 7 with ammonium acetate and/or hydrazine hydrate, furnished the imidazolopyrazole and pyrazolotriazine derivatives 9 and 10, respectively. Reaction of 8 with chloroacetic acid and/or diethyl malonate gave tricyclic compound 11 and triketone 12, respectively. On the other hand, compound 1 was reacted with active methylene precursors, e.g., acetylacetone and/or cyclopentanone producing adducts 14a,b which upon fusion with ammonium acetate furnished the 3-pyridone derivatives 15a,b, respectively. Some of newly synthesized compounds were screened for activity against bacterial and fungal strains and most of the newly synthesized compounds showed high antimicrobial activities. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated using IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectroscopy.

  5. Structure and Functional Analysis of ClbQ, an Unusual Intermediate-Releasing Thioesterase from the Colibactin Biosynthetic Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guntaka, Naga Sandhya; Healy, Alan R.; Crawford, Jason M.; Herzon, Seth B.; Bruner, Steven D. (Yale); (Florida); (Yale-MED)

    2017-09-08

    Colibactin is a genotoxic hybrid nonribosomal peptide/polyketide secondary metabolite produced by various pathogenic and probiotic bacteria residing in the human gut. The presence of colibactin metabolites has been correlated to colorectal cancer formation in several studies. The specific function of many gene products in the colibactin gene cluster can be predicted. However, the role of ClbQ, a type II editing thioesterase, has not been established. The importance of ClbQ has been demonstrated by genetic deletions that abolish colibactin cytotoxic activity, and recent studies suggest an atypical role in releasing pathway intermediates from the assembly line. Here we report the 2.0 Å crystal structure and biochemical characterization of ClbQ. Our data reveal that ClbQ exhibits greater catalytic efficiency toward acyl-thioester substrates as compared to precolibactin intermediates and does not discriminate among carrier proteins. Cyclized pyridone-containing colibactins, which are off-pathway derivatives, are not viable substrates for ClbQ, while linear precursors are, supporting a role of ClbQ in facilitating the promiscuous off-loading of premature precolibactin metabolites and novel insights into colibactin biosynthesis.

  6. Preparation and electrochemical performance of polyaniline-based carbon nanotubes as electrode material for supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Miaomiao; Cheng Bin; Song Huaihe; Chen Xiaohong

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with open end and low specific surface area were prepared via the carbonization of polyaniline (PANI) nanotubes synthesized by a rapidly mixed reaction. On the basis of analyzing the morphologies and structures of the original and carbonized PANI nanotubes, the electrochemical properties of PANI-based CNTs obtained at different temperatures as electrode materials for supercapacitors using 30 wt.% aqueous solution of KOH as electrolyte were investigated by galvanostatic charge/discharge and cyclic voltammetry. It was found that the carbonized PANI nanotubes at 700 o C exhibit high specific capacitance of 163 F g -1 at a current density of 0.1 A g -1 and excellent rate capability in KOH solution. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement the nitrogen state and content in PANI-CNTs were analysed, which could play important roles for the enhancement of electrochemical performance. When the appropriate content of nitrogen is present, the presence of pyrrole or pyridone and quaternary nitrogen is beneficial for the improvement of electron mobility and the wettability of electrode.

  7. Acemetacin cocrystal structures by powder X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla, Geetha

    2017-01-01

    Cocrystals of acemetacin drug (ACM) with nicotinamide (NAM), p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), valerolactam (VLM) and 2-pyridone (2HP) were prepared by melt crystallization and their X-ray crystal structures determined by high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction. The powerful technique of structure determination from powder data (SDPD) provided details of molecular packing and hydrogen bonding in pharmaceutical cocrystals of acemetacin. ACM–NAM occurs in anhydrate and hydrate forms, whereas the other structures crystallized in a single crystalline form. The carboxylic acid group of ACM forms theacid–amide dimer three-point synthon R 3 2(9)R 2 2(8)R 3 2(9) with three different syn amides (VLM, 2HP and caprolactam). The conformations of the ACM molecule observed in the crystal structures differ mainly in the mutual orientation of chlorobenzene fragment and the neighboring methyl group, being anti (type I) or syn (type II). ACM hydrate, ACM—NAM, ACM–NAM-hydrate and the piperazine salt of ACM exhibit the type I conformation, whereas ACM polymorphs and other cocrystals adopt the ACM type II conformation. Hydrogen-bond interactions in all the crystal structures were quantified by calculating their molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surfaces. Hirshfeld surface analysis of the cocrystal surfaces shows that about 50% of the contribution is due to a combination of strong and weak O⋯H, N⋯H, Cl⋯H and C⋯H interactions. The physicochemical properties of these cocrystals are under study. PMID:28512568

  8. Acemetacin cocrystal structures by powder X-ray diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Bolla

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cocrystals of acemetacin drug (ACM with nicotinamide (NAM, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA, valerolactam (VLM and 2-pyridone (2HP were prepared by melt crystallization and their X-ray crystal structures determined by high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction. The powerful technique of structure determination from powder data (SDPD provided details of molecular packing and hydrogen bonding in pharmaceutical cocrystals of acemetacin. ACM–NAM occurs in anhydrate and hydrate forms, whereas the other structures crystallized in a single crystalline form. The carboxylic acid group of ACM forms theacid–amide dimer three-point synthon R32(9R22(8R32(9 with three different syn amides (VLM, 2HP and caprolactam. The conformations of the ACM molecule observed in the crystal structures differ mainly in the mutual orientation of chlorobenzene fragment and the neighboring methyl group, being anti (type I or syn (type II. ACM hydrate, ACM—NAM, ACM–NAM-hydrate and the piperazine salt of ACM exhibit the type I conformation, whereas ACM polymorphs and other cocrystals adopt the ACM type II conformation. Hydrogen-bond interactions in all the crystal structures were quantified by calculating their molecular electrostatic potential (MEP surfaces. Hirshfeld surface analysis of the cocrystal surfaces shows that about 50% of the contribution is due to a combination of strong and weak O...H, N...H, Cl...H and C...H interactions. The physicochemical properties of these cocrystals are under study.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of pirfenidone after topical administration in rabbit eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guoying; Lin, Xianchai; Zhong, Hua; Yang, Yangfan; Qiu, Xuan; Ye, Chengtian; Wu, Kaili; Yu, Minbin

    2011-01-01

    Pirfenidone (5-methyl-1-phenyl-2-[1H]-pyridone) is a new, broad-spectrum agent that has an inhibition effect on the proliferation, migration, and collagen contraction of human Tenon's fibroblasts, and thus modulating the wound healing process of glaucoma filtering surgical site. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of topically administered pirfenidone (0.5%) in rabbit eyes. Pirfenidone solution (50 μl) was instilled into the rabbit's conjunctival sac. The rabbits were quickly sacrificed at 2, 5, 8, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the administration and ocular tissues were obtained. The concentrations of pirfenidone in conjunctiva, sclera, cornea, aqueous humor, and vitreous were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. After topical administration, there was wide distribution and fast clearance of pirfenidone among the various ocular tissues. The mean maximum concentrations (C(max)) of pirfenidone in cornea, conjunctiva, sclera, aqueous humor, and vitreous were 9.64 mg/g, 9.62 mg/g, 2.13 mg/g, 34.88 mg/l and 0.52 mg/l, respectively. The half-life for these tissues was 18.26, 34.16, 15.71, 70.91, and 39.48 min, respectively. Measurable concentrations of pirfenidone are achieved in ocular tissues after topical application in rabbit model. Topical administration of pirfenidone may be an effective approach for modulation of wound healing responses in glaucoma filtration surgical site.

  10. Preparation and electrochemical performance of polyaniline-based carbon nanotubes as electrode material for supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Miaomiao; Cheng Bin [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Song Huaihe, E-mail: songhh@mail.buct.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Chen Xiaohong [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2010-09-30

    Nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with open end and low specific surface area were prepared via the carbonization of polyaniline (PANI) nanotubes synthesized by a rapidly mixed reaction. On the basis of analyzing the morphologies and structures of the original and carbonized PANI nanotubes, the electrochemical properties of PANI-based CNTs obtained at different temperatures as electrode materials for supercapacitors using 30 wt.% aqueous solution of KOH as electrolyte were investigated by galvanostatic charge/discharge and cyclic voltammetry. It was found that the carbonized PANI nanotubes at 700 {sup o}C exhibit high specific capacitance of 163 F g{sup -1} at a current density of 0.1 A g{sup -1} and excellent rate capability in KOH solution. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement the nitrogen state and content in PANI-CNTs were analysed, which could play important roles for the enhancement of electrochemical performance. When the appropriate content of nitrogen is present, the presence of pyrrole or pyridone and quaternary nitrogen is beneficial for the improvement of electron mobility and the wettability of electrode.

  11. Structure and Functional Analysis of ClbQ, an Unusual Intermediate-Releasing Thioesterase from the Colibactin Biosynthetic Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntaka, Naga Sandhya; Healy, Alan R; Crawford, Jason M; Herzon, Seth B; Bruner, Steven D

    2017-10-20

    Colibactin is a genotoxic hybrid nonribosomal peptide/polyketide secondary metabolite produced by various pathogenic and probiotic bacteria residing in the human gut. The presence of colibactin metabolites has been correlated to colorectal cancer formation in several studies. The specific function of many gene products in the colibactin gene cluster can be predicted. However, the role of ClbQ, a type II editing thioesterase, has not been established. The importance of ClbQ has been demonstrated by genetic deletions that abolish colibactin cytotoxic activity, and recent studies suggest an atypical role in releasing pathway intermediates from the assembly line. Here we report the 2.0 Å crystal structure and biochemical characterization of ClbQ. Our data reveal that ClbQ exhibits greater catalytic efficiency toward acyl-thioester substrates as compared to precolibactin intermediates and does not discriminate among carrier proteins. Cyclized pyridone-containing colibactins, which are off-pathway derivatives, are not viable substrates for ClbQ, while linear precursors are, supporting a role of ClbQ in facilitating the promiscuous off-loading of premature precolibactin metabolites and novel insights into colibactin biosynthesis.

  12. Hepatocellular differentiation status is characterized by distinct subnuclear localization and form of the chanzyme TRPM7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunrinde, Adenike; Pereira, Robyn D; Beaton, Natalie; Lam, D Hung; Whetstone, Christiane; Hill, Ceredwyn E

    The channel-kinase TRPM7 is important for the survival, proliferation, and differentiation, of many cell types. Both plasma membrane channel activity and kinase function are implicated in these roles. Channel activity is greater in less differentiated hepatoma cells compared with non-dividing, terminally differentiated adult hepatocytes, suggesting differences in protein expression and/or localization. We used electrophysiological and immunofluorescence approaches to establish whether hepatocellular differentiation is associated with altered TRPM7 expression. Mean outward current decreased by 44% in WIF-B hepatoma cells incubated with the established hepatic differentiating factors oncostatin M/dexamethasone for 1-8 days. Pre-incubation with pyridone 6, a pan-JAK inhibitor, blocked the current reduction. An antibody targeted to the C-terminus of TRPM7 labelled the cytoplasm in WIF-B cells and intact rat liver. Significant label also localized to the nuclear envelope (NE), with relatively more detected in adult hepatocytes compared with WIF-B cells. Hepatoma cells also exhibited nucleoplasmic labelling with intense signal in the nucleolus. The endogenous labelling pattern closely resembles that of HEK293T cells heterologously expressing a TRPM7 kinase construct containing a putative nucleolar localization sequence. These results suggest that TRPM7 form and distribution between the plasma membrane and nucleus, rather than expression, is altered in parallel with differentiation status in rat hepatic cells. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Kandungan Xantofil Daun Lamtoro (Leucaena leucocephala Hasil Detoksikasi Mimosin Secara Fisik dan Kimia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Laconi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Leucaena (Leucena leucocephala is a feed source which has high protein and carotenoid, but its utilization as feed was limited by the presence of mimosine (β-N-(3-Hydroxy-4 pyridone-α amino propenoic acid as a toxin. Experiment was carried out using completely randomized design with 4 detoxification treatments and 5 replications. Detoxification treatments of leucaena leaf consisted of (1 non treated leucaena leaf, (2 steamed heating at 70 oC for 15 minutes, (3 dry heating at 70 oC for 12 h, (4 soaking with fresh water for 12 h, (5 spray with NaOH 5%, incubated for 12 h. Variables measured were mimosine and xanthophylls contents. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and duncan multiple range test was further done to test the significant differences between means. The results showed that soaking leucaena leaf with fresh water for 12 h gave the highest reduction for both mimosine and xanthophylls contents and steamed heating at 70oC for 15 minutes had the highest xanthophylls content post detoxification. It was concluded that steamed heating at 70oC for 15 minutes was the best detoxification methods for mimosine in leucaena leaf.

  14. Theoretical Characterization of the H-Bonding and Stacking Potential of Two Non-Standard Nucleobases Expanding the Genetic Alphabet

    KAUST Repository

    Chawla, Mohit

    2016-02-16

    We report a quantum chemical characterization of the non-natural (synthetic) H-bonded base pair formed by 6-amino-5-nitro-2(1H)-pyridone (Z) and 2-amino-imidazo [1,2-a]-1,3,5-triazin-4(8H)-one (P). The Z:P base pair, orthogonal to the classical G:C base pair, has been introduced in DNA molecules for expanding the genetic code. Our results indicate that the Z:P base pair closely mimics the G:C base pair both in terms of structure and stability. To clarify the role of the NO2 group on the C5 position of the Z base, we compared the stability of the Z:P base pair with that of base pairs having different functional group on the C5 position of Z. Our results indicate that the electron donating/withdrawing properties of the group in the C5 position has a clear impact on the stability of the Z:P base pair, with the strong electron withdrawing nitro group achieving the largest stabilizing effect on the H-bonding interaction, and the strong electron donating NH2 group destabilizing the Z:P pair by almost 4 kcal/mol. Finally, our gas phase and in water calculations confirm that the Z-nitro group reinforce the stacking interaction with its adjacent purine or pyrimidine ring.

  15. Synthesis of polybenzoxazine based nitrogen-rich porous carbons for carbon dioxide capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Liu; Wang, Jianlong; Feng, Chong; Sun, Yahui; Li, Kaixi

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen-rich porous carbons (NPCs) were synthesized from 1,5-dihydroxynaphthalene, urea, and formaldehyde based on benzoxazine chemistry by a soft-templating method with KOH chemical activation. They possess high surface areas of 856.8-1257.8 m2 g-1, a large pore volume of 0.15-0.65 cm3 g-1, tunable pore structure, high nitrogen content (5.21-5.32 wt%), and high char yields. The amount of the soft-templating agent F127 has multiple influences on the textural and chemical properties of the carbons, affecting the surface area and pore structure, impacting the compositions of nitrogen species and resulting in an improvement of the CO2 capture performance. At 1 bar, high CO2 uptake of 4.02 and 6.35 mmol g-1 at 25 and 0 °C was achieved for the sample NPC-2 with a molar ratio of F127 : urea = 0.010 : 1. This can be attributed to its well-developed micropore structure and abundant pyridinic nitrogen, pyrrolic nitrogen and pyridonic nitrogen functionalities. The sample NPC-2 also exhibits a remarkable selectivity for CO2/N2 separation and a fast adsorption/desorption rate and can be easily regenerated. This suggests that the polybenzoxazine-based NPCs are desirable for CO2 capture because of possessing a high micropore surface area, a large micropore volume, appropriate pore size distribution, and a large number of basic nitrogen functionalities.Nitrogen-rich porous carbons (NPCs) were synthesized from 1,5-dihydroxynaphthalene, urea, and formaldehyde based on benzoxazine chemistry by a soft-templating method with KOH chemical activation. They possess high surface areas of 856.8-1257.8 m2 g-1, a large pore volume of 0.15-0.65 cm3 g-1, tunable pore structure, high nitrogen content (5.21-5.32 wt%), and high char yields. The amount of the soft-templating agent F127 has multiple influences on the textural and chemical properties of the carbons, affecting the surface area and pore structure, impacting the compositions of nitrogen species and resulting in an improvement of the

  16. Metabolomics reveals dose effects of low-dose chronic exposure to uranium in rats: identification of candidate biomarkers in urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, Stéphane; Favé, Gaëlle; Maillot, Matthieu; Manens, Line; Delissen, Olivia; Blanchardon, Éric; Dublineau, Isabelle; Aigueperse, Jocelyne; Bohand, Sandra; Martin, Jean-Charles; Souidi, Maâmar

    2016-01-01

    Data are sparse about the potential health risks of chronic low-dose contamination of humans by uranium (natural or anthropogenic) in drinking water. Previous studies report some molecular imbalances but no clinical signs due to uranium intake. In a proof-of-principle study, we reported that metabolomics is an appropriate method for addressing this chronic low-dose exposure in a rat model (uranium dose: 40 mg L -1 ; duration: 9 months, n = 10). In the present study, our aim was to investigate the dose-effect pattern and identify additional potential biomarkers in urine samples. Compared to our previous protocol, we doubled the number of rats per group (n = 20), added additional sampling time points (3 and 6 months) and included several lower doses of natural uranium (doses used: 40, 1.5, 0.15 and 0.015 mg L -1 ). LC-MS metabolomics was performed on urine samples and statistical analyses were made with SIMCA-P+ and R packages. The data confirmed our previous results and showed that discrimination was both dose and time related. Uranium exposure was revealed in rats contaminated for 9 months at a dose as low as 0.15 mg L -1 . Eleven features, including the confidently identified N1-methylnicotinamide, N1-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide and 4-hydroxyphenylacetylglycine, discriminated control from contaminated rats with a specificity and a sensitivity ranging from 83 to 96 %, when combined into a composite score. These findings show promise for the elucidation of underlying radiotoxicologic mechanisms and the design of a diagnostic test to assess exposure in urine, in a dose range experimentally estimated to be above a threshold between 0.015 and 0.15 mg L -1 .

  17. Productive performance and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep grazing in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Rodríguez, Marcos; Solorio-Sánchez, Javier; Ku-Vera, Juan; Ayala-Burgos, Armín; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos; Solís-Pérez, Georgina

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate daily weight gain (DWG), total dry matter (DM) intake, rumen degradability of forage, and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala. A completely randomized design was carried out with two treatments: treatment 1 (T1) silvopastoral system with leucaena at a density of 35,000 plants/ha and treatment 2 (T2), leucaena at a density of 55,000 plants/ha. Leucaena was associated with tropical grasses Panicum maximum and Cynodon nlemfluensis. Twenty-four male Pelibuey lambs of 23.2 ± 3.4 kg live weight (LW) were used (12 lambs per treatment). Results showed differences (P < 0.05) in DWG of T1 (106.41 ± 11.66 g(-1) sheep(-1)) with respect to that of T2 (81.33 ± 11.81 g(-1) sheep). Voluntary intake was higher in lambs from T1 (83.81 ± 04.07 g DM/kg LW(0.75)) with respect to that from T2 (71.67 ± 8.12 g DM/kg LW(0.75)). There was a difference in color of urine between sheep of T1 and T2, the latter giving positive results for the presence of metabolites derived from mimosine (3-4 dihydroxypyridine and 2-3 dihydroxy pyridone). Rumen degradability of DM of L. leucocephala was higher (P < 0.05) compared to that of P. maximum and C. nlemfluensis (72.94 ± 0.40 vs. 67.06 ± 1.50 and 63.25 ± 1.51 %, respectively). It is concluded that grazing at high densities of L. leucocephala affects daily weight gain of hair sheep, possibly due to ingestion of high amounts of mimosine which may exert an adverse effect on voluntary intake.

  18. Preparation, structure and microbial evaluation of metal complexes of the second generation quinolone antibacterial drug lomefloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeek, Sadeek A.; El-Shwiniy, Walaa H.

    2010-09-01

    Lomefloxacinate of Y(III), Zr(IV) and U(VI) were isolated as solids with the general formula; [Y(LFX) 2Cl 2]Cl·12H 2O, [ZrO(LFX) 2Cl]Cl·15H 2O and [UO 2(LFX) 3](NO 3) 2·4H 2O. The new synthesized complexes were characterized with physicochemical and diverse spectroscopic techniques (IR, UV-Vis. and 1H NMR spectroscopies) as well as thermal analyses. In these complexes lomefloxacin act as bidentate ligand bound to the metal ions through the pyridone oxygen and one carboxylate oxygen. The kinetic parameters of thermogravimetric (TGA) and its differential (DTG), such as entropy of activation, activation energy, enthalpy of activation and Gibbs free energy evaluated by using Coats- Redfern and Horowitz- Metzger equations for free lomefloxacin and three complexes were carried out. The bond stretching force constant and length of the U dbnd O bond for the [UO 2(LFX) 3](NO 3) 2·4H 2O complex were calculated. The antimicrobial activity of lomefloxacin and its metal complexes was tested against different bacterial species, such as Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus), Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa) as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species and also against two species of antifungal, penicillium ( P. rotatum) and trichoderma ( T. sp.). The three complexes are of a good action against three bacterial species but the Y(III) complex exhibit excellent activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa), when compared to the free lomefloxacin.

  19. Spectroscopic, structure and antimicrobial activity of new Y(III) and Zr(IV) ciprofloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeek, Sadeek A.; El-Shwiniy, Walaa H.; Zordok, Wael A.; El-Didamony, Akram M.

    2011-02-01

    The preparation and characterization of the new solid complexes [Y(CIP) 2(H 2O) 2]Cl 3·10H 2O and [ZrO(CIP) 2Cl]Cl·15H 2O formed in the reaction of ciprofloxacin (CIP) with YCl 3 and ZrOCl 2·8H 2O in ethanol and methanol, respectively, at room temperature were reported. The isolated complexes have been characterized with elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, conductance measurements, UV-vis and 1H NMR spectroscopic methods and thermal analyses. The results support the formation of the complexes and indicate that ciprofloxacin reacts as a bidentate ligand bound to the metal ion through the pyridone oxygen and one carboxylato oxygen. The activation energies, E*; entropies, Δ S*; enthalpies, Δ H*; Gibbs free energies, Δ G*, of the thermal decomposition reactions have been derived from thermogravimetric (TGA) and differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curves, using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzeger methods. The proposed structure of the two complexes was detected by using the density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/CEP-31G level of theory. The ligand as well as their metal complexes was also evaluated for their antibacterial activity against several bacterial species, such as Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus), Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa) and antifungal screening was studied against two species ( Penicillium ( P. rotatum) and Trichoderma ( T. sp.)). This study showed that the metal complexes are more antibacterial as compared to free ligand and no antifungal activity observed for ligand and their complexes.

  20. Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain site characterization study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stetzenbach, K.; Farnham, I.

    1996-01-01

    Extensive tracer testing is expected to take place at the C-well complex in the Nevada Test Site as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The C-well complex consists of one pumping well, C3, and two injection wells, C1 and C2 into which tracer will be introduced. The goal of this research was to provide USGS with numerous tracers to completed these tests. Several classes of fluorinated organic acids have been evaluated. These include numerous isomers of fluorinated benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, and salicylic acids. Also several derivatives of 2-hydroxy nicotinic acid (pyridone) have been tested. The stability of these compounds was determined using batch and column tests. Ames testing (mutagenicity/carcinogenicity) was conducted on the fluorinated benzoic acids and a literature review of toxicity of the fluorobenzoates and three perfluoro aliphatic acids was prepared. Solubilities were measured and method development work was performed to optimize the detection of these compounds. A Quality Assurance (QA) Program was developed under existing DOE and USGS guidelines. The program includes QA procedures and technical standard operating procedures. A tracer test, using sodium iodide, was performed at the C-well complex. HRC chemists performed analyses on site, to provide real time data for the USGS hydrologists and in the laboratories at UNLV. Over 2,500 analyses were performed. This report provides the results of the laboratory experiments and literature reviews used to evaluate the potential tracers and reports on the results of the iodide C-well tracer test

  1. Kinetics of Huperzine A Dissociation from Acetylcholinesterase via Multiple Unbinding Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydzewski, Jakub; Jakubowski, Rafal; Nowak, Wieslaw; Grubmüller, Helmut

    2018-05-01

    The dissociation of huperzine A (hupA) from Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase (TcAChE) was investigated by 4-microsecond unbiased and biased all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in explicit solvent. We performed our study using memetic sampling (MS) for the determination of reaction pathways (RPs), metadynamics to calculate free energy, and maximum-likelihood estimation (MLE) to recover kinetic rates from unbiased MD simulations. Our simulations suggest that the dissociation of hupA occurs mainly via two RPs: a front-door along the axis of the active-site gorge (pwf) and through a new transient side-door (pws), i.e., formed by the Omega-loop (residues 67--94 of TcAChE). Analysis of the inhibitor unbinding along the RPs suggests that pws is opened transiently after hupA and the Omega-loop reach a low free-energy transition state characterized by the orientation of the pyridone group of the inhibitor directed toward the Omega-loop plane. Unlike pws, pwf does not require large structural changes of TcAChE to be accessible. The estimated free energies and rates agree well with available experimental data. The dissociation rates along the unbinding pathways are similar, suggesting that the dissociation of hupA along pws is likely to be relevant. This indicates that perturbations to hupA-TcAChE interactions could potentially induce pathway hopping. In summary, out results characterize the slow-onset inhibition of TcAChE by hupA, which may provide the structural and energetic basis for the rational design of the next-generation slow-onset inhibitors with optimized pharmacokinetic properties for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  2. Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain site characterization study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stetzenbach, K.; Farnham, I.

    1996-06-01

    Extensive tracer testing is expected to take place at the C-well complex in the Nevada Test Site as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The C-well complex consists of one pumping well, C3, and two injection wells, C1 and C2 into which tracer will be introduced. The goal of this research was to provide USGS with numerous tracers to completed these tests. Several classes of fluorinated organic acids have been evaluated. These include numerous isomers of fluorinated benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, and salicylic acids. Also several derivatives of 2-hydroxy nicotinic acid (pyridone) have been tested. The stability of these compounds was determined using batch and column tests. Ames testing (mutagenicity/carcinogenicity) was conducted on the fluorinated benzoic acids and a literature review of toxicity of the fluorobenzoates and three perfluoro aliphatic acids was prepared. Solubilities were measured and method development work was performed to optimize the detection of these compounds. A Quality Assurance (QA) Program was developed under existing DOE and USGS guidelines. The program includes QA procedures and technical standard operating procedures. A tracer test, using sodium iodide, was performed at the C-well complex. HRC chemists performed analyses on site, to provide real time data for the USGS hydrologists and in the laboratories at UNLV. Over 2,500 analyses were performed. This report provides the results of the laboratory experiments and literature reviews used to evaluate the potential tracers and reports on the results of the iodide C-well tracer test.

  3. Magnesium Oxide Embedded Nitrogen Self-Doped Biochar Composites: Fast and High-Efficiency Adsorption of Heavy Metals in an Aqueous Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Li-Li; Liu, Wu-Jun; Zhang, Shun; Jiang, Hong

    2017-09-05

    Lead (Pb) pollution in natural water bodies is an environmental concern due to toxic effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health, while adsorption is an effective approach to remove Pb from the water. Surface interactions between adsorbents and adsorbates play a dominant role in the adsorption process, and properly engineering a material's surface property is critical to the improvement of adsorption performance. In this study, the magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles stabilized on the N-doped biochar (MgO@N-biochar) were synthesized by one-pot fast pyrolysis of an MgCl 2 -loaded N-enriched hydrophyte biomass as a way to increase the exchangeable ions and N-containing functional groups and facilitate the adsorption of Pb 2+ . The as-synthesized MgO@N-biochar has a high performance with Pb in an aqueous solution with a large adsorption capacity (893 mg/g), a very short equilibrium time (adsorption performance can be maintained with various environmentally relevant interferences including pH, natural organic matter, and other metal ions, suggesting that the material may be suitable for the treatment of wastewater, natural bodies of water, and even drinking water. In addition, MgO@N-biochar quickly and efficiently removed Cd 2+ and tetracycline. Multiple characterizations and comparative tests have been performed to demonstrate the surface adsorption and ion exchange contributed to partial Pb adsorption, and it can be inferred from these results that the high performance of MgO@N-biochar is mainly due to the surface coordination of Pb 2+ and C═O or O═C-O, pyridinic, pyridonic, and pyrrolic N. This work suggests that engineering surface functional groups of biochar may be crucial for the development of high performance heavy metal adsorbents.

  4. Probing the Watson-Crick, wobble, and sugar-edge hydrogen bond sites of uracil and thymine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andreas; Frey, Jann A; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2005-06-16

    The nucleobases uracil (U) and thymine (T) offer three hydrogen-bonding sites for double H-bond formation via neighboring N-H and C=O groups, giving rise to the Watson-Crick, wobble and sugar-edge hydrogen bond isomers. We probe the hydrogen bond properties of all three sites by forming hydrogen bonded dimers of U, 1-methyluracil (1MU), 3-methyluracil (3MU), and T with 2-pyridone (2PY). The mass- and isomer-specific S1 origins exhibit large spectral blue shifts relative to the 2PY monomer. Ab initio CIS calculations of the spectral shifts of the different hydrogen-bonded dimers show a linear correlation with experiment. This correlation allows us to identify the R2PI spectra of the weakly populated Watson-Crick and wobble isomers of both 2PY.U and 2PY.T. (3) PW91 density functional calculation of the ground-state binding and dissociation energies De and D0 are in agreement with the assignment of the dominant hydrogen bond isomers of 2PY.U, 2PY.3MU and 2PY.T as the sugar-edge form. For 2PY.U, 2PY.T and 2PY.1MU the measured wobble:Watson-Crick:sugar-edge isomer ratios are in good agreement with the calculated ratios, based on the ab initio dissociation energies and gas-phase statistical mechanics. The Watson-Crick and wobble isomers are thereby determined to be several kcal/mol less strongly bound than the sugar-edge isomers. The 36 observed intermolecular frequencies of the nine different H-bonded isomers give detailed insight into the intermolecular force field.

  5. HARNESSING THE CHEMISTRY OF CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, Janis

    2010-05-11

    Our research program is broadly focused on activating CO{sub 2} through the use of organic and organometallic based catalysts. Some of our methods have centered on annulation reactions of unsaturated hydrocarbons (and carbonyl substrates) to provide a diverse array of carbocycles and heterocycles. We use a combination of catalyst discovery and optimization in conjunction with classical physical organic chemistry to elucidate the key mechanistic features of the cycloaddition reactions such that the next big advances in catalyst development can be made. Key to all of our cycloaddition reactions is the use of a sterically hindered, electron donating N heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand, namely IPr (or SIPr), in conjunction with a low valent nickel pre-catalyst. The efficacy of this ligand is two-fold: (1) the high {delta}-donating ability of the NHC increases the nucleophilicity of the metal center which thereby facilitates interaction with the electrophilic carbonyl and (2) the steric hindrance prevents an otherwise competitive side reaction involving only the alkyne substrate. Such a system has allowed for the facile cycloaddition to prepare highly functionalized pyrones, pyridones, pyrans, as well as novel carbocycles. Importantly, all reactions proceed under extremely mild conditions (room temperature, atmospheric pressures, and short reaction times), require only catalytic amounts of Ni/NHC and readily available starting materials, and afford annulated products in excellent yields. Our current focus revolves around understanding the fundamental processes that govern these cycloadditions such that the next big advance in the cyclization chemistry of CO{sub 2} can be made. Concurrent to our annulation chemistry is our investigation of the potential for imidazolylidenes to function as thermally-actuated CO{sub 2} sequestering and delivery agents.

  6. Analysis of cell line variation in biochemical production of protoporphyrin IX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Summer L.; Chen, Bin; O'Hara, Julia A.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2006-02-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is produced via the heme synthesis pathway by the cell following administration of aminolevulinic acid (ALA). ALA synthase, the enzyme that produces ALA in the cell from glycine and succinyl-coenzyme A, is inhibited in a feedback mechanism by heme and thus is the rate limiting enzyme in the heme synthesis pathway. Since ALA is administered systemically, the rate limiting step that naturally exists in the cells is bypassed, however it is currently unclear why cells have different rate limiting steps in the ALA-PpIX synthesis pathway, and more specifically which types of cancer cells are most productive. It has been determined that when the same amount of ALA is administered to a wide panel of cancer cells in vitro that vastly differing amounts of PpIX are produced. The steps for the ALA-PpIX pathway occur in and around the mitochondria of the cell, but interestingly no correlation is seen between PpIX production and mitochondrial content of the cell, following ALA administration. However, total cell area shows positive correlation with PpIX production. Administration of the iron chelator, 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-4-pyridone (L1) in combination with ALA allows the final step in the heme synthesis pathway, conversion of PpIX to heme, to be delayed and thus increases the detectable amount of PpIX in each cell line. The cell lines that have the lowest PpIX production following administration of ALA alone show the largest increase in production following the combined administration of ALA and L1. PpIX fluorescence is thought to be a measure of cellular activity and the goal of the current study was to determine which cell lines would be the most promising targets for fluorescence detection or monitoring response to therapy. The results indicate that the cells with larger size and larger numbers of mitochondria may be good potential targets for this therapy. While this conclusion may appear obvious, it is not universally true, and cellular specific

  7. Structure-Activity Relationships of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Maturation Inhibitor PF-46396.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgatroyd, Christopher; Pirrie, Lisa; Tran, Fanny; Smith, Terry K; Westwood, Nicholas J; Adamson, Catherine S

    2016-09-15

    HIV-1 maturation inhibitors are a novel class of antiretroviral compounds that consist of two structurally distinct chemical classes: betulinic acid derivatives and the pyridone-based compound PF-46396. It is currently believed that both classes act by similar modes of action to generate aberrant noninfectious particles via inhibition of CA-SP1 cleavage during Gag proteolytic processing. In this study, we utilized a series of novel analogues with decreasing similarity to PF-46396 to determine the chemical groups within PF-46396 that contribute to antiviral activity, Gag binding, and the relationship between these essential properties. A spectrum of antiviral activity (active, intermediate, and inactive) was observed across the analogue series with respect to CA-SP1 cleavage and HIV-1 (NL4-3) replication kinetics in Jurkat T cells. We demonstrate that selected inactive analogues are incorporated into wild-type (WT) immature particles and that one inactive analogue is capable of interfering with PF-46396 inhibition of CA-SP1 cleavage. Mutations that confer PF-46396 resistance can impose a defective phenotype on HIV-1 that can be rescued in a compound-dependent manner. Some inactive analogues retained the capacity to rescue PF-46396-dependent mutants (SP1-A3V, SP1-A3T, and CA-P157S), implying that they can also interact with mutant Gag. The structure-activity relationships observed in this study demonstrate that (i) the tert-butyl group is essential for antiviral activity but is not an absolute requirement for Gag binding, (ii) the trifluoromethyl group is optimal but not essential for antiviral activity, and (iii) the 2-aminoindan group is important for antiviral activity and Gag binding but is not essential, as its replacement is tolerated. Combinations of antiretroviral drugs successfully treat HIV/AIDS patients; however, drug resistance problems make the development of new mechanistic drug classes an ongoing priority. HIV-1 maturation inhibitors are novel as they

  8. Analysis of Conservative Tracer Tests in the Bullfrog, Tram, and Prow Pass Tuffs, 1996 to 1998, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umari, Amjad; Fahy, Michael F.; Earle, John D.; Tucci, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the potential for transport of radionuclides in ground water from the proposed high-level nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, conservative (nonsorbing) tracer tests were conducted among three boreholes, known as the C-hole Complex, and values for transport (or flow) porosity, storage (or matrix) porosity, longitudinal dispersivity, and the extent of matrix diffusion were obtained. The C-holes are completed in a sequence of Miocene tuffaceous rock, consisting of nonwelded to densely welded ash-flow tuff with intervals of ash-fall tuff and volcaniclastic rocks, covered by Quaternary alluvium. The lower part of the tuffaceous-rock sequence includes the Prow Pass, Bullfrog, and Tram Tuffs of the Crater Flat Group. The rocks are pervaded by tectonic and cooling fractures. Paleozoic limestone and dolomite underlie the tuffaceous rocks. Four radially convergent and one partially recirculating conservative (nonsorbing) tracer tests were conducted at the C-hole Complex from 1996 to 1998 to establish values for flow porosity, storage porosity, longitudinal dispersivity, and extent of matrix diffusion in the Bullfrog and Tram Tuffs and the Prow Pass Tuff. Tracer tests included (1) injection of iodide into the combined Bullfrog-Tram interval; (2) injection of 2,6 difluorobenzoic acid into the Lower Bullfrog interval; (3) injection of 3-carbamoyl-2-pyridone into the Lower Bullfrog interval; and (4) injection of iodide and 2,4,5 trifluorobenzoic acid, followed by 2,3,4,5 tetrafluorobenzoic acid, into the Prow Pass Tuff. All tracer tests were analyzed by the Moench single- and dual-porosity analytical solutions to the advection-dispersion equation or by superposition of these solutions. Nonlinear regression techniques were used to corroborate tracer solution results, to obtain optimal parameter values from the solutions, and to quantify parameter uncertainty resulting from analyzing two of the three radially convergent conservative tracer tests