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Sample records for pyrex

  1. Impact studies of five ceramic materials and pyrex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, B.J.; Holt, A.C.; Hord, B.L.; Kusubov, A.S.; Reaugh, J.E.; Wilkins, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    We measured the ballistic performance of five ceramic materials (alumina, silicon carbide, boron carbide, aluminum nitride, and titanium diboride) and Pyrex, when they are backed by thick steel plates. The projectile for all tests was a right-circular cylinder of tungsten sinter-alloy W2 with length 25.4 mm and diameter 6.35 mm, fired at velocities from 1.35 to 2.65 km/s. For this threat we determined the minimum areal density of each material that is needed to keep the projectile from penetrating the backup steel. For all of the facing materials studied here, this performance measure increases approximately linearly with projectile velocity. However, the rate of increase is significantly lower for aluminum nitride than for the other materials studied. Indeed, aluminum nitride is a poor performer at the lowest velocity tested, but is clearly the best at the highest velocity. Our computer simulations show the significant influence of the backing material on ceramic performance, manifested by a transition region extending two projectile diameters upstream from the material interface. Experiments with multiple material layers show that this influence also manifests itself through a significant dependence of ballistic performance on the ordering of the material

  2. A transparent Pyrex μ-reactor for combined in situ optical characterization and photocatalytic reactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionigi, F.; Hansen, O.; Nielsen, M. G.; Chorkendorff, I.; Vesborg, P. C. K.; Pedersen, T.

    2013-01-01

    A new Pyrex-based μ-reactor for photocatalytic and optical characterization experiments is presented. The reactor chamber and gas channels are microfabricated in a thin poly-silicon coated Pyrex chip that is sealed with a Pyrex lid by anodic bonding. The device is transparent to light in the UV-vis-near infrared range of wavelengths (photon energies between ∼0.4 and ∼4.1 eV). The absorbance of a photocatalytic film obtained with a light transmission measurement during a photocatalytic reaction is presented as a proof of concept of a photocatalytic reactivity measurement combined with in situ optical characterization. Diffuse reflectance measurements of highly scattering photocatalytic nanopowders in a sealed Pyrex μ-reactor are also possible using an integrating sphere as shown in this work. These experiments prove that a photocatalyst can be characterized with optical techniques after a photocatalytic reaction without removing the material from the reactor. The catalyst deposited in the cylindrical reactor chamber can be illuminated from both top and bottom sides and an example of application of top and bottom illumination is presented

  3. Atlas of three-dimensional gridded fields obtained from the radiosonde network during PYREX. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkert, H.; Schumann, U.

    1994-01-01

    During the Pyrenees Experiment (PYREX) in October and November 1990 in radiosonde network was in operation with enhanced spatial and temporal resolution. This atlas contains standardized output from a three-dimensional, objective analysis scheme which is used to interpolate from the observed significant levels to a regular grid centred over the Pyrenees. For each of the 68 release times during ten intensive observation periods 12 horizontal charts are displayed on one page. These charts contain temperature, relative humidity or potential vorticity, and horizontal wind (vectors and isotachs) in four levels. The atlas is considered as basic material for more detailed studies at or between selected release times. (orig.) [de

  4. Production of molecules on a surface under plasma exposure: example of NO on pyrex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinov, D; Guaitella, O; Rousseau, A; Ionikh, Y

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new experimental approach to the study of surface-catalysed nitric oxide production under plasma exposure. Stable nitrogen species are grafted to the surface of a pyrex discharge tube during N 2 plasma pretreatment. These species are trapped by surface active sites and on being exposed to O 2 plasma, they initiate the production of NO molecules, which are detected using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. Supposing that nitrogen species are adsorbed N atoms, we estimate the initial surface coverage as [N ads ] = 3 x 10 13 cm -2 . This gives an assessment of the lower boundary of the density of surface active sites.

  5. Two-dimensional structure of mountain wave observed by aircraft during the PYREX experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Attié

    Full Text Available This study presents an experimental analysis from aircraft measurements above the Pyrenees chain during the PYREX experiment. The Pyrenees chain, roughly WE oriented, is a major barrier for northerly and southerly airflows. We present a case of southerly flow (15 October 1990 and three successive cases of northerly flows above the Pyrenees (14, 15 and 16 November 1990 documented by two aircraft. The aircraft have described a vertical cross section perpendicular to the Pyrenean ridge. This area is described via the thermodynamical and dynamical fields which have a horizontal resolution of 10 km. Three methods for computing the vertical velocity of the air are presented. The horizontal advection terms which play a role in the budget equations are also evaluated. The altitude turbulence zone of 15 October are shown via turbulent fluxes, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE, dissipation rate of TKE and inertial length-scale. A comparison of results obtained by eddy-correlation and inertial-dissipation method is presented. The experimental results show a warm and dry downdraft for the southerly flow with large values for advection terms. All the mountain wave cases are also shown to present an important dynamical perturbation just above the Pyrenees at upper altitudes.

  6. Evaluation of a pyrex glass shield for the dose reduction in extremities to manipulate a 90 Sr- 90 Y generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayra P, F.E.; Xiques C, A.; Torres B, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    The production of Y-90 of high activity it specifies (free of payee) for their use in radioimmunotherapy uses the Strontium 90 as isotope source. Depending on the method employee for the separation of both isotopes several types of generators are described in different bibliographies. The column generator used in the facilities of the Center of Isotopes requires of a frequent manipulation causing significant dose in the skin of the extremities due to the exhibition to the radiation beta of high energy. The properties of the shieldings for this radiation type have been well studied Y they consist in several publications. To be in correspondence with requirements of radiological protection in the Cuban legislation, the column was covered with a tube of glass pyrex of 5 mm of thickness and it was monitored the exposure with an ionization chamber. At the own time, the shielding using the Monte Carlo method was evaluated. It was used the MCNP 4C code to simulate the absorption of the beta particles generated in the process of disintegration of the Sr-90 and Y-90 in the glass shielding. The column generator and the fluence of beta particles were modeled in different points inside the shielding to determine if the experimentally measured values correspond to electrons that were not absorbed or to the weak stopping radiation generated in the glass due to the deceleration of these particles. A cylinder of 4 mm of diameter simulates the source (it dilutes) and a tube of walls of 6 mm of thickness simulates the shielding more the wall of the column around the generator. This it was divided in cells of 1 mm of thickness and the energy deposited in them was evaluated. The results show that all the electrons generated in the source are absorbed in the shielding and the exposure rates decrease in more of 78 times using the 5 mm of pyrex glass. The doses in extremities to the operators of the generator don't surpass the 70 mSv by year that is the dose restriction imposed in the

  7. Evaluation of a pyrex glass shield for the dose reduction in extremities to manipulate a {sup 90} Sr- {sup 90} Y generator; Evaluacion de un blindaje de vidrio pyrex para la reduccion de las dosis en extremidades al manipular un generador de {sup 90} Sr- {sup 90} Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayra P, F.E.; Xiques C, A.; Torres B, M.B. [Centro de Isotopos, Carretera La Rada, Km 3 1/2, Guanabacoa, La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: feayra@centis.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    The production of Y-90 of high activity it specifies (free of payee) for their use in radioimmunotherapy uses the Strontium 90 as isotope source. Depending on the method employee for the separation of both isotopes several types of generators are described in different bibliographies. The column generator used in the facilities of the Center of Isotopes requires of a frequent manipulation causing significant dose in the skin of the extremities due to the exhibition to the radiation beta of high energy. The properties of the shieldings for this radiation type have been well studied Y they consist in several publications. To be in correspondence with requirements of radiological protection in the Cuban legislation, the column was covered with a tube of glass pyrex of 5 mm of thickness and it was monitored the exposure with an ionization chamber. At the own time, the shielding using the Monte Carlo method was evaluated. It was used the MCNP 4C code to simulate the absorption of the beta particles generated in the process of disintegration of the Sr-90 and Y-90 in the glass shielding. The column generator and the fluence of beta particles were modeled in different points inside the shielding to determine if the experimentally measured values correspond to electrons that were not absorbed or to the weak stopping radiation generated in the glass due to the deceleration of these particles. A cylinder of 4 mm of diameter simulates the source (it dilutes) and a tube of walls of 6 mm of thickness simulates the shielding more the wall of the column around the generator. This it was divided in cells of 1 mm of thickness and the energy deposited in them was evaluated. The results show that all the electrons generated in the source are absorbed in the shielding and the exposure rates decrease in more of 78 times using the 5 mm of pyrex glass. The doses in extremities to the operators of the generator don't surpass the 70 mSv by year that is the dose restriction imposed in

  8. Use of tapered Pyrex capillary tubes to increase the mechanical stability of multiwall carbon nanotubes field emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, M. S.; Bani Ali, E. S.; Hagmann, M. J.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, NanocylTM NC 7000 Thin Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used with a high aspect ratio (>150) made by the process of catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). The field emitter tips were prepared by inserting these MWCT into fine glass capillary tubes that were pulled at high temperatures and then cut. Measurements were carried out under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions with a base pressure of 10-9 mbar. The data show the effects of initial conditioning of MWCNT and hysteresis. Compression of the MWCNT by the capillary tubes appears to provide adequate mechanical support without requiring the use of a low-melting point electrically-conductive binder as has been used previously. Emission currents in excess of 1 μA were obtained so this technique shows promise as a reliable, stable, powerful electron source.

  9. Iodine-131 production by a dry method using reactor-irradiated elementary tellurium. Part 1 - Conditions for obtaining iodine emanation and its capture. Part 2 - comparative study of preparation conditions using Pyrex, stainless steel and alumina equipment. Part 3 - production on a semi-industrial scale; Production de l'iode 131 par voie seche a partir de tellure elementaire irradie a la pile. 1ere partie - Etudes des conditions pour obtenir l'emanation de l'iode et le capter. 2eme partie - Etude comparee des conditions pour effectuer cette preparation avec des appareils en Pyrex, en acier inoxydable et en alumine. 3eme partie - production a l'echelle semi-industrielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardy, A; Beydon, J; Murthy, T S; Doyen, J B; Lefrancois, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-04-15

    A previous report has described how iodine 131 can be prepared from elementary tellurium by a dry method which consists in treating irradiated tellurium at 400 degrees in argon. The possibility of carrying out this treatment in a stainless steel or alumina apparatus has been considered. The behavior of gaseous iodine 131 towards these materials has thus been studied. If the adsorption of iodine on stainless steel is superficial desorption is rapid at 250 degrees in oxygen or 400 degrees in argon. If the adsorption is chemical in nature it becomes necessary to heat to higher temperatures. Adsorption of iodine on alumina is very weak and the iodine can be desorbed rapidly. With these materials tests have been carried out on 300 gms of tellurium containing 41 curies of iodine 131; the yields were very satisfactory ( 98 per cent). (author) [French] La methode de preparation de l iode 131 par voie seche a partir de tellure elementaire decrite dans un precedent rapport consiste a traiter le tellure irradie a 400 degres sous argon. Nous avons examine la possibilite d effectuer ce traitement dans un appareil en acier inoxidable ou en alumine. Le comportement de l iode 131 gazeux vis a vis de ces materiaux a donc ete etudie. Si l adsorption de l iode sur l acier inoxidable est superficielle la desorption est rapide a 250 degres sous oxygene ou 400 degres sous argon. Si la fixation est de nature chimique il est necessaire de chauffer a des temperatures plus elevees. L adsorption de l iode sur l alumine est res faible et l iode peut etre desorbe rapideemnt. En employant ces materiaux des essais ont ete obtenus sur 300 g de tellure contenant 41 curies d iode 131 avec un bon rendement (98 pour cent). (auteur00.

  10. Volumetric change of simulated radioactive waste glass irradiated by electron accelerator. [Silica glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Seichi; Furuya, Hirotaka; Inagaki, Yaohiro; Kozaka, Tetsuo; Sugisaki, Masayasu

    1987-11-01

    Density changes of simulated radioactive waste glasses, silica glass and Pyrex glass irradiated by an electron accelerator were measured by a ''sink-float'' technique. The density changes of the waste and silica glasses were less than 0.05 %, irradiated at 2.0 MeV up to the fluence of 1.7 x 10/sup 17/ ecm/sup 2/, while were remarkably smaller than that of Pyrex glass of 0.18 % shrinkage. Precision of the measurements in the density changes of the waste glass was lower than that of Pyrex glass possibly because of the inhomogeneity of the waste glass

  11. Production and study of high intensity discharges; Production et etude de decharges a forte intensite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breton, C.; Charbon, J.; Hubert, P.; Vendryes, G.; Yvon, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    High intensity discharges have been induced in a pyrex toroid filled with argon or deuterium at low pressure. An attempt was made to stabilise the ring of plasma by the joint action of a metal screen and a longitudinal magnetic field. Penetrating X-ray have been observed under certain conditions. (author) [French] Des decharges a forte intensite ont ete induites dans une tore en pyrex rempli d'argon ou de deuterium sous basse pression. On a cherche a stabiliser l'anneau de plasma par l'action conjuguee d'un champ magnetique longitudinal. Un rayon X penetrant a ete observe dans certaines conditions. (auteur)

  12. Production and study of high intensity discharges; Production et etude de decharges a forte intensite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breton, C; Charbon, J; Hubert, P; Vendryes, G; Yvon, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    High intensity discharges have been induced in a pyrex toroid filled with argon or deuterium at low pressure. An attempt was made to stabilise the ring of plasma by the joint action of a metal screen and a longitudinal magnetic field. Penetrating X-ray have been observed under certain conditions. (author) [French] Des decharges a forte intensite ont ete induites dans une tore en pyrex rempli d'argon ou de deuterium sous basse pression. On a cherche a stabiliser l'anneau de plasma par l'action conjuguee d'un champ magnetique longitudinal. Un rayon X penetrant a ete observe dans certaines conditions. (auteur)

  13. A photon-transparent alpha-radiation source, its method of manufacture and applications thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charuau, Jean; Cimetiere, Claudette; Desroches, Jean; Dupoux, Jean.

    1974-01-01

    The source comprises, in succession, a glass substratum, an alpha-emitting thin layer placed on said substratum and fixed thereto, and an inert coating constituted by a layer of pyrex glass. That can be applied to the measurement of fluorescent deposits of small thickness for aerosols determination [fr

  14. Tapered-Wiggler Free-Electron Laser Oscillator Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    16 ) are usually ruled in substrates of pyrex or copper (for infrared applications). Typical CW S damage levels at 2.06 /lm wavelength are 10 XW/cm 2...degradation limit WW2 ; 2r/.D, (1) where r is either the average power or single-pulse integrated energy exposure within the cavity, whichever is

  15. Kinetics of oxidation of acidic amino acids by sodium N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    BAB) has been carried out in aqueous HClO4 medium at 30°C. The rate shows first- ... amino acids by chloramines 7,8 while, little attention has been focused on ... in glass-stoppered pyrex boiling tubes whose outer surface was coated ... BAB in a measured aliquot (5 ml each) of the reaction mixture at different intervals of.

  16. A comparative study of two techniques for determining photocatalytic activity of nitrogen doped TiO2 nanotubes under visible light irradiation: Photocatalytic reduction of dye and photocatalytic oxidation of organic molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In, Su-Il; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard; Abrams, Billie

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen-doping (N-doping) is a popular strategy for promoting the absorption of visible light in TiO2 and other photocatalysts. We have grown TiO2 nanotubes onto non-conducting Pyrex in a one step process via single layer titanium films. In an attempt to improve the self-cleaning ability of vert...

  17. Photocatalytic methane decomposition over vertically aligned transparent TiO2 nanotube arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In, Su-il; Nielsen, Morten Godtfred; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard

    2011-01-01

    Vertically aligned transparent TiO2 nanotube arrays grown by the one-step anodic oxidation technique (on non-conductive supports such as Pyrex) and their photocatalytic performance for methane decomposition in a single-pass micro-fabricated reactor under UV light....

  18. Modeling of microdevices for SAW-based acoustophoresis - A study of boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Nils Refstrup; Bruus, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    We present a finite-element method modeling of acoustophoretic devices consisting of a single, long, straight, water-filled microchannel surrounded by an elastic wall of either borosilicate glass (pyrex) or the elastomer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and placed on top of a piezoelectric transducer...

  19. Thin film coatings which inhibit spin relaxation of polarized potassium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.E.; Holt, R.J.; Boyer, D.; Green, M.C.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Young, L.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype of a polarized deuterium target which employs the spin exchange method is being developed. The mixing cell for mixing deuterium atoms and potassium vapor requires a surface that will reflect these atoms without being destroyed by the corrosive potassium. Thin film coating methods and a technique for coating pyrex are described. Results of spin relaxation measurements are given

  20. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ductile streaks were obtained more easily with pyrex rather than with BK 7 glass thus necessitating very little time for polishing. Ductile streaks appeared in abundance on germanium rather than silicon. Both the novel grinding techniques were used on CNC machining centres. pp 925-932. Machining and metrology systems ...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix 7 to Subpart A of... - API Recommended Practice 13B-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... temperature. 3. Heating jacket—nominal 350 watts. 4. Temperature control—capable of limiting temperature of... facilitate cleaning and funnel-shaped top to catch falling drops. For compliance monitoring under the NPDES...—Pyrex ® or equivalent glass. c. Toploading balance—capable of weighing 2000 g and precision of at least...

  2. Performance Study of Acoustophoretic Microfluidic Silicon-Glass Devices by Characterization of Material- and Geometry-Dependent Frequency Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garofalo, Fabio; Laurell, Thomas; Bruus, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    of the hard-to-measure mechanical indicators is correlated to that of the easy-to-measure electrical indicators, and, by introducing optimality criteria, it is clarified to which extent the latter suffices to identify optimal driving frequencies as the geometric configuration and the material parameters vary....... The latter have been varied by considering both Pyrex and aluminium nitroxide top-lid materials....

  3. Improved derivatization protocol for simultaneous determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The derivatization reaction was completed in 30 min at 50°C using hexane as solvent. ... higher temperatures and shorter derivatization time, or lower temperatures ... The following were added into a pyrex test tube: 80 µℓ of organic mixture ...

  4. Establishment of efficient in vitro culture protocol for wheat land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADNAN

    2012-02-07

    Feb 7, 2012 ... etc. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The proposed research was carried out at the Center of ... contained in 25 ml capacity Pyrex test tubes (18 × 150 mm). The cultures were ... After 15 to 20 days of hardening, the plantlets were ...

  5. Micro-chip initiator realized by integrating Al/CuO multilayer nanothermite on polymeric membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taton, G; Lagrange, D; Conedera, V; Rossi, C; Renaud, L

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a new nanothermite based polymeric electro-thermal initiator for non-contact ignition of a propellant. A reactive Al/CuO multilayer nanothermite resides on a 100 µm thick SU-8/PET (polyethyleneterephtalate) membrane to insulate the reactive layer from the silicon bulk substrate. When current is supplied to the initiator, the chemical reaction Al+CuO occurs and sparkles are spread to a distance of several millimeters. A micro-manufacturing process for fabricating the initiator is presented and the electrical behaviors of the ignition elements are also investigated. The characteristics of the initiator made on a 100 µm thick SU-8/PET membrane were compared to two bulk electro-thermal initiators: one on a silicon and one on a Pyrex substrate. The PET devices give 100% of Al/CuO ignition success for an electrical current >250 mA. Glass based reactive initiators give 100% of Al/CuO ignition success for an electrical current >500 mA. Reactive initiators directly on silicon cannot initiate even with a 4 A current. At low currents (<1 A), the initiation time is two orders of magnitude longer for Pyrex initiator compared to those obtained for PET initiator technology. We also observed that, the Al/CuO thermite film on PET membrane reacts within 1 ms (sparkles duration) whereas it reacts within 4 ms on Pyrex. The thermite reaction is 40 times greater in intensity using the PET substrate in comparison to Pyrex. (paper)

  6. Knocking in an Internal-combustion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolik, A; Voinov, A

    1940-01-01

    The question remains open of the relation between the phenomena of knocking in the engine and the explosion wave. The solution of this problem is the object of this paper. The tests were conducted on an aircraft engine with a pyrex glass window in the cylinder head. Photographs were then taken of various combinations of fuels and conditions.

  7. Mesoporous silica films as catalyst support for microstructured reactors: preparation and characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muraza, O.; Kooyman, P.J.; Lafont, U.; Albouy, P.A.; Khimyak, T.; Rebrov, E.V.; Croon, de M.H.J.M.; Schouten, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Mesoporous silica thin films with hexagonal and cubic mesostructure have been deposited by the evaporation induced self-assembly assisted sol–gel route on microchannels etched in a Pyrex® 7740 borosilicate glass substrate. Prior to the synthesis, a 50 nm TiO2 film has been deposited on the substrate

  8. Preparation and characterization of bimetallic catalysts supported on mesoporous silica films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muraza, O.; Rebrov, E.V.; Khimyak, T.; Johnson, B.F.G.; Kooyman, P.J.; Lafont, U.; Albouy, P.A.; Croon, de M.H.J.M.; Schouten, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Thin (300–1000 nm) mesoporous silica coatings with hexagonal and cubic mesostructure have been prepared on Pyrex® 7740 borosilicate glass substrates by the evaporation induced self assembly assisted sol-gel route. Prior to the synthesis, a 50 nm TiO2 layer has been deposited on the substate by

  9. The development of MEMS device packaging technology using proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyeon, J. W.; Kong, Y. J.; Kim, E. H.; Kim, H. S.; No, S. J.

    2006-05-01

    Wafer-bonding techniques are key issues for the commercialization of MEMS(MicroElectroMechanical Systems) devices. The anodic bonding method and the wafer direct-bonding method are well-known major techniques for wafer bonding. Due to the anodic bonding method includes high voltage processes above 1.5 kV, the MEMS devices can be damaged during the bonding process or malfunctioned while long-term operation. On the other hand, since the wafer direct-bonding method includes a high temperature processes above 1000 .deg. C, temperature-sensitive materials and integrated circuits will be damaged or degraded during the bonding processes. Therefore, high-temperature bonding processes are not applicable for fabricating or packaging devices where temperature-sensitive materials exist. During the past few years, much effort has been undertaken to find a reliable bonding process that can be conducted at a low temperature. Unfortunately, these new bonding processes depend highly on the bonding material, surface treatment and surface flatness. In this research, a new packaging method using proton beam irradiation is proposed. While the energy loss caused in an irradiated material by X-rays or electron beams decreases with the surface distance, the energy loss caused by proton beams has a maximum value at the Bragg peak. Thus, the localized energy produced at the Bragg peak of the proton beams can be used to bond pyrex glass on a silicon wafer, so the MEMS damage is expected to be minimized. The localized heating caused by as well as the penetration depth, or the proton beam has been investigated. The energy absorbed in a stack of pyrex glass/silicon wafers due to proton-beam irradiation was numerically calculated for various proton energies by using the SRIM program. The energy loss was shown to be sufficiently localized at the interface between the pyrex glass and the silicon wafer. Proton beam irradiation was performed in the common environment of room temperature and

  10. Test results, Industrial Solar Technology parabolic trough solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudley, V.E. [EG and G MSI, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, L.R.; Matthews, C.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Industrial Solar Technology are cost-sharing development of advanced parabolic trough technology. As part of this effort, several configurations of an IST solar collector were tested to determine the collector efficiency and thermal losses with black chrome and black nickel receiver selective coatings, combined with aluminized film and silver film reflectors, using standard Pyrex{reg_sign} and anti-reflective coated Pyrex{reg_sign} glass receiver envelopes. The development effort has been successful, producing an advanced collector with 77% optical efficiency, using silver-film reflectors, a black nickel receiver coating, and a solgel anti-reflective glass receiver envelope. For each receiver configuration, performance equations were empirically derived relating collector efficiency and thermal losses to the operating temperature. Finally, equations were derived showing collector performance as a function of input insolation value, incident angle, and operating temperature.

  11. Study on the adsorption of 233Pa in glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsumi, R.R.; Saiki, M.; Lima, F.W. de.

    1982-08-01

    It is intended to examine the adsorption of protactinium on glass in relation to pH, presence of complexing agents concentration and type of electrolytes. The study was made by using carrier-free 233 Pa solution and Pyrex glass tube was selected as adsorbent glass material surface. The adsorption curve of protactinium on glass surface as a function of the pH of the tracer solution showed the existence of two pronounced adsorption regions. It was found that this adsorption can be reduced by using electrolytes or complexing agents. Desorption of protactinium previously adsorbed on the Pyrex glass tube was also studied. Hidrochloric, oxalic and hydrofluoric acid solutions were used for the desorption experiments. (Author) [pt

  12. PMMA to SU-8 bonding for polymer based lab-on-a-chip systems with integrated optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Nielsen, Theodor; Clausen, Bjarne Hans

    2004-01-01

    We present an adhesive bonding technique developed for SU-8 based "lab-on-a-chip"- systems with integrated optical components. Microfluidic channels and optical components (e.g. wave-guides) are defined in SU-8 photoresist on a Pyrex glass substrate. The microfluidic channels are sealed by a second...... Pyrex substrate, bonded on top of the cross-linked SU-8 structure using an inter- mediate layer of 950K molecular weight poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA). Due to a lower refractive index of PMMA, this bonding technique offers optical waveguiding in the SU-8 structures in combination with good sealing...... of the microfluidic channels. The bonding technique is investigated with respect to bonding temperature in the range of 50 - 150 degr. C and at bonding forces of 1000 N and 2000 N on a 4-inch wafer. A maximum bonding strength of 16 MPa is achieved for the PMMA to SU-8 bonding at a bonding temperature of 110 degr. C...

  13. Determination of lithium in rocks by distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, M.H.

    1949-01-01

    A method for the quantitative extraction and recovery of lithium from rocks is based on a high temperature volatilization procedure. The sample is sintered with a calcium carbonate-calcium chloride mixture at 1200?? C. for 30 minutes in a platinum ignition tube, and the volatilization product is collected in a plug of Pyrex glass wool in a connecting Pyrex tube. The distillate, which consists of the alkali chlorides with a maximum of 5 to 20 mg. of calcium oxide and traces of a few other elements, is removed from the apparatus by dissolving in dilute hydrochloric acid and subjected to standard analytiaal procedures. The sinter residues contained less than 0.0005% lithium oxide. Lithium oxide was recovered from synthetic samples with an average error of 1.1%.

  14. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat

    OpenAIRE

    Susanna S. Nagel; June H. Williams; Johannes P. Schoeman

    2013-01-01

    A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days’ duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C), had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests fo...

  15. Toxicity of TNT Wastewaters to Aquatic Organisms. Volume 2. Acute Toxicity of Condensate Wastewater and 2,4-Dinitrotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    condensate wastewater. Fourteen-day static algal assays, performed with Selenastrum capricornutum, Anabaena flos- aguae , Microcystis aeruginosa, and...days ......... ...................... 44 17 Effect of 2,4-DNT on Population Growth of A. flos- aguae and N. pelliculosa Exposed under Static Conditions...Pyrex glass funnel and a camel hair brush. The flask was partially submerged in an oil bath, which was slowly heated to 800C and maintained at 800C for 45

  16. Genesis of Infrared Decoy Flares: The Early Years from 1950 into the 1970s. First Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-26

    Dow- Corning Corporation Midland Michigan product identified as FS-1265™ fluid (methyltrifluoropropylsiloxane) containing 30% fluorine, and reported...showed the envelope could be protected. They used a Pyrex® tube around the RITA flare and also explored a Corning 7-56 filter. In 1960, Dr. Hal...oxygen- containing binders that do not have a sustained carbon-to-carbon backbone to obtain binder systems that would not produce graphite upon pyrolysis

  17. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation de la germination physiologique. L'évaluation de la germination physiologique a été ef- fectuée au laboratoire en plaçant les graine en prove- nance du Nicaragua et du Kenya (entières, scarifiées, décortiquées) dans les bêchers de marque pyrex, de capacité 250ml. Dans ces bêchers, le papier filtre était. 200.

  18. Application of the Monte Carlo method to the study of the response of an organic liquid scintillator irradiated by photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupre, Corinne.

    1982-10-01

    The Monte Carlo method was applied to simulate the transport of a photon beam in an organic liquid scintillation detector. The interactions of secondary gamma rays and electrons with the detector and its peripheral materials components such as the pyrex glass container are included. The pulse height spectra and the detectors efficiency are compared with calculated and measured results. Calculations and programmation methods are presented in the same way as results concerning cobalt and cesium sources [fr

  19. The effect of the build-up wall at the TLD calibration using Co-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nariyama, N.

    2000-01-01

    Absorbed dose in thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) material at the calibration using Co-60 gamma rays depends on the TLD thickness and the wall material used for electric equilibrium condition. The relation was examined for LiF, BeO and CaF 2 TLDs sandwiched with PMMA, Teflon and Pyrex glass walls using a Monte Carlo transport code and compared with cavity ionization theory calculations. For the mismatched combination of LiF, BeO/Pyrex glass and CaF 2 /PMMA, it was found that the energy deposition did not change monotonously with TLD thickness from small cavity to large cavity value: a depression observed around 1-mm thickness for LiF/Pyrex glass and a peak around 0.6-mm thickness for CaF 2 /PMMA. The phenomena were explained by using different exponential attenuation coefficients β and β' for the weighting functions of cavity theory. Moreover, use of large cavity values was found to lead possibly to 3-5% errors in the calibration of thin TLDs. (author)

  20. Passive flow regulators for drug delivery and hydrocephalus treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappel, E.; Dumont-Fillon, D.; Mefti, S.

    2014-03-01

    Passive flow regulators are usually intended to deliver or drain a fluid at a constant rate independently from pressure variations. New designs of passive flow regulators made of a stack of a silicon membrane anodically bonded to a Pyrex substrate are proposed. A first design has been built for the derivation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) towards peritoneum for hydrocephalus treatment. The device allows draining CSF at the patient production rate independently from postural changes. The flow rate is regulated at 20 ml/h in the range 10 to 40 mbar. Specific features to adjust in vivo the nominal flow rate are shown. A second design including high pressure shut-off feature has been made. The intended use is drug delivery with pressurized reservoir of typically 100 to 300 mbar. In both cases, the membrane comprises several holes facing pillars in the Pyrex substrate. These pillars are machined in a cavity which ensures a gap between the membrane and the pillars at rest. The fluid in the pressurized reservoir is directly in contact with the top surface of the membrane, inducing its deflection towards Pyrex substrate and closing progressively the fluidic pathway through each hole of the membrane. Since the membrane deflection is highly non-linear, FEM simulations have been performed to determine both radial position and diameter of the membrane holes that ensure a constant flow rate for a given range of pressure.

  1. Visualization and comparative investigations of pulsating ferro-fluid heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandomkar, A.; Saidi, M.H.; Shafii, M.B.; Vandadi, M.; Kalan, K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanofluid was unstable and also agglomerated and deposited in the copper pipe; whereas, it was stable in the Pyrex pipe. • For the Pyrex heat pipe, applying the magnetic field caused weaker performance. • For Pyrex PHP, increasing the concentration improved the performance. • For the copper PHP, applying the magnetic field had the best performance. • For copper PHP, concentration of the nanofluid in each case of the magnet and input power has an optimum value. - Abstract: Pulsating heat pipes (PHPs) are among the best solutions for the electronics cooling due to their low cost, effectiveness and being passive. Experiments to study the effective factors on heat transfer performance have been designed and as a result, improvement of ferrofluid PHP performance has been achieved. Two different heat pipes made of copper and glass were prepared to investigate the behavior of magnetic nanofluids. In order to find the best condition for heat transfer performance, different concentrations of nanofluid with a filling ratio of 50% were tested in 3 different cases of magnetic field. The results indicated that the ferrofluid is more stable in the glass PHP. It also shows that the presence of magnetic field in the copper PHP has the best outcome while in the glass PHP, the absence of magnetic field results better. It was detected that using a more concentrated ferrofluid causes a better performance in the copper PHP only when the magnetic field is applied, while in the glass PHP, increasing the concentration of ferrofluid improves the performance of the PHP in all conditions of applying the magnetic field.

  2. The Effect of Solvent, Hydrogen Peroxide and Dioxide Titanium on Degradation of PCBs, Using Microwave Radiation in Order to Reduce Occupational Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajik Reza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are one group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs that are of international concern because of global distribution, persistence, and toxicity. Removal of these compounds from the environment remains a very difficult challenge because the compounds are highly hydrophobic and have very low solubility in water. A 900 W domestic microwave oven, pyrex vessel reactor, pyrex tube connector and condensing system were used in this experiment. Radiation was discontinuous and ray powers were 540, 720 and 900 W. The PCBS were analyzed by GC-ECD. The application of microwave radiation and H2O2/TiO2 agents for the degradation of polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated oil was explored in this study. PCB – contaminated oil was treated in a pyrex reactor by microwave irradiation at 2450 MHz with the addition of H2O2/TiO2. A novel grain TiO2 (GT01 was used. The determination of PCB residues in oil by gas chromatography (GC revealed that rates of PCB decomposition were highly dependent on microwave power, exposure time, ratio to solvent with transformer oil in 3:1, the optimal amount of GT01 (0.2 g and 0.116 mol of H2O2 were used in the study. It was suggested that microwave irradiation with the assistance of H2O2/TiO2 might be a potential technology for the degradation of PCB – contaminated oil. The experiments show that MW irradiation, H2O2 oxidant and TiO2 catalyst lead to a degradation efficiency of PCBs only in the presence of ethanol. The results showed that the addition of ethanol significantly enhanced degradation efficiency of PCBs.

  3. Round robin testing of thermal conductivity reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulstrom, L.C.; Tye, R.P.; Smith, S.E.

    1985-07-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP), operated by Rockwell Hanford Operations, has a need to determine the thermal properties of basalt in the region being considered for a nuclear waste repository in basalt. Experimental data on thermal conductivity and its variation with temperature are information required for the characterization of basalt. To establish thermal conductivity values for the reference materials, an interlaboratory measurements program was undertaken. The program was planned to meet the objectives of performing an experimental characterization of the new stock and providing a detailed analysis of the results such that reference values of thermal conductivity could be determined. This program of measurements of the thermal conductivity of Pyrex 7740 and Pyroceram 9606 has produced recommended values that are within +- 1% of those accepted previously. These measurements together with those of density indicate that the present lots of material are similar to those previously available. Pyrex 7740 and Pyroceram 9606 can continue to be used with confidence as thermal conductivity reference materials for studies on rocks and minerals and other materials of similar thermal conductivity. The uncertainty range for Pyrex 7740 and Pyroceram 9606 up to 300 0 C is +- 10.3% and +- 5.6%, respectively. This range is similar to that indicated for the previously recommended values proposed some 18 years ago. It would appear that the overall state of the art in thermal conductivity measurements for materials in this range has changed little in the intervening years. The above uncertainties, which would have been greater had not three data sets been eliminated, are greater than those which are normally claimed for each individual method. Analyses of these differences through refinements in techniques and additional measurements to higher temperatures are required. 13 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Magnetically enhanced triode etching of large area silicon membranes in a molecular bromine plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, J.C.; Sen, S.; Pendharkar, S.V.; Mauger, P.; Shimkunas, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    The optimization of a process for etching 125 mm silicon membranes formed on 150 mm wafers and bonded to Pyrex rings is discussed. A magnetically enhanced triode etching system was designed to provide an intense, remote plasma surrounding the membrane while, at the same time, suppressing the discharge over the membrane itself. For the optimized molecular bromine process, the silicon etch rate is 40 nm/min and the selectivity relative to SiO 2 is 160:1. 14 refs., 6 figs

  5. Factors influencing the shape of the fracture wave induced by the rod impact of a brittle material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnyansky, A.D.; Bourne, N.K.

    2002-01-01

    A fracture wave in a brittle material is a continuous fracture zone which may be associated with the damage accumulation process during the propagation of shock waves. In multidimensional structures the fracture wave may behave in an unusual way. The high-speed photography of penetration of a borosilicate (pyrex) glass block by a hemispherical-nosed rod (1) shows a visible flat wave forming as the fracture front. The role of the complex stress state and kinetic description of the damage accumulation are analysed to describe the process of the impact. The DYNA2D hydrocode and a kinetic strain-rate sensitive model (2) are employed

  6. Metal impurity injection into DIVA plasmas with a Q-switched laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Toshihiko; Nagami, Masayuki; Sengoku, Seio; Kumagai, Katsuaki

    1978-08-01

    Metal impurity injection into DIVA plasmas with a Q-switched ruby laser beam is described. Metal materials used are aluminium and gold. The Q-switched laser beam is incident onto a thin metal film thickness about 0.2 μm coated on pyrex glass plate surface. The metal film is vaporized by the laser beam and injected into DIVA plasma. The laser-beam injection method has advantages of sharp profile of vaporized metal, easy control of vaporized metal quantity and injection rate control of metal vapor. (author)

  7. An investigation of the heterogeneous nucleation of calcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    House, W.A.; Tutton, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The heterogeneous precipitation kinetics of calcite from dilute calcium bicarbonate solutions onto pyrex glass seeds is investigated by using a modified form of the Davies and Jones equation. The rate constant is evaluated from experiments using calcite seeds and it is demonstrated that the growth rate does not increase in proportion to the increase in surface area accompanying precipitation. The number of heteronucleated particles is estimated by assuming a constant density of growth sites on the different calcite surfaces. A comparison is made between the specific surface areas of calcite obtained by the calcium-45 isotopic exchange method and other values. (orig.)

  8. Comparative study of atmospheric pressure low and radio frequency microjet plasmas produced in a single electrode configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dan Bee; Rhee, J. K.; Gweon, B.; Moon, S. Y.; Choe, W.

    2007-01-01

    Microsize jet-type plasmas were generated in a single pin electrode structure source for two separate input frequencies of 50 kHz and 13.56 MHz in the ambient air. The copper pin electrode radius was 360 μm, and it was placed in a Pyrex tube with a radius of 3 mm for helium gas supply. Due to the input frequency difference, the generated plasmas showed distinct discharge characteristics for their plasma physical appearances, electrical properties, gas temperatures, and optical properties. Strengths and weaknesses of both plasmas were discussed for further applications

  9. Deep freezing of cattle embryos in glass ampules or French straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massip, A; Van der Zwalmen, P; Ectors, F; De Coster, R; D'Ieteren, G; Hanzen, C

    1979-08-01

    Ninety four cow embryos recovered on day 7-8 after onset of oestrus were frozen by the "Two Step" freezing procedure: 49 in pyrex glass ampules and 45 in .25 ml French semen straws. The overall survival rate was 33.7% (36.2% for embryos frozen in glass ampules; 31.1% for embryos frozen in plastic straws). 45.2% of transferred embryos resulted in pregnancies (35.7% after freezing in glass ampules v.s 52.9% after freezing in plastic straws).

  10. Field reversed theta pinch TC-I UNICAMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, R.Y.; Machida, M.; Aramaki, E.A.; Porto, P.; Berni, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    Field reversed configuration TC-I device is 16 cm diameter, 1 meter long with two mirror coils and 30 kJ field reversed theta pinch working for over two years at University of Campinas. Its implosion dynamics and field reversal parameters have been studied using flux excluded loops, internal magnetic probe, visible spectroscopy, photodiode array and image converter camera. The vacuum vessel is a pyrex tube of 14,5 cm diameter pumped with a liquid nitrogen cooled diffusion pump to a base pressure of 6 x 10 -7 Torr. The schematic view of the machine and experimental set up are shown. (Author)

  11. Failure Waves in Cylindrical Glass Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazamias, James U.; Bless, Stephan J.; Marder, Michael P.

    1997-07-01

    Failure waves, a propagating front separating virgin and comminuted material, have been receiving a fair amount of attention the last couple of years. While most scientists have been looking at failure waves in plate impact geometries, we have conducted a series of experiments on Pyrex bars. In this paper, we present two types of photographic data from a series of tests. A streak camera was used to determine velocities of the failure front as a function of impact stress. A polaroid camera and a flash lamp provide detailed pictures of the actual event. Attempts were made to observe failure waves in amorphous quartz and acrylic.

  12. Irradiation of fish fillets: Relation of vapor phase reactions to storage quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, J.; Dollar, A.M.; Wedemeyer, G.A.; Gallagher, E.C.

    1969-01-01

    Fish fillets irradiated under air, nitrogen, oxygen, or carbon dioxide atmospheres developed rancidlike flavors when they were stored at refrigerated temperatures. Packing and irradiating under vacuum or helium prevented development of off-flavors during storage.Significant quantities of nitrate and oxidizing substances were formed when oxygen, nitrogen, or air were present in the vapor or liquid phases contained in a Pyrex glass model system exposed to ionizing radiation supplied by a 60Co source. It was demonstrated that the delayed flavor changes that occur in stored fish fillets result from the reaction of vapor phase radiolysis products and the fish tissue substrates.

  13. Design and test of the borosilicate glass burnable poison rod for Qinshan nuclear power plant core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jinhua; Sun Hanhong

    1988-08-01

    Material for the burnable poison of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant core is GG-17 borosilicate glass. The chemical composition and physico-chemical properties of GG-17 is very close to Pyrex-7740 glass used by Westinghouse. It is expected from the results of the experiments that the borosilicate glass burnable poison rod can be successfully used in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant due to good physical, mechanical, corrosion-resistant and irradiaton properties for both GG-17 glass and cold-worked stainless steel cladding. Change of material for burnable poison from boron-bearing stainless steel to borosilicate glass will bring about much more economic benefit to Qinshan Naclear Power Plant

  14. Conference Digest - International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves (13th) Held in Honolulu, Hawaii on 5-9 December 1988. Volume 1039.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-09

    BY MICROSTRIP LINES - ERTIES OF GLASSES AND THE ENERGY TRANSFER TiROUGH S.T. Peng, NY Inst of Technology, Old Westbury, NY 11568; R.T. WINDOWS - R...Power is available from a Varian gyrotron oscillator design is an all-copper machined grating. The polarization in the TEo2 mode in 6.35-cm-diam...dielectric waveguide necessary. The Abel-inverted profile is shown in of *59 mm (Pyrex glass ). The laser beam is divided Fig.3(b). The measured density profile

  15. Ex-Situ and In-Situ Ellipsometric Studies of the Thermal Oxide on InP

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-06

    ion---- Distribution/ Availabilit ? Codes£v l llt Codes Avail and/or Dist| Special Abstract The thermally grown InP oxide as etched by an aqueous...aqueous NH4OH/NH4F, and Law(17) has reported observations of orientational ordering of water and organic solvents on pyrex surfaces by in-situ...minutes, followed by a sequence of acetone, deionized water (d. i. water ) rinse. After being dipped in a concentrated aqueous HF solution for 15 seconds

  16. Degradation of edible oil during food processing by ultrasound: electron paramagnetic resonance, physicochemical, and sensory appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingret, Daniella; Durand, Grégory; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Rockenbauer, Antal; Ginies, Christian; Chemat, Farid

    2012-08-08

    During ultrasound processing of lipid-containing food, some off-flavors can be detected, which can incite depreciation by consumers. The impacts of ultrasound treatment on sunflower oil using two different ultrasound horns (titanium and pyrex) were evaluated. An electron paramagnetic resonance study was performed to identify and quantify the formed radicals, along with the assessment of classical physicochemical parameters such as peroxide value, acid value, anisidine value, conjugated dienes, polar compounds, water content, polymer quantification, fatty acid composition, and volatiles profile. The study shows an increase of formed radicals in sonicated oils, as well as the modification of physicochemical parameters evidencing an oxidation of treated oils.

  17. Alcator C vertical viewing electron cyclotron emission diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, K.; Hutchinson, I.H.

    1986-03-01

    Electron cyclotron emission measured vertically through the center of a tokamak plasma yields detailed information about the electron velocity distribution. A diagnostic developed for this purpose on Alcator C tokamak uses specialized focusing optics to obtain a well collimated viewing chord, a compact viewing dump made of pyrex or Macor to reduce the effects of wall reflection and depolarization, and a rapid-scan polarizing Michelson interferometer - InSb detector system for the spectrum measurement; all constrained by the limited access and the compact size of Alcator C. Results of diffraction analysis are used to evaluate the theoretical performance of the optical system

  18. The use of a chelating resin column for preconcentration of trace elements from sea-water in their determination by neutron-activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.; Kim, N.B.; Lee, I.C.; Chung, K.S.

    1977-01-01

    A Chelex-100 resin column has been employed for the preliminary concentration of trace elements in water samples before their determination by neutron-activation analysis. The column filled with a 1 : 1 mixture of the resin (50 to 100 mesh) and Pyrex glass powder of the same mesh size, is shown to maintain a constant flow-rate and give reproducible results. By a combination of preconcentration and neutron-activation analysis it is possible to determine Ba, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, La, Mg, Mn, Sc, U, V and Zn in sea-water and/or fresh water simultaneously at the parts per milliard level. (author)

  19. Moisture measurement in the iron and steel industry: experience with nuclear moisture measurements in coke, and studies of infrared moisture measurement of iron ore mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beumer, J.A.; Wouters, M.

    1976-01-01

    In the heavy iron-making industry there are several processes for which it is necessary to measure on-line the moisture content of certain process materials, especially in the field of iron ore preparation and blast furnace practice. Two examples are given. (1) Experience with nuclear moisture-measurements in coke covers a period of ten years in which eight measuring systems have been installed in the weighing hoppers of blast furnaces. The standard deviation is about 0.7% moisture in the range 0 to 15% moisture. The way the method is used, the safety measures and the difficulties encountered, especially the effect on recalibration of neutron-absorbing materials in photomultipliers are described. (2) The application of infrared absorption to the study of moisture measurment or iron ore mixtures is described. With an ore mixture for pellets manufacture, a rather dark ore mixture, problems have arisen concerning the sensitivity. The reference and measuring wavelengths now in use are 2.51 and 2.95 μm. In this case the absorption of the energy is rather high. The results may be improved by using quartz optics instead of the normal Pyrex ones, as the cut-off wavelength of Pyrex is about 3 μm. Variations due to colour and specific surface have been studied. As the accuracy required is +- 0.1% moisture in the range 8 to 12% moisture, these variations need to be eliminated. (author)

  20. Experimental studies on the X-radiation from a high-intensity annular discharge; Etudes experimentales sur le rayonnement X d'une decharge annulaire a forte intensite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etievant, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Under certain conditions, a very penetrating X-radiation is emitted at the start of a stabilised annular discharge. A number of experimental observations have been made using a pyrex toroid filled with deuterium or argon. The value of the stabilising magnetic field and the pressure have a very important influence on the intensity of the X-radiation emitted. The placing of an obstacle such as a magnetic mirror at a point of the torus can prevent the acceleration of runaway electrons during successive revolutions, and X-ray emission disappears. (author) [French] Un rayonnement X tres penetrant est emis dans certaines conditions au debut d'une decharge annulaire stabilisee. Un certain nombre d'observations experimentales ont ete faites a l'aide d'un tore en pyrex rempli de deuterium ou d'argon. La valeur du champ magnetique stabilisateur et la pression jouent un role tres important sur l'intensite du rayonnement X emis. La disposition d'un obstacle tel qu'un miroir magnetique en un point du tore peut empecher l'acceleration d'electrons decouples au cours de revolutions successives et l'emission de rayonnement X disparait. (auteur)

  1. Quality assurance of HDR 192Ir sources using a Fricke dosimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austerlitz, C; Mota, H; Almeida, C E; Allison, R; Sibata, C

    2007-04-01

    A prototype of a Fricke dosimetry system consisting of a 15 x 15 x 15 cm3 water phantom made of Plexiglas and a 11.3-ml Pyrex balloon fitted with a 0.2 cm thick Pyrex sleeve in its center was created to assess source strength and treatment planning algorithms for use in high dose rate (HDR) 192Ir afterloading units. In routine operation, the radioactive source is positioned at the end of a sleeve, which coincides with the center of the spherical balloon that is filled with Fricke solution, so that the solution is nearly isotropically irradiated. The Fricke system was calibrated in terms of source strength against a reference well-type ionization chamber, and in terms of radial dose by means of an existing algorithm from the HDR's treatment planning system. Because the system is based on the Fricke dosimeter itself, for a given type and model of 192Ir source, the system needs initial calibration but no recalibration. The results from measurements made over a 10 month period, including source decay and source substitutions, have shown the feasibility of using such a system for quality control (QC) of HDR afterloading equipment, including both the source activity and treatment planning parameters. The benefit of a large scale production and the use of this device for clinical HDR QC audits via mail are also discussed.

  2. Device for sampling sodium from a circuit with a view to dosing its impurities (1963); Dispositif de prelevement de sodium sur un cuicuit en vue du dosage des impuretes (1063)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannier, J; Vingot, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The device described was developed with the two following essential conditions in mind: - absence of any pollution during the sampling operation and the transfer to the analysis apparatus; - simultaneous extraction of several samples, each one remaining representative of the sodium in the circuit. The sampling is therefore carried out completely in a vacuum in a Pyrex-glass apparatus, this limiting the sodium temperature to a maximum of 240 deg. C. The samples are in the form of bulbs sealed in vacuo containing 2 to 3 grams of sodium each. The analysis of the oxygen by the amalgamation technique, carried out on samples obtained by this method show a very satisfactory reproducibility for concentrations of under 20 ppm. (authors) [French] Le dispositif decrit a ete mis au point compte tenu des deux imperatifs essentiels suivants: - absence de toute pollution pendant les operations de prelevement et de transport vers l'appareil d'analyse; - obtention simultanee de plusieurs echantillons, chacun restant representatif du sodium du circuit. A cet effet, le prelevement est effectue entierement sous vide dans un appareillage en verre Pyrex, ce qui limite la temperature du sodium a 240 deg. C. Les echantillons se presentent sous la forme d'ampoules scellees sous vide et contenant chacune 2 a 3 grammes de sodium. L'analyse de l'oxygene par la technique d'amalgamation, effectuee sur des echantillons preleves par cette methode, revele une reproductibilite tres satisfaisante, dans le domaine des teneurs inferieures a 20 ppm. (auteurs)

  3. Characterization of diamond-like carbon thin film synthesized by RF atmospheric pressure plasma Ar/CH4 jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohbatzadeh, Farshad; Safari, Reza; Etaati, G. Reza; Asadi, Eskandar; Mirzanejhad, Saeed; Hosseinnejad, Mohammad Taghi; Samadi, Omid; Bagheri, Hanieh

    2016-01-01

    The growth of diamond like carbon (DLC) on a Pyrex glass was investigated by a radio frequency (RF) atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ). The plasma jet with capacitive configuration ran by a radio frequency power supply at 13.56 MHz. Alumina ceramic was used as dielectric barrier. Ar and CH4 were used in atmospheric pressure as carrier and precursor gases, respectively. Diamond like carbon thin films were deposited on Pyrex glass at substrate temperature and applied power of 130 °C and 250 Watts, respectively. Performing field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and laser Raman spectroscopy analysis resulted in deposition rate and the ID/IG ratio of 21.31 nm/min and 0.47, respectively. The ID/IG ratio indicated that the coating possesses relative high sp3 content The optical emission spectroscopy (OES) diagnostic was applied to diagnose plasma jet species. Estimating electron temperature and density of the RF-APPJ resulted in 1.36 eV and 2.75 × 1014 cm-3 at the jet exit, respectively.

  4. Optimizing Polymer Lab-on-Chip Platforms for Ultrasonic Manipulation: Influence of the Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar González

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The choice of substrate material in a chip that combines ultrasound with microfluidics for handling biological and synthetic microparticles can have a profound effect on the performance of the device. This is due to the high surface-to-volume ratio that exists within such small structures and acquires particular relevance in polymer-based resonators with 3D standing waves. This paper presents three chips developed to perform particle flow-through separation by ultrasound based on a polymeric SU-8 layer containing channelization over three different substrates: Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA; Pyrex; and a cracked PMMA composite-like structure. Through direct observations of polystyrene microbeads inside the channel, the three checked chips exhibit their potential as disposable continuous concentration devices with different spatial pressure patterns at frequencies of resonance close to 1 Mhz. Chips with Pyrex and cracked PMMA substrates show restrictions on the number of pressure nodes established in the channel associated with the inhibition of 3D modes in the solid structure. The glass-substrate chip presents some advantages associated with lower energy requirements to collect particles. According to the results, the use of polymer-based chips with rigid substrates can be advantageous for applications that require short treatment times (clinical tests handling human samples and low-cost fabrication.

  5. Wireless hydrotherapy smart suit for monitoring handicapped people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Jose H.; Mendes, Paulo M.

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents a smart suit, water impermeable, containing sensors and electronics for monitoring handicapped people at hydrotherapy sessions in swimming-pools. For integration into textiles, electronic components should be designed in a functional, robust and inexpensive way. Therefore, small-size electronics microsystems are a promising approach. The smart suit allows the monitoring of individual biometric data, such as heart rate, temperature and movement of the body. Two solutions for transmitting the data wirelessly are presented: through a low-voltage (3.0 V), low-power, CMOS RF IC (1.6 mm x 1.5 mm size dimensions) operating at 433 MHz, with ASK modulation and a patch antenna built on lossy substrates compatible with integrated circuits fabrication. Two different substrates were used for antenna implementation: high-resistivity silicon (HRS) and Corning Pyrex #7740 glass. The antenna prototypes were built to operate close to the 5 GHz ISM band. They operate at a center frequency of 5.705 GHz (HRS) and 5.995 GHz (Pyrex). The studied parameters were: substrate thickness, substrate losses, oxide thickness, metal conductivity and thickness. The antenna on HRS uses an area of 8 mm2, providing a 90 MHz bandwidth and ~0.3 dBi of gain. On a glass substrate, the antenna uses 12 mm2, provides 100 MHz bandwidth and ~3 dBi of gain.

  6. Protection of MOS capacitors during anodic bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schjølberg-Henriksen, K.; Plaza, J. A.; Rafí, J. M.; Esteve, J.; Campabadal, F.; Santander, J.; Jensen, G. U.; Hanneborg, A.

    2002-07-01

    We have investigated the electrical damage by anodic bonding on CMOS-quality gate oxide and methods to prevent this damage. n-type and p-type MOS capacitors were characterized by quasi-static and high-frequency CV-curves before and after anodic bonding. Capacitors that were bonded to a Pyrex wafer with 10 μm deep cavities enclosing the capacitors exhibited increased leakage current and interface trap density after bonding. Two different methods were successful in protecting the capacitors from such damage. Our first approach was to increase the cavity depth from 10 μm to 50 μm, thus reducing the electric field across the gate oxide during bonding from approximately 2 × 105 V cm-1 to 4 × 104 V cm-1. The second protection method was to coat the inside of a 10 μm deep Pyrex glass cavity with aluminium, forming a Faraday cage that removed the electric field across the cavity during anodic bonding. Both methods resulted in capacitors with decreased interface trap density and unchanged leakage current after bonding. No change in effective oxide charge or mobile ion contamination was observed on any of the capacitors in the study.

  7. Contribution to the study of hydrogenated and oxygenated impurities in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naud, G.

    1964-07-01

    This study is made up essentially of two parts. The first is devoted to the development of dosage methods for selectively determining the oxygenated and hydrogenated impurities present in sodium, that is the oxide, the hydride and the hydroxide. The second makes use of these methods for a study of the Na-H 2 -O 2 system, as well as of the related problem of the attack of pyrex glass by molten sodium. The conventional method for dosing oxygen by amalgamation was first adapted to the simultaneous measurement of the hydride. We then developed a method for dosing the total hydrogen by measuring successively the concentrations of gas present in the hydride and hydroxide form. This method is based on the thermal decomposition of the hydride and the reaction between sodium and the hydroxide. Our contribution to the study of the Na-H 2 -O 2 System consists first of all in the study of the reaction between hydrogen and sodium in the temperature range from 150 to 250 deg C and at a pressure of about 150 mm of mercury. The study of the thermal decomposition of the hydride in sodium was then studied. It was possible to make some qualitative observations concerning the reaction between sodium and sodium hydroxide. Finally some complementary tests made it possible to define the nature of the phenomena occurring during the attack of pyrex glass by sodium. (author) [fr

  8. Atmospheric Entry Experiments at IRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auweter-Kurtz, M.; Endlich, P.; Herdrich, G.; Kurtz, H.; Laux, T.; Löhle, S.; Nazina, N.; Pidan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Entering the atmosphere of celestial bodies, spacecrafts encounter gases at velocities of several km/s, thereby being subjected to great heat loads. The thermal protection systems and the environment (plasma) have to be investigated by means of computational and ground facility based simulations. For more than a decade, plasma wind tunnels at IRS have been used for the investigation of TPS materials. Nevertheless, ground tests and computer simulations cannot re- place space flights completely. Particularly, entry mission phases encounter challenging problems, such as hypersonic aerothermodynamics. Concerning the TPS, radiation-cooled materials used for reuseable spacecrafts and ablator tech- nologies are of importance. Besides the mentioned technologies, there is the goal to manage guidance navigation, con- trol, landing technology and inflatable technologies such as ballutes that aim to keep vehicles in the atmosphere without landing. The requirement to save mass and energy for planned interplanetary missions such as Mars Society Balloon Mission, Mars Sample Return Mission, Mars Express or Venus Sample Return mission led to the need for manoeuvres like aerocapture, aero-breaking and hyperbolic entries. All three are characterized by very high kinetic vehicle energies to be dissipated by the manoeuvre. In this field flight data are rare. The importance of these manoeuvres and the need to increase the knowledge of required TPS designs and behavior during such mission phases point out the need of flight experiments. As result of the experience within the plasma diagnostic tool development and the plasma wind tunnel data base, flight experiments like the PYrometric RE-entry EXperiment PYREX were developed, fully qualified and successfully flown. Flight experiments such as the entry spectrometer RESPECT and PYREX on HOPE-X are in the conceptual phase. To increase knowledge in the scope of atmospheric manoeuvres and entries, data bases have to be created combining both

  9. Photo-reorganization of 3-alkoxy-6-chloro-2-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-4H-chromen-4-ones: a green and convenient synthesis of angular pentacyclics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Aarti; Khanna, Radhika; Kumar, Parvin; Kamboj, Ramesh C

    2017-05-17

    Photo-reorganization of 3-alkoxy-6-chloro-2-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-4H-chromen-4-ones in methanol with Pyrex filtered UV-light from a medium pressure 125 W Hg-vapor lamp led to the formation of angular pentacyclic compounds (dihydro and aromatic products) along with some rearranged chromenones where the product(s) distribution depended upon the structure of 3-alkoxy groups (methoxy, ethoxy, allyloxy and benzyloxy). The phenyl moiety in the 3-benzyloxy group had a profound effect on the dihydro product(s) formation as the latter was in high yield when the alkoxy group was benzyloxy followed by allyloxy, ethoxy and methoxy groups. The present photochemical study represents a general method for the synthesis of some angular pentacyclic - benzothiophene fused xanthenone derivatives in a single step without using any specific and toxic reagent. The structures of the new organic scaffolds obtained were established by their spectral data (UV, IR and NMR).

  10. Using pico-LCoS SLMs for high speed cell sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Aabo, Thomas; Palima, Darwin

    2012-01-01

    We propose the use of consumer pico projectors as cost effective spatial light modulators in cell sorting applications. The matched filtering Generalized Phase Contrast (mGPC) beam shaping method is used to produce high intensity optical spots for trapping and catapulting cells. A pico projector......’s liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) chip was used as a binary phase spatial light modulator (SLM) wherein correlation target patterns are addressed. Experiments using the binary LCoS phase SLM with a fabricated Pyrex matched filter demonstrate the generation of intense optical spots that can potentially...... be used for cell sorting. Numerical studies also show mGPC’s robustness to phase aberrations in the LCoS device, and its ability to outperform a top hat beam with the same power....

  11. DNA analysis by single molecule stretching in nanofluidic biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abad, E.; Juarros, A.; Retolaza, A.

    2011-01-01

    Imprint Lithography (NIL) technology combined with a conventional anodic bonding of the silicon base and Pyrex cover. Using this chip, we have performed single molecule imaging on a bench-top fluorescent microscope system. Lambda phage DNA was used as a model sample to characterize the chip. Single molecules of λ-DNA......Stretching single DNA molecules by confinement in nanofluidic channels has attracted a great interest during the last few years as a DNA analysis tool. We have designed and fabricated a sealed micro/nanofluidic device for DNA stretching applications, based on the use of the high throughput Nano...... stained with the fluorescent dye YOYO-1 were stretched in the nanochannel array and the experimental results were analysed to determine the extension factor of the DNA in the chip and the geometrical average of the nanochannel inner diameter. The determination of the extension ratio of the chip provides...

  12. Critical heat flux and flow pattern for water flow in annular geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Wook; Baek, Won Pil; Chang, Soon Heung

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study on critical heat flux (CHF) and two-phase flow visualization has been performed for water flow in internally-heated, vertical, concentric annuli under near atmospheric pressure. Tests have been done under stable forced-circulation, upward and downward flow conditions with three test sections of relatively large gap widths (heated length = 0.6 m, inner diameter = 19 mm, outer diameter = 29, 35 and 51 mm). The outer wall of the test section was made up of the transparent Pyrex tube to allow the observation of flow patterns near the CHF occurrence. The CHF mechanism was changed in the order of flooding, churn-to-annular flow transition, and local dryout under a large bubble in churn flow as the flow rate was increased from zero to higher values. Observed parametric trends are consistent with the previous understanding except that the CHF for downward flow is considerably lower than that for upward flow

  13. A new Experimental Rig for Oil Burning on Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Nicholas L.; Sørensen, Martin X.; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne

    2014-01-01

    A new experimental apparatus, the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus (COFA), has been developed to study in-situ burning of crude and pure oils spilled on water in a controlled laboratory environment with large water-to-oil ratios. The parameters and phenomena studied for an asphaltic crude oil...... is superheated. When the initial crude oil layer thickness exceeded 20 mm the oil became solid and no boilover occurred. The heat-loss to the water sub-layer also had an effect on the burning efficiency and the regression rate was found to reach a constant value after increasing continuously as the oil...... (Grane) and two pure oils (n-Octane and dodecane) with different initial oil layer thicknesses include burning efficiency, burning rate, regression rate, flame height and boilover. Pyrex glass cylinders (157 and 260 mm ID) placed on top of a steel foot in a water basin (1m x 1m x 0.5m) enabled free...

  14. Annual report on the services for chemical analysis and scientific glassblowing in the fiscal year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Mitsuo; Obara, Kazuhiro; Toida, Yukio; Suzuki, Daisuke; Gunji, Katsubumi; Kato, Kaneharu; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2002-01-01

    A variety of analytical service and glassblowing service was carried out on requests from research laboratories and R and D programs within JAERI. In the field of analytical service, various samples such as nuclear fuels, nuclear materials and radioactive wastes, were analyzed using mainly Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS), Electron Probe X-ray Microanalyzer (EPMA), etc., and mostly in combination with various chemical separation methods. In the glassblowing service, various experimental instruments and vessels made of Pyrex glass or quartz glass were produced and repaired. Thirty-three requests for the analytical service and 132 requests for the glassblowing service have been received and treated in the fiscal year 2000. This report describes the activity of the analytical service and the glassblowing service performed in the fiscal year 2000. (author)

  15. Solar heat collector-generator for cooling purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, K.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of an experimental LiBr-H2O solar collector powered absorption cooling system is described. A numerical model was developed of the energy, mass, and momentum balances across the heat-exchange loop to obtain the refrigerant vapor generation rate. The mechanism works by the thermosiphon principle, which eliminates mechanical devices from the loop. All leaks were fixed before measurements began with a test apparatus comprising a pyrex tube 1.87 m long with a 2.7 i.d. The refrigerant flow rate was monitored, along with temperature changes in the fluid and across the tube. Bubble initiation was observed from the free surface extending downward in the tube. Reynolds numbers varied from 6-43 in the liquid phase and 81-204 in the vapor phase. A formulation was made for the low-velocity two-phase flow and good agreement was demonstrated with the simulation.

  16. Resonant photoacoustic detection of NO2 traces with a Q-switched green laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Verónica; Codnia, Jorge; Peuriot, Alejandro L.; Santiago, Guillermo

    2003-01-01

    Resonant photoacoustic detection of NO2 traces by means of a high repetition pulsed green laser is presented. The resonator is a cylindrical Pyrex glass cell with a measured Q factor 380 for the first radial mode in air at atmospheric pressure. The system is calibrated with known mixtures in dry air and a minimum detectable volume concentration of 50 parts in 109 is obtained (S/N=1). Its sensitivity allows one to detect and quantify NO2 traces in the exhaust gases of cars. Previously, the analysis of gas adsorption and desorption on the walls and of changes in the sample composition is carried out in order to minimize errors in the determination of NO2 content upon application of the extractive method. The efficiency of catalytic converters of several models of automobiles is studied and the NO2 concentration in samples from exhausts of different types of engine (gasoline, diesel, and methane gas) at idling operation are measured.

  17. Wetting properties of hybrid structure with hydrophilic ridges and hydrophobic channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Ki; Choi, Su Young; Park, Min Soo; Cho, Young Hak

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, we fabricated a hybrid structure where the upper surface of the ridge is hydrophilic and the inner surface of the channel is hydrophobic. Laser-induced backside wet etching (LIBWE) process was performed to machine the hybrid structure on a Pyrex glass substrate. Wetting properties were evaluated from static contact angles (CAs) measurement in parallel and orthogonal directions. The water droplet on the hybrid structure was in the Cassie-Baxter state and showed anisotropic wetting property along groove lines. Moisture condensation studies under humid condition indicated that water droplets grew and coalesced on the ridge with hydrophilicity. Furthermore, water-oil separation was tested using a microfluidic chip with the developed hybrid structure. In case of hybrid microfluidic chip, the water could not flow into channel but the hexadecane could flow due to the capillary pressure difference.

  18. Novel micro-reactor flow cell for investigation of model catalysts using in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehres, Jan; Pedersen, Thomas; Masini, Federico

    2016-01-01

    at synchrotron facilities are performed utilizing the micro-reactor and a designed transportable gas feed and analysis system. The feasibility of simultaneous in situ GISAXS/GIWAXS experiments in the novel micro-reactor flow cell was confirmed with CO oxidation over mass-selected Ru nanoparticles.......The design, fabrication and performance of a novel and highly sensitive micro-reactor device for performing in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering experiments of model catalyst systems is presented. The design of the reaction chamber, etched in silicon on insulator (SIO), permits grazing......-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) in transmission through 10 µm-thick entrance and exit windows by using micro-focused beams. An additional thinning of the Pyrex glass reactor lid allows simultaneous acquisition of the grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS). In situ experiments...

  19. KINETIC STUDY OF SELECTIVE GAS-PHASE OXIDATION OF ISOPROPANOL TO ACETONE USING MONOCLINIC ZRO2 AS A CATALYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadiq

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Zirconia was prepared by a precipitation method and calcined at 723 K, 1023 K, and 1253 K in order to obtain monoclinic zirconia. The prepared zirconia was characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, surface area and pore size analyzer, and particle size analyzer. Monoclinic ZrO2 as a catalyst was used for the gas-phase oxidation of isopropanol to acetone in a Pyrex-glass-flow-type reactor with a temperature range of 443 K - 473 K. It was found that monoclinic ZrO2 shows remarkable catalytic activity (68% and selectivity (100% for the oxidation of isopropanol to acetone. This kinetic study reveals that the oxidation of isopropanol to acetone follows the L-H mechanism.

  20. Novel micro-reactor flow cell for investigation of model catalysts using in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehres, Jan; Pedersen, Thomas; Masini, Federico; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Nielsen, Martin Meedom; Diaz, Ana; Nielsen, Jane Hvolbæk; Hansen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    The design, fabrication and performance of a novel and highly sensitive micro-reactor device for performing in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering experiments of model catalyst systems is presented. The design of the reaction chamber, etched in silicon on insulator (SIO), permits grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) in transmission through 10 µm-thick entrance and exit windows by using micro-focused beams. An additional thinning of the Pyrex glass reactor lid allows simultaneous acquisition of the grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS). In situ experiments at synchrotron facilities are performed utilizing the micro-reactor and a designed transportable gas feed and analysis system. The feasibility of simultaneous in situ GISAXS/GIWAXS experiments in the novel micro-reactor flow cell was confirmed with CO oxidation over mass-selected Ru nanoparticles. PMID:26917133

  1. Novel micro-reactor flow cell for investigation of model catalysts using in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehres, Jan; Pedersen, Thomas; Masini, Federico; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Nielsen, Martin Meedom; Diaz, Ana; Nielsen, Jane Hvolbæk; Hansen, Ole; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2016-03-01

    The design, fabrication and performance of a novel and highly sensitive micro-reactor device for performing in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering experiments of model catalyst systems is presented. The design of the reaction chamber, etched in silicon on insulator (SIO), permits grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) in transmission through 10 µm-thick entrance and exit windows by using micro-focused beams. An additional thinning of the Pyrex glass reactor lid allows simultaneous acquisition of the grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS). In situ experiments at synchrotron facilities are performed utilizing the micro-reactor and a designed transportable gas feed and analysis system. The feasibility of simultaneous in situ GISAXS/GIWAXS experiments in the novel micro-reactor flow cell was confirmed with CO oxidation over mass-selected Ru nanoparticles.

  2. Characterization of vitrified soil produced by in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmerman, C.L.; Lokken, R.O.

    1984-01-01

    Radioactive or other hazardous wastes buried at waste disposal sites may require further stabilization to secure the isolation of these wastes from the environment. One method of waste stabilization being developed is in situ vitrification. This process involves the in-place melting of buried wastes and the surrounding soil to produce a glass and crystalline waste form. Engineering-scale and pilot-scale demonstrations of this concept with soil contaminated with nonradioactive, hazardous species (Cs, Sr, Ru, Pb, Cd, etc.) were performed. These demonstrations provided information on species migration, crystalline-phase formation, and waste form durability. In addition to the nonradioactive tests, a crucible-scale melt of soil spiked with radioactive uranium, plutonium, and cesium was leach tested. The results show that hazardous waste components are retained in the product. The durability of the waste form in both the vitreous and the crystalline phases is similar to that of Pyrex glass

  3. Simple tecniques of radiation protection for radon monitoring in air and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napolitano, C.M.; Oliveira Sampa, M.H. de; Palacios, E.

    1978-01-01

    Simple techniques for 'in situ' radon concentration measurements in air and water using a scintillation chamber are discussed. The chamber was constructed with a comercial 'Pyrex' erlenmeyer flask by uniformely coating with powdered ZnS:Ag all the flask's internal surface, except its base. For air monitoring, the sample is introduced into the scintillation chamber and when the radioactive equilibrium between radon and its daughters of short half life is reached, the chamber is placed into a light-tight box that has a photomultiplier connected to a counting system. For water monitoring, the sample is placed in a plastic bottle and the bottle connected with a scintillation chamber for 5 hours. Afterwards, the gas of the chamber is counted and radon concentration in water is determined through the counting rate observed in the gaseous phase. The detection limits of these techniques in air and water monitoring were 7pCi/l and 1,5pCi/l [pt

  4. RF high voltage performance of RF transmission line components on the DIII-D Fast Wave Current Drive (FWCD) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, S.W.; Callis, R.W.; Cary, W.P.; Phelps, D.A.; Ponce, D.; Baity, F.W.; Barber, G.

    1995-01-01

    The performance of the high voltage rf components of the DIII-D Fast Wave Current Drive System (FWCD) have been evaluated under various conditions of insulator configuration, insulator material, insulating gas and gas pressure. The insulator materials that have been investigated are alumina, steatite, pyrex, quartz, and teflon. The results of this evaluation are discussed in this paper. Additionally a rf high potter was developed to aid in the evaluation of rf high voltage components. The high potter consists of a 50 Ω, 1/4 wavelength cavity with a variable position short and a 50 ohm matched tap at one end of the cavity. With this configuration rf voltages were generated in excess of 100 kVp in the frequency range 30 to 60 MHz

  5. Sealing of cavities with lateral feed-throughs by anodic bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fléron, René; Jensen, Flemming

    2003-01-01

    The SESiBon(1)) project under the EU Growth programme has focussed on the investigation and exploitation of various silicon bonding techniques. Both standard silicon to pyrex wafer bonding and the more advanced silicon-to-silicon thin film anodic bonding has been investigated. Here we present...... the results of the work done to enable bonding of structured wafer surfaces, allowing lateral feed-throughs into sealed cavities.Lateral feed throughs are formed by means of RIE in a high-doped poly-silicon film deposited on an oxidized 4" silicon wafer. Next a BPSG (Boron Phosphorus Silicate Glass) layer...... is deposited in a PECVD reaction chamber onto the structured surface. The BPSG is used as an intermediate planarization layer. Planarization is done by annealing the wafer in a N2-O2-H2O ambient for 4 - 8h @ 900 degreesC. After planarization the two wafers are bonded together, sealing the cavities.Our work...

  6. Characterization Ag/AgCl reference electrode by U/U3+ equilibrium potential measurements in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Fumiaki; Kitawaki, Shinichi; Amamoto, Ippei; Igarashi, Miyuki

    1999-02-01

    The Ag/ AgCl reference electrode is often used in electrochemical measurements of molten chloride system. By measuring the U/U 3+ equilibrium potential in the cell, U(s) | UCl 3 , LiCl-KCl parallel LiCl-KCl, Ag + | Ag (s), the characterization of the Ag/AgCl reference electrode was made. The behavior of two types of reference electrode having either a mullite or a Pyrex-glass membrane bridge was examined. It was confirmed that the two types of reference electrode can be regarded as almost equivalent. The reproducibility of the reading from the electrodes having the identical construction was showing to be within 0.003 V. (author)

  7. Thermal and optical properties of polycrystalline CdS thin films deposited by the gradient recrystallization and growth (GREG) technique using photoacoustic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albor-Aguilera, M.L.; Gonzalez-Trujillo, M.A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Tufino-Velazquez, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we report the study of the thermal and optical properties of polycrystalline CdS thin films deposited by the gradient recrystallization and growth technique. CdS films were grown on pyrex glass substrates. These studies were carried out using an open photoacoustic cell made out of an electret microphone. From X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope and photoluminescence measurements we observed polycrystalline CdS films with good morphology and crystalline quality. We obtained a thermal diffusivity coefficient of our samples with values ranging from 3.15 to 3.89 x 10 -2 cm 2 /s. For comparison, we measured a value of 1.0 x 10 -2 cm 2 /s for the thermal diffusivity coefficient of a CdS single crystal. We measured an energy gap value of 2.42 eV for our samples by using a photoacoustic spectroscopy system

  8. Flow reversal at low voltage and low frequency in a microfabricated ac electrokinetic pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Misha Marie; Olesen, Laurits Højgaard; Brask, Anders

    2007-01-01

    measured in a regime, where both the applied voltage and the frequency are low, Vrms1.5 V and f20 kHz, compared to previously investigated parameter ranges. The impedance spectrum has been thoroughly measured and analyzed in terms of an equivalent circuit diagram to rule out trivial circuit explanations......Microfluidic chips have been fabricated in Pyrex glass to study electrokinetic pumping generated by a low-voltage ac bias applied to an in-channel asymmetric metallic electrode array. A measurement procedure has been established and followed carefully resulting in a high degree of reproducibility...... of the measurements over several days. A large coverage fraction of the electrode array in the microfluidic channels has led to an increased sensitivity allowing for pumping measurements at low bias voltages. Depending on the ionic concentration a hitherto unobserved reversal of the pumping direction has been...

  9. SOI silicon on glass for optical MEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Pontoppidan; Ravnkilde, Jan Tue; Hansen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    and a final sealing at the interconnects can be performed using a suitable polymer. Packaged MEMS on glass are advantageous within Optical MEMS and for sensitive capacitive devices. We report on experiences with bonding SOI to Pyrex. Uniform DRIE shallow and deep etching was achieved by a combination......A newly developed fabrication method for fabrication of single crystalline Si (SCS) components on glass, utilizing Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) of a Silicon On Insulator (SOI) wafer is presented. The devices are packaged at wafer level in a glass-silicon-glass (GSG) stack by anodic bonding...... of an optimized device layout and an optimized process recipe. The behavior of the buried oxide membrane when used as an etch stop for the through-hole etch is described. No harmful buckling or fracture of the membrane is observed for an oxide thickness below 1 μm, but larger and more fragile released structures...

  10. 1-Chloronaphthalene decomposition in air using electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Sun, Y.; Bulka, S.; Zimek, Z.

    2006-01-01

    A method for the preparation of model gas containing 1-chloronaphthalene can be referred to 1,1-DCE (dichloroethene). A pulsed electron beam (EB) accelerator ILU-6 (2.0 MeV max., 20 kW max.) was used as an irradiation source. The absorbed dose rate inside the irradiation vessel was 10.835 kGy/min. Total absorbed dose was adjusted by changing irradiation time of the Pyrex glass vessels. 1-Chloronaphthalene concentration was analyzed using gas-chromatography. It has been found, that 1-chloronaphthalene can be decomposed in air or N 2 using EB irradiation. Decomposition efficiency of 1-chloronaphthalene in air is higher than that in N 2 . Positive charge transfer reactions and OH radicals' reaction may play a main role in 1-chloronaphthalene decomposition process

  11. Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of index profile of indium tin oxide films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Rhaleb, H.; Benamar, E.; Rami, M.; Roger, J.P.; Hakam, A.; Ennaoui, A

    2002-11-30

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has proven to be a very powerful diagnostic for thin film characterisation. It was used to determine thin film parameters such as film thickness and optical functions of polycrystalline tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films deposited by spray pyrol onto Pyrex substrates. Dielectric ITO films often present microstructures which give rise to a variation of the refractive index with the distance from substrate. In this work, it was found that the fit between ellipsometric data and optical models results could be significantly improved when it was assumed that the refractive index of ITO films varied across the upper 60 nm near the film surface. Also, the surface roughness was modelled and compared with that given by the atomic force microscope (AFM)

  12. Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of index profile of indium tin oxide films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Rhaleb, H.; Benamar, E.; Rami, M.; Roger, J.P.; Hakam, A.; Ennaoui, A.

    2002-01-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has proven to be a very powerful diagnostic for thin film characterisation. It was used to determine thin film parameters such as film thickness and optical functions of polycrystalline tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films deposited by spray pyrolysis onto Pyrex substrates. Dielectric ITO films often present microstructures which give rise to a variation of the refractive index with the distance from substrate. In this work, it was found that the fit between ellipsometric data and optical models results could be significantly improved when it was assumed that the refractive index of ITO films varied across the upper 60 nm near the film surface. Also, the surface roughness was modelled and compared with that given by the atomic force microscope (AFM)

  13. Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of index profile of indium tin oxide films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rhaleb, H.; Benamar, E.; Rami, M.; Roger, J. P.; Hakam, A.; Ennaoui, A.

    2002-11-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has proven to be a very powerful diagnostic for thin film characterisation. It was used to determine thin film parameters such as film thickness and optical functions of polycrystalline tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films deposited by spray pyrolysis onto Pyrex substrates. Dielectric ITO films often present microstructures which give rise to a variation of the refractive index with the distance from substrate. In this work, it was found that the fit between ellipsometric data and optical models results could be significantly improved when it was assumed that the refractive index of ITO films varied across the upper 60 nm near the film surface. Also, the surface roughness was modelled and compared with that given by the atomic force microscope (AFM).

  14. Study on Characteristics of CdS/Cu2S Photovoltaic Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwe Nwe Htun

    2011-12-01

    In this paper the CdS-Cu2S photovoltaic cell has been prepared and characteristiced by using evaporation method on glass substrate. CdS film was deposited on the Pyrex glass substrate by evaporation and Cu2S layer was obtained by electroplating in a dilute acqueous solution of CusO4 at room temperature. Silver electrode was applied to the electroplated surface. The results of electrical and optical characteristics of the CdS-Cu2S hetrojunction were investigated. The photovoltaic response has been observed under various illuminated intensity for different wavelengths in visible region. It was found to be the photovoltage and photocurrent varying with different light intensities. It can be concluded that formation of a low resistivity CdS film and Cu2S layer play a big role in obtaining a high efficiency cell.

  15. Calibration of brachytherapy sources using ferrous sulphate-benzoic acid-xylenol orange dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhvanath, U.; Kini, U.R.; Gupta, B.L.

    1976-01-01

    A solution containing 0.20 mM of ferrous ammonium sulphate, 5.0 mM benzoic acid and 0.20 mM xylenol orange in 0.05 N sulphuric acid was used for the calibration of 252 Cf, 137 Cs, 226 Ra and 60 Co needle sources. A known volume of this solution contained in a pyrex glass tube was irradiated with the source kept in a glass capillary at the centre of the solution. A few hours of irradiation were required for each needle and the absorbance of the solution was measured at 540 nm against the unirradiated solution. The accuracy of this method was found to be within a few percent and is particularly useful for 252 Cf sources as the neutron component of the source contributes significantly to the absorbance produced. (author)

  16. Optoacoustic measurements of water vapor absorption at selected CO laser wavelengths in the 5-micron region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, R. T.; Shumate, M. S.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of water vapor absorption were taken with a resonant optoacoustical detector (cylindrical pyrex detector, two BaF2 windows fitted into end plates at slight tilt to suppress Fabry-Perot resonances), for lack of confidence in existing spectral tabular data for the 5-7 micron region, as line shapes in the wing regions of water vapor lines are difficult to characterize. The measurements are required for air pollution studies using a CO laser, to find the differential absorption at the wavelengths in question due to atmospheric constituents other than water vapor. The design and performance of the optoacoustical detector are presented. Effects of absorption by ambient NO are considered, and the fixed-frequency discretely tunable CO laser is found suitable for monitoring urban NO concentrations in a fairly dry climate, using the water vapor absorption data obtained in the study.

  17. Construcción de un calorímetro isoperibolico de inmersión de precisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Giraldo G.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Se diseña y construye un calorímetro isoperibólico tipo submarino para la medida de calores de inmersión de sólidos en líquidos. La celda calorimétrica, de una capacidad aproximada de 85 mi, se fabrica en vidrio Pyrex y va sumergida dentro de una chaqueta submarina construida en bronce cromado. El conjunto se introduce dentro de un termostato de agua estabilizado a 25 ±0,001 °C. El sensor de temperatura está constituido por termisiores NTC colocados en un puente de Maier transpuesto y provisto de una Fuente de intensidad constante. La sensibilidad del termómetro es del orden de 5 * I O' °C/p V cuando la corriente de medida en el puente es del orden de 1 mA.

  18. Purification of Zinc Bromide Solution used as shield in hot cells windows for handling of highly radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta-Leon, C.E.

    1989-10-01

    After some time of use zinc bromide solutions get a yellowish colour and form brownish precipitate, sticking on the walls of the windows that seem to be dirty caused by the effect of the solution penetrating into the packing and epoxy layer of the windows; all these effects cause the corrosive attack over the metallic parts of the window's frame and the same time the clarity and visibility inside the windows become defective. The aim and purpose of the present work was to set up a method intended for the recovery of all the solutions avoiding the use of a new one, the deviation of the original properties was corrected, and the recovered solutions could be used immediately; the experiments were done in the laboratory using a pyrex glass vacuum evaporator flash type, and the results were successful. The sample volume was 1500 1, and the time employed to 100 days. (Author)

  19. Low-temperature synthesis of the infinite-layer compound LaNiO2 by soft-chemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamatsu, Tomohisa; Kato, Masatsune; Noji, Takashi; Koike, Yoji

    2010-01-01

    Bulk samples of LaNiO 2 with the so-called infinite-layer structure have successfully been synthesized. First, polycrystalline samples of LaNiO 3 with the perovskite structure were prepared using molten KOH at a temperature of 400-450degC. Then, they were finely ground with a double stoichiometric excess of reductant CaH 2 and sealed in an evacuated Pyrex tube. The sealed ampoule was then heated at 300degC for 24 h. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis has revealed that the product obtained after removing the residual CaH 2 and the byproduct CaO is of almost single phase with tetragonal symmetry, indicating the formation of the infinite-layer compound LaNiO 2 . (author)

  20. To catch a comet: Technical overview of CAN DO G-324

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, T. J. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The primary objective of the C. E. Williams Middle School Get Away Special CAN DO is the photographing of Comet Halley. The project will involve middle school students, grades 6 through 8, in the study and interpretation of astronomical photographs and techniques. G-324 is contained in a 5 cubic foot GAS Canister with an opening door and pyrex window for photography. It will be pressurized with one atmosphere of dry nitrogen. Three 35mm still cameras with 250 exposure film backs and different focal length lenses will be fired by a combination of automatic timer and an active comet detector. A lightweight 35mm movie camera will shoot single exposures at about 1/2 minute intervals to give an overlapping skymap of the mission. The fifth camera is a solid state television camera specially constructed for detection of the comet by microprocessor.

  1. Characterization of vitrified soil produced by in-situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmerman, C.L.; Lokken, R.O.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactive or other hazardous wastes buried at waste-disposal sites may require further stabilization to secure the isolation of these wastes from the environment. One method of waste stabilization being developed is in-situ vitrification. This process involves the in-place melting of buried wastes and the surrounding soil to produce a glass and crystalline waste form. Engineering-scale and pilot-scale demonstrations of this concept with soil contaminated with nonradioactive, hazardous species (Cs, Sr, Ru, Pb, Cd, etc.) were performed. These demonstrations provided information on species migration, crystalline phase formation, and waste form durability. In addition to the nonradioactive tests, a crucible-scale melt of soil spiked with radioactive uranium, plutonium, and cesium was leach tested. The results show that hazardous waste components are retained in the product. The durability of the waste form in both the vitreous and crystalline phases is similar to that of pyrex glass

  2. Diagnostic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, C.F.; Brisson, D.A.; Greco, S.E.

    1978-01-01

    During the past year the far-infrared or submillimeter diagnostic research program resulted in three major developments: (1) an optically pumped 0.385-μm D 2 O-laser oscillator-amplifier system was operated at a power level of 1 MW with a line width of less than 50 MHz; (2) a conical Pyrex submillimeter laser beam dump with a retention efficiency greater than 10 4 was developed for the ion temperature Thompson scattering experiment; and (3) a new diagnostic technique was developed that makes use of the Faraday rotation of a modulated submillimeter laser beam to determine plasma current profile. Measurements of the asymmetric distortion of the H/sub α/ (6563 A) spectral line profile show that the effective toroidal drift velocity, dv/sub two vertical bars i/dT/sub i/, may be used as an indicator of plasma quality and as a complement to other ion temperature diagnostics

  3. DYE-SENSITIZED PHOTOLYSIS OF o-Cl-HEXAARYLBIIMIDAZOLE AND PHOTOPOLYMERIZATION KINETICS STUDY OF THE LONG WAVE-LENGTH DYE/HEXAARYLBIIMIDAZOLE SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Gao; Chun-ying Zhao; Li-dong Li; Shu-jing Feng; Yong-yuan Yang

    2000-01-01

    o-Chloro-hexaarylbiimidazole (o-Cl-HABI) can be sensitized efficiently by the dyes 1-ethyl-3'-methyl thiacyanine bromide (C1), 3,3'-diethyl thiacarbocyanine iodide (C2), and cyclopentanone 2,5-bis[2-(1,3-dihydro-1,3,3-trimethyl-2H-indol-2-ylidene)ethylidene] (C3) through electron transfer proceses. When exposed to a xenon lamp (filtered by Pyrex glass),the photosensitive systems composed of o-Cl-HABI and the above dyes can produce free radicals which initiate the polymerization of MMA. The photopolymerization kinetics equation was obtained for the o-Cl-HABI/C2 system, Rp =K [C2]0.75[o-Cl-HABI]0.44[MTA]0.12[MMA]1.0. A comparison of the influence of different dyes on the conversion of MMA photopolymerization was conducted.

  4. Photolysis of hexaarylbiimidazole sensitized by dyes and application in photopolymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO, Fang(高放); XU, Jin- Qi(徐锦棋); SONG, Xiao-You(宋晓友); LI, Li-Dong(李立东); YANG, Yong-Yuan(杨永源); FENG, Shu-Jing(冯树京)

    2000-01-01

    Kinetic studies on the near-UV photo-initiating polymerization of methylmethacrylate (MMA) sensitized by dye/hexaarylbiimidazole systems were carried out. When exposed to highpressure mercury lamp (filtered by Pyrex glass), dye/hexaarylbiimidazole system undergoes quick electron transfer and free radicals are produced. RSH, as hydrogen donor, can improve the polymerization efficiency of MMA. Comparisons of influence of different dyes and different RSH on the conversion of MMA photopolymerization were carried out. Excellent results have been obtained in photoimaging studies, e.g. a minimum exposure energy of the photosensitive systems of 8 mJ/cm2 can be reached and the resolution of presensitized printing plate was ca. 10μm.

  5. Mechanical properties of silicate glasses exposed to a low-Earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedlocher, David E.; Tucker, Dennis S.; Nichols, Ron; Kinser, Donald L.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of a 5.8 year exposure to low earth orbit environment upon the mechanical properties of commercial optical fused silica, low iron soda-lime-silica, Pyrex 7740, Vycor 7913, BK-7, and the glass ceramic Zerodur were examined. Mechanical testing employed the ASTM-F-394 piston on 3-ball method in a liquid nitrogen environment. Samples were exposed on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) in two locations. Impacts were observed on all specimens except Vycor. Weibull analysis as well as a standard statistical evaluation were conducted. The Weibull analysis revealed no differences between control samples and the two exposed samples. We thus concluded that radiation components of the Earth orbital environment did not degrade the mechanical strength of the samples examined within the limits of experimental error. The upper bound of strength degradation for meteorite impacted samples based upon statistical analysis and observation was 50 percent.

  6. Contribution to the study of hydrogenated and oxygenated impurities in liquid sodium; Contribution a l'etude des impuretees hydrogenees et oxygenees dans le sodium liquide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naud, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-15

    This study is made up essentially of two parts. The first is devoted to the development of dosage methods for selectively determining the oxygenated and hydrogenated impurities present in sodium, that is the oxide, the hydride and the hydroxide. The second makes use of these methods for a study of the Na-H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} system, as well as of the related problem of the attack of pyrex glass by molten sodium. The conventional method for dosing oxygen by amalgamation was first adapted to the simultaneous measurement of the hydride. We then developed a method for dosing the total hydrogen by measuring successively the concentrations of gas present in the hydride and hydroxide form. This method is based on the thermal decomposition of the hydride and the reaction between sodium and the hydroxide. Our contribution to the study of the Na-H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} System consists first of all in the study of the reaction between hydrogen and sodium in the temperature range from 150 to 250 deg C and at a pressure of about 150 mm of mercury. The study of the thermal decomposition of the hydride in sodium was then studied. It was possible to make some qualitative observations concerning the reaction between sodium and sodium hydroxide. Finally some complementary tests made it possible to define the nature of the phenomena occurring during the attack of pyrex glass by sodium. (author) [French] Cette etude comporte essentiellement deux parties. La premiere est consacree a la mise au point de methodes de dosages permettant de determiner selectivement les impuretes oxygenees et hydrogenees presentes dans le sodium, a savoir l'oxyde, l'hydrure et l'hydroxyde. La seconde met a profit ces methodes en vue de l'etude du systeme Na-H{sub 2}-O{sub 2}. ainsi que du phenomene connexe d'attaque du verre pyrex par le sodium fondu. La methode classique de dosage de l'oxygene par amalgamation a d'abord ete adaptee au dosage simultane de l'hydrure. Nous avons ensuite mis au point le dosage de l

  7. Photometric estimation of plutonium in product solutions and acid waste solutions using flow injection analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhas, A.J.A.; Dharmapurikar, G.R.; Kumaraguru, K.; Vijayan, K.; Kapoor, S.C.; Ramanujam, A.

    1995-01-01

    Flow injection analysis technique is employed for the measurement of plutonium concentrations in product nitrate solutions by measuring the absorbance of Pu(III) at 565 nm and of Pu(IV) at 470 nm, using a Metrohm 662 photometer, with a pyrex glass tube of 2 nm (ID) inserted in the light path of the detector serving as a flow cell. The photometer detector never comes in contact with radioactive solution. In the case of acid waste solutions Pu is first purified by extraction chromatography with 2-ethyl hexyl hydrogen 2 ethyl hexyl phosphonate (KSM 17)- chromosorb and the Pu in the eluate in complexed with Arsenazo III followed by the measured of absorbance at 665 nm. Absorbance of reference solutions in the desired concentration ranges are measured to calibrate the system. The results obtained agree with the reference values within ±2.0%. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab

  8. PMMA to SU-8 Bonding for Polymer Based Lab-on-a-chip Systems with Integrated Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Nielsen, Theodor; Nilsson, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    An adhesive bonding technique for wafer-level sealing of SU-8 based lab-on-a-chip microsystems with integrated optical components is presented. Microfluidic channels and optical components, e.g. waveguides, are fabricated in cross-linked SU-8 and sealed with a Pyrex glass substrate by means...... strength of 16 MPa is achieved at bonding temperatures between 110 oC and 120oC, at a bonding force of 2000 N on a 4-inch wafer. The optical propagation loss of multi-mode 10ym (thickness)x 30ym (width)SU-8 waveguides is measured. The propagation loss in PMMA bonded waveguide struc-tures is more than 5 d......B/cm lower, at wavelengths between 600nm and 900 nm, than in similar structures bonded by an intermediate layer of SU-8. Furthermore 950K PMMA shows no tendency to flow into the bonded structures during bonding because of its high viscosity....

  9. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Green emission and bandgap narrowing due to two-photon excitation in thin film CdS formed by spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, B.; Schroeder, R.

    2001-08-01

    Thin (10 µm) film CdS on Pyrex® formed by spray pyrolysis is excited below the gap at 804 nm with 200 fs laser pulses at room temperature. Excitation intensities up to 250 GW cm-2 evoke green bandgap emission due to two-photon transitions. This two-photon photoluminescence does not show a red emission contribution in contrast to the single-photon excited emission, which is dominated by broad emission in the red spectral range. It is demonstrated that two-photon excitation causes photo-induced bandgap narrowing due to Debye screening. At 250 GW cm-2 bandgap narrowing of 47 meV is observed, which corresponds to an excited electron density of 1.6×1018 cm-3.

  10. Lead removal from aqueous solutions by potassium titanate doped with silica; Remocion de plomo de soluciones acuosas por titanato de potasio dopado con silice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar G, M. A.; Aguilar E, A. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico); Gorokhovsky, A. V.; Escalante G, J. I. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Saltillo, Carretera Saltillo-Mty Km. 13, Apdo. Postal 663, Saltillo 25000, Coahuila (Mexico)], e-mail: mgzlz@hotmail.com

    2009-07-01

    This paper is related to elimination of Pb{sup 2+} ions from aqueous solutions by adsorption in potassium tetra titanate doped with silica. The adsorbent was prepared in the form of granules with pastes of potassium poly titanate (45 %), powdered Pyrex glass (5 %) and potato starch (50 %), which were extruded and thermally treated at 1100 C. The structural characteristic of the granulated adsorbent allows reducing the Pb concentration, from the solutions eluted through an adsorption column, to levels below the requirement of national standards. The effects of the time of saturation of the adsorbent and the ph of the solution were also investigated on the effectiveness of the adsorption of Pb. The mechanism of lead adsorption, by the developed adsorbent, is considered as a combination of adsorption, ion-exchange and co-precipitation processes. It is also shown that the lead-saturated adsorbent could be utilized to produce high-strength non-dangerous ceramic materials. (Author)

  11. A simple method employed for the treatment of filters used in atmospheric pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prendez B, M.M.; Ortiz C, J.L.; Garrido, J.I.; Huerta P, R.; Alvarez B, C.; Zolezzi C, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    A simple and rapid method for the multielement routine analysis of atmospheric particulate matter is described. The samples collected on four different types of filters were treated with HNO 3 and HCl at 110-120 deg C in pyrex glassware. Time required for the different stages of the treatment was determined by using 60 Co, 65 Zn and 137 Cs as radioactive tracers. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to determine the concentration of the elements. The efficiency for 11 elements (Mg, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb) was determined. The method was succesfully employed for the treatment of filters used in atmospheric pollution studies in both urban and rural areas. (author)

  12. Light-induced atomic desorption and related phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchianti, A; Bogi, A; Marinelli, C; Mariotti, E; Moi, L [CNISM and Physics Department, University of Siena, 53100 Siena (Italy)], E-mail: burchianti@unisi.it

    2009-07-15

    We review some recent studies on light-induced atomic desorption (LIAD) from dielectric surfaces. Alkali-metal atoms adsorbed either on organic films or on porous glass are released into the vapor phase under illumination. The measurements were performed in Pyrex resonance cells either coated with siloxane films or containing a porous glass sample. In both cases, the experimental results show that LIAD can be used to produce atomic densities suitable for most atomic physics experiments. Moreover, we find that photoinduced effects, correlated with LIAD, produce reversible formation and evaporation of alkali-metal clusters in porous glass. These processes depend on the light frequency, making the porous glass transmittance controllable by light.

  13. RF high voltage performance of RF transmission line components on the DIII-D Fast Wave Current Drive (FWCD) System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, S.W.; Callis, R.W.; Cary, W.P.; Phelps, D.A.; Ponce, D.; Baity, F.W.; Barber, G.

    1995-12-01

    The performance of the high voltage rf components of the DIII-D Fast Wave Current Drive System (FWCD) have been evaluated under various conditions of insulator configuration, insulator material, insulating gas and gas pressure. The insulator materials that have been investigated are alumina, steatite, pyrex, quartz, and teflon. The results of this evaluation are discussed in this paper. Additionally a rf high potter was developed to aid in the evaluation of rf high voltage components. The high potter consists of a 50 Ω, 1/4 wavelength cavity with a variable position short and a 50 ohm matched tap at one end of the cavity. With this configuration rf voltages were generated in excess of 100 kVp in the frequency range 30 to 60 MHz

  14. Photon emission induced by brittle fracture of borosilicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiota, Tadashi, E-mail: tshiota@ceram.titech.ac.jp [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramic Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Sato, Yoshitaka [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramic Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Kishi, Tetsuo [Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Yasuda, Kouichi [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramic Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    Photon emission (PE) at wavelength ranges of 430–490 nm (B-PE), 500–600 nm (G-PE) and 610–680 nm (R-PE) caused by brittle fracture was simultaneously measured in the nanosecond-to-microsecond and millisecond time domains for two types of borosilicate glasses: Pyrex-type Tempax glass and BK7 glass. The results were compared to those for silica and soda lime glasses. The time dependence of the PE of Tempax glass was similar to that of silica glass, while the PE intensity was lower. Because Tempax glass contains both silica-rich and borate-rich amorphous phases, the PE must be mainly produced by the fracture of the silica-rich phase. Moreover, the proportion of B-PE of Tempax glass was higher than that of silica glass. This suggests that the measured B-PE might also include very weak PE caused by the fracture of the borate-rich phase. The PE time dependence of BK7 glass was similar to that of soda lime glass, which was different from the case for Tempax glass. The PE intensity of BK7 glass was slightly higher than that of soda lime glass, but much lower than that of Tempax glass. The result indicates that non-bridging oxygen in the glasses affects crack propagation behavior and reduces the PE. - Highlights: • Photon emission (PE) upon brittle fracture of borosilicate glasses was measured. • Pyrex-type Tempax and BK7 glasses showed different PE characteristics. • The rupture of Si–O bonds produces much stronger PE than that of B–O bonds. • Non-bridging oxygen in glass affects crack propagation behavior and reduces the PE.

  15. Microfabricated thermal modulator for comprehensive two-dimensional micro gas chromatography: design, thermal modeling, and preliminary testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Reidy, Shaelah M; Block, Bruce P; Wise, Kensall D; Zellers, Edward T; Kurabayashi, Katsuo

    2010-07-07

    In comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC), a modulator is placed at the juncture between two separation columns to focus and re-inject eluting mixture components, thereby enhancing the resolution and the selectivity of analytes. As part of an effort to develop a microGC x microGC prototype, in this report we present the design, fabrication, thermal operation, and initial testing of a two-stage microscale thermal modulator (microTM). The microTM contains two sequential serpentine Pyrex-on-Si microchannels (stages) that cryogenically trap analytes eluting from the first-dimension column and thermally inject them into the second-dimension column in a rapid, programmable manner. For each modulation cycle (typically 5 s for cooling with refrigeration work of 200 J and 100 ms for heating at 10 W), the microTM is kept approximately at -50 degrees C by a solid-state thermoelectric cooling unit placed within a few tens of micrometres of the device, and heated to 250 degrees C at 2800 degrees C s(-1) by integrated resistive microheaters and then cooled back to -50 degrees C at 250 degrees C s(-1). Thermal crosstalk between the two stages is less than 9%. A lumped heat transfer model is used to analyze the device design with respect to the rates of heating and cooling, power dissipation, and inter-stage thermal crosstalk as a function of Pyrex-membrane thickness, air-gap depth, and stage separation distance. Experimental results are in agreement with trends predicted by the model. Preliminary tests using a conventional capillary column interfaced to the microTM demonstrate the capability for enhanced sensitivity and resolution as well as the modulation of a mixture of alkanes.

  16. Computer Controlled Chemical Micro-Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechtilde, Schaefer; Eduard, Stach; Adreas, Foitzik

    2006-01-01

    Chemical reactions or chemical equilibria can be influenced and controlled by several parameters. The ratio of two liquid ingredients, the so called reactants or educts, plays an important role in determining the end product and its yield. The reactants must be weighed and accordingly mixed with the conventional batch mode. If the reaction is done in a microreactor or in several parallel working micro-reactors, units for allotting the educts in appropriate quantities are required. In this report we present a novel micro-reactor that allows the constant monitoring of the chemical reaction via Raman spectroscopy. Such monitoring enables an appropriate feedback on the steering parameters for the PC controlled micro-pumps for the appropriate educt flow rate of both liquids to get optimised ratios of ingredients at an optimised total flow rate. The micro-reactors are the core pieces of the design and are easily removable and can therefore be changed at any time to adapt the requirements of the chemical reaction. One type of reactor consists of a stainless steel base containing small scale milled channels covered with anodically bonded Pyrex glass. Another type of reactor has a base of anisotropically etched silicon, and is also covered with anodically bonded Pyrex glass. The glass window allows visual observation of the initial phase interface of the two educts in the reaction channels by optical microscopy and does not affect, in contrast to infrared spectroscopy, the Raman spectroscopic signal for detection of the reaction kinetics. On the basis of a test reaction, we present non-invasive and spatially highly resolved in-situ reaction analysis using Raman spectroscopy measured along the reaction channel at different locations

  17. Decomposition of Askarel Oil by Microwave Radiation and H202/TiO2 Agents in Order to Reduce Occupational Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Tajik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poly chlorinated biphenyls (PCBS are the groups of organicchemical material and toxic, persistent, bio accumulate and pose a risk of causingadverse effects to human health and the environment. PCB compounds arecaused the different health effects in human depending of age, sex, route of entry,intensity and frequency exposure. This study was conducted to determine theeffect of microwave rays, hydrogen peroxide, TiO2 catalyst and ethanol on theDecomposition of PCBS.Methods: In this experiment used a MW oven, Pyrex vessel reactor (250mlvolume, Pyrex tube connector and condensing system. A 900w domestic MWoven with a fixed frequency of 2450 MHZ was used to provide MW irradiation. Raypowers used in 540، 720 and 900w. The PCBS were analyzed by GC-ECDResults: The degradation of total PCBS in terms of 540, 720 and 900W was85.03%, 90.32% and 96.87% respectively. The degradation of total PCBS in termsof ratio to solvent with transformer oil in 1:1، 2:1 and 3:1 was 53.97%، 78.98% and95.13% respectively. The degradation of total PCBs in terms of not using of H2O2/TiO2 and using 20% of H2O2 and 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2 g TiO2 was 68.78%,93.97%, 95.13%, 96.18% and 96.87 % respectively.Conclusion: The Microwave thermal reaction was applied for the dechlorinationof PCBs and high efficiencies were obtained. Microwave power and amounts ofreactants added are important factors influencing dechlorination efficiency.

  18. Degradation of Transformer Oil (PCB Compounds by Microwave Radiation, Ethanol Solvent, Hydrogen Peroxide and Dioxide Titanium for Reducing Environmental Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Tajik

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poly chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are a class of chlorinated organic chemicals that do not easily degrade in the environment. This study was conducted to determine the effect of microwave rays, hydrogen peroxide, dioxide titanium and ethanol solvent on the degradation of PCBs. Methods: A 900w domestic MW oven with a fixed frequency of 2450 MHZ was used to provide MW irradiation. Ray powers were used in 540, 720, and 900w. A hole was made on the top portion of the oven and a Pyrex vessel reactor (250ml volume was connected to condensing system with a Pyrex tube connector. The PCBs were analyzed by GC-ECD. Results: The degradation of total PCBs was 54.62%, 79.71%, and 95.76% in terms of their ratio to solvent with transformer oil at 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1, respectively. The degradation of total PCBs was 84.27%, 89.18%, and 96.1% when using 540, 720, and 900W microwave radiation, respectively. The degradation of total PCBs was 70.72%, 93.02%, 94.16, 95.23% and 96.1% when not using H2O2/ Tio2 and using 20% H2O2 and 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2g Tio2, respectively. Conclusion: In the present study, the optimum conditions to decompose PCBs efficiently included 50 ml volume of ratio to solvent with transformer oil (3:1, sodium hydroxide solution (0.2N 1 cc, use of 20% hydrogen peroxide of total volume of samples, dioxide titanium (0.2g, and irradiation for 9 minutes. Under these optimum conditions, efficiency of PCBs decomposition increased.

  19. Radiation chemical route for preparation of metal nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, S.; Mukherjee, T.

    2006-01-01

    Nanoparticles show properties that are neither seen in the bulk or at atomic level. The unusual properties are governed by quantum size effect. Due to this various methodologies have been endeavored to control the size of the particles. In the present work we show the use of two complimentary techniques (radiation and photo) to synthesize and control the size of the metal particles. In-situ synthesis of fine silver, thallium and cadmium particles has been carried out by gamma-irradiation and electron pulse irradiation at room temperature in the pre-organized gel of polyacrylamide or cyclodextrin cavity. The role of generation of nuclei in high concentrations in stabilization of metal nanoparticles in hydrophobic cavity is shown. Similarly the importance of entrapment of metal ions in the polymer matrix during its formation is highlighted. The work is further extended to exploit the microemulsion droplets for stabilization of Cd nanoparticles. Utility of pulse radiolysis in probing the mechanism of the formation of metal nanoparticles is also shown. Ultrafast laser pulses were employed to control the morphology of the pre-prepared Pt nanoparticles. The changes in reduction of shape and size are considered to occur through melting and vaporization of the nanoparticles. Pt nanoparticles were coated on the inner walls of the tubular pyrex reactor and tested for their catalytic activity for oxidation of CO. It was observed that Pt nanoparticles prepared in the presence of a stabilizer (gelatin) showed a higher tendency to adhere to the inner walls of the pyrex reactor as compared to that prepared in the presence of silica nanoparticles. The catalyst was found to be active at ≥150 degree C giving CO 2 . Chemically reduced Pt nanoparticles stabilized on silica nanoparticles gave ∼7% CO conversion per hr. However, radiolytically prepared Pt nanoaprticles stabilized by gelatin gave ∼10% conversion per hr. The data indicates that catalytic oxidation of CO takes place

  20. Fabrication of Biomimetic Fog-Collecting Superhydrophilic-Superhydrophobic Surface Micropatterns Using Femtosecond Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostal, Elisabeth; Stroj, Sandra; Kasemann, Stephan; Matylitsky, Victor; Domke, Matthias

    2018-03-06

    The exciting functionalities of natural superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic surfaces served as inspiration for a variety of biomimetic designs. In particular, the combination of both extreme wetting states to micropatterns opens up interesting applications, as the example of the fog-collecting Namib Desert beetle shows. In this paper, the beetle's elytra were mimicked by a novel three-step fabrication method to increase the fog-collection efficiency of glasses. In the first step, a double-hierarchical surface structure was generated on Pyrex wafers using femtosecond laser structuring, which amplified the intrinsic wetting property of the surface and made it superhydrophilic (water contact angle 150°). In the last step, the Teflon-like coating was selectively removed by fs-laser ablation to uncover superhydrophilic spots below the superhydrophobic surface, following the example of the Namib Desert beetle's fog-collecting elytra. To investigate the influence on the fog-collection behavior, (super)hydrophilic, (super)hydrophobic, and low and high contrast wetting patterns were fabricated on glass wafers using selected combinations of these three processing steps and were exposed to fog in an artificial nebulizer setup. This experiment revealed that high-contrast wetting patterns collected the highest amount of fog and enhanced the fog-collection efficiency by nearly 60% compared to pristine Pyrex glass. The comparison of the fog-collection behavior of the six samples showed that the superior fog-collection efficiency of surface patterns with extreme wetting contrast is due to the combination of water attraction and water repellency: the superhydrophilic spots act as drop accumulation areas, whereas the surrounding superhydrophobic areas allow a fast water transportation caused by gravity. The presented method enables a fast and flexible surface functionalization of a broad range of materials including transparent substrates, which offers exciting possibilities for

  1. Study on thermal-hydraulic phenomena in porous media. Semiannual report 1997. Nov. to 1998. Mar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matui, Goichi; Monji, Hideaki; Sakakibara, Jun; Tanaka, Masa-aki; Kobayashi, Jun; Kamide, Hideki

    1998-03-01

    The objective of this study is to clarify the thermal-hydraulic phenomena in porous media and to develop the analytical method to predict the thermal-hydraulic field, deciding the maximum temperature on the fuel pin surface. FY 1998 is the first year of the 3 years plan. In this year period, based on the correspondence of Reynolds number between experimental facility and FBR, the design and construction of the test rig and experimental parameter examination were performed. The test section has rectangle two sub-channel geometry and is twenty times large-scale model. In this study, we use the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) analysis method to visualize the flow field in the porous media. The Pyrex grass spheres were used to construct the porous blockage. The refraction-rate matching between obstacle and fluid is important to measure the velocity field with the optical analysis method. As the working fluid, NaI solution was used. When the concentration of NaI is 56.4wt% in the solution, the refraction-rate is correspond to that of the Pyrex grass. The simple test loop was constructed and the experiment was performed to measure the velocity field with Laser Doppler Anemometer and PIV. The purpose of this experiment using the simple test loop is to develop the experimental method of flow visualization in the porous media used NaI solution as working fluid. As the result of experiment with the simple test loop, the vector field in the porous media was obtained and it is shown that the flow pattern with PIV analysis is qualitatively correct. This visualization method using the NaI solution is applicable to measure the flow field in the porous media. (J.P.N.)

  2. Unraveling the mysteries of microwave chemistry using silicon carbide reactor technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappe, C Oliver

    2013-07-16

    In the past few years, the use of microwave energy to heat chemical reactions has become an increasingly popular theme in the scientific community. This nonclassical heating technique has slowly progressed from a laboratory curiosity to an established method commonly used both in academia and in industry. Because of its efficiency, microwave heating dramatically reduces reaction times (from days and hours to minutes and seconds) and improves product purities or material properties among other advantages. Since the early days of microwave chemistry, researchers have observed rate-accelerations and, in some cases, altered product distributions as compared with reactions carried out using classical oil-bath heating. As a result, researchers have speculated that so-called specific or nonthermal microwave effects could be responsible for these differences. Much of the debate has centered on the question of whether the electromagnetic field can exert a direct influence on a chemical transformation outside of the simple macroscopic change in bulk reaction temperature. In 2009, our group developed a relatively simple "trick" that allows us to rapidly evaluate whether an observed effect seen in a microwave-assisted reaction results from a purely thermal phenomenon, or involves specific or nonthermal microwave effects. We use a microwave reaction vessel made from silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic. Because of its high microwave absorptivity, the vessel shields its contents from the electromagnetic field. As a result, we can easily mimic a conventionally heated autoclave experiment inside a microwave reactor under carefully controlled reaction conditions. The switch from an almost microwave transparent glass (Pyrex) to a strongly microwave absorbing SiC reaction vial under otherwise identical reaction conditions (temperature profiles, pressure, stirring speed) then allows us to carefully evaluate the influence of the electromagnetic field on the particular chemical transformation

  3. Estudio de la fermentación láctica para la extracción de quitina a partir de desechos de crustáceos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Benavente

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of chitin from crustacean waste involved the deproteinisation and demineralisation of crustacean shells using lactic acid fermentation with whey and sucrose as culture medium and carbon source, respectively. The fermentation process was carried out in a vertical Pyrex reactor of 4 L by 2 and 3 weeks at room temperature. The results showed that a good deproteinisation and demineralisation was obtained; however, the product still contained traces of proteins and pigments. Therefore, it was necessary to apply a chemical process with sodium hydroxide and sodium hypochlorite, to completely remove the proteins and pigments from the structure of crustacean shell. A recovery of 85 % was obtained. The comparison of FT-IR spectra of chitin produced and a sample of commercial chitin showed a correlation rate of 93-95 %, indicating that chitin produced using the combined method has a high degree of purity. Keywords: Chitin; Shrimp shell; Sucrose; Vertical reactor; Whey La extracción de quitina a partir de desechos de crustáceos involucró la fermentación acido láctica para la desproteinización y desmineralización del caparazón de camarón, haciendo uso de suero de leche y sacarosa, como sustrato y fuente de carbono. El proceso de fermentación se llevo a cabo en un reactor vertical de vidrio Pyrex de 4 L por un período de 2 y 3 semanas a temperatura ambiente. Los resultados mostraron que aunque hubo una buena desproteinización y desmineralización, todavía el producto contenía restos de proteínas y pigmentos. Por ello, se hizo necesario aplicar un procedimiento químico con hidróxido de sodio e hipoclorito de sodio, para remover completamente las proteínas y los pigmentos de la estructura del caparazón. Al final del proceso se obtuvo una recuperación del 85 %. La comparación de los espectros FT-IR de la quitina producida con una muestra de quitina comercial, mostró un porcentaje de correlación del 93-95 %, lo que indica que

  4. Thermic decomposition of biphenyl; Decomposition thermique du biphenyle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-03-01

    Liquid and vapour phase pyrolysis of very pure biphenyl obtained by methods described in the text was carried out at 400 C in sealed ampoules, the fraction transformed being always less than 0.1 per cent. The main products were hydrogen, benzene, terphenyls, and a deposit of polyphenyls strongly adhering to the walls. Small quantities of the lower aliphatic hydrocarbons were also found. The variation of the yields of these products with a) the pyrolysis time, b) the state (gas or liquid) of the biphenyl, and c) the pressure of the vapour was measured. Varying the area and nature of the walls showed that in the absence of a liquid phase, the pyrolytic decomposition takes place in the adsorbed layer, and that metallic walls promote the reaction more actively than do those of glass (pyrex or silica). A mechanism is proposed to explain the results pertaining to this decomposition in the adsorbed phase. The adsorption seems to obey a Langmuir isotherm, and the chemical act which determines the overall rate of decomposition is unimolecular. (author) [French] Du biphenyle tres pur, dont la purification est decrite, est pyrolyse a 400 C en phase vapeur et en phase liquide dans des ampoules scellees sous vide, a des taux de decomposition n'ayant jamais depasse 0,1 pour cent. Les produits provenant de la pyrolyse sont essentiellement: l' hydrogene, le benzene, les therphenyles, et un depot de polyphenyles adherant fortement aux parois. En plus il se forme de faibles quantites d'hydrocarbures aliphatiques gazeux. On indique la variation des rendements des differents produits avec la duree de pyrolyse, l'etat gazeux ou liquide du biphenyle, et la pression de la vapeur. Variant la superficie et la nature des parois, on montre qu'en absence de liquide la pyrolyse se fait en phase adsorbee. La pyrolyse est plus active au contact de parois metalliques que de celles de verres (pyrex ou silice). A partir des resultats experimentaux un mecanisme de degradation du biphenyle en phase

  5. Experimental study of air-cooled water condensation in slightly inclined circular tube using infrared temperature measurement technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyungdae [Nuclear Engineering Department, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Tae-Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Eok, E-mail: dekim@knu.ac.kr [Department of Precision Mechanical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Sangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Air-cooled condensation experiments in an inclined Pyrex glass tube were performed. • High-resolution wall temperature data and flow regime formations could be obtained. • The local heat flux was strongly dependent on the air-side heat transfer. • A CFD analysis was conducted for calculating the local heat flux distribution. - Abstract: This study presents the results of an investigation of the air-cooled water condensation heat transfer characteristics inside a slightly inclined circular tube made of transparent Pyrex glass. The high-resolution wall temperature data and stratified film formations could be obtained with the assistance of an infrared (IR) thermometry technique and side-view visualization using a CCD camera. In all experimental cases, the condensation flow patterns were in the fully-stratified flow region. In addition, the experimentally measured void fraction corresponded well with the logarithmic mean void fraction model. The local temperature differences in the cooling air flow across the condenser tube and high-resolution temperature profiles on the tube’s outer wall were obtained in the experimental measurements. Under the experimental conditions of this study, the local heat flux distributions in the longitudinal direction of the test tube were strongly dependent on the cooling air velocity. And, with the help of IR thermometry, the tube outer wall temperature data at 45 local points could be measured. From the data, the asymmetry distribution of the local wall temperatures and the accurate location of the transition from two-phase mixture to single phase liquid inside the tube could be obtained. Also, the analysis of the thermal resistances by condensation, wall conduction and air convection showed that the air convective heat transfer behavior can play a dominant role to the local heat transfer characteristics. Finally, in order to obtain the local heat flux distribution along the tube’s outer wall, a two

  6. Attenuation of hydrogen radicals traveling under flowing gas conditions through tubes of different materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubbs, R.K.; George, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen radical concentrations traveling under flowing gas conditions through tubes of different materials were measured using a dual thermocouple probe. The source of the hydrogen radicals was a toroidal radio frequency plasma source operating at 2.0 and 3.3 kW for H 2 pressures of 250 and 500 mTorr, respectively. The dual thermocouple probe was comprised of exposed and covered Pt/Pt13%Rh thermocouples. Hydrogen radicals recombined efficiently on the exposed thermocouple and the energy of formation of H 2 heated the thermocouple. The second thermocouple was covered by glass and was heated primarily by the ambient gas. The dual thermocouple probe was translated and measured temperatures at different distances from the hydrogen radical source. These temperature measurements were conducted at H 2 flow rates of 35 and 75 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP) inside cylindrical tubes made of stainless steel, aluminum, quartz, and Pyrex. The hydrogen radical concentrations were obtained from the temperatures of the exposed and covered thermocouples. The hydrogen concentration decreased versus distance from the plasma source. After correcting for the H 2 gas flow using a reference frame transformation, the hydrogen radical concentration profiles yielded the atomic hydrogen recombination coefficient, γ, for the four materials. The methodology of measuring the hydrogen radical concentrations, the analysis of the results under flowing gas conditions, and the determination of the atomic hydrogen recombination coefficients for various materials will help facilitate the use of hydrogen radicals for thin film growth processes

  7. Unusual behavior in the reactivity of 5-substituted-1H-tetrazoles in a resistively heated microreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique M. Roberge

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition of 5-benzhydryl-1H-tetrazole in an N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone/acetic acid/water mixture was investigated under a variety of high-temperature reaction conditions. Employing a sealed Pyrex glass vial and batch microwave conditions at 240 °C, the tetrazole is comparatively stable and complete decomposition to diphenylmethane requires more than 8 h. Similar kinetic data were obtained in conductively heated flow devices with either stainless steel or Hastelloy coils in the same temperature region. In contrast, in a flow instrument that utilizes direct electric resistance heating of the reactor coil, tetrazole decomposition was dramatically accelerated with rate constants increased by two orders of magnitude. When 5-benzhydryl-1H-tetrazole was exposed to 220 °C in this type of flow reactor, decomposition to diphenylmethane was complete within 10 min. The mechanism and kinetic parameters of tetrazole decomposition under a variety of reaction conditions were investigated. A number of possible explanations for these highly unusual rate accelerations are presented. In addition, general aspects of reactor degradation, corrosion and contamination effects of importance to continuous flow chemistry are discussed.

  8. Detection mechanism and characteristics of ZnO-based N2O sensors operating with photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, T. S.; Yu, J. H.; Mo, H. S.; Kim, T. S.; Youn, C. J.; Hong, K. J.

    2013-11-01

    N2O sensors made with ZnO-based ZnCdO films were grown on Pyrex substrates by using the RF co-sputtering method. The structure of the N2O sensor was electrode/sensor/glass/illuminant. The mechanism of the photo-assisted oxidation and reduction process on the surface of the N2O sensors was investigated using light from a UV lamp and violet light emitting diode (LED). For photon exposure wavelengths of 365 and 405 nm, the sensitivity of the ZnO-based ZnCdO sensors was measured. From these measurements, the values of the sensitivity of the sensors with x = 0, 0.01, and 0.05 were found to be S = 1.44, 1.39, and 1.33 under LED light with a wavelength of 405 nm, respectively. These sensitivities were compared to those of SnO2 and WO3 materials measured at operating temperatures of 300-600 °C. Also, under exposure with UV light, the response times were observed to be 130 to 270 sec. These response times were slightly slower than that for the traditional method of thermal heating. However, they indicate that the described photon exposure method for N2O detection can replace the conventional heating mode. Consequently, we demonstrated that portable N2O sensors for room-temperature operation could be fabricated without thermal heating.

  9. Telescope Construction: A Hands-On Approach to Astronomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazine, Angela R.; Albin, E.

    2009-01-01

    We report on a popular semester-long telescope making course offered at Fernbank Science Center in Atlanta, GA. The program is tailored for junior / senior level high school students and incorporates the current educational performance standards for the state of Georgia. This course steps out of the traditional classroom environment and allows students to explore optics and astronomical concepts by constructing their own telescopes. Student telescopes follow the classic six-inch f/8 Newtonian reflector design, which has proven to be a good compromise between portability and aperture. Participants meet for a few hours, twice weekly, to build their telescopes. Over the course of the semester, raw one-inch thick Pyrex mirror blanks are ground, polished, and figured by hand into precision telescope objectives. Along the way, students are introduced to the Ronchi and Foucault methods for testing optics and once figured, completed mirrors are then chemically silvered. A plywood Dobsonian-style base is built and eventually mated with an optical tube made from a standard eight-inch concrete form tube or sonotube. An evening of star testing the optics and observation is planned at the end of the semester to insure the proper operation of each telescope. In summary, we believe that a hands-on approach to the understanding and use of optical telescopes is a great way not only to instill enthusiasm among students for the night sky, but may perhaps inspire the next generation of professional telescope makers.

  10. New analytical portable instrument for microchip electrophoresis with electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-la-Villa, Ana; Pozo-Ayuso, Diego F; Castaño-Alvarez, Mario

    2010-08-01

    A new portable instrument that includes a high voltage power supply, a bipotentiostat, and a chip holder has been especially developed for using microchips electrophoresis with electrochemical detection. The main unit of the instrument has dimensions of 150 x 165 x 70 mm (wxdxh) and consists of a four-outputs high voltage power supply with a maximum voltage of +/-3 KV and an acquisition system with two channels for dual amperometric (DC or pulsed amperometric detection) detection. Electrochemical detection has been selected as signal transduction method because it is relatively easily implemented, since nonoptical elements are required. The system uses a lithium-ion polymer battery and it is controlled from a desktop or laptop PC with a graphical user interface based on LabVIEW connected by serial RS232 or Bluetooth. The last part of the system consists of a reusable chip holder for housing the microchips, which contain all the electrical connections and reservoirs for making the work with microchips easy. The performance of the new instrument has been evaluated and compared with other commercially available apparatus using single- and dual-channel pyrex microchips for the separation of the neurotransmitters dopamine, epinephrine, and 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenyl-alanine. The reduction of the size of the instrument has not affected the good performance of the separation and detection using microchips electrophoresis with electrochemical detection. Moreover, the new portable instrument paves the way for in situ analysis making the use of microchips electrophoresis easier.

  11. Pool boiling with high heat flux enabled by a porous artery structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lizhan; Zhang, Lianpei; Lin, Guiping; Peterson, G. P.

    2016-06-01

    A porous artery structure utilizing the concept of "phase separation and modulation" is proposed to enhance the critical heat flux of pool boiling. A series of experiments were conducted on a range of test articles in which multiple rectangular arteries were machined directly into the top surface of a 10.0 mm diameter copper rod. The arteries were then covered by a 2.0 mm thickness microporous copper plate through silver brazing. The pool wall was fabricated from transparent Pyrex glass to allow a visualization study, and water was used as the working fluid. Experimental results confirmed that the porous artery structure provided individual flow paths for the liquid supply and vapor venting, and avoided the detrimental effects of the liquid/vapor counter flow. As a result, a maximum heat flux of 610 W/cm2 over a heating area of 0.78 cm2 was achieved with no indication of dryout, prior to reaching the heater design temperature limit. Following the experimental tests, the mechanisms responsible for the boiling critical heat flux and performance enhancement of the porous artery structure were analyzed.

  12. Long-range pulselength scaling of 351nm laser damage thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltyn, S. R.; Jolin, L. J.

    1986-12-01

    In a series of experiments incorporating 351nm pulselength of 9, 26, 54, and 625ns, it was found that laser damage thresholds increased as (pulselength)/sup x/, and that the exponent averaged 0.36 and ranged, for different samples, from 0.23 to 0.48. Similar results were obtained when only catastrophic damage was considered. Samples included Al2O3/SiO2 in both AR and HR multilayers, HR's of Sc2O3/SiO2 and HfO2/SiO2, and Al-on-pyrex mirror; 9ns thresholds were between 0.2 to 5.6 J/sq cm. When these data were compared with a wide range of other results - for wavelengths from 0.25 to 10.6 microns and pulselengths down to 4ps - a remarkably consistent picture emerged. Damage thresholds, on average, increase approximately as the cube-root of pulselength from picoseconds to nearly a microsecond, and do so regardless of wavelength or material under test.

  13. Critical heat flux and flow pattern for water flow in annular geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.-W.; Baek, W.-P.; Chang, S.H.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental study on critical heat flux (CHF) and two-phase flow visualization has been performed for water flow in internally-heated, vertical, concentric annuli under near atmospheric pressure. Tests have been done under stable forced-circulation, upward and downward flow conditions with three test sections of relatively large gap widths (heated length = 0.6 m, inner diameter 19 mm, outer diameter = 29, 35 and 51 mm). The outer wall of the test section was made up of the transparent Pyrex tube to allow the observation of flow patterns near the CHF occurrence. The CHF mechanism was changed in the order of flooding, churn-to-annular flow transition and local dryout under a large bubble in churn flow as the flow rate was increased from zero to higher values. Observed parametric trends are consistent with the previous understanding except that the CHF for downward flow is considerably lower than that for the upward flow. In addition to the experiment, selected CHF correlations for annuli are assessed based on 1156 experimental data from various sources. The Doerffer et al. (1994); Barnett (1966); Jannsen and Kervinen (1963); Levitan and Lantsman (1977) correlations show reasonable predictions for wide parameter ranges, among which the Doerffer et al. (1994) correlation shows the widest parameter ranges and a possibility of further improvement. However, there is no correlation predicting the low-pressure, low-flow CHF satisfactorily. (orig.)

  14. Elastic liposomes as novel carriers: recent advances in drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain A

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Afzal Hussain,1,2 Sima Singh,1 Dinesh Sharma,3 Thomas J Webster,4 Kausar Shafaat,2 Abdul Faruk5 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India; 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Sachchidananda Sinha College, Aurangabad, Bihar, India; 3Zifam Pyrex Myanmar Co. Ltd., Yangon, Myanmar; 4Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 5Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University, Srinagar, Uttarakhand, India Abstract: Elastic liposomes (EL are some of the most versatile deformable vesicular carriers that comprise physiologically biocompatible lipids and surfactants for the delivery of numerous challenging molecules and have marked advantages over other colloidal systems. They have been investigated for a wide range of applications in pharmaceutical technology through topical, transdermal, nasal, and oral routes for efficient and effective drug delivery. Increased drug encapsulation efficiency, enhanced drug permeation and penetration into or across the skin, and ultradeformability have led to widespread interest in ELs to modulate drug release, permeation, and drug action more efficiently than conventional drug-release vehicles. This review provides insights into the versatile role that ELs play in the delivery of numerous drugs and biomolecules by improving drug release, permeation, and penetration across the skin as well as stability. Furthermore, it provides future directions that should ensure the widespread use of ELs across all medical fields. Keywords: elastic liposomes, drug delivery, topical, transdermal, enhanced delivery 

  15. Break-down stage in a 20 kV coaxial gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feugeas, J.; Massa, M.; VonPamel, O.

    1984-01-01

    The electrical break-down of hydrogen in a coaxial electrode system (similar to Mather-type Plasma Focus) was studied for a wide range of pressures. A squirrel's cage outer electrode (cathode) of 50 mm of diameter was used to allow lateral views of the discharge, with an inner electrode (anode) of 17 mm of diameter and a pyrex sleeve of 25 mm length as insulator located at the breech of the gun. A low inductance plane plate transmission line was discharged (20 kV) through a spark gap switch over the system, with a typical peak current of 22 kA, reached after 80 ns from onset of the discharge. The fine structure of the luminous current sheath was studied by frontal and lateral open shutter photographs and by monitoring the current distribution along and across the electrodes gap. The authors tests determine the relative importance of the resistivity related to particle collision effects (αiota) and of the inductive resistivity (α L-center dot) during the break-down stage (iota=length of break-down path, L=inductance)

  16. Novel sample preparation for operando TEM of catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Benjamin K; Barker, Trevor M; Crozier, Peter A

    2015-09-01

    A new TEM sample preparation method is developed to facilitate operando TEM of gas phase catalysis. A porous Pyrex-fiber pellet TEM sample was produced, allowing a comparatively large amount of catalyst to be loaded into a standard Gatan furnace-type tantalum heating holder. The increased amount of catalyst present inside the environmental TEM allows quantitative determination of the gas phase products of a catalytic reaction performed in-situ at elevated temperatures. The product gas concentration was monitored using both electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and residual gas analysis (RGA). Imaging of catalyst particles dispersed over the pellet at atomic resolution is challenging, due to charging of the insulating glass fibers. To overcome this limitation, a metal grid is placed into the holder in addition to the pellet, allowing catalyst particles dispersed over the grid to be imaged, while particles in the pellet, which are assumed to experience identical conditions, contribute to the overall catalytic conversion inside the environmental TEM cell. The gas within the cell is determined to be well-mixed, making this assumption reasonable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Organic composition in the dry season rainwater of Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Song, Zhiguang; Liu, Junfeng; Wang, Cuiping; Wei, Jianrong; Chen, Heng

    2008-02-01

    This paper reports the results from a study of the organic composition of rainwater collected at Tianhe district of Guangzhou city, P.R. China, during the dry season. Several special setups of a pyrex bottle with a glass funnel were used for the collection of the rainwater. Three fractions (aliphatics, PAHs and fatty acids) were separated from the total extracted organic compounds and identified with GC-MS. The molecular diagnostic ratios were utilized for the source reconciliation. The aliphatic hydrocarbon and the biomarkers (triterpanes and steranes) distribution show a characteristic of the petrochemical source in the rainwater samples. The PAHs diagnostic ratios [e.g. MP/P, MPI, Fl/ (Fl + Py)] indicated vehicular emissions. The fatty acids ratios (e.g. C(18:1)/C(18:0) and C(18:2)/C(18:0)) reflect the contribution of cooking emissions, while the higher plant waxes play little part. Moreover, the values of MP/P, MPI, BaA/(BaA + CT) and BeP/(BeP + BaP) reflected the origin of the long-distance transportation to some extent. On the whole, for the dry season rainwater, all molecular diagnostic ratios indicated the complexity of the organic composition of the rain, which have the characteristics of both a local emission contribution and a long-distance transportation contribution.

  18. Bi-magnetic microwires: a novel family of materials with controlled magnetic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirota, K.R.; Provencio, M.; Garcia, K.L.; Escobar-Galindo, R.; Mendoza Zelis, P.; Hernandez-Velez, M.; Vazquez, M.

    2005-01-01

    A novel technique involving combined sputtering and electroplating procedures has been recently developed to deposit metallic (magnetic or not) nano and microlayer tubes onto glass-coated amorphous magnetic microwires to enable the tailoring of their magnetic behavior. Here, after introducing the general aspects of that technique, we present the latest results on a new family of two-phase magnetic samples: bi-magnetic multilayer microwires. They consist of a magnetically soft nucleus (typically a Fe or Co base amorphous microwire, coated by Pyrex layer) onto which a 30 nm thick Au layer is first sputtered followed by the electroplating of a harder microlayer, namely Co x Ni (1- x ) layer, with x controlled by the current density during electrodeposition whose micrometric thickness is also controlled by plating time. The hysteresis loops present a two-step reversal process typical of two-phase magnetic material. The magnetization reversal of the soft nucleus and the harder layer takes place at around 1 Oe and up to about 200 Oe, respectively. The presence of sputtered and electroplated layers induces significant stresses in the soft magnetic nucleus that modify its magnetization easy axis. This technique allowing us the tailoring of the magnetic behavior of multilayer magnetic microwires opens new possibilities for applying these novel materials as sensing elements in various devices

  19. Application of heterogeneous photocatalysis solar and artificial for removal of ammonia nitrogen and total phosphorus in sanitary waste water; Aplicacao da fotocatalise heterogenea solar na remocao de nitrogenio amoniacal e fosforo total em esgoto sanitario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, Adriana Ribeiro; Paterniani, Jose Euclides Stipp [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: z_drica@yahoo.com.br; Kuwakino, Adriana Yuri [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Limeira, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Tecnologia

    2010-07-01

    The advanced oxidative processes (AOP) contribute or to polishing a plenty of effluent treatment, or improvement at any stage of treatment, being heterogeneous photocatalysis the most used among AOP. This study aimed to compare the heterogeneous photocatalysis in solar and artificial wastewater treatment according to the removal of ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus. The photocatalytic reactor using titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) as semiconductor photocatalytic process. The heterogeneous photocatalysis using solar UV consisted material of PET bottles and the sample was added TiO{sub 2} in constant aeration for a period of 360 minutes. In the case of reactor artificial UV light protected by a quartz tube, the process was made in a Pyrex glass reactor, where the sample was undergoing 180 minutes of aeration. The photocatalytic tests for removal of ammonia nitrogen showed more favorable in the photocatalysis of artificial UV than the solar, coming achieve average efficiency of 51% and 32%, respectively. In the case of phosphorus, the situation was reversed, the solar UV photocatalytic average efficiency reached 51% and artificial UV 32 %. (author)

  20. Hydrodynamic cavitation in microsystems. II. Simulations and optical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, M.; Pellone, C.; Zermatten, P. J.; Ayela, F.

    2012-04-01

    Numerical calculations in the single liquid phase and optical observations in the two-phase cavitating flow regime have been performed on microdiaphragms and microventuris fed with deionized water. Simulations have confirmed the influence of the shape of the shrinkage upon the contraction of the jet, and so on the localisation of possible cavitating area downstream. Observations of cavitating flow patterns through hybrid silicon-pyrex microdevices have been performed either via a laser excitation with a pulse duration of 6 ns, or with the help of a high-speed camera. Recorded snapshots and movies are presented. Concerning microdiaphragms, it is confirmed that very high shear rates downstream the diaphragms are the cause of bubbly flows. Concerning microventuris, a gaseous cavity forms on a boundary downstream the throat. As a consequence of a microsystem instability, the cavity displays a high frequency pulsation. Low values Strouhal numbers are associated to such a sheet cavitation. Moreover, when the intensity of the cavitating flow is reduced, there is a mismatch between the frequency of the pulsation of the cavity and the frequency of shedded clouds downstream the channel. That may be the consequence of viscous effects limiting the impingement of a re-entrant liquid jet on the attached cavity.

  1. SQUID-Detected MRI in the Limit of Zero Static Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelso, Nathan Dean [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-12-14

    This thesis describes an implementation of the so-called"zero-field MRI" (ZFMRI) pulse sequence, which allows for imaging in an arbitrarily low B0 field. The ZFMRI sequence created an effective unidirectional gradient field by using a train of pi pulses to average out the concomitant gradient components during encoding. The signals were acquired using a low-transition temperature dc Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (low-Tc dc SQUID) coupled to a first-order axial gradiometer. The experiments were carried out in a liquid helium dewar which was magnetically shielded with a single-layer mu-metal can around the outside and a superconducting Pb can contained within the helium space. We increased the filling factor of the custom-made, double-walled Pyrex insert by placing the liquid alcohol sample, at a temperature of approximately -50 degrees C, at the center of one loop of the superconducting gradiometer, which was immersed in the helium bath.

  2. Elemental mercury vapor capture by powdered activated carbon in a fluidized bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrizio Scala; Riccardo Chirone; Amedeo Lancia [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione - CNR, Napoli (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    A bubbling fluidized bed of inert material was used to increase the activated carbon residence time in the reaction zone and to improve its performance for mercury vapor capture. Elemental mercury capture experiments were conducted at 100{sup o}C in a purposely designed 65 mm ID lab-scale pyrex reactor, that could be operated both in the fluidized bed and in the entrained bed configurations. Commercial powdered activated carbon was pneumatically injected in the reactor and mercury concentration at the outlet was monitored continuously. Experiments were carried out at different inert particle sizes, bed masses, fluidization velocities and carbon feed rates. Experimental results showed that the presence of a bubbling fluidized bed led to an increase of the mercury capture efficiency and, in turn, of the activated carbon utilization. This was explained by the enhanced activated carbon loading and gas-solid contact time that establishes in the reaction zone, because of the large surface area available for activated carbon adhesion/deposition in the fluidized bed. Transient mercury concentration profiles at the bed outlet during the runs were used to discriminate between the controlling phenomena in the process. Experimental data have been analyzed in the light of a phenomenological framework that takes into account the presence of both free and adhered carbon in the reactor as well as mercury saturation of the adsorbent. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Absolutely calibrated vacuum ultraviolet spectra in the 150-250-nm range from plasmas generated by the NIKE KrF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seely, J.F.; Feldman, Uri; Holland, G.E.; Weaver, J.L.; Mostovych, A.N.; Obenschain, S.P.; Schmitt, A.J.; Lehmberg, R.; Kjornarattanawanich, Benjawan; Back, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectra were recorded from plasmas generated by the NIKE KrF laser for the purpose of observing emission from the two-plasmon decay instability (TPDI) at 2/3 the NIKE wavelength (165 nm). The targets were irradiated by up to 43 overlapping beams with intensity up to ≅10 14 W/cm 2 and with beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence (ISI). The targets consisted of planar foils of CH, BN, Al, Si, S, Ti, Pd, and Au. Titanium-doped silica aerogels in Pyrex cylinders were also irradiated. The spectra of the target elements were observed from charge states ranging from the neutral atoms to five times ionized. The spectrometer was absolutely calibrated using synchrotron radiation, and absolute VUV plasma emission intensities were determined. Emission from the TPDI at 165-nm wavelength was not observed from any of the irradiated targets. An upper bound on the possible TPDI emission was less than 4x10 -8 the incident NIKE laser energy. The NIKE laser radiation backscattered from the silica aerogel targets at 248 nm was typically 6x10 -6 the incident NIKE laser energy, and the spectral broadening corresponded to the 1-THz bandwidth of the ISI smoothing. The spectra from the moderately charged plasma ions (up to five times ionized), spectral linewidths, absolute continuum emission level, and slope of the continuum were consistent with plasma temperatures in the 100-300-eV range

  4. Characterization of diamond-like nanocomposite thin films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santra, T. S.; Liu, C. H.; Bhattacharyya, T. K.; Patel, P.; Barik, T. K.

    2010-01-01

    Diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) thin films, comprising the networks of a-C:H and a-Si:O were deposited on pyrex glass or silicon substrate using gas precursors (e.g., hexamethyldisilane, hexamethyldisiloxane, hexamethyldisilazane, or their different combinations) mixed with argon gas, by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Surface morphology of DLN films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic result shows that the films contain nanoparticles within the amorphous structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the structural change within the DLN films. The hardness and friction coefficient of the films were measured by nanoindentation and scratch test techniques, respectively. FTIR and XPS studies show the presence of C-C, C-H, Si-C, and Si-H bonds in the a-C:H and a-Si:O networks. Using Raman spectroscopy, we also found that the hardness of the DLN films varies with the intensity ratio I D /I G . Finally, we observed that the DLN films has a better performance compared to DLC, when it comes to properties like high hardness, high modulus of elasticity, low surface roughness and low friction coefficient. These characteristics are the critical components in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and emerging nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS).

  5. Characterization of diamond-like nanocomposite thin films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santra, T S; Liu, C H [Institute of Nanoengineering and Microsystems (NEMS), National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30043 (China); Bhattacharyya, T K [Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India); Patel, P [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Barik, T K [School of Applied Sciences, Haldia Institute of Technology, Haldia 721657, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal (India)

    2010-06-15

    Diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) thin films, comprising the networks of a-C:H and a-Si:O were deposited on pyrex glass or silicon substrate using gas precursors (e.g., hexamethyldisilane, hexamethyldisiloxane, hexamethyldisilazane, or their different combinations) mixed with argon gas, by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Surface morphology of DLN films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic result shows that the films contain nanoparticles within the amorphous structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the structural change within the DLN films. The hardness and friction coefficient of the films were measured by nanoindentation and scratch test techniques, respectively. FTIR and XPS studies show the presence of C-C, C-H, Si-C, and Si-H bonds in the a-C:H and a-Si:O networks. Using Raman spectroscopy, we also found that the hardness of the DLN films varies with the intensity ratio I{sub D}/I{sub G}. Finally, we observed that the DLN films has a better performance compared to DLC, when it comes to properties like high hardness, high modulus of elasticity, low surface roughness and low friction coefficient. These characteristics are the critical components in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and emerging nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS).

  6. Wall effect in deactivation of excited molecular oxygen {sup 1}{delta}g; Reiki sanso bunshi {sup 1}{delta}g no shikkatsu ni oyobosu hyomen hanno no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Yamashita, I. [Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1993-10-25

    This paper discusses effects of surface reaction on deactivation of excited molecular oxygen in {sup 1}{Delta}g condition. Gaseous oxygen containing excited oxygen generated by microwave discharge at a concentration of less than 1% is flown into several kinds of tubes to be measured such as quartz tubes (with an inner diameter of about 10 mm), and the light emitting intensity of the excited oxygen was measured upstream and downstream of the tubes to be measured (with in-tube pressure of 1 Torr or 2 Torr) to derive its concentration change. The surface reaction on the tube wall was regarded as a primary reaction, and the concentration change of the excited oxygen in flows in the round tube (attributable to the surface reaction) was analyzed. With respect to effects of tube wall materials on deactivation of the excited molecular oxygen, the surface deactivation probability in the case of using low-activity materials has decreased in the order of Pyrex, PVC, quartz, PFA and PTFE. The surface deactivation probability in the case of using a metallic material, SUS316L, was about 1000 times larger than that in the quartz. 14 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Thermal analysis on x-ray tube for exhaust process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Rao Ratnala, Srinivas; Veeresh Kumar, G. B.; Shivakumar Gouda, P. S.

    2018-02-01

    It is great importance in the use of X-rays for medical purposes that the dose given to both the patient and the operator is carefully controlled. There are many types of the X- ray tubes used for different applications based on their capacity and power supplied. In present thesis maxi ray 165 tube is analysed for thermal exhaust processes with ±5% accuracy. Exhaust process is usually done to remove all the air particles and to degasify the insert under high vacuum at 2e-05Torr. The tube glass is made up of Pyrex material, 95%Tungsten and 5%rhenium is used as target material for which the melting point temperature is 3350°C. Various materials are used for various parts; during the operation of X- ray tube these waste gases are released due to high temperature which in turn disturbs the flow of electrons. Thus, before using the X-ray tube for practical applications it has to undergo exhaust processes. Initially we build MX 165 model to carry out thermal analysis, and then we simulate the bearing temperature profiles with FE model to match with test results with ±5%accuracy. At last implement the critical protocols required for manufacturing processes like MF Heating, E-beam, Seasoning and FT.

  8. Silica-Based and Borate-Based, Titania-Containing Bioactive Coatings Characterization: Critical Strain Energy Release Rate, Residual Stresses, Hardness, and Thermal Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Rodriguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Silica-based and borate-based glass series, with increasing amounts of TiO2 incorporated, are characterized in terms of their mechanical properties relevant to their use as metallic coating materials. It is observed that borate-based glasses exhibit CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion closer to the substrate’s (Ti6Al4V CTE, translating into higher mode I critical strain energy release rates of glasses and compressive residual stresses and strains at the coating/substrate interface, outperforming the silica-based glasses counterparts. An increase in the content of TiO2 in the glasses results in an increase in the mode I critical strain energy release rate for both the bulk glass and for the coating/substrate system, proving that the addition of TiO2 to the glass structure enhances its toughness, while decreasing its bulk hardness. Borate-based glass BRT3, with 15 mol % TiO2 incorporated, exhibits superior properties overall compared to the other proposed glasses in this work, as well as 45S5 Bioglass® and Pyrex.

  9. Structure, Surface Morphology, and Optical and Electronic Properties of Annealed SnS Thin Films Obtained by CBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reghima, Meriem; Akkari, Anis; Guasch, Cathy; Turki-Kamoun, Najoua

    2014-09-01

    SnS thin films were initially coated onto Pyrex substrates by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method and annealed at various temperatures ranging from 200°C to 600°C for 30 min in nitrogen gas. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that a structural transition from face-centered cubic to orthorhombic occurs when the annealing temperature is over 500°C. The surface morphology of all thin layers was investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The elemental composition of Sn and S, as measured by energy dispersive spectroscopy, is near the stoichiometric ratio. Optical properties studied by means of transmission and reflection measurements show an increase in the absorption coefficient with increasing annealing temperatures. The band gap energy is close to 1.5 eV, which corresponds to the optimum for photovoltaic applications. Last, the thermally stimulated current measurements show that the electrically active traps located in the band gap disappear after annealing at 500°C. These results suggest that, once again, annealing as a post-deposition treatment may be useful for improving the physical properties of the SnS layers included in photovoltaic applications. Moreover, the thermo-stimulated current method may be of practical relevance to explore the electronic properties of more conventional industrial methods, such as sputtering and chemical vapor deposition.

  10. Silicon micromachining using a high-density plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAuley, S.A.; Ashraf, H.; Atabo, L.; Chambers, A.; Hall, S.; Hopkins, J.; Nicholls, G.

    2001-01-01

    Dry etching of Si is critical in satisfying the demands of the micromachining industry. The micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) community requires etches capable of high aspect ratios, vertical profiles, good feature size control and etch uniformity along with high throughput to satisfy production requirements. Surface technology systems' (STS's) high-density inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etch tool enables a wide range of applications to be realized whilst optimizing the above parameters. Components manufactured from Si using an STS ICP include accelerometers and gyroscopes for military, automotive and domestic applications. STS's advanced silicon etch (ASE TM ) has also allowed the first generation of MEMS-based optical switches and attenuators to reach the marketplace. In addition, a specialized application for fabricating the next generation photolithography exposure masks has been optimized for 200 mm diameter wafers, to depths of ∼750 μm. Where the profile is not critical, etch rates of greater than 8 μm min -1 have been realized to replace previous methods such as wet etching. This is also the case for printer applications. Specialized applications that require etching down to pyrex or oxide often result in the loss of feature size control at the interface; this is an industry wide problem. STS have developed a technique to address this. The rapid progression of the industry has led to development of the STS ICP etch tool, as well as the process. (author)

  11. Fast sorption measurements of volatile organic compounds on building materials: Part 1 – Methodology developed for field applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rizk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS has been coupled to the outlet of a Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC, to measure volatile organic compounds (VOC concentration during a sorption experiments (Rizk et al., this issue [1]. The limits of detection of the PTR-MS for three VOCs are presented for different time resolution (2, 10 and 20 s. The mass transfer coefficient was calculated in the FLEC cavity for the different flow rates. The concentration profile obtained from a sorption experiment performed on a gypsum board and a vinyl flooring are also presented in comparison with the profile obtained for a Pyrex glass used as a material that do not present any sorption behavior (no sink. Finally, the correlation between the concentration of VOCs adsorbed on the surface of the gypsum board at equilibrium (Cse and the concentration of VOCs Ce measured in the gas phase at equilibrium is presented for benzene, C8 aromatics and toluene.

  12. Statistical and physical content of low-energy photons in nuclear medicine imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnon, D.; Pouliot, N.; Laperriere, L.; Harel, F.; Gregoire, J.; Arsenault, A.

    1990-01-01

    Limit in the energy resolution of present gamma camera technology prevents a total rejection of Compton events: inclusion of bad photons in the image is inescapable. Various methods acquiring data over a large portion of the spectrum have already been described. This paper investigates the usefulness of low energy photons using statistical and physical models. Holospectral Imaging, for instance, exploits correlation between energy frames to build an information related transformation optimizing primary photon image. One can also use computer simulation to show that a portion of low energy photons is detected at the same location (pixel) as pure primary photons. These events are for instance: photons undergoing scatter interaction in the crystal; photons undergoing a small angle backscatter or forwardscatter interaction in the medium, photons backscattered by the Pyrex into the crystal. For a 140 keV source in 10 cm of water and a 1/4 inch thick crystal, more than 6% of all the photons detected do not have the primary energy and still are located in the right 4 mm pixel. Similarly, it is possible to show that more than 5% of all the photons detected at 140 keV deposit their energy in more than one pixel. These results give additional support to techniques considering low energy photons and more sophisticated ways to segregate between good and bad events

  13. Exchange reaction between tritiated hydrogen and water vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Koichi; Takano, Kenichi; Watanabe, Tamaki.

    1979-01-01

    Exchange reaction of tritiated hydrogen to water vapor under the condition of tritium gas concentration between 1 μCi/l and 1 mCi/l was studied. Tritium gas with hydrogen gas of 5 Torr and water of 20 mg were enclosed in a Pyrex glass ampule with volume of about 100 ml. The mixed gas with water vapor was heated with electric furnace. The heating time was between 2 and 100 hr, and the temperature was 776, 725, 675, 621, and 570.5 0 K. After heating, tritiated water was trapped with liquid nitrogen, and counted with a liquid scintillation counter. The radioactive concentration of initial tritiated hydrogen was measured with a calibrated ionization chamber. The main results obtained are as follows; 1) the concentration of produced tritiated water is well proportioned to that of initial tritiated hydrogen, 2) the activation energy of exchange reaction from tritiated hydrogen to tritiated water is 26.2 kcal/mol and that of inverse reaction is 27.4 kcal/mol, 3) the reaction rate at room temperature which calculated with activation energy is 1.04 x 10 -13 day -1 , and then exchange reaction at room temperature is negligible. (author)

  14. Evaluation of Stability Parameters in In-Vessel Compositing of Municipal Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Amin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Composting is a reliable technology for production of stabilized organic matter that is suitable for agriculture, but this process should be carefully monitored with appropriate indices. Quality of compost is important from maturity and stability viewpoint, but in most compost factories proper attention is not paid to it. This study was designed to evaluate the stability indices in municipal solid waste composting, for selecting the best index in quality monitoring of the wastes. Processed and shredded municipal solid waste from Isfahan compost plant was used as raw material in an in-vessel composting process. A cylindrical reactor with 1 m height and 50 cm diameter made of Pyrex glass was designed. Air was supplied at a specifically flow rate 0.2 L/min.kg to maintain aerobic condition. NH4+/ NO3 ratio, dehydrogenase enzyme activity (DA, pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP or Eh and specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR were used as stability indices. These parameters were measured during 40 days of composting process. Changes in these parameters during this period were surveyed and analyzed. Statistical analysis was carried out to choose best of them. Results showed that among the indices, SOUR can show the different stages of microbial decomposition and a numerical value for compost stability also SOUR value less than 2 mg O2/gVS.h can show the full stability of compost.

  15. Development path and current status of the NANIVID: a new device for cancer cell studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Waseem Khan; Padgen, Michael R.; Williams, James K.; Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Condeelis, John; Castracane, James

    2011-02-01

    Cancer cells create a unique microenvironment in vivo which enables migration to distant organs. To better understand the tumor microenvironment, special tools and devices are required to monitor the interactions between different cell types and the effects of particular chemical gradients. This study presents the design and optimization of a new, versatile chemotaxis device called the NANIVID (NANo IntraVital Device). The device is fabricated using BioMEMS techniques and consists of etched and bonded Pyrex substrates, a soluble factor reservoir, fluorescent tracking beads and a microelectrode array for cell quantification. The reservoir contains a customized hydrogel blend loaded with EGF which diffuses out of the hydrogel to create a chemotactic gradient. This reservoir sustains a steady release of growth factor into the surrounding environment for many hours and establishes a concentration gradient that attracts specific cells to the device. In addition to a cell collection tool, the NANIVID can be modified to act as a delivery vehicle for the local generation of alternate soluble factor gradients to initiate controlled changes to the microenvironment such as hypoxia, ECM stiffness and etc. The focus of this study is to design and optimize the new device for wide ranging studies of breast cancer cell dynamics in vitro and ultimately, implantation for in vivo work.

  16. In-situ thermoelectric stabilization of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, R.A.; Timmerman, C.L.

    1982-02-01

    A new process for stabilizing buried radioactive wastes without exhumation is being developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The process, known as in situ vitrification, converts waste and contaminated soil to a durable glass and crystalline material by passing an electric current between electrodes placed in the ground. Joule heating created by the flowing current has generated temperatures over 1700 0 C which cause the soil to melt and dissolve or encapsulate the wastes. Engineering-scale tests conducted in the laboratory have melted approximately 45 kgs (30 liters) of soil at a time by this technique. Encouraging results from these engineering-scale tests led to the design and construction of a pilot-scale field test unit which has solidified approximately 9000 kg of simulated contaminated soil per test. Test results and evaluations to date have been very promising. No detectable migration of hazardous species into uncontaminated soil has been found, and volatilization during melting has been very low. Leach studies have found the vitrified soil to be a highly durable waste form similar to pyrex glass. Electrical power costs to solidify a disposal site have been calculated at less than $70 per cubic meter ($2/ft 3 ) of waste. Future activities include both radioactive and nonradioactive pilot and large-scale tests

  17. In-situ vitrification: pilot-scale development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmerman, C.L.; Brouns, R.A.; Buelt, J.L.; Oma, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing in-situ vitrification (ISV) as an in-place stabilization technique for buried radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes. The process melts the wastes and surrounding soil to produce a durable glass and crystalline waste form. These in situ vitrification process development testing and product evaluation studies are being conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy. This report discusses the results of four ISV pilot-scale field tests simulating radioactive and hazardous waste site conditions. The primary objectives of the field tests were to: demonstrate process scale-up from engineering-scale laboratory tests; verify equipment performance of the power system, electrodes and off-gas system; characterize the behavior of simulated wastes in the vitrified soil; identify waste losses to the off-gas system; and evaluate waste form durability. Test results have been encouraging. Process scaleup has been successfully demonstrated, with equipment and electrode performance equally as successful. The off-gas system effectively contained any volatile or entrained hazardous species. Vitrified soil analysis also indicated effective containment and a homogeneous distribution of nonradioactive radionuclide and hazardous waste simulants due to convective mixing during vitrification. Waste form leaching studies revealed that the ISV product has a durability similar to Pyrex glass

  18. A fully MEMS-compatible process for 3D high aspect ratio micro coils obtained with an automatic wire bonder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratt, K; Badilita, V; Burger, T; Wallrabe, U; Korvink, J G

    2010-01-01

    We report the fabrication of 3D micro coils made with an automatic wire bonder. Using standard MEMS processes such as spin coating and UV lithography on silicon and Pyrex® wafers results in high aspect ratio SU-8 posts with diameters down to 100 µm that serve as mechanical stabilization yokes for the coils. The wire bonder is employed to wind 25 µm insulated gold wire around the posts in an arbitrary (e.g. solenoidal) path, yielding arrays of micro coils. Each micro coil is bonded directly on-chip, so that loose wire ends are avoided and, compared to other winding methods, coil re-soldering is unnecessary. The manufacturing time for a single coil is about 200 ms, and although the process is serial, it is batch fabrication compatible due to the high throughput of the machine. Despite the speed of manufacture we obtain high manufacturing precision and reliability. The micro air-core solenoids show an RF quality factor of over 50 when tested at 400 MHz. We present a flexible coil making method where the number of windings is only limited by the post height. The coil diameter is restricted by limits defined by lithography and the mechanical strength of the posts. Based on this technique we present coils ranging from 100 µm diameter and 1 winding up to 1000 µm diameter and 20 windings

  19. Unusual behavior in the reactivity of 5-substituted-1H-tetrazoles in a resistively heated microreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Bernhard; Glasnov, Toma N; Razzaq, Tahseen; Goessler, Walter; Roberge, Dominique M

    2011-01-01

    Summary The decomposition of 5-benzhydryl-1H-tetrazole in an N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone/acetic acid/water mixture was investigated under a variety of high-temperature reaction conditions. Employing a sealed Pyrex glass vial and batch microwave conditions at 240 °C, the tetrazole is comparatively stable and complete decomposition to diphenylmethane requires more than 8 h. Similar kinetic data were obtained in conductively heated flow devices with either stainless steel or Hastelloy coils in the same temperature region. In contrast, in a flow instrument that utilizes direct electric resistance heating of the reactor coil, tetrazole decomposition was dramatically accelerated with rate constants increased by two orders of magnitude. When 5-benzhydryl-1H-tetrazole was exposed to 220 °C in this type of flow reactor, decomposition to diphenylmethane was complete within 10 min. The mechanism and kinetic parameters of tetrazole decomposition under a variety of reaction conditions were investigated. A number of possible explanations for these highly unusual rate accelerations are presented. In addition, general aspects of reactor degradation, corrosion and contamination effects of importance to continuous flow chemistry are discussed. PMID:21647324

  20. Effects of diffusion and surface interactions on the line shape of electron paramagnetic resonances in the presence of a magnetic field gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaden, M.; Zhao, K. F.; Wu, Z.

    2007-01-01

    In an evanescent wave magnetometer the Zeeman polarization is probed at micrometer to submicrometer distances from the cell surface. The electron paramagnetic resonance lines of an evanescent wave magnetometer in the presence of a magnetic field gradient exhibit edge enhancement seen previously in nuclear magnetic resonance lines. We present a theoretical model that describes quantitatively the shape of the magnetic resonance lines of an evanescent wave magnetometer under a wide range of experimental conditions. It accounts for diffusion broadening in the presence of a magnetic field gradient as well as interactions of spin polarized Rb atoms with the coated Pyrex glass surfaces. Depending on the field gradient, cell thickness, and buffer gas pressure, the resonance line may have the form of a single asymmetric peak or two peaks localized near the front and back surfaces in frequency space. The double-peaked response depends on average characteristics of the surface interactions. Its shape is sensitive to the dwell time, relaxation probability, and average phase shift of adsorbed spin polarized Rb atoms

  1. Study of radiation formation of methyl-iodide Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartonicek, B.; Schweiner, Z.; Bednar, J.; Hladky, E.

    1975-01-01

    Purified methane, ethylene, iodine, methyl iodide, ethyl iodide and hydrogen iodide were irradiated and/or pyrolyzed in Pyrex ampoules by 60 Co-γ-radiation at temperatures between 150 and 450 deg C. The results on radiolysis and pyrolysis were as follows: 1., The most thermally stable product is hydrogen iodide in which already at 450 deg C essen-tially all originally present iodine appears. 2., The radiolytic formation of methyl iodide and hydrogen iodide is positively influenced by the rise in temperature, This and the absolute values of yields indicate a chain mechanism of radiolytic (and pyrolytic) decomposition of the mixture. 3., The ratio of equilibrium concentrations [HI]/[CH 3 I] increases with increasing temperature of pyrolysis showing that HI is the end product of the thermal chain reaction. Methyl iodide is likely to contribute (by its thermal decomposition) to the initiation and propagation of this chain reaction. 4., The negligible temperature dependence of G(H 2 ) and the absence of molecular hydrogen among the products of pyrolytic decomposition of methane-iodine mixtures shows, that (up to 450 deg C) H atoms do not play any role in the thermal chain decomposition of these mixtures. (K.A.)

  2. Plasma focus neutron anisotropy measurements and influence of a deuteron beam obstacle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talebitaher, A. [Physics Department, University of Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada S4S 0A2 (Canada); Springham, S.V., E-mail: stuart.springham@nie.edu.sg [Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, 637616 (Singapore); Rawat, R.S.; Lee, P. [Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, 637616 (Singapore)

    2017-03-11

    The deuterium-deuterium (DD) fusion neutron yield and anisotropy were measured on a shot-to-shot basis for the NX2 plasma focus (PF) device using two beryllium fast-neutron activation detectors at 0° and 90° to the PF axis. Measurements were performed for deuterium gas pressures in the range 6–16 mbar, and positive correlations between neutron yield and anisotropy were observed at all pressures. Subsequently, at one deuterium gas pressure (13 mbar), the contribution to the fusion yield produced by the forwardly-directed D{sup +} ion beam, emitted from the plasma pinch, was investigated by using a circular Pyrex plate to obstruct the beam and suppress its fusion contribution. Neutron measurements were performed with the obstacle positioned at two distances from the anode tip, and also without the obstacle. It was found that ~ 80% of the neutron yield originates in the plasma pinch column and just above that. In addition, proton pinhole imaging was performed from the 0° and 90° directions to the pinch. The obtained proton images are consistent with the conclusion that DD fusion is concentrated (~ 80%) in the pinch column region.

  3. Micromachining for Si etching using CW CO_2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hawat, Sh.; Naddaf, M.; Al-Sadat, W.; Wiess, Sh.

    2015-01-01

    Many experiments were carried out to achieve etching for silicon samples located on glass substrate (Pyrex or Quartz) using CW CO_2 laser under treating conditions which were in the case of linear scanning as: the power was 35-47 W, the number of round trips was 10-60 and the linear scanning speed was 17-75 mm/s, and in the case of fixed sample they were as: the power was 40 W and the exposure time was between 2-6 min. The obtained results were different depending on the form of etching and its quality, according to the applied treating conditions on the silicon samples, taking the treated silicon surface attached directly to the glass substrate surface or taking the opposite side of the silicon sample. The etching of the first type was easy to get, but the second one was more difficult to obtain, which requires very strong conditions. The best of these results were recorded using a quartz substrate under treating conditions: the laser power was 42.5 W, the number of round trips was 30, and the scanning speed was 75 mm/s, so the etching was limited to separate spots produced on the surface of the sample. In the all cases, the pictures of spots and lines formed on treated Si samples were taken using scanning electron microscope (SEM) for both sides of the studied samples.(author)

  4. Coatings of nanoparticles applied to brachytherapy treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Andreza A.D.C.C.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Souza, Carla D.; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Souza, Daiane C.B.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Nogueira, Beatriz R.

    2017-01-01

    Brachytherapy is a treatment for cancer in which the radiation is placed close or in contact with the region to be treated saving the surrounding healthy tissues. Nanotechnology is the science that studies the properties of nanometric materials. Nanobrachytherapy in a new field that unites the advantages of brachytherapy with the small size in the nanoparticle, resulting in an even less invasive treatment. In view of the synthesis of the nanoparticles and their use, there is a fundamental role that is made by the coatings, which not only have the function of avoiding the aggregation of particles, but also stabilize and control their functional properties. Among the range of coatings, the most outstanding are polyethylene glycol (PEG) and gum arabica (GA). PEG improves the surface properties of nanoparticles and presents high stability under biomedical conditions. After the synthesis of gold nanoparticles was developed, PEG and gum arabica were successfully incorporated into the surface. In a vial of pyrex, 1 ml of coating agent and 1 ml of nanoparticles was left under gentle shaking for 2 hours. Incorporation was confirmed by DLS and HRTEM. GA requires further study. (author)

  5. Fast and accurate preparation fatty acid methyl esters by microwave-assisted derivatization in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoomrung, Sakda; Chumnanpuen, Pramote; Jansa-ard, Suwanee; Nookaew, Intawat; Nielsen, Jens

    2012-06-01

    We present a fast and accurate method for preparation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) using microwave-assisted derivatization of fatty acids present in yeast samples. The esterification of free/bound fatty acids to FAMEs was completed within 5 min, which is 24 times faster than with conventional heating methods. The developed method was validated in two ways: (1) through comparison with a conventional method (hot plate) and (2) through validation with the standard reference material (SRM) 3275-2 omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in fish oil (from the Nation Institute of Standards and Technology, USA). There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in yields of FAMEs with both validations. By performing a simple modification of closed-vessel microwave heating, it was possible to carry out the esterification in Pyrex glass tubes kept inside the closed vessel. Hereby, we are able to increase the number of sample preparations to several hundred samples per day as the time for preparation of reused vessels was eliminated. Pretreated cell disruption steps are not required, since the direct FAME preparation provides equally quantitative results. The new microwave-assisted derivatization method facilitates the preparation of FAMEs directly from yeast cells, but the method is likely to also be applicable for other biological samples.

  6. Micromachining for Si etching using CW CO 2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawat, Sh.; Naddaf, M.; Al-Sadat, W.; Weiss, Sh.

    2012-08-01

    Many experiments were carried out to achieve etching for silicon samples located on glass substrate (Pyrex or Quartz) using Cw CO 2 laser under treating conditions which were in the case of linear scanning as: the power was 35-47 W, the number of round trips was 10-60 and the linear scanning speed was 17-75 mm/s, and in the case of fixed sample they were as: the power was 40 W and the exposure time was between 2-6 min. The obtained results were different depending on the form of etching and its quality, according to the applied treating conditions on the silicon samples, taking the treated silicon surface attached directly to the glass substrate surface or taking the opposite side of the silicon sample. The etching of the first type was easy to get, but the second one was more difficult to obtain, which requires very strong conditions. The best of these results were recorded using a quartz substrate under treating conditions: the laser power was 42.5 W, the number of round trips was 30, and the scanning speed was 75 mm/s, so the etching was limited to separate spots produced on the surface of the sample. In the all cases, the pictures of spots and lines formed on treated Si samples were taken using scanning electron microscope (SEM) for both sides of the studied samples. (authors)

  7. Monte Carlo simulation of the interaction of X-ray spectrum with human tissue, in the energies range of diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayllahua Q, L. F.; Apaza V, G.; Vega R, J. L.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: This paper is an approach to an increasingly complete knowledge about the nature of the processes that occur during a simple examination of radiological diagnosis; know as X-rays are produced and how they will put their energy into the tissue of patients when they are subjected to an examination of radiological diagnosis. First, using the MCNP code an X-rays tube was simulated, where electrons are emitted from a filament (cathode) which travel a certain distance with a certain kinetic energy and then be stopped suddenly in the tungsten target. The X-rays emitted as a result of this interaction, are previously filtered through the inherent filter of Pyrex glass and then by a thin aluminum foil before quantification as an X-rays spectrum. 6 spectra (for 60, 80, 100, 120 and 140 KeV) were obtained. Second, using the Penelope code was simulated the interaction of the X-rays spectrum, obtained in the first part with human tissue, putting as simile of human tissue water phantoms of different thicknesses. As final result: dose of energy deposited (in 2 and 3-dimensional) and reflected, absorbed and transmitted photons spectra. (Author)

  8. Preparation of amorphous-crystalline SiO{sub 2} composite by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). 2; HIP ho ni yoru SiO{sub 2} kei hishoshitsu-kesshoshitsu fukugo zairyo no sakusei. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, S.; Nishii, J.; Fujii, T.; Akashi, K. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Tecnology

    2000-08-15

    The composites consisting of {alpha}-quartz crystallites and amorphous SiO{sub 2} were prepared by HIP technique, imitating the structure of natural agate. In the previous study, the K{sub IC} of the composite prepared from the mixed powder of crystallites and amorphous SiO{sub 2} was comparable to that of the natural agate (0.56MN/m{sup 1.5}). In this study, to increase the toughness of the composite, (1) the mixture of silica sol and {alpha}-quartz powder and (2) silica sol including nucleation promoter were examined as starting materials respectively. These starting materials were pressed into powder compacts with {phi} 10 multiplied 50mm in size. The Pyrex glass capsule containing the compact was hipped at 800-1,200 degrees C for 0-120 minutes under the pressure of 200 MPa. The K{sub IC} of the composite obtained from the mixture of silica sol and {alpha}-quartz powder was equivalent to that obtained in the previous study, while the maximum K{sub IC} (0.63 MN/m{sup 1.5}) was obtained when PbCl{sub 2} was used as a nucleation promoter. The nucleation promoter having low solubility in water was useful for the homogeneous generation of the crystallites. (author)

  9. Micromachined filter-chamber array with passive valves for biochemical assays on beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, H; van der Wijngaart, W; Stemme, G

    2001-01-01

    The filter-chamber array presented here enables a real-time parallel analysis of three different samples on beads in a volume of 3 nL, on a 1 cm2 chip. The filter-chamber array is a system containing three filter-chambers, three passive valves at the inlet channels and a common outlet. The design enables parallel sample handling and time-controlled analysis. The device is microfabricated in silicon and sealed with a Pyrex lid to enable real-time analysis. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis by using pyrosequencing has successfully been performed in single filter-chamber devices. The passive valves consist of plasma-deposited octafluorocyclobutane and show a much higher resistance towards water and surface-active solutions than previous hydrophobic patches. The device is not sensitive to gas bubbles, clogging is rare and reversible, and the filter-chamber array is reusable. More complex (bio)chemical reactions on beads can be performed in the devices with passive valves than in the devices without valves.

  10. Ultrasonic absorption in solid specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwabessy, P.J. W.; Stewart, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    As part of a project to measure the absorption of high frequency (50 - 500 kHz) sonar signals in warm sea-water, a laboratory apparatus has been constructed and tested against room temperature distilled water and various solutions of MgSO 4 (chemical relaxation of MgSO 4 is the major contribution to absorption below 200 kHz). The technique involves monitoring the decay of an acoustic signal for different sizes of vessels of water suspended in an evacuated chamber. So far, all containing vessels used have been spherical in shape. Extrapolation of the results to infinite volume yields the absorption due to the water alone. In order to accommodate variations in temperature and pressure, and to make the system more robust (e.g. for ship deck usage), it is desirable to employ stainless steel vessels. However, it was found that the quality of the data was greatly improved when pyrex glass spheres were used. The stainless steel spheres were manufactured by welding together mechanically spun hemispheres. The linear frequency dependence characteristic of acoustic absorption in solids was observed (in contrast to the quadratic frequency dependence of acoustic absorption in water), and the acoustic absorption was found to depend strongly on the thermal history of the steel

  11. Experimental study of the hydrodynamic instabilities occurring in boiling-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabreca, S.

    1964-10-01

    The subjects is an experimental out-of pile loop study of the hydrodynamic oscillations occurring in boiling-water reactors. The study was carried out at atmospheric pressure and at pressure of about 8 atmospheres, in channels heated electrically by a constant and uniform specified current. In the test at 8 atmospheres the channel was a round tube of approximately 6 mm interior diameter. At 1 atmosphere a ring-section channel was used, 10 * 20 mm in diameter, with an inner heating tube and an outer tube of pyrex. It was possible to operate with natural convection and also with forced convection with test-channel by-pass. The study consists of 3 parts: 1. Preliminary determination of the laws governing pressure-drop during boiling. 2. Determination of the fronts at which oscillation appears, within a wide range of the parameters involved. 3. A descriptive study of the oscillations and measurement of the periods. The report gives the oscillation fronts with natural and forced convection for various values of the singular pressure drop at the channel inlet and for various riser lengths. The results are presented in non-dimensional form, which is available, in first approximation, for all geometric scales and for all fluids. Besides the following points were observed: - the wall (nature and thickness) can be an important factor ; - oscillation can occur in a horizontal channel. (author) [fr

  12. Greywater as a sustainable water source: A photocatalytic treatment technology under artificial and solar illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoumachidou, Sophia; Velegraki, Theodora; Antoniadis, Apostolos; Poulios, Ioannis

    2017-06-15

    Greywater considers being a highly reclaimable water source particularly important for water-stressed nations. In this work, heterogeneous photocatalysis using artificial and solar illumination has been applied for the mineralization of simulated light greywater (effluents from dishwashers and kitchen sinks were excluded from the study). The effects on the process' efficiency of TiO 2 P25 catalyst's concentration, initial concentration of H 2 O 2 and Fe 3+ , pH of the solution, as well as the type of radiation, were evaluated in a bench-scale Pyrex reactor and a pilot-scale slurry fountain photoreactor. The treatment efficiency has been followed through the evolution of the organic matter content expresses as dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Best results were obtained with the photo-Fenton-assisted TiO 2 photocatalytic process with 72% DOC removal after 210 min of bench scale treatment, while under the same photocatalytic conditions in the pilot reactor the DOC removal reached almost 64%. Moreover, the decrease in toxicity, phytotoxicity and biodegradability of the simulated wastewater has been observed after solar-induced photocatalytic treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Novel Portable Absolute Transient Hot-Wire Instrument for the Measurement of the Thermal Conductivity of Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assael, Marc J.; Antoniadis, Konstantinos D.; Metaxa, Ifigeneia N.; Mylona, Sofia K.; Assael, John-Alexander M.; Wu, Jiangtao; Hu, Miaomiao

    2015-11-01

    A new portable absolute Transient Hot-Wire instrument for measuring the thermal conductivity of solids over a range of 0.2 { W}{\\cdot }m^{-1}{\\cdot }{K}^{-1} to 4 { W}{\\cdot }m^{-1}{\\cdot }{K}^{-1} is presented. The new instrument is characterized by three novelties: (a) an innovative two-wires sensor which provides robustness and portability, while at the same time employs a soft silicone layer to eliminate the effect of the contact resistance between the wires and the sample, (b) a newly designed compact portable printed electronic board employing an FPGA architecture CPU to the control output voltage and data processing—the new board replaces the traditional, large in size Wheatstone-type bridge system required to perform the experimental measurements, and (c) a cutting-edge software suite, developed for the mesh describing the structure of the sensor, and utilizing the Finite Elements Method to model the heat flow. The estimation of thermal conductivity is modeled as a minimization problem and is solved using Bayesian Optimization. Our revolutionizing proposed methodology exhibits radical speedups of up to × 120, compared to previous approaches, and considerably reduces the number of simulations performed, achieving convergence only in a few minutes. The new instrument was successfully employed to measure, at room temperature, the thermal conductivity of two thermal conductivity reference materials, Pyroceram 9606 and Pyrex 7740, and two possible candidate glassy solids, PMMA and BK7, with an absolute low uncertainty of 2 %.

  14. Efficiency of ozone production by pulsed positive corona discharge in synthetic air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simek, Milan [Institute of Plasma Physics, Department of Pulsed Plasma Systems, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: simek@ipp.cas.cz; Clupek, Martin [Institute of Plasma Physics, Department of Pulsed Plasma Systems, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2002-06-07

    We have studied the efficiency of ozone production by pulsed positive corona discharge in coaxial wire-cylinder geometry at atmospheric pressure. A corona discharge was generated by short ({approx}150 ns) high voltage pulses applied between a silver coated copper wire anode and stainless steel cylinder cathode in synthetic air. A pyrex probe and Teflon tube was used for collecting discharge products and an ozone concentration was monitored outside of the discharge chamber by a non-dispersive UV absorption technique. The production of ozone was investigated as a function of energy density (10{sup -4}-3x10{sup -1} Wh l{sup -1}) delivered to the discharge volume by combining the discharge frequency (0.1-10 Hz) and airflow rate (1-32 l min{sup -1}). From ozone concentration measurements we have evaluated the ozone production, yield and production energy cost. The ozone production yield and cost vary in the range of 15-55 g kWh{sup -1} and 35-110 eV/molecule. (author)

  15. Preliminary Investigation of Impact on Multiple-Sheet Structures and an Evaluation of the Meteoroid Hazard to Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nysmith, C. Robert; Summers, James L.

    1961-01-01

    Small pyrex glass spheres, representative of stoney meteoroids, were fired into 2024-T3 aluminum alclad multiple-sheet structures at velocities to 11,000 feet per second to evaluate the effectiveness of multisheet hull construction as a means of increasing the resistance of a spacecraft to meteoroid penetrations. The results of these tests indicate that increasing the number of sheets in a structure while keeping the total sheet thickness constant and increasing the spacing between sheets both tend to increase the penetration resistance of a structure of constant weight per unit area. In addition, filling the space between the sheets with a light filler material was found to substantially increase structure penetration resistance with a small increase in weight. An evaluation of the meteoroid hazard to space vehicles is presented in the form of an illustrative-example for two specific lunar mission vehicles, a single-sheet, monocoque hull vehicle and a glass-wool filled, double-sheet hull vehicle. The evaluation is presented in terms of the "best" and the "worst" conditions that might be expected as determined from astronomical and satellite measurements, high-speed impact data, and hypothesized meteoroid structures and compositions. It was observed that the vehicle flight time without penetration can be increased significantly by use of multiple-sheet rather than single-sheet hull construction with no increase in hull weight. Nevertheless, it is evident that a meteoroid hazard exists, even for the vehicle with the selected multiple-sheet hull.

  16. High temperature cathodic charging of hydrogen in zirconium alloys and iron and nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, J.T.; De, P.K.; Gadiyar, H.S.

    1990-01-01

    These investigations lead to the development of a new technique for charging hydrogen into metals and alloys. In this technique a mixture of sulfates and bisulfates of sodium and potassium is kept saturated with water at 250-300degC in an open pyrex glass beaker and electrolysed using platinum anode and the material to be charged as the cathode. Most of the studies were carried out on Zr alloys. It is shown that because of the high hydrogen flux available at the surface and the high diffusivity of hydrogen in metals at these temperatures the materials pick up hydrogen faster and more uniformly than the conventional electrolytic charging at room temperature and high temperature autoclaving in LiOH solutions. Chemical analysis, metallographic examination and XRD studies confirm this. This technique has been used to charge hydrogen into many iron and nickel base austentic alloys, which are very resistant to hydrogen pick up and to H-embrittlement. Since this involved a novel method of electrolysing water, the hydrogen/deuterium isotopic ratio has been studied. At this temperatures the D/H ratio in the evolved hydrogen gas was found to be closer to the value in the liquid water, which means a smaller separation factor. This confirm the earlier observation that separation factor decreases with increase of temperature. (author). 16 refs., 21 fi gs., 6 tabs

  17. Effect of Low-Pressure Nitrogen DC Plasma Treatment on the Surface Properties of Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene, Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) and Polyvinyl Chloride Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, S. Hamideh; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Pilehvar, Soheil; Esmaeili, Sina; Zargham, Shamim; Hashemi, S. Ebrahim; Jodat, Hamzeh

    2013-01-01

    In this study, commercial biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films were treated with nitrogen plasma over different exposure times in a Pyrex tube surrounded by a DC variable magnetic field. The chemical changes that appeared on the surface of the samples were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy after treatment for 2 min, 4 min and 6 min in a nitrogen plasma chamber. Effects of the plasma treatment on the surface topographies and contact angles of the untreated and plasma treated films were also analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a contact angle measuring system. The results show that the plasma treated films become more hydrophilic with an enhanced wettability due to the formation of some new polar groups on the surface of the treated films. Moreover, at higher exposure times, the total surface energy in all treated films increased while a reduction in contact angle occurred. The behavior of surface roughness in each sample was completely different at higher exposure times. (plasma technology)

  18. Manufacture of mirrors by NC machining of EEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongo, Toshio; Azuma, Yasuo; Kato, Haruo; Hoshino, Hideo

    1981-01-01

    In the X-ray optical system for the photon factory facility being constructed now in the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, total reflection mirrors occupy important position. The shapes of mirrors are both plane and curved surface, and the sizes are various. Especially concerning hard X-ray, the required accuracy of the shapes and surface roughness is high. Thereupon mirrors were machined by elastic emission machining (EEM) developed by Mori et al. of Osaka University, and the flatness and surface roughness were examined. The materials machined were Pyrex and copper, the mirror finish of which is difficult. The results are reported. In this machining method, the liquid in which very fine powder is uniformly dispersed and suspended in water was used. By approaching a rotating urethane ball to a work surface, the gap of about 1 μm was formed between them utilizing fluid bearing-like flow arising there. The machining was carried out by colliding the fine particles in suspension to a minute region of the work surface. In order to obtain an arbitrary curved surface, the numerical control according to the variable controling the amount of machining was made. In the case of glasses, the amount of machining was able to be controlled to about 0.01 μm. As for polycrystalline copper, the machining was difficult, and the suitable conditions must be sought hereafter. (Kako, I.)

  19. Technical status study of heavy water enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukarsono; Imam Dahroni; Didik Herhady

    2007-01-01

    Technical status study of heavy water enrichment in Indonesia and also in the world has been done. Heavy water enrichment processes have been investigated were water distillation, hydrogen distillation, laser enrichment, electrolysis and isotop exchange. For the isotop exchange, the chemical pair can be used were water-hydrogen sulphite, ammonium-hydrogen, aminomethane-hydrogen, and water-hydrogen. For the isotope exchange, there was carried out by mono thermal or bi thermal. The highest producer of heavy water is Canada, and the other producer is USA, Norwegian and India. The processes be used in the world are isotope exchange Girdler Sulphide (GS), distillation and electrolysis. Research of heavy water carried out in Batan Yogyakarta, has a purpose to know the characteristic of heavy water purification. Several apparatus which has erected were 3 distillation column: Pyrex glass of 2 m tall, stainless steel column of 3 m tall and steel of 6 m tall. Electrolysis apparatus is 50 cell electrolysis and an isotope exchange unit which has catalyst: Ni- Cr 2 O 3 and Pt-Carbon. These apparatus were not ready to operate. (author)

  20. Inhibitory effect of common microfluidic materials on PCR outcome

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2013-10-10

    In this study, we established a simple method for evaluating the PCR compatibility of various common materials employed when fabricating microfluidic chips, including silicon, several kinds of silicon oxide, glasses, plastics, wax, and adhesives. Two-temperature PCR was performed with these materials to determine their PCR-inhibitory effect. In most cases, adding bovine serum albumin effectively improved the reaction yield. We also studied the individual PCR components from the standpoint of adsorption. Most of the materials did not inhibit the DNA, although they noticeably interacted with the polymerase. We provide a simple method of performing PCR-compatibility testing of materials using inexpensive instrumentation that is common in molecular biology laboratories. Furthermore, our method is direct, being performed under actual PCR conditions with high temperature. Our results provide an overview of materials that are PCR-friendly for fabricating microfluidic devices. The PCR reaction, without any additives, performed best with pyrex glass, and it performed worst with PMMA or acrylic glue materials.

  1. Electron beam application for studies carried out with real domestic sewage from Sao Paulo wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrely, S.I.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Duarte, C.L.

    2001-01-01

    The incompatibility between industrial development and clean environment requires intensive search for waste mitigation technology. Since the aquatic resources have been the most impacted from the environments, improvements on wastewater treatment technologies have been considered. The Nuclear Research Institute has dedicated attention to this problem since 1990. According to the Governmental Sewage Company, SABESP, Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region, RMSP, is treating 18 cubic meters of sewage per second at five stations. The throughput of each station is: ETE Barueri - 9.5 m 3 /s; ETE ABC - 3.0 m 3 /s; ETE Sao Miguel - 1.5 m 3 /s; ETE Parque Novo Mundo - 2.5 m 3 /s and ETE Suzano - 1.5 m 3 /s. Real effluents from the municipalities have been submitted to electron beam accelerator for different purposes, and using batch system. The samplings were composite and the wastewater were irradiated at Pyrex vessels, 246 mL per sample. The radiation doses were defined by current variation and the energy was fixed in 1.4MeV. The conveyor velocity was 6,72 m/min. A Dynamitron EBA, 37,5kW was the electron source

  2. Monte Carlo simulation of the interaction of X-ray spectrum with human tissue, in the energies range of diagnostic radiology; Simulacion Monte Carlo de la interaccion del espectro de rayos X con el tejido humano, en el rango de energias de diagnostico radiologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cayllahua Q, L. F.; Apaza V, G.; Vega R, J. L., E-mail: fredycayllahua@gmail.com [Universidad Nacional de San Agustin, Area de Fisica Medica, Av. Independencia s/n, Arequipa (Peru)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: This paper is an approach to an increasingly complete knowledge about the nature of the processes that occur during a simple examination of radiological diagnosis; know as X-rays are produced and how they will put their energy into the tissue of patients when they are subjected to an examination of radiological diagnosis. First, using the MCNP code an X-rays tube was simulated, where electrons are emitted from a filament (cathode) which travel a certain distance with a certain kinetic energy and then be stopped suddenly in the tungsten target. The X-rays emitted as a result of this interaction, are previously filtered through the inherent filter of Pyrex glass and then by a thin aluminum foil before quantification as an X-rays spectrum. 6 spectra (for 60, 80, 100, 120 and 140 KeV) were obtained. Second, using the Penelope code was simulated the interaction of the X-rays spectrum, obtained in the first part with human tissue, putting as simile of human tissue water phantoms of different thicknesses. As final result: dose of energy deposited (in 2 and 3-dimensional) and reflected, absorbed and transmitted photons spectra. (Author)

  3. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Vasco; Marinov, Daniil; Guaitella, Olivier; Rousseau, Antoine

    2012-10-01

    Ozone kinetics is quite well established at atmospheric pressure, due to the importance of ozone in atmospheric chemistry and to the development of industrial ozone reactors. However, as the pressure is decreased and the dominant three-body reactions lose importance, the main mechanisms involved in the creation and destruction of ozone are still surrounded by important uncertainties. In this work we develop a self-consistent model for a pulsed discharge and its afterglow operating in a Pyrex reactor with inner radius 1 cm, at pressures in the range 1-5 Torr and discharge currents of 40-120 mA. The model couples the electron Boltzmann equation with a system of equations for the time evolution of the heavy particles. The calculations are compared with time-dependent measurements of ozone and atomic oxygen. Parametric studies are performed in order to clarify the role of vibrationally excited ozone in the overall kinetics and to establish the conditions where ozone production on the surface may become important. It is shown that vibrationally excited ozone does play a significant role, by increasing the time constants of ozone formation. Moreover, an upper limit for the ozone formation at the wall in these conditions is set at 10(-4).

  4. MEMS fiber-optic Fabry-Perot pressure sensor for high temperature application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, G. C.; Jia, P. G.; Cao, Q.; Xiong, J. J.

    2016-10-01

    We design and demonstrate a fiber-optic Fabry-Perot pressure sensor (FOFPPS) for high-temperature sensing by employing micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology. The FOFPPS is fabricated by anodically bonding the silicon wafer and the Pyrex glass together and fixing the facet of the optical fiber in parallel with the silicon surface by glass frit and organic adhesive. The silicon wafer can be reduced through dry etching technology to construct the sensitive diaphragm. The length of the cavity changes with the deformation of the diaphragm due to the loaded pressure, which leads to a wavelength shift of the interference spectrum. The pressure can be gauged by measuring the wavelength shift. The pressure experimental results show that the sensor has linear pressure sensitivities ranging from 0 kPa to 600 kPa at temperature range between 20°C to 300°C. The pressure sensitivity at 300°C is approximately 27.63 pm/kPa. The pressure sensitivities gradually decrease with increasing the temperature. The sensor also has a linear thermal drift when temperature changes from 20°C - 300°C.

  5. UV lamp for photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, M.J.B.; Landers, R.; Sundaram, V.S.

    1983-01-01

    An UV lamp and a differential pumping system which enables to couple the lamp to an ultra-high vacuum chamber (10 -9 torr) without using windows, are described. The differential between the pressure inside the discharge chamber and the one in de UHV region, which is of 10 8 -10 9 , is achieved with two pumping states separated by pyrex capillaries having an internal diameter of 0.6 mm. In the first stage, a mechanical pump (10 -3 torr) is used; in the second stage, a diffusor pump with a cryogenic trap (N 2 liq - 10 -7 torr) is employed. The lamp produces, when used with high purity He, narrow lines almost clear at 21.2 eV and 40.8 eV, depending on the discharge chamber pressure, thus eliminating the need of a monochromator. As a high voltage source (3 KV), a commercial unit with a good current control was used, ensuring UV beam stability - an essential characteristic for this lamp if it is employed for photoelectron excitation of crystalline samples. (C.L.B.) [pt

  6. Inhibitory effect of common microfluidic materials on PCR outcome

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Xiao, Kang; Wu, Jinbo; Yi, Xin; Gong, Xiuqing; Foulds, Ian G.; Wen, Weijia

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we established a simple method for evaluating the PCR compatibility of various common materials employed when fabricating microfluidic chips, including silicon, several kinds of silicon oxide, glasses, plastics, wax, and adhesives. Two-temperature PCR was performed with these materials to determine their PCR-inhibitory effect. In most cases, adding bovine serum albumin effectively improved the reaction yield. We also studied the individual PCR components from the standpoint of adsorption. Most of the materials did not inhibit the DNA, although they noticeably interacted with the polymerase. We provide a simple method of performing PCR-compatibility testing of materials using inexpensive instrumentation that is common in molecular biology laboratories. Furthermore, our method is direct, being performed under actual PCR conditions with high temperature. Our results provide an overview of materials that are PCR-friendly for fabricating microfluidic devices. The PCR reaction, without any additives, performed best with pyrex glass, and it performed worst with PMMA or acrylic glue materials.

  7. Solution of the neutron transport equation by the collision probability for 3D geometries; Resolution de l`equation du transport pour les neutrons par la methode des probabilites de collision dans le geometries 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oujidi, B.

    1996-09-19

    The TDT code solves the multigroup transport equation by the interface current method for unstructured 2D geometries. This works presents the extension of TDT to the treatment of 3D geometries obtained by axial displacement of unstructured 2D geometries. Three-dimensional trajectories are obtained by lifting the 2D trajectories. The code allows for the definition of macro-domains in the axial direction to be used in the interface-current method. Specular and isotropic reflection or translations boundary conditions can be applied to the horizontal boundaries of the domain. Numerical studies have shown the need for longer trajectory cutoffs for trajectories intersecting horizontal boundaries. Numerical applications to the calculation of local power peaks are given in a second part for: the local destruction of a Pyrex absorbent and inter-assembly (UO{sub 2}-MOX) power distortion due to pellet collapsing at the top of the core. Calculations with 16 groups were performed by coupling TDT to the spectral code APOLLO2. One-group comparisons with the Monte Carlo code TRIMARAN2 are also given. (author). 30 refs.

  8. Solution of the neutron transport equation by the collision probability method for 3D geometries; Resolution de l`equation du transport par les neutrons par la methode des probabilites de collision dans les geometries 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oujidi, B

    1996-09-19

    The TDT code solves the multigroup transport equation by the interface-current method for unstructured 2D geometries. This works presents the extension of TDT to the treatment of 3D geometries obtained by axial displacement of unstructured 2D geometries. Three-dimensional trajectories are obtained by lifting the 2D trajectories. The code allows for the definition of macro-domains in the axial direction to be used in interface-current method. Specular and isotropic reflection or translations boundary conditions can be applied to the horizontal boundaries of the domain. Numerical studies have shown the need for longer trajectory cutoffs for trajectories intersecting horizontal boundaries. Numerical applications to the calculation of local power peaks are given in a second part for: the local destruction of a Pyrex absorbent, inter-assembly (U02-MOX) power distortion due to pellet collapsing at the top of the core. Calculations with 16 groups were performed by coupling TDT to the spectral code APOLLO2. One-group comparisons with the Monte Carlo code TRIMARAN2 are also given. (author) 30 refs.

  9. Crud formation evaluation at the advanced fuel operating in Angra-1 NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Diego; Palheiros, Franklin; Gomes, Sydney, E-mail: franklin@inb.gov.br, E-mail: diegogomez@inb.gov.br, E-mail: sydney@inb.gov.br [Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil). Superintendência de Engenharia do Combustível

    2017-07-01

    In nuclear engineering, 'crud' is a technical term. It stands for Chalk River Unidentified Deposit, originally found on the cladding surface of some fuel rods in the referred canadian reactor, for which it was named. The deposit can be flaky, porous, or hard depending on its chemical composition. In most cases, it reduces the power output of nuclear reactors - the deposits absorb boron and the neutrons that keep the fission reaction going, as well lead to a more corrosion scenario by increasing the oxide/metal interface surface temperature. This issue might been a concern at Angra 1 where many design alterations have been performed in the new Fuel assembly design. The so called 16NGF has a smaller fuel rod diameter, different burnable absorber - gadolinium instead of pyrex borosilicate glass, hydraulic mismatch compared to 16STD fuel, new IFM grids, higher FDeltaH and several other characteristics. All those features lead to a increase in the subcooled boiling rates, which might favour particles depositions in fuel cladding forming the undesired Crud deposits. In order to evaluate how those implementations could impact negatively the new fuel performance at Angra 1, a study has ben carried out using Thermal Hydraulic calculations. With that, an existing methodology was used to assess the associated risks and what could be the done to mitigate further development of crud in 16NGF Fuel in Angra 1. (author)

  10. Experimental investigation of natural convection heat transfer in volumetrically heated spherical segments. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfia, F.; Dhir, V.

    1998-03-01

    One strategy for preventing the failure of lower head of a nuclear reactor vessel is to flood the concrete cavity with subcooled water in accidents in which relocation of core material into the vessel lower head occurs. After the core material relocates into the vessel, a crust of solid material forms on the inner wall of the vessel, however, most of the pool remains molten and natural convection exists in the pool. At present, uncertainty exists with respect to natural convection heat transfer coefficients between the pool of molten core material and the reactor vessel wall. In the present work, experiments were conducted to examine natural convection heat transfer in internally heated partially filled spherical pools with external cooling. In the experiments, Freon-113 contained in a Pyrex bell jar was used as a test liquid. The pool was bounded with a spherical segment at the bottom, and was heated with magnetrons taken from a conventional microwave oven. The vessel was cooled from the outside with natural convection of water or with nucleate boiling of liquid nitrogen

  11. Coatings of nanoparticles applied to brachytherapy treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Andreza A.D.C.C.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Souza, Carla D.; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Souza, Daiane C.B.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Nogueira, Beatriz R., E-mail: ccg.andreza@gmail.com, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Brachytherapy is a treatment for cancer in which the radiation is placed close or in contact with the region to be treated saving the surrounding healthy tissues. Nanotechnology is the science that studies the properties of nanometric materials. Nanobrachytherapy in a new field that unites the advantages of brachytherapy with the small size in the nanoparticle, resulting in an even less invasive treatment. In view of the synthesis of the nanoparticles and their use, there is a fundamental role that is made by the coatings, which not only have the function of avoiding the aggregation of particles, but also stabilize and control their functional properties. Among the range of coatings, the most outstanding are polyethylene glycol (PEG) and gum arabica (GA). PEG improves the surface properties of nanoparticles and presents high stability under biomedical conditions. After the synthesis of gold nanoparticles was developed, PEG and gum arabica were successfully incorporated into the surface. In a vial of pyrex, 1 ml of coating agent and 1 ml of nanoparticles was left under gentle shaking for 2 hours. Incorporation was confirmed by DLS and HRTEM. GA requires further study. (author)

  12. Experimental constraints on impact-induced winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Stephanie N.; Schultz, Peter H.; Horowitz, Seth S.

    2018-05-01

    A new class of wind streaks on Mars uniquely associated with impact craters is most clearly detected in nighttime thermal infrared imaging. Thermally bright streaks radiate from some well-preserved impact craters and are related to the impact process. Using laboratory experiments performed at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range, we test the hypothesis that these streaks are formed from either the winds within an air-blast or winds set up by expanding impact vapor interacting with the atmosphere. The experiments use a variety of tracers and instruments to document three interrelated processes occurring in the impact of a Pyrex projectile into an easily vaporized powdered dolomite target: (1) a surface roughening spreading outward from the impact point, (2) an expanding vapor plume, and (3) outward winds made visible by dust trails from vertically placed, dusty pipe cleaners. The clear connection between the surface roughening, vapor expansion, and outward winds implicate an expanding vapor interacting with the atmosphere as the controlling process.

  13. Design of an accelerator tube for 500 keV/10 mA electron beam machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksum, W.; Sudjatmoko; Suprapto

    1999-01-01

    A design of an accelerator tube for 500 keV/10 mA electron beam machine was carried out. This tube was used for focussing and accelerating of electron beams. The tube was designed to consist of some electrodes insulator tubes and a voltage divider. The electrodes was made of stainless steel due to its low outgassing constant and stainless, the insulator was made of pyrex glass due to its low outgassing constant and high temperature proof and the voltage divider was made of high-ohmic resistors used for accelerating potential distribution at the electrodes. The stainless steel electrodes were comic shaped 3 mm thick with 134 mm inlet diameter and 60 mm outlet diameter. The number for this electrodes was 34 so that the potential gap between adjacent electrodes not exceed 15 kV. The insulators were 5 mm thick, 150 mm outer diameter, 140 mm inner diameter and 32 mm long. The insulators were joined to the electrodes by using an epoxy form an accelerator tube. The designed accelerator tube could be constructed and operated at a vacuum of 10 -6 torr and accelerated electron beam at an energy of 500 keV. (author)

  14. Structural, optical and thermal properties of {beta}-SnS{sub 2} thin films prepared by the spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khelia, C.; Ben Nasrallah, T.; Amlouk, M.; Belgacem, S. [Faculte des Sciences, Tunis (Tunisia). Lab. de Physique de la Matiere Condensee; Maiz, F. [Equipe de Photothermique de Nabeul, Inst. Preparatoire aux Etudes d' Ingenieur de Nabeul (Tunisia); Mnari, M. [Lab. de Chimie Analytique, Campus Univ., Tunis (Tunisia)

    2000-03-01

    Tin disulfide {beta}-SnS{sub 2} thin films have been prepared on pyrex substrates by the spray pyrolysis technique using tin tetrachloride and thiourea as starting materials. The depositions were carried out in the range of substrate temperatures from 240 to 400 C. Highly c-axis oriented {beta}-SnS{sub 2} films, having a strong (001) X-ray diffraction line are obtained at temperature 280 C and using concentration ratio in solution R = [S]/[Sn] = 2.5. Films surfaces were analyzed by contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to understand the effect of the deposited temperature on the surface structure. On the other hand, from transmission and reflection spectra, the band gap energy determined is about 2.71 eV. Finally using the photodeflection spectroscopy technique, the thermal conductivity K{sub c} and diffusivity D{sub c} were obtained. Their values are 10 Wm{sup -1}K{sup -1} and 10{sup -5} m{sup 2}s{sup -1} respectively. (orig.)

  15. Double plasma system with inductively coupled source plasma and quasi-quiescent target plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massi, M.; Maciel, H.S.

    1995-01-01

    Cold plasmas have successfully been used in the plasma-assisted material processing industry. An understanding of the physicochemical mechanisms involved in the plasma-surface interaction is needed for a proper description of deposition and etching processes at material surfaces. Since these mechanisms are dependent on the plasma properties, the development of diagnostic techniques is strongly desirable for determination of the plasma parameters as well as the characterization of the electromagnetic behaviour of the discharge. In this work a dual discharge chamber, was specially designed to study the deposition of thin films via plasma polymerization process. In the Pyrex chamber an inductively coupled plasma can be excited either in the diffuse low density E-mode or in the high density H-mode. This plasma diffuses into the cylindrical stainless steel chamber which is covered with permanent magnets to produce a multidipole magnetic field configuration at the surface. By that means a double plasma is established consisting of a RF source plasma coupled to a quasi-quiescent target plasma. The preliminary results presented here refer to measurements of the profiles of plasma parameters along the central axis of the double plasma apparatus. Additionally a spectrum analysis performed by means of a Rogowski coil probe immersed into the source plasma is also presented. The discharge is made in argon with pressure varying from 10 -2 to 1 torr, and the rf from 10 to 150 W

  16. Determination of the neutral oxygen atom density in a plasma reactor loaded with metal samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozetic, Miran; Cvelbar, Uros

    2009-08-01

    The density of neutral oxygen atoms was determined during processing of metal samples in a plasma reactor. The reactor was a Pyrex tube with an inner diameter of 11 cm and a length of 30 cm. Plasma was created by an inductively coupled radiofrequency generator operating at a frequency of 27.12 MHz and output power up to 500 W. The O density was measured at the edge of the glass tube with a copper fiber optics catalytic probe. The O atom density in the empty tube depended on pressure and was between 4 and 7 × 1021 m-3. The maximum O density was at a pressure of about 150 Pa, while the dissociation fraction of O2 molecules was maximal at the lowest pressure and decreased with increasing pressure. At about 300 Pa it dropped below 10%. The measurements were repeated in the chamber loaded with different metallic samples. In these cases, the density of oxygen atoms was lower than that in the empty chamber. The results were explained by a drain of O atoms caused by heterogeneous recombination on the samples.

  17. Liquid-liquid mixing by gas injection in a pool configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradini, M.L.

    1994-02-01

    An experimental apparatus was designed and constructed to study the mixing process of two immiscible liquids, in a pool configuration, by bottom gas injection. The apparatus consisted of a vertical pyrex conduit of 15.2 centimeters of internal diameter. To the lower part of the conduit was attached a porous plate through which the gas was injected. The experiments were photographically recorded. The pictures were digitized and a method was developed to quantify the mixing region thickness. This method requires knowledge of the void fraction, for each liquid, as a function of the superficial gas velocity. Because of this, void fraction was measured for the bubbly and churn flow regimes, in a pool configuration for every liquid. A new correlation, based on the drift flux model, is proposed for void fraction as a function of superficial gas velocity. It has been observed that mixing can start either in bubbly or churn flow regimes, depending on the liquid pair properties. Three mechanistic models were derived to aid in correlating the data, two for bubbly flow and one for churn flow. A transition region between these two flow regimes, was deduced, but not directly measured. A set of correlations was developed from the models and it is proposed to be implemented in current codes that model Molten Core Concrete Interactions (MCCI). The implications that the present work has on MCCI have been described. It can be deduced that mixing between the oxidic and the metallic phases will occur during the interaction

  18. Novel sample preparation for operando TEM of catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Benjamin K.; Barker, Trevor M.; Crozier, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    A new TEM sample preparation method is developed to facilitate operando TEM of gas phase catalysis. A porous Pyrex-fiber pellet TEM sample was produced, allowing a comparatively large amount of catalyst to be loaded into a standard Gatan furnace-type tantalum heating holder. The increased amount of catalyst present inside the environmental TEM allows quantitative determination of the gas phase products of a catalytic reaction performed in-situ at elevated temperatures. The product gas concentration was monitored using both electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and residual gas analysis (RGA). Imaging of catalyst particles dispersed over the pellet at atomic resolution is challenging, due to charging of the insulating glass fibers. To overcome this limitation, a metal grid is placed into the holder in addition to the pellet, allowing catalyst particles dispersed over the grid to be imaged, while particles in the pellet, which are assumed to experience identical conditions, contribute to the overall catalytic conversion inside the environmental TEM cell. The gas within the cell is determined to be well-mixed, making this assumption reasonable. - Highlights: • High in-situ conversion of CO to CO 2 achieved by a novel TEM sample preparation method. • A 3 mm fiber pellet increases the TEM sample surface area by 50×. • Operando atomic resolution is maintained by also including a 3 mm grid in the sample. • Evidence for a well-mixed gas composition inside the ETEM cell is given

  19. Thermoelectric Efficiency Improvement in Vacuum Tubes of Decomposing Liquid Lithium-Ammonia Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jungyoon; Kim, Miae; Shim, Kyuchol; Kim, Jibeom; Jeon, Joonhyeon

    2013-01-01

    Lithium-ammonia (Li-NH 3 ) solutions are possible to be successfully made under the vacuum condition but there still remains a problem of undergoing stable and reliable decomposition in vacuum for high-efficiency thermoelectric power generation. This paper describes a new method for improving the thermoelectric conversion efficiency of Li-NH 3 solutions in vacuum. The proposed method uses a ‘U’-shaped Pyrex vacuum tube for the preparation and decomposition of pure fluid Li-NH 3 solutions. The tube is shaped so that a gas passageway (‘U’) connecting both legs of the ‘U’ helps to balance pressure inside both ends of the tube (due to NH 3 gasification) during decomposition on the hot side. Thermoelectric experimental results show that solution reaction in the ‘U’-shaped tube proceeds more stably and efficiently than in the ‘U’-shaped tube, and consequently, thermoelectric conversion efficiency is improved. It is also proved that the proposed method can provide a reversible reaction, which can rotate between synthesis and decomposition in the tube, for deriving the long-time, high-efficiency thermoelectric power

  20. Inductive plasma source for the ion treatment of AISI-304 SS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedad-Beneitez, A de la; Lopez-Callejas, R; Granda-Gutierrez, E E; Rodriguez-Mendez, B G; Perez-Martinez, J A; Flores-Fuentes, A A; Valencia-Alvarado, R; Barocio, S R; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Pena-Eguiluz, R; Munoz-Castro, A E

    2008-01-01

    The design and construction of a simple inductive plasma source is described as constituted by an evacuated Pyrex glass cylinder reactor with 190 mm inner diameter and 500 mm length. This discharge vessel is coaxially surrounded by a cylindrically wound antenna, 240 mm in diameter, made of 3.2 mm wide copper wire. The antenna is supplied by a 13.56 MHz RF generator whose resulting electric field is able to create the plasma. When nitrogen is admitted to the vessel, the plasma generation takes place within the 0.1-50 Pa work pressure and 300-600 W RF power. The plasma density has been established by double Langmuir probes between 3.2 x 10 15 and 2.4 x 10 18 m -3 . This inductive plasma set up is meant to modify the surface of AISI-304 stainless steel by means of ion deposition, thanks to the sample bias provided by an external - 400 V dc supply, in order to improve the steel hardness without compromising its corrosion resistance. Once accelerated by the negative bias, the plasma ions impinge on the sample nitriding it by diffusion. The treated samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) indicating the formation of the expanded gamma phase, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) providing the atomic percentages of nitrogen, and by microhardness (HV) measurement.

  1. Some Temperature Effects on AISI-304 Nitriding in an Inductively Coupled RF Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia-Alvarado, R.; Barocio, S. R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Pena-Eguiluz, R.; Munoz-Castro, A. E.; Piedad-Beneitez, A. de la; Rosa-Vazquez, J. de la; Lopez-Callejas, R.; Godoy-Cabrera, O. G.

    2006-01-01

    Some recent results obtained from nitriding AISI 304 stainless steel samples, 1.2 cm in diameter and 0.5 cm thick are reported here in the case of an 85% hydrogen and 15% nitrogen mixture work gas. The process was carried out from 300 to 400 W for (13.56 MHz) inductively coupled plasma within a 60 cm long pyrex glass tube 3.5 cm in diameter where the samples were biased up to -300 V with respect to earth. The resulting hardness appears to be a function of the substrate temperature which varied from 200 deg. C at a 0 V bias to 550 deg. C at -300 V. The plasma density at 400 W reached 3x1010 cm-3 with a 4 eV electron temperature. Prior to nitriding, all the samples were polished with 0.05 μm diamond paste, leading to a 30 nm average roughness (Ra). After nitriding at -300 V, the Ra rose until ∼400 nm while hardness values of 1500 HV under 300 g loads were measured. X ray diffraction indicates that the extended phase amplitude (γN), Fe and Cr nitride depends on the substrate temperature

  2. Titanium oxidation by rf inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia-Alvarado, R; López-Callejas, R; Barocio, S R; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Peña-Eguiluz, R; Muñoz-Castro, A E; Rodríguez-Méndez, B G; De la Piedad-Beneitez, A; De la Rosa-Vázquez, J M

    2014-01-01

    The development of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) films in the rutile and anatase phases is reported. The films have been obtained from an implantation/diffusion and sputtering process of commercially pure titanium targets, carried out in up to 500 W plasmas. The experimental outcome is of particular interest, in the case of anatase, for atmospheric pollution degradation by photocatalysis and, as to the rutile phase, for the production of biomaterials required by prosthesis and implants. The reactor employed consists in a cylindrical pyrex-like glass vessel inductively coupled to a 13.56 MHz RF source. The process takes place at a 5×10 −2 mbar pressure with the target samples being biased from 0 to -3000 V DC. The anatase phase films were obtained from sputtering the titanium targets over glass and silicon electrically floated substrates placed 2 cm away from the target. The rutile phase was obtained by implantation/diffusion on targets at about 700 °C. The plasma was developed from a 4:1 argon/oxygen mixture for ∼5 hour processing periods. The target temperature was controlled by means of the bias voltage and the plasma source power. The obtained anatase phases did not require annealing after the plasma oxidation process. The characterization of the film samples was conducted by means of x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy

  3. TiO2 thin and thick films grown on Si/glass by sputtering of titanium targets in an RF inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia-Alvarado, R; López-Callejas, R; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Peña-Eguiluz, R; Muñoz-Castro, A E; Rodríguez-Méndez, B G; De la Piedad-Beneitez, A; De la Rosa-Vázquez, J M

    2015-01-01

    TiO 2 thin and thick films were deposited on silicon/glass substrates using RF inductive plasma in continuous wave. The films thickness, as well as phases control, is achieved with a gradual increase in temperature substrates varying supplied RF power or working gas pressure besides deposition time as well. The deposition conditions were: argon 80%/oxygen 20% carefully calibrated mixture of 2 to 7×10 −2 mbar as working gas pressure range. Deposition time 0.5 to 5 hours, 500 or 600 W RF power at 13.56 MHz frequency and 242-345 °C substrates temperature range. The titanium dioxide deposited on the substrates is grown by sputtering of a titanium target negatively polarized at 3-5 kV DC situated 14 mm in front of such substrates. The plasma reactor is a simple Pyrex-like glass cylindrical vessel of 50 cm long and 20 cm in diameter. Using the before describe plasma parameters we obtained films only anatase and both anatase/rutile phases with stoichiometric different. The films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), stylus profilometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. (paper)

  4. Effective Carbon Dioxide Photoreduction over Metals (Fe-, Co-, Ni-, and Cu- Incorporated TiO2/Basalt Fiber Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Yeon Do

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineralogical basalt fibers as a complementary adsorbent were introduced to improve the adsorption of CO2 over the surfaces of photocatalysts. TiO2 photocatalysts (M-TiO2 incorporated with 5.0 mol.% 3d-transition metals (Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu were prepared using a solvothermal method and mixed with basalt fibers for applications to CO2 photoreduction. The resulting 5.0 mol.% M-TiO2 powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence, Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller surface area, and CO2-temperature-programmed desorption. A paste composed of two materials was coated and fixed on a Pyrex plate by a thermal treatment. The 5.0 mol.% M-TiO2/basalt fiber films increased the adsorption of CO2 significantly, indicating superior photocatalytic behavior compared to pure TiO2 and basalt fiber films, and produced 158~360 μmol gcat-1 L−1 CH4 gases after an 8 h reaction. In particular, the best performance was observed over the 5.0 mol.% Co-TiO2/basalt fiber film. These results were attributed to the effective CO2 gas adsorption and inhibition of photogenerated electron-hole pair recombination.

  5. Avaliação da Redução da Poluição do Chorume Tratado por Processo Fotoquímico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Natália Brito

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a redução da poluição do chorume proveniente do aterro sanitário da cidade de Limeira-SP, através de tratamento por processo fotoquímico utilizando H2O2/UV. Os estudos foram realizados em um reator de vidro Pyrex de capacidade volumétrica de 1.7 L (100 mm de diâmetro interno, 145 mm de diâmetro externo e altura total de 300 mm equipado com sistema de refrigeração à água e recirculação do chorume. Os melhores resultados de reduções dos valores de alguns parâmetros de controle ambiental foram: 46 % de Carbono Orgânico Total (COT, 93 % de fenóis totais, 97 % de nitrogênio amoniacal e 91 % de redução da cor do chorume. Estes resultados foram alcançados utilizando as seguintes condições experimentais otimizadas: volume de H2O2 35 mL, adicionados ao reator em alíquotas de 15, 10, e 10 mL, temperatura 45oC, lâmpada de 400 Watts e tempo de tratamento de 90 minutos.

  6. Effect of wall material on H- production in a multicusp source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.; Pyle, R.V.

    1985-01-01

    H - or D - ions are required to generate efficient neutral beams with energies in excess of 150 keV. A magnetically-filtered multicusp source is capable of producing high-quality volume-generated H - beams with sufficient current density (approx. = 40 mA/cm 2 ) to be useful for both neutral beam heating of fusion plasmas and accelerator applications. Attempts have been made to further improve the arc efficiency of this source in order to provide the capability of long pulse or dc operation. The effect of wall material and wall temperature on the H - ion density has been studied by Graham in a high pressure, diffusion-type plasma. No significant difference in negative ion densities has been observed for Pyrex, stainless steel, copper or molybdenum. In this paper, the authors investigate the extracted H - beam with different metallic liners installed in a magnetically-filtered multicusp source (15 cm diam by 24 cm long). These metal liners were cleaned in an ultrasonic alcohol bath before installation. To insure good thermal and electrical contact with the source chamber, two stainless-steel rings were used to force the liner to lay flush against the vessel wall. A steady-state hydrogen plasma was produced by primary electrons emitted from two 0.05-cm-diam tungsten filaments

  7. Some effects of prostaglandins E1 and E2 and of endotoxin injected into the hypothalamus of young chicks: dissociation between endotoxin fever and the effects of prostaglandins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artunkal, A A; Marley, E; Stephenson, J D

    1977-09-01

    Prostaglandins E1 and E2 elevated body temperature of young chicks when injected into the hypothalamus at thermoneutrality (31 degrees C). In contrast, they lowered body temperature when so injected below thermoneutrality (16degreesC): the relation of the fall in body temperature to increased heat loss and decreased heat production was examined. 2 The above effects below thermoneutrality were potentiated by pretreatment with inhibitors of prostaglandin synthetase and possible reasons for this potentation are given. 3 The O-somatic antigen of Shigella dysenteriae consistently evoked hyperthermia when injected into the hypothalamus, irrespective of whether the chicks were within or below thermoneutrality. 4 Pretreatment with prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors failed to prevent the onset of endotoxin fever; however, duration of the fever, induced by intrahypothalamic injection of the O-somatic antigen of Shigella dysenteriae was reduced. 5 The intrahypothalamic injection, belwo thermoneutrality of prostaglandins E1, E2, noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine or carbachol reversed endotoxin fever, inducing even substantial falls in body temperature. 6 While the results cast some doubts on the role of prostaglandins of the E series as mediators of endotoxin fever in chicks, they cannot be eliminated as mediators until the significance of the reduction in duration of the pyrexic response by indomethacin and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid, and the degree of synthesis inhibition attained, are known.

  8. Experimental study of the hydrodynamic instabilities occurring in boiling-water reactors; Etude experimentale des instabilites hydrodynamiques survenant dans les reacteurs nucleaires a ebullition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabreca, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-10-01

    The subjects is an experimental out-of pile loop study of the hydrodynamic oscillations occurring in boiling-water reactors. The study was carried out at atmospheric pressure and at pressure of about 8 atmospheres, in channels heated electrically by a constant and uniform specified current. In the test at 8 atmospheres the channel was a round tube of approximately 6 mm interior diameter. At 1 atmosphere a ring-section channel was used, 10 * 20 mm in diameter, with an inner heating tube and an outer tube of pyrex. It was possible to operate with natural convection and also with forced convection with test-channel by-pass. The study consists of 3 parts: 1. Preliminary determination of the laws governing pressure-drop during boiling. 2. Determination of the fronts at which oscillation appears, within a wide range of the parameters involved. 3. A descriptive study of the oscillations and measurement of the periods. The report gives the oscillation fronts with natural and forced convection for various values of the singular pressure drop at the channel inlet and for various riser lengths. The results are presented in non-dimensional form, which is available, in first approximation, for all geometric scales and for all fluids. Besides the following points were observed: - the wall (nature and thickness) can be an important factor ; - oscillation can occur in a horizontal channel. (author) [French] II a ete effectue une etude experimentale, en boucle hors-pile, des oscillations hydrodynamiques survenant dans les reacteurs a ebullition. L'etude a ete effectuee a la pression atmospherique et a une pression voisine de 8 atmospheres dans des canaux chauffes electriquement a puissance imposee constante et uniforme. Dans les essais a 8 atmospheres le canal etait un tube circulaire de diametre interieur 6 mm environ. A 1 atmosphere le canal etait de section annulaire 10 * 20 mm avec un tube interieur chauffant et un tube exterieur en pyrex. Le fonctionnement etait possible

  9. Application of fractional factorial design to levan production by Zymomonas mobilis Aplicação do planejamento fatorial fracionário para a produção de levana por Zymomonas mobilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R. Melo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Levan is a non-toxic, biologically active, extra cellular polysaccharide composed solely by fructose units. Optimization of levan production by Zymomonas mobilis strain ZAG-12 employing a 2(4-1 fractional factorial design was performed to analyze the influence of the temperature (20, 25 e 30ºC agitation (50, 75 e 100 rpm, and the initial concentrations of both sucrose (150, 200 e 250 g.L-1 and yeast extract (2.0, 3.5 e 5.0g.L-1 on final levan concentration. Aerobic fermentation was performed batchwise in 500mL Pyrex flasks for 72 hours. Biomass, ethanol, levan and sucrose were determined at beginning and also at end of the fermentations. The experiments showed that the final levan concentration depended on initial sucrose concentration, temperature and agitation velocity and that the initial concentration of yeast extract did not influence levan production. However, when the production of ethanol and biomass were considered, it became evident that yeast extract was a significant variable. The best conditions for levan production occurred at 100 rpm agitation, 20ºC and 250g.L-1 of initial sucrose resulting in 14.67g.L-1 of levan.Levana é um polissacarídeo extracelular, biologicamente ativo, não tóxico, contendo em sua estrutura apenas frutose. A maximização da produção de levana, por via fermentativa, pela linhagem de Zymomonas mobilis ZAG-12, foi estudada utilizando-se um planejamento fatorial de dois níveis 2(4-1, variando-se as concentrações iniciais de sacarose (150, 200 e 250 g.L-1 , extrato de levedura (2.0, 3.5 e 5.0 g.L-1, temperatura (20, 25 e 30ºC e agitação (50, 75 e 100 rpm. As fermentações foram desenvolvidas por processos descontínuos em frascos Pyrex roscados, de 500 mL, contendo 300 mL de meio a base de sacarose, por 72 horas. No início e ao final do processo, foram dosados: biomassa, etanol, levana e sacarose como açúcares redutores totais. A análise dos dados mostra que o aumento da produção de levana

  10. Inhibitory effect of common microfluidic materials on PCR outcome

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2012-02-20

    compatibility of various materials commonly used while producing microfluidic devices is also pertinent and beneficial to other enzymatic reactions in microfluidic devices. Most PCR-friendly materials exhibit similar signals regardless of the inclusion or not of BSA in the PCR mixture; these materials are PP, PTFE, PDMS, wax (Tm 80°C), SiO2 quartz, pyrex and soda-lime glasses, NOA68, and mineral oil. Our results showed that there was near total adsorption of template DNA when the wax (Tm 60°C) was used (RBI = 9.2×101). In contrast, when NOA61, mineral oil and acrylic glue materials were employed, significant adsorption occurred (RBI < 1.5×103). The polymerase-inhibition experiments indicate that following materials do not have strong effects (RBI > 1.1×103) on polymerase: PC, PP, PTFE, PDMS, silicon with a layer of 560 nm SiO2, SiO2 quartz, pyrex, and soda-lime glass. Slight polymerase inhibition (RBI < 9.2×102) was observed with PMMA, PVC, waxes (Tm 56°C and 80°C), silicon, and NOA68. A very strong or near total inhibition (RBI < 1.8×102) was observed with wax (Tm 60°C), ITO glass, SU-8, NOA61, metal tubes, mineral oil, epoxy, and the acrylic glues. \\tOur results show that material selection for microfluidic PCR chips, which are characterized by large SAVR, is a vital part of optimizing PCR outcome. This study of the inhibitory effect of various common microfluidics materials has provided a new rapid testing method using only a PCR cycler, and it has confirmed and expanded the list of tested materials. The type of PCR compatibility test enables the most effectual choice of materials for use in biology-related experiments.

  11. Desinfecção de água cinza por fotocatálise heterogênea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Teodoro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A desinfecção adequada de águas cinzas é necessária para garantir a segurança de sua reutilização, principalmente em aplicações com potencial de exposição humana. Diversos processos oxidativos avançados têm sido empregados nos últimos anos para a degradação de contaminantes orgânicos, bem como para desinfecção de águas e efluentes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar TiO2 suportado em microtubos para desinfetar águas cinzas por meio da fotocatálise heterogênea, visando ao reúso hídrico em bacia sanitária. A água cinza utilizada nos experimentos foi coletada após passar por um sistema de tratamento composto de um tanque de evapotranspiração seguido de banhado construído de fluxo horizontal. Foram realizados testes em batelada utilizando-se um reator fotoquímico cilíndrico de 1,0 L (volume total do reator, preenchido com pequenos cilindros de vidro do tipo Pyrex com TiO2 suportado. Para os testes de desinfecção, foram utilizados os processos UV, H2O2, UV/TiO2, UV/H2O2 e UV/TiO2/H2O2. Foi possível obter uma camada homogênea de TiO2 depositada nos pequenos tubos de vidro Pyrex, com espessura média de 35,3 µm, capaz de promover um incremento na desinfecção de águas cinzas. Porém, mesmo com um maior poder de desinfecção do TiO2 - se comparado com a fotólise (UV -, os processos em que se empregou o peróxido de hidrogênio foram bem mais eficientes, tanto na desinfecção (inativação total de coliformes totais, enterococos e Pseudomonas aeruginosa quanto na remoção de matéria orgânica em termos de demanda química de oxigênio (em torno de 60%. As amostras mantidas em temperatura ambiente e envolvidas por plástico escuro não apresentaram recrescimento bacteriano com 24h de armazenamento após os experimentos, mostrando assim a viabilidade da água cinza tratada em reúso doméstico.

  12. Experimental study of the hydrodynamic instabilities occurring in boiling-water reactors; Etude experimentale des instabilites hydrodynamiques survenant dans les reacteurs nucleaires a ebullition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabreca, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-10-01

    The subjects is an experimental out-of pile loop study of the hydrodynamic oscillations occurring in boiling-water reactors. The study was carried out at atmospheric pressure and at pressure of about 8 atmospheres, in channels heated electrically by a constant and uniform specified current. In the test at 8 atmospheres the channel was a round tube of approximately 6 mm interior diameter. At 1 atmosphere a ring-section channel was used, 10 * 20 mm in diameter, with an inner heating tube and an outer tube of pyrex. It was possible to operate with natural convection and also with forced convection with test-channel by-pass. The study consists of 3 parts: 1. Preliminary determination of the laws governing pressure-drop during boiling. 2. Determination of the fronts at which oscillation appears, within a wide range of the parameters involved. 3. A descriptive study of the oscillations and measurement of the periods. The report gives the oscillation fronts with natural and forced convection for various values of the singular pressure drop at the channel inlet and for various riser lengths. The results are presented in non-dimensional form, which is available, in first approximation, for all geometric scales and for all fluids. Besides the following points were observed: - the wall (nature and thickness) can be an important factor ; - oscillation can occur in a horizontal channel. (author) [French] II a ete effectue une etude experimentale, en boucle hors-pile, des oscillations hydrodynamiques survenant dans les reacteurs a ebullition. L'etude a ete effectuee a la pression atmospherique et a une pression voisine de 8 atmospheres dans des canaux chauffes electriquement a puissance imposee constante et uniforme. Dans les essais a 8 atmospheres le canal etait un tube circulaire de diametre interieur 6 mm environ. A 1 atmosphere le canal etait de section annulaire 10 * 20 mm avec un tube interieur chauffant et un tube exterieur en pyrex. Le fonctionnement etait possible en

  13. Removal of CO2 from the terrestrial atmosphere to curtail global warming: From methodology to laboratory prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Andrea E.

    This research has focused on the initial phase of required investigations in pursuit of a global scale methodology for reduction of CO 2 in terrestrial air for the purpose of curtailment of global warming. This methodology was initially presented by Agee, Orton, and Rogers (2013), and has provided the basis for pursuing this thesis research. The first objective of the research project was to design and build a laboratory prototype system, capable of depleting CO2 from terrestrial air at 1 bar of pressure through LN2 refrigeration. Design considerations included a 26.5L cylindrical Pyrex glass sequestration chamber, a container to hold a reservoir of LN2 and an interface between the two to allow for cooling and instrumentation ports for measurements inside the sequestration chamber. Further, consideration was given to the need for appropriate insulating material to enclose the assembled apparatus to help achieve efficient cooling and the threshold depositional temperature of 135 K. The Amy Facility in the Department of Chemistry provided critical expertise to machine the apparatus to specifications, especially the stainless steel interface plate. Research into available insulating materials resulted in the adaption of TRYMER RTM 2500 Polyisocyanurate, effective down to 90 K. The above described DAC prototype designed for CO2 sequestration accomplished two of the initial research objectives investigated: 1) conduct refrigeration experiments to achieve CO2 terrestrial deposition temperature of 135 K (uniformly) and 2) deplete CO2 from the chamber air at 1 bar of pressure, documented by appropriate measurements. It took approximately 5.5 hours for the chamber to be completely uniform in temperature of 135 K (and below) through the use of LN2 poured into the container sitting on an aluminum interface on top of the sequestration Pyrex chamber. As expected, Rayleigh-Taylor instability (more dense fluid over less dense fluid) was observed through the duration of the

  14. Applications of geological labs on chip for CO_2 storage issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, Sandy

    2016-01-01

    CO_2 geological storage in deep saline aquifers represents a mediation solution for reducing the anthropogenic CO_2 emissions. Consequently, this kind of storage requires adequate scientific knowledge to evaluate injection scenarios, estimate reservoir capacity and assess leakage risks. In this context, we have developed and used high pressure/high temperature micro-fluidic tools to investigate the different mechanisms associated with CO_2 geological storage in deep saline aquifers. The silicon-Pyrex 2D porous networks (Geological Labs On Chips) can replicate the reservoir p,T conditions (25 ≤ T ≤ 50 C, 50 ≤ p ≤ 10 MPa), geological and topological properties. This thesis manuscript first highlights the strategies developed during this work to fabricate the GLoCs and to access to global characteristics of our porous media such as porosity and permeability, which are later compared to numerical modelling results. The carbon dioxide detection in GLoCs mimicking p,T conditions of geological reservoirs by using the direct integration of optical fiber for IR spectroscopy is presented. I then detail the strategies for following the dissolution of carbonates in GLoCs with X-rays laminography experiments.Then, the manuscript focuses on the use of GLoCs to investigate each CO_2 trapping mechanism at the pore scale. The direct optical visualization and image processing allow us to follow the evolution of the injected CO_2/aqueous phase within the reservoir, including displacement mechanisms and pore saturation levels. Eventually, I present the ongoing works such as experiments with reactive brines and hydrates formations in porous media [fr

  15. The fabrication of a double-layer atom chip with through silicon vias for an ultra-high-vacuum cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Ho-Chiao; Lin, Yun-Siang; Lin, Yu-Hsin; Huang, Chi-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a double-layer atom chip that provides users with increased diversity in the design of the wire patterns and flexibility in the design of the magnetic field. It is more convenient for use in atomic physics experiments. A negative photoresist, SU-8, was used as the insulating layer between the upper and bottom copper wires. The electrical measurement results show that the upper and bottom wires with a width of 100 µm can sustain a 6 A current without burnout. Another focus of this study is the double-layer atom chips integrated with the through silicon via (TSV) technique, and anodically bonded to a Pyrex glass cell, which makes it a desired vacuum chamber for atomic physics experiments. Thus, the bonded glass cell not only significantly reduces the overall size of the ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) chamber but also conducts the high current from the backside to the front side of the atom chip via the TSV under UHV (9.5 × 10 −10  Torr). The TSVs with a diameter of 70 µm were etched through by the inductively coupled plasma ion etching and filled by the bottom-up copper electroplating method. During the anodic bonding process, the electroplated copper wires and TSVs on atom chips also need to pass the examination of the required bonding temperature of 250 °C, under an applied voltage of 1000 V. Finally, the UHV test of the double-layer atom chips with TSVs at room temperature can be reached at 9.5 × 10 −10  Torr, thus satisfying the requirements of atomic physics experiments under an UHV environment. (paper)

  16. Quasi-solid polymer electrolytes using photo-cross-linked polymers. Lithium and divalent cation conductors and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Shoichiro; Mori, Yoichi; Furuhashi, Yuri; Masuda, Hideki; Yamamoto, Osamu

    In this report, we will present the results on the photo-cross-linked poly-(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) based quasi-solid, i.e. gel, polymer electrolyte systems with lithium, magnesium and zinc trifluoromethanesulfonates [triflate; M n(CF 3SO 3) n] and their preliminary applications to primary cells. The Celgard® membrane-impregnated electrolytes were prepared in the same manner as Abraham et al. [K.M. Abraham, M. Alamgir, D.K. Hoffman, J. Electrochem. Soc. 142 (1995) 683]. The precursor solutions were composed of metal triflates, ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, and tetraethylene glycol diacrylate. The Celgard® #3401 membrane was soaked overnight in the precursor solution, then clamped between two Pyrex glass plates and irradiated with UV light to form a gel electrolyte. The maxima of the conductivity obtained were 4.5×10 -4 S cm -1 at 12 mol% for LiCF 3SO 3, 1.7×10 -4 S cm -1 at 1 mol% for Mg(CF 3SO 3) 2, and 2.1×10 -4 S cm -1 at 4 mol% for Zn(CF 3SO 3) 2 system, respectively. The Arrhenius plots of the conductivities are almost linear between 268 and 338 K with 15-25 kJ/mol of activation energy for conduction. The cell, Li|LiCF 3SO 3-SPE+Celgard® #3401|(CH 3) 4NI 5+acetylene black, showed 2.86 V of OCV and could discharge up to 25% with respect to the cathode active material at a discharging current of 0.075 mA/cm 2.

  17. On the line intensity ratios of prominent Si II, Si III, and Si IV multiplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djenize, S.; Sreckovic, A.; Bukvic, S.

    2010-01-01

    Line intensities of singly, doubly and triply ionized silicon (Si II, Si III, and Si IV, respectively) belonging to the prominent higher multiplets, are of interest in laboratory and astrophysical plasma diagnostics. We measured these line intensities in the emission spectra of pulsed helium discharge. The Si II line intensity ratios in the 3s3p 22 D-3s 2 4p 2 P o , 3s 2 3d 2 D-3s 2 4f 2 F o , and 3s 2 4p 2 P o -3s 2 4d 2 D transitions, the Si III line intensity ratios in the 3s3d 3 D-3s4p 3 P o , 3s4p 3 P o -3s4d 3 D, 3s4p 3 P o -3s5s 3 S, 3s4s 3 S-3s4p 3 P o , and 3s4f 3 F o -3s5g 3 G transitions, and the Si IV line intensity ratios in the 4p 2 P o -4d 2 D and 4p 2 P o -5s 2 S transitions were obtained in a helium plasma at an electron temperature of about 17,000 ± 2000 K. Line shapes were recorded using a spectrograph and an ICCD camera as a highly-sensitive detection system. The silicon atoms were evaporated from a Pyrex discharge tube designed for the purpose. They represent impurities in the optically thin helium plasma at the silicon ionic wavelengths investigated. The line intensity ratios obtained were compared with those available in the literature, and with values calculated on the basis of available transition probabilities. The experimental data corresponded well with line intensity ratios calculated using the transition probabilities obtained from a Multi Configuration Hartree-Fock approximation for Si III and Si IV spectra. We recommend corrections of some Si II transition probabilities.

  18. A pilot-scale radioactive test using in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmerman, C.L.; Oma, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing in situ vitrification (ISV) as a potential remedial action technique for previously disposed radioactive liquid drain sites. The process melts the contaminated soil to produce a durable glass and crystalline waste form and encapsulates the radionuclides. The development of this alternative technology is being performed for the US Department of Energy. The results of an ISV pilot-scale test conducted in June 1983 are discussed in which soils contaminated with actual radioactive transuranic and mixed fission product elements were vitrified. The test successfully demonstrated the containment of radionuclides during processing, both within the vitrified mass and in the off-gas system. No environmental release of radioactive material was detectable during testing operations. The vitrified soil retained >99% of all radionuclides. Losses to the offgas system varied from less than or equal to 0.03% for particulate materials (plutonium and strontium) to 0.8% for cesium, which is a more volatile element. The off-gas system effectively contained both volatile and entrained radioactive materials. Analysis of the vitrified soil revealed that all radionuclides were distributed throughout the vitrified zone, some more uniformly than others. Analysis of soil samples taken adjacent to the block indicated that no migration of radionuclides outside the vitrification zone occurred. Leaching studies have shown that the ISV process generates a highly durable waste form, comparable to Pyrex and granite. Based on geologic data from the hydration of obsidian, which is chemically similar to the ISV glass, the hydration or weathering rate is predicted to be much less than 1 mm in 10,000 yr

  19. Improving the performance of ultrasonic horn reactor for deactivating microorganisms in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-juboori, R A; Yusaf, T F

    2012-01-01

    The research on enhancing the performance of ultrasonic reactor for the purpose of microorganisms' inactivation is still ongoing. In this work, covering the cavitation chamber bottom with a corrugated surface as a source for heterogeneous cavities has been proposed as a simple modification to improve ultrasonic deactivation for ultrasonic horn reactor. Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 was used as a model microorganism in this study. Before using the corrugated surface, the configuration of the cavitation chamber was optimized experimentally in regards to cavitation chamber diameter and the depth of ultrasonic probe tip in the suspension. The optimization of the aforementioned factors was conducted on a basis of using constant suspension volume of 50ml. The depth of the ultrasonic probe tip in the suspension was changed from 2-10mm with a step of 2mm in overall depth of the suspension of 2cm, while the diameter of the chamber was changed using five Pyrex beakers with different diameters. The study was carried out using three level of ultrasonic intensity; low (17.56), intermediate (21.49) and high (24.17) W/cm 2 . The results of the optimization showed that increasing the diameter of cavitation chamber can decrease the log reduction of E.coli significantly. However, changing the depth of ultrasound probe in the suspension within the studied range was found to have only slight effect on the log reduction of E.coli in the order of approximately 0.5-log 10 . When using the corrugated surface with optimum chamber design, the results revealed that the corrugated surface can increase the log reduction of E.coli for the applied ultrasonic intensities. This effect was more discernable with low ultrasonic intensity than intermediate and high intensities.

  20. Ultraviolet irradiation effects incorporation of nitrate and nitrite nitrogen into aquatic natural organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Kevin A.; Cox, Larry G.

    2012-01-01

    One of the concerns regarding the safety and efficacy of ultraviolet radiation for treatment of drinking water and wastewater is the fate of nitrate, particularly its photolysis to nitrite. In this study, 15N NMR was used to establish for the first time that UV irradiation effects the incorporation of nitrate and nitrite nitrogen into aquatic natural organic matter (NOM). Irradiation of 15N-labeled nitrate in aqueous solution with an unfiltered medium pressure mercury lamp resulted in the incorporation of nitrogen into Suwannee River NOM (SRNOM) via nitrosation and other reactions over a range of pH from approximately 3.2 to 8.0, both in the presence and absence of bicarbonate, confirming photonitrosation of the NOM. The major forms of the incorporated label include nitrosophenol, oxime/nitro, pyridine, nitrile, and amide nitrogens. Natural organic matter also catalyzed the reduction of nitrate to ammonia on irradiation. The nitrosophenol and oxime/nitro nitrogens were found to be susceptible to photodegradation on further irradiation when nitrate was removed from the system. At pH 7.5, unfiltered irradiation resulted in the incorporation of 15N-labeled nitrite into SRNOM in the form of amide, nitrile, and pyridine nitrogen. In the presence of bicarbonate at pH 7.4, Pyrex filtered (cutoff below 290–300 nm) irradiation also effected incorporation of nitrite into SRNOM as amide nitrogen. We speculate that nitrosation of NOM from the UV irradiation of nitrate also leads to production of nitrogen gas and nitrous oxide, a process that may be termed photo-chemodenitrification. Irradiation of SRNOM alone resulted in transformation or loss of naturally abundant heterocyclic nitrogens.

  1. Hydrodynamic cavitation in microsystems. I. Experiments with deionized water and nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, M.; Zermatten, P. J.; Pellone, C.; Franc, J. P.; Ayela, F.

    2011-12-01

    An experimental study of hydrodynamic cavitation downstream microdiaphragms and microventuris is presented. Deionized water and nanofluids have been characterized within silicon-Pyrex micromachined devices with hydraulic diameters ranging from 51 μm to 104 μm. The input pressure could reach up to 10 bars, and the flow rate was below 1 liter per hour. The output pressure of the devices was fixed at values ranging from 0.3 bar to 2 bars, so that it was possible to study the evolution of the cavitation number as a function of the Reynolds number in the orifice of the diaphragms or in the throat of the venturis. A delay on the onset of cavitation has been recorded for all the devices when they are fed with deionized water, because of the metastability of the liquid and because of the lack of roughness of the walls. For the first time, hydrodynamic cavitation of nanofluids (nanoparticles dispersed into the liquid) has been considered. The presence of nano-aggregates in the liquid does not exhibit any noticeable effect on the cavitation threshold through the venturis. However, such a presence has a strong influence on the cavitation onset in microdiaphragms: above a critical volume solid concentration of ≈10-5, the metastability is broken and the nanofluids behave as tap water filled up with large nuclei. These microdevices, where a low amount of fluid is required to reach cavitating flows, appear to be useful tools in order to study cavitating phenomena in localized area with specific fluids.

  2. In-duct removal of mercury from coal-fired power plant flue gas by activated carbon: assessment of entrained flow versus wall surface contributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, F.; Chirone, R.; Lancia, A. [CNR, Naples (Italy). Institute for Research on Combustion

    2008-12-15

    In-duct mercury capture efficiency by activated carbon from coal-combustion flue gas was investigated. To this end, elemental mercury capture experiments were conducted at 100 C in a purposely designed 65-mm ID labscale pyrex apparatus operated as an entrained flow reactor. Gas residence times were varied between 0.7 and 2.0 s. Commercial-powdered activated carbon was continuously injected in the reactor and both mercury concentration and carbon elutriation rate were followed at the outlet. Transient mercury concentration profiles at the outlet showed that steady-state conditions were reached in a time interval of 15-20 min, much longer than the gas residence time in the reactor. Results indicate that the influence of the walls is non-negligible in determining the residence time of fine carbon particles in the adsorption zone, because of surface deposition and/or the establishment of a fluid-dynamic boundary layer near the walls. Total mercury capture efficiencies of 20-50% were obtained with carbon injection rates in the range 0.07-0.25 g/min. However, only a fraction of this capture was attributable to free-flowing carbon particles, a significant contribution coming from activated carbon staying near the reactor walls. Entrained bed experiments at lab-scale conditions are probably not properly representative of full-scale conditions, where the influence of wall interactions is lower. Moreover, previously reported entrained flow lab-scale mercury capture data should be reconsidered by taking into account the influence of particle-wall interactions.

  3. Influence of flow rate on different properties of diamond-like nanocomposite thin films grown by PECVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Santra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN thin films were deposited on pyrex glass substrate using different flow rate of haxamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO based liquid precursor with nitrogen gas as a glow discharged decomposition by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD technique. The significant influence of different precursor flow rates on refractive index and thickness of the DLN films was measured by using spectroscopic filmatrics and DEKTAK profilometer. Optical transparency of the DLN thin films was analyzed by UV-VIS-NIR spectrometer. FTIR spectroscopy, provides the information about shifted bonds like SiC2, Si-C, Si-O, C-C, Si-H, C-H, N-H, and O-H with different precursor flow rate. We have estimated the hardness of the DLN films from Raman spectroscopy using Gaussian deconvolution method and tried to investigate the correlation between hardness, refractive index and thickness of the films with different precursor flow rates. The composition and surface morphology of the DLN films were investigated by X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS and atomic force microscopy (AFM respectively. We have analyzed the hardness by intensity ratio (ID/IG of D and G peaks and correlates with hardness measurement by nanoindentation test where hardness increases from 27.8 μl/min to 80.6μl/min and then decreases with increase of flow rate from 80.6μl/min to 149.5μl/min. Finally, we correlates different parameters of structural, optical and tribological properties like film-thickness, refractive index, light transmission, hardness, surface roughness, modulus of elasticity, contact angle etc. with different precursor flow rates of DLN films.

  4. Preliminary results of a broad beam RF ion source with electron plasma interaction. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, M E; Zakhary, S G; Ghanem, A A; Abdel-Ghaffar, A M [Ion Sources and Accelerators Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    A new design of a broad beam RF ion source is made to be capable to deliver wide and uniform beam with currents reaching (100 {mu} A up to 30 mA) at extraction voltages (200 V up to 2 kV). Its plasma intensifying system is made with the addition of electrons from an immersed filament in the discharge and axial magnetic field (70 up to 300 G). A uniform beam distribution is made with a planner graphite cathode which has a number of holes arranged to produce perveance matching with the normal Gaussian distribution of the beam density. These holes are arranged in a consequent orbits with equal distance between the adjacent holes in each orbit. These holes increase in diameter with increasing the orbit radius. This allows increasing the extracted ion currents at the source outer edges and decreases its value at the source inner region; producing wide and uniform beam which is suitable for material modifications. The beam profiles are traced with electromechanical scanner and X-Y recorder. The perveance matching is found to produce a beam uniformity of =66% of its width which reaches =6 cm. The variation of the output currents are with the variation of extraction voltages, magnetic field, discharge pressure and electron injection into the plasma. The extracted current increases with the increase of the discharge pressure, RF power and magnetic field intensity. The influence of electron plasma interaction is found to have a great effect on increasing the ion currents to about four times its value without electron interaction, however, this increase is limited due to presence of breakdown at V{sub ex} > 2 kV. The simple design of this source, its cleanness due to the use of pyrex discharge bottle, easy operation and maintenance adds other features to this broad beam type ion source which makes it suitable for metallurgical applications in broad beam accelerators. 6 figs.

  5. Industrial production and purification of 32P by sulfur irradiation with partially moderated neutron fluxes and target melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanis, J.; Navarrete, M.

    2007-01-01

    Target purification of S α is carried out by distillation at 444±2 deg C under N atmosphere and diluting the vapors in CS 2 . The solution is filtered through fiberglass, Teflon and cellulose to obtain S α by CS 2 evaporation. Once 30 g of this target are irradiated with fast neutron fluxes from 4.5 to 7.4 x 10 12 n x cm -2 x s -1 from 6 to 12 hours, the nuclear reaction 32 S(n,p) 32 P takes place. So, the irradiated S α sample is placed in a Pyrex container situated inside a furnace as the most important piece of equipment in one aluminum and Lucite glove box. The distillation of irradiated sulfur takes place at 444±2 deg C under N atmosphere during 1-2 hours. The vapors are connected to a sulfur diluter containing 20% CS 2 aqueous solution, followed by an activated carbon filter and the two similar additional sulfur diluters. Once cooled, the distillation chamber keeps the radioactive, carrier-free 32 P stuck to the wall. Then 25-50 ml of 0.1N HCl acid was injected by suction and heated again at 110±2 deg C during 1 hour. The corresponding chemical reaction takes place and the labeled H 3 32 PO 4 solution is produced. In such a way, industrial production of 32 P labeled molecules has started in Mexico, with an initial production of 3700-5550 MBq per week. (author)

  6. Pressure broadening and frequency shift of the 5S1/2 → 5D5/2 and 5S1/2 → 7S1/2 two photon transitions in 85Rb by the noble gases and N2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zameroski, Nathan D; Hager, Gordon D; Erickson, Christopher J; Burke, John H

    2014-01-01

    Doppler free two photon absorption spectroscopy was employed to measure the pressure broadening and frequency shift rates of the 5S 1/2 (F = 3) → 5D 5/2 (F = 5, 4, 3, 2, 1) (778.105 nm) and the 5S 1/2 (F = 2) → 7S 1/2 (F = 2) (760.126 nm) two photon transitions in 85 Rb by the noble gases and N 2 . To our knowledge, these rates are reported on for the first time. The self-broadening and shift rate of the 5S 1/2 (F = 3) → 5D 5/2 (F = 5, 4, 3, 2, 1) transition and self -broadening rate of the 5S 1/2 (F = 2) → 7S 1/2 (F = 2) transition were also measured. The temperature dependence of the self-frequency shift (Rb-Rb collisions) of these transitions is presented. Helium diffusion rates through Quartz and Pyrex cells are also calculated and the implication of helium diffusion through glass vapor cells is discussed in regards to atomic frequency standards based on these transitions. Experimental pressure broadening and shift rates are compared to theoretically calculated rates assuming a 6, 8 or 6, 8, 10 difference potential and pseudo potential model. Reasonable agreement is achieved between experimental and theoretical values. (paper)

  7. Sampling for Beryllium Surface Contamination using Wet, Dry and Alcohol Wipe Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, Kent [Central Missouri State Univ., Warrensburg, MO (United States)

    2004-12-01

    This research project was conducted at the National Nuclear Security Administration's Kansas City Plant, operated by Honeywell Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, in conjunction with the Safety Sciences Department of Central Missouri State University, to compare relative removal efficiencies of three wipe sampling techniques currently used at Department of Energy facilities. Efficiencies of removal of beryllium contamination from typical painted surfaces were tested by wipe sampling with dry Whatman 42 filter paper, with water-moistened (Ghost Wipe) materials, and by methanol-moistened wipes. Test plates were prepared using 100 mm X 15 mm Pyrex Petri dishes with interior surfaces spray painted with a bond coat primer. To achieve uniform deposition over the test plate surface, 10 ml aliquots of solution containing 1 beryllium and 0.1 ml of metal working fluid were transferred to the test plates and subsequently evaporated. Metal working fluid was added to simulate the slight oiliness common on surfaces in metal working shops where fugitive oil mist accumulates over time. Sixteen test plates for each wipe method (dry, water, and methanol) were processed and sampled using a modification of wiping patterns recommended by OSHA Method 125G. Laboratory and statistical analysis showed that methanol-moistened wipe sampling removed significantly more (about twice as much) beryllium/oil-film surface contamination as water-moistened wipes (p< 0.001), which removed significantly more (about twice as much) residue as dry wipes (p <0.001). Evidence for beryllium sensitization via skin exposure argues in favor of wipe sampling with wetting agents that provide enhanced residue removal efficiency.

  8. Coaxial plasma gun in the high density regime and injection into a helical field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaer, S.F. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)

    1994-02-01

    A modified coaxial gun in the high density regime of 20-70 mT of He restgas, energized by a 1200 HV sinusoidally damped capacitor discharge with peak currents of 86 kA in a potential range of 10-15 kV, was investigated. The acceleration of the current sheet inside the gun was studied, and an MHD current element model derived, in good agreement with experiment, indicating that thermal diffusion can be neglected during the acceleration phase and furthermore explains the sheet velocity limitation. At the muzzle the plasma is magnetized by inducing a toroidal current through a permanent radial field, generating poloidal field. The injection of the generated current-carrying plasma torus into the driftspace was studied by means of a diamagnetic probe array, for 1) toroidal bias field, and 2) helical bias field. The inner electrode (negative polarity) is continued into the driftspace by a considerably thinner, pyrex insulated central conductor, generating the toroidal bias. Quasi-Tokamak geometry is reached in the helical case. The necessary axial bias field strength was then calculated. Second half-period breakdown was observed, thus a positive electrode was present most of the time. This is a unique way to achieve autopreionisation. Plasma gun operation is very much breakdown dependent, specially in the region of the muzzle. This made it necessary to construct a special compensation coil for the axial field coil. The mean torus speed in the driftspace was 2.2 cm/{mu}sec. The tori were azimuthally homogeneous and exhibited enhanced stability. Transverse expansion at ejection and in the driftspace is prevented by a unique rarefaction wave-pattern resulting from the Mach 50 flow. The toroidal current was observed to decay continuously, not abruptly. No n type or oscillatory instabilities were encountered. These findings are important for future designs of guns where a stable and homogenous torus is needed, such as magnetic confinement injectors. (author) 39 figs., 38 refs.

  9. Obtention, sintering and operational tests of the obtention prototype TeO{sub 2} for the production of {sup 131} I; Obtencion, sinterizado y pruebas operacionales del prototipo de obtencion TeO{sub 2} para la produccion de {sup 131} I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanis M, J [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1997-12-15

    The demand that exists in Mexico of developing production techniques of applicable radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine, it forces to the National Institute of Nuclear Research to develop the obtaining process of {sup 131} I by dry via starting from TeO{sub 2}. The obtaining process of {sup 131} I, it begins with the synthesis of the TeO{sub 2} like matter prevails, starting from the oxidation of Te-elementary one, inside HNO{sub 3}. Later on the TeO{sub 2}, passes to the sintering process in ingots form, in that way it is encapsulated in aluminum, to be irradiated under optimal parameters of irradiation in the nuclear reactor. The irradiated TeO{sub 2}, it passes to the stage of distillation of {sup 131} I, in a distillation equipment of {sup 131} I by dry via starting from TeO{sub 2}. The process equipment consists mainly of three parts: a) the system of distillation control, built of steel, aluminum, bronze and brass, among other, b) distillation system, built of glass pyrex and of quartz, in this system is where the chemical and nuclear reactions take place for the obtaining of {sup 131} I and c) electric system, is the one in charge of the electric energy supply for the process oven, ventilation system and vacuum system. The results of experimental tests, check the effectiveness of the production process of {sup 131} I in the ININ in routine form (industrial), however it is indispensable to optimize the physical, chemical and nuclear parameters that intervene in each stage of the process with the purpose to obtaining the maximum yield, purity, quality and radiological control and economic production costs. (Author)

  10. Fuel cycle programs. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steindler, M.J.; Bates, J.K.; Brock, R.E.

    1981-02-01

    Studies were continued on the encapsulation of radioactive waste in metal. The possibility of interactions between simulated waste glass and lead in air and argon atmospheres was explored. No reactions were observed at 350 and 500 0 C; however, a potential reaction was indicated at 685 0 C in air. A comparative economic analysis of four waste solidification processes subcontracted to TERA Corporation was completed. Within the uncertainties of the cost estimates, the cost of the four processes (two yielding metal-matrix encapsulated waste forms and two yielding glass monoliths) was about the same, with the major cost component being the cost of the building structures. Results of ten drop-weight brittle-fracture tests with Pyrex cylinders indicated that, for the same impact energy density, threefold variations in either drop velocity or cylinder size had no significant effect on the principal parameters of the test model. The kinetics of fracture is being studied by means of high-speed motion pictures. Tests indicated that evaporation losses of solutions collected during infiltration experiments were too small to significantly affect the experimental results. Studies were initiated to determine the cause of the discrepancy between the experimental Cs + velocity in kaolinite columns during 0.1M NaHCO 3 flow and the velocity calculated from the partitioning coefficient. A mathematical model was developed in an effort to explain why the experimentally determined isotherm for IO 3 sorption on Fe 2 O 3 differed from the Langmuir isotherm. Developmental studies of the neutron activation method and the use of tracers for determining very low leach rates were continued. Other studies showed that hydrothermal leaching of glass produced a large increase in surface area

  11. Fuel burn-up distribution and transuranic nuclide contents produced at the first cycle operation of AP1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jati Susilo; Jupiter Sitorus Pane

    2016-01-01

    AP1000 reactor core was designed with nominal power of 1154 MWe (3415 MWth), operated within life time of 60 years and cycle length of 18 months. For the first cycle, the AP1000 core uses three kinds of UO 2 enrichment, they are 2.35 w/o, 3.40 w/o and 4.45 w/o. Absorber materials such as ZrB 2 , Pyrex and Boron solution are used to compensate the excess reactivity at the beginning of cycle. In the core, U-235 fuels are burned by fission reaction and produce energy, fission products and new neutron. Because of the U-238 neutron absorption reaction, the high level radioactive waste of heavy nuclide transuranic such as Pu, Am, Cm and Np are also generated. They have a very long half life. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the result of fuel burn-up distribution and heavy nuclide transuranic contents produced by AP1000 at the end of first cycle operation (EOFC). Calculation of ¼ part of the AP1000 core in the 2 dimensional model has been done using SRAC2006 code with the module of COREBN/HIST. The input data called the table of macroscopic cross section, is calculated using module of PIJ. The result shows that the maximum fuel assembly (FA) burn-up is 27.04 GWD/MTU, that is still lower than allowed maximum burn-up of 62 GWD/MTU. Fuel loading position at the center/middle of the core will produce bigger burn-up and transuranic nuclide than one at the edges the of the core. The use of IFBA fuel just give a small effect to lessen the fuel burn-up and transuranic nuclide production. (author)

  12. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna S. Nagel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days’ duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C, had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described.

  13. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Susanna S; Williams, June H; Schoeman, Johannes P

    2013-02-14

    A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days' duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C), had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described.

  14. Coaxial plasma gun in the high density regime and injection into a helical field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaer, S.F.

    1994-02-01

    A modified coaxial gun in the high density regime of 20-70 mT of He restgas, energized by a 1200 HV sinusoidally damped capacitor discharge with peak currents of 86 kA in the potential range of 10-15 kV, was investigated. The acceleration of the current sheet inside the gun was studied, and an MHD current element model derived, in good agreement with experiment, indicating that thermal diffusion can be neglected during the acceleration phase and furthermore explains the sheet velocity limitation. At the muzzle the plasma is magnetized by inducing a toroidal current through a permanent radial field, generating poloidal field. The injection of the generated current-carrying plasma torus into the driftspace was studied by means of a diamagnetic probe array, for 1) toroidal bias field, and 2) helical bias field. The inner electrode (negative polarity) is continued into the driftspace by a considerably thinner, pyrex insulated central conductor, generating the toroidal bias. Quasi-Tokamak geometry is reached in the helical case. The necessary axial bias field strength was then calculated. Second half-period breakdown was observed, thus a positive electrode was present most of the time. This is a unique way to achieve autopreionisation. Plasma gun operation is very much breakdown dependent, specially in the region of the muzzle. This made it necessary to construct a special compensation coil for the axial field coil. The mean torus speed in the driftspace was 2.2 cm/μsec. The tori were azimuthally homogeneous and exhibited enhanced stability. Transverse expansion at ejection and in the driftspace is prevented by a unique rarefaction wave-pattern resulting from the Mach 50 flow. The toroidal current was observed to decay continuously, not abruptly. No n type or oscillatory instabilities were encountered. These findings are important for future designs of guns where a stable and homogenous torus is needed, such as magnetic confinement injectors. (author) 39 figs., 38 refs

  15. Ramp discharge in Z-pinch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaber, W.H.; Beshara, A.B.; El-Bialy, A.B.; Masoud, M.M. [Plasma and Nuclear Fusion Dept., N.R.C., Atomic Energy Authority, Enshass (Egypt)

    2004-07-01

    A ramp Z-pinch discharge is designed and built in order to increase the pinch ratio and obtain a maximum contraction, and to increase the temperature. The discharge chamber is a cylindrical Pyrex tube of 25 cm long, 18.5 cm, 20 cm inner and outer diameter and two circular Aluminum plates of radius 15 cm separated by 21 cm are inserted into the tube. The tube is filled with He gas at 0.1 mbar. Two capacitor banks are used, the first bank 30 {mu}F and the second fast bank 1.3 {mu}F. The charging voltage was 8 kV for both banks. The discharge current and voltage of each bank are measured by potential divider and Rogowski coil respectively. Also the plasma inductance and resistance are obtained for each case. The plasma inductance has its peak value 300 nH at 4 {mu}s, while the plasma resistance has it minimum 8 m{omega} at the same time in the case of conventional discharge (single bank). In the case of ramp discharge, the inductance has two peaks 440 nH, 380 nH at 4 {mu}s, 9.5 {mu}s respectively, while the resistance has two minimum 4 m{omega}, 20 m{omega} at at 4 {mu}s, 9.5 {mu}s respectively. The temperature has been measure spectroscopically by using relative continuum intensity ratio method. The temperature has its peak value 38 eV at 4 {mu}s for single bank case, while it larger peak value 55 eV for ramp case. (orig.)

  16. Application of B{sub 4}C/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Burnable Absorber Rod to Control Excess Reactivity of SMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, Boravy; Hah, C. J. [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Soluble boron in a nuclear reactor coolant is one of the methods to control excess reactivity of the reactor. However, the use of soluble boron also causes some negative effects such as corrosion, more-positive tendency of Moderator Temperature Coefficient (MTC) and the requirement of Chemical Volume Control System (CVCS). One of the conceptual design features of SMR having been developed in Korea is soluble boron- free reactor to eliminate those drawbacks. Control rods and Burnable Absorber (BA) rods can be other methods than soluble to control excess reactivity. WABA (Wet Annular Burnable Absorber) and PYREX are such type. The other type is IFBA (Integral Fuel Burnable Absorber) in which fuel pellet surface is coated with BA. This paper compares nuclear characteristics of three types of BA as well as SLOBA in terms of k-infinite vs. burnup and explain design basis of SLOBA. This paper also presents the application of SLOBA rods to control long-term excess reactivity of SMR. The SMR loaded with SLOBA rods has been developed for the past few years in Korean. It is named as Bandi-50 with design features of 180 MWth, 37 FAs, fuel assembly height of 200 cm. Soluble-boron-free is one of nuclear design requirements of Bandi-50 and is achieved by controlling excess reactivity of the SMR using BAs and control rods only. To achieve this design requirement, LP is carefully determined in such way that CBC should be as low as possible. Fuel assembly cross-sections are generated by CASMO-3, and core depletion calculations are performed by MASTER.

  17. Fabrication of Silicon Nitride Dental Core Ceramics with Borosilicate Veneering material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wananuruksawong, R; Jinawath, S; Wasanapiarnpong, T [Research Unit of Advanced Ceramic, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand); Padipatvuthikul, P, E-mail: raayaa_chula@hotmail.com [Faculty of Dentistry, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2011-10-29

    Silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) ceramic is a great candidate for clinical applications due to its high fracture toughness, strength, hardness and bio-inertness. This study has focused on the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramic as a dental core material. The white Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} was prepared by pressureless sintering at relative low sintering temperature of 1650 deg. C in nitrogen atmosphere. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramic is lower than that of Zirconia and Alumina ceramic which are popular in this field. The borosilicate glass veneering was employed due to its compatibility in thermal expansion. The sintered Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} specimens represented the synthetic dental core were paintbrush coated by a veneer paste composed of borosilicate glass powder (<150 micrometer, Pyrex) with 5 wt% of zirconia powder (3 wt% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} - partial stabilized zirconia) and 30 wt% of polyvinyl alcohol (5 wt% solution). After coating the veneer on the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} specimens, the firing was performed in electric tube furnace between 1000-1200 deg. C. The veneered specimens fired at 1100 deg. C for 15 mins show good bonding, smooth and glossy without defect and crazing. The veneer has thermal expansion coefficient as 3.98x10{sup -6} deg. C{sup -1}, rather white and semi opaque, due to zirconia addition, the Vickers hardness as 4.0 GPa which is closely to the human teeth.

  18. Effect of thermocycling on nickel release from orthodontic arch wires: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibaninia, Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    The amount of daily intake of metals from orthodontic appliances over time is a matter of great concern. Nickel results in one of the most common metal-induced allergic contact dermatitis in humans; it produces more allergic reactions than all the other metals combined together. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of thermocycling on the nickel release from orthodontic arch wires stored in artificial saliva with different pH values. Forty new wire pieces were selected. Each wire piece was placed in a special capillary Pyrex tube filled with artificial saliva, which was sealed and immersed in deionized water at 37 °C. The samples were divided into four groups of ten. Group I received no treatment; group II was subjected to thermocycling. The pH of storage in groups III and IV was reduced to 4.5, and group IV was subjected to thermocycling. Thermocycling was carried out between 5 and 55 °C for 500 cycles. The release of nickel ions was statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA for the effects of two variables: pH and thermocycling. The interaction between pH and thermocycling was found to be statistically significant (F = 12.127, P = 0.001). Two-way ANOVA showed that different storage media or pH and thermocycling had a significant effect on the nickel release (F = 52.812, P nickel from orthodontic wires, while thermocycling is clearly the dominant factor.

  19. Rate constant and mechanism of the reaction Cl + CFCl₂H → CFCl₂ + HCl over the temperature range 298-670 K in N₂ or N₂/O₂ diluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, E W; Jawad, Khadija M

    2014-05-08

    The rate constant of the reaction Cl + CFCl2H (k1) has been measured relative to the established rate constant for the reaction Cl + CH4 (k2) at 760 Torr. The measurements were carried out in Pyrex reactors using a mixture of CFCl2H, CH4, and Cl2 in either N2 or N2/O2 diluent. Reactants and products were quantified by GC/FID analysis. Cl atoms were generated by irradiation of the mixture with 360 nm light to dissociate the Cl2 for temperatures up to ~550 K. At higher temperature, the Cl2 dissociated thermally, and no irradiation was used. Over the temperature range 298-670 K, k1 is consistently a factor of ~5 smaller than that of k2 with a nearly identical temperature dependence. The optimum non-Arrhenius rate constant is represented by the expression k1 = 1.14 × 10(-22) T(3.49) e(-241/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) with an estimated uncertainty of ±15% including uncertainty in the reference reaction. CFCl3 formed from the reaction CFCl2 + Cl2 (k3) is the sole product in N2 diluent. In ~20% O2 at 298 K, the CFCl3 product is suppressed. The rate constant of reaction 3 was measured relative to that of reaction 4 [CFCl2 + O2 (k4)] giving the result k3/k4 = 0.0031 ± 0.0005 at 298 K. An earlier experiment by others observed C(O)FCl to be the major product of reaction channel 4 [formed via the sequence, CFCl2(O2) → CFCl2O → C(O)FCl + Cl]. Our current experiments verified that there is a Cl atom chain reaction in the presence of O2 as required by this mechanism.

  20. Facies of ion bombarded surfaces of brittle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primak, W.

    1975-12-01

    Materials were bombarded by protons, deuterons, and helium ions. The materials investigated were quartz; glasses; carbides and borides (SiC, B 4 C, TiB 2 ); oxides and nitrides (magnorite, sapphire, spinel, Al 2 O 3 , Si 3 N 4 , ZrO 2 , BaTiO 3 ); and miscellaneous (graphite, LiNbO 3 , copper). Oberservations were of growth, reflectivity, blistering, surface ablation, and swelling. Calculations were made of the effects of a layer, of its gradual transformation, and of the introduction of a gas. It is concluded that: Radiation blistering is not a primary process. Observations of blister formation and exfoliation cannot be used to calculate the surface ablation rate. The primary process is the development of a microporous layer which causes swelling. Visible blisters are caused by fracturing by transverse stresses in this layer and may occur during the bombardment, or in some cases, much later, in storage. There is no evidence of extreme gas pressures in the blisters. When blisters develop, they may be stable under continued bombardment for a dose many times that at which they formed. The swelling is a better index of the effects than is the blistering, and must be associated in most cases with permeability to the gas. Behavior with protons and deuterons is similar, with helium different. All but quartz, vitreous silica, and Pyrex are impervious to hydrogen and deuterium; only dense barium crown glass, carbides, borides, oxides, and nitrides are impervious to helium. Quartz shows swelling caused by conversion to a vitreous product of much lower density but no porosity, while for the others, most of the swelling and surface growth is caused by porosity. Surface ablation by the blistering process may be reduced by initial porosity or by initial or subsequent surface fissuring. However, for impervious materials, surface damage by the introduction of porosity would continue

  1. Hybrid microtransmitter for free-space optical spacecraft communication: design, manufacturing, and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Sara; Palmer, Kristoffer; Kratz, Henrik; Thornell, Greger

    2009-02-01

    Optical intra-communication links are investigated by several currently operational qualification missions. Compared with RF communication systems, the optical domain obtains a wider bandwidth, enables miniaturized spacecraft and reduced power consumption. In this project, a microtransmitter is designed and manufactured for formation flying spacecraft with transmission rates of 1 Gbit/s. Simulations in Matlab and Simulink show that a BER of 10-9 can be achieved with aperture sizes of 1 cm and a transmitter output peak power of 12 mW for a distance of 10 km. The results show that the performance of the communication link decreases due to mechanical vibrations in the spacecraft together with a narrow laser beam. A dual-axis microactuator designed as a deflectable mirror has been developed for the laser beam steering where the fabrication is based on a double-sided, bulk micromachining process. The mirror actuates by joints consisting of v-grooves filled with SU-8 polymer. The deflection is controlled by integrated resistive heaters in the joints causing the polymer to expand thermally. Results show that the mirror actuates 20-30° in the temperature interval 25-250°C. Flat Fresnel lenses made of Pyrex 7740 are used to collimate the laser beam. These lenses are simulated in the Comsol software and optimized for a 670 nm red VCSEL. The lenses are manufactured using lithography and reactive ion etching. All tests are made in a normal laboratory environment, but the effect of the space environment is discussed.

  2. Quasi-solid polymer electrolytes using photo-cross-linked polymers. Lithium and divalent cation conductors and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Shoichiro; Mori, Yoichi; Furuhashi, Yuri; Masuda, Hideki [Nagoya Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry; Yamamoto, Osamu [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-09-01

    In this report, we will present the results on the photo-cross-linked poly-(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) based quasi-solid, i.e. gel, polymer electrolyte systems with lithium, magnesium and zinc trifluoromethanesulfonates [triflate; M{sup n}(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub n}] and their preliminary applications to primary cells. The Celgard{sup trademark} membrane-impregnated electrolytes were prepared in the same manner as Abraham et al. [K.M. Abraham, M. Alamgir, D.K. Hoffmann, J. Electrochem. Soc. 142 (1995) 683]. The precursor solutions were composed of metal triflates, ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, and tetraethylene glycol diacrylate. The Celgard{sup trademark} aa3401 membrane was soaked overnight in the precursor solution, then clamped between two Pyrex glass plates and irradiated with UV light to form a gel electrolyte. The maxima of the conductivity obtained were 4.5 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} at 12 mol% for LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}, 1.7 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} at 1 mol% for Mg(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2}, and 2.1 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} at 4 mol% Zn(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2} system, respectively. The Arrhenius plots of the conductivities are almost linear between 268 and 338 K with 15-25 kJ/mol of activation energy for conduction. The cell, li vertical stroke LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}-SPE+Celgard{sup trademark} aa3401 vertical stroke (CH{sub 3}){sub 4}NI{sub 5}+acetylene black, showed 2.86 V of OCV and could discharge up to 25% with respect to the cathode active material at a discharging current of 0.075 mA/cm{sup 2}. (orig.)

  3. acceleration observed in an audio air gas discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragheb, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    an audio air gas discharge enclosed in a pyrex glass of 34 mm diameter and 25 cm long , lead to trace the occurrence of an unusual phenomenon. injected relative huge light spots of intense brightness, distributed regularly on the contour and in the center of one of the discharge electrodes, are observed. very high heat is pronounced on both electrodes, while, one of them is higher than the other it attains 660 degree C in 3-4 minutes. series of photographs and registered video films define and clarify the sequence of events that describe the observed phenomenon. the plasma is created by applying an audio power through the electrodes of an air gas discharge of 10 khz and up to 500 watts power supply. the discharge voltage is up to 900 volts: the discharge current flowing through the plasma attains 360 mA. it is found that the discharge system must attain its optimal working conditions in order to produce the amazing phenomena. the obtained plasma is classified as the maximum conditions borders of a γ-discharge type. at these conditions, the corresponding maximum electron temperature and density are 16 eV and 10 15 cm -3 respectively . the observation system succeeded to reveal and to clarify the sequence of the phenomenon events. in addition, by means of the scanning electron microscope and the energy dispersive x- ray systems, the effects on the electrodes surface are investigated and analyzed. the optical observations, in conjunction with the micrograph and surface microanalysis,demonstrate the collision occurrence, of powered agglomerations groups, to the electrode surface. detailed interpretation of that phenomenon suggests a molecular acceleration gaining their energy from the formed plasma due to optimal discharge working conditions. as a consequence, due to the ions agglomerates size this procedure could be considered as a mesoscopic acceleration technique.

  4. Optical pumping and xenon NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raftery, M.D.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of xenon has become an important tool for investigating a wide variety of materials, especially those with high surface area. The sensitivity of its chemical shift to environment, and its chemical inertness and adsorption properties make xenon a particularly useful NMR probe. This work discusses the application of optical pumping to enhance the sensitivity of xenon NMR experiments, thereby allowing them to be used in the study of systems with lower surface area. A novel method of optically-pumping 129 Xe in low magnetic field below an NMR spectrometer and subsequent transfer of the gas to high magnetic field is described. NMR studies of the highly polarized gas adsorbed onto powdered samples with low to moderate surface areas are now possible. For instance, NMR studies of optically-pumped xenon adsorbed onto polyacrylic acid show that xenon has a large interaction with the surface. By modeling the low temperature data in terms of a sticking probability and the gas phase xenon-xenon interaction, the diffusion coefficient for xenon at the surface of the polymer is determined. The sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping also allows the NMR observation of xenon thin films frozen onto the inner surfaces of different sample cells. The geometry of the thin films results in interesting line shapes that are due to the bulk magnetic susceptibility of xenon. Experiments are also described that combine optical pumping with optical detection for high sensitivity in low magnetic field to observe the quadrupoler evolution of 131 Xe spins at the surface of the pumping cells. In cells with macroscopic asymmetry, a residual quadrupolar interaction causes a splitting in the 131 Xe NMR frequencies in bare Pyrex glass cells and cells with added hydrogen

  5. Method for optical 15N analysis of small amounts of nitrogen gas released from an automatic nitrogen analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, Yasuhiro

    1981-01-01

    A method of optical 15 N analysis is proposed for application to small amounts of nitrogen gas released from an automatic nitrogen analyzer (model ANA-1300, Carlo Erba, Milano) subjected to certain set modifications. The ANA-1300 was combined with a vacuum line attached by a molecular sieve 13X column. The nitrogen gas released from the ANA-1300 was introduced with a carrier gas of helium into the molecular sieve column which was pre-evacuated at 10 -4 Torr and cooled with outer liquid nitrogen. After removal of the helium by evacuation, the nitrogen gas fixed on the molecular sieve was released by warming the column, and then, it was sealed into pre-evacuated pyrex glass tubes at 4.5 - 5.0 Torr. In the preparation of discharge tubes, contamination of unlabelled nitrogen occurred from the carrier gas of standard grade helium, and the relative lowering of the 15 N value by it was estimated to be less than 1% when over 700 μg nitrogen was charged on the ANA-1300; when 200 μg nitrogen was charged, it was about 3.5%. However, the effect of the contamination could be corrected for by knowing the amount of contaminant nitrogen. In the analysis of plant materials by the proposed method, the coefficient of variation was less than 2%, and no significant difference was observed between results given by the present method and by the ordinary method in which samples were directly pyrolyzed in the discharge tubes by the Dumas method. The present method revealed about 1.5 μg of cross-contaminated nitrogen and was applicable to more than 200 μg of sample nitrogen. (author)

  6. LDR segmented mirror technology assessment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krim, M.; Russo, J.

    1983-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, NASA plans to orbit a giant telescope, whose aperture may be as great as 30 meters, for infrared and sub-millimeter astronomy. Its primary mirror will be deployed or assembled in orbit from a mosaic of possibly hundreds of mirror segments. Each segment must be shaped to precise curvature tolerances so that diffraction-limited performance will be achieved at 30 micron (nominal operating wavelength). All panels must lie within 1 micron on a theoretical surface described by the optical precipitation of the telescope's primary mirror. To attain diffraction-limited performance, the issues of alignment and/or position sensing, position control of micron tolerances, and structural, thermal, and mechanical considerations for stowing, deploying, and erecting the reflector must be resolved. Radius of curvature precision influences panel size, shape, material, and type of construction. Two superior material choices emerged: fused quartz (sufficiently homogeneous with respect to thermal expansivity to permit a thin shell substrate to be drape molded between graphite dies to a precise enough off-axis asphere for optical finishing on the as-received a segment) and a Pyrex or Duran (less expensive than quartz and formable at lower temperatures). The optimal reflector panel size is between 1-1/2 and 2 meters. Making one, two-meter mirror every two weeks requires new approaches to manufacturing off-axis parabolic or aspheric segments (drape molding on precision dies and subsequent finishing on a nonrotationally symmetric dependent machine). Proof-of-concept developmental programs were identified to prove the feasibility of the materials and manufacturing ideas.

  7. Influence of irradiation conditions on the gamma irradiation effect in polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacarevic-Popovic, Z.; Gal, O.; Novakovic, L.J.; Secerov, B.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The radiation cross-linking of polyethylene, due to its high cross-linking yield, has resulted in the radiation technology that has found application in radiation production of heat shrinkable structures and in improvement of mechanical and thermo-physical properties of oriented polyethylene objects. It is observed that the cross-linking efficiency decreases when the irradiation is carried out in the presence of oxygen. In order to estimate the conditions that improve cross-linking efficiency, gamma irradiation effect in two types of polyethylene, irradiated in water and air was investigated. The polyethylene samples used were the low density (LDPE) Lotrene CdF 0302 with 45% crystallinity and the high density (HDPE) Hiplex EHM 6003 with 73% crystallinity. Both kinds of samples, fixed in the Pyrex glass tubes, were simultaneously irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays in distilled water and air, at a doses rate of 9,5 kGy/h (determined by the Fricke dosimeter) at room temperature. Radiation induced oxidative degradation was followed through oxygen containing group formation by the carbonyl group band (1720 cm -1 ) and transvinylene group formation by the band at 966 cm -1 in the infrared spectra. Cross-linking efficiency was determined by gel content using the procedure of the extraction in xylene. The monitored effects of gamma irradiation in water and air point to the conclusion that irradiation in water leads to the lower oxidative degradation and higher cross-linking compared with the effects measured after irradiation in air

  8. Obtention, sintering and operational tests of the obtention prototype TeO2 for the production of 131 I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanis M, J.

    1997-12-01

    The demand that exists in Mexico of developing production techniques of applicable radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine, it forces to the National Institute of Nuclear Research to develop the obtaining process of 131 I by dry via starting from TeO 2 . The obtaining process of 131 I, it begins with the synthesis of the TeO 2 like matter prevails, starting from the oxidation of Te-elementary one, inside HNO 3 . Later on the TeO 2 , passes to the sintering process in ingots form, in that way it is encapsulated in aluminum, to be irradiated under optimal parameters of irradiation in the nuclear reactor. The irradiated TeO 2 , it passes to the stage of distillation of 131 I, in a distillation equipment of 131 I by dry via starting from TeO 2 . The process equipment consists mainly of three parts: a) the system of distillation control, built of steel, aluminum, bronze and brass, among other, b) distillation system, built of glass pyrex and of quartz, in this system is where the chemical and nuclear reactions take place for the obtaining of 131 I and c) electric system, is the one in charge of the electric energy supply for the process oven, ventilation system and vacuum system. The results of experimental tests, check the effectiveness of the production process of 131 I in the ININ in routine form (industrial), however it is indispensable to optimize the physical, chemical and nuclear parameters that intervene in each stage of the process with the purpose to obtaining the maximum yield, purity, quality and radiological control and economic production costs. (Author)

  9. PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION, ACTIVITY, DEACTIVATION, AND REGENERATION TESTS OF CoO-MoO/ZnO AND CoO-MoO/ZnO-ACTIVATED ZEOLITE CATALYSTS FOR THE HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM FUSEL OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wega Trisunaryanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Preparation, characterization, activation, deactivation, and regeneration tests of CoO-MoO/ZnO and CoO-MoO/ZnO-Activated Zeolite (AZ catalysts for the hydrogen production using steam reforming of alcohols in fusel oil have been conducted. Both catalysts were prepared by impregnation of Co and Mo onto ZnO or ZnO-AZ powder then followed by calcination at 400 °C for 5 h under N2 stream. The BET method and pyridine adsorption were used for catalysts characterization. The study of activation, deactivation, and regeneration of catalysts were conducted by using steam reforming method in the semi flow reactor. The reaction condition were: weight ratio of catalysts/feed = 0.1, temperature: 450 °C, duration: 45 min. The gas product was trapped in a 250 mL vacuum pyrex bottle filled with 50 mL of 4 M NaOH solution and analyzed by GC with TCD system to determine H2 existance and HCl titration to determine CO2 produced during the process that was dissolved in NaOH solution. The results showed that CoO-MoO/ZnO-AZ catalyst produced higher gas conversion than CoO-MoO/ZnO catalyst. However, it had short catalyst lifetime due to its high amount of coke deposited during the process. The regeneration test could enhance the catalyst activity. The gas product consisted of H2 (14.70% and CO2 (24.41%.   Keywords: fusel oil, steam reforming, deactivation, regeneration, hydrogen production.

  10. Evaluation of the in pile performance of boron containing fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Gwanyoon; Sohn, Dongseong

    2012-01-01

    The world rare earth resource are heavily concentrated in certain area and if these natural resources are weaponized by a country, we may confront serious difficulty because rare earth element gadolinium(Gd) is used as burnable poison material in some nuclear power plants (NPP) in Korea. Gd is used as a neutron absorbing material in Gd 2 O 3 form and mixed with UO 2 When boron is used as burnable poison in nuclear fuel, in fuel pellets. The burnable poison mixed in the fuel pellets is called integral burnable absorber (BA) design which differentiates it from the old separate BA design. In the old separate BA design, boron(B) was used in borosilicate glass (PYREX) form and placed in guide tubes. With the development of the concern over the availability of rare earth material Gd, B is considered as a candidate material replacing Gd for the case when the rare earth material is weaponized. However the idea for new boron BA design is integral type because the integral type BA design has several benefits over the separate BA design, such as reduction of radioactive waste, more positions for BA location, etc. 10 B absorbs a neutron and produces helium by the following reaction: 10 B + n → 7 Li + 4 He The helium produced by the nuclear reaction may cause the increase of rod internal pressure and change the gap conductivity if the significant amount of helium gas is released to the gap between the pellet and the cladding. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the in-pile behaviors of B containing pellet. However, few experiment have been carried out so far on the behavior of in-pile produced helium in UO 2 fuel pellets, especially for the cases boron compound is mixed with UO 2 In this paper, we will evaluate the production and the release of helium depending on fuel. 10 B concentration in the fuel

  11. In situ vitrification: application analysis for stabilization of transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Rusin, J.M.

    1982-09-01

    The in situ vitrification process builds upon the electric melter technology previously developed for high-level waste immobilization. In situ vitrification converts buried wastes and contaminated soil to an extremely durable glass and crystalline waste form by melting the materials, in place, using joule heating. Once the waste materials have been solidified, the high integrity waste form should not cause future ground subsidence. Environmental transport of the waste due to water or wind erosion, and plant or animal intrusion, is minimized. Environmental studies are currently being conducted to determine whether additional stabilization is required for certain in-ground transuranic waste sites. An applications analysis has been performed to identify several in situ vitrification process limitations which may exist at transuranic waste sites. Based on the process limit analysis, in situ vitrification is well suited for solidification of most in-ground transuranic wastes. The process is best suited for liquid disposal sites. A site-specific performance analysis, based on safety, health, environmental, and economic assessments, will be required to determine for which sites in situ vitrification is an acceptable disposal technique. Process economics of in situ vitrification compare favorably with other in-situ solidification processes and are an order of magnitude less than the costs for exhumation and disposal in a repository. Leachability of the vitrified product compares closely with that of Pyrex glass and is significantly better than granite, marble, or bottle glass. Total release to the environment from a vitrified waste site is estimated to be less than 10 -5 parts per year. 32 figures, 30 tables

  12. Production of low molecular weight hydrocarbons by volcanic eruptions on early Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Antígona; Navarro-González, Rafael

    2005-10-01

    Methane and other larger hydrocarbons have been proposed as possible greenhouse gases on early Mars. In this work we explore if volcanic processes may have been a source for such molecules based on theoretical and experimental considerations. Geologic evidence and numerical simulations indicate that explosive volcanism was widely distributed throughout Mars. Volcanic lightning is typically produced in such explosive volcanism. Therefore this geologic setting was studied to determine if lightning could be a source for hydrocarbons in volcanic plumes. Volcanic lightning was simulated by focusing a high-energy infrared laser beam inside of a Pyrex reactor that contained the proposed volcanic gas mixture composed of 64% CH(4), 24% H(2), 10% H(2)O and 2% N(2), according to an accretion model and the nitrogen content measured in Martian meteorites. The analysis of products was performed by gas chromatography coupled to infrared and mass spectroscopy. Eleven hydrocarbons were identified among the products, of which acetylene (C(2)H(2)) was the most abundant. A thermochemical model was used to determine which hydrocarbons could arise only from volcanic heat. In this case, acetylene and ethylene are formed at magmatic temperatures. Our results indicate that explosive volcanism may have injected into the atmosphere of early Mars approximately 6 x 10(12) g yr(-1) of acetylene, and approximately 2 x 10(12) g yr(-1) of 1,3-butadiyne, both produced by volcanic lightning, approximately 5 x 10(11) g yr(-1) of ethylene produced by volcanic heat, and 10(13) g yr(-1) of methane.

  13. Studies on the photochemical and thermal dissociation synthesis of krypton difluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinkead, S.A.; FitzPatrick, J.R.; Foropoulos, J. Jr.; Kissane, R.J.; Purson, J.D.

    1993-08-01

    Like dioxygen difluoride (O{sub 2}F{sub 2}), KrF{sub 2} can be produced by thermal dissociation or photochemical synthesis from the elements; however, the yields are invariably much less than those obtained for O{sub 2}F{sub 2}. For example, while irradiation of liquid O{sub 2}/F{sub 2} mixtures at {minus}196{degrees}C through a sapphire window with an unfiltered 1,000W uv lamp provides in excess of 3g of O{sub 2}F{sub 2} per hour, the yield of KrF{sub 2} under identical circumstances is approximately 125 mg/hr. In this report, the yield of KrF{sub 2} in quartz and Pyrex{trademark} photochemical reactors has been examined as a function of irradiation wavelength, irradiation power, and Kr: F{sub 2} mole ratio. The uv-visible spectrum of KrF{sub 2} has also been recorded for comparison with earlier work, and the quantum yield for photodissociation at two wavelengths determined. The synthesis of KrF{sub 2} using large thermal gradients has also been examined using resistively heated nickel filaments to thermally dissociate the F{sub 2} in close proximity to liquid nitrogen-cooled metal surfaces. As a net result, KrF{sub 2} has been produced in yields in excess of 1.75 g/hr for extended periods in photochemical systems, and 2.3 g/hr for shorter periods in thermally dissociative reactors. This paper summarizes the results of examining parametrically several different types of reactors for efficiency of producing krypton difluoride.

  14. ''Glassy'' low temperature thermal properties in crystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathan, B.D.

    1976-05-01

    Amorphous dielectrics are known to exhibit anomalous low temperature properties. An extensive review of these properties is presented with an eye toward an understanding of low-lying excitation modes thought to exist in glasses. Work on these systems is described in which a Zr-20 percent Nb samplewhich would be expected to reduce and redistribute the proposed tunneling states. Indeed, the thermal conductivity becomes similar to that of a quenched Zr-8 percent Nb sample and the ''excess'' specific heat linear in temperature dependence is reduced to half the value found in quenched Zr-20 percent Nb. The coefficient of the T 3 term in the specific heat unexpectedly increased from 23.3 to 56.9 erg/gm K 4 and this is attributed to a softening of the lattice due to annealing. The specific heat of this sample was remeasured after it had been dunked in liquid nitrogen. The cubic term was then found to be 19.5 erg/g K 4 , smaller than that in quenched Zr-20 percent Nb, an effect which had been expected due to the chemical diffusion during annealing. Further study of this phenomenon is suggested. Among other relevant measurements performed were the specific heat of a sample of amorphous B 2 O 3 (presented by Stephens (1976)); thermal conductivities of phase-separated unleached Vycor glass and Pyrex; thermal conductivities above 1.2 0 K of polycrystalline MgO, heat-treated Pyroceram and porous Vycor (presented by Tait (1975)) and of mixed crystal KBr-KI (presented by Nathan, Lou and Tait (1976)). The last sample exhibited density fluctuations on a scale of 1000 A but exhibited thermal properties typical of dielectric crystal. Speed of sound measurements were made on both unleached and porous Vycor

  15. The digestibility of gamma-irradiated bovine serum albumin solution with thermolysin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Yukihiko

    1981-01-01

    Samples of bovine serum albumin (BSA) (fatty acid free, fraction V, purchased from Miles Laboratories Inc.) solution (in triply distilled water) were irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays in Pyrex tubes in the presence of air at room temperature. Taking the practical conditions of food irradiation into consideration, the concentration of BSA solution ranged from 0.6 to 9.6%, and the dose ranged from 5 to 15 kGy. Irradiated BSA solutions were subjected to the assay of proteolytic digestibility with thermolysin. The result indicates that all irradiated samples had larger digestibility with thermolysin than unirradiated control. Within the dose range of the experiment, the largest digestibility values for the irradiated samples of 0.6, 1.2, 2.4, 4.8 and 9.6% were 2.7, 2.5, 2.5, 2.3, and 1.9 times as large as that of unirradiated control, respectively. In the case of 0.6% solution the digestibility showed its maximum at 5 kGy, and at the higher doses (10 and 15 kGy) it decreased linearly. The irradiated BSA solutions of 1.2% or higher concentrations did not reveal such decrease in the digestibility. The results of analyses of amino acid composition and ultracentrifugal sedimentation pattern suggest that the decrease in the digestibility in the case of 0.6% solution can be attributed to the modification of amino acid residues, crosslinking and aggregation of BSA molecules. Furthermore, it is mentioned that the digestibility with thermolysin will be a possible measure for the denaturation of water containing protein irradiated with practical dose for the food irradiation. (J.P.N.)

  16. Synthesis of zinc oxide microrods and nano-fibers with dominant exciton emission at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Brito, F., E-mail: fro_brito@yahoo.com.m [Laboratorio de Materiales Optoelectronicos del Centro de Ciencias de Sinaloa, Ave. de las Americas 2771 Col. Villa Universidad 80010, Culiacan, Sinaloa (Mexico); Alejo-Armenta, C. [Laboratorio de Materiales Optoelectronicos del Centro de Ciencias de Sinaloa, Ave. de las Americas 2771 Col. Villa Universidad 80010, Culiacan, Sinaloa (Mexico); Garcia-Hipolito, M. [Departamento de Materiales Metalicos y Ceramicos, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-360, Coyoacan 04510, DF (Mexico); Camarillo, E.; Hernandez A, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, Alvaro Obregon 01000, DF (Mexico); Falcony, C. [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV-IPN, AP 14-740, 07000, DF (Mexico); Murrieta S, H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, Alvaro Obregon 01000, DF (Mexico)

    2011-05-15

    Employing a simple chemical synthesis method, hexagonal-shaped zinc oxide microrods and zinc oxide nano-fibers were deposited on pyrex-glass and aluminum substrates, respectively. Both kinds of deposits showed zincite crystalline phase with lattice parameters: a=3.2498 A and c=5.2066 A. Microrods showed very uniform wide and large sizes of around 1 and 10 {mu}m, respectively. Both deposits were homogeneous over all substrate surfaces. Microrods and nano-fibers resulted with good optical quality and with preferential crystalline growth in [1 0 1 0]and [0 0 0 1]directions. The principal optical characteristics for both microrods and nano-fibers were: a) room-temperature photo and cathodo-luminescent spectra with strong exciton emission centered around 390 nm and with FWHMs around 125 and 160 meV, respectively, b) poor photo and cathode-luminescent emissions in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, c) energy band gap of 3.32 eV, d) good emission efficiency supported by the not-required high energy densities to obtain strong exciton emission and e) good ZnO stoichiometry endorsed by photoluminescent results. These characteristics make of these microrods and nano-fibers good for potential photonic applications. - Research highlights: {yields} Microrods and nano-fibers resulted with good optical quality and with preferential crystalline growth in [1 0 1 0]and [0 0 0 1]directions. {yields} Microrods and nano-fibers resulted with good emission efficiency supported by the not-required high energy densities to obtain strong exciton emission. {yields} The wet chemical method is appropriated for deposition of microrods and nano-fibers with the desired optical properties for its possible application in photonics.

  17. Synthesis of zinc oxide microrods and nano-fibers with dominant exciton emission at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos-Brito, F.; Alejo-Armenta, C.; Garcia-Hipolito, M.; Camarillo, E.; Hernandez A, J.; Falcony, C.; Murrieta S, H.

    2011-01-01

    Employing a simple chemical synthesis method, hexagonal-shaped zinc oxide microrods and zinc oxide nano-fibers were deposited on pyrex-glass and aluminum substrates, respectively. Both kinds of deposits showed zincite crystalline phase with lattice parameters: a=3.2498 A and c=5.2066 A. Microrods showed very uniform wide and large sizes of around 1 and 10 μm, respectively. Both deposits were homogeneous over all substrate surfaces. Microrods and nano-fibers resulted with good optical quality and with preferential crystalline growth in [1 0 1 0] and [0 0 0 1] directions. The principal optical characteristics for both microrods and nano-fibers were: a) room-temperature photo and cathodo-luminescent spectra with strong exciton emission centered around 390 nm and with FWHMs around 125 and 160 meV, respectively, b) poor photo and cathode-luminescent emissions in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, c) energy band gap of 3.32 eV, d) good emission efficiency supported by the not-required high energy densities to obtain strong exciton emission and e) good ZnO stoichiometry endorsed by photoluminescent results. These characteristics make of these microrods and nano-fibers good for potential photonic applications. - Research highlights: → Microrods and nano-fibers resulted with good optical quality and with preferential crystalline growth in [1 0 1 0] and [0 0 0 1] directions. → Microrods and nano-fibers resulted with good emission efficiency supported by the not-required high energy densities to obtain strong exciton emission. → The wet chemical method is appropriated for deposition of microrods and nano-fibers with the desired optical properties for its possible application in photonics.

  18. Experimental Study of Pressure Drop and Wall Shear Stress Characteristics of γ /Al2O3-Water Nanofluid in a Circular pipe under Turbulent flow induced vibration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Abbas AL-Moosawy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental study of γ /Al2O3 with mean diameter of less than 50 nm was dispersed in the distilled water that flows through a pipe consist of five sections as work station ,four sections made of carbon steel metal and one sections made of Pyrex glass pipe, with five nanoparticles volume concentrations of 0%,0.1%,0.2%,0.3%,and 0.4% with seven different volume flow rates 100, 200 , 300, 400, 500, 600 ,and 700ℓ/min were investigated to calculated pressure distribution for the cases without rubber ,with 3mm rubber and with 6mm rubber used to support the pipe. Reynolds number was between 20000 and 130000. Frequency value through pipe was measured for all stations of pipe for all cases. The results show that the pressure drop and wall shear stress of the nanofluid increase by increasing the nanoparticles volume concentrations or Reynolds number, the values of frequency through the pipe increase continuously when wall shear stress increases and the ratio of increment increases as nanofluid concentrations increase. Increasing of vibration frequency lead to increasing the friction factor between the pipe and the wall and thus increasing in pressure drop. Several equations between the wall shear stress and frequency for all volume concentration and for three cases without rubber, with rubber has 3mm thickness ,and with rubber has 6mm thickness. Finally, the results led to that γ /Al2O3 could function as a good and alternative conventional working fluid in heat transfer applications. A good agreement is seen between the experimental and those available in the literature

  19. Study of dryout heat fluxes in beds of inductively heated particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhir, V.K.; Catton, I.

    1977-02-01

    Experimental observations of the dryout heat fluxes for inductively heated particulate beds have been made. The data were obtained when steel and lead particles in the size distribution 295-787 microns were placed in a 4.7 cm diameter pyrex glass jar and inductively heated by passing radio frequency current through a 13.3 cm diameter multi-turn work coil encircling the jar. Distilled water, methanol and acetone were used as coolants in the experiments, while the bed height was varied from 1.0 to 8.9 cm. Different mechanisms for the dryout in deep and shallow beds have been identified. Dryout in shallow beds is believed to occur when the vapor velocity in the gas jets exceeds a certain critical velocity at which choking of the vapor occurs, leading to obstruction in the flow of the liquid toward the bed. However, deep beds dry out when gravitational force can no longer maintain a downward coolant flow rate necessary to dissipate the heat generated in the bed. The heat flux data of the investigation and that from two previous investigations made at Argonne Laboratory and at UCLA have been correlated with semi-theoretical correlations based on the proposed hydrodynamic models. The deep and shallow bed correlations are used to predict the bed height at which transition from deep to shallow bed would occur. An application of the study has been made to determine the maximum coolable depths of the core debris as a function of the particle size, bed porosity and decay heat

  20. A Low-Background Liquid-Scintlllation Counter for the Assay of Low-Specific Activity Tritiated Water; Compteur a scintillations a liquides, a faible mouvement propre, pour le dosage d'eau tritiee en faible activite specifique; ZHidkostnyj stsintillyatsionnyi schetchik s nizkim fonom dlya analiza nasyshchennoj tritiem vody s nizkoj udel'noj aktivnost'yu; Contador de centelleador liquido de reducida actividad de fondo para el analisis de agua pritiada de baja actividad especifica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, I S; Cameron, J F [Wantage Research Laboratory, Wantage (United Kingdom)

    1962-01-15

    In liquid-scintillation counting of tritiated water single photomultiplier counters and coincidence systems offer comparable sensitivities. To investigate low level counting a coincidence system was selected to avoid Uncertainties in the background due to single photon events arising from phosphorescence and chemiluminescenc e in the solution. With this system the background was found to be due largely to light originating in the photomultiplier photocathode. Using two photomultipliers with ''Pyrex'' photocathodes in contact in an 8 in thick iron shield experiments were conducted to determine the relative importance of the following possible courses of background : (a) Ionization and excitation of residual gas and of the semi-conductor dynode surfaces, particularly in regions where the current density is greatest. (b) Sparking, electroluminescence and field emission. (c) Positive ion feedback to the photocathode causing secondary electron emission. (d) Operation of the photocathode window itself as a phosphor for cosmic radiation, K{sup 40} beta particles or radiation from uranium daughter products. In particular it was found that contribution (c) was significantly lower than was previously supposed. Methods of minimizing these effects, including the use of quartz photocathodes, and special photomultipliers were investigated. In the finished design of counter the minimum detectable specific activity with a counting time of 30 min. is 6x10{sup 7} {mu}c/ml. (author) [French] Dans le dosage de l'eau tritiee au moyen d'un compteur a scintillations a liquides, les compteurs a photomultiplicateur unique et les ensembles a coincidences presentent une sensibilite du meme ordre. Pour faire des recherches sur la mesure des faibles activites, les auteurs ont choisi un dispositif monte en coincidence, afin d'eviter les incertitudes dans le mouvement propre causees par l'apparation de photons isoles, dus a la phosphorescence et a la chimioluminescenc e de la solution. Dans ce

  1. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange reaction of 2-methylpyridine catalyzed by several fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Hirohumi; Fukuzumi, Kazuo.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen-deuterium exchange reaction of 2-methylpyridine has been studied by using several fatty acids as catalysts. The reaction was carried out in a sealed pyrex tube at 120 0 C, and the contents of the products were determined by mass spectrometry. Reaction of 2-methylpyridine with monodeuteroacetic acid (1 : 1, mol/mol) arrived at a equilibrium (d 0 reversible d 1 reversible d 2 reversible d 3 ) in 2 hr (d 0 41%, d 1 42%, d 2 15%, d 3 2%). No exchange was observed for the reaction of pyridine with monodeuteroacetic acid. The conversion-time curves of typical series reactions (d 0 → d 1 → d 2 → d 3 ) were obtained for the fatty acid catalyzed exchange in deuterium oxide. The effect of the fatty acid RCO 2 H (substrate : fatty acid : D 2 O=1 : 0.86 : 27.6, mol/mol/mol) on the conversion was in the order of R; C 1 --C 3 4 --C 10 , where the reaction mixtures were homogeneous in the case of C 1 --C 3 and were heterogeneous in the case of C 4 --C 10 . The effects of the initial concentration of the substrates and the catalysts (RCO 2 H) on the total conversion were studied by using some fatty acids (R; C 2 , C 4 and C 9 ) in deuterium oxide (for 2 hr). The total conversion of the substrate increases with increasing the concentration of the acids. The total conversion decreases in the case of R=C 9 , but, increases in the case of R=C 2 with increasing the concentration of the substrate. In the case of reactions with low concentrations of the substrate, the reactivity was in the order of C 9 >C 4 >C 2 , while with high concentrations, the reactivity was in the order of C 4 >C 2 >C 9 and C 9 >C 4 >C 2 with high and low concentrations of the acids, respectively. A possible reaction mechanism was proposed and discussed. (auth.)

  2. Associated with aerospace vehicles development of methodologies for the estimation of thermal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Elaine P.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal stress analyses are an important aspect in the development of aerospace vehicles at NASA-LaRC. These analyses require knowledge of the temperature distributions within the vehicle structures which consequently necessitates the need for accurate thermal property data. The overall goal of this ongoing research effort is to develop methodologies for the estimation of the thermal property data needed to describe the temperature responses of these complex structures. The research strategy undertaken utilizes a building block approach. The idea here is to first focus on the development of property estimation methodologies for relatively simple conditions, such as isotropic materials at constant temperatures, and then systematically modify the technique for the analysis of more and more complex systems, such as anisotropic multi-component systems. The estimation methodology utilized is a statistically based method which incorporates experimental data and a mathematical model of the system. Several aspects of this overall research effort were investigated during the time of the ASEE summer program. One important aspect involved the calibration of the estimation procedure for the estimation of the thermal properties through the thickness of a standard material. Transient experiments were conducted using a Pyrex standard at various temperatures, and then the thermal properties (thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity) were estimated at each temperature. Confidence regions for the estimated values were also determined. These results were then compared to documented values. Another set of experimental tests were conducted on carbon composite samples at different temperatures. Again, the thermal properties were estimated for each temperature, and the results were compared with values obtained using another technique. In both sets of experiments, a 10-15 percent off-set between the estimated values and the previously determined values was found. Another effort

  3. Operation experience with the 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II research reactor of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.S.; Haque, M.M.; Salam, M.A.; Rahman, M.M.; Khandokar, M.R.I.; Sardar, M.A.; Saha, P.K.; Haque, A.; Malek Sonar, M.A.; Uddin, M.M.; Hossain, S.M.S.; Zulquarnain, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II research reactor of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) has been operating since September 14, 1986. The reactor is used for radioisotope production ( 131 I, 99m Tc, 46 Sc), various R and D activities and manpower training. The reactor has been operated successfully since it's commissioning with the exception of a few reportable incidents. Of these, the decay tank leakage incident of 1997 is considered to be the most significant one. As a result of this incident, reactor operation at full power under forced-convection mode remained suspended for about 4 years. During that time, the reactor was operated at a power level of 250 kW so as to carry out experiments that require lower neutron flux. This was made possible by establishing a temporary by pass connection across the decay tank using local technology. The other incident was the contamination of the Dry Central Thimble (DCT) that took place in March 2002 when a pyrex vial containing 50 g of TeO 2 powder got melted inside the DCT. The vial was melted due to high heat generation on its surface while the reactor was operated for 8 hours at 3 MW for trial production of Iodine-131 ( 131 I). A Wet Central Thimble (WCT) was used to replace the damaged DCT in June 2002 such that the reactor operation could be resumed. The WCT was again replaced by a new DCT in June 2003 such that radioisotope production could be continued. A total of 873 irradiation requests (IRs) have been catered for different reactor uses. Out of these, 114 IRs were for radioisotope (RI) production and 759 IRs for different experiments. The total amount of RI produced stands at about 2100 GBq. The total amount of burn-up-fuel is about 6158 MWh. Efforts are on to undertake an ADP project so as to convert the analog console and I and C system of the reactor into digital one. The paper summarizes the reactor operation experiences focusing on troubleshooting, rectification, modification, RI production, various R and D

  4. Measurement of Cerium and Gadolinium in Solid Lithium Chloride-Potassium Chloride Salt Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ammon; Bryce, Keith; Phongikaroon, Supathorn

    2017-10-01

    Pyroprocessing of used nuclear fuel (UNF) has many advantages-including that it is proliferation resistant. However, as part of the process, special nuclear materials accumulate in the electrolyte salt and present material accountability and safeguards concerns. The main motivation of this work was to explore a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) approach as an online monitoring technique to enhance the material accountability of special nuclear materials in pyroprocessing. In this work, a vacuum extraction method was used to draw the molten salt (CeCl 3 -GdCl 3 -LiCl-KCl) up into 4 mm diameter Pyrex tubes where it froze. The salt was then removed and the solid salt was measured using LIBS and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). A total of 36 samples were made that varied the CeCl 3 and GdCl 3 (surrogates for uranium and plutonium, respectively) concentrations from 0.5 wt% to 5 wt%. From these samples, univariate calibration curves for Ce and Gd were generated using peak area and peak intensity methods. For Ce, the Ce 551.1 nm line using the peak area provided the best calibration curve with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.099 wt% and a root mean squared error of cross-validation (RMSECV) of 0.197 wt%. For Gd, the best curve was generated using the peak intensities of the Gd 564.2 nm line resulting in a LOD of 0.027 wt% and a RMSECV of 0.295 wt%. The RMSECV for the univariate cases were determined using leave-one-out cross-validation. In addition to the univariate calibration curves, partial least squares (PLS) regression was done to develop a calibration model. The PLS models yielded similar results with RMSECV (determined using Venetian blind cross-validation with 17% left out per split) values of 0.30 wt% and 0.29 wt% for Ce and Gd, respectively. This work has shown that solid pyroprocessing salt can be qualitatively and quantitatively monitored using LIBS. This work has the potential of significantly enhancing

  5. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations and (delta)13C values across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current between New Zealand and Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longinelli, Antonio; Selmo, Enricomaria; Giglio, Federico; Langone, Leonardo; Lenaz, Renzo; Ori, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of atmospheric CO 2 concentrations were repeatedly carried out on the vessel 'Italica' of the Italian National Research Program in Antarctica, during cruises from Italy to Antarctica. Discrete air samples were also collected in 4-L Pyrex flasks during these cruises in order to carry out (delta) 13 C analyses on atmospheric CO 2 . The results acquired between New Zealand and Antarctica are reported here. The mean growth rate of the CO 2 concentration from 1996 to 2003 in this area of the Southern Oceans is of about 1.8 ppmv/yr, in good agreement with NOAA/CMDL measurements. The rates of increase from cruise to cruise are rather variable. From 1996-1997 to 1998-1999 cruise the yearly growth rate is 2.75 ppmv/yr, close to the large growth rates measured in several areas and mainly related to the most severe El Nino event of the last years. The other yearly growth rates are of about 1.3 and 2 ppmv for the periods 1998-1999 to 2001-2002 and 2001-2002 to 2003-2004, respectively. The large difference between these two values is probably related to the uncertainty on the only two 2001-2002 discrete measurements of CO 2 concentration in this area. The measured (delta) 13 C values show two completely different distributions and a large interannual variability. The 1998-1999, 2002-2003, and 2003-2004 results obtained between about 55 deg S and 65 deg S across the Antarctic Polar Front show a marked negativization of up to more than 0.2% when compared to the background values. The results are related to local source regions of CO 2 , as frequently found in the Southern Ocean by several authors; the negative (delta) 13 C values are tentatively related to the possible contribution of different causes. Among them, the southward negative gradient of (delta) 13 C of the dissolved inorganic carbon, the contribution from upwelling deep waters and from subsurface processes between the Northern SubAntarctic Front and the Polar Front, and, partly, the contribution of CO 2

  6. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-05: Validation of High-Resolution 3D Patient QA for Proton Pencil Beam Scanning and IMPT by Polymer Gel Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardin, A; Avery, S; Ding, X; Kassaee, A; Lin, L [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Maryanski, M [MGS Research, Inc., Madison, CT (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Validation of high-resolution 3D patient QA for proton pencil beam scanning and IMPT by polymer gel dosimetry. Methods: Four BANG3Pro polymer gel dosimeters (manufactured by MGS Research Inc, Madison, CT) were used for patient QA at the Robert's Proton Therapy Center (RPTC, Philadelphia, PA). All dosimeters were sealed in identical thin-wall Pyrex glass spheres. Each dosimeter contained a set of markers for 3D registration purposes. The dosimeters were mounted in a consistent and reproducible manner using a custom build holder. Two proton pencil beam scanning plans were designed using Varian Eclipse™ treatment planning system: 1) A two-field intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plan and 2) one single field uniform dose (SFUD) plan. The IMPT fields were evaluated as a composite plan and individual fields, the SFUD plan was delivered as a single field plan.Laser CT scanning was performed using the manufacturer's OCTOPUS-IQ axial transmission laser CT scanner using a 1 mm slice thickness. 3D registration, analysis, and OD/cm to absorbed dose calibrations were perfomed using DICOM RT-Dose and CT files, and software developed by the manufacturer. 3D delta index, a metric equivalent to the gamma tool, was used for dose comparison. Results: Very good agreement with single IMPT fields and with SFUD was obtained. Composite IMPT fields had a less satisfactory agreement. The single fields had 3D delta index passing rates (3% dose difference, 3 mm DTA) of 98.98% and 94.91%. The composite 3D delta index passing rate was 80.80%. The SFUD passing rate was 93.77%. Required shifts of the dose distributions were less than 4 mm. Conclusion: A formulation of the BANG3Pro polymer gel dosimeter, suitable for 3D QA of proton patient plans is established and validated. Likewise, the mailed QA analysis service provided by the manufacturer is a practical option when required resources are unavailable. We fully disclose that the subject of this research regards a

  7. Temperature dependence of microwave absorption phenomena in single and biphase soft magnetic microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Kammouni, Rhimou, E-mail: elkammounirhimou@gmail.com [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Vázquez, Manuel [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lezama, Luis [Depto. Química Inorgánica, Universidad País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Bilbao (Spain); Kurlyandskaya, Galina [Depto. Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Bilbao (Spain); Dept. Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kraus, Ludek [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-11-15

    The microwave absorption phenomena of single and biphase magnetic microwires with soft magnetic behavior have been investigated as a function of DC applied magnetic field using two alternative techniques: (i) absorption measurements in the temperature range of 4–300 K using a spectrometer operating at X-band frequency, at 9.5 GHz, and (ii) room-temperature, RT, ferromagnetic resonance measurements in a network analyzer in the frequency range up to 20 GHz. Complementary low-frequency magnetic characterization was performed in a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer. Studies have been performed for 8 μm diameter small-magnetostriction amorphous CoFeSiB single-phase microwire, coated by micrometric Pyrex layer, and after electroplating an external shell, 2 µm or 4 µm thick, of FeNi alloys. For single phase CoFeSiB microwire, a single absorption is observed, whose DC field dependence of resonance frequency at RT fits to a Kittel-law behavior for in-plane magnetized thin film. The temperature dependence behavior shows a monotonic increase in the resonance field, H{sub r}, with temperature. A parallel reduction of the circular anisotropy field, H{sub K}, is deduced from the temperature dependence of hysteresis loops. For biphase, CoFeSiB/FeNi, microwires, the absorption phenomena at RT also follow the Kittel condition. The observed opposite evolution with temperature of resonance field, H{sub r}, in 2 and 4 µm thick FeNi samples is interpreted considering the opposite sign of magnetostriction of the respective FeNi layers. The stress-induced magnetic anisotropy field, H{sub K}, in the FeNi shell is deduced to change sign at around 130 K. - Highlights: • A single absorption phenomenon is observed for single phase CoFeSiB. • The T dependence of the microwave behavior shows a monotonic increase of H{sub r} with T. • The absorption at RT follows the Kittel condition for biphase CoFe/FeNi microwires. • The T dependence of resonant field of CoFe/FeNi is interpreted to be

  8. Removal of Penicillin G by combination of sonolysis and Photocatalytic (sonophotocatalytic) process from aqueous solution: process optimization using RSM (Response Surface Methodology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Ali; Dargahi, Abdollah; Mohamadi, Mitra; Biglari, Hamed; Amirian, Farhad; Raei, Mehdi

    2016-09-01

    Penicillin G (PG) is used in a variety of infectious diseases, extensively. Generally, when antibiotics are introduced into the food chain, they pose a threat to the environment and can risk health outcomes. The aim of the present study was the removal of Penicillin G from an aqueous solution through an integrated system of UV/ZnO and UV/WO 3 with Ultrasound pretreatment. In this descriptive-analytical work dealing with the removal of Penicillin G from an aqueous solution, four significant variables, contact time (60-120 min), Penicillin G concentration (50-150 mg/L), ZnO dose (200-400 mg/L), and WO 3 dose (100-200 mg/L) were investigated. Experiments were performed in a Pyrex reactor (batch, 1 Lit) with an artificial UV 100-Watt medium pressure mercury lamp, coupled with ultrasound (100 W, 40 KHz) for PG pre-treatment. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) was selected to follow the performance of the photo-catalytic process and sonolysis. The experiments were based on a Central Composite Design (CCD) and analyzed by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). A mathematical model of the process was designed according to the proposed degradation scheme. The results showed that the maximum removal of PG occurred in ultrasonic/UV/WO 3 in the presence of 50 mg/L WO 3 and contact time of 120 minutes. In addition, an increase in the PG concentration caused a decrease in COD removal. As the initial concentration of the catalyst increased, the COD removal also increased. The maximum COD removal (91.3%) achieved by 200 mg/L WO 3 and 400 mg/l ZnO, a contact time of 120 minutes, and an antibiotic concentration of 50 mg/L. All of the variables in the process efficiency were found to be significant (p research data supported the conclusion that the combination of advanced oxidation process of sonolysis and photocatalytic (sonophotocatalytic) were applicable and environmentally friendly processes, which preferably can be applied extensively.

  9. Effects of the gas-liquid ratio on the optimal quantity of the catalyst for the CECE process with a homogeneously packed LPCE column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushida, A.; Sugiyama, T.; Yamamoto, I.

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the separative performance of a CECE (Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange) process we have been carried out experimental studies on hydrogen isotope separation by a CECE process using with a LPCE (Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange) column of trickle-type bed. Two types of trickle beds were tested in our previous study. One was the layered bed where layers of Kogel catalysts and that of Dixon gauze rings were filled in the column alternately. The other was the homogeneous bed where Kogel catalysts and Dixon gauze rings were mixed and filled in the column homogeneously. We found two major points: 1) the homogeneous bed was more efficient than the layered bed and 2) there was an optimal quantity of the catalyst for both types of beds to obtain the largest separation factor. The optimal quantity of the catalyst is affected by various factors such as catalytic activity, flow rates of fluid, temperature and so on. In this study we focused on an effect of the gasliquid ratio. The purpose of the present study is to investigate experimentally the effect of the gas-liquid ratio on the optimal quantity of the catalyst using with a homogeneous bed. The column is a Pyrex glass tube with 25 mm internal diameter and 60 cm length. The column is filled with Kogel catalysts (1.0 wt% Pt deposited) and Dixon gauze rings. A catalyst packed-ratio is defined as a ratio of the grain-volume of catalyst to the grain volume of the whole packings, where grain volumes mean the volume of a sphere with average diameter of the Kogel catalyst and the volume of a cylinder which has the outer shape same as a Dixon gauze ring. Hydrogen-deuterium isotope separation with the CECE equipment was performed at 101 kPa, 343 K for various values of the catalyst packed-ratio and for various values of the gas-liquid ratio. Hydrogen gas was generated by the Solid Polymer Electrolysis (SPE) electrolyzer. Maximum production rate and purity of hydrogen gas are 1 m3/h and 99.99%. The

  10. Uranium mobility in mine areas: evaluation of the water-rock interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuddas, P. [UFR Sciences de la Terre. PEPS. Universite Claude Bernard. Lyon (France); Rocha Scislewski, A.; Faivre, D.; Lopez, O. [Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Toxicity and natural radioactivity of uranium are among the main environmental concerns for exploitation and processing of uranium ore. Weathering processes and potential contamination paths of these areas have to be identified to preserve the water resources. In this work, leaching experiments were carried out in flow-through reactors. Approximately 750 g of crushed rock of selected grain size between 0.35 and 0.80 mm were introduced into a Pyrex column. Distilled and deionized water, saturated with 5% CO{sub 2}/95% air mixture, was introduced through a glass inlet fitted at the base of the column. Input solution pH was constantly equal to 4.2 while the low flow rate was obtained from a peristaltic pump. The output solution was sampled periodically for about 1 year. Three different rock samples were used: an untreated granite rock with high levels of uranium minerals, a rock with low uranium content and a rock rejected after the lixiviation process for uranium industrial extraction. For untreated rocks pH and silica decrease by 1-2 orders of magnitude while sodium decreases by 2-3 orders of magnitude. This indicates the strong albitite dissolution. Total dissolved uranium has a rather constant level indicating the constant dissolution rate of the uranium mineral assemblage. Thermodynamic modelling of the interacting output solutions indicates that 80% of the dissolved uranium content is under the form of two main carbonate complexes (i.e. UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup 2-} and UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 4-}), while solutions are saturated on chalcedony, kaolinite and calcium clay minerals. Solutions are under saturated with respect to uraninite and low-temperature albite. In experiments where material was treated with sulphuric acid in the plant, pH is constantly equal to 4 indicating the lack of rock buffering properties. Na, Ca, and SO{sub 4} decrease by several orders of magnitude (from some initial mmol/kg) reaching

  11. Light-induced heterogeneous reactions of NO2 on indoor surfaces: How they affect the balance of nitrous acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Alvarez, E.; Soergel, M.; Bassil, S.; Zetzsch, C.; Gligorovski, S.; Wortham, H.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important indoor pollutant. The adverse health effects due to the formation of nitrosamines are well known. HONO acts as a nitrosating agent after wall reactions of HONO with nicotine [Sleiman et al., 2010]. Indoor air can be surprisingly rich in HONO (homes with fireplaces, stoves, gas heating and cooking) and also surfaces are abundant. High HONO concentrations have been measured in indoor environments, from the direct emissions and heterogeneous reactions of NO2 in darkness. However, the measured HONO concentrations do not correspond to the HONO levels determined by the models [Carslaw, 2007]. We have tested in a flow tube reactor on-line coupled to a NOx analyzer and a sensitive Long Path Absorption Photometry instrument, the behaviour of various indoor surfaces towards NO2 under simulated solar light irradiation (λ= 300-700 nm). Our study has allowed us to obtain a deeper knowledge on the mechanisms of heterogeneous formation of HONO, quantifying the dependence of HONO formation on behalf of NO2 concentration and relative humidity and the enhancement of HONO formation in the presence of light. Pyrex, acidic detergent, alkaline detergent, paint and lacquer were tested on behalf of their heterogeneous reactivity towards NO2 in the absence and in presence of light. The results obtained demonstrated that indoor surfaces are photo-chemically active under atmospherically relevant conditions. The strongly alkaline surfaces (such as certain types of detergent) show a strong long-term uptake capacity. However, other surfaces such as detergents with a more acidic character released HONO. In some cases such as paint and varnish, a strong HONO release with light was detected, which was significantly higher than that obtained over clean glass surfaces. Certain organics present on their composition could exert a photo-sensitizing effect that may explain their increased reactivity. Unfortunately, the final balance points towards an important net

  12. Micro-Columnated Loop Heat Pipe: The Future of Electronic Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Navdeep Singh

    The modern world is run by semiconductor-based electronic systems. Due to continuous improvements in semiconductor device fabrication, there is a clear trend in the market towards the development of electronic devices and components that not only deliver enhanced computing power, but are also more compact. Thermal management has emerged as the primary challenge in this scenario where heat flux dissipation of electronic chips is increasing exponentially, but conventional cooling solutions such as conduction and convection are no longer feasible. To keep device junction temperatures within the safe operating limit, there is an urgent requirement for ultra-high-conductivity thermal substrates that not only absorb and transport large heat fluxes, but can also provide localized cooling to thermal hotspots. This dissertation describes the design, modeling, and fabrication of a phase change-based, planar, ultra-thin, passive thermal transport system that is inspired by the concept of loop heat pipes and capillary pumped loops. Fabricated on silicon and Pyrex wafers using microfabrication techniques, the micro-columnated loop heat pipe (muCLHP) can be integrated directly with densely packed or multiply-stacked electronic substrates, to provide localized high-heat-flux thermal management. The muCLHP employs a dual-scale coherent porous silicon(CPS)-based micro-columnated wicking structure, where the primary CPS wick provides large capillary forces for fluid transport, while a secondary surface-wick maximizes the rate of thin-film evaporation. To overcome the wick thickness limitation encountered in conventional loop heat pipes, strategies based on MEMS surface micromachining techniques were developed to reduce parasitic heat flow from the evaporator to the compensation chamber of the device. Finite element analysis was used to confirm this reduction in a planar evaporator design, thus enabling the generation of a large motive temperature head for continuous device operation

  13. Performance and reliability of LWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairiot, H.; Deramaix, P.; Vandenberg, C.

    1977-01-01

    boric acid (since 1963), variable D 2 O-H 2 O moderation (1966), the utilization of pyrex (1972) and of gadolinium, first in a BWR (1973) and then in a PWR (1976). The succession and progressive completion of the experience which is detailed in the paper is mainly based on the fact that before loading a fuel in a reactor at least 3 years of preparation are required if it is a first of the kind. The results can only be fully assessed if after the life-time in the power reactor (3 years for a PWR, 5 years for a BWR), a proper postirradiation assessment is performed which requires another 1 to 3 years taking into account the extent of the programme. The data acquisition is therefore a process requiring 9 to 10 years between the decision to go ahead and the full availability of the experience [fr

  14. Effect of fO2 on phase relationship in basaltic andesites during magmatic differentiation: Control of fO2 and sulphur speciation in piston cylinder experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjuschkin, Vladimir; Tattitch, Brian; Blundy, Jonathan D.; Skora, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    Within the mantle wedge above subduction zones, oxidation reaction take place by interaction of reduced mantle rocks with more oxidized, hydrous fluids, which can cause a local drop of the solidus, resulting in partial melting (2,6,7). The resultant melts are more oxidized that their ocean floor counterparts, which has implications for their subsequent differentiation paths, the speciation of multivalent elements and the solubility and transport of chemical compounds in magmatic systems (1,4,5). We present a series of sulphur-doped high-pressure experiments conducted to investigate the effect of oxygen fugacity on phase relationships and the behaviour of sulphur in silicate melts. Natural aphyric andesite (FM37) erupted from Laguna del Maule volcano, Chile (3) was selected as a starting composition. Experiments were carried out at 5kbar, 950-1150° C and variable oxygen fugacity conditions. New experiments buffered at Co-CoO and Ni-NiO buffer conditions have been performed using a new "MTB capsule design" developed in order to accurately control fO2 by means of a double capsule containing metal-oxide buffers and a pyrex sleeve to minimise H2 diffusion. This new design constrains oxygen fugacity to within ±0.1-0.2logfO2 units of the target value. Before conducting these experiments, the assemblage was tested multiple times at 10kbar, 1000° C over 24-48 hours and demonstrated consistent, accurate fO2 control. Analyses of the preliminary experimental run products, from a related Chilean basaltic andesite starting composition, demonstrate a clear effect of fO2 on phase relationships and the proportion of melt generated during experiments. Under oxidized conditions, as temperature decreased from 1150° C to 1050° C, the amount of melt decreased from 100% to ~80%, due to the formation of orthopyroxene, anhydrite and plagioclase. In contrast, in reduced runs the system remains nearly liquid (~5% crystals) down to 950° C due to the change in sulphur speciation and

  15. The lower-temperature-pressure stability of pyrope in the presence of quartz in the system MgO-Al2O3-SiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, N.; Jenkins, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Pyrope (Mg3Al2Si3O12) is the dominant component in garnets from type A eclogites. Determining the lower-pressure-temperature (P-T) stability of pyrope in the presence of quartz helps put constraints on the stability of quartz-bearing eclogites and therefore the depths to which crustal rocks in high pressure/ultra-high pressure (HP/UHP) terranes can be transferred. It also defines the lower-pressure stability of the nearly pure pyrope-bearing quartzites of the Dora Maira massif of the Western Alps (Chopin, 1984, Contrib. Min. Pet.). Aside from the approximate boundary proposed by Hensen & Essene (1971, Contrib. Min. Pet.), there has been no detailed study of the lower P-T stability of pyrope + quartz. A reversed determination of the reaction 3 enstatite + 2 kyanite = 2 pyrope + 2 quartz has been done in the system MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 over the P-T range of 900-1100 °C and 1.6-2.5 GPa for durations of 24 hours. Double capsules, one using pure enstatite and the other Al-rich (10 wt% Al2O3) enstatite in the starting mixtures, were used to obtain reversals on the Al content in the orthopyroxene (Opx). Experiments were done using a ½-inch diameter piston-cylinder press and NaCl-pyrex-MgO pressure media. Run products were analyzed using powder XRD and electron microprobe. Reaction direction was readily determined from peak height changes on XRD patterns. The reaction has been bracketed at 1.65 GPa at 1100 °C with > 12 wt% Al2O3 in Opx; 2.05 GPa at 1000 °C with 10 wt% Al2O3 in Opx; and 2.4 GPa at 930 °C with 5 wt% Al2O3 in Opx. The reaction boundary is slightly curved to higher P with increasing T caused by increasing Al in Opx. The boundary observed in this study is about 100 °C or 0.4 GPa higher than previously proposed by Hensen & Essene (1971) and 70-170 °C or 0.6-0.7 GPa higher than the boundary calculated in this system using THERMOCALC ds6.22 (Holland & Powell, 2011, J. Meta. Geol.) and about 1-4 wt% higher Al2O3 contents in Opx. Higher pressure runs in the field

  16. Issues involved in the atomic layer deposition of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Robert Kimes

    measure atomic hydrogen in a molecular hydrogen flow environment. Atomic hydrogen recombines to form H2 on different surfaces at different rates. The rate of this recombination was measured for stainless steel, aluminum, pyrex, and quartz. Knowing the hydrogen recombination rate of various materials allowed for an atomic hydrogen assisted ALD flow reactor to be constructed. An atomic hydrogen assisted ALD flow reactor was constructed and used to deposit titanium and tin metals. The metal growth was monitored using quartz crystal microbalance. The metal films were characterized ex situ using x-ray diffraction and stylus profilometry.

  17. Concentrations and (delta)13C values of atmospheric CO2 from oceanic atmosphere through time: polluted and non-polluted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longinelli, Antonio; Selmo, Enrico; Lenaz, Renzo; Ori, Carlo

    2005-01-01

    CO 2 is one of the primary agents of global climate changes. The increase of atmospheric CO 2 concentration is essentially related to human-induced emissions and, particularly, to the burning of fossil fuel whose (delta) 13 C values are quite negative. Consequently, an increase of the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere should be paralleled by a decrease of its (delta) 13 C. Continuous and/or spot measurements of CO 2 concentrations were repeatedly carried out during the last decade and in the same period of the year along hemispheric courses from Italy to Antarctica on a vessel of the Italian National Research Program in Antarctica. During these expeditions, discrete air samples were also collected in 4-l Pyrex flasks in order to carry out precise carbon isotope analyses on atmospheric CO 2 from different areas, including theoretically 'clean' open ocean areas, with the main purpose of comparing these open ocean results with the results obtained by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/World Meteorological Organization (NOAA/WMO) at land-based stations. According to the data obtained for these two variables, a relatively large atmospheric pollution is apparent in the Mediterranean area where the CO 2 concentration has reached the value of 384 ppmv while quite negative (delta) 13 C values have been measured only occasionally. In this area, southerly winds probably help to reduce the effect of atmospheric pollution even though, despite a large variability of CO 2 concentrations, these values are consistently higher than those measured in open ocean areas by a few ppmv to about 10 ppmv. A marked, though non-continuous, pollution is apparent in the area of the Bab-el-Mandeb strait where (delta) 13 C values considerably more negative than in the Central and Southern Red Sea were measured. The concentration of atmospheric CO 2 over the Central Indian Ocean increased from about 361 ppmv at the end of 1996 to about 373 ppmv at the end of 2003 (mean growth

  18. Catalytic generation of methane at 60-100 °C and 0.1-300 MPa from source rocks containing kerogen Types I, II, and III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lin; Schimmelmann, Arndt; Mastalerz, Maria; Lahann, Richard W.; Sauer, Peter E.; Drobniak, Agnieszka; Strąpoć, Dariusz; Mango, Frank D.

    2018-06-01

    Low temperature (60 and 100 °C) and long-term (6 months to 5 years) heating of pre-evacuated and sterilized shales and coals containing kerogen Types I (Mahogany Shale), II (Mowry Shale and New Albany Shale), and III (Springfield Coal and Wilcox Lignite) with low initial maturities (vitrinite reflectance Ro 0.39-0.62%) demonstrates that catalytically generated hydrocarbons may explain the occurrence of some non-biogenic natural gas accumulations where insufficient thermal maturity contradicts the conventional thermal cracking paradigm. Extrapolation of the observed rate of catalytic methanogenesis in the laboratory suggests that significant amounts of sedimentary organic carbon can be converted to relatively dry natural gas over tens of thousands of years in sedimentary basins at temperatures as low as 60 °C. Our laboratory experiments utilized source rock (shale and coal) chips sealed in gold and Pyrex® glass tubes in the presence of hydrogen-isotopically contrasting waters. Parallel heating experiments applied hydrostatic pressures from 0.1 to 300 MPa. Control experiments constrained the influence of pre-existing and residual methane in closed pores of rock chips that was unrelated to newly generated methane. This study's experimental methane yields at 60 and 100 °C are 5-11 orders of magnitude higher than the theoretically predicted yields from kinetic models of thermogenic methane generation, which strongly suggests a contribution of catalytic methanogenesis. Higher temperature, longer heating time, and lower hydrostatic pressure enhanced catalytic methanogenesis. No clear relationships were observed between kerogen type or total organic carbon content and methane yields via catalysis. Catalytic methanogenesis was strongest in Mowry Shale where methane yields at 60 °C amounted to ∼2.5 μmol per gram of organic carbon after one year of hydrous heating at ambient pressure. In stark contrast to the earlier findings of hydrogen isotopic exchange between

  19. Operating experiences and utilization programmes of the BAEC 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II research reactor of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, M.M.; Soner, M.A.M.; Saha, P.K.; Salam, M.A.; Zulquarnain, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II research reactor of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) has been operating since September 14, 1986. The reactor is used for radioisotope production ( 131 I, 99m Tc, 46 Sc), various R and D activities, manpower training and education. The reactor has been operated successfully since its commissioning with the exception of a few reportable incidents. Of these, the decay tank leakage incident of 1997 is considered to be the most significant one. As a result of this incident, reactor operation at full power remained suspended for about 4 years. However, the reactor operation was continued during this period at a power level of 250 kW to cater the needs of various R and D groups, which required lower neutron flux for their experiments. This was made possible by establishing a temporary by pass connection across the decay tank using local technology. The reactor was made operational again at full power after successful replacement of the damaged decay tank in August 2001. At that time, several modifications of the reactor cooling system along with its associated structures were also implemented and then necessary testing and commissioning of the newly installed component/equipment were carried out. The other incident was the contamination of the Dry Central Thimble (DCT) that took place in March 2002 when a pyrex vial containing 50g of TeO 2 powder got melted inside the DCT. The vial was melted due to high heat generation on its surface while the reactor was operated for 8 hours at 3 MW for trial production of Iodine-131 ( 131 I). A Wet Central Thimble (WCT) was used to replace the damaged DCT in June 2002 such that the reactor operation could be resumed. The WCT was again replaced by a new DCT in June 2003 such that radioisotope production could be continued. The facility has so far been used to train up a total of 27 personnel including several foreign nationals to the level of Senior Reactor Operator (SRO) and Reactor Operator (RO). The

  20. Study and selection of structured packing material: metallic, polymeric or ceramic to operate a column of absorption polluting gases coming from brick kilns efficiently; Estudio y seleccion de material empaque estructurado: metalico, polimerico o ceramico, para operar eficientemente una columna de absorcion de gases contaminantes provenientes de hornos tabiqueros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar P, A.

    2012-07-01

    In this research three structured packing materials were characterized: a metallic, polymeric and ceramic. The study of the physical properties of structured packing materials, and their behavior within the absorption column allowed to suggest a gas-liquid contactor material with higher mechanical and chemical resistance, which is more efficient for the treatment of sour gases from brick kilns. To study the mechanical properties (hardness, tension and elastic modulus) were used procedures of the American Society for Testing Materials, as well as resistance to corrosion. The geometric characteristics, the density, the melting temperature and the weight were tested with procedures of the measuring equipment. The structure was evaluated by X-ray diffraction, morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy coupled to a sound of dispersive energy of X-ray, to quantify elemental chemical composition. The interaction of gas-liquid contactors materials in presence of CO{sub 2}, was evaluated in three absorption columns built of Pyrex glass, with a diameter of 0.1016 m, of 1.5 m in height, 0.0081m{sup 2} cross-sectional area, packed with every kind of material: metallic, polymeric and ceramic, processing a gas flow of 20m{sup 3} / h at 9% CO{sub 2}, in air and a liquid flow to 30% of Mea 5 L/min. The results of the properties studied were by the metallic material: more density, higher roughness, the greater tensile strength, greater resistance to corrosion in the presence of an aqueous solution of monoethanolamine (Mea) to 30% by weight, improvement more efficient absorption of CO{sub 2}, and higher modulus of elasticity. The polymeric material was characterized to have lower hardness, lower roughness, lower density, lower melting temperature, greater resistance to corrosion in the presence of 1 N H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous solution, and allowed an absorption efficiency of CO{sub 2}, 2% lower than that presented by the material metallic. The ceramic material found to

  1. On-line slurry viscosity and concentration measurement as a real-time waste stream characterization tool. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    flow. Pressure drops will also be recorded to obtain shear stress distribution. Plot of shear stress versus the shear rate, obtained from the velocity profile, will yield the shear viscosity over a wide range of shear rate. The velocity images will also be analyzed to compare the effects of fluctuations with those of turbulent flow experiments For single phase fluids, the NMRI and the UDV work will be compared with measurements using LAV. In their LAV, flow apparatus, the working fluid, water, is gravity fed from a reservoir into a horizontal one inch Pyrex tube, 180 diameters in length. The system enables traverses of the optical probe in the horizontal and vertical directions, with a resolution of 200 micrometers. Radial distributions of the axial component of velocity were obtained at a location 150 diameters from the tube entrance. Measurements in the laminar regime indicate a precision of within one percent, as indicated by the root mean square fluctuations. In the turbulent regime, radial profiles of the mean and fluctuation velocities agree with literature values. In the laminar regime, symmetry of the radial velocity distribution was observed in the horizontal plane passing through the axis, but was not in general observed in the vertical plane passing through the axis. Further investigation revealed that the asymmetry was a result of buoyancy due to heat transfer between the working fluid and the surroundings, even though the pipe was not actively heated or cooled. Temperature differences as little as 1 degree Celsius were found to result in significant asymmetry. To have a reproducible result in the laminar regime, it was necessary to control the reservoir temperature to within 0.1 degree Celsius.'

  2. Study and selection of structured packing material: metallic, polymeric or ceramic to operate a column of absorption polluting gases coming from brick kilns efficiently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar P, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this research three structured packing materials were characterized: a metallic, polymeric and ceramic. The study of the physical properties of structured packing materials, and their behavior within the absorption column allowed to suggest a gas-liquid contactor material with higher mechanical and chemical resistance, which is more efficient for the treatment of sour gases from brick kilns. To study the mechanical properties (hardness, tension and elastic modulus) were used procedures of the American Society for Testing Materials, as well as resistance to corrosion. The geometric characteristics, the density, the melting temperature and the weight were tested with procedures of the measuring equipment. The structure was evaluated by X-ray diffraction, morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy coupled to a sound of dispersive energy of X-ray, to quantify elemental chemical composition. The interaction of gas-liquid contactors materials in presence of CO 2 , was evaluated in three absorption columns built of Pyrex glass, with a diameter of 0.1016 m, of 1.5 m in height, 0.0081m 2 cross-sectional area, packed with every kind of material: metallic, polymeric and ceramic, processing a gas flow of 20m 3 / h at 9% CO 2 , in air and a liquid flow to 30% of Mea 5 L/min. The results of the properties studied were by the metallic material: more density, higher roughness, the greater tensile strength, greater resistance to corrosion in the presence of an aqueous solution of monoethanolamine (Mea) to 30% by weight, improvement more efficient absorption of CO 2 , and higher modulus of elasticity. The polymeric material was characterized to have lower hardness, lower roughness, lower density, lower melting temperature, greater resistance to corrosion in the presence of 1 N H 2 SO 4 aqueous solution, and allowed an absorption efficiency of CO 2 , 2% lower than that presented by the material metallic. The ceramic material found to be the hardest of the three

  3. Corrosion studies with high burnup light water reactor fuel. Release of nuclides into simulated groundwater during accumulated contact time of up to two years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwicky, Hans-Urs (Zwicky Consulting GmbH, Remigen (Switzerland)); Low, Jeanett; Ekeroth, Ella (Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden))

    2011-03-15

    pellet surface than the bulk of the pellet in leaching experiments. Thus, formation of oxidising species and radicals by radiolysis is expected to be disproportionately high as well. Therefore, when discussing high burnup fuel dissolution, the effect of the increased radiation field with burnup, as well as of the influence of the smaller grain size and increased porosity at the rim are mentioned as factors which contribute to increased dissolution rates. A third factor, increased fission product and actinide doping with burnup, has been discussed extensively in connection with increased resistance to air oxidation of the fuel. Samples from four different fuel rods, all operated in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR), are used in the new series of corrosion experiments. They cover a burnup range from 58 to 75 MWd/kgU. The nuclide inventory of all four samples was determined by means of a combination of experimental nuclide analysis and sample specific modelling calculations. More than 40 different nuclides were analysed by isotope dilution analysis using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), as well as other ICP-MS and gamma spectrometric methods. The content of roughly all fission products and actinides was also calculated separately for each sample. The experiments are performed under oxidising conditions in synthetic groundwater at ambient temperature. In order to make results as comparable as possible to those of the Series 11 experiments, the same procedure and the same leachant is used. At least nine consecutive contact periods of one and three weeks and two, three, six and twelve months are planned. The present report covers the first five contact periods up to a cumulative contact time of one year for all four samples and in addition the sixth period up to a cumulative contact time of two years for two of the samples. The samples, kept in position by a platinum wire spiral, are exposed to synthetic groundwater in a Pyrex flask. After the contact

  4. Experimental study for transient response of a double-tube thermosyphon (DTTH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, M.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    data.To validate the predicted theoretical model results, an experimental investigation has been conducted. An experimental setup is constructed from: thermosyphon main tube made of copper with 32 mm inner diameter, 1.5 mm thickness and 1000 mm long. The evaporator and condenser section lengths are 600 mm and 250 mm respectively, while the adiabatic section is 150 mm long. Inner tubes made of Pyrex are installed inside the evaporator. The inner tubes have thickness of 1.8 mm and 600, 450, 300 and 150 mm lengths. This structure forms a hot channel, where the natural flowing liquid circulated between inner and outer tubes. The heat source is simulated by 4 electrical coils while the heat sink is directly performed by a cooling process at condenser section, using cooling water at ambient temperature and constant pressure at 0.05 MPa.Variation of the transported thermal energy of thermosyphon is experimentally applied by constant-heat flux electric heat source to cover ranges of 900-1650 W. Direct measurements of the axial local wall and vapor temperature distribution are performed along the entire length of DTTH. The liquid in down-comer and the vapor in adiabatic and condenser sections are measured using a special long probe developed for the current study. In addition to eight tiny temperature probes were inserted in the annulus hot channel of the evaporator to determine the single liquid and two-phase fluid local temperatures. The relevant thermocouples are connected to a data logger device to monitor the transient temperatures during experimental investigations.From the previous studies it was found that the main objectives of this investigation was to study the effects of changing the heating and cooling rate as well as the evaporator length on the double tube thermosyphon in actual integrated operation as follows:The stability of the double-tube thermosyphon which included:1-Average wall and vapor temperature.2-The output power.Also, the characteristics transient

  5. Corrosion studies with high burnup light water reactor fuel. Release of nuclides into simulated groundwater during accumulated contact time of up to two years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwicky, Hans-Urs; Low, Jeanett; Ekeroth, Ella

    2011-03-01

    pellet surface than the bulk of the pellet in leaching experiments. Thus, formation of oxidising species and radicals by radiolysis is expected to be disproportionately high as well. Therefore, when discussing high burnup fuel dissolution, the effect of the increased radiation field with burnup, as well as of the influence of the smaller grain size and increased porosity at the rim are mentioned as factors which contribute to increased dissolution rates. A third factor, increased fission product and actinide doping with burnup, has been discussed extensively in connection with increased resistance to air oxidation of the fuel. Samples from four different fuel rods, all operated in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR), are used in the new series of corrosion experiments. They cover a burnup range from 58 to 75 MWd/kgU. The nuclide inventory of all four samples was determined by means of a combination of experimental nuclide analysis and sample specific modelling calculations. More than 40 different nuclides were analysed by isotope dilution analysis using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), as well as other ICP-MS and gamma spectrometric methods. The content of roughly all fission products and actinides was also calculated separately for each sample. The experiments are performed under oxidising conditions in synthetic groundwater at ambient temperature. In order to make results as comparable as possible to those of the Series 11 experiments, the same procedure and the same leachant is used. At least nine consecutive contact periods of one and three weeks and two, three, six and twelve months are planned. The present report covers the first five contact periods up to a cumulative contact time of one year for all four samples and in addition the sixth period up to a cumulative contact time of two years for two of the samples. The samples, kept in position by a platinum wire spiral, are exposed to synthetic groundwater in a Pyrex flask. After the contact