Sample records for pyridazines

  1. Tetrakis(pyridazine-κNbis(selenocyanato-κNcobalt(II pyridazine disolvate

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    Susanne Wöhlert


    Full Text Available Reaction of cobalt(II nitrate with potassium selenocyanate and pyridazine leads to single crystals of the title compound, [Co(NCSe2(C4H4N24]·2C4H4N2, which is isotypic with its nickel(II thiocyanate analogue. The Co2+ cations are coordinated by two N-bonded selenocyanate ligands and four N atoms from four pyridazine ligands into discrete complexes. The complexes are arranged into layers parallel to (001. These layers are separated by additional non-coordinating pyridazine ligands.

  2. Synthesis and Herbicidal Activity of 3-Subsituted Amino-6-(substituted phenoxyl)pyridazine Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU,Fang-Zhong; WANG,Zhan-Ping; LI,Yong-Hong; YANG,Hua-Zheng


    @@ In recent years, many pyridazine derivatives have shown highly biological activities, such as fungicides, insecticides and herbicides. Especially, the researches of 3-(substituted phenoxyl)pyridazine derivatives have become the focus of pesticidal chemistry.

  3. trans-Diaquabis(pyridazine-3-carboxylato-κ2N2,Ocopper(II

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    Aroa Pache


    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Cu(C5H3N2O22(H2O2], the CuII ion, located on an inversion center, exhibits an octahedral coordination geometry. The equatorial plane is defined by two trans-related N,O-bidentate pyridazine-3-carboxylate ligands and the axial positions are occupied by two water molecules. In the crystal, molecules are connected by O—H...O hydrogen bonds between the water molecules and the noncoordinating carboxylate O atoms, forming layers parallel to the bc plane. The layers are stacked along the a axis by further O—H...O hydrogen bonds between the water molecules and the coordinating carboxylate O atoms. Weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds are also observed between the pyridazine rings and the water molecules and between the pyridazine rings and the non-coordinating carboxylate O atoms.

  4. An expedient and new synthesis of pyrrolo[1,2-b]pyridazine derivatives

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    Rajeshwar Reddy Sagyam


    Full Text Available The reaction of 2-[2-(4-fluorophenyl-2-oxo-1-phenylethyl]-4-methyl-3-oxo-pentanoic acid phenylamide with tertiary butyl carbazate and subsequent condensation of the resulting carbamate derivative with a chalcone provided a facile new approach to pyrrolo[1,2-b]pyridazine derivatives.

  5. Insights from Theory and Experiment on the Photochromic spiro-Dihydropyrrolo-Pyridazine/Betaine System. (United States)

    Fernando, Amendra; Shrestha, Tej B; Liu, Yao; Malalasekera, Aruni P; Yu, Jing; McLaurin, Emily J; Turro, Claudia; Bossmann, Stefan H; Aikens, Christine M


    We elucidated the photochromic spiro-4a,5-dihydropyrrolo[1,2-b]pyridazine/betaine (DPP/betaine) system by comparing state-of-the-art density functional theory calculations with nanosecond/millisecond UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, as well as steady-state absorption and cyclization kinetics. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations are employed to examine the transformations occurring after photoexcitation. This study shows that the photochromic spiro-4a,5-dihydropyrrolo[1,2-b]pyridazine and spiro-1,8a-dihydroindolizine (DHI) systems react according to similar pathways. However, notable differences exist. Although photoexcitation of the spiro-DPP system also leads to cis-betaines, which then isomerize to trans-betaines, we found two distinct classes of cis isomers (cis-betaine rotamer-1 and cis-betaine rotamer-2), which do not exist in spiro-1,8a-dihydroindolizine. Similar to our previous study on the spiro-DHI/betaine system, a complicated potential-energy landscape between cis and trans isomers exists in the spiro-DPP system, consisting of a network of transition states and intermediates. Because the spiro-DPP/betaine is even more complicated than the spiro-DHI/betaine system, (substituted) photochromic systems featuring a 4a,5-dihydropyrrolo[1,2-b]pyridazine functional unit will require thorough in silico design to function properly as logical gates or in devices for information storage.

  6. Using ovality to predict nonmutagenic, orally efficacious pyridazine amides as cell specific spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitors. (United States)

    Lucas, Matthew C; Bhagirath, Niala; Chiao, Eric; Goldstein, David M; Hermann, Johannes C; Hsu, Pei-Yuan; Kirchner, Stephan; Kennedy-Smith, Joshua J; Kuglstatter, Andreas; Lukacs, Christine; Menke, John; Niu, Linghao; Padilla, Fernando; Peng, Ying; Polonchuk, Liudmila; Railkar, Aruna; Slade, Michelle; Soth, Michael; Xu, Daigen; Yadava, Preeti; Yee, Calvin; Zhou, Mingyan; Liao, Cheng


    Inhibition of spleen tyrosine kinase has attracted much attention as a mechanism for the treatment of cancers and autoimmune diseases such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematous. We report the structure-guided optimization of pyridazine amide spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Early representatives of this scaffold were highly potent and selective but mutagenic in an Ames assay. An approach that led to the successful identification of nonmutagenic examples, as well as further optimization to compounds with reduced cardiovascular liabilities is described. Select pharmacokinetic and in vivo efficacy data are presented.

  7. Light-Enhanced Fluorescence of Multi-Level Cavitands Possessing Pyridazine Upper rim. (United States)

    Janosi, Tibor Zoltan; Makkai, Geza; Kegl, Timea; Matyus, Peter; Kollar, Laszlo; Erostyak, Janos


    Completely different fluorescence behaviour of cavitands based on a same calix[4]resorcinarene compound was observed. While the fluorescence intensity of the parent compound, tetramethyl-cavitand (1) slowly faded as a result of UV-light exposure, the emission of the three-level cavitand with pyridazine moieties at the upper rim (5a) was enhanced by the excitation in the UV-region. The structure of fluorescence emission (characterized by excitation-emission matrices) and the absorption of 5a remained unaltered. The analysis of fluorescence decay curves reveals the presence of two separated components assigned to two individual emitting species. The measured significant increase of the average lifetime and quantum yield is the consequence of the UV-light induced transition between the different states of 5a. These observations can be explained by the structural difference between 5a and 1. As a counterpart of the naked cavitand (1) with methyl substituents at the upper rim only, 5a has three additional moieties benzene, triazole and pyridazine levels. Computational studies proved the existence of two conformational isomers of 5a. Upon ultraviolet light excitation a "dark" to "light" conformational transition occurs between the two isomers. This hypothesis was confirmed by anisotropy decay measurements.

  8. A Pyridazine-Bridged Sandwiched Cluster Incorporating Planar Hexanuclear Cobalt Ring and Bivacant Phosphotungstate. (United States)

    Guo, Ling-Yu; Zeng, Su-Yuan; Jagličić, Zvonko; Hu, Qi-Dong; Wang, Shi-Xuan; Wang, Zhi; Sun, Di


    A planar hexanuclear cobalt ring was clamped by two bivacant α1-[PW10O37](9-) with the assistance of the pyridazine bridges to form a novel sandwiched Co(II)-polyoxometalate cluster compound, [Na(H2O)6][Co3(OH) (pydz)4(H2O)7][Co6(PW10O37)2(pydz)4(H2O)6]·43H2O (1; pydz = pyridazine).This cluster was identified by X-ray single-crystal diffraction, elemental analysis, Fourier transform IR and UV-visible spectroscopies, and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Structural analysis reveals that 1 comprises a hexahydrated sodium, a trinuclear [Co3(OH) (pydz)4(H2O)7](5+) cationic cluster, and an anionic [Co6(PW10O37)2(pydz)4(H2O)6](6-) sandwiched cluster, thus giving an intrinsical intercluster compound. The isolation of such cluster was dependent on the in situ transformation of trivacant [α-P2W15O56](12-) to α1-[PW10O37](9-) under the hydrothermal condition. The CV shows reversible multielectron waves from the redox of W(VI) in 1. Cluster 1 exhibits remarkable electrocatalytic activity toward the reduction of nitrite. Magnetism studies indicated a weak anti-ferromagnetic exchange interaction between Co(II) ions within 1.

  9. What Triggers Supramolecular Isomerism in Nonmolecular Solids? A case study of Copper Pyridazine Halides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Molecular recognition and aggregation occurring in solution are critical events towards the nucleation and growth of a crystal. However, controlling aggregation towards a particular supramolecular assembly is difficult due to lack of information on its thermodynamics and kinetics. Hence, the occurrence of supramolecularisomers is hardly recognized. In this paper, therefore, we demonstrate a retrosynthetic analysis to interpret the occurrence of isostructures and supramolecular isomers and predict the possibility of new phases in copperhalide-pyridazine- H₂O system. A significant feature of this paper is the use of crystal engineering tools, namely, synthons and tectons to interpret the phase diagram of a system. The structure-synthesis correlation discussed here provides chemical insight to evolve a synthetic protocol to interpret and predict the possibilityof supramolecular isomers in metal organic solids.

  10. Mixed-ligand hydroxocopper(II)/pyridazine clusters embedded into 3D framework lattices. (United States)

    Degtyarenko, Anna S; Handke, Marcel; Krämer, Karl W; Liu, Shi-Xia; Decurtins, Silvio; Rusanov, Eduard B; Thompson, Laurence K; Krautscheid, Harald; Domasevitch, Konstantin V


    Rational combination of pyridazine, hydroxo and carboxylate bridging ligands led to the assembly of three types of mixed-ligand polynuclear Cu(II) clusters (A: [Cu2(μ-OH)(μ-pdz)(μ-COO)]; B: [Cu4(μ3-OH)2(μ-pdz)2]; C: [Cu5(μ-OH)2(μ-pdz)4(μ-COO)2(μ-H2O)2]) and their integration into 3D framework structures. Mixed-ligand complexes [Cu2(μ-OH){TMA}(L)(H2O)] (1), [Cu4(μ3-OH)2{ATC}2(L)2(H2O)2]·H2O (2) [Cu4(μ3-OH)2{TDC}3(L)2(H2O)2]·7H2O (3) (L = 1,3-bis(pyridazin-4-yl)adamantane; TMA(3-) = benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate, ATC(3-) = adamantane-1,3,5-tricarboxylate, TDC(2-) = 2,5-thiophenedicarboxylate) and [Cu5(μ-OH)2{X}4(L)2(H2O)2]·nH2O (X = benzene-1,3-dicarboxylate, BDC(2-), n = 5 (4) and 5-hydroxybenzene-1,3-dicarboxylate, HO-BDC(2-), n = 6 (5)) are prepared under hydrothermal conditions. Trigonal bridges TMA(3-) and ATC(3-) generate planar Cu(II)/carboxylate subtopologies further pillared into 3D frameworks (1: binodal 3,5-coordinated, doubly interpenetrated tcj-3,5-Ccc2; 2: binodal 3,8-coordinated tfz-d) by bitopic pyridazine ligands. Unprecedented triple bridges in 1 (cluster of type A) support short CuCu separations of 3.0746(6) Å. The framework in 3 is a primitive cubic net (pcu) with multiple bis-pyridazine and TDC(2-) links between the tetranuclear nodes of type . Compounds 4 and 5 adopt uninodal ten-coordinated framework topologies (bct) embedding unprecedented centrosymmetric open-chain pentanuclear clusters of type C with two kinds of multiple bridges, Cu(μ-OH)(μ-pdz)2Cu and Cu(μ-COO)(μ-H2O)Cu (CuCu distances are 3.175 and 3.324 Å, respectively). Magnetic coupling phenomena were detected for every type of cluster by susceptibility measurements of 1, 3 and 4. For binuclear clusters A in 1, the intracluster antiferromagnetic exchange interactions lead to a diamagnetic ground state (J = -17.5 cm(-1); g = 2.1). Strong antiferromagnetic coupling is relevant also for type B, which consequently results in a diamagnetic ground state (J1 = -110 cm(-1

  11. High specific activity tritiation of the pyridazin-3-one histamine H{sub 3} receptor inverse agonist CEP-27088

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Joseph R. [PerkinElmer Health Sciences, Inc. 940 Winter St. Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Filer, Crist N., E-mail: [PerkinElmer Health Sciences, Inc. 940 Winter St. Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Maniscalco, Mario [PerkinElmer Health Sciences, Inc. 940 Winter St. Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Becknell, Nadine C.; Hudkins, Robert L. [Discovery Research, Cephalon, Inc. 145 Brandywine Parkway, West Chester, PA 19380 (United States)


    Methods are presented to tritiate and characterize radioligand (3). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper addresses a useful compound to study the histamine-3 receptor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The compound is a member of the pyridazin-3-one heterocycle class. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In particular, the paper describes the installation of tritium in the compound of interest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Furthermore, tritium NMR has been employed to characterize the tritiated compound.

  12. Pharmacophore-based design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel chloro-pyridazine piperazines as human rhinovirus (HRV-3) inhibitors. (United States)

    Wang, Hongliang; Xiao, Junhai; Gao, Dapeng; Zhang, Xian; Yan, Hui; Gong, Zehui; Sun, Tinmin; Li, Song


    A series of chloro-pyridazine piperazines were developed based on the structure of human rhinovirus (HRV) capsid-binding inhibitors with proven activity using a pharmacophore model. A preliminary evaluation demonstrated potent activity against HRV-3 with low cytotoxicity. A docking analysis indicated that 8a could fit into, and form tight interactions (e.g., H-bonds, σ-π effect) with the active site in VP1.

  13. Isomeric signatures in the fragmentation of pyridazine and pyrimidine induced by fast ion impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Wania, E-mail:; Luna, Hugo; Montenegro, Eduardo C. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    We present fast proton impact induced fragmentations of pyrimidine and pyridazine as an experimental resource to investigate isomeric signatures. Major isomeric imprints are identified for few fragment ions and differences of more than an order of magnitude for the cross sections of fragments of the same mass were measured. The observation of the molecular structure of these isomers gives no apparent indication for the reasons for such substantial differences. It is verified that the simple displacement of the position of one nitrogen atom strongly inhibits or favors the production of some ionic fragment species. The dependency of the fragmentation cross sections on the proton impact energy, investigated by means of time of flight mass spectroscopy and of a model calculation based in first order perturbation theory, allows us to disentangle the complex collision dynamics of the ionic fragments. The proton-induced fragmentation discriminates rather directly the association between a molecular orbital ionization and the fragment-ions creation and abundance, as well as how the redistribution of the energy imparted to the molecules takes place, triggering not only single but also double vacancy and leads to specific fragmentation pathways.

  14. 4-(2,7-Dimethyl-4-oxo-1,3-thiazolo[4,5-d]pyridazin-5-ylbenzenesulfonamide

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    Abdullah M. Asiri


    Full Text Available The thiazole–pyridazine fused-ring system of the title compound, C13H12N4O3S2, is approximately planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.037 Å; the benzene ring connected to the fused-ring system through the N atom is twisted by 39.3 (1°. The amine group uses an H atom to form a hydrogen bond to the ketonic O atom of an inversion-related molecule to generate a dimer; adjacent dimers are linked by an N—H...O hydrogen bond to form a linear chain.

  15. Synthesis of a New Scaffold: the 7H,8H-Pyrimido[1,6-b]pyridazin-6,8-dione Nucleus

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    Jadwiga Turło


    Full Text Available This paper describes a modified method of preparation of a number of α-aryl-α-(pyridazin-3-yl-acetonitriles via the C-arylation reaction of the corresponding carbanionsof phenylacetonitriles using 3-chloropyridazine derivatives. KOH and DMSO were used inthe deprotonation process, which made the reaction very simple and safe to perform.Nitriles were obtained in the hydrolysis reaction to the corresponding α-aryl-α-(pyridazin-3-yl-acetamide derivatives, which were next subjected to cyclization to afford the finalproducts. A number of new derivatives of 7H,8H-pyrimido[1,6-b]pyridazin-6,8-dione weresynthesized in the cyclocondensation reaction of respective α-aryl-α-(pyridazin-3-yl-acetamides with diethyl carbonate in the presence of EtONa. The structure andcomposition of the new compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H- and 13C- NMR analysesand by elemental C, H and N analysis.

  16. Synthesis and biological evaluation of Novel N-(3-(6-methyl-[1,2,4]triazolo [4,3-b]pyridazin-3-yl aryl carboxamide and aryl sulfonamide derivatives

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    K. Thirumurugan


    Full Text Available A novel derivatives of N-(3-6-methyl-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine-3-ylphenylbenzamide and sulphonamide were prepared from 3-(6-Methyl-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine-3-ylphenyl aniline and these derivatives were subjected to preliminary antimicrobial activities against microorganism. All these compounds exhibit good to moderate activity.

  17. Six complexes based on bis(imidazole/benzimidazole-1-yl)pyridazine ligands: Syntheses, structures and properties (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Fang; Du, Ceng-Ceng; Zhou, Sheng-Bin; Wang, Duo-Zhi


    Herein we reported six new Ni(II)/Cu(II)/Zn(II) complexes, namely, [Ni(L1)4(OH)2] (1), [Cu(L1)4(OH)2] (2), [Cu(L1)2(SiF6)]n (3), {[Cu(L2)(HCOO)2]·H2O·CH3OH}n (4), [Ni(L2)2(NO3)2]n (5) and {[Zn(L2)Cl2]·DMF}n (6) (L1 = 3,6-bis(imidazole-1-yl)pyridazine, L2 = 3,6-bis(benzimidazole-1-yl)pyridazine), which were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, IR, PXRD. These complexes have been successfully constructed under interface diffusion process, heating reflux or hydrothermal conditions. The structures of 1 and 2 are mononuclear complexes. Complex 3 exhibits a 6-connected 3D topology network with the Schläfli symbol of (412·63). In complex 4, two Cu(II) were connected through two HCOO- anions to form dinuclear structure unit, which is arranged into a 1D ladder-like structure by μ2-L2 ligands. Complexes 5 and 6 are 1D zigzag chains connected by L2 ligands, but the Ni(II) ion is six-coordinated in 5 and the Zn(II) ion is four-coordinated in 6. Moreover, the solid-state luminescence property and UV-vis diffuse reflection spectrum of complex 6 have been investigated and discussed.

  18. Synthesis and quantitative structure–activity relationship study of substituted imidazophosphor ester based tetrazolo[1,5-b]pyridazines as antinociceptive/anti-inflammatory agents

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    Wafaa M. Abdou


    Full Text Available A high-yielding general synthesis of imidazophosphor ester based tetrazolo[1,5-b]pyridazines is described. A conjugated reaction between 3,6-diazidopyridazine and different types of phosphonyl carbanion reagents followed by intramolecular cyclization afforded the target products, by using sodium ethanolate solution as a reaction medium. Among the products, five compounds, at a dose of 50 mg per kilogram body weight, showed a notable antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity without toxic side-effects.

  19. Synthesis of [{sup 123}I]iodine labelled imidazo[1,2-b] pyridazines as potential probes for the study of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors using SPECT

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    Katsifis, A.; Mattner, F.; Dikic, B. [Radiopharmaceuticals Div. ANSTO, Menai, NSW (Australia); Barlin, G. [Div. of Neurosciences, John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia)


    The pyridazines 3-acetamidomethyl-6-chloro-2-(4'-iodophenyl)imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine 1 (IC{sub 50} = 1.6 nM) and 3-benzamidomethyl-6-iodo-2-(4'-t-butylphenyl)imidazo[1,2-b] pyridazine 2 (IC{sub 50} = 4.2 nM), are high affinity and selective ligands for the peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) compared to the central benzodiazepine counterparts. The [{sup 123}I]1 and [{sup 123}I]2 labelled analogues of these compounds were subsequently synthesised for the potential study of the PBR in vivo using SPECT. Radioiodination of [{sup 123}I]1 was achieved by iododestannylation of the corresponding tributyl tin precursor with Na[{sup 123}I] in the presence of peracetic acid or chloramine-T and the product isolated by C-18 RP HPLC. Radioiodination of [{sup 123}I]2 was achieved by copper assisted bromine [{sup 123}I]iodine exchange of the corresponding bromo precursor in the presence of acetic acid and sodium bisulfate as reducing agent at 200 C. Purification of the crude products were achieved by semi-preparative C-18 RP HPLC to give the products in radiochemical yields > 90%. The products were obtained in > 97% chemical and radiochemical purity and with specific activities > 180 GBq/{mu}mol. (orig.)

  20. Synthesis of Some Novel 2,6-Disubstituted Pyridazin-3(2H)-one Derivatives as Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Non-Ulcerogenic Agents. (United States)

    Ibrahim, Tamer H; Loksha, Yasser M; Elshihawy, Hosam A; Khodeer, Dina M; Said, Mohamed M


    Some novel 2,6-disubstituted pyridazine-3(2H)-one derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitory efficacy. Compounds 2-{[3-(2-methylphenoxy)-6-oxopyridazin-1(6H)-yl]methyl}-1H-isoindole-1,3(2H)-dione (5a), 2-propyl-6-(o-tolyloxy)pyridazin-3(2H)-one (6a), and 2-benzyl-6-(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)pyridazin-3(2H)-one (16a) showed the most potent COX-2 inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 0.19, 0.11, and 0.24 μM, respectively. The synthesized compounds with the highest COX-2 selectivity indices were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and ulcerogenic activities. Compounds 6a and 16a demonstrated the most potent and consistent anti-inflammatory activity over the synthesized compounds, which was significantly higher than that of celecoxib in the carrageenin rat paw edema model and with milder ulcer scoring than that of indomethacin in the ulcerogenicity screening. © 2017 Deutsche Pharmazeutische Gesellschaft.

  1. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inhibitory effect of new pyridazine derivatives for the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M HCl (United States)

    Mashuga, Motsie E.; Olasunkanmi, Lukman O.; Ebenso, Eno E.


    The effects of four pyridazine derivatives namely, 2-(6-chloropyridazin-3-yl)-2-phenylacetonitrile (P1), 3-(6-chloro-3-pyridazinyl)-1H-indole (P2), 4-(6-chloropyridazin-3-yl)benzoic acid (P3) and 3-(6-chloropyridazin-3-yl)benzoic acid (P4) on electrochemical dissolution of mild steel in 1 M HCl were studied using electrochemical, spectroscopic, and theoretical computational chemistry techniques. The inhibition efficiency increases with increasing concentration of the inhibitors and the shift in corrosion potentials obtained revealed that the compounds are mixed-type inhibitors and steel dissolution was found to be a charge transfer process with the steel/electrolyte interface showed pseudo-capacitive behaviour. P1 and P2 showed the best protection performances for mild steel in the studied medium, attributable to the presence of more nitrogen atoms and unsaturated groups in their molecules compared to P3 and P4. The experimental adsorption data obeyed the Langmuir and Temkin isotherm models and was found to involve both physisorption and chemisorption. Spectroscopic studies revealed that the inhibitor molecules interact chemically with mild steel and the pyridazine ring is actively involved in these interactions. Quantum chemical calculations also showed that pyridazine ring has the tendency of interacting with metallic atoms via both forward and backward donations. Molecular dynamic simulation revealed that the molecules can adsorb strongly onto the surface of iron in a near flat orientation.

  2. Rotational spectroscopy of pyridazine and its isotopologs from 235-360 GHz: Equilibrium structure and vibrational satellites (United States)

    Esselman, Brian J.; Amberger, Brent K.; Shutter, Joshua D.; Daane, Mitchell A.; Stanton, John F.; Woods, R. Claude; McMahon, Robert J.


    The rotational spectrum of pyridazine (o-C4H4N2), the ortho disubstituted nitrogen analog of benzene, has been measured and analyzed in the gas phase. For the ground vibrational state of the normal isotopolog, over 2000 individual rotational transitions have been identified between 238 and 360 GHz and have been fit to 13 parameters of a 6th-order centrifugal distortion Hamiltonian. All transitions in this frequency region can now be predicted from this model to near experimental accuracy, i.e., well enough for the purpose of any future radio-astronomical search for this species. Three isotopologs, [3-13C]-C4H4N2, [4-13C]-C4H4N2, and [1-15N]-C4H4N2, have been detected in natural abundance, and several hundred lines have been measured for each of these species and fit to 6th-order Hamiltonians. Ten additional isotopologs were synthesized with enhanced deuterium substitution and analyzed to allow for a complete structure determination. The equilibrium structure (Re) of pyridazine was obtained by correcting the experimental rotational constants for the effects of vibration-rotation coupling using interaction constants predicted from CCSD(T) calculations with an ANO0 basis set and further correcting for the effect of electron mass. The final Re structural parameters are determined with excellent accuracy, as evidenced by their ability to predict 28 independent moments of inertia (Ia and Ib for 14 isotopologs) very well from 9 structural parameters. The rotational spectra of the six lowest-energy fundamental vibrational satellites of the main isotopolog have been detected. The rotational spectra of the five lowest-energy vibrational satellites have been assigned and fit to yield accurate rotational and distortion constants, while the fit and assignment for the sixth is less complete. The resultant vibration-rotation interaction (α) constants are found to be in excellent agreement with ones predicted from coupled-cluster calculations, which proved to be the key to

  3. Vibrational spectroscopic, optical and thermal properties of a hybride pyridazine perchlorate complex-An experimental and theoretical study (United States)

    Podsiadła, D.; Czupiński, O.; Rospenk, M.; Czapla, Z.


    Various methods of experiment: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy have been used to investigate the phase transitions in pyridazine perchlorate crystal. DSC showed the existence of phase transition at T = 341 K. The vibrational IR spectra in Nujol and Perfluorolube mulls were studied in a wide temperature range, from room temperature to 380 K. Special attention was put on the temperatures near the phase transition temperature. The temperature changes of wavenumbers, gravity center and band intensities were analyzed to clarify the phase transition molecular mechanism. Information about hydrogen bonds was obtained. For more detailed band assignment and overall spectral presentation Raman and far infrared (FT-FIR) spectra at room temperature have been carried out. The experimental data interpretation was supported by theoretical calculations based on density functional theory, with the B3LYP method and 6-311++G(d,p) basic set. Some theoretical conformations were analyzed. Calculated normal vibrational modes of the molecule, their frequencies and intensities were compared with these recorded in experiment.

  4. Design, synthesis, crystallographic studies, and preliminary biological appraisal of new substituted triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin-8-amine derivatives as tankyrase inhibitors. (United States)

    Liscio, Paride; Carotti, Andrea; Asciutti, Stefania; Karlberg, Tobias; Bellocchi, Daniele; Llacuna, Laura; Macchiarulo, Antonio; Aaronson, Stuart A; Schüler, Herwig; Pellicciari, Roberto; Camaioni, Emidio


    Searching for selective tankyrases (TNKSs) inhibitors, a new small series of 6,8-disubstituted triazolo[4,3-b]piridazines has been synthesized and characterized biologically. Structure-based optimization of the starting hit compound NNL (3) prompted us to the discovery of 4-(2-(6-methyl-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin-8-ylamino)ethyl)phenol (12), a low nanomolar selective TNKSs inhibitor working as NAD isostere as ascertained by crystallographic analysis. Preliminary biological data candidate this new class of derivatives as a powerful pharmacological tools in the unraveling of TNKS implications in physiopathological conditions.

  5. Structure-Property Study on Two New D-A Type Materials Comprising Pyridazine Moiety and the OLED Application as Host. (United States)

    Liu, Shaojie; Zhang, Xunlu; Ou, Changjin; Wang, Shulei; Yang, Xinli; Zhou, Xinhui; Mi, Baoxiu; Cao, Dapeng; Gao, Zhiqiang


    In this paper, two new pyridazine based donor-acceptor type materials, i.e., 3CzPyaPy: 9,9'-(3-(6-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)pyridazin-3-yl)pyridine-2,6-diyl)bis(9H-carbazole) and 4CzPyPyaPy: 3,6-bis(2,6-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)pyridin-3-yl)pyridazine, were synthesized with high yields. These two materials exhibited strong absorption/emission with high molar extinction coefficients and moderate photoluminescence quantum yield. The glass transition temperature of 3CzPyaPy was detected to be as high as 131 °C, showing its high thermal stability. Although the absorption energies and oxidation/reduction behaviors of the two materials were similar, the emission from 4CzPyPyaPy with longer effective-conjugation length presented hypsochromic shift both in films and in dilute solutions, contradicting to the common sense. The single crystal structure study disclosed their different space stretching and packing: 3CzPyaPy was twisted in larger angles and adopted dimerlike packing, while 4CzPyPyaPy showed smaller torsion angles and exhibited slipped herringbone packing. The dimerlike packing in 3CzPyaPy is responsible for its bathochromic shift of emission in solid state, while its unsymmetrical molecular structure accounts for that in solution. We believe that the unsymmetrical molecular structure of 3CzPyaPy is partially responsible for its high thermal-stability and also responsible for its HOMO dispersion which renders it slightly more difficult to oxidize. 3CzPyaPy was proved to be a bipolar-transport material and when served as a phosphor host, a green phosphorescent device achieved maximum efficiencies of 54.0 cd A(-1), 42.4 lm W(-1), and 17.7%, which are among the best with nonoptimized device structure, demonstrating its great potential for optoelectronic application. Furthermore, the new synthesized pyridazine derivatives and the corresponding structural and molecular-packing influences on material properties give a new insight into molecule tailoring.

  6. Structure-Based Design of Novel Pyrimido[4,5-c]pyridazine Derivatives as Dihydropteroate Synthase Inhibitors with Increased Affinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Ying; Hammoudeh, Dalia; Yun, Mi-Kyung; Qi, Jianjun; White, Stephen W.; Lee, Richard E. (Tennessee-HSC); (SJCH)


    Dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) is the validated drug target for sulfonamide antimicrobial therapy. However, due to widespread drug resistance and poor tolerance, the use of sulfonamide antibiotics is now limited. The pterin binding pocket in DHPS is highly conserved and is distinct from the sulfonamide binding site. It therefore represents an attractive alternative target for the design of novel antibacterial agents. We previously carried out the structural characterization of a known pyridazine inhibitor in the Bacillus anthracis DHPS pterin site and identified a number of unfavorable interactions that appear to compromise binding. With this structural information, a series of 4,5-dioxo-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimido[4,5-c]pyridazines were designed to improve binding affinity. Most importantly, the N-methyl ring substitution was removed to improve binding within the pterin pocket, and the length of the side chain carboxylic acid was optimized to fully engage the pyrophosphate binding site. These inhibitors were synthesized and evaluated by an enzyme activity assay, X-ray crystallography, isothermal calorimetry, and surface plasmon resonance to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the binding interactions from structural, kinetic, and thermodynamic perspectives. This study clearly demonstrates that compounds lacking the N-methyl substitution exhibit increased inhibition of DHPS, but the beneficial effects of optimizing the side chain length are less apparent.

  7. FT-IR, micro-Raman and UV-vis spectroscopic and quantum chemical calculation studies on the 6-chloro-4-hydroxy-3-phenyl pyridazine compound (United States)

    Sarıkaya, Ebru Karakaş; Bahçeli, Semiha; Varkal, Döndü; Dereli, Ömer


    In this work, the study of the6-chloro-4-hydroxy-3-phenyl pyridazine compound, (C10 H7 N2 O Cl with synonym 4-pyridazinol, 6-chloro-3-phenyl-), was verified experimentally by using the Fourier Transformed Infrared (FT-IR), micro-Raman and UV/vis (in N,N-dimethylformamide solvent) spectroscopies. Furthermore, the optimized molecular geometry, conformatinal analysis, vibrational frequencies, the simulated UV/vis spectra (in gas and in N,N-dimethylformamide solvent), 1H and 13C NMR chemical shift (in gas, in chloroform and N,N-dimethylformamide in solvents) values, HOMO-LUMO analysis, the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surface and thermodynamic parameters ofthe6-chloro-4-hydroxy-3-phenyl pyridazine compound were calculated by using DFT/B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set in ground state. The comparison of the calculated and vibrational frequencies with the experimental values provides important information about the title compound.

  8. Development of new highly potent imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazines targeting Toxoplasma gondii calcium-dependent protein kinase 1. (United States)

    Moine, Espérance; Dimier-Poisson, Isabelle; Enguehard-Gueiffier, Cécile; Logé, Cédric; Pénichon, Mélanie; Moiré, Nathalie; Delehouzé, Claire; Foll-Josselin, Béatrice; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Bach, Stéphane; Gueiffier, Alain; Debierre-Grockiego, Françoise; Denevault-Sabourin, Caroline


    Using a structure-based design approach, we have developed a new series of imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazines, targeting the calcium-dependent protein kinase-1 (CDPK1) from Toxoplasma gondii. Twenty derivatives were thus synthesized. Structure-activity relationships and docking studies confirmed the binding mode of these inhibitors within the ATP binding pocket of TgCDPK1. Two lead compounds (16a and 16f) were then identified, which were able to block TgCDPK1 enzymatic activity at low nanomolar concentrations, with a good selectivity profile against a panel of mammalian kinases. The potential of these inhibitors was confirmed in vitro on T. gondii growth, with EC50 values of 100 nM and 70 nM, respectively. These best candidates also displayed low toxicity to mammalian cells and were selected for further in vivo investigations on murine model of acute toxoplasmosis.

  9. Design and synthesis of novel tetrahydro-2H-Pyrano[3,2-c]pyridazin-3(6H)-one derivatives as potential anticancer agents. (United States)

    Al-Tel, Taleb H


    Polyfunctional tetrahydro-2H-pyrano[3,2-c]pyridazin-3(6H)-one derivatives were synthesized and biologically evaluated as novel anticancer agents. These motifs were produced by a five-step reaction sequence in which the Achmatowicz oxidative cyclization, is the basic core for such synthesis. Compounds 15f, 16c, and 16d showed antiproliferative activity against the SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell line. Importantly, 16c and 16d showed the highest efficacy, being approximately 30-fold more potent against SK-BR-3 (IC50 0.21 and 0.15 μM, respectively) compared to other cancer cell lines tested. In addition, 16c and 16d displayed about 295 fold less toxicity against normal breast cell line MCF10A compared to SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells. These compounds form the foundation for further investigation in our continuing efforts to develop potent anticancer agents.

  10. Design and synthesis of potent and selective pyridazin-4(1H)-one-based PDE10A inhibitors interacting with Tyr683 in the PDE10A selectivity pocket. (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masato; Hitaka, Takenori; Hasui, Tomoaki; Fushimi, Makoto; Kunitomo, Jun; Kokubo, Hironori; Oki, Hideyuki; Nakashima, Kosuke; Taniguchi, Takahiko


    Utilizing structure-based drug design techniques, we designed and synthesized phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitors based on pyridazin-4(1H)-one. These compounds can interact with Tyr683 in the PDE10A selectivity pocket. Pyridazin-4(1H)-one derivative 1 was linked with a benzimidazole group through an alkyl spacer to interact with the OH of Tyr683 and fill the PDE10A selectivity pocket. After optimizing the linker length, we identified 1-(cyclopropylmethyl)-5-[3-(1-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)propoxy]-3-(1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)pyridazin-4(1H)-one (16f) as having highly potent PDE10A inhibitory activity (IC50=0.76nM) and perfect selectivity against other PDEs (>13,000-fold, IC50=>10,000nM). The crystal structure of 16f bound to PDE10A revealed that the benzimidazole moiety was located deep within the PDE10A selectivity pocket and interacted with Tyr683. Additionally, a bidentate interaction existed between the 5-alkoxypyridazin-4(1H)-one moiety and the conserved Gln716 present in all PDEs.

  11. Synthesis, cytotoxic activity, and tubulin polymerization inhibitory activity of new pyrrol-2(3H)-ones and pyridazin-3(2H)-ones. (United States)

    Abbas, Samar Hafez; Abuo-Rahma, Gamal El-Din A A; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed; Aly, Omar M; Beshr, Eman A; Gamal-Eldeen, Amira M


    A series of new pyrrol-2(3H)-ones 4a-f and pyridazin-3(2H)-ones 7a-f were synthesized and characterized using different spectroscopic tools. Some of the tested compounds revealed moderate activity against 60 cell lines. The E form of the pyrrolones 4 showed good cytotoxic activity than both the Z form and the corresponding open amide form. Furthermore, the in vitro cytotoxic activity against HepG2 and MCF-7 cell lines revealed that compounds (E)4b, 6f and 7f showed good cytotoxic activity against HepG2 with IC50 values of 11.47, 7.11 and 14.80μM, respectively. Compounds (E)4b, 6f, 7d and 7f showed a pronounced inhibitory effect against cellular localization of tubulin. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that HepG2 cells treated with (E)4b showed a predominated growth arrest at the S-phase compared to that of G2/M-phase. Molecular modeling study using MOE® program indicated that most of the target compounds showed good binding of β-subunit of tubulin with the binding free energy (dG) values about -10kcal/mole.

  12. Bis(arylvinyl)pyrazines, -pyrimidines, and -pyridazines as imaging agents for tau fibrils and β-amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease models. (United States)

    Boländer, Alexander; Kieser, Daniel; Voss, Constantin; Bauer, Silvia; Schön, Christian; Burgold, Steffen; Bittner, Tobias; Hölzer, Jana; Heyny-von Haußen, Roland; Mall, Gerhard; Goetschy, Valérie; Czech, Christian; Knust, Henner; Berger, Robert; Herms, Jochen; Hilger, Ingrid; Schmidt, Boris


    The in vivo diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is of high socioeconomic interest and remains a demanding field of research. The biopathological hallmarks of the disease are extracellular plaques consisting of aggregated β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) and tau protein derived intracellular tangles. Here we report the synthesis and evaluation of fluorescent pyrazine, pyrimidine,and pyridazine derivatives in vitro and in vivo aiming at a tau-based diagnosis of AD. The probes were pre-evaluated on human brain tissue by fluorescence microscopy and were found to label all known disease-related alterations at high contrast and specificity. To quantify the binding affinity, a new thiazine red displacement assay was developed and selected candidates were toxicologically profiled. The application in transgenic mouse models demonstrated bioavailability and brain permeability for one compound. In the course of histological testing, we discovered an AD-related deposition of tau aggregates in the Bowman's glands of the olfactory epithelium, which holds potential for an endoscopic diagnosis of AD in the olfactory system.

  13. On the spectroscopic analyses of 3-Hydroxy-1-Phenyl-Pyridazin-6(2H)one (HPHP): A comparative experimental and computational study (United States)

    El-Mansy, M. A. M.; El-Bana, M. S.; Fouad, S. S.


    We have systematically calculated various physical characteristics such as optimized molecular structural parameters, vibrational frequencies, HOMO-LUMO energy gap, total dipole moment and thermochemical parameters: nuclear repulsion energy, ionization energy, electron affinity, global hardness, electronic chemical potential, global electrophilicity index and finally softness (ζ) using DFT/B3LYP utilizing 6-311G(d,p) basis set for 3-Hydroxy-1-Phenyl-Pyridazin-6(2H)one (HPHP). Also, HPHP nonlinear optical (NLO) properties have been checked by DFT/B3LYP utilizing 6-311G(d,p) basis set. In addition, we have investigated the influence of exposure to UV radiation on HPHP physical properties at the same level of theory. Our results show that HPHP possesses a dipole moment (2.68 Debye) and HOMO-LUMO energy gap of 3.99 eV that emphasize its high applicability for manufacturing photovoltaic devices such as solar cells. After exposure to UV radiation, the HPHP dipole moment has been lowered from 2.68 to 2.3 Debye due to UV radiation. Moreover, a double spin in HPHP has been observed, as electrons are aligned according to their spin state. Electrons (spin ↑) and (spin ↓) are aligned in alpha and beta levels with energy gaps 3.82 and 3.17 eV, respectively. This anomalous behavior may be justified by considering that HPHP undergoes anomalous Zeeman-like effect. The presence of this phenomenon in HPHP introduces it as a modern organic semiconductor which has high applicability to be used in modern spintronics.

  14. Discovery and characterization of 6-{4-[3-(R)-2-methylpyrrolidin-1-yl)propoxy]phenyl}-2H-pyridazin-3-one (CEP-26401, irdabisant): a potent, selective histamine H3 receptor inverse agonist. (United States)

    Hudkins, Robert L; Raddatz, Rita; Tao, Ming; Mathiasen, Joanne R; Aimone, Lisa D; Becknell, Nadine C; Prouty, Catherine P; Knutsen, Lars J S; Yazdanian, Mehran; Moachon, Gilbert; Ator, Mark A; Mallamo, John P; Marino, Michael J; Bacon, Edward R; Williams, Michael


    Optimization of a novel series of pyridazin-3-one histamine H(3) receptor (H(3)R) antagonists/inverse agonists identified 6-{4-[3-(R)-2-methylpyrrolidin-1-yl)propoxy]phenyl}-2H-pyridazin-3-one (8a, CEP-26401; irdabisant) as a lead candidate for potential use in the treatment of attentional and cognitive disorders. 8a had high affinity for both human (K(i) = 2.0 nM) and rat (K(i) = 7.2 nM) H(3)Rs with greater than 1000-fold selectivity over the hH(1)R, hH(2)R, and hH(4)R histamine receptor subtypes and against an in vitro panel of 418 G-protein-coupled receptors, ion channels, transporters, and enzymes. 8a demonstrated ideal pharmaceutical properties for a CNS drug in regard to water solubility, permeability and lipophilicity and had low binding to human plasma proteins. It weakly inhibited recombinant cytochrome P450 isoforms and human ether-a-go-go-related gene. 8a metabolism was minimal in rat, mouse, dog, and human liver microsomes, and it had good interspecies pharmacokinetic properties. 8a dose-dependently inhibited H(3)R agonist-induced dipsogenia in the rat (ED(50) = 0.06 mg/kg po). On the basis of its pharmacological, pharmaceutical, and safety profiles, 8a was selected for preclinical development. The clinical portions of the single and multiple ascending dose studies assessing safety and pharmacokinetics have been completed allowing for the initiation of a phase IIa for proof of concept.

  15. Theoretical Calculation on Structure and Properties of Dinitro Heteroaromatic Ring-fused Pyridazines%二硝基芳杂环并哒嗪化合物结构和性能的理论计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏海鹏; 毕福强; 葛忠学; 汪伟; 朱勇


    Three dinitro heteroaromatic ring-fused pyridazines,4,7-dinitrofurazano[3,4-d]pyridazine (DNFP),4,7-dinitrofuroxano[3,4-d]pyridazine (DNFOP)and 5,8-dinitropyridazino [4,5-e][1 ,2,3,4 ]tetrazine 1,3-dioxide (DNPTDO)were designed.On the basis of the stable geometries optimized at B3LYP/6-31G** theoretical level, the Wiberg bond order,bond dissociation energy (BDE),electrostatic potential,theoretical density and solid state phase heats of formation of title compounds were calculated at the same theoretical level.The detonation velocities (D),detonation pressures (p )and the performances of these compounds as monopropellants were predicted by Kamlet-Jacobs formula and the minimum free energy method,respectively.The results show that the BDE,ρ,D , and p of DNFOP are 80.37 kJ/mol,1.939 g/cm3 ,9 151 m/s,and 39.54 GPa,respectively,and the BDE,ρ,D ,and p of DNPTDO are 208.59 kJ/mol,1 .942 g/cm3 ,9 235 m/s,and 40.30 GPa,respectively,while DNFP presents relatively lower detonation velocity (8 811 m/s)and detonation pressure (36.27 GPa).As monopropellants,specific impulse of DNFP,DNFOP and DNPTDO are higher than that of RDX by 97.6,120.6 and 140.6 N·s/kg,respectively.%设计了3种二硝基芳杂环并哒嗪化合物:4,7-二硝基呋咱并[3,4-d]哒嗪(DNFP)、4,7-二硝基氧化呋咱并[3,4-d]哒嗪(DNFOP)和5,8-二硝基哒嗪并[4,5-e][1,2,3,4]-四嗪1,3-二氧化物(DNPTDO)。采用密度泛函理论的 B3LYP 方法在6-31G**基组水平上对3种化合物的构型进行了全优化,计算了 Wiberg 键级、键离解能(BDE)和静电势参数、理论密度和固相生成焓,用 Kamlet-Jacobs 公式和最小自由能法计算了爆速、爆压和能量特性。结果表明,DNFP 的键离解能为216.13 kJ/mol,密度为1.903 g/cm3,爆速为8811 m/s,爆压为36.27 GPa,未达到高能量密度化合物的标准;DNFOP 和 DNPTDO 的键离解能分别为80.37和208.59 kJ/mol,密度分别为1.939和1.942

  16. Novel spiropiperidine-based stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 inhibitors: Identification of 1'-{6-[5-(pyridin-3-ylmethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]pyridazin-3-yl}-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3,4-dihydrospiro[chromene-2,4'-piperidine]. (United States)

    Uto, Yoshikazu; Kiyotsuka, Yohei; Ueno, Yuko; Miyazawa, Yuriko; Kurata, Hitoshi; Ogata, Tsuneaki; Deguchi, Tsuneo; Yamada, Makiko; Watanabe, Nobuaki; Konishi, Masahiro; Kurikawa, Nobuya; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Wakimoto, Satoko; Kono, Keita; Ohsumi, Jun


    Cyclization of the benzoylpiperidine in lead compound 2 generated a series of novel and highly potent spiropiperidine-based stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1 inhibitors. Among them, 1'-{6-[5-(pyridin-3-ylmethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]pyridazin-3-yl}-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3,4-dihydrospiro[chromene-2,4'-piperidine] (19) demonstrated the most powerful inhibitory activity against SCD-1, not only in vitro but also in vivo (C57BL/6J mice). With regard to the pharmacological evaluation, 19 showed powerful reduction of the desaturation index in the plasma of C57BL/6J mice on a non-fat diet after a 7-day oral administration (q.d.) without causing notable abnormalities in the eyes or skin up to the highest dose (3mg/kg) in our preliminary analysis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis and bioactivity of novel pyridazin-3(2H)-one derivatives containing 5-phenyl-2-furan (II)%含5-苯基2-呋喃环的3(2H)哒嗪酮类衍生物的合成与生物活性(II)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔紫宁; 田芳; 梁志彬; 刘诗胤; 闫晓静


    为探索新的农药先导化合物,经取代苯基呋喃甲酰氯与5-羟基-3(2H)哒嗪酮反应,得到15个未见文献报道的含呋喃环3(2H)哒嗪酮类化合物,其结构均通过了红外光谱、核磁共振氢谱和元素分析确认。初步生物活性测定结果表明,目标化合物表现出良好的杀菌活性,其中化合物3 i在50 mg/L时对灰霉病菌和纹枯病菌的抑制率分别为89�16%±1�73%和81�27%±1�38%,与对照药剂腐霉利(88�58%±1�64%和79�62%±1�15%)相当。初步的构效关系结果显示,苯环上取代基的种类和位置对杀菌活性有重要影响。%A series of novel pyridazin-3(2H)-one derivative with 5-phenyl-2-furan were designed and synthesized. All the title compounds were characterized by IR,1 H NMR and elemental analysis. Bioassay indicated that most compounds exhibited good fungicidal activities against Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Corynespora cassiicola. Among them, compound 3i showed considerable fungicidal activity against B. cinerea ( inhibition rate 89�16% ± 1�73%) and R. solani ( 81�27% ± 1�38%) at 50 mg/L, which was equal to that of the fungicide procymidone (88�58% ± 1�64% and 79�62% ± 1�15%) . The preliminary structure-activity relationship indicated that the difference of R group affected the fungicidal activity.

  18. Polyfunctional Nitriles in Organic Syntheses: A Novel Route to Aminopyrroles, Pyridazines and Pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hilmy Elnagdi


    Full Text Available Phenacylmalononitrile 1 reacts with dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal to yield an enaminone which could be readily converted into a pyrrole or an aminopyridazine by treating with ammonium acetate and hydrazine hydrate, respectively. Compound 1 reacted with hydrazine hydrate in ethanol at room temperature to yield the dihydropyridazine 9 as a single product. In refluxing ethanol this product further reacted with hydrazine hydrate to yield the novel dihydropyrazolopyridazinamine 10.

  19. Bis(μ-pyridazine-3-carboxylato-κ2O:O′bis[aquadioxido(pyridazine-3-carboxylato-κ2N2,Ouranium(VI] dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Leciejewicz


    Full Text Available The structure of the binuclear title complex, [U2(C5H3N2O24O4(H2O2]·2H2O, is composed of centrosymmetric dimers in which each UO22+ ion is coordinated by two ligand molecules. One donates its N,O-bonding group and the other donates both carboxylate O atoms. Each of the latter bridges adjacent uranyl ions. The coordination environment of the metal center is a distorted pentagonal bipyramid. The dimers are interconnected by O—H...O hydrogen bonds between coordinated and uncoordinated water molecules and carboxylate O atoms. An intramolecular O—H...N interaction is also present.

  20. Poly[aqua(μ3-pyridazine-4-carboxylato-κ2O:O:O′lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Starosta


    Full Text Available The structure of the title compound, [Li(C5H3N2O2(H2O]n, is composed of centrosymmetric dimers in which two LiI ions are bridged by a carboxylate O atom, each donated by a ligand, acting in a bidentate mode. The second carboxylato O atoms bridge the dimers to LiI ions in adjacent dimers, forming molecular layers parallel to (001. Each LiI ion is coordinated by two bridging carboxylate O atoms, a bridging carboxylate O atom donated by the adjacent dimer and an aqua O atom, resulting in a distorted tetrahedral coordination geometry. The layers are held together by O—H...N hydrogen bonds in which coordinated water O atoms act as donors and ligand hetero-ring N atoms as acceptors.

  1. [The reaction of 3-(R-phenyl)-6-hydrazine pyridazines with substituted isatins (II)]. (United States)

    Dorneanu, M; Stefănescu, E; Pavelescu, M; Hriscu, A; Alexandrescu, C D; Gherase, F


    This paper presents the synthesis of six hydrazones from isatin and 1-morpholinomethyl-isatin and also of their six cooper's complex salts. Their structure was confirmed by the results of the quantitative elemental analysis and by IR, UV-VIS spectral analysis. The biological tests point out that cooper's complex salt of 3-(3'-phenyl-pyridazinylhydrazono)-5-methyl-indoline-2-one (1:2) (VI a) has the smallest toxicity (DMT over 800 mg/kg.w. p.o.), a remarkable anti-inflammatory activity (inhibition 57.1%, IAR 1.1) and also a gastroprotector coefficient of 43.3%. In the mean time, the cooper's complex salt of 3-(3'-p-anisyl-pyridazinyl-hydrazono)-5-methyl-ind oline-2-one (1:2) (VI b) has a gastroprotector coefficient of 76.3% and a lower anti-inflammatory activity than the first derivative (inhibition 36.9%).

  2. Synthesis of Some New Pyridazine Derivatives for Anti-HAV Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Flefel


    Full Text Available 4-(2-(4-Halophenylhydrazinyl-6-phenylpyridazin-3(2H-ones 1a,b were prepared and treated with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphorus pentasulphide and ethyl chloroformate to give the corresponding chloropyridazine, pyridazinethione, oxazolopyridazine derivatives 2–4, respectively. Compound 2 reacted with hydrazine hydrate to afford hydrazinylpyridazine 7. The reaction of 4-(2-(4-chlorophenylhydrazinyl-3-hydrazinyl-6-phenylpyridazine (7 with acetic anhydride, p-chlorobenzaldehyde and carbon disulphide gave the corresponding pyridazinotriazine derivatives 8–10. On the other hand, 5-(4-chlorophenylamino-7-(3,5-dimethoxybenzylidene-3-phenyl-5H-pyridazino[3,4-b][1,4]thiazin-6(7H-one (11 was prepared directly from the reaction of compound 3 with chloroacetic acid in presence of p-chlorobenzaldehyde. Compound 11 reacted with nitrogen nucleophiles (hydroxylamine hydrochloride, hydrazine hydrate and active methylene group-containing reagents (malononitrile, ethyl cyanoacetate to afford the corresponding fused compounds 12–15, respectively. Pharmacological screening for antiviral activity against hepatitis A virus (HAV was performed for the new compounds. 4-(4-Chlorophenylamino-6-phenyl-1,2-dihydropyridazino[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazine-3(4H-thione (10 showed the highest effect against HAV.

  3. Magnetocaloric effect and critical behaviour in Mn2-pyridazine-[Nb(CN)8] molecular compound under press. (United States)

    Fitta, Magdalena; Bałanda, Maria; Pełka, Robert; Konieczny, Piotr; Pinkowicz, Dawid; Sieklucka, Barbara


    A comprehensive study of magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and critical behaviour in the ferrimagnetic Mn2–pyridazine–[Nb(CN)8] molecular magnet under hydrostatic pressure is reported. The pressure-induced structural changes provoke the strengthening of magnetic interaction between Mn and Nb centres. Consequently, an increase of critical temperature Tc is observed from 43 K for a sample at ambient pressure (A) to 52.5 K for a sample under a pressure of 1.19 GPa (AHP). The magnetocaloric effect was determined by the magnetization measurements. The application of a hydrostatic pressure of 1.19 GPa causes a decrease in the maximum value of magnetic entropy change ΔS, which for AHP is equal to 4.63 J mol−1 K−1 (7.73 J kg−1 K−1) at μ0ΔH = 5 T, while for A it is 5.36 J mol−1 K−1 (8.95 J kg−1 K−1) for the same magnetic field change. The temperature-dependent parameter n obtained for AHP, describing the field dependence of MCE, is consistent with other critical exponents determined from magnetization measurements. The critical exponents allow us to classify AHP to the 3D Heisenberg universality class, similar to the case of the non-pressurized sample.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Polyimides Containing Pyridazine Moieties%含哒嗪环聚酰亚胺的合成及性能表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管月; 王大明; 宋广亮; 张兴迪; 周宏伟; 陈春海; 党国栋; 赵晓刚


    以马来酸酐为原料与水合肼反应得到哒嗪酮,再与三氯氧磷反应制备3,6-二氯哒嗪中间体,哒嗪中间体与间氨基苯酚通过亲核取代反应合成了一种新的二胺单体—3,6-二(3-氨基苯氧基)哒嗪.通过1H-NMR,FTIR及HPLC-MS确证了哒嗪二胺及中间体的结构.这种哒嗪二胺单体与6种芳香二酐单体——均苯四甲酸二酐(PMDA)、3,3',4,4'-联苯四甲酸二酐(BPDA)、4,4-六氟异丙基邻苯二甲酸酐(6FDA)、3,3 ',4,4'-二苯甲酮四甲酸二酐(BTDA)、3,3 ',4,4'-二苯醚四甲酸二酐(ODPA)和双酚A型二醚二酐(BPADA)通过两步法聚合制备了一系列的聚酰亚胺,并对其结构和性能进行了研究.结果表明,聚酰胺酸的比浓对数黏度为0.37 ~0.50 dL/g,该系列聚酰亚胺膜具有良好的热稳定性和机械性能,玻璃化温度(Tg)为188~241 ℃,氮气氛围下5%和10%热失重分别为421 ~ 448℃和447~ 473℃,拉伸强度(B)高达102 MPa,断裂伸长率(EB)为2.0% ~6.5%.紫外可见光谱测试得到的截止波长(λc+o.)为367 ~ 389 nm.

  5. Development of new peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ligands for SPECT and PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsifis, A.; Fookes, C.; Pham, T.; Holmes, T.; Mattner, F.; Berghoffer, P.; Gregoire, M.C.; Loc' h, C.; Greguric, I. [Radiopharmaceuticas Research Institute, ANSTO, Menai, N.S.W. Sydney (Australia); Thominiaux, C.; Boutin, H.; Chauveau, F.; Gregoire, M.C.; Hantraye, Ph.; Tavitain, B.; Dolle, F. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, CEA/DSV, 91 - Orsay (France); Arlicot, N.; Chalon, S.; Guilloteau, D. [Universite Francois Rabelais, Inserm U619, 37 - Tours (France)


    This study aims to demonstrate that a number of radiolabelled ({sup 123}I,{sup 11}C, {sup 18}F) imidazo pyridines, imidazo pyridazines and indolglyoxylamides can be developed as potential tracers for SPECT and PET imaging. (N.C.)

  6. A new and convenient route to synthesis of enynones and dienones from TosMIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tandon, VK; Garg, [No Value; Kumar, M; Singh, KA; van Nispen, SPJM; van Leusen, A.M.


    Dilithio- and disodiotosylmethylisocyanides react with pyridine N-oxide and pyridazine N-oxide leading to formation of ring opened unsaturated products which on reaction with aralkyl halides and further hydrolysis result in formation of dienones and enynones respectively.

  7. Discovery and Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacological Properties of the Potent and Selective MET Kinase Inhibitor 1-{6-[6-(4-Fluorophenyl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin-3-ylsulfanyl]benzothiazol-2-yl}-3-(2-morpholin-4-ylethyl)urea (SAR125844). (United States)

    Ugolini, Antonio; Kenigsberg, Mireille; Rak, Alexey; Vallée, Francois; Houtmann, Jacques; Lowinski, Maryse; Capdevila, Cécile; Khider, Jean; Albert, Eva; Martinet, Nathalie; Nemecek, Conception; Grapinet, Sandrine; Bacqué, Eric; Roesner, Manfred; Delaisi, Christine; Calvet, Loreley; Bonche, Fabrice; Semiond, Dorothée; Egile, Coumaran; Goulaouic, Hélène; Schio, Laurent


    The HGF/MET pathway is frequently activated in a variety of cancer types. Several selective small molecule inhibitors of the MET kinase are currently in clinical evaluation, in particular for NSCLC, liver, and gastric cancer patients. We report herein the discovery of a series of triazolopyridazines that are selective inhibitors of wild-type (WT) MET kinase and several clinically relevant mutants. We provide insight into their mode of binding and report unprecedented crystal structures of the Y1230H variant. A multiparametric chemical optimization approach allowed the identification of compound 12 (SAR125844) as a development candidate. In this chemical series, absence of CYP3A4 inhibition was obtained at the expense of satisfactory oral absorption. Compound 12, a promising parenteral agent for the treatment of MET-dependent cancers, promoted sustained target engagement at tolerated doses in a human xenograft tumor model. Preclinical pharmacokinetics conducted in several species were predictive for the observed pharmacokinetic behavior of 12 in cancer patients.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of phosphorescent platinum complexes containing phenylpyridazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Jin; Kang, Seok; Lee, Seung Hee; Hwang, Kwang Jin; Park, Noh Kil; Kim, Young Sik


    Synthesis and characterization of a series of square planar Pt(II)-phenylpyridazine complexes are reported. The complexes have the general structure of (C-N)Pt(O-O), where HC-N is 3-phenyl-pyridazine (ppdz), 3-(3'-trifluoromethylphenyl)pyridazine (3'tfmppdz), 3-(3'-methoxyphenyl)-pyridazine (3'meoppdz), 3-(4'-methoxyphenyl)pyridazine (4'meoppdz), or 3-phenyl-6-chloro-pyridazine (6Clppdz) and HO-O is acetylacetone (Hacac). Reaction of K{sub 2}PtCl{sub 4} with a HC-N ligand forms the dimer, (C-N)Pt({mu}-Cl){sub 2}Pt(C-N), which is cleaved with Hacac to give the corresponding monomer, (C-N)Pt(O-O). The emission characteristics of these complexes are governed by the substituents of the cyclometalating ligands, showing emission {lambda}{sub max} values from 508 to 610 nm. Strong spin-orbit coupling of the platinum atom allows for the formally forbidden mixing of the {sup 1}MLCT with the {sup 3}MCLT and {sup 3}({pi}-{pi}*) states.

  9. Heterocyclic o-Aminonitriles: Preparation of Pyrazolo[3,4-d]-pyrimidines with Modification of the Substituents at the 1- Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar A. Abubshait


    Full Text Available Novel 1-[6-(p-tolyl pyridazin-3-yl]pyrazole-o-aminonitriles (3a-c were formed using 3-hydrazino-6-(p-tolylpyridazine (2 and ketene S,S-acetals (1a, S,Nacetals (1b or tetracyanoethylene (1c. The pyrazole-o-aminonitriles (3a-c were in turn used as precursors for the preparation of previously unreported 1-[6-(p-tolyl-pyridazin-3-yl]pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines (8, 9, 13-20 and 7-[6-( p-tolyl pyridazin-3-yl]2-arylpyrazolo[3,4-d]1,2,4-triazolo[5,1-f]pyrimidines (10-12 which are expected to possess considerable chemical and pharmacological activities.

  10. Oriented crystalline monolayers and bilayers of 2 x 2 silver(1) grid architectures at the air-solution interface: Their assembly and crystal structure elucidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weissbuch, J.; Baxter, P.N.W.; Kuzmenko, I.;


    Oriented crystalline monolayers, similar to 14 Angstrom thick, of a 2 x 2 Ag+ grid complex, self-assembled at the air-solution interface starting from an water-insoluble ligand 3,6-bis[2-(6-phenylpyridine)]pyridazine spread on silver-ion-containing solutions,were examined by grazing-incidence X-r...

  11. Study of half-sandwich mono and dinuclear complexes of platinum group metals containing pyrazolyl pyridine analogues: Synthesis and spectral characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Venkateswara Rao Anna; Kota Thirumala Prasad; Peng Wang; Kollipara Mohan Rao


    The chelating ligands 3-chloro-6-(3-pyridyl-1-pyrazolyl)pyridazine (-Cl) and 3,6-bis(3-pyridyl-1-pyrazolyl)pyridazine (bppp), were prepared by the condensation of pyridylpyrazole and 3,6-dichloropyridazine. The mononuclear complexes [(6-arene)Ru(-Cl)Cl]+ {6-arene = C6H6 (1); -iPrC6H4Me (2)}, [(5-C5Me5)M(-Cl)]+ {M = Rh (3); Ir (4)}, [(6-arene)Ru()Cl]+ {6-arene = C6H6 (5); -iPrC6H4Me (6)}, [(5-C5Me5)M(bppp)]+ {M =Rh (7); Ir (8)} as well as the binuclear complexes [{(6-arene)RuCl}2(bppp)]2+ {6 -arene =C6H6 (9); -iPrC6H4Me (10)} and [{(5-C5Me5)MCl}2(bppp)]2+ {M = Rh (11); Ir (12)} have been synthesized from 3-chloro-6-(3-pyridyl-1-pyrazolyl)pyridazine (-Cl) or 3,6-bis(3-pyridyl-1-pyrazolyl)pyridazine (bppp) and the corresponding dimers [(6-arene)Ru(-Cl)Cl]2 and [Cp∗M(-Cl)Cl]2, respectively. All complexes were isolated as their hexafluorophosphate salts and characterized by IR, NMR, mass spectrometry and UV-visible spectroscopy. The molecular structures of [2]PF6 and [7]PF6 have been established by single crystal X-ray structure analysis.

  12. Synthesis, Structure, and Molecular Recognition of S6 - and (SO2 )6 -Corona[6](het)arenes: Control of Macrocyclic Conformation and Properties by the Oxidation State of the Bridging Heteroatoms. (United States)

    Guo, Qing-Hui; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Mei-Xiang


    We report herein the synthesis, structure, and molecular recognition of S6 - and (SO2 )6 -corona[6](het)arenes, and demonstrate a unique and efficient strategy of regulating macrocyclic conformation and properties by adjusting the oxidation state of the heteroatom linkages. The one-pot nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction of 1,4-benzenedithiol derivatives, biphenyl-4,4'-dithiol and 9,9-dipropyl-9H-fluorene-2,7-dithiol with 3,6-dichlorotetrazine afforded S6 -corona[3]arene[3]tetrazines. These compounds underwent inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction with enamines and norbornadiene to produce S6 -corona[3]arene[3]pyridazines. Facile oxidation of sulfide linkages yielded (SO2 )6 -corona[3]arene[3]pyridazines. All corona[6](het)arenes adopted generally hexagonal macrocyclic ring structures; however, their electronic properties and conformation could be fine-tuned by altering the oxidation state of the sulfur linkages. Whereas (SO2 )6 -corona[3]arene[3]pyridazines were electron-deficient, S6 -corona[3]arene[3]pyridazines acted as electron-rich macrocyclic hosts that recognized various organic cations in both aqueous and organic solutions.

  13. 3-(Piperidin-1-yl-6-(1H-pyrazol-1-ylpyridazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Qayyum Ather


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C12H15N5, the piperidine ring adopts a chair conformation with the substituent C atom in an equatorial site and the dihedral angle between the pyridazine and pyrazole ring planes is 10.36 (2°.

  14. Design, synthesis and SAR analysis of novel potent and selective small molecule antagonists of NPBWR1 (GPR7). (United States)

    Urbano, Mariangela; Guerrero, Miguel; Zhao, Jian; Velaparthi, Subash; Saldanha, S Adrian; Chase, Peter; Wang, Zhiwei; Civelli, Olivier; Hodder, Peter; Schaeffer, Marie-Therese; Brown, Steven; Rosen, Hugh; Roberts, Edward


    Novel small molecule antagonists of NPBWR1 (GPR7) are herein reported. A high-throughput screening (HTS) of the Molecular Libraries-Small Molecule Repository library identified 5-chloro-4-(4-methoxyphenoxy)-2-(p-tolyl)pyridazin-3(2H)-one as a NPBWR1 hit antagonist with micromolar activity. Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships study of the HTS-derived hit led to the identification of 5-chloro-2-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-4-(4-methoxyphenoxy)pyridazin-3(2H)-one lead molecule with submicromolar antagonist activity at the target receptor and high selectivity against a panel of therapeutically relevant off-target proteins. This lead molecule may provide a pharmacological tool to clarify the molecular basis of the in vivo physiological function and therapeutic utility of NPBWR1 in diverse disease areas including inflammatory pain and eating disorders.

  15. Ozonation of pyridine and other N-heterocyclic aromatic compounds: Kinetics, stoichiometry, identification of products and elucidation of pathways. (United States)

    Tekle-Röttering, Agnes; Reisz, Erika; Jewell, Kevin S; Lutze, Holger V; Ternes, Thomas A; Schmidt, Winfried; Schmidt, Torsten C


    Pyridine, pyridazine, pyrimidine and pyrazine were investigated in their reaction with ozone. These compounds are archetypes for heterocyclic aromatic amines, a structural unit that is often present in pharmaceuticals, pesticides and dyestuffs (e.g., enoxacin, pyrazineamide or pyrimethamine). The investigated target compounds react with ozone with rate constants ranging from 0.37 to 57 M(-1) s(-1), hampering their degradation during ozonation. In OH radical scavenged systems the reaction of ozone with pyridine and pyridazine is characterized by high transformation (per ozone consumed) of 55 and 54%, respectively. In non scavenged system the transformation drops to 52 and 12%, respectively. However, in the reaction of pyrimidine and pyrazine with ozone this is reversed. Here, in an OH radical scavenged system the compound transformation is much lower (2.1 and 14%, respectively) than in non scavenged one (22 and 25%, respectively). This is confirmed by corresponding high N-oxide formation in the ozonation of pyridine and pyridazine, but probably low formation in the reaction of pyrimidine and pyrazine with ozone. With respect to reaction mechanisms, it is suggested that ozone adduct formation at nitrogen is the primary step in the ozonation of pyridine and pyridazine. On the contrary, ozone adduct formation to the aromatic ring seems to occur especially in the ozonation of pyrimidine as inferred from hydrogen peroxide yield. However, also OH radical reactions are supposed processes in the case of pyrimidine and in particular for pyrazine, albeit negligible OH radical yields are obtained. The low compound transformation in OH radical scavenged system can prove this. As a result of negligible OH radical yields in all cases (less than 6%) electron transfer as primary reaction pathway plays a subordinate role.

  16. ALS (acidic lithium sulphate) decomposition method (part iv) Kjeldahl determination of nitrogen in heterocyclic ring compounds containing nitrogennitrogen bond. (United States)

    Yoshikuni, N


    Heterocyclic ring compounds containing nitrogennitrogen bonds such as 1H-1,2,4 triazole, 2,4,6 trimethylbenzenesulfonyltriazolide and pyridazine can be completely decomposed in the molten state with mixtures of various ratios of concentrated sulphuric acid and lithium sulphate (molten ALS) flux containing a catalyst such as silver sulphate. The quantitative recovery of nitrogen in the above three compounds with the molten ALS flux decomposition system can be obtained by the Kjeldahl method.

  17. [3 + 3]-Cycloaddition of Donor-Acceptor Cyclopropanes with Nitrile Imines Generated in Situ: Access to Tetrahydropyridazines. (United States)

    Garve, Lennart K B; Petzold, Martin; Jones, Peter G; Werz, Daniel B


    Donor-acceptor cyclopropanes are reacted under the influence of a Lewis acid with hydrazonyl chlorides to afford tetrahydropyridazines. Formally, this transformation can be regarded as a [3 + 3]-cycloaddition of three-membered rings and nitrile imines generated in situ. This efficient method provides fast access to a variety of structurally diverse pyridazine derivatives. The structure of a typical product was confirmed by X-ray crystallography.

  18. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Novel Oxazolidinone Analogs Containing Substituted Thiazole/Fused-Bicyclic Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Sixteen novel oxazolidinone analogs containing substituted thiazole/fused-bicyclic(imidazo[1,2-b] pyridazine/imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole) groups were designed and synthesized. A new method for the preparation of the key intermediate compound 11 was proposed. The structures of the target compounds were confirmed by 1H NMR, IR and MS, and their in vitro antibacterial activities against staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Among them, compound 16a displays a promising antibacterial activity comparable to that of linezolid.

  19. 5,6-Dipropylphthalazino[2,3-a]cinnoline-8,13-dione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vimala


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C22H22N2O2, the two central fused pyridazine rings have screw-boat conformations and the dihedral angle between their mean planes is 36.22 (8°. The mean plane of the cinnoline ring system makes a dihedral angle of 46.56 (5° with the mean plane of the phthalazine ring to which it is fused. In the crystal, molecules are linked via C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along the b axis. The chains are reinforced by C—H...π interactions.

  20. Synthesis and evaluation of aromaticity and tautomerization of pyrazolopyridazin(on)es

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Aromaticity of pyrazolopyridazin(on)es was investigated using NICS(0), NICS(1), NICSzz(1), FIPC-NICS and HOMA aromaticity indexes and it was observed that aromaticity of pyridazin(on)es was amenable to aromaticity of pyrazole and vice versa. Some tautomeric forms of pyridazinone were analyzedand the localized orbital locator maps, electron density maps, Fuzzy, Laplacian, and Mayer bond order methods showed dominant form. Different substituents, amine, chlorine, phenyl, methyl, hydrogen, substituted-phenyl, etc. on both the rings were chosen to search out the substituent effect. Aromaticity of pyrazolopyridazin(on)es was searched out in detail for the first time.

  1. Synthesis and fungicidal activity of tubulin polymerisation promoters. Part 3: imidazoles. (United States)

    Lamberth, Clemens; Dumeunier, Raphael; Trah, Stephan; Wendeborn, Sebastian; Godwin, Jeremy; Schneiter, Peter; Corran, Andy


    A novel class of experimental fungicides has been discovered, which consists of special tetrasubstituted imidazoles. They are highly active against important phytopathogens, such as Botrytis cinerea (grey mould), Uncinula necator (grape powdery mildew), Mycosphaerella graminicola (wheat leaf blotch) and Alternaria solani (potato and tomato early blight). Their fungicidal efficacy is due to their ability to promote fungal tubulin polymerization, which leads to a disruption of microtubule dynamics. These imidazoles are five-membered ring analogs of similar substituted triazolopyrimidines and pyridazines with the same mode of action. A concise four-step synthesis route has been used to prepare them from commercially available starting materials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Vibrational Spectra of the Azabenzenes Revisited: Anharmonic Force Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Boese, A D; Martin, Jan M.L.


    Anharmonic force fields and vibrational spectra of the azabenzene series (pyridine, pyridazine, pyrimidine, pyrazine, s-triazine, 1,2,3-triazine, 1,2,4-triazine and s-tetrazine) and benzene are obtained using density functional theory (DFT) with the B97-1 exchange-correlation functional and a triple-zeta plus double polarization (TZ2P) basis set. Overall, the fundamental frequencies computed by second-order rovibrational perturbation theory are in excellent agreement with experiment. The resolution of the presently calculated anharmonic spectra is such that they represent an extremely useful tool for the assignment and interpretation of the experimental spectra, especially where resonances are involved.

  3. Synthesis and Antibacterial Evaluation of Novel Heterocyclic Compounds Containing a Sulfonamido Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman A. El-Bordany


    Full Text Available Aiming for the synthesis of new heterocyclic compounds containing a sulfonamido moiety suitable for use as antibacterial agents, the precursor ethyl {[4-N-(4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-2-ylsulfamoyl]phenylazo}cyanoacetate was reacted with a variety of active methylene compounds producing pyran, pyridine and pyridazine derivatives. Also, the reactivity of the precursor hydrazone towards hydrazine derivatives to give pyrazole and oxazole derivatives was studied. On the other hand, treatment of the same precursor with urea, thiourea and/or guanidine hydrochloride furnished pyrimidine and thiazine derivatives, respectively. The newly synthesized compounds were tested for antibacterial activity, whereby eight compounds were found to have high activities.

  4. Theoretical Design of High-spin Organic Molecules with-·N-N-as a Spin-containing Fragment and Heterocycles as an End Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU De-Qing; WANG Li-Min; ZHANG Jing-Ping; WANG Rong-Shun


    Novel stable high spin molecules possessing three different arranged fashions are designed with -·N-N< as a spin-containing (SC) fragment, various aromatic, such as benzene (1), pyridine (2), pyridazine (3), pyrimidine (4),pyrazine (5), triazine (6) as end groups (EG) and phenyl as a ferromagnetic coupling (FC) unit. The effects of a different end groups on the spin multiplicities of the ground states and their stabilities were investigated by means of AM1-CI approach. It has been found that the spin densities on the two atoms of the SC fragment are different from delocalization resulting in the specific stability of -·N-N<. In these molecules, the stabilities of the triplet states decrease when the distance between the atoms of central SC (-N-) increases. The orders of the stability of triplet states for 1an, 1bn, 1cn [They are isomers in which SC is connected with FC in different way (1an, NiNNN1; 1bn,N1N NiN; 1cn, NN1N1N) and six heterocycles are EG] show that the tability of triplet states with heterocycles as end groups is higher than that with phenyl as end groups, and in the order: triazine (EG)>pyrimidine, pyrazine>pyridine, pyridazine.

  5. Theoretical Design of High-spin Organic Molecules with-. N-S-as a Spin-containing Fragment and Heterocycle as End Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Novel stable high-spin molecules possessing three different arranging fashions were designed with -(.) N-S-as a spin-containing (SC) fragment, an aromatic group, such as benzene (1), pyridine (2), pyridazine (3), pyrimidine (4), pyrazine (5) or triazine (6) as end groups (EG), and phenyl as a ferromagnetic coupling (FC) unit.The effects of different EG on the spin multiplicities of the ground states and their stabilities were investigated by means of the AM1-CI approach. All the investigated molecules corresponded to the FC and possessed high-spin ground states. The spin on the two atoms of the SC fragment was not in agreement with the delocalization results in the specific stability of -(.) N-S-. In those molecules, the stabilities of the triplet states decreased when the distance between the atoms of central SC fragments (-N-) increased. The stabilities of the triplet states of compounds 1a-n, 1b-n and 1c-n, with heterocycles as EG were higher than those of the triplet states of those compounds with phenyl as EG. Furthermore, the stabilities of the triplet states of the compounds with pyrimidine and triazine as EG were higher than those with pyridine, pyridazine or pyrazine as EG.

  6. Reactivity and Synthetic Applications of 4,5-Dicyanopyridazine: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Giomi


    Full Text Available Despite the poor reputation of electron-deficient pyridazines in intermolecular Hetero Diels-Alder (HDA reactions, 4,5-dicyanopyridazine (DCP showed a surprising reactivity as a heterocyclic azadiene in inverse electron-demand HDA processes with different dienophiles. The use of alkenes, alkynes and enamines as 2p electron counterparts afforded dicyanocyclohexa-1,3-dienes and substituted phthalonitriles, respectively, while the use of suitable bis-dienophiles provides a general strategy for the one-pot synthesis of polycyclic carbo- and hetero-cage systemsthrough pericyclic three-step homodomino processes. HDA reactions with heterocyclic dienophiles allowed direct benzoannelation: in particular, pyrrole and indole derivatives were converted to dicyano-indoles and -carbazoles. In addition an unprecedented reactivity of DCP as a very reactive heterocyclic electrophile at the C-4 carbon was also evidenced: by changing the experimental conditions, cyanopyrrolyl- and cyanoindolyl-pyridazines were obtained through reactions of pyrrole and indole systems as carbon nucleophiles in formal SNAr2 processes where a CN group of DCP acts as leaving group. Thus, careful control of the reaction conditions allows exploitation of both pathways for the synthesis of different classes of heterocyclic derivatives.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfuz Alam


    Full Text Available Several new pryrazolo-pyridazine derivatives (4a-h were synthesized through multi-step synthesis and evaluated for their antimicrobial activities. In the first step, 6-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridazin-3-one (2 was prepared by reacting 4-(4-chlorophenyl-4-oxobutanoic acid (1 with hydrazine hydrate. Then, aryl-aldehydes were reacted with 2 to furnish pyridazinone derivatives (3a-g. Finally, pyridazinones (3a-h were reacted with hydrazine hydrate to furnish the title compounds (4a-h. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities against six microbial strains. Compounds 4d, 4e and 4f exhibited significant antibacterial action, whereas compounds 4c and 4d showed potential antifungal activity. Compound 4d, 5-(4-Chlorophenyl-3-(4-fluorophenyl-3,3a,4,7-tetrahydro-2H-pyrazolo[3,4- ]pyridazine, emerged as lead compound having broad spectrum of antimicrobial action.

  8. Methyl 4-{[6-(4-bromophenyl-3-oxo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridazin-4-yl]methyl}benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adailton J. Bortoluzzi


    Full Text Available The structure of the title compound, C19H17BrN2O3, consists of two cyclic groups, viz. 4-(methoxycarbonylphenyl and 6-(4-bromophenyl-3-oxo-2,3,4,5-dihydropyridazin-4-yl, which are linked by a methylene spacer. The pyridazine ring is twisted and the dihedral angle between its mean plane and that of the bromophenyl mean plane is 17.2 (2°. The 4-(methoxycarbonylphenyl group shows a quasi-planar conformation, where the dihedral angle between the mean planes of the phenyl ring and carboxylate ester group is 7.9 (4°. Centrosymmetric intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds form dimers. These are linked by C—Br...O=C interactions [Br...O = 3.10 (1 Å] to form a one-dimensional polymeric structure running along the [1overline{2}0] direction.

  9. Enhanced corrosion resistance of mild steel in molar hydrochloric acid solution by 1,4-bis(2-pyridyl)-5H-pyridazino[4,5-b]indole: Electrochemical, theoretical and XPS studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentiss, F. [Laboratoire de Cristallochimie et Physicochimie du Solide, CNRS UMR 8012 ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination et d' Analytique, Universite Chouaib Doukkali, Faculte des Sciences, B.P. 20, El Jadida (Morocco); Gassama, F. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique EA 2692, Bat. C4, USTL, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Barbry, D. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique EA 2692, Bat. C4, USTL, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Gengembre, L. [Laboratoire de Catalyse, CNRS UMR 80100, Bat. C3, USTL, F-59652 Villeneuve dAscq Cedex (France); Vezin, H. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et Macromoleculaire, CNRS UMR 8009, USTL Bat C3, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Lagrenee, M. [Laboratoire de Cristallochimie et Physicochimie du Solide, CNRS UMR 8012 ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Traisnel, M. [Laboratoire des Procedes d' Elaboration des Revetements Fonctionnels, UPRES EA 1040 ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)]. E-mail:


    The inhibition effect of the new pyridazine derivative, namely 1,4-bis(2-pyridyl)-5H-pyridazino[4,5-b]indole (PPI) against mild steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solutions was evaluated using weigh loss and electrochemical techniques (potentiodynamic polarisation curves and impedance spectroscopy). The experimental results suggest that PPI is a good corrosion inhibitor and the inhibition efficiency increased with the increase of PPI concentration, while the adsorption followed the Langmuir isotherm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and theoretical calculation of electronic density were carried out to establish the mechanism of corrosion inhibition of mild steel with PPI in 1 M HCl medium. The inhibition action of this compound was, assumed to occur via adsorption on the steel surface through the active centres contained of the molecule. The corrosion inhibition is due to the formation of a chemisorbed film on the steel surface.

  10. Theoretical Studies on the Interactions of Cations with Diazine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xing; WU Wen-Peng; ZHANG Jing-Lai; CAO Ze-Xing


    Density functional theory and MP2 calculations have been used to determine the geometries, stabilities, binding energies, and dissociative properties of cation-diazine complexes Mn+-C4H4N2 (Mn+ = Li+, B+, Al+, Be2+, Mg2+, Ca2+). The calculated results indicate that most complexes are stable except the π complexes of Ca2+-pyridazine, Ca2+-pyrazine, Al+-pyrimidine and Al+-pyrimidine. The σ complexes are generally much more stable than their π counterparts. Among the π complexes, the cation-pyrazine π complexes have slightly higher stability. The nature of the ion-molecule interactions has been discussed by the natural bond orbital analysis and frontier molecular orbital interactions. In these σ complexes, there is stronger covalent interaction between B+ and diazine. In the selected π complexes, B+ and Be2+ have stronger covalent interaction with diazine, while the other cations mainly have electrostatic interaction with diazine.

  11. Behaviour of 4-[4-methoxy-3-methylphenyl]-4-oxobutenoic acid towards nitrogen-containing nucleophiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sahar Said El-Sakka; Mohamed Helmy Soliman; Rokaia Safwat Abdullah


    A series of novel amino acid derivatives has been synthesized by the reaction of 4-[4-methoxy-3-methylphenyl]-4-oxobutenoic acid with primary and secondary amines. The treatment of amino acids with hydrazine afforded pyridazine. Phenylhydrazone was obtained from the reaction of the acid with phenyl hydrazine in ethanol. On the other hand, the acid underwent heterocyclization upon the treatment with 2-aminopyridine, -phenylenediamine, aryldithiocarbamates and thiourea derivatives to give the corresponding pyridopyrimidine, quinoxalone, 2-thioxo-1,3-thiazole and 4-hydroxy-1,3-thiazole, respectively. The thiazolopyridazine derivatives were obtained from the reaction of 4-hydroxy-1,3-thiazole with hydrazine and phenylhydrazine, respectively. The behaviour of the 4-hydroxy-1,3-thiazole toward acetic anhydride and bromine was also studied. The proposed structures of the products were based on microanalytical and spectroscopic data. Some of the synthesized compounds also exhibited anti-microbial activities.

  12. N-Substituted 5-Chloro-6-phenylpyridazin-3(2H-ones: Synthesis, Insecticidal Activity Against Plutella xylostella (L. and SAR Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yang


    Full Text Available A series of N-substituted 5-chloro-6-phenylpyridazin-3(2H-one derivatives were synthesized based on our previous work; all compounds were characterized by spectral data and tested for in vitro insecticidal activity against Plutella xylostella. The results showed that the synthesized pyridazin-3(2H-one compounds possessed good insecticidal activities, especially the compounds 4b, 4d, and 4h which showed > 90% activity at 100 mg/L. The structure-activity relationships (SAR for these compounds were also discussed.

  13. 1-[4-(4-Chlorophenylpiperazin-1-yl]-3-(6-oxo-3,4-diphenyl-1,6-dihydropyridazin-1-ylpropan-1-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Aydın


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C29H27ClN4O2, the six-membered ring of the pyridazine group is nearly planar [maximum deviation = −0.062 (2 Å] and its mean plane makes dihedral angles of 43.05 (9, 44.71 (10 and 72.57 (9°, respectively, with the two phenyl and benzene rings. The piperazine ring has a chair conformation and its mean plane is almost perpendicular to the attached benzene ring, with a dihedral angle of 83.20 (16°. In the crystal, molecules are linked via two pairs of C—H...O interactions, which result in the formation of chains propagating along [10-1]. Neighbouring chains are linked via C—H...π interactions.

  14. Photodegradation of methylene blue by photocatalyst of D-A-D type polymer/functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite under visible-light irradiation. (United States)

    Liu, Fangfang; Jamal, Ruxangul; Wang, Yujie; Wang, Minchao; Yang, Lei; Abdiryim, Tursun


    A donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) type monomer (3,6-bis(2-(3,4-ethylenedioxy- thiophene))pyridazine) (EPE) with pyridazine as intermediate unit (acceptor) and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) as sealing unit (donor) was successfully synthesized. The functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNT) was covalently linked with polymer chain via chemical oxidative polymerization of monomer EPE to form poly(EPE)/f-MWCNT composite. The prepared composite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra (UV-vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), respectively. The photocatalytic activity of poly(EPE)/f-MWCNT was investigated toward degrading methylene blue (MB) dye solution (1 × 10(-5) M) under visible light irradiation. As expected, the degradation efficiency of poly(EPE)/f-MWCNT is significantly higher than that of either pure poly(EPE) or poly(EPE)/MWCNT for MB dye, especially the kinetic constant of poly(EPE)/f-MWCNT is more than 6 times of poly(EPE)/MWCNT. Besides, the reactive oxygen species trapping experiments indicate that the degradation of MB over the poly(EPE)/f-MWCNT composite mainly results from holes oxidation. Moreover, the enhancement of the photodegradation rate is mainly attributed to the superior stability, strong light absorption ability, and highly effective photo-generated electron-hole pairs of the poly(EPE)/f-MWCNT composite. A reasonable mechanism for the enhanced reactivity was proposed.

  15. [Induce of laccase from Trametes gallica and its degradation on neutral dyes and organophosphorus pesticides]. (United States)

    Jing, De-Jun; Huang, Jian-Bo; Yang, Zhou-Ping; Hu, Rong; Cheng, Zi-Zhang; Huang, Qian-Ming


    The characteristics of the induction of laccase in Trametes gallica under different initial cultural pH, incubation time by different inducers were discussed, as well as the effects of temperature, pH and time on laccase degradation of six dyes and four organophosphors. The results showed that RB-bright blue, ABTS and o-toluidine affected the production of laccase at different levels, and ABTS was the best inductive agent in our test conditions, whose optimal initial pH and incubation time were 4.0 and 13 days, respectively. The appropriate reaction temperature of the laccase produced was 38 degrees C, and it got a good stability, for it could retain 78.6% of the enzyme activity after 20 min holding at 40 degrees C. Mediated by ABTS, the optimal temperature for laccase to degrade the six types of neutral dyes could be divided into two cases, that was 30 degrees C (neutral black, neutral bordeaux, neutral pink, methyl orange) and 60 degrees C (neutral dark yellow, cresol red), the optimal pH were 6.0 (neutral black), 2.0 (neutral bordeaux, neutral pink) and 4.0 (methyl orange, neutral dark yellow, cresol red), respectively, while the optimal times separately were 6 h (methyl orange, neutral dark yellow, cresol red), 12 h (neutral pink) and 24 h (neutral bordeaux). And using the same inductive agent, the best temperature for laccase to degrade dimethoate, chlorpyrifos, trichlorfon and parathion-pyridazine was 25 degrees C, the suitable time was 9 h, and the optimal pH was 10.0 for dimethoate, chlorpyrifos and parathion-pyridazine, and 8.0 for trichlorfon.

  16. Comparison of polarizable continuum model and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics solute electronic polarization: study of the optical and magnetic properties of diazines in water. (United States)

    Manzoni, Vinícius; Lyra, Marcelo L; Coutinho, Kaline; Canuto, Sylvio


    A combination of the polarizable continuum model (PCM) and the hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methodology, PCM-MM/QM, is used to include the solute electronic polarization and then study the solvent effects on the low-lying n→π(∗) excitation energy and the (15)N nuclear magnetic shielding of pyrazine and pyridazine in aqueous environment. The results obtained with PCM-MM/QM are compared with two other procedures, i.e., the conventional PCM and the iterative and sequential QM/MM (I-QM/MM). The QM calculations are made using density functional theory in the three procedures. For the excitation energies, the time-dependent B3LYP/6-311+G(d) model is used. For the magnetic shielding, the B3LYP/aug-pcS2(N)/pcS2(C,O,H) is used with the gauge-including atomic orbitals. In both cases, i.e., PCM-MM/QM and I-QM/MM, that use a discrete model of the solvent, the solute is surrounded by a first shell of explicit water molecules embedded by an electrostatic field of point charges for the outer shells. The best results are obtained including 28 explicit water molecules for the spectral calculations and 9 explicit water molecules for the magnetic shielding. Using the PCM-MM/QM methodology the results for the n→π(∗) excitation energies of pyridazine and pyrazine are 32,070 ± 80 cm(-1) and 32,675 ± 60 cm(-1), respectively, in good agreement with the corresponding I-MM/QM results of 32,540 ± 80 cm(-1) and 32,710 ± 60 cm(-1) and the experimental results of 33,450-33,580 cm(-1) and 32,700-33,300 cm(-1). For the (15)N magnetic shielding, the corresponding numbers for the gas-water shifts obtained with PCM-MM/QM are 47.4 ± 1.3 ppm for pyridazine and 19.7 ± 1.1 ppm for pyrazine, compared with the I-QM/MM values of 53.4 ± 1.3 ppm and 19.5 ± 1.2 ppm and the experimental results of 42-54 ppm and 17-22 ppm, respectively. The agreement between the two procedures is found to be very good and both are in agreement with the experimental values. PCM

  17. Transferable potentials for phase equilibria. 9. Explicit hydrogen description of benzene and five-membered and six-membered heterocyclic aromatic compounds. (United States)

    Rai, Neeraj; Siepmann, J Ilja


    The explicit hydrogen version of the transferable potentials for phase equilibria (TraPPE-EH) force field is extended to benzene, pyridine, pyrimidine, pyrazine, pyridazine, thiophene, furan, pyrrole, thiazole, oxazole, isoxazole, imidazole, and pyrazole. While the Lennard-Jones parameters for carbon, hydrogen (two types), nitrogen (two types), oxygen, and sulfur are transferable for all 13 compounds, the partial charges are specific for each compound. The benzene dimer energies for sandwich, T-shape, and parallel-displaced configurations obtained for the TraPPE-EH force field compare favorably with high-level electronic structure calculations. Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to compute the single-component vapor-liquid equilibria for benzene, pyridine, three diazenes, and eight five-membered heterocycles. The agreement with experimental data is excellent with the liquid densities and vapor pressures reproduced within 1 and 5%, respectively. The critical temperatures and normal boiling points are predicted with mean deviations of 0.8 and 1.6%, respectively.

  18. The selective alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist A-582941 activates immediate early genes in limbic regions of the forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, M S; Mikkelsen, J D; Timmermann, D B


    Due to the cognitive-enhancing properties of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (alpha7 nAChR) agonists, they have attracted interest for the treatment of cognitive disturbances in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia typically presents in late adolescence or early adulthood. It is therefore important...... to study whether alpha7 nAChR stimulation activates brain regions involved in cognition in juvenile as well as adult individuals. Here, we compared the effects of the novel and selective alpha7 nAChR agonist 2-methyl-5-(6-phenyl-pyridazin-3-yl)-octahydro-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (A-582941) in the juvenile...... in the mPFC, VO/LO, and shell of the nucleus accumbens, in both juvenile and adult rats. The A-582941-induced c-Fos protein expression was significantly greater in the mPFC and VO/LO of juvenile compared with adult rats. These data indicate that A-582941-induced alpha7 nAChR stimulation activates brain...

  19. C2H2 adsorption in three isostructural metal-organic frameworks: boosting C2H2 uptake by rational arrangement of nitrogen sites. (United States)

    Song, Chengling; Jiao, Jingjing; Lin, Qiyi; Liu, Huimin; He, Yabing


    Replacing the benzene spacer in the organic linker 5,5'-(benzene-1,4-diyl)diisophthalate with the nitrogen containing heterocyclic rings, namely, pyrazine, pyridazine, and pyrimidine results in three organic linkers, which were reacted with copper ions under solvothermal conditions to form three isostructural metal-organic frameworks (ZJNU-46, ZJNU-47 and ZJNU-48) exhibiting exceptionally high sorption capacities with regard to acetylene due to the simultaneous immobilization of open metal sites and Lewis basic nitrogen sites in the frameworks. At 1 atm and 295 K, the gravimetric C2H2 adsorption uptakes reach 187, 213 and 193 cm(3) (STP) g(-1) for these three compounds. The gravimetric C2H2 adsorption amount of ZJNU-47a is the second highest reported for MOF materials. Notably, despite their same porosities, and densities of open metal sites and uncoordinated nitrogen sites, distinctly different C2H2 adsorption capacities were observed for these three compounds, which we think are mainly associated with the difference in the relative position of nitrogen atoms leading to different binding affinities of the frameworks towards C2H2 guest molecules, and thus different C2H2 adsorptions. This work demonstrates that the rational arrangement of open nitrogen sites will favorably improve the C2H2 uptake and thus provides useful information for future design of porous MOFs with high acetylene storage capacities.

  20. Theoretical Design of High-spin Organic Molecules with Heterocycles as Ferromagnetic Coupling Units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-min; ZHANG Jing-ping; WANG Rong-shun


    Novel stable high spin molecules possessing three different arranged fashions are designed with -*N-N< as a spin-containing(SC) fragment, phenylene as an end group and various aromatic molecules, such as benzene(1), 2,6-pyridine(2), 3,5-pyridine(3), pyridazine(4), 4,6-pyrimidine(5), 2,6-pyrimidine(6), pyrazine(7) and triazine(8), as a ferromagnetic coupling(FC) unit. The effects of the different coupling units on the spin multiplicities of the ground states and their stabilities were investigated by means of AM1-CI approach. It has been found that the spin densities on the two atoms of the SC fragment are different from delocalization results in the specific stability of -*N-N<. In these molecules, the stabilities of the triplet states decrease when the distance between the atoms of central SC(-N-) increases. It is shown that the heterocycles as the coupling units have influence on the stabilities of the high-spin ground states. That the heteroatom lying in m-phenyl can improve ferromagnetic coupling, while the heteroatom lying in o-phenyl or p-phenyl is not in favor of the ferromagnetic coupling.

  1. Simultaneous determination of Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions in foodstuffs and vegetables with a new Schiff base using artificial neural networks. (United States)

    Afkhami, Abbas; Abbasi-Tarighat, Maryam; Khanmohammadi, Hamid


    New complexes of Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) with a recently synthesized Schiff base derived from 3,6-bis((aminoethyl)thio)pyridazine were applied for their simultaneous determination with artificial neural networks. The analytical data show the ratio of metal to ligand in all metal complexes is 1:1. The absorption spectra were evaluated with respect to Schiff base concentration, pH and time of the color formation reactions. It was found that at pH 10.0 and 60min after mixing, the complexation reactions are completed and the colored complexes exhibited absorption bands in the wavelength range 300-500nm. Spectral data was reduced using principal component analysis and subjected to artificial neural networks. The data obtained from synthetic mixtures of four metal ions were processed by principal component-feed forward neural networks (PCFFNNs) and principal component-radial basis function networks (PCRBFNs). Performances of the proposed methods were tested with regard to root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP%), using synthetic solutions. Under the working conditions, the proposed methods were successfully applied to simultaneous determination of Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) in different vegetable, foodstuff and pharmaceutical product samples.

  2. Bacterial degradation of aminopyrine. (United States)

    Blecher, H; Blecher, R; Wegst, W; Eberspaecher, J; Lingens, F


    1. Four strains of bacteria growing with aminopyrine as sole source of carbon were isolated from soil and were identified as strains of Phenylobacterium immobilis. 2. Strain M13 and strain E, the type species of Phenylobacterium immobilis (DSM 1986), which had been isolated by enrichment with chloridazon (5-amino-4-chloro-2-phenyl-2H-pyridazin-3-one) were used to investigate the bacterial degradation of aminopyrine. 3. Three metabolites were isolated and identified as: 4-(dimethylamino)-1,2-dihydro-1,5-dimethyl-2-(2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxy-4,6-cyc lohexadien-1-yl)-3H-pyrazol-3-one, 4-(dimethylamino)-1,2-dihydro-1,5-dimethyl-2-(2,3-dihydroxyphenyl)-3H-pyrazol-3 -one and 4-(dimethylamino)-1,2-dihydro-1,5-dimethyl-3H-pyrazol-3-one. 4. An enzyme extract from cells of strain m13 was shown to further metabolize the catechol derivative of aminopyrine, with the formation of 2-pyrone-6-carboxylic acid. 5. Results indicate that the benzene ring of aminopyrine is the principal site of microbial metabolism.

  3. Aminothienopyridazines and methylene blue affect Tau fibrillization via cysteine oxidation. (United States)

    Crowe, Alex; James, Michael J; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Smith, Amos B; Trojanowski, John Q; Ballatore, Carlo; Brunden, Kurt R


    Alzheimer disease and several other neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by the accumulation of intraneuronal fibrils comprised of the protein Tau. Tau is normally a soluble protein that stabilizes microtubules, with splice isoforms that contain either three (3-R) or four (4-R) microtubule binding repeats. The formation of Tau fibrils is thought to result in neuronal damage, and inhibitors of Tau fibrillization may hold promise as therapeutic agents. The process of Tau fibrillization can be replicated in vitro, and a number of small molecules have been identified that inhibit Tau fibril formation. However, little is known about how these molecules affect Tau fibrillization. Here, we examined the mechanism by which the previously described aminothieno pyridazine (ATPZ) series of compounds inhibit Tau fibrillization. Active ATPZs were found to promote the oxidation of the two cysteine residues within 4-R Tau by a redox cycling mechanism, resulting in the formation of a disulfide-containing compact monomer that was refractory to fibrillization. Moreover, the ATPZs facilitated intermolecular disulfide formation between 3-R Tau monomers, leading to dimers that were capable of fibrillization. The ATPZs also caused cysteine oxidation in molecules unrelated to Tau. Interestingly, methylene blue, an inhibitor of Tau fibrillization under evaluation in Alzheimer disease clinical trials, caused a similar oxidation of cysteines in Tau and other molecules. These findings reveal that the ATPZs and methylene blue act by a mechanism that may affect their viability as potential therapeutic agents.

  4. Theoretical Study on the Structures and Properties of Hydrogen Bonding Complexes between Diazines and Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI, Quan; HUANG, Fang-Qian; HU, Jing-Dan; ZHAO, Ke-Qing


    Density functional theory B3LYP method and second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory MP2 method were employed to obtain the optimized geometries of the ground state and interaction energy for diazines and water complexes. The results show that the ground state complexes have strong hydrogen bonding interaction with -20.99,- 16.73 and - 15.31 kJ/mol after basis set superposition error and zero-point vibration energy correction for pyridazine-water, pyrimidine-water and pyrazine-water, respectively, and large red-shift for the symmetric H-O stretching vibration frequencies due to the formation of N…H-O hydrogen bond in the diazine-water complexes.The NBO analysis indicates that intermolecular charge transfer are 0.0316, 0.0255 and 0.0265 e respectively. In addition, the first singlet (n,π*) vertical excitation energy of the monomer and the hydrogen bonding complexes between diazines and water was investigated by time-dependent density functional theory.

  5. Pyridoxine-dependent seizures: a review. (United States)

    Rajesh, R; Girija, A S


    Pyridoxine-dependent seizure is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that usually presents with neonatal intractable seizures. This syndrome results from an inborn abnormality of the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase, which results in reduced pyridazine-dependent synthesis of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma amino butyric acid. The full range of symptomatology is unknown; but can be associated with autism, breath holding and severe mental retardation, bilious vomiting, transient visual agnosia, severe articulatory apraxia motor dyspraxia, microcephaly and intrauterine seizures. Parenteral pyridine injection test is a highly effective and reproducible test in confirming the diagnosis. Pyridoxine should be administered as a diagnostic test in all cases of convulsive disorders of infancy in which no other diagnosis is evident. Epileptic seizure discharges subside within 2-6 minutes after the intravenous injection of 50-100 mg of pyridaoxine. Once the diagnosis is confirmed, maintenance therapy should be continued indefinitely and doses increased with age or intercurrent illnesses. The maintenance dose of Bg needed is still not clear. There is a relatively wide range for the daily B6 dose necessary to control the seizure i.e., 10-200 mg/day.

  6. CM 40907: a structurally novel anticonvulsant in mice, rats and baboons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambon, J.P.; Brochard, J.; Hallot, A.; Heaulme, M.; Brodin, R.; Roncucci, R.; Biziere, K.


    CM 40907 (3-(4-hydroxypiperidyl)-6-(2'-chlorophenyl)-pyridazine) is a chemically original compound which possesses the pharmacological properties of a potent, p.o. active anticonvulsant. The anticonvulsant activity of CM 40907 was examined in mice, rats and photosensitive Papio-papio baboons and compared to that of phenobarbital, diphenylhydantoin, carbamazepine, sodium valproate and ethosuximide. In mice, CM 40907 antagonized electroconvulsive shock and chemically induced seizures with an overall potency comparable to that of carbamazepine and a therapeutic ratio (ED50 rotorod/ED50 electroshock) superior to that of ethosuximide, sodium valproate, phenobarbital and carbamazepine. In the rat CM 40907 suppressed completed kindled amygdaloid seizures and was approximately as active as phenobarbital. In naturally photosensitive Senegalese Papio-papio baboons CM 40907 antagonized myoclonus and cortical paroxysmal discharges. In this model CM 40907 was approximately one-fourth as potent as phenobarbital, twice as potent as carbamazepine and 6 times more potent than sodium valproate. In mice CM 40907, at anticonvulsant doses, increased the affinity of (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam for its central receptor site. Based on these results it is postulated that CM 40907 is a potent and relatively nonsedative anticonvulsant and may be of therapeutic benefit in epileptic disorders.

  7. Estimation of ground and excited-state dipole moments of 1, 2-diazines by solvatochromic method and quantum-chemical calculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manohara, S.R.; Kumar, V. Udaya; Shivakumaraiah;


    Using the theory of solvatochromism, the difference in the excited-state (μe) and ground-state (μg) dipole moments was determined from Lippert–Mataga, Bakhshiev, Kawski–Chamma–Viallet, and McRae equations for three 1,2-diazines (pyrrolo-pyridazine derivatives). All of these equations are based...... on the variation of Stokes shift with solvent's relative permittivity and refractive index. Further, the change in dipole moment value (Δμ) was also calculated using the variation of Stokes shift with the molecular-microscopic empirical solvent polarity parameter. Theoretical μg values were evaluated by quantum...... chemical calculations using the DFT method by adopting B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory (Gaussian 03) and using the AM1 method (Chem3D Ultra 8.0). It was observed that, dipole moments of diazines in the excited-state (μe) were greater than the corresponding ground-state values (μg), indicating a substantial...

  8. Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation ameliorates scopolamine-induced behavioural changes in a modified continuous Y-maze task in mice. (United States)

    Redrobe, John P; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø; Christensen, Jeppe K; Peters, Dan; Timmermann, Daniel B; Olsen, Gunnar M


    The alpha7 (alpha7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor may represent a drug target for the treatment of disorders associated with working memory/attentional dysfunction. We investigated the effects of three distinct alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists: 2-methyl-5-(6-phenyl-pyridazin-3-yl)-octahydro-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (A-582941; 0.01-0.1 mg/kg), 4-bromophenyl 1,4-diazabicyclo(3.2.2) nonane-4-carboxylate (SSR180711; 0.3-3 mg/kg) and N-[(3R)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl]-4-chlorobenzamide (PNU-282987; 1-10 mg/kg), on scopolamine-induced deficits in a modified Y-maze procedure. Mice were forced to choose one of two visually distinct arms, and were confined there for a 5 min exploration period before being allowed to explore both arms for a 2 min test session, immediately thereafter. The time spent in each arm, entries and total distance travelled were recorded using an automated system. Characterisation experiments showed that scopolamine-treated (1 mg/kg) mice spent less time exploring the unfamiliar arm, when compared with vehicle-treated animals. Combination experiments showed that all three alpha7 agonists ameliorated scopolamine-induced changes in unfamiliar arm exploration. In conclusion, the present data support the idea that alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors may represent an interesting target for the treatment of conditions associated with attentional/working memory dysfunction.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhe-Chen; Cole, Callie A.; Bierbaum, Veronica M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Snow, Theodore P., E-mail: [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)


    Studies of interstellar chemistry have grown in number and complexity by both observations and laboratory measurements, and nitrogen-containing aromatics have been implicated as important interstellar molecules. In this paper, the gas-phase collision induced dissociation (CID) processes of protonated pyridazine (1,2-diazine), pyrimidine (1,3-diazine), and pyrazine (1,4-diazine) cations (C{sub 4}H{sub 5}N{sub 2} {sup +}) are investigated in detail both experimentally and theoretically. The major neutral loss for all three CID processes is HCN, leading to the formation of C{sub 3}H{sub 4}N{sup +} isomers; our density functional theory (DFT) calculations support and elucidate our experimental results. The formation of C{sub 3}H{sub 4}N{sup +} isomers from the reaction of abundant interstellar acrylonitrile (CH{sub 2}CHCN) and H{sup +}is also studied employing DFT calculations. Our results lead to a novel mechanism for interstellar protonated diazine formation from the consecutive reactions of CH{sub 2}CHCN+ H{sup +} + HCN. Moreover, our results motivate the continuing search for interstellar C{sub 3}H{sub 4}N{sup +} isomers as well as polycyclic aromatic N-containing hydrocarbons (PANHs)

  10. Facile Synthesis and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Some New Heterocyclic Compounds Incorporating a Biologically Active Sulfamoyl Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham S. Darwish


    Full Text Available A facile and convenient synthesis of new heterocyclic compounds containing a sulfamoyl moiety suitable for use as antimicrobial agents was reported. The precursor 3-oxo-3-phenyl-N-(4-sulfamoylphenylpropionamide was coupled smoothly with arenediazonium salt producing hydrazones which reacted with malononitrile or triethylorthoformate affording pyridazine and triazine derivatives, respectively. Also, the reactivity of the same precursor with DMF-DMA was followed by aminotriazole; aromatic aldehydes was followed by hydrazine hydrate, triethylorthoformate, or thiourea affording triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine, pyrazole, acrylamide, and dihydropyrimidine derivatives, respectively. On the other hand, treatment of the precursor propionamide with phenyl isothiocyanate and KOH in DMF afforded the intermediate salt which was treated with dilute HCl followed by 2-bromo-1-phenylethanone affording carboxamide derivative. While the same intermediate salt reacted in situ with chloroacetone, ethyl 2-chloroacetate, 3-(2-bromoacetyl-2H-chromen-2-one, methyl iodide, or 2-oxo-N-phenylpropane hydrazonoyl chloride afforded the thiophene, ketene N,S-acetal, and thiadiazole derivatives, respectively. The structure of the new products was established based on elemental and spectral analysis. Antimicrobial evaluation of some selected examples from the synthesized products was carried out whereby four compounds were found to have moderate activities and one compound showed the highest activity.

  11. Ethosomes for the delivery of anti-HSV-1 molecules: preparation, characterization and in vitro activity. (United States)

    Cortesi, R; Ravani, L; Zaid, A N; Menegatti, E; Romagnoli, R; Drechsler, M; Esposito, E


    This paper describes the production, characterization and in vitro activity of ethosomes containing two molecules with antiviral activity, such as acyclovir (ACY) and N1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-pyrazole [3,4d]pyridazin-7(6p-chlorine-phenyl)-one nucleoside (N1CP). Ethosomes were prepared and morphologically characterized by Cryo-TEM. The encapsulation efficiency was 92.3 +/- 2.5% for ACY and 94.2 +/- 2.8% for N1CP. The release of the drug from vesicles, determined by a Franz cell method, indicated that both drugs were released in a controlled manner. In order to possibly guarantee the stability during long-term storage ethosome suspensions was freeze-dried. It was found that the freeze-dried ethosomes' cakes were compact, glassy characterized by low density and quick re-hydration. However, the storage time slightly influences the percentage of drug encapsulation within ethosomes showing a drug leakage after re-hydration around 10%. The antiviral activity against HSV-1 of both drugs was tested by plaque reduction assay in monolayer cultures of Vero cells. Data showed that ethosomes allowed a reduction of the ED50 of N1CP evidencing an increase of its antiviral activity. However, ACY remains more active than N1CP. No differences are appreciable between drug-containing ethosomes before and after freeze-drying. Taken together these results, ethosomal formulation could be possibly proposed as mean for topical administration of anti-herpetic molecules.

  12. Microwave Assisted Condensation Reactions of 2-Aryl Hydrazonopropanals with Nucleophilic Reagents and Dimethyl Acetylenedicarboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita M. Borik


    Full Text Available The reaction of methyl ketones 1a-g with dimethylformamide dimethylacetal (DMFDMA afforded the enaminones 2a-g, which were coupled with diazotized aromatic amines 3a,b to give the corresponding aryl hydrazones 6a-h. Condensation of compounds 6a-h with some aromatic heterocyclic amines afforded iminoarylhydrazones 9a-m. Enaminoazo compounds 12a,b could be obtained from condensation of 6c with secondary amines. The reaction of 6e,h with benzotriazolylacetone yielded 14a,b. Also, the reaction of 6a,b,d-f,h with glycine and hippuric acid in acetic anhydride afforded pyridazinone derivatives 17a-f. Synthesis of pyridazine carboxylic acid derivatives 22a,b from the reaction of 6b,e with dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD in the presence of triphenylphosphine at room temperature is also reported. Most of these reactions were conducted under irradiation in a microwave oven in the absence of solvent in an attempt to improve the product yields and to reduce the reaction times.

  13. Non-invasive evaluation of neuroprotective drug candidates for cerebral infarction by PET imaging of mitochondrial complex-I activity (United States)

    Fukuta, Tatsuya; Asai, Tomohiro; Ishii, Takayuki; Koide, Hiroyuki; Kiyokawa, Chiaki; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Kikuchi, Takashi; Shimizu, Kosuke; Harada, Norihiro; Tsukada, Hideo; Oku, Naoto


    The development of a diagnostic technology that can accurately determine the pathological progression of ischemic stroke and evaluate the therapeutic effects of cerebroprotective agents has been desired. We previously developed a novel PET probe, 2-tert-butyl-4-chloro-5-{6-[2-(2-18F-fluoroethoxy)-ethoxy]-pyridin-3-ylmethoxy}-2H-pyridazin-3-one ([18F]BCPP-EF) for detecting activity of mitochondrial complex I (MC-I). This probe was shown to visualize neuronal damage in the living brain of rodent and primate models of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, [18F]BCPP-EF was applied to evaluate the therapeutic effects of a neuroprotectant, liposomal FK506 (FK506-liposomes), on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in transient middle cerebral artery occlusion rats. The PET imaging using [18F]BCPP-EF showed a prominent reduction in the MC-I activity in the ischemic brain hemisphere. Treatment with FK506-liposomes remarkably increased the uptake of [18F]BCPP-EF in the ischemic side corresponding to the improvement of blood flow disorders and motor function deficits throughout the 7 days after I/R. Additionally, the PET scan could diagnose the extent of the brain damage accurately and showed the neuroprotective effect of FK506-liposomes at Day 7, at which 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining couldn’t visualize them. Our study demonstrated that the PET technology using [18F]BCPP-EF has a potent capacity to evaluate the therapeutic effect of drug candidates in living brain.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of nitrogen-rich macrocyclic ligands and an investigation of their coordination chemistry with lanthanum(III). (United States)

    Wilson, Justin J; Birnbaum, Eva R; Batista, Enrique R; Martin, Richard L; John, Kevin D


    Derivatives of the ligand 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (cyclen) containing pendant N-heterocyclic donors were prepared. The heterocycles pyridine, pyridazine, pyrimidine, and pyrazine were conjugated to cyclen to give 1,4,7,10-tetrakis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (L(py)), 1,4,7,10-tetrakis(3-pyridazylmethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (L(pyd)), 1,4,7,10-tetrakis(4-pyrimidylmethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (L(pyr)), and 1,4,7,10-tetrakis(2-pyrazinylmethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (L(pz)), respectively. The coordination chemistry of these ligands was explored using the La(3+) ion. Accordingly, complexes of the general formula [La(L)(OTf)](OTf)2, where OTf = trifluoromethanesulfonate and L = L(py) (1), L(pyd) (2), L(pyr) (3), and L(pz) (4), were synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy. Crystal structures of 1 and 2 were also determined by X-ray diffraction studies, which revealed 9-coordinate capped, twisted square-antiprismatic coordination geometries for the central La(3+) ion. The conformational dynamics of 1-4 in solution were investigated by variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy. Dynamic line-shape and Eyring analyses enabled the determination of the activation parameters for the interconversion of enantiomeric forms of the complexes. Unexpectedly, the different pendant N-heterocycles of 1-4 give rise to varying values for the enthalpies and entropies of activation for this process. Density functional theory calculations were carried out to investigate the mechanism of this enantiomeric interconversion. Computed activation parameters were consistent with those experimentally determined for 1 but differed somewhat from those of 2-4.

  15. A Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Lin28. (United States)

    Roos, Martina; Pradère, Ugo; Ngondo, Richard P; Behera, Alok; Allegrini, Sara; Civenni, Gianluca; Zagalak, Julian A; Marchand, Jean-Rémy; Menzi, Mirjam; Towbin, Harry; Scheuermann, Jörg; Neri, Dario; Caflisch, Amedeo; Catapano, Carlo V; Ciaudo, Constance; Hall, Jonathan


    New discoveries in RNA biology underscore a need for chemical tools to clarify their roles in pathophysiological mechanisms. In certain cancers, synthesis of the let-7 microRNA tumor suppressor is blocked by an RNA binding protein (RBP) Lin28, which docks onto a conserved sequence in let-7 precursor RNA molecules and prevents their maturation. Thus, the Lin28/let-7 interaction might be an attractive drug target, if not for the well-known difficulty in targeting RNA-protein interactions with drugs. Here, we describe a protein/RNA FRET assay using a GFP-Lin28 donor and a black-hole quencher (BHQ)-labeled let-7 acceptor, a fluorescent protein/quencher combination which is rarely used in screening despite favorable spectral properties. We tested 16 000 molecules and identified N-methyl-N-[3-(3-methyl[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin-6-yl)phenyl]acetamide, which blocked the Lin28/let-7 interaction, rescued let-7 processing and function in Lin28-expressing cancer cells, induced differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells, and reduced tumor-sphere formation by 22Rv1 and Huh7 cells. A biotinylated derivative captured Lin28 from cell lysates consistent with an on-target mechanism in cells, though the compound also showed some activity against bromodomains in selectivity assays. The Lin28/let-7 axis is presently of high interest not only for its role as a bistable switch in stem-cell biology but also because of its prominent roles in numerous diseases. We anticipate that much can be learned from the use of this first reported small molecule antagonist of Lin28, including the potential of the Lin28/let-7 interaction as a new drug target for selected cancers. Furthermore, this approach to assay development may be used to identify antagonists of other RBP/RNA interactions suspected to be operative in pathophysiological mechanisms.

  16. Temperature dependent NIR emitting lanthanide-PMO/silica hybrid materials. (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Anna M; Esquivel, Dolores; Ouwehand, Judith; Van Der Voort, Pascal; Romero-Salguero, Francisco J; Van Deun, Rik


    Two materials - a mesoporous silica (MS) and a periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) functionalized with dipyridyl-pyridazine (dppz) units were grafted with near-infrared (NIR) emitting lanthanide (Nd(3+), Er(3+), Yb(3+)) complexes in an attempt to obtain hybrid NIR emitting materials. The parent materials: dppz-vSilica and dppz-ePMO were prepared by a hetero Diels-Alder reaction between 3,6-di(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (dptz) and the double bonds of either ethenylene-bridged PMO (ePMO) or vinyl-silica (vSilica) and subsequent oxidation. The dppz-vSilica is reported here for the first time. The prepared lanthanide-PMO/silica hybrid materials were studied in depth for their luminescence properties at room temperature and chosen Nd(3+) and Yb(3+) samples also at low temperature (as low as 10 K). We show that both the dppz-vSilica and dppz-ePMO materials can be used as "platforms" for obtaining porous materials showing NIR luminescence. To obtain NIR emission these materials can be excited either in the UV or Vis region (into the π→π* transitions of the ligands or directly into the f-f transitions of the Ln(3+) ions). More interestingly, when functionalized with Nd(3+) or Yb(3+)β-diketonate complexes these materials showed interesting luminescence properties over a wide temperature range (10-360 K). The Yb(3+) materials were investigated for their potential use as ratiometric temperature sensors.

  17. 3-(1H-Indol-3-yl)-2-[3-(4-nitrophenyl)ureido]propanamide Enantiomers With Human Formyl-Peptide Receptor Agonist Activity: Molecular Modeling of Chiral Recognition by FPR2 (United States)

    Schepetkin, Igor A.; Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Khlebnikov, Andrei I.; Leopoldo, Marcello; Lucente, Ermelinda; Lacivita, Enza; De Giorgio, Paola; Quinn, Mark T.


    N-formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that play critical roles in inflammatory reactions, and FPR-specific interactions can possibly be used to facilitate the resolution of pathological inflammatory reactions. Recent studies indicated that FPRs have stereo-selective preference for chiral ligands. Here, we investigated the structure-activity relationship of 24 chiral ureidopropanamides, including previously reported compounds PD168368/PD176252 and their close analogs, and used molecular modeling to define chiral recognition by FPR2. Unlike previously reported 6-methyl-2,4-disubstituted pyridazin-3(2H)-ones, whose R-forms preferentially activated FPR1/FPR2, we found that four S-enantiomers in the seven ureidopropanamide pairs tested preferentially activated intracellular Ca2+ flux in FPR2-transfected cells, while the R-counterpart was more active in two enantiomer pairs. Thus, active enantiomers of FPR2 agonists can be in either R- or S- configurations, depending on the molecular scaffold and specific substituents at the chiral center. Using molecular modeling approaches, including field point methodology, homology modeling, and docking studies, we propose a model that can explain stereoselective activity of chiral FPR2 agonists. Importantly, our docking studies of FPR2 chiral agonists correlated well with the FPR2 pharmacophore model derived previously. We conclude that the ability of FPR2 to discriminate between the enantiomers is the consequence of the arrangement of the three asymmetric hydrophobic subpockets at the main orthosteric FPR2 binding site with specific orientation of charged regions in the subpockets. PMID:23219934

  18. C-H and N-H bond dissociation energies of small aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barckholtz, C.; Barckholtz, T.A.; Hadad, C.M.


    A survey of computational methods was undertaken to calculate the homolytic bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of the C-H and N-H bonds in monocyclic aromatic molecules that are representative of the functionalities present in coal. These include six-membered rings (benzene, pyridine, pyridazine, pyrimidine, pyrazine) and five-membered rings (furan, thiophene, pyrrole, oxazole). By comparison of the calculated C-H BDEs with the available experimental values for these aromatic molecules, the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory was selected to calculate the BDEs of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including carbonaceous PAHs (naphthalene, anthracene, pyrene, coronene) and heteroatomic PAHs (benzofuran, benzothiophene, indole, benzoxazole, quinoline, isoquinoline, dibenzofuran, carbazole). The cleavage of a C-H or a N-H bond generates a {sigma} radical that is, in general, localized at the site from which the hydrogen atom was removed. However, delocalization of the unpaired electron results in {approximately} 7 kcal {center{underscore}dot} mol{sup {minus}1} stabilization of the radical with respect to the formation of phenyl when the C-H bond is adjacent to a nitrogen atom in the azabenzenes. Radicals from five-membered rings are {approximately} 6 kcal {center{underscore}dot} mol{sup {minus}1} less stable than those formed from six-membered rings due to both localization of the spin density and geometric factors. The location of the heteroatoms in the aromatic ring affects the C-H bond strengths more significantly than does the size of the aromatic network. Therefore, in general, the monocyclic aromatic molecules can be used to predict the C-H BDE of the large PAHs within 1 kcal {center{underscore}dot} mol{sup {minus}1}.

  19. Effects of corticotropin-releasing factor 1 receptor antagonism on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of rodents. (United States)

    Gehlert, Donald R; Cramer, Jeffrey; Morin, S Michelle


    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is the major hypothalamic neuropeptide responsible for stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA), resulting in the synthesis and release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex. In a recent study, we reported the discovery of the CRF1 receptor antagonist, 3-(4-chloro-2-morpholin-4-yl-thiazol-5-yl)-8-(1-ethylpropyl)-2,6-dimethyl-imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine (MTIP), which has efficacy in preclinical models of stress-induced alcohol consumption. Because CRF1 is important in HPAA activation, we evaluated the effects of MTIP administration on rodent HPAA function. Initial studies established the MTIP doses required for brain and pituitary CRF1 occupancy and those associated with the inhibition of intracerebroventricular CRF on the HPAA in mice. Then, rat basal plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentrations were measured hourly by radioimmunoassay for 24 h after three daily doses of MTIP or vehicle. In these studies, the early phase of the nocturnal CORT surge was reduced; however, the area under the CORT curve was identical for the 24-h period. In subsequent studies, increases in plasma CORT due to direct pharmacological manipulation of the HPAA axis or by stressors were evaluated after MTIP treatment in mice. MTIP attenuated CORT responses generated by immediate bolus administration of insulin or ethanol; however, MTIP did not affect activation of the HPAA by other stressors and pharmacological agents. Therefore, MTIP can modulate basal HPAA activity during the CORT surge and reduced activation after a select number of stressors but does not produce a lasting suppression of basal CORT. The ability of MTIP to modulate plasma CORT after hyperinsulinemia may provide a surrogate strategy for a target occupancy biomarker.

  20. 2-Pyridylnitrene and 3-pyridazylcarbene and their relationship via ring-expansion, ring-opening, ring-contraction, and fragmentation. (United States)

    Kvaskoff, David; Bednarek, Pawel; Wentrup, Curt


    Photolysis of triazolo[1,5-b]pyridazine 8 isolated in Ar matrix generates diazomethylpyridazines 9Z and 9E and diazopentenynes 11Z and 11E as detected by IR spectroscopy. ESR spectroscopy detected the 3-pydidazylcarbene 10 as well as pent-2-en-3-yn-1-ylidene 12 formed by loss of one and two molecules of N(2), respectively. Further photolysis caused rearrangement of the carbenes to 1,2-pentadien-4-yne 13 and 3-ethynylcyclopropene 14. Flash vacuum thermolysis (FVT) of 8 at 400-500 degrees C with Ar matrix isolation of the products yielded 13, 14, and 1,4-pentadiyne 15. At higher temperatures, glutacononitriles 27Z and 27E were formed as well together with minor amounts of 2- and 3-cyanopyrroles 28 and 29. Tetrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine/2-azidopyridine 22T/22A yields 2-pyridylnitrene 19 as well as the novel open-chain cyanodienylnitrene 23 and the ring-expanded 1,3-diazacyclohepta-1,2,4,6-tetraene 21 on short wavelength photolysis. Nitrenes 19 and 23 were detected by ESR spectroscopy, and cumulene 21 by IR and UV spectroscopy. FVT of 22T/22A also affords 2-pyridylnitrene 19 and diazacycloheptatetraene 21, as well as glutacononitriles 27Z,E and 2- and 3-cyanopyrroles 28 and 29. Photolysis of 21 above 300 nm yields the novel spiroazirene 25, identified by its matrix IR spectrum. The reaction pathways connecting the four carbenes (10Z,E and 12Z,E) and three nitrenes (19, 23EZ, and 23ZZ) in their open-shell singlet and triplet states are elucidated with the aid of theoretical calculations at DFT, CASSCF, and CASPT2 levels. Three possible mechanisms of ring-contraction in arylnitrenes are identified: (i) via ring-opening to dienylnitrenes, (ii) concerted ring-contraction, and (iii) via spiroazirenes 25, whereby (i) is the energetically most favorable.

  1. Rubrolides as model for the development of new lactones and their aza analogs as potential photosynthesis inhibitors. (United States)

    Pereira, Ulisses A; Barbosa, Luiz C A; Demuner, Antônio J; Silva, Antônio A; Bertazzini, Michele; Forlani, Giuseppe


    Natural phytotoxins and their synthetic analogs are a potential source of new bioactive compounds for agriculture. Analogs of rubrolides, a class of γ-alkylidene-γ-lactones isolated from different ascidians, have been shown to interfere with the photosynthetic electron-transport chain, yet their activity needs to be improved. With this aim, ten 5-aryl-6-benzyl-4-bromopyridazin-3(2H)-ones were prepared in yields ranging from 44 to 88% by reaction of their correspondent γ-alkylidene-γ-lactones with NH2 NH2 . The structures of these rubrolide analogs were determined by (1) H- and (13) C-NMR, 2D-NMR (COSY and HETCOR), NOE difference, and MS techniques. These compounds were evaluated for their abilities of interfering with the light-driven reduction of ferricyanide by isolated spinach chloroplasts. Lactones with electron-withdrawing substituents in the para-position of the benzylidene ring were the most effective inhibitors. Characterization of the activity of 11b/11b' suggested a mechanism based on the interaction with the plastoquinone binding site of photosystem II. Addition of several compounds to the culture medium of a cyanobacterial model strain was found to inhibit algal growth. However, the relative effectiveness was not consistent with their activity in vitro, suggesting the occurrence of multiple targets and/or detoxyfication mechanisms. Indeed, the compounds showed differential effects on the heterotrophic growth of some crop species, Cucumis sativus and Sorghum bicolor. Pyridazin-3(2H)-ones 12e, 12i, and 12j, which have been found poorly active against the photosynthetic electron transport, were the most effective in inhibiting the growth of some weeds, Ipomoea grandifolia and Brachiaria decumbens, under greenhouse conditions.

  2. Scaffold-switching: an exploration of 5,6-fused bicyclic heteroaromatics systems to afford antituberculosis activity akin to the imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-carboxylates. (United States)

    Moraski, Garrett C; Oliver, Allen G; Markley, Lowell D; Cho, Sanghyun; Franzblau, Scott G; Miller, Marvin J


    A set of 5,6-fused bicyclic heteroaromatic scaffolds were investigated for their in vitro anti-tubercular activity versus replicating and non-replicating strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in an attempt to find an alternative scaffold to the imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine and imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidines that were previously shown to have potent activity against replicating and drug resistant Mtb. The five new bicyclic heteroaromatic scaffolds explored in this study include a 2,6-dimethylimidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine-3-carboxamide (7), a 2,6-dimethyl-1H-indole-3-carboxamide (8), a 6-methyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (9), a 7-methyl-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyridine-3-carboxamide (10), and a 5,7-dimethyl-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-2-carboxamide (11). Additionally, imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines isomers (2 and 12) and a homologous imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine isomer (6) were prepared and compared. Compounds 2 and 6 were found to be the most potent against H37Rv Mtb (MIC's of 0.1 μM and 1.3 μM) and were inactive (MIC >128 μM) against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. Against other non-tubercular mycobacteria strains, compounds 2 and 6 had activity against Mycobacterium avium (16 and 122 μM, respectively), Mycobacterium kansasii (4 and 19 μM, respectively), Mycobacterium bovis BCG (1 and 8 μM, respectively) while all the other scaffolds were inactive (>128 μM).

  3. Functionalization of Krebs-type polyoxometalates with N,O-chelating ligands: a systematic study. (United States)

    Artetxe, Beñat; Reinoso, Santiago; San Felices, Leire; Vitoria, Pablo; Pache, Aroa; Martín-Caballero, Jagoba; Gutiérrez-Zorrilla, Juan M


    The first organic derivatives of 3d-metal-disubstituted Krebs-type polyoxometalates have been synthesized under mild bench conditions via straightforward replacement of labile aqua ligands with N,O-chelating planar anions on either preformed or in situ-generated precursors. Nine hybrid clusters containing carboxylate derivatives of five- or six-membered aromatic N-heterocycles as antenna ligands have been obtained as pure crystalline phases and characterized by elemental and thermal analyses, infrared spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. They all show the general formula [{M(II)L(H2O)}2(WO2)2(B-β-XW9O33)2](n-) and can be classified as follows: 1-SbM, where L = 1H-imidazole-4-carboxylate (imc), X = Sb(III), n = 12, and M(II) = Mn, Co, Ni, Zn; 1-TeM, where L = imc, X = Te(IV), n = 10, and M(II) = Mn, Co; 2-SbNi, where L = 1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylate (pzc), X = Sb(III), n = 12, and M(II) = Ni; and 3-SbM, where L = pyrazine-2-carboxylate (pyzc), X =Sb(III), n = 12, and M(II) = Co, Zn. The 3d-metal-disubstituted tungstotellurate(IV) skeleton of compounds 1-TeM is unprecedented in polyoxometalate chemistry. The stability of these hybrid Krebs-type species in aqueous solution has been confirmed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy performed on the diamagnetic 1-SbZn and 3-SbZn derivatives. Our systematic study of the reactivity of disubtituted Krebs-type polyoxotungstates toward diazole-, pyridine-, and diazinecarboxylates demonstrates that organic derivatization is strongly dependent on the nature of the ligand, as follows: imc displays a "universal ligand" character, as functionalization takes place regardless of the external 3d metal and heteroatom; pzc and pyzc show selectivity toward specific 3d metals; pyridazine-3-carboxylate and pyrimidine-4-carboxylate promote partial decomposition of specific precursors, leading to [M(II)L2(H2O)2] complexes; and picolinate is inert under all conditions tested.

  4. Broad-spectrum efficacy across cognitive domains by alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonism correlates with activation of ERK1/2 and CREB phosphorylation pathways. (United States)

    Bitner, Robert S; Bunnelle, William H; Anderson, David J; Briggs, Clark A; Buccafusco, Jerry; Curzon, Peter; Decker, Michael W; Frost, Jennifer M; Gronlien, Jens Halvard; Gubbins, Earl; Li, Jinhe; Malysz, John; Markosyan, Stella; Marsh, Kennan; Meyer, Michael D; Nikkel, Arthur L; Radek, Richard J; Robb, Holly M; Timmermann, Daniel; Sullivan, James P; Gopalakrishnan, Murali


    The alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) plays an important role in cognitive processes and may represent a drug target for treating cognitive deficits in neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. In the present study, we used a novel alpha7 nAChR-selective agonist, 2-methyl-5-(6-phenyl-pyridazin-3-yl)-octahydro-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (A-582941) to interrogate cognitive efficacy, as well as examine potential cellular mechanisms of cognition. Exhibiting high affinity to native rat (Ki = 10.8 nM) and human (Ki = 16.7 nM) alpha7 nAChRs, A-582941 enhanced cognitive performance in behavioral assays including the monkey delayed matching-to-sample, rat social recognition, and mouse inhibitory avoidance models that capture domains of working memory, short-term recognition memory, and long-term memory consolidation, respectively. In addition, A-582941 normalized sensory gating deficits induced by the alpha7 nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine in rats, and in DBA/2 mice that exhibit a natural sensory gating deficit. Examination of signaling pathways known to be involved in cognitive function revealed that alpha7 nAChR agonism increased extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation in PC12 cells. Furthermore, increases in ERK1/2 and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation were observed in mouse cingulate cortex and/or hippocampus after acute A-582941 administration producing plasma concentrations in the range of alpha7 binding affinities and behavioral efficacious doses. The MEK inhibitor SL327 completely blocked alpha7 agonist-evoked ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Our results demonstrate that alpha7 nAChR agonism can lead to broad-spectrum efficacy in animal models at doses that enhance ERK1/2 and CREB phosphorylation/activation and may represent a mechanism that offers potential to improve cognitive deficits associated with neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia.

  5. Characterization of binding and inhibitory properties of TAK-063, a novel phosphodiesterase 10A inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akina Harada

    Full Text Available Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A inhibition is a novel and promising approach for the treatment of central nervous system disorders such as schizophrenia and Huntington's disease. A novel PDE10A inhibitor, TAK-063 [1-[2-fluoro-4-(1H-pyrazol-1-ylphenyl]-5-methoxy-3-(1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl-pyridazin-4(1H-one] has shown high inhibitory activity and selectivity for human recombinant PDE10A2 in vitro; the half-maximal inhibitory concentration was 0.30 nM, and selectivity over other phosphodiesterases (PDEs was more than 15000-fold. TAK-063 at 10 µM did not show more than 50% inhibition or stimulation of 91 enzymes or receptors except for PDEs. In vitro autoradiography (ARG studies using rat brain sections revealed that [3H]TAK-063 selectively accumulated in the caudate putamen (CPu, nucleus accumbens (NAc, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and striatonigral projection, where PDE10A is highly expressed. This [3H]TAK-063 accumulation was almost entirely blocked by an excess amount of MP-10, a PDE10A selective inhibitor, and the accumulation was not observed in brain slices of Pde10a-knockout mice. In rat brain sections, [3H]TAK-063 bound to a single high-affinity site with mean ± SEM dissociation constants of 7.2 ± 1.2 and 2.6 ± 0.5 nM for the CPu and NAc shell, respectively. Orally administered [14C]TAK-063 selectively accumulated in PDE10A expressing brain regions in an in vivo ARG study in rats. Striatal PDE10A occupancy by TAK-063 in vivo was measured using T-773 as a tracer and a dose of 0.88 mg/kg (p.o. was calculated to produce 50% occupancy in rats. Translational studies with TAK-063 and other PDE10A inhibitors such as those presented here will help us better understand the pharmacological profile of this class of potential central nervous system drugs.

  6. Prefrontal beta2 subunit-containing and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors differentially control glutamatergic and cholinergic signaling. (United States)

    Parikh, Vinay; Ji, Jinzhao; Decker, Michael W; Sarter, Martin


    One-second-long increases in prefrontal cholinergic activity ("transients") were demonstrated previously to be necessary for the incorporation of cues into ongoing cognitive processes ("cue detection"). Nicotine and, more robustly, selective agonists at alpha4beta2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) enhance cue detection and attentional performance by augmenting prefrontal cholinergic activity. The present experiments determined the role of beta2-containing and alpha7 nAChRs in the generation of prefrontal cholinergic and glutamatergic transients in vivo. Transients were evoked by nicotine, the alpha4beta2* nAChR agonist ABT-089 [2-methyl-3-(2-(S)-pyrrolindinylmethoxy) pyridine dihydrochloride], or the alpha7 nAChR agonist A-582941 [2-methyl-5-(6-phenyl-pyridazin-3-yl)-octahydro-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole]. Transients were recorded in mice lacking beta2 or alpha7 nAChRs and in rats after removal of thalamic glutamatergic or midbrain dopaminergic inputs to prefrontal cortex. The main results indicate that stimulation of alpha4beta2* nAChRs evokes glutamate release and that the presence of thalamic afferents is necessary for the generation of cholinergic transients. ABT-089-evoked transients were completely abolished in mice lacking beta2* nAChRs. The amplitude, but not the decay rate, of nicotine-evoked transients was reduced by beta2* knock-out. Conversely, in mice lacking the alpha7 nAChR, the decay rate, but not the amplitude, of nicotine-evoked cholinergic and glutamatergic transients was attenuated. Substantiating the role of alpha7 nAChR in controlling the duration of release events, stimulation of alpha7 nAChR produced cholinergic transients that lasted 10- to 15-fold longer than those evoked by nicotine. alpha7 nAChR-evoked cholinergic transients are mediated in part by dopaminergic activity. Prefrontal alpha4beta2* nAChRs play a key role in evoking and facilitating the transient glutamatergic-cholinergic interactions that are necessary for cue detection

  7. Evaluation of {sup 18}F-BCPP-EF for mitochondrial complex 1 imaging in the brain of conscious monkeys using PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukada, Hideo; Ohba, Hiroyuki; Kanazawa, Masakatsu; Kakiuchi, Takeharu; Harada, Norihiro [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Central Research Laboratory, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka (Japan)


    We have reported on the development of a novel PET probe, {sup 18}F-2-tert-butyl-4-chloro-5-{6-[2-(2-fluoroethoxy)-ethoxy] -pyridin-3-ylmethoxy}-2H-pyridazin-3-one ({sup 18}F-BCPP-EF), for quantitative imaging of mitochondrial complex 1 (MC-1) activity in the brain of the living rat. For clinical application in humans, translational research in the monkey was conducted. PET measurements with {sup 18}F-BCPP-EF were performed in young and old monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a conscious state with arterial blood sampling. The binding specificity of {sup 18}F-BCPP-EF was evaluated with rotenone, a specific MC-1 inhibitor, in young animals. The binding (total distribution volume, V{sub T}) of {sup 18}F-BCPP-EF was calculated using Logan graphical analysis, and one-tissue compartment model (1-TC) and two-tissue compartment model (2-TC) analyses using a metabolite-corrected plasma input function. F-BCPP-EF was rapidly taken up into the brain just after intravenous injection, peaked between 10 and 20 min after injection, and was then gradually eliminated. The 2-TC analysis provided a better fit than the 1-TC analysis, and the V{sub T} values from the 2-TC analysis correlated well with those from the Logan plot. With predosing with rotenone, {sup 18}F-BCPP-EF showed a higher uptake peak in the brain, followed by more rapid elimination thereafter than in the vehicle condition, resulting in significant reductions in 2-TC V{sub T} values in all regions. In old animals, the kinetics of {sup 18}F-BCPP-EF were slightly slower with lower peak levels than in young animals, resulting age-related reductions in {sup 18}F-BCPP-EF binding in all brain regions. The present study demonstrated that {sup 18}F-BCPP-EF may be a potential PET probe for quantitative imaging MC-1 activity in the living brain using PET. (orig.)

  8. Exploration of Visible-Light Photocatalysis in Heterocycle Synthesis and Functionalization: Reaction Design and Beyond. (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Rong; Hu, Xiao-Qiang; Lu, Liang-Qiu; Xiao, Wen-Jing


    pyridazine derivatives in good yields and selectivity. Moreover, we have demonstrated that this photocatalysis can serve as a mild and highly selective tool for direct functionalization of heterocycles because of its powerful capability to controllably generate diverse reactive intermediates under mild reaction conditions. Guided by the fundamental principles of photocatalysis and the redox properties of the photocatalysts, we successfully developed an array of dual-catalyst systems by combining the photocatalysts with palladium, nickel, or amine, enabling efficient and selective coupling reactions. An intriguing phototandem catalytic system using a single photocatalyst was also identified for the development of cascade reactions. Notably, some of the newly developed methodologies have also been successfully utilized for late-stage modification of biologically active natural compounds and complex molecules and as key steps for formal synthesis of natural products. This Account presents a panoramic view and the logic of our recent contributions to the design, development, and application of photocatalytic systems and reactions that provide not only methods for the efficient synthesis of heterocycles but also useful insights into the exploration of new photochemical reactions.

  9. Synthesis, spectral, thermal, optical dispersion and dielectric properties of nanocrystalline dimer complex (PEPyr–diCd) thin films as novel organic semiconductor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ahmed Farouk Al-Hossainy


    Dimer complex PEPyr–diCd (5a) has been prepared by reacting CdCl$_2$·2.5H$_2$O with 1,1$'$-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethyl-6-methyl-3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,4-dihydro-pyridazine tungsten tetracarbonyl PEPyr (4a) as bipyridine ligand. The structural properties of PEPyr–diCd complex were characterized on the basis of elemental analysis (EA), Fourier transform infrared spectra, fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, thermogravimetric/ differential thermal analysis, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The crystal is orthorhombic, space group Pbca. Cd(II) metal in PEPyr–diCd organic semiconductor complex coordinated with two N of the PEPyr and three Cl$^−$ (one terminal and two bridging). The micro-structural properties of the films were studied via X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The as-deposited films were annealed in air for 1 h at 150, 200, and 250°C. An average transmittance >70% for PEPyr–diCd complex at higher wavelength >800 nm was observed.In UV spectrum, the transmittance increases followed by a sharp decrease at wavelength 700–750 nm within visible range. The results of the absorption coefficient were determined to find the binding energy (EB) of PEPyr–diCd organic semiconductor complex as 0.242 and 0.47 eV, respectively. Refractive index () and absorption index () of PEPyr–diCd complex were calculated. Moreover, the dispersion parameters such as dispersion energy, oscillator energy, dielectric constant, and dissipation factor were determined. The oxidation of the imino-phosphine derivatives were examined using cyclic voltammetry in methylene chloride solvent. The cyclic voltammogram of PEPyr–diCd (5a) organic semiconductor appears to have two quasi-reversible oxidations at 543 and 441 mV. The obtained results indicate that the PEPyr–diCd organic semiconductor thin film is a good candidate in optoelectronic devices based on its band gap and dispersion parameters.

  10. Reactions of Dinuclear Platinum(II) Complexes with Peptides. (United States)

    Rajković, Snežana; Živković, Marija D; Djuran, Miloš I


    The present review article highlights recent findings in the reactions between different dinuclear Pt(II) complexes with peptides containing cysteine, methionine and histidine residues. The reactions of {trans-[Pt(NH3)2Cl]2(μ-X)}(2+) and {trans-[Pt(NH3)2(H2O)]2(μ-X)}(4+) type complexes with different bridging ligands (X) (X = pyrazine, 4,4'-bipyridyl and 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane) with the tripeptide glutathione proceeded in two steps. In the first step, one water or chlorido ligand of the dinuclear Pt(II) complex was substituted by the sulfhydryl group of GSH, while in the second step, the remaining water or chlorido ligand from the dinuclear Pt(II)-peptide complex was replaced by the second molecule of glutathione, finally leading to the formation of the {trans-[Pt(NH3)2(GS)]2(μ-X)}(2+) complex. It was shown that the bridging ligand had an important influence on the reactivity of these complexes with glutathione. No hydrolytic cleavage of any amide bond was observed in the reactions between these complexes and glutathione. However, in reactions performed in acidic media (2.0 complexes with the general formulae {[Pt(L)(H2O)]2(μ-diazine)}(4+) (L is different bidentate coordinated diamine ligands and diazine is a pyrazine- or pyridazine-bridging ligand) and Nacetylated peptides containing L-methionine and L-histidine amino acids in the side chains (Ac-L-Met-Gly, Ac-L-His-Gly and Ac-L-Met-Gly-L-His-GlyNH2), regioselective cleavage of these peptides occurred. The mechanism of these hydrolytic reactions was discussed in relation to the structure of the diazine-bridged Pt(II) complex and the investigated peptides. A systematic summary of these results could contribute to the future design of new dinuclear Pt(II) complexes as potential reagents for regioselective cleavage of peptides and proteins.

  11. Induce of laccase from Trametes gallica and its degradation on neutral dyes and organophosphorus pesticides%粗毛栓菌漆酶的诱导及其对中性染料和有机磷农药的降解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靖德军; 黄剑波; 杨洲平; 胡容; 程子彰; 黄乾明


    The characteristics of the induction of laccase in Trametes gallica under different initial cultural pH, incubation time by different inducers were discussed, as well as the effects of temperature , pH and time on laccase degradation of six dyes and four organophosphors. The results showed that RB-bright blue, ABTS and o-toluidine affected the production of laccase at different levels, and ABTS was the best inductive agent in our test conditions, whose optimal initial pH and incubation time were 4.0 and 13 days, respectively. The appropriate reaction temperature of the laccase produced was 38 °C , and it got a good stability, for it could retain 78.6% of the enzyme activity after 20 min holding at 40 °C. Mediated by ABTS, the optimal temperature for laccase to degrade the six types of neutral dyes could be divided into two cases, that was 30℃ ( neutral black, neutral bordeaux, neutral pink, methyl orange) and 60℃(neutral dark yellow, cresol red) , the optimal pH were 6.0 (neutral black) , 2.0 (neutral bordeaux, neutral pink) and 4.0 (methyl orange, neutral dark yellow, cresol red) , respectively, while the optimal times separately were 6 h (methyl orange, neutral dark yellow, cresol red), 12 h (neutral pink) and 24 h (neutral bordeaux). And using the same inductive agent, the best temperature for laccase to degrade dimethoate, chlorpyrifos, trichlorfon and parathion-pyridazine was 25 X., the suitable time was 9 h, and the optimal pH was 10.0 for dimethoate, chlorpyrifos and parathion-pyridazine, and 8.0 for trichlorfon.%研究了不同初始培养pH和培养时间下,不同诱导剂对粗毛栓菌产漆酶诱导特性的影响及漆酶对中性染料、有机磷农药的降解.结果表明:RB-亮蓝、ABTS和邻联甲苯胺对粗毛栓菌产漆酶均有不同程度的诱导作用,其中ABTS的诱导作用最好,其诱导的最适初始pH为4.0,最佳时间为13d;所产漆酶的适宜反应温度为38℃,酶在40℃保温20 min仍可保留78.6%的酶活

  12. Ligand effects on the structures and magnetic properties of tricyanomethanide-containing copper(II) complexes. (United States)

    Yuste, Consuelo; Bentama, Abdeslem; Stiriba, Salah-Eddine; Armentano, Donatella; De Munno, Giovanni; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel


    The preparation, crystal structure and magnetic properties of four heteroleptic copper(II) complexes with the tricyanomethanide (tcm(-)) and the heterocyclic nitrogen donors 3,6-bis(2-pyridyl)pyridazine (dppn), 2,5-bis(2-pyridyl)pyrazine (2,5-dpp), 2,3-bis(2-pyridyl)pyrazine (2,3-dpp) and 2,3-bis(2-pyridyl)quinoxaline (2,3-dpq) are reported, {[Cu(2)(dppn)(OH)(tcm)(2)] x tcm}(n) (1), {[Cu(2,5-dpp)(tcm)] x tcm}(n) (2), {[Cu(2)(2,3-dpp)(2)(tcm)(3)(H(2)O)(0.5)] x tcm x 0.5H(2)O}(n) (3) and [Cu(2,3-dpq)(tcm)(2)](n) (4). 1 has a ladder-like structure with single mu-1,5-tcm ligands forming the sides and a bis-bidentate dppn and a single mu-hydroxo providing the rung. Each copper atom in 1 exhibits a distorted square pyramidal CuN(4)O surrounding: the basal plane is built by the hydroxo-oxygen, a nitrile-nitrogen atom from a tcm group and one pyrazine and a pyridyl nitrogen atoms from the dppn whereas the apical position is filled by a nitrile-nitrogen atom from a symmetry-related tcm ligand. The structures of 2-4 consists of zig-zag (2 and 3)/linear (4) chains of copper(II) ions which are bridged by either bis-bidentate 2,5-dpp (2) and 2,3-dpp (3) molecules or single mu-1,5-tcm (4) groups. The copper atoms in 2 and 4 are five coordinated with distorted trigonal bipyramidal (2) and square pyramidal (4) CuN(5) surroundings. The axial positions in 2 are occupied by two pyridyl-nitrogen atoms from two 2,5-dpp ligands whereas the trigonal plane is built by a nitrile-nitrogen from a terminally bound tcm group and two pyrazine nitrogen atoms from two 2,5-dpp molecules. The basal plane in 4 is defined by a pyridyl and a pyrazine nitrogen atoms from the bidentate 2,3-dpq ligand and two nitrile nitrogen atoms from two tcm groups (one terminal and the other bridging) whereas the apical position is filled by a nitrile nitrogen from another tcm ligand. The crystallographically independent copper atoms in 3 [Cu(1) and Cu(2)] exhibit elongated octahedral geometries being defined by four

  13. 若干氢键团簇的纳秒和飞秒激光光电离及从头计算研究%Nanosecond and Femtosecond Laser Photoionization and Ab Initio Calculation Studies of Some Hydrogen Bonded Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张柏林; 楼南泉; 王秀岩


    The multiphoton ionization and dissociation of azabenzenes-solvent clusters were studied using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, nano- and femtosecond lasers. Due to the fact that the problem was resolved technically, the experiments about multiphoton ionization of pyrimidine-water in gas phase were performed successfully. The multiphoton ionization mass spectroscopy of the clusters was observed for the first time. The experimental results indicate sequences of protonated cluster ions are formed. Based on both ab initio calculations results and dependence of cluster ion intensity on the laser power, the processes of proton transfer and charge transfer within the clusters were presented. During the femtosecond laser photonionization of pyridine clusters, the coexistencephenomena of protonated and unprotonated cluster ions was observed first. The existence of pyridine dimmer ions and relevant calculation results indicate that the C-H…Nbonds can be formed between pyridine molecules, which corrected some reported results and also provided with a good example for the study of weak bond clusters. The multiphoton ionization results of pyrimidine-methanol and pyridazine-methanol clusters are presented for the first time. It is also found that only the protonated cluster ions are produced after clusters' ionization. The stable structures of all clusters were obtained theoretically, and the mechanisms and processes of proton transfer after ionization were elucidated.%利用纳秒和飞秒激光及飞行时间质谱仪对氮化苯-溶剂分子团簇的多光子电离和离解进行了研究.通过解决实验中的技术难题,实现了在气相条件下实验研究嘧啶与水团簇的多光子电离.首次观测到该团簇的多光子电离质谱,发现电离后形成了质子化团簇系列,通过团簇浓度随激光强度的变化以及理论计算,阐明了团簇内质子转移过程,以及电荷分布和质子转移过程随着团簇尺寸的变化;首次观测