Sample records for pyridinium bromide cpb

  1. Removal of nitrate from aqueous solution using cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) modified zeolite as adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan Yanhui [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Lin Jianwei, E-mail: [College of Marine Science, Shanghai Ocean University, No. 999 Hucheng Huan Road, Pudong District, Shanghai 201306 (China); Zhu Zhiliang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)


    Surfactant modified zeolites (SMZ) with different coverage types were prepared by loading the cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) onto the surface of the natural zeolites. The adsorption behavior of nitrate on SMZ was investigated. Natural zeolite and SMZ with monolayer CPB coverage were inefficient for the removal of nitrate from aqueous solution. However, SMZ with patchy bilayer or bilayer CPB coverage was efficient in nitrate removal, and the nitrate adsorption capacity of SMZ increased with its CPB loading. For typical SMZ with bilayer CPB coverage, the nitrate adsorption process was well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and the experimental isotherm data fitted well with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Redushkevich isotherm models. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy change, enthalpy change and entropy change were calculated and the results showed that the adsorption of nitrate on SMZ was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. The presence of competing anions such as chloride, sulfate and bicarbonate ions slightly reduced the nitrate adsorption efficiency. Anionic exchange and electrostatic interaction were proven to be the main mechanisms that govern the adsorption of nitrate on SMZ.

  2. Removal of nitrate from aqueous solution using cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) modified zeolite as adsorbent. (United States)

    Zhan, Yanhui; Lin, Jianwei; Zhu, Zhiliang


    Surfactant modified zeolites (SMZ) with different coverage types were prepared by loading the cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) onto the surface of the natural zeolites. The adsorption behavior of nitrate on SMZ was investigated. Natural zeolite and SMZ with monolayer CPB coverage were inefficient for the removal of nitrate from aqueous solution. However, SMZ with patchy bilayer or bilayer CPB coverage was efficient in nitrate removal, and the nitrate adsorption capacity of SMZ increased with its CPB loading. For typical SMZ with bilayer CPB coverage, the nitrate adsorption process was well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and the experimental isotherm data fitted well with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Redushkevich isotherm models. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy change, enthalpy change and entropy change were calculated and the results showed that the adsorption of nitrate on SMZ was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. The presence of competing anions such as chloride, sulfate and bicarbonate ions slightly reduced the nitrate adsorption efficiency. Anionic exchange and electrostatic interaction were proven to be the main mechanisms that govern the adsorption of nitrate on SMZ.

  3. [Adsorption of phenanthrene from aqueous solution on cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) -modified zeolite]. (United States)

    Li, Jia; Lin, Jian-Wei; Zhan, Yan-Hui; Chen, Zu-Mei; Wang, Peng-Jun


    Surfactant-modified zeolites (SMZs) with different coverage types were prepared by loading of different amounts of cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) onto natural zeolites and were used as adsorbents to remove phenanthrene from aqueous solution. The adsorption of phenanthrene from aqueous solution on monolayer and bilayer SMZs as a function of adsorbent dosage, initial phenanthrene concentration, contact time, and temperature was investigated using batch experiments. Results showed monolayer and bilayer SMZs were effective for the removal of phenanthrene from aqueous solution. The phenanthrene removal efficiency of SMZs increased with increasing adsorbent dosage, but the amount of phenanthrene adsorbed on SMZs decreased with increasing adsorbent dosage. The adsorption kinetics of phenanthrene on SMZs well followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium adsorption data of phenanthrene on SMZs at a low concentration of phenanthrene in solution could be described by the Linear equation and Freundlich equation. The main mechanism for phenanthrene adsorption onto monolayer SMZ is hydrophobic interaction, and the main mechanism for phenanthrene adsorption onto bilayer SMZ is organic partitioning. The calculated thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy change (deltaG(theta)), enthalpy changes (deltaH(theta)), and entropy change (deltaS(theta)) showed that the adsorption process of phenanthrene on SMZs is spontaneous and exothermic in nature. When the CPB loading amount of bilayer SMZ was twice as much as that of monolayer SMZ, the phenanthrene adsorption capacity for bilayer SMZ was slightly higher than that for monolayer SMZ. In a conclusion, both monolayer and bilayer SMZs are promising adsorbents for the removal of phenanthrene from water and wastewater, and monolayer SMZ is a more cost-effective adsorbent for phenanthrene removal than bilayer SMZ.

  4. Investigation of thermodynamic parameters of cetyl pyridinium bromide sorption onto ZSM-5 and natural clinoptilolite[Thermodynamic properties; Sorption; Cetyl pyridinium bromide; ZSM-5 and natural clinoptilolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghiaci, M. E-mail:; Kia, R.; Kalbasi, R.J


    A study was undertaken to determine the influence of temperature and surfactant concentration on the adsorption of cetyl pyridinium bromide on two ZSM-5 zeolites, and on natural clinoptilolite. The effect of temperature on adsorption and thermodynamic properties was investigated by making measurements at (297, 303, 307, 313) K. The results show that the calculated curves from the general isotherm equation can represent the experimental data very well up to T=313 K. Based on the calculation of the thermodynamics of adsorption, it is evident that the principle contribution to the {delta}G{sup compfn}{sub hm} of negative value is the large positive value of {delta}S{sup compfn}{sub hm} (36 to 52 J {center_dot} mol{sup -1}), whereas {delta}H{sup compfn}{sub hm} is positive and in the range of 1 to 7 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}. Therefore, similar to the micellisation in bulk solution, the second step of surfactant adsorption is an entropy-driven process.

  5. Carboxymethylcellulose acetate butyrate/poly(4-vinyl-N-pentyl pyridinium bromide blends as antimicrobial coatings

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    L. S. Blachechen


    Full Text Available Blends of carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB, a cellulose derivative, and poly(4-vinyl-N-pentyl pyridinium bromide (QPVP-C5, an antimicrobial polymer, were prepared by casting method and characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and contact angle measurements. Miscibility between CMCAB and QPVP-C5 was evidenced by DSC measurements of blends, which showed a single thermal event of Tg, and SEM images, which revealed homogenous morphology, regardless the blend composition. Moreover, thermal stability of QPVP-C5 was substantially enhanced, when it was mixed with CMCAB. Upon increasing the QPVP-C5 content in the blend the wettability and antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus luteus increased, indicating the surface enrichment by pyridinium groups. In fact, blends with 70 wt% QPVP-C5 reduced 5 log and 4 log the colony-forming units of Micrococcus luteus and Escherichia coli, respectively.

  6. Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of hexahydroimidazo[1,5-a]pyridinium bromides with varying benzyl substituents. (United States)

    Türkmen, Hayati; Ceyhan, Nur; Ulkü Karabay Yavaşoğlu, N; Ozdemir, Güven; Cetinkaya, Bekir


    Variously substituted benzyl bromides were employed to quaternize hexahydrobenzylimidazo[1,5-a]pyridine (A) and the resulting bromides (1-11) were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against 10 pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumonia, Candida albicans and Candida krusei. Antimicrobial activities were surprisingly high (MIC: 0.78-400 μg/mL) and the sensitivity of the salts tested has been found to depend strongly both on the benzyl substituents and the microorganisms used. However, the correlation observed between antimicrobial activity and calculated partition coefficient (ClogP) was poor. Acute toxicity assessment of these salts showed LD(50) of 757-2000 mg/kg, after oral administration in mice in 24h. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. History of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). (United States)

    Hessel, Eugene A


    The development of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), thereby permitting open-heart surgery, is one of the most important advances in medicine in the 20th century. Many currently practicing cardiac anesthesiologists, cardiac surgeons, and perfusionists are unaware of how recently it came into use (60 years) and how much the practice of CPB has changed during its short existence. In this paper, the development of CPB and the many changes and progress that has taken place over this brief period of time, making it a remarkably safe endeavor, are reviewed. The many as yet unresolved questions are also identified, which sets the stage for the other papers in this issue of this journal.

  8. [Practical management of CPB accident]. (United States)

    Depoix, J-P; Fenet, L; Provenchere, S


    Accident of CPB is a reality. It is important to be prepared for discussion with the family, with the hospital administration, eventually with the justice. But we have also to support perfusionnist and anesthetic team in charge of the patient during accident.

  9. Resonance light scattering spectroscopy of procyanidin-CPB-DNA ternary system and its potential application. (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Bi, Shuyun; Zhou, Huifeng; Zhao, Tingting


    A new method for the determination of calf thymus DNA at nanogram level was proposed based on the enhanced resonance light scattering (RLS) signals of DNA in the presence of procyanidin and cetylpyridinium bromide dihydrate (CPB). Under the experimental conditions, the RLS intensity of DNA at 291.0 nm was greatly enhanced by procyanidin-CPB at pH 7.0. There was a good linear relationship (r=0.9993) between the enhanced RLS intensity (ΔI(RLS)) and DNA concentration of 0.0084-3.36 μg mL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) was 2.27 ng mL(-1) (3S0/S). Three synthetic DNA samples were measured with satisfactory, and the recovery was 102.3-107.2%.

  10. A hyperosmolar-colloidal additive to the CPB-priming solution reduces fluid load and fluid extravasation during tepid CPB. (United States)

    Kvalheim, V; Farstad, M; Haugen, O; Brekke, H; Mongstad, A; Nygreen, E; Husby, P


    Cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB) is associated with fluid overload. We hypothesized that fluid gain during CPB could be reduced by substituting parts of a crystalloid prime with 7.2% hypertonic saline and 6% poly (O-2-hydroxyethyl) starch solution (HyperHaes). 14 animals were randomized to a control group (Group C) or to Group H. CPB-prime in Group C was Ringer's solution. In group H, 4 ml/kg of Ringer's solution was replaced by the hypertonic saline/hydroxyethyl starch solution. After 60 min stabilization, CPB was initiated and continued for 120 min. All animals were allowed drifting of normal temperature (39.0 degrees C) to about 35.0 degrees C. Fluid was added to the CPB circuit as needed to maintain a 300-ml level in the venous reservoir. Blood chemistry, hemodynamic parameters, fluid balance, plasma volume, fluid extravasation rate (FER), tissue water content and acid-base parameters were measured/calculated. Total fluid need during 120 min CPB was reduced by 60% when hypertonic saline/hydroxyethyl starch solution was added to the CPB prime (p CPB, with 0.6 (0.43) (Group H) compared with 1.5 (0.40) ml/kg/min (Group C) (p CPB prime reduces fluid needs and FER during tepid CPB.

  11. Leukocyte depletion during CPB: effects on inflammation and lung function. (United States)

    de Amorim, Célio Gomes; Malbouisson, Luiz Marcelo Sá; da Silva, Francisco Costa; Fiorelli, Alfredo Inácio; Murakami, Caroline Kameio Fernandes; Carmona, Maria José Carvalho


    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is related to inflammatory response and pulmonary dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of CPB leukocyte filtration on inflammation and lung function after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). A prospective randomized study was performed to compare CABG patients undergoing CPB leukocyte filtration (n = 9) or standard CPB (n = 11). Computed tomography, oxygenation, leukocyte count, hemodynamic data, PaO2/FiO2, shunt fraction, interleukins, elastase, and myeloperoxidase were evaluated. Data were analyzed using two-factor ANOVA for repeated measurements. The filtered group showed lower neutrophil counts up to 50 min of CPB, lower shunt fraction up to 6 h after surgery, and lower levels of IL-10 at the end of surgery (p CPB results in neutrophil sequestration by a short time, decreased IL-10 serum levels, and lower worsening of lung function only temporarily.

  12. Asymmetric Hydrogenation of 3-Substituted Pyridinium Salts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renom-Carrasco, Marc; Gajewski, Piotr; Pignataro, Luca; de Vries, Johannes G.; Piarulli, Umberto; Gennari, Cesare; Lefort, Laurent


    The use of an equivalent amount of an organic base leads to high enantiomeric excess in the asymmetric hydrogenation of N-benzylated 3-substituted pyridinium salts into the corresponding piperidines. Indeed, in the presence of Et3N, a Rh-JosiPhos catalyst reduced a range of pyridinium salts with ee

  13. [Anaesthesia and vasomotor tone during CPB: intravenous anaesthetics]. (United States)

    Durand, M


    Anaesthesia during CBP is frequently provided using intravenous anaesthetic drugs, particularly propofol. The effects of the different drugs have been studied during CPB. These drugs have an arterial and venous vasodilator effect during CPB which is dose dependent and is more pronounced for propofol. High doses of propofol or thiopental reduce cerebral blood flow but provide no additional neurological protection.

  14. Entropy score, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB): ligation of PDA on CPB can compromise cerebral blood flow. (United States)

    Neema, Praveen Kumar; Dharan, Baiju S; Singha, Subrata Kumar; Sethuraman, Manikandan; Rathod, Ramesh Chandra


    A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is often present in patients undergoing correction of congenital heart disease. It is well appreciated that during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), a PDA steals arterial inflow into pulmonary circulation, and may lead to systemic hypoperfusion, excessive pulmonary blood flow (PBF) and distention of the left heart. Therefore, PDA is preferably ligated before initiation of CPB. We describe acute decreases of arterial blood pressure and entropy score with the initiation of CPB and immediate increase in entropy score following the PDA ligation in a child undergoing intracardiac repair of ventricular septal defect and right ventricular infundibular stenosis. The observation strongly indicates that a PDA steals arterial inflow into pulmonary circulation and if the PDA is dissected and ligated on CPB or its ligation on CPB is delayed the cerebral perfusion is potentially compromised.

  15. [What should no longer be seen when performing a CPB]. (United States)

    Lançon, J-P


    Cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) have made significant progress in recent years. Despite these efforts, adverse events continue to occur during surgery. From recent studies of incidents and accidents during CPB, this article focuses on critical recommendations to respect when in charge of a CPB. Some facts are based only on data unsupported by scientific research. Others have not proven their benefit in terms of postoperative morbidity or mortality. The management of anticoagulation, hematocrit, pump flow, and the temperature is discussed. Finally, the importance of teamwork especially in terms of cohesion and communication is highlighted.

  16. Paediatric CPB: bypass in a high risk group. (United States)

    Jones, T J; Elliott, M J


    Children and particularly neonates present unique challenges during CPB. Patient age, size, underlying anatomy and surgical strategy influence the perfusion techniques and the construction of the CPB circuit. The normal changes in physiology in the first weeks of life impact upon surgical technique and outcome of repair. Limited surgical access necessitates alternative cannulation strategies. Deep hypothermia, low flow CPB and circulatory arrest are frequently used. An understanding of the related pathophysiology is therefore required to make the correct choices and to optimise patient outcome.

  17. Study of the interaction of salmon sperm DNA with myricitrin-CPB based on the enhanced resonance light scattering signal and its potential application. (United States)

    Bi, Shuyun; Wang, Tianjiao; Zhao, Tingting; Wang, Yu; Pang, Bo


    A new assay of salmon sperm DNA at nanogram level was established based on enhanced resonance light scattering (RLS) signals of DNA with myricitrin and cetylpyridinium bromide dihydrate (CPB). The RLS spectral characteristics of DNA with myricitrin-CPB and the optimum conditions for determination of DNA samples have been studied. At pH 7.4, myricitrin-CPB could enhance the intensity of RLS signal of DNA at 468 nm. The enhanced RLS intensity was directly proportional to DNA concentration in the range of 0.076-4.2 μg mL(-1) with a good linear relationship (r=0.9944). The detection limit was 4.1 ng mL(-1). The synthetic samples were analyzed with satisfactory results that the recovery was 100.9-102.6% and RSD was 1.4-2.1%, which proved that the new method was reliable and applicable.

  18. The analytical application and spectral investigation of DNA-CPB-emodin and sensitive determination of DNA by resonance Rayleigh light scattering technique. (United States)

    Bi, Shuyun; Wang, Yu; Wang, Tianjiao; Pang, Bo; Zhao, Tingting


    A new sensitive DNA probe containing cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) and emodin (an effective component of Chinese herbal medicine) was developed using the resonance Rayleigh light scattering (RLS) technique. A novel assay was first developed to detect DNA at nanogram level based on the ternary system of DNA-CPB-emodin. The RLS signal of DNA was enhanced remarkably in the presence of emodin-CPB, and the enhanced RLS intensity at 340.0 nm was in direct proportion to DNA concentration in the range of 0.01-2.72 μg mL(-1) with a good linear relationship. The detection limit was 1.5 ng mL(-1). Three synthetic DNA samples were measured obtaining satisfactory results, the recovery was 97.6-107.3%.

  19. Preparation and Peactions of Pyridinium Ylids via Decarboxylation of Pyridinium Betaines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShrongShiLIN; JianMeiWANG; 等


    Pyridinium ylids 4 were generated as reaction intermediates from the decarboxylation of pyridinium betaines 3, which were prepared from the reactions of α-amino acid ester hydrochlorides with 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium tetrafluoroborate. Protonation,addition and substitution reactions of 4 with electrophiles were studied in this paper.

  20. Preparation and Reactions of Pyridinium Ylids via Decarboxylation of Pyridinium Betaines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Pyridinium ylids 4 were generated as reaction intermediates from the decarboxylation of pyridinium bctaincs 3, which were preparcd from the reactions of x-amino acid ester hydrochlorides with 2, 4,6-triphenylpyrylium tetrafluoroborate. Protonation, addition and substitution reactions of 4 with electrophiles werc studied in this paper.

  1. Aclidinium Bromide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli


    Long-acting bronchodilators are the mainstay of pharmacological treatment for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the clinical studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of inhaled aclidinium bromide, a novel long...

  2. Mechanisms of CPB Modified Zeolite on Mercury Adsorption in Simulated Wastewater. (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Huang, Hui; Huang, Rong; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hao, Shuoshuo; Shen, Yuanyuan; Chen, Hong


    A systematic study was carried out to analyze the effects of mercury(II) adsorption by surface modified zeolite (SMZ) and adsorption mechanism. Cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) was used to prepare SMZ. The characterization methods by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that both the surface and internal zeolite were covered with CPB molecules, but the main binding sites were surface. Results showed that the organic carbon and cation exchange capacity of the SMZ were 7.76 times and 4.22 times higher than those of natural zeolite (NZ), respectively. Zeta potentials before and after modification were measured at -7.80 mV and -30.27 mV, respectively. Moreover, the saturation adsorptive capacity of SMZ was 16.35 times higher than NZ in mercury-containing wastewater. The possible mechanisms of mercury elimination were surface adsorption, hydrophobic interaction, ion exchange, electricity neutralization. The adsorption process was affected little by competitive ions.

  3. Restoration of the coagulation cascade on CPB: a case report. (United States)

    Lilly, K J; Pirundini, P A; Fox, A A; Body, S C; Shaw, C; Rizzo, R J


    Coagulopathy can sometimes be observed when CPB times are prolonged. Correction of coagulopathy post CPB can present the surgical team with a number of challenges, including right ventricular volume overload, hemodilution, anemia and excessive cell salvage with further loss of coagulation factors. Restoration of the coagulation cascade on CPB may help to avoid these issues. This case report is of a 64-year-old male with a delayed diagnosis of aortic dissection. The patient presented to the cardiac surgery operating room with hepatic and renal shock/failure, with the resulting coagulopathy. The described technique is representative of a technique that we sometimes employ to restore the clotting mechanism before separating from bypass.

  4. Reinfusion of aspirated pericardial blood during CPB. Part I. Hypothesis: laparotomy sponges are a significant part of the CPB circuit? (United States)

    Bull, Brian S; Hay, Karen


    Blood accumulating in the pericardial sac is routinely reinfused during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery. Such reinfusion has been associated with an increased incidence of serious complications such as coagulopathy, systemic inflammation, and neurologic sequelae. We hypothesize that some of these complications occur because the reinfused blood has been exposed to and activated by laparotomy sponges used to elevate the heart during vein graft emplacement. Such laparotomy sponges expose accumulating pericardial blood to a large, raw, cotton surface with an area approximately five times that of the CPB circuit (excluding the biocompatible oxygenator membrane). Because the reinfused blood has been exposed to this surface, the sponge becomes, in essence, a significant-though inapparent-part of the CPB circuit. Steps should be taken to either eliminate the sponge or to reduce the area of this foreign surface and make it more biocompatible.

  5. Cooperative Al(Salen-Pyridinium Catalysts for the Asymmetric Synthesis of trans-Configured β-Lactones by [2+2]-Cyclocondensation of Acylbromides and Aldehydes: Investigation of Pyridinium Substituent Effects

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    René Peters


    Full Text Available The trans-selective catalytic asymmetric formation of β-lactones constitutes an attractive surrogate for anti-aldol additions. Recently, we have reported the first catalyst which is capable of forming trans-β-lactones with high enantioselectivity from aliphatic (and aromatic aldehyde substrates by cyclocondensation with acyl bromides. In that previous study the concepts of Lewis acid and organic aprotic ion pair catalysis were combined in a salen-type catalyst molecule. Since a pyridinium residue on the salen periphery is essential for high trans- and enantioselectivity, we were interested in the question of whether substituents on the pyridinium rings could be used to further improve the catalyst efficiency, as they might have a significant impact on the effective charges within the heterocycles. In the present study we have thus compared a small library of aluminum salen/bispyridinium catalysts mainly differing in the substituents on the pyridinium residues. As one result of these studies a new catalyst was identified which offers slightly superior stereoselectivity as compared to the previously reported best catalyst. NBO calculations have revealed that the higher stereoselectivity can arguably not be explained by the variation of the effective charge.

  6. Antibacterial activity and characteristics of modified ferrite powder coated with a gemini pyridinium salt molecule. (United States)

    Shirai, Akihiro; Maeda, Takuya; Ohkita, Motoaki; Nagamune, Hideaki; Kourai, Hiroki


    This report describes the synthesis of an antibacterial material consisting of a gemini quaternary ammonium salt (gemini-QUAT) immobilized on ferrite powder, and its antibacterial activity. A gemini-QUAT containing two pyridinium residues per molecule, 4,4'-[1,3-(2,2-dihydroxylmethyl-1,3-dithiapropane)]bis (1-octylpyridinium bromide), was immobilized on ferrite powder by a reaction between the hydroxyl group of the QUAT and trimethoxysilane. Immobilization of the gemini-QUAT on ferrite (F-gemini-QUAT) was confirmed when the dye, bromophenol blue, was released from F-gemini-QUAT-dye after contact between ferrite and the dye. Elemental analysis of the QUAT-ferrite determined the molar amount of QUAT on the ferrite. The antibacterial effect of the ferrite was investigated using a batch treatment system, and this effect was compared with that of another QUAT-ferrite (F-mono-QUAT) binding a mono-QUAT, which possesses one pyridinium residue, prepared by the same immobilization method as F-gemini-QUAT. Results indicated the F-gemini QUAT possessed a higher bactericidal potency and broader antibacterial spectrum compared to F-mono-QUAT. In addition, this study suggested that gemini-QUATs possessed high bactericidal potency without being influenced by immobilization to materials, and the antibacterial activity and characteristics of F-gemini-QUAT could be attributed to the unique structure of the immobilized gemini-QUAT.

  7. Detrimental effect of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on malignant disease. (United States)

    Darwazah, Ahmad K; Shehata, Saleh


    Patients with coronary artery disease associated with malignancy are a difficult group of patients to treat. The ideal approach to manage them is still controversial. Both problems can be manage by either a combined or staged operation. The use of CPB during revascularization of the myocardium among patients with malignant disease, may have an effect on dissimination of malignant cells. This was observed among two of our patients. We believe that the use of off-pump technique to revascularize the myocardium is a safe approach and can be performed either in combined or staged surgery to resect malignant disease.

  8. Preferred gauche conformation in N-(2-aminoethyl)pyridinium ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijneveldt, F.B. van; Razenberg, J.A.S.J.; Nolte, R.J.M.; Drenth, W.; Kanters, J.A.


    X-ray analysis of 1-[(2S, 3S)-2-N,N-dibenzylamino-3-methyl-1-pentyl]pyridinium p-toluenesulphonate and 1-[(2S)-2-N,N-dibenzylamino-1-propyl]pyridinium p-toluenesulphonate reveals that in both compounds the central N---C---C---N moiety is in the syn-clinal conformation. According to SCF-LCAO-MO

  9. Regulatory Effect of Bcl-2 Family Proteins in CPB-induced Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis in Dog Hearts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宗全; 张顺业; 刘立新; 哈斯朝鲁


    Summary: Whether conventional hypothermic CPB induces myocyte apoptosis in dog hearts and modulation of bcl-2, bcl-xl, bax, bad, and caspase-3 pathways in this setting was investigated. Ten healthy adult dogs were randomized into sham-operated and CPB groups. Samples of left ventricle were obtained before, during and 3 h after CPB. In situ TUNEL was used to detect apoptotic my ocytes. Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry were employed for detection of expressions of bcl 2, bcl-xl, bax and bad proteins. Z-DEVD-AMC substrate cleavage and TBARS methods were usedto measure the activity of caspase-3 and the content of lipid peroxide in LV myocardium, respective ly. After CPB, the number of apoptotic myocytes in CPB group was significantly increased. The re-sults of immunohistichemistry demonstrated that bcl-2, bcl-xl, bax and bad proteins were constitu tionally presnt on the sarcolemma of the LV myocytes. FACS results showed that, after CPB, ex-pressions of bax and bad in CPB group were significantly upregulated, while the expressions of bcl-2 and bcl-xl were not significantly changed in both groups. The activity of caspase-3 and the content of lipid peroxide in LV myocardium in CPB group were also significantly increased after CPB. The pre-sent study shows that there exists myocardiocyte apoptosis in dog hearts undergoing conventional hy-pothermic CPB and the myocyte apoptosis is initiated by ischemia and performed during reperfusion.Moreover, the CPB-induced myocyte apoptosis was associated with upregulation of expressions of bax and bad proteins, activation of caspase-3 and increase of oxidative stress.

  10. Regulatory effect of bcl-2 family proteins in CPB-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in dog hearts. (United States)

    Sun, Zongquan; Zhang, Shunye; Liu, Lixin; Hasichaolu


    Whether conventional hypothermic CPB induces myocyte apoptosis in dog hearts and modulation of bcl-2, bcl-xl, bax, bad, and caspase-3 pathways in this setting was investigated. Ten healthy adult dogs were randomized into sham-operated and CPB groups. Samples of left ventricle were obtained before, during and 3 h after CPB. In situ TUNEL was used to detect apoptotic myocytes. Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry were employed for detection of expressions of bcl-2, bcl-xl, bax and bad proteins. Z-DEVD-AMC substrate cleavage and TBARS methods were used to measure the activity of caspase-3 and the content of lipid peroxide in LV myocardium, respectively. After CPB, the number of apoptotic myocytes in CPB group was significantly increased. The results of immunohistochemistry demonstrated that bcl-2, bcl-xl, bax and bad proteins were constitutionally present on the sarcolemma of the LV myocytes. FACS results showed that, after CPB, expressions of bax and bad in CPB group were significantly upregulated, while the expressions of bcl-2 and bcl-xl were not significantly changed in both groups. The activity of caspase-3 and the content of lipid peroxide in LV myocardium in CPB group were also significantly increased after CPB. The present study shows that there exists myocardiocyte apoptosis in dog hearts undergoing conventional hypothermic CPB and the myocyte apoptosis is initiated by ischemia and performed during reperfusion. Moreover, the CPB-induced myocyte apoptosis was associated with upregulation of expressions of bax and bad proteins, activation of caspase-3 and increase of oxidative stress.

  11. Aggregation behavior and antimicrobial activity of ester-functionalized imidazolium- and pyridinium-based ionic liquids in aqueous solution. (United States)

    Garcia, M Teresa; Ribosa, Isabel; Perez, Lourdes; Manresa, Angeles; Comelles, Francesc


    Two series of long chain imidazolium- and pyridinium-based ionic liquids containing an ester functional group in the alkyl side chain, 3-methyl-1-alkyloxycarbonylmethylimidazolium bromides (C(n)EMeImBr) and 1-alkyloxycarbonylmethylpyridinium bromides (C(n)EPyrBr), were synthesized and their thermal stability, aggregation behavior in aqueous medium, and antimicrobial activity investigated. The introduction of an ester group decreased the thermal stability of the functionalized ILs compared to simple alkyl chain containing ILs (1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromides and 1-alkylpyridinium bromides). Tensiometry, conductimetry, and spectrofluorimetry were applied to study the self-aggregation of the amphiphilic ILs in aqueous solution. The ILs investigated displayed surface activity and the characteristic chain length dependence of the micellization process of surfactants. As compared to simple alkyl chain containing ILs bearing the same hydrocarbon chain, ester-functionalized ILs possess higher adsorption efficiency (pC(20)) and significantly lower critical micelle concentration (cmc) and surface tension at the cmc (γ(cmc)), indicating that the incorporation of an ester group promotes adsorption at the air/water interface and micelle formation. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. ILs containing more than eight carbon atoms in the alkyl chain showed antimicrobial activity. Their efficiency as antimicrobial agents increased with the hydrophobicity of the amphiphilic cation being the C(12) homologous the most active compounds. The incorporation of an ester group particularly increased the biological activity against fungi.

  12. Specific cpb copies within the Leishmania donovani complex: evolutionary interpretations and potential clinical implications in humans. (United States)

    Hide, M; Bras-Gonçalves, R; Bañuls, A L


    Leishmania infantum and Leishmania donovani both pertain to the L. (L.) donovani complex and are responsible for visceral leishmaniasis. To explore the L. donovani complex, we focused our study on cysteine protease B (cpb) and especially on 2 cpb copies: cpbE and cpbF. We selected cpb genes because of their phylogenetic interest and host-parasite interaction involvement. Sequencing these 2 copies revealed (i) that cpbE is specific to L. infantum and cpbF is specific to L. donovani and (ii) that these 2 copies are different in length and sequence. Phylogenetic analysis and protein predictions were carried out in order to compare these copies (i) with other trypanosomatid cpb, especially L. mexicana, and (ii) within the L. donovani complex. Our results revealed patterns specific to the L. donovani complex such as the COOH-terminal extension, potential epitopes and N-glycosylation sites. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis revealed different levels of polymorphism between L. infantum and L. donovani and confirmed the ancestral status of the latter. L. infantum has a shorter sequence and a deleted sequence responsible for modifications in protein conformation and catalytic triad. Considering the clinical aspect, L. infantum dermotropic strains appeared more polymorphic than L. infantum viscerotropic strains.

  13. Preparation of the pyridinium salts differing in the length of the N-alkyl substituent. (United States)

    Marek, Jan; Stodulka, Petr; Cabal, Jiri; Soukup, Ondrej; Pohanka, Miroslav; Korabecny, Jan; Musilek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil


    Quaternary pyridinium salts with chains ranging from C8 to C20 belong in the large group of cationic surfactants. In this paper, the preparation of such cationic surface active agents based on the pyridinium moiety and differing in the length of the N-alkyl chain is described. Additionally, HPLC technique was established to distinguish each prepared pyridinium analogue. This study represents universal method for preparation and identification of quaternary pyridinium detergents.

  14. Preparation of the Pyridinium Salts Differing in the Length of the N-Alkyl Substituent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Musilek


    Full Text Available Quaternary pyridinium salts with chains ranging from C8 to C20 belong in the large group of cationic surfactants. In this paper, the preparation of such cationic surface active agents based on the pyridinium moiety and differing in the length of the N-alkyl chain is described. Additionally, HPLC technique was established to distinguish each prepared pyridinium analogue. This study represents universal method for preparation and identification of quaternary pyridinium detergents.


    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  16. SiO{sub x} monolayer overcoating effect on the TiO{sub 2} photocatalytic oxidation of cetylpyridinium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, Hiroaki; Kubo, Yasuyuki; Akazawa, Manabu; Ito, Seishiro


    The effect of SiO{sub x} monolayer coverage on the rate of TiO{sub 2} photocatalytic oxidation of cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) in aqueous solutions has been studied. The rate of CPB removal from the solution (5 < pH < 7) increases with the surface modification at concentrations below 4.5 x 10{sup {minus}4} M and its promoting effect is enhanced with decreasing concentration. A modified Langmuir-Hinshelwood model, where the rate of surface reaction is assumed to be proportional to the coverage of CPB at the photostationary state is proposed for dilute reaction systems. As a result of the kinetic analyses, the acceleration of the reaction with the SiO{sub x} monolayer coverage can be attributed to the increase in the rate of adsorption due to the electrostatic attraction of cetylpyridinium ion. The suppression of Br{sup {minus}} adsorption is also suggested as a minor contribution.

  17. Analysis of red blood cell aggregation in cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery. (United States)

    Graaff, R; Gu, Y J; Boonstra, P W; van Oeveren, W; Rakhorst, G


    Not much is known about red cell aggregation during cardio-pulmonary bypass surgery (CPB). Blood samples from 19 patients undergoing CPB were anticoagulated with EDTA. Hematocrit was adjusted to 40%. A red blood cell aggregometer (LORCA) measured changes in light reflection from each blood sample after cessation of the rotation, and calculated an aggregation index (AI). Reflection measurements were stored. Because LORCA software failed for 87 of 171 samples, we developed new software, and applied it to the stored reflection measurements. This software failed only in 7 out of 171 cases and showed that all LORCA failures occurred for AI CPB and recovered to 37.1 +/- 13.5 at day 1. It is concluded that the new software can be used to study decreased red cell aggregation during CPB.

  18. C. elegans CPB-3 interacts with DAZ-1 and functions in multiple steps of germline development. (United States)

    Hasegawa, Eri; Karashima, Takeshi; Sumiyoshi, Eisuke; Yamamoto, Masayuki


    Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding proteins (CPEBs) are well-conserved RNA-binding proteins, which regulate mRNA translation mainly through control of poly(A) elongation. Here, we show that CPB-3, one of the four CPEB homologs in C. elegans, positively regulates multiple aspects of oocyte production. CPB-3 protein was highly expressed in early meiotic regions of the hermaphrodite gonad. Worms deficient in cpb-3 were apparently impaired in germ cell proliferation and differentiation including sperm/oocyte switching and progression of female meiosis. We also show that cpb-3 is likely to promote the meiotic entry in parallel with gld-3, a component of one of the redundant but essential genetic pathways for the entry to and progression through meiosis. Taken together, CPEB appears to have a conserved role in the early phase of meiosis and in the sperm/oocyte specification, in addition to its reported function during meiotic progression.

  19. Radiological evaluation of shielding devices type CPb-m and CPb-g used for radioactive material handling and transportation of CENTIS, Cuba; Evaluacion radiologica de los dispositivos de blindaje tipo CPb-m y CPb-g utilizados para la manipulacion y transportacion de los preparados radiactivos del CENTIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Rondon, Manuel; Torres Berdeguez, Mirta B. [Centro de Tecnologia Nuclear, San Jose de las Lajas (Cuba); Hernandez Rivero, Aerulio T.; Gutierrez Ravelo, Romay [Centro de Isotopos, XX (Cuba)


    This work has presented procedures applied for radiological evaluation of gamma shielding devices type CPb-m and CPb-g, used to 30-50 mCi respectively, asseverating a dose rate lower than 2 mSv/h and satisfying the requirements of radiological safety for handling and transportation of radioactive materials. The results has been shown and discussed 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Features of CPB: a Poisson-Boltzmann solver that uses an adaptive Cartesian grid. (United States)

    Fenley, Marcia O; Harris, Robert C; Mackoy, Travis; Boschitsch, Alexander H


    The capabilities of an adaptive Cartesian grid (ACG)-based Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) solver (CPB) are demonstrated. CPB solves various PB equations with an ACG, built from a hierarchical octree decomposition of the computational domain. This procedure decreases the number of points required, thereby reducing computational demands. Inside the molecule, CPB solves for the reaction-field component (ϕrf ) of the electrostatic potential (ϕ), eliminating the charge-induced singularities in ϕ. CPB can also use a least-squares reconstruction method to improve estimates of ϕ at the molecular surface. All surfaces, which include solvent excluded, Gaussians, and others, are created analytically, eliminating errors associated with triangulated surfaces. These features allow CPB to produce detailed surface maps of ϕ and compute polar solvation and binding free energies for large biomolecular assemblies, such as ribosomes and viruses, with reduced computational demands compared to other Poisson-Boltzmann equation solvers. The reader is referred to for how to obtain the CPB software. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Disruption and activation of blood platelets in contact with an antimicrobial composite coating consisting of a pyridinium polymer and AgBr nanoparticles. (United States)

    Stevens, Kris N; Knetsch, Menno L; Sen, Ayusman; Sambhy, Varun; Koole, Leo H


    Composite materials made up from a pyridinium polymer matrix and silver bromide nanoparticles embedded therein feature excellent antimicrobial properties. Most probably, the antimicrobial activity is related to the membrane-disrupting effect of both the polymer matrix and Ag(+) ions; both may work synergistically. One of the most important applications of antimicrobial materials would be their use as surface coatings for percutaneous (skin-penetrating) catheters, such as central venous catheters (CVCs). These are commonly used in critical care, and serious complications due to bacterial infection occur frequently. This study aimed at examining the possible effects of a highly antimicrobial pyridinium polymer/AgBr composite on the blood coagulation system, i.e., (i) on the coagulation cascade, leading to the formation of thrombin and a fibrin cross-linked network, and (ii) on blood platelets. Evidently, pyridinium/AgBr composites could not qualify as coatings for CVCs if they trigger blood coagulation. Using a highly antimicrobial composite of poly(4-vinylpyridine)-co-poly(4-vinyl-N-hexylpyridinium bromide) (NPVP) and AgBr nanoparticles as a thin adherent surface coating on Tygon elastomer tubes, it was found that contacting blood platelets rapidly acquire a highly activated state, after which they become substantially disrupted. This implies that NPVP/AgBr is by no means blood-compatible. This disqualifies the material for use as a CVC coating. This information, combined with earlier findings on the hemolytic effects (i.e., disruption of contacting red blood cells) of similar materials, implies that this class of antimicrobial materials affects not only bacteria but also mammalian cells. This would render them more useful outside the biomedical field.

  2. Partition coefficients of organic compounds between water and imidazolium-, pyridinium-, and phosphonium-based ionic liquids. (United States)

    Padró, Juan M; Pellegrino Vidal, Rocío B; Reta, Mario


    The partition coefficients, P IL/w, of several compounds, some of them of biological and pharmacological interest, between water and room-temperature ionic liquids based on the imidazolium, pyridinium, and phosphonium cations, namely 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, N-octylpyridinium tetrafluorophosphate, trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride, trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bromide, trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, and trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium dicyanamide, were accurately measured. In this way, we extended our database of partition coefficients in room-temperature ionic liquids previously reported. We employed the solvation parameter model with different probe molecules (the training set) to elucidate the chemical interactions involved in the partition process and discussed the most relevant differences among the three types of ionic liquids. The multiparametric equations obtained with the aforementioned model were used to predict the partition coefficients for compounds (the test set) not present in the training set, most being of biological and pharmacological interest. An excellent agreement between calculated and experimental log P IL/w values was obtained. Thus, the obtained equations can be used to predict, a priori, the extraction efficiency for any compound using these ionic liquids as extraction solvents in liquid-liquid extractions.

  3. Biochemistry and physiology of the β class carbonic anhydrase (Cpb) from Clostridium perfringens strain 13. (United States)

    Kumar, R Siva Sai; Hendrick, William; Correll, Jared B; Patterson, Andrew D; Melville, Stephen B; Ferry, James G


    The carbonic anhydrase (Cpb) from Clostridium perfringens strain 13, the only carbonic anhydrase encoded in the genome, was characterized both biochemically and physiologically. Heterologously produced and purified Cpb was shown to belong to the type I subclass of the β class, the first β class enzyme investigated from a strictly anaerobic species of the domain Bacteria. Kinetic analyses revealed a two-step, ping-pong, zinc-hydroxide mechanism of catalysis with Km and kcat/Km values of 3.1 mM CO₂ and 4.8 × 10⁶ s⁻¹ M⁻¹, respectively. Analyses of a cpb deletion mutant of C. perfringens strain HN13 showed that Cpb is strictly required for growth when cultured in semidefined medium and an atmosphere without CO₂. The growth of the mutant was the same as that of the parent wild-type strain when cultured in nutrient-rich media with or without CO₂ in the atmosphere, although elimination of glucose resulted in decreased production of acetate, propionate, and butyrate. The results suggest a role for Cpb in anaplerotic CO₂ fixation reactions by supplying bicarbonate to carboxylases. Potential roles in competitive fitness are discussed.

  4. Effects of pulsatile CPB on interleukin-8 and endothelin-1 levels. (United States)

    Sezai, Akira; Shiono, Motomi; Nakata, Kin-ichi; Hata, Mitsumasa; Iida, Mitsuru; Saito, Akira; Hattori, Tsutomu; Wakui, Shinji; Soeda, Masao; Taoka, Makoto; Umeda, Tomofumi; Negishi, Nanao; Sezai, Yukiyasu


    Studies on pulsatile and nonpulsatile perfusion have long been performed. However, investigators have not reached a conclusion on which is more effective. In the present study, pulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was investigated in terms of the effects on cytokines, endothelin, catecholamine, and pulmonary and renal functions. Twenty-four patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting were divided into a pulsatile CPB group and a nonpulsatile CPB group. Parameters examined were hemodynamics, interleukin-8 (IL-8), endothelin-1 (ET-1), epinephrine, norepinephrine, lactate, arterial ketone body ratio, urine volume, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, renin activity, angiotensin-II, lactate dehydrogenase, plasma-free hemoglobin, tracheal intubation time, and respiratory index. The IL-8 at 0.5, 3, and 6 h after CPB, and ET-1 at 3, 6, 9, and 18 h after CPB were significantly lower in the pulsatile group. Both epinephrine and norepinephrine were significantly lower in the pulsatile group. The respiratory index was significantly higher in the pulsatile group. In the present study, inhibitory effects on cytokine activity, edema in pulmonary alveoli, and endothelial damage were shown in addition to the favorable effects on catecholamine level, renal function, and peripheral circulation that have already been documented.

  5. Biochemical characterization of the Caenorhabditis elegans FBF.CPB-1 translational regulation complex identifies conserved protein interaction hotspots. (United States)

    Menichelli, Elena; Wu, Joann; Campbell, Zachary T; Wickens, Marvin; Williamson, James R


    Caenorhabditis elegans CPB-1 (cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein homolog-1) and FBF (fem-3 mRNA binding factor) are evolutionary conserved regulators of mRNA translation that belong to the CPEB (cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding) and PUF (Pumilio and FBF) protein families, respectively. In hermaphrodite worms, CPB-1 and FBF control key steps during germline development, including stem cell maintenance and sex determination. While CPB-1 and FBF are known to interact, the molecular basis and function of the CPB-1⋅FBF complex are not known. The surface of CPB-1 that interacts with FBF was localized using in vivo and in vitro methods to a 10-residue region at the N-terminus of the protein and these residues are present in the FBF-binding protein GLD-3 (germline development defective-3). PUF proteins are characterized by the presence of eight α-helical repeats (PUF repeats) arranged side by side in an elongated structure. Critical residues for CPB-1 binding are found in the extended loop that connects PUF repeats 7 and 8. The same FBF residues also mediate binding to GLD-3, indicating a conserved binding mode between different protein partners. CPB-1 binding was competitive with GLD-3, suggestive of mutual exclusivity in vivo. RNA binding measurements demonstrated that CPB-1 alters the affinity of FBF for specific RNA sequences, implying a functional model where the coregulatory protein CPB-1 modulates FBF target selection.

  6. Cysteine peptidases CPA and CPB are vital for autophagy and differentiation in Leishmania mexicana. (United States)

    Williams, Roderick A; Tetley, Laurence; Mottram, Jeremy C; Coombs, Graham H


    In the past, ultrastructural investigations of Leishmania mexicana amastigotes revealed structures that were tentatively identified as autophagosomes. This study has now provided definitive data that autophagy occurs in the parasite during differentiation both to metacyclic promastigotes and to amastigotes, autophagosomes being particularly numerous during metacyclic to amastigote form transformation. Moreover, the results demonstrate that inhibiting two major lysosomal cysteine peptidases (CPA and CPB) or removing their genes not only interferes with the autophagy pathway but also prevents metacyclogenesis and transformation to amastigotes, thus adding support to the hypothesis that autophagy is required for cell differentiation. The study suggests that L. mexicana CPA and CPB perform similar roles to the aspartic peptidase PEP4 and the serine peptidase PRB1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results also provide an explanation for why L. mexicana CPA/CPB-deficient mutants transform to amastigotes very poorly and lack virulence in macrophages and mice.

  7. A Synthetic Route to Quaternary Pyridinium Salt-Functionalized Silsesquioxanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Kostenko


    Full Text Available A synthetic route to potentially biocidal silsesquioxanes functionalized by quaternary pyridinium functionalities has been developed. N-Alkylation reactions of the precursor compounds 4-(2-(trimethoxysilylethyl-pyridine (5 and 4-(2-trichloro-silylethylpyridine (6 with iodomethane, n-hexylbromide, and n-hexadecylbromide cleanly afforded the corresponding N-alkylpyridinium salts (7–10. The synthesis of a 4-(2-ethylpyridine POSS derivative (2 was achieved by capping of the silsesquioxane trisilanol Cy7Si7O9(OH3 (1 via two different preparative routes. Attempts to use compound 2 as precursor for quaternary pyridinium salt-functionalized POSS derivatives were met with only partial success. Only the reaction with iodomethane cleanly afforded the new N-methylpyridinium salt 12 in high yield, whereas n-hexylbromide and n-hexadecylbromide failed to react with 2 even under forcing conditions.

  8. Epoxy nanocomposites based on high temperature pyridinium-modified clays. (United States)

    Zhang, Qingxin; Naito, Kimiyoshi; Qi, Ben; Kagawa, Yutaka


    Polymer/clay nanocomposites are generally fabricated by thermal curing or melt compounding at elevated temperatures, however the thermal stability of common alkyl ammonium treated clays is poor and decomposition occurs inevitably during high temperature processing. In this study, we modified clays with an aromatic pyridinium salt. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the onset degradation temperature (Td(onset)) and maximum decomposition temperature (Td(max)) of the pyridinium treatment clays was up to 310 and 457 degrees C respectively implying high thermal stability. The thermal decomposition behaviour of the pyridinium modified clays was discussed. A series of epoxy/clay nanocomposites were synthesized using a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy and diethyltoluene diamine (DETDA). The morphology of epoxy/clay nanocomposites was characterized with wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), and intercalated structures were observed. The storage modulus of epoxy was increased but glass transition temperature was decreased with clay incorporation. The effects of clays on glass transition temperature (Tg) of epoxy were also discussed.

  9. Polymorphisms of cpb multicopy genes in the Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani complex. (United States)

    Hide, M; Bañuls, A L


    In leishmaniasis, cysteine protease b (cpb) multicopy genes have been extensively studied because of their implication in host-parasite interactions. In the Leishmania donovani complex, responsible for visceral leishmaniasis, a set of interesting polymorphisms has been revealed, such as copy sequence or expression according to the parasite's life stage. The single nucleotide polymorphisms observed among these copies could be related to clinical characteristics such as dermotropic versus viscerotropic status. CPB COOH-terminal extension (CTE) is mainly responsible for genetic variability among the copies and appears highly immunogenic. These results suggest that further study of the role of CPBs, especially CTE in clinical outcome, is warranted.

  10. Management of iatrogenic RV injury - RV packing and CPB through PTFE graft attached to femoral artery. (United States)

    Mangukia, Chirantan V; Agarwal, Saket; Satyarthy, Subodh; Aggarwal, Satish Kumar; Datt, Vishnu; Satsangi, Deepak Kumar


    Cardiac injuries during repeat sternotomy are rare. While undergoing debridement for chronic osteomyelitis (post arterial septal defect closure), a 4-year-old girl sustained significant right ventricular (RV) injury. Bleeding from the RV was controlled by packing the injury site, which helped in maintaining stable hemodynamics till arrangements were made for instituting cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Since the femoral artery was very small and unsuitable for direct cannulation, a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft sutured end-to-side to the femoral artery was used for establishing CPB. The injury was successfully repaired.

  11. Molecular interactions of CPC, CPB, CTAB, and EPC biosurfactants in aqueous olive oil mixtures analyzed with physicochemical data and SEM micrographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Singh


    Full Text Available Structural studies of olive oil–water–biosurfactants mixtures are most attracting for several academic as well as industrial significances. Thus, densities (ρ, viscosities (η, and surface tensions (γ of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC and bromide (CPB, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB and egg-phosphatidylcholine (EPC biosurfactants (BS 2–10 mm kg−1 in olive oil + water mixture in 2 mm kg−1 interval at 310.15 K are reported. The densities were for apparent molal volume (Vϕ/10−6 m3 mol−1, η and γ determinations. The viscosities were fitted in extended Jones–Doles equation for intrinsic viscosity (B, kg mol−1 and slope (D, kg mol−12 derivation. The γ and Vϕ data were regressed for their limiting γ0 andVϕ0 data and the SEMs were illustrated surface morphology. The EPC caused maximum oil–water dissolution as compared to other surfactants. Intramolecular multiple force theory [IMMFT] is proposed to explain molecular interactions of olive oil–water–EPC mixtures with a possible correlation of surface and bulk reorientations with microstructures depicted with SEM. Frictional and cohesive forces as Friccohesity have been noted as driving forces to assert for validity of the IMMFT model and its link with SEM.

  12. Modulation of Immunologic Response by Preventive Everolimus Application in a Rat CPB Model. (United States)

    Pinto, Antonio; Jahn, Annika; Immohr, Moritz Benjamin; Jenke, Alexander; Döhrn, Laura; Kornfeld, Markus; Lichtenberg, Artur; Akhyari, Payam; Boeken, Udo


    Everolimus (EVL) is widely used in solid organ transplantation. It is known to have antiproliferative and immunosuppressive abilities via inhibition of the mTOR pathway. Preventive EVL administration may lower inflammation induced by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and reduce systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). After oral loading with EVL 2.5 mg/kg/day (n = 11) or placebo (n = 11) for seven consecutive days, male Wistar rats (400-500 g) were connected to a miniaturised heart-lung-machine performing a deep hypothermic circulatory arrest protocol. White blood cells (WBC) were significantly reduced in EVL-pretreated animals before start of CPB with a preserved reduction by trend at all other time points. Ischemia/reperfusion led to decreased glucose levels. Application of EVL significantly increased glucose levels after reperfusion. In addition, potassium levels were significantly lower in EVL-treated animals at the end of reperfusion. Immunoblotting revealed increased S6 levels after CPB. EVL decreased phosphorylation of S6 in the heart and kidney, which indicates an inhibition of mTOR pathway. Moreover, EVL significantly modified phosphorylation of AKT, while decreasing IL2, IL6, RANTES, and TNFα (n = 6). Preventive application of EVL may modulate inflammation by inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and reduction of proinflammatory cytokines. This may be beneficial to evade SIRS-related morbidities after CPB.

  13. Using an automated emboli detection device in a porcine cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) model: feasibility and considerations. (United States)

    Schnürer, Christian; Gyoeri, Georg; Hager, Martina; Jeller, Anton; Moser, Patrizia L; Velik-Salchner, Corinna; Laufer, Guenther; Lorenz, Ingo H; Kolbitsch, Christian


    The significant risk of cerebral embolism during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) makes monitoring of embolic events advisable already when developing new operation and coagulation management strategies for example in CPB animal models. The present study therefore evaluated in a porcine CPB model the feasibility of bilateral epicarotid Doppler signal recording and the quality of manual or automatic emboli detection. A total of 42 recordings (e.g. right carotid artery (n = 20), left carotid artery (n = 22)) were evaluated. The frequency of emboli counts was comparable for both carotid arteries. Automatic emboli detection, however, found significantly more embolic events per pig than did post-hoc manual off-line analysis of the recordings (172 +/- 217 vs. 13 +/-10). None of the brains, however, showed any emboli or infarction area either in cross-examination or in histological evaluation. In conclusion, the present study showed the feasibility of using an epicarotid Doppler device for bilateral emboli detection in a porcine CPB model. Automatic on-line emboli detection, however, reported more embolic events than did post hoc, off-line manual analysis. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  14. Performance and reliability of the CPB/ECMO Initiative Forward Lines Casualty Management System. (United States)

    Casas, Fernando; Reeves, Andrew; Dudzinski, David; Weber, Stephan; Lorenz, Markus; Akiyama, Masatoshi; Kamohara, Keiji; Kopcak, Michael; Ootaki, Yoshio; Zahr, Firas; Sinkewich, Martin; Foster, Robert; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Smith, William A


    The Cleveland Clinic Foundation CPB/ECMO Initiative Forward Casualty Management System is an economical, compact, transportable, disposable system designed to permit a rapid expansion of trauma management services requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) pulmonary support. The system, composed of a rotary blood pump, a pump motor driver, and an electronic control console as the blood pumping subsystem, also includes commonly used compatible commercial oxygenators, venous reservoirs, and cannulae. In vitro durability testing accumulated over 100 hours without failure. In vivo reliability was tested in 10 calves under general anesthesia during 6 hours of CPB and ECMO under full heparinization at nominal operating conditions of 4-5 l/min and 2-4 l/min blood flow respectively, and mean arterial pressures between 65 and 100 mm Hg. A mean time to failure of 57 hours was reached during the animal series. Results of these test series demonstrated that this system has the capability to reliably operate during a 6-hour conventional CPB or ECMO procedure, while providing flexibility and ease of use for the operator.

  15. Synthesis and characteristics of biodegradable pyridinium amphiphiles used for in vitro DNA delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosjen, Astrid; Smisterova, Jarmila; Driessen, Cecile; Anders, Joachim T.; Wagenaar, Anno; Hoekstra, Dirk; Hulst, Ron; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.


    Pyridinium amphiphiles have found practical application for the delivery of DNA into eukaryotic cells. A general synthetic method starting from (iso)nicotinoyl chloride has been devised for the preparation of pyridinium amphiphiles based on (bio)degradable esters, allowing structural variation both

  16. Investigation of the Pyridinium Ylide—Alkyne Cycloaddition as a Fluorogenic Coupling Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Bonte


    Full Text Available The cycloaddition of pyridinium ylides with alkynes was investigated under mild conditions. A series of 13 pyridinium salts was prepared by alkylation of 4-substituted pyridines. Their reactivity with propiolic ester or amide in various reaction conditions (different temperatures, solvents, added bases was studied, and 11 indolizines, with three points of structural variation, were, thus, isolated and characterized. The highest yields were obtained when electron-withdrawing groups were present on both the pyridinium ylide, generated in situ from the corresponding pyridinium salt, and the alkyne (X, Z = ester, amide, CN, carbonyl, etc.. Electron-withdrawing substituents, lowering the acid dissociation constant (pKa of the pyridinium salts, allow the cycloaddition to proceed at pH 7.5 in aqueous buffers at room temperature.

  17. Spectrofluorimetric Determination of Trace Terbium(III) Using 2,6-Bis-(1'-phenyl-3'-methyl-5'-oxopyrazole-4') Pyridinediacyl and N-Cetylpyridium Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new spectrofluorimetric method for determination of trace terbium based on its reaction with 2,6-bis-(1'-phenyl-3'-methyl-5'-oxopyrazole-4') pyridinediacyl (H2PMBPP) and N-cetylpyridium bromide (CPB), at an apparent pH=5.0 provided by a hexamethylenetetramine (5% w/w)-hydrochloric acid buffer, is proposed. The calibration graph is linear in the range from 1.43′ 10-5 to 0.1589 m g/ml.

  18. Dynamics in molecular and molecular-ionic crystals: a combined experimental and molecular simulation study of reorientational motions in benzene, pyridinium iodide, and pyridinium nitrate. (United States)

    Pajzderska, A; Gonzalez, M A; Wąsicki, J


    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for crystalline benzene (C(6)H(6)), pyridinium iodide [C(5)NH(6)](+)I(-), and pyridinium nitrate [C(5)NH(6)](+)NO(3)(-) have been performed as a function of temperature and pressure. Despite the similar shape of the benzene molecule and the pyridinium cation, the experimental and simulated data have showed clear differences in their dynamics. Therefore, the rotational dynamics have been explored in detail by comparing thoroughly the existing experimental results together with new quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) data obtained for (PyH)NO(3) and molecular dynamics simulations. The correlation times, activation energy, geometry of motion of benzene molecule and pyridinium cation, isothermal compressibility, and activation volume obtained from the simulations are compared with the experimental results obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance and QENS methods. MD simulations have also revealed that reorientation of the pyridinium cation in pyridinium nitrate between two inequivalent positions is strongly affected by the hydrogen bond N-H···O between the cation and the anion and the influence of temperature on strength of the hydrogen bond is much more important than that of the pressure.

  19. Rapacuronium bromide (Organon Teknika). (United States)

    Plowman, A N


    Organon Teknika's rapacuronium bromide (Org-9487), the 16-N-allyl, 17-beta-propionate analog of vecuronium bromide, is in phase III clinical trials in the US and Europe for potential use as an anesthetic. It is a steroidal neuromuscular blocking drug characterized by low potency, rapid rate of block development and short time course of neuromuscular blocking action as compared with other non-depolarizing compounds [170210,221422]. A multicenter, randomized, assessor-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study in patients undergoing tracheal intubation showed that the drug produced a dose dependent neuromuscular block. Doses of 1.5 to 2 mg/kg allowed rapid intubation and short duration of action [273336]. Another study showed that the drug does not cause cardiovascular side-effects [273336]. A meeting was held in Europe on 8 February 1999 to brief company employees on the registration and release of rapacuronium [319211] for which the company anticipates a launch in late 1999 [320706]. Organon estimates that the market value of Org-9487 is between dollar 100 m and dollar 250 m a year, each for Europe and the US [221422].

  20. Crystal structure of 2-amino-5-nitro-pyridinium sulfamate. (United States)

    Rajkumar, M Ambrose; NizamMohideen, M; Xavier, S Stanly John; Anbarasu, S; Devarajan, Dr Prem Anand


    The title mol-ecular salt, C5H6N3O2 (+) ·H2NO3S(-), was obtained from the reaction of sulfamic acid with 2-amino-5-nitro-pyridine. A proton transfer from sulfamic acid to the pyridine N atom occurred, resulting in the formation of a salt. As expected, this protonation leads to the widening of the C-N-C angle of the pyridine ring, to 122.9 (3)°, with the pyridinium ring being essentially planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.025 Å). In the crystal, the ion pairs are joined by three N-H⋯O and one N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds in which the pyridinium N atom and the amino N atom act as donors, and are hydrogen bonded to the carboxyl-ate O atoms and the N atom of the sulfamate anion, thus generating an R (3) 3(22) ring motif. These motifs are linked by further N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds enclosing R (3) 3(8) loops, forming sheets parallel to (100). The sheets are linked via weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional structure. The O atoms of the nitro group are disordered over two sets of sites with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.737 (19):0.263 (19).

  1. Ultraviolet photodissociation action spectroscopy of the N-pyridinium cation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Christopher S., E-mail:; Trevitt, Adam J., E-mail: [School of Chemistry, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Blanksby, Stephen J. [Central Analytical Research Facility, Queensland University of Technology, QLD 4000 (Australia); Chalyavi, Nahid; Bieske, Evan J. [School of Chemistry, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Reimers, Jeffrey R. [School of Physics and Materials Science, University of Technology Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); International Centre for Quantum and Molecular Structure, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)


    The S{sub 1}←S{sub 0} electronic transition of the N-pyridinium ion (C{sub 5}H{sub 5}NH{sup +}) is investigated using ultraviolet photodissociation (PD) spectroscopy of the bare ion and also the N{sub 2}-tagged complex. Gas-phase N-pyridinium ions photodissociate by the loss of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) in the photon energy range 37 000–45 000 cm{sup −1} with structurally diagnostic ion-molecule reactions identifying the 2-pyridinylium ion as the exclusive co-product. The photodissociation action spectra reveal vibronic details that, with the aid of electronic structure calculations, support the proposal that dissociation occurs through an intramolecular rearrangement on the ground electronic state following internal conversion. Quantum chemical calculations are used to analyze the measured spectra. Most of the vibronic features are attributed to progressions of totally symmetric ring deformation modes and out-of-plane modes active in the isomerization of the planar excited state towards the non-planar excited state global minimum.

  2. Microemboli generation, detection and characterization during CPB procedures in neonates, infants, and small children. (United States)

    Win, Khin N; Wang, Shigang; Undar, Akif


    In our laboratory, we study different factors that influence the microemboli counts in the extracorporeal circuit using a simulated pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) model identical to the one used in our operating rooms. For monitoring and classification of microemboli, we use the novel Emboli Detection and Classification (EDAC) Quantifier system which allows for real-time monitoring, localization, and size characterization of microemboli as small as 10 microm. Our results show that high flow rates, low perfusate temperature, use of vacuum assisted venous drainage (VAVD), use of roller pump, and pulsatile flow results in higher microemboli counts at postpump site. Microemboli counts at postoxygenator, and postfilter sites are significantly less. This indicates that hollow fiber membrane oxygenator was able to remove most of the microemboli, and an opened arterial filter purge line augments the removal of microemboli that were not captured by the oxygenator. Majority of the microemboli detected at all sites were CPB procedure.

  3. α-ketoheterocycles as inhibitors of Leishmania mexicana cysteine protease CPB. (United States)

    Steert, Koen; Berg, Maya; Mottram, Jeremy C; Westrop, Gareth D; Coombs, Graham H; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis; Joossens, Jurgen; Van der Veken, Pieter; Haemers, Achiel; Augustyns, Koen


    Cysteine proteases of the papain superfamily are present in nearly all eukaryotes and also play pivotal roles in the biology of parasites. Inhibition of cysteine proteases is emerging as an important strategy to combat parasitic diseases such as sleeping sickness, Chagas disease, and leishmaniasis. Inspired by the in vivo antiparasitic activity of the vinylsulfone-based cysteine protease inhibitors, a series of α-ketoheterocycles were developed as reversible inhibitors of a recombinant L. mexicana cysteine protease, CPB2.8. Three isoxazoles and especially one oxadiazole compound are potent reversible inhibitors of CPB2.8; however, in vitro whole-organism screening against a panel of protozoan parasites did not fully correlate with the observed inhibition of the cysteine protease.

  4. Identification of semicarbazones, thiosemicarbazones and triazine nitriles as inhibitors of Leishmania mexicana cysteine protease CPB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Schröder

    Full Text Available Cysteine proteases of the papain superfamily are present in nearly all eukaryotes. They play pivotal roles in the biology of parasites and inhibition of cysteine proteases is emerging as an important strategy to combat parasitic diseases such as sleeping sickness, Chagas' disease and leishmaniasis. Homology modeling of the mature Leishmania mexicana cysteine protease CPB2.8 suggested that it differs significantly from bovine cathepsin B and thus could be a good drug target. High throughput screening of a compound library against this enzyme and bovine cathepsin B in a counter assay identified four novel inhibitors, containing the warhead-types semicarbazone, thiosemicarbazone and triazine nitrile, that can be used as leads for antiparasite drug design. Covalent docking experiments confirmed the SARs of these lead compounds in an effort to understand the structural elements required for specific inhibition of CPB2.8. This study has provided starting points for the design of selective and highly potent inhibitors of L. mexicana cysteine protease CPB that may also have useful efficacy against other important cysteine proteases.

  5. Identification of semicarbazones, thiosemicarbazones and triazine nitriles as inhibitors of Leishmania mexicana cysteine protease CPB. (United States)

    Schröder, Jörg; Noack, Sandra; Marhöfer, Richard J; Mottram, Jeremy C; Coombs, Graham H; Selzer, Paul M


    Cysteine proteases of the papain superfamily are present in nearly all eukaryotes. They play pivotal roles in the biology of parasites and inhibition of cysteine proteases is emerging as an important strategy to combat parasitic diseases such as sleeping sickness, Chagas' disease and leishmaniasis. Homology modeling of the mature Leishmania mexicana cysteine protease CPB2.8 suggested that it differs significantly from bovine cathepsin B and thus could be a good drug target. High throughput screening of a compound library against this enzyme and bovine cathepsin B in a counter assay identified four novel inhibitors, containing the warhead-types semicarbazone, thiosemicarbazone and triazine nitrile, that can be used as leads for antiparasite drug design. Covalent docking experiments confirmed the SARs of these lead compounds in an effort to understand the structural elements required for specific inhibition of CPB2.8. This study has provided starting points for the design of selective and highly potent inhibitors of L. mexicana cysteine protease CPB that may also have useful efficacy against other important cysteine proteases.

  6. Evaluation of aortic cannula jet lesions in a porcine cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) model. (United States)

    Schnürer, C; Hager, M; Györi, G; Velik-Salchner, C; Moser, P L; Laufer, G; Lorenz, I H; Kolbitsch, C


    In cardiosurgery patients atherosclerotic debris displaced from the cannulation site but also from the opposite aortic wall by the "sandblast-like" effect of the high-pressure jet emanating from the cannula is a potential source of intraoperative arterial embolization and consequently postoperative neurologic dysfunction. The present study examined the extent to which shear stress exerted on the intact aortic intima by an aortic cannula jet stream can cause endothelial lesions that promote thrombogenesis and consequently thrombembolism. A single-stream, straight-tip aortic cannula was used in a porcine cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) model. Following a 120-minute CPB pump run, a 60-minute stabilization period was allowed before sacrificing the pigs (N.=40) for histological evaluation of the ascending aorta and the brain. Opposite the cannulation site endothelial lesions (diameter: 3.81±1.3 mm; depth: 0.017±0.003 mm) were present in 22.5% (9/40) of aortic specimens. Cerebral thrombembolic lesions were not found. The present study showed that single-stream, straight-tip aortic cannulas caused jet lesions of the formerly intact aortic endothelium opposite the cannulation site in 22.5% of cases in a porcine CPB model.

  7. Methylnaltrexone bromide methanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbo Zhou


    Full Text Available In the title compound [systematic name: (4R,4aS,7aR,12bS-3-cyclopropylmethyl-4a,9-hydroxy-7-oxo-2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,7a-octahydro-1H-4,12-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinolin-3-ium bromide methanol monosolvate], C21H26NO4+·Br−·CH3OH, two of the three six-membered rings adopt chair conformations while the third, which contains a C=C double bond, adopts an approximate half-boat conformation. The 2,3-dihydrofuran ring adopts an envelope conformation. In the crystal, the components are linked by O—H...O and O—H...Br hydrogen bonds. The absolute stereochemistry was inferred from one of the starting materials.

  8. Iron bromide vapor laser (United States)

    Sukhanov, V. B.; Shiyanov, D. V.; Trigub, M. V.; Dimaki, V. A.; Evtushenko, G. S.


    We have studied the characteristics of a pulsed gas-discharge laser on iron bromide vapor generating radiation with a wavelength of 452.9 nm at a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 5-30 kHz. The maximum output power amounted to 10 mW at a PRF within 5-15 kHz for a voltage of 20-25 kV applied to electrodes of the discharge tube. Addition of HBr to the medium produced leveling of the radial profile of emission. Initial weak lasing at a wavelength of 868.9 nm was observed for the first time, which ceased with buildup of the main 452.9-nm line.

  9. Vibrational analysis of 1-methyl-pyridinium-2-aldoxime and 1-methyl-pyridinium-4-aldoxime cations (United States)

    Grošev, Vlasta Mohaček; Foretić, Blaženka; Gamulin, Ozren


    Pyrimidinium aldoximes are administered intravenously in cases of acute organophosphate poisoning. Since questions regarding their morphology and active conformation in the solution are still open, an effort was made to establish correspondence between their crystal state conformers and vibrational spectra, thus facilitating the future work on the assignment of bands in solution. Normal coordinate analysis including the potential energy distribution for all modes was performed for 1-methyl-pyridinium-2-aldoxime (PAM2AN) and 1-methyl-pyridinium-4-aldoxime (PAM4AN) cations (charge = +e, spin = 0). Positions of infrared and Raman bands of corresponding chloride salts agree rather well with predicted values, except for modes taking part in hydrogen bonding to anions. The strength of hydrogen bonding is estimated to be of medium strength in both salts, the bonding in PAM2AN being stronger. The calculated and observed values of the characteristic stretching modes for the aldoxime moiety have been in accordance with the stronger acidity of PAM2AN structural isomer.

  10. Identification of Tunisian Leishmania spp. by PCR amplification of cysteine proteinase B (cpb) genes and phylogenetic analysis. (United States)

    Chaouch, Melek; Fathallah-Mili, Akila; Driss, Mehdi; Lahmadi, Ramzi; Ayari, Chiraz; Guizani, Ikram; Ben Said, Moncef; Benabderrazak, Souha


    Discrimination of the Old World Leishmania parasites is important for diagnosis and epidemiological studies of leishmaniasis. We have developed PCR assays that allow the discrimination between Leishmania major, Leishmania tropica and Leishmania infantum Tunisian species. The identification was performed by a simple PCR targeting cysteine protease B (cpb) gene copies. These PCR can be a routine molecular biology tools for discrimination of Leishmania spp. from different geographical origins and different clinical forms. Our assays can be an informative source for cpb gene studying concerning drug, diagnostics and vaccine research. The PCR products of the cpb gene and the N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase (nagt) Leishmania gene were sequenced and aligned. Phylogenetic trees of Leishmania based cpb and nagt sequences are close in topology and present the classic distribution of Leishmania in the Old World. The phylogenetic analysis has enabled the characterization and identification of different strains, using both multicopy (cpb) and single copy (nagt) genes. Indeed, the cpb phylogenetic analysis allowed us to identify the Tunisian Leishmania killicki species, and a group which gathers the least evolved isolates of the Leishmania donovani complex, that was originated from East Africa. This clustering confirms the African origin for the visceralizing species of the L. donovani complex.

  11. n-Butyl Pyridinium Nitrate as a Reusable Ionic Liquid Medium for Knoevenagel Condensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Knoevenagel condensation of carbonyl substrates with active methylene compounds proceeds smoothly with ammonium acetate as catalyst in n-butyl pyridinium nitrate to afford the desired products of good purity in moderate yields.

  12. Mini review on blood-brain barrier penetration of pyridinium aldoximes. (United States)

    Kalász, H; Nurulain, S M; Veress, G; Antus, S; Darvas, F; Adeghate, E; Adem, A; Hashemi, F; Tekes, K


    This paper reviews the blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration of newly developed pyridinium aldoximes. Pyridinium aldoximes are highly charged hydrophilic compounds used in the treatment of subjects exposed to organophosphonates because they are effective as acetylcholinesterase reactivators. Pyridinium aldoximes have antidotal effects against poisoning with cholinesterase inhibitors, a frequent problem affecting people working with organophosphate-based insecticides and pesticides. Toxic organophosphonate products such as sarin and tabun can be used by terrorists as chemical warfare agents. This poses a severe challenge to all innocent and peace-loving people worldwide. This review gives a brief summary of BBB transporters and description of the current in vitro and in vivo methods for the characterization of BBB penetration of established and novel pyridinium aldoximes. The authors provide a putative mechanism of penetration, outline some future ways of formulation and discuss the possible advantages and disadvantages of increasing BBB penetration.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Ammonium-, Pyridinium-, and Pyrrolidinium-Based Sulfonamido Functionalized Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Riisager, Anders


    New homologous ammonium-, pyridinium-, and pyrrolidinium-based sulfonamido functionalized ionic liquids have been synthesized in two steps using monoethanolamine, methanesulfonyl chloride, and tosyl chloride as precursors with ethanol as solvent. Attempts to synthesize dual amino functionalized...

  14. New method of immobilization of microbial cells by capture on the surface of insoluble pyridinium-type resin. (United States)

    Kawabata, N; Nishimura, S; Yoshimura, T


    A new method for the immobilization of microbial cells has been developed. Whole cells of Escherichia coli with aspartase activity were immobilized by capture on the surface of cross-linked poly(N-benzyl-4-vinylpyridinium bromide) containing styrene (BVPS resin), an insoluble pyridinium-type resin. When a suspension of the bacterial cells in buffer solution was passed through a glass column containing beads of BVPS resin, the cells were captured on the resin surface and formed an immobilized cell system. A fixed-bed column reactor containing 300 mg of the bacterial cells immobilized by capture on 10 g of BVPS resin beads was used for the preparation of L-aspartic acid from ammonium fumarate. Continuous operation of tne bioreactor produced L-aspartic acid in a quantitative yield when the influent substrate concentration was 0.1M and the flow rate was 0.41-0.83 bed volumes per hour at pH 7.4-7.7 at 30 degrees C.

  15. Dual Spectroscopic Responses of Pyridinium Hemicyanine Dyes to Anions%Dual Spectroscopic Responses of Pyridinium Hemicyanine Dyes to Anions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie, Puhui; Guo, Fengqi; Zhang, Dasheng; Zhang, Lei


    The absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic responses of three pyridinium hemicyanine dyes to anions F , Cl , Br , I-, H2P02, HS04 and OAc- were investigated. At lower concentrations of OAc- (less than 1 equiv.), both the absorption and the fluorescence intensities of 1--3 were more effectively changed than F at iden- tical concentrations. At higher concentrations of OAc (more than 1 equiv.), the interaction was opposite for each compound. 1H NMR results indicated the interaction between 1, 2 or 3 and F- proceeded through hydrogen bonding. The results showed that these dyes are promising to develop dual fluorescence and chromogenic chemo- sensors toward F- and OAc- according to the subtle difference in the affinity of F and OAc .

  16. CPB-assisted aortic valve replacement in a pregnant 27-year-old with endocarditis. (United States)

    Marcoux, J; Rosin, M; Mycyk, T


    A 27-year-old, G(3)P( 2)A(0) female with acute Staph aureus (SA) endocarditis successfully underwent CPB-assisted aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthetic aortic valve at 22 weeks' gestation. This patient's presentation of acute endocarditis complicated by septic shock, congestive heart failure, severe aortic insufficiency, multiple septic embolic events and borderline renal failure appeared on the daunting background of chronic heavy tobacco usage, hepatitis C positivity, long-term IV drug abuse and a pregnancy into its twenty-second week. Optimal treatment strategies implemented for both mother and fetus throughout the perioperative period contributed to a successful outcome for both.

  17. Improvement of cognitive test performance in patients undergoing primary CABG and other CPB-assisted cardiac procedures. (United States)

    van den Goor, Jm; Saxby, Bk; Tijssen, Jg; Wesnes, Ka; de Mol, Ba; Nieuwland, R


    Cardiac surgical procedures assisted by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) impair cognitive functions. Several studies, however, showed that cognitive functions were unaffected in patients undergoing either primary coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or more complex surgery assisted by CPB. Therefore, we conducted a straightforward study to compare patient groups who differed significantly in terms of risk factors such as prolonged CPB times. Consecutive patients (n = 54) were included, undergoing either non-primary CABG, e.g. valve and/or CABG, (n = 30) or primary CABG (n = 24), assisted by CPB. Cognitive function was determined pre-operatively on the day of hospital admission, and post-operatively after one and six months using the Cognitive Drug Research computerized assessment battery. Data from the fourteen individual task variables were summarized in four composite scores: Power of Attention (PoA), Continuity of Attention (CoA), Quality of Episodic Memory (QoEM), and Speed of Memory (SoM). In the non-primary CABG patients, both CoA and QoEM improved after 1 month (p = 0.001 and p = 0.016, respectively), whereas, after 6 months, CoA (p = 0.002), QoEM (p = 0.002) and SoM (p CPB in both non-primary CABG and in primary CABG patients.

  18. DNA quantification based on FRET realized by combination with surfactant CPB. (United States)

    Liu, Chunxia; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Wei


    In this work, we developed a novel DNA quantitative analysis based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) realized by combination with a surfactant CPB. The approach was capable of detecting long-stranded DNA in a separation-free format. A sandwich-type FAM-c-DNA-t-DNA-r-DNA-TAMRA conjugate was first formed by the capture probe tagged with FAM, the reporter probe tagged with TAMRA and the target DNA through hybridization. The donor (FAM) and the acceptor (TAMRA) were bridged to afford a FRET system. Subsequently, an addition of the cationic surfactant CPB to the system resulted in a substantial change of the microenvironment and an effective condensation of DNA strands. Consequently, without altering the component of the double strands, an enhanced acceptor fluorescence signal from FRET was achieved and a quantification of the target DNA containing 30 bases was enabled. Under the optimal experimental conditions, an excellent linear relationship between the increase of acceptor fluorescent peak area and the target DNA concentration was obtained over the range from 1.0 x 10(-7) to 3.0 x 10(-9) mol L(-1). The proposed approach offered adequate sensitivity for the detection of the target DNA at 1.0 x 10(-9) mol L(-1).

  19. Susceptibility of Chinese Perch Brain (CPB) Cell and Mandarin Fish to Red-Spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV) Infection. (United States)

    Tu, Jiagang; Chen, Wenjie; Fu, Xiaozhe; Lin, Qiang; Chang, Ouqin; Zhao, Lijuan; Lan, Jiangfeng; Li, Ningqiu; Lin, Li


    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), a neurological disease responsible for high mortality of fish species worldwide. Taking advantage of our established Chinese perch brain (CPB) cell line derived from brain tissues of Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi), the susceptibility of CPB cell to Red-Spotted Grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) was evaluated. The results showed that RGNNV replicated well in CPB cells, resulting in cellular apoptosis. Moreover, the susceptibility of Mandarin fish to RGNNV was also evaluated. Abnormal swimming was observed in RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish. In addition, the cellular vacuolation and viral particles were also observed in brain tissues of RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish by Hematoxylin-eosin staining or electronic microscopy. The established RGNNV susceptible brain cell line from freshwater fish will pave a new way for the study of the pathogenicity and replication of NNV in the future.

  20. Susceptibility of Chinese Perch Brain (CPB Cell and Mandarin Fish to Red-Spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiagang Tu


    Full Text Available Nervous necrosis virus (NNV is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER, a neurological disease responsible for high mortality of fish species worldwide. Taking advantage of our established Chinese perch brain (CPB cell line derived from brain tissues of Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi, the susceptibility of CPB cell to Red-Spotted Grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV was evaluated. The results showed that RGNNV replicated well in CPB cells, resulting in cellular apoptosis. Moreover, the susceptibility of Mandarin fish to RGNNV was also evaluated. Abnormal swimming was observed in RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish. In addition, the cellular vacuolation and viral particles were also observed in brain tissues of RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish by Hematoxylin-eosin staining or electronic microscopy. The established RGNNV susceptible brain cell line from freshwater fish will pave a new way for the study of the pathogenicity and replication of NNV in the future.

  1. Ionic Vapor Composition in Pyridinium-Based Ionic Liquids. (United States)

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Prezhdo, Oleg V


    Strong electrostatic interactions in ionic compounds make vaporization a complex process. The gas phase can contain a broad range of ionic clusters, and the cluster composition can differ greatly from that in the liquid phase. Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) constitute a complicated case due to their ionic nature, asymmetric structure, and a huge versatility of ions and ionic clusters. This work reports vapor-liquid equilibria and vapor compositions of butylpyridinium (BPY) RTILs formed with hexafluorophosphate (PF6), trifluoromethanesulfonate (TF), and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI) anions. Unlike inorganic crystals, the pyridinium-based RTILs contain significant percentages of charged clusters in the vapor phase. Ion triplets and ion quadruplets each constitute up to 10% of the vapor phase composition. Triples prevail over quadruples in [BPY][PF6] due to the size difference of the cation and the anion. The percentage of charged ionic clusters in the gas phase is in inverse proportion to the mass of the anion. The largest identified vaporized ionic cluster comprises eight ions, with a formation probability below 1%. Higher temperature fosters formation of larger clusters due to an increase of the saturated vapor density.

  2. The efficacy of some bis-pyridinium oximes as antidotes to soman in isolated muscles of several species including man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, O.; Vanwersch, R.A.P.; Wiel, H.J. van der


    Previous results had shown that bis-pyridinium oximes, particularly HI-6 are quite effective therapeutically in soman-poisoned rats and mice in vivo and in the rat diaphragm preparation in vitro. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of bis-pyridinium oximes on soman-inhibited

  3. Aminopentadiene imines from zincke salts of 3-alkylpyridines. Application to a synthesis of pyridinium salts from amino acids. (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Minh; Sanchez-Salvatori, Maria del Rayo; Wypych, Jean-Charles; Marazano, Christian


    The reaction of Zincke salts with primary amines to give pyridinium salts generally requires rather elevated temperature to go to completion (50-100 degrees C). It is shown that the addition of 1 equiv of a secondary amine allows formation, at ambient temperature, of intermediate aminopentadiene imine salts which can be isolated and were found to cyclize in acidic medium to give pyridinium salts at temperatures which do not exceed 50 degrees C. If this process has a tendency to give lower yields of pyridinium salt than the standard Zincke procedure, it can be advantageous in some cases, as illustrated by the synthesis of pyridinium salts from amino acids, a challenging reaction which does not work starting from Zincke salt in the absence of diethylamine. More generally, the reaction can be extended to primary amines featuring polar functions, as exemplified by a pyridinium salt synthesis (75 degrees C) in 55% yield from l-carnosine.

  4. Density functional theory study on the ionic liquid pyridinium hydrogen sulfate (United States)

    Tankov, Ivaylo; Yankova, Rumyana; Genieva, Svetlana; Mitkova, Magdalena; Stratiev, Dicho


    The geometry, electronic structure and chemical reactivity of a pyridinium-based ionic liquid, pyridinium hydrogen sulfate ([H-Pyr]+[HSO4]-), have been discussed on the basis of quantum chemical density functional theory calculations using B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p) approaches. The calculations indicated that [H-Pyr]+[HSO4]- exists in the form of an ion pair. A large electropositive potential was found on the pyridinium ring, while the regions of a negative electrostatic potential is linked with the lone pair of electronegative oxygen atoms in hydrogen sulfate anion ([HSO4]-). Electron transfer both within the anion, and between the anion and cation of an ion pair were described using natural bond orbital theory. The energy values of -7.1375 and -2.8801 eV were related to HOMO and LUMO orbitals, respectively.

  5. Gaseous microemboli detection in a simulated pediatric CPB circuit using a novel ultrasound system. (United States)

    Miller, Akemi; Wang, Shigang; Myers, John L; Undar, Akif


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of flow rate and perfusion mode on the delivery of gaseous microemboli in a simulated pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit with an open arterial filter purge line using a novel ultrasound detection system. The circuit was primed with 450 ml fresh, heparinized bovine blood plus 200 ml Lactated Ringer's solution (total volume 650 ml, corrected Hct 25%). After the injection of 5 ml air into the venous line, an Emboli Detection and Classification (EDAC) Quantifier (Luna Innovations, Inc., Roanoke, VA) was used to simultaneously record microemboli counts at postpump, postoxygenator, and postarterial filter sites. Trials were conducted at four different flow rates (500, 750, 1,000, 1,250 ml/min) and two perfusion modes (pulsatile, nonpulsatile). Microemboli counts uniformly increased with increasing pump flow rates. In all trials, the majority of gaseous microemboli detected in the simulated pediatric CPB circuit were 10 microm) were cleared from the circuit by the oxygenator and arterial filter. Clearance efficiency was decreased at higher flow rates (750-1,250 ml/min). Over 98% of microemboli detected at the postoxygenator site were <40 microm in diameter. In general, pulsatile flow delivered more microemboli to the circuit at postpump and postoxygenator sites than nonpulsatile flow. The results of this study confirmed that entrained air from the venous line could be delivered to the systemic circulation (as represented by our pediatric pseudo patient) at flow rates from 750 to 1,250 ml/min, despite the presence of an arterial filter and open arterial filter purge line. All of the microemboli distal to the arterial filter were smaller than the conventional detectable level of 40 microm.

  6. Tandem dinucleophilic cyclization of cyclohexane-1,3-diones with pyridinium salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Kiamehr


    Full Text Available The cyclization of cyclohexane-1,3-diones with various substituted pyridinium salts afforded functionalized 8-oxa-10-aza-tricyclo[,7]trideca-2(7,11-dienes. The reaction proceeds by regioselective attack of the central carbon atom of the 1,3-dicarbonyl unit to 4-position of the pyridinium salt and subsequent cyclization by base-assisted proton migration and nucleophilic addition of the oxygen atom to the 2-position, as was elucidated by DFT computations. Fairly extensive screening of bases and additives revealed that the presence of potassium cations is essential for formation of the product.

  7. Bromide in some coastal and oceanic waters of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, F.P.; Dalal, V.N.K.

    Bromide concentration and bromide/chlorinity ratio are estimated in coastal waters of Goa, Minicoy Lagoon, Western Arabian Sea and Western Bay of Bengal. The influence of precipitation and river runoff on bromide and bromide/chlorinity ratio...

  8. S1P(1) Receptor Modulation Preserves Vascular Function in Mesenteric and Coronary Arteries after CPB in the Rat Independent of Depletion of Lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samarska, Iryna V.; Bouma, Hjalmar R.; Buikema, Hendrik; Mungroop, Hubert E.; Houwertjes, Martin C.; Absalom, Anthony R.; Epema, Anne H.; Henning, Robert H.


    Background: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may induce systemic inflammation and vascular dysfunction. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) modulates various vascular and immune responses. Here we explored whether agonists of the S1P receptors, FTY720 and SEW2871 improve vascular reactivity after CPB in the r

  9. Heparin modulates the endopeptidase activity of Leishmania mexicana cysteine protease cathepsin L-Like rCPB2.8.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner A S Judice

    Full Text Available Cysteine protease B is considered crucial for the survival and infectivity of the Leishmania in its human host. Several microorganism pathogens bind to the heparin-like glycosaminoglycans chains of proteoglycans at host-cell surface to promote their attachment and internalization. Here, we have investigated the influence of heparin upon Leishmania mexicana cysteine protease rCPB2.8 activity.THE DATA ANALYSIS REVEALED THAT THE PRESENCE OF HEPARIN AFFECTS ALL STEPS OF THE ENZYME REACTION: (i it decreases 3.5-fold the k 1 and 4.0-fold the k -1, (ii it affects the acyl-enzyme accumulation with pronounced decrease in k 2 (2.7-fold, and also decrease in k 3 (3.5-fold. The large values of ΔG  =  12 kJ/mol for the association and dissociation steps indicate substantial structural strains linked to the formation/dissociation of the ES complex in the presence of heparin, which underscore a conformational change that prevents the diffusion of substrate in the rCPB2.8 active site. Binding to heparin also significantly decreases the α-helix content of the rCPB2.8 and perturbs the intrinsic fluorescence emission of the enzyme. The data strongly suggest that heparin is altering the ionization of catalytic (Cys(25-S(-/(His(163-Im(+ H ion pair of the rCPB2.8. Moreover, the interaction of heparin with the N-terminal pro-region of rCPB2.8 significantly decreased its inhibitory activity against the mature enzyme.Taken together, depending on their concentration, heparin-like glycosaminoglycans can either stimulate or antagonize the activity of cysteine protease B enzymes during parasite infection, suggesting that this glycoconjugate can anchor parasite cysteine protease at host cell surface.

  10. Pyridinium tribromide catalyzed condensation of indoles and aldehydes to form bisindolylalkanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Yang; Zheng Lan Yin; Ban Lai Ouyang; Yi Yuan Peng


    An efficient synthetic method for bis(indol-3-yl)alkane derivatives has been developed. In the presence of 5 mol% of pyridinium tribromide (PTB), the condensation of indoles and aldehydes proceeded smoothly under mild conditions, giving rise to the corresponding bis(indol-3-yl)alkanes in good to excellent yields.

  11. n-Dodecylammonium bromide monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Dan


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C12H28N+·Br−·H2O, the ionic pairs formed by n-dodecylammonium cations and bromide anions are arranged into thick layers; these layers are linked in a nearly perpendicular fashion [the angle between the layers is 85.84 (5°] by hydrogen-bonding interactions involving the water molecules. The methylene part of the alkyl chain in the cation adopts an all-trans conformation. In the crystal structure, molecules are linked by intermolecular N—H...Br, O—H...Br and N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  12. Modified CPB circuit for postoperative rescue of high-risk patients following cardiac repair: are we keeping safe? (United States)

    Pizarro, Christian; Duncan, Daniel; Derby, Christopher D; Kerins, Paul


    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is commonly used to treat postcardiotomy cardiopulmonary dysfunction in small children. System readiness, need for additional blood products, and exposure to new surfaces are important considerations, particularly when used for resuscitation. We reviewed our experience with a cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) system modified to provide extended circulatory support system after surgery in patients considered at high risk. When not used in the operating room, the system was recirculated for 24 hours. Before being discarded, blood samples were obtained for activated clotting time, arterial blood gas, and blood cultures from 10 circuits. Between January 2004, and December 2005, 44 patients underwent cardiac repair using this CPB system. ECMO support was initiated in the operating room in 8 patients, and six circuits were used after patient arrival in the intensive care unit. Blood sampling after 24 hours on standby circuits revealed acceptable values for pH, Pao2, hematocrit, ionized calcium, potassium level, and ACT. All blood cultures were negative at 5 days. Survival for patients who received a circuit on standby was 64%.This modified cardiopulmonary circuit can be transformed into a simple, safe, and effective ECMO support system. Deployment of a CPB circuit previously used for cardiac repair has many advantages and maximizes utilization of resources.

  13. Ion chromatography as a novel method to quantify the solubility of pyridinium ionic liquids in organic solvents. (United States)

    Onink, Ferdy; Meindersma, Wytze; Burghoff, Bernhard; Weggemans, Wilko; Aerts, Guus; de Haan, André


    A validated ion chromatographic method was developed and applied for the determination of the maximum solubility of pyridinium ionic liquids in several aromatic solvents. Elution was performed on a Metrosep C3-150 prototype column at 40°C with acetonitrile-water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). Mixtures of pyridinium ionic liquids and aromatic solvents were diluted with acetonitrile and acetone on a 1:1:2 weight base before the analysis. The chromatographic time only took 20 min. The standard curves for both pyridinium ionic liquids ([4-mebupy]BF4 and [3-mebupy]N(CN)2) were linear (r(2) = 0.9980-0.9998) in all aromatic solvents (toluene, benzene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene) in the concentration range of 5.37-241 mg kg(-1). The intraday relative standard deviations (n = 3) for peak areas were 0.60-2.9%. Accuracy in the measurement of samples ranged from 98.5 to 105%. The limit of detection for both pyridinium ionic liquids in all solvents varied between 0.73 and 2.6 mg kg(-1). This assay has been successfully applied in the determination of the maximum solubilities of both pyridinium ionic liquids in several aromatic solvents. This method demonstrated that with increasing aromatic character and/or temperature the solubilities of both investigated pyridinium ILs in the aromatic solvents increase. This is primary caused by the nature of the anion.

  14. Conversion of Alcohols to Bromides by Trimethylsilane and lithium Bromide in Acetone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Feng; Zhang Xiao-xia; Zhang Qing; Wang Ji-yu; Chen Dai-mo


    Conversion of alcohols to alkyl bromides is one of the most frequently used functional group transformation reactions. Phosphorus tribromide is one of the most popular classical reagents.Triphenylphosphine has been used in combination with bromine,carbon tetrabromide,N-halo imides and other bromide compounds as a mild reagents for the preparation of alkyl bromides.More reacently, halotrimethylsilanes were found to be useful for halogenation of alcohols. George A.Olah successfully converted alcohols to bromides with chlorotrimethylsilane/lithium bromide in acetonitrile. But in our research, we found that we got no bromides but methylation products when we planed to convered our substances to bromides according to Gerge's method. We did some experiments, and we found that when the substituent group in the 2-N was donor group,we got the methylation products,but when it was acceptor group,the bromide could be got.(Scheme 1).Then we did some experiments with several other solvents, we found excitedly that when the solvent was acetone ,the bromides could be got even the substituent group was donor.(Scheme 2).When we changed the substances to normal alcohols ,such as ethyl alcohol,benzyl alcohol,isopropyl alcohol and 3,4-dimethoxy benzyl alcohol,we also got the bromides.In conclusion, we found a simple method to convert alcohols to bromides with trimethylsilane/li thium bromide in acetone,which was better than Geroge's method.

  15. Atomistic Force Field for Pyridinium-Based Ionic Liquids: Reliable Transport Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voroshylova, I. V.; Chaban, V. V.


    Reliable force field (FF) is a central issue in successful prediction of physical chemical properties via computer simulations. This work introduces refined FF parameters for six popular ionic liquids (ILs) of the pyridinium family (butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate, bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)......Reliable force field (FF) is a central issue in successful prediction of physical chemical properties via computer simulations. This work introduces refined FF parameters for six popular ionic liquids (ILs) of the pyridinium family (butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate, bis......(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, dicyanamide, hexafluorophosphate, triflate, chloride). We elaborate a systematic procedure, which allows accounting for specific cationanion interactions in the liquid phase. Once these interactions are described accurately, all experimentally determined transport properties can be reproduced. We prove...

  16. Adsorption and Desorption of Cetyl Pyridinium Ions at a Tungsten-Coated Silicon Wafer Surface. (United States)

    Free; Shah


    The use of surfactants to reduce the number of residual particles following chemical-mechanical planarization during integrated circuit manufacturing is relatively new. Recent results using cetyl pyridinium chloride and other cationic surfactant molecules show that surfactants are very effective in reducing the number density of residual polishing particles. The effectiveness of the surfactants is related to their ability to adsorb on the substrate surface. The contact angle and spectroscopic data in this study show that cetyl pyridinium ions can be readily adsorbed or desorbed from a chemical-vapor-deposited tungsten surface by controlling the concentration of other cations in solution. The mechanism for surfactant desorption is likely a competition between the cationic surfactant ions and other cations in solution. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  17. Pyridinium diaqua-bis-(methyl-enediphospho-nato-κO,O')chromate(III) tetra-hydrate. (United States)

    Van der Merwe, Kina; Visser, Hendrik G; Venter, J A


    In the title complex, (C(5)H(6)N)[Cr(CH(4)O(6)P(2))(2)(H(2)O)(2)]·4H(2)O, the Cr(III) atom, lying on an inversion centre, is coordinated by two bidentate methyl-ene diphospho-nate ligands and two water molecules in a distorted octa-hedral coordination geometry. The pyridinium cation is located on an inversion centre, with an N atom and a C atom sharing a position each at a half occupancy. A three-dimensional network is constructed by O-H⋯O, N-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the pyridin-ium cation, complex anion and uncoordinated water mol-ecules.

  18. A general framework for the solvatochromism of pyridinium phenolate betaine dyes (United States)

    Rezende, Marcos Caroli; Aracena, Andrés


    A general framework for the solvatochromic behavior of pyridinium phenolate betaine dyes is presented, based on the variations with the medium of the electrophilic Fukui functions of their electron-pair donor and acceptor moieties. The model explains the ‘anomalous' solvatochromic behavior of large betaines, which change their behavior from negative to inverted, when electron-pair donor and acceptor groups are separated by a conjugated chain of variable size.

  19. Pharmacological studies on otilonium bromide. (United States)

    Giachetti, A


    Otilonium bromide (OB) is a quaternary ammonium compound characterized by a long aliphatic chain. Its chemical properties are responsible for both a poor penetration in CNS and a prolonged binding to cell membranes. OB is a spasmolytic agent which acts by modifying Ca++ fluxes from extra and intracellular sites. It has been documented that iv administration (10 mg/kg) of OB causes a marked reduction of colonic motility lasting from 2 to 3 hours, whereas an inhibition of upper GI motor activity is present only at higher dosages. In conclusion, OB seems to exert its activity mainly on distal GI tract, and its spasmolytic effect may be due to its ability to inhibit Ca++ fluxes and to a direct action of the drug on the contractile proteins of the smooth muscle.

  20. The interactions between lipase and pyridinium ligands investigated by electrochemical and spectrophotometric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Patriche


    Full Text Available The interaction between pyridinium ligands derived from 4,4’-bipyridine (N,N’-bis(p-bromophenacyl-4,4’-bipyridinium dibromide – Lr and (N,N’-bis(p-bromophenacyl-1,2-bis (4-pyridyl ethane dibromide – Lm with lipase enzyme was evaluated. The stability of the pyridinium ligands, having an essential role in biological systems, in 0.1 M KNO3 as supporting electrolyte is influenced by the lipase concentration added. The pH and conductometry measurements in aqueous solution suggest a rapid ionic exchange process. The behavior of pyridinium ligands in the presence of lipase is investigated by cyclic voltammetry and UV/Vis spectroscopy, which indicated bindings and changes from the interaction between them. The voltammograms recorded on the glassy carbon electrode showed a more intense electronic transfer for the Lr interaction with lipase compared to Lm, which is due to the absence of mobile ethylene groups from Lr structure.

  1. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has no significant impact on survival in patients undergoing nephrectomy and level III-IV inferior vena cava thrombectomy; a multi-institutional analysis (United States)

    Dall'Era, Marc A.; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Carballido, Joaquín A.; Chandrasekar, Thenappan; Chromecki, Thomas; Ciancio, Gaetano; Daneshmand, Siamak; Gontero, Paolo; Gonzalez, Javier; Haferkamp, Axel; Hohenfellner, Markus; Huang, William C.; Espinós, Estefania Linares; Mandel, Philipp; Martinez-Salamanca, Juan I.; Master, Viraj A.; McKiernan, James M.; Montorsi, Francesco; Novara, Giacomo; Pahernik, Sascha; Palou, Juan; Pruthi, Raj S.; Rodriguez-Faba, Oscar; Russo, Paul; Scherr, Douglas S.; Shariat, Shahrokh F.; Spahn, Martin; Terrone, Carlo; Vergho, Daniel; Wallen, Eric M.; Xylinas, Evanguelos; Zigeuner, Richard; Libertino, John A.; Evans, Christopher P.


    Purpose The impact of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) usage in level III-IV tumor thrombectomy on surgical and oncologic outcomes is unknown. We sought to determine the impact of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on overall and cancer specific survival, as well as surgical complication rates, and immediate outcomes in patients undergoing nephrectomy and level III-IV tumor thrombectomy with or without CPB. Patients and Methods We retrospectively analyzed 362 patients with RCC and with level III or IV tumor thrombus from 1992 to 2012 in 22 US and European centers. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare overall and cancer-specific survival between patients with and without CPB. Perioperative mortality and complications rates were assessed using logistic regression analyses. Results The median overall survival was 24.6 months in non-CPB patients and 26.6 months in CPB patients. Overall survival and cancer-specific survival (CSS) did not differ significantly in both groups, neither in univariate analysis nor when adjusting for known risk factors. In multivariate analysis, no significant differences were seen in hospital LOS, Clavien 1-4 complication rate, intraoperative or 30 day mortality, and CSS between both groups. Limitations include the retrospective nature of the study. Conclusions In our multi-institutional analysis, the use of cardiopulmonary bypass did not significantly impact cancer specific survival or overall survival in patients undergoing nephrectomy and level III or IV tumor thrombectomy. Neither approach was independently associated with increased mortality in the multivariate analysis. Higher surgical complications were not independently associated with the use of CPB. PMID:25797392

  2. Isotachophoretic separation of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. (United States)

    Praus, Petr


    Capillary isotachophoresis (ITP), equipped with the conductivity detection, was tested for the separation of cetyltrimethylamonium (CTMA) bromide. To prevent adsorption of CTMA to the capillary walls, several neutral polymers and ethanol were added into the leading electrolytes. Unlike polymer additives, the CTMA free monomers and micelles, created as a result of the isotachophoretic concentration effect, were recognised in the presence of ethanol from 10 to 25% (v/v). At 30% of ethanol, only a single zone of CTMA monomer was registered because the micellization process did not take place under this condition. Employing an ITP apparatus in the column-coupling configuration, the operational system with 30% of ethanol was tested for the determination of CTMA in hair conditioners. The achieved detection limits were about 0.02mM. Both model solutions and real samples of hair conditioners were analysed with the precision about R.S.D. = 3%. One analysis in the column-coupled system takes circa 15min.

  3. 2,6-Dimethylpyridinium bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim F. Haddad


    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title salt, C7H10N+·Br−, comprises two 2,6-dimethylpyridinium cations and two bromide anions. One cation and one anion are situated in general positions, while the other cation and the other anion lie on a crystallographic mirror plane parallel to (010. Each pair of ions interact via N—H...Br and C—H...Br hydrogen bonding, generating motifs depending on the cation and anion involved. Thus, the cation and the anion on the mirror plane generate infinite chains along the c axis, while the other ionic pair leads to sheets parallel to the ac plane. In the overall crystal packing, both motifs alternate along the b axis, with a single layer of the chain motif sandwiched between two double layers of the sheet motif. The sheets and chains are further connected via aryl π–π interactions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.690 (2 and 3.714 (2 Å], giving a three-dimensional network.

  4. Growth and characterization of lead bromide crystals (United States)

    Singh, N. B.; Gottlieb, M.; Henningsen, T.; Hopkins, R. H.; Mazelsky, R.; Glicksman, M. E.; Coriell, S. R.; Santoro, G. J.; Duval, W. M. B.


    Lead(II) bromide was purified by a combination of directional freezing and zone-refining methods. Differential thermal analysis of the lead bromide showed that a destructive phase transformation occurs below the melting temperature. This transformation causes extensive cracking, making it very difficult to grow a large single crystal. Energy of phase transformation for pure lead bromide was determined to be 24.67 cal/g. To circumvent this limitation, crystals were doped by silver bromide which decreased the energy of phase transformation. The addition of silver helped in achieving the size, but enhanced the inhomogeneity in the crystal. The acoustic attenuation constant was almost identical for the pure and doped (below 3000 ppm) crystals.

  5. Rapid Synthesis of Glycosyl Bromides by Ultrasound Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jin-zhong; ZHANG Xue-qin; WU Xin; XING Ze-bing; YUE Ai-qin; SHAO Hua-wu


    A convenient and environmentally friendly reactor for the synthesis of glycosyl bromides via ultrasound irradiation was designed.Peracetylated glycosyl bromides were synthesized from free saccharides by means of a one-pot method.Benzoylated and 6-subsituted glycosyl bromides were prepared from protected saccharides.The glycosyl bromides were obtained in isolated yields of 83% to 96%.

  6. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of cyclopropylmagnesium bromide with aryl bromides mediated by zinc halide additives. (United States)

    Shu, Chutian; Sidhu, Kanwar; Zhang, Li; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Krishnamurthy, Dhileepkumar; Senanayake, Chris H


    The key Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl bromides or triflates and cyclopropylmagnesium bromide in the presence of substoichiometric amounts of zinc bromide produces cyclopropyl arenes in good to excellent yields. The cross-coupling of other alkyl, cycloalkyl, and aryl Grignard reagents with aryl bromides under the same conditions gives the corresponding substituted arenes in good yields.

  7. Quantum Chemical Benchmarking, Validation, and Prediction of Acidity Constants for Substituted Pyridinium Ions and Pyridinyl Radicals. (United States)

    Keith, John A; Carter, Emily A


    Sensibly modeling (photo)electrocatalytic reactions involving proton and electron transfer with computational quantum chemistry requires accurate descriptions of protonated, deprotonated, and radical species in solution. Procedures to do this are generally nontrivial, especially in cases that involve radical anions that are unstable in the gas phase. Recently, pyridinium and the corresponding reduced neutral radical have been postulated as key catalysts in the reduction of CO2 to methanol. To assess practical methodologies to describe the acid/base chemistry of these species, we employed density functional theory (DFT) in tandem with implicit solvation models to calculate acidity constants for 22 substituted pyridinium cations and their corresponding pyridinyl radicals in water solvent. We first benchmarked our calculations against experimental pyridinium deprotonation energies in both gas and aqueous phases. DFT with hybrid exchange-correlation functionals provide chemical accuracy for gas-phase data and allow absolute prediction of experimental pKas with unsigned errors under 1 pKa unit. The accuracy of this economical pKa calculation approach was further verified by benchmarking against highly accurate (but very expensive) CCSD(T)-F12 calculations. We compare the relative importance and sensitivity of these energies to selection of solvation model, solvation energy definitions, implicit solvation cavity definition, basis sets, electron densities, model geometries, and mixed implicit/explicit models. After determining the most accurate model to reproduce experimentally-known pKas from first principles, we apply the same approach to predict pKas for radical pyridinyl species that have been proposed relevant under electrochemical conditions. This work provides considerable insight into the pitfalls using continuum solvation models, particularly when used for radical species.

  8. Markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in patients undergoing CABG with CPB with and without ventilation of the lungs: a pilot study. (United States)

    Deblier, Ivo; Sadowska, Anna M; Janssens, Annelies; Rodrigus, Inez; DeBacker, Wilfried A


    Cardiopulmonary bypass triggers systemic inflammation and systemic oxidative stress. Recent reports suggest that continuous ventilation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can affect the outcome of patients after cardiac surgery. We investigated the influence of lung ventilation on inflammatory and oxidative stress markers during coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) with CPB in 13 patients with (Group 2) or without (Group 1) ventilation of the lungs with small tidal volume (4 ml/kg). IL-10 and elastase in blood were elevated in both groups with a peak at the end of CPB (PCPB is not directly influenced by continuous ventilation of the lungs with small tidal volumes. The modulation of antioxidant defense systems by ventilation needs further investigation.

  9. Protein ligand interactions: alkylated pyridinium salts as inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase from Electrophorus electricus. (United States)

    Whiteley, C G; Ngwenya, D S


    The interaction of alkyl-quaternary pyridinium hydrochloride salts on acetylcholinesterase (AChE, E.C. has been investigated. Kinetic analysis has shown that they reflect a competitive inhibition with Ki values in the range 5-12 microM and 7-17 microM for ethyl- and methyl-substituted salts, respectively. Spectrophotometry was used to study the binding of the ligands with the enzyme and Scatchard analysis used to calculate the respective dissociation constants (Kd) and the number of binding sites. The substitution position of the alkyl group on the pyridine ring also influenced the binding capacity and the Ki values.

  10. Protein ligand interactions 7 halogenated pyridinium salts as inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase from Electrophorus electricus. (United States)

    Whiteley, C G; Ngwenya, D S


    The interaction of halo-quaternary pyridinium hydrochloride salts on acetylcholinesterase (AChE, E.C. has been investigated. Kinetic analysis has shown that they reflect a non-competitive inhibition with Ki values in the range 8-13 microM and 5-34 microM for chloro- and bromo-substituted salts respectively. Spectrophotometry was used to study the binding of the ligands with the enzyme and Scatchard analysis used to calculate the respective dissociation constants (Kd) and the number of binding sites. The substitution position of the halogen on the pyridine ring also influenced the binding capacity and the Ki values.

  11. Photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer process of betaine pyridinium: A theoretical spectroscopic study (United States)

    Perrier, Aurélie; Aloïse, Stéphane; Pawlowska, Zuzanna; Sliwa, Michel; Maurel, François; Abe, Jiro


    Using Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory and taking into account bulk solvent effects, we investigate the absorption and emission spectra of a betaine pyridinium molecule, the 2-(1-pyridinio) benzimidazolate (SBPa). This molecule exhibits strong photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer (ICT). We have identified two different electronic states involved, respectively, in the strong bathochromic ICT absorption band (S 2) and in the moderate emission band (S 1). The ICT process is analyzed in terms of charge distribution and dipole moment evolutions upon photoexcitation. These results are compared with steady-state spectroscopic measurements.

  12. Negative solvatochromism of a series of pyridinium phenolate betaine dyes with increasing steric hindrance (United States)

    Jacques, Patrice; Graff, Bernadette; Diemer, Vincent; Ay, Emel; Chaumeil, Hélène; Carré, Christiane; Malval, Jean-Pierre


    The negative solvatochromism of a series of pyridinium phenolates betaine dyes is investigated using three approaches: (a) empirical, based on the empirical solvent polarity parameter ET(30); (b) semi-empirical, based on the π∗, α, β set of parameters used in Kamlet-Taft's Solvatochromic Comparison Method (SCM); and (c) physical, by means of the Onsager reaction-field model of solvents. Comparison of the obtained correlations underscored the roles of both the two tert-butyl groups ortho to the oxygen atom and the interplanar angle between the phenyl rings on the very blue shifts observed as the polarity increases.

  13. Anionic and Zwitterionic Photophysical Effects in Some Pyridinium Oxazole Laser Dyes


    Kubin, R. F.; Henry, R. A.; Pietrak, M. E.; Bliss, D. E.; Hall, J. H.


    Kauffman and Bentley [Laser Chem. 8, 49-59 (1988)] have reported increased laser output by changing the anion of certain pyridinium oxazole dyes from the tosylate to the mesylate salt. Likewise, zwitterion variants of these dyes are also reported to have a significantly improved laser output. We find anion changes to be modest and, with one exception, all zwitterions tested were no better or not as good as the tosylate salt with respect to lasing output. However, both the mesylate salt and th...

  14. [1,2-Bis(diphenylphosphinoethane]{2-[bis(diphenylphosphinomethylamino]pyridinium}fluoridohydrazidatomolybdenum(IV bis(tetrafluoridoborate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Tuczek


    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, [MoF(N2H2(C31H29N2P2(C26H24P2](BF42, each Mo atom is surrounded by four P atoms of one 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphinoethane and one 2-[bis(diphenylphosphinomethylamino]pyridinium ligand. The remaining binding sites of the distorted octahedron are occupied by a hydrazidate (NNH22− and a fluoride ligand. Two F atoms of an anion are disordered over two positions; the site occupancy factors are ca 0.7 and 0.3.

  15. Cationic pyridinium porphyrins appending different peripheral substituents: Spectroscopic studies on their interactions with bovine serum albumin (United States)

    Zhao, Ping; Huang, Jin-Wang; Ji, Liang-Nian


    The interaction of cationic pyridinium porphyrins appending methylpyridyl, hydroxyphenyl, propionoxyphenyl or carboxyphenyl group at meso-20-position of porphyrin core with bovine serum albumin (BSA), was studied by the combination of absorption spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and synchronous spectroscopy. The spectral monitoring results indicate that the studied compounds could bind with the BSA molecule and the calculated binding constants show that the tetracationic porphyrin has higher binding affinity than those tricationic ones. The interactions between porphyrins and BSA employ an electrostatic binding mechanism and there was only one binding site which located on the surface of the protein molecule.

  16. 4-Amino-pyridinium 5-carb-oxy-penta-noate monohydrate. (United States)

    Raj, S Alfred Cecil; Sinthiya, A; Varghese, Babu


    In the title hydrated salt, C(5)H(7)N(2) (+)·C(6)H(9)O(4) (-)·H(2)O, the carb-oxy H atom is disordered over two positions with equal occupancy. In the crystal, O atoms of the 5-carb-oxy-penta-noate anion link the 4-amino-pyridinium cations and water mol-ecules into a three-dimensional network via N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The crystal structure is further consolidated by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the anion and the solvent water mol-ecule.

  17. Collective ion diffusion and localized single particle dynamics in pyridinium-based ionic liquids. (United States)

    Burankova, Tatsiana; Hempelmann, Rolf; Wildes, Andrew; Embs, Jan P


    Quasielastic neutron scattering with polarized neutrons allows for an experimental separation of single-particle and collective processes, as contained in the incoherent and coherent scattering contributions. This technique was used to investigate the dynamical processes in the pyridinium-based ionic liquid 1-butylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide. We observed two diffusion processes with different time scales. The slower diffusional process was present in both the coherent and the incoherent contribution, meaning that this process has at least a partial collective nature. The second faster localized process is only present in the incoherent scattering contribution. We conclude that it is a true single-particle process on a shorter time scale.

  18. Oxidation of phenyl alanine by pyridinium chlorochromate in acidic DMF–water medium: A kinetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.L. Hiran


    Full Text Available The kinetics of oxidation of phenyl alanine by pyridinium chlorochromate in DMF–water (70:30% mixture in presence of perchloric acid leads to the formation of corresponding aldehyde. The reaction is of first order each in [PCC], [HClO4] and [AA]. Michaelis–Menten type kinetics was observed with phenyl alanine. The reaction rates were determined at different temperatures [25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 °C] and the activation parameters were calculated. The reaction does not induce polymerization of acrylonitrile. With an increase in the amount of DMF in its aqueous mixture, the rate increases. A suitable mechanism for the reaction was postulated.

  19. Mechanism of block of single protopores of the Torpedo chloride channel ClC-0 by 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)butyric acid (CPB). (United States)

    Pusch, M; Accardi, A; Liantonio, A; Ferrera, L; De Luca, A; Camerino, D C; Conti, F


    We investigated in detail the mechanism of inhibition by the S(-) enantiomer of 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)butyric acid (CPB) of the Torpedo Cl(-)channel, ClC-0. The substance has been previously shown to inhibit the homologous skeletal muscle channel, CLC-1. ClC-0 is a homodimer with probably two independently gated protopores that are conductive only if an additional common gate is open. As a simplification, we used a mutant of ClC-0 (C212S) that has the common gate "locked open" (Lin, Y.W., C.W. Lin, and T.Y. Chen. 1999. J. Gen. Physiol. 114:1-12). CPB inhibits C212S currents only when applied to the cytoplasmic side, and single-channel recordings at voltages (V) between -120 and -80 mV demonstrate that it acts independently on individual protopores by introducing a long-lived nonconductive state with no effect on the conductance and little effect on the lifetime of the open state. Steady-state macroscopic currents at -140 mV are half-inhibited by approximately 0.5 mM CPB, but the inhibition decreases with V and vanishes for V > or = 40 mV. Relaxations of CPB inhibition after voltage steps are seen in the current responses as an additional exponential component that is much slower than the gating of drug-free protopores. For V = 60 mV) with an IC50 of approximately 30-40 mM. Altogether, these findings support a model for the mechanism of CPB inhibition in which the drug competes with Cl(-) for binding to a site of the pore where it blocks permeation. CPB binds preferentially to closed channels, and thereby also strongly alters the gating of the single protopore. Since the affinity of CPB for open WT pores is extremely low, we cannot decide in this case if it acts also as an open pore blocker. However, the experiments with the mutant K519E strongly support this interpretation. CPB block may become a useful tool to study the pore of ClC channels. As a first application, our results provide additional evidence for a double-barreled structure of ClC-0 and ClC-1.

  20. [Pharmacology of the bronchospasmolytic oxitropium bromide]. (United States)

    Bauer, V R


    The anticholinergic substance (8r)-6 beta, 7 beta-epoxy-8-ethyl-3 alpha-[(-)-tropoyloxyl]-1 alpha H, 5 alpha H-tropanium bromide (oxitropium bromide, Ba 253 BR, Ventilat) is a competitive antagonist of acetylcholine. In vitro, it is many times as effective as atropine. In vivo, oxitropium bromide, following i.v. administration, is also more effective than atropine. Due to its quaternary structure, a central anticholinergic effect cannot be demonstrated. Furthermore, poor enteral resorption is to be expected. Locally administered, as an aqueous aerosol, the effect of the substance is distinctly greater than that of atropine, both in potency and duration of action. This is also true when administered by metered-dose inhaler compared with ipratropium bromide. As, following aerosol administration, the margin between major effect and the most sensitive side-effect is in the ratio 1 : 100, side-effects are unlikely even with marked inhalational overdosage. Oxitropium bromide can be described, therefore, as a preparation free of side-effects which represents in prophylactic use in many cases of obstructive airway disease, an alternative to beta-mimetics and xanthine derivatives.

  1. CuO nanostructures: optical properties and morphology control by pyridinium-based ionic liquids. (United States)

    Sabbaghan, Maryam; Shahvelayati, Ashraf Sadat; Madankar, Kamelia


    Copper oxide nanostructures have been synthesized by a simple reflux method in aqueous medium of pyridinium based ionic liquids. The structural and optical properties of CuO nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) and UV-visible. The morphologies of the nanostructures can be controlled by changing the amount of NaOH and ionic liquids. The results show that the use identical pyridinium based ionic liquids in ratio of 4:1 NaOH/Cu(OAc)2⋅H2O yield minor differences in morphology of CuO nanostructures. Different morphologies of CuO nanostructures were obtained by changing the ratio NaOH/Cu(OAc)2⋅H2O to 2:1. Ionic liquids play an important role on optical properties of CuO nanostructures. The results of optical measurements of the CuO nanostructures illustrate that band gaps are estimated to be 1.67-1.85 eV. PL patterns studies show that the ionic liquids can be effect on PL patterns of the samples. The reasons of these phenomena are discussed.

  2. Evaluation of Range-Corrected Density Functionals for the Simulation of Pyridinium-Containing Molecular Crystals. (United States)

    Ruggiero, Michael T; Gooch, Jonathan; Zubieta, Jon; Korter, Timothy M


    The problem of nonlocal interactions in density functional theory calculations has in part been mitigated by the introduction of range-corrected functional methods. While promising solutions, the continued evaluation of range corrections in the structural simulations of complex molecular crystals is required to judge their efficacy in challenging chemical environments. Here, three pyridinium-based crystals, exhibiting a wide range of intramolecular and intermolecular interactions, are used as benchmark systems for gauging the accuracy of several range-corrected density functional techniques. The computational results are compared to low-temperature experimental single-crystal X-ray diffraction and terahertz spectroscopic measurements, enabling the direct assessment of range correction in the accurate simulation of the potential energy surface minima and curvatures. Ultimately, the simultaneous treatment of both short- and long-range effects by the ωB97-X functional was found to be central to its rank as the top performer in reproducing the complex array of forces that occur in the studied pyridinium solids. These results demonstrate that while long-range corrections are the most commonly implemented range-dependent improvements to density functionals, short-range corrections are vital for the accurate reproduction of forces that rapidly diminish with distance, such as quadrupole-quadrupole interactions.

  3. Antibacterial/Antiviral Property and Mechanism of Dual-Functional Quaternized Pyridinium-type Copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xue


    Full Text Available Due to the massive outbreaks of pathogen-caused diseases and the increase of drug-resistant pathogens, there is a particular interest in the development of novel disinfection agents with broad-spectrum antipathogenic activity. In the present study, water-soluble pyridinium-type polyvinylpyrrolidones with different counter anions were prepared. Structural characterization was conducted via 13C–1H heteronuclear single quantum coherence spectroscopy, static light scattering, UV spectrometry and apparent charge density. The influence of counter anion and polymer compositions on the antibacterial activity was studied against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Atomic force microscopy (AFM was applied for tracking the morphological alterations in bacterial cells induced by prepared polycations. It was found that the exposure of bacteria to the polycations resulted in the destruction of cell membranes and the leakage of cytoplasm. The antiviral activity of pyridinium-type polycations against enveloped influenza virus was evaluated via a plaque assay. The action mode against enveloped virus was depicted to rationalize the antiviral mechanism.

  4. Polymorphism of pyridinium amphiphiles for gene delivery : Influence of ionic strength, helper lipid content, and plasmid DNA complexation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scarzello, M; Chupin, [No Value; Wagenaar, A; Stuart, MCA; Engberts, JBFN; Hulst, R; Chupin, Vladimir


    Two double-tailed pyridinium cationic amphiphiles, differing only in the degree of unsaturation of the alkyl chains, have been selected for a detailed study of their aggregation behavior, under conditions employed for transfection experiments. The transfection efficiencies of the two molecules are r

  5. [The clinical pharmacological profile of pinaverium bromide]. (United States)

    Guslandi, M


    Pinaverium bromide is a locally acting spasmolytic agent of the digestive tract. Its mechanism of action relies upon inhibition of calcium ion entrance into smooth muscle cells (calcium-antagonist effect). In humans pinaverium facilitates gastric emptying and decreases intestinal transit time in patients with constipation. Pinaverium is very effective in improving symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (abdominal pain, gas, diarrhea or constipation). In this respect the drug proved to be significantly superior to placebo, at least as effective as trimebutine and on the whole more active than otilonium and prifinium bromide, being always extremely well tolerated.

  6. Study of Preschool Parents and Caregivers Use of Technology and PBS KIDS Transmedia Resources: A Report to the CPB-PBS "Ready to Learn Initiative" (United States)

    Pasnik, Shelley; Llorente, Carlin


    Leaders of the CPB-PBS "Ready To Learn" Initiative understand the important role parents and caregivers play in ensuring young children's healthy development and academic learning. In order for young children, especially those living in traditionally underserved communities, to succeed at school and thrive outside of the classroom, educational…

  7. Spectrophotometric Study of Ternary Complex Forming Systems of Some Lanthanide Metal Ions with Eriochrome Cyanine R in Presence of Cetylpyridinium Bromide for Microdetermination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Dhepe


    Full Text Available Study of coordination compounds of lanthanide elements has received a great attention due to growing applications in science and technology. Number of chromogenic reagents form water soluble colored complexes with lanthanides. Eriochrome cyanine R (ECR a member of triphenylmethane type of dye has been reported to form green colored complexes with lanthanides and has been used for microdetermination of these metal ions. Addition of cationic surfactant, Cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB, a cationic surfactant sensitizes the color reactions of Gd(III, Tb(III, Dy(III, Ho(III and Lu(III with ECR. Formation of water soluble, highly colored ternary complexes with a considerable bathochromic shift of about 50 nm in presence of surfactant has been observed. Optimum reaction conditions and other analytical parameters were also evaluated. Stoichiometric ratio 1:3:3 of Ln: ECR: CPB are responsible for the observed rise in molar absorptivity and sensitivity. Beer’s law was obeyed between 0.50 to 13.00 ppm. Effective photometric range and molar absorptivity of these ternary complexes have been calculated. Effect of some common interfering ions on determination of these lanthanide metal ions was studied. A simple, rapid and highly sensitive spectrophotometeric method has been proposed for the determination of metal ions understudy.

  8. Electrical polarization of lead bromide crystals. I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonman, A.; Macke, A.J.H.


    An attempt was made to measure electronic conductivity in lead bromide in equilibrium with lead, since experimental data on the cell −Pb/PbBr2/C+ in the literature are not consistent with existing theories. Combination of our results with published data for bromine-induced hole conduction in lead br

  9. Electrical polarization of lead bromide crystals. I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonman, A.; Macke, A.J.H.

    An attempt was made to measure electronic conductivity in lead bromide in equilibrium with lead, since experimental data on the cell −Pb/PbBr2/C+ in the literature are not consistent with existing theories. Combination of our results with published data for bromine-induced hole conduction in lead

  10. A comparison of the action of otilonium bromide and pinaverium bromide: study conducted under clinical control. (United States)

    Defrance, P; Casini, A


    We studied 40 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) which received in a simple-blind fashion otilonium and pinaverium bromide (15 days each drug). During each 15-day period we evaluated: number of pain episodes, intensity of pain, number of bowel movements, side effects. Otilonium bromide, (OB), compared with pinaverium bromide was able to significantly (p less than 0.05) reduce the number of pain attacks, whereas no significant differences were found between the 2 groups as regards the other parameters. The occurrence of side effects was similar in the two treatment courses. We can conclude that the two types of treatment were similarly useful in IBS, although OB seems more effective than pinaverium bromide.

  11. 21 CFR 522.275 - N-Butylscopolammonium bromide. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false N-Butylscopolammonium bromide. 522.275 Section 522....275 N-Butylscopolammonium bromide. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 20 milligrams (mg) N-butylscopolammonium bromide. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000010 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter...

  12. Crystal structure of bis-(1-ethyl-pyridinium) dioxonium hexa-cyanidoferrate(II). (United States)

    Tanaka, Rikako; Matsushita, Nobuyuki


    The title compound, (C7H10N)2(H3O)2[Fe(CN)6] or (Etpy)2(H3O)2[Fe(CN)6] (Etpy(+) is 1-ethyl-pyridinium), crystallizes in the space group Pnnm. The Fe(II) atom of the [Fe(CN)6](4-) anion lies on a site with site symmetry ..2/m, and has an octa-hedral coordination sphere defined by six cyanido ligands. Both the Etpy(+) and the oxonium cations are located on a mirror plane. In the crystal, electron-donor anions of [Fe(CN)6](4-) and electron-acceptor cations of Etpy(+) are each stacked parallel to the b axis, resulting in a columnar structure with segregated moieties. The crystal packing is stabilized by a three-dimensional O-H⋯N hydrogen-bonding network between the oxonium ions and the cyanide ligands of [Fe(CN)6](4-).

  13. Structure-activity correlation in transfection promoted by pyridinium cationic lipids. (United States)

    Parvizi-Bahktar, P; Mendez-Campos, J; Raju, L; Khalique, N A; Jubeli, E; Larsen, H; Nicholson, D; Pungente, M D; Fyles, T M


    The efficiency of the transfection of a plasmid DNA encoding a galactosidase promoted by a series of pyridinium lipids in mixtures with other cationic lipids and neutral lipids was assessed in CHO-K1 cells. We identify key molecular parameters of the lipids in the mixture - clog P, lipid length, partial molar volume - to predict the morphology of the lipid-DNA lipoplex and then correlate these same parameters with transfection efficiency in an in vitro assay. We define a Transfection Index that provides a linear correlation with normalized transfection efficiency over a series of 90 different lipoplex compositions. We also explore the influence of the same set of molecular parameters on the cytotoxicity of the formulations.

  14. Crystal structure of 3-amino-pyridinium 1'-carb-oxy-ferrocene-1-carboxyl-ate. (United States)

    Medved'ko, Aleksei V; Churakov, Andrei V; Yu, Haojie; Li, Wang; Vatsadze, Sergey Z


    The structure of the title salt, (C5H7N2)[Fe(C6H4O2)(C6H5O2)], consists of 3-amino-pyridinium cations and 1'-carb-oxy-ferrocene-1-carboxyl-ate monoanions. The ferrocenyl moiety of the anion adopts a typical sandwich structure, with Fe-C distances in the range 2.0270 (15)-2.0568 (17) Å. The anion possesses an eclipsed conformation, with the torsion angle φ (Csubst-Cpcent-Cpcent- Csubst) equal to 66.0°. The conformations of other 1'-carb-oxy-ferrocene-1-carboxyl-ate monoanions are compared and analyzed on the basis of literature data.

  15. Vibrational, structural and electronic study of a pyridinium salt assisted by SXRD studies and DFT calculations (United States)

    Labra-Vázquez, Pablo; Palma-Contreras, Miguel; Santillan, Rosa; Farfán, Norberto


    The molecular structure of 1-[2-oxo-2-(2-pyridinyl)ethyl]pyridinium iodide (C12H11IN2O) is discussed using an experimental (FT-IR/ATR, NMR, SXRD) and theoretical (DFT, B3LYP/6-311G**) approach. Compound 2 crystallized in the monoclinic P21/c space group with 4 molecules per unit cell and unit cell dimensions a = 7.5629 Å (3), b = 21.5694 Å (7), c = 7.8166 Å (3). The crystal packing is governed by ion-dipole contacts and π-π stacking. High electrostatic potential at the ethanone hydrogens was derived from DFT calculations, further explaining the acidity and reactivity of the molecule as a Michael donor.

  16. Three silver (I) supramolecular compounds constructed from pyridinium or methylimidazolium polycations: Synthesis, crystal structure and properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yao Li; Wen Li Zhang; Hai Juan Du; Chao-Hai Wang; Ya Bin Lu; Yun-Yin Niu


    Three metal halide cluster supramolecular polymers, {(TBP)[Ag3Br6]}n (1), {(TBI)[Ag3Br6]}n (2) and {(TBP)[Ag3I6]}n (3) (TBP=1, 3, 5-tris(N-pyridinium methyl)benzene, TBI=1, 3, 5-tris(methylimidazole methyl)benzene), have been synthesized and characterized by thermoanalysis and spectroscopic methods, as well as single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Complexes 1, 2 and 3 all feature a one-dimensional chain structure, which is further extended by electrostatic attraction. The TGA, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra in the solid state and optical band gap properties of the three complexes were also investigated.

  17. Plasma levels of carboxypeptidase U (CPU, CPB2 or TAFIa) are elevated in patients with acute myocardial infarction. (United States)

    Leenaerts, D; Bosmans, J M; van der Veken, P; Sim, Y; Lambeir, A M; Hendriks, D


    Two decades after its discovery, carboxypeptidase U (CPU, CPB2 or TAFIa) has become a compelling drug target in thrombosis research. However, given the difficulty of measuring CPU in the blood circulation and the demanding sample collecton requirements, previous clinical studies focused mainly on measuring its inactive precursor, proCPU (proCPB2 or TAFI). Using a sensitive and specific enzymatic assay, we investigated plasma CPU levels in patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and in controls. In this case-control study, peripheral arterial blood samples were collected from 45 patients with AMI (25 with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI], 20 with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction [NSTEMI]) and 42 controls. Additionally, intracoronary blood samples were collected from 11 STEMI patients during thrombus aspiration. Subsequently, proCPU and CPU plasma concentrations in all samples were measured by means of an activity-based assay, using Bz-o-cyano-Phe-Arg as a selective substrate. CPU activity levels were higher in patients with AMI (median LOD-LOQ, range 0-1277 mU L(-1) ) than in controls (median CPU levels and AMI type (NSTEMI [median between LOD-LOQ, range 0-465 mU L(-1) ] vs. STEMI [median between LOD-LOQ, range 0-1277 mU L(-1) ]). Intracoronary samples (median 109 mU L(-1) , range 0-759 mU L(-1) ) contained higher CPU levels than did peripheral samples (median between LOD-LOQ, range 0-107 mU L(-1) ), indicating increased local CPU generation. With regard to proCPU, we found lower levels in AMI patients (median 910 U L(-1) , range 706-1224 U L(-1) ) than in controls (median 1010 U L(-1) , range 753-1396 U L(-1) ). AMI patients have higher plasma CPU levels and lower proCPU levels than controls. This finding indicates in vivo generation of functional active CPU in patients with AMI. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  18. Solution, thermal and optical properties of bis(pyridinium salt)s as ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Tae Soo; Koh, Jung Jae; Han, Haesook [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada at Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 454003, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Bhowmik, Pradip K., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada at Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 454003, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)


    Bis(pyridinium salt)s containing different alkyl chain lengths and various organic counterions were prepared by the ring-transmutation reaction of bis(pyrylium tosylate) with aliphatic amines in dimethyl sulfoxide at 130–135 °C for 18 h and their tosylate counterions were exchanged to other anions such as triflimide, methyl orange, and dioctyl sulfosuccinate by the metathesis reaction in a common organic solvent. Their chemical structures were established by using {sup 1}H, {sup 19}F, and {sup 13}C NMR spectra. The thermal properties of bis(pyridinium salt)s were studied by DSC and TGA measurements. Some of the dicationic salts provided low melting points below 100 °C and some of them displayed amorphous properties. Polarized optical microscopy studies revealed the crystal structures prior to melting temperatures in some cases. Their optical properties were examined by using UV–Vis and photoluminescent spectrometers; and they emitted blue light both in the solution and solid states regardless of their microstructures, counterions, and the polarity of organic solvents. However, most of these salts exhibited hypsochromic shifts in their emission peaks in the solid state when compared with those of their solution spectra. Due to unique properties of methyl orange anion as a pH indicator, two of the salts showed different color change in varying concentrations of triflic acid in common organic solvents, demonstrating their potential use as an acid sensor in methanol, acetonitrile and acetone. Highlights: ► Luminescent dicationic salts were synthesized by ring-transmutation and metathesis reactions. ► Thermal and optical properties of dicationic salts are affected by the size of anion structures. ► Due to the methyl orange counterions, some dicationic salts showed pH- sensing property.

  19. 40 CFR 180.123 - Inorganic bromide residues resulting from fumigation with methyl bromide; tolerances for residues. (United States)


    ... on dog food, resulting from fumigation with methyl bromide. (ii) 125 parts per million for residues... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.123 Inorganic bromide residues resulting from... residues of inorganic bromides (calculated as Br) in or on the following food commodities which have been...

  20. 苏云金芽孢杆菌CPB012菌株的杀虫功能基因鉴定及其对害虫的控制作用%Insecticidal Protein Genes ofBacillus thuringiensis Strain CPB012 and Its Effects in Controlling Different Insect Pests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆慧慧; 林志强; 谭万忠; 罗华东; 鲜菲; 毕朝位; 余洋; 杨宇衡


    Objective]The objective of this study is to identify the functional genes, with their expressed proteins, and insecticidal spectrum ofBacillus thuringiensis strain CPB012. This will be important for effective application of CPB012 in pest control in the future.[Method]CPB012 was cultured at 30℃ on LB plates for two to three days and the bacterial cells were stained with phenol magenta for microscopy observation of the protein crystals.cry1-cry10 were identified with the polymerase chain reaction-restriction frame length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique, namely, a universal primer pair for a group of genes was designed and used to amplify the genes with PCR. The amplified genes were then catalyzed with restriction enzymes and thus the polymorphism of the insecticidal genes were decided. On the other hand, specific primers were designed for identifying sub-group or genes (such ascry1A,cry2Aa. etc.) in groups cry1-cry10 via PCR amplification and then these genes were sequenced and compared. cry1-cry40 andvip groups were identified with PCR through the design of primers. The crystal proteins were extracted, respectively, from the bacterial cells cultured on LB plates for 24, 47, 72 and 96 hours and SDS-PAGE chromatographic fingerprint analysis was applied to demonstrate different insecticidal proteins. The lethality ofBombyx mori (Lepidoptera),Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Cleoptera) and Bactrocera dorsalis(Diptera) by CPB012 was measured in the laboratory, the cooperative effects of CPB012 and MJ07 strains ofBeauveria bassiana were tested under both laboratory and field conditions.[Result]Continuous microscopic observations found that CPB012 produced spherical and cubic protein crystals in blastosporic cells. Gene type analysis showed thatB. thuringiensis CPB012 containedcry1Aa,cry1Ia, cry2Aa,cry2Ab andvip3A genes. These genes were shown via SDS-PAGE chromatographic fingerprint to code crystal proteins of about 135, 80, 70, and 85-90 kD, respectively. Also, the

  1. Precise quantification of pulsatility is a necessity for direct comparisons of six different pediatric heart-lung machines in a neonatal CPB model. (United States)

    Undar, Akif; Eichstaedt, Harald C; Masai, Takafumi; Bigley, Joyce E; Kunselman, Allen R


    Generation of pulsatile flow depends on an energy gradient. Surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE) is the extra hemodynamic energy generated by a pulsatile device when the adequate pulsatility is achieved. The objective of this study was to precisely quantify and compare pressure-flow waveforms in terms of surplus hemodynamic energy levels of six different pediatric heart-lung machines in a neonatal piglet model during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) procedures with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). Thirty-nine piglets (average weight, 3 kg) were subjected to CPB with a hydraulically driven physiologic pulsatile pump (PPP; n=7), Jostra-HL 20 pulsatile roller pump (Jostra-PR; n=6), Stockert Sill pulsatile roller pump (SIII-PR; n=6), Stockert Sill mast-mounted pulsatile roller pump with a miniature roller head (Mast-PR; n=7), Stockert Sill mast-mounted nonpulsatile roller pump (Mast-NP; n=7), or Stockert CAPS nonpulsatile roller pump (CAPS-NP, n=7). Once CPB was begun, each animal underwent 20 minutes of hypothermia, 60 minutes of DHCA, 10 minutes of cold reperfusion, and 40 minutes of rewarming. The pump flow rate was maintained at 150 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) and the mean arterial pressure (MAP) at 45 mm Hg. In the pulsatile experiments, the pump rate was kept at 150 bpm and the stroke volume at 1 ml/kg. The SHE (ergs/cm3) = 1,332 ([(integral fpdt) / (integral fdt)] - MAP) was calculated at each experimental stage. During normothermic CPB (15 minutes on pump), the physiologic pulsatile pump generated the highest surplus hemodynamic energy (8563 +/- 1918 ergs/cm3, p CPB and after DHCA and rewarming, the results were extremely similar to those seen during normothermic CPB. The surplus hemodynamic energy formula is a novel method to precisely quantify different levels of pulsatility and nonpulsatility for direct and meaningful comparisons. The PPP produced the greatest surplus hemodynamic energy. Most of the pediatric pulsatile pumps (except Mast-PR) generated

  2. Plasma carboxypeptidase U (CPU, CPB2, TAFIa) generation during in vitro clot lysis and its interplay between coagulation and fibrinolysis. (United States)

    Leenaerts, Dorien; Aernouts, Jef; Van Der Veken, Pieter; Sim, Yani; Lambeir, Anne-Marie; Hendriks, Dirk


    Carboxypeptidase U (CPU, CPB2, TAFIa) is a basic carboxypeptidase that is able to attenuate fibrinolysis. The inactive precursor procarboxypeptidase U is converted to its active form by thrombin, the thrombin-thrombomodulin complex or plasmin. The aim of this study was to investigate and characterise the time course of CPU generation in healthy individuals. In plasma of 29 healthy volunteers, CPU generation was monitored during in vitro clot lysis. CPU activity was measured by means of an enzymatic assay that uses the specific substrate Bz-o-cyano-Phe-Arg. An algorithm was written to plot the CPU generation curve and calculate the parameters that define it. In all individuals, CPU generation was biphasic. Marked inter-individual differences were present and a reference range was determined. The endogenous CPU generation potential is the composite effect of multiple factors. With respect to the first CPU activity peak characteristics, we found correlations with baseline proCPU concentration, proCPU Thr325Ile polymorphism, time to clot initiation and the clot lysis time. The second CPU peak related with baseline proCPU levels and with the maximum turbidity of the clot lysis profile. In conclusion, our method offers a technique to determine the endogenous CPU generation potential of an individual. The parameters obtained by the method quantitatively describe the different mechanisms that influence CPU generation during the complex interplay between coagulation and fibrinolysis, which are in line with the threshold hypothesis.

  3. Nitroethylation of vinyl triflates and bromides. (United States)

    Padilla-Salinas, Rosaura; Walvoord, Ryan R; Tcyrulnikov, Sergei; Kozlowski, Marisa C


    A two-carbon homologation of vinyl triflates and bromides for the synthesis of homoallylic nitro products is described. This palladium-catalyzed double coupling of nitromethane exploits the anion stabilizing and leaving group properties of nitromethane, generating the homo allyl nitro products via a tandem cross-coupling/π-allylation sequence. The resultant process provides a mild and convenient entry to nitroethylated products, which are versatile precursors to β,γ-unsaturated carbonyls, homoallylic amines, and nitrile oxides.

  4. Propantheline bromide is effective against dog drooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyldenløve, Mette; Thyssen, Jacob P


    Hyperhidrosis is a common condition characterized by extensive sweat secretion. Systemic treatment with anticholinergics might prove effective, but patients often suffer from side effects, e.g. dryness of the mouth. We present a clinical case of severe polydipsia in a six-month-old puppy who had ...... accidentally consumed 50 tablets of propantheline bromide 15 mg. Afterwards the puppy suffered from severe polydipsia, which cleared without treatment after three days....

  5. Small-angle neutron scattering study of aggregate structures of multi-headed pyridinium surfactants in aqueous solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Haldar; V K Aswal; P S Goyal; S Bhattacharya


    The aggregate structures of a set of novel single-chain surfactants bearing one, two and three pyridinium headgroups have been studied using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). It is found that the nature of aggregate structures of these cationic surfactants depend on the number of headgroups present in the surfactants. The single-headed pyridinium surfactant forms the lamellar structure, whereas surfactants with double and triple headgroups form micelles in water. The aggregates shrink in size with increase in the number of headgroups in the surfactants. The aggregation number () continually decreases and the fractional charge () increases with more number of headgroups on the surfactants. The semimajor axis () and semiminor axis ( = ) of the micelle also decrease with the increase in the number of headgroups in the surfactants. This indicates that hydrocarbon chains in such micelles prepared from multiheaded surfactants adopt bent conformation and no longer stay in extended conformation.

  6. Synthesis, spectroscopic and molecular docking studies of imidazolium and pyridinium based ionic liquids with HSA as potential antimicrobial agents (United States)

    Trush, Maria M.; Semenyuta, Ivan V.; Vdovenko, Sergey I.; Rogalsky, Sergiy P.; Lobko, Evgeniya O.; Metelytsia, Larisa O.


    The interaction between human serum albumin (HSA) and synthesized imidazolium and pyridinium based ionic liquids (ILs), as good potential microbial growth inhibitors, was investigated by spectroscopic techniques combined with molecular docking analysis. All compounds were significant active against the tested bacterial and fungal strains. FT-IR spectroscopy indicated that the interaction of HSA with ILs generates considerable changes in protein secondary structure. The results of the molecular docking study showed that the studied ILs are able to firmly bind in the subdomain IIA of HSA with almost equal binding affinity (about -6.23 kcal/mol). Investigated HSA-ILs complex binds through hydrogen bonding or/and cation-π interactions. This study provides a better understanding of the binding of imidazolium and pyridinium based ILs to HSA and opens the way for their further biological and pharmaceutical investigations as candidates with antimicrobial properties.

  7. A survey on air bubble detector placement in the CPB circuit: a 2011 cross-sectional analysis of the practice of Certified Clinical Perfusionists. (United States)

    Kelting, T; Searles, B; Darling, E


    The ideal location of air bubble detector (ABD) placement on the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit is debatable. There is, however, very little data characterizing the prevalence of specific ABD placement preferences by perfusionists. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to survey the perfusion community to collect data describing the primary locations of air bubble detector placement on the CPB circuit. In June 2011, an 18-question on-line survey was conducted. Completed surveys were received from 627 participants. Of these, analysis of the responses from the 559 certified clinical perfusionists (CCP) was performed. The routine use of ABD during CPB was reported by 96.8% of CCPs. Of this group, specific placement of the bubble detector is as follows: distal to the venous reservoir outlet (35.6%), between the arterial pump and oxygenator (3.8%), between the oxygenator and arterial line filter (35.1%), distal to the arterial line filter (ALF) (23.6%), and other (1.8%). Those placing the ABD distal to the venous reservoir predominately argued that an emptied venous reservoir was the most likely place to introduce air into the circuit. Those who placed the ABD between the oxygenator and the arterial line filter commonly reasoned that this placement protects against air exiting the membrane. Those placing the ABD distal to the ALF (23.6%) cited that this location protects from all possible entry points of air. A recent false alarm event from an ABD during a case was reported by 36.1% of CCPs. This study demonstrates that the majority of CCPs use an ABD during the conduct of CPB. The placement of the ABD on the circuit, however, is highly variable across the perfusion community. A strong rationale for the various ABD placements suggests that the adoption of multiple ABD may offer the greatest comprehensive protection against air emboli.

  8. CPB-K mice a mouse model of schizophrenia? Differences in dopaminergic, serotonergic and behavioral markers compared to BALB/cJ mice. (United States)

    Panther, P; Nullmeier, S; Dobrowolny, H; Schwegler, H; Wolf, R


    Schizophrenia is characterized by disturbances in social behavior, sensorimotor gating and cognitive function, that are discussed to be caused by a termination of different transmitter systems. Beside morphological alterations in cortical and subcortical areas reduced AMPA- NMDA-, 5-HT2-receptor densities and increased 5-HT1-receptor densities are found in the hippocampus.The two inbred mouse strains CPB-K and BALB/cJ are known to display considerable differences in cognitive function and prepulse inhibition, a stable marker of sensorimotor gating. Furthermore, CPB-K mice exhibit lower NMDA-, AMPA- and increased 5-HT-receptor densities in the hippocampus as compared to BALB/cJ mice. We investigated both mouse strains in social interaction test for differences in social behavior and with immuncytochemical approaches for alterations of dopaminergic and serotonergic parameters. Our results can be summarized as follows: compared to BALB/cJ, CPB-K mice showed:(1) significantly reduced traveling distance and number of contacts in social interaction test, (2) differences in the number of serotonin transporter-immunoreactive neurons and volume of raphe nuclei and a lower serotonergic fiber density in the ventral and dorsal hippocampal subfields CA1 and CA3, (3) no alterations of dopaminergic markers like neuron number, neuron density and volume in subregions of substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area, but a significantly higher dopaminergic fiber density in the dorsal hippocampus, the ventral hippocampus of CA1 and gyrus dentatus, (4) no significant differences in serotonergic and dopaminergic fiber densities in the amygdala.Based on our results and previous studies, CPB-K mice compared to BALB/cJ may serve as an important model to understand the interaction of the serotonergic and dopaminergic system and their impact on sensorimotor gating and cognitive function as related to neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia.

  9. 2-((1E-1-{2-[(2Z-3,4-Diphenyl-2,3-dihydro-1,3-thiazol-2-ylidene]hydrazin-1-ylidene}ethylpyridin-1-ium bromide monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akkurt


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C22H19N4S+·Br−·H2O, the dihedral angles between the phenyl groups and the mean plane of the thiazolylidene ring are 34.69 (13 and 64.27 (13°, respectively, while that between the thiazolylidene and pyridinium rings is 14.73 (13°. In the crystal, zigzag chains of alternating bromide ions and water molecules associate through O—H...Br interactions run in channels approximately parallel to the b axis. These chains help form parallel chains of cations through N—H...O, C—H...N and C—H...Br hydrogen bonds.

  10. 5-Carbamoyl-2-methyl-1-(2-methylbenzylpyridinium bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Beom Kim


    Full Text Available In the title molecular salt, C15H17N2O+·Br−, the benzene and pyridinium rings form a dihedral angle of 83.0 (1°. In the crystal, N—H...Br and N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the components into chains along [010]. These chains are linked by weak C—H...O and C—H...Br hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  11. Reductive cross-coupling of nonaromatic, heterocyclic bromides with aryl and heteroaryl bromides. (United States)

    Molander, Gary A; Traister, Kaitlin M; O'Neill, Brian T


    Reductive cross-coupling allows the direct C-C bond formation between two organic halides without the need for preformation of an organometallic reagent. A method has been developed for the reductive cross-coupling of nonaromatic, heterocyclic bromides with aryl or heteroaryl bromides. The developed conditions use an air-stable Ni(II) source in the presence of a diamine ligand and a metal reductant to allow late-stage incorporation of saturated heterocyclic rings onto aryl halides in a functional-group tolerant manner.

  12. Does CO(2) flushing of the empty CPB circuit decrease the number of gaseous emboli in the prime? (United States)

    Nyman, J; Rundby, C; Svenarud, P; van der Linden, J


    Twenty (20) CPB-circuits were randomized to a CO(2) group or a control group. In the CO( 2) group, each circuit was flushed with CO(2) (10L/min) at the top of the venous reservoir for 5 minutes, after which priming fluid was added without interruption of the CO(2) inflow. Control group circuits were not flushed and contained air. A perfusionist, blinded to the study, started the pump (5L/min), ventilated the oxygenator (3L O(2)/min), and knocked on the oxygenator 20 times during the first and 14(th) minutes. Arterial line microemboli counts were registered with a Doppler for 15 minutes. In both groups, the median number of microemboli was highest during the first minute, 380.5 (288.75/422.25, 25(th)/75(th) percentile) counts in the control group versus 264.5 (171.75/422.25) counts in the CO( 2) group (p=0.01). Throughout the experiment, the median microembolic count minute by minute in the CO(2) group remained lower (p < or = 0 .004) than in the control group. Knocking on the reservoir (14(th) minute) increased the microemboli counts in both groups (p<0.01). The median values during the 15(th) minute were 15.5 and 0.5 in the control and the CO(2) groups, respectively, which were 9% (15.5/173) and 0.5% (0.5/87), respectively, of the values registered after 14 minutes. In conclusion, CO( 2) flushing of the empty circuit decreases the number of gaseous emboli in the prime compared with a conventional circuit that contains air before being primed with fluid. Knocking of the oxygenator releases gaseous emboli and the duration of re-circulating the circuit with prime influences the number of microemboli.

  13. Immunization with the hybrid protein vaccine, consisting of Leishmania major cysteine proteinases Type I (CPB) and Type II (CPA), partially protects against leishmaniasis. (United States)

    Zadeh-Vakili, Azita; Taheri, Tahere; Taslimi, Yasaman; Doustdari, Fatemeh; Salmanian, Ali-Hatef; Rafati, Sima


    Cysteine proteinases (CPs) are enzymes that belong to the papain superfamily, which are found in a number of organisms from prokaryotes to mammals. On the parasitic protozoan Leishmania, extensive studies have shown that CPs are involved in parasite survival, replication and the onset of disease, and have, therefore, been considered as attractive drugs and/or vaccine targets for the control of leishmaniasis. We have previously shown that cysteine proteinases, Type I (CPB) and Type II (CPA), in Leishmania major (L. major), delivered as recombinant proteins or in plasmid DNA, induce partial protection against infection with the parasite in BALB/c mice. We had shown that the level of protection was greater if a cocktail of cpa and cpb containing DNA constructs was used. Therefore, to reduce the costs associated with the production of these vaccine candidates, a construct was developed, whereby the cpa and cpb genes were fused together to give rise to a single hybrid protein. The genes were fused in tandem where the C-terminal extension (CTE), encoding region of CPB, was located at the 3' of the fused genes, and ultimately expressed in the bacterial expression construct pET-23a. The expression of the CPA/B hybrid protein (60 kDa) was verified using rabbit anti-CPA and anti-CPB antibodies by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. The protective potential of the CPA/B hybrid protein against the infection with Leishmania was then assessed in BALB/c mice. The animals were vaccinated with CPA/B, challenged with live L. major promastigotes, and the degree of protection was examined by measuring footpad lesion sizes. It was found that there was a delay in the expansion of lesions size compared to control groups. Furthermore, an immunological analysis of antibody isotypes, before and after infection, showed high levels of IgG2a compared to IgG1 (more than five-fold) in the CPA/B hybrid protein vaccinated group. In addition, a predominant Th1 immune response characterized by in vitro IFN

  14. IBS and the role of otilonium bromide. (United States)

    Boeckxstaens, Guy; Corazziari, Enrico S; Mearin, Fermín; Tack, Jan


    Awareness of the seriousness of irritable bowel disorder (IBS) remains low among clinicians. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of IBS and highlight the major personal, economic, and social burden of the disease, and the importance of adequate treatment of what is still often viewed as a trivial disorder. In fact, IBS is a major reason for referral. It is crucial that the varied pathophysiologies of this complex heterogeneous disease are understood in order to be able to treat both the presenting symptoms (pain, bloating, flatulence, abnormal defecation, diarrhea, constipation) and the underlying disorder effectively. Low-grade inflammatory and immune activation has been observed, but the precise triggers and mechanisms, and the relevance to symptom generation, remain to be established. IBS patients require different treatment strategies according to the pattern, severity, frequency, and symptoms. While initial therapy traditionally targets the most bothersome symptom, long-term therapy aims at maintaining symptom control and preventing recurrence. In addition to dietary/lifestyle interventions and psychosocial strategies, a wide range of pharmacologic therapies are approved for use in IBS depending on the symptoms reported. Musculotropic spasmolytics, which act directly on intestinal smooth muscle contractility, such as otilonium bromide, are effective, particularly in the relief of abdominal pain and bloating, and are well tolerated in IBS. THE OBIS TRIAL: The recent large placebo-controlled Otilonium Bromide in Irritable Bowel Syndrome study demonstrated the superiority of otilonium bromide versus placebo not only in the reduction of pain and bloating, but also in protection from relapse due to the long-lasting effect.

  15. Europium-doped barium bromide iodide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundiah, Gautam; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Hollander, Fredrick J.; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D.


    Single crystals of Ba0.96Eu0.04BrI (barium europium bromide iodide) were grown by the Bridgman technique. The title compound adopts the ordered PbCl2 structure [Braekken (1932). Z. Kristallogr. 83, 222-282]. All atoms occupy the fourfold special positions (4c, site symmetry m) of the space group Pnma with a statistical distribution of Ba and Eu. They lie on the mirror planes, perpendicular to the b axis at y = +-0.25. Each cation is coordinated by nine anions in a tricapped trigonal prismatic arrangement.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soniya C. Alphonse; Acka Priya Varghese


    .... MATERIALS AND METHODS The study is a prospective randomized controlled study conducted at a tertiary care hospital to study the effect of Hyoscine Butyl Bromide Suppositories for postoperative...

  17. Phase equilibria and modeling of pyridinium-based ionic liquid solutions. (United States)

    Domańska, Urszula; Królikowski, Marek; Ramjugernath, Deresh; Letcher, Trevor M; Tumba, Kaniki


    The phase diagrams of the ionic liquid (IL) N-butyl-4-methylpyridinium bis{(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl}imide ([BM(4)Py][NTf(2)]) with water, an alcohol (1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol, 1-decanol), an aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, n-propylbenzene), an alkane (n-hexane, n-heptane, n-octane), or cyclohexane have been measured at atmospheric pressure using a dynamic method. This work includes the characterization of the synthesized compound by water content and also by differential scanning calorimetry. Phase diagrams for the binary systems of [BM(4)Py][NTf(2)] with all solvents reveal eutectic systems with regards to (solid-liquid) phase equilibria and show immiscibility in the liquid phase region with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) in most of the mixtures. The phase equilibria (solid, or liquid-liquid) for the binary systems containing aliphatic hydrocarbons reported here exhibit the lowest solubility and the highest immiscibility gap, a trend which has been observed for all ILs. The reduction of experimental data has been carried out using the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL) correlation equation. The phase diagrams reported here have been compared with analogous phase diagrams reported previously for systems containing the IL N-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tosylate and other pyridinium-based ILs. The influence of the anion of the IL on the phase behavior has been discussed.

  18. Free energy of solvation of carbon nanotubes in pyridinium-based ionic liquids. (United States)

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Fileti, Eudes Eterno


    Numerous prospective applications require the availability of individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Pristine CNTs, strongly hydrophobic in nature, are known to be either totally insoluble or poorly dispersible. While it is unlikely to be possible to prepare a real solution of CNTs in any solvent, the ability of certain solvents to maintain dispersions of CNTs for macroscopic times constitutes great research interest. In the present work, we characterize two pyridinium-based ionic liquids (ILs), N-butylpyridinium chloride [BPY][Cl] and N-butylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [BPY][TFSI], with respect to their potential to solvate CNTs of different diameters, from the CNT (10,10) to the CNT (25,25). Using a universal methodology, we found that both ILs exhibit essentially the same solvation performance. Solvation of CNTs is strongly prohibited entropically, whereas the energy penalty increases monotonically with the CNT diameter. Weak van der Waals interactions, which guide enthalpy alteration upon the CNT solvation, are unable to compensate for the large entropic penalty from the destruction of the IL-IL electrostatic interactions. The structure of ILs inside and outside CNTs is also discussed. The reported results are necessary for gaining a fundamental understanding of the CNT solvation problems, thereby inspiring the search for more suitable solvents.

  19. Translation of in vitro to in vivo pyridinium oxime potential in tabun poisoning. (United States)

    Katalinić, Maja; Maček Hrvat, Nikolina; Žďárová Karasová, Jana; Misik, Jan; Kovarik, Zrinka


    Even if organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents were banned entirely, their presence would remain a problem as weapons of terror (like in Syria). Oxime antidotes currently used in medical practice still fall short of their therapeutic purpose, as they fail to fully restore the activity of cholinesterases, the main target for OPs. As orphan drugs, these antidotes are tested too seldom for anybody's benefit. Over the last few decades, search for improved reactivators has reached new levels, but the translation of data obtained in vitro to in vivo application is still a problem that hinders efficient therapy. In this study, we tested the strengths and weaknesses of extrapolating pyridinium oxime antidotes reactivation efficiency from in vitro to in vivo application. Our results show that this extrapolation is possible with well-determined kinetic constants, but that it also largely depends on oxime circulation time and its tissue-specific distribution. This suggests that pharmacokinetic studies should be planned at the early stages of antidote development. Special attention should also be given to improving oxime distribution throughout the organism to overcome this major constraint in improving overall OP therapy.

  20. Growth and characterization of dexterous nonlinear optical material: Dimethyl amino pyridinium 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol (DMAPNP) (United States)

    Saravanan, M.


    The crystals (dimethyl amino pyridinium 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol [DMAPNP] suitable for NLO applications were grown by the slow cooling method. The solubility and metastable zone width measurement of DMAPNP specimen was studied. The material crystallizes in the orthorhombic crystal system with noncentrosymmetric space group of P212121. The ocular precision in the intact visible region was found to be good for non-linear optical claim. Quality of the grown crystal is ascertained by the HRXRD and etching studies. Laser Damage Threshold and Photoluminescence studies designate that the grown crystal contains less imperfection. The mechanical behaviour of DMAPNP sample at different temperatures was investigated to determine the hardness stability of the grown specimen. The piezoelectric temperament and the relative Second Harmonic Generation (for diverse particle sizes) of the material were also studied. The third order nonlinear optical properties of DMAPNP crystals were premeditated by Z-scan method. Birefringence and optical homogeneity of the crystal were evaluated using modified channel spectrum method. The half wave voltage of the grown crystal deliberate from the elector optic experimentation. Photoconductivity measurement specified consummate of inducing dipoles owing to brawny incident radiation and also disclose the nonlinear activities of the grown specimen.

  1. Synthesis and thermodynamic properties of a novel pyridinium-based asymmetrical gemini ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xuzhao; Wang, Jun; Zou, Wenyuan; Wu, Jinchao [Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou (China)


    A novel asymmetrical gemini ionic liquid (GIL), [1-(1-pyridinium-yl-hexyl)-6-methylpiperidinium] dihexafluorophosphate ([PyC{sub 6}MPi][PF{sub 6}]{sub 2}) combined with pyridine, 1-methylpiperidine by 1,6-dibromohexane with PF{sub 6} as anion, was synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR and IR. The molar heat capacity of the GIL was measured via differential scanning calorimetry from 298.15 K to 448.15 K under atmospheric pressure. No phase transition or other thermal anomaly was observed in the solid-phase region (298.15 K to 358.15 K) and liquid-phase region (403.15 K to 448.15 K). The basic properties and thermodynamic functions of the GIL, such as melting point, molar enthalpy and entropy of fusion, heat capacity, enthalpy HT-H298.15 K, and entropy S{sub T}-S{sub 298.15} K, were also determined from the experimental data. Thermal decomposition kinetics of [PyC{sub 6}MPi][PF{sub 6}]{sub 2} were investigated by using non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis in pure nitrogen atmosphere at various heating rates. Thermal decomposition data were, respectively, correlated with Friedman method, Ozawa-Flynn-Wall equation, and ASTM model. The activation energy (E) and pre-exponential factor (logA) values were obtained by using the above three methods.

  2. Pyridinium ionic liquid-based liquid-solid extraction of inorganic and organic iodine from Laminaria. (United States)

    Peng, Li-Qing; Yu, Wen-Yan; Xu, Jing-Jing; Cao, Jun


    A simple, green and effective extraction method, namely, pyridinium ionic liquid- (IL) based liquid-solid extraction (LSE), was first designed to extract the main inorganic and organic iodine compounds (I(-), monoiodo-tyrosine (MIT) and diiodo-tyrosine (DIT)). The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: ultrasonic intensity 100W, IL ([EPy]Br) concentration 200mM, extraction time 30min, liquid/solid ratio 10mL/g, and pH value 6.5. The morphologies of Laminaria were studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The recovery values of I(-), MIT and DIT from Laminaria were in the range of 88% to 94%, and limits of detection were in the range of 59.40 to 283.6ng/g. The proposed method was applied to the extraction and determination of iodine compounds in three Laminaria. The results showed that IL-based LSE could be a promising method for rapid extraction of bioactive iodine from complex food matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficient synthesis and evaluation of bis-pyridinium/bis-quinolinium metallosalophens as antibiotic and antitumor candidates (United States)

    Elshaarawy, Reda F. M.; Eldeen, Ibrahim M.; Hassan, Eman M.


    Inspired with the pharmacological diversity of salophens and in our endeavor to explore a new strategy which may conflict the invasion of drug resistance, we report herein efficient synthetic routes for the synthesis of new RO-salophen(Cl), pyridinium/quinolinium-based salophens (3a-e) and metallosalophens (4a-j). These new architectures have been structurally characterized by elemental and spectral analysis as well pharmacologically evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial, against a common panel of pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains, and anticancer activities against human colon carcinoma (HCT-116) cell lines. Antimicrobial assay results revealed that all tested compounds exhibited moderate to superb broad-spectrum efficacy in comparison to the standard antibiotic with a preferential ability to perform as a fungicides than to act as bactericides. Noteworthy, VO(II)-salophens are more effective in reduction HCT-116 cell viability than Cu(II)-salophens. For example, VO(II)-salophen3 (4f) (IC50 = 2.13 μg/mL) was ca. 10-fold more efficient than Cu(II)-salophen3 (4e) (IC50 = 20.30 μg/mL).

  4. Poly(phenyl sulfone) anion exchange membranes with pyridinium groups for vanadium redox flow battery applications (United States)

    Zhang, Bengui; Zhang, Enlei; Wang, Guosheng; Yu, Ping; Zhao, Qiuxia; Yao, Fangbo


    To develop high performance and cost-effective membranes with low permeability of vanadium ions for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) application, poly(phenyl sulfone) anion exchange membranes with pyridinium groups (PyPPSU) are prepared and first investigated for VRFB application. PyPPSU membranes show much lower vanadium ions permeability (0.07 × 10-7-0.15 × 10-7 cm2 min-1) than that of Nafion 117 membrane (31.3 × 10-7 cm2 min-1). As a result, the self-discharge duration of the VRFB cell with PyPPSU membrane (418 h) is about four times longer than that of VRFB cell with Nafion 117 membrane (110 h). Furthermore, the VRFB cell with PyPPSU membrane exhibits higher battery efficiency (coulombic efficiency of 97.8% and energy efficiency of 80.2%) compare with that of VRFB cell with Nafion 117 membrane (coulombic efficiency of 96.1% and energy efficiency of 77.2%) at a high current density of 100 mA cm-2. In addition, PyPPSU membrane exhibits stable performance in 100-cycle test. The results indicate that PyPPSU membrane is high performance and low-cost alternative membrane for VRFB application.

  5. Conduction bands and invariant energy gaps in alkali bromides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P.K. de; Groot, R.A. de


    Electronic structure calculations of the alkali bromides LiBr, NaBr, KBr, RbBr and CsBr are reported. It is shown that the conduction band has primarily bromine character. The size of the band gaps of bromides and alkali halides in general is reinterpreted.

  6. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of bromide in clidinium-c drug

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Sheibani; M. Reza Shishehbore; Zahra Tavakolian Ardakani


    A simple, rapid and sensitive method has been described for the determination of the trace amounts of bromide. The method is based on the catalytic effect of bromide ion on the oxidation of methylene blue by bromate in sulfuric acid media. The reaction is monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in the absorbance of methylene blue at 665 nm. Bromide was determined in the range of 0.05-1.90 μg/mL with the detection limit of 0.03 μg/mL. The relative standard deviations of five replicate determinations of 0.20 and 10.0 μg/mL of bromide were 2.4% and 1.8%, respectively. The influence of potential interfering ions and substances was studied. The method is applied to the analysis of bromide in clidinium-c tablet as a real sample.

  7. Formation of nitrogen-containing polycyclic cations by gas-phase and intracluster reactions of acetylene with the pyridinium and pyrimidinium ions. (United States)

    Soliman, Abdel-Rahman; Hamid, Ahmed M; Attah, Isaac; Momoh, Paul; El-Shall, M Samy


    Here, we present evidence from laboratory experiments for the formation of nitrogen-containing complex organic ions by sequential reactions of acetylene with the pyridinium and pyrimidinium ions in the gas phase and within ionized pyridine-acetylene binary clusters. Additions of five and two acetylene molecules onto the pyridinium and pyrimidinium ions, respectively, at room temperature are observed. Second-order rate coefficients of the overall reaction of acetylene with the pyridinium and pyrimidinium ions are measured as 9.0 × 10(-11) and 1.4 × 10(-9) cm(3) s(-1), respectively, indicating reaction efficiencies of about 6% and 100%, respectively, at room temperature. At high temperatures, only two acetylene molecules are added to the pyridinium and pyrimidinium ions, suggesting covalent bond formation. A combination of ion dissociation and ion mobility experiments with DFT calculations reveals that the addition of acetylene into the pyridinium ion occurs through the N-atom of the pyridinium ion. The relatively high reaction efficiency is consistent with the absence of a barrier in the exothermic N-C bond forming reaction leading to the formation of the C(7)H(7)N(•+) covalent adduct. An exothermic addition/H-elimination reaction of acetylene with the C(7)H(7)N(•+) adduct is observed leading to the formation of a bicyclic quinolizinium cation (C(9)H(8)N(+)). Similar chemistry is observed in the sequential reactions of acetylene with the pyrimidinium ion. The second acetylene addition onto the pyrimidinium ion involves an exclusive addition/H-elimination reaction at room temperature leading to the formation of a bicyclic pyrimidinium cation (C(8)H(7)N(2)(+)). The high reactivity of the pyridinium and pyrimidinium ions toward acetylene is in sharp contrast to the very low reactivity of the benzene cation, which has a reaction efficiency of 10(-4)-10(-5). This indicates that the presence of a nitrogen atom within the aromatic ring enhances the ring growth

  8. Irritable bowel syndrome: focus on otilonium bromide. (United States)

    Boeckxstaens, Guy; Clavé, Pere; Corazziari, Enrico S; Tack, Jan


    Irritable bowel syndrome is a prevalent and chronic disorder, characterized by recurrent abdominal pain/discomfort, bloating and altered bowel habits. This condition affects an estimated 10-15% of the population worldwide and impacts heavily on a patient's daily life and ability to work, as well as healthcare resource utilization. Drug therapy aimed at correcting the primary symptoms of diarrhea/constipation/bloating may have little effect on abdominal pain, which results from visceral hypersensitivity. Smooth muscle relaxants or antispasmodics decrease the tone and contractility of intestinal smooth muscle, effectively managing abdominal pain. Otilonium bromide has been widely used worldwide and has been found to be safe and well tolerated, and superior to placebo for the reduction of symptoms and the prevention of symptom relapse in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

  9. Receptor binding profile of Otilonium bromide. (United States)

    Evangelista, S; Giachetti, A; Chapelain, B; Neliat, G; Maggi, C A


    The interaction of Otilonium bromide (OB) with binding sites for 63 different receptors and ion channels in appropriate preparations has been investigated. Experiments were also performed in rat colon, the preferred tissue for OB 'in vivo' uptake after oral administration. Among the receptors investigated OB binds with sub microM affinity to muscarinic M1, M2, M4, M5 and PAF receptors and with microM affinity to the diltiazem binding site on L type Ca2+ channels. In the rat colon OB shows competitive interaction with the verapamil binding site on L type Ca2+ channels and with muscarinic M2 receptors with IC50 of 1020 and 1220 nM, respectively. These findings provide a molecular rationale to explain the spasmolytic action exerted by OB on intestinal smooth muscle. In particular, a combination of antimuscarinic and Ca2+ channel blocker properties seems to best account for the action of this compound.

  10. Rapid and simultaneous determination of imidazolium and pyridinium ionic liquid cations by ion-pair chromatography using a monolithic column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Huang; Hong Yu; Ying Jie Dong


    A method for rapid and simultaneous determination of imidazolium and pyridinium ionic liquid cations by ion-pair chromatography with ultraviolet detection was developed.Chromatographic separations were performed on a reversed-phase silica-based monolithic column using 1-heptanesulfonic acid sodium-acetonitrile as mobile phase.The effects of ion-pair reagent and acetonitrile concentration on retention of the cations were investigated.The retention times of the cations accord with carbon number rule.The method has been successfully applied to the determination of four ionic liquids synthesized by organic chemistry laboratory.

  11. In search of the thermo/halochromism of the ET(30) pyridinium-N-phenolate betaine dye (United States)

    Rezende, Marcos Caroli; Aracena, Andrés


    The thermohalochromic behavior of Reichardt's ET(30) betaine - the temperature-dependent variation of its halochromic band in the presence of a cation - was investigated for the first time in NaI solutions of HBD- (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol) and non-HBD-solvents (acetonitrile, dimethylformamide) at 15 and 55 °C. The solvent-dependent thermohalochromism of the pyridinium-N-phenolate betaine dye was interpreted in terms of the effect of the temperature on the dye-cation association in solution.

  12. The capability of trapping gaseous microemboli of two pediatric arterial filters with pulsatile and nonpulsatile flow in a simulated infant CPB model. (United States)

    Wang, Shigang; Win, Khin N; Kunselman, Allen R; Woitas, Karl; Myers, John L; Undar, Akif


    The study objective was to test the capability of Medtronic Affinity and Terumo Capiox pediatric arterial filters to trap gaseous microemboli in a simulated infant cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) model. The filters were used in parallel pattern. The circuit was primed with lactated ringer's solution (700 ml) and postfilter pressure was maintained at 100 mm Hg using a Hoffman clamp. Trials were conducted at flow rates ranging from 500 to 1,250 ml/min. After introducing 20 ml air into the venous line via an 18-G needle, 2-minute segments of data were recorded. This entire process was repeated 6 times for each unique combination of arterial filter, flow rate and perfusion mode, yielding a total of 96 experiments. More than 80% of gaseous microemboli were trapped by the two pediatric arterial filters. With increased flow rates and pulsatile mode, more gaseous microemboli passed through the arterial filters. There were no differences in terms of the percentage of gaseous microemboli trapped and pressure drops between Medtronic Affinity and Terumo Capiox pediatric arterial filters. Results demonstrated that Medtronic Affinity and Terumo Capiox pediatric arterial filters could trap the majority of gaseous microemboli in this particular setting of an open arterial filter purge line in a simulated infant CPB circuit with pulsatile and nonpulsatile flow.

  13. Selective oxidation of bromide in wastewater brines from hydraulic fracturing. (United States)

    Sun, Mei; Lowry, Gregory V; Gregory, Kelvin B


    Brines generated from oil and natural gas production, including flowback water and produced water from hydraulic fracturing of shale gas, may contain elevated concentrations of bromide (~1 g/L). Bromide is a broad concern due to the potential for forming brominated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during drinking water treatment. Conventional treatment processes for bromide removal is costly and not specific. Selective bromide removal is technically challenging due to the presence of other ions in the brine, especially chloride as high as 30-200 g/L. This study evaluates the ability of solid graphite electrodes to selectively oxidize bromide to bromine in flowback water and produced water from a shale gas operation in Southwestern PA. The bromine can then be outgassed from the solution and recovered, as a process well understood in the bromine industry. This study revealed that bromide may be selectively and rapidly removed from oil and gas brines (~10 h(-1) m(-2) for produced water and ~60 h(-1) m(-2) for flowback water). The electrolysis occurs with a current efficiency between 60 and 90%, and the estimated energy cost is ~6 kJ/g Br. These data are similar to those for the chlor-alkali process that is commonly used for chlorine gas and sodium hydroxide production. The results demonstrate that bromide may be selectively removed from oil and gas brines to create an opportunity for environmental protection and resource recovery.

  14. Synthesis, characterization, DNA-Binding, enzyme inhibition and antioxidant studies of new N-methylated derivatives of pyridinium amine (United States)

    Zafar, Muhammad Naveed; Perveen, Fouzia; Nazar, Muhammad Faizan; Mughal, Ehsan Ullah; Rafique, Humera; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Akbar, Muhammad Sharif; Zahra, Sabeen


    A series of novel N-methylated derivatives of pyridinium amine, [L1][Tf]-[L5][Tf], were synthesized and characterized by FTIR, NMR, MS and XRD analyses. Preliminary biological screening of these compounds including antioxidant, enzyme inhibition and DNA (salmon sperm) interaction studies were also carried out. The targeted compounds were synthesized by a melt reaction between 4-chloro-N-methyl pyridinium triflate and corresponding amines (1-naphthyl amine, o-ansidine, 2-nitroaniline, p-ansidine and cyclohexyl amine) at temperature of 230 °C. The DPPH radical antioxidant scavenging activities of these compounds at maximum concentration of 50 μg/mL were observed in the range of 60-70%. Acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and Butylcholine esterase (BChE) inhibitory activities of synthesized compounds at 2 mM concentration were also measured to be at maximum of 79 and 71% respectively. The spectral behavior of ligand-DNA obtained from photo-luminescent measurements showed that all ligands bind with DNA via non-covalent interactions. The binding constant values were determined by UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy and were quite close to that obtained from molecular docking studies.

  15. Highly stable pyridinium-functionalized cross-linked anion exchange membranes for all vanadium redox flow batteries (United States)

    Zeng, L.; Zhao, T. S.; Wei, L.; Zeng, Y. K.; Zhang, Z. H.


    It has recently been demonstrated that the use of anion exchange membranes (AEMs) in vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) can reduce the migration of vanadium ions through the membrane due to the Donnan exclusion effect among the positively charged functional groups and vanadium ions. However, AEMs are plagued by low chemical stability in harsh chemical environments. Here we propose and fabricate a pyridinium-functionalized cross-linked AEM for VRFBs. The pyridinium-functionalized bromomethylated poly (2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) exhibits a superior chemical stability as a result of the strengthened internal cross-linking networks and the chemical inertness of the polymer backbone. Therefore, the membrane exhibits littler decay in a harsh environment for 20 days during the course of an ex situ immersion test. A cycling test also demonstrates that the VRFB assembled with the membrane enable to retain 80% of the initial discharge capacity over 537 cycles with a capacity decay rate of 0.037% cycle-1. Meanwhile, the membrane also shows a low vanadium permeability and a reasonably high conductivity in supporting electrolytes. Hence, all the measurements and performance tests reported in this work suggest that the membrane is a promising AEM for redox flow batteries to achieve excellent cycling stability and superior cell performance.

  16. Disiloxanes and Functionalized Silica Gels: One Route, Two Complementary Outcomes-Guanidinium and Pyridinium Ion-Exchangers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Tabisz

    Full Text Available Five novel disiloxane compounds comprising guanidinium and pyridinium moieties were obtained with high yields and purity. The verified synthetic pathways were then applied for modification of pre-functionalized silica gel, producing materials with the analogous organic side-chains. These halide-containing compounds and materials were then compared as to their ion-exchange properties: two disiloxanes proved to be effective in leaching different anions (nitrate, benzoate and ascorbate from solid to organic phase, and pyridinium-functionalized silica gels showed selectivity towards perchlorate ion, removing it from methanolic solutions with preference to other singly charged anions. The results presented demonstrate that both compounds and materials containing silicon-carbon bonds can be produced using the same methodology, but offer strikingly different application opportunities. Comparison of their properties provides additional insight into the binding mode of different anions and hints at how the transition from a flexible siloxane bridge to immobilization on solid surface influences anion-binding selectivity. Additionally, one of the siloxane dipodands was found to form a crystalline and poorly soluble nitrate salt (1.316 g/L, water, although it was miscible with a wide range of solvents as a hydrochloride. A possible explanation is given with the help of semi-empirical calculations. A simple, time- and cost-efficient automated potentiometric titration methodology was used as a viable analytical tool for studying ion-exchange processes for both compounds and materials, in addition to standard NMR, FT-IR and ESI-MS methods.

  17. Acute Intramuscular Toxicity (LD50) of 1,1’-Methylenebis (4- (Hydroxyimino) Methyl) Pyridinium Dibromide, (MMB-4) in Male Mice (United States)


    METHODS Test Substance Chemical name: 1,1 ’-Methylenebis[4-[(hydroxyimino) methyl] pyridinium] dibromide, (01MB-4) (TAO03) Chemical Abstract 1,1 ’-Methylenebis[4-[(hydroxyimino)methyl] pyridiniumldibromide, (CMIB-1 𔃾 Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number: None Molecular formula

  18. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan


    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  19. Selective oxidation of alcohols with alkali metal bromides as bromide catalysts: experimental study of the reaction mechanism. (United States)

    Moriyama, Katsuhiko; Takemura, Misato; Togo, Hideo


    A bromide-catalyzed oxidation of alcohols was developed which proceeded in the presence of an alkali metal bromide and an oxidant under mild conditions. The reaction involved an organic-molecule-free oxidation using KBr and Oxone and a Brønsted acid assisted oxidation using KBr and aqueous H2O2 solution to provide a broad range of carbonyl compounds in high yields. Moreover, the bromide-catalyzed oxidation of primary alcohols enabled the divergent synthesis of carboxylic acids and aldehydes under both reaction conditions in the presence of TEMPO. A possible catalytic mechanism was suggested on the basis of various mechanistic studies.

  20. Miyaura Borylations of Aryl Bromides in Water at Room Temperature


    Lipshutz, Bruce H.; Moser, Ralph; Voigtritter, Karl R.


    New technology for palladium-catalyzed cross-couplings between B2pin2 and aryl bromides leading to arylboronates is described. Micellar catalysis serves to enable borylations to take place in water as the only medium at ambient temperatures.

  1. A new convenient access to highly functionalized ()-2-arylvinyl bromides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yubo Jiang; Chunxiang Kuang


    Highly functionalized ()-2-arylvinyl bromides were prepared in high yields through a new convenient access by acylation of ()-4-(2-bromovinyl)phenol with fatty and aromatic acids at room temperature using dicyclohexyl carbodiimide (DCC) and dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP).

  2. Methyl Bromide Commodity Fumigation Buffer Zone Lookup Tables (United States)

    Product labels for methyl bromide used in commodity and structural fumigation include requirements for buffer zones around treated areas. The information on this page will allow you to find the appropriate buffer zone for your planned application.

  3. Homocoupling of Aryl Bromides Catalyzed by Nickel Chloride in Pyridine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO, Xiao-Chun; ZHOU, Wei; ZHANG, Yue-Ping; DAI, Chun-ya; SHEN, Dong; HUANG, Mei


    Pyridine was used as a solvent for homocoupling of aryl bromides catalyzed by nickel chloride/triarylphosphine in the presence of zinc and recycled easily. Triphenylphosphine was the best ligand for nickel in this coupling reaction.

  4. Pd-catalyzed nucleophilic fluorination of aryl bromides. (United States)

    Lee, Hong Geun; Milner, Phillip J; Buchwald, Stephen L


    On the basis of mechanism-driven reaction design, a Pd-catalyzed nucleophilic fluorination of aryl bromides and iodides has been developed. The method exhibits a broad substrate scope, especially with respect to nitrogen-containing heteroaryl bromides, and proceeds with minimal formation of the corresponding reduction products. A facilitated ligand modification process was shown to be critical to the success of the reaction.

  5. Disinfection byproduct regulatory compliance surrogates and bromide-associated risk. (United States)

    Kolb, Chelsea; Francis, Royce A; VanBriesen, Jeanne M


    Natural and anthropogenic factors can alter bromide concentrations in drinking water sources. Increasing source water bromide concentrations increases the formation and alters the speciation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed during drinking water treatment. Brominated DBPs are more toxic than their chlorinated analogs, and thus have a greater impact on human health. However, DBPs are regulated based on the mass sum of DBPs within a given class (e.g., trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids), not based on species-specific risk or extent of bromine incorporation. The regulated surrogate measures are intended to protect against not only the species they directly represent, but also against unregulated DBPs that are not routinely measured. Surrogates that do not incorporate effects of increasing bromide may not adequately capture human health risk associated with drinking water when source water bromide is elevated. The present study analyzes trihalomethanes (THMs), measured as TTHM, with varying source water bromide concentrations, and assesses its correlation with brominated THM, TTHM risk and species-specific THM concentrations and associated risk. Alternative potential surrogates are evaluated to assess their ability to capture THM risk under different source water bromide concentration conditions. The results of the present study indicate that TTHM does not adequately capture risk of the regulated species when source water bromide concentrations are elevated, and thus would also likely be an inadequate surrogate for many unregulated brominated species. Alternative surrogate measures, including THM3 and the bromodichloromethane concentration, are more robust surrogates for species-specific THM risk at varying source water bromide concentrations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Pharmacology of the anticholinergic bronchospasmolytic agent flutropium bromide. (United States)

    Bauer, R; Fügner, A


    The anticholinergic agent (8r)-8-(2-fluoroethyl)-3 alpha-hydroxy-1 alpha H,tropanium bromide benzilic acid ester (flutropium bromide, Ba 598 BR) is a classic competitive antagonist of acetylcholine. In in vitro experiments it is more effective than atropine. In addition there are indications, that flutropium bromide may interfere with the anaphylactic reaction in a certain dose range in vitro. In in vivo experiments for the characterization of the anticholinergic properties flutropium bromide is also somewhat more effective than atropine after parenteral administration. Because of its quaternary structure no central anticholinergic effect is detectable. Furthermore, a poor enteral absorption is to be expected; this can be concluded from the low relative effectiveness after oral administration. After systemic administration, flutropium bromide is only slightly more effective than atropine. The duration of action is longer. After local administration as an aerosol it is superior to atropine with regard to both effectiveness and duration of action. Since in aerosol administration the ratio of the main effect to the most sensitive side effects, inhibition of salivary secretion, is 1:100, no side effects are to be expected even after high inhalational overdoses. Flutropium bromide can therefore be described as a preparation which is free of side effects. When used prophylactically it represents a therapeutic alternative to beta-mimetics and xanthine derivatives for most cases of obstructive airway diseases.

  7. Evaluation of monoquaternary pyridinium oximes potency to reactivate tabun-inhibited human acetylcholinesterase. (United States)

    Odzak, Renata; Calić, Maja; Hrenar, Tomica; Primozic, Ines; Kovarik, Zrinka


    Monoquaternary N-benzyl-4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium bromide (Py-4-H) and its analogous with diverse substituents introduced into the phenyl ring (Py-4-CH(3), Py-4-Br, Py-4-Cl and Py-4-NO(2)) were synthesized in order to examine their potency as reactivators of tabun-inhibited human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC Within 24h, the reactivation of tabun-inhibited AChE reached 80% with Py-4-CH(3), Py-4-Br and Py-4-Cl, 40% with Py-4-NO(2), and 30% with Py-4-H. The overall reactivation rate constants were up to 5.0min(-1)M(-1). All oximes inhibited human AChE reversibly, and the inhibition potency increased in the following order Py-4-Brtabun-phosphorylated human AChE.

  8. Metastable fragmentation of silver bromide clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L' Hermite, J.M.; Rabilloud, F.; Marcou, L.; Labastie, P. [Lab. CAR/IRSAMC, Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France)


    The abundance spectra and the fragmentation channels of silver bromide clusters have been measured and analyzed. The most abundant species are Ag{sub n}Br{sub n} {sub -} {sub 1}{sup +} and Ag {sub n}Br {sub n} {sub +} {sub 1}{sup -} and Ag {sub 14}Br {sub 13}{sup +} is a magic number, revealing their ionic nature. However, some features depart from what is generally observed for alkali-halide ionic clusters. From a certain size, Ag {sub n}Br {sub n} {sub -} {sub 1}{sup +} is no more the main series, and Ag {sub n}Br {sub n} {sub -} {sub 2,} {sub 3}{sup +} series become almost as important. The fast fragmentation induced by a UV laser makes the cations lose more bromine than silver ions and lead to more silver-rich clusters. Negative ions mass spectra contain also species with more silver atoms than required by stoichiometry. We have investigated the metastable fragmentation of the cations using a new experimental method. The large majority of the cations release mainly a neutral Ag {sub 3}Br {sub 3} cluster. These decay channels are in full agreement with our recent ab initio DFT calculations, which show that Ag {sup +}-Ag {sup +} repulsion is reduced due to a globally attractive interaction of their d orbitals. This effect leads to a particularly stable trimer (AgBr) {sub 3} and to quasi-planar cyclic structures of (AgBr) {sub n} clusters up to n = 6. We have shown that these two features may be extended to other silver halides, to silver hydroxides (AgOH) {sub n}, and to cuprous halide compounds. (orig.)

  9. Assessment of Ethidium bromide and Ethidium monoazide bromide removal from aqueous matrices by adsorption on cupric oxide nanoparticles. (United States)

    Fakhri, Ali


    The present study was undertaken to develop an effective adsorbent and to study the adsorption of Ethidium bromide and Ethidium monoazide bromide from aqueous solution using the CuO nanoparticles. The characteristics of CuO nanoparticles were determined and found to have a surface area 89.59m(2)/g. Operational parameters such as pH, contact time and adsorbent concentration, initial concentration and temperature were also studied. The amount of removal increases with the increase in pH from one to seven and reaches the maximum when the pH is nine. Adsorption data fitted well with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Florry-Huggins models. The results show that the best fit was achieved with the Langmuir isotherm equation with maximum adsorption capacities of 0.868 and 0.662mg/g for Ethidium bromide and Ethidium monoazide bromide, respectively. The adsorption process was found to follow pseudo-second-order kinetics. The calculated thermodynamic parameters, namely ΔG, ΔH and ΔS showed that adsorption of Ethidium bromide and Ethidium monoazide bromide was spontaneous and endothermic under examined conditions.

  10. Molecular recognition of amino acids with some fluorescent ditopic pyrylium- and pyridinium-based crown ether receptors (United States)

    Moghimi, A.; Maddah, B.; Yari, A.; Shamsipur, M.; Boostani, M.; Fall Rastegar, M.; Ghaderi, A. R.


    The molecular recognition of L-amino acids such as asparagine, glutamine, lysine and arginine with some crownpyryliums, CP's, and a crownpyridinium compound, as receptors, were examined in methanol. 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to examine the structural stability of the receptors in the presence of the amino acids. The fluorimetric titration of the receptors by specified amino acids, other than arginine, was followed within a few minutes and the stoichiometry and stability of the resulting amino acid complexes were evaluated. The data analysis clearly demonstrated the critical role of the terminal amino group to carboxylic acid distance of amino acids for their proper fixation on the receptor molecules. Ion pairing for the two oppositely charged carboxylate anion and pyrylium (or pyridinium) cation, as well as the hydrogen bonding between crown ethers' oxygens and ammonium hydrogens are expected as the main interaction sources in the host-guest complexations.

  11. C6-pyridinium ceramide sensitizes SCC17B human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells to photodynamic therapy. (United States)

    Boppana, Nithin B; Stochaj, Ursula; Kodiha, Mohamed; Bielawska, Alicja; Bielawski, Jacek; Pierce, Jason S; Korbelik, Mladen; Separovic, Duska


    Combining photodynamic therapy (PDT) with another anticancer treatment modality is an important strategy for improved efficacy. PDT with Pc4, a silicon phthalocyanine photosensitizer, was combined with C6-pyridinium ceramide (LCL29) to determine their potential to promote death of SCC17B human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells. PDT+LCL29-induced enhanced cell death was inhibited by zVAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, and fumonisin B1 (FB), a ceramide synthase inhibitor. Quantitative confocal microscopy showed that combining PDT with LCL29 enhanced FB-sensitive ceramide accumulation in the mitochondria. Furthermore, PDT+LCL29 induced enhanced FB-sensitive redistribution of cytochrome c and caspase-3 activation. Overall, the data indicate that PDT+LCL29 enhanced cell death via FB-sensitive, mitochondrial ceramide accumulation and apoptosis.

  12. 5,6-Dimethoxybenzofuran-3-one Derivatives: a Novel Series of Dual Acetylcholinesterase/Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitors Bearing Benzyl Pyridinium Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdollahi


    Full Text Available Several studies have been focused on design and synthesis of multi-target anti Alzheimer compounds. Utilizing of the dual Acetylcholinesterase/Butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors has gained more interest to treat the Alzheimer’s disease. As a part of a research program to find a novel drug for treating Alzheimer disease, we have previously reported 6-alkoxybenzofuranone derivatives as potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. In continuation of our work, we would like to report the synthesis of 5,6-dimethoxy benzofuranone derivatives bearing a benzyl pyridinium moiety as dual Acetylcholinesterase/Butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors.MethodsThe synthesis of target compounds was carried out using a conventional method. Bayer-Villiger oxidation of 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde furnished 3,4-dimethoxyphenol. The reaction of 3,4-dimethoxyphenol with chloroacetonitrile followed by treatment with HCl solution and then ring closure yielded the 5,6-dimethoxy benzofuranone. Condensation of the later compound with pyridine-4-carboxaldehyde and subsequent reaction with different benzyl halides afforded target compounds. The biological activity was measured using standard Ellman’s method. Docking studies were performed to get better insight into interaction of compounds with receptor.ResultsThe in vitro anti acetylcholinesterase/butyrylcholinesterase activity of compounds revealed that, all of the target compounds have good inhibitory activity against both Acetylcholinesterase/Butyrylcholinesterase enzymes in which compound 5b (IC50 = 52 ± 6.38nM was the most active compound against acetylcholinesterase. The same binding mode and interactions were observed for the reference drug donepezil and compound 5b in docking study.ConclusionsIn this study, we presented a new series of benzofuranone-based derivatives having pyridinium moiety as potent dual acting Acetylcholinesterase/Butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors.

  13. Efficacy of novel phenoxyalkyl pyridinium oximes as brain-penetrating reactivators of cholinesterase inhibited by surrogates of sarin and VX. (United States)

    Chambers, Janice E; Chambers, Howard W; Funck, Kristen E; Meek, Edward C; Pringle, Ronald B; Ross, Matthew K


    Pyridinium oximes are strong nucleophiles and many are effective reactivators of organophosphate-inhibited cholinesterase (ChE). However, the current oxime reactivators are ineffective at crossing the blood-brain barrier and reactivating brain ChE in the intact organism. Our laboratories have developed a series of substituted phenoxyalkyl pyridinium oximes (US patent 9,227,937 B2) with the goal of identifying reactivators effective in crossing the blood-brain barrier. The first 35 of the series were found to have similar in vitro efficacy as reactivators of ChE inhibited by a sarin surrogate (phthalimidyl isopropyl methylphosphonate, PIMP) or a VX surrogate (nitrophenyl ethyl methylphosphonate, NEMP) in bovine brain preparations as previously observed in rat brain preparations. A number of these novel oximes have shown the ability to decrease the level of ChE inhibition in the brains of rats treated with a high sublethal dosage of either a sarin surrogate (nitrophenyl isopropyl methylphosphonate, NIMP) or the VX surrogate NEMP. Levels of reactivation at 2 h after oxime administration were up to 35% while the currently approved therapeutic, 2-PAM, yielded no reduction in brain ChE inhibition. In addition, there was evidence of attenuation of seizure-like behavior with several of the more effective novel oximes, but not 2-PAM. Therefore these novel oximes have demonstrated an ability to reactivate inhibited ChE in brain preparations from two species and in vivo data support their ability to enter the brain and provide a therapeutic action. These novel oximes have the potential to be developed into improved antidotes for nerve agent therapy.

  14. Removal of pathogenic human viruses by insoluble pyridinium-type resin. (United States)

    Kawabata, N; Yamazaki, K; Otake, T; Oishi, I; Minekawa, Y


    Cross-linked poly(N-benzyl-4-vinylpyridinium bromide) (BVP resin) was found to be very efficient in removing pathogenic human viruses from aqueous solution. In batch removal experiments using 50 g/l of BVP resin at 35 degrees C, the level of infectivity in suspensions of enterovirus, herpes simplex virus, poliovirus, and human immunodeficiency virus was reduced 1000-100,000 fold during a 2 h period. Those of coxsackievirus and echovirus were reduced 60-600 fold during 1 h contact. The haemagglutination titres of solutions of human rotavirus, influenza virus, human adenovirus, and Japanese encephalitis virus were reduced 16-256 fold during 30 min of contact. In removal experiments by a continuous flow column method for poliovirus, enterovirus, and coxsackievirus with initial infectivities of less than 10(5)/ml, the infectivity of these viruses was no longer detectable in the effluent solution. For poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and echovirus with initial infectivities higher than 10(6), 99.8-99.9998% of the input viruses was removed as indicated by the reduction of infectivity.

  15. Clinical potential of aclidinium bromide in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong J


    Full Text Available Jun Zhong, Michael Roth Pneumology and Pulmonary Cell Research, Department of Biomedicine and Internal Medicine, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is increasing worldwide and is predicted to become the third most frequent cause of death by 2030. Muscarinic receptor antagonists, alone or in combination with long-acting ß2-agonists, are frequently used for COPD therapy. Aclidinium bromide is a novel muscarinic receptor antagonist, and clinical studies indicate that its metabolism is more rapid than that of other muscarinic receptor inhibitors, so systemic side effects are expected to occur less frequently. Aclidinium bromide is well tolerated, and when compared with other muscarinic receptor antagonists, the drug achieves better control of lung function, especially night-time symptoms in COPD patients. This review summarizes the safety profile and side effects reported by recent clinical studies using aclidinium bromide alone. Keywords: aclidinium, tiotropium, side effects, clinical safety

  16. Water- Lithium Bromide-γ- Butyrolactone Absorption Refrigerating Machine (United States)

    Iyoki, Shigeki; Uemura, Tadashi

    This investigation was carried out in order to find corrosion inhibitors which would be effective in controlling the corrosion for the water-lithium bromide-γ-butyrolactone (20 moles water/1 mole γ-butyrolactone) absorption refrigerating machine. The experiments were carried out on continuous boiling test, intermittent boiling test and galvanic corrosion test with the use of organic inhibitors and inorganic inhibitors in γ-butyrolactone aqueous solution of lithium bromide. The metals used in these corrosion tests were mainly SS 41 and copper. From these experimental results, the most suitable corrosion inhibitors for SS 41 and copper in γ-butyrolactone aqueous solution of lithium bromide Were recognized to be benzotriazole, tolyltriazole and lithium molybdate.

  17. Intensification of sonochemical degradation of malachite green by bromide ions. (United States)

    Moumeni, Ouarda; Hamdaoui, Oualid


    Sonochemical oxidation has been investigated as a viable advanced oxidation process (AOP) for the destruction of various pollutants in water. Ultrasonic irradiation generates ()OH radicals that can recombine, react with other gaseous species present in the cavity, or diffuse out of the bubble into the bulk liquid medium where they are able to react with solute molecules. The extent of degradation of an organic dye such as malachite green (MG) is limited by the quantity of hydroxyl radicals diffused from cavitation bubbles. In this work, the effect of bromide ions on sonolytic degradation of MG was investigated. The obtained results clearly demonstrated the considerable enhancement of sonochemical destruction of MG in the presence of bromide. No significant differences were observed in the presence of chloride and sulfate, excluding the salting-out effect. Positive effect of bromide ions, which increases with increasing bromide level and decreasing MG concentration, is due to the generation of dibromine radical anion (Br(2)(-)) formed by reaction of Br(-) with ()OH radicals followed by rapid complexation with another anion. The generated Br(2)(-) radicals, reactive but less than ()OH, are likely able to migrate far from the cavitation bubbles towards the solution bulk and are suitable for degradation of an organic dye such as MG. Additionally, Br(2)(-) radicals undergo radical-radical recombination at a lesser extent than hydroxyl radicals and would be more available than ()OH for substrate degradation, both at the bubble surface and in the solution bulk. This effect compensates for the lower reactivity of Br(2)(-) compared to ()OH toward organic substrate. Addition of bromide to natural and sea waters induces a slight positive effect on MG degradation. In the absence of bromide, ultrasonic treatment for the removal of MG was promoted in complex matrices such as natural and sea waters.

  18. 天然和CPB改性沸石对Hg2+的吸附特征%Adsorption characteristic of mercury (Ⅱ) on natural and CPB modified zeolite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄慧; 郝硕硕; 朱家亮; 申源源; 王志刚; 陈宏


    The adsorption of mercury ions on the natural zeolite and CPB modified zeolite was investigated by conducting a series of batch adsorption experiments. The adsorption kinetics, adsorption equilibrium, thermo-dynamic behavior and mechanism were discussed. Results showed that the equilibrium data of the two kinds of zeolites were well fitted with Langmuir equation. CPB modified zeolite can significantly improve the adsorption of Hg2+ . The adsorption rate of Hg2+ increased from 67.5% to 98.9% , and the adsorption capacity increased from 0. 521 mg/g to 3. 07 mg/g under the experimental conditions. Using Pseudo-first-order kinetics, Pseudo-second-order kinetics, Intraparticle diffusion and Elovich equation to simulate the process of dynamic respectively. The kinetic data correlated well with the Pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and the Intraparticle diffusion did have effect on the adsorption. Dynamics fitting, D-R equation fitting and thermodynamics research integrated suggested that both chemical and physical adsorption were existed in the adsorption of Hg + on two kinds of zeolites. The negative change in free energy ( △G0) , enthalpy ( △H0 ) and entropy ( △S0) indicated that the adsorption was spontaneous and exothermic. Low temperature made the adsorption easier.%通过静态实验研究溴代十六烷基吡啶(CPB)改性沸石和天然沸石对废水中Hg2+的吸附特性,探讨了吸附动力学、吸附平衡和吸附热力学机制.研究表明:Langmuir方程能较好地描述2种沸石对Hg2+的吸附,CPB改性沸石对Hg2+的吸附率得到显著提高.实验条件下,改性沸石对Hg2+的吸附率从67.5%提高到98.9%,吸附容量从0.521 mg/g提高到3.07 mg/g.利用准一级动力学方程、假二级动力学方程、颗粒内扩散模型和Elovich方程分别对动力学过程进行拟合,发现2种沸石对Hg2+的吸附均满足假二级动力学方程,且离子的颗粒内扩散对整个吸附过程有影响.动力学拟合、D-R方程

  19. Glycosylation with Disarmed Glycosyl Bromides Promoted by Iodonium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanz, Gyrithe; Madsen, Robert


    Iodonium ions have been developed for activating glycosyl bromides in the coupling to glycosyl acceptors. The iodonium ions are generated from N-iodosuccinimide and a protic acid such as camphorsulfonic acid or triflic acid, where the latter gives the most reactive promoter system. The couplings...... occur with the release of iodine monobromide, and the best results are obtained with benzoylated glycosyl donors and acceptors. In this way, disarmed glycosyl bromides can serve as glycosyl donors without the use of heavy-metal salts....

  20. Preparation and characterization of rosin glycerin ester and its bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Caili; Zhang Faai


    Rosin glycerin ester and its bromide were prepared from natural renewable rosin,glycerin and liquid bromine which were first subjected to an esterification reaction,followed by an addition reaction.Their structures were characterized by an infrared(IR)spectrum and their thermal resistance was conducted with thermal gravity(TG)and differential scanning calorimetry(DSC).It showed that the bromide in the rosin glycerin ester decomposed faster than the ester;hence it may be used as fire-resistant material.

  1. Pyridinium Trifluoro Acetate Mediated Synthesis of 3,4-Dihydropyrimidin-2(1H-ones and Tetrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-6-carboxylates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishnan Sridhar


    Full Text Available A simple and economic synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H-ones using pyridinium triflate as catalyst under microwave condition was attempted with an easy work-up protocol. Further tetrazolo [1,5-a] pyrimidine-6-carboxylates were synthesized by three-component coupling reaction of β-ketoesters with a mixture of aromatic aldehyde and 5-aminotetrazole. The products were well characterized with IR, NMR (1H and 13C NMR and mass spectrometry.

  2. Generation of counter ion radical (Br2(•-)) and its reactions in water-in-oil (CTAB or CPB)/n-butanol/cyclohexane/water) microemulsion. (United States)

    Guleria, Apurav; Singh, Ajay K; Sarkar, Sisir K; Mukherjee, Tulsi; Adhikari, Soumyakanti


    Herein we report the generation of counterion radicals and their reactions in quaternary water-in-oil microemulsion. Hydrated electrons in the microemulsion CTAB/H(2)O/n-butanol/cyclohexane have a remarkably short half-life (∼1 μs) and lower yield as compared to that in the pure water system. Electrons are solvated in two regions: one is the water core and other the interface; however, the electrons in the water core have a shorter half-life than those in the interface. The decay of the solvated electrons in the interface is found to be water content dependent and it has been interpreted in terms of increased interfacial fluidity with the increase in water content of the microemulsion. Interestingly another species, dibromide radical anion (Br(2)(•-)) in CTAB and CPB microemulsions have been observed after the electron beam irradiation. Assuming that the extinction coefficient of the radicals is the same as that in the aqueous solution, the yields of the radicals per 100 eV are 0.29 and 0.48 for the Br(2)(•-) radical in CTAB and CPB containing microemulsions (W(0) = 40), respectively, under N(2)O saturated conditions. Further, we intended to study electron transfer reactions, which occur at and through the interface. The reaction of the Br(2)(•-) radical anion with ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] has been studied to generate the ABTS radical in the water core, and further, its reaction has been investigated with the water-insoluble molecule vitamin E (tocopherol) and water-soluble vitamin C (ascorbic acid). In the present study, we were able to show that, even for molecules which are completely insoluble in water, ABTS scavenging assay is possible by pulse radiolysis technique. Furthermore, these results show that it is possible to follow the reaction of the hydrated inorganic radical with solutes dissolved in the organic phase in a microemulsion without use of a phase transfer catalyst.

  3. Comparison of two different blood pumps on delivery of gaseous microemboli during pulsatile and nonpulsatile perfusion in a simulated infant CPB model. (United States)

    Wang, Shigang; Kunselman, Allen R; Myers, John L; Undar, Akif


    The purpose of this study was to compare two different blood pumps (Jostra roller pump vs. Medos deltastream DP1 rotary pump) on delivery of gaseous microemboli during pulsatile and nonpulsatile perfusion in a simulated infant cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) model. The Jostra and Medos pump were used in parallel pattern. The circuit was primed with lactated ringer's solution (700 ml) and the postfilter pressure was maintained at 100 mm Hg. Three transducers (postpump, postoxygenator and postfilter sites) of the Emboli Detection and Classification (EDAC) Quantifier were inserted into the CPB circuit to detect and classify gaseous microemboli. Trials were conducted at flow rates ranging from 500 to 1250 ml/min (250 ml/min increments). The arterial filter purge line was kept open during all trials. After injecting 20 ml air into the venous line, 2-minute segments of data were recorded simultaneously through three transducers. This entire process was repeated six times for each unique combination of blood pump, flow rate and perfusion mode, yielding a total of 96 experiments. Independent of perfusion mode and flow rate, Medos pump delivered less gaseous microemboli than Jostra pump at the postpump site, but only at 1,250 ml/min of pump flow rate the differences reached statistical significance (p < 0.01). There was no difference in delivery at the postfilter site. Compared with nonpulsatile flow, pulsatile flow transferred significantly more gaseous microemboli at the postpump site at 1,250 ml/min of pump flow rate in both groups (p < 0.01). The majority of gaseous microemboli were trapped by the membrane oxygenator. The results of this study confirm that rotary pump could deliver less gaseous microemboli than roller pump at the postpump site when a fixed volume air was introduced into the venous line. Pulsatile flow could transfer more gaseous microemboli at the postpump site, no matter which blood pump was used. Only few gaseous microemboli appeared at the postfilter

  4. Bis{2-[2,5-bis(pyridin-2-yl-1H-imidazol-4-yl]pyridinium} tetracyanidoplatinate(II tetrahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Gámez-Heredia


    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title hydrated complex salt, (C18H14N52[Pt(CN4]·4H2O, consists of one 2-[2,5-bis(pyridin-2-yl-1H-imidazol-4-yl]pyridinium cation, half a tetracyanidoplatinate(II dianion, which is located about a crystallographic inversion center, and two water molecules of crystallization. The PtII atom has a square-planar coordination environment, with Pt—CCN distances of 1.992 (4 and 2.000 (4 Å. In the cation, there is an N—H...N hydrogen bond linking adjacent pyridinium and pyridine rings in positions 4 and 5. Despite this, the organic component is non-planar, as shown by the dihedral angles of 10.3 (2, 6.60 (19 and 15.66 (18° between the planes of the central imidazole ring and the pyridine/pyridinium substituents in the 2-, 4- and 5-positions. In the crystal, cations and anions are linked via O—H...O, O—H...N and N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. Additional π–π, C—H...O and C—H...N contacts provide stabilization to the crystal lattice.

  5. Investigation on interaction of DNA and several cationic surfactants with different head groups by spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis and viscosity technologies. (United States)

    Guo, Qing; Zhang, Zhaohong; Song, Youtao; Liu, Shuo; Gao, Wei; Qiao, Heng; Guo, Lili; Wang, Jun


    In this study, the interaction between DNA and several cationic surfactants with different head groups such as ethyl hexadecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (EHDAB), hexadecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (HDBAC), and cetyl pyridinium bromide (CPB) were investigated by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis, and viscosity technologies. The results show that these cationic surfactants can interact with DNA and major binding modes are electrostatic and hydrophobic. Also, CPB and HDBAC molecules interact with DNA by partial intercalation, and CPB has slightly stronger intercalation than HDBAC, while EHDAB interacts with DNA by non-intercalation. The different head groups of the surfactant molecules can influence the interaction strength. CPB has the stronger interaction with DNA than the others. Moreover, surfactant concentration, the ratio of DNA and fluorescence probe, ionic strength can influence the interaction. The surfactants may interact with DNA by the competition reactions with BR for DNA-BR. The increase of ionic strength may favor the surface binding between DNA and surfactants to some extent. This work provides deep mechanistic insight on the toxicity of cationic surfactants with different head groups to DNA molecules.

  6. Een ionchromatografische methode voor de simultane bepaling van nitriet, bromide en sulfiet in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beld WA van den; Cleven RFMJ; LAC


    Betreft resultaten van een onderzoek naar het ontwikkelen van een geautomatiseerde ionchromatografische methode voor de bepaling van nitriet, bromide en sulfiet. Het onderzoek heeft geresulteerd in een betrouwbare, selectieve en gevoelige methode voor de simultane bepaling van nitriet, bromide e

  7. 77 FR 20752 - Methyl Bromide; Proposed Pesticide Tolerance (United States)


    ... necessary to prevent the introduction of a plant pest into the United States or the dissemination of a plant... partition into organic vs. aqueous environments, and is therefore commonly used to predict the likelihood...). See the February 22, 2002, Residue Chemistry Chapter for the methyl bromide RED available in...

  8. Direct acylation of aryl bromides with aldehydes by palladium catalysis. (United States)

    Ruan, Jiwu; Saidi, Ourida; Iggo, Jonathan A; Xiao, Jianliang


    A new protocol for the direct acylation of aryl bromides with aldehydes is established. It appears to involve palladium-amine cooperative catalysis, affording synthetically important alkyl aryl ketones in moderate to excellent yields in a straightforward manner, and broadening the scope of metal-catalyzed coupling reactions.

  9. On the existence of ‘L-alanine cadmium bromide' (United States)

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R.


    It is argued that the recently reported nonlinear optical crystal L-alanine cadmium bromide, grown by slow solvent evaporation method at room temperature [P. Ilayabarathi, J. Chandrasekaran, Spectrochim. Acta 96A (2012) 684-689] is the well-known L-alanine crystal. The isolation of L-alanine crystal is explained due to fractional crystallization.

  10. On the existence of 'L-alanine cadmium bromide'. (United States)

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R


    It is argued that the recently reported nonlinear optical crystal L-alanine cadmium bromide, grown by slow solvent evaporation method at room temperature [P. Ilayabarathi, J. Chandrasekaran, Spectrochim. Acta 96A (2012) 684-689] is the well-known L-alanine crystal. The isolation of L-alanine crystal is explained due to fractional crystallization.

  11. Preozonation of bromide-bearing source water in south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The effectiveness of preozonation was evaluated on treating a bromide-bearing dam source water in south China through batch-scale experiments. Preozonation at ozone doses of 0.5-1.0 mg/L (at ozone consumption base) enhanced total organic carbon(TOC) removal through coagulation, and resulted in an almost linear reduction of ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254). The removals of TOC (after coagulation) and UV254 at the ozone dose of 1.0 mg/L were 36% and 70%, respectively. Preozonation at an ozone dose between 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L resulted in the removal of disinfection byproducts formation potential (DBFP) including trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) and haloacetic acid formation potential (HAAFP) for about 50%. The removals of THMFP and HAAFP decreased with the further increase of ozone dose. Ozonation of bromide-bearing water (bromide concentration,34 μg/L) produced a bromate concentration under the detection limit(2 μg/L) at ozone doses < 1.5 mg/L. However, bromate >10 μg/L could be produced when the bromide concentration was increased to 96 μg/L.

  12. A two-step ICT process for solvatochromic betaine pyridinium revealed by ultrafast spectroscopy, multivariate curve resolution, and TDDFT calculations. (United States)

    Aloïse, Stéphane; Pawlowska, Zuzanna; Ruckebusch, Cyril; Sliwa, Michel; Dubois, Julien; Poizat, Olivier; Buntinx, Guy; Perrier, Aurélie; Maurel, François; Jacques, Patrice; Malval, Jean-Pierre; Poisson, Lionel; Piani, Giovanni; Abe, Jiro


    This work deals with the photophysics of a pyridinium betaine, 2-pyridin-1-yl-1H-benzimidazole (SBPa), based on a combination of steady-state, femtosecond photoionization (gas phase) and femtosecond transient absorption (solution) spectroscopic measurements, supported by (LR)-PCM-(TD)DFT calculations. Preliminary and new electrochemical results have revealed a strongly negative solvatochromic charge transfer (CT) absorption due to a S(0) → S(2) vertical transition and a weakly-solvatochromic emission due to S(1) → S(0) transition. Advanced TDDFT optimizations of the Franck-Condon states S(2)(FC) and S(1)(FC) led to two additional CT levels with planar geometry, S(2)(CT) and S(1)(CT), respectively, allowing prediction of a two-step photoinduced ICT process, i.e., S(0) → S(2)(FC) and S(2)(CT) → S(1)(CT), separated by a S(2)(FC) → S(2)(CT) back charge transfer relaxation. While the pyridinium ring is the acceptor group in both steps, two different donor groups, the benzene ring and the imidazole bridge, are involved in the excitation and internal conversion processes, respectively. Femtosecond transient absorption experiments supported by MCR-ALS decomposition confirmed indeed the contribution of two distinct CT states in the photophysics of SBPa: following excitation to the S(2)(CT) state, ultrafast production of the emissive S(1) state (the only channel observable in the gas phase) was observed to occur in competition with a further ICT process toward the S(1)(CT) state, with a time constant ranging from 300 fs to 20 ps depending on the solvent. While in aprotic media this ICT process was found to be purely solvent controlled (double polarity and viscosity dependency), in protic solvents, the influence of the hydrogen bond network has to be taken into account. Comparison with data obtained for a pre-twisted SBPa analogue led us to exclude the presence of any large-amplitude geometrical change during ICT. Analyzing the solvent dependency using the power law

  13. T-type Ca(2+) channel modulation by otilonium bromide. (United States)

    Strege, Peter R; Sha, Lei; Beyder, Arthur; Bernard, Cheryl E; Perez-Reyes, Edward; Evangelista, Stefano; Gibbons, Simon J; Szurszewski, Joseph H; Farrugia, Gianrico


    Antispasmodics are used clinically to treat a variety of gastrointestinal disorders by inhibition of smooth muscle contraction. The main pathway for smooth muscle Ca(2+) entry is through L-type channels; however, there is increasing evidence that T-type Ca(2+) channels also play a role in regulating contractility. Otilonium bromide, an antispasmodic, has previously been shown to inhibit L-type Ca(2+) channels and colonic contractile activity. The objective of this study was to determine whether otilonium bromide also inhibits T-type Ca(2+) channels. Whole cell currents were recorded by patch-clamp technique from HEK293 cells transfected with cDNAs encoding the T-type Ca(2+) channels, Ca(V)3.1 (alpha1G), Ca(V)3.2 (alpha1H), or Ca(V)3.3 (alpha1I) alpha subunits. Extracellular solution was exchanged with otilonium bromide (10(-8) to 10(-5) M). Otilonium bromide reversibly blocked all T-type Ca(2+) channels with a significantly greater affinity for Ca(V)3.3 than Ca(V)3.1 or Ca(V)3.2. Additionally, the drug slowed inactivation in Ca(V)3.1 and Ca(V)3.3. Inhibition of T-type Ca(2+) channels may contribute to inhibition of contractility by otilonium bromide. This may represent a new mechanism of action for antispasmodics and may contribute to the observed increased clinical effectiveness of antispasmodics compared with selective L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers.

  14. T-type Ca2+ channel modulation by otilonium bromide (United States)

    Strege, Peter R.; Sha, Lei; Beyder, Arthur; Bernard, Cheryl E.; Perez-Reyes, Edward; Evangelista, Stefano; Gibbons, Simon J.; Szurszewski, Joseph H.


    Antispasmodics are used clinically to treat a variety of gastrointestinal disorders by inhibition of smooth muscle contraction. The main pathway for smooth muscle Ca2+ entry is through L-type channels; however, there is increasing evidence that T-type Ca2+ channels also play a role in regulating contractility. Otilonium bromide, an antispasmodic, has previously been shown to inhibit L-type Ca2+ channels and colonic contractile activity. The objective of this study was to determine whether otilonium bromide also inhibits T-type Ca2+ channels. Whole cell currents were recorded by patch-clamp technique from HEK293 cells transfected with cDNAs encoding the T-type Ca2+ channels, CaV3.1 (α1G), CaV3.2 (α1H), or CaV3.3 (α1I) alpha subunits. Extracellular solution was exchanged with otilonium bromide (10−8 to 10−5 M). Otilonium bromide reversibly blocked all T-type Ca2+ channels with a significantly greater affinity for CaV3.3 than CaV3.1 or CaV3.2. Additionally, the drug slowed inactivation in CaV3.1 and CaV3.3. Inhibition of T-type Ca2+ channels may contribute to inhibition of contractility by otilonium bromide. This may represent a new mechanism of action for antispasmodics and may contribute to the observed increased clinical effectiveness of antispasmodics compared with selective L-type Ca2+ channel blockers. PMID:20203058

  15. Silver-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of alkyl bromides with alkyl or aryl Grignard reagents


    Someya, Hidenori; Yorimitsu, Hideki; Oshima, Koichiro


    reatment of secondary or tertiary alkyl bromides with alkyl Grignard reagents in the presence of catalytic amounts of silver bromide and potassium fluoride in CH2Cl2 afforded the corresponding cross-coupling products in reasonable yields. Moreover, silver showed catalytic activity for the cross-coupling reactions of alkyl bromides with aryl Grignard reagents.

  16. Association of defects in lead chloride and lead bromide: Ionic conductivity and dielectric loss measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, W.E. van den; Schoonman, J.; Wit, J.H.W. de

    The ionic conductivity data of pure and doped lead bromide without associated defects are used in order to explain the anomalous conductivity behaviour of copper (I) bromide and lead oxide-doped lead-bromide crystals. In these crystals precipitated dopant and associated defects are present. The

  17. 40 CFR 180.519 - Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bromide ion and residual bromine... Tolerances § 180.519 Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues. (a) General. The food additives, bromide ion and residual bromine, may be present in water, potable in accordance with...

  18. Association of defects in lead chloride and lead bromide: Ionic conductivity and dielectric loss measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, W.E. van den; Schoonman, J.; Wit, J.H.W. de


    The ionic conductivity data of pure and doped lead bromide without associated defects are used in order to explain the anomalous conductivity behaviour of copper (I) bromide and lead oxide-doped lead-bromide crystals. In these crystals precipitated dopant and associated defects are present. The asso

  19. Crystal structure of bis­(1-ethyl­pyridinium) dioxonium hexa­cyanidoferrate(II) (United States)

    Tanaka, Rikako


    The title compound, (C7H10N)2(H3O)2[Fe(CN)6] or (Etpy)2(H3O)2[Fe(CN)6] (Etpy+ is 1-ethyl­pyridinium), crystallizes in the space group Pnnm. The FeII atom of the [Fe(CN)6]4− anion lies on a site with site symmetry ..2/m, and has an octa­hedral coordination sphere defined by six cyanido ligands. Both the Etpy+ and the oxonium cations are located on a mirror plane. In the crystal, electron-donor anions of [Fe(CN)6]4− and electron-acceptor cations of Etpy+ are each stacked parallel to the b axis, resulting in a columnar structure with segregated moieties. The crystal packing is stabilized by a three-dimensional O—H⋯N hydrogen-bonding network between the oxonium ions and the cyanide ligands of [Fe(CN)6]4−. PMID:28217346

  20. Mesomeric betaine chemistry in solution: Solvent effect on the structure and spectra of uracilyl-pyridinium betaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, A., E-mail: [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Clausthal University of Technology, Leibnizstrasse 6, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Lindner, A.S. [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Clausthal University of Technology, Leibnizstrasse 6, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Casado, J.; Lopez Navarrete, J.T. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, Malaga 29071 (Spain); Ramirez, F.J., E-mail: [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, Malaga 29071 (Spain)


    Graphical abstract: Vibrational Raman, UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopies, supported by DFT calculations, demonstrate that a polar environment quinoidizes the cationic part and aromatizes the anionic moiety of cross-conjugated mesomeric betaines. - Abstract: The presence of positive and negative delocalized charges in a heterocyclic conjugated system gives rise to an interesting class of molecules known as mesomeric betaines. These can be conveniently represented by dipolar canonical formulae. Among them, cross-conjugation appears when the charges are placed in separated parts of the common {pi}-electron system. This fact makes cross-conjugated mesomeric betaines (CCMB) suitable systems to study intramolecular electron transfer processes. In this paper, we studied Raman and electronic spectra of an uracilyl-pyridinium CCMB in solution. Vibrational results demonstrated that the presence of a polar environment quinoidizes the cationic part and aromatizes the anionic moiety of this molecule, which gave us useful information to propose the more relevant mesomeric structures of this molecule in solution. Raman spectroscopy was able to account for cross-conjugation by characterizing conjugational-sensitive bands. The effect of the solvent polarity was studied by electronic spectroscopy, allowing us to establish spectroscopy-structure relationships.

  1. Confinement of pyridinium hemicyanine dye within an anionic metal-organic framework for two-photon-pumped lasing (United States)

    Yu, Jiancan; Cui, Yuanjing; Xu, Hui; Yang, Yu; Wang, Zhiyu; Chen, Banglin; Qian, Guodong


    Two-photon-pumped dye lasers are very important because of their applications in wavelength up-conversion, optical data storage, biological imaging and photodynamic therapy. Such lasers are very difficult to realize in the solid state because of the aggregation-caused quenching. Here we demonstrate a new two-photon-pumped micro-laser by encapsulating the cationic pyridinium hemicyanine dye into an anionic metal-organic framework (MOF). The resultant MOF⊃dye composite exhibits significant two-photon fluorescence because of the large absorption cross-section and the encapsulation-enhanced luminescent efficiency of the dye. Furthermore, the well-faceted MOF crystal serves as a natural Fabry-Perot resonance cavity, leading to lasing around 640 nm when pumped with a 1064-nm pulse laser. This strategy not only combines the crystalline benefit of MOFs and luminescent behaviour of organic dyes but also creates a new synergistic two-photon-pumped lasing functionality, opening a new avenue for the future creation of solid-state photonic materials and devices.

  2. QSAR models for the reactivation of sarin inhibited acetylcholinesterase by quaternary pyridinium oximes based on Monte Carlo method. (United States)

    Veselinović, Aleksandar M; Veselinović, Jovana B; Toropov, Andrey A; Toropova, Alla P; Nikolić, Goran M


    Monte Carlo method has been used as a computational tool for building QSAR models for the reactivation of sarin inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by quaternary pyridinium oximes. Simplified molecular input line entry system (SMILES) together with hydrogen-suppressed graph (HSG) was used to represent molecular structure. Total number of considered oximes was 46 and activity was defined as logarithm of the AChE reactivation percentage by oximes with concentration of 0.001 M. One-variable models have been calculated with CORAL software for one data split into training, calibration and test set. Computational experiments indicated that this approach can satisfactorily predict the desired endpoint. Best QSAR model had the following statistical parameters: for training set r2=0.7096, s=0.177, MAE=0.148; calibration set: r2=0.6759, s=0.330, MAE=0.271 and test set: r2=0.8620, s=0.182, MAE=0.150. Structural indicators (SMILES based molecular fragments) for the increase and the decrease of the stated activity are defined. Using defined structural alerts computer aided design of new oxime derivatives with desired activity is presented.

  3. Uptake of ozone to mixed sodium bromide/ citric acid solutions (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Tao; Steimle, Emilie; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten; Kato, Shunsuke; Lampimäki, Markus; Brown, Matthew; van Bokhoven, Jeroen; Nolting, Frithjof; Kleibert, Armin; Türler, Andreas; Ammann, Markus


    Sea-salt solution - air interfaces play an important role in the chemistry of the marine boundary layer. The reaction of ozone (O3) with bromide is of interest in the context of formation of photolabile halogens (Br2, BrCl) in the marine boundary layer. Recent experiments have suggested that the bromide oxidation rate is related to the surface concentration of bromide [1] and inversely related to the gas phase concentration of O3, an indication for a precursor mediated reaction at the surface [2]. So far, the effect of organics (such as those occurring at the ocean surface or in marine aerosols) on the reaction of O3 with bromide aerosols has not been studied yet. In our study we investigate the uptake kinetics of O3 to a mixed solution of sodium bromide (NaBr) and citric acid (CA), which represents highly oxidized organic compounds present in the environment, with a well-established coated wall flow tube technique, which leads to exposure of the film to O3 allowing the heterogeneous reactions to take place and the loss of O3 being measured. The results indicate that the uptake of O3 to the films with the higher bromide concentrations (0.34M and 4M) is independent of the gas phase concentration and roughly consistent with uptake limited by reaction in the bulk. For the lower bromide concentration (84mM), however, we observe a trend of the uptake coefficient to decrease with increasing O3 concentration, indicating an increasing importance of a surface reaction. In an attempt to constrain the kinetic data, we employed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to get insight into the surface composition of the aqueous solution - air interface. Previous XPS studies have shown that halide ion concentrations are enhanced at the aqueous solution air interface [3-4], which likely promotes the surface reactions of bromide or iodide with O3. A first XPS study of ternary solutions of KI with butanol indicated the importance of specific interactions of the cation with the alcohol

  4. Synthesis and Crystal Structures of Azolo[b]1,3,4-Thiadiazinium Bromides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Laus


    Full Text Available Three azolo[b]1,3,4-thiadiazinium bromides were prepared from the respective N-amino-N'-methylazolethiones and phenacyl bromide, and their crystal structures were determined. 6-Phenyl-1-methylimidazo[2,1-b]1,3,4-thiadiazinium bromide (1 crystallized as methanol solvate (P21/n, 6-phenyl-1-methyl-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b]1,3,4-thiadiazinium bromide (2 as hemi-ethanol solvate (P21/n, and 6-phenyl-1-methyl-1,2,4-triazolo[3,2-b]1,3,4-thiadiazinium bromide (3 solvent-free (P21/c. Interionic contacts were identified.

  5. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of [ 1- (4' -fluorobenzyl )pyridinium ]2 [ Ni (dto)2 ] Complex(dto2- = dithiooxalate dianion)%配合物[1-(4'-fluorobenzyl)pyridinium]2[Ni(dto)2](dto2-=dithiooxalate dianion)的合成及晶体结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玲; 谢景力; 任小明; 孟庆金


    The complex [ 1- (4'-fluorobenzyl) pyridinium ] 2 [ Ni (dto) 2 ] (dto2 - means dithiooxalate dianion) has been pre-pared by reaction of Na2[Ni(S2C2O2)2] and the 1-(4'-fluorobenzyl) pyridinium chloride salt. The crystallographicdata for the title complex: triclinic P1, a =8. 5698(8) A, b =9. 3461(9) A, c = 10. 5361(10) A, α =67. 177(2)°, β =67.398(2)°, γ =79. 611(2)°, V=717.59(12) A3, Z= 1. The [Ni(dto) 2] 2- anion with the Ni atomO is clearly observed. The nature and size of cation seems to play an important factor in the type of intermolecularinteractions as well as the crystal packing in this kind of complexes.

  6. Comparison of Heat and Bromide as Ground Water Tracers Near Streams (United States)

    Constantz, J.; Cox, M.H.; Su, G.W.


    Heat and bromide were compared as tracers for examining stream/ground water exchanges along the middle reaches of the Santa Clara River, California, during a 10-hour surface water sodium bromide injection test. Three cross sections that comprise six shallow (sodium bromide injection test. Vertical, one-dimensional simulations of bromide concentrations in the sediments yielded a good match to the observed bromide concentrations, without adjustment of any model parameters except solute dispersivities. This indicates that, for the spatial and temporal scales examined on the Santa Clara River, the use of heat and bromide as tracers provide comparable information with respect to apparent hydraulic conductivities and fluxes for sediments near streams. In other settings, caution should be used due to differences in the nature of conservative (bromide) versus nonconservative (heat) tracers, particularly when preferential flowpaths are present.

  7. Viscosity and density of some lower alkyl chlorides and bromides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, W.M.


    A high-pressure capillary viscometer, used previously to measure the viscosity of methyl chloride was rebuilt to eliminate the first-order dependence of the measured viscosity on the value assumed for the density of the fluid being investigated. At the same time, the system was arranged so that part of the apparatus could be used to measure density by a volumetric displacement technique. Viscosity and density were measured for ethyl chloride, 1-chloropropane, 1-chlorobutane, methyl bromide, ethyl bromide, and 1-bromopropane. The temperature and pressure ranges of the experiments were 20-150 /sup 0/C and 0.27-6.99 MPa, respectively. The accuracy of the viscosity measurements was estimated to be +-1% and of the density measurements, +-0.2%.

  8. Study of ferroelectric characteristics of diisopropylammonium bromide films (United States)

    Thirmal, C.; Biswas, P. P.; Shin, Y. J.; Noh, T. W.; Giridharan, N. V.; Venimadhav, A.; Murugavel, P.


    Organic molecular ferroelectrics are highly desirable due to their numerous advantages. In the present work, a thick film of diisopropylammonium bromide organic molecular ferroelectric is fabricated on the ITO/glass substrate. The grown film shows preferential orientation along the c-axis with a ferroelectric transition at 419 K. The piezoresponse force microscopic measurements are done in a dual ac resonance tracking mode for its switching characteristics. The amplitude and phase images of the oppositely written domain patterns exhibit a clear contrast with 180° phase difference. The dynamical spectroscopic studies reveal a butterfly loop in amplitude and hysteretic character of the phase which are the expected characteristics features of ferroelectrics. In addition, the macroscopic polarization versus electric field hysteresis gives an additional proof for ferroelectric character of the film with the maximum polarization of 3.5 μC/cm2. Overall, we have successfully fabricated diisopropylammonium bromide organic films and demonstrated its room temperature ferroelectric characteristics.

  9. A novel and robust conditioning lesion induced by ethidium bromide. (United States)

    Hollis, Edmund R; Ishiko, Nao; Tolentino, Kristine; Doherty, Ernest; Rodriguez, Maria J; Calcutt, Nigel A; Zou, Yimin


    Molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the peripheral conditioning lesion remain unsolved. We show here that injection of a chemical demyelinating agent, ethidium bromide, into the sciatic nerve induces a similar set of regeneration-associated genes and promotes a 2.7-fold greater extent of sensory axon regeneration in the spinal cord than sciatic nerve crush. We found that more severe peripheral demyelination correlates with more severe functional and electrophysiological deficits, but more robust central regeneration. Ethidium bromide injection does not activate macrophages at the demyelinated sciatic nerve site, as observed after nerve crush, but briefly activates macrophages in the dorsal root ganglion. This study provides a new method for investigating the underlying mechanisms of the conditioning response and suggests that loss of the peripheral myelin may be a major signal to change the intrinsic growth state of adult sensory neurons and promote regeneration.

  10. Aluminium Electroplating on Steel from a Fused Bromide Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhat Tripathy; Laura Wurth; Eric Dufek; Toni Y. Gutknecht; Natalie Gese; Paula Hahn; Steven Frank; Guy Fredrickson; J Stephen Herring


    A quaternary bromide bath (LiBr-KBr-CsBr-AlBr3) was used to electro-coat aluminium on steel substrates. The electrolyte was prepared by the addition of AlBr3 into the eutectic LiBr-KBr-CsBr melt. A smooth, thick, adherent and shiny aluminium coating could be obtained with 80 wt.% AlBr3 in the ternary melt. The SEM photographs of the coated surfaces suggest the formation of thick and dense coatings with good aluminium coverage. Both salt immersion and open circuit potential measurement suggest that the coatings did display good corrosion-resistance behavior. Annealing of the coated surfaces, prior to corrosion tests, suggested the robustness of the metallic aluminium coating in preventing the corrosion of the steel surfaces. Studies also indicated that the quaternary bromide plating bath can potentially provide a better aluminium coating on both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, including complex surfaces/geometries.

  11. Preparation of ethyl magnesium bromide for regiospecific analysis of triacylglycerols. (United States)

    Ando, Yasuhiro; Tomita, Yuki; Haba, Yusuke


    This paper presents a procedure for preparation of a Grignard reagent, ethyl magnesium bromide, used for partial deacylation of triacylglycerols (TAG) in their regiospecific analysis. Magnesium turnings were reacted with ethereal solution of bromoethane in a screw-capped test tube to synthesize 2 mL of 1 M ethyl magnesium bromide. Continuously stirred with a vortex mixer, the reaction smoothly proceeded at room temperature. Regiospecific analysis of 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol using this product showed that fatty acid compositions of the sn-1(3) and sn-2 positions were contaminated by less than 2 mol% of fatty acids migrated from isomeric positions. The analyses of lard and cod liver/mackerel oil TAG showed typical distribution patterns of 16:0, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in pig and fish depot TAG. These results confirmed the view that the freshly prepared reagent is usable for regiospecific analysis of TAG.

  12. Antibacterial Activity of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide Modified Silver-Bentonite


    Nik Malek Nik Ahmad Nizam; Azalisa Wan Nur; Yieh Lin Clara Chong


    Organo-Ag-bentonite was prepared by the attachment of cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide on silver(A)g-exchanged bentonite. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and antibacterial assay was performed against Escherichia coli in different percentage of saline solutions through minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) method. Organo-Ag-bentonite showed higher ant...

  13. Transformation of bromide in thermo activated persulfate oxidation processes. (United States)

    Lu, Junhe; Wu, Jinwei; Ji, Yuefei; Kong, Deyang


    Sulfate radicals ( [Formula: see text] ) are applied to degrade various organic pollutants. Due to its high oxidative potential, [Formula: see text] is presumed to be able to transform bromide to reactive bromine species that can react with natural organic matter subsequently to form brominated products including brominated disinfection by-products (Br-DBPs). This research was designed to investigate the transformation of bromide in thermo activated persulfate oxidation process in the presence of humic acid (HA). Significant formation of bromoform and bromoacetic acids was verified. Their formation was attributed to the reactions of HA and reactive bromine species including Br·, [Formula: see text] HOBr(-), and free bromine resulted from the oxidation of bromide by [Formula: see text] . Yields of Br-DBPs increased monotonically at persulfate concentration of 1.0 mM and working temperature of 70 °C. However, the time-depended formation exhibited an increasing and the decreasing profile when persulfate was 5.0 mM, suggesting further degradation of organic bromine. HPLC/ICP-MS analysis demonstrated that the organic bromine was eventually transformed to bromate at this condition. Thus, a transformation scheme was proposed in which the bromine could be recycled multiple times between inorganic bromide and organic bromine before being finally transformed to bromate. This is the first study that reveals the comprehensive transformation map of bromine in [Formula: see text] based reaction systems, which should be taken into consideration when such technologies are used to eliminate contamination in real practice.

  14. A Lithium Bromide Absorption Chiller with Cold Storage (United States)


    TO R A G E A LITHIUM BROMIDE ABSORPTION CHILLER WITH COLD STORAGE William Gerstler, et al, General Electric Global Research UNCLASSIFIED UNLIMITED...Research ABSTRACT A LiBr-based absorption chiller can use waste heat or solar energy to produce useful space cooling for small buildings...However, operating this absorption chiller at high ambient tem- peratures may result in performance degradation, crystallization in the absorber, and



    Mallika Selvaraj; Sumathi


    AIM To compare the two drugs drotaverine hydrochloride and valethamate bromide and their effects on cervical dilatation and labour duration. METHODOLOGY It is a prospective study undertaken at Government Rajaji Hospital on 150 randomly selected primigravidae patients. RESULTS The duration of active phase of first stage of labour was significantly reduced (p value 0.003), rate of cervical dilatation was higher (p value 0.0001) with drotaverine hydrochloride. CONCLUS...

  16. Water-solubilization of alkyloxo(methoxo)porphyrinatoantimony bromides. (United States)

    Matsumoto, Jin; Tanimura, Shin-ichiro; Shiragami, Tsutomu; Yasuda, Masahide


    In order to develop water-soluble porphyrins, alkyloxo(methoxo)porphyrinatoantimony bromides (alkyl = hexyl (1a), decyl (1b), dodecyl (1c), tetradecyl (1d), octadecyl (1e)) were prepared. 1 had more than 1 mmol dm(-3) of solubility in water. From the dependence of the half-width of the bands in the absorption spectra and surface tension on the concentration of 1, it was estimated that 1b-d were present as aggregates in concentrations higher than 10 micromol dm(-3). From the NMR analysis in D(2)O, it was deduced that the alkyloxo ligands of 1 were arranged alternately in the aggregates. The diameter of the aggregates of 1 in water was determined to be around 100 nm by the dynamic light scattering method. Since the solubilities of di(methoxo)tetraphenylporphyrinatoantimony bromide and 5-(4'-decyloxyphenyl)-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrinato(dimethoxo)antimony(v) bromide were low, it was calculated that the long alkyl axial ligands were requisite for the high solubility in water.

  17. Conservative tracer bromide inhibits pesticide mineralisation in soil. (United States)

    Bech, Tina B; Rosenbom, Annette E; Sørensen, Sebastian R; Jacobsen, Carsten S


    Bromide is a conservative tracer that is often applied with non-conservative solutes such as pesticides to estimate their retardation in the soil. It has been applied in concentrations of up to 250 g Br L(-1), levels at which the growth of single-celled organisms can be inhibited. Bromide applications may therefore affect the biodegradation of non-conservative solutes in soil. The present study investigated the effect of potassium bromide (KBr) on the mineralisation of three pesticides - glyphosate, MCPA and metribuzin - in four agricultural A-horizon soils. KBr was added to soil microcosms at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 2.5 and 5 g Br(-) L(-1) in the soil solution. The study concluded that KBr had a negative effect on pesticide mineralisation. The inhibitory effect varied depending on the KBr concentration, the type of pesticide and the type of soil. Furthermore, 16 S amplicon sequencing revealed that the KBr treatment generally reduced the abundance of bacteroidetes and proteobacteria on both an RNA and DNA level. Therefore, in order to reduce the effect of KBr on the soil bacterial community and consequently also on xenobiotic degradation, it is recommended that KBr be applied in a concentration that does not exceed 0.5 g Br(-) L(-1) in the soil water.

  18. Structural, vibrational and theoretical studies of L-histidine bromide (United States)

    Ahmed, A. Ben; Feki, H.; Abid, Y.; Boughzala, H.; Mlayah, A.


    This paper presents the results of our calculations of the geometric parameters, vibrational spectra and hyperpolarizability of a non linear optical material, L-histidine bromide. Due to the lack of sufficiently precise information on the geometric structure available in literature, theoretical calculations were preceded by re-determination of the crystal X-ray structure. Single crystals of L-histidine bromide have been grown by slow evaporation of an aqueous solution at room temperature. The compound crystallizes in the non-Centro symmetric space group P2 12 12 1 of the orthorhombic system. Raman spectra have been recorded in the range [200-3500 cm -1]. All observed vibrational bands have been discussed and assigned to normal mode or to combinations and overtones on the basis of our calculations. The optimized geometric bond lengths and bond angles obtained by using HF and DFT (B3LYP and BLYP) show good agreement with the experimental data. Comparison between the measured and the calculated vibrational frequencies indicate that B3LYP is superior to the scaled HF approach for molecular vibrational problems. To investigate microscopic second order non linear optical properties of L-histidine bromide, the electric dipole μ, the polarizability α and the hyperpolarizability β were computed using DFT//B3LYP/6-31G(d) method. According to our calculations, the title compound exhibits non-zero β value revealing microscopic second order NLO behaviour.

  19. Oral teratogenicity studies of methyl bromide in rats and rabbits. (United States)

    Kaneda, M; Hojo, H; Teramoto, S; Maita, K


    Teratogenicity studies of methyl bromide, a widely used fumigant, were conducted in rats and rabbits. Methyl bromide was dissolved in corn oil and administered orally to groups of 24 copulated female Crj:CD (SD) rats at dose levels of 0 (corn oil), 3, 10 or 30 mg/kg/day on days 6-15 of gestation and to groups of 18 artificially inseminated female Kbl:JW rabbits at 0, 1, 3 or 10 mg/kg/day on days 6-18 of gestation. Maternal rats and rabbits were euthanized on respective days 20 and 27 of gestation. Foetuses were examined for survival, growth and teratological alterations. Maternal toxicity was evident in the high-dose groups for both species. In these groups, maternal body weight gains and food consumption were significantly decreased during the dosing and post-dosing periods. Necropsy of maternal rats also revealed erosive lesions in the stomach and the surrounding organs. However, no treatment-related adverse effects were found in foetuses of the treated groups for both rat and rabbit studies. These results led to the conclusion that methyl bromide was not foetotoxic or teratogenic to rat and rabbit foetuses up to dose levels of 30 and 10 mg/kg/day, respectively, at which maternal toxicity was evident for both species.

  20. Solid miscibility of common-anion lithium and sodium halides. Experimental determination of the region of demixing in lithium bromide + sodium bromide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, H.A.J.; Wijk, H.J. van; Doornhof, D.


    The region of demixing of solid lithium bromide + sodium bromide mixtures has been measured by X-ray diffraction. The critical temperature of mixing corresponding to a thermodynamic fit of the experimental data is 513 K. Estimates are given of the regions of demixing in solid lithium chloride + sodi

  1. On the distribution of bromide and bromide/chlorinity ratios in the waters of the Arabian sea off central Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, F.P.; SenGupta, R.

    Water samples from surface to 2000 m depth at two stations in the Arabian Sea collected during the 82nd cruise of R V Gaveshani in November, 1980 were analysed for bromide. The average bromide concentration was 0.068 g/kg plus or minus 0...

  2. Effect of hormone replacement therapy on the bone mass and urinary excretion of pyridinium cross-links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Perovano Pardini


    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The menopause accelerates bone loss and is associated with an increased bone turnover. Bone formation may be evaluated by several biochemical markers. However, the establishment of an accurate marker for bone resorption has been more difficult to achieve. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT on bone mass and on the markers of bone resorption: urinary excretion of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline. DESIGN: Cohort correlational study. SETTING: Academic referral center. SAMPLE: 53 post-menopausal women, aged 48-58 years. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Urinary pyr and d-pyr were measured in fasting urine samples by spectrofluorometry after high performance liquid chromatography and corrected for creatinine excretion measured before treatment and after 1, 2, 4 and 12 months. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA before treatment and after 12 months of HRT. RESULTS: The BMD after HRT was about 4.7% (P < 0.0004; 2% (P < 0.002; and 3% (P < 0.01 higher than the basal values in lumbar spine, neck and trochanter respectively. There were no significant correlations between pyridinium cross-links and age, weight, menopause duration and BMD. The decrease in pyr and d-pyr was progressive after HRT, reaching 28.9% (P < 0.0002, and 42% (P < 0.0002 respectively after 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline excretion decreases early in hormone replacement therapy, reflecting a decrease in the bone resorption rate, and no correlation was observed with the bone mass evaluated by densitometry.

  3. Gas-phase protonation of pyridine. A variable-time neutralization-reionization and Ab initio study of pyridinium radicals. (United States)

    Nguyen, V Q; Turecek, F


    Gas-phase protonation of pyridine with CH3NH3+, NH4+, t-C4H9+, H3O+ and CH5+ under thermal conditions was studied by variable-time neutralization-reionization mass spectrometry and ab initio calculations. N-Protonation was found to occur exclusively for CH3NH3+ through H3O+ and predominantly for CH5+. The calculated MP2/6-311G(2d,p) energies gave the proton affinities of N, C-2, C-3 and C-4 in pyridine as 924, 658, 686 and 637 kJ mol-1, respectively, which were in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical results. Vertical neutralization of the N-protonated isomer (1H+) was accompanied by moderate Franck-Condon effects that deposited 20-21 kJ mol-1 in the 1H-pyridinium radicals (1H) formed. 1H was calculated by UMP2/6-311G(2d,p) and B3LYP/6-311G(2d,p) to be a bound species in its ground electronic state. A substantial fraction of stable 1H was detected in the spectra, which depended on the precursor ion internal energy. Deuterium labeling showed a specific loss of the N-bound hydrogen or deuterium in the radicals. The specificity increased with increasing internal energy in the radicals and decreasing contribution of ion dissociations following reionization. Variable-time measurements established specific loss of the N-bound deuterium also in dissociating low-energy 1D. Loss of hydrogen from 1H+ cations following reionization was highly endothermic and was accompanied by rearrangements that partially scrambled the ring hydrogens.

  4. Automated determination of bromide in waters by ion chromatography with an amperometric detector (United States)

    Pyen, G.S.; Erdmann, D.E.


    An automated ion chromatograph, including a program controller, an automatic sampler, an integrator, and an amperometric detector, was used to develop a procedure for the determination of bromide in rain water and many ground waters. Approximately 10 min is required to obtain a chromatogram. The detection limit for bromide is 0.01 mg l-1 and the relative standard deivation is <5% for bromide concentrations between 0.05 and 0.5 mg l-1. Chloride interferes if the chloride-to-bromide ratio is greater than 1 000:1 for a range of 0.01-0.1 mg l-1 bromide; similarly, chloride interferes in the 0.1-1.0 mg l-1 range if the ratio is greater than 5 000:1. In the latter case, a maximum of 2 000 mg l-1 of chloride can be tolerated. Recoveries of known concentrations of bromide added to several samples, ranged from 97 to 110%. ?? 1983.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soniya C. Alphonse


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Caesarean Section is on the rise all over the world. Women undergoing Caesarean section often wish to be awake post operatively and to avoid excessive medications affecting interactions with the new born infant. Multimodal pain therapy has been advocated for postoperative pain management after caesarean section. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study is a prospective randomized controlled study conducted at a tertiary care hospital to study the effect of Hyoscine Butyl Bromide Suppositories for postoperative analgesia following elective repeat caesarean section. The study included sixty patients divided into two groups- Group1 (study group were given Hyoscine Butyl Bromide Suppository (10 mg along with Injection. Tramadol 50 mg IM and Group II (control group were given Injection Tramadol IM only at the end of surgery. Pain score of the patient assessed at 1 hr, 2 hrs, 6hrs and 24 hrs post operatively. The total no of doses of injection tramadol needed in 24 hrs and the interval between 1st and 2nd dose of tramadol was also noted. The adverse effects of the drug and additional advantages of the drug if any were also assessed. RESULTS There was no statistically significant difference in pain score during the assessment intervals between the two groups. There was no difference in the number of doses of tramadol needed in the first 24 hrs. The mean interval between the 1st and 2nd dose of tramadol was found to be 7.6538 hours for group 1 patients and 6.9130 for group patients which was found to be statistically significant. There was no statistically significant side effects/ additional advantages for the drugs. CONCLUSION Concurrent administration of Hyoscine Butyl Bromide Suppository (10 mg and injection Tramadol 50 mg IM offers a longer postoperative analgesia without any increased adverse effects.

  6. Aspects of nonviral gene therapy: correlation of molecular parameters with lipoplex structure and transfection efficacy in pyridinium-based cationic lipids. (United States)

    Parvizi, Paria; Jubeli, Emile; Raju, Liji; Khalique, Nada Abdul; Almeer, Ahmed; Allam, Hebatalla; Manaa, Maryem Al; Larsen, Helge; Nicholson, David; Pungente, Michael D; Fyles, Thomas M


    This study seeks correlations between the molecular structures of cationic and neutral lipids, the lipid phase behavior of the mixed-lipid lipoplexes they form with plasmid DNA, and the transfection efficacy of the lipoplexes. Synthetic cationic pyridinium lipids were co-formulated (1:1) with the cationic lipid 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine (EPC), and these lipids were co-formulated (3:2) with the neutral lipids 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) or cholesterol. All lipoplex formulations exhibited plasmid DNA binding and a level of protection from DNase I degradation. Composition-dependent transfection (beta-galactosidase and GFP) and cytotoxicity was observed in Chinese hamster ovarian-K1 cells. The most active formulations containing the pyridinium lipids were less cytotoxic but of comparable activity to a Lipofectamine 2000™ control. Molecular structure parameters and partition coefficients were calculated for all lipids using fragment additive methods. The derived shape parameter values correctly correlated with observed hexagonal lipid phase behavior of lipoplexes as derived from small-angle X-ray scattering experiments. A transfection index applicable to hexagonal phase lipoplexes derived from calculated parameters of the lipid mixture (partition coefficient, shape parameter, lipoplex packing) produced a direct correlation with transfection efficiency.

  7. On the direct current electric conductivity and conduction mechanism of some stable disubstituted 4-(4-pyridyl)pyridinium ylides in thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danac, R. [Faculty of Chemistry, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Bulevardul Carol I, Nr. 11, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Leontie, L., E-mail: [Faculty of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Bulevardul Carol I, Nr. 11, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Girtan, M. [Laboratoire LPhiA, Angers University, 2, Bd. Lavoisier, 49045 Angers (France); Prelipceanu, M.; Graur, A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava, Str.Universitatii, Nr.13, RO-720229 Suceava (Romania); Carlescu, A.; Rusu, G.I. [Faculty of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Bulevardul Carol I, Nr. 11, 700506 Iasi (Romania)


    Temperature-dependent d.c. electric conductivity of some recently synthesized organic compounds, stable disubstituted 4-(4-pyridyl)pyridinium ylides, is studied. Thin-film samples (d = 0.100.80 μm) spin-coated from dimethylformamide solutions onto glass substrates have been used. Organic films with reproducible electron transport properties can be obtained if, after deposition, they are submitted to a heat treatment within temperature range of 297 − 527 K. The studied polycrystalline compounds exhibit typical n-type semiconductor behavior. The activation energy of the electric conduction ranges between 0.59 and 0.94 eV. Some correlations between semiconducting parameters and molecular structure of the organic compounds have been discussed. In the higher temperature range (T > 400 K), the electron transport in examined compounds can be interpreted in terms of the band gap representation model, while in the lower temperature range, the Mott's variable-range hopping conduction model was found to be appropriate. Some of the investigated compounds hold promise for thermistor applications. - Highlights: • 4-(4-Pyridyl)pyridinium ylides in thin films behave as n-type semiconductors. • The electron transfer is favored by extended conjugation and packing capacity. • The band gap representation is suitable in the higher temperature range. • The Mott's variable-range hopping model may be used in the lower temperature range.

  8. Interaction between gaseous ozone and crystalline potassium bromide (United States)

    Levanov, A. V.; Maksimov, I. B.; Isaikina, O. Ya.; Antipenko, E. E.; Lunin, V. V.


    The formation of nonvolatile products of the oxidation of a bromide ion during the interaction between gaseous ozone and powdered crystalline KBr is studied. It is found that potassium bromate KBrO3 is the main product of the reaction. The influence of major experimental factors (the duration of ozonation, the concentration of ozone, the humidity of the initial gas, and the temperature) on the rate of formation of bromate is studied. The effective constants of the formation of bromate during the interaction between O3 and Br- in a heterogeneous gas-solid body system and in a homogeneous aqueous solution are compared.

  9. Rhodium(NHC)-catalyzed O-arylation of aryl bromides. (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Min; Chang, Sukbok


    The first example of the rhodium-catalyzed O-arylation of aryl bromides is reported. While the right combination of rhodium species and N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) offered an effective catalytic system enabling the arylation to proceed, the choice of NHC was determined to be most important. The developed O-arylation protocol has a wide range of substrate scope, high functional group tolerance, and flexibility allowing a complementary route to either N- or O-arylation depending on the choice of NHC.

  10. DBU-Promoted Trifluoromethylation of Aryl Iodides with Difluoromethyltriphenylphosphonium Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Wei; Liuying Yu; Jinhong Lin; Xing Zheng; Jichang Xiao


    DBU-promoted trifluoromethylation of aryl iodides with difluoromethyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (DFPB) in the presence of copper source is described.In this transformation,DBU not only acts as base to deprotonate the difluoromethyl group in DFPB to generate difluoromethylene phosphonium ylide Ph3P+CF2,but also converts the difluorocarbene generated from ylide Ph3P+CF2 into trifluoromethyl anion,finally resulting in the trifluoromethylation of aryl iodides.The reactions proceeded smoothly to afford expected products in moderate to good yields.

  11. Suicide by intravenous injection of rocuronium-bromide: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Slobodan


    Full Text Available Suicides by intravenous injection of an overdose of medicaments are uncommon. In this paper, we present the case of a suicide by rocuronium-bromide injection in combination with an oral overdose of metoprolol. Unfortunately, in Belgrade, there is no toxicological laboratory capable of detecting rocuronium. The interpretation of autopsy and toxicological data in this case was made difficult due to the extreme putrefaction of the body of the deceased. So, by forensic investigation, the case was solved indirectly, through circumstantial evidence: an empty ampoule of rocuronium found near the body, as well as a plastic syringe and cloth-bandage found in the left hand of the deceased.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallika Selvaraj


    Full Text Available AIM To compare the two drugs drotaverine hydrochloride and valethamate bromide and their effects on cervical dilatation and labour duration. METHODOLOGY It is a prospective study undertaken at Government Rajaji Hospital on 150 randomly selected primigravidae patients. RESULTS The duration of active phase of first stage of labour was significantly reduced (p value 0.003, rate of cervical dilatation was higher (p value 0.0001 with drotaverine hydrochloride. CONCLUSION Drotaverine hydrochloride is a safe, potent and effective drug to be used in the active phase of labour.

  13. A practical comparison of Copper Bromide Laser for the treatment of vascular lesions. (United States)

    Lee, SunWoo; Lee, TaeBum; Kim, HoYoun; Kim, JungSoo; Eun, HyeJun; Kim, RyunKyung


    The recent rapid growth in demand for aesthetic non-invasive laser treatments such as unwanted skin rejuvenation, removal of age-related vascular blemishes has led to a boom in the medical devices to treat these conditions. Among diverse laser for skin treatment, copper bromide laser is a very effective, safe, and well tolerated treatment for facial telangiectasia at various energy levels and the most important thing of the copper bromide laser device is that the stability of the energy. However there is no evidence about effective copper bromide laser's energy level for the treatment of vascular lesions. We compared energy stability and treatment performance between two energy levels in 2 W and 8 W which commonly use in laser treatment for the vascular lesions. 8 W copper bromide laser was more stable compared than 2 W copper bromide laser. Also, 8 W copper bromide laser was effectively superior to 2 W copper bromide laser in treatment of vascular legion. Consequently, 8 W copper bromide laser treatment for vascular lesion might be more suitable than 2 W copper bromide laser.

  14. Transient neuromyopathy after bromide intoxication in a dog with idiopathic epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinmetz Sonja


    Full Text Available Abstract A seven-year old Australian Shepherd, suffering from idiopathic epilepsy under treatment with phenobarbitone and potassium bromide, was presented with generalised lower motor neuron signs. Electrophysiology and muscle-nerve biopsies revealed a neuromyopathy. The serum bromide concentration was increased more than two-fold above the upper reference value. Clinical signs disappeared after applying diuretics and reducing the potassium bromide dose rate. This is the first case report describing electrophysiological and histopathological findings associated with bromide induced lower motor neuron dysfunction in a dog.

  15. Characterization studies of 1-(4-cyano-2-oxo-1,2-dihydro-1-pyridyl)-3-(4-cyano-1,2-dihydro-1-pyridyl) propane formed from the reaction of hydroxide Ion with 1,3-Bis-(4-cyano pyridinium)propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiori, Simone; Schuquel, Ivania T.A.; Meyer, Emerson; Hioka, Noboru, E-mail: [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil); Silva, Idelcio N. da [Fundacao Educacional do Municipio de Assis, Assis, SP (Brazil); Politi, Mario J.; Catalani, Luiz H.; Chaimovich, Hernan [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The aqueous alkaline reaction of 1,3.bis(4.cyanopyridinium)propane dibromide, a reactant constituted of two pyridinium rings linked by a three.methylene bridge, generates a novel compound, 1-(4-cyano-2-oxo-1,2-dihydro-1-pyridyl)-3-(4-cyano-1,2-dihydro-1-pyridyl) propane. The reaction pathway is attributed to the proximity of the OH. ion inserted between two pyridinium moieties, which occurs only in bis(pyridinium) derivatives connected by short methylene spacers, where charge-conformational effects are important. (author)

  16. The in vitro and in vivo profile of aclidinium bromide in comparison with glycopyrronium bromide. (United States)

    Gavaldà, Amadeu; Ramos, Israel; Carcasona, Carla; Calama, Elena; Otal, Raquel; Montero, José Luis; Sentellas, Sonia; Aparici, Monica; Vilella, Dolors; Alberti, Joan; Beleta, Jorge; Miralpeix, Montserrat


    This study characterised the in vitro and in vivo profiles of two novel long-acting muscarinic antagonists, aclidinium bromide and glycopyrronium bromide, using tiotropium bromide and ipratropium bromide as comparators. All four antagonists had high affinity for the five muscarinic receptor sub-types (M1-M5); aclidinium had comparable affinity to tiotropium but higher affinity than glycopyrronium and ipratropium for all receptors. Glycopyrronium dissociated faster from recombinant M3 receptors than aclidinium and tiotropium but more slowly than ipratropium; all four compounds dissociated more rapidly from M2 receptors than from M3 receptors. In vitro, aclidinium, glycopyrronium and tiotropium had a long duration of action at native M3 receptors (>8 h versus 42 min for ipratropium). In vivo, all compounds were equi-potent at reversing acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstriction. Aclidinium, glycopyrronium and ipratropium had a faster onset of bronchodilator action than tiotropium. Aclidinium had a longer duration of action than glycopyronnium (time to 50% recovery of effect [t½ offset] = 29 h and 13 h, respectively); these compare with a t½ offset of 64 h and 8 h for tiotropium and ipratropium, respectively. Aclidinium was less potent than glycopyrronium and tiotropium at inhibiting salivation in conscious rats (dose required to produce half-maximal effect [ED50] = 38, 0.74 and 0.88 μg/kg, respectively) and was more rapidly hydrolysed in rat, guinea pig and human plasma compared with glycopyrronium or tiotropium. These results indicate that while aclidinium and glycopyrronium are both potent antagonists at muscarinic receptors with similar kinetic selectivity for M3 receptors versus M2, aclidinium has a longer dissociation half-life at M3 receptors and a longer duration of bronchodilator action in vivo than glycopyrronium. The rapid plasma hydrolysis of aclidinium, coupled to its kinetic selectivity, may confer a reduced propensity for systemic

  17. Octahedral Rotation Preferences in Perovskite Iodides and Bromides. (United States)

    Young, Joshua; Rondinelli, James M


    Phase transitions in ABX3 perovskites are often accompanied by rigid rotations of the corner-connected BX6 octahedral network. Although the mechanisms for the preferred rotation patterns of perovskite oxides are fairly well recognized, the same cannot be said of halide variants (i.e., X = Cl, Br, or I), several of which undergo an unusual displacive transition to a tetragonal phase exhibiting in-phase rotations about one axis (a(0)a(0)c(+) in Glazer notation). To discern the chemical factors stabilizing this unique phase, we investigated a series of 12 perovskite bromides and iodides using density functional theory calculations and compared them with similar oxides. We find that in-phase tilting provides a better arrangement of the larger bromide and iodide anions, which minimizes the electrostatic interactions, improves the bond valence of the A-site cations, and enhances the covalency between the A-site metal and Br(-) or I(-) ions. The opposite effect is present in the oxides, with out-of-phase tilting maximizing these factors.

  18. Development of copper bromide laser master oscillator power amplifier system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G N Tiwari; R K Mishra; R Khare; S V Nakhe


    Development of master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system of copper bromide laser (CBL) operating at 110 W average power is reported. The spectral distribution of power at green (510.6 nm) and yellow (578.2 nm) components in the output of a copper bromide laser is studied as a function of operating parameters. The electrical input power was varied from 2.6 to 4.3 kW, the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) was changed from 16 to 19 kHz, and the pressure of the buffer gas (neon) was kept fixed at 20 mbar. When the electrical input power was increased to 4.3 kW from 2.6 kW, the tube-wall temperature also increased to 488°C from 426°C but the ratio of the green to yellow power decreased to 1.53 from 3.73. The ratio of green to yellow power decreased to 1.53 from 1.63 when the PRF of the laser was increased to 19 kHz from 16 kHz. These observations are explained in terms of electron temperature, energy levels of transitions, and voltage and current waveforms across the laser head.

  19. Vapour pressures, densities, and viscosities of the (water + lithium bromide + potassium acetate) system and (water + lithium bromide + sodium lactate) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Antonio de [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla - La Mancha, Avda. de Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain); Donate, Marina [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla - La Mancha, Avda. de Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain); Rodriguez, Juan F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla - La Mancha, Avda. de Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain)]. E-mail:


    Measurements of thermophysical properties (vapour pressure, density, and viscosity) of the (water + lithium bromide + potassium acetate) system LiBr:CH{sub 3}COOK = 2:1 by mass ratio and the (water + lithium bromide + sodium lactate) system LiBr:CH{sub 3}CH(OH)COONa = 2:1 by mass ratio were measured. The system, a possible new working fluid for absorption heat pump, consists of absorbent (LiBr + CH{sub 3}COOK) or (LiBr + CH{sub 3}CH(OH)COONa) and refrigerant H{sub 2}O. The vapour pressures were measured in the ranges of temperature and absorbent concentration from T = (293.15 to 333.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.50, densities and viscosities were measured from T = (293.15 to 323.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.40. The experimental data were correlated with an Antoine-type equation. Densities and viscosities were measured in the same range of temperature and absorbent concentration as that of the vapour pressure. Regression equations for densities and viscosities were obtained with a minimum mean square error criterion.

  20. 体外循环后控制性机血回输的临床研究%Clinical Study of Controlled Machine Blood Re-transfusion After CPB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈德祥; 吴吉明; 张旭苗; 胡剑鹏; 陈胜喜


    [目的]观察体外循环后控制性机血回输对胸液量和激活全血凝血时间(ACT)的影响.[方法]112例心脏瓣膜置换病人随机分为A、B两组,A组为机血通过中心静脉1~3 h输完,并常规每100 mL机血给5 mg鱼精蛋白中和.B组为体外循环(CPB)停机鱼精蛋白中和后10 min内肝素血主动脉管输完,残余管道部分弃置.两组的麻醉、病人体外循环及停机后体内肝素中和方法相同.观测CPB后ACT值、关胸止血时间及术后24 h胸液量.[结果]B组比A组ACT更接近生理值(P<0.05),关胸止血时间明显缩短(P<0.01),且胸液量明显减少(P<0.01).[结论]心脏手术中鱼精蛋白中和后10 min内肝素血输完,能明显缩短手术时间,减少术后胸液渗量,减少库血的应用,临床操作方便和实用.%Objective] To observe the effect of controlled machine blood re transfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB) on the chest fluid volume and activated whole blood coagulation time(ACT). [Methods] Totally 112 patients undergoing heart valve replacement were divided into group A and group B. In group A, the machine blood in group A was transfused over through the central vein within 1~3 hours, and per 100ml machine blood was neutralized with 5rug protamine. In group B, the heparin blood was transfused over through aorta within 10rain after CPB and the neutralization with protamine. The remaining tubes were discarded. The anesthesia way and heparin neutralization method after CPB of patients were identical. The ACT value after CPB, the time of he matischesis and chest closure and 24h chest fluid volume after operation were observed. [Results] Compared with group A, the ACT value in group B was closer to physiological value( P <0.05), and the time of hematischesis and chest closure were shortened obviously( P <0.01), and the chest fluid volume significantly reduced( P <0. 01). [Conclusion] If heparin blood is transfused over within 10rain after the neutralization

  1. The first barium tin(II) bromide fluoride (United States)

    Dénès, Georges; Merazig, Hocine; Muntasar, Abdualhafeed; Porterfield, Robyn


    In an effort to prepare barium tin(II) bromide fluorides for the first time, possibly similar to the chloride fluorides obtained earlier in our laboratory, precipitation reactions were carried out by mixing aqueous solutions of SnF2 and of BaBr2.2H2O. In contrast with the chloride fluoride system, a single powdered phase was obtained throughout the SnF2 - BaBr2 system, with the yield being maximum at X ≈ 0.25, where X is the molar fraction of barium bromide in the reaction mixture. Phase identification with the JCPDS database failed to produce a match, confirming that a new phase had been produced. The exact chemical composition of the new compound has not been obtained yet. Based on the X value for the maximum yield, the Sn/Ba ratio is likely to be 3/1 or 2/1. The Mössbauer spectrum at ambient conditions shows that bonding to tin(II) is covalent, therefore with the tin lone pair being stereoactive. The Mössbauer parameters ( δ = 3.68 mm/s, Δ = 0.99 mm/s) are similar to those of SnBrF and of Sn2BrF5, thereby showing that tin is bonded to both fluorine and bromine. The larger isomer shift and lower quadrupole splitting than in tin(II) fluorides show that the stereoactivity of the tin lone pair is lower than in the fluorides. The Mössbauer parameters fit well the linear correlation of the quadrupole splitting versus the isomer shift" that has been shown to be present in other series of tin(II) compounds. The linear decrease on this correlation shows that the contribution of non-spherical orbitals ( p and d) to the lone pair is a much larger contributor to the quadrupole splitting than lattice distortions. The structure is likely made of Ba2+ cations and tin(II) fluoride bromide polyatomic anions, with covalent bonding withinthe anions.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    A series of hydrophobically modified homo- and copolymers of the poly(alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromide) type has been prepared by free-radical cyclo(co)polymerization of alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromide monomers in aqueous solution. Depending on the length of the alkyl side chain (varied between

  3. Effects of Inhalation or Incubation of Oxitropium Bromide on Diaphragm Muscle Contractility in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiyohiko Shindoh


    Conclusions: We speculate that the increment of muscle contractility with the inhalation of oxitropium bromide was induced by the antagonization of musucarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR. In addition, the changes of fatigue resistance provoked by oxitropium bromide, which also is speculated to antagonize mAChR, may be beneficial in the treatment of patients with COPD.

  4. Pancreatitis associated with potassium bromide/phenobarbital combination therapy in epileptic dogs.


    Gaskill, C L; Cribb, A E


    In a retrospective study, at least 10% of dogs receiving potassium bromide/phenobarbital combination therapy, compared with 0.3% of dogs receiving phenobarbital monotherapy, had probable pancreatitis. Pancreatitis may be a more frequent and more serious adverse effect of potassium bromide/phenobarbital combination therapy than has been reported previously.

  5. A study of bromide in the Mandovi-Zuari river system of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, F.P.; Dalal, V.N.K.

    concentrations were computed. The variation of bromide with chlorinity was linear indicating the purely conservative character of bromide and its seawater origin. Seawater ranged between 1 and 3% in monsoon, 76 and 91% in post-monsoon and 92 and 97% in pre...

  6. Acrolein as Potential Alternative to Methyl Bromide in California-Grown Calla Lilies (United States)

    Cut flower and ornamental bulb industries rely heavily on a methyl bromide/chloropicrin (MB/Pic) mixture as a key pest management tool. The loss of methyl bromide (MB) will seriously affect the cut flower and bulb industry, and in the future, will require growers to use alternative fumigants. Theref...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    A series of hydrophobically modified homo- and copolymers of the poly(alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromide) type has been prepared by free-radical cyclo(co)polymerization of alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromide monomers in aqueous solution. Depending on the length of the alkyl side chain (varied between

  8. Destruction of methyl bromide sorbed to activated carbon by thiosulfate and electrolysis (United States)

    Methyl bromide is widely used as a fumigant for post-harvest and quarantine uses at port facilities due to the low treatment times required, but it is vented to the atmosphere after its use. Due to the potential contributions of methyl bromide to stratospheric ozone depletion, technologies for the c...

  9. Ammonium Chloride Promoted Palladium-Catalyzed Ullmann Coupling of Aryl Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金恒; 梁云; 刘文杰; 唐石; 谢叶香


    In water, ammonium chloride was found to promote palladium-catalyzed Ullmann coupling reactions of aryl bromides. In the presence of Pd/C, zinc, NH4Cl, and water, coupling of various aryl bromides was carried out smoothly to afford the corresponding homocoupling products in moderate yields.

  10. Zinc--bromide secondary cell. [C anode, C or Zr cathode with ion exchange diaphragm between

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leddy, J.J.; Gritzner, G.


    A zinc-bromine secondary cell is divided into two compartments by an ion exchange diaphragm. The electrolyte system includes an essentially bromide-ion-free, aqueous solution containing a zinc ion as an anolyte and a bromide ion containing catholyte. A method of operating the cell is disclosed. 2 figures, 2 tables. (auth)

  11. Antibacterial Activity of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide Modified Silver-Bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Malek Nik Ahmad Nizam


    Full Text Available Organo-Ag-bentonite was prepared by the attachment of cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide on silver(Ag-exchanged bentonite. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis and antibacterial assay was performed against Escherichia coli in different percentage of saline solutions through minimum inhibition concentration (MIC method. Organo-Ag-bentonite showed higher antibacterial activity than organo-bentonite and Ag-bentonite especially in saline solution suggesting that the precipitation of AgCl in the presence of Ag-bentonite in saline solution could be avoided by the attachment of cationic surfactant on Ag-bentonite surfaces, hence increased their antibacterial activity.

  12. Design and Fabrication of Externally heated Copper Bromide Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Dudeja


    Full Text Available An externally-heated, longitudinally-discharged, low-repetition-rate copper bromide laser, was designed and fabricated. The green-coloured wavelength at 5106 A from this laser can be used for underwater ranging and detection of submerged objects. Several new changes in the design of discharge tube, heating technique, buffer-gas-flow sub-system and electrical circuit have been conceived and incorporated advantageously in our system. Various parameters, for example, the type of buffer gas and its flow rate, mixture of gases, temperature of the discharge tube, delay between dissociation and excitation pulses, dissociation and excitation energies, and various resonator configurations are being optimised to get the maximum output power/energy from the laser system.

  13. Solvent effects in the reaction between piperazine and benzyl bromide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ranga Reddy; P Manikyamba


    The reaction between piperazine and benzyl bromide was studied conductometrically and the second order rate constants were computed. These rate constants determined in 12 different protic and aprotic solvents indicate that the rate of the reaction is influenced by electrophilicity (), hydrogen bond donor ability () and dipolarity/polarizability (*) of the solvent. The LSER derived from the statistical analysis indicates that the transition state is more solvated than the reactants due to hydrogen bond donation and polarizability of the solvent while the reactant is more solvated than the transition state due to electrophilicity of the solvent. Study of the reaction in methanol, dimethyl formamide mixtures suggests that the rate is maximum when dipolar interactions between the two solvents are maximum.

  14. Xanthine Biosensor Based on Didodecyldimethylammonium Bromide Modified Pyrolytic Graphite Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG,Ji-Lin(唐纪琳); HAN,Xiao-Jun(韩晓军); HUANG,Wei-Min(黄卫民); WANG,Er-Kang(汪尔康)


    The vesicle of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB)which contained tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) was mixed with xanthine oxidase, and the mixture was cast on the pyrolytic graphite electrode. The lipid films were used to supply a biological environment resembling biomembrane on the surface of the electrode. TTF was used as a mediator because of its high electron-transfer efficiency. A novel xanthine biosensor based on cast DDAB film was developed. The effects of pH and operating potential were explored for optimum analytical performance by using the amperometric method. The response time of the biosensor was less than 10 s. The detection limit of the biosensor was 3.2 × 10-7 mol/L and the liner range was from 4 × 10-7 mol/L to 2.4 × 10-6 mol/L.

  15. Mechanism of the Deaquation of Aquopentaaminocobalt(Ⅲ) Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA,Li-Dun(马礼敦); CHENG,Guang-Hui(程广辉); WU,Hong-Xiang(吴宏翔); LIN,Han-Yi(林涵毅); SHEN,Xiao-Liang(沈孝良); SHI,Guo-Shun(施国顺)


    There are two theories, SN1 and SN2, for the mechanism of the deaquation of aquopentaamincobalt(Ⅲ) bromide (AAC-B).Both of the theories are supported by some experimental and calculated data. But there are not any experiments to determine directly the structure of the intermediates at different reaction time. In this paper the structures of the intermediates at different reaction time in deaquation-anation of AACB were de-termined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS)and the reaction process wes studied by the combination of Xray powder diffraction and EXAFS. It was demonstrated that the deaquation-anation of AACB obeys the SN2 theory.

  16. Mechanism of the Deaquation of Aquopentaaminocobalt(Ⅲ)Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA,Li-Dun; CHENG,Guang-Hui; 等


    There are two theories,SN1 and SN2, for the mechanism of the deaquation of aquopentaamincobalt(Ⅲ) bromide(AAC-B). Both of the theories are supported by some experimental and calculated data. But there are not any experiments to determine directly the structure of the intermediates at dififferent reaction time.In this paper the structures of the intermediates at different reaction time in deaquation-anation of AACB were determined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and the reaction process was studied by the combination of X-ray powder diffraction and EXAFS.It was demonstrated that the deaquation-anation of AACB obeys the SN2 theory.

  17. Classifying the Basic Parameters of Ultraviolet Copper Bromide Laser (United States)

    Gocheva-Ilieva, S. G.; Iliev, I. P.; Temelkov, K. A.; Vuchkov, N. K.; Sabotinov, N. V.


    The performance of deep ultraviolet copper bromide lasers is of great importance because of their applications in medicine, microbiology, high-precision processing of new materials, high-resolution laser lithography in microelectronics, high-density optical recording of information, laser-induced fluorescence in plasma and wide-gap semiconductors and more. In this paper we present a statistical study on the classification of 12 basic lasing parameters, by using different agglomerative methods of cluster analysis. The results are based on a big amount of experimental data for UV Cu+ Ne-CuBr laser with wavelengths 248.6 nm, 252.9 nm, 260.0 nm and 270.3 nm, obtained in Georgi Nadjakov Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The relevant influence of parameters on laser generation is also evaluated. The results are applicable in computer modeling and planning the experiments and further laser development with improved output characteristics.

  18. Oral bioavailability and enterohepatic recirculation of otilonium bromide in rats. (United States)

    Shin, Beom Soo; Kim, Jung Jun; Kim, John; Hu, Sul Ki; Kim, Hyoung Jun; Hong, Seok Hyun; Kim, Han Kyung; Lee, Hye Suk; Yoo, Sun Dong


    This study was conducted to examine the oral bioavailability and the possibility of enterohepatic recirculation of otilonium bromide in rats. A sensitive LC/MS/MS assay (LLOQ 0.5 ng/mL) was developed for the determination of otilonium and applied to i.v. and oral administration studies in bile duct cannulated (BDC) and non-BDC rats. After i.v. injection to BDC rats (1 mg/ kg as otilonium), average t(1/2), CL, Vz and AUC were 7.9 +/- 1.9 h, 8.7 +/- 3.1 mL/min/kg, 5.7 +/- 1.4 L/kg and 2,088 +/- 676 ng h/mL, respectively, and these values were comparable to those found in non-BDC rats. The percentages of i.v. dose excreted unchanged in bile and urine in BDC rats were 11.6 +/- 3.0 and 3.1 +/- 0.7%, respectively. Upon oral administration to non-BDC rats (20 mg/kg as otilonium), t(1/2), Cmax, Tmax and AUC were 6.4 +/- 1.3 h, 182.8 +/- 44.6 ng/mL, 1.9 +/- 1.6 h and 579 +/- 113 ng h/mL, respectively. The absolute oral bioavailability was low (1.1%), while the drug was preferentially distributed to gastrointestinal tissues. A secondary peak was observed in the serum concentration-time profiles in non-BDC rats following both i.v. and oral administration, indicating that otilonium bromide was subject to enterohepatic recirculation.

  19. Comparative mobility of sulfonamides and bromide tracer in three soils (United States)

    Kurwadkar, S.T.; Adams, C.D.; Meyer, M.T.; Kolpin, D.W.


    In animal agriculture, sulfonamides are one of the routinely used groups of antimicrobials for therapeutic and sub-therapeutic purposes. It is observed that, the animals when administered the antimicrobials, often do not completely metabolize them; and excrete the partially metabolized forms into the environment. Due to the continued use of antimicrobials and disposal of untreated waste, widespread occurrence of partially metabolized antimicrobials in aquatic and terrestrial environments has been reported in various scientific journals. In this research, the mobility of two sulfonamides - sulfamethazine (SMN), sulfathiazole (STZ) and a conservative bromide tracer was investigated in three soils collected from regions in the United States with large number of concentrated animal-feed operations. Results of a series of column studies indicate that the mobility of these two sulfonamides was dependent on pH, soil charge density, and contact time. At low pH and high charge density, substantial retention of sulfonamides was observed in all three soils investigated, due to the increased fraction of cationic and neutral forms of the sulfonamides. Conversely, enhanced mobility was observed at high pH, where the sulfonamides are predominantly in the anionic form. The results indicate that when both SMN and STZ are predominantly in anionic forms, their mobility approximates the mobility of a conservative bromide tracer. This observation is consistent for the mobility of both SMN and STZ individually, and also in the presence of several other antimicrobials in all three soils investigated. Higher contact time indicates lower mobility due to increased interaction with soil material. ?? 2011.

  20. Aging Effects on the Properties of Imidazolium-, Quaternary Ammonium-, Pyridinium-, and Pyrrolidinium-Based Ionic Liquids Used in Fuel and Energy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Elise B.; Smith, L. Taylor; Williamson, Tyler K.; Kendrick, Sarah E.


    Ionic liquids (ILs) are often cited for their excellent thermal stability, a key property for their use as solvents and in the chemical processing of biofuels. However, there has been little supporting data on the long-term aging effect of the temperature on these materials. Imizadolium-, quaternary ammonium-, pyridinium-, and pyrrolidnium-based ILs with the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide anions were aged for 2520 h (15 weeks) at 200 °C in air to determine the effects of an oxidizing environment on their chemical structure and thermal stability over time. Finally, it was found that the minor changes in the cation chemistry could greatly affect the properties of the ILs over time.

  1. Palladium Nanoparticles Immobilized on Poly(vinyl chloride-Supported Pyridinium as an Efficient and Recyclable Catalyst for Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhou


    Full Text Available The palladium nanoparticles immobilized on the polymeric surface of poly(vinyl chloride-supported pyridinium (PVC-Py-Pd0 were achieved by a simple procedure by applying the corresponding functionalized polymer and palladium chloride in ethanol solution. The as-prepared catalyst (PVC-Py-Pd0 was found to be air and moisture stable and exhibits significant catalytic activity for Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction of various aryl halides and phenylboronic acid under milder operating conditions. The procedure presented here showed several merits such as short reaction time, simple experimental and isolated procedure and excellent yields of products. Furthermore, the catalyst can be easily recovered and reused for at least six times with consistent activities.

  2. Crystal structure of 3-amino­pyridinium 1′-carb­oxy­ferrocene-1-carboxyl­ate (United States)

    Medved’ko, Aleksei V.; Yu, Haojie; Li, Wang


    The structure of the title salt, (C5H7N2)[Fe(C6H4O2)(C6H5O2)], consists of 3-amino­pyridinium cations and 1′-carb­oxy­ferrocene-1-carboxyl­ate monoanions. The ferrocenyl moiety of the anion adopts a typical sandwich structure, with Fe—C distances in the range 2.0270 (15)–2.0568 (17) Å. The anion possesses an eclipsed conformation, with the torsion angle φ (Csubst—Cpcent—Cpcent— Csubst) equal to 66.0°. The conformations of other 1′-carb­oxy­ferrocene-1-carboxyl­ate monoanions are compared and analyzed on the basis of literature data. PMID:28638644

  3. An investigation of electronic structure and properties of new chromophore: 3,3'-bithiazolo[3,4-a]pyridinium perchlorate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Shixia [Departement fuer Chemie und Biochemie, Universitaet Bern, Freiestrasse 3, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)]. E-mail:; Tanner, Christian [Departement fuer Chemie und Biochemie, Universitaet Bern, Freiestrasse 3, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Leutwyler, Samuel [Departement fuer Chemie und Biochemie, Universitaet Bern, Freiestrasse 3, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Bigler, Peter [Departement fuer Chemie und Biochemie, Universitaet Bern, Freiestrasse 3, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Decurtins, Silvio [Departement fuer Chemie und Biochemie, Universitaet Bern, Freiestrasse 3, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)


    The chromophore 3,3'-bithiazolo[3,4-a]pyridinium 1, obtained by oxidative cyclization reactions using a tetrathiafulvalene as a leaving group, strongly absorbs at the violet end of the visible region as evidenced by its yellow color. The solution (MeCN) spectrum displays an intensive, broad absorption band around 377 nm with a {epsilon} value of 8x10{sup 3} l mol{sup -1} cm{sup -1}. The chromophore also shows a strongly Stokes-shifted fluorescence emission with a lifetime {tau} of 2.8{+-}0.1 ns in acetonitrile solution. Herein, we describe the photophysical properties and a theoretical investigation of the electronic structure of the chiral dicationic, bis(bicyclic) ring assembly 1.

  4. Chlorination of Pyridinium Compounds (United States)

    Daumer, Kathleen M.; Khan, Ahsan U.; Steinbeck, Marla J.


    Reactive oxygen species produced by activated neutrophils and monocytes are thought to be involved in mediating the loss of collagen and other matrix proteins at sites of inflammation. To evaluate their potential to oxidize the pyridinoline (Pyd) cross-links found in collagen types I and II, we reacted hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hypochlorous acid/hypochlorite (HOCl/OCl−), and singlet oxygen (O2(1Δg)) with the Pyd substitutes, pyridoxamine dihydrochloride and vitamin B6, which share the same chemical structure and spectral properties of Pyd cross-links. Neither H2O2 (125–500 µm) nor O2(1Δg) (10–25 µm) significantly changed the spectral properties of pyridoxamine or vitamin B6. Reaction of HOCl/OCl− (12.5–50 µm) with pyridoxamine at pH 7.2 resulted in a concentration-dependent appearance of two new absorbance peaks and a decrease in fluorescence at 400 nm (excitation 325 nm). The new absorbance peaks correlated with the formation of an N-chloramine and the product of its subsequent reaction with pyridoxamine. In contrast, the extent to which HOCl reacted with vitamin B6, which lacks a primary amine group, was variable at this pH. At lysosomal pH 5.5, Cl2/HOCl/OCl− reacted with both pyridoxamine and vitamin B6. Four of the chlorinated products of this reaction were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and included 3-chloropyridinium, an aldehyde, and several chlorinated products with disrupted rings. To evaluate the effects of Cl2/HOCl/OCl− on Pyd cross-links in collagen, we exposed bone collagen type I and articular cartilage type II to HOCl. Treatment of either collagen type with HOCl at pH 5.0 or 7.2 resulted in the oxidation of amine groups and, for collagen type II, the specific decrease in Pyd cross-link fluorescence, suggesting that during inflammation both oxidations may be used by neutrophils and monocytes to promote the loss of matrix integrity. PMID:10940296

  5. Study on Pipeline Transport Drag Reduction Technology of CPB based on the Fuller Grading Theory%基于Fuller级配理论的膏体管道输送减阻技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓辉; 苏先锋; 黄明清; 谭伟


    针对膏体充填的物料配比问题,通过分析膏体内部结构的物质组成,提出物料密实度越大膏体流动性越好;采用Fuller理论对某铜矿充填物料的级配特性进行分析,考察了级配指数n随物料配比的变化规律;开展膏体塌落度、流变特性实验,采用白金汉公式对膏体管流阻力进行理论计算。结果表明:该铜矿膏体中全尾砂∶水淬渣=3∶2时,物料密实度较大,最利于其管道输送;质量分数72%,管径150 mm,流量60 m3/h的工况条件下,水淬渣掺量40%时的管流阻力为2.46 MPa/km,与全尾砂膏体管流阻力3.65 MPa/km相比,减阻率达32.6%,说明级配优化后膏体管流阻力明显降低。%Aimed at the question of material ratio of cement paste backfilling (CPB),through analyzing the material composition of the internal structure in CPB,it was proposed that the larger aggregate packing degree is,the better paste flow;The Fuller theory was used to analyze the filling material gradation characteristics of a certain copper mine,and explore the rule of grading index n changing with material ratio. The slump test and rheological experiments of CPB were carried out, and Buckingham formula was adopted to calculate the pipe flow resistance. The results showed that the aggregate packing degree is larger and is most favorable for pipeline transport,when the material ratio with unclassified tailings of water quenching slag as 3of 2. The pipe flow resistance was 2. 46 MPa/km under the conditions of mass fraction 72%,pipe diameter of 150 mm,flow rate of 60m3/h and water quenching slag content 40%. By contrast with the pipe flow resistance of unclassified tailings 3. 65 MPa/km,its drag reduction efficiency reached 32. 6% in pipeline transport. That illustrated that the paste pipe flow resistance is reduced obviously after gradation optimization.

  6. S1 subsite specificity of a recombinant cysteine proteinase, CPB, of Leishmania mexicana compared with cruzain, human cathepsin L and papain using substrates containing non-natural basic amino acids. (United States)

    Alves, L C; Melo, R L; Sanderson, S J; Mottram, J C; Coombs, G H; Caliendo, G; Santagada, V; Juliano, L; Juliano, M A


    We have explored the substrate specificity of a recombinant cysteine proteinase of Leishmania mexicana (CPB2.8 Delta CTE) in order to obtain data that will enable us to design specific inhibitors of the enzyme. Previously we have shown that the enzyme has high activity towards substrates with a basic group at the P1 position [Hilaire, P.M.S., Alves, L.C., Sanderson, S.J., Mottram, J.C., Juliano, M.A., Juliano, L., Coombs, G.H. & Meldal M. (2000) Chem. Biochem. 1, 115--122], but we have also observed high affinity for peptides with hydrophobic residues at this position. In order to have substrates containing both features, we synthesized one series of internally quenched fluorogenic peptides derived from the sequence ortho-amino-benzoyl-FRSRQ-N-[2,4-dinitrophenyl]-ethylenediamine, and substituted the Arg at the P1 position with the following non-natural basic amino acids: 4-aminomethyl-phenylalanine (Amf), 4-guanidine-phenylalanine (Gnf), 4-aminomethyl-N-isopropyl-phenylalanine (Iaf), 3-pyridyl-alanine (Pya), 4-piperidinyl-alanine (Ppa), 4-aminomethyl-cyclohexyl-alanine (Ama), and 4-aminocyclohexyl-alanine (Aca). For comparison, the series derived from ortho-amino-benzoyl-FRSRQ-N-[2,4-dinitrophenyl]-ethylenediamine was also assayed with cruzain (the major cysteine proteinase of Trypanosoma cruzi), human cathepsin L and papain. The peptides ortho-amino-benzoyl-FAmfSRQ-N-[2,4-dinitrophenyl]-ethylenediamine (k(cat)/K(m) = 12,000 mM(-1) x s(-1)) and ortho-amino-benzoyl-FIafSRQ-N-[2,4-dinitrophenyl]-ethylenediamine (k(cat)/K(m) = 27,000 mM(-1) x s(-1)) were the best substrates for CPB2.8 Delta CTE. In contrast, ortho-amino-benzoyl-FAmaSRQ-N-[2,4-dinitrophenyl]-ethylenediamine and ortho-amino-benzoyl-FAcaSRQ-N-[2,4-dinitrophenyl]-ethylenediamine were very resistant and inhibited this enzyme with K(i) values of 23 nM and 30 nM, respectively. Cruzain hydrolyzed quite well the substrates in this series with Amf, Ppa and Aca, whereas the peptide with Ama was resistant and

  7. Gold micro- and nano-particles for surface enhanced vibrational spectroscopy of pyridostigmine bromide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolgov, Leonid; Fesenko, Olena; Kavelin, Vladyslav


    Triangular gold microprisms and spherical silica nanoparticles with attached gold nano-islands were examined as an active nanostructures for the surface enhanced Raman and infrared spectroscopy. These particles were probed for the detection of pyridostigmine bromide as a safe analog of military...... compound sarin. Raman and infrared spectral bands of the pyridostigmine bromide were measured. Detailed correlation of obtained spectral bands with specific vibrations in pyridostigmine bromide was done. Silica nanoparticles with attached gold nano-islands showed more essential enhancement of the Raman...

  8. Highly stereoselective synthesis of functionalized 1,3-dienes from a new allyl bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Fray


    Full Text Available New and highly functionalized 1,3-dienes 3 and 4 have been synthesized via two different pathways starting from allyl bromide 1. Firstly, the reaction of allyl bromide 1 with triethylphosphite leads to an allylphosphonate 2, which undergoes the Wittig-Horner reaction with a range of saturated and unsaturated aldehydes gives rise to the corresponding 1,3-dienes 3. Secondly, a highly stereoselective reaction between allyl bromide 1 and nitroalkane salts, offers the possibility to obtaining functionalized (E-1,3-dienes 4.

  9. A sequential MC/TD-DFT study of the solvatochromic shift of the pyridinium- N-phenoxide betaine dye in water using standard and long-range corrected functionals (United States)

    Oliveira, Leonardo B. A.; Fonseca, Tertius L.; Coutinho, Kaline; Canuto, Sylvio


    Solvatochromic shifts of the π-π∗ and n-π∗ transitions for the pyridinium-N-phenoxide [2-(pyridinium-1-yl)phenolate] betaine changing from vacuum to water, have been investigated using Monte Carlo simulations and time-dependent density functional theory schemes using standard and long-range corrected functionals. The classical Boltzmann distribution of the interring twist angle obtained from the calculated free energy agrees with a Car-Parrinello distribution. For the calculated spectral shifts BHandHLYP/6-311+G(2d,p) performs better than the CAM-B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p) or LC-ωPBE/6-311+G(2d,p) model but the experimental shift is very well reproduced only after the inclusion of solute polarization and proper consideration of the twist geometry relaxation associated with the intramolecular charge transfer.

  10. Effect of dexmedetomidine on intestinal mucosal injury in patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement with CPB%右美托咪定对CPB下心脏瓣膜置换术患者肠黏膜损伤的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 赵其宏; 顾尔伟; 李晓红; 王南海


    Objective To evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine on the intestinal mucosal injury in the patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).Methods Forty patients of both sexes with rheumatic heart disease,aged 32-64 yr,weighing 40-75 kg,of ASA physical status Ⅱ or Ⅲ (NYHA class Ⅱ or Ⅲ),scheduled for elective cardiac valve replacement with CPB,were randomly divided into 2 groups (n =20 each) using a random number table:control group (group C) and dexmedetomidine group (group D).After induction of anesthesia,the patients were endotracheally intubated and mechanically ventilated.Anesthesia was maintained with 0.8%-2.0% sevoflurane inhalation and intermittent iv boluses of sufentanil 0.5-1.0 μg/kg and vecuronium 0.04-0.06 mg/kg.Before routine induction of anesthesia,a loading dose of dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg was injected intravenously over 10 min,followed by continuous infusion at 0.3 μg · kg-1 · h-1 until the end of surgery in group D,while the equal volume of normal saline was given in group C.Before CPB,at 30 min after aortic clamping,at the termination of CPB,at the end of surgery and at 6 and 24 h after surgery,central venous blood samples were taken for determination of concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha,interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10 and intestinal fatty acid binding protein in plasma (by ELISA),and the plasma concentration of endotoxin (using turbidimetry).The time of postoperative mechanical ventilation and duration of ICU stay were recorded.Results Compared with group C,the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha,IL-6,IL-10 and endotoxin and intestinal fatty acid binding protein in plasma were significantly decreased,and the time of postoperative mechanical ventilation and duration of ICU stay were shortened in group D.Conclusion Dexmedetomidine infused continuously at 0.3 μg · kg-1 · h-1 (until the end of surgery) after a loading dose of 1 μg/kg before routine induction of anesthesia can

  11. Phytoremediation potentials of selected tropical plants for ethidium bromide. (United States)

    Uera, Raynato B; Paz-Alberto, Annie Melinda; Sigua, Gilbert C


    Research and development has its own benefits and inconveniences. One of the inconveniences is the generation of enormous quantity of diverse toxic and hazardous wastes and its eventual contamination to soil and groundwater resources. Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is one of the commonly used substances in molecular biology experiments. It is highly mutagenic and moderately toxic substance used in DNA-staining during electrophoresis. Interest in phytoremediation as a method to solve chemical contamination has been growing rapidly in recent years. The technology has been utilized to clean up soil and groundwater from heavy metals and other toxic organic compounds in many countries like the United States, Russia, and most of European countries. Phytoremediation requires somewhat limited resources and very useful in treating wide variety of environmental contaminants. This study aimed to assess the potential of selected tropical plants as phytoremediators of EtBr. This study used tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), mustard (Brassica alba), vetivergrass (Vetiveria zizanioedes), cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica), carabaograss (Paspalum conjugatum), and talahib (Saccharum spontaneum) to remove EtBr from laboratory wastes. The six tropical plants were planted in individual plastic bags containing soil and 10% EtBr-stained agarose gel. The plants were allowed to establish and grow in soil for 30 days. Ethidium bromide content of the test plants and the soil were analyzed before and after soil treatment. Ethidium bromide contents of the plants and soils were analyzed using an UV VIS spectrophotometer. Results showed a highly significant (psoils. Mustard registered the highest absorption of EtBr (1.4+/-0.12 microg kg(-1)) followed by tomato and vetivergrass with average uptake of 1.0+/-0.23 and 0.7+/-0.17 microg kg(-1) EtBr, respectively. Cogongrass, talahib, and carabaograss had the least amount of EtBr absorbed (0.2+/-0.6 microg kg(-1)). Ethidium bromide content of soil planted to

  12. Adsorption of anionic polyelectrolytes to dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide monolayers (United States)

    Engelking, J.; Menzel, H.

    Monolayers of dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODA) at the air/water interface were used as model for charged surfaces to study the adsorption of anionic polyelectrolytes. After spreading on a pure water surface the monolayers were compressed and subsequently transferred onto a polyelectrolyte solution employing the Fromherz technique. The polyelectrolyte adsorption was monitored by recording the changes in surface pressure at constant area. For poly(styrene sulfonate) and carboxymethylcellulose the plot of the surface pressure as function of time gave curves which indicate a direct correlation between the adsorbed amount and surface pressure as well as a solely diffusion controlled process. In the case of rigid rod-like poly(p-phenylene sulfonate)s the situation is more complicated. Plotting the surface pressure as function of time results in a curve with sigmoidal shape, characterized by an induction period. The induction period can be explained by a domain formation, which can be treated like a crystallization process. Employing the Avrami expression developed for polymer crystallization, the change in the surface pressure upon adsorption of rigid rod-like poly(p-phenylene sulfonate)s can be described.

  13. Vibrational spectroscopic and computational studies on diisopropylammonium bromide (United States)

    Sahoo, Shradhanjali; Ravindran, T. R.; Chandra, Sharat; Sarguna, R. M.; Das, B. K.; Sairam, T. N.; Sivasubramanian, V.; Thirmal, C.; Murugavel, P.


    Diisopropylammonium bromide (DIPAB) can be crystallized either in an orthorhombic (P212121) or in a monoclinic (P21) structure at room temperature depending on synthesis conditions. The non-polar orthorhombic structure exhibits a subtle, irreversible transformation into the ferroelectric monoclinic-II (m-II) phase above 421 K. At a slightly higher temperature of 426 K this m-II (P21) phase reversibly transforms into a disordered, paraelectric monoclinic-I (P21/m) structure. We synthesized DIPAB in the orthorhombic structure, heated it to obtain the m-II phase and carried out a systematic study of their Raman and IR spectra. We obtained the phonon irreducible representations from factor group analysis of the orthorhombic and m-II structures based on the reported structural information. DIPAB is an organic molecular crystal, and the vibrational spectra in the intramolecular region (200-3500 cm- 1) of the two different phases are identical to each other, indicating weak inter-molecular interactions in both crystalline structures. In the low wavenumber region (10-150 cm- 1) the Raman spectra of the two phases are different due to their sensitivity to molecular environment. We also carried out first principles calculations using Gaussian 09 and CASTEP codes to analyze the vibrational frequencies. Mode assignments were facilitated by isolated molecule calculations that are also in good agreement with intramolecular vibrations, whereas CASTEP (solid state) results could explain the external modes.

  14. Fabrication of double-sided thallium bromide strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitomi, Keitaro, E-mail: [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Nagano, Nobumichi [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Onodera, Toshiyuki [Department of Electronics and Intelligent Systems, Tohoku Institute of Technology, Sendai 982-8577 (Japan); Kim, Seong-Yun; Ito, Tatsuya; Ishii, Keizo [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)


    Double-sided strip detectors were fabricated from thallium bromide (TlBr) crystals grown by the traveling-molten zone method using zone-purified materials. The detectors had three 3.4-mm-long strips with 1-mm widths and a surrounding electrode placed orthogonally on opposite surfaces of the crystals at approximately 6.5×6.5 mm{sup 2} in area and 5 mm in thickness. Excellent charge transport properties for both electrons and holes were observed from the TlBr crystals. The mobility-lifetime products for electrons and holes in the detector were measured to be ~3×10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/V and ~1×10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/V, respectively. The {sup 137}Cs spectra corresponding to the gamma-ray interaction position were obtained from the detector. An energy resolution of 3.4% of full width at half maximum for 662-keV gamma rays was obtained from one “pixel” (an intersection of the strips) of the detector at room temperature.

  15. Improved spectrometric characteristics of thallium bromide nuclear radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hitomi, K; Shoji, T; Suehiro, T; Hiratate, Y


    Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a compound semiconductor with a high atomic number and wide band gap. In this study, nuclear radiation detectors have been fabricated from the TlBr crystals. The TlBr crystals were grown by the horizontal travelling molten zone (TMZ) method using the materials purified by many pass zone refining. The crystals were characterized by measuring the resistivity, the mobility-lifetime (mu tau) product and the energy required to create an electron-hole pair (the epsilon value). Improved energy resolution has been obtained by the TlBr radiation detectors. At room temperature the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) for the 59.5, 122 and 662 keV gamma-ray photo peak obtained from the detectors were 3.3, 8.8 and 29.5 keV, respectively. By comparing the saturated peak position of the TlBr detector with that of the CdTe detector, the epsilon value has been estimated to be about 5.85 eV for the TlBr crystal.

  16. Micellization of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide: effect of small chain Bola electrolytes. (United States)

    Pan, Animesh; Sil, Pallabi; Dutta, Sounak; Das, Prasanta Kumar; Bhattacharya, Subhash Chandra; Rakshit, Animesh Kumar; Aswal, Vinod Kumar; Moulik, Satya Priya


    Sodium dicarboxylates (or Bola salts) with methylene spacers 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 were studied in aqueous solution to investigate their influence on the micellization of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Since bolas with spacer length ≤12 are known not to micellize in general, the herein used sodium dicarboxylates were treated as 2:1 amphiphilic electrolytes which reduced surface tension of water (except sodium oxalate with zero spacer) without self-association. Their concentration dependent conductance was also linear without breaks. The bolas affected the micellization of CTAB but acted like salts to decrease its CMC. Their combinations did not form bilayer aggregates as found in vesicles. Nevertheless, they synergistically interacted with CTAB at the air/water interface as revealed from Rosen's thermodynamic model. Hydrodynamic radius (Rh), Zeta-potential (ζ), and electrical double layer behavior of bola interacted CTAB micelles were assessed. From SANS measurements, micelle shape, shape parameters, aggregation number (Nagg), surface charge of the bola influenced CTAB micelles were also determined. NMR study as well supported the non-mixing of bolas with the CTAB micelles. They interacted in solution like "amphiphilic electrolytes" to influence the surface and micelle forming properties of CTAB.

  17. Evaluation of Alkali Bromide Salts for Potential Pyrochemical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhat K. Tripathy; Steven D. Herrmann; Guy L. Fredrickson; Tedd E. Lister; Toni Y. Gutknecht


    Transient techniques were employed to study the electrochemical behavior, reduction mechanism and transport properties of REBr3 (RE - La, Nd and Gd) in pure LiBr, LiBr-KBr (eutectic) and LiBr-KBr-CsBr (eutectic) melts. Gd(III) showed a reversible single step soluble-insoluble exchange phenomenon in LiBr melt at 973K. Although La (III), Nd(III) and Gd(III) ions showed reversible behavior in eutectic LiBr-KBr melts, these ions showed a combination of temperature dependent reversible and pseudo-reversible behavior. While both La(III) and Gd(III) showed one step reduction, the reduction of Nd(III) was observed to be a two step process. La metal could be electrodeposited from the ternary electrolyte at a temperature of 673K. Various electrochemical measurements suggest that both binary and ternary bromide melts can potentially be used to electrodeposit high purity RE metals at comparatively lower operating temperatures.

  18. Organomontmorillonites Modified with 2-Methacryloyloxy Ethyl Alkyl Dimethyl Ammonium Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-quan; WU Wen-hui


    Organomontmorillonites (organo-MMT) were synthesized by means of montmorillonites (MMT) modified with a series of 2-methacryloyloxy ethyl alkyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (MAAB) having different alkyl chain lengths as cationic surfactants through a cationic exchanging reaction, and were characterized by FTIR, TG, elemental analysis, and XRD. The microenvironment of the organic interlayer such as the orientation and arrangement of the alkyl chains of MAAB, as well as the properties of nanocomposite hydrogels, were also investigated. The amount of organic components absorbed on interlayer and the basal spacing of organo-MMT both increase with the increasing of alkyl length of MAAB. When carbon number of alkyl chain is in the region of 8 to 14, the alkyl chains between layers would adopt a disordered gauche conformation; while the carbon number is 16, an ordered all-trans conformation with a vertical orientation would be found together with the disordered gauche conformation according to the results of XRD and FTIR. Due to the difference of microenvironment of organic interlayer, the Young's moduli of the nanocomposite hydrogels increased as the alkyl chains of MAAB became longer.

  19. Accommodation coefficient of HOBr on deliquescent sodium bromide aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wachsmuth


    Full Text Available Uptake of HOBr on sea salt aerosol, sea salt brine or ice is believed to be a key process providing a source of photolabile bromine (Br2 and sustaining ozone depletion cycles in the Arctic troposphere. In the present study, uptake of HOBr on sodium bromide (NaBr aerosol particles was investigated at an extremely low HOBr concentration of 300 cm-3 using the short-lived radioactive isotopes 83-86Br. Under these conditions, at maximum one HOBr molecule was taken up per particle. The rate of uptake was clearly limited by the mass accommodation coefficient, which was calculated to be 0.6 ± 0.2. This value is a factor of 10 larger than estimates used in earlier models. The atmospheric implications are discussed using the box model "MOCCA'', showing that the increase of the accommodation coefficient of HOBr by a factor of 10 only slightly affects net ozone loss, but significantly increases chlorine release.

  20. Otilonium bromide: a selective spasmolytic for the gastrointestinal tract. (United States)

    Evangelista, S


    Experimental studies have shown that otilonium bromide (OB) inhibits both baseline and chemically or physically stimulated gastrointestinal motility. The spasmolytic activity of OB in the gastrointestinal tract occurs at doses that do not affect gastric secretion or produce typical atropine-like side-effects. The mechanism of action is composite: interference with calcium ion movement from intra- and extracellular sites; blockade of calcium channels; and binding to muscarinic receptors and tachykinin neurokinin-2 receptors. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that OB accumulates in the lower intestine and has poor systemic absorption. Clinical studies have confirmed OB as a potent spasmolytic drug with a good tolerability profile. Studies in patients with irritable bowel syndrome demonstrated OB to be superior to placebo and reference drugs in parameters such as pain, abdominal distension and motility. The composite and local mechanism of OB action reduces hypermotility and modulates visceral sensation: factors thought to be responsible for pain improvement recorded in clinical trials. The compound is marketed worldwide and no serious adverse events have been reported as yet, confirming its excellent tolerability.

  1. Structural and electronic properties of Diisopropylammonium bromide molecular ferroelectric crystal (United States)

    Alsaad, A.; Qattan, I. A.; Ahmad, A. A.; Al-Aqtash, N.; Sabirianov, R. F.


    We report the results of ab-initio calculations based on Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) and hybrid functional (HSE06) of electronic band structure, density of states and partial density of states to get a deep insight into structural and electronic properties of P21 ferroelectric phase of Diisopropylammonium Bromide molecular crystal (DIPAB). We found that the optical band gap of the polar phase of DIPAB is ∼ 5 eV confirming it as a good dielectric. Examination of the density of states and partial density of states reveal that the valence band maximum is mainly composed of bromine 4p orbitals and the conduction band minimum is dominated by carbon 2p, carbon 2s, and nitrogen 2s orbitals. A unique aspect of P21 ferroelectric phase is the permanent dipole within the material. We found that P21 DIPAB has a spontaneous polarization of 22.64 consistent with recent findings which make it good candidate for the creation of ferroelectric tunneling junctions (FTJs) which have the potential to be used as memory devices.

  2. Bioreactors for removing methyl bromide following contained fumigations (United States)

    Miller, L.G.; Baesman, S.M.; Oremland, R.S.


    Use of methyl bromide (MeBr) as a quarantine, commodity, or structural fumigant is under scrutiny because its release to the atmosphere contributes to the depletion of stratospheric ozone. A closed-system bioreactor consisting of 0.5 L of a growing culture of a previously described bacterium, strain IMB-1, removed MeBr (> 110 ??mol L-1) from recirculating air. Strain IMB-1 grew slowly to high cell densities in the bioreactor using MeBr as its sole carbon and energy source. Bacterial oxidation of MeBr produced CO2 and hydrobromic acid (HBr), which required continuous neutralization with NaOH for the system to operate effectively. Strain IMB-1 was capable of sustained oxidation of large amounts of MeBr (170 mmol in 46 d). In an open-system bioreactor (10-L fermenter), strain IMB-1 oxidized a continuous supply of MeBr (220 ??mol L-1 in air). Growth was continuous, and 0.5 mol of MeBr was removed from the air supply in 14 d. The specific rate of MeBr oxidation was 7 ?? 10-16 mol cell-1 h-1. Bioreactors such as these can therefore be used to remove large quantities of contaminant MeBr, which opens the possibility of biodegradation as a practical means for its disposal.

  3. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium doping (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan


    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  4. Delayed remyelination in rat spinal cord following ethidium bromide injection. (United States)

    Graça, D L; Blakemore, W F


    Areas of demyelination were produced by injecting ethidium bromide into the white matter of the lumbar spinal cord of rats. There was variation in the nature of the process of demyelination and a difference in the speed with which Schwann cells remyelinated the demyelinated axons. In some lesions, or areas within lesions, myelin debris was rapidly processed by macrophages and axons were rapidly remyelinated by Schwann cells, while in other lesions of similar duration, or in areas within the same lesion, the myelin was transformed into lattices of membranous profiles which persisted around axons for long periods of time. In the lesions containing such myelin derived membranes, there were few macrophages and remyelination by Schwann cells was delayed compared to that seen in the more rapidly resolving lesions. It was concluded that the slow resolution of some lesions resulted from the delay between intoxication and cell disintegration (7-10 days) which meant that the cell responses to demyelination took place in a glial free area which could not support cell movement needed for removal of myelin debris and remyelination. This study indicates that the tempo and results of demyelination can be altered by the cellular events which accompany degeneration of oligodendrocytes.

  5. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Treatment Longer than 8 Hours (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  6. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Treatment 8 Hours or Less (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  7. Efficient loading of primary alcohols onto a solid phase using a trityl bromide linker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crestey, François; Ottesen, Lars Korsgaard; Jaroszewski, Jerzy Witold


    The Letter describes an improved, rapid and mild strategy for the loading of primary alcohols onto a polystyrene trityl resin via a highly reactive trityl bromide linker. This protocol facilitates an efficient resin loading even of acid-sensitive or heat-labile alcohols, which otherwise require...... of a sensitive alcohol containing an activated aziridine functionality, the use of the trityl bromide linker proved superior to a recently described silver triflate-assisted trityl chloride resin-based procedure....

  8. Influence of bromide on the performance of the amphipod Hyalella azteca in reconstituted waters (United States)

    Ivey, Chris D.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.


    Poor performance of the amphipod Hyalella azteca has been observed in exposures using reconstituted waters. Previous studies have reported success in H. azteca water-only exposures with the addition of relatively high concentrations of bromide. The present study evaluated the influence of lower environmentally representative concentrations of bromide on the response ofH. azteca in 42-d water-only exposures. Improved performance of H. azteca was observed in reconstituted waters with >0.02 mg Br/L.

  9. Tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine: a new system for conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Vitor S.C. de; Mattos, Marcio C.S. de, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica


    An efficient and facile method has been developed for the conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides under neutral conditions using tribromoisocyanuric acid and triphenylphosphine (molar ratio 1.0:0.7:2.0, alcohol/tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine) in dichloromethane at room temperature. This method can be applied for the conversion of primary, secondary, benzilic and allylic alcohols, and their corresponding bromides are obtained in 67-82 % yield. Tertiary alcohols do not react under these conditions. (author)

  10. Interaction of removal Ethidium Bromide with Carbon Nanotube: Equilibrium and Isotherm studies


    Moradi, Omid; Norouzi, Mehdi; Fakhri, Ali; Naddafi, Kazem


    Drinking water resources may be contaminated with Ethidium Bromide (EtBr) which is commonly used in molecular biology laboratories for DNA identification in electrophoresis. Carbon nanotubes are expected to play an important role in sensing, pollution treatment and separation techniques. In this study adsorption of Ethidium Bromide on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and carboxylate group functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT-COOH) surfaces have been investigated by UV–vi...

  11. Control of insects with fumigants at low temperatures: toxicity of mixtures of methyl bromide and acrylonitrile to three species of insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, E.J.; Buckland, C.T.


    Acrylonitrile can be mixed with methyl bromide to increase toxicity so that the quantity of methyl bromide required for control of Sitophilus granarius (L.), Tenebrio molitor L., and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin duval is reduced by one half. Mixtures of methyl bromide and acrylonitrile are considerably more effective at low temperatures than methyl bromide alone.

  12. [Otilonium bromide-diazepam in the treatment of the irritable colon. A controlled study versus otilonium bromide]. (United States)

    Mollica, G; Manno, G


    Octylonium bromide (OB) is a drug with spasmolytic properties acting selectively on the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract by interfering with calcium mobilization from extra- and intra-cellular deposits. The etiopathogenetic implications of a psychosomatic nature of the irritable bowel syndrome amply justify the use of a spasmolytic (OB) with a benzodiazepine. In our study, we compared the combination OB + DZ (20 mg + 2 mg) T.I.D. versus OB alone (20 mg) in 30 patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome. The double-blind study lasting 3 weeks was aimed at evaluating gastrointestinal symptoms (bowel motions, aspect of faeces, abdominal pain, pre-evacuation pain, bloating) during the three days preceding the study and during the last five days of treatment, as well as the anxiogenic situation as assessed by the STAI scale (State Tract Anxiety Inventory) before and at the end of the treatment period. The results obtained showed that both treatments considerably reduced gastrointestinal symptoms even though OB alone did not appear to be equally effective and the anxiety component was significantly reduced only by treatment with the combination. The absence of side effects and the perfect tolerability of both treatments showed the OB + D combination T.I.D. to be the treatment of choice for patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome.

  13. Otilonium bromide enhances sensory thresholds of volume and pressure in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. (United States)

    Czimmer, J; Süto, G; Király, A; Mózsik, G


    Visceral hyperalgesia has been suggested to play a role in the development of symptoms presented by irritable bowel syndrome patients. Otilonium bromide was developed to block smooth muscle Ca release to control cramping pain of these patients. to determine whether otilonium bromide can influence sensory thresholds of patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome. 15 patients with Rome-II positive IBS were tested by Synectics Visceral Stimulator Barostat using rapid phasic distension (870 ml/min). The sensory threshold for first sensation, stool, pain and maximum tolerable volume and pressure were measured. All of the parameters were tested before and 1 week after the initiation of otilonium bromide (Spasmomen, Berlin Chemie, 3x40 mg) therapy. The perceptual thresholds for first sensation, stool, pain and maximum tolerable distention were, 8.8+/-1.7 Hgmm, 19.2+/-2.1 Hgmm, 26.3+/-2.8 Hgmm, 28.7+/-2.8 Hgmm for pressure, 90+/-21 ml, 145+/-28 ml, 208+/-25 ml, 213+/-28 ml for volume, before treatment, respectively. Otilonium bromide treatment did not influence the thresholds for first sensation and stool, 7.4+/-1.4 Hgmm, 20.7+/-4.6 Hgmm and 83+/-21 ml, 178+/-35.8 ml, respectively. The pressure threshold of pain was significantly higher 1 week after treatment (26.3+/-2.8 Hgmm vs. 29.1+/-5.5 Hgmm, Potilonium bromide treatment. These data suggest that otilonium bromide enhances sensory thresholds to recto-sigmoideal distention.

  14. Otilonium bromide in irritable bowel syndrome: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 15-week study. (United States)

    Battaglia, G; Morselli-Labate, A M; Camarri, E; Francavilla, A; De Marco, F; Mastropaolo, G; Naccarato, R


    To evaluate the efficacy of otilonium bromide, a spasmolytic agent, in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome using modern and validated diagnostic criteria. Three hundred and seventy-eight patients with irritable bowel syndrome were enrolled in the study. At entry, endoscopy/barium enema, clinical examination and laboratory tests were used to rule out organic diseases. After a 2-week placebo run-in, 325 patients were randomly assigned to receive either otilonium bromide 40 mg t.d.s. or placebo for 15 weeks. Abdominal pain, abdominal distension and disturbed defecation were scored at the beginning of the study and every 5 weeks. A global determination of well-being by visual analogue scale and the tenderness of the sigmoid colon were also scored. The reduction in the number of abdominal pain episodes was significantly higher (P otilonium bromide patients (55.3%) than in those taking placebo (39.9%) as was the severity of abdominal distension (42.0%, vs. 30.2%; P otilonium bromide. The investigators' global positive assessment was in favour of otilonium bromide (65.2%) compared with placebo (49.6%) (P Otilonium bromide may represent an effective treatment for irritable bowel syndrome because it reduces its predominant symptom (abdominal pain/ discomfort) more than placebo does.

  15. Electrochemical Recognition of Metalloproteins by Bromide-modified Silver Electrode - A New Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Rostami


    Full Text Available A bromide–modified silver electrode is reported, in the present study, to catalyzethe redox reactions of metalloproteins. This study describes that the bromide ions showvery good redox behavior with silver electrode. The cathodic and anodic peak potentialswere related to the concentration of bromide ions involved in making bromide-modifiedsilver electrode. The electrode reaction in the bromine solution was a diffusion-controlledprocess. Positive potential shift of the bromide ions was seen when different proteins wereadded to the solution using a silver electrode. New cathodic and anodic peaks wereobserved at different potential ranges for myoglobin, cytochrome c and catalase. A linearlyincreasing cathodic peak current of bromide ions was seen when the concentration ofsuperoxide dismutase was increased in the test solution. However, no change for albuminwas observed when its concentration was increased in the test solution. Present data provesour methodology as an easy-to-use analysis for comparing the redox potentials of differentmetalloproteins and differentiating the metallo- from non-metalloproteins. In this study, weintroduced an interesting method for bio-electrochemical analyses.

  16. Effect of ferric and bromide ions on the formation and speciation of disinfection byproducts during chlorination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaogang Liu; Zhiliang Zhu; Yanling Qiu; Jianfu Zhao


    The effects of ferric ion, pH, and bromide on the formation and distribution of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination were studied. Two raw water samples from Huangpu River and Yangtze River, two typical drinking water sources of Shanghai, were used for the investigation. Compared with the samples from Huangpu River, the raw water samples from Yangtze River had lower content of total organic carbon (TOC) and ferric ions, but higher bromide concentrations. Under controlled chlorination conditions,four trihalomethanes (THMs), nine haloacetic acids (HAAs), total organic halogen (TOX) and its halogen species fractions, including total organic chlorine (TOC1) and total organic bromide (TOBr), were determined. The results showed that co-existent ferric and bromide ions significantly promoted the formation of total THMs and HAAs for both raw water samples. Higher concentration of bromide ions significantly changed the speciation of the formed THMs and HAAs. There was an obvious shift to brominated species,which might result in a more adverse influence on the safety of drinking water. The results also indicated that high levels of bromide ions in raw water samples produced higher percentages of unknown TOBr.

  17. Effect of ferric and bromide ions on the formation and speciation of disinfection byproducts during chlorination. (United States)

    Liu, Shaogang; Zhu, Zhiliang; Qiu, Yanling; Zhao, Jianfu


    The effects of ferric ion, pH, and bromide on the formation and distribution of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination were studied. Two raw water samples from Huangpu River and Yangtze River, two typical drinking water sources of Shanghai, were used for the investigation. Compared with the samples from Huangpu River, the raw water samples from Yangtze River had lower content of total organic carbon (TOC) and ferric ions, but higher bromide concentrations. Under controlled chlorination conditions, four trihalomethanes (THMs), nine haloacetic acids (HAAs), total organic halogen (TOX) and its halogen species fractions, including total organic chlorine (TOC1) and total organic bromide (TOBr), were determined. The results showed that co-existent ferric and bromide ions significantly promoted the formation of total THMs and HAAs for both raw water samples. Higher concentration of bromide ions significantly changed the speciation of the formed THMs and HAAs. There was an obvious shift to brominated species, which might result in a more adverse influence on the safety of drinking water. The results also indicated that high levels of bromide ions in raw water samples produced higher percentages of unknown TOBr.

  18. Silica nanoparticles separation from water: aggregation by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). (United States)

    Liu, Y; Tourbin, M; Lachaize, S; Guiraud, P


    Nanoparticles will inevitably be found in industrial and domestic wastes in the near future and as a consequence soon in water resources. Due to their ultra-small size, nanoparticles may not only have new hazards for environment and human health, but also cause low separation efficiency by classical water treatments processes. Thus, it would be an important challenge to develop a specific treatment with suitable additives for recovery of nanoparticles from waters. For this propose, this paper presents aggregation of silica nanoparticles (Klebosol 30R50 (75nm) and 30R25 (30nm)) by cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Different mechanisms such as charge neutralization, "depletion flocculation" or "volume-restriction", and "hydrophobic effect" between hydrocarbon tails of CTAB have been proposed to explicate aggregation results. One important finding is that for different volume concentrations between 0.05% and 0.51% of 30R50 suspensions, the same critical coagulation concentration was observed at CTAB=0.1mM, suggesting the optimized quantity of CTAB during the separation process for nanoparticles of about 75nm. Furthermore, very small quantities of CTAB (0.01mM) can make 30R25 nanosilica aggregated due to the "hydrophobic effect". It is then possible to minimize the sludge and allow the separation process as "greener" as possible by studying this case. It has also shown that aggregation mechanisms can be different for very small particles so that a special attention has to be paid to the treatment of nanoparticles contained in water and wastewaters.

  19. Predicting bromide incorporation in a chlorinated indoor swimming pool. (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Mazumder, Abu Jafar; Husain, Tahir


    The water in and air above swimming pools often contain high levels of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) due to chemical reactions between chlorine- or bromine-based disinfectants and organic/inorganic matter in the source water and released from swimmers. Exposure to these DBPs, though inevitable, can pose health threats to humans. In this study, DBPs in tap water (S1), and water from a chlorinated indoor swimming pool before (S2) and after swimming (S3) were measured. The brominated species constituted the majority of DBPs formed in S1, S2, and S3. Trihalomethanes (THMs) in S3 was 6.9 (range 2.9-11.1) and 1.4 (range 0.52-2.9) times those in S1 and S2, respectively; and the haloacetic acids (HAAs) in S3 was 4.2 (range 2.5-7.5) and 1.2 (range 0.6-2.6) times those in S1 and S2, respectively. The mean THMs in air above the swimming pool before (S2-A) and after swimming (S3-A) were 72.2 and 93.0 μg/m(3), respectively, and their ranges were 36.3-105.8 and 44.1-133.6 μg/m(3), respectively. The average percentages of bromide incorporation (BI) into THMs in S1, S2, and S3 were 3.0, 9.3, and 10.6 %, respectively; and the BI into HAAs in S1, S2, and S3 were 6.6, 12.0, and 12.2 %, respectively. Several models were trained for predicting the BI into THMs and HAAs. The results indicate that additional information is required to develop predictive models for BI in swimming pools.

  20. Otilonium bromide as spasmolytic during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. (United States)

    Karahan, Ömer; Sevinç, Barış; Okuş, Ahmet; Ay, Serden; Aksoy, Nergis


    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is commonly used in both the diagnosis and the treatment of biliary and pancreatic disorders. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of OB usage during ERCP on duodenal motility, the tolerability of the procedure (by patients) and the difficulty of the procedure (by the endoscopist). The study was conducted in Konya Training and Research Hospital General Surgery Endoscopy Unit in randomized prospective pattern. The patients were divided into the two groups as spasmolytic and control groups. The procedure was performed under topical anesthesia and sedation. There were 100 cases included into the study (50 cases in each group). The mean duodenal motility score was found to be 1.9 ± 0.5 in the study group and 3 ± 0.6 in the control group. In the study group, the tolerability of the procedure score by the endoscopist was moderate in 16 % and well/very well in 78 % of the cases. On the other hand, in the control group, the scores were poor in 21 %, moderate in 71 %, and well/very well in 24 % of the cases. In terms of patient satisfaction, in study group 42 % of the cases reported the procedure as moderate and 58 % reported as well/very well. However, in the control group 16 % of the cases reported the procedure as poor, 58 % moderate, and 26 % as well/very well. Otilonium bromide is a safe agent with low side effects. It can be used before the ERCP procedure to decrease the duodenal motility. It eases the procedure, moreover, it increases the patients' satisfaction.

  1. Bacterial oxidation of methyl bromide in fumigated agricultural soils (United States)

    Miller, L.G.; Connell, T.L.; Guidetti, J.R.; Oremland, R.S.


    The oxidation of [14C]methyl bromide ([14C]MeBr) to 14CO2 was measured in field experiments with soils collected from two strawberry plots fumigated with mixtures of MeBr and chloropicrin (CCI3NO2). Although these fumigants are considered potent biocides, we found that the highest rates of MeBr oxidation occurred 1 to 2 days after injection when the fields were tarped, rather than before or several days after injection. No oxidation of MeBr occurred in heat-killed soils, indicating that microbes were the causative agents of the oxidation. Degradation of MeBr by chemical and/or biological processes accounted for 20 to 50% of the loss of MeBr during fumigation, with evasion to the atmosphere inferred to comprise the remainder. In laboratory incubations, complete removal of [14C]MeBr occurred within a few days, with 47 to 67% of the added MeBr oxidized to 14CO2 and the remainder of counts associated with the solid phase. Chloropicrin inhibited the oxidation of MeBr, implying that use of this substance constrains the extent of microbial degradation of MeBr during fumigation. Oxidation was by direct bacterial attack of MeBr and not of methanol, a product of the chemical hydrolysis of MeBr. Neither nitrifying nor methane-oxidizing bacteria were sufficiently active in these soils to account for the observed oxidation of MeBr, nor could the microbial degradation of MeBr be linked to cooxidation with exogenously supplied electron donors. However, repeated addition of MeBr to live soils resulted in higher rates of its removal, suggesting that soil bacteria used MeBr as an electron donor for growth. To support this interpretation, we isolated a gram-negative, aerobic bacterium from these soils which grew with MeBr as a sole source of carbon and energy.

  2. Eudragit RS PO nanoparticles for sustained release of pyridostigmine bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoobakht, Fatemeh; Ganji, Fariba, E-mail:; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ebrahim [Tarbiat Modares University, Biomedical Engineering Group, Chemical Engineering Department (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mousavi, Seyyed Mohammad [Tarbiat Modares University, Biotechnology Group, Chemical Engineering Department (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) is an inhibitor of cholinesterase, which is used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and administered for protection against exposure to toxic nerve agents. Tests were done to investigate prolonging the half-life of PB and improving its release behavior. PB was loaded in nanoparticles (NPs) of Eudragit RS PO (Eu-RS) prepared using the technique of quasi emulsion solvent diffusion. Variables of output power of the sonicator, bath temperature and mixing time, were chosen as the optimization factors to obtain the minimum sized NPs. In addition, emulsions were tested at different ratios of drug-to-polymer by dynamic light scattering to determine size and zeta potential of NPs. UV-spectroscopy was used to determine PB content of the NPs. Drug-loaded NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectra. Results determined that mixing time had a significant impact on the size of Eu-RS NPs, but power output of sonicator and bath temperature had no significant effect. The particle size obtained at the optimum condition (power output of 70 W, bath temperature of 33 Degree-Sign C, and mixing time of 7 min) was less than 200 nm (optimum sizes were 138.9 and 179.5 nm for Eu-RS and PB-loaded Eu-RS NPs, respectively). The optimum PB-loaded Eu-RS NPs at the PB to Eu-RS weight ratio of 1-4 and 20 % of loaded PB released from the nanocarriers within 100 h.

  3. A combined solid-state NMR and X-ray crystallography study of the bromide ion environments in triphenylphosphonium bromides. (United States)

    Burgess, Kevin M N; Korobkov, Ilia; Bryce, David L


    Multinuclear ((31)P and (79/81)Br), multifield (9.4, 11.75, and 21.1 T) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance experiments are performed for seven phosphonium bromides bearing the triphenylphosphonium cation, a molecular scaffold found in many applications in chemistry. This is undertaken to fully characterise their bromine electric field gradient (EFG) tensors, as well as the chemical shift (CS) tensors of both the halogen and the phosphorus nuclei, providing a rare and novel insight into the local electronic environments surrounding them. New crystal structures, obtained from single-crystal X-ray diffraction, are reported for six compounds to aid in the interpretation of the NMR data. Among them is a new structure of BrPPh(4), because the previously reported one was inconsistent with our magnetic resonance data, thereby demonstrating how NMR data of non-standard nuclei can correct or improve X-ray diffraction data. Our results indicate that, despite sizable quadrupolar interactions, (79/81)Br magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a powerful characterisation tool that allows for the differentiation between chemically similar bromine sites, as shown through the range in the characteristic NMR parameters. (35/37)Cl solid-state NMR data, obtained for an analogous phosphonium chloride sample, provide insight into the relationship between unit cell volume, nuclear quadrupolar coupling constants, and Sternheimer antishielding factors. The experimental findings are complemented by gauge-including projector-augmented wave (GIPAW) DFT calculations, which substantiate our experimentally determined strong dependence of the largest component of the bromine CS tensor, δ(11), on the shortest Br-P distance in the crystal structure, a finding that has possible application in the field of NMR crystallography. This trend is explained in terms of Ramsey's theory on paramagnetic shielding. Overall, this work demonstrates how careful NMR studies of underexploited exotic nuclides, such

  4. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Novel Ion-pair Compound Consisting of 1-(4-Bromobenzyl)pyridinium Cation and 7,7,8,8-Tetracyanoquinodimethanide Anion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hong-Bo; CHEN You-Cun


    The title compound [BrBzPy][TCNQ] (BrBzPy+=1-(4-bromobenzyl)pyridinium cation, TCNQ = 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethanide anion) was synthesized by the reaction of [BrBzPy]Br and LiTCNQ in ethanol solution and its structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal belongs to monoclinic, space group P21/c with a = 14.067(3), b = 7.3089(14), c = 23.796(4) (A), β = 122.011 (9)°, V = 2074.6(7) (A)3, Z = 4, C24H15BrN5, Mr = 453.32, Dc = 1.451 g/cm3, μ = 2.002 mm-1, S = 1.047, F(000) = 916, R = 0.0398 and wR = 0.0921. The most prominent structural features are the completely segregated stacking columns of the TCNQ-anions and [BrBzPy]+ cations. In a TCNQ column, the centroid-to-centroid distances of the neighboring anions of TCNQ are 3.2693 and 4.9464 (A), respectively.

  5. Sol–gel processed pyridinium ionic liquid-modified silica as a new sorbent for separation and quantification of iron in water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Abdolmohammad-Zadeh


    Full Text Available 1-Hexylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate [C6py][PF6] ionic liquid (IL was firstly used for chemical modification of silica utilizing the acid-catalyzed sol–gel processing. The obtained pyridinium IL-modified silica was employed as a solid phase extraction (SPE sorbent for removal of trace levels of Fe(III ions from aqueous samples. The influence of different variables on the separation efficiency, including the concentration of chelating agent, pH, sample flow rate and volume, eluent type, concentration and volume, and interfering ions was investigated by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. In the optimum experimental conditions, the limit of detection (3s, limit of quantification (LOQ and pre-concentration factor were 0.7 μg L−1, 2.5 μg L−1, and 200, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD for nine replicate determinations of 25 μg L−1 Fe was 3.2%. The calibration graph using the pre-concentration system was linear in the range of 2.5–50 μg L−1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997. The developed method was validated by the analysis of certified reference material and applied successfully to the separation and determination of iron in several water samples.

  6. Growth and characterization of an organic single crystal: 2-[2-(4-Diethylamino-phenyl)-vinyl]-1-methyl-pyridinium iodide (United States)

    Senthil, K.; Kalainathan, S.; Ruban Kumar, A.

    Optically transparent crystal of the organic salt DEASI (2-[2-(4-Diethylamino-phenyl)-vinyl]-1-methyl-pyridinium iodide) has been synthesized by using knoevenagel condensation reaction method. The synthesized material has been purified by successfully recrystallization process. Single crystals of DEASI have been grown by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. The solubility of the title material has been determined at different temperature in acetonitrile/methanol mixture. The cell parameters and crystallinity of the title crystal were determined by single crystal XRD. The powder diffraction was carried out to study the reflection plane of the grown crystal and diffraction peaks were indexed. The presence of different functional groups in the crystal was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. 1H NMR spectrum was recorded to confirm the presence of hydrogen nuclei in the synthesized material. The optical property of the title crystal was studied by UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopic analysis. The melting point and thermal property of DEASI were studied using TGA/DSC technique. The Vicker’s hardness (Hv) was carried out to know the category. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the compound decreases with an increase in frequencies. Chemical etching studies showed that the DEASI grows in the two dimensional growth mechanisms. The Kurtz-Perry powder second harmonic generation (SHG) test has done for title crystal.

  7. Once-daily glycopyrronium bromide (Seebri Breezhaler(®)) for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli


    glycopyrronium bromide (Seebri Breezhaler®) is a well-tolerated long-acting anti-muscarinic agent (LAMA) with a fast onset of action. In patients with moderate to severe COPD, glycopyrronium bromide has clinically important effects on level of FEV1, use of relief medication, day-time dyspnea scores, and probably...... also on health status. Furthermore, glycopyrronium bromide also has beneficial effects on dynamic hyperinflation and, probably by that, exercise tolerance. Glycopyrronium bromide has been shown to reduce the rate of exacerbations in patients with moderate to severe COPD, although as a secondary outcome...... only. EXPERT OPINION: Once-daily inhaled glycopyrronium bromide has positive impact on important COPD outcomes, comparable to the effects of other marketed LAMAs. Once-daily administration may improve adherence, and glycopyrronium bromide has the potential for a role in the future management of COPD...

  8. Magnetic behavior of manganese bromide hydrates including deuteration effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFotis, G.C., E-mail: [Chemistry Department, College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States); Van Dongen, M.J.; Hampton, A.S.; Komatsu, C.H.; Pothen, J.M.; Trowell, K.T.; Havas, K.C.; Chan, D.G.; Reed, Z.D. [Chemistry Department, College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States); Hays, K.; Wagner, M.J. [Chemistry Department, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. 20052 (United States)


    The magnetic properties of previously unexamined MnBr{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O, MnBr{sub 2}·H{sub 2}O, MnBr{sub 2}·2D{sub 2}O and MnBr{sub 2}·D{sub 2}O are studied. Curie–Weiss fits to high temperature data yield θ of −13.1, −3.9, −8.2 and −5.0 K, respectively, in χ{sub M}=C/(T−θ). The net antiferromagnetic exchange yields susceptibility maxima at 6.34, 3.20, 2.10, and 3.40 K, with χ{sub max} of 0.197, 0.357, 0.465 and 0.348 emu/mol, respectively. Noteworthy is the contrast between dideuterate and dihydrate, the largest deuteration effect observed for hydrated transition metal halides. Antiferromagnetic ordering is estimated to occur at 5.91, 2.65, 2.00 and 2.50 K, respectively. The ratio T{sub c}/T{sub max} is 0.93, 0.83, 0.95 and 0.74 in the same order, implying low dimensional magnetism for monohydrate and monodeuterate. Heisenberg model fits to susceptibilities yield primary and secondary exchange interactions. Magnetization data at moderate fields and different temperatures are presented for each substance, and high field data to 70 kG at 2.00 K. Spin-flop transitions are estimated to occur at 45, 33 and 30 kG, respectively, for dihydrate, monohydrate and monodeuterate, but are not observable for MnBr{sub 2}·2D{sub 2}O. The results are analyzed from various perspectives. A different monoclinic unit cell is determined for MnBr{sub 2}·2D{sub 2}O than for MnBr{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O, with 1.3% larger volume, providing some rationale for the difference in magnetic properties. - Highlights: • The magnetic properties of Mn(II) bromide dihydrate and monohydrate are studied. • The effects of replacing H{sub 2}O by D{sub 2}O are examined for both hydration states. • For monohydrate the change in magnetic behavior on deuteration is small. • For dihydrate the change in magnetic behavior on deuteration is large. • The unit cell of MnBr{sub 2}·2D{sub 2}O is different from and slightly larger than for MnBr{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O.

  9. Bronchodilator efficacy of extrafine glycopyrronium bromide: the Glyco 2 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh D


    Full Text Available Dave Singh,1 Mario Scuri,2 Sara Collarini,2 Stefano Vezzoli,2 Fabrizia Mariotti,2 Annamaria Muraro,2 Daniela Acerbi2 1Medicines Evaluation, University Of Manchester, University Hospital of South Manchester, Manchester, UK; 2Global Clinical Development, Chiesi Farmaceutici SpA, Parma, Italy Abstract: An extrafine formulation of the long-acting muscarinic antagonist glycopyrronium bromide (GB is in development for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, in combination with beclometasone dipropionate and formoterol fumarate – a “fixed triple”. This two-part study was randomized, double blind, placebo controlled in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD: Part 1: single-dose escalation, GB 12.5, 25, 50, 100 or 200 µg versus placebo; Part 2: repeat-dose (7-day, four-period crossover, GB 12.5, 25 or 50 µg twice daily (BID versus placebo, with an open-label extension in which all patients received tiotropium 18 µg once daily. On the morning of Day 8 in all five periods, patients also received formoterol 12 µg. In study Part 1, 27 patients were recruited. All GB doses significantly increased from baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 area under the curve (AUC0–12h and peak FEV1, with a trend toward greater efficacy with higher GB dose. All adverse events were mild–moderate in severity, with a lower incidence with GB than placebo and no evidence of a dose–response relationship. In study Part 2, of 38 patients recruited, 34 completed the study. Adjusted mean differences from placebo in 12 h trough FEV1 on Day 7 (primary were 115, 142 and 136 mL for GB 12.5, 25 and 50 µg BID, respectively (all P<0.001. GB 25 and 50 µg BID were superior (P<0.05 to GB 12.5 µg BID for pre-dose morning FEV1 on Day 8. For this endpoint, GB 25 and 50 µg BID were also superior to tiotropium. Compared with Day 7, addition of formoterol significantly increased Day 8 FEV1 peak and AUC0–12h with all GB doses and placebo (all P<0.001. All

  10. Mepenzolate bromide promotes diabetic wound healing by modulating inflammation and oxidative stress. (United States)

    Zheng, Yongjun; Wang, Xingtong; Ji, Shizhao; Tian, Song; Wu, Haibin; Luo, Pengfei; Fang, He; Wang, Li; Wu, Guosheng; Xiao, Shichu; Xia, Zhaofan


    Diabetic wounds are characterized by persistent inflammation and the excessive production of reactive oxygen species, thus resulting in impaired wound healing. Mepenzolate bromide, which was originally used to treat gastrointestinal disorders in clinical settings, has recently been shown to display beneficial effects in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary fibrosis of a mouse model by inhibiting inflammatory responses and reducing oxidative stress. However,the role of mepenzolate bromide in diabetic wound healing is still unclear. In this study, full-thickness excisional skin wounds were created on the backs of db/db mice, and mepenzolate bromide was topically applied to the wound bed. We found that mepenzolate bromide significantly promoted diabetic wound healing by measuring wound closure rate and histomorphometric analyses. Further studies showed that inflammation was inhibited by assessing the number of macrophages and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-healing cytokines in the wounds. Furthermore, oxidative stress was reduced by monitoring the levels of MDA and H2O2 and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and catalase in the wounds. These results demonstrated the potential application of mepenzolate bromide for treating diabetic ulcers and other chronic wounds in clinics.

  11. Comparison of salbutamol and ipratropium bromide versus salbutamol alone in the treatment of acute severe asthma. (United States)

    Hossain, A S; Barua, U K; Roy, G C; Sutradhar, S R; Rahman, I; Rahman, G


    The use of nebulized Ipratropium bromide, quaternary anticholinergic bronchodilators in combination with beta-agonist for the treatment of acute asthma in adults is controversial. In a view of different recommendation the present study is undertaken in Bangladeshi patients. Combination of inhaled Ipratropium bromide and Salbutamol provides greater bronchodilatation than mono therapy with Salbutamol alone in acute severe asthma. Patients of severe asthma (PEFR Salbutamol only) and case (Salbutamol + Ipratropium bromide) group. After measurement of peak expiratory flow, patient received 3 doses of 2.5 mg Salbutamol (n=40) only or 3 doses of both 2.5mg Salbutamol and 500mcg Ipratropium bromide at an interval of 20 minutes (n=40) through a jet nebulizer. Peak flow was reassessed 30 & 60 minutes after treatment. Peak flow at baseline was similar in two groups. Then at 30 minutes after nebulization, the mean±SD percentage increase in peak flow was greater in combination group (60.01±35.01%) than Salbutamol group (44.47±25.03%) with difference of 16% (p=0.025). At 60 minutes the percentage increase in peak flow was about 32% greater in combination group than Salbutamol group (94.44±33.70% vs. 62.57±29.26%, p=0.000) and combination group reached percentage predicted peak flow more than 60% while Sabutamol group did not. Ipratropium Bromide and Salbutamol nebulized combinedly have better bronchodilating effect than Salbultamol alone in acute severe asthma.

  12. Alternatives to methyl bromide treatments for stored-product and quarantine insects. (United States)

    Fields, Paul G; White, Noel D G


    Methyl bromide is used to control insects as a space fumigant in flour and feed mills and ship holds, as a product fumigant for some fruit and cereals, and for general quarantine purposes. Methyl bromide acts rapidly, controlling insects in less than 48 h in space fumigations, and it has a wide spectrum of activity, controlling not only insects but also nematodes and plant-pathogenic microbes. This chemical will be banned in 2005 in developed countries, except for exceptional quarantine purposes, because it depletes ozone in the atmosphere. Many alternatives have been tested as replacements for methyl bromide, from physical control methods such as heat, cold, and sanitation to fumigant replacements such as phosphine, sulfuryl fluoride, and carbonyl sulfide, among others. Individual situations will require their own type of pest control techniques, but the most promising include integrated pest management tactics and combinations of treatments such as phosphine, carbon dioxide, and heat.

  13. Salty glycerol versus salty water surface organization: bromide and iodide surface propensities. (United States)

    Huang, Zishuai; Hua, Wei; Verreault, Dominique; Allen, Heather C


    Salty NaBr and NaI glycerol solution interfaces are examined in the OH stretching region using broadband vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy. Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopy are used to further understand the VSFG spectroscopic signature. The VSFG spectra of salty glycerol solutions reveal that bromide and iodide anions perturb the interfacial glycerol organization in a manner similar as that found in aqueous halide salt solutions, thus confirming the presence of bromide and iodide anions at the glycerol surface. Surface tension measurements are consistent with the surface propensity suggested by the VSFG data and also show that the surface excess increases with increasing salt concentration, similar to that of water. In addition, iodide is shown to have more surface prevalence than bromide, as has also been determined from aqueous solutions. These results suggest that glycerol behaves similarly to water with respect to surface activity and solvation of halide anions at its air/liquid interface.

  14. [Use of spasmolytic agent otilonium bromide (spasmomen) in digestive endoscopy: a prospective study in 63 patients]. (United States)

    Gómez, N A; León, C J; Gutiérrez, J


    Otilonium bromide is a calcium antagonist with a direct myolytic effect, that is indicated in spastic conditions and functional dyskinesias of the gastroenteric apparatus (irritable bowel syndrome) and as a premedication for gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. The present study assessed otilonium bromide 40 mg PO the night before and 40 mg PO the morning in 49 upper and 14 lower flexible endoscopies in 63 patients, to determine the presence or absence of peristalsis and relaxation of the pylorus. No side effects were observed due to the medication. In 46 (93.8%) upper endoscopies marked relaxation of the gastrointestinal tract and also pylorus relaxation were observed. In 13 (92.8%) lower endoscopies, marked relaxation of the colonic tract was also seen. All patients tolerated well the endoscopies. Otilonium bromide was useful as premedication in order to enable upper and lower endoscopic explorations, because of its spasmolytic effect.

  15. Efficient Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells Based on Formamidinium Lead Bromide. (United States)

    Hanusch, Fabian C; Wiesenmayer, Erwin; Mankel, Eric; Binek, Andreas; Angloher, Philipp; Fraunhofer, Christina; Giesbrecht, Nadja; Feckl, Johann M; Jaegermann, Wolfram; Johrendt, Dirk; Bein, Thomas; Docampo, Pablo


    The development of medium-bandgap solar cell absorber materials is of interest for the design of devices such as tandem solar cells and building-integrated photovoltaics. The recently developed perovskite solar cells can be suitable candidates for these applications. At present, wide bandgap alkylammonium lead bromide perovskite absorbers require a high-temperature sintered mesoporous TiO2 photoanode in order to function efficiently, which makes them unsuitable for some of the above applications. Here, we present for the first time highly efficient wide bandgap planar heterojunction solar cells based on the structurally related formamidinium lead bromide. We show that this material exhibits much longer diffusion lengths of the photoexcited species than its methylammonium counterpart. This results in planar heterojunction solar cells exhibiting power conversion efficiencies approaching 7%. Hence, formamidinium lead bromide is a strong candidate as a wide bandgap absorber in perovskite solar cells.

  16. A study of the interaction between ethidium bromide and rye chromatin: comparison with calf thymus chromatin. (United States)

    LaRue, H; Pallotta, D


    We studied the interaction of ethidium bromide with rye and calf thymus chromatin. Both types of chromatin have the same dye accessibility, which is about 50% of that of DNA. From this result we conclude that the molecular structure of these two chromatins is similar. For rye, the extraction of H1 produces no change in the binding of ethidium bromide. The subsequent extraction of H2A and H2B produces a 14% increase in the binding, and the removal of H3 and H4, another 54% increase. At this stage, the number of binding sites is still less than that of DNA. This is presumably due to the presence of some tightly bound non-histones. Thus, the arginine-rich histones and the tightly bound non-histones are most responsible for limiting the binding of ethidium bromide to rye chromatin.

  17. Valence photoelectron spectra of alkali bromides calculated within the propagator theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpenko, Alexander; Iablonskyi, Denys; Aksela, Helena


    The valence ionization spectra covering the binding energy range 0-45 eV of alkali bromide XBr (X = Li, Na, K, Rb) vapors are studied within the framework of the propagator theory. Relativistic Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction calculations have been carried out in order to investigate photoion......The valence ionization spectra covering the binding energy range 0-45 eV of alkali bromide XBr (X = Li, Na, K, Rb) vapors are studied within the framework of the propagator theory. Relativistic Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction calculations have been carried out in order to investigate...

  18. Bromide, Chloride, and Sulfate Concentrations, and Specific Conductance, Lake Texoma, Texas and Oklahoma, 2007-08 (United States)

    Baldys, Stanley


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Dallas Water Utilities Division, collected water-quality data from 11 sites on Lake Texoma, a reservoir on the Texas-Oklahoma border, during April 2007-September 2008. At 10 of the sites, physical properties (depth, specific conductance, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and alkalinity) were measured and samples were collected for analysis of selected dissolved constituents (bromide, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate); at one site, only physical properties were measured. The primary constituent of interest was bromide. Bromate can form when ozone is used to disinfect raw water containing bromide, and bromate is a suspected human carcinogen. Chloride and sulfate were of secondary interest. Only the analytical results for bromide, chloride, sulfate, and measured specific conductance are discussed in this report. Median dissolved bromide concentrations ranged from 0.28 to 0.60 milligrams per liter. The largest median dissolved bromide concentration (0.60 milligram per liter at site 11) was from the Red River arm of Lake Texoma. Dissolved bromide concentrations generally were larger in the Red River arm of Lake Texoma than in the Washita arm of the lake. Median dissolved chloride concentrations were largest in the Red River arm of Lake Texoma at site 11 (431 milligrams per liter) and smallest at site 8 (122 milligrams per liter) in the Washita arm. At site 11 in the Red River arm, the mean and median chloride concentrations exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level of 300 milligrams per liter for chloride established by the 'Texas Surface Water Quality Standards' for surface-water bodies designated for the public water supply use. Median dissolved sulfate concentrations ranged from 182 milligrams per liter at site 4 in the Big Mineral arm to 246 milligrams per liter at site 11 in the Red River arm. None of the mean or median sulfate concentrations

  19. Halide-mediated regioselective 6-O-glycosylation of unprotected hexopyranosides with perbenzylated glycosyl bromide donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niedbal, Dominika Alina; Madsen, Robert


    The regio- and stereoselective glycosylation at the 6-position in 2,3,4,6-unprotected hexopyranosides has been investigated with dibutyltin oxide as the directing agent. Perbenzylated hexopyranosyl bromides were employed as the donors and the glycosylations were promoted by tetrabutylammonium...... bromide. The couplings were completely selective for both glucose and galactose donors and acceptors as long as the stannylene acetal of the acceptor was soluble in dichloromethane. This gave rise to a number of 1,2-cis-linked disaccharides in reasonable yields. Mannose donors and acceptors, on the other...

  20. Well-Defined Copper(I) Fluoroalkoxide Complexes for Trifluoroethoxylation of Aryl and Heteroaryl Bromides

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ronglu


    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Copper(I) fluoroalkoxide complexes bearing dinitrogen ligands were synthesized and the structure and reactivity of the complexes toward trifluoroethoxylation, pentafluoropropoxylation, and tetrafluoropropoxylation of aryl and heteroaryl bromides were investigated. Efficiency drive: A series of copper(I) fluoroalkoxide complexes bearing N,N ligands have been prepared and structurally characterized. These well-defined complexes serve as efficient reagents for the fluoroalkoxylation of aryl and heteroaryl bromides to produce a wide range of trifluoroethyl, pentafluoropropyl, and tetrafluoropropyl (hetero)aryl ethers in good to excellent yields.

  1. Thermodynamic evaluation of new absorbent mixtures of lithium bromide and organic salts for absorption refrigeration machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donate, Marina; Rodriguez, Luis; Lucas, Antonio De; Rodriguez, Juan F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. de Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain)


    Mixtures of lithium bromide and organic salts of sodium and potassium (formate, acetate and lactate) have been evaluated as alternative absorbents for absorption refrigeration machines. The main objective is to overpass the limitations of lithium bromide and improve the characteristics and the efficiency of the refrigeration cycle. In order to select the mixture that presents better properties for its employment in absorption refrigeration cycles, a thermodynamic analysis have been done. Density, viscosity, enthalpies of dilution, solubility and vapour pressure data of the proposed mixtures have been measured. A simulation program has been developed to evaluate temperatures, heats exchanged in the different sections and the efficiency of the cycle. (author)

  2. Bromidotetrakis(2-ethyl-1H-imidazole-κN3copper(II bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Godlewska


    Full Text Available The CuII ion in the title molecular salt, [CuBr(C5H8N24]Br, is coordinated in a square-pyramidal geometry by four N atoms of imidazole ligands and one bromide anion in the apical position. In the crystal, the ions are linked by N—H...Br hydrogen bonds involving both the coordinating and the free bromide species as acceptors. A C—H...Br interaction is also observed. Overall, a three-dimensional network results.

  3. Bromidotetra-kis-(2-ethyl-1H-imidazole-κN (3))copper(II) bromide. (United States)

    Godlewska, Sylwia; Kelm, Harald; Krüger, Hans-Jörg; Dołęga, Anna


    The Cu(II) ion in the title mol-ecular salt, [CuBr(C5H8N2)4]Br, is coordinated in a square-pyramidal geometry by four N atoms of imidazole ligands and one bromide anion in the apical position. In the crystal, the ions are linked by N-H⋯Br hydrogen bonds involving both the coordinating and the free bromide species as acceptors. A C-H⋯Br inter-action is also observed. Overall, a three-dimensional network results.

  4. Comparison of injection drotaverine and injection valethamate bromide on duration and course of labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradnya Rajendra Changede


    Results: The mean duration of active phase of first stage of labor was significantly shorter in the drotaverine and valethamate bromide groups as compared to control group in both primigravida and multigravida patients. Conclusions: The rate of cervical dilatation under the influence of valethamate bromide and drotaverine is significantly higher as compared to control group. In each group dilatation was faster in multigravida patients as compared to primigravida and it was fastest in the drotaverine group. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 1836-1842

  5. Density functional study on ionic liquid of 1-propyl-4,5-dibromo-3-methylimidazolium bromide (United States)

    Lü, Renqing; Wang, Shutao; Lu, Yukun


    The density functional method and DNP basis set were employed to study 1-pair, 2-pair, and 3-pair of cation-anion interactions of 1-propyl-4,5-dibromo-3-methylimidazolium bromides. The calculated results reveal that H 2 atoms of 1-propyl-4,5-dibromo-3-methylimidazolium form hydrogen bondings with Br -. The natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) analyzes show that halogen bondings between Br - anion and imidazolium ring substituted bromine atoms were formed in the gas phase, in agreement with the crystal phase of 1-propyl-4,5-dibromo-3-methylimidazolium bromide which is governed by both hydrogen bondings and halogen bondings.

  6. Uroporphyria development in cultured chick embryo fibroblasts long-term treated with chloramphenicol and ethidium bromide. (United States)

    de Muys, J M; Morais, R


    Long-term chloramphenicol- and ethidium bromide-treated chick embryo fibroblasts synthesize large amounts of porphyrins from exogenously added delta-aminolevulinic acid. The porphyrins consist mainly of uro- and heptacarboxyporphyrins and are retained within cells. Uroporphyria development is a time-dependent process which accompanies a step-wise decrease in the capacity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Upon removal of chloramphenicol from the medium, the pattern of porphyrin production readily returns to normal (mainly proto- and coproporphyrins found in the medium) while ethidium bromide-treated cells remain uroporphyric. The results suggest that impairment of mitochondrial functions in chicken by xenobiotics leads to uroporphyria development.

  7. Efficacy and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic study of 1,1'-methylenebis{4-[(hydroxyimino)methyl] pyridinium} dimethanesulfonate in guinea pigs and rhesus macaques exposed to cyclosarin. (United States)

    Harvilchuck, Jill A; Hong, S Peter; Richey, Jamie S; Osheroff, Merrill R; Johnson, Jerry D


    Male Hartley guinea pigs and male rhesus macaques were used to determine an efficacious dose of 1,1'-methylenebis{4-[(hydroxyimino)methyl] pyridinium} dimethanesulfonate (MMB4 DMS) that would result in 80% survival, 24 hours following a single exposure to cyclosarin (GF). The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship between acetylcholinesterase activity and MMB4 plasma concentrations relative to survival was evaluated. Guinea pigs and non-human primates (NHPs) were concurrently administered MMB4 DMS (guinea pigs: 0, 10, 30, or 40 mg/kg, intramuscular [IM] and NHPs: 0.1, 1, 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg, IM), atropine, and diazepam following a 3 × median lethal dose (LD50) GF challenge. Clinical observations were evaluated using a quality-of-life (QOL) scoring system. All GF-exposed animals exhibited typical signs of nerve agent poisoning immediately following challenge. In guinea pigs, 24-hour survival was 0%, 50%, 90%, and 90% for 0, 10, 30, and 40 mg/kg MMB4 DMS groups, respectively. In addition, nearly all animals surviving to 24 hours were clinically normal, with many in the 30 and 40 mg/kg MMB4 DMS dose group observed as normal by 4 hours post-challenge. In NHPs, survival was 100% for all treatment groups, with all animals noted as clinically normal by 48 hours. Following treatment with atropine/MMB4 DMS/diazepam, NHPs exhibited dose- and temporal-related decreases in incidence and duration of the clinical signs of toxicity. The QOL scores improved with increasing MMB4 DMS dose in both species. The estimated ED80s were 25.5 mg/kg MMB4 DMS (human equivalent dose [HED] of 5.5 mg/kg) and ≤ 0.1 mg/kg (HED of 0.03 mg/kg) in guinea pigs and NHPs, respectively.

  8. An efficient method for the preparation of tertiary esters by palladium-catalyzed alkoxycarbonylation of aryl bromides. (United States)

    Xin, Zhuo; Gøgsig, Thomas M; Lindhardt, Anders T; Skrydstrup, Troels


    The palladium-catalyzed alkoxycarbonylation of aryl bromides is described for the efficient preparation of tertiary esters. The protocol proved compatible with a wide variety of functionalized (hetero)aromatic bromides, as well as several different sterically hindered tertiary alcohols, affording the alkoxycarbonylated products in high yields. Finally, the formation of aromatic trityl esters is discussed. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. The copper catalysed reaction of sodium methoxide with aryl bromides. A mechanistic study leading to a facile synthesis of anisole derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Aalten, H.L.; Grove, D.M.; Kuilman, T.; Piekstra, O.G.; Hulshof, L.A.; Sheldon, R.A.


    The copper catalysed reaction of unactivated aryl bromides with sodium methoxide has been investigated by studying a number of parameters (copper catalyst, cosolvent, concentration and relative ratio of the reactants, additives and aryl bromide substituents) which influence this reaction. The

  10. Mild Pd-catalyzed aminocarbonylation of (hetero)aryl bromides with a palladacycle precatalyst. (United States)

    Friis, Stig D; Skrydstrup, Troels; Buchwald, Stephen L


    A palladacyclic precatalyst is employed to cleanly generate a highly active XantPhos-ligated Pd-catalyst. Its use in low temperature aminocarbonylations of (hetero)aryl bromides provides access to a range of challenging products in good to excellent yields with low catalyst loading and only a slight excess of CO. Some products are unattainable by traditional carbonylative coupling.

  11. Methyl Bromide Alternatives Area-Wide Pest Management Project - South Atlantic Progress Report (United States)

    Protocols and Standard Operational Procedures (SOPs) were developed for collecting environmental and soil edaphic information during and after application of methyl bromide alternatives. Parameters measured included soil moisture, soil bulk density, percent moisture at field capacity (-0.3 bars wat...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Cross-linked, hydrophobically associating homo- and copolymers were synthesized by free-radical cyclo(co)polymerization of alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromide monomers with a small amount of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide in aqueous solution using ammonium persulfate as the initiator. The cross-linked h

  13. Microwave-Enhanced Cross-Coupling Reactions Involving Alkynyltrifluoroborates with Aryl Bromides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W. Kabalka


    Full Text Available Palladium-catalyzed alkynylation has emerged as one of the most reliable methods for the synthesis of alkynes which are often used in natural product syntheses and material science. An efficient method for coupling alkynyltrifluoroborates with various aryl bromides in the presence of a palladium catalyst has been developed using microwave irradiation. The microwave reactions are rapid and efficient.

  14. Palladium-catalyzed conversion of aryl and vinyl triflates to bromides and chlorides. (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoqiang; Hyde, Alan M; Buchwald, Stephen L


    The palladium-catalyzed conversion of aryl and vinyl triflates to aryl and vinyl halides (bromides and chlorides) has been developed using dialkylbiaryl phosphine ligands. A variety of aryl, heteroaryl, and vinyl halides can be prepared via this method in good to excellent yields.

  15. Aclidinium bromid forbedrer lungefunktionen og reducerer dyspnø hos patienter med KOL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli


    Long-acting bronchodilators are central for treatment of COPD. This short review provides an overview of studies evaluating the efficacy of aclidinium bromide, a long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilator, for the treatment of COPD. Twice-daily dosing of aclidinium leads to clinically important...

  16. Palladium-catalyzed carbonylative synthesis of quinazolinones from 2-aminobenzamide and aryl bromides. (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Feng; He, Lin; Neumann, Helfried; Beller, Matthias


    C from CO! A straightforward procedure for the carbonylative synthesis of quinazolinones from readily available 2-aminobenzamide and aryl bromides has been developed. In the presence of a palladium catalyst, various quinazolinones were produced in moderate to excellent yields. Remarkably, no chromatography was needed for purification (see scheme).

  17. Palladium-catalyzed carbonylation reaction of aryl bromides with 2-hydroxyacetophenones to form flavones. (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Feng; Neumann, Helfried; Beller, Matthias


    Flavone of the month: a general and efficient method for the palladium-catalyzed carbonylative synthesis of flavones has been developed. Starting from aryl bromides and 2-hydroxyacetophenones, the corresponding flavones have been isolated in good yields. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Microwave-enhanced cross-coupling reactions involving alkynyltrifluoroborates with aryl bromides. (United States)

    Coltuclu, Vitali; Dadush, Eric; Naravane, Abhijit; Kabalka, George W


    Palladium-catalyzed alkynylation has emerged as one of the most reliable methods for the synthesis of alkynes which are often used in natural product syntheses and material science. An efficient method for coupling alkynyltrifluoroborates with various aryl bromides in the presence of a palladium catalyst has been developed using microwave irradiation. The microwave reactions are rapid and efficient.

  19. Once-daily glycopyrronium bromide, a long-acting muscarinic antagonist, for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli


    Long-acting bronchodilators are central in the pharmacological management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of the studies evaluating the safety and clinical efficacy of inhaled glycopyrronium bromide, a novel...

  20. An improved palladium-catalyzed conversion of aryl and vinyl triflates to bromides and chlorides. (United States)

    Pan, Jun; Wang, Xinyan; Zhang, Yong; Buchwald, Stephen L


    A facile Pd-catalyzed conversion of aryl and vinyl triflates to aryl and vinyl halides (bromides and chlorides) is described. This method allows convenient access to a variety of aryl, heteroaryl, and vinyl halides in good to excellent yields and with greatly simplified conditions relative to our previous report. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  1. Valence photoelectron spectra of alkali bromides calculated within the propagator theory. (United States)

    Karpenko, Alexander; Iablonskyi, Denys; Aksela, Helena


    The valence ionization spectra covering the binding energy range 0-45 eV of alkali bromide XBr (X = Li, Na, K, Rb) vapors are studied within the framework of the propagator theory. Relativistic Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction calculations have been carried out in order to investigate photoionization processes and to describe molecular electronic structure. Theoretical results are compared with available experimental data.

  2. Efficient palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions of aryl bromides and chlorides with phenols. (United States)

    Hu, Tongjie; Schulz, Thomas; Torborg, Christian; Chen, Xiaorong; Wang, Jun; Beller, Matthias; Huang, Jun


    A convenient and general palladium-catalyzed coupling reaction of aryl bromides and chlorides with phenols was developed. Various functional groups such as nitriles, aldehydes, ketones and esters are well tolerated and the corresponding products are obtained in good to excellent yield.

  3. Highly efficient synthesis of phenols by copper-catalyzed hydroxylation of aryl iodides, bromides, and chlorides. (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Li, Zheng; Wang, Zhaoyang; Yao, Zhiyi; Jiang, Sheng


    8-Hydroxyquinolin-N-oxide was found to be a very efficient ligand for the copper-catalyzed hydroxylation of aryl iodides, aryl bromides, or aryl chlorides under mild reaction conditions. This methodology provides a direct transformation of aryl halides to phenols and to alkyl aryl ethers. The inexpensive catalytic system showed great functional group tolerance and excellent selectivity. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  4. Nickel-catalyzed sonogashira reactions of non-activated secondary alkyl bromides and iodides. (United States)

    Yi, Jun; Lu, Xi; Sun, Yan-Yan; Xiao, Bin; Liu, Lei


    A nicked reaction: The title reaction of terminal alkynes with non-activated secondary alkyl iodides and bromides was accomplished for the first time. This reaction provides a new and practical approach for the synthesis of substituted alkynes (see scheme; cod=cyclo-1,5-octadiene). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Palladium-catalyzed carbonylative sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides using near stoichiometric carbon monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Karoline T.; Laursen, Simon R.; Lindhardt, Anders T.


    A general procedure for the palladium-catalyzed carbonylative Sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides is reported, using near stoichiometric amounts of carbon monoxide. The method allows a broad substrate scope in moderate to excellent yields. The formed alkynone motive serves as a platform...

  6. 76 FR 29238 - Methyl Bromide; Cancellation Order for Registration Amendments To Terminate Certain Soil Uses (United States)


    ... AGENCY Methyl Bromide; Cancellation Order for Registration Amendments To Terminate Certain Soil Uses... for the amendments to terminate soil uses, voluntarily requested by the registrants and accepted by... Corporation. 5785-48 Terr-O-Gas 50 Great Lakes Chemical Corporation. 8536-05 Pic-Brom 33 Soil...

  7. 77 FR 29341 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Request for Methyl Bromide Critical Use Exemption Applications... (United States)


    .... Alternatives for which such information is needed include: Sulfuryl fluoride, propylene oxide (PPO), phosphine... costs to retrofit equipment or design and construct new fumigation chambers for these alternatives. For...) that are not needed when methyl bromide is used for fumigation. Include information on the size...

  8. Distribution of bromine in mixed iodide-bromide organolead perovskites and its impact on photovoltaic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Yang; Wang, Feng; Fang, Hong-Hua; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Xie, Fang-Yan; Zhao, Ni; Wong, Ching-Ping


    Mixed iodide-bromide (I-Br) organolead perovskites are of great interest for both single junction and tandem solar cells since the optical bandgap of the materials can be tuned by varying the bromine to iodine ratio. Yet, it remains unclear how bromine incorporation modifies the properties of the pe

  9. Effect of increasing bromide concentration on toxicity in treated drinking water. (United States)

    Sawade, Emma; Fabris, Rolando; Humpage, Andrew; Drikas, Mary


    Research is increasingly indicating the potential chronic health effects of brominated disinfection by-products (DBPs). This is likely to increase with elevated bromide concentrations resulting from the impacts of climate change, projected to include extended periods of drought and the sudden onset of water quality changes. This will demand more rigorous monitoring throughout distribution systems and improved water quality management at water treatment plants (WTPs). In this work the impact of increased bromide concentration on formation of DBPs following conventional treatment and chlorination was assessed for two water sources. Bioanalytical tests were utilised to determine cytotoxicity of the water post disinfection. Coagulation was shown to significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of the water, indicating that removal of natural organic matter DBP precursors continues to be an important factor in drinking water treatment. Most toxic species appear to form within the first half hour following disinfectant addition. Increasing bromide concentration across the two waters was shown to increase the formation of trihalomethanes and shifted the haloacetic acid species distribution from chlorinated to those with greater bromine substitution. This correlated with increasing cytotoxicity. This work demonstrates the challenges faced by WTPs and the possible effects increasing levels of bromide in source waters could have on public health.

  10. Measurement and Computation of Movement of Bromide Ions and Carbofuran in Ridged HUmic-Sandy Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leistra, M.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.


    Water flow and pesticide transport in the soil of fields with ridges and furrows may be more complex than in the soil of more level fields. Prior to crop emergence, the tracer bromide ion and the insecticide carbofuran were sprayed on the humic-sandy soil of a potato field with ridges and furrows. R

  11. Ozone decomposition under the irradiation of 253.7 nm in the presence of methyl bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper the mechanism and kinetic of ozone decomposition under the irradiation of 253.7 nm UV-light were studied.The quantum yield of the ozone depletion in the presence of methyl bromide is further determined and a reaction model is provided to explain the experimental fact.

  12. Simultaneous determination of otilonium bromide and diazepam by first-derivative spectroscopy. (United States)

    Mannucci, C; Bertini, J; Cocchini, A; Perico, A; Salvagnini, F; Triolo, A


    A rapid, simple assay procedure was developed for simultaneous analysis of otilonium bromide, a smooth-muscle relaxant, and diazepam in tablets containing 20 mg of otilonium bromide and 2 mg of diazepam (20:2 tablets) or 40 mg of otilonium bromide and 2 mg of diazepam (40:2 tablets) by "zero-crossing" first-derivative spectroscopy. The tablets were dissolved in 0.01 N HCl, mixtures were centrifuged at 3500 rpm (2472 x g) for 5 min, and first-derivative spectra were recorded. The absolute values of the derivative were measured at 264 nm for determination of otilonium bromide and between 406 and 408 nm (380 nm for analysis of 40:2 tablets) for determination of diazepam. The method is linear, quantitative, and reproducible and can also be used for the tablet dissolution test. Ten tablets of the same batch were analyzed by the described method and by a high-performance liquid chromatographic method, and the results were in good agreement.

  13. Effects exerted by otilonium bromide administration on precipitated opioid withdrawal syndrome in rats. (United States)

    Pinelli, A; Trivulzio, S; Vignati, S


    An opioid withdrawal syndrome was induced in rats by repeated morphine administration and final naloxone injection. The withdrawal causes alteration of several physiological signs. The aim of the study was to prevent the altered physiological profiles by utilising otilonium bromide. Morphine was administered in three daily i.p. injections for 4 days at doses of 9, 16 and 25 mg/kg (1st day), 25, 25 and 50 mg/kg (2nd day), 50, 50 and 50 mg/kg (3rd day) and 50, 50 and 100 mg/kg (4th day). Naloxone was injected (30 mg/kg) i.p. 180 min after the last morphine injection. Otilonium bromide was administered orally at 0, 2, 4 and 8 mg/kg, 120 min before the naloxone administration. Signs like faecal and urine excretion, rectal temperature and pain threshold levels, salivation, jumping and wet dog shakes were affected in different ways. Notably the administration of otilonium bromide in rats receiving morphine together with naloxone decreased the intensity of certain withdrawal symptoms, such as excretion of faeces, wet dog shake behaviour, and elevated the nociceptive threshold values. The effects exhibited by otilonium bromide administration may be explained through its calcium antagonist activity interfering with a mechanism involved in the regulation of these previously mentioned withdrawal symptoms. The use of this drug is thus suggested as a possible control of some acute opioid withdrawal signs in heroin addicts.

  14. Otilonium bromide inhibits calcium entry through L-type calcium channels in human intestinal smooth muscle. (United States)

    Strege, P R; Evangelista, S; Lyford, G L; Sarr, M G; Farrugia, G


    Otilonium bromide (OB) is used as an intestinal antispasmodic. The mechanism of action of OB is not completely understood. As Ca(2+) entry into intestinal smooth muscle is required to trigger contractile activity, our hypothesis was that OB blocked Ca(2+) entry through L-type Ca(2+) channels. Our aim was to determine the effects of OB on Ca(2+), Na(+) and K(+) ion channels in human jejunal circular smooth muscle cells and on L-type Ca(2+) channels expressed heterologously in HEK293 cells. Whole cell currents were recorded using standard patch clamp techniques. Otilonium bromide (0.09-9 micromol L(-1)) was used as this reproduced clinical intracellular concentrations. In human circular smooth muscle cells, OB inhibited L-type Ca(2+) current by 25% at 0.9 micromol L(-1) and 90% at 9 micromol L(-1). Otilonium bromide had no effect on Na(+) or K(+) currents. In HEK293 cells, 1 micromol L(-1) OB significantly inhibited the expressed L-type Ca(2+) channels. Truncation of the alpha(1C) subunit C and N termini did not block the inhibitory effects of OB. Otilonium bromide inhibited Ca(2+) entry through L-type Ca(2+) at concentrations similar to intestinal tissue levels. This effect may underlie the observed muscle relaxant effects of the drug.


    When ozone is used in the treatment of drinking water, it reacts with both inorganic and organic compounds to form byproducts. f bromide is present, it may be oxidized to hydrobromous acid, which may than react with natural organic matter to form brominated organic compounds. he ...

  16. SYBR safe(TM) efficiently replaces ethidium bromide in Aspergillus fumigatus gene disruption. (United States)

    Canela, H M S; Takami, L A; Ferreira, M E S


    Invasive aspergillosis is a disease responsible for high mortality rates, caused mainly by Aspergillus fumigatus. The available drugs are limited and this disease continues to occur at an unacceptable frequency. Gene disruption is essential in the search for new drug targets. An efficient protocol for A. fumigatus gene disruption was described but it requires ethidium bromide, a genotoxic agent, for DNA staining. Therefore, the present study tested SYBR safe(TM), a non-genotoxic DNA stain, in A. fumigatus gene disruption protocol. The chosen gene was cipC, which has already been disrupted successfully in our laboratory. A deletion cassette was constructed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and used in A. fumigatus transformation. There was no statistical difference between the tested DNA stains. The success rate of S. cerevisiae transformation was 63.3% for ethidium bromide and 70% for SYBR safe(TM). For A. fumigatus gene disruption, the success rate for ethidium bromide was 100 and 97% for SYBR safe(TM). In conclusion, SYBR safe(TM) efficiently replaced ethidium bromide, making this dye a safe and efficient alternative for DNA staining in A. fumigatus gene disruption.

  17. Strontium and bromide as tracers in X-ray microanalysis of biological tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wroblewski, J.; Sagstroem, S.M.; Mulders, H.; Roomans, G.M. (Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden))


    Since energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis cannot distinguish between isotopes of the same element, alternative methods have to be used to get information similar to that obtained in experiments with radioactive tracers. In the present study, strontium was used as a tracer for calcium, and bromide as a tracer for chloride. Rats were injected with strontium chloride in vivo, and the uptake of strontium in the acinar cells of the submandibular gland was studied. Eventually a Sr/Ca ratio of 0.3 was reached. In some animals, secretion of mucus had been elicited by stimulation with isoproterenol 4 h prior to injection of strontium chloride. Exchange of calcium for strontium was enhanced by prior injection with isoproterenol. In a second experiment, rats were injected with sodium bromide, and the uptake of bromide by the submandibular acinar cells was followed in time, both in pilocarpine-stimulated and unstimulated glands. Under the experimental conditions, bromide was rapidly taken up by the cells, and the cellular Br/Cl ratio was close to that found in serum. Submandibular glands take up Br somewhat faster than other tissues (liver, heart muscle, skeletal muscle). The uptake of Br in pancreatic acinar cells was studied in vitro. These experiments showed a 1:1 ratio (molar) exchange of Cl for Br.

  18. Experimental study of negative temperatures in lithium-bromide absorption refrigerating machines (United States)

    Stepanov, K. I.; Mukhin, D. G.; Alekseenko, S. V.; Volkova, O. V.


    The authors have developed a method and presented experimental data for obtaining negative temperatures of evaporation in lithium-bromide absorption chillers driven by heat recovery. It has been found that the attainable temperature of the refrigerated medium is the value of -5 °C.

  19. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of bromide by periodate in aqueous acidic solution. (United States)

    Szél, Viktor; Csekő, György; Horváth, Attila K


    The periodate–bromide reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically mainly in excess of bromide ion, monitoring the formation of the total amount of bromine at 450 nm at acidic buffered conditions and at a constant ionic strength in the presence of a phosphoric acid/dihydrogen phosphate buffer. The stoichiometry of the reaction was established to be strictly IO4(–) + 2Br(–) + 2H(+) → Br2 + IO3(–) + H2O. The formal kinetic order of the reactants was found to be perfectly one and two in the cases of periodate and bromide, respectively, but that of the hydrogen ion lies between one and two. We have also provided experimental evidence that dihydrogen phosphate accelerates the formation of bromine, suggesting the appearance of strong buffer assistance. On the basis of the experiments, a simple two-step kinetic model is proposed involving BrIO3 as a key intermediate that perfectly explains all of the experimental findings. Furthermore, we have also shown that in huge excess of bromide, the apparent rate coefficient obtained from the individual curve fitting method of the absorbance–time series is necessarily independent of the initial periodate concentration that may falsely be interpreted as the rate of bromine formation is also independent of the concentration of periodate.

  20. The carbonylation of phenyl bromide and its derivatives under visible light irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Hui Zhong; Ying Na Cui; Shen Min Li; Ying Ping Jia; Jing Mei Yin


    The carbonylation of phenyl bromide catalyzed by Co(OAc)2 has been investigated with PhCOPh as a sensitizer under visible light in the presence of basic additive.With strong base CH3ONa,PhCOOCH3 is produced in 70% yield with 100% selectivity,the similar results are also obtained with a stronger base (CH3)3CONa.However,with another strong base NaOH,the yield of the ester is only 40%.On the other hand,with weak base NaOAc or (n-C4Hg)3N,phenyl bromide cannot be carbonylated.The results of carbonylation of the six substituted phenyl bromides suggest that the activities of o,m,p-BrC6H4CH3 are similar to phenyl bromide,while the activities of o,m,p-BrC6H4Cl are higher with the high yields (≥93%) of the corresponding chloro-esters.In addition,the relative position of bromine and chlorine or methyl on phenyl ring has little effect on the activity of the carbonylation.

  1. Palladium Catalyzed Suzuki Cross-coupling Reaction in Molten Tetra-n-butylammonium Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU, Yue(邹岳); WANG, Quan-Rui(王全瑞); TAO, Feng-Gang(陶凤岗); DING, Zong-Biao(丁宗彪)


    A practical procedure for palladium catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of arylboronic acids with aryl halides, including aryl chlorides in molten tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB) was developed. The reaction exhibits high efficiency and functional group tolerance. The recovery of the catalyst and molten n-Bu4NBr was also investigated.

  2. Methyl bromide release from activated carbon and the soil/water/carbon interface (United States)

    Methyl Bromide (MB) is a major source of stratospheric bromine radical, a known depletor of ozone. The use of ozone-depleting chemicals, including MB, is regulated by the Montreal Protocol. Critical uses of MB are permitted, such as when postharvest fumigation is mandated by an importing country. Fo...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Shepel


    Full Text Available This communication is devoted to the elaboration of a new optimal technique of infrared spectra registration of activated carbons in potassium bromide pellets. Authors investigated the dependence of the intensity of the least overlapping infrared bands of activated carbons on the conditions of preparation, recording of the spectrum, and the degree of homogenization with KBr.

  4. Detection of DNA cross-links in tumor cells with the ethidium bromide fluorescence assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Steven; Zijlstra, J G; Timmer-Bosscha, H; Mulder, N H; de Vries, Liesbeth


    Until now the fluorescence assay with ethidium bromide has only been used on pure DNA. This assay depends on the difference in fluorescence between single- and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Cross-links in DNA are measured by the return of fluorescence of dsDNA after heat denaturation at pH 12. Under

  5. Iodine catalyzed and tertiary butyl ammonium bromide promoted p reparation of b enzoxazaphosphininyl phenylboronates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Kishore K. Reddy,


    Full Text Available Benzoxazaphosphininyl Phenylboronates were prepared by O-Phosphorylation of potassium salt ofphenylboronic acid with cyclic phosphoromonochloridates in the presence of stoichiometric amount of Iodineand catalytic amount of tertiary butyl ammonium bromide at 50-60 °C in dry toluene.

  6. Study of the antibacterial and antifungal activities of synthetic benzyl bromides, ketones, and corresponding chalcone derivatives (United States)

    Shakhatreh, Muhamad Ali K; Al-Smadi, Mousa L; Khabour, Omar F; Shuaibu, Fatima A; Hussein, Emad I; Alzoubi, Karem H


    Several applications of chalcones and their derivatives encouraged researchers to increase their synthesis as an alternative for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial and fungal infections. In the present study, chalcone derivatives were synthesized through cross aldol condensation reaction between 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)benzaldehyde and multiarm aromatic ketones. The multiarm aromatic ketones were synthesized through nucleophilic substitution reaction between 4-hydroxy acetophenone and benzyl bromides. The benzyl bromides, multiarm aromatic ketones, and corresponding chalcone derivatives were evaluated for their activities against eleven clinical pathogenic Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and three pathogenic fungi by the disk diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the microbroth dilution technique. The results of the present study demonstrated that benzyl bromide derivatives have strong antibacterial and antifungal properties as compared to synthetic chalcone derivatives and ketones. Benzyl bromides (1a and 1c) showed high ester activity against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi but moderate activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, these compounds may be considered as good antibacterial and antifungal drug discovery. However, substituted ketones (2a–b) as well as chalcone derivatives (3a–c) showed no activity against all the tested strains except for ketone (2c), which showed moderate activity against Candida albicans. PMID:27877017

  7. Dielectric relaxation losses in lead chloride and lead bromide: Localized dipoles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, W.E. van den; Volger, J.


    A further analysis of previous reported measurements of dielectric relaxation losses in lead chloride and lead bromide crystals shows that the dipoles may occupy several energetically different positions, giving rise to localization of the dipoles and anomalous behaviour of the susceptibility. This


    Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), we investigated the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) from high bromide waters (2 mg/L) treated with chlorine or chlorine dioxide used in combination with chlorine and chloramines. This study represents the first comp...

  9. Palladium-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Aryl Bromides with N-Substituted Cyanamides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lian, Zhong; Friis, Stig D.; Lindhardt, Anders T.;


    The palladium(0)-catalyzed three-component coupling reaction of aryl bromides, carbon monoxide, and N-alkyl cyan­amides has been developed employing a two-chamber system with ex situ generation of carbon monoxide from a silacarboxylic acid. The reactions proceeded well and were complete with a re...

  10. Sn-free Ni-catalyzed reductive coupling of glycosyl bromides with activated alkenes. (United States)

    Gong, Hegui; Andrews, R Stephen; Zuccarello, Joseph L; Lee, Stephen J; Gagné, Michel R


    A mild, stereoselective method for the Ni-catalyzed synthesis of alpha-C-alkylglycosides is reported. This approach entails the reductive coupling of glycosyl bromides with activated alkenes at room temperature, with low alkene loading as an important feature. Diastereoselective coupling with 2-substituted acrylate derivatives was made possible through the use of 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol as a proton source.

  11. Distribution of bromine in mixed iodide-bromide organolead perovskites and its impact on photovoltaic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Yang; Wang, Feng; Fang, Hong-Hua; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Xie, Fang-Yan; Zhao, Ni; Wong, Ching-Ping


    Mixed iodide-bromide (I-Br) organolead perovskites are of great interest for both single junction and tandem solar cells since the optical bandgap of the materials can be tuned by varying the bromine to iodine ratio. Yet, it remains unclear how bromine incorporation modifies the properties of the pe

  12. Feasibility and outcome of interval debulking surgery (IDS) after carboplatin-paclitaxel-bevacizumab (CPB): A subgroup analysis of the MITO-16A-MaNGO OV2A phase 4 trial. (United States)

    Daniele, Gennaro; Lorusso, Domenica; Scambia, Giovanni; Cecere, Sabrina C; Nicoletto, Maria Ornella; Breda, Enrico; Colombo, Nicoletta; Artioli, Grazia; Cannella, Lucia; Lo Re, Giovanni; Raspagliesi, Francesco; Maltese, Giuseppa; Salutari, Vanda; Ferrandina, Gabriella; Greggi, Stefano; Baldoni, Alessandra; Bergamini, Alice; Piccirillo, Maria Carmela; Tognon, Germana; Floriani, Irene; Signoriello, Simona; Perrone, Francesco; Pignata, Sandro


    Few data are available on the outcome of surgery after a bevacizumab-containing regimen. The MITO 16A- MaNGO OV2A phase 4 trial evaluates the outcomes of first-line CPB in a clinical-practice-like setting. Here we present the results of the subgroup of patients undergoing IDS after neoadjuvant treatment or suboptimal primary surgery. 400 chemonaïve epithelial ovarian cancer patients, age≥18, ECOG PS 0-2 were eligible to receive C (AUC 5 d1, q21) plus P (175mg/m(2) d1, q21) and B (15mg/kg d1 q21) for 6cycles followed by B maintenance until cycle 22nd. 79 patients (20%) underwent IDS. Overall, 74 patients received at least one administration of B before IDS. Median age was 61.2, 70% of the patients had FIGO IIIC disease. The median number of cycles before IDS was 3 both for chemotherapy and bevacizumab respectively. A residual disease ≤1cm was achieved in 64 patients (86.5%). Four percent of the patients experienced fever and 4% required blood transfusion after surgery. Surgical wound infection and/or dehiscence, pelvic abscess, intestinal sub-occlusion and fistula were experienced by one patient each. In the MITO16A-MaNGO OV2A phase 4 trial, combined chemotherapy and bevacizumab did not hamper IDS and the rate of perioperative complications was similar to what expected without bevacizumab. These data support the hypothesis that adding bevacizumab to first line chemotherapy for ovarian cancer might not be denied to patients for whom IDS is planned. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of soluble bromide measurements and a case study of BrO observations during ARCTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liao


    Full Text Available A focus of the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS mission was examination of bromine photochemistry in the spring time high latitude troposphere based on aircraft and satellite measurements of bromine oxide (BrO and related species. The NASA DC-8 aircraft utilized a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS to measure BrO and a mist chamber (MC to measure soluble bromide. We have determined that the MC detection efficiency to molecular bromine (Br2, hypobromous acid (HOBr, bromine oxide (BrO, and hydrogen bromide (HBr as soluble bromide (Br was 0.9±0.1, 1.06+0.30/−0.35, 0.4±0.1, and 0.95±0.1, respectively. These efficiency factors were used to estimate soluble bromide levels along the DC-8 flight track of 17 April 2008 from photochemical calculations constrained to in situ BrO measured by CIMS. During this flight, the highest levels of soluble bromide and BrO were observed and atmospheric conditions were ideal for the space-borne observation of BrO. The good agreement (R2 = 0.76; slope = 0.95; intercept = −3.4 pmol mol−1 between modeled and observed soluble bromide, when BrO was above detection limit (>2 pmol mol−1 under unpolluted conditions (NO<10 pmol mol−1, indicates that the CIMS BrO measurements were consistent with the MC soluble bromide and that a well characterized MC can be used to derive mixing ratios of some reactive bromine compounds. Tropospheric BrO vertical column densities (BrOVCD derived from CIMS BrO observations compare well with BrOTROPVCD from OMI on 17 April 2008.

  14. Study of the antibacterial and antifungal activities of synthetic benzyl bromides, ketones, and corresponding chalcone derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakhatreh MA


    Full Text Available Muhamad Ali K Shakhatreh,1 Mousa L Al-Smadi,2 Omar F Khabour,1,3 Fatima A Shuaibu,1 Emad I Hussein,4 Karem H Alzoubi51Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, 2Department of Applied Chemical Sciences, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 3Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, Madina, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Biological Sciences, Yarmouk University, 5Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan Abstract: Several applications of chalcones and their derivatives encouraged researchers to increase their synthesis as an alternative for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial and fungal infections. In the present study, chalcone derivatives were synthesized through cross aldol condensation reaction between 4-(N,N-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde and multiarm aromatic ketones. The multiarm aromatic ketones were synthesized through nucleophilic substitution reaction between 4-hydroxy acetophenone and benzyl bromides. The benzyl bromides, multiarm aromatic ketones, and corresponding chalcone derivatives were evaluated for their activities against eleven clinical pathogenic Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and three pathogenic fungi by the disk diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the microbroth dilution technique. The results of the present study demonstrated that benzyl bromide derivatives have strong antibacterial and antifungal properties as compared to synthetic chalcone derivatives and ketones. Benzyl bromides (1a and 1c showed high ester activity against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi but moderate activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, these compounds may be considered as good antibacterial and antifungal drug discovery. However, substituted ketones (2a–b as well as chalcone derivatives (3a–c showed no activity against all the tested strains except for ketone (2c, which showed moderate activity against

  15. Effect of Ispaghula and Oxyphenonium Bromide on the Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome - A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Paik


    Full Text Available Background: Irritable bowel syndrome is a chronic continuous or remittent gastrointestinal illness characterized byfrequent unexplained symptoms that include abdominal pain, bloating, and bowel disturbance, in our country, no studyhas been conducted using the Ispaghula husk and oxyphenonium bromide for the treatment of IBS patients. Objectives:To compare the efficacy of treatment with Ispaghula husk and Oxyphenonium bromide. Methods: Total sixty patientsdiagnosed clinically as irritable bowel syndrome irrespective of subtype who fulfilled the Rome II criteria were includedequally into two groups-Group-I (Ispaghula group & Group-II (Oxyphenonium group. In Group-I patients were given30gm of Ispaghula husk at night daily and in Group-II patients were given 5mg of oxyphenonium bromide. After sixweeks the clinical parameters of both the groups recorded in the case record forms were taken for analysis. Results: Themean age of the patients in the Group- I were 33.4±11.9 yrs and that of the patients in the Group-II were 31.0±17.5 yrs.Male and female ratio in group I was 14:1 and in group II was 23:7. Most of the patients were recorded in the age groupof 26-30 in both groups. Symptom free patients were graded in 16.7% patients in Group-I and in 20% patients in Group-II. No improvement was occurred in 16.7% patients in Group-I and in 10% patients in Group-II. Conclusions: Ispaghulahusk shows the better efficacy to improve the symptoms of IBS like abdominal pain or discomfort and sense of well beingthan Oxyphenonium bromide. Oxephenonium bromide shows the better efficacy to decrease the stool frequency frombase line than Ispaghula husk.DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v3i1.5506BSMMU J 2010; 3(1: 3-8

  16. Regioselectivity and Mechanism of Synthesizing N-Substituted 2-Pyridones and 2-Substituted Pyridines via Metal-Free C-O and C-N Bond-Cleaving of Oxazoline[3,2-a]pyridiniums (United States)

    Li, Bo; Xue, Susu; Yang, Yang; Feng, Jia; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Jianming; Xu, Zhijian; Hall, Adrian; Zhao, Bo; Shi, Jiye; Zhu, Weiliang


    Novel intermediate oxazoline[3,2-a]pyridiniums were facilely prepared from 2-(2,2-dimethoxyethoxy)-pyridines via acid promoted intramolecular cyclization. Sequentially, the quaternary ammonium salts were treated with different nucleophiles for performing regioselective metal-free C-O and C-N bond-cleaving to afford prevalent heterocyclic structures of N-substituted pyridones and 2-substituted pyridines. The reaction mechanism and regioselectivity were then systematically explored by quantum chemistry calculations at B3LYP/6-31 g(d) level. The calculated free energy barrier of the reactions revealed that aniline and aliphatic amines (e.g., methylamine) prefer to attack C8 of intermediate 4a, affording N-substituted pyridones, while phenylmethanamine, 2-phenylethan-1-amine and 3-phenylpropan-1-amine favor to attack C2 of the intermediate to form 2-substituted pyridines. With the optimized geometries of the transition states, we found that the aromatic ring of the phenyl aliphatic amines may form cation-π interaction with the pyridinium of the intermediates, which could stabilize the transition states and facilitate the formation of 2-substituted pyridines. PMID:28120894

  17. Vilnitis behind crackdown on CPB staff

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Korruptsiooniga võitlemise büroo esimees Normunds Vilnitis nõudis pärast sama asutuse aseesimehe Alvis Vilksi poolt uudisteagentuurile LETA antud intervjuud viimase kabineti läbiotsimist, et tema kabinetist diktofoni leida

  18. Comparison of phenobarbital with bromide as a first-choice antiepileptic drug for treatment of epilepsy in dogs. (United States)

    Boothe, Dawn Merton; Dewey, Curtis; Carpenter, David Mark


    To compare efficacy and safety of treatment with phenobarbital or bromide as the first-choice antiepileptic drug (AED) in dogs. Double-blinded, randomized, parallel, clinical trial. 46 AED-naïve dogs with naturally occurring epilepsy. Study inclusion was based on age, history, findings on physical and neurologic examinations, and clinicopathologic test results. For either phenobarbital treatment (21 dogs) or bromide treatment (25), a 7-day loading dose period was initiated along with a maintenance dose, which was adjusted on the basis of monthly monitoring. Efficacy and safety outcomes were compared between times (baseline and study end [generally 6 months]) and between drugs. Phenobarbital treatment resulted in eradication of seizures (17/20 [85%]) significantly more often than did bromide (12/23 [52%]); phenobarbital treatment also resulted in a greater percentage decrease in seizure duration (88 ± 34%), compared with bromide (49 ± 75%). Seizure activity worsened in 3 bromide-treated dogs only. In dogs with seizure eradication, mean ± SD serum phenobarbital concentration was 25 ± 6 μg/mL (phenobarbital dosage, 4.1 ± 1.1 mg/kg [1.9 ± 0.5 mg/lb], p.o., q 12 h) and mean serum bromide concentration was 1.8 ± 0.6 mg/mL (bromide dosage, 31 ± 11 mg/kg [14 ± 5 mg/lb], p.o., q 12 h). Ataxia, lethargy, and polydipsia were greater at 1 month for phenobarbital-treated dogs; vomiting was greater for bromide-treated dogs at 1 month and study end. Both phenobarbital and bromide were reasonable first-choice AEDs for dogs, but phenobarbital was more effective and better tolerated during the first 6 months of treatment.

  19. Evaluation of the influence of base and alkyl bromide on synthesis of pyrazinoic acid esters through fatorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo dos Santos Fernandes


    Full Text Available Pyrazinoic acid esters have been synthesized as prodrugs of pyrazinoic acid. In the literature, its preparation is reported through the reaction of pyrazinoyl chloride with alcohols and the reaction with DCC/DMAP. In this work, it is reported a 2² factorial design to evaluate the preparation of these esters through the substitution of alkyl bromides with carboxylate anion. The controlled factors were alkyl chain length of bromides (ethyl and hexyl and the used base (triethylamine and DBU. Results revealed that the used base used has significant effect on yield, and alkyl bromide used has neither significant influence, nor its interaction effect with base.



    Firdaus, Maulidan; Jumina, Jumina; Anwar, Chairil


    A simple, energy-efficient, and relatively quick synthetic procedure for the synthesis of (1)-N-4'-methoxybenzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium bromide, based on green chemistry principles has been carried out. The synthesis was started by solvent-free reduction of p-anisaldehyde with NaBH4 to give 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol in 98% yield to be followed by solvent-free treatment of the resulted alcohol with PBr3 to yield 4-methoxybenzyl bromide (86%). Furthermore, the obtained bromide was reacted with 1,1...

  1. Synthesis of polyhydroxylated pyrrolidines from sugar-derived bromonitriles through a cascade addition of allylmagnesium bromide/cyclization/reduction. (United States)

    Malik, Michał; Jarosz, Sławomir


    The synthesis of polyhydroxylated 2-allylpyrrolidines from sugar-derived bromonitriles in a cascade addition of allylmagnesium bromide/SN2 cyclization/reduction with Zn(BH4)2 is described. The stereochemical course of the reduction step is rationalized. Two of the obtained compounds are transformed into stereoisomers of naturally-occurring iminosugar (+)-lentiginosine. In an alternative approach, 2,2-diallylpyrrolidines are obtained from bromonitriles in a cascade addition of allylmagnesium bromide/SN2 cyclization/addition of another equivalent of allylmagnesium bromide.

  2. Comparative microvascular exchange kinetics of [{sup 77}Br]bromide and {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, Claire [Department of Clinical Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Skehan, Stephen J.; Rolph, Susan M.; Flaxman, Mary E.; Ballinger, James R.; Bird, Nicholas J.; Barber, Robert W.; Peters, Michael A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)


    The plasma clearance curves of small hydrophilic solutes comprise three exponentials, consistent with a three-compartmental distribution model. A previous comparison between inulin and diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) suggested that these three compartments are in series, the first being plasma and the second and third representing compartments within the extravascular space. Moreover, whilst the total distribution volumes of these two indicators were similar, the volume of the second compartment was higher for DTPA. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether a solute smaller than DTPA, namely bromide, fits the hypothesis that the second space volume is an inverse function of the size of the solute. Two groups of subjects were studied: group A comprised eight patients undergoing routine diagnostic arteriography and group B, eight patients referred for routine measurement of glomerular filtration rate plus two normal volunteers. {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA and sodium [{sup 77}Br]bromide were intravenously administered simultaneously. In group A, frequent arterial samples were obtained up to 40 min after injection, and antecubital venous samples 30 s after each arterial sample. In group B, frequent venous samples were obtained up to 280 min after injection. Volume measurements based on bromide were corrected for erythrocyte bromide accumulation. In both subject groups, the normalised venous concentration ratio of bromide to DTPA, corrected for red cell bromide uptake, was significantly less than unity in the earliest blood samples, being 0.56 (SD 0.08) at 1 min, consistent with faster diffusion of bromide from plasma to interstitial fluid. Furthermore, the extraction fraction of bromide from plasma to interstitial fluid in the forearm was about 0.6, higher than that of DTPA (about 0.5) in spite of red cell bromide accumulation which equilibrated with plasma bromide within 20 s and resulted in a red cell to plasma concentration ratio of 0.51 (0

  3. Comparative study between 1-Propyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide and trimethylene bis-methylimidazolium bromide ionic liquids by FTIR/ATR and FT-RAMAN spectroscopies (United States)

    Kadari, Mohamed; Belarbi, El Habib; Moumene, Taqiyeddine; Bresson, Serge; Haddad, Boumediene; Abbas, Ouissam; Khelifa, Brahim


    In this study, we synthesized two ionic liquids based on imidazolium: one is a monocationic and the other is a dicationic. They are respectively 1-Propyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([PrMIM+][Br-]) and trimethylene bis-methylimidazolium bromide ([M(CH2)3IM2+][2Br-]). The structures of these two ionic liquids which are composed of ions with atoms of the same nature were first identified by 1H,13C NMR, and then compared in a study by FT-RAMAN and FTIR/ATR spectroscopies. FT-RAMAN spectras of the dicationic ionic liquid are richer in modes in the different spectral regions. Hence this richness seems to be a consequence of the passage from one to two rings in the imidazolium cation. In particular, the vibrational modes in the spectral ranges 700-600 cm-1, 1700-1500 cm-1 and 3200-2700 cm-1 by FTIR/ATR seem to be sensitive to the change from mono to dicationic than in FT-RAMAN. The spectral range in which the intermolecular interactions are present (200-50 cm-1) is a marker of differentiation between the mono and the dicationic. The spectral ranges on 1700-1200 cm-1 and 3200-2700 cm-1 also show signs of upheaval between our two samples. We can also notice that there are much more active modes in FT-RAMAN spectroscopy than in FTIR/ATR spectroscopy.

  4. 心脏直视手术中超滤器的应用和钾的补充%The Usage of Ultrafilter during CPB and Supplement of Kalium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王太清; 杨艳梅; 姚继红


    目的 防治心内直视手术中应用超滤器后低 血钾。方法 预充 钾的1/3量在阻断上、下腔静脉时注入氧合器,余量与2/3预充碳酸氢钠混合在阻断升主动脉 后持续滴入氧合器,主动脉开放前滴完。复温时开始超滤,每超滤出1 000ml液体,将1g氯 化钾与5%碳酸氢钠50ml滴入氧合器,每排出500ml尿,也补1g氯化钾。结果  本组病人心脏复跳时血清钾离子在4.88±0.55mmol/L。结论 此法补 钾可防治术中及超滤后低血钾和代谢性酸中毒。%Objective A method to prevent hypokalemia caused by th e usage of ultrafilter during Cardiopulmonary Bypass(CPB) was found out. Methods The 1/3 presupplemented dosage of the kalium were infus ed into oxygenator when vena cava were blocked. The other 2/3 dosage and the pre supplemented sodium bicarbonate were continually dropped into oxygenator between aorta-block and aorta-reopen. Ultrafilter began to be used when rewarming start ed. One litre of water was filtered, 1 gram of potassium chloride was supplement ed. Also when 500ml urine was passed, 1 gram of potassium chloride was supplemen ted. Results Patients were measured as the aorta reopened, the av erage kalium-ion density in serum was 4.88±0.55mmol/L. Conclusion This method of supplementing kalium can prevent the patients from hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis.

  5. Thermodynamic Properties of Hydrogen + Tetra-n-Butyl Ammonium Bromide Semi-Clathrate Hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Hashimoto


    Full Text Available Thermodynamic stability and hydrogen occupancy on the hydrogen + tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide semi-clathrate hydrate were investigated by means of Raman spectroscopic and phase equilibrium measurements under the three-phase equilibrium condition. The structure of mixed gas hydrates changes from tetragonal to another structure around 95 MPa and 292 K depending on surrounding hydrogen fugacity. The occupied amount of hydrogen in the semi-clathrate hydrate increases significantly associated with the structural transition. Tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide semi-clathrate hydrates can absorb hydrogen molecules by a pressure-swing without destroying the hydrogen bonds of hydrate cages at 15 MPa or over.

  6. Ni-catalyzed reductive homocoupling of unactivated alkyl bromides at room temperature and its synthetic application. (United States)

    Peng, Yu; Luo, Long; Yan, Chang-Song; Zhang, Jian-Jian; Wang, Ya-Wen


    A room-temperature Ni-catalyzed reductive approach to homocoupling of unactivated primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl bromides is described. The catalytic system can be easily generated from air-stable and cheap materials and demonstrates broad functional group tolerance, thus allowing facile access to useful dimeric triterpene and lignan-like molecules. Moreover, the dimerization of tertiary bromide 6 efficiently establishes sterically hindered vicinal quaternary carbons (C3a and C3a'), which is a key linkage of intriguing bispyrrolo[2,3-b]indoline alkaloids, thereby enabling us to complete the total syntheses of racemic chimonanthine (9) and folicanthine (10). In addition, this dimerization method can be expanded to the highly stereoselective synthesis of bisperhydrofuro[2,3-b]furan (5a) and the dimeric spiroketal 5b, signifying the involvement of possible radical species.

  7. Sodium bromide additive improved film morphology and performance in perovskite light-emitting diodes (United States)

    Li, Jinghai; Cai, Feilong; Yang, Liyan; Ye, Fanghao; Zhang, Jinghui; Gurney, Robert S.; Liu, Dan; Wang, Tao


    Organometal halide perovskite is a promising material to fabricate light-emitting diodes (LEDs) via solution processing due to its exceptional optoelectronic properties. However, incomplete precursor conversion and various defect states in the perovskite light-emitting layer lead to low luminance and external quantum efficiency of perovskite LEDs. We show here the addition of an optimum amount of sodium bromide in the methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3) precursor during a one-step perovskite solution casting process can effectively improve the film coverage, enhance the crystallinity, and passivate ionic defects on the surface of MAPbBr3 crystal grains, resulting in LEDs with a reduced turn-on voltage from 2.8 to 2.3 V and an enhanced maximum luminance from 1059 to 6942 Cd/m2 when comparing with the pristine perovskite-based device.

  8. Different Performance of Two Isomeric Phosphinobiphenyl Amidosulfonates in Pd-Catalyzed Cyanation of Aryl Bromides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Schulz


    Full Text Available A hydrophilic phosphinobiphenyl amidosulfonate, 2′-(dicyclohexylphosphino-2- {[(sulfonatomethylamino]carbonyl}[1,1′-biphenyl], triethylammonium salt (L2, was prepared and, together with its isomer bearing the polar amido-sulfonate tag in the position 4 of the biphenyl scaffold (compound L1, evaluated as a supporting ligand in Pd-catalyzed cyanation of aryl bromides using K4[Fe(CN6] as the non-toxic cyanide source. The less sterically demanding ligand L1 was found to form more active catalysts than the newly prepared compound L2. A catalyst formed in situ from palladium(II acetate and L1 efficiently mediated cyanation of aryl bromides bearing electron-donating substituents but failed in the analogous reactions with electron-poor substrates.

  9. Influence of bromide on the performance of the amphipod Hyalella azteca in reconstituted waters. (United States)

    Ivey, Chris D; Ingersoll, Chris G


    Poor performance of the amphipod Hyalella azteca has been observed in exposures using reconstituted waters. Previous studies have reported success in H. azteca water-only exposures with the addition of relatively high concentrations of bromide. The present study evaluated the influence of lower environmentally representative concentrations of bromide on the response of H. azteca in 42-d water-only exposures. Improved performance of H. azteca was observed in reconstituted waters with >0.02 mg Br/L. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2425-2429. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  10. Technical report. Video imaging of ethidium bromide-stained DNA gels with surface UV illumination. (United States)

    Solioz, M


    We describe here the use of surface UV illumination to record ethidium bromide-stained DNA gels with a video camera. This mode of illumination allows the use of a standard video camera equipped with a red filter and results in a high signal strength. The assembly of a low-cost video system on this basis is described. It uses the public domain software called Image on a Macintosh computer and PostScript laser printer or a thermal printer to generate hard copies. The setup is sensitive enough to detect 500 pg of DNA on an ethidium bromide-stained DNA gel. The UV illumination method described here can also greatly improve the sensitivity of existing video recording equipment.

  11. Clinical and functional evaluation of the efficacy of otilonium bromide: a multicenter study in Italy. (United States)

    Baldi, F; Longanesi, A; Blasi, A; Monello, S; Cestari, R; Missale, G; Corazziari, E; Badiali, G; Pescatori, M; Anastasio, G


    Seventy-two patients complaining of abdominal pain were studied in a double blind trial with otilonium bromide (OB) (40 mg tid or placebo). In our patients we performed, before and after the treatment, a clinical evaluation (symptom variations) and functional studies (sigmoid manometry during bowel distension). As regards clinical parameters, otilonium bromide significantly reduced abdominal pain and bloating and significantly increased (p less than 0.02) the pain threshold. However the comparison with the placebo group did not show any difference between the two groups. Sigmoid motility during distension was significantly reduced (p less than 0.05) in OB group, whereas it did not change in the placebo group. We can conclude that, in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients, OB is able to improve symptoms and to reduce stimulated motor activity of the sigmoid.

  12. Underpotential deposition of Cu on Pt(001): Interface structure and the influence of adsorbed bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, C.A. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L697ZE (United Kingdom); Markovic, N.M.; Ross, P.N. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)


    Using {ital in situ} x-ray diffraction, we studied the underpotential deposition (UPD) of copper onto a Pt(001) electrode both in pure perchloric acid and in the presence of bromide anions. In pure perchloric acid, the Cu is deposited in pseudomorphic p(1{times}1) islands. In the presence of bromide anions, the strong Pt-Br interaction significantly broadens the potential range of Cu UPD. We propose that Br remains in the interface region throughout the UPD process, at first in a disordered Cu-Br phase and then, at more negative potential, forming a c(2{times}2) closed-packed monolayer on top of the completed p(1{times}1) Cu monolayer. The structures are compared to those found during Cu UPD onto Pt(111), and explained in terms of the metal-halide interactions and the Pt surface atomic geometry. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Facile Synthesis of Heterocycles via 2-Picolinium Bromide and Antimicrobial Activities of the Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham S. Darwish


    Full Text Available The 2-picolinium N-ylide 4, generated in situ from the N-acylmethyl-2-picolinium bromide 3, underwent cycloaddition to N-phenylmaleimide or carbon disulfideto give the corresponding cycloadducts 6 and 8, respectively similar reactions ofcompound 3 with some electron-deficient alkenes in the presence of MnO2 yielded theproducts 11 and 12. In addition, reaction of 4 with arylidene cyanothioacetamide andmalononitrile derivatives afforded the thiophene and aniline derivatives 15 and 17,respectively. Heating of picolinium bromide 3 with triethylamine in benzene furnished 2-(2-thienylindolizine (18. The structures of the isolated products were confirmed byelemental analysis as well as by 1H- and 13C-NMR, IR, and MS data. Both thestereochemistry and the regioselectivity of the studied reactions are discussed. Thebiological activity of the newly synthesized compounds was examined and showedpromising results.

  14. A novel model-based approach for dose determination of glycopyrronium bromide in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arievich Helen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycopyrronium bromide (NVA237 is an inhaled long-acting muscarinic antagonist in development for treatment of COPD. This study compared the efficacy and safety of once-daily (OD and twice-daily (BID glycopyrronium bromide regimens, using a novel model-based approach, in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. Methods Double-blind, randomized, dose-finding trial with an eight-treatment, two-period, balanced incomplete block design. Patients (smoking history ≥10 pack-years, post-bronchodilator FEV1 ≥30% and 1/FVC 1 at Day 28. Results 385 patients (mean age 61.2 years; mean post-bronchodilator FEV1 53% predicted were randomized; 88.6% completed. All OD and BID dosing regimens produced dose-dependent bronchodilation; at Day 28, increases in mean trough FEV1 versus placebo were statistically significant for all regimens, ranging from 51 mL (glycopyrronium bromide 12.5 μg OD to 160 mL (glycopyrronium bromide 50 μg BID. Pharmacodynamic steady-state was reached by Day 7. There was a small separation (≤37 mL between BID and OD dose–response curves for mean trough FEV1 at steady-state in favour of BID dosing. Over 24 hours, separation between OD and BID regimens was even smaller (FEV1 AUC0-24h maximum difference for equivalent daily dose regimens: 8 mL. Dose–response results for FEV1 at 12 hours, FEV1 AUC0-12h and FEV1 AUC0-4h at steady-state showed OD regimens provided greater improvement over placebo than BID regimens for total daily doses of 25 μg, 50 μg and 100 μg, while the reverse was true for OD versus BID regimens from 12–24 hours. The 12.5 μg BID dose produced a marginally higher improvement in trough FEV1 versus placebo than 50 μg OD, however, the response at 12 hours over placebo was suboptimal (74 mL. Glycopyrronium bromide was safe and well tolerated at all doses. Conclusions Glycopyrronium bromide 50 μg OD provides significant bronchodilation over a 24 hour period

  15. Formation pathways of brominated products from benzophenone-4 chlorination in the presence of bromide ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Xiao; Dongbin Wei; Liping Li; Qi Liu; Huimin Zhao; Yuguo Du


    The brominated products,formed in chlorination treatment of benzophenone-4 in the presence of bromide ions,were identified,and the formation pathways were proposed.Under disinfection conditions,benzophenone-4 would undertake electrophilic substitution generating mono-or di-halogenated products,which would be oxidized to esters and further hydrolyzed to phenol derivatives.The generated catechol intermediate would be transformed into furan-like heterocyclic product.The product species were pH-dependent,while benzophenone-4 ehmination was chlorine dose-dependent.When the chlorination treatment was performed on ambient water spiked with benzophenone-4 and bromide ions,most of brominated byproducts could be detected,and the acute toxicity significantly increased as well.

  16. 3-Dodecyloxy-2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylpropan-1-aminium bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizhou Fu


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C18H40NO2+·Br−, the ion pairs formed by the hydrogen-bonded bromide anions and organic cations are arranged into thick layers with the alkyl groups directed to the inside and the trimethylaminium groups and the bromide anions situated on the layer surface. The long alkyl chain in the cation adopts an all-trans conformation. In the crystal structure, molecules are connected by intermolecular O—H...Br hydrogen bonds, forming ionic pairs that are further connected into an extended chain structure via C—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions. The crystal is chiral but nearly 90% of atoms in the unit cell are related by a pseudo-inversion center. The crystal shows racemic twinning with a 0.33:0.67 domain ratio.

  17. Synergistic Actions of Pyridostigmine Bromide and Insecticides on Muscle and Vascular Nociceptors (United States)


    or increased the absorption of permethrin ( Baynes et al., 2002; Choi et al., 2004; Rose et al., 2005; see also Abu-Qare and Abou-Donia, 2008...widespread pain among veterans following the first Gulf War. Clin J Pain 22, 554-563. Baynes RE, Monteiro-Riviere NA, Riviere JE. Pyridostigmine bromide...Binns et al., 2008; Steele et al., 2011). Some of these agents increase absorption and/or retard catabolism of permethrin ( Baynes et al., 2002; Choi

  18. Nickel-mediated radioiodination of aryl and heteroaryl bromides: rapid synthesis of tracers for SPECT imaging. (United States)

    Cant, Alastair A; Champion, Sue; Bhalla, Rajiv; Pimlott, Sally L; Sutherland, Andrew


    Rapid and efficient radioiodination of aryl and heteroaryl bromides has been achieved using a nickel(0)-mediated halogen-exchange reaction. This transformation gives direct access to [(123)I]- and [(125)I]-imaging agents for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), such as 5-[(123)I]-A85380 (see scheme, Boc = tert-butyloxycarbonyl, cod = 1,5-cyclooctadiene, TFA = trifluoroacetic acid). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Synthesis of dimethyl aryl acylsulfonium bromides from aryl methyl ketones in a DMSO-HBr system. (United States)

    Cao, Zhiling; Shi, Dahua; Qu, Yingying; Tao, Chuanzhou; Liu, Weiwei; Yao, Guowei


    A new, simplified method for the synthesis of dimethyl aryl acylsulfonium salts has been developed. A series of dimethyl aryl acylsulfonium bromides were prepared by the reaction of aryl methyl ketones with hydrobromic acid and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). This sulfonium salt confirms that bromine production and the bromination reaction take place in the DMSO-HBr oxidation system. What's more, it is also a key intermediate for the synthesis of arylglyoxals.

  20. Synthesis of Dimethyl Aryl Acylsulfonium Bromides from Aryl Methyl Ketones in a DMSO-HBr System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiling Cao


    Full Text Available A new, simplified method for the synthesis of dimethyl aryl acylsulfonium salts has been developed. A series of dimethyl aryl acylsulfonium bromides were prepared by the reaction of aryl methyl ketones with hydrobromic acid and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO. This sulfonium salt confirms that bromine production and the bromination reaction take place in the DMSO-HBr oxidation system. What’s more, it is also a key intermediate for the synthesis of arylglyoxals.

  1. Pd-catalyzed decarboxylative cross coupling of potassium polyfluorobenzoates with aryl bromides, chlorides, and triflates. (United States)

    Shang, Rui; Xu, Qing; Jiang, Yuan-Ye; Wang, Yan; Liu, Lei


    Pd-catalyzed decarboxylative cross coupling of potassium polyfluorobenzoates with aryl bromides, chlorides, and triflates is achieved by using diglyme as the solvent. The reaction is useful for synthesis of polyfluorobiaryls from readily accessible and nonvolatile polyfluorobenzoate salts. Unlike the Cu-catalyzed decarboxylation cross coupling where oxidative addition is the rate-limiting step, in the Pd-catalyzed version decarboxylation is the rate-limiting step.

  2. Replacing conventional carbon nucleophiles with electrophiles: nickel-catalyzed reductive alkylation of aryl bromides and chlorides. (United States)

    Everson, Daniel A; Jones, Brittany A; Weix, Daniel J


    A general method is presented for the synthesis of alkylated arenes by the chemoselective combination of two electrophilic carbons. Under the optimized conditions, a variety of aryl and vinyl bromides are reductively coupled with alkyl bromides in high yields. Under similar conditions, activated aryl chlorides can also be coupled with bromoalkanes. The protocols are highly functional-group tolerant (-OH, -NHTs, -OAc, -OTs, -OTf, -COMe, -NHBoc, -NHCbz, -CN, -SO(2)Me), and the reactions are assembled on the benchtop with no special precautions to exclude air or moisture. The reaction displays different chemoselectivity than conventional cross-coupling reactions, such as the Suzuki-Miyaura, Stille, and Hiyama-Denmark reactions. Substrates bearing both an electrophilic and nucleophilic carbon result in selective coupling at the electrophilic carbon (R-X) and no reaction at the nucleophilic carbon (R-[M]) for organoboron (-Bpin), organotin (-SnMe(3)), and organosilicon (-SiMe(2)OH) containing organic halides (X-R-[M]). A Hammett study showed a linear correlation of σ and σ(-) parameters with the relative rate of reaction of substituted aryl bromides with bromoalkanes. The small ρ values for these correlations (1.2-1.7) indicate that oxidative addition of the bromoarene is not the turnover-frequency determining step. The rate of reaction has a positive dependence on the concentration of alkyl bromide and catalyst, no dependence upon the amount of zinc (reducing agent), and an inverse dependence upon aryl halide concentration. These results and studies with an organic reductant (TDAE) argue against the intermediacy of organozinc reagents. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  3. Copper(I)-catalyzed aryl bromides to form intermolecular and intramolecular carbon-oxygen bonds. (United States)

    Niu, Jiajia; Guo, Pengran; Kang, Juntao; Li, Zhigang; Xu, Jingwei; Hu, Shaojing


    A highly efficient Cu-catalyzed C-O bond-forming reaction of alcohol and aryl bromides has been developed. This transformation was realized through the use of copper(I) iodide as a catalyst, 8-hydroxyquinoline as a ligand, and K(3)PO(4) as a base. A variety of functionalized substrates were found to react under these reaction conditions to provide products in good to excellent yields.

  4. Aminomethylations via Cross-Coupling of Potassium Organotrifluoroborates with Aryl Bromides (United States)

    Sandrock, Deidre L.


    The Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction of N,N-dialkylaminomethyltrifluoroborates with aryl halides allows the construction of an aminomethyl aryl linkage through a disconnection based on dissonant reactivity patterns. A variety of these aminomethyltrifluoroborate substrates were prepared in good to excellent yields and then shown to cross-couple with equal facility to both electron-rich and electron-poor aryl halides as well as to a variety of heteroaromatic bromides. PMID:17367156

  5. Eco-friendly synthesis of 2-substituted benzothiazoles catalyzed by cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) in water


    Yang, Xiao-Liang; Xu, Chun-Mei; Lin,Shao-Miao; Chen,Jiu-Xi; Ding,Jin-Chang; Wu,Hua-Yue; Su,Wei-Ke


    A series of 2-substituted benzothiazoles have been synthesized by the condensation of 2-aminothiophenol with aldehydes (RCHO: R = Alkyl, Aryl, Heteroaryl, 2-Arylformyl) in the presence of a catalytic amount of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) "on water" by a one-pot procedure without additional organic solvents and oxidants. Thereinto, 2-alkylbenzothiazoles were synthesized in high yields and 2-arylformylbenzothiazoles were obtained from the condensation of 2-aminothiophenol with arylfo...

  6. Linear free energy relationship in reactions between diphenyl amine and benzyl bromides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ranga Reddy; P Manikyamba


    Rate of reaction between benzyl bromide and diphenyl amine is retarded by electron-donating groups and enhanced by electron-withdrawing groups present on the benzene ring of the substrate. Hammett's reaction constant of the reaction decreases with increase in temperature according to the equation, \\rho = -11.92 + 3.54/ T. Minimal structural effects observed are attributed to the fact that the isokinetic temperature of the reaction is close to the reaction temperature.

  7. Effect of lignocaine, sodium cromoglycate, and ipratropium bromide in exercise-induced asthma (United States)

    Tullett, WM; Patel, KR; Berkin, KE; Kerr, JW


    Eight patients with exercise-induced asthma participated in a single-blind trial comparing the protective effects of inhaled lignocaine (estimated dose 48 mg), sodium cromoglycate (estimated dose 12 mg), and ipratropium bromide (estimated dose 120 μg). Saline was used as control. Effects were assessed from the mean maximal percentage fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and maximal mid-expiratory flow rates (MMFR) after they had run on a treadmill for eight minutes. There was no significant change in baseline FEV1 or MMFR before each agent was given. Saline, lignocaine, and sodium cromoglycate did not alter the mean baseline FEV1 or MMFR significantly. Ipratropium caused bronchodilatation with an increase of 16·3% in the mean FEV1 (p<0·001) and of 43·4% in the mean MMFR (p<0·05). After exercise the maximal percentage falls in FEV1 (means and SEM) after saline, lignocaine, sodium cromoglycate, and ipratropium bromide were 38·1% (5·0), 34·5% (6·1), 11·3% (3·7), and 19·3% (7·4) respectively. Similarly, the mean maximal falls in MMFR after saline, lignocaine, sodium cromoglycate, and ipratropium bromide were 54·4% (5·2), 52·9% (7·7), 23·6% (6·6), and 32·1% (10·5) respectively. The inhibitory effects of sodium cromoglycate and ipratropium bromide were significant whereas lignocaine failed to produce an effect. These results suggest that mediator release is an important factor in exercise-induced asthma and that in some patients the effects of the mediators may be on the postsynaptic muscarinic receptors. Local anaesthesia of sensory vagal receptors, on the other hand, does not prevent exercise asthma and these receptors do not appear to have any important role in exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. PMID:6218645

  8. Bromidotetra-kis-(2-isopropyl-1H-imidazole-κN)copper(II) bromide. (United States)

    Godlewska, Sylwia; Socha, Joanna; Baranowska, Katarzyna; Dołęga, Anna


    The Cu(II) atom in the title salt, [CuBr(C(6)H(10)N(2))(4)]Br, is coordinated in a square-pyramidal geometry by four imidazole N atoms and one bromide anion that is located at the apex of the pyramid. The cations and the anions form a two-dimensional network parallel to (001) through N-H⋯Br hydrogen bonds.

  9. Bromidotetrakis(2-isopropyl-1H-imidazole-κN3copper(II bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dołęga


    Full Text Available The CuII atom in the title salt, [CuBr(C6H10N24]Br, is coordinated in a square-pyramidal geometry by four imidazole N atoms and one bromide anion that is located at the apex of the pyramid. The cations and the anions form a two-dimensional network parallel to (001 through N—H...Br hydrogen bonds.

  10. Comparison of injection drotaverine and injection valethamate bromide on duration and course of labor


    Pradnya Rajendra Changede


    Background: Numerous drugs have been used to shorten the active phase of labor. How rationale is it to use these drugs to shorten the active phase of labor? Do they really shorten the duration of labor? What adverse effects do they have on the baby and the mother? These questions were the basis to perform the present study of comparing two of such drugs, injection drotaverine and injection Valethamate bromide with control subjects. Methods: This was a prospective study conducted in a terti...

  11. Nickel-catalyzed cross-electrophile coupling of 2-chloropyridines with alkyl bromides. (United States)

    Everson, Daniel A; Buonomo, Joseph A; Weix, Daniel J


    The synthesis of 2-alkylated pyridines by the nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling of two different electrophiles, 2-chloropyridines with alkyl bromides, is described. Compared to our previously published conditions for aryl halides, this method uses the different, more rigid bathophenanthroline ligand and is conducted at high concentration in DMF solvent. The method displays promising functional group compatibility and the conditions are orthogonal to the Stille coupling.

  12. Influence of the Amino Substituents in the Interaction of Ethidium Bromide with DNA


    Garbett, Nichola C.; Hammond, Nicholas B.; Graves, David E.


    A key step in the rational design of new DNA binding agents is to obtain a complete thermodynamic characterization of small molecule-DNA interactions. Ethidium bromide has served as a classic DNA intercalator for more than four decades. This work focuses on delineating the influence(s) of the 3- and 8-amino substituents of ethidium on the energetic contributions and concomitant fluorescent properties upon DNA complex formation. Binding affinities decrease by an order of magnitude upon the rem...

  13. Synthesis of 3-Allyl-4-phosphachromones by Cyclized Coupling of Ethyl o-Hydroxyphenyl(ethynyl)phosphinate with Allyl Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    3-Allyl-4-phosphachromones as the phosphorus analogues of chromone were firstly prepared in good yields and high regioselectivity by the palladium(Ⅱ)-catalyzed cyclized coupling reaction of ethyl o-hydroxyphenyl(ethynyl)-phosphinate with allyl bromide.

  14. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, No Stack, More than 8 Hours (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  15. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Horizontal Stacks, 8 Hours or Less (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  16. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, No Stack, 8 Hours or Less (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at on the label.

  17. Detection of water contamination from hydraulic fracturing wastewater: a μPAD for bromide analysis in natural waters. (United States)

    Loh, Leslie J; Bandara, Gayan C; Weber, Genevieve L; Remcho, Vincent T


    Due to the rapid expansion in hydraulic fracturing (fracking), there is a need for robust, portable and specific water analysis techniques. Early detection of contamination is crucial for the prevention of lasting environmental damage. Bromide can potentially function as an early indicator of water contamination by fracking waste, because there is a high concentration of bromide ions in fracking wastewaters. To facilitate this, a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) has been developed and optimized for the quantitative colorimetric detection of bromide in water using a smartphone. A paper microfluidic platform offers the advantages of inexpensive fabrication, elimination of unstable wet reagents, portability and high adaptability for widespread distribution. These features make this assay an attractive option for a new field test for on-site determination of bromide.

  18. 78 FR 68021 - Notice of Affirmation of Addition of a Treatment Schedule for Methyl Bromide Fumigation of... (United States)


    ... species, Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly) and Anastrepha fraterculus (South American fruit fly... bromide treatment schedule to mitigate risk from C. capitata and A. fraterculus, as described in the TED...

  19. Efficient ring-closing metathesis of alkenyl bromides: the importance of protecting the catalyst during the olefin approach. (United States)

    Gatti, Michele; Drinkel, Emma; Wu, Linglin; Pusterla, Ivano; Gaggia, Fiona; Dorta, Reto


    We present the first productive ring-closing metathesis reaction that leads to the construction of cyclic alkenyl bromides. Efficient catalysis employing commercially available Grubbs II catalyst is possible through appropriate modification of the starting bromoalkene moiety.

  20. Recent trends in atmospheric methyl bromide: analysis of post-Montreal Protocol variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Yvon-Lewis


    Full Text Available The atmospheric methyl bromide (CH3Br burden has declined in recent years, in response to the phaseout of agricultural and structural fumigation consumption under the amendments to the Montreal Protocol. The timing and magnitude of this decrease represents an opportunity to examine our current understanding of the CH3Br budget, the phaseout schedule, and recent estimates of interannual variability in biomass burning and global OH. In this study, simulations obtained from a time-dependent global model of atmospheric CH3Br emissions and uptake are compared to observations from the NOAA flask network. The model includes an updated global methyl bromide source inventory that includes biofuel combustion emissions estimated at 6.1±3 Gg yr−1 globally. The phaseout of CH3Br production for agricultural uses began in 1998, concurrent with the pulse in biomass burning associated with the 1998 El Niño. The combined effects of three factors (biomass burning, global OH, and anthropogenic phaseout appear to explain most of the observed atmospheric methyl bromide trend over the 1997–2005 period. The global budget remains imbalanced, with a large missing source. These results suggest that more than 80% of the missing source does not exhibit significant interannual variability during the phaseout period and, therefore, does not result from underestimating agricultural CH3Br emissions.

  1. Transport of bromide measured by soil coring, suction plates, and lysimeters under transient flow conditions. (United States)

    Kasteel, R.; Pütz, Th.; Vereecken, H.


    Lysimeter studies are one step within the registration procedure of pesticides. Flow and transport in these free-draining lysimeters do not reflect the field situation mainly because of the occurence of a zone of local saturation at the lower boundary (seepage face). The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of flow and transport behaviour of bromide detected with different measuring devices (lysimeters, suction plates, and soil coring) by comparing experimental results with numerical simulations in heterogeneous flow domains. We applied bromide as a small pulse to the bare soil surface (Orthic Luvisol) of the three devices and the displacement of bromide was regurlarly sampled for three years under natural wheather conditions. Based on the mean breakthrough curves we observe experimentally that lysimeters have a lower effective pore-water velocity and exhibit more solute spreading resulting in a larger dispersivity than the suction plates. This can be ascribed to the artefact of the lower boundary. We performed numerical transport simulations in 2-D heterogeneous flow fields (scaling approach) choosing appropriate boundary conditions for the various devices. The simulations allow to follow the temporal evolution of flow and transport processes in the various devices and to gain additional process understanding. We conclude that the model is essentially capable to reproduce the main experimental findings only if we account for the spatial correlation structure of the hydraulic properties, i.e. soil heterogeneity.

  2. A bio-product as alternative to methyl bromide for replant disease control on strawberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu ZHANG; Tongle HU; Lijing JI; Keqiang CAO


    Pre-plant soil fumigation with methyl bromide (MB) is a standard practice for controlling soil-borne diseases especially for strawberry diseases. However, the application of MB will be forbidden in China in the year 2015. For this reason, a bio-product named Kangdi 3 was tested as an alternative to MB in strawberry greenhouses in Mancheng (Hebei Province) and Donggang (Liaoning province), China in 2005 and 2006. Methyl bromide at a normal dosage of 500 kg/hm2 and Kangdi 3 at three dosages of 750, 1500 and 2250 kg/hm2 were tested. Plots without any treatment were used as the control. During the growing stage, assessments were made on fungal communities in rhizosphere, growth status of strawberry, the disease levels on roots as well as the yields. Results showed that Kangdi 3 significantly reduced the quantity of fungi and the disease index, while enhancing strawberry growth and the yields compared with the untreated control. Therefore, Kangdi 3 is a great potential substitute for methyl bromide to control replant diseases in strawberry.

  3. Interaction of ozone and carbon dioxide with polycrystalline potassium bromide and its atmospheric implication (United States)

    Levanov, Alexander V.; Isaikina, Oksana Ya.; Maksimov, Ivan B.; Lunin, Valerii V.


    It has been discovered for the first time that gaseous ozone in the presence of carbon dioxide and water vapor interacts with crystalline potassium bromide giving gaseous Br2 and solid salts KHCO3 and KBrO3. Molecular bromine and hydrocarbonate ion are the products of one and the same reaction described by the stoichiometric equation 2KBr(cr.) + O3(gas) + 2CO2(gas) + H2O(gas) → 2KHCO3(cr.) + Br2(gas) + O2(gas). The dependencies of Br2, KHCO3 and KBrO3 formation rates on the concentrations of O3 and CO2, humidity of initial gas mixture, and temperature have been investigated. A kinetic scheme has been proposed that explains the experimental regularities found in this work on the quantitative level. According to the scheme, the formation of molecular bromine and hydrocarbonate is due to the reaction between hypobromite BrO-, the primary product of bromide oxidation by ozone, with carbon dioxide and water; bromate results from consecutive oxidation of bromide ion by ozone Br- → +O3 , -O2 BrO- → +O3 , -O2 BrO2- → +O3, -O2 BrO3- .

  4. The influence of ipratropium bromide and sodium cromoglycate on benzalkonium chloride-induced bronchoconstriction in asthma. (United States)

    Miszkiel, K A; Beasley, R; Holgate, S T


    1. Benzalkonium chloride, an antibacterial preservative that is added to nebuliser solutions, has been shown to cause bronchoconstriction when inhaled by asthmatic subjects. 2. To investigate the potential role of reflex and mast cell-dependent mechanisms in the pathogenesis of bronchoconstriction produced by benzalkonium chloride we examined the effects of ipratropium bromide and sodium cromoglycate on this response in both concentration-response and time-course studies in nine asthmatic subjects. 3. Pretreatment with inhaled ipratropium bromide (1 mg) and sodium cromoglycate (40 mg) displaced the benzalkonium chloride concentration-response curves to the right by a mean 2.2 fold and 3.1 fold respectively. 4. Ipratropium bromide and sodium cromoglycate markedly attenuated the airway response to benzalkonium chloride throughout the 45 min time course period, inhibiting the overall response by 56% and 78% respectively. 5. We conclude that benzalkonium chloride provokes bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects through a combination of mast cell activation and stimulation of peripheral and central neural pathways. PMID:2972308

  5. Enhancement of Pool Boiling Heat Transfer to Lithium Bromide Aqueous Solution (United States)

    Furukawa, Masahiro; Kaji, Masuo; Suyama, Takayuki; Sekoguchi, Kotohiko

    An experimental study on enhancement of nucleate pool boiling heat tranfer by placing a sponge metal close to a plain heated surface was conducted in order to improve the heat transfer performance of the high temperature generator of absorption chiller/heater. The sponge metal has three dimensional porous mesh framework like sponge. Boiling curves of water under the atmospheric pressure were compared with those of lithium bromide aqueous solution of mass concentration 55 to 58%. Heat transfer characteristics were improved by 2 to3 times both for water and lithium bromide aqueous solution when the sponge metal was placed on the heated surface with and without cleareance. Three kinds of sponge metals were used for lithium bromide aqueous solution under the reduced pressure (24 kPa). At lower heat fluxes,#6 sponge metal which has the finest mesh and the lowest porosity shows excellent results. At high heat fluxes, however,it causes deterioration of heat transfer. Over the wide range of heat fluxes,# 4 sponge metal was found to be most suitable and the optimal clearence was determined as 0.5 mm. The sponge metal is of good practical use as a device to enhance the boiling, since no special manufacturing is required for placing it on the heated surface.

  6. Replacing methyl bromide in annual strawberry production with glucosinolate-containing green manure crops. (United States)

    Lazzeri, Luca; Baruzzi, Gianluca; Malaguti, Lorena; Antoniacci, Loredana


    The use of biocidal green manure crops is an agronomic technique for amending soil with fresh organic matter containing volatile compounds active in controlling some soil-borne pests and diseases. Two new selections of the Brassicaceae family were cultivated, incorporated before planting strawberries and tested as an alternative to fumigation with methyl bromide. Two biocidal green manure crops (Brassica juncea L sel ISCI20, Eruca sativa Mill cv Nemat) containing glucosinolate-myrosinase systems, a conventional green manure (barley), untreated soil and a fumigated control were evaluated during two seasons. The effect of these soil management systems on subsequent strawberry performance was evaluated by monitoring yield and plant growth parameters. In both years, biocidal plant green manure treatments led to a fruit yield lower than with methyl bromide, but higher than with conventional green manure or untreated soil. These results confirm the good prospects for biocidal green manures, not only as an environmentally friendly alternative to methyl bromide in conventional agriculture, but also in organic agriculture as an alternative to conventional green manure crops.

  7. Toxic impact of bromide and iodide on drinking water disinfected with chlorine or chloramines. (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Komaki, Yukako; Kimura, Susana Y; Hu, Hong-Ying; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Mariñas, Benito J; Plewa, Michael J


    Disinfectants inactivate pathogens in source water; however, they also react with organic matter and bromide/iodide to form disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Although only a few DBP classes have been systematically analyzed for toxicity, iodinated and brominated DBPs tend to be the most toxic. The objectives of this research were (1) to determine if monochloramine (NH2Cl) disinfection generated drinking water with less toxicity than water disinfected with free chlorine (HOCl) and (2) to determine the impact of added bromide and iodide in conjunction with HOCl or NH2Cl disinfection on mammalian cell cytotoxicity and genomic DNA damage induction. Water disinfected with chlorine was less cytotoxic but more genotoxic than water disinfected with chloramine. For both disinfectants, the addition of Br(-) and I(-) increased cytotoxicity and genotoxicity with a greater response observed with NH2Cl disinfection. Both cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were highly correlated with TOBr and TOI. However, toxicity was weakly and inversely correlated with TOCl. Thus, the forcing agents for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were the generation of brominated and iodinated DBPs rather than the formation of chlorinated DBPs. Disinfection practices need careful consideration especially when using source waters containing elevated bromide and iodide.

  8. The Effect of Ozonation Process on Bromide-Containing Groundwaters in Bandung Area and Its Surroundings

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    Mindriany Syafila


    Full Text Available Disinfection process was applied as the last step of the water treatment to kill pathogenic bacteria in the water. However, according to several studies, the ozonation disinfection process could form undesired by-products. One of the by-products potentially affecting human life is bromate produced from bromide ionic-containing water. This study was carried out to examine the effect of raw water characteristics and pH on bromate formation. Also, the performance of bromate formation for a period of exposure time was analyzed. Raw waters taken from four different areas around Bandung were exposed to ozone introduced to a reactor with a flow rate of 2 L/min. The pH of the raw waters varied from 4, 7 to 10. The results show that there was no evidence of an initial bromide ion concentration, whereas a change in pH value gives a significantly different outcome. In acidic condition (pH of 4 the bromate formation tends to decrease, whereas when the pH value increases to a pH of 10, the bromate formation increases. Therefore, for drinking water with a neutral pH, when bromide ions are detected in the raw water, the drinking water may be toxic due to the presence of bromate.

  9. Prostate cancer and toxicity from critical use exemptions of methyl bromide: Environmental protection helps protect against human health risks

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    Budnik Lygia T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although ozone-depleting methyl bromide was destined for phase-out by 2005, it is still widely applied as a consequence of various critical-use-exemptions and mandatory international regulations aiming to restrict the spread of pests and alien species (e.g. in globalized transport and storage. The withdrawal of methyl bromide because of its environmental risk could fortuitously help in the containment of its human toxicity. Methods We performed a systematic review of the literature, including in vitro toxicological and epidemiological studies of occupational and community exposure to the halogenated hydrocarbon pesticide methyl bromide. We focused on toxic (especially chronic or carcinogenic effects from the use of methyl bromide, on biomonitoring data and reference values. Eligible epidemiological studies were subjected to meta-analysis. Results Out of the 542 peer reviewed publications between 1990-2011, we found only 91 referring to toxicity of methyl bromide and 29 using the term "carcinogenic", "neoplastic" or "mutagenic". Several studies provide new additional data pertaining to the mechanistic aspects of methyl bromide toxicity. Few studies have performed a detailed exposure assessment including biomonitoring. Three evaluated epidemiological studies assessed a possible association between cancer and methyl bromide. Overall, exposure to methyl bromide is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer OR, 1.21; 95% CI (0,98-1.49, P = 0.076. Two epidemiological studies have analyzed environmental, non-occupational exposure to methyl bromide providing evidence for its health risk to the general public. None of the epidemiological studies addressed its use as a fumigant in freight containers, although recent field and case reports do refer to its toxic effects associated with its use in shipping and storage. Conclusions Both the epidemiological evidence and toxicological data suggest a possible link between methyl

  10. Polyvinylpyrrolidone-bromine complex: An efficient polymeric reagent for selective preparation of benzyl bromides in the presence of hexamethyldisilane

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    Moslem M. Lakouraj


    Full Text Available Benzylic bromides were conveniently obtained in high yields via the reaction of the corresponding alcohols with crosslinked polyvinylpyrrolidone-bromine complex (PVPP-Br2/hexamethyldisilane in chloroform at reflux condition. Selective conversion of benzyl alcohol to benzyl bromide in the presence of primary aliphatic alcohols, e.g. 2-phenylethanol was also achieved.DOI:

  11. A general synthesis of fluoroalkylated alkenes by palladium-catalyzed Heck-type reaction of fluoroalkyl bromides. (United States)

    Feng, Zhang; Min, Qiao-Qiao; Zhao, Hai-Yang; Gu, Ji-Wei; Zhang, Xingang


    An efficient palladium-catalyzed Heck-type reaction of fluoroalkyl halides, including perfluoroalkyl bromides, trifluoromethyl iodides, and difluoroalkyl bromides, has been developed. The reaction proceeds under mild reaction conditions with high efficiency and broad substrate scope, and provides a general and straightforward access to fluoroalkylated alkenes which are of interest in life and material sciences. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Palladium-catalyzed carbonylation reactions of aryl bromides at atmospheric pressure: a general system based on Xantphos. (United States)

    Martinelli, Joseph R; Watson, Donald A; Freckmann, Dominique M M; Barder, Timothy E; Buchwald, Stephen L


    A method for the Pd-catalyzed carbonylation of aryl bromides has been developed using Xantphos as the ligand. This method is effective for the direct synthesis of Weinreb amides, primary and secondary benzamides, and methyl esters from the corresponding aryl bromides at atmospheric pressure. In addition, a putative catalytic intermediate, (Xanphos)Pd(Br)benzoyl, was prepared and an X-ray crystal structure was obtained revealing an unusual cis-coordination mode of Xantphos in this palladium-acyl complex.

  13. Pyridinium 5-[(1,3-diethyl-6-hydroxy-4-oxo-2-thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-5-yl(2-methoxyphenylmethyl]-1,3-diethyl-4,6-dioxo-2-thioxopyrimidin-5-ide

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    Abdullah Mohamed Asiri


    Full Text Available 1,3-Diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid reacts with 2-anisaldehyde to form the Michael addition product 2-anisylbis(1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbitur-5-ylmethanate, which crystallizes as the title pyridinium salt, C5H6N+·C24H29N4O5S2−, when it reacts with the pyridine used to catalyse the reaction. There are two independent ion pairs in the crystal structure. The anion features a methine C atom connected to three six-membered rings; one of the rings carries a hydroxy group, which engages in hydrogen bonding with the carbonyl group belonging to another ring. The monoclinic unit cell emulates an orthorhombic unit cell, and is a twin with a minor twin component of 35%.

  14. 2-[(Diisopropylthiophosphorylamino]pyridinium tetrafluoroborate

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    Christian Holzhacker


    Full Text Available The title compound, C11H20N2PS+·BF4−, is a salt of 2-(diisopropylthiophosphorylaminopyridine, a chelating bidentate ligand that furnishes an S atom as a soft donor and a pyridine N atom as a hard atom for transition-metal complexation. The title salt crystallizes with two formula units in the asymmetric unit. The two independent cations are protonated at the pyridine N atoms and have the S atoms syn-oriented to them so as to form bent intramolecular N—H...S hydrogen bonds, one of which one is bifurcated by involving also an N—H...F interaction. The phosphorylamino NH groups form near linear hydrogen bonds to proximal tetrafluoroborate anions. Five weak C—H...F and three weak C—H...S interactions link the constituents into a three-dimensional framework. As a result of the crystal packing, the two cations differ notably in conformation, as can be seen from the S—P—N—C torsion angles of −18.7 (1° in the first and −35.1 (1° in the second cation.

  15. Removal of bromide from aqueous solutions using the UV/ZnO process based on the multivariate analysis model

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    Kolsoom Mohammad Moradi


    Full Text Available Background: Bromide is found naturally in groundwater and surface water. The rapid growth of industrial activities, drainage of surface runoff, and use of methyl bromide in pesticides has increased bromide discharge to the environment. Disinfection of water-containing bromide causes the creation of additional products of organo-halogenated that are considered cancer-causing agents. In this study, the effect and optimization of factors in removal of this ion was evaluated by using the nano-photocatalytic UV/ZnO process. Methods: This analytical study was conducted in a batch system by the phenol-red method. The test design was performed through the analysis model of multi-factor variance with 99 subjects, while the main, interactive, and reciprocal effects of variables, such as reaction time, catalyst concentration, bromide concentration, and pH at different levels of each factor, were analysed by using SPSS version 16. Results: The main, interactive, and reciprocal effects of factors were significant in three different levels with P < 0.001, and the optimal level of the factors reaction time, catalyst concentration, bromide concentration, and pH were 120 minutes, 0.5, 0.1, and 7 mg/L, respectively, by using the Schaffer test. The highest removal efficiency of 95% was obtained at least 91.56 and a maximum of 94.76% was obtained under optimal conditions of all factors. Conclusion: The results show that by optimization of factors, this process can be effectively used to remove bromide from aquatic environments.

  16. Enhanced degradation of the volatile fumigant-nematicides 1,3-d and methyl bromide in soil. (United States)

    Ou, L T


    The use of the gaseous funaigant-nematicide methyl bromide in agriculture is scheduled to be phased out in the year 2001.1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-D) in combination with chloropicrin and an herbicide is considered to be a viable alternative to methyl bromide for some crops. 1,3-Dichloropropene consists of two isomers, cis- and trans-l,3-D. A number of soil bacteria have been shown to initially degrade 1,3-D or one of its isomers, cis-l,3-D, via hydrolysis. Until recently, the degradation of cis- and trans-l,3-D in soils was considered to exhibit similar kinetics, witla their degradation rates increasing with increases in soil temperature. Enhanced degradation of 1,3-D in soil from a site in Florida with a history of repeated annual applications of 1,3-D was observed in 1994. Biological hydrolysis was involved in the initial degradation of cis- and trans-l,3-D. The two isomers were degraded at different rates, with the trans isomer being degraded more rapidly than the cis isomer. Cis- and trans-l,3-D in soil from the control site were degraded at a similar rate but more slowly than in the enhanced soil. Methyl bromide in soils can be degraded through chemical hydrolysis and methylation to soil organic matter. Some methanotrophic bacteria and ammonia-oxidation bacteria during the oxidation of their primary substrates (methane and ammonia) also have the capacity to cooxidize methyl bromide to formaldehyde and bromide ion. It was recently observed that degradation of methyl bromide was stimulated in methanotrophic soils and in soils treated with ammonium sulfate. Soil methanotrophic bacteria and soil nitrifiers are apparently responsible for cooxidation of methyl bromide in methanotrophic and ammonia treated soils, respectively.


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    Usha Dev


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In patients with burn injury drug pharmacology will be altered and this poses special anaesthetic challenge when an subcutaneous injection of a non- depolarizing muscle relaxant occurs in such a patient. Small studies remain an important source of knowledge and hence this study aims to provide information on the anaesthetic management in a case of accidental subcutaneous injection of vecuronium bromide in a burns patient. PRESENTATION, DIAGNOSIS & MANAGEMENT: A 22 year young male with 4 days old hot water induced grade 1 burns involving 45% of body surface area was posted for burns dressing. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and vecuronium bromide through an external jugular vein to aid tracheal intubation. As the patient was not anaesthetized even after 10 minutes routine check lead to the discovery of fullness at the tip of the intravenous catheter indicating an extravasation of the drugs. Hence the other external jugular vein was cannulated and the patient induced and intubated using propofol, sevoflurane, nitrous oxide and oxygen. The action of vecuronium outlasted the duration of surgery. So the patient continued to receive support of mechanical ventilation with nitrous oxide and oxygen. It took 130 minutes for the clinical signs of recovery from the muscle relaxant to manifest. He was then reversed & extubated with subsequent good recovery. CONCLUSION: Subcutaneous injection of these drugs poses problems of delayed onset of action and prolonged duration of action. In an inadvertent accidental subcutaneous 0.1 mg/kg vecuronium bromide injection in a patient with 4 day old 45% burns showed delayed onset action and prolonged neuromuscular blockade due to subcutaneous deposition of the drug which was managed with mechanical ventilation .The reported resistance to the action of NDMR drugs in patient with burns was not noticed here probably because of the age of the thermal injury.

  18. Ethidium bromide-induced demyelination of the sciatic nerve of adult Wistar rats

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    Riet-Correa G.


    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve ultrastructure was assessed after single or multiple local injections of the intercalating dye ethidium bromide. Thirty-four adult Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into five groups and maintained in a controlled environment with rat chow and water ad libitum throughout the experiment. The experimental animals were injected with 1 µl of 0.1% ethidium bromide in 0.9% saline into the central third of the left sciatic nerve 1 (group 1, 2 (group 2, 4 (group 3, 6 (group 4 or 8 (group 5 times. In groups 2 to 5 the injections were made at 28-day intervals. Control animals received the same amount of 0.9% saline. The animals were killed at different times after injection: group 1 at 7 days (2 rats and 15 days (2 rats; for groups 2, 3, 4 and 5, all rats were killed 10 days after the last injection and the lesions were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. In the acute lesions, intoxicated Schwann cells showed a vacuolated cytoplasm and separation of the sheaths from the axon. Myelin sheaths underwent progressive vesiculation and subsequent segmental demyelination. Myelin debris were withdrawn by macrophages and remyelination by Schwann cells was prominent. With the increase in the number of injections collagen fibers also increased in number and progressively enveloped smaller numbers of remyelinated axons composing new fascicles. Wallerian degeneration of fibers apparently not affected by ethidium bromide was more intense in the nerves from groups 4 and 5. The peripheral nerve repairs itself after demyelinating challenges with a profusion of collagen fibers and new fasciculations. This experimental model is valid to mimic recurrent demyelinating neuropathies.

  19. Measurement and computation of movement of bromide ions and carbofuran in ridged humic-sandy soil. (United States)

    Leistra, Minze; Boesten, Jos J T I


    Water flow and pesticide transport in the soil of fields with ridges and furrows may be more complex than in the soil of more level fields. Prior to crop emergence, the tracer bromide ion and the insecticide carbofuran were sprayed on the humic-sandy soil of a potato field with ridges and furrows. Rainfall was supplemented by sprinkler irrigation. The distribution of the substances in the soil profile of the ridges and furrows was measured on three dates in the potato growing season. Separate ridge and furrow systems were simulated by using the pesticide emission assessment at regional and local scales (PEARL) model for pesticide behavior in soil-plant systems. The substances travelled deeper in the furrow soil than in the ridge soil, because of runoff from the ridges to the furrows. At 19 days after application, the peak of the bromide distribution was measured to be in the 0.1-0.2 m layer of the ridges, while it was in the 0.3-0.5 m layer of the furrows. After 65 days, the peak of the carbofuran distribution in the ridge soil was still in the 0.1 m top layer, while the pesticide was rather evenly distributed in the top 0.6 m of the furrow soil. The wide ranges in concentration measured with depth showed that preferential water flow and substance transport occurred in the sandy soil. Part of the bromide ion distribution was measured to move faster in soil than the computed wave. The runoff of water and pesticide from the ridges to the furrows, and the thinner root zone in the furrows, are expected to increase the risk of leaching to groundwater in ridged fields, in comparison with more level fields.

  20. Otilonium bromide inhibits muscle contractions via L-type calcium channels in the rat colon. (United States)

    Martin, M T; Hove-Madsen, L; Jimenez, M


    The aim of this study is to evaluate in vitro the effect of otilonium bromide (OB) on the mechanical and electrical activities of the rat colonic smooth muscle using muscle bath, microelectrodes and patch-clamp techniques. Otilonium bromide dose dependently inhibited the spontaneous activity (logIC(50) +/- SE: -5.31 +/- 0.05). This effect was not modified by TTX (10(-6) mol L(-1)). Cyclic depolarizations were abolished by OB (10(-4) mol L(-1)). Electrical field stimulation induced inhibitory junction potentials (IJPs) followed by a depolarization with superimposed spikes causing a contraction. In the presence of OB (10(-4) mol L(-1)) IJPs were recorded, but spikes and contractions were abolished. Otilonium bromide (3 x 10(-6) mol L(-1)) inhibited inward current obtained in isolated cells (amphotericin perforated patch technique). The otilonium-sensitive current amplitude was maximal (75pA) around 0 mV. The effect of different doses of OB was tested by depolarizing cells from -70 mV to 0 mV. OB dose dependently inhibited the inward current with an EC(50) of 885 nmol L(-1). Abolishment of the otilonium-sensitive current by 3 x 10(-6) mol L(-1) nifedipine confirmed that it was an L-type Ca(2+) current. Our results show that OB inhibits the spontaneous and triggered muscular contractions. This effect is produced by the inhibition of muscular action potentials carried by L-type calcium current, confirming the spasmolytic properties of OB.

  1. Effect of otilonium bromide on contractile patterns in the human sigmoid colon. (United States)

    Gallego, D; Aulí, M; Aleu, J; Martínez, E; Rofes, L; Martí-Ragué, J; Jiménez, M; Clavé, P


    The mechanism of action of the spasmolytic compound otilonium bromide (OB) on human colonic motility is not understood. The aim of our study was to characterize the pharmacological effects of OB on contractile patterns in the human sigmoid colon. Circular sigmoid strips were studied in organ baths. Isolated smooth muscle cells from human sigmoid colon were examined using the calcium imaging technique. Otilonium bromide inhibited by 85% spontaneous non-neural rhythmic phasic contractions (RPCs), (IC(50) = 49.9 nmol L(-1)) and stretch-induced tone (IC(50) = 10.7 nmol L(-1)) with maximum effects at micromolar range. OB also inhibited by 50% both on- (IC(50) = 38.0 nmol L(-1)) and off-contractions induced by electrical stimulation of excitatory motor neurons. In contrast, the inhibitory latency period prior to off-contractions was unaffected by OB. OB inhibited acetylcholine-, substance P-, and neurokinin A-induced contractions. The L-type Ca(2+) channel agonist BayK8644 reversed the effects of OB on RPCs, on- and off-contractions. Hexamethonium, atropine, the NK(2) antagonist, or depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores by thapsigargin did not prevent the inhibitory effect of OB on RPCs and electrical contractions. KCl-induced calcium transients in isolated smooth muscle cells were also inhibited by OB (IC(50) = 0.2 micromol L(-1)). Otilonium bromide strongly inhibited the main patterns of human sigmoid motility in vitro by blocking calcium influx through L-type calcium channels on smooth muscle cells. This pharmacological profile may mediate the clinically observed effects of the drug in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.


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    Full Text Available AIM To evaluate the quality of intubating conditions with Suxamethonium chloride and Rocuronium bromide for rapid sequence induction intubation and to observe the correlation between the intubating conditions and the response to single twitch stimulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study, entitled “Comparison of Rocuronium bromide and Suxamethonium chloride for use during rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia was done in 50 adult patients divided into two groups and were randomly allocated Group-I: IV Rocuronium 0.9mg/kg and Group-II: IV Suxamethonium 1mg/kg. Laryngoscopy was attempted at 60 sec. and assessment of quality of intubating conditions was performed by using a Viby Mogensen Scale. Neuromuscular monitor was used to observe the correlation between the intubating conditions and the adductor pollicis response to single twitch ulnar nerve stimulation. RESULTS Intubating conditions were excellent (Score 15 in 88% of cases in Group-I whereas vocal cord position was intermediate (10- 14 in 12% of cases, in Group-II all cases could be intubated at 60 sec. (Score 15 in 100% cases. The onset of maximal blockade at adductor pollicis was found to correlate well with satisfactory intubating conditions in Group-II (Sch whereas in 20% of patients in Group-I had single twitch response (though diminished at the time of intubation. CONCLUSION Rocuronium bromide in dose of 0.9mg/kg provided neuromuscular blockade with a fast onset time and good to excellent intubating conditions at 60 sec. resembling those of Suxamethonium.

  3. [Efficacy of glycopyrronium bromide and scopolamine hydrobromide in patients with death rattle: a randomized controlled study]. (United States)

    Likar, Rudolf; Rupacher, Ernst; Kager, Hans; Molnar, Mario; Pipam, Wofgang; Sittl, Reinhard


    Death rattle is an extremely distressing symptom for the dying patient and for his environment. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of glycopyrronium bromide as compared with scopolamine hydrobromide in alleviating death rattle in terminal cancer patients with cognitive impairment. In a randomized, controlled study design patients were allocated in two groups. Group A received scopolamine hydrobromide in a dose of 0.5 mg intravenously every 6 hours for a period of 12 hours, group B received glycopyrronium bromide 0.4 mg every 6 hours for a period of 12 hours. In addition, standardized sedatives were administered as required and the analgesic therapy continued either orally or, if necessary, subcutaneously or intravenously in equipotent doses. Every 2 hours death rattle was assessed and rated on a scale of 1 to 5 (1 = audible breathing noises, 5 = very severe rattling noises). In addition, restlessness and expressions of pain were assessed and rated on a scale of 1 to 3 (1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe). 13 patients were included in the study, 7 patients were allocated to group A and 6 patients to group B. There were no significant differences in demographic data, age, weight and diagnosis distribution between the two groups. Group B demonstrated a significant reduction of death rattle in the first 12 hours (p = 0.029) in comparison to group A. There were no significant differences concerning the side effects (restlessness, expressions of pain) in both groups. Glycopyrronium bromide given in a dose of 0,4 mg every six hours demonstrated a significant reduction of death rattle compared to scopolamine hydrobromide. Concerning side effects (restlessness, expressions of pain) there was no difference between both substances.

  4. Inhibition of methoxamine-induced bronchoconstriction by ipratropium bromide and disodium cromoglycate in asthmatic subjects. (United States)

    Black, J; Vincenc, K; Salome, C


    We compared the effects of pretreatment with saline, ipratropium bromide, and disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on bronchoconstriction induced by methoxamine--an alpha-adrenoceptor agonist, in asthmatic subjects. All 12 patients bronchoconstricted in response to methoxamine after saline. The PD20 (the dose of methoxamine causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1]) ranged from 0.3-18 mumol. Ipratropium bromide (200 micrograms administered by aerosol) significantly inhibited (P less than 0.05) the response to methoxamine in all patients without producing significant changes in the mean baseline lung function. The mean PD20 for methoxamine after saline was 6.8 mumol and 95% confidence limits (CL) were 3.6, 12.7 mumol. The mean PD20 for methoxamine after ipratropium bromide was 35.4 (95% CL 28.8, 43.6) mumol. DSCG also produced significant (P less than 0.05) shifts to the right in the methoxamine dose response curves, but did not affect resting airway calibre as measured by the FEV1. The mean PD20 for methoxamine increased from 3.3 mumol (95% CL 1.1, 10.0 mumol) after saline to 25.1 mumol (95% CL 14.1, 44.6) after DSCG pretreatment. These findings suggest that alpha-adrenoceptors in the airways of asthmatic subjects may be located at sites other than smooth muscle--possibly on mast cells but more likely on nerve endings and/or parasympathetic ganglia. PMID:2992563

  5. Structures, electronic properties and stability phase diagrams for copper(I/II) bromide surfaces. (United States)

    Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Marashdeh, Ali; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z


    This study presents a comprehensive periodic slab DFT investigation into structures, electronic properties and thermodynamic stability of all plausible terminations of CuBr and CuBr2 surfaces. We first estimate lattice constants, formation and cohesive energies for the two bulk copper bromides before proceeding to analyse geometrical and electronic features of CuBr and CuBr2 configurations. Surface geometries exhibit, to a large extent, corresponding bulk structures. Nevertheless, certain CuBr2 surfaces experience a downward displacement of the topmost Cu-containing layers. We plot total and projected density of states for bulk and surface geometries of these two copper bromides and calculate their associated Bader's electronic charges. Electronic structure analysis for the bulk and surfaces of these two copper bromides show that CuBr bulk and its most stable surface (CuBr(001)_Br) do not exhibit any metallic character, whereas CuBr2 bulk and its most stable surface (CuBr2(001)_Br) both exhibit metallic characters. The formalism of the ab initio atomistic thermodynamics affords the construction of energy phase diagrams. We predict that the CuBr(001) surface, truncated with Br atoms, is the most stable structure among the considered CuBr slabs at all physically meaningful ranges of the chemical potential of bromine. This surface resembles a c(2 × 2)-bromine sheet that was characterised experimentally from initial interaction of Br2 with a Cu(100) surface. We find that surfaces terminated with the electronegative bromine atoms, if accompanied by significant relaxation, tend to be more stable. Calculated surface energies predict the shapes of CuBr and CuBr2 nanoparticles as the chemical potential of bromine changes.

  6. General method for the preparation of active esters by palladium-catalyzed alkoxycarbonylation of aryl bromides. (United States)

    de Almeida, Angelina M; Andersen, Thomas L; Lindhardt, Anders T; de Almeida, Mauro V; Skrydstrup, Troels


    A useful method was developed for the synthesis of active esters by palladium-catalyzed alkoxycarbonylation of (hetero)aromatic bromides. The protocol was general for a range of oxygen nucleophiles including N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), pentafluorophenol (PFP), hexafluoroisopropyl alcohol (HFP), 4-nitrophenol, and N-hydroxyphthalimide. A high functional group tolerance was displayed, and several active esters were prepared with good to excellent isolated yields. The protocol was extended to access an important synthetic precursor to the HIV-protease inhibitor, saquinavir, by formation of an NHS ester followed by acyl substitution.

  7. Biphilic Organophosphorus Catalysis: Regioselective Reductive Transposition of Allylic Bromides via PIII/PV Redox Cycling (United States)

    Reichl, Kyle D.; Dunn, Nicole L.; Fastuca, Nicholas J.; Radosevich, Alexander T.


    We report that a regioselective reductive transposition of primary allylic bromides is catalyzed by a biphilic organophosphorus (phosphetane) catalyst. Spectroscopic evidence supports the formation of a pentacoordinate (σ5-P) hydridophosphorane as a key reactive intermediate. Kinetics experiments and computational modeling are consistent with a unimolecular decomposition of the σ5-P hydridophosphorane via a concerted cyclic transition structure that delivers the observed allylic transposition and completes a novel PIII/PV redox catalytic cycle. These results broaden the growing repertoire of reactions catalyzed within the PIII/PV redox couple and suggest additional opportunities for organophosphorus catalysis in a biphilic mode. PMID:25874950

  8. Synthesis of the Multisubstituted Halogenated Olefins via Cross-Coupling of Dihaloalkenes with Alkylzinc Bromides (United States)

    Andrei, Daniela


    The 1-fluoro-1-haloalkenes undergo Pd-catalyzed Negishi cross-couplings with primary alkylzinc bromides to give multisubstituted fluoroalkenes. The alkylation was trans-selective giving pure Z-fluoroalkenes in most cases. The highest yields were obtained with Pd2(dba)3 and PdCl2(dppb) catalysts but the best stereochemical outcome was obtained with less reactive Pd(PPh3)4. The tertiary alkylzincs also produced desired fluoroalkenes in high yields. Coupling of 1,1-dichloroalkene with organozinc reagent resulted in the formation of mono-coupled product. PMID:16388671

  9. Efficient SN2 fluorination of primary and secondary alkyl bromides by copper(I) fluoride complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yanpin


    Copper(I) fluoride complexes ligated by phenanthroline derivatives have been synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. These complexes adopt as either ionic or neutral forms in the solid state, depending on the steric bulkiness of the substituent groups on the phenanthroline ligands. These complexes react with primary and secondary alkyl bromides to produce the corresponding alkyl fluorides in modest to good yields. This new method is compatible with a variety of important functional groups such as ether, thioether, amide, nitrile, methoxyl, hydroxyl, ketone, ester, and heterocycle moieties. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  10. Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide-Mg/Al hydrotalcite for removal phenol in water (United States)

    Kurniawati, Puji; Wiyantoko, Bayu; Purbaningtias, Tri Esti; Muzdalifah


    Hydrotalcite materials was synthesized by using Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) and Mg/Al layered double hydroxide with ratio molar 3:1. Synthesis of CTAB-Mg/Al hydrotalcite was carried out using ex situ co-precipitation method at pH 10±0.5. Removal of phenol was optimum at medium pH 6 and it had optimum contact time in 300 min. It followed pseudo second order with adsorption rate constant was 1.15.10-4 mM-1.min-1. The maximum adsorption capacities obtained from the Langmuir model was 35.71 mg.g-1 at room temperature.

  11. Copper bromide vapour laser with an output pulse duration of up to 320 ns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubarev, F A; Fedorov, K V; Evtushenko, G S [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Fedorov, V F; Shiyanov, D V [V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation)


    We report the development of a copper bromide vapour laser with an output pulse duration of up to 320 ns. To lengthen the pulse, the discharge current was limited using a compound switch comprising a pulsed hydrogen thyratron and a tacitron. This technique permits limiting the excitation of the working levels at the initial stage of the discharge development to lengthen the inversion lifetime. The longest duration of a laser pulse was reached in tubes 25 and 50 mm in diameter for a pulse repetition rate of 2 – 4 kHz. (lasers and laser beams)

  12. Comparative characteristics of copper, copper chloride, and copper bromide vapor lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarian, M.A.; Petrash, G.G.; Trofimov, A.N.


    The paper reports the results of a comparative study of copper and copper halide vapor lasers emitting in a repetitively-pulsed regime. Copper chloride and copper bromide vapor lasers are found to have identical lasing characteristics under any excitation conditions. These characteristics are different from those of a copper vapor laser. An average lasing power of 13 W has been obtained for all lasers studied for an efficiency of 1%. It is shown that the choice of a laser will largely depend on the laser design suitability for a specific application.

  13. Eco-friendly synthesis of 2-substituted benzothiazoles catalyzed by cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiao-Liang; Xu, Chun-Mei; Lin, Shao-Miao; Chen, Jiu-Xi; Ding, Jin-Chang; Wu, Hua-Yue [Wenzhou University (China). College of Chemistry and Materials Engineering; Su, Wei-Ke [Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou (China). College of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Engineering


    A series of 2-substituted benzothiazoles have been synthesized by the condensation of 2-aminothiophenol with aldehydes (RCHO: R = Alkyl, Aryl, Heteroaryl, 2-Arylformyl) in the presence of a catalytic amount of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) 'on water' by a one-pot procedure without additional organic solvents and oxidants. Thereinto, 2-alkylbenzothiazoles were synthesized in high yields and 2-arylformylbenzothiazoles were obtained from the condensation of 2-aminothiophenol with arylformyl aldehydes for the first time using the present protocol. (author)

  14. Vapour pressure and enthalpy of aqueous lithium bromide solutions. [Used in absorption heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A.; Patwardhan, V.S. (National Chemical Lab., Poona (India))


    In this paper we present new equations for accurate calculations of the vapour pressure and enthalpy of aqueous lithium bromide solutions which are commonly used in absorption heat pumps and absorption heat transformers. The number of empirical parameters involved in these equations is much smaller than those in earlier equations. Moreover, the present equations for both vapour pressure and enthalpy involve the same constants as both these equations are derived from a single free energy equation using standard thermodynamic concepts. The present methodology can be used with any other electrolyte for which enthalpy-concentration diagrams may not be readily available. (Author).

  15. Improved detection of rhamnolipid production using agar plates containing methylene blue and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide. (United States)

    Pinzon, Neissa M; Ju, Lu-Kwang


    Rhamnolipids, produced predominantly by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are biosurfactants with important applications. For efficient culture screening according to rhamnolipid productivity, the method using agar plates containing methylene blue (MB) and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was re-examined. An alternative set-up using a fixed underneath light source and image analysis software improved the detection of the circles formed due to complexation between anionic rhamnolipids and cationic MB/CTAB. The roles and effects of MB and CTAB concentrations and pH on the complexation phenomena are reported.

  16. Thermal and optical studies of some di-methyl-di-alkyl ammonium bromides (United States)

    Witko, Waclaw; Godlewska, Malgorzata; Dynarowicz, Patrycja


    Phase situation of homologous series of di-alkyl-di-methyl ammonium bromides represented by the general formula: 2CnN+2C1Br-, with n equals 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, was investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry and optical microscopy methods in the temperature range 20-180 degrees C. A more complex polymorphism as already reported was detected. All the compounds studied show at least tow anomalies on the DSC curves. The high-temperature phase which appears below the isotropic phase has lancet-like dendritic texture which can be attributed to SmB phase. The enthalpy changes at the transitions were calculated.

  17. Nitrate ion photolysis in thin water films in the presence of bromide ions. (United States)

    Richards, Nicole K; Wingen, Lisa M; Callahan, Karen M; Nishino, Noriko; Kleinman, Michael T; Tobias, Douglas J; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J


    Nitrate ions commonly coexist with halide ions in aged sea salt particles, as well as in the Arctic snowpack, where NO(3)(-) photochemistry is believed to be an important source of NO(y) (NO + NO(2) + HONO + ...). The effects of bromide ions on nitrate ion photochemistry were investigated at 298 ± 2 K in air using 311 nm photolysis lamps. Reactions were carried out using NaBr/NaNO(3) and KBr/KNO(3) deposited on the walls of a Teflon chamber. Gas phase halogen products and NO(2) were measured as a function of photolysis time using long path FTIR, NO(y) chemiluminescence and atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (API-MS). Irradiated NaBr/NaNO(3) mixtures show an enhancement in the rates of production of NO(2) and Br(2) as the bromide mole fraction (χ(NaBr)) increased. However, this was not the case for KBr/KNO(3) mixtures where the rates of production of NO(2) and Br(2) remained constant over all values of χ(KBr). Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations show that the presence of bromide in the NaBr solutions pulls sodium toward the solution surface, which in turn attracts nitrate to the interfacial region, allowing for more efficient escape of NO(2) than in the absence of halides. However, in the case of KBr/KNO(3), bromide ions do not appreciably affect the distribution of nitrate ions at the interface. Clustering of Br(-) with NO(3)(-) and H(2)O predicted by MD simulations for sodium salts may facilitate a direct intermolecular reaction, which could also contribute to higher rates of NO(2) production. Enhanced photochemistry in the presence of halide ions may be important for oxides of nitrogen production in field studies such as in polar snowpacks where the use of quantum yields from laboratory studies in the absence of halide ions would lead to a significant underestimate of the photolysis rates of nitrate ions.

  18. Cooperative dynamics of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide / water / n-dodecane microemulsions: a dielectric relaxation study


    Wachter, Wolfgang


    A systematic study of the dielectric relaxation spectra of W/O (water-in-oil) microemulsions composed of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB), water (W) and n-dodecane (D) has been made over the whole stability region in the phase diagram and over a wide range of frequencies (0.005 < nu/GHz < 89) at 25 °C. The spectra were best described by a superposition of six or five Debye processes, respectively, depending on the position of the sample in the phase diagram. Process 1 at 40 ns can be ...

  19. Promotion of hexadecyltrimethyleamine bromide to the damage of Alexandrium sp. LC3 by cupric glutamate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hao; MIAO Jin-lai; CUI Feng-xia; LI Guang-you


    The effect of hexadecyltrimethyleamine bromide (HDTMAB) on the removal of A lexandrium sp. LC3 under cupric glutamate stress was investigated. Toxic effect of cupric glutamate on A lexandrium sp. LC3 was significantly promoted in the presence of HDTMAB, especially at 3.0 cmc of HDTMAB. It was found that the sulfhydryl group content of the cell decreased, while the malonaldehyde content and membrane permeability increased when Alexandrium sp. LC3 was treated with HDTMAB and cupric glutamate complex, compared with cupric glutamate alone. The data suggest that HDTMAB might stimulate the damage of A lexandrium sp. LC3 by enhancing the membrane permeability.

  20. Mixed micelles of benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride with tetradecyltrimethylammonium and tetradecyltriphenylphosphonium bromides: a head group contribution. (United States)

    Bakshi, Mandeep Singh; Kaur, Ishpinder; Sood, Rohit; Singh, Jasmeet; Singh, Kulbir; Sachar, Shweta; Singh, Kanwar Jit; Kaur, Gurinder


    Mixed micelle formation by tetradecyltrimethylammonium (TTAB) and tetradecyltriphenylphosphonium bromides (TTPB) with benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride (BTDACl) was studied with the help of conductivity and Kraft point measurements. The BTDACl + TTAB mixtures showed synergistic interactions whereas those of BTDACl + TTPB indicated weak antagonistic behavior. From Kraft temperature measurements, the enthalpy of fusion (H(1)(0)) from solid hydrated BTDACl to the liquid state in the presence of TTAB or TTPB was computed. It was found that DeltaH(1)(0) was much more positive for BTDACl + TTPB than for BTDACl + TTAB mixtures.

  1. Cytotoxicity evaluation of Clinacanthus nutans through dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium bromide and neutral red uptake assays


    Vajrabhaya, La-ongthong; Korsuwannawong, Suwanna


    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the results of dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and neutral red uptake (NRU) assays of Clinacanthus nutans cytotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Mouse fibroblast (L929) cells were exposed to 0.01%, 0.1%, 0.25%, and 0.5% (W/V) C. nutans in a 96-cluster-well-culture plate for 24 h. The cell viability after exposure to C. nutans was determined by MTT and NRU assays in separate tissue culture plates. The two assays were compared thr...

  2. Generation, spectroscopy, and structure of cyanoformyl chloride and cyanoformyl bromide, XC(O)CN. (United States)

    Pasinszki, Tibor; Vass, Gábor; Klapstein, Dieter; Westwood, Nicholas P C


    Cyanoformyl chloride and cyanoformyl bromide, XC(O)CN (X = Cl and Br), have been investigated in the gas phase by UV photoelectron and mid-infrared spectroscopies. The ground-state geometries of the neutral molecules have been obtained from quantum-chemical calculations at the B3LYP and CCSD(T) levels using the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set. The individual spectroscopies provide a detailed investigation into the vibrational and electronic character of the molecules and are supported by quantum-chemical calculations. The results are compared to data for structurally and chemically related molecules.

  3. Palladium-catalyzed cross coupling reaction of N-alkoxyimidoyl bromides and its application to one-pot synthesis of N-arylamines. (United States)

    Ueda, Masafumi; Sugita, Shoichi; Aoi, Naoki; Sato, Aoi; Ikeda, Yuki; Ito, Yuta; Miyoshi, Tetsuya; Naito, Takeaki; Miyata, Okiko


    The synthetic utility of N-alkoxyimidoyl halides is demonstrated using the palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction. The Sonogashira and Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions of N-alkoxyimidoyl bromides produced versatile ketoxime ethers in good to excellent yields. A one-pot reaction of the imidoyl bromides with arylboronic acid and allylmagnesium bromide to produce N-arylamines via Suzuki-Miyaura coupling followed by domino reaction involving sequential addition-eliminative rearrangement-addition reactions was developed.

  4. p-Bromophenacyl bromide prevents cumene hydroperoxide-induced mitochondrial permeability transition by inhibiting pyridine nucleotide oxidation. (United States)

    Zhukova, A; Gogvadze, G; Gogvadze, V


    Mitochondrial permeability transition is commonly characterized as a Ca2+ -dependent non-specific increase in inner membrane permeability that results in swelling of mitochondria and their de-energization. In the present study, the effect of different inhibitors of phospholipase A2--p-bromophenacyl bromide, dibucaine, and aristolochic acid--on hydroperoxide-induced permeability transitions in rat liver mitochondria was tested. p-Bromophenacyl bromide completely prevented the hydroperoxide-induced mitochondrial permeability transition while the effects of dibucaine or aristolochic acid were negligible. Organic hydroperoxides added to mitochondria undergo reduction to corresponding alcohols by mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase. This reduction occurs at the expense of GSH which, in turn, can be reduced by glutathione reductase via oxidation of mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides. The latter is considered a prerequisite step for mitochondrial permeability transition. Among all the inhibitors tested, only p-bromophenacyl bromide completely prevented hydroperoxide-induced oxidation of mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides. Interestingly, p-bromophenacyl bromide had no affect on mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase, but reacted with mitochondrial glutathione that prevented pyridine nucleotides from being oxidized. Our data suggest that p-bromophenacyl bromide prevents hydroperoxide-induced deterioration of mitochondria via interaction with glutathione rather than through inhibition of phospholipase A2.

  5. The use of anti-spasmodics in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: focus on otilonium bromide. (United States)

    Forte, E; Pizzoferrato, M; Lopetuso, L; Scaldaferri, F


    Aim of this review is to summarize the studies carried out, with particular interest in those who dealt with otilonium bromide in treatment of IBS. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). IBS is a frequent gastrointestinal disease, characterized by a combination of several symptoms including abdominal pain or discomfort, flatulence and problems related to bowel habits (constipation and/or diarrhea). It affects about 15% of the western population, with a negative impact on the quality of life and also on health care costs. Face to such important complexity and negative impact, therapeutic options are still very limited and most of the pharmacological compounds mostly validated for short term use, are only partially controlling symptoms. Among those, anti-spasmodics are commonly used in clinical settings. Despite a discrete literature in support of these drugs, systematic collections of clinical evidence to support the use of anti-spasmodics and in particular the use of otilonium bromide in course of IBS are scarce. Otilonium bromide is a systemically poorly absorbed antispasmodic, which has shown clear efficacy compared to placebo, in controlling symptoms related to IBS. Otilonium bromide was effective also in comparison to other drugs, such as pinaverium bromide and mebeverine, with a favorable tolerability profile. Further studies are necessary to better define duration of treatment and maximum therapeutic dose.

  6. 苯扎溴铵酊处方改进及苯扎溴铵的含量测定%Improvement of prescription on Benzalkonium Bromide Tincture and de-termination of benzalkonium bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海伟; 王晓青; 刘皈阳; 马建丽


    Objective To improve prescription of Benzalkonium Bromide Tincture and establish a titration method in determination for content of benzalkonium bromide in Benzalkonium Bromide Alcoholic Solution (eosin was removed from Benzalkonium Bromide Tincture). Methods The content of benzalkonium bromide was detected by setting up capacity analysis method, and found eosin can affect the result of content determination at different degree, therefore eosin com-position was removed from the prescription. The content of benzalkonium bromide in Benzalkonium Bromide Alcoholic Solution was detected by titration method with tetraphenylboron sodium volumetric solution (0.02 mol/L). Results Ben-zalkonium Bromide Tincture changed to Benzalkonium Bromide Alcohol Solution, in content determination, the change of titration end point was obvious and easy to judge. Within the range from 0.4 mg/mL to 1.4 mg/mL, benzalkonium bromide presented a good linear relationship with the consumption volume of tetraphenylboron sodium volumetric solu-tion (r=0.9995), and the equation of linear regression was V=18.3C-0.32. The average recovery of benzalkonium bro-mide in low, middle and high dose was 99.12%, and RSD was 0.84%. Conclusion The method is simple, fast and ac-curate, it can be used for the quality control of Benzalkonium Bromide Alcoholic Solution.%目的:改进苯扎溴铵酊处方,并建立容量分析法测定苯扎溴铵醇溶液(苯扎溴铵酊去除曙红成分)中苯扎溴铵的含量。方法在建立容量分析法测定苯扎溴铵的含量时,发现曙红在不同程度上均能影响含量测定结果,故将曙红成分从处方中删去。采用四苯硼钠(0.02 mol/L)为滴定液,滴定苯扎溴铵醇溶液中苯扎溴铵的含量。结果苯扎溴铵酊制剂更改为苯扎溴铵醇溶液,在含量测定中,滴定终点变化明显,易于判断。苯扎溴铵在浓度0.4~1.4 mg/mL的范围内与消耗四苯硼钠滴定液体积呈良好线性关系,r=0

  7. Illness associated with exposure to methyl bromide-fumigated produce--California, 2010. (United States)


    Methyl bromide (MeBr) is a toxic gas used to fumigate agricultural fields and some produce. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) requires MeBr fumigation of grapes imported from Chile to prevent invasion by the Chilean false red mite, Brevipalpus chilensis. In 2010, two workers were exposed intermittently to MeBr over several months as part of their job inspecting produce at a cold-storage facility in Carson, California. Both workers had disabling neurologic symptoms (e.g., ataxia, memory difficulties, and dizziness) and elevated serum bromide concentrations. An environmental investigation revealed the potential for MeBr to accumulate in enclosed areas during the transportation and storage of fumigated grapes. Some MeBr air concentrations measured at a single point in time exceeded current 8-hour exposure limits, suggesting that exposure in confined areas could result in poisoning. Possible measures for facilities managers to consider to reduce postfumigation MeBr exposures include 1) increased aeration time, 2) reduction of packaging that might absorb MeBr or limit aeration, and 3) changes in the stacking of pallets to improve air flow. Facilities should monitor air MeBr levels if they store MeBr-fumigated commodities in enclosed spaces entered by workers. Clinicians should consider occupational and environmental exposures in their differential diagnosis, and workers who might become exposed to fumigants should be informed of the health hazards related to these pesticides.

  8. Pressure-Induced Structural and Optical Properties of Organometal Halide Perovskite-Based Formamidinium Lead Bromide. (United States)

    Wang, Lingrui; Wang, Kai; Zou, Bo


    Organometal halide perovskites (OMHPs) are attracting an ever-growing scientific interest as photovoltaic materials with moderate cost and compelling properties. In this Letter, pressure-induced optical and structural changes of OMHP-based formamidinium lead bromide (FAPbBr3) were systematically investigated. We studied the pressure dependence of optical absorption and photoluminescence, both of which showed piezochromism. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction indicated that FAPbBr3 underwent two phase transitions and subsequent amorphization, leading directly to the bandgap evolution with redshift followed by blueshift during compression. Raman experiments illustrated the high pressure behavior of organic cation and the surrounding inorganic octahedra. Additionally, the effect of cation size and the different intermolecular interactions between organic cation and inorganic octahedra result in the fact that FAPbBr3 is less compressible than the reported methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3). High pressure studies of the structural evolution and optical properties of OMHPs provide important clues in optimizing photovoltaic performance and help to design novel OMHPs with higher stimuli-resistant ability.

  9. Self-assembling systems based on amphiphilic alkyltriphenylphosphonium bromides: elucidation of the role of head group. (United States)

    Gainanova, Gulnara A; Vagapova, Guzalia I; Syakaev, Victor V; Ibragimova, Alsu R; Valeeva, Farida G; Tudriy, Elena V; Galkina, Irina V; Kataeva, Olga N; Zakharova, Lucia Ya; Latypov, Shamil K; Konovalov, Alexander I


    A systematic study of the aggregation behavior of alkyltriphenylphosphonium bromides (TPPB-n; n=8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18; here n is the number of carbon atoms in alkyl groups) in aqueous solutions has been carried out and compared with trimethyl ammonium bromides (TMAB-n). Critical micelle concentrations (cmcs) of TPPB-n and TMAB-n decrease with the number of carbon atoms with the slope parameter of ca.0.3. The low cmcs and effective solubilization power toward Orange OT indicate high micellization capacity of phosphonium surfactants. The low counterion binding parameter β is revealed for TPPB-10 and TPPB-12, while high counterion binding of ≥80% is observed for high TPPB-n homologs. Values of the surface potential ψ calculated on the basis of pK(a) shifts of p-nitrophenols is similar for both series and monotonously increase with alkyl chain length. Several points indicate non-monotonic changes within TPPB-n series. There are peculiarities of the tensiometry and solubilization plots for high homologs and above mentioned increases in counterion binding on transiting from low to high molecular weight surfactants. Differences in aggregation behavior between TPPB and TMAB series and between low and high homologs can be due to the specific structural character of the TPP(+) cation, which is supported by X-ray data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Recent trends in atmospheric methyl bromide: analysis of post-Montreal Protocol variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Yvon-Lewis


    Full Text Available The atmospheric methyl bromide (CH3Br burden has declined in recent years, in response to the phaseout of agricultural and structural fumigation consumption under the amendments to the Montreal Protocol. The timing and magnitude of this decrease represents an opportunity to examine our current understanding of atmospheric CH3Br and its budget, response to the phaseout, and response to interannual variability in biomass burning and global OH. In this study, simulations obtained from a time-dependent global model of atmospheric CH3Br emissions and uptake are compared to observations from the NOAA flask network. The model includes a detailed gridded ocean model coupled to a time-dependant atmospheric 2-box model. The phaseout of CH3Br production for agricultural uses began in 1998, concurrent with the pulse in biomass burning associated with the 1998 El Niño. The combined effects of three factors (biomass burning, global OH, and anthropogenic phaseout appear to explain most of the observed atmospheric methyl bromide variability over the 1997–2008 period. The global budget remains imbalanced, with a large missing source indicated. The missing source does not exhibit a systematic decline during the phaseout period, and therefore, is not the result of significantly underestimating non-QPS agricultural CH3Br emissions. The model results suggest that the oceans should be less undersaturated than before the phaseout began.

  11. Chemical alternatives to methyl bromide for the control of root-knot nematodes in greenhouses. (United States)

    Giannakou, Ioannis O; Sidiropoulos, Artemios; Prophetou-Athanasiadou, Demetra


    The complete phase-out of methyl bromide from use in developed countries by 1 January 2005 will cause many problems in agricultural industries that are now heavily reliant on its use. Three field experiments were established to compare management tactics on tomato and cucumber in commercial greenhouses naturally infested with root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp). Reduction of nematode juveniles in soil and roots to nil detection levels was observed in all plots following soil fumigation with methyl bromide. A significant reduction of nematode juveniles and root-galling index was observed in plots treated with metham-sodium, dazomet and 1,3-dichloropropene compared with the control and plots treated with non-fumigant nematicides. Reduction of the nematode population led to an increase in fruit yield. However, data collected from the second cultivation season indicated that single control methods such as fumigant or contact nematicides alone cannot drastically decrease initial nematode population and those nematodes which escape control lead to population increase by the end of the cropping season.

  12. Model prediction uncertainty of bromide and pesticides transport in laboratory column (United States)

    Dusek, Jaromir; Dohnal, Michal; Snehota, Michal; Sobotkova, Martina; Ray, Chittaranjan; Vogel, Tomas


    Knowledge of transport parameters of reactive solutes such as pesticides is a prerequisite for reliable predictions of their fate and transport in soil porous systems. Water flow and transport of bromide tracer and five pesticides (atrazine, imazaquin, sulfometuron methyl, S-metolachlor, and imidacloprid) through an undisturbed soil column of tropical Oxisol were analyzed using a one-dimensional numerical model. Laboratory column leaching experiment with three flow interruptions was conducted. The applied numerical model is based on Richards' equation for solving water flow and the advection-dispersion equation for solving solute transport. A global optimization method was used to evaluate the model's sensitivity to transport parameters and the uncertainty of model predictions. Within the Monte Carlo modeling framework, multiple forward simulations searching through the parametric space, were executed to describe the observed breakthrough curves. All pesticides were found to be relatively mobile. Experimental data indicated significant non-conservative behavior of bromide tracer. All pesticides, with the exception of imidacloprid, were found less persistent. Three of the five pesticides (atrazine, sulfometuron methyl, and S-metolachlor) were better described by the linear kinetic sorption model, while the breakthrough curves of imazaquin and imidacloprid were more appropriately approximated using nonlinear instantaneous sorption. Sensitivity analysis suggested that the model is most sensitive to sorption distribution coefficient. The prediction limits contained most of the measured points of the experimental breakthrough curves, indicating adequate model concept and model structure for the description of transport processes in the soil column under study.

  13. Surface Electronic Structure of Hybrid Organo Lead Bromide Perovskite Single Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Komesu, Takashi


    The electronic structure and band dispersion of methylammonium lead bromide, CH3NH3PbBr3, has been investigated through a combination of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPES), as well as theoretical modeling based on density functional theory. The experimental band structures are consistent with the density functional calculations. The results demonstrate the presence of a dispersive valence band in MAPbBr3 that peaks at the M point of the surface Brillouin zone. The results also indicate that the surface termination of the CH3NH3PbBr3 is the methylammonium bromide (CH3NH3Br) layer. We find our results support models that predict a heavier hole effective mass in the region of -0.23 to -0.26 me, along the Γ (surface Brillouin center) to M point of the surface Brillouin zone. The surface appears to be n-type as a result of an excess of lead in the surface region. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  14. Effect of chronic administration of phenobarbital, or bromide, on pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam in dogs with epilepsy. (United States)

    Muñana, K R; Nettifee-Osborne, J A; Papich, M G


    Levetiracetam (LEV) is a common add-on antiepileptic drug (AED) in dogs with refractory seizures. Concurrent phenobarbital administration alters the disposition of LEV in healthy dogs. To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of LEV in dogs with epilepsy when administered concurrently with conventional AEDs. Eighteen client-owned dogs on maintenance treatment with LEV and phenobarbital (PB group, n = 6), LEV and bromide (BR group, n = 6) or LEV, phenobarbital and bromide (PB-BR group, n = 6). Prospective pharmacokinetic study. Blood samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after LEV administration. Plasma LEV concentrations were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. To account for dose differences among dogs, LEV concentrations were normalized to the mean study dose (26.4 mg/kg). Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed on adjusted concentrations, using a noncompartmental method, and area-under-the-curve (AUC) calculated to the last measured time point. Compared to the PB and PB-BR groups, the BR group had significantly higher peak concentration (Cmax ) (73.4 ± 24.0 versus 37.5 ± 13.7 and 26.5 ± 8.96 μg/mL, respectively, P phenobarbital in dogs. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  15. Natural Oxidation of Bromide to Bromine in Evaporated Dead Sea Brines (United States)

    Gavrieli, Ittai; Golan, Rotem; Lazar, Boaz; Baer, Gidi; Zakon, Yevgeni; Ganor, Jiwchar


    Highly evaporated Dead Sea brines are found in isolated sinkholes along the Dead Sea. Many of these brines reach densities of over 1.3 kg/L and pHDead Sea brine that drain into the sinkholes. The low pH and the reddish to brownish hue of these brines were an enigma until recently. Despite the rather high total alkalinity (TA) of the Dead Sea (3.826 mmol/kg) the pH of the Dead Sea brine is known to be slightly acidic with a value of ~6.3. In comparison, seawater with the same alkalinity would have a pH value well above 8.3, meaning that H+ activity is 100 fold lower than that of Dead Sea brine. In the present work we assess the apparent dissociation constant value of boric acid (K`B) for the Dead Sea brine and use it to explain the brine's low pH value. We then show that pH decreases further as the brine evaporates and salinity increases. Finally we explain the reddish hue of the hypersaline brines in the sinkholes as due to the presence of dissolved bromine. The latter is the product of oxidation of dissolved bromide, a process that is enabled by the low pH of the hypersaline brines and their high bromide concentration.

  16. Thermodynamics of micellization of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide in propylene glycol-water mixture: A conductivity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janošević-Ležaić Aleksandra M.


    Full Text Available Micellization of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (syn. cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB in propylene glycol-water (30% v/v binary mixture, as well as the thermodynamic properties of the resulting micelles, were investigated by electrical conductivity measurements. The conductivity data were used to determine both the critical micellar concentration (CMC and the micellar ionization degree (α of CTin the temperature range 298.2-310.2 K. The equilibrium model of micelle formation was applied in order to obtain the thermodynamic parameters (the standard molar Gibbs free energy, ΔGm0, enthalpy, ΔHm0 and entropy, ΔSm0 of the micellization process. The values of DGm0 and DHm0 were found to be negative at all investigated temperatures, while the values of ΔSm0 were positive and became more positive as temperature increased. A linear dependence between ΔSm0 and ΔHm0, i.e. an enthalpy-entropy compensation effect, was observed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172015

  17. Chemical vapor transport and solid-state exchange synthesis of new copper selenite bromides (United States)

    Charkin, Dmitri O.; Kayukov, Roman A.; Zagidullin, Karim A.; Siidra, Oleg I.


    A new dimorphic copper selenite bromide, Cu5(SeO3)4Br2 was obtained via chemical transport reactions. α-Cu5(SeO3)4Br2, monoclinic (1m) and β-Cu5(SeO3)4Br2, triclinic (1a) polymorphs were produced simultaneously upon reaction of amorphous, partially dehydrated copper selenite and copper bromide. 1m is similar to Cu5(SeO3)4Cl2, whereas 1a is distantly related to Ni5(SeO3)4Br2 and Co5(SeO3)4Br2. Attempts to reproduce synthesis of 1a via exchange reaction between Na2SeO3 and CuBr2 resulted in a new Na2[Cu7O2](SeO3)4Br4 (2). Current study demonstrates for the first time, that both chemical vapor and exchange reactions can be employed in preparation of new selenite halides.

  18. Preparation and evaluation of a novel hybrid monolithic column based on pentafluorobenzyl imidazolium bromide ionic liquid. (United States)

    Shan, Yuanhong; Qiao, Lizhen; Shi, Xianzhe; Xu, Guowang


    To develop a novel hybrid monolithic column based on pentafluorobenzyl imidazolium bromide ionic liquid, a new ionic liquid monomer was synthesized from 1-vinylimidazole and pentafluorobenzyl bromide. By employing a facile one-step copolymerization of polyhedral-oligomeric-silsesquioxane-type (POSS) cross-linking agent and the home-made ionic liquid monomer, the hybrid monolithic columns were in situ fabricated in fused-silica capillary. The morphology of monolithic column was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the chemical composition was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and elemental analysis. Excellent mechanical stability and slight swelling propensity were exhibited which was ascribed to the rigid hybrid monolithic skeleton. Reproducibility results of run-to-run, column-to-column, batch-to-batch and day-to-day were investigated and the RSDs were less than 0.46%, 1.84%, 3.96% and 3.17%, respectively. The mixed-mode retention mechanism with hydrophobic interaction, π-π stacking, ion-exchange, electrostatic interaction and dipole-dipole interaction was explored systematically using analytes with different structure types. Satisfied separation capability and column efficiency were achieved for the analysis of small molecular compounds such as alkylbenzenes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nucleosides and halogenated compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Comparative effects of terbutaline sulphate and ipratropium bromide on the respiratory system (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Villate Navarro, J I; Sobradillo Peña, V; Atxotequi Iaraoligoitia, V; Salaverri Nalda, A; Orive Martínez, C


    Bronchodilator action of two pharmacologically different drugs have been compared. Ipratropium bromide (Sch 1000) is a synthetic atropine derivative and terbutaline sulphate is a beta-stimulating agent. Twelve asthmatic patients and eight patients with chronic bronquitis received terbutaline 0.50 mg. and ipratropium 0.04 mg by aerosol inhalation. Both drugs were given at random on a consecutive-day schedule. All patients were clinically stable before treatment (basal FEV/VC less than 60 percent). Total lung capacity (TLC) forced expiratory volume (FEV), SRaw, and V'/V curves before and at 15, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after the produce administration were registered. Presence of side-effects was also checked. An intensive bronchodilator action was observed either after inhalation of ipratropium bromide or terbutaline, but statistical studies showed no significant differences between both drugs in relation to intensity and duration of their actions. Sch 1000 caused similar bronchodilator effects in all cases; a more intense effect in patients with chronic bronchitis could not be noticed. Evaluation of V'/V curve, and especially its relation to a same pulmonary volume, pointed out that both drugs act upon small respiratory airways. Advance side-effects were not present.

  20. Interaction of removal Ethidium Bromide with Carbon Nanotube: Equilibrium and Isotherm studies. (United States)

    Moradi, Omid; Norouzi, Mehdi; Fakhri, Ali; Naddafi, Kazem


    Drinking water resources may be contaminated with Ethidium Bromide (EtBr) which is commonly used in molecular biology laboratories for DNA identification in electrophoresis. Carbon nanotubes are expected to play an important role in sensing, pollution treatment and separation techniques. In this study adsorption of Ethidium Bromide on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and carboxylate group functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT-COOH) surfaces have been investigated by UV-vis spectrophotometer. The effect of contact time, initial concentration and temperature were investigated. The adsorbents exhibits high efficiency for EtBr adsorption and equilibrium can be achieved in 6 and 3 min for SWCNTs and SWCNT-COOH, respectively. The effect of temperature on adsorption of EtBr by toward adsorbents shows the process in this research has been endothermic. The results showed that the equilibrium data were well described by the Langmuir isotherm model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 0.770 and 0.830 mg/g for SWCNTs and SWCNT-COOH, respectively. The adsorption of EtBr on SWCNT-COOH is more than SWCNTs surfaces. A comparison of kinetic models was evaluated for the pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order models. Pseudo second-order was found to agree well with the experimental data.