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Sample records for pyrene excimer fluorescence

  1. A quencher-free molecular beacon design based on pyrene excimer fluorescence using pyrene-labeled UNA (unlocked nucleic acid)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Kasper Kannegård; Okholm, Anders Hauge; Kjems, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    A quencher-free molecular beacon capable of generating pyrene excimer fluorescence has been constructed using strategically positioned pyrene-UNA monomers. Hybridization of a fully complementary RNA target was accompanied by a pyrene excimer emission increase of more than 900%, and detection of RNA...

  2. Long Range Polymer Chain Dynamics of Highly Flexible Polysiloxane in Solution Probed by Pyrene Excimer Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine L. Thoma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A poly(dimethylsiloxane-co-(3-aminopropylmethylsiloxane polymer (PDMS with 20.3 mol % of (3-aminopropylmethyl siloxane monomer has been labeled randomly with 1-pyreneacetyl groups to generate a series of polysiloxanes (Py-PDMS with pyrenyl contents ranging from 0.7 mol % to 5.2 mol % of the total number of structural units. The remainder of the amino groups were acetylated to avoid intra-chain quenching of the excited singlet states of pyrene via exciplex formation with free amino groups while allowing the formation of excimers to proceed. The fluorescence spectra and temporal decays of the Py-PDMS samples were acquired in tetrahydrofuran (THF, N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF, and dioxane. blob, the average rate constant for intra-chain pyrene excimer formation, was determined from the analysis of the fluorescence decays. blob was found to equal 1.16 (±0.13 × 109, 1.14 (±0.12 × 109, and 0.99 (±0.10 × 109 s−1 in THF, DMF, and dioxane, respectively, at room temperature. They are the largest values found to date for any polymeric backbone in these solvents. The qualitative relationship found here between blob and the chemical structures of the polymers indicates that the luminescence characteristics of randomly labeled polymers is a very useful method to probe the long range dynamics of chains of almost any polymer that is amenable to substitution by a lumophore.

  3. Excimer fluorescence of liquid crystalline systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhno, Tamara V.; Khakhel, Oleg A.; Barashkov, Nikolay N.; Korotkova, Irina V.

    1996-04-01

    The method of synchronous scanning fluorescence spectroscopy shows a presence of dimers of pyrene in a polymeric matrix. The results suggest that excimer formation takes place with dimers in liquid crystalline systems.

  4. Phenylethynylpyrene excimer forming hybridization probes for fluorescence SNP detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokhorenko, Igor A.; Astakhova, Irina V.; Momynaliev, Kuvat T.

    2009-01-01

    Excimer formation is a unique feature of some fluorescent dyes (e.g., pyrene) which can be used for probing the proximity of biomolecules. Pyrene excimer fluorescence has previously been used for homogeneous detection of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on DNA. 1-Phenylethynylpyrene (1-1-PEPy...

  5. Liquid chromatographic determination of microcystins in water samples following pre-column excimer fluorescence derivatization with 4-(1-pyrene)butanoic acid hydrazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Tadashi; Katoh, Kenji; Aoki, Takayoshi; Itoyama, Miki; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Yoshida, Hideyuki; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Nohta, Hitoshi

    2012-11-28

    A method to measure the concentrations of microcystins (MCs) in water samples has been developed by incorporating pre-column fluorescence derivatization and liquid chromatography (LC). A solid-phase extraction for pretreatment was used to extract the MCs in water samples. The MCs were derivatized with excimer-forming 4-(1-pyrene)butanoic acid hydrazide (PBH). The MCs could then be detected by fluorescence after separation with a pentafluorophenyl (PFP)-modified superficially porous (core shell) particle LC column. The derivatization reactions of MCs with PBH proceeded easily in the presence of 4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl-4-methylmorpholinium (DMT-MM) as a condensation reagent, and the resulting derivatives could be easily separated on the PFP column. The derivatives were selectively detected at excimer fluorescence wavelengths (440-540 nm). The instrument detection limit and the instrument quantification limit of the MCs standards were 0.4-1.2 μg L(-1) and 1.4-3.9 μg L(-1), respectively. The method was validated at 0.1 and 1.0 μg L(-1) levels in tap and pond water samples, and the recovery of MCs was between 67 and 101% with a relative standard deviation of 11%. The proposed method can be used to quantify trace amounts of MCs in water samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pyrene-modified unlocked nucleic acids: synthesis, thermodynamic studies, and fluorescent properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Kasper K; Pasternak, Anna; Jensen, Troels B

    2012-01-01

    -UNA modifications were studied. It was found that incorporation of pyrene-UNA monomers increased duplex stability relative to UNA monomers, and thermodynamic studies revealed significant mismatch discriminative capabilities of the pyrene-UNA modified oligonucleotides. Furthermore, the steady-state fluorescence...... emission intensities of pyrene-UNA modified oligonucleotides were increased upon hybridization to DNA, which to the best of our knowledge is unprecedented for an acyclic pyrene modification in DNA. Interestingly, pyrene excimer emission was observed for single-stranded oligonucleotides containing three...

  7. PYRENE INTERCALATING NUCLEIC ACIDS WITH A CARBON LINKER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Michael E.; Wamberg, Michael Chr.; Pedersen, Erik Bjerregaard

    2011-01-01

    geminally attached. Fluorescence studies of this intercalating nucleic acid with the pyrene moieties inserted as a bulge showed formation of an excimer band. When a mismatch was introduced at the site of the intercalator, an excimer band was formed for the destabilized duplexes whereas an exciplex band...

  8. Bis-pyrene-modified unlocked nucleic acids: synthesis, hybridization studies, and fluorescent properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perlíková, Pavla; Ejlersen, Maria; Langkjaer, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Efficient synthesis of a building block for the incorporation of a bis-pyrene-modified unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) into oligonucleotides (DNA*) was developed. The presence of bis-pyrene-modified UNA within a duplex leads to duplex destabilization that is more profound in DNA*/RNA and less distinc......)uracil:pyrene exciplex emission in the single-stranded form. Such fluorescent properties enable the application of bis-pyrene-modified UNA in the development of fluorescence probes for DNA/RNA detection and for detection of deletions at specific positions....

  9. Coumarin–pyrene conjugate: Synthesis, structure and Cu-selective fluorescent sensing in mammalian kidney cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wani, Manzoor Ahmad [Department of Chemistry, Dr. H. S. Gour Central University Sagar, MP 470003 (India); Singh, Pankaj Kumar [Department of Biological Sciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Pandey, Rampal, E-mail: rpvimlesh@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Dr. H. S. Gour Central University Sagar, MP 470003 (India); Pandey, Mrituanjay D., E-mail: mdpandey@dhsgsu.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Dr. H. S. Gour Central University Sagar, MP 470003 (India)

    2016-03-15

    In this work, we report a coumarin–pyrene based fluorescent probes (E)-7-(diethylamino)-3-((pyren-1-ylimino)methyl)-2H-chromen-2-one (1) and (E)-7-(diethylamino)-3-((pyren-1-ylmethylimino)methyl)-2H-chromen-2-one (2) for the selective detection of Cu{sup 2+} ion. Receptor 1 upon binding with Cu{sup 2+} exhibited substantial fluorescence quenching as a detection response. Probe 1 induces green fluorescence in a cell lines derived from monkey kidney tissue and subsequent quenching of fluorescence in these cells manifest that 1 can probably be used as a potential fluorescent sensor for the detection of Cu{sup 2+} in biological samples too. However, 2 does not reveal any significant fluorescence change in presence of different metal ions. It is assumed that conjugation might be accountable for the discrete fluorescent behavior of 1 and 2.

  10. Synthesis, fluorescence properties and the promising cytotoxicity of pyrene-derived aminophosphonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewkowski, Jarosław; Rodriguez Moya, Maria; Wrona-Piotrowicz, Anna; Zakrzewski, Janusz; Kontek, Renata; Gajek, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    A large series of variously substituted amino(pyren-1-yl)methylphosphonic acid derivatives was synthesized using a modified aza-Pudovik reaction in 20-97% yields. The fluorescence properties of the obtained compounds were investigated revealing that N-alkylamino(pyren-1-yl)methylphosphonic derivatives are stronger emissive compounds than the corresponding N-aryl derivatives. N-Benzylamino(pyren-1-yl)methylphosphonic acid displayed strong fluorescence (ΦF = 0.68) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The influence of a series of derivatives on two colon cancer cell lines HT29 and HCT116 was also investigated. The most promising results were obtained for N-(4-methoxyphenyl)amino(pyren-1-yl)methylphosphonate, which was found to be cytotoxic for the HCT116 cancer cell line (IC50 = 20.8 μM), simultaneously showing weak toxicity towards normal lymphocytes (IC50 = 230.8 µM).

  11. Molecule-binding dependent assembly of split aptamer and γ-cyclodextrin: A sensitive excimer signaling approach for aptamer biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Fen; Lian, Yan; Li, Jishan; Zheng, Jing; Hu, Yaping; Liu, Jinhua; Huang, Jin; Yang, Ronghua

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Adenosine-binding aptamer was splitted into two fragments P2 and P3 which labeled pyrene molecules, mainly produce monomer signal. γ-CD cavity brings P2 and P3 in close proximity, allowing for weak excimer emission. In the presence of target, P2 and P3 are expected to bind ATP and form an aptamer/target complex, leads to large increase of the pyrene excimer fluorescence. -- Highlights: •We assembled split aptamer and γ-cyclodextrin fluorescence biosensors for ATP detection. •The biosensor increased quantum yield and emission lifetime of the excimer. •Time-resolved fluorescence is effective for ATP assay in complicated environment. -- Abstract: A highly sensitive and selective fluorescence aptamer biosensors for the determination of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was developed. Binding of a target with splitting aptamers labeled with pyrene molecules form stable pyrene dimer in the γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) cavity, yielding a strong excimer emission. We have found that inclusion of pyrene dimer in γ-cyclodextrin cavity not only exhibits additive increases in quantum yield and emission lifetime of the excimer, but also facilitates target-induced fusion of the splitting aptamers to form the aptamer/target complex. As proof-of-principle, the approach was applied to fluorescence detection of adenosine triphosphate. With an anti-ATP aptamer, the approach exhibits excimer fluorescence response toward ATP with a maximum signal-to-background ratio of 32.1 and remarkably low detection limit of 80 nM ATP in buffer solution. Moreover, due to the additive fluorescence lifetime of excimer induced by γ-cyclodextrin, time-resolved measurements could be conveniently used to detect as low as 0.5 μM ATP in blood serum quantitatively

  12. Bis-Pyrene-Modified Unlocked Nucleic Acids: Synthesis, Hybridization Studies, and Fluorescent Properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perlíková, Pavla; Ejlersen, M.; Langkjaer, N.; Wengel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 9 (2014), s. 2120-2127 ISSN 1860-7179 Grant - others:European Research Council(XE) FP7-268776 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fluorescence * nucleic acid hybridization * oligonucleotides * pyrenes * unlocked nucleic acids Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.968, year: 2014

  13. Unlocked nucleic acids with a pyrene-modified uracil: Synthesis, hybridization studies, fluorescent properties and i-motif stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perlíková, P.; Karlsen, K.K.; Pedersen, E.B.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of two new phosphoramidite building blocks for the incorporation of 5-(pyren-1-yl)uracilyl unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) monomers into oligonucleotides has been developed. Monomers containing a pyrene-modified nucleobase component were found to destabilize an i-motif structure at pH 5...... intensities upon hybridization to DNA or RNA. Efficient quenching of fluorescence of pyrene-modified UNA monomers was observed after formation of i-motif structures at pH 5.2. The stabilizing/destabilizing effect of pyrene-modified nucleic acids might be useful for designing antisense oligonucleotides...

  14. Excimers of organic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkov, Nikolai N.; Sakhno, T. V.; Nurmukhametov, Ravil'N.; Khakhel', O. A.

    1993-06-01

    Studies devoted to excimers in organic systems are surveyed. Processes leading to the excitation of the excimer luminescence are examined. Examples of the excimer-like glow of dimers are described. The relation between the structure of the complexes and their fluorescence properties is demonstrated. The bibliography includes 218 references.

  15. Novel (Phenylethynyl)pyrene-LNA Constructs for Fluorescence SNP Sensing in Polymorphic Nucleic Acid Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astakhova, Irina Kira; Samokhina, Evgeniya; Babu, B Ravindra

    2012-01-01

    We describe fluorescent oligonucleotide probes labeled with novel (phenylethynyl)pyrene dyes attached to locked nucleic acids. Furthermore, we prove the utility of these probes for the effective detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in natural nucleic acids. High-affinity hybridization......DNA and RNA gene fragments. Target sequences were obtained by analysis of 200 clinical samples from patients currently receiving anti-HIV/AIDS combination therapy at the Russian Federal AIDS Center. Using these fluorescent oligonucleotides, we were able to detect the target mutation despite all the challenges...

  16. 3'-Pyrene-modified unlocked nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlersen, Maria; Langkjær, Niels; Wengel, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    in the minor groove of DNA:DNA duplexes as confirmed by CD and UV/Vis absorption studies. Upon multiple incorporations of the monomer in single-stranded ONs, steady-state fluorescence emission studies revealed the formation of a pyrene excimer which in most cases was quenched upon duplex hybridization......, and fluorescence-based detection of mismatched hybridization was observed for some modified strand constitutions. Incorporation of the monomer in a triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) strand lead to an increase of triplex melting temperature both at pH 6.0 and pH 7.0 for parallel triplexes - again an effect...

  17. A Fluorescent Thermometer Based on a Pyrene-Labeled Thermoresponsive Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich S. Schubert

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermoresponsive polymers that undergo a solubility transition by variation of the temperature are important materials for the development of ‘smart’ materials. In this contribution we exploit the solubility phase transition of poly(methoxy diethylene glycol methacrylate, which is accompanied by a transition from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, for the development of a fluorescent thermometer. To translate the polymer phase transition into a fluorescent response, the polymer was functionalized with pyrene resulting in a change of the emission based on the microenvironment. This approach led to a soluble polymeric fluorescent thermometer with a temperature range from 11 °C to 21 °C. The polymer phase transition that occurs during sensing is studied in detail by dynamic light scattering.

  18. Thermodynamic and Kinetic Behavior of the Polystyrene/Poly(vinyl methyl ether) Blend as Studied by Excimer Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-02

    AD-A±63 895 THERMODYNAMIC AND KINETIC BEHAVIOR OF THE / POLYSTYRENE/POLY(YINYL METHYL E..(U) STANFORD UNIY CALIFDEPT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING C N...Polystyrene/Poly(vinyl methyl ether) Blend 7. DEcFRMN 81 toOR 30USptE8 00~ as Studied by Excimer Fluorescence 6 EFRIGOG EOTNME *AUTHOR() a. CONTRACT OR GRANT...werea fondoare ihemoriisof * ~ Ex e sp fluodecositionsdu to deud Gen e and hoog Pinus Florsneis shownhase migrationprocSECURITY CLASIFICTIO OFd

  19. Time-resolved spectroscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer in the study of excimer laser damage of chromatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radu, L. [Department of Molecular Genetics and Radiobiology, Babes National Institute, Bucharest (Romania)], E-mail: lilianajradu@yahoo.fr; Mihailescu, I. [Department of Lasers, Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics Institute, Bucharest (Romania); Radu, S. [Department of Computer Science, Polytechnics University, Bucharest (Romania); Gazdaru, D. [Department of Biophysics, Bucharest University (Romania)

    2007-09-21

    The analysis of chromatin damage produced by a 248 nm excimer laser radiation, for doses of 0.3-3 MJ/m{sup 2} was carried out by time-resolved spectroscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The chromatin was extracted from a normal and a tumoral tissue of Wistar rats. The decrease with laser dose of the relative contribution of the excited state lifetimes of ethidium bromide (EtBr) bounded to chromatin constitutes an evidence of the reduction of chromatin deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) double-strand structure. FRET was performed from dansyl chloride to acridine orange, both coupled to chromatin. The increase of the average distance between these ligands, under the action of laser radiation, reflects a loosening of the chromatin structure. The radiosensitivity of tumor tissue chromatin is higher than that of a normal tissue. The determination of the chromatin structure modification in an excimer laser field can be of interest in laser therapy.

  20. Time-resolved spectroscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer in the study of excimer laser damage of chromatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radu, L.; Mihailescu, I.; Radu, S.; Gazdaru, D.

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of chromatin damage produced by a 248 nm excimer laser radiation, for doses of 0.3-3 MJ/m 2 was carried out by time-resolved spectroscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The chromatin was extracted from a normal and a tumoral tissue of Wistar rats. The decrease with laser dose of the relative contribution of the excited state lifetimes of ethidium bromide (EtBr) bounded to chromatin constitutes an evidence of the reduction of chromatin deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) double-strand structure. FRET was performed from dansyl chloride to acridine orange, both coupled to chromatin. The increase of the average distance between these ligands, under the action of laser radiation, reflects a loosening of the chromatin structure. The radiosensitivity of tumor tissue chromatin is higher than that of a normal tissue. The determination of the chromatin structure modification in an excimer laser field can be of interest in laser therapy

  1. Estimation of AOT and SDS CMC in a methanol using conductometry, viscometry and pyrene fluorescence spectroscopy methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsionis, Anastasios I.; Vaimakis, Tiverios C.

    2012-09-01

    Critical micelle concentration (CMC) of two anionic surfactants in methanol was estimated using conductometry, viscometry and pyrene fluorescence spectroscopy methods. The surfactants used, were sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (Aerosol-OT, AOT) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) dispersed in pure methanol. The CMC determination was evaluated in room temperature. The results have shown nearly similar concentrations.

  2. A general excimer signaling approach for aptamer sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cuichen; Yan, Ling; Wang, Chunming; Lin, Haoxue; Wang, Chi; Chen, Xi; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2010-06-15

    Simple, fast and direct analysis or monitoring of significant molecules in complex biological samples is important for many biological study, clinical diagnosis and forensic investigations. Herein we highlight a general method to tailor aptamer sequence into functional subunits to design target-induced light-switching excimer sensors for rapid, sensitive and selective detection of important molecules in complex biological fluids. Our approach is to split one single strand aptamer into two pieces and each terminally labeled with a pyrene molecule while maintaining their binding affinity to target molecules. In the presence of target molecules, two aptamer fragments are induced to self-assemble to form aptamer-target complex and bring two pyrene molecules into a close proximity to form an excimer, resulting in fluorescent switching from approximately 400 nm to 485 nm. With an anti-cocaine sensor, as low as 1 microM of cocaine can be detected using steady-state fluorescence assays and more importantly low picomole level of target can be directly visualized with naked eyes. Because the excimer has a long fluorescence lifetime, time-resolved measurements were used to directly detect as low as 5 microM cocaine in urine samples quantitatively without any sample pretreatment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical sensing of Benzo[a]pyrene using Corchorus depressus fluorescent flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Wajiha; Rana, Nosheen Fatima; Riaz, Sundus; Ahmad, Nasir Mehmood; Hameed, Maryam; Naeem, Ayesha; Tahir, Rabbiya

    2018-04-01

    Plant phytochemicals, such as flavonoids are in use for the development of optical biosensor. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), is a pervasive environmental and dietary carcinogen. A fluorescent assay is developed using plant isolated flavonoid for the detection of B[a]P. High content saponins are excluded from the flavonoid-containing methanolic extract of Corchorus depressus by implying reduction of silver ions by saponins resulting in formation of silver nanoparticles. Isolated plant flavonoids are used to develop a spectrofluorometric assay for the detection of B[a]P. Decrease in the flavonoid fluorescence intensity by B[a]P is found to be based on both static and dynamic quenching. Specificity of the assay for B[a]P was tested for other carcinogens belonging to different classes of compounds. Flavonoids-mediated sensing can be implied for the development of new generation of nanoparticle-based biosensors that can be more sensitive and less susceptible to external factors, such as temperature and humidity.

  4. Circularly polarized luminescence of helically assembled pyrene π-stacks on RNA and DNA duplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mitsunobu; Ota, Fuyuki; Takada, Tadao; Akagi, Kazuo; Yamana, Kazushige

    2018-05-01

    In this report, we describe the circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) of the RNA duplexes having one to four 2'-O-pyrene modified uridines (Upy) and the DNA duplexes having two, four, and six pyrene modified non-nucleosidic linkers (Py). Both the pyrene π-stack arrays formed on the RNA and DNA double helical structures exhibited pyrene excimer fluorescence. In the pyrene-modified RNA systems, the RNA duplex having four Upys gives CPL emission with g lum value of <0.01 at 480 nm. The structure of pyrene stacks on the RNA duplex may be rigidly regulated with increase in the Upy domains, which resulted in the CPL emission. In the DNA systems, the pyrene-modified duplexes containing two and four Pys exhibited CPL emission with g lum values of <0.001 at 505 nm. The pyrene π-stack arrays presented here show CPL emission. However, the g lum values are relatively small when compared with our previous system consisting of the pyrene-zipper arrays on RNA. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Magnetic modulation of exciplex fluorescence of pyrene solutions with azacrown-ether excess in the presence of ions of alkali and alkaline earth metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisenko, V.N.; Petrov, N.Kh.; Gromov, S.P.; Alfimov, M.V.

    1997-01-01

    Photoexcitation of polar pyrene solutions with excess of phenylaza-15-crown-5 as a donor results to intermolecular electron transfer with formation of ion-radical pairs, recombination of which produces fluorescent exciplex. Charge exchange between molecules of crown ether and its cation-radicals is practically absent at that. Magnetic effect, observed for fluorescence, decreases, when adding diamagnetic lithium and calcium ions to exiplex pyrene/crown-ether system. This can be explained by formation of paramagnetic complexes. 15 refs., 5 figs

  6. Pyrene functionalized molecular beacon with pH-sensitive i-motif in a loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembska, Anna; Juskowiak, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present a spectral characterization of pH-sensitive system, which combines the i-motif properties with the spatially sensitive fluorescence signal of pyrene molecules attached to hairpin ends. The excimer production (fluorescence max. ∼480 nm) by pyrene labels at the ends of the molecular beacon is driven by pH-dependent i-motif formation in the loop. To illustrate the performance and reversible work of our systems, we performed the experiments with repeatedly pH cycling between pH values of 7.5±0.3 and 6.5±0.3. The sensor gives analytical response in excimer-monomer switching mode in narrow pH range (1.5 pH units) and exhibits high pH resolution (0.1 pH unit). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Micelle-assisted signaling of peracetic acid by the oxidation of pyreneboronic acid via monomer-excimer switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jiyoung; Lee, Hyo Jin; Cho, Min Jeoung; Chang, Suk-Kyu

    2015-08-15

    A simple fluorescent probe for the industrial oxidant peracetic acid (PAA) was investigated. PAA-assisted oxidative conversion of pyrene-1-boronic acid into 1-hydroxypyrene was used as the signaling tool. Pyreneboronic acid was found to display selective signaling behavior, being more responsive to PAA than to other commonly used practical oxidants such as H2O2 and HOCl. The changes in pyrene monomer fluorescence to excimer were used in the quantitative analysis of PAA. When using the surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide as a micellar additive, the signaling of PAA was markedly enhanced. Selective fluorescence signaling of PAA by pyrene-1-boronic acid with a detection limit of 1.5×10(-6)M in aqueous environment was successfully achieved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Photochemical products causing fluorescence enhancement for 6H-benzo[cd]pyren-6-one in de-aerated and pre-irradiated solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagishita, M., E-mail: yagishita.mayuko@nies.go.jp [Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science, Toho University, 2-2-1 Miyama, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8510 (Japan); National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba-City, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Nakajima, D. [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba-City, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Ohshima, S. [Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science, Toho University, 2-2-1 Miyama, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8510 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Polycyclic aromatic ketones emit very weak fluorescence, but their fluorescence is significantly enhanced by about one hundred times after preliminary irradiation of their degassed solution. To investigate the mechanism of such fluorescence enhancement, liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry measurements were performed for degassed methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile solutions of 6H-benzo[cd]pyren-6-one (naphthanthrone), in which fluorescence enhancement had been induced. As a result, two kinds of photochemical products were identified as the substance causing fluorescence enhancement: they were produced by dehydrogenation and dehydration of adducts of a solvent molecule to naphthanthrone. On the basis of the findings, the mechanism of the fluorescence enhancement of naphthanthrone was discussed. Fluorescence enhancement; 6H-benzo[cd]pyren-6-one; Polycyclic aromatic ketones; Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; Photochemical reaction.

  9. Photochemical products causing fluorescence enhancement for 6H-benzo[cd]pyren-6-one in de-aerated and pre-irradiated solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagishita, M.; Nakajima, D.; Ohshima, S.

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic ketones emit very weak fluorescence, but their fluorescence is significantly enhanced by about one hundred times after preliminary irradiation of their degassed solution. To investigate the mechanism of such fluorescence enhancement, liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry measurements were performed for degassed methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile solutions of 6H-benzo[cd]pyren-6-one (naphthanthrone), in which fluorescence enhancement had been induced. As a result, two kinds of photochemical products were identified as the substance causing fluorescence enhancement: they were produced by dehydrogenation and dehydration of adducts of a solvent molecule to naphthanthrone. On the basis of the findings, the mechanism of the fluorescence enhancement of naphthanthrone was discussed. Fluorescence enhancement; 6H-benzo[cd]pyren-6-one; Polycyclic aromatic ketones; Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; Photochemical reaction

  10. Charge recombination process in X-ray irradiated pyrene-doped polystyrene as studied by optically detected electron spin resonance and magnetic field dependence of the recombination fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Masaharu; Tai, Yutaka; Toriyama, Kazumi

    1993-01-01

    The optically-detected ESR (ODESR) spectrum and magnetic field dependence on recombination fluorescence were observed for X-ray irradiated pyrene-doped polystyrene at temperatures of 242-348 K. The ODESR intensity as a function of the pyrene concentration, 0.1-8.9 wt%, showed an unusual minimum at about 1.0%. Two phases were separated in the magnetic field dependence of the fluorescence: one was sharp and saturates at fields of over 50 mT, while the other was broad with a dip at around 60-150 mT. The cause of this dip was naturally attributed to the ST -1 level crossing. The sharp magnetic field effect also showed a minimum at around a concentration of 1.0 wt%. These novel findings have been interpreted using a recombination model modified from the previous one for pyrene-doped ethylene-propylene rubber and polyethylene. The essential points of the present model are: (1) although electron hopping within the polystyrene molecule is rapid, electron transfer at the last step of recombination between the polystyrene anion and the pyrene cation proceeds at a moderate rate; (2) the hole-transfer rate in the polymer chain is moderate; (3) electron hopping between the doped pyrene molecules is very much dependent on the concentration; (4) hole hopping between the pyrenes is inhibited. (author)

  11. A Pyrene- and Phosphonate-Containing Fluorescent Probe as Guest Molecule in a Host Polymer Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Marchand-Brynaert

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available New host-guest materials have been prepared by incorporation of a home-made organic probe displaying a pyrene motif and a phosphonate function into a regular amphiphilic copolymer. Using powder X-Ray diffraction, photoluminescence and FT-IR spectroscopy, we have been able to study the non-covalent interactions between the host matrix and the guest molecule in the solid state. Interestingly, we have shown that the matrix directs the guest spatial localization and alters its properties. Thanks to the comparison of pyrene vs. N-pyrenylmaleimide derivatives, the influence of the chemical nature of the guest molecules on the non-covalent interactions with the host have been studied. In addition, using polyethylene glycol as a reference host, we have been able to evidence a true matrix effect within our new insertion materials. The phosphonated guest molecule appears to be a novel probe targeting the hydrophilic domain of the host copolymer.

  12. Flow-through sensor based on derivative synchronous fluorescence spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene and benzo(ghi)perylene in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canizares, P. [Cordoba Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Anal. Chem.; Luque de Castro, M.D. [Cordoba Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Anal. Chem.

    1996-02-01

    A flow-through/first derivative synchronous spectrofluorimetric sensor for the determination of PAH has been described. This sensor has been used for the simultaneous determination of PAH mixtures (pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene and benzo(ghi)perylene). Linear calibration ranges between 10 and 500 ng/ml with acceptable precision (repeatability, expressed as relative standard deviation, smaller than 4.6%, and sampling frequency of 12 h{sup -1}) have been obtained. The method has been applied to the determination of the target analytes in spiked water samples with excellent results (recoveries between 94 and 108%). (orig.)

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Polythiophenes Containing Pyrene Chromophores: Thermal, Optical and Electrochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca X. Valderrama-García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel series of pyrene containing thiophene monomers TPM1–5 were synthesized and fully characterized by FTIR, MS, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy; their thermal properties were determined by TGA and DSC. These monomers were chemically polymerized using FeCl3 as oxidizing agent to give the corresponding oligomers TPO1–5 and they were electrochemically polymerized to obtain the corresponding polymer films deposited onto ITO. All oligomers exhibited good thermal stability, with T10 values between 255 and 299 °C, and Tg values varying from 36 to 39 °C. The monomers showed an absorption band at 345 nm due to the S0 → S2 transition of the pyrene group, whereas the fluorescence spectra showed a broad emission band arising from the “monomer” emission at 375–420 nm. The obtained polymers exhibited two absorption bands at 244 and 354 nm, due to the polythiophene and the pyrene moieties, respectively. The fluorescence spectra of polymers showed a broad “monomer” emission at 380–420 nm followed by an intense excimer emission band at 570 nm, due to the presence of intramolecular pyrene-pyrene interactions in these compounds.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and photophysical study of ethynyl pyrene derivatives as promising materials for organic optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gama, Paola E.; Corrêa, Rodrigo J.; Garden, Simon J., E-mail: garden@iq.ufrj.br

    2015-05-15

    Two series of pyrene derivatives, phenylethynyl (4–6) and the previously unknown ethynylcyclohexanol (7–9), were prepared by Sonogashira cross-coupling reactions. The introduction of an increasing number of ethynyl substituents resulted in a progressive bathochromic shift in the absorption and emission spectra which culminated in an inversion of the nature of the first two excited states ({sup 1}L{sub a} and {sup 1}L{sub b}) of the tetra-substituted derivatives (6 and 9) relative to pyrene. In solution, only for the mono-cyclohexanolethynyl pyrene (7) a sufficiently concentrated solution could be obtained so as to observe the excimer. Additionally, the emission band ratio I{sub 1}/I{sub 3} for 7 was found to be moderately sensitive to the nature of the solvent and the ratio directly correlated with the Py scale. TDDFT calculations were used to explore the variation of the properties of the low lying excited states. Fluorescence emission in the solid state, with the appropriate choice of materials, covers the entire visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum due to static excimer emission. A massive red-shift for solid state photoluminescence from 9 resulted in emission at longer wavelength than the more highly conjugated 6. - Highlights: • Phenyl and cyclohexanol ethynylpyrene derivatives: photophysically compared. • Excimer formation and solvent dependent emission from cyclohexanolethynylpyrene. • Systematic red shifting of solid state photoluminescence from static excimers. • Massive red-shift in the solid state photoluminescence of 9. • TDDFT calculations: properties of the lowest singlet states, systematic comparison.

  15. Synthesis and photophysical properties of pyrene-functionalized nano-SiO{sub 2} hybrids in solutions and doped-PMMA thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wen-Jie; He, Wen-Li; Yu, Hong-Yu [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang, Hong-Xiang [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Chen, Meng [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Qian, Dong-Jin, E-mail: djqian@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Luminescent pyrene-functionalized nano-SiO{sub 2} (nano-SiO{sub 2}Pyr) hybrids were synthesized and characterized using thermogravimetry, infrared, UV–vis absorption and, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as field emission transmission electron microscopy (FETEM). The organic substituents immobilized on the nano-SiO{sub 2}Pyr hybrids accounted for approximately 10% of the total weight. Polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG200) was found to be the most suitable solvent to suspend the nano-SiO{sub 2}Pyr hybrids compared to other commonly used organic solvents. FETEM images indicated an average SiO{sub 2} nanoparticle diameter of approximately 12 nm and a 1- to 2-nm thick organic species functionalization layer. Several emission peaks were recorded at wavelengths of 380–580 nm and were designated as emissions arising from either the monomer or excimer of the pyrene substituents. Excimer formation was concentration and solvent polarity dependent, with higher concentrations and a stronger solvent polarity benefiting excimer formation. Further, nano-SiO{sub 2}Pyr hybrids were doped in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films; fluorescence spectra indicated that the excimer could be formed almost exclusively from neighboring nano-SiO{sub 2}Pyr hybrids. Time-resolved fluorescence decays revealed that the emission lifetimes of nano-SiO{sub 2}Pyr monomers and excimers were approximately 190 ns and 65–100 ns in the PEG200 solution, respectively, which was shortened to 0.45 ns to tens of ns in doped PMMA thin films, depending on the nano-hybrid concentration. Thus, the present study not only provides a method to prepare luminescent nano-materials but also a route to investigate excimer formation in solutions and thin films. - Highlights: • Luminescent pyrene-functionalized nano-SiO{sub 2}Pyr hybrids were prepared. • A 1- to 2- nm thick organic functionalization layer on nano-SiO{sub 2} was observed. • Formation of pyrene excimer was concentration and solvent

  16. pH-Sensitive polymer assisted self-aggregation of bis(pyrene) in living cells in situ with turn-on fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Zhongyu; Gao, Yu-Juan; Wang, Yongmei; Hou, Chunyuan; Qiao, Zeng-Ying; Qiao, Shenglin; Wang, Lei; Wang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Supramolecular self-assemblies with various nanostructures in organic and aqueous solutions have been prepared with desired functions. However, in situ construction of self-assembled superstructures in physiological conditions to achieve expected biological functions remains a challenge. Here, we report a supramolecular system to realize the in situ formation of nanoaggregates in living cells. The bis(pyrene) monomers were dispersed inside of hydrophobic domains of pH-sensitive polymeric micelles and delivered to the lysosomes of cells. In the acidic lysosomes, the bis(pyrene) monomers were released and self-aggregated with turn-on fluorescence. We envision this strategy for in situ construction of supramolecular nanostructures in living cells will pave the way for molecular diagnostics in the future. (paper)

  17. Effects of electric and magnetic fields on fluorescence in electron donor and acceptor pairs of pyrene and N-methylphthalimide doped in a polymer film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizawa, Tomokazu [Research Institute for Electronic Science (RIES), Hokkaido University, N12, W6 Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Graduate School of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Mizoguchi, Miwako [Graduate School of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Iimori, Toshifumi [Research Institute for Electronic Science (RIES), Hokkaido University, N12, W6 Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Graduate School of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Nakabayashi, Takakazu [Research Institute for Electronic Science (RIES), Hokkaido University, N12, W6 Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Graduate School of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Ohta, Nobuhiro [Research Institute for Electronic Science (RIES), Hokkaido University, N12, W6 Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Graduate School of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)], E-mail: nohta@es.hokudai.ac.jp

    2006-05-09

    External electric-field-induced change in fluorescence spectra as well as in fluorescence decay has been measured for electron donor and acceptor pairs of pyrene (PY) and N-methylphthalimide (NMPI) doped in a polymer film. Field-induced quenching and field-induced shortening of lifetime are observed for fluorescence emitted from the locally excited (LE) state of PY, indicating that intermolecular electron transfer from the excited state of PY to NMPI is enhanced by an electric field in a polymer film. A simulation has been made for the field effect on decay profile of the LE fluorescence of PY. Exciplex fluorescence is also quenched by an electric field because of the field-induced decrease in the initial population of the fluorescent exciplex. Both in LE fluorescence of PY and in exciplex fluorescence, electric-field-induced quenching becomes less efficient in the presence of a magnetic field. The mechanism of the synergy effect of electric and magnetic fields on fluorescence has been discussed.

  18. Effects of electric and magnetic fields on fluorescence in electron donor and acceptor pairs of pyrene and N-methylphthalimide doped in a polymer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Tomokazu; Mizoguchi, Miwako; Iimori, Toshifumi; Nakabayashi, Takakazu; Ohta, Nobuhiro

    2006-01-01

    External electric-field-induced change in fluorescence spectra as well as in fluorescence decay has been measured for electron donor and acceptor pairs of pyrene (PY) and N-methylphthalimide (NMPI) doped in a polymer film. Field-induced quenching and field-induced shortening of lifetime are observed for fluorescence emitted from the locally excited (LE) state of PY, indicating that intermolecular electron transfer from the excited state of PY to NMPI is enhanced by an electric field in a polymer film. A simulation has been made for the field effect on decay profile of the LE fluorescence of PY. Exciplex fluorescence is also quenched by an electric field because of the field-induced decrease in the initial population of the fluorescent exciplex. Both in LE fluorescence of PY and in exciplex fluorescence, electric-field-induced quenching becomes less efficient in the presence of a magnetic field. The mechanism of the synergy effect of electric and magnetic fields on fluorescence has been discussed

  19. Spectroscopic and TD-DFT studies on the dual mode fluorescent chemosensors based on pyrene thiosemicarbazones, and its application as molecular-scale logic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basheer, Sabeel M. [Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620 015 (India); Willis, Anthony C. [Research School of Chemistry, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Sreekanth, Anandaram, E-mail: sreekanth@nitt.edu [Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620 015 (India)

    2017-03-15

    Two newly synthesised pyrene based molecules are hereby reported as molecular switches. The absorption and emission response for receptors with and without F{sup −}, CN{sup −} and Cu{sup 2+} ions can mimic multiple logic gate such as AND, NOR, XNOR, OR, XOR, INHIBITION and TRANSFER gates. The fluorescence reversibility was checked with the alternative addition of fluoride and calcium ions, which can be explained by the “Read-Erase-Read-Write” logic loop. The calculated binding constant value show PyBTSC is better chemosensor than PyCTSC, and the binding affinity is in the order of Cu{sup 2+}Г‹Ж’F{sup -}Г‹Ж’CN{sup −.} The detailed mechanism was investigated using DFT and TD-DFT calculations. The fluorescence quenching behaviour of receptor-F complex can be explained by PET mechanism along with ESPT process. The proton attached to the nitrogen which is adjacent to pyrene moiety is first make the hydrogen bond with fluoride ion at the excited state, which has confirmed by natural bond orbital (NBO) and potential energy surface (PES) analysis. - Graphical abstract: The newly synthesised thiocarbazone derivates used as an effective and selective colourimetric and “turn on” fluorescence sensor for copper ion and ‘turn off’ for fluoride and cyanide anion. The presence and absence of ions were considered as input signals and the corresponding absorption and emission responses were consired as output. The proton transfer from the nitrogen adjacent to pyrene moiety, and which takes place at the excited state (ESPT).

  20. Determination of benzo[a]pyrene in edible oils using phase-transfer-catalyst-assisted saponification and supramolecular solvent microextraction coupled to HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Liu, Laping; Shi, Ludi; Yi, Tingquan; Wen, Yuxia; Wang, Juanli; Liu, Shuhui

    2017-01-01

    For the analysis of edible oils, saponification is well known as a useful method for eliminating oil matrices. The conventional approach is conducted with alcoholic alkali; it consumes a large volume of organic solvents and impedes the retrieval of analytes by microextraction. In this study, a low-organic-solvent-consuming method has been developed for the analysis of benzo[a]pyrene in edible oils by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Sample treatment involves aqueous alkaline saponification, assisted by a phase-transfer catalyst, and selective in situ extraction of the analyte with a supramolecular solvent. Comparison of the chromatograms of the oil extracts obtained by different microextraction methods showed that the supramolecular solvent has a better clean-up effect for the unsaponifiable matter from oil matrices. The method offered excellent linearity over a range of 0.03- 5.0 ng mL -1 (r > 0.999). Recovery rates varied from 94 to 102% (RSDs <5.0%). The detection limit and quantification limit were 0.06 and 0.19 μg kg -1 , respectively. The proposed method was applied for the analysis of 52 edible oils collected online in China; the analyte contents of 23 tested oil samples exceeded the maximum limit of 2 μg kg -1 for benzo[a]pyrene set by the Commission Regulation of the European Union. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. New concepts of fluorescent probes for specific detection of DNA sequences: bis-modified oligonucleotides in excimer and exciplex detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbaj, A; Bichenkova, Ev; Walsh, L; Savage, He; Sardarian, Ar; Etchells, Ll; Gulati, A; Hawisa, S; Douglas, Kt

    2009-12-01

    The detection of single base mismatches in DNA is important for diagnostics, treatment of genetic diseases, and identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Highly sensitive, specific assays are needed to investigate genetic samples from patients. The use of a simple fluorescent nucleoside analogue in detection of DNA sequence and point mutations by hybridisation in solution is described in this study. The 5'-bispyrene and 3'-naphthalene oligonucleotide probes form an exciplex on hybridisation to target in water and the 5'-bispyrene oligonucleotide alone is an adequate probe to determine concentration of target present. It was also indicated that this system has a potential to identify mismatches and insertions. The aim of this work was to investigate experimental structures and conditions that permit strong exciplex emission for nucleic acid detectors, and show how such exciplexes can register the presence of mismatches as required in SNP analysis. This study revealed that the hybridisation of 5'-bispyrenyl fluorophore to a DNA target results in formation of a fluorescent probe with high signal intensity change and specificity for detecting a complementary target in a homogeneous system. Detection of SNP mutations using this split-probe system is a highly specific, simple, and accessible method to meet the rigorous requirements of pharmacogenomic studies. Thus, it is possible for the system to act as SNP detectors and it shows promise for future applications in genetic testing.

  2. Modulating the nanorods protrusion from poly(allylamine hydrochloride)-g-pyrene microcapsules by 1-pyrenesulfonic acid sodium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Erjia; Wang, Tianxiang; Wang, Zhipeng; Gao, Changyou

    2013-09-01

    It was found previously that the Schiff base bonds in poly(allylamine hydrochloride)-g-pyrene (PAH-Py) microcapsules (MCs) are hydrolyzed at pH 2 within 1 h, leading to disassembly of the MCs and protrusion of pyrene aldehyde (Py) nanorods (NRs) on the capsule surface. Herein, we found a new way to modulate the protrusion of NRs by addition of 1-pyrenesulfonic acid sodium salt (PySO3Na). Along with the increase in PySO3Na to Py molar ratio in the MCs solution, the protrusion of NRs was progressively blocked and even inhibited at a ratio of 2.3, and at this condition, the microcapsules were stable under pH 2 for 24 h. After the composite microcapsules with excess PySO3Na were washed with a pH 10 solution and then incubated in a pH 2 solution, the NRs could be protruded from the MCs again. The fluorescence peak position of the PAH-Py/PySO3Na MCs gradually red-shifted with a decrease in pH value, and a sharp transition occurred at p H3.6, demonstrating the formation of pyrene excimers between the PySO3Na small molecules and the pendant Py groups on the PAH chain. The formed excimers take the role of blocking the self-assembly of cleaved Py molecules instead of inhibiting the hydrolysis of the Schiff base, whereas the MCs were stabilized by the charge interaction between PySO3Na and PAH backbone and the hydrophobic interaction between the pyrene rings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. New Concepts of Fluorescent Probes for Specific Detection of DNA Sequences: Bis-Modified Oligonucleotides in Excimer and Exciplex Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbaj A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of single base mismatches in DNA is important for diagnostics, treatment of genetic diseases, and identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Highly sensitive, specific assays are needed to investigate genetic samples from patients. The use of a simple fluorescent nucleoside analogue in detection of DNA sequence and point mutations by hybridisation in solution is described in this study. The 5’-bispyrene and 3’-naphthalene oligonucleotide probes form an exciplex on hybridisation to target in water and the 5’-bispyrene oligonucleotide alone is an adequate probe to determine concentration of target present. It was also indicated that this system has a potential to identify mismatches and insertions. The aim of this work was to investigate experimental structures and conditions that permit strong exciplex emission for nucleic acid detectors, and show how such exciplexes can register the presence of mismatches as required in SNP analysis. This study revealed that the hybridisation of 5'-bispyrenyl fluorophore to a DNA target results in formation of a fluorescent probe with high signal intensity change and specificity for detecting a complementary target in a homogeneous system. Detection of SNP mutations using this split-probe system is a highly specific, simple, and accessible method to meet the rigorous requirements of pharmacogenomic studies. Thus, it is possible for the system to act as SNP detectors and it shows promise for future applications in genetic testing.

  4. Fluorescent Binary Ensemble Based on Pyrene Derivative and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Assemblies as a Chemical Tongue for Discriminating Metal Ions and Brand Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijun; Huang, Xinyan; Cao, Yuan; Xin, Yunhong; Ding, Liping

    2017-12-22

    Enormous effort has been put to the detection and recognition of various heavy metal ions due to their involvement in serious environmental pollution and many major diseases. The present work has developed a single fluorescent sensor ensemble that can distinguish and identify a variety of heavy metal ions. A pyrene-based fluorophore (PB) containing a metal ion receptor group was specially designed and synthesized. Anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) assemblies can effectively adjust its fluorescence behavior. The selected binary ensemble based on PB/SDS assemblies can exhibit multiple emission bands and provide wavelength-based cross-reactive responses to a series of metal ions to realize pattern recognition ability. The combination of surfactant assembly modulation and the receptor for metal ions empowers the present sensor ensemble with strong discrimination power, which could well differentiate 13 metal ions, including Cu 2+ , Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cr 3+ , Hg 2+ , Fe 3+ , Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ , Al 3+ , Pb 2+ , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , and Ba 2+ . Moreover, this single sensing ensemble could be further applied for identifying different brands of drinking water.

  5. Excimer Laser Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Basting, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive survey on Excimer Lasers investigates the current range of the technology, applications and devices of this commonly used laser source, as well as the future of new technologies, such as F2 laser technology. Additional chapters on optics, devices and laser systems complete this compact handbook. A must read for laser technology students, process application researchers, engineers or anyone interested in excimer laser technology. An effective and understandable introduction to the current and future status of excimer laser technology.

  6. Excimer laser applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantoni, R.

    1988-01-01

    This lecture deals with laser induced material photoprocessing, especially concerning those processes which are initiated by u.v. lasers (mostly excimer laser). Advantages of using the u.v. radiation emitted by excimer lasers, both in photophysical and photochemical processes of different materials, are discussed in detail. Applications concerning microelectronics are stressed with respect to other applications in different fields (organic chemistry, medicine). As further applications of excimer lasers, main spectroscopic techniques for ''on line'' diagnostics which employ excimer pumped dye lasers, emitting tunable radiation in the visible and near u.v. are reviewed

  7. Polyfluorophore Excimers and Exciplexes as FRET Donors in DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Yin Nah; Kool, Eric T.

    2009-01-01

    We describe studies aimed at testing whether oligomeric exciplex- and excimer fluorophores conjugated to DNA have the potential to act as donors for energy transfer by the Förster mechanism. Oligodeoxyfluorosides (ODFs) are composed of stacked, electronically interacting fluorophores replacing the bases on a DNA scaffold. The monomer chromophores in the twenty tetramer-length ODFs studied here include pyrene (Y), benzopyrene (B), perylene (E), dimethylaminostilbene (D), and a nonfluorescent spacer (S); these are conjugated in varied combinations at the 3’ end of a 14mer DNA probe sequence. In the absence of an acceptor chromophore, many of the ODF-DNAs show broad, unstructured long-wavelength emission peaks characteristic of excimer and exciplex excited states, similar to what has been observed for unconjugated ODFs. Although such delocalized excited states have been widely studied, we know of no prior report of their use in FRET. We tested the ability of the twenty ODFs to donate energy to Cy5 and TAMRA dyes conjugated to a complementary strand of DNA, with these acceptors oriented either at the near or far end of the ODF-conjugated probes. Results showed that a number of the ODF fluorophores exhibited relatively efficient energy transfer characteristic of the Förster mechanism, as judged by drops in donor emission quantum yield and fluorescence lifetime, accompanied by increases in intensity of acceptor emission bands. Excimer/exciplex bands in the donors were selectively quenched while shorter-wavelength monomer emission stayed relatively constant, consistent with the notion that the delocalized excited states, rather than individual fluorophores, are the donors. Interestingly, only specific sequences of ODFs were able to act as donors, while others did not, even though their emission wavelengths were similar. The new FRET donors possess large Stokes shifts, which can be beneficial for multiple applications. In addition, all ODFs can be excited at a single

  8. Electrodeless excimer laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisi, N.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper it is proposed how to build an excimer laser based on an electrodeless discharge (or Dielectric Barrier Discharge). Such laser could operate with a low energy per pulse ( 2 excimer molecule, whose emission wavelength in the VUV range (157 nm) at high reprate is particularly interesting in the micro-lithography field [it

  9. Selective Metal-Ion-Mediated Vesicle Adhesion Based on Dynamic Self-Organization of a Pyrene-Appended Glutamic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Pengyao; Wang, Yajie; Yang, Minmin; Zhang, Yimeng; Wang, Bo; Hao, Aiyou

    2016-07-13

    Vesicles with dynamic membranes provide an ideal model system for investigating biological membrane activities, whereby vesicle aggregation behaviors including adhesion, fusion, fission, and membrane contraction/extension have attracted much attention. In this work we utilize an aromatic amino acid (pyrene-appended glutamic acid, PGlu) to prepare nanovesicles that aggregate to form vesicle clusters selectively induced by Fe(3+) or Cu(2+), and the vesicles transform into irregular nano-objects when interacting with Al(3+). Vesicle clusters have better stability than pristine vesicles, which hinders the spontaneous morphological transformation from vesicles into lamellar nanosheets with long incubation period. The difference between complexation of Fe(3+) and Al(3+) with vesicles was studied by various techniques. On the basis of metal ion-vesicle interactions, this self-assembled nanovesicle system also behaves as an effective fluorescent sensor for Fe(3+) and Al(3+), which cause fluorescence quenching and enhanced excimer emission, respectively.

  10. Unlocked Nucleic Acids with a Pyrene-Modified Uracil: Synthesis, Hybridization Studies, Fluorescent Properties and i-Motif Stability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perlíková, Pavla; Karlsen, K. K.; Pedersen, E. B.; Wengel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2014), s. 146-156 ISSN 1439-4227 Grant - others:European Research Council(XE) FP7-268776 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fluorescence * i-motifs * nucleic acid hybridization * oligonucleotides * unlocked nucleic acids Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.088, year: 2014

  11. Novel poly(triphenylamine-alt-fluorene) with asymmetric hexaphenylbenzene and pyrene moieties: synthesis, fluorescence, flexible near-infrared electrochromic devices and theoretical investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Po-I.

    2016-01-13

    © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016. In this study, a new triphenylamine-alt-fluorene conjugated copolymer, HPBPYFL6, with hexaphenylbenzene (HPB) and pyrene as asymmetrical pendant groups was synthesized via Suzuki coupling polymerization. The conjugated polymer had a weight-average molecular weight of 5.8 × 104 g mol-1 with a polydispersity index of 2.5 characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). HPBPYFL6 showed good solubility in common organic solvents such as NMP, THF, toluene and dichloromethane at 25°C. In addition, HPBPYFL6 possessed a high glass transition temperature of 260°C and a 10% weight-loss temperature of 503°C in nitrogen. HPBPYFL6 bearing a pyrene moiety had a solvatochromic fluorescence shift from a green to an orange emission as the polarity of the solvent increased. Cyclic voltammetry of HPBPYFL6 films cast onto indium-tin oxide-coated glass (ITO-glass) exhibited two oxidation redox couples at an E1/2 value of 0.82 and 1.17 V versus Ag/Ag+ in an acetonitrile solution. The HPBPYFL6 film on graphene-coated PET had an E1/2 value of 0.24 and 1.12 V. Conjugated polymer films exhibited reversible electrochromic behaviour with a colour change from pale yellow to deep blue upon electrochemical oxidation and high absorbance in the near-infrared (NIR) region. The switching and bleaching times were 5.16 s and 3.12 s for 1231 nm and were 3.30 s and 3.74 s for 1030 nm of HPBPYFL6 on ITO-glass. The strong NIR electrochromic absorbance of HPBPYFL6 was attributed to intervalence charge transfer by the incorporation of the HPB moiety. This phenomenon was confirmed by chemical oxidation as the oxidant contents increased in the solution state. Furthermore, the electrochromic mechanism was interpreted by DFT calculation and the simulated NIR electrochromic spectra of model compound HPBPYFL are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  12. 308-nm excimer laser in endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesenhoff, Tim

    1992-06-01

    Root canal preparation was performed on 20 extracted human teeth. After opening the coronal pulp, the root canals were prepared by 308 nm excimer laser only. All root canals were investigated under SEM after separation in the axial direction. By sagittal separation of the mandibles of freshly slaughtered cows, it was possible to get access to the tissues and irradiate under optical control. Under irradiation of excimer laser light, tissue starts to fluoresce. It was possible to demonstrate that each tissue (dentin, enamel, bone, pulpal, and connective tissue) has a characteristic spectral pattern. The SEM analyses showed that it is well possible to prepare root canals safely. All organic soft tissue has been removed by excimer laser irradiation. There was no case of via falsa. The simultaneous spectroscopic identification of the irradiated tissue provides a safe protection from overinstrumentation. First clinical trials on 20 patients suffering of chronical apical parodontitis have been carried out successfully.

  13. Spectral characterization of the fluorescent components present in humic substances, fulvic acid and humic acid mixed with pure benzo(a)pyrene solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Fallah, Rawa; Rouillon, Régis; Vouvé, Florence

    2018-06-01

    The fate of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a ubiquitous contaminant reported to be persistent in the environment, is largely controlled by its interactions with the soil organic matter. In the present study, the spectral characteristics of fluorophores present in the physical fractions of the soil organic matter were investigated in the presence of pure BaP solution. After extraction of humic substances (HSs), and their fractionation into fluvic acid (FA) and humic acid (HA), two fluorescent compounds (C1 and C2) were identified and characterized in each physical soil fraction, by means of fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (FEEMs) and Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC). Then, to each type of fraction having similar DOC content, was added an increasing volume of pure BaP solution in attempt to assess the behavior of BaP with the fluorophores present in each one. The application of FEEMs-PARAFAC method validated a three-component model that consisted of the two resulted fluorophores from HSs, FA and HA (C1 and C2) and a BaP-like fluorophore (C3). Spectral modifications were noted for components C2HSs (C2 in humic substances fraction) (λex/λem: 420/490-520 nm), C2FA (C2 in fulvic acid fraction) (λex/λem: 400/487(517) nm) and C1HA (C1 in humic acid fraction) (λex/λem: 350/452(520) nm). We explored the impact of increasing the volume of the added pure BaP solution on the scores of the fluorophores present in the soil fractions. It was found that the scores of C2HSs, C2FA, and C1HA increased when the volume of the added pure BaP solution increased. Superposition of the excitation spectra of these fluorophores with the emission spectrum of BaP showed significant overlaps that might explain the observed interactions between BaP and the fluorescent compounds present in SOM physical fractions.

  14. Nine New Fluorescent Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-I.; Jovanovic, Misa V.; Dowben, Robert M.

    1989-06-01

    Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic studies are reported here for nine new fluorescent probes recently synthesized in our laboratories: four pyrene derivatives with substituents of (i) 1,3-diacetoxy-6,8-dichlorosulfonyl, (ii) 1,3-dihydroxy-6,8-disodiumsulfonate, (iii) 1,3-disodiumsulfonate, and (iv) l-ethoxy-3,6,8-trisodiumsulfonate groups, and five [7-julolidino] coumarin derivatives with substituents of (v) 3-carboxylate-4-methyl, (vi) 3- methylcarboxylate, (vii) 3-acetate-4-methyl, (viii) 3-propionate-4-methyl, and (ix) 3-sulfonate-4-methyl groups. Pyrene compounds i and ii and coumarin compounds v and vi exhibit interesting absorbance and fluorescence properties: their absorption maxima are red shifted compared to the parent compound to the blue-green region, and the band width broadens considerably. All four blue-absorbing dyes fluoresce intensely in the green region, and the two pyrene compounds emit at such long wavelengths without formation of excimers. The fluorescence properties of these compounds are quite environment-sensitive: considerable spectral shifts and fluorescence intensity changes have been observed in the pH range from 3 to 10 and in a wide variety of polar and hydrophobic solvents with vastly different dielectric constants. The high extinction and fluorescence quantum yield of these probes make them ideal fluorescent labeling reagents for proteins, antibodies, nucleic acids, and cellular organelles. The pH and hydrophobicity-dependent fluorescence changes can be utilized as optical pH and/or hydrophobicity indicators for mapping environmental difference in various cellular components in a single cell. Since all nine probes absorb in the UV, but emit at different wavelengths in the visible, these two groups of compounds offer an advantage of utilizing a single monochromatic light source (e.g., a nitrogen laser) to achieve multi-wavelength detection for flow cytometry application. As a first step to explore potential application in

  15. Interdependence of pyrene interactions and tetramolecular G4-DNA assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doluca, Osman; Withers, Jamie M; Loo, Trevor S; Edwards, Patrick J B; González, Carlos; Filichev, Vyacheslav V

    2015-03-28

    Controlling the arrangement of organic chromophores in supramolecular architectures is of primary importance for the development of novel functional molecules. Insertion of a twisted intercalating nucleic acid (TINA) moiety, containing phenylethynylpyren-1-yl derivatives, into a G-rich DNA sequence alters G-quadruplex folding, resulting in supramolecular structures with defined pyrene arrangements. Based on CD, NMR and ESI-mass-spectra, as well as TINA excited dimer (excimer) fluorescence emission we propose that insertion of the TINA monomer in the middle of a dTG4T sequence (i.e. dTGGXGGT, where X is TINA) converts a parallel tetramolecular G-quadruplex into an assembly composed of two identical antiparallel G-quadruplex subunits stacked via TINA-TINA interface. Kinetic analysis showed that TINA-TINA association controls complex formation in the presence of Na(+) but barely competes with guanine-mediated association in K(+) or in the sequence with the longer G-run (dTGGGXGGGT). These results demonstrate new perspectives in the design of molecular entities that can kinetically control G-quadruplex formation and show how tetramolecular G-quadruplexes can be used as a tuneable scaffold to control the arrangement of organic chromophores.

  16. Can pyrene probes be used to measure lateral pressure profiles of lipid membranes? Perspective through atomistic simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franova, M. D.; Vattulainen, I.; Ollila, O. H. S.

    2014-01-01

    The lateral pressure profile of lipid bilayers has gained a lot of attention, since changes in the pressure profile have been suggested to shift the membrane protein conformational equilibrium. This relation has been mostly studied with theoretical methods, especially with molecular dynamics....../monomer fluorescence ratio has been assumed to represent the lateral pressure in the location of the pyrene moieties. Here, we consider the validity of this assumption through atomistic molecular dynamics simulations in a DOPC (dioleoylphosphatidylcholine) membrane, which hosts di-pyr-PC probes with different acyl...... simulations, since established methods to measure the lateral pressure profile experimentally have not been available. The only experiments that have attempted to gauge the lateral pressure profile have been done by using di-pyrenyl-phosphatidylcholine (di-pyr-PC) probes. In these experiments, the excimer...

  17. Association to HeLa cells and surface behavior of exogenous gangliosides studied with a fluorescent derivative of GM1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masserini, M.; Giuliani, A.; Palestini, P.; Acquotti, D.; Pitto, M.; Chigorno, V.; Tettamanti, G.

    1990-01-01

    Cultured HeLa cells were incubated with pyrene-GM1/ 3 H-radiolabeled GM1 ganglioside (1:4 M/M) mixtures for various times. The process of association of pyrene-GM1 with cells was qualitatively and quantitatively the same as that of 3 H-GM1. The pyrene-GM1 and 3 H-GM1 proportions in the various forms of association with cells were similar to that of the starting ganglioside mixture. After 2-h incubation, the association of ganglioside with cells was well established whereas almost no metabolic processing had occurred. During a 24-h incubation, pyrene- and 3 H-GM1 underwent similar metabolic processing and gave rise to catabolic (GM2 and GM3) and anabolic (GDla) derivatives. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments carried out with the excimer formation technique on subcellular fractions containing plasma membranes showed that exogenous ganglioside was, in part, associated with the cells in a micellar form removable by trypsin treatment, and in part inserted in a seemingly molecular dispersion. Addition of Ca 2+ salts caused aggregation of the ganglioside, as indicated by the increase of the excimer:monomer fluorescence ratio. The phenomenon was Ca 2+ concentration dependent (maximum at 10 mM), and subsequent addition of EDTA has no effect. The saccharide portion of exogenously incorporated pyrene-GM1 was available to interact with external ligands, as shown by its ability to bind cholera toxin whose addition reduced the collision rate among the ganglioside lipid moieties

  18. Intramolecular excimer and exciplex emission of 1,4-dipyrenyl substituted cyclohexasilane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Walree, C.A.; Kaats-Richters, V.E.M.; Jenneskens, L.W.; Williams, R.M.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Intramolecular excimer emission is observed for cis-1,4-di(1-pyrenyl)decamethylcyclohexasilane in nonpolar solvents. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and kinetic modelling indicate that the driving force of excimer formation is very small, and that the process is governed by the flexibility

  19. Intramolecular evolution from a locally excited state to an excimer-like state in a multichromophoric dendrimer evidenced by a femtosecond fluorescence upconversion study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karni, Y.; Jordens, S.; Belder, G. De; Schweitzer, G.; Hofkens, J.; Gensch, T.; Maus, M.; Schryver, F.C. De; Herrmann, A.; Müllen, K.

    1999-01-01

    A time-resolved fluorescence upconversion study on a polyphenylene dendrimer with eight peryleneimide chromophores on the surface and on a monochromophoric model compound is reported. The time-dependent fluorescence spectra of the dendrimer show that the initial excitation is into a locally excited

  20. Ratiometric Sensing of Hydrogen Peroxide Utilizing Conformational Change in Fluorescent Boronic Acid Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Takeshima

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that the copolymers containing boronic acid and pyrene units can be utilized for the fluorometric sensing of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in aqueous solutions. The copolymer exists in a relatively extended conformation in the absence of H2O2, whereas the polymer chain is contracted by the reaction of boronic acid moieties with H2O2 to form phenol groups. This conformational change induces aggregation of the originally isolated pyrene groups. As a result, relative intensity of excimer emission with respect to monomer emission increases with H2O2 concentration. Accordingly, the present methodology enables us to measure H2O2 by means of ratiometric fluorescence change in the range of 0–30 μM.

  1. Pyrene As a New Detector for Determining the Composition of Silver Nanoparticle Dispersions in Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovskaya, G. I.; Kazakova, S. Yu.; Koroleva, M. V.; Zuev, B. K.

    2018-03-01

    It is proposed that the fluorescence of monomeric molecules of pyrene in solid matrices or in concentrated micellar solutions be used as a detector for determining the compositional homogeneity of silver nanoparticle (NP) dispersions in aqueous solutions synthesized in different ways. It is found that the morphology of silver NPs affects the change in the fluorescence intensity of monomeric molecules of pyrene in a certain (violet or blue) region of the pyrene optical spectrum. The observed phenomenon is attributed to the resonance of electronic transitions in the monomeric molecules of pyrene in regions with plasmon oscillations in silver nanoparticles. A new way of obtaining fluorescent silver NPs is found.

  2. Excimer-mediated photoionization of covalently-linked diaryl compounds: Energy thresholds for excimer formation and excimer-assisted photoionization of jet-cooled bis (9-Fluorenyl) methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Kwang; Kang, Heun Kag; Cho, Han Joung; Boo, Bong Hyun; Lim, Edward C.

    2001-01-01

    Diarylakanes capable of adopting a face-to face arrangement of the two aromatic rings are ideal systems in which to probe the excited-state dynamics leading to excimer formation and the role of the singlet excimer in the photoionization of covalently linked bichromophoric molecules. Bis (9-eluorenyl) methane, BFM, is a good example of such diaryl compounds. Boo and co-workers have shown that BFM exhibits excrimer fluorescence in solution at ambient temperatures. An Arrhenius plot of the temperature-dependent excimer formation rate yielded activation energy of about 15 kJ·mol -1 . It has been proposed that the activation energy is related to the barrier for transforming the initial S 1 geometry to the face-to face (sandwich-pair) geometry of the intramolecular singlet excimer. This is accord with the study of an intramolecular excimer formation in jet-cooled 1, 3-diphenylpropane (DPP), and that of an intramolecular exciplex formation in 1-(9-anthryl)-3-(4-N, N-dimethylaniline) propane, which indicate that the energy threshold for such conformational changes is about 11 kJ·mol -1 .

  3. Micellar enhanced spectrofluorimetric methods: application to the determination of pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, H.; Hinze, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of cationic hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC), nonionic polyoxyethylene(9.5)p-1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutylphenol, Triton X-100 (TX-100), and anionic sodium dodecylsulfate (NaLS) surfactant micelles upon the spectrofluorimetric determination of pyrene is described. It was found that the intensity of the pyrene fluorescence is enhanced from 3 to 16 times in the presence of the micellar systems. Possible reasons for this micellar induced enhanced fluorescence are discussed. The spectral parameters, fluorescence lifetimes, quantum yields, lower detection limits, and analytical figures of merit for pyrene in CTAC, NaLS, TX-100, ethanol, and water are compared. The detection limit of pyrene in the presence of micelles (approx. 1.0 x 10/sup -10/ M) is about an order of magnitude lower than that possible in alcohol alone. A brief discussion on the predicted general applicability of this new technique in fluorimetric analysis is also given. 4 figures, 2 tables.

  4. FRET based integrated pyrene-AgNPs system for detection of Hg (II) and pyrene dimer: Applications to environmental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walekar, Laxman S.; Hu, Peidong; Vafaei Molamahmood, Hamed; Long, Mingce

    2018-06-01

    The integrated system of pyrene and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with a distance (r) of 2.78 nm has been developed for the detection of Hg (II) and pyrene dimer. The interaction between pyrene and AgNPs results in the fluorescence quenching of pyrene due to the energy transfer, whose mechanism can be attributed to the Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) supported by experimental observation and theoretical calculations. The developed probe shows a highly selective and sensitive response towards Hg (II) probably due to the amalgam formation, which results in the fluorescence recovery (90%) of pyrene and color change of solution from yellowish brown to colorless. The addition of Hg (II) may increase the distance between pyrene and AgNPs undergoes the 'FRET OFF' process. This system gives a selective response towards Hg (II) over other competing metal ions. Under the optimal condition, the system offers good linearity between 0.1 and 0.6 μg mL-1 with a detection limit of 62 ng mL-1. In addition, the system also provides an effective platform for detection of pyrene in its dimer form even at very low concentrations (10 ng mL-1) on the surface of AgNPs. Therefore, it could be used as effective alternatives for the detection of Hg (II) as well as pyrene simultaneously.

  5. Laser spectroscopy of the products of photoevaporation with a short-wavelength (λ = 193 nm) excimer laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gochelashvili, K S; Zemskov, M E; Evdokimova, O N; Mikhkel'soo, V T; Prokhorov, A M

    1999-01-01

    An excimer laser spectrometer was designed and constructed. It consists of a high-vacuum interaction chamber, a short-wavelength (λ = 193 nm) excimer ArF laser used for evaporation, a probe dye laser pumped by an XeCl excimer laser, and a system for recording a laser-induced fluorescence signal. This spectrometer was used to investigate nonthermal mechanisms of photoevaporation of a number of wide-gap dielectrics. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  6. Ratiometric fluorescent receptors for both Zn2+ and H2PO4(-) ions based on a pyrenyl-linked triazole-modified homooxacalix[3]arene: a potential molecular traffic signal with an R-S latch logic circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xin-long; Zeng, Xi; Redshaw, Carl; Yamato, Takehiko

    2011-07-15

    A ratiometric fluorescent receptor with a C(3) symmetric structure based on a pyrene-linked triazole-modified homooxacalix[3]arene (L) was synthesized and characterized. This system exhibited an interesting ratiometric detection signal output for targeting cations and anions through switching the excimer emission of pyrene from the "on-off" to the "off-on" type in neutral solution. (1)H NMR titration results suggested that the Zn(2+) center of receptor L·Zn(2+) provided an excellent pathway of organizing anion binding groups for optimal host-guest interactions. It is thus believed that this receptor has potential application in sensing, detection, and recognition of both Zn(2+) and H(2)PO(4)(-) ions with different optical signals. In addition, the fluorescence emission changes by the inputs of Zn(2+) and H(2)PO(4)(-) ions can be viewed as a combinational R-S latch logic circuit at the molecular level.

  7. Tunable excimer lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sze, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    The wide bandwidth nature of the rare-gas halide excimer transitions allow reasonable tuning of the laser oscillation wavelength that makes it useful for a number of applications. At the same time this wide bandwidth makes narrow band operation difficult and special techniques are needed to insure narrow frequency lasing as well as absolute frequency resettability. The author discusses briefly some of the classical frequency narrowing techniques and then goes on to some recent work that require lasers of special frequency characteristics for special applications including KrF laser fusion

  8. High power excimer laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterlin, P.; Muckenheim, W.; Basting, D.

    1988-01-01

    Excimer lasers emitting more than 200 W output power are not commercially available. A significant increase requires new technological efforts with respect to both the gas circulation and the discharge system. The authors report how a research project has yielded a laser which emits 0.5 kW at 308 nm when being UV preionized and operated at a repetition rate of 300 Hz. The laser, which is capable of operating at 500 Hz, can be equipped with an x-ray preionization module. After completing this project 1 kW output power will be available

  9. Excimer Formation Dynamics of Dipyrenyldecane in Structurally Different Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Anita; Pandey, Siddharth

    2017-12-07

    Ionic liquids, being composed of ions alone, may offer alternative pathways for molecular aggregation. These pathways could be controlled by the chemical structure of the cation and the anion of the ionic liquids. Intramolecular excimer formation dynamics of a bifluorophoric probe, 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)decane [1Py(10)1Py], where the fluorophoric pyrene moieties are separated by a long decyl chain, is investigated in seven different ionic liquids in 10-90 °C temperature range. The long alkyl separator allows for ample interaction with the solubilizing milieu prior to the formation of the excimer. The ionic liquids are composed of two sets, one having four ionic liquids of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation ([bmim + ]) with different anions and the other having four ionic liquids of bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion ([Tf 2 N - ]) with different cations. The excimer-to-monomer emission intensity ratio (I E /I M ) is found to increase with increasing temperature in sigmoidal fashion. Chemical structure of the ionic liquid controls the excimer formation efficiency, as I E /I M values within ionic liquids with the same viscosities are found to be significantly different. The excited-state intensity decay kinetics of 1Py(10)1Py in ionic liquids do not adhere to a simplistic Birk's scheme, where only one excimer conformer forms after excitation. The apparent rate constants of excimer formation (k a ) in highly viscous ionic liquids are an order of magnitude lower than those reported in organic solvents. In general, the higher the viscosity of the ionic liquid, the more sensitive is the k a to the temperature with higher activation energy, E a . The trend in E a is found to be similar to that for activation energy of the viscous flow (E a,η ). Stokes-Einstein relationship is not followed in [bmim + ] ionic liquids; however, with the exception of [choline][Tf 2 N], it is found to be followed in [Tf 2 N - ] ionic liquids suggesting the cyclization dynamics of 1Py(10)1Py

  10. Excimer laser decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentis, Marc L.; Delaporte, Philippe C.; Marine, Wladimir; Uteza, Olivier P.

    2000-04-01

    The application of excimer laser ablation process to the decontamination of radioactive surfaces is discussed. This technology is very attractive because it allows to efficiently remove the contaminated particles without secondary waste production. To demonstrate the capability of such technology to efficiently decontaminate large area, we studied and developed a prototype which include a XeCl laser, an optical fiber delivery system and an ablated particles collection cell. The main physical processes taking place during UV laser ablation will be explained. The influence of laser wavelength, pulse duration and absorption coefficient of material will be discussed. Special studies have been performed to understand the processes which limit the transmission of high average power excimer laser through optical fiber, and to determine the laser conditions to optimize the value of this transmission. An in-situ spectroscopic analysis of laser ablation plasma allows the real time control of the decontamination. The results obtained for painting or metallic oxides removal from stainless steel surfaces will be presented.

  11. The effect of caffeine on the reactions of the excited singlet state of pyrene in micellar sodium lauryl sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shuichi; Thomas, J. Kerry

    1984-08-01

    The effect of caffeine on a few photo-induced reactions of pyrene in micellar sodium lauryl sulfate (NaLS) has been studied. In these systems caffeine complexes with the pyrene (K asso = 85 ± 10 M -1 and also with the other reactants, e.g. Cu 2+ or TI +. The efficiencies of reactions which involve contact, i.e. pyrene excimer formation, and quenching by TI + ions to give the triplet state of pyrene, are significantly reduced in the presence of caffeine, due to geometric inhibitions formed by the complexation processes. The kinetics of photo-induced electron transfer, e.g. between excited pyrene and Cu 2+, are not affected. However, the subsequent reactions of the products are modified and the yield of ionic products is markedly increased.

  12. Excimer laser technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mace, P.N.

    1980-01-01

    Scaling presently available excimer laser systems to lasers designed to operate at high average power and high pulse repetition rates for long periods of time requires advances in many areas of engineering technology. For economical application to industrial processes, the efficiency must be increased. This leads to more stringent requirements on preionization techniques, energy delivery systems, and system chemistry. Long life operation (> 10 9 to 10 10 pulses) requires development of new pulse power components, optical elements and flow system components. A broad-based program underway at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is addressing these key technology issues, with the help of advanced component and systems development programs in industry. A prototype XeCl laser meeting all requirements for efficiency, system performance and life is scheduled for completion in 1984

  13. Characterization of the excimers of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) using TRANES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Debanjana; Chattopadhyay, Nitin

    2011-01-01

    Time-resolved emission spectra (TRES) and time-resolved area normalized emission spectra (TRANES) are exploited to characterize the excimers of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PNVC) in toluene and water. The time-resolved study together with the steady state measurements, decipher the fluorescence of the system containing pendant carbazole moieties in the polymer backbone unambiguously. Isoemissive point in the TRANES establishes that there are only two excimers of PNVC, the partially overlapped excimer emitting at high energy and the sandwich type excimer emitting at lower energy, and they are formed exclusively in the photoexcited state. The study substantiates an equilibrium between the two excimers. - Graphical Abstract: Highlights: → TRES and TRANES are exploited to decipher the emission of PNVC in toluene and water. → The emission comes from two excimers: partially overlapped and sandwich type. → TRANES shows single isoemissive point establishing presence of two excimers only. → Sandwich excimer is formed from the partially overlapped one in the excited state. → Existence of an equilibrium is established.

  14. Reactions of the hydrated electron with pyrene in lipid bilayer vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnecke, W.; Graetzel, M.; Henglein, A.

    1977-01-01

    Pyrene and some pyrene derivatives were solubilized in bilayer vesicles of lecithin and the rates of lecithin and the rates of reaction with the hydrated electron investigated. The concentration of the vesicles was 1.3 x 10 -7 M, that of pyrene 10 -6 - 10 -4 M. The rate constant decreases with increasing pyrene concentration. The effect is explained by the highly inhomogeneous distribution of pyrene molecules in the solutions. Only those pyrene molicules are reactive that reside close to the outer surface of the vesicles. The anions of pyrene formed disappear in a second order process. It is concluded that the anions are rapidly detached from their vesicular carriers and react with each other in the aqueous phase. Fluorescence, light scattering and electron microscopic investigations were also carried out to obtain information about the properties of the vesicles used. (orig.) [de

  15. Photochemical and Spectroscopic Effects Resulting from Excimer Laser Excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan Xiao

    I. Photochemical production of ozone from pure oxygen using excimer lasers. Production of ozone was observed from experiments when oxygen was under a broadband pulsed KrF laser radiation. The production process was found to be autocatalytic. Mechanisms for the ozone formation were proposed. Experimental results over a range of oxygen pressure and laser pulse energy (irradiance) provided evidences in favor of the proposed mechanisms. Experiments were also numerically modeled. Good agreement between the experimental and the numerical results were observed, which provided further evidence to support the proposed mechanisms. Cross sections for some photochemical processes in the mechanisms were estimated. Production of ozone from pure oxygen under a ArF excimer laser radiation (193 nm) was also studied and numerically modeled. Effects of ambient water vapor on ozone production were investigated. Experimental results showed a fast ozone destruction when water vapor was present in the cell. However, numerical results obtained from the well-known OH and HO _2 chain ozone destruction mechanism predicted a slower ozone destruction. Possible reasons for the discrepancy are discussed. II. Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization of N_2 at 193 and 248 nm detected by N_sp{2}{+} fluorescence. Using a broadband excimer laser operating at 193 and 248 nm multiphoton ionization at high pressures in air and pure nitrogen has been detected by fluorescence from N_sp{2}{+} in the B-X firstnegative system. Measurements of the fluorescence intensity as a function of beam irradiance indicate resonance in N_2 at the energy of two 193 nm photons (2 + 1 REMPI) and three 248 nm photons (3 + 1 REMPI). Possible intermediate states are discussed. III. Excimer laser-induced fluorescence from some organic solvents. Fluorescence was observed from vapor phase benzene, toluene, p-xylene, benzyl chloride, methyl benzoate, acetic anhydride, ether, methanol, ethyl acetone, acetone, and 2-butanone using

  16. Dual partitioning and attachment effects of rhamnolipid on pyrene biodegradation under bioavailability restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congiu, Eleonora; Parsons, John R.; Ortega-Calvo, José-Julio

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of different bioavailability scenarios on the rhamnolipid-enhanced biodegradation of pyrene by the representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degrader Mycobacterium gilvum VM552. This biosurfactant enhanced biodegradation when pyrene was provided in the form of solid crystals; no effect was observed when the same amount of the chemical was preloaded on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). An enhanced effect was observed when pyrene was sorbed into soil but not with the dissolved compound. Synchronous fluorescence spectrophotometry and liquid scintillation were used to determine the phase exchange of pyrene. We also investigated the phase distribution of bacteria. Our results suggest that the rhamnolipid can enhance the biodegradation of pyrene by micellar solubilization and increase diffusive uptake. These mechanisms increase substrate acquisition by bacterial cells at exposure concentrations well above the half-saturation constant for active uptake. The moderate solubilization of pyrene from PDMS by the rhamnolipid and the prevention of cell attachment may explain the lack of enhancement for pyrene-preloaded PDMS. - Highlights: • Rhamnolipid biosurfactant can enhance the biodegradation of pyrene. • The enhancement depends on how the bacteria are exposed to the pollutant. • Rhamnolipid stimulates if pyrene is provided by dissolution from crystals. • No effect is observed if pyrene is provided by partitioning from a silicone polymer. • This lack of effect is due to the balance between enhanced dissolution and decreased cell attachment. - Rhamnolipid-enhanced biodegradation of pyrene may depend on the exposure regime. Moderate solubilization from difficult matrices and prevention of cell attachment may have no effect

  17. The argon excimer laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrobel, W.G.

    1981-02-01

    The electron-beam-pumped argon eximer laser is investigated and tuned for the first time. The electron beam is generated by means of an improved coaxial field emmision diode in which argon gas is excited with power densities of 0.3 GW/cm 3 for 18 ns. The processes in the excited gas of 20 to 65 bar are described in the context of a kinetic model as a sequence of stationary states. Investigations of the amplified spontaneous emission (superfluorescence) confirm the predictions of this model. Only the absorption due to the excited Ar atoms is anomalously high. Reproducible operation of the argon eximer laser was achieved in a wide pressure range with various resonator arrangements. The wavelength of this shortest wavelength of this shortest wavelength excimer laser is 126 nm, the laser line width approx. 1.7 nm, the pulse length 7 to 13 ns, and the laser power 250 kW. The laser emission is tuned from 123.2 nm to 128.4 nm by two different methods (diffraction grating and prism). This tunable laser is thus the one with the shortest wavelength at present. Its line width is 0.25 to 0.4 nm, and the power ue 1.7 kW. (orig.)

  18. Excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Brandon D; Rapuano, Christopher J

    2006-10-01

    Anterior corneal pathology, such as corneal scars and corneal stromal dystrophies, can be visually devastating. Over the past decade, there was a shift in treatment of these conditions from corneal transplantation to phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) using the 193 nm excimer laser for visual restoration. We have reviewed the recent literature on techniques for performing and refining PTK and also on various pathologic conditions that can be treated with PTK. The primary indications for PTK include anterior corneal dystrophies, such as lattice, granular, and Reis-Bückler's dystrophy. PTK can produce significant visual improvement in these patients, and corneal transplantation or retransplantation can be delayed. Corneal degenerations, such as Salzmann's nodular degeneration, keratoconus nodules, and climatic droplet keratopathy, also can be successfully treated with PTK. Additionally, anterior corneal scars from such etiologies as trauma, corneal ulcers, and prior refractive surgery can have visual improvement with PTK. In summary, PTK is a powerful tool for the management of anterior corneal pathology. In a properly selected and well-counseled patient, PTK can significantly improve vision and quality of life.

  19. Excimer UV curing in printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehnert, R.

    1999-01-01

    It is the aim of this study to investigate the potential of 308 run excimer UV curing in web and sheet fed offset printing and to discuss its present status. Using real-time FTIR-ATR and stationary or pulsed monochromatic (313 nm) irradiation chemical and physical factors affecting the curing speed of printing inks such as nature and concentration of photo-initiators, reactivity of the ink binding system, ink thickness and pigmentation, irradiance in the curing plane, oxygen concentration and nitrogen inerting, multiple pulse exposure, the photochemical dark reaction and temperature dependence were studied. The results were used to select optimum conditions for excimer UV curing in respect to ink reactivity, nitrogen inerting and UV exposure and to build an excimer UV curing unit consisting of two 50 W/cm 308 run excimer lamps, power supply, cooling and inerting unit. The excimer UV curing devices were tested under realistic conditions on a web offset press zirkon supra forte and a sheet fed press Heidelberg GTO 52. Maximum curing speeds of 300 m/min in web offset and 8000 sheets per hour in sheet fed offset were obtained

  20. Formation and control of excimer of a coumarin derivative in Langmuir–Blodgett films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Santanu; Bhattacharjee, D.; Hussain, Syed Arshad, E-mail: sa_h153@hotmail.com

    2014-01-15

    In this communication we report the formation and control of excimer of a coumerin derivative 7-Hydroxy-N-Octadecyl Coumarin-3-Carboxamide (7HNO3C) assembled onto Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films. Surface pressure–area per molecule isotherm revealed that 7HNO3C formed stable Langmuir monolayer at the air–water interface. Spectroscoipic characterizations confirmed the formation of excimer of 7HNO3C in the LB film prepared at 20 mN/m surface pressure. The excimer band remains present even when 7HNO3C molecules are diluted with a long chain fatty acid stearic acid in LB films. The excimer formation of 7HNO3C can be controlled by incorporating clay particle laponite in the LB film. The excimer band is totally absent in the hybrid 7HNO3C–laponite LB films. In-situ fluorescence imaging microscopy and atomic force microscopy confirmed the incorporation of clay laponite onto LB films. -- Highlights: • Formation of Langmuir monolayer and Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) film of a coumarin derivative. • Presence of excimeric species in the LB film lifted at 20 mN/m surface pressure is confirmed from the spectroscopic studies. • Control of excimer formation by incorporating clay particle laponite on to the LB film. • In-situ fluorescence imaging microscopy and atomic force microscopy confirmed the incorporation of clay laponite onto LB films.

  1. Absorption and emission spectroscopic characterisation of a pyrene-flavin dyad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirdel, J.; Penzkofer, A.; Prochazka, R.; Shen, Z.; Strauss, J.; Daub, J.

    2007-01-01

    The pyrene-flavin (isoalloxazine) dyad, PFD {C 44 H 31 N 5 O 5 ; CA Index name: 1-pyrenepropanoic acid, α-[[4,10-dihydro-2,4-dioxo-10- phenylbenzo[g]pteridin-3(2H)-yl)acetyl]amino]-, phenylmethyl ester (αR)-(9Cl); CA Registry number: 618907-57-6}, dissolved in either dichloromethane or acetonitrile is characterized by absorption and emission spectroscopy. Absorption cross-section spectra, stimulated emission cross-section spectra, fluorescence quantum distributions, quantum yields, and degrees of fluorescence polarisation are determined. The fluorescence decay after femtosecond pulse excitation is determined by fluorescence up-conversion. The ground-state absorption recovery is determined by picosecond pump and probe transmission measurements. The dye photo-stability is investigated by observation of absorption spectral changes due to prolonged blue-light excitation. The absorption spectrum of PFD dyad resembles the superposition of the absorption of isoalloxazine (flavin) and 1-methylpyrene. Long-wavelength photo-excitation of the flavin moiety causes fluorescence quenching by ground-state electron transfer from pyrene to isoalloxazine. Short-wavelength photo-excitation of the pyrene moiety causes (i) excited-state electron transfer from pyrene to isoalloxazine, and (ii) Foerster-type energy transfer from pyrene to flavin followed by ground-state electron transfer from pyrene to flavin.

  2. Circularly Polarized Luminescence from a Pyrene-Cyclodextrin Supra-Dendron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuening; Yang, Dong; Han, Jianlei; Zhou, Jin; Jin, Qingxian; Liu, Minghua; Duan, Pengfei

    2018-05-22

    Soft nanomaterials with circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) have been currently attracting great interest. Here, we report a pyrene-containing π-peptide dendron hydrogel, which shows 1D and 2D nanostructures with varied CPL activities. It was found that the individual dendrons formed hydrogels in a wide pH range (3-12) and self-assembled into helices with pH-tuned pitches. Through chirality transfer, the pyrene unit could show CPL originated from both the monomer and excimer bands. When cyclodextrin was introduced, different supra-dendrons were obtained with β-cyclodextrin (PGAc@β-CD) and γ-cyclodextrin (PGAc@γ-CD) through host-guest interactions, respectively. Interestingly, the PGAc@β-CD and PGAc@γ-CD supra-dendrons self-assembled into 2D nanosheet and entangled nanofibers, respectively, showing cyclodextrin induced circularly polarized emission from both the monomer and excimer bands of the pyrene moiety. Thus, through a simple host-guest interaction, both the nanostructures and the chiroptical activities could be modulated.

  3. The effect of pyrene labelling on the thermal stability of actin filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halasi, Szulamit; Papp, Gabor; Bugyi, Beata; Barko, Szilvia; Orban, Jozsef; Ujfalusi, Zoltan; Visegrady, Balazs

    2006-01-01

    The ability of actin to form filaments is fundamental to its biological function and often characterised by various methods in vitro. One of the most frequently used methods capitalises on the observation that the fluorescence emission of a pyrene label on the Cys-374 residue of actin is enhanced by a factor of ∼20 during polymerisation. This method inherently involves the chemical modification of actin monomers with pyrene. It was reported earlier that the pyrene labelling of actin monomers has only small effect on the polymerisation and depolymerisation rates of actin, indicating that the method is suitable to characterise the effect of actin-binding proteins or peptides on the polymerisation kinetics. In our present work we tested the effect of the pyrene labelling on the thermal denaturation of actin filaments by using the method of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). By recording the heat denaturation profiles of unlabelled and pyrene labelled actin filaments we observed that pyrene labelling shifted the melting point (T m ) of actin filaments from 66 to 68 deg. C. A similar effect was detected in the presence of equimolar concentration of phalloidin where the T m shifted from 79 to 82 deg. C. We concluded that the observed pyrene labelling induced differences of the thermal denaturation of actin filaments were small. The DSC results, therefore, confirmed that the methods based on the measurements of pyrene intensity during actin polymerisation are suitable to characterise the polymerisation kinetics of actin under in vitro conditions

  4. Studies on the analysis of benzo(a)pyrene and its metabolites in biological samples by using high performance liquid chromatography/fluorescence detection and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won; Hong, Jee Eun; Shin, Hye Seung; Pyo, Hee Soo; Kim, Yun Je

    2003-01-01

    An analytical method the determination of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and its hydroxylated metabolites, 1-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene (1-OHBaP), 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene (3-OHBaP), benzo(a)pyrene-4,5-dihydrodial(4,5-diolBaP) and benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol (7,8-diolBaP), in rat urine and plasma has been developed by HPLC/FLD and GC/MS. The derivatization with alkyl iodide was employed to improve the resolution and the detection of two mono hydroxylated metabolites, 1-OHBaP and 3-OHBaP, in LC and GC. BaP and its four metabolites in spiked urine were successfully separated by gradient elution on reverse phase ODS C 18 column (4.6 mm I.D., 100 mm length, particle size 5μm) using a binary mixture of MeOH/H 2 O (85/15, v/v) as mobile phase after ethylation at 90 .deg. C for 10 min. The extraction recoveries of BaP and its metabolites in spiked samples with liquid-liquid extraction, which was better than solid phase extraction, were in the range of 90.3-101.6% in n-hexane for urine and 95.7-106.3% in acetone for plasma, respectively. The calibration curves has shown good linearity with the correlation coefficients (R 2 ) varying from 0.992 to 1.000 for urine and from 0.996 to 1.000 for plasma, respectively. The detection limits of all analytes were obtained in the range of 0.01-0.1 ng/mL for urine and 0.1-0.4ng/mL for plasma, respectively. The metabolites of BaP were excreted as mono hydroxy and dihydrodiol forms after intraperitoneal infection of 20 mg/kg of BaP to rats. The total amounts of BaP and four metabolites excreted in dosed rat urine were 3.79 ng over the 0 - 96 hr period from administration and the excretional recovery was less than 0.065% of the injection amounts of BaP. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of BaP and its hydroxylated metabolites in rat urine and plasma for the pharmacokinetic studies

  5. Semiconductor processing with excimer lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.T.; Narayan, J.; Christie, W.H.; van der Leeden, G.A.; Rothe, D.E.; Cheng, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    The advantages of pulsed excimer lasers for semiconductor processing are reviewed. Extensive comparisons of the quality of annealing of ion-implanted Si obtained with XeCl and ruby lasers have been made. The results indicate that irrespective of the large differences in the optical properties of Si at uv and visible wavelengths, the efficiency of usage of the incident energy for annealing is comparable for the two lasers. However, because of the excellent optical beam quality, the XeCl laser can provide superior control of the surface melting and the resulting junction depth. Furthermore, the concentrations of electrically active point defects in the XeCl laser annealed region are 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than that obtained from ruby or Nd:YAG lasers. All these results seem to suggest that XeCl lasers should be suitable for fabricating not only solar cells but also the more advanced device structures required for VLSI or VHSIC applications

  6. 308nm Excimer Laser in Dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehraban, Shadi

    2014-01-01

    308nm xenon-chloride excimer laser, a novel mode of phototherapy, is an ultraviolet B radiation system consisting of a noble gas and halide. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the literature and summarize all the experiments, clinical trials and case reports on 308-nm excimer laser in dermatological disorders. 308-nm excimer laser has currently a verified efficacy in treating skin conditions such as vitiligo, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, alopecia areata, allergic rhinitis, folliculitis, granuloma annulare, lichen planus, mycosis fungoides, palmoplantar pustulosis, pityriasis alba, CD30+ lympho proliferative disorder, leukoderma, prurigo nodularis, localized scleroderma and genital lichen sclerosus. Although the 308-nm excimer laser appears to act as a promising treatment modality in dermatology, further large-scale studies should be undertaken in order to fully affirm its safety profile considering the potential risk, however minimal, of malignancy, it may impose. PMID:25606333

  7. Flow cytometric measurement of the metabolism of benzo [a] pyrene by mouse liver cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomew, J.C.; Wade, C.G.; Dougherty, K.

    1984-01-01

    The metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene in individual cells was monitored by flow cytometry. The measurements are based on the alterations that occur in the fluorescence emission spectrum of benzo[a]pyrene when it is converted to various metabolities. Using present instrumentation the technique could easily detect 1 x 10/sup 6/ molecules per cells of benzo [a]pyrene and 1 x 10/sup 7/ molecules per cell of the diol epoxide. The analysis of C3H IOT 1/2 mouse fibroblasts growing in culture indicated that there was heterogeneity in the conversion of the parent compound into diol epoxide derivative suggesting that some variation in sensitivity to transformation by benzo[a]pyrene may be due to differences in cellular metabolism

  8. Excimer laser decomposition of silicone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laude, L.D.; Cochrane, C.; Dicara, Cl.; Dupas-Bruzek, C.; Kolev, K.

    2003-01-01

    Excimer laser irradiation of silicone foils is shown in this work to induce decomposition, ablation and activation of such materials. Thin (100 μm) laminated silicone foils are irradiated at 248 nm as a function of impacting laser fluence and number of pulsed irradiations at 1 s intervals. Above a threshold fluence of 0.7 J/cm 2 , material starts decomposing. At higher fluences, this decomposition develops and gives rise to (i) swelling of the irradiated surface and then (ii) emission of matter (ablation) at a rate that is not proportioned to the number of pulses. Taking into consideration the polymer structure and the foil lamination process, these results help defining the phenomenology of silicone ablation. The polymer decomposition results in two parts: one which is organic and volatile, and another part which is inorganic and remains, forming an ever thickening screen to light penetration as the number of light pulses increases. A mathematical model is developed that accounts successfully for this physical screening effect

  9. 172 nm excimer VUV-triggered photodegradation and micropatterning of aminosilane films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsner, Christian; Naumov, Sergej; Zajadacz, Joachim; Buchmeiser, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Emission from Xe 2 * excimers exhibiting photon energies between 7 and 10 eV can be used to induce strong surface modification effects on polymeric materials in the top 100 nm layer. In order to identify suitable monomers for this VUV-based process, the photodegradation mechanism of different organosilanes of the general structure R-CH 2 -Si(OCH 3 ) 3 was elucidated by quantum chemical calculations. Herein, the photodegradation of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane films by the use of a 172 nm excimer lamp under different irradiation conditions is described and completed by micropatterning experiments. The presence of 1000-5000 ppm oxygen was found to promote the transformation process to an inorganic-like surface. The films obtained were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle measurements and fluorescence microscopy after covalent attachment of a fluorescent dye to the remaining amino groups. Complementary, silver staining was used to visualize photopatterning.

  10. Rapid genotyping using pyrene-perylene locked nucleic acid complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Santhosh T.; Myznikova, Anna; Samokhina, Evgeniya

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an assay for single strand DNA and RNA detection which is based on novel pyrene-perylene FRET pairs attached to short LNA/DNA probes. The assay is based on ratiometric emission upon binding of target DNA/RNA by three combinations of fluorescent LNA/DNA reporter strands. Specific...... geometry of the pyrene fluorophore attached to the 2'-amino group of 2'-amino-LNA in position 4 allows for the first time to efficiently utilize dipole-dipole orientation parameter for sensing of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in nucleic acid targets by FRET. Using novel probes, SNP detection......-perylene FRET pairs, e.g., in imaging and clinical diagnostics....

  11. New polymers containing BF2-benzoylacetonate groups. Synthesis, luminescence, excimer and exciplex formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorenko, Elena V.; Mirochnik, Anatolii G.; Beloliptsev, Anton Yu.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, a new synthetic method for the functionalization of polystyrene (PS) and (styrene-methyl methacrylate) copolymer has been developed. Using the new method, polymers containing BF 2 -benzoylacetonate groups have been obtained through double acylation by acetic anhydride with boron trifluoride. Luminescence of the produced polymers in solutions and films has been studied. Quantum yields of polymer solution luminescence are significantly higher than those of the low-molecular-weight analog – boron difluoride benzoylacetonate. For the polymer, in which styrene fragments are separated by methyl methacrylate groups, at low concentrations of the polymer in solution one observes the monomer luminescence of BF 2 -benzoylacetonate groups, while at high concentrations – the excimer luminescence. In case of PS-based polymers, in which BF 2 -benzoylacetonate groups and phenyl rings are not separated, in diluted solutions one observes the fluorescence of the intramolecular exciplexes, while at the concentration increase – the luminescence of intermolecular exciplexes. The ability of excimer formation is responsible for the increased photostability of the produced polymers. - Highlights: •Polymers containing BF 2 -benzoylacetonate groups have been synthesized. •Luminescence of the produced polymers in solutions and films has been studied. •Formation of excimers and exciplexes in solution has been revealed. •Formation of excimers in films increases their photostability.

  12. New polymers containing BF{sub 2}-benzoylacetonate groups. Synthesis, luminescence, excimer and exciplex formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorenko, Elena V., E-mail: gev@ich.dvo.ru [Institute of Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 159, Prosp. 100 letiya Vladivostoka, Vladivostok 690022 (Russian Federation); Mirochnik, Anatolii G.; Beloliptsev, Anton Yu. [Institute of Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 159, Prosp. 100 letiya Vladivostoka, Vladivostok 690022 (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-15

    In the present study, a new synthetic method for the functionalization of polystyrene (PS) and (styrene-methyl methacrylate) copolymer has been developed. Using the new method, polymers containing BF{sub 2}-benzoylacetonate groups have been obtained through double acylation by acetic anhydride with boron trifluoride. Luminescence of the produced polymers in solutions and films has been studied. Quantum yields of polymer solution luminescence are significantly higher than those of the low-molecular-weight analog – boron difluoride benzoylacetonate. For the polymer, in which styrene fragments are separated by methyl methacrylate groups, at low concentrations of the polymer in solution one observes the monomer luminescence of BF{sub 2}-benzoylacetonate groups, while at high concentrations – the excimer luminescence. In case of PS-based polymers, in which BF{sub 2}-benzoylacetonate groups and phenyl rings are not separated, in diluted solutions one observes the fluorescence of the intramolecular exciplexes, while at the concentration increase – the luminescence of intermolecular exciplexes. The ability of excimer formation is responsible for the increased photostability of the produced polymers. - Highlights: •Polymers containing BF{sub 2}-benzoylacetonate groups have been synthesized. •Luminescence of the produced polymers in solutions and films has been studied. •Formation of excimers and exciplexes in solution has been revealed. •Formation of excimers in films increases their photostability.

  13. Excimer lamp pumped by a triggered discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldacchini, G.; Bollanti, S.; Di Lazzaro, P.; Flora, F.; Giordano, G.; Letardi, T.; Renieri, A.; Schina, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione; Clementi, G.; Muzzi, F.; Zheng, C.E. [EL.EN. (Electronic Engineering), Florence (Italy)

    1996-11-01

    Radiation characteristics and discharge performances of an excimer lamp are described. The discharge of the HCl/Xe gas mixture at an atmospheric pressure, occurring near the quartz tube wall, is initiated by a trigger wire. A maximum total UV energy of about 0.4 J in a (0.8-0.9) {mu}s pulse, radiated from a 10 cm discharge length, is obtained with a total discharge input energy of 8 J. Excimer lamps are the preferred choice for medical and material processing irradiations, when the monochromaticity or coherence of UV light is not required, due to their low cost, reliability and easy maintenance.

  14. Excimer laser corneal surgery and free oxygen radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, K; Bilgihan, A; Akata, F; Hasanreisoğlu, B; Türközkan, N

    1996-01-01

    Corneal photoablation with 193 nm argon fluoride excimer laser is a new technique for the treatment of refractive errors and for removing corneal opacities and irregularities. Ultraviolet radiation and thermal injury induce free radical formation in the tissues. The aim of this study was to confirm the production of free radicals by excimer laser photoablation in rabbits. The thermal changes of the posterior corneal surface were recorded during excimer laser photoablation. The lipid peroxide (LPO) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of aqueous humour were measured after excimer laser keratectomy. The aqueous LPO levels were not changed after excimer laser ablation, but both the thermal increase in the cornea during the photoablation and the decreased aqueous SOD activities suggest that free radicals are formed in the cornea during excimer laser keratectomy, and that they may be responsible for some of the complications of excimer laser corneal surgery.

  15. Conformational studies of the (+)-trans, (-)-trans, (+)-cis, and (-)-cis adducts of anti-benzo[a]pyrene diolepoxide to N2-dG in duplex oligonucleotides using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and low-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suh, Myungkoo; Ariese, Freek; Small, Gerald J.; Jankowiak, Ryszard; Liu, Tong Ming; Geacintov, Nicholas E.

    1995-01-01

    Using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and low-temperature, laser-induced fluorescence line narrowing (FLN) and non-line narrowing (NLN) spectroscopic methods, the conformational characteristics of stereochemically defined and site-specific adducts derived from the binding of

  16. Pyrene degradation by yeasts and filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, M Cristina; Salvioli, Mónica L; Cazau, M Cecilia; Arambarri, A M

    2002-01-01

    The saprotrophic soil fungi Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc., Cylindrocarpon didymum (Hartig) Wollenw, Penicillium variabile Sopp. and the yeasts Rhodotorula glutinis (Fresenius) Harrison and Rhodotorula minuta (Saito) Harrison were cultured in mineral medium with pyrene. The remaining pyrene concentrations were periodically determined during 20 incubation days, using HPLC. To assess the metabolism of pyrene degradation we added 0.1 microCi of [4,5,9,10] 14C-pyrene to each fungi culture and measured the radioactivity in the volatile organic substances, extractable, aqueous phase, biomass and 14CO2 fractions. The assays demonstrated that F. solani and R. glutinis metabolized pyrene as a sole source of carbon. Differences in their activities at the beginning of the cultures disappeared by the end of the experiment, when 32 and 37% of the original pyrene concentration was detected, for the soil fungi and yeasts, respectively. Among the filamentous fungi, F. solani was highly active and oxidized pyrene; moreover, small but significant degradation rates were observed in C. didymum and P. variahile cultures. An increase in the 14CO2 evolution was observed at the 17th day with cosubstrate. R. glutinis and R. minuta cultures showed similar ability to biotransform pyrene, and that 35% of the initial concentration was consumed at the end of the assay. The same results were obtained in the experiments with or without glucose as cosubstrate.

  17. Excimer Laser Curing Of Polymer Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klick, David; Akerman, M. Alfred; Paul, George L.; Supurovic, Darko; Tsuda, Haruki

    1988-12-01

    The use of the excimer laser as a source of energy for photo-assisted curing of industrial polymeric coatings was investigated. Presently, UV lamps are sometimes used to excite a photoinitiating molecule mixed with the starting monomers and oligomers of a coating. The resulting polymeric chain reaction multiplies the effect of the initial photons, making economical use of the light source. The high cost of laser photons may thus be justifiable if lasers provide advantages over lamps. A series of visibly transparent 7 μm coatings (a typical thickness for 'slick' magazine coatings) with various photoinitiators, monomers, and oligomers was illuminated with excimer laser light of various wavelengths, fluences, and pulse repetition rates. For the optimum parameters, it was found that the laser had large advantages in curing speed over existing UV lamp processes, due to its monochromaticity. Pigmented coatings (20 μm TiO2 mixtures typical of appliance or automotive finishes) are not easily cured with UV lamps due to the inability of light to penetrate the absorbing and scattering pigmented layer. However, economically-viable cure rates were achieved with certain photoinitiators using a tunable excimer-pumped dye laser. A prototype of such a laser suitable for factory use was built and used to cure these coatings. Results are scaled to a factory situation, and costs are calculated to show the advantages of the laser method over currently used processes.

  18. Flow cytometric measurement of the metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene by mouse liver cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomew, J.C.; Wade, C.G.; Dougherty, K.K.

    1984-01-01

    The metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene in individual cells was monitored by flow cytometry. The measurements are based on the alterations that occur in the fluorescence emission spectrum of benzo[a]pyrene when it is converted to various metabolites. Using present instrumentation the technique could easily detect 1x10 6 molecules per cells of benzo[a]pyrene and 1x10 7 molecules per cell of the diol epoxide. The analysis of C3H IOT 1/2 mouse fibroblasts growing in culture indicated that there was heterogeneity in the conversion of the parent compound into diol epoxide derivatives suggesting that some variation in sensitivity to transformation by benzo[a]pyrene may be due to differences in cellular metabolism. The technique allows sensitive detection of metabolites in viable cells, and provides a new approach to the study of factors that influence both metabolism and transformation. (orig.)

  19. Luminescence quenching by heavy metal ions of probes based on anthracene, pyrene, and eosin in human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, E. V.; Melnikov, A. G.; Melnikov, G. V.

    2013-05-01

    Fluorescence and phosphorescence quenching processes of polar and non-polar luminescent probes associated with human serum albumin (HSA) in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 were studied. Stern-Volmer quenching constants of anthracene and pyrene fluorescence and eosin phosphorescence and rate constants for quenching of eosin triplet states were determined. The polarity index of pyrene bound to HSA was obtained as a function of thallium nitrate concentration. The influences of structural changes in the proteins that were stimulated by heavy-metal salts and of screening of protein charges by salt ions on quenching processes of singlet and triplet states of the probes were found.

  20. Intramolecular excimer formation of diastereoisomeric model compounds of polystyrene in fluid solution: their local molecular motion and photophysical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itagaki, Hideyuki; Horie, Kazuyuki; Mita, Itaru; Washio, Masakazu; Tagawa, Seiichi; Tabata, Yoneho

    1989-01-01

    The dynamic process of intramolecular excimer formation in diasteroisomeric oligomers model compounds of polystyrene, was investigated by using a picosecond pulse radiolysis technique. Monomer fluorescence of all-racemic isomers decays single-exponentially, while that of other isomers decays dual-exponentially. Multicomponent fluorescence decay curves are supposed to be mainly induced by conformational changes. The results suggest that the excimer in oligostyrenes (or polystyrene) is formed mainly in meso diad. It is definitely proved that there exists singlet energy migration in styrene trimer and tetramer systems. The conformational change in PS3 and PS4 is concluded to occur by way of cooperative motions in backbone chains bond such as a crankshaft transition, not by way of independent rotation around each carbon-carbon bond of the backbone chain. (author)

  1. Bioremediating silty soil contaminated by phenanthrene, pyrene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    benzo(a)pyrene using Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp.: Biosurfactant/Beta vulgaris ... potential human mutagens and carcinogens (Grimmer,. 1983). Chemical and ...... of naphthalene on zeolite from aqueous solution. J. Colloid Interf. Sci.

  2. The modifier effects of chymotrypsin and trypsin enzymes on fluorescence lifetime distribution of "N-(1-pyrenyl)maleimide-bovine serum albumin" complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyiğit, İbrahim Ethem; Karakuş, Emine; Pekcan, Önder

    2016-02-05

    Chymotrypsin and trypsin are the well known proteolytic enzymes, both of which are synthesized in the pancreas as their precursors - the inactive forms; chymotrypsinogen and trypsinogen - and then are released into the duodenum to cut proteins into smaller peptides. In this paper, the effects of activities of chymotrypsin and trypsin enzymes on fluorescence lifetime distributions of the substrat bovine serum albumin (BSA) modified with N-(1-pyrenyl)maleimide (PM) were examined. In the labeling study of BSA with PM, it is aimed to attach PM to the single free thiol (Cys34) and to all the free amine groups in accessible positions in order to produce excimers of pyrene planes of the possible highest amount to form the lifetime distributions in the widest range, that may show specifically distinguishing changes resulting from the activities of the proteases. The time resolved spectrofluorometer was used to monitor fluorescence decays, which were analyzed by using the exponential series method (ESM) to obtain the changes of lifetime distributions. After the exposure of the synthesized substrat PM-BSA to the enzymes, the fluorescence lifetime distributions exhibited different structures which were attributed to the different activities of the proteases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The modifier effects of chymotrypsin and trypsin enzymes on fluorescence lifetime distribution of "N-(1-pyrenyl)maleimide-bovine serum albumin" complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyiğit, İbrahim Ethem; Karakuş, Emine; Pekcan, Önder

    2016-02-01

    Chymotrypsin and trypsin are the well known proteolytic enzymes, both of which are synthesized in the pancreas as their precursors - the inactive forms; chymotrypsinogen and trypsinogen - and then are released into the duodenum to cut proteins into smaller peptides. In this paper, the effects of activities of chymotrypsin and trypsin enzymes on fluorescence lifetime distributions of the substrat bovine serum albumin (BSA) modified with N-(1-pyrenyl)maleimide (PM) were examined. In the labeling study of BSA with PM, it is aimed to attach PM to the single free thiol (Cys34) and to all the free amine groups in accessible positions in order to produce excimers of pyrene planes of the possible highest amount to form the lifetime distributions in the widest range, that may show specifically distinguishing changes resulting from the activities of the proteases. The time resolved spectrofluorometer was used to monitor fluorescence decays, which were analyzed by using the exponential series method (ESM) to obtain the changes of lifetime distributions. After the exposure of the synthesized substrat PM-BSA to the enzymes, the fluorescence lifetime distributions exhibited different structures which were attributed to the different activities of the proteases.

  4. Excimer laser irradiation of metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, Grant

    In this work a new method of enhancing CO2 laser processing by modifying the radiative properties of a metal surface is studied. In this procedure, an excimer laser (XeCl) or KrF) exposes the metal surface to overlapping pulses of high intensity, 10(exp 8) - 10(exp 9) W cm(exp -2), and short pulse duration, 30 nsec FWHM (Full Width Half Maximum), to promote structural and chemical change. The major processing effect at these intensities is the production of a surface plasma which can lead to the formation of a laser supported detonation wave (LSD wave). This shock wave can interact with the thin molten layer on the metal surface influencing to a varying degree surface oxidation and roughness features. The possibility of the expulsion, oxidation and redeposition of molten droplets, leading to the formation of micron thick oxide layers, is related to bulk metal properties and the incident laser intensity. A correlation is found between the expulsion of molten droplets and a Reynolds number, showing the interaction is turbulent. The permanent effects of these interactions on metal surfaces are observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transient calorimetric measurements and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Observed surface textures are related to the scanning procedures used to irradiate the metal surface. Fundamental radiative properties of a metal surface, the total hemispherical emissivity, the near-normal spectral absorptivity, and others are examined in this study as they are affected by excimer laser radiation. It is determined that for heavily exposed Al surface, alpha' (10.6 microns) can be increased to values close to unity. Data relating to material removal rates and chemical surface modification for excimer laser radiation is also discussed. The resultant reduction in the near-normal reflectivity solves the fundamental problem of coupling laser radiation into highly reflective and conductive metals such as copper and aluminum. The

  5. Prototype of an excimer laser for microprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanejko, Leszek; Pokora, Ludwik J.; Wolinski, Wieslaw L.

    1991-08-01

    The paper presents a brief description of a prototype of a XeC1 excimer laser for micraprocessing of materials. The planned main parameters of the laserare as follows: wavelength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 nm -''energyofapulse. . . . . . . . . . . . . lOOmJ -pulseduration (FWHM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Ons repetition frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1O Hz peak power of a pulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 MW With respect to currently carrried works with the prototype we show only preliminary results of testing of a laser head. The obtained maximum laser pulse energy exceeded 90 ml. However it should be pointed out that this value was obtained without any opt i mi z at i on of the 1 aser.

  6. Selective binding of pyrene in subdomain IB of human serum albumin: Combining energy transfer spectroscopy and molecular modelling to understand protein binding flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Irene; Taha, Mohamed; Al-Sharji, Nada A.; Abou-Zied, Osama K.

    2018-04-01

    The ability of human serum albumin (HSA) to bind medium-sized hydrophobic molecules is important for the distribution, metabolism, and efficacy of many drugs. Herein, the interaction between pyrene, a hydrophobic fluorescent probe, and HSA was thoroughly investigated using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques, ligand docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. A slight quenching of the fluorescence signal from Trp214 (the sole tryptophan residue in the protein) in the presence of pyrene was used to determine the ligand binding site in the protein, using Förster's resonance energy transfer (FRET) theory. The estimated FRET apparent distance between pyrene and Trp214 was 27 Å, which was closely reproduced by the docking analysis (29 Å) and MD simulation (32 Å). The highest affinity site for pyrene was found to be in subdomain IB from the docking results. The calculated equilibrium structure of the complex using MD simulation shows that the ligand is largely stabilized by hydrophobic interaction with Phe165, Phe127, and the nonpolar moieties of Tyr138 and Tyr161. The fluorescence vibronic peak ratio I1/I3 of bound pyrene inside HSA indicates the presence of polar effect in the local environment of pyrene which is less than that of free pyrene in buffer. This was clarified by the MD simulation results in which an average of 5.7 water molecules were found within 0.5 nm of pyrene in the binding site. Comparing the fluorescence signals and lifetimes of pyrene inside HSA to that free in buffer, the high tendency of pyrene to form dimer was almost completely suppressed inside HSA, indicating a high selectivity of the binding pocket toward pyrene monomer. The current results emphasize the ability of HSA, as a major carrier of several drugs and ligands in blood, to bind hydrophobic molecules in cavities other than subdomain IIA which is known to bind most hydrophobic drugs. This ability stems from the nature of the amino acids forming the binding

  7. Pyrene based D-π-A architectures: synthesis, density functional theory, photophysics and electron transfer dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathiravan, Arunkumar; Srinivasan, Venkatesan; Khamrang, Themmila; Velusamy, Marappan; Jaccob, Madhavan; Pavithra, Nagaraj; Anandan, Sambandam; Velappan, Kandavelu

    2017-01-25

    Pyrene derivatives show immense potential as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Therefore, this work focuses on the impact of π-spacers on the photophysical, electrochemical and photovoltaic properties of pyrene based D-π-A dyes, since the insertion of π-spacers is one of the doable strategies to improve the light harvesting properties of the dye. In this respect, three new pyrene based D-π-A dyes have been synthesized and characterized by 1 H, 13 C NMR, and elemental analyses and EI-MS spectrometry. The selected π-spacers are benzene, thiophene and furan. Compared with a benzene spacer, the introduction of a heterocyclic ring spacer reduces the band gap of the dye and brings about the broadening of the absorption spectra to the longer wavelength region through intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT). Combined experimental and theoretical studies were performed to investigate the ICT process involved in the pyrene derivatives. The profound solvatochromism with increased nonradiative rate constants (k nr ) has been construed in terms of ICT from the pyrene core to rhodanine-3-acetic acid via conjugated π-spacers. Electrochemical data also reveal that the HOMO and LUMO energy levels are fine-tuned by incorporating different π-spacers between pyrene and rhodanine-3-acetic acid. On the basis of the optimized DSC test conditions, the best performance was found for PBRA, in which a benzene group is the conjugated π-spacer. The divergence in the photovoltaic behaviors of these dyes was further explicated by femtosecond fluorescence and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  8. Branched DNA nanostructures efficiently stabilised and monitored by novel pyrene-perylene 2'-α-l-amino-LNA FRET pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astakhova, I Kira; Santhosh Kumar, T; Campbell, Meghan A

    2013-01-01

    Novel pyrene-perylene α-l-LNA FRET pairs described herein effectively detect assembly of 2- and 3-way branched DNA nanostructures prepared by postsynthetic microwave-assisted CuAAC click chemistry. The fluorescent signalling of assembly by internally positioned FRET pairs is achieved with low...

  9. Pyrene absorption can be a convenient method for probing critical micellar concentration (cmc) and indexing micellar polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu Ray, Gargi; Chakraborty, Indranil; Moulik, Satya P

    2006-02-01

    The critical micellar concentration (cmc) of both ionic and non-ionic surfactants can be conveniently determined from the measurements of UV absorption of pyrene in surfactant solution. The results on a number of surfactants have agreed with that realized from pyrene fluorescence measurements as well as that obtained following conductometric, tensiometric and calorimetric methods. The absorbance vs [surfactant] profiles for all the major UV spectral peaks of pyrene have been found to be sigmoidal in nature which were analyzed according to Sigmoidal-Boltzmann equation (SBE) to evaluate the cmcs of the studied surfactants. The difference between the initial and the final asymptotes (a(i) and a(f), respectively) of the sigmoidal profile, Delta a = (a(f)-a(i)) and the slope of the sigmoid, S(sig) have been observed to depend on the type of the surfactant. The Delta a has shown a linear correlation with the ratio of the fluorescence intensities of the first and the third vibronic peaks, I1/I3 of pyrene which is considered as a measure of the environmental polarity (herein micellar interior) of the probe (pyrene). Thus, Delta a values have the prospect for use as another index for the estimation of polarity of micellar interior.

  10. Matrix metalloproteinase expression in excimer laser wounded rabbit corneas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Taewon; Chamon, Wallace; Akova, Yonja; Stark, Walter J.; Stetler-Stevenson, William G.; Azar, Dimitri T.

    1994-06-01

    This study was performed to obtain information about matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression in excimer-wounded corneas and to determine whether MMPs expression correlates with the depth of the ablation. 6-mm excimer keratectomy (60 or 180 micrometers ) was performed using the 193-mm ArF excimer laser on 12 NZW rabbits. Corneas treated with mechanical epithelial debridement and untreated corneas served as controls. Rabbits were killed at 20 and 30 hr after laser ablation. Zymography after SDS extraction was performed on regenerated central epithelium and the central stroma to determine MMPs expression. We observed enzymatic activity of a 92 KDa band in the epithelium of excimer-ablated corneas but not in that following debridement wounds and untreated controls. The expression of the 92 KDa MMP was most pronounced with the deeper excimer ablation. A 72 KDa band of enzymatic activity present in the stroma of all treated and control eyes was also seen in the epithelium of excimer-ablated corneas. These proteolytic enzymes may play an important role in wound healing and remodelling after excimer keratectomy.

  11. Effects of Intermolecular Coupling on Excimer Formation and Singlet Fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauck, Catherine McKay

    The development of organic photovoltaic devices benefits from understanding the fundamental processes underlying charge generation in thin films of organic semiconductors. This dissertation exploits model systems of pi-stacked chromophores such as perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) (PDI) and 3,6-bis(aryl)diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) to study these processes using ultrafast electronic and vibrational spectroscopy. In particular, the characterization of covalent molecular dimers, thin films, and solution aggregates can reveal how supramolecular order affects photophysical properties. PDI and DPP are organic semiconductors that have been widely studied in organic photovoltaics, due to their strong visible absorption and excellent chemical stability. As solution-phase monomers, they are highly fluorescent, but in the thin film environment of photovoltaic devices these planar aromatic molecules couple to one another, stacking largely through pi-pi interactions. In self-assembled stacks of PDI, strong interchromophore coupling may disrupt charge separation through the formation of excimer states, preventing the generation of free carriers. By studying molecular dimers of PDI with different pi-stacked geometry, femtosecond visible pump mid-infrared probe spectroscopy allows direct observation of the structural dynamics associated with excimer state relaxation, showing that this low-energy state is primarily coupled to the core modes that shift as planarization and rotation lead to the most stable excimer geometry. PDI is also able to undergo singlet fission in thin films and aggregates. Singlet fission is the process in which a singlet excited state is downconverted into two triplet excitons, when the energy of its first singlet excited state is at least twice the energy of the lowest triplet state in an appropriately coupled molecular system. This spin-allowed, ultrafast process enables a theoretical yield of two charge carriers per incident photon, making it a

  12. A fluorescent probe for ecstasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masseroni, D; Biavardi, E; Genovese, D; Rampazzo, E; Prodi, L; Dalcanale, E

    2015-08-18

    A nanostructure formed by the insertion in silica nanoparticles of a pyrene-derivatized cavitand, which is able to specifically recognize ecstasy in water, is presented. The absence of effects from interferents and an efficient electron transfer process occurring after complexation of ecstasy, makes this system an efficient fluorescent probe for this popular drug.

  13. Exciplex and excimer molecular probes: detection of conformational flip in a myo-inositol chair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadirvel, Manikandan; Arsic, Biljana; Freeman, Sally; Bichenkova, Elena V

    2008-06-07

    2-O-tert-Butyldimethylsilyl-4,6-bis-O-pyrenoyl-myo-inositol-1,3,5-orthoformate (6) and 2-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-4-O-[4-(dimethylamino)benzoyl]-6-O-pyrenoyl-myo-inositol-1,3,5-orthoacetate (10) adopt conformationally restricted unstable chairs with five axial substituents. In the symmetrical diester 6, the two pi-stacked pyrenoyl groups are electron acceptor-donor partners, giving a strong intramolecular excimer emission. In the mixed ester 10, the pyrenoyl group is the electron acceptor and the 4-(dimethylamino)benzoyl ester is the electron donor, giving a strong intramolecular exciplex emission. The conformation of the mixed ester 10 was assessed using 1H NMR spectroscopy (1H-NOESY) and computational studies. which showed the minimum inter-centroid distance between the two aromatic systems to be approximately 3.9 A. Upon addition of acid, the orthoformate/orthoacetate trigger in 6 and 10 was cleaved, which caused a switch of the conformation of the myo-inositol ring to the more stable penta-equatorial chair, leading to separation of the aromatic ester groups and loss of excimer and exciplex fluorescence, respectively. This study provides proof of principle for the development of novel fluorescent molecular probes.

  14. Bacillus subtilis is a Potential Degrader of Pyrene and Benzo[a]pyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynette Ekunwe

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs are a group of compounds that pose many health threats to human and animal life. They occur in nature as a result of incomplete combustion of organic matter, as well as from many anthropogenic sources including cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust. PAHs have been reported to cause liver damage, red blood cell damage and a variety of cancers. Because of this, methods to reduce the amount of PAHs in the environment are continuously being sought. The purpose of this study was to find soil bacteria capable of degrading high molecular weight PAHs, such as pyrene (Pyr and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP, which contain more than three benzene rings and so persist in the environment. Bacillus subtilis, identified by fatty acid methyl ester (FAME analysis, was isolated from PAH contaminated soil. Because it grew in the presence of 33μg/ml each of pyrene, 1-AP and 1-HP, its biodegradation capabilities were assessed. It was found that after a four-day incubation period at 30oC in 20μg/ml pyrene or benzo[a]pyrene, B. subtilis was able to transform approximately 40% and 50% pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively. This is the first report implicating B. subtilis in PAH degradation. Whether or not the intermediates resulting from the transformation are more toxic than their parent compounds, and whether B. subtilis is capable of mineralizing pyrene or benzo[a]pyrene to carbon dioxide and water, remains to be evaluated.

  15. Krypton excimer laser oscillation by discharge pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Takahiro; Tabe, Yoshitaka; Kubodera, Shoichi; Sasaki, Wataru; Kawanaka, Junji

    2001-01-01

    We have demonstrated vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser oscillation of the krypton excimer (Kr 2 *) excited by a compact self-sustained discharge device. We have observed a spectral narrowing of the Kr 2 * emission centered at 147.8 nm. A deconvoluted spectral width is 0.5 nm (FWHM), which reveals a contrast to a 13 nm spectral width of the spontaneous emission. The Kr 2 * intensity has increased one order of magnitude when a charging voltage was increased larger than 29 kV. The success of the lasing in the VUV spectral region has been attributed to the success of a stable glow discharge of Kr at 10 atm. The pulse width of the VUV laser radiation is 400 ns (FWHM). The maximum output energy measured is as large as 150 μJ. (author)

  16. Surface processing by high power excimer laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehle, M [SOPRA, 92 - Bois-Colombes (France)

    1995-03-01

    Surface processing with lasers is a promising field of research and applications because lasers bring substantial advantages : laser beams work at distance, laser treatments are clean in respect of environment consideration and they offer innovative capabilities for surface treatment which cannot be reached by other way. Excimer lasers are pulsed, gaseous lasers which emit in UV spectral range - the most common are XeCl (308 nm), KrF (248 nm), ArF (193 nm). From 1980 up to 1994, many of them have been used for research, medical and industrial applications such as spectroscopy, PRK (photo-refractive keratotomy) and micro-machining. In the last six years, from 1987 up to 1993, efforts have been done in order to jump from 100 W average power up to 1 kW for XeCl laser at {lambda} = 308 nm. It was the aim of AMMTRA project in Japan as EU205 and EU213 Eureka projects in Europe. In this framework, SOPRA developed VEL (Very large Excimer Laser). In 1992, 1 kW (10 J x 100 Hz) millstone has been reached for the first time, this technology is based on X-Ray preionization and large laser medium (5 liters). Surface treatments based on this laser source are the main purpose of VEL Lasers. Some of them are given for instance : (a) Turbine blades made with metallic substrate and ceramic coatings on the top, are glazed in order to increase corrosion resistance of ceramic and metal sandwich. (b) Selective ablation of organic coatings deposited on fragile composite material is investigated in Aerospace industry. (c) Chock hardening of bulk metallic materials or alloys are investigated for automotive industry in order to increase wear resistance. (d) Ablation of thin surface oxides of polluted steels are under investigation in nuclear industry for decontamination. (J.P.N.).

  17. Surface processing by high power excimer laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehle, M.

    1995-01-01

    Surface processing with lasers is a promising field of research and applications because lasers bring substantial advantages : laser beams work at distance, laser treatments are clean in respect of environment consideration and they offer innovative capabilities for surface treatment which cannot be reached by other way. Excimer lasers are pulsed, gaseous lasers which emit in UV spectral range - the most common are XeCl (308 nm), KrF (248 nm), ArF (193 nm). From 1980 up to 1994, many of them have been used for research, medical and industrial applications such as spectroscopy, PRK (photo-refractive keratotomy) and micro-machining. In the last six years, from 1987 up to 1993, efforts have been done in order to jump from 100 W average power up to 1 kW for XeCl laser at λ = 308 nm. It was the aim of AMMTRA project in Japan as EU205 and EU213 Eureka projects in Europe. In this framework, SOPRA developed VEL (Very large Excimer Laser). In 1992, 1 kW (10 J x 100 Hz) millstone has been reached for the first time, this technology is based on X-Ray preionization and large laser medium (5 liters). Surface treatments based on this laser source are the main purpose of VEL Lasers. Some of them are given for instance : a) Turbine blades made with metallic substrate and ceramic coatings on the top, are glazed in order to increase corrosion resistance of ceramic and metal sandwich. b) Selective ablation of organic coatings deposited on fragile composite material is investigated in Aerospace industry. c) Chock hardening of bulk metallic materials or alloys are investigated for automotive industry in order to increase wear resistance. d) Ablation of thin surface oxides of polluted steels are under investigation in nuclear industry for decontamination. (J.P.N.)

  18. [Glycosaminoglycans in subepithelial opacity after excimer laser keratectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayasu, K; Gotoh, T; Ishikawa, T; Kanai, A

    1996-05-01

    We evaluated histochemically the characteristics of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in the corneal subepithelial opacity after excimer laser keratectomy on rabbit corneas. We also performed the same evaluations on the cornea after mechanical keratectomy. Twenty days after the operations, the area immediately subjacent to the epithelium showed strong staining with toluidine blue, alcian blue, and colloidal iron. However, after treatment with chondroitinase ABC or chondroitinase AC, alcian blue staining in this area decreased dramatically. Antilarge proteoglycan antibody also reacted strongly in this area. Histochemical and immunohistochemical examination of the cornea where mechanical keratectomy was done showed basically similar findings with the cornea of excimer laser keratectomy. These results suggest that large-molecula proteoglycans with chondroitine sulfate side chains become localized in the subepithelial area after two different kinds of keratectomies. We presume from histochemical and immunohistochemical observations that the subepithelial opacity observed after excimer laser keratectomy is not a special reaction to excimer laser but simply a corneal scar formed after stromal resection.

  19. Excimer laser: a module of the alopecia areata common protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Amy J

    2013-12-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune condition characterized by T cell-mediated attack of the hair follicle. The inciting antigenic stimulus is unknown. A dense perbulbar lymphocytic infiltrate and reproducible immunologic abnormalities are hallmark features of the condition. The cellular infiltrate primarily consists of activated T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting Langerhans cells. The xenon chloride excimer laser emits its total energy at the wavelength of 308 nm and therefore is regarded as a "super-narrowband" UVB light source. Excimer laser treatment is highly effective in psoriasis, another T cell-mediated disorder that shares many immunologic features with AA. The excimer laser is superior in inducing T cell apoptosis in vitro compared with narrowband UVB, with paralleled improved clinical efficacy. The excimer laser has been used successfully in patients with AA. In this context, evaluation of the potential benefit of 308-nm excimer laser therapy in the treatment of AA is clinically warranted. Herein, the use of a common treatment protocol with a specifically designed module to study the outcome of excimer laser treatment on moderate-to-severe scalp AA in adults is described.

  20. Preparation of 1-pyrenebutyric acid and pyrene submicron dots by laser-induced molecular micro-jet implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pihosh, Y.; Goto, M.; Kasahara, A.; Tosa, M.

    2009-01-01

    Pyrene and 1-pyrenebuturic acid molecules were deposited on glass and copper substrates with the formation of submicron dots by laser-induced molecular micro-jet implantation through polar and non-polar liquid layers. The size of the smallest 1-pyrenebuturic acid molecules dots prepared on a glass substrate by implantation through water and diiodomethane was estimated to be about 400 nm and 300 nm at laser fluences of 235 J/cm 2 and 326 J/cm 2 , respectively. The fluorescence and the Raman spectra showed that the implanted 1-pyrenebutyric acid molecules did not decompose during the implantation process. The smallest size of a pyrene dot was 700 nm at the laser fluence of 378 J/cm 2 . However, the pyrene dots could be formed only by implantation through a water layer.

  1. Bioremediating silty soil contaminated by phenanthrene, pyrene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... followed in the order of their increasing molecular weight. The synergy of the bacterial isolates and the biosurfactant produced from B. vulgaris agrowaste could be used in environmental bioremediation of PAHs even in silty soil. Keywords: Benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, bioremediation, biosurfactant, Beta vulgaris, ...

  2. Sublethal toxicity and biotransformation of pyrene in Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeenpaeae, K.; Leppaenen, M.T.; Kukkonen, J.V.K.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the toxicity and biotransformation of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pyrene in the oligochaete aquatic worm, Lumbriculus variegatus. PAHs are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that pose a hazard to aquatic organisms, and metabolizing capability is poorly known in the case of many invertebrate species. To study the toxicity and biotransformation of pyrene, the worm was exposed for 15 days to various concentrations of water-borne pyrene. The dorsal blood vessel pulse rate was used as a sublethal endpoint. Pyrene biotransformation by L. variegatus was studied and the critical body residues (CBR) were estimated for pyrene toxicity. The toxicokinetics of pyrene uptake was evaluated. A combination of radiolabeled ( 14 C) and nonlabeled pyrene was used in the exposures, and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) and high-pressure liquid chromatography were employed in both water and tissue residue analyses. The results showed that L. variegatus was moderately able to metabolize pyrene to 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), thus demonstrating that the phase-I-like oxidizing enzyme system metabolizes pyrene in L. variegatus. The amount of the 1-HP was 1-2% of the amount of pyrene in the worm tissues. The exposure to pyrene reduced the blood vessel pulse rate significantly (p < 0.05), showing that pyrene had a narcotic effect. The estimated CBRs remained constant during the exposure time, varying from 0.120 to 0.174 mmol pyrene/kg worm wet weight. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) decreased as exposure concentration increased. It was suggested that the increased toxicity of pyrene accounted for the decrease in BCFs by lowering the activity of the organism

  3. The Excimer Laser: Its Impact on Science and Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basting, Dirk

    2010-03-01

    After the laser was demonstrated in 1960, 15 years were required to develop a practical method for extending laser emission into the UV: the Excimer laser. This historical review will describe the challenges with the new medium and provide an insight into the technological achievements. In the transition from Science to Industry it will be shown how start-ups successfully commercialized laboratory prototypes. The pioneers in this rapidly expanding field will be identified and the influence of government-funded research as well as the role of venture capital will be discussed. In scientific applications, the fields of photochemistry and material research were particularly stimulated by the advent of a reliable UV light source. Numerous industrial applications and worldwide research in novel applications were fueled In the early and mid 80's by progress in excimer laser performance and technology. The discovery of ablative photocomposition of polymer materials by Srinivasan at IBM opened the door to a multitude of important excimer applications. Micromachining with extreme precision with an excimer laser enabled the success of the inkjet printer business. Biological materials such as the human cornea can also be ``machined'' at 193nm, as proposed in 1983 by Trokel and Srinivasan. This provided the foundation of a new medical technology and an industry relying on the excimer laser to perform refractive surgery to correct vision Today, by far the largest use of the excimer laser is in photolithography to manufacture semiconductor chips, an application discovered by Jain at IBM in the early 80's. Moore's law of shrinking the size of the structure to multiply the number of transistors on a chip could not have held true for so long without the deep UV excimer laser as a light source. The presentation will conclude with comments on the most recent applications and latest market trends.

  4. Charge-transfer interaction mediated organogels from 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid appended pyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe herein the two-component charge-transfer (CT interaction induced organogel formation with 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid appended pyrene (GA-pyrene, 3 as the donor, and 2,4,7-trinitrofluorenone (TNF, 4 as the acceptor. The use of TNF (4 as a versatile electron acceptor in the formation of CT gels is demonstrated through the formation of gels in a variety of solvents. Thermal stability, stoichiometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, optical micrographs, and circular dichroism (CD are performed on these CT gels to investigate their thermal and assembly properties. UV–vis, fluorescence, mass spectrometric as well as variable-temperature 1H NMR experiments on these gels suggest that the CT interaction is one of the major driving forces for the formation of these organogels.

  5. Synthesis, crystal structure and aggregation-induced emission of a new pyrene-based compound, 3,3-diphenyl-2-[4-(pyren-1-ylphenyl]acrylonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Xi Miao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The title organic compound, C37H23N, crystallizing in the triclinic space group P\\overline{1}, has been designed, synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffaction, MS, NMR and elemental analysis. There are alternating relatively strong and weak intermolecular π–π interactions between adjacent pyrene ring systems, forming a one-dimensional supramolecular structure. The compound is weakly fluorescent in THF solution, but it is highly emissive in the condensed phase, revealing distinct aggregation-induced emission (AIE characteristics.

  6. Latest result of PRK with excimer laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Shinseiro; Okamoto, Michika

    1996-05-01

    We have in the last two years, performed PRK operation on over 300 human myopic eyes using ArF excimer laser with a Summit 'Omnimed' machine. For the initial 53 myopic eyes we treated, results were very good for those with correction less than minus 6 diopters. However, as previously reported, we also witnessed some regression for those eyes exceeding correction of more than minus 6 diopters. To counter such ill results of PRK we devised and suggested many new procedures for PRK with very good results. One such invention is the 'Okamoto-type' cooling machine for the cornea which reduces and stabilizes cornea temperature at 0 degrees Celsius while simultaneously bathing the cornea with special cooling fluid. After the operation, EGF, fibronectin and hexapeptide were administered using eyedrops. Soft contact lenses were used to protect the cornea, improve delivery of medication to the operated area, prevent infection and inflammation and also promote uniform and faster ephiterium regrowth. We were able to document very good post-operative results using this method, thereby giving us strong assurance that we have reached a significant milestone in PRK operation. Our report today covers post operative results of the 52 eyes we operated on and tracked for more than one year.

  7. Excimer PRK testing in the clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Gary T.

    1994-06-01

    Testing of the excimer lasers used in PRK requires special considerations in terms of ease of use, day-to-day reliability, and high resolution to see details of beam interference effects. SensorPhysics employs a patented photochromic material on a polyester substrate to record permanent, instant records of the laser and laser system output. Since each SensorCard is used only once concerns about detection device deterioration are not an issue. The SensorCards have a demonstrated resolving power on the order of 0.1 micrometers . A small, portable reading device is used to convert the SensorCard optical density to a mJ/cm2 value. Special software also measures beam uniformity to +/- 1% to provide both qualitative and quantitative analysis. Results of use in clinic environments will be presented. In particular detection of exposure `islands' will be demonstrated. The techniques employed are similar to those we developed for UV laser micromachining and lithography four years ago.

  8. Excimer laser surface modification: Process and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jervis, T.R.; Nastasi, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hirvonen, J.P. [Technical Research Institute, Espoo (Finland). Metallurgy Lab.

    1992-12-01

    Surface modification can improve materials for structural, tribological, and corrosion applications. Excimer laser light has been shown to provide a rapid means of modifying surfaces through heat treating, surface zone refining, and mixing. Laser pulses at modest power levels can easily melt the surfaces of many materials. Mixing within the molten layer or with the gas ambient may occur, if thermodynamically allowed, followed by rapid solidification. The high temperatures allow the system to overcome kinetic barriers found in some ion mixing experiments. Alternatively, surface zone refinement may result from repeated melting-solidification cycles. Ultraviolet laser light couples energy efficiently to the surface of metallic and ceramic materials. The nature of the modification that follows depends on the properties of the surface and substrate materials. Alloying from both gas and predeposited layer sources has been observed in metals, semiconductors, and ceramics as has surface enrichment of Cr by zone refinement of stainless steel. Rapid solidification after melting often results in the formation of nonequilibrium phases, including amorphous materials. Improved surface properties, including tribology and corrosion resistance, are observed in these materials.

  9. Complexation (cucurbit[6]uril-pyrene): Thermodynamic and spectroscopic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sueldo Occello, Valeria N.; Rossi, Rita H. de; Veglia, Alicia V., E-mail: aveglia@fcq.unc.edu.ar

    2015-02-15

    The influence of the macrocyclic compound cucurbit[6]uril (CB6) on the photophysical properties of the fluorophore pyrene (PYR) has been studied. Guest–host interaction was observed by UV–visible spectroscopy and spectrofluorimetry. The fluorescence of PYR was significantly increased in the presence of CB6. The binding equilibrium constants for the complex with 1:1 stoichiometry were determined in HCOOH 55% w/v. The values of the association constants, K{sub A}, and the fluorescence quantum yield ratios between complexed and free substrate, ϕ{sup PYR–CB6}/ϕ{sup PYR}, at different temperatures were (3.1±0.9)×10{sup 2} M{sup −1} and (5.1±0.2), (3.6±0.5)×10{sup 2} M{sup −1} and (5.9±0.1), (4.8±0.7)×10{sup 2} M{sup −1} and (5.5±0.1) at 15.0 °C, 25.0 °C and 40.0 °C, respectively. The enthalpic and entropic contributions to the complexation process were determined, yielding ΔS=(92±3) J mol{sup −1} K{sup −1} and ΔH=(13±1) kJ mol{sup −1}. From these results it can be concluded that the complex formation is mainly driven by the entropic term. The forces involved in the complexation are interpreted from the sign and magnitude of the thermodynamic parameters obtained. The partial inclusion of PYR or the formation of a suspended complex is proposed in base of all the data. The interaction is also demonstrated in the solid state by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) measurements. - Highlights: • The cucurbit[6]uril (CB6) effects on the absorption and fluorescence of pyrene (PYR) were analyzed. • The association constant (K{sub A}) and the stoichiometry of the complex were determined. • The complex formation was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). • The thermodynamic parameters were determined. • The hydrophobic entropic contribution is the main driving force for the PYR–CB6 complex formation.

  10. Cationic Organochalcogen with Monomer/Excimer Emissions for Dual-Color Live Cell Imaging and Cell Damage Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Xi-Juan; Wang, Kang-Nan; Sun, Li-Li; Cao, Qian; Ke, Zhuo-Feng; Cao, Du-Xia; Mao, Zong-Wan

    2018-04-25

    Studies on the development of fluorescent organic molecules with different emission colors for imaging of organelles and their biomedical application are gaining lots of focus recently. Here, we report two cationic organochalcogens 1 and 2, both of which exhibit very weak green emission (Φ 1 = 0.12%; Φ 2 = 0.09%) in dilute solution as monomers, but remarkably enhanced green emission upon interaction with nucleic acids and large red-shifted emission in aggregate state by the formation of excimers at high concentration. More interestingly, the monomer emission and excimer-like emission can be used for dual color imaging of different organelles. Upon passively diffusing into cells, both probes selectively stain nucleoli with strong green emission upon 488 nm excitation, whereas upon 405 nm excitation, a completely different stain pattern by staining lysosomes (for 1) or mitochondria (for 2) with distinct red emission is observed because of the highly concentrated accumulation in these organelles. Studies on the mechanism of the accumulation in lysosomes (for 1) or mitochondria (for 2) found that the accumulations of the probes are dependent on the membrane permeabilization, which make the probes have great potential in diagnosing cell damage by sensing lysosomal or mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. The study is demonstrative, for the first time, of two cationic molecules for dual-color imaging nucleoli and lysosomes (1)/mitochondria (2) simultaneously in live cell based on monomer and excimer-like emission, respectively, and more importantly, for diagnosing cell damage.

  11. Removal of pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene micropollutant from water via adsorption by green synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Saad S. M.; Abdel-Shafy, Hussein I.; Mansour, Mona S. M.

    2018-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water are classified as organic micropollutants, which are carcinogenic even in very low concentration (ppb). In this study the green synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) were green synthesized at room temperature by using pomegranate peel extract. The green synthesized IONPs were used for adsorbing benzo(a)pyrene and pyrene (PAHs) from water. Factors affecting the adsorption were investigated. These factors are: nanoparticles dose, pH, temperature, and initial concentration of PAHs. The overall results showed that the maximum adsorption capacities of IONPs towards pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene were 2.8 and 0.029 mg g-1, respectively. The thermodynamic study indicated an exothermic adsorption process of pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene. The kinetic and isotherm studies were carried out. The obtained data revealed that the adsorption process follows a pseudo-second order mechanism and obeys Langmuir isotherm model. In addition, the IONPs proved to be a potential candidate for the adsorption of pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene even after five cycles of use and regeneration. The investigation was extended using semi-pilot plant to remove the studied PAHs from artificially contaminated water. The results showed that the IONPs was capable to remove the pyrene and benzo (a) pyrene at the rate of 98.5 and 99%, respectively. It also can be used as disinfectant.

  12. BINDING OF IONIC SURFACTANTS ON OPPOSITELY CHARGED POLYELECTROLYTES OBSERVED BY FLUORESCENCE METHODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Tong; Chao-yang Wang; Bi-ye Ren; Xin-xing Liu; Fang Zeng

    2003-01-01

    Our recent studies concerning the binding of ionic surfactants on oppositely charged polyelectrolytes observed with fluorescence techniques are reviewed. The cationic surfactants cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB),dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC), and nonionic surfactant octaethylene glycol monododecyl ether (C12E8) were allowed to bind on anionic poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) (PAMPS) and its pyrene and/or naphthalene labeled copolymers. The relative excimer emission intensity IE/IM of a cationic probe 1-pyrenemethylamine hydrochloride were chosen to monitor the binding process and the conformation change of surfactant-bound polyelectrolytes. The 1:1aggregation of polyelectrolyte-CTAB with respect to the charge was found as long as the CTAB concentration was slightly higher than its critical aggregation concentration (CAC). The intermolecular NRET indicated that the CTAB-bound polyelectrolytes aggregated together through the hydrophobic interaction between the CTAB tails. However, neither 1:1polyelectrolyte-DTAC aggregation nor intermolecular aggregation of DTAC-bound polyelectrolyte was observed owing to its weaker hydrophobicity of 12 carbon atoms in the tail, which is shorter than that of CTAB. As known from the fluorescence results, nonionic surfactant C12E8 did not bind on the anionic polyelectrolytes, but the presence of PAMPS promoted the micelle formation for C12E8 at the CAC slightly below its critical micelle concentration (CMC). The solid complex of dansyl labeled AMPS copolymer-surfactant exhibited a decrease in local polarity with increasing charge density of the polyelectrolyte or with alkane tail length of the surfactant. SAXS suggested a lamella structure for the AMPS copolymersurfactant solid complexes with a long period of 3.87 nm for CTAB and 3.04 nm for DTAC, respectively.

  13. Overview on the high power excimer laser technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingru

    2013-05-01

    High power excimer laser has essential applications in the fields of high energy density physics, inertial fusion energy and industry owing to its advantages such as short wavelength, high gain, wide bandwidth, energy scalable and repetition operating ability. This overview is aimed at an introduction and evaluation of enormous endeavor of the international high power excimer laser community in the last 30 years. The main technologies of high power excimer laser are reviewed, which include the pumping source technology, angular multiplexing and pulse compressing, beam-smoothing and homogenous irradiation, high efficiency and repetitive operation et al. A high power XeCl laser system developed in NINT of China is described in detail.

  14. Plastic scintillators based on polymers with eliminated excimer forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adadurov, A.F., E-mail: adadurov@isma.kharkov.u [Institute for Scintillating Materials NAN of Ukraine, 60 Lenin Ave, 61001 Kharkov (Ukraine); Yelyseev, D.A.; Titskaya, V.D.; Lebedev, V.N.; Zhmurin, P.N. [Institute for Scintillating Materials NAN of Ukraine, 60 Lenin Ave, 61001 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2011-05-15

    Plastic scintillators (PS) were made based on benzyl methacrylate and methyl-methacrylate P(BzMA + MMA) copolymer in which the excimer forming rate is by two order lesser than that in polystyrene-based polymer matrix. Studying of these PS light yield demonstrates the importance of migration processes comparing to excimer formation. It is found that to obtain PS with high scintillation efficiency it is necessary to use the polymer base (matrix) in which excimer forming is eliminated but the migration process along the chromophores is maximally favored. To explain the accelerated energy transfer between phenyl chromophores it is proposed to use a mechanism of exchange of that virtual excitons that can propagate along a one-dimensional back-bone of polymer molecule. Clearing the details of mechanism of interaction between chromophores of polymer molecules which is responsible for accelerated radiationless energy transfer enable will determine in future the way of effective plastic scintillators designing.

  15. Excimer Pumped Pulsed Tunable Dye Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Michael G.

    1988-06-01

    It has been recently shown and reported for the first time at this meeting, that Excimer pumping of a single-mode, short-cavity, grazing-incidence, longitudinally-pumped pulsed dye laser is feasible. In this paper the key concepts upon which this latest development is based are presented and are in a somewhat unusual form. This manuscript describes five specific dye laser examples. The five examples represent a progression from the simplest type of dye laser to the single-mode version mentioned above. The examples thus serve as a tutorial introduction to potential users of dye lasers. The article is organized into five sections or STEPS, each of which describes a different pulsed dye laser. Since the subtle points about dye lasers are best appreciated only after one actually attempts to build a working model, a PROCEDURES category is included in which details about the construction of the particular form of laser are given. As one reads through this category, think of it as looking over the shoulder of the laser builder. The NOTES category which follows is a brief but essential discussion explaining why various components and procedures are used, as well as how laser performance specifications are obtained. This subsection can he viewed as a discussion with the laser builder concerning the reasons for specific actions and choices made in the assembly of the example laser. The last category contains COMMENTS which provide additional related information pertaining to the example laser that goes beyond the earlier annotated discussion. If you like, these are the narrator's comments. At the end of the article, after the five sequential forms of the laser have been presented, there is a brief summation.

  16. SBS pulse compression for excimer inertial fusion energy drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, G.J. [TRW Space and Electronics Group, Redondo Beach, CA (United States). Space and Technology Div.

    1994-12-31

    A key requirement for the development of commercial fusion power plants utilizing inertial confinement fusion (ICF) as a source of thermonuclear power is the availability of reliable, efficient laser drivers. These laser drivers must be capable of delivering UV optical pulses having energies of the order of 5MJ to cryogenic deuterium-tritium (D/T) ICF targets. The current requirements for laser ICF target irradiation specify the laser wavelength, {lambda} ca. 250 nm, pulse duration, {tau}{sub p} ca. 6 ns, bandwidth, {Delta}{lambda} ca. 0.1 nm, polarization state, etc. Excimer lasers are a leading candidate to fill these demanding ICF driver requirements. However, since excimer lasers are not storage lasers, the excimer laser pulse duration, {tau}{sub pp}, is determined primarily by the length of the excitation pulse delivered to the excimer laser amplifier. Pulsed power associated with efficiently generating excimer laser pulses has a time constant, {tau}{sub pp} which falls in the range, 30 {tau}{sub p}<{tau}{sub pp}<100{tau}{sub p}. As a consequence, pulse compression is needed to convert the long excimer laser pulses to pulses of duration {tau}{sub p}. These main ICF driver pulses require, in addition, longer, lower power precursor pulses delivered to the ICF target before the arrival of the main pulse. Although both linear and non-linear optical (NLO) pulse compression techniques have been developed, computer simulations have shown that a ``chirped,`` self-seeded, stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) pulse compressor cell using SF{sub 6} at a density, {rho} ca. 1 amagat can efficiently compress krypton fluoride (KrF) laser pulses at {lambda}=248 nm. In order to avoid the generation of output pulses substantially shorter than {tau}{sub p}, the optical power in the chirped input SBS ``seed`` beams was ramped. Compressed pulse conversion efficiencies of up to 68% were calculated for output pulse durations of {tau}{sub p} ca. ns.

  17. SBS pulse compression for excimer inertial fusion energy drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    A key requirement for the development of commercial fusion power plants utilizing inertial confinement fusion (ICF) as a source of thermonuclear power is the availability of reliable, efficient laser drivers. These laser drivers must be capable of delivering UV optical pulses having energies of the order of 5MJ to cryogenic deuterium-tritium (D/T) ICF targets. The current requirements for laser ICF target irradiation specify the laser wavelength, λ ca. 250 nm, pulse duration, τ p ca. 6 ns, bandwidth, Δλ ca. 0.1 nm, polarization state, etc. Excimer lasers are a leading candidate to fill these demanding ICF driver requirements. However, since excimer lasers are not storage lasers, the excimer laser pulse duration, τ pp , is determined primarily by the length of the excitation pulse delivered to the excimer laser amplifier. Pulsed power associated with efficiently generating excimer laser pulses has a time constant, τ pp which falls in the range, 30 τ p pp p . As a consequence, pulse compression is needed to convert the long excimer laser pulses to pulses of duration τ p . These main ICF driver pulses require, in addition, longer, lower power precursor pulses delivered to the ICF target before the arrival of the main pulse. Although both linear and non-linear optical (NLO) pulse compression techniques have been developed, computer simulations have shown that a ''chirped,'' self-seeded, stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) pulse compressor cell using SF 6 at a density, ρ ca. 1 amagat can efficiently compress krypton fluoride (KrF) laser pulses at λ=248 nm. In order to avoid the generation of output pulses substantially shorter than τ p , the optical power in the chirped input SBS ''seed'' beams was ramped. Compressed pulse conversion efficiencies of up to 68% were calculated for output pulse durations of τ p ca. ns

  18. Optical design of high power excimer laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongsheng; Zhao Jun; Ma Lianying; Yi Aiping; Liu Jingru

    2011-01-01

    Image relay and angular multiplexing,which should be considered together in the design of high power excimer laser system, is reviewed. It's important to select proper illumination setup and laser beam shaping techniques. Given the complex and special angular multiplexing scheme in high power excimer laser systems, some detailed conceptual layout schemes are given in the paper. After a brief description of lens array and reflective telescope objective, which combine the incoming beams to a common focus, a new schematic layout which uses the final targeting optics and one optical delay line array, to realize multiplexing and de-multiplexing simultaneously is first proposed in the paper. (authors)

  19. Recent advances in excimer laser technology at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigio, I.J.; Czuchlewski, S.; McCown, A.W.; Taylor, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that current research in excimer laser technology at Los Alamos progresses in two major areas: In the Bright Source program, the development of ultra-high brightness (sub-piosecond) laser systems, based on discharge -pumped excimer laser amplifiers, continues Recently the authors have completed rigorous measurements of the saturation parameter for ultra-short pulses. In the laser fusion program, implementation of the large KrF laser fusion amplifiers have been accompanied by numerous studies of the laser physics and kinetics of large e-beam pumped devices

  20. Modification of BSCCO surface by excimer laser annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibi, A.; Akitsu, T.; Matsuzawa, H.

    2002-01-01

    Irradiation of Kr-F excimer laser onto the BSCCO calcined pellets changed their surface to be amorphous. SEM micrographs showed that sintering of the irradiated pellets recrystallized the surface layer and much reduced the intergrain gaps as compared with only sintered pellets, whereas the internal structure of the irradiated pellets remained unchanged. This processing made the surface-layer grains be tightly connected, resulting in the higher critical temperature than the conventionally sintered samples. We can say that excimer laser annealing process is a novel scheme to reduce the surface weak-link of the high Tc superconductors. (author)

  1. Pyrene-Phosphonate Conjugate: Aggregation-Induced Enhanced Emission, and Selective Fe3+ Ions Sensing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin D. Padghan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A new pyrene-phosphonate colorimetric receptor 1 has been designed and synthesized in a one-step process via amide bond formation between pyrene butyric acid chloride and phosphonate-appended aniline. The pyrene-phosphonate receptor 1 showed aggregation-induced enhanced emission (AIEE properties in water/acetonitrile (ACN solutions. Dynamic light scattering (DLS characterization revealed that the aggregates of receptor 1 at 80% water fraction have an average size of ≈142 nm. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM analysis confirmed the formation of spherical aggregates upon solvent evaporation. The sensing properties of receptor 1 were investigated by UV-vis, fluorescence emission spectroscopy, and other optical methods. Among the tested metal ions, receptor 1 is capable of recognizing the Fe3+ ion selectively. The changes in spectral measurements were explained on the basis of complex formation. The composition of receptor 1 and Fe3+ ions was determined by using Job’s plot and found to be 1:1. The receptor 1–Fe3+ complex showed a reversible UV-vis response in the presence of EDTA.

  2. Multi step FRET among three laser dyes Pyrene, Acriflavine and Rhodamine B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Jaba; Dey, Dibyendu; Roy, Arpan Datta; Bhattacharjee, D.; Hussain, Syed Arshad

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) system using three dyes has been demonstrated. It has been observed that multi step energy transfer occurred from Pyrene to Rhodamine B via Acriflavine. Here Acriflavine acts as an antenna to receive energy from Pyrene and transfer the same to Rhodamine B. This multi step FRET system is advantageous compared to the conventional FRET as this can be used to study molecular level interaction beyond conventional FRET distance (1–10 nm) as well as studying multi-branched macromolecules. The introduction of clay enhances the FRET efficiencies among the dye pair, which is an advantage to make the multi step system more useful. Similar approach can be used for increasing FRET efficiencies by using other dyes. - Highlights: • Multi-step FRET occurred from Pyrene (Py) to Rhodamine B (RhB) via Acriflavine (Acf). • Acf acts as an antenna to receive energy from Py and to transfer energy to RhB. • Multi-step FRET can be used to study molecular level interaction beyond 1–10 nm. • Incorporation of nanoclay laponite enhances the energy transfer efficiency.

  3. FLUORESCENCE PROBING OF THE FORMATION OF HYDROPHOBIC MICRODOMAINS BY CROSS-LINKED POLY(ALKYLMETHYLDIALLYLAMMONIUM BROMIDES) IN AQUEOUS-SOLUTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WANG, GJ; ENGBERTS, J B F N

    Pyrene has been used as a fluorescence probe to investigate the conformational behavior of cross-linked poly(alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromides) in aqueous solutions. Binding of pyrene to hydrophobic microdomains, formed by the polysoaps, is reflected by a change in the ratio I-1/I-3 of the

  4. Thermal properties and physicochemical behavior in aqueous solution of pyrene-labeled poly(ethylene glycol-polylactide conjugate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen WL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wei-Lin Chen,1,2 Yun-Fen Peng,1,3 Sheng-Kuo Chiang,1 Ming-Hsi Huang1–3 1National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan; 2Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan; 3PhD Program in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan Abstract: A fluorescence-labeled bioresorbable polymer was prepared by a coupling reaction of poly(ethylene glycol-polylactide (PEG-PLA with carboxyl pyrene, using N,N’-diisopropylcarbodiimide/1-hydroxy-7-azabenzotriazole (DIC/HOAt as a coupling agent and 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP as a catalyst. The obtained copolymer, termed PEG-PLA-pyrene, was characterized using various analytical techniques, such as gel permeation chromatography (GPC, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR, infrared spectroscopy (IR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, to identify the molecular structure and to monitor the thermal property changes before and after the reaction. The presence of a pyrene moiety at the end of polylactide (PLA did not alter the crystallization ability of the poly(ethylene glycol (PEG blocks, indicating that the conjugate preserved the inherent thermal properties of PEG-PLA. However, the presence of PEG-PLA blocks strongly reduced the melting of pyrene, indicating that the thermal characteristics were sensitive to PEG-PLA incorporation. Regarding the physicochemical behavior in aqueous solution, a higher concentration of PEG-PLA-pyrene resulted in a higher ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis absorbance and fluorescence emission intensity. This is of great interest for the use of this conjugate as a fluorescence probe to study the in vivo distribution as well as the internalization and intracellular localization of polymeric micelles

  5. BODIPY-pyrene and perylene dyads as heavy atom-free singlet oxygen sensitizers

    KAUST Repository

    Filatov, Mikhail A.

    2018-02-23

    Dyads combining BODIPY as an electron acceptor and pyrene or perylene as electron donor subunits were prepared and studied their photophysical properties studied by steady-state and transient spectroscopy. Depending on the structure of the subunits and polarity of the media, the dyads show either bright fluorescence or photo-induced electron transfer (PeT) in solution. Charge-transfer (CT) states formed as a result of PeT and were found to yield triplet excited states of the BODIPY. In the presence of molecular oxygen, the dyads sensitize singlet oxygen (1O2) with quantum yields of up to 0.75.

  6. BODIPY-pyrene and perylene dyads as heavy atom-free singlet oxygen sensitizers

    KAUST Repository

    Filatov, Mikhail A.; Karuthedath, Safakath; Polestshuk, Pavel M.; Callaghan, Susan; Flanagan, Keith J.; Wiesner, Thomas; Laquai, Fré dé ric; Senge, Mathias O.

    2018-01-01

    Dyads combining BODIPY as an electron acceptor and pyrene or perylene as electron donor subunits were prepared and studied their photophysical properties studied by steady-state and transient spectroscopy. Depending on the structure of the subunits and polarity of the media, the dyads show either bright fluorescence or photo-induced electron transfer (PeT) in solution. Charge-transfer (CT) states formed as a result of PeT and were found to yield triplet excited states of the BODIPY. In the presence of molecular oxygen, the dyads sensitize singlet oxygen (1O2) with quantum yields of up to 0.75.

  7. Modeling of Kr-Xe discharge of excimer lamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belasri A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the numerical simulation of Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD for Kr-Xe excilamp. The model of the discharge consists of three main modules: a plasma chemistry module, a circuit module and a Boltzmann equation module. The results predict the optimal operating conditions and describe the electrical and chemical properties of the KrXe* excimer lamp.

  8. Treatment of onychomycosis using radiation of excimer laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urzová, J.; Jelínek, Miroslav; Mikšovský, Jan; Kymplová, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 647, JAN (2013), s. 636-641 ISSN 1022-6680 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12069 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : excimer laser * UV-C radiation * nails * onychomycosis Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  9. Advances in 193 nm excimer lasers for mass spectrometry applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmdahl, Ralph; Esser, Hans-Gerd; Bonati, Guido

    2016-03-01

    Ongoing progress in mass analysis applications such as laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry of solid samples and ultraviolet photoionization mediated sequencing of peptides and proteins is to a large extent driven by ultrashort wavelength excimer lasers at 193 nm. This paper will introduce the latest improvements achieved in the development of compact high repetition rate excimer lasers and elaborate on the impact on mass spectrometry instrumentation. Various performance and lifetime measurements obtained in a long-term endurance test over the course of 18 months will be shown and discussed in view of the laser source requirements of different mass spectrometry tasks. These sampling type applications are served by excimer lasers delivering pulsed 193 nm output of several mJ as well as fast repetition rates which are already approaching one Kilohertz. In order to open up the pathway from the laboratory to broader market industrial use, sufficient component lifetimes and long-term stable performance behavior have to be ensured. The obtained long-term results which will be presented are based on diverse 193 nm excimer laser tube improvements aiming at e.g. optimizing the gas flow dynamics and have extended the operational life the laser tube for the first time over several billion pulses even under high duty-cycle conditions.

  10. 308-nm excimer laser for the treatment of alopecia areata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mutairi, Nawaf

    2007-12-01

    Alopecia areata is loss of hair from localized or diffuse areas of hair-bearing area of the skin. Recently there are reports of efficacy of the 308-nm excimer radiation for this condition. To study the effect of the 308-nm excimer laser in the treatment of alopecia areata. Eighteen patients with 42 recalcitrant patches (including 1 adult with alopecia totalis) were enrolled in this study. The lesions were treated with the 308-nm excimer laser twice a week for a period of 12 weeks; one lesion on each patient was left as a control for comparison. There were 7 males and 11 females in this study. Regrowth of hair was observed in 17 (41.5%) patches. Thirteen of the 18 lesions in scalp showed a complete regrowth of hair. The extremity regions failed to show a response. Atopic diatheses had an unfavorable effect on the outcome in our patients. The 308-nm excimer laser is an effective therapeutic option for patchy alopecia areata of the scalp and for some cases with patchy alopecia areata of the beard area. It does not work for patchy alopecia areata of the extremities.

  11. Evaluating pyrene toxicity on Arctic key copepod species Calanus hyperboreus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Rasmus Dyrmose; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Friis Møller, Eva

    2014-01-01

    was unaffected. The hatching success was also unaffected, although the total reproductive output was reduced with increased pyrene concentrations. Accumulation of pyrene in the copepods was higher in feeding than starving females and only trace amounts of the phase I metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene, were found...

  12. Treatment of oral lichen planus using 308-nm excimer laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Bing; Sun, Li-Wei; Yang, Hua; Wang, Yan-Fei

    2017-09-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease, has prolonged courses, repeated attacks and resistance to treatment. The traditional narrow spectrum UVB treatment has an established efficacy on skin lichen planus, and high safety. However, most of ultraviolet phototherapy devices have a huge volume, thereby cannot be used in the treatment of OLP. Lymphocytic infiltration is evident in the lesions of lichen planus, and the direct irradiation of 308-nm excimer laser can induce apoptosis of the T lymphocytes in skin lesions, thereby has a unique therapeutic effect on the diseases involving T lymphocytes. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of 308-nm excimer laser in the treatment of OLP. A total of six OLP patients were enrolled into this study, and further pathological diagnosis was conducted, then 308-nm excimer laser was used in the treatment. The efficacy of 308-nm excimer laser in the treatment of OLP was satisfactory. The clinical symptoms of five patients were significantly improved. In two patients, the erosion surface based on congestion and the surrounding white spots completely disappeared, and clinical recovery was achieved. Three patients achieved partial remission, that is, the erosion surface healed, congestion and white spot area shrunk by more than 1/2 of the primary skin lesions. In the remaining one patient, the erosion surface had not completely healed after treatment, and congestion and white spot area shrunk by less than 1/2 of the primary skin lesions. Only one patients had developed mild pain during the treatment, and this symptom alleviated by itself. The 308-nm excimer laser therapy can serve as a safe and effective treatment for OLP. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Quantitative determination of benzo[a]pyrene in foodstuffs using benzo[a]pyrene[G-3H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Yoshito; Shimamura, Kyoko; Yano, Hiroshige

    1977-01-01

    A method for quantitative determination of nano gram level of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) in foodstuffs using tritiated BP( 3 H-BP) was described. Extracts from foodstuffs, having been added a certain amount of 3 H-BP, were fractionated by column chromatography on Florisil, and thinlayer chromatography on acetylated cellulose. Concentration and radio activity of BP in the final fraction were determined by fluorescence spectrometry and liquid scintillation. Recovery ratio of each experiment was obtained by comparing the radio activities of added 3 H-BP and separated BP. Concentration of BP in the sample analyzed was calculated from the amount of isolated BP and the recovery ratio in each experiment. A quantitative limit of BP by this method was 0.2 ppb when 50 g of sample was used. By this method, contents of BO in each sample of Tenpura oil, salad oil, flour, and polished rice were determined as 0.6, 0.2, 0.1 and < 0.1 ppb on average, respectively. (auth.)

  14. Excimer laser ablation of the cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, George H.; Ediger, Marwood N.; Weiblinger, Richard P.

    1995-03-01

    Pulsed ultraviolet laser ablation is being extensively investigated clinically to reshape the optical surface of the eye and correct vision defects. Current knowledge of the laser/tissue interaction and the present state of the clinical evaluation are reviewed. In addition, the principal findings of internal Food and Drug Administration research are described in some detail, including a risk assessment of the laser-induced-fluorescence and measurement of the nonlinear optical properties of cornea during the intense UV irradiation. Finally, a survey is presented of the alternative laser technologies being explored for this ophthalmic application.

  15. Photophysical and computational investigation of the intermolecular interactions of pyrene with phenothiazine and promazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Güloğlu, Pınar; Acar, Nursel, E-mail: nursel.acar@ege.edu.tr

    2016-10-20

    Highlights: • Intermolecular interactions of pyrene with phenothiazine/promazine were investigated. • All investigated systems were optimized at ωB97XD/6-31G(d,p) level in gas phase. • The electronic transitions were determined using frontier orbitals. • Both Py–Pheno and Py–Prom are potential candidates for charge transfer systems. - Abstract: The intermolecular interactions between the pyrene (Py) (as acceptor) and phenothiazine (Pheno), promazine (Prom) (as donors) were investigated using UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescence quenching rate constants for Py–Pheno and Py–Prom systems have been calculated approximately 10{sup 10} M{sup −1} s{sup −1}, indicating diffusion controlled processes. A computational investigation has also been carried out in gas phase at ωB97XD/6-31G(d,p) level. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) was used to calculate the electronic transitions of molecules at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. Total electronic energies, complexation energies, free energy differences, excitation wavelengths, and HOMO–LUMO energy gaps are discussed in gas phase. Analyses of first excited singlet states have indicated charge transfers transitions between Py and Pheno, Prom through π–π stacking in gas phase at 433 nm and 466 nm, respectively. Due to its charge transfer character, Py–Pheno and Py–Prom systems seem to be appropriate models to investigate and design photosensitive materials.

  16. 308-nm excimer lamp for the treatment of alopecia areata: Clinical trial on 16 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Ohtsuki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alopecia areata (AA is considered as a T-cell mediated autoimmune disorder. The 308-nm excimer laser is thought to be capable of inducing T-cell apoptosis in vitro, suggesting that the 308-nm excimer lamp (not laser might be effective for the treatment of AA. We examined the effectiveness of the 308-nm excimer lamp for treating AA. Materials and Methods: We treated 16 patients with single AA and multiple AA (MAA. The lesions were irradiated with a 308-nm excimer lamp at 2-week intervals. Results: Hair regrowth was observed in 14 patients. Among them, 10 patients showed more than 50% hair re-growth. Our results suggested that the 308-nm excimer lamp system is effective and safe for the treatment of single AA and MAA. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the 308-nm excimer lamp is a good therapeutic alternative without serious side effect for treating AA.

  17. Triggering Excimer Lasers by Photoionization from Corona Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhongmin; Duffey, Thomas; Brown, Daniel; Kushner, Mark

    2009-10-01

    High repetition rate ArF (192 nm) excimer lasers are used for photolithography sources in microelectronics fabrication. In highly attaching gas mixtures, preionization is critical to obtaining stable, reproducible glow discharges. Photoionization from a separate corona discharge is one technique for preionization which triggers the subsequent electron avalanche between the main electrodes. Photoionization triggering of an ArF excimer laser sustained in multi-atmosphere Ne/Ar/F2/Xe gas mixtures has been investigated using a 2-dimensional plasma hydrodynamics model including radiation transport. Continuity equations for charged and neutral species, and Poisson's equation are solved coincident with the electron temperature with transport coefficients obtained from solutions of Boltzmann's equation. Photoionizing radiation is produced by a surface discharge which propagates along a corona-bar located adjacent to the discharge electrodes. The consequences of pulse power waveform, corona bar location, capacitance and gas mixture on uniformity, symmetry and gain of the avalanche discharge will be discussed.

  18. Automatic alignment of double optical paths in excimer laser amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dahui; Zhao, Xueqing; Hua, Hengqi; Zhang, Yongsheng; Hu, Yun; Yi, Aiping; Zhao, Jun

    2013-05-01

    A kind of beam automatic alignment method used for double paths amplification in the electron pumped excimer laser system is demonstrated. In this way, the beams from the amplifiers can be transferred along the designated direction and accordingly irradiate on the target with high stabilization and accuracy. However, owing to nonexistence of natural alignment references in excimer laser amplifiers, two cross-hairs structure is used to align the beams. Here, one crosshair put into the input beam is regarded as the near-field reference while the other put into output beam is regarded as the far-field reference. The two cross-hairs are transmitted onto Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) by image-relaying structures separately. The errors between intersection points of two cross-talk images and centroid coordinates of actual beam are recorded automatically and sent to closed loop feedback control mechanism. Negative feedback keeps running until preset accuracy is reached. On the basis of above-mentioned design, the alignment optical path is built and the software is compiled, whereafter the experiment of double paths automatic alignment in electron pumped excimer laser amplifier is carried through. Meanwhile, the related influencing factors and the alignment precision are analyzed. Experimental results indicate that the alignment system can achieve the aiming direction of automatic aligning beams in short time. The analysis shows that the accuracy of alignment system is 0.63μrad and the beam maximum restoration error is 13.75μm. Furthermore, the bigger distance between the two cross-hairs, the higher precision of the system is. Therefore, the automatic alignment system has been used in angular multiplexing excimer Main Oscillation Power Amplification (MOPA) system and can satisfy the requirement of beam alignment precision on the whole.

  19. Nebulae at keratoconus--the result after excimer laser removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerholm, P; Fitzsimmons, T; Ohman, L; Orndahl, M

    1993-12-01

    Ten patients underwent excimer laser ablation due to nebula formation at keratoconus. The nebulae interfered significantly with contact lens fit or wearing time. The mean follow-up time in these patients was 16.5 months. Following surgery all patients could be successfully fitted with a contact lens and thereby obtain good visual acuity. Furthermore, contact lens wearing time was 8 hours or more in all cases. In 2 patients the nebulae recurred but were successfully retreated.

  20. Excimer laser beam profile recording based on electrochemical etched polycarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvin, P.; Jaleh, B.; Zangeneh, H.R.; Zamanipour, Z.; Davoud-Abadi, Gh.R.

    2008-01-01

    There is no polymeric detector used to register the beam profile of UV lasers. Here, a method is proposed for the measurement of intensive UV beam pattern of the excimer lasers based on the photoablated polycarbonate detector after coherent UV exposure and the subsequent electrochemical etching. UV laser induced defects in the form of self-microstructuring on polycarbonate are developed to replicate the spatial intensity distribution as a beam profiler

  1. Excimer laser beam profile recording based on electrochemical etched polycarbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvin, P. [Physics Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Hafez Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Laser Research Center, AEOI, P.O. Box 1165-8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: parvin@aut.ac.ir; Jaleh, B. [Physics Department, Bu-Ali Sina University, Postal Code 65174, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zangeneh, H.R. [Physics Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Hafez Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zamanipour, Z. [Laser Research Center, AEOI, P.O. Box 1165-8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Davoud-Abadi, Gh.R. [Physics Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Hafez Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    There is no polymeric detector used to register the beam profile of UV lasers. Here, a method is proposed for the measurement of intensive UV beam pattern of the excimer lasers based on the photoablated polycarbonate detector after coherent UV exposure and the subsequent electrochemical etching. UV laser induced defects in the form of self-microstructuring on polycarbonate are developed to replicate the spatial intensity distribution as a beam profiler.

  2. Subjective results of excimer laser correction of myopia. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Trubilin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In review presents data of various authors regarding the subjective results excimer laser correction of myopia by LASIK. It was revealed that a group of patients with a high degree of dissatisfaction amounts to 4.6% of the total in all studies. High subjective results are confirmed by the positive dynamics of the «quality of life» of the patient.

  3. Simulation of pulsed dielectric barrier discharge xenon excimer lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, E A; Kudryavtsev, A A; Arslanbekov, R R; Kolobov, V I

    2004-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that the efficiency of excimer lamps can be drastically increased in a pulsed regime. A one-dimensional simulation of pulsed excimer lamps has been performed by Carman and Mildren (2003 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36 19) (C and M). However, some computational results of the work of C and M are questionable and need to be revisited. In this paper, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in xenon has been simulated for operating conditions similar to those of C and M to better understand plasma dynamics in a pulsed regime. Our simulation results differ considerably from the computational results of C and M. Although these differences do not affect profoundly the plasma macro parameters measured in the C and M experiments, they offer a better understanding of plasma dynamics in pulsed DBDs and form a solid foundation for computational optimization of excimer lamps. It was found that the dynamics of breakdown and the current pulse depend significantly on the initial densities of species after a previous pulse, and so it is important to accurately simulate the plasma evolution in both the afterglow and active stages. It seems possible to modify the power deposition in the plasma by varying external discharge parameters such as the amplitude and the rise time of the applied voltage, and to modify the plasma composition by changing the pulse repetition rate and plasma decay in the afterglow stage

  4. Myopic keratomileusis by excimer laser on a lathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganem, S; Aron-Rosa, D; Gross, M; Rosolen, S

    1994-01-01

    We designed an excimer laser keratomileusis delivery system to increase the regularity of the refractive cut surface and allow greater precision in the level and shape of the ablated zone. A parallel faced corneal disc was produced by microkeratectomy from six human eyes and surgical keratectomy in 12 beagle corneas. A 193-nanometer excimer laser that was used to project an oval beam onto the corneal disc was rotated on a flat surface to ensure overlapping of the ovally ablated areas between pulses. Electron microscopy of eye bank lenticules demonstrated a circular smooth regularly concave ablation zone. Histological examination of nine clear corneas confirmed thinning of the stroma without fibroblastic reaction and no epithelial hypertrophy. Mean preoperative corneal power of 43.15 +/- 2.18 decreased postoperatively to 33.61 +/- 2.34. The new technique of excimer laser keratomileusis has the advantage of a cut surface smoother and the clear zone is devoid of the stepwise concavity and irregularity seen in diaphragm based photoablation delivery systems.

  5. Electrodeless excimer laser; Laser a eccimeri senza elettrodi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisi, N. [ENEA, Divisione Nuovi Materiali, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In this paper it is proposed how to build an excimer laser based on an electrodeless discharge (or Dielectric Barrier Discharge). Such laser could operate with a low energy per pulse (<100 mJ) and a high repetition rate (<100 kHz). The most relevant advantage an electrodeless DBD laser is the much longer gas mixture lifetime. This feature could allow the operation of a sealed laser emitting higher average power with respect to commercially available excimer lasers. Such discharge scheme could be advantageous in order to excite the F{sub 2} excimer molecule, whose emission wavelength in the VUV range (157 nm) at high reprate is particularly interesting in the micro-lithography field. [Italian] In questo documento viene proposto come costruire un laser a eccimeri basato su una scarica priva di elettrodi, o Dielectric Barrier Discharge. Tale laser puo' funzionare con una bassa energia per impulso (<100 mJ) ad alta frequenza di ripetizione (<100 kHz). Il vantaggio fondamentale di un laser a DBD e quindi privo di elettrodi e' la vita media della miscela gassosa molto piu' alta che potrebbe permettere alla camera laser di operare sigillata ad una potenza media superiore a quella dei laser a eccimeri attuali. Tale schema di pompaggio potrebbe essere particolarmente vantaggioso per eccitare la molecola eccimero F{sub 2} la cui lunghezza di emissione nel VUV (157 nm) ad elevata frequenza di ripetizione presenta un notevole interesse nel campo della produzione di microcircuiti.

  6. Assessment of the suitability of excimer lasers in treating onychomycosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kymplová, Jaroslava; Dušek, Karel; Jelínek, Miroslav; Urzová, Jana; Mikšovský, Jan; Bauerová, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    Since it is known that UV-C radiation kills fungus, we wanted to verify the hypothesis that the use of excimer laser could be an alternative method for treating onychomycosis - nail fungus. The aim of the first stage of this work was to determine the transmission, reflection and absorption of nails. In the following stage we focused on irradiation of fungi. Our final task is to assess whether it is possible to determine the parameters of radiation (a total dose,a dose per pulse frequency, a repetition rate, a number of pulses) for which the elimination of fungi would be the most effective but without damaging the nail and soft tissue underneath it. The results so far have showed that UV-C radiation does not pass through a fingernail to such an extent that it could damage the soft tissue beneath it. Fungi are destroyed by the application of only small doses of radiation using the excimer laser. Additional measurements will be required to determine the modulation parameters of the excimer laser radiation for the treatment of onychomycosis.

  7. A Pyrene-Linked Cavity within a β-Barrel Protein Promotes an Asymmetric Diels-Alder Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himiyama, Tomoki; Taniguchi, Naomasa; Kato, Shunsuke; Onoda, Akira; Hayashi, Takashi

    2017-10-23

    A unique π-expanded reaction cavity tethering a polycyclic moiety which provides a platform for substrate binding was constructed within the robust β-barrel structure of nitrobindin (NB). NB variants with cavities of different sizes and shapes are coupled with N-(1-pyrenyl)maleimide (Pyr) to prepare a series of NB-Pyr conjugates. The orientation of the pyrene moiety is fixed within the cavity by the coupling reaction. The fluorescent quenching analysis of NB-Pyr indicates that azachalcone (aza), which is a dienophile for a Diels-Alder (DA) reaction, is efficiently incorporated within the pyrene-linked reaction cavity by the aromatic interaction. The DA reaction between aza and cyclopentadiene proceeds within the reaction cavity of NB-Pyr in the presence of Cu II ion in high yield and high enantio- and regioselectivity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Hg{sup 2+}-induced self-assembly of a naphthalimide derivative by selective 'turn-on' monomer/excimer emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanichacheva, Nantanit, E-mail: wanichacheva.nantanit@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakorn Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Prapawattanapol, Narupon [Petrochemistry and Polymer Science Program, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Sanghiran Lee, Vannajan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya 50603, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Grudpan, Kate [Department of Chemistry, Center for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, and Center of Excellence in Innovation for Analytical Science and Technology, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Petsom, Amorn [Research Centre for Bioorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2013-02-15

    A novel fluorescent sensor bearing two naphthalimide fluorophores based on 2-(3-(2-aminoethylsulfanyl)propylsulfanyl)ethanamine, 1, was readily synthesized for the recognition of Hg{sup 2+}. The sensitive and selective binding behaviors of 1 were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. Sensor 1 selectively binds Hg{sup 2+} by exhibiting OFF-ON fluorescence enhancement behaviors of the monomer and excimer bands. The sensor provides excellent Hg{sup 2+}-selectivity in the presence of high concentrations of competitive ions, particularly Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} as well as Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Mn{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Li{sup +}, Zn{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+}, with an available detection limit of 2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} M or 42 ppb. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multidentate sulfide-containing ligand bounded to naphthalimide as new Hg{sup 2+} sensor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensor is prepared by a straightforward two-step synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensor shows high sensitivity and selectivity to Hg{sup 2+} with detection limit of 42 ppb. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hg{sup 2+}-binding is indicated by fluorescence enhancement Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensor 'turns-on' both monomeric and excimer emissions by the addition of Hg{sup 2+}.

  9. Trophic transfer of pyrene metabolites between aquatic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco Navarro, V.; Leppänen, M.T.; Kukkonen, J.V.K.; Godoy Olmos, S.

    2013-01-01

    The trophic transfer of pyrene metabolites was studied using Gammarus setosus as a predator and the invertebrates Lumbriculus variegatus and Chironomus riparius as prey. The results obtained by liquid scintillation counting confirmed that the pyrene metabolites produced by the aquatic invertebrates L. variegatus and C. riparius were transferred to G. setosus through the diet. More detailed analyses by liquid chromatography discovered that two of the metabolites produced by C. riparius appeared in the chromatograms of G. setosus tissue extracts, proving their trophic transfer. These metabolites were not present in chromatograms of G. setosus exclusively exposed to pyrene. The present study supports the trophic transfer of PAH metabolites between benthic macroinvertebrates and common species of an arctic amphipod. As some PAH metabolites are more toxic than the parent compounds, the present study raises concerns about the consequences of their trophic transfer and the fate and effects of PAHs in natural environments. - Highlights: ► The trophic transfer of pyrene metabolites between invertebrates was evaluated. ► Biotransformation of pyrene by L. variegatus and C. riparius is different. ► Metabolites produced by L. variegatus and C. riparius are transferred to G. setosus. ► Specifically, two metabolites produced by C. riparius were transferred. - Some of the pyrene metabolites produced by the model invertebrates L. variegatus and C. riparius are transferred to G. setosus through the diet, proving their trophic transfer.

  10. Bioremediation of Pyrene-Contaminated Soils Using Biosurfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorfi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are persistence organic chemicals with proved carcinogenic and mutagenic hazards. These compounds are usually adsorbed in soils in vicinity of oil and gas industries. Bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soils is difficult due to hydrophobic nature of PAHs. Objectives The main purpose of the current study was to determine the pyrene removal efficiency in synthetically contaminated soil, using biosurfactant. Materials and Methods Four pure bacterial strains capable of pyrene degradation were isolated from contaminated soils via enrichment techniques. The soil samples were spiked with an initial pyrene concentration of 500 mg/kg and subjected to bioremediation using a mixed culture comprised of previously isolated strains, in addition to application of biosurfactant during 63 days. Results The pyrene removal efficiency in samples containing biosurfactant, without biosurfactant and controls, were 86.4%, 59.8% and 14%, respectively, after 63 days. The difference of pyrene removal efficiency between the biosurfactant-containing samples and the ones without it was significant (P < 0.05. Conclusions Application of rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa significantly improved pyrene removal in contaminated soils.

  11. Progress of pyrene-based organic semiconductor in organic field effect transistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanbin; Gong; Xuejun; Zhan; Qianqian; Li; Zhen; Li

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to the pure blue emitting, high planarity, electron rich and ease of chemical modification, pyrene has been thoroughly investigated for applications in organic electronics such as organic light emitting diodes(OLEDs), organic field effect transistors(OFETs), and organic solar cells(OSCs). Especially, great progresses have been made of pyrene-based organic semiconductors for OFETs in past decades. Due to the difference of molecular structure, pyrene-based organic semiconductors are divided into three categories, pyrene as terminal group, pyrene as center core and fused pyrene derivatives. This minireview gives a brief introduction of the structure-property relationship and application in OFETs about most of pyrene-based semiconducting materials since 2006,illustrating that pyrene is a good building block to construct semiconductors with superior transport property for OFETs. Finally, we provide a summary concerning the methodology to improve the transport property of the pyrene-based semiconducting materials as well as an outlook.

  12. Synthesis, fluorescence properties and the promising cytotoxicity of pyrene–derived aminophosphonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Lewkowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A large series of variously substituted amino(pyren-1-ylmethylphosphonic acid derivatives was synthesized using a modified aza-Pudovik reaction in 20–97% yields. The fluorescence properties of the obtained compounds were investigated revealing that N-alkylamino(pyren-1-ylmethylphosphonic derivatives are stronger emissive compounds than the corresponding N-aryl derivatives. N-Benzylamino(pyren-1-ylmethylphosphonic acid displayed strong fluorescence (ΦF = 0.68 in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS. The influence of a series of derivatives on two colon cancer cell lines HT29 and HCT116 was also investigated. The most promising results were obtained for N-(4-methoxyphenylamino(pyren-1-ylmethylphosphonate, which was found to be cytotoxic for the HCT116 cancer cell line (IC50 = 20.8 μM, simultaneously showing weak toxicity towards normal lymphocytes (IC50 = 230.8 µM.

  13. Synthesis, fluorescence properties and the promising cytotoxicity of pyrene–derived aminophosphonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Moya, Maria; Wrona-Piotrowicz, Anna; Gajek, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Summary A large series of variously substituted amino(pyren-1-yl)methylphosphonic acid derivatives was synthesized using a modified aza-Pudovik reaction in 20–97% yields. The fluorescence properties of the obtained compounds were investigated revealing that N-alkylamino(pyren-1-yl)methylphosphonic derivatives are stronger emissive compounds than the corresponding N-aryl derivatives. N-Benzylamino(pyren-1-yl)methylphosphonic acid displayed strong fluorescence (ΦF = 0.68) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The influence of a series of derivatives on two colon cancer cell lines HT29 and HCT116 was also investigated. The most promising results were obtained for N-(4-methoxyphenyl)amino(pyren-1-yl)methylphosphonate, which was found to be cytotoxic for the HCT116 cancer cell line (IC50 = 20.8 μM), simultaneously showing weak toxicity towards normal lymphocytes (IC50 = 230.8 µM). PMID:27559373

  14. Excimer laser superficial keratectomy for proud nebulae in keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodaley, L; Liu, C; Woodward, E G; O'Brart, D; Muir, M K; Buckley, R

    1994-06-01

    Contact lens intolerance in keratoconus may be due to the formation of a proud nebula at or near the apex of the cone. Excimer laser superficial keratectomy was performed as an outpatients with proud nebulae as treatment patients with proud nebulae as treatment for their contact lens intolerance. The mean period of contact lens wear before the development of intolerance was 13.4 years (range 2 to 27 years). Following the development of intolerance, three patients abandoned contact lens wear in the affected eye while the remainder experienced a reduction in comfortable wearing time (mean = 3.75 hours; range: 0-14 hours). All patients had good potential Snellen visual acuity with a contact lens of 6/9 (nine eyes) and 6/12 (one eye). The proud nebulae were directly ablated with a 193 nm ArF excimer laser using a 1 mm diameter beam. Between 100-150 pulses were sufficient to ablate the raised area. Patients experienced no pain during the procedure and reported minimal discomfort postoperatively. In all cases flattening of the proud nebulae was achieved. Seven patients were able to resume regular contact lens wear (mean wearing time = 10.17 hours; range 8 to 16 hours). In three patients, resumption of contact lens wear was unsuccessful because of cone steepness. All patients achieved postoperative Snellen visual acuity of 6/12 or better with a contact lens. Four patients experienced a loss of one line in Snellen acuity. The mean follow up period was 8.3 months (range 2 to 17 months). Excimer laser superficial keratectomy is a useful technique for the treatment of contact lens intolerance caused by proud nebulae in patients with keratoconus. Penetrating keratoplasty is thus avoided.

  15. Excimer laser processing of Ti-6Al-4V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folkes, J.A.; Shibata, K.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of the excimer laser on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V is reported. Particular concentration is given to surface modification for potential materials processing applications. Results showed that: (1) there is an optimum energy for smoothing titanium; (2) at this energy density increasing the number of pulses has some, but not a significant, effect on the smoothing process; and (3) relatively smooth surfaces could be achieved at higher energy densities if the sample was processed in a helium atmosphere. Other typical surface modifications and features are also reported, including the effect of different gases on the process

  16. Keratomodelling with low-intensity ultraviolet radiation of excimer laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitrishchak, I.B.; Vorontsov, V.V.; Murzin, A.G.; Polikarpov, S.S.; Soms, L.N.

    1990-01-01

    A study was made on possibility of keratomodelling with low-intensive UV-radiation of excimer laser with subablation energy density in a pulse. Model specimens of polymers and cornea tissue were used. It is shown that the range of threshold energy density in a pulse expands with increase of UV-radiation wave length and contracts with increase of pulse repetition frequency. This range appeared to be different for polymers and cornea tissue. It was revealed that cornea tissue represented a complex high-molecular bipolymer with high water content

  17. Alkali-vapor laser-excimer pumped alkali laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Desheng; Li Wenyu; Wang Hongyan; Yang Zining; Xu Xiaojun

    2012-01-01

    Based on the research internal and overseas, the principle of the excimer pumped alkali laser (XPAL) is explained, and the advantages and disadvantages of the XPAL are analyzed. Taking into consideration the difficulties that the diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) meets on its development, the ability to solve or avoid these difficulties of XPAL is also analyzed. By summing up the achievements of the XPAL, the possible further prospect is proposed. The XPAL is of possibility to improve the performance of the DPAL. (authors)

  18. Interaction of 1-pyrene sulfonic acid sodium salt with human serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steblecka, Malgorzata, E-mail: gosia@mitr.p.lodz.pl; Wolszczak, Marian, E-mail: marianwo@mitr.p.lodz.pl; Szajdzinska-Pietek, Ewa, E-mail: espietek@mitr.p.lodz.pl

    2016-04-15

    Steady state and time-resolved techniques of optical spectroscopy were applied to examine the interaction between 1-pyrene sulfonic acid (PSA) sodium salt and human serum albumin (HSA). This work is directed towards finding a convenient fluorescent marker (or blocker) of hydrophobic binding sites within the protein, to be used in the in vitro studies of HSA−drug systems. The observed variation of PSA absorbance with HSA concentration was interpreted in terms of two possible probe/protein binding modes with the binding constants K{sub b,1}=(6.5±0.6)∙10{sup 6} M{sup −1} (a specific receptor site), and K{sub b,2}=(3.8±0.8)∙10{sup 5} M{sup −1} (non-specific binding of up to three probe molecules). The PSA fluorescence is quenched by the albumin (via both static and dynamic mechanisms), and also the HSA–Trp214 fluorescence is quenched by PSA (via resonance energy transfer). These results indicate that the probe is bound in the domain IIA of the secondary HSA structure. At lower [PSA]/[HSA] ratios the PSA fluorescence lifetime is longer than that in homogeneous buffer solutions (not containing HSA). Therefore, we conclude that lower affinity binding sites are distant from the tryptophan residue. This is confirmed by complementary studies on the transient T–T absorbance and on luminescence of the photosensitized singlet oxygen.

  19. A pyrene-benzthiazolium conjugate portraying aggregation induced emission, a ratiometric detection and live cell visualization of HSO_3"−

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diwan, Uzra; Kumar, Virendra; Mishra, Rakesh K.; Rana, Nishant Kumar; Koch, Biplob; Singh, Manish Kumar; Upadhyay, K.K.

    2016-01-01

    The present study deals with the photophysical property of a pyrene-benzthiazolium conjugate R1, as a strong intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) probe exhibiting long wavelength emission in the red region. Unlike traditional planar polyaromatic hydrocarbons whose aggregation generally quenches the light emission, the pyrene based R1 was found to display aggregation-induced emission (AIE) property along with simultaneous increase in its quantum yield upon increasing the water content of the medium. The R1 exhibits high specificity towards HSO_3"−/SO_3"2"− by interrupting its own ICT producing there upon a large ratiometric blue shift of ∼220 nm in its emission spectrum. The lowest detection limit for the above measurement was found to be 8.90 × 10"−"8 M. The fluorescent detection of HSO_3"− was also demonstrated excellently by test paper strip and silica coated TLC plate incorporating R1. The live cell imaging of HSO_3"− through R1 in HeLa cells was studied using fluorescence microscopic studies. The particle size and morphological features of R1 and R1-HSO_3"− aggregates in aqueous solution were characterized by DLS along with SEM analysis.- Highlights: • A pyrene-benzthiazolium conjugate probe (R1) itself showed interesting phenomenon of an aggregation-induced emission (AIE). • R1 emits in the red channel and effectively utilized as a colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent sensor for HSO_3"−. • The nano-dimensional spherical particles of R1 got enlarged upon its interaction with the HSO_3"−. • R1 can efficiently stain HSO_3"− in live cells and can be used for the on-spot detection of the same.

  20. Tetraaryl pyrenes: photophysical properties, computational studies, crystal structures, and application in OLEDs

    KAUST Repository

    El-Assaad, Tarek H.

    2015-10-15

    Pyrene was derivatized in positions 1, 3, 6, and 8 to yield a series of nine tetraarylpyrenes for which absorption, emission, emission lifetimes and solvatochromism in solution were determined. The fluorescence quantum yields in thin films and crystalline state, electrochemistry, and quantum-chemical calculations were completed for the series along with the X-ray crystal structure analysis of compounds 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, and 9. Compounds 2, 3, 4 as well as 7 were identified as the most suitable candidates for OLED application. Notably, in an unoptimized single-layer device geometry, these compounds exhibited blue electroluminescence coupled with impressively low turn-on voltages and high maximum luminances such as 2.8 V and 13 542 cd m-2 at 8.2 V for compound 2, respectively. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  1. Tetraaryl pyrenes: photophysical properties, computational studies, crystal structures, and application in OLEDs

    KAUST Repository

    El-Assaad, Tarek H.; Auer, Manuel; Castañ eda, Raul; Hallal, Kassem M.; Jradi, Fadi M.; Mosca, Lorenzo; Khnayzer, Rony S.; Patra, Digambara; Timofeeva, Tatiana V.; Bredas, Jean-Luc; List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.; Wex, Brigitte; Kaafarani, Bilal R.

    2015-01-01

    Pyrene was derivatized in positions 1, 3, 6, and 8 to yield a series of nine tetraarylpyrenes for which absorption, emission, emission lifetimes and solvatochromism in solution were determined. The fluorescence quantum yields in thin films and crystalline state, electrochemistry, and quantum-chemical calculations were completed for the series along with the X-ray crystal structure analysis of compounds 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, and 9. Compounds 2, 3, 4 as well as 7 were identified as the most suitable candidates for OLED application. Notably, in an unoptimized single-layer device geometry, these compounds exhibited blue electroluminescence coupled with impressively low turn-on voltages and high maximum luminances such as 2.8 V and 13 542 cd m-2 at 8.2 V for compound 2, respectively. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  2. Charge carrier mobility and electronic properties of Al(Op3: impact of excimer formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Magri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the electronic properties and the charge carrier mobility of the organic semiconductor tris(1-oxo-1H-phenalen-9-olatealuminium(III (Al(Op3 both experimentally and theoretically. We experimentally estimated the HOMO and LUMO energy levels to be −5.93 and −3.26 eV, respectively, which were close to the corresponding calculated values. Al(Op3 was successfully evaporated onto quartz substrates and was clearly identified in the absorption spectra of both the solution and the thin film. A structured steady state fluorescence emission was detected in solution, whereas a broad, red-shifted emission was observed in the thin film. This indicates the formation of excimers in the solid state, which is crucial for the transport properties. The incorporation of Al(Op3 into organic thin film transistors (TFTs was performed in order to measure the charge carrier mobility. The experimental setup detected no electron mobility, while a hole mobility between 0.6 × 10−6 and 2.1 × 10−6 cm2·V−1·s−1 was measured. Theoretical simulations, on the other hand, predicted an electron mobility of 9.5 × 10−6 cm2·V−1·s−1 and a hole mobility of 1.4 × 10−4 cm2·V−1·s−1. The theoretical simulation for the hole mobility predicted an approximately one order of magnitude higher hole mobility than was observed in the experiment, which is considered to be in good agreement. The result for the electron mobility was, on the other hand, unexpected, as both the calculated electron mobility and chemical common sense (based on the capability of extended aromatic structures to efficiently accept and delocalize additional electrons suggest more robust electron charge transport properties. This discrepancy is explained by the excimer formation, whose inclusion in the multiscale simulation workflow is expected to bring the theoretical simulation and experiment into agreement.

  3. Investigation of benzo(a)pyrene-globin adducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallin, H; Jeffre, A M; Santella, R M

    1987-05-01

    The nature of the adducts formed between benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and globin were investigated in animals treated with (/sup 3/H)BP. Modification levels on globin were determined by radioactivity measurements. Since BP tetraols can be released from benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide modified protein and DNA by acid treatment, globin samples were treated with acid, released tetraols separated by HPLC and quantitated by scintillation counting. In addition, acid released material was measured in competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using antibodies which recognize BP tetraols. Both measurements indicate that only 2% of bound radioactivity could be released as free BP tetraols. These studies indicate that benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide may not be the major metabolite of BP involved in globin binding. (author). 14 refs.

  4. IRIS Toxicological Review of Benzo[a]pyrene (Interagency ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In January 2017, EPA finalized the IRIS assessment of Benzo[a]pyrene. The Toxicological Review was reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices before public release. Consistent with the May 2009 IRIS assessment development process, all written comments on IRIS assessments submitted by other federal agencies and White House Offices are made publicly available. Accordingly, interagency comments and the interagency science discussion materials provided to other agencies, including interagency review drafts of the IRIS Toxicological Review of Benzo[a]pyrene are posted on this site. EPA is undertaking an update of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). The outcome of this project is an updated Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary for BaP that will be entered into the IRIS database.

  5. Combination treatment with excimer laser and narrowband UVB light in vitiligo patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sungsik; Hann, Seung-Kyung; Oh, Sang Ho

    2016-01-01

    For the treatment of vitiligo, narrowband UVB (NBUVB) light is considered the most effective for nonsegmental vitiligo, while excimer laser treatment is commonly used for localized vitiligo. However, treatment areas may potentially be missed with excimer laser treatment. We aimed to evaluate the effect of combinational treatment with NBUVB light and excimer laser on vitiligo. All patients were first treated with NBUVB; excimer laser was then applied in conjunction with NBUVB phototherapy due to a slow response or no further improvement with continuous NBUVB treatment alone. To minimize adverse effects, a fixed dose of NBUVB was administered, and the dose of excimer laser was increased based on patient response. Among 80 patients, 54 patients showed responses after combination with excimer laser; however, 26 patients (32.5%) showed no remarkable change after combination therapy. Of the 26 patients who showed no further response, 12 patients (46.1%) presented with vitiligo on the acral areas, which are known to the least responsive sites. Our study suggests that combined treatment of NBUVB and excimer laser in vitiligo may enhance the treatment response without remarkable side effects, therefore might also increase the compliance of the patients to the treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Biotransformering af pyren i havbørsteormen Nereis virens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Giessing, Anders; Juul Rasmussen, Lene

    føden og ved overførsel over epithelet. Graden af systemisk akkumulering af PAHer afhænger af optaget men ligeledes af effektiviteten af biotransformering i den pågældende organisme. N. virens er kendt for effektivt at biotransformere PAHer. I nærværende undersøgelse blev biotransformering undersøgt med......-glucuronid er den fase II metabolit der primært produceres ved biotransformering af pyren. Dette indikerer at de vigtigste enzymer i biotransformering af pyren i N. virens er CYP enzymer og glucuronosyl transferase enzymer....

  7. Rapid quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD) soil extracts by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guoxiong, Hua [School of Biology and Psychology, Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Broderick, John [School of Biology and Psychology, Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Semple, Kirk T [Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Lancaster, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Killham, Ken [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Singleton, Ian [School of Biology and Psychology, Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) was directly applied to rapidly quantify selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs: benzo[a]pyrene and pyrene) in aqueous hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD) soil extract solutions from a variety of aged contaminated soils containing four different PAHs. The method was optimized and validated. The results show that SFS can be used to analyse benzo[a]pyrene and pyrene in HPCD based soil extracts with high sensitivity and selectivity. The linear calibration ranges were 4.0 x 10{sup -6}-1.0 x 10{sup -3} mM for benzo[a]pyrene and 6.0 x 10{sup -6}-1.2 x 10{sup -3} mM for pyrene in 10 mM HPCD aqueous solution alone. The detection limits according to the error propagation theory for benzo[a]pyrene and pyrene were 3.9 x 10{sup -6} and 5.4 x 10{sup -6} mM, respectively. A good agreement between SFS and HPLC was reached for both determinations of PAHs in HPCD alone and in soil HPCD extracts. Hence, SFS is a potential means to simplify the present non-exhaustive hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD)-based extraction technique for the evaluation of PAH bioavailability in soil. - SFS can be used to rapidly quantify selected PAHs in soil extracts and to simplify the non-exhaustive HPCD-based extraction technique for the evaluation of PAH bioavailability.

  8. Rapid quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) soil extracts by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Guoxiong; Broderick, John; Semple, Kirk T.; Killham, Ken; Singleton, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) was directly applied to rapidly quantify selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs: benzo[a]pyrene and pyrene) in aqueous hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) soil extract solutions from a variety of aged contaminated soils containing four different PAHs. The method was optimized and validated. The results show that SFS can be used to analyse benzo[a]pyrene and pyrene in HPCD based soil extracts with high sensitivity and selectivity. The linear calibration ranges were 4.0 x 10 -6 -1.0 x 10 -3 mM for benzo[a]pyrene and 6.0 x 10 -6 -1.2 x 10 -3 mM for pyrene in 10 mM HPCD aqueous solution alone. The detection limits according to the error propagation theory for benzo[a]pyrene and pyrene were 3.9 x 10 -6 and 5.4 x 10 -6 mM, respectively. A good agreement between SFS and HPLC was reached for both determinations of PAHs in HPCD alone and in soil HPCD extracts. Hence, SFS is a potential means to simplify the present non-exhaustive hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD)-based extraction technique for the evaluation of PAH bioavailability in soil. - SFS can be used to rapidly quantify selected PAHs in soil extracts and to simplify the non-exhaustive HPCD-based extraction technique for the evaluation of PAH bioavailability

  9. Outcomes for Myopic LASIK With the MEL 90 excimer laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, Dan Z; Carp, Glenn I; Lewis, Tariq A; Archer, Timothy J; Gobbe, Marine

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the visual outcomes of myopic LASIK performed with the MEL 90 excimer laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Jena, Germany) using the Triple-A profile with a 500-Hz pulse rate. Retrospective analysis of the first 286 myopic LASIK procedures (147 patients) by two experienced surgeons in which the VisuMax femtosecond laser and MEL 90 excimer laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec) were used following a standardized surgical technique. Inclusion criteria were preoperative spherical equivalent refraction (SEQ) up to -10.38 diopters (D), cylinder up to 5.00 D, and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) of 20/25 or better. No nomogram adjustments were made. Patients were observed for 3 months. Flap thickness was between 80 and 110 µm and optical zone was between 6 and 7 mm. Standard outcomes analysis was performed. Preoperatively, mean SEQ was -3.83 ± 1.83 D (range: -0.13 to -10.38 D) and mean cylinder was -0.94 ± 0.86 D (range: 0.00 to -5.00 D). Mean age was 36.4 years (range: 18.2 to 74.1 years) with 50% female patients. Of this population, 138 eyes were treated by one surgeon and 148 eyes by another. The mean predictability of SEQ was -0.13 ± 0.34 D (range: -1.00 to +1.00 D). Postoperative SEQ was ± 0.50 D in 88% and ± 1.00 D in 100% of eyes. Preoperative CDVA was 20/20 or better in 97% of eyes. Postoperative uncorrected distance visual acuity was 20/20 or better in 92% and 20/25 or better in 99% of eyes. One line of CDVA was lost in 6% of eyes and no eyes lost two or more lines. There was statistically significant improvement in mesopic contrast sensitivity (CSV-1000) at 3 (P = .021), 6, 12, and 18 (all P ≤.001) cycles per degree. The MEL 90 excimer laser using the Triple-A ablation profile with a 500-Hz pulse rate was found to achieve a small but real increase in contrast sensitivity and high efficacy for myopia up to -10.00 D and cylinder up to 5.00 D without the need for a nomogram adjustment. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Synthesis of block copolymers derived from N-trityl-(S)-serine and pyrene end-labeled poly(methyl methacrylate) or poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) via ATRP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buruiana, Emil C., E-mail: emilbur@icmpp.ro [Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Gr. Ghica Voda Alley 700487, Iasi (Romania); Podasca, Viorica; Buruiana, Tinca [Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Gr. Ghica Voda Alley 700487, Iasi (Romania)

    2012-10-15

    A new monomer bearing N-trityl-L-serine methyl ester in structure, methacryloyloxyethyl carbamoyloxy-N-trityl methyl serine (MTS), was prepared to be further polymerized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with pyrene-endcapped poly(methyl methacrylate) (Py-PMMA-Br) or poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (Py-PNIPA-Br). The resulting block copolymers, poly(methyl methacrylate-block-methacryloyloxyethyl carbamoyloxy-N-trityl methyl serine) (Py-PMMA-b-PMTS) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-block-methacryloyloxyethyl carbamoyloxy-N-trityl methyl serine (Py-PNIPA-b-PMTS) were characterized by {sup 1}H ({sup 13}C) NMR, ultraviolet, FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy, thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) measurements. The chemical composition in Py-PMMA-b-PMTS was estimated from the {sup 1}H NMR analysis that indicated a ratio of the repeating units of 46:19 (MMA:MTS). For the Py-PNIPA-b-PMTS the composition rate in the copolymer was 61:25 (NIPA:MTS). Quenching of the pyrene species with N,N-diethylaniline, nitrobenzene, nitrophenol, potassium iodide, p-nitrotoluene and tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) in DMF solution excited at 348 nm was evidenced, more efficiently being nitrophenol and TCNQ. In this case, the monomer emission at 388-409 nm underwent a significant decrease caused of an electron transfer from the electron-reach photoexcited pyrene molecule to the electron-deficient quenchers. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diblock copolymers combine the fluorescence of pyrene-PMMA (PNIPA) with the characteristics of PMTS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such copolymers could be used for nitroderivatives detecting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV/vis and fluorescence measurements give a good correlation for LCST of Py-PNIPA-Br.

  11. Advanced excimer-based crystallization systems for production solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, F.; Brune, J.; Herbst, L.

    2006-01-01

    Line beam excimer laser annealing (ELA) is a well-known technique for thin Si-film crystallization and established in LTPS mass production. With introduction of sequential lateral solidification (SLS) some aspects such as crystalline quality, throughput and flexibility regarding the substrate size could be improved, but for OLED manufacturing still further process development is necessary. This paper discusses line beam ELA and SLS-techniques that might enable process engineers to make polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) films with a high degree of uniformity and quality as required for system on glass (SOG) and active matrix organic light emitting displays (AMOLED). Equipment requirements are discussed and compared to previous standards. SEM-images of process examples are shown in order to demonstrate the viability

  12. Boron distribution in silicon after multiple pulse excimer laser annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monakhov, E.V.; Svensson, B.G.; Linnarsson, M.K.; La Magna, A.; Italia, M.; Privitera, V.; Fortunato, G.; Cuscuna, M.; Mariucci, L.

    2005-01-01

    We have studied B redistribution in Si after excimer laser annealing (ELA) with multiple laser pulses. B was implanted with energies of 1 and 10 keV and doses of 1x10 14 and 1x10 15 cm -2 . ELA with the number of pulses from 1 to 100 was performed at room temperature and 450 deg. C in vacuum. Irrespective of the implantation parameters and the ELA conditions used, a pile-up in the B concentration is observed near the maximum melting depth after ten pulses of ELA. Moreover, a detailed study has revealed that B accumulates at the maximum melt depth gradually with the number of ELA pulses. Besides, an increase in the carrier concentration is observed at the maximum melt depth, suggesting electrical activity of the accumulated B. Formation of Si-B complexes and vacancy accumulation during multiple ELA are discussed as possible mechanisms for the B build-up

  13. The application of excimer lasers for corneal sculpturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    Of the broad selection of lasers available for surgery, the argon fluoride excimer laser offers a set of attributes that make it uniquely suited for the removal of corneal tissue. With ultraviolet radiation at 193mm, the energy of an individual photon (6.3 electron volts) is sufficient to break bonds in protein molecules without generating molecular vibration (heat). A single laser pulse is capable of removing 0.25 microns of corneal tissue over a well defined area 80 mm 2 in extent. This excision with a lateral precision to a fraction of a micron causes no discernible damage to neighboring cells. The smooth surface left after the tissue is removed promotes a quick and predictable regrowth of the epithelium. The penetration of radiation into the underlying tissue is the order of a micron so there is no potential harm to the lens or retinal tissue. Insignificant mutagenesis or unscheduled DNA synthesis has been detected as a result of tissue irradiation at this wavelength. In the past few years major progress has been made towards developing ophthalmic procedures which utilize the unique properties of this laser. To date there are FDA IDE's (Investigational Device Exemptions) for the following procedures: Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK) or corneal reshaping for correcting near-sightedness, far-sightedness and astigmatism without the need for eye glasses, contact lenses or conventional refractive surgery (Radial Keratotomy); Partial Excimer Trabeculectomy for relieving the pressure build-up caused by glaucoma; T-Excisons for reducing astigmatism; Myopic Keratomileusis (MKM) for the refractive correction of severe myopia; superficial Keratectomy (corneal smoothing) for treating various corneal scars, dystrophies, recurrent corneal erosion etc. In this paper the fundamentals of beam tissue interaction at 193nm will be discussed

  14. Scattered UV irradiation during VISX excimer laser keratorefractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, R J; Weber, E D; Bower, K S; Pasternak, J P; Sliney, D H

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the potential occupational health hazards associated with scattered ultraviolet (UV) radiation during photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) using the VISX Star S3 excimer laser. The Laser Vision Center, National Naval Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. Intraoperative radiometric measurements were made with the Ophir Power/Energy Meter (LaserStar Model PD-10 with silicon detector) during PRK treatments as well as during required calibration procedures at a distance of 20.3 cm from the left cornea. These measurements were evaluated using a worst-case scenario for exposure, and then compared with the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygeinists (ACGIH) Threshold Value Limits (TVL) to perform a risk/hazard analysis. During the PRK procedures, the highest measured value was 248.4 nJ/pulse. During the calibration procedures, the highest measured UV scattered radiation level was 149.6 nJ/pulse. The maximum treatment time was 52 seconds. Using a worst-case scenario in which all treatments used the maximum power and time, the total energy per eye treated was 0.132 mJ/cm2 and the total UV radiation at close range (80 cm from the treated eye) was 0.0085 mJ/cm2. With a workload of 20 patients, the total occupational exposure at 80 cm to actinic UV radiation in an 8-hour period would be 0.425 mJ/cm2. The scattered actinic UV laser radiation from the VISX Star S3 excimer laser did not exceed occupational exposure limits during a busy 8-hour workday, provided that operating room personnel were at least 80 cm from the treated eye. While the use of protective eyewear is always prudent, this study demonstrates that the trace amounts of scattered laser emissions produced by this laser do not pose a serious health risk even without the use of protective eyewear.

  15. Naphthalene and pyrene degradation in contaminated soil as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of soil particle size distribution and percent organic matter on the degradation rate of naphthalene and pyrene in a water medium of 7.05 ml/min at 27 ± 2oC in a soil reactor was studied. Analysis of the pattern of disappearance of these polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using various particle sizes showed ...

  16. Isothermal annealing kinetics of X-irradiated pyrene by EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partiti, C.S.M.; Pontuschka, W.M.; Fazzio, A.; Piccini, A.

    1989-07-01

    The annealing behavior of X-irradiated stable free radicals found in Pyrene (C 16 H 10 ) single crystals was studied by EPR. Two processes of thermal decay kinetics were found, both with the same activation energy (1.9±0.1) ev. (author) [pt

  17. Studies on the adsorption of naphthalene and pyrene from aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of dried ground orange peels in adsorbing naphthalene and pyrene from an aqueous stream has been investigated in terms of variation in concentration, adsorbent dosage, agitation time and particle size. Experimental batch data was correlated by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models.

  18. Bioremediation of Pyrene-Contaminated Soils Using Biosurfactant

    OpenAIRE

    Jorfi; Rezaee; Jaafarzadeh; Esrafili; Akbari; Moheb Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are persistence organic chemicals with proved carcinogenic and mutagenic hazards. These compounds are usually adsorbed in soils in vicinity of oil and gas industries. Bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soils is difficult due to hydrophobic nature of PAHs. Objectives The main purpose of the current study was to determine the pyrene removal efficiency in synthetically contaminated ...

  19. On the origin of excimer emission in electroluminescence and photoluminescence spectra of polyfluorenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacha, Martin; Ha, Jaekook; Sato, Hisaya

    2007-01-01

    We report a study on the differences in red-shifted excimer band in photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) spectra of thin films of a copolymer of dibutylfluorene and butylphenylphenoxazine. The relative intensity of the excimer band in PL spectra increases with temperature above the polymer glass transition, and with the intensity of the excitation light. In EL spectra, on the other hand, the relative excimer intensity is seen to decrease with increasing driving voltage. These opposite trends originate from the different nature of excitations in PL and EL spectra: photoexcitation directly creates singlet excitons while electric excitation proceeds via interaction of injected electrons and holes. In case of electric excitation, the observed results might be due to trap-assisted excimer formation

  20. Time Evolution of the Excimer State of a Conjugated Polymer Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Musa Mujamammi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An excited dimer is an important complex formed in nano- or pico-second time scales in many photophysics and photochemistry applications. The spectral and temporal profile of the excimer state of a laser from a new conjugated polymer, namely, poly (9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl (PFO, under several concentrations in benzene were investigated. These solutions were optically pumped by intense pulsed third-harmonic Nd:YAG laser (355-nm to obtain the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE spectra of a monomer and an excimer with bandwidths of 6 and 7 nm, respectively. The monomer and excimer ASEs were dependent on the PFO concentration, pump power, and temperature. Employing a sophisticated picosecond spectrometer, the time evolution of the excimer state of this polymer, which is over 400 ps, can be monitored.

  1. Calculation of high-pressure argon plasma parameters produced by excimer laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Norio; Yamada, Jun

    2000-01-01

    When a XeCl excimer laser light was focused in a high-pressure argon gas up to 150 atm, a dense plasma developed not only backward but also forward. It is important to study on the electron density and temperature of the laser-induced plasma in the high-pressure gas. The electron density and temperature in high-pressure argon plasma produced by XeCl excimer laser has been calculated and compared with the experimental data. (author)

  2. 3-D ASE calculation for high power output XeCl excimer lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Qinfen; Zhang Jianquan; Wu Baosheng

    1996-01-01

    The 3-dimensional ASE calculation for electron beam pumping XeCl excimer laser is presented by M-C method. In the model wall-reflected ASE is included. This calculation also includes non-saturable absorption and mirror that reflect ASE flux back into the active gain medium. Results show optimum scaling of injected flux. It can provide theoretical basis and experimental references for experiments on excimer lasers, and be extrapolated to any other type of laser

  3. Coumarin amide derivatives as fluorescence chemosensors for cyanide anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qianqian [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building Materials, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China); Liu, Zhiqiang [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, Shandong (China); Cao, Duxia, E-mail: duxiacao@ujn.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building Materials, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China); Guan, Ruifang, E-mail: mse_guanrf@ujn.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building Materials, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China); Wang, Kangnan; Shan, Yanyan; Xu, Yongxiao; Ma, Lin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building Materials, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China)

    2015-07-01

    Four coumarin amide derivatives with 4-methyl coumarin or pyrene as terminal group have been synthesized. Their photophysical properties and recognition properties for cyanide anions have been examined. The results indicate that the compounds can recognize cyanide anions with obvious absorption and fluorescence spectra change, at the same time, obvious color and fluorescence change can be observed by naked eye. The in situ hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and photophysical properties change confirm that Michael additions between the chemosensors and cyanide anions take place at the 4-position of coumarin. - Highlights: • Four coumarin amide derivatives with 4-methyl coumarin or pyrene as terminal group were synthesized. • The compounds can recognize cyanide anions with obvious absorption and fluorescence spectra change. • Michael additions between the chemosensors and cyanide anions take place at the 4-position of coumarin.

  4. A physiological toxicokinetic model for dermal absorption of waterborne pyrene by trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namdari, R.; Law, F.C.P. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    A physiologically-based toxicokinetic (PB-TK) model was developed to describe the disposition of pyrene in trout following a bolus injection into the dorsal aorta. In the present study, the PB-TK model was adapted for dermal absorption of waterborne pyrene by trout. A skin compartment with transdermal flux described mathematically by the permeability-area-concentration product was added to the PB-TK model to allow prediction of pyrene concentrations in target organs and blood on the basis of exposure concentration at the skin surface. Physiologically relevant parameters e.g., organ volume, blood flow rate, and tissue/blood partitioning coefficient which were derived from the model were similar to those reported in the previous publication. The dermal PB-TK model was validated by exposing the trunk of trout (400--500 g) to stagnant water containing 24 ppm pyrene in a specially designed chamber for 4 hr, 24 hr or 48 hr. The trout were sacrificed at the conclusion of pyrene exposure and the tissues analyzed for unchanged pyrene by HPLC. In separate experiments, trout were implanted with dorsal aorta cannuli before the trunks were exposed to stagnant water containing 24 ppm pyrene in the chamber for 4 hr. At specific time intervals during and after pyrene exposure, blood samples were withdrawn through the cannula and analyzed for pyrene by HPLC. The agreement between simulated and experimentally obtained values shows that this model is an appropriate tool to predict dermal absorption of waterborne pyrene by trout.

  5. Effects of oil dispersants on photodegradation of pyrene in marine water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Yanyan [Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Fu, Jie [Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); O’Reilly, S.E. [U.S. Department of the Interior, Gulf of Mexico OCS, Office of Environment, New Orleans, LA 70123 (United States); Zhao, Dongye, E-mail: zhaodon@auburn.edu [Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • Oil dispersant enhances pyrene photodegradation in seawater. • Oil dispersant increases formation of superoxide radicals. • Pyrene photodegradation shows a two-stage kinetics and follows first-order rate law. • Pyrene is degraded mainly through electron transfer from excited pyrene to oxygen. • Higher ionic strength and temperature and lower HA favor pyrene photodegradation. - Abstract: This work investigated effects of a popular oil dispersant (Corexit EC9500A) on UV- or sunlight-mediated photodegradation of pyrene (a model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) in seawater. The presence of 18 and 180 mg/L of the dispersant increased the first-order photodegradation rate by 5.5% and 16.7%, respectively, and reduced or ceased pyrene volatilization. By combining individual first-order rate laws for volatilization and photodegradation, we proposed an integrated kinetic model that can adequately predict the overall dissipation of pyrene from seawater. Mechanistic studies indicated that superoxide radicals played a predominant role in pyrene photodegradation, and the dispersant enhanced formation of superoxide radicals. 1-Hydroxypyrene was the main intermediate regardless of the dispersant, suggesting that electrons were transferred from excited pyrene to oxygen. In the presence of 18 mg/L of the dispersant, the photodegradation rate increased with increasing ionic strength and temperature, but decreased with increasing HA concentration, and remained independent of solution pH. The results are important in understanding roles of oil dispersants on environmental fate of persistent oil components in natural and engineered systems.

  6. Metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene and identification of the major benzo(a)pyrene-DNA adducts in cultured human colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Harris, Curtis C.; Trump, Benjamin F.

    1978-01-01

    The metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene in cultured human colon has been investigated. Nontumorous colonie tissue was collected at the time of either surgery or "immediate autopsy" from patients with or without colonic cancer. After 24 hr in culture the expiants were exposed to [3H]benzo(a)pyrene for an...

  7. Excimer laser for the treatment of psoriasis: safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrouk M

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Michael Abrouk,1 Ethan Levin,2 Merrick Brodsky,1 Jessica R Gandy,1 Mio Nakamura,2 Tian Hao Zhu,3 Benjamin Farahnik,4 John Koo,2 Tina Bhutani2 1Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, 2Department of Dermatology, Psoriasis and Skin Treatment Center, University of California, San Francisco, 3Department of Dermatology, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, 4Department of Dermatology, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT, USA Introduction: The 308 nm excimer laser is a widely used device throughout the field of dermatology for many diseases including psoriasis. Although the laser has demonstrated clinical efficacy, there is a lack of literature outlining the safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability of the excimer laser. Methods: A literature search on PubMed was used with combinations of the terms “excimer”, “excimer laser”, “308 nm”, “psoriasis”, “protocol”, “safety”, “efficacy”, acceptability”, “side effects”, and “dose”. The search results were included if they contained information pertaining to excimer laser and psoriasis treatment and description of the safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability of the treatment. Results: The 308 nm excimer laser is generally safe and well tolerated with minimal side effects including erythema, blistering, and pigmentary changes. It has a range of efficacies depending on the protocol used with several different treatment protocols, including the induration protocol, the minimal erythema dose protocol, and the newer minimal blistering dose protocol. Conclusion: Although the excimer laser is not a first-line treatment, it remains an excellent treatment option for psoriasis patients and has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment with little to no side effects. Keywords: excimer, laser, 308 nm, psoriasis, safety, efficacy

  8. Feasibility of the simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on two-dimensional fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Renjie; Dong, Guimei; Sun, Xueshan; Yang, Yanrong; Yu, Yaping; Liu, Haixue; Zhang, Weiyu

    2018-02-01

    A new approach for quantitative determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environment was proposed based on two-dimensional (2D) fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in conjunction with multivariate method. 40 mixture solutions of anthracene and pyrene were prepared in the laboratory. Excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectra of all samples were collected. And 2D fluorescence correlation spectra were calculated under the excitation perturbation. The N-way partial least squares (N-PLS) models were developed based on 2D fluorescence correlation spectra, showing a root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) of 3.50 μg L- 1 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 4.42 μg L- 1 for anthracene and of 3.61 μg L- 1 and 4.29 μg L- 1 for pyrene, respectively. Also, the N-PLS models were developed for quantitative analysis of anthracene and pyrene using EEM fluorescence spectra. The RMSEC and RMSEP were 3.97 μg L- 1 and 4.63 μg L- 1 for anthracene, 4.46 μg L- 1 and 4.52 μg L- 1 for pyrene, respectively. It was found that the N-PLS model using 2D fluorescence correlation spectra could provide better results comparing with EEM fluorescence spectra because of its low RMSEC and RMSEP. The methodology proposed has the potential to be an alternative method for detection of PAHs in environment.

  9. Treatment of alopecia areata with the 308-nm xenon chloride excimer laser: case report of two successful treatments with the excimer laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogan, Cuneyt; Greve, Bärbel; Raulin, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Alopecia areata is a common disease of unknown etiology; it causes significant cosmetic and psycho-social distress for most of the people it affects. We report on an innovative form of treatment in two patients with typical alopecia areata on the capillitium. We successfully treated two patients whose alopecia areata had worsened progressively for 3 and 14 weeks. The treatment involved the use of a 308 nm xenon chloride excimer laser (dosage 300-2,300 mJ/cm(2) per session). After 11 and 12 sessions within a 9-week and 11-week period, the entire affected focus showed homogenous and thick regrowth. No relapse was observed during the follow-up period of 5 and 18 months. The use of the excimer laser is an effective, elegant, and safe means of treatment and has good tolerability. Analogous to topical treatment of alopecia areata, the immunosuppressive mechanism of the excimer laser can be interpreted as an induction of T-cell apoptosis. This new means of treatment has yet to be discussed in medical literature. Further studies with greater numbers are needed to assess its potential more precisely and evaluate the excimer laser in treating alopecia areata. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Excimer laser beam delivery systems for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Uichi; Hashishin, Yuichi; Okada, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    1993-05-01

    We have been doing the basic experiments of UV laser beams and biotissue interaction with both KrF and XeCl lasers. However, the conventional optical fiber can not be available for power UV beams. So we have been investigating about UV power beam delivery systems. These experiments carry on with the same elements doped quartz fibers and the hollow tube. The doped elements are OH ion, chlorine and fluorine. In our latest work, we have tried ArF excimer laser and biotissue interactions, and the beam delivery experiments. From our experimental results, we found that the ArF laser beam has high incision ability for hard biotissue. For example, in the case of the cow's bone incision, the incision depth by ArF laser was ca.15 times of KrF laser. Therefore, ArF laser would be expected to harden biotissue therapy as non-thermal method. However, its beam delivery is difficult to work in this time. We will develop ArF laser beam delivery systems.

  11. 308-nm excimer laser ablation of human cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodoehl, John A.; Rhodes, Anthony L.; Meller, Menachem M.; Sherk, Henry H.

    1993-07-01

    The XeCl excimer laser was investigated as an ablating tool for human fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage. Quantitative measurements were made of tissue ablation rates as a function of fluence in meniscal fibrocartilage and articular hyaline cartilage. A force of 1.47 Newtons was applied to an 800 micrometers fiber with the laser delivering a range of fluences (40 to 190 mj/mm2) firing at a frequency of 5 Hz. To assess the effect of repetition rate on ablation rate, a set of measurements was made at a constant fluence of 60 mj/mm2, with the repetition rate varying from 10 to 40 Hz. Histologic and morphometric analysis was performed using light microscopy. The results of these studies revealed that the ablation rate was directly proportional to fluence over the range tested. Fibrocartilage was ablated at a rate 2.56 times faster than hyaline cartilage at the maximum fluence tested. Repetition rate had no effect on the penetration per pulse. Adjacent tissue damage was noted to be minimal (10 - 70 micrometers ).

  12. Microencapsulation of silicon cavities using a pulsed excimer laser

    KAUST Repository

    Sedky, Sherif M.

    2012-06-07

    This work presents a novel low thermal-budget technique for sealing micromachined cavities in silicon. Cavities are sealed without deposition, similar to the silicon surface-migration sealing process. In contrast to the 1100°C furnace anneal required for the migration process, the proposed technique uses short excimer laser pulses (24ns), focused onto an area of 23mm 2, to locally heat the top few microns of the substrate, while the bulk substrate remains near ambient temperature. The treatment can be applied to selected regions of the substrate, without the need for special surface treatments or a controlled environment. This work investigates the effect of varying the laser pulse energy from 400 mJ cm 2to 800 mJ cm 2, the pulse rate from 1Hz to 50Hz and the pulse count from 200 to 3000 pulses on sealing microfabricated cavities in silicon. An analytical model for the effect of holes on the surface temperature distribution is derived, which shows that much higher temperatures can be achieved by increasing the hole density. A mechanism for sealing the cavities is proposed, which indicates how complete sealing is feasible. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  13. Effect of volatile compounds on excimer laser power delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Stewart D; Hovanesian, John A; Maloney, Robert K

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether vapors from perfume, hairspray, oil-based paint, or water-based paint affect excimer laser beam power delivery at the corneal surface. We measured the power delivery of an Apex Plus laser before, during, and after exposure to vapors from the following volatile compounds: three types of perfume, hair spray, an oil-based paint, and a water-based paint. A digital calorimeter was used to measure the steady-state beam power of the laser during laser discharge at the corneal plane. Multiple trials were run with each compound, and the change in laser energy over time was examined to determine if any of the compounds caused degradation of the laser optics. The presence of a volatile compound in the room caused no change in mean laser energy in comparison to before and after the compound was present. However, perfumes caused a progressive decline in laser beam power throughout the trials. Controlling for this progressive decline, there was no significant difference from perfume to perfume. None of the compounds tested caused a decline in laser beam power while present in the room. However, the presence of any perfume caused a deterioration in beam power over time, suggesting a degradation of the laser optics for all perfumes. Laser centers should consider advising their patients and staff to not wear perfumes in the laser suite.

  14. Excimer laser annealing of shallow As and B doped layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monakhov, E.V.; Svensson, B.G.; Linnarsson, M.K.; Magna, A. La; Privitera, V.; Camalleri, M.; Fortunato, G.; Mariucci, L.

    2004-01-01

    Excimer laser annealing (ELA) of As-, B- and BF 2 -implanted Si has been studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), spreading resistance probe (SRP) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The implantations have been performed in the energy range from 1 to 30 keV with doses of 10 15 -10 16 cm -2 . ELA has been carried out with the energy densities in the range of 600-1200 mJ/cm 2 and the number of laser pulses from 1 to 10. It is shown that ELA results in a more uniform dopant distribution over the doped region with a more abrupt profile edge as compared to those after rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Besides, in contrast to RTA, ELA demonstrates a highly confined annealing effect, where the distribution of dopants below the melting region is not affected. SRP measurements demonstrate almost complete activation of the implanted dopants after ELA, and TEM does not reveal extended defects in the ELA-treated samples. The depth of the doped layers, abruptness of the profiles and the total doping dose as a function of ELA energy density and number of laser pulses are investigated. Computer simulations of ELA show a good agreement with the experimental data

  15. Boron-enhanced diffusion in excimer laser annealed Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monakhov, E.V.; Svensson, B.G.; Linnarsson, M.K.; La Magna, A.; Privitera, V.; Fortunato, G.; Mariucci, L.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of excimer laser annealing (ELA) and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on B redistribution in B-implanted Si has been studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and spreading resistance probe (SRP). B has been implanted with an energy of 1 keV and a dose of 10 16 cm -2 forming a distribution with a width of 20-30 nm and a peak concentration of ∼5 x 10 21 cm -3 . It has been found that ELA with 10 pulses of the energy density of 850 mJ/cm 2 results in a uniform B distribution over the ELA-molten region with an abrupt profile edge. SRP measurements demonstrate good activation of the implanted B after ELA, with the concentration of the activated fraction (∼10 21 cm -3 ) exceeding the solid solubility level. RTA (30 s at 1100 deg. C) of the as-implanted and ELA-treated samples leads to a diffusion of B with diffusivities exceeding the equilibrium one and the enhancement is similar for both of the samples. It is also found that RTA decreases the activated B in the ELA-treated sample to the solid solubility limit (2 x 10 20 cm -3 ). The similarity of the B diffusivity for the as-implanted and ELA-treated samples suggests that the enhancement of the B diffusivity is due to the so-called boron-enhanced diffusion (BED). Possible mechanisms of BED are discussed

  16. Dynamic changes in functional gene copy numbers and microbial communities during degradation of pyrene in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Jingjing; Cai Chao; Qiao Min; Li Hong; Zhu Yongguan

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the dynamics of pyrene degradation rates, microbial communities, and functional gene copy numbers during the incubation of pyrene-spiked soils. Spiking pyrene to the soil was found to have negligible effects on the bacterial community present. Our results demonstrated that there was a significant difference in nidA gene copy numbers between sampling dates in QZ soil. Mycobacterium 16S rDNA clone libraries showed that more than 90% mycobacteria detected were closely related to fast-growing PAH-degrading Mycobacterium in pyrene-spiked soil, while other sequences related to slow-growing Mycobacterium were only detected in the control soil. It is suggested that nidA gene copy number and fast-growing PAH-degrading Mycobacterium could be used as indicators to predict pyrene contamination and its degradation activity in soils. - nidA gene and fast-growing PAH-degrading Mycobacterium can serve as indicators for pyrene contamination.

  17. Reduced cytochrome P4501A activity and recovery from oxidative stress during subchronic benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[e]pyrene treatment of rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Lawrence R.; Garzon, Claudia B.; Arkoosh, Mary; Collier, Tracy; Myers, Mark S.; Buzitis, Jon; Hahn, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) affinity, and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein and activity in polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced oxidative stress. In the 1-100 nM concentration range benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) but not benzo[e]pyrene (BeP) competitively displaced 2 nM [ 3 H]2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin from rainbow trout AHR2α. Based on appearance of fluorescent aromatic compounds in bile over 3, 7, 14, 28 or 50 days of feeding 3 μg of BaP or BeP/g fish/day, rainbow trout liver readily excreted these polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their metabolites at near steady state rates. CYP1A proteins catalyzed more than 98% of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in rainbow trout hepatic microsomes. EROD activity of hepatic microsomes initially increased and then decreased to control activities after 50 days of feeding both PAHs. Immunohistochemistry of liver confirmed CYP1A protein increased in fish fed both PAHs after 3 days and remained elevated for up to 28 days. Neither BaP nor BeP increased hepatic DNA adduct concentrations at any time up to 50 days of feeding these PAHs. Comet assays of blood cells demonstrated marked DNA damage after 14 days of feeding both PAHs that was not significant after 50 days. There was a strong positive correlation between hepatic EROD activity and DNA damage in blood cells over time for both PAHs. Neither CYP1A protein nor 3-nitrotyrosine (a biomarker for oxidative stress) immunostaining in trunk kidney were significantly altered by BaP or BeP after 3, 7, 14, or 28 days. There was no clear association between AHR2α affinity and BaP and BeP-induced oxidative stress. - Highlights: → No direct association between aryl hydrocarbon receptor affinity and polyaromatic hydrocarbon induced oxidative stress. → There was a strong correlation between cytochrome P4501A activity and oxidative stress as measured with the comet assay. → There was no correlation between cytochrome P4501A

  18. Influence of chain length of pyrene fatty acids on their uptake and metabolism by Epstein-Barr-virus-transformed lymphoid cell lines from a patient with multisystemic lipid storage myopathy and from control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radom, J; Salvayre, R; Levade, T; Douste-Blazy, L

    1990-01-01

    The uptake and intracellular metabolism of 4-(1-pyrene)butanoic acid (P4), 10-(1-pyrene)decanoic acid (P10) and 12-(1-pyrene)dodecanoic acid (P12) were investigated in cultured lymphoid cell lines from normal individuals and from a patient with multisystemic lipid storage myopathy (MLSM). The cellular uptake was shown to be dependent on the fatty-acid chain length, but no significant difference in the uptake of pyrene fatty acids was observed between MLSM and control lymphoid cells. After incubation for 1 h the distribution of fluorescent fatty acids taken up by the lymphoid cell lines also differed with the chain length, most of the fluorescence being associated with phospholipid and triacylglycerols. In contrast with P10 and P12, P4 was not incorporated into neutral lipids. When the cells were incubated for 24 h with the pyrene fatty acids, the amount of fluorescent lipids synthesized by the cells was proportional to the fatty acid concentration in the culture medium. After a 24 h incubation in the presence of P10 or P12, at any concentration, the fluorescent triacylglycerol content of MLSM cells was 2-5-fold higher than that of control cells. Concentrations of pyrene fatty acids higher than 40 microM seemed to be more toxic for mutant cells than for control cells. This cytotoxicity was dependent on the fluorescent-fatty-acid chain length (P12 greater than P10 greater than P4). Pulse-chase experiments permitted one to demonstrate the defect in the degradation of endogenously biosynthesized triacylglycerols in MLSM cells (residual activity was around 10-25% of controls on the basis of half-lives and initial rates of P10- or P12-labelled-triacylglycerol catabolism); MLSM lymphoid cells exhibited a mild phenotypic expression of the lipid storage (less severe than that observed in fibroblasts). P4 was not utilized in the synthesis of triacylglycerols, and thus did not accumulate in MLSM cells: this suggests that natural short-chain fatty acids might induce a lesser

  19. The effect of excimer laser keratectomy on corneal glutathione-related enzymes in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, Ayşe; Bilgihan, Kamil; Yis, Ozgür; Yis, Nilgün Safak; Hasanreisoglu, Berati

    2003-04-01

    Glutathione related enzymes are involved in the metabolism and detoxification of cytotoxic and carcinogenic compounds as well as reactive oxygen species. Excimer laser is a very useful tool for the treatment of refractive errors and removing superficial corneal opacities. Previous studies have shown that excimer laser may initiate free radical formation in the cornea. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of excimer laser keratectomy on corneal glutathione-related enzyme activities in rabbits. Animals were divided into five groups, and all groups were compared with the controls (group 1), after epithelial scraping (group 2), transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) (group 3), traditional PRK (group 4) and deep traditional PRK (group 5). Corneal glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities were measured after 24h. Corneal GPx and GR activities significantly decreased only in group 5 (p < 0.05) but GST activities significantly decreased in all groups when compared with the control group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, excimer laser inhibits the glutathione dependent defense system in the cornea, this effect becomes more prominent after high doses of excimer laser energy and antioxidants may be useful to reduce free radical mediated complications.

  20. KrF excimer laser precision machining of hard and brittle ceramic biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yao-Xiong; Lu, Jian-Yi; Huang, Jin-Xia

    2014-01-01

    KrF excimer laser precision machining of porous hard–brittle ceramic biomaterials was studied to find a suitable way of machining the materials into various desired shapes and sizes without distorting their intrinsic structure and porosity. Calcium phosphate glass ceramics (CPGs) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were chosen for the study. It was found that KrF excimer laser can cut both CPGs and HA with high efficiency and precision. The ablation rates of CPGs and HA are respectively 0.081 µm/(pulse ⋅ J cm −2 ) and 0.048 µm/(pulse ⋅ J cm −2 ), while their threshold fluences are individually 0.72 and 1.5 J cm −2 . The cutting quality (smoothness of the cut surface) is a function of laser repetition rate and cutting speed. The higher the repetition rate and lower the cutting speed, the better the cutting quality. A comparison between the cross sections of CPGs and HA cut using the excimer laser and using a conventional diamond cutting blade indicates that those cut by the excimer laser could retain their intrinsic porosity and geometry without distortion. In contrast, those cut by conventional machining had distorted geometry and most of their surface porosities were lost. Therefore, when cutting hard–brittle ceramic biomaterials to prepare scaffold and implant or when sectioning them for porosity evaluation, it is better to choose KrF excimer laser machining. (paper)

  1. Investigation on gas medium parameters for an ArF excimer laser through orthogonal experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xingliang; Sha, Pengfei; Fan, Yuanyuan; Jiang, R.; Zhao, Jiangshan; Zhou, Yi; Yang, Junhong; Xiong, Guangliang; Wang, Yu

    2018-02-01

    Due to complex kinetics of formation and loss mechanisms, such as ion-ion recombination reaction, neutral species harpoon reaction, excited state quenching and photon absorption, as well as their interactions, the performance behavior of different laser gas medium parameters for excimer laser varies greatly. Therefore, the effects of gas composition and total gas pressure on excimer laser performance attract continual research studies. In this work, orthogonal experimental design (OED) is used to investigate quantitative and qualitative correlations between output laser energy characteristics and gas medium parameters for an ArF excimer laser with plano-plano optical resonator operation. Optimized output laser energy with good pulse to pulse stability can be obtained effectively by proper selection of the gas medium parameters, which makes the most of the ArF excimer laser device. Simple and efficient method for gas medium optimization is proposed and demonstrated experimentally, which provides a global and systematic solution. By detailed statistical analysis, the significance sequence of relevant parameter factors and the optimized composition for gas medium parameters are obtained. Compared with conventional route of varying single gas parameter factor sequentially, this paper presents a more comprehensive way of considering multivariables simultaneously, which seems promising in striking an appropriate balance among various complicated parameters for power scaling study of an excimer laser.

  2. Configuration of organic dye excimers in nanoporous SiO2 matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokin, A.V.; Gnap, B.A.; Bespalova, I.I.; Yefimova, S.L.; Malyukin, Yu.V.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of cyanine dye 3,3′-dioctadecyloxacarbocyanine perchlorate (DiO) and benzimidazole dye 4-dimethylamino-1,8-naphthoylene-1′,2′-benzimidazole (DNBI) accumulation in nanoporous silica matrices on the dyes luminescence properties has been studied. For both dyes, ground state dimer formation with perpendicular transition dipoles at high dye concentrations has been considered as a result of restricted geometry of the nanoscale pores. The dimer excitation leads to excimer formation revealing by appearance of new long-wavelength luminescence band and shortening the dye luminescence lifetime. In the excimer luminescence excitation spectra two additional bands have been observed, one of which is bathochromically shifted relatively to the absorption band and another one is hypsocromically shifted. Using the Kasha exciton model it was shown that the excimers possess oblique transition dipoles configuration. - Highlights: • Organic dye molecules are efficiently accumulated in nanoporous silica matrices. • Restricted geometry of SiO 2 nanopores provokes excimerization of both cyanine and benzimidazole dyes. • The excimers reveal configuration of oblique dimers. • The excimers are originated from ground state dimers with a perpendicular arrangement of transition dipoles.

  3. Multiphoton spectral analysis of benzo[a]pyrene uptake and metabolism in a rat liver cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barhoumi, Rola; Mouneimne, Youssef; Ramos, Ernesto; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.; Safe, Stephen; Parrish, Alan R.; Burghardt, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic analysis of the uptake and metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their metabolites within live cells in real time has the potential to provide novel insights into genotoxic and non-genotoxic mechanisms of cellular injury caused by PAHs. The present work, combining the use of metabolite spectra generated from metabolite standards using multiphoton spectral analysis and an 'advanced unmixing process', identifies and quantifies the uptake, partitioning, and metabolite formation of one of the most important PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, BaP) in viable cultured rat liver cells over a period of 24 h. The application of the advanced unmixing process resulted in the simultaneous identification of 8 metabolites in live cells at any single time. The accuracy of this unmixing process was verified using specific microsomal epoxide hydrolase inhibitors, glucuronidation and sulfation inhibitors as well as several mixtures of metabolite standards. Our findings prove that the two-photon microscopy imaging surpasses the conventional fluorescence imaging techniques and the unmixing process is a mathematical technique that seems applicable to the analysis of BaP metabolites in living cells especially for analysis of changes of the ultimate carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8-dihydrodiol-t-9,10-epoxide. Therefore, the combination of the two-photon acquisition with the unmixing process should provide important insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which BaP and other PAHs alter cellular homeostasis.

  4. Laser dentistry: A new application of excimer laser in root canal therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pini, R.; Salimbeni, R.; Vannini, M.; Barone, R.; Clauser, C.

    1989-01-01

    We report the first study of the application of excimer lasers in dentistry for the treatment of dental root canals. High-energy ultraviolet (UV) radiation emitted by an XeCl excimer laser (308 nm) and delivered through suitable optical fibers can be used to remove residual organic tissue from the canals. To this aim, UV ablation thresholds of dental tissues have been measured, showing a preferential etching of infiltrated dentin in respect to healthy dentin, at laser fluences of 0.5-1.5 J/cm 2 . This technique has been tested on extracted tooth samples, simulating a clinical procedure. Fibers of decreasing core diameters have been used to treat different sections of the root canal down to its apical portion, resulting in an effective, easy, and fast cleaning action. Possible advantages of excimer laser clinical applications in respect to usual procedures are also discussed

  5. Synthesis of block copolymers derived from N-trityl-(S)-serine and pyrene end-labeled poly(methyl methacrylate) or poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) via ATRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buruiana, Emil C.; Podasca, Viorica; Buruiana, Tinca

    2012-01-01

    A new monomer bearing N-trityl-L-serine methyl ester in structure, methacryloyloxyethyl carbamoyloxy–N-trityl methyl serine (MTS), was prepared to be further polymerized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with pyrene-endcapped poly(methyl methacrylate) (Py–PMMA–Br) or poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (Py–PNIPA–Br). The resulting block copolymers, poly(methyl methacrylate–block–methacryloyloxyethyl carbamoyloxy–N-trityl methyl serine) (Py–PMMA–b–PMTS) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide–block–methacryloyloxyethyl carbamoyloxy–N-trityl methyl serine (Py–PNIPA–b–PMTS) were characterized by 1 H ( 13 C) NMR, ultraviolet, FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy, thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) measurements. The chemical composition in Py–PMMA–b–PMTS was estimated from the 1 H NMR analysis that indicated a ratio of the repeating units of 46:19 (MMA:MTS). For the Py–PNIPA–b–PMTS the composition rate in the copolymer was 61:25 (NIPA:MTS). Quenching of the pyrene species with N,N-diethylaniline, nitrobenzene, nitrophenol, potassium iodide, p-nitrotoluene and tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) in DMF solution excited at 348 nm was evidenced, more efficiently being nitrophenol and TCNQ. In this case, the monomer emission at 388–409 nm underwent a significant decrease caused of an electron transfer from the electron-reach photoexcited pyrene molecule to the electron-deficient quenchers. - Highlights: ► Diblock copolymers combine the fluorescence of pyrene–PMMA (PNIPA) with the characteristics of PMTS. ► Such copolymers could be used for nitroderivatives detecting. ► UV/vis and fluorescence measurements give a good correlation for LCST of Py–PNIPA–Br.

  6. A pyrene-benzthiazolium conjugate portraying aggregation induced emission, a ratiometric detection and live cell visualization of HSO{sub 3}{sup −}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diwan, Uzra; Kumar, Virendra [Department of Chemistry (Centre of Advanced Study), Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh 221005 (India); Mishra, Rakesh K. [Photosciences and Photonics, Chemical Sciences and Technology Division, CSIR–National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram 695019 (India); Rana, Nishant Kumar; Koch, Biplob; Singh, Manish Kumar [Department of Zoology (Centre of Advanced Study), Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Upadhyay, K.K., E-mail: drkaushalbhu@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry (Centre of Advanced Study), Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh 221005 (India)

    2016-07-27

    The present study deals with the photophysical property of a pyrene-benzthiazolium conjugate R1, as a strong intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) probe exhibiting long wavelength emission in the red region. Unlike traditional planar polyaromatic hydrocarbons whose aggregation generally quenches the light emission, the pyrene based R1 was found to display aggregation-induced emission (AIE) property along with simultaneous increase in its quantum yield upon increasing the water content of the medium. The R1 exhibits high specificity towards HSO{sub 3}{sup −}/SO{sub 3}{sup 2−} by interrupting its own ICT producing there upon a large ratiometric blue shift of ∼220 nm in its emission spectrum. The lowest detection limit for the above measurement was found to be 8.90 × 10{sup −8} M. The fluorescent detection of HSO{sub 3}{sup −} was also demonstrated excellently by test paper strip and silica coated TLC plate incorporating R1. The live cell imaging of HSO{sub 3}{sup −} through R1 in HeLa cells was studied using fluorescence microscopic studies. The particle size and morphological features of R1 and R1-HSO{sub 3}{sup −} aggregates in aqueous solution were characterized by DLS along with SEM analysis.- Highlights: • A pyrene-benzthiazolium conjugate probe (R1) itself showed interesting phenomenon of an aggregation-induced emission (AIE). • R1 emits in the red channel and effectively utilized as a colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent sensor for HSO{sub 3}{sup −}. • The nano-dimensional spherical particles of R1 got enlarged upon its interaction with the HSO{sub 3}{sup −}. • R1 can efficiently stain HSO{sub 3}{sup −} in live cells and can be used for the on-spot detection of the same.

  7. Advanced excimer laser technologies enable green semiconductor manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Hitomi; Yoo, Youngsun; Minegishi, Yuji; Hisanaga, Naoto; Enami, Tatsuo

    2014-03-01

    "Green" has fast become an important and pervasive topic throughout many industries worldwide. Many companies, especially in the manufacturing industries, have taken steps to integrate green initiatives into their high-level corporate strategies. Governments have also been active in implementing various initiatives designed to increase corporate responsibility and accountability towards environmental issues. In the semiconductor manufacturing industry, there are growing concerns over future environmental impact as enormous fabs expand and new generation of equipments become larger and more powerful. To address these concerns, Gigaphoton has implemented various green initiatives for many years under the EcoPhoton™ program. The objective of this program is to drive innovations in technology and services that enable manufacturers to significantly reduce both the financial and environmental "green cost" of laser operations in high-volume manufacturing environment (HVM) - primarily focusing on electricity, gas and heat management costs. One example of such innovation is Gigaphoton's Injection-Lock system, which reduces electricity and gas utilization costs of the laser by up to 50%. Furthermore, to support the industry's transition from 300mm to the next generation 450mm wafers, technologies are being developed to create lasers that offer double the output power from 60W to 120W, but reducing electricity and gas consumption by another 50%. This means that the efficiency of lasers can be improve by up to 4 times in 450mm wafer production environments. Other future innovations include the introduction of totally Heliumfree Excimer lasers that utilize Nitrogen gas as its replacement for optical module purging. This paper discusses these and other innovations by Gigaphoton to enable green manufacturing.

  8. Effects of shape, size, and pyrene doping on electronic properties of graphene nanoflakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuamit, Thanawit; Ratanasak, Manussada; Rungnim, Chompoonut; Parasuk, Vudhichai

    2017-11-25

    Effects of size, shape, and pyrene doping on electronic properties of graphene nanoflakes (GNFs) were theoretically investigated using density functional theory method with PBE, B3PW91, and M06-2X functionals and cc-pVDZ basis set. Two shapes of zigzag GNFs, hexagonal (HGN) and rhomboidal (RGN), were considered. The energy band gap of GNF depends on shape and decreases with size. The HGN has larger band gap energy (1.23-3.96 eV) than the RGN (0.13-2.12 eV). The doping of pyrene and pyrene derivatives on both HGN and RGN was also studied. The adsorption energy of pyrene and pyrene derivatives on GNF does not depend on the shape of GNFs with energies between 21 and 27 kcal mol -1 . The substituent on pyrene enhances the binding to GNF but the strength does not depend on electron withdrawing or donating capability. The doping by pyrene and pyrene derivatives also shifts the HOMO and LUMO energies of GNFs. Both positive (destabilizing) and negative (stabilizing) shifts on HOMO and LUMO of GNFs were seen. The direction and magnitude of the shift do not follow the electron withdrawing and donating capability of pyrene substituents. However, only a slight shift was observed for doped RGN. A shift of 0.19 eV was noticed for HOMO of HGN doped with 1-aminopyrene (pyNH 2 ) and of 0.04 eV for LUMO of HGN doped with 1-pyrenecarboxylic acid (pyCOOH). Graphical Abstract HOMO and LUMO Energies of pyrene/pyrene derivatives doped Graphene Nanoflakes.

  9. [The 308 nm Excimer laser for the treatment of psoriasis and inflammatory skin diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, K; Salavastru, C

    2018-01-01

    Overall, the 308 nm Excimer laser enables not only a more effective and safer UVB therapy than classical UV phototherapy, but also targeted irradiation in higher doses with a lower cumulative load, which results in faster healing of mainly circumscribed skin changes. This also applies to therapy-resistant residual lesions which, despite systemic therapy, did not diminish. Combination therapies usually improve the result and enable the dose of UVB and systemic medication to be reduced. Excimer laser therapy can be used for an increasing number of skin diseases, especially those that respond to phototherapy or photochemotherapy.

  10. XeCl Excimer Laser with Three- and Four-Component Mixture of Active Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanejko, L.; Pokora, L.

    1998-01-01

    Selected results of investigations of a XeCl excimer laser employing a new type (four-component)of mixture of gases, He-Kr:Xe-HCl, are presented. The mixture includes, instead of Xe, a mixture of not-separated Kr and Xe gases, much less expensive than pure xenon. A comparison of durations and energies of pulses generated in the XeCl excimer laser using three- or four-component gaseous active medium (He-Xe-HCl or He-Kr:Xe-HCl) is made. The investigations have been carried out with the use of a laser system with UV preionization and self sustained pumping discharge. (author)

  11. XeCl Excimer Laser For Micro - Machining Of Materials: Preliminary Theoretical And Experimental Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanejko, Leszek; Pokora, Ludwik; Stefanski, Miroslaw; Ujda, Zbigniew

    1987-10-01

    The paper presents the results of preliminary investigations, both theoretical and experimental, of XeC1 excimer laser pumped by transverse electric discharge with UU preionization. The medium was a mixture of gases He-Xe-HC1. A theoretical model of the XeC1 laser was worked out and a lot of laser parameters calculations were done. In the same time an excimer laser operating on the mixture He-Xe-HC1 was started, the generation of laser radiation was of energy about 20mJ.

  12. The nature of conducting materials by anodic coupling of pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotti, G.; Schiavon, G. (Ist. di Polarografia ed Elettrochimica Preparativa, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Padua (Italy))

    1992-05-01

    Polypyrenes from anodic coupling of pyrene in acetonitrile and 1,2-dichloroethane have been identified as the 1,1'-coupled dimer and tetramer, respectively, on the basis of electrochemical analysis and IR, UV-Vis and mass spectroscopies. Bipyrene and tetrapyrene are reversibly reduced at -2.27 and -2.15 V versus Ag/Ag{sup +}, respectively. Their electrochemical oxidation (at 0.96 and 0.87 V) is followed by further polymerization and ultimate degradation whereas iodine doping of tetrapyrene leads reversibly to a conducting adduct (6x10{sup -3} S/cm). (orig.).

  13. Separation of water-soluble metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene formed by cultured human colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman

    1979-01-01

    A method has been developed to separate conjugated metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene into three major fractions: sulfate esters, glucuronides and glutathione conjugates. In cultured human colon, formation of sulfate esters and glutathione conjugates is the major conjugation pathway, while formation......-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene were the major substrates for sulfotransferase in cultured human colon....

  14. Baseline levels of benzo(a)pyrene in southern California mussels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, B P [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver; Young, D R

    1976-12-01

    Marine mussels accumulate the carcinogen benzo(a)-pyrene from contaminated environments. Baseline studies in California indicate that levels of the carcinogen in mussels are at or near zero, except in areas of human activity. This finding runs counter to previous suggestions that benzo(a)pyrene is widely distributed in marine organisms.

  15. Pyrene removal from contaminated soil using electrokinetic process combined with surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Enayat Hashemi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pyrene is one of the stable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that is considered as an important pollutants, because of extensive distribution in the environment and carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Among the various treatment techniques, electrokinetic method is an environmental- friendly process for organic and mineral pollutants adsorbed to soil with fine pore size the same as clay and low hydraulic conductivity soils. For improving the efficiency of pyrene removal from soil, soulobilization of pyrene from soil could be used by surfactants. Materials and Methods : In this study, clay soil was selected as model because of the specific properties. Combined method using surfactant and electrokinetic was applied for pyrene removal from soil. Experiments were designed using response surface methodology (RSM, and effect of three variables includes surfactant concentration, voltage and surfactant type were evaluated for pyrene removal from contaminated soil. Results: Pyrene removal using anionic surfactants(SDS and nonionic surfactants(TX100 as a solubilizing agents has high removal efficiency. In the optimum condition with 95% confidence coefficient, utilizing mixed surfactants of sodium dodecyl sulfate and triton X-100 with the same volume, induced of 18.54 volt and 6.53 percent surfactant concentration have 94.6% pyrene removal efficiency. Conclusion:: Results of this study shows that electrokinetic process combined with surfactant as solubilizing agent could be applied as an efficient method for treating the pyrene-contaminated soils.

  16. The endophytic bacterium Serratia sp. PW7 degrades pyrene in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuezhu; Wang, Wanqing; Crowley, David E; Sun, Kai; Hao, Shupeng; Waigi, Michael Gatheru; Gao, Yanzheng

    2017-03-01

    This research was conducted to isolate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading (PAH-degrading) endophytic bacteria and investigate their potential in protecting plants against PAH contamination. Pyrene-degrading endophytic bacteria were isolated from plants grown in PAH-contaminated soil. Among these endophytic bacteria, strain PW7 (Serratia sp.) isolated from Plantago asiatica was selected to investigate the suppression of pyrene accumulation in Triticum aestivum L. In the in vitro tests, strain PW7 degraded 51.2% of the pyrene in the media within 14 days. The optimal biodegradation conditions were pH 7.0, 30 °C, and MS medium supplemented with additional glucose, maltose, sucrose, and peptones. In the in vivo tests, strain PW7 successfully colonized the roots and shoots of inoculated (E + ) wheat plants, and its colonization decreased pyrene accumulation and pyrene transportation from roots to shoots. Remarkably, the concentration of pyrene in shoots decreased much more than that in roots, suggesting that strain PW7 has the potential for protecting wheat against pyrene contamination and mitigating the threat of pyrene to human health via food consumption.

  17. Bioavailability and toxicity of pyrene in soils upon biochar and compost addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielská, Lucie; Kah, Melanie; Sigmund, Gabriel; Hofmann, Thilo; Höss, Sebastian

    2017-10-01

    The study investigates the role of biochar and/or compost in mitigating the toxic effects of pyrene in soils using reproduction of nematodes and porewater concentration as measures of pyrene toxicity and bioavailability, respectively. Two soils were spiked with increasing levels of pyrene to achieve a concentration-response relationship for the reproduction of Caenorhabditis elegans. The observed EC50 values (pyrene concentration causing 50% inhibition of reproduction) were 14mg/kg and 31mg/kg (dry mass) for these soils, corresponding to equilibrium porewater concentrations of 37μg/L and 47μg/L, respectively. Differences in organic carbon content were not sufficient to explain the variability in toxicity between the different soils. Soils causing a significant inhibition of reproduction were further amended with 10%-compost, 5%-biochar, or both, and the effects on reproduction and porewater concentration determined. Combined addition of compost and biochar was identified as the most effective strategy in reducing pyrene concentration in soil porewater, which was also partly reflected in soil toxicity. However, porewater concentrations predicted only 52% of pyrene toxicity to nematodes, pointing to particle-bound or dietary exposure pathways. Capsule: Amending pyrene-spiked soil with biochar and compost effectively reduced pyrene porewater concentrations and toxicity to nematodes, which were significantly related. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxides as intermediates in nucleic acid binding in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinstein, I.B.; Jeffrey, A.M.; Jennette, K.W.

    1976-01-01

    Evidence has been obtained that a specific isomer of a diol epoxide derivative of benzo(a)pyrene, (+/-)-7 beta,8alpha-dihydroxy-9alpha, 10alpha-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene, is an intermediate in the binding of benzo(a)pyrene to RNA in cultured bovine bronchial mucosa. An adduct is for...

  19. Influence of gas discharge parameters on emissions from a dielectric barrier discharge excited argon excimer lamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Collier

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A dielectric barrier discharge excited neutral argon (Ar I excimer lamp has been developed and characterised. The aim of this study was to develop an excimer lamp operating at atmospheric pressure that can replace mercury lamps and vacuum equipment used in the sterilisation of medical equipment and in the food industry. The effects of discharge gas pressure, flow rate, excitation frequency and pulse width on the intensity of the Ar I vacuum ultraviolet (VUV emission at 126 nm and near infrared (NIR lines at 750.4 nm and 811.5 nm have been investigated. These three lines were chosen as they represent emissions resulting from de-excitation of excimer states that emit energetic photons with an energy of 9.8 eV. We observed that the intensity of the VUV Ar2* excimer emission at 126 nm increased with increasing gas pressure, but decreased with increasing excitation pulse frequency and pulse width. In contrast, the intensities of the NIR lines decreased with increasing gas pressure and increased with increasing pulse frequency and pulse width. We have demonstrated that energetic VUV photons of 9.8 eV can be efficiently generated in a dielectric barrier discharge in Ar.

  20. Stability of a 1-kW excimer laser with long optical pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, J.C.M.; Hofmann, T.; Hofmann, Th.; van Goor, F.A.; Witteman, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    For high repetition operation of excimer-lasers care has to be taken of the changing performance of the electrical circuit, gas dynamic effects and contamination of the gas mixture to avoid deterioration of the laser performance. The parameters that influence the stability of the discharge are

  1. Excimer laser coronary atherectomy in septal collaterals during retrograde recanalization of a chronic total occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernward Lauer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Management of chronic total occlusions has been refined through the development of a retrograde approach via collateral pathways. We describe the use of Excimer Laser Coronary Atherectomy in the septal collaterals. This appraoch was not yet described in the literature.

  2. A pulsed electron injector using a metal photocathode irradiated by an excimer laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauppila, T.J.; Builta, L.A.; Crutcher, J.K.; Elliott, J.C.; Moir, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    The hot cathode of an electron gun is replaced by a metallic photocathode driven by an excimer laser. The current, current density, and emittance of the 500-kV electron beam produced by the photoelectron source are presented. In addition, the temperature of the photocathode is varied to study the possibility of a hybrid source

  3. Refractive microlenses produced by excimer laser machining of poly(methyl methacrylate)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Frøhling; Krühne, Ulrich; H., L.

    2005-01-01

    A method has been developed whereby refractive microlenses can be produced in poly (methyl methacrylate) by excimer laser irradiation at λ = 248 nm. The lenses are formed by a combined photochemical and thermal process. The lenses are formed as depressions in the substrate material (negative foca...

  4. Pustular Palmoplantar Psoriasis Successfully Treated with Nb-UVB Monochromatic Excimer Light: A Case-Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Gianfaldoni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Barber’s palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP is a form of localised pustular psoriasis, affecting the palmar and plantar surfaces. It is a chronic disease, with a deep impact on the patients’ quality of life. The Authors discuss a case of Baber Psoriasis successfully treated with monochromatic excimer light.

  5. Collagen crosslinking for ectasia following PRK performed in excimer laser-assisted keratoplasty for keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadea, Leopoldo

    2012-01-01

    To report the results of corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) in a patient with corneal ectasia developed after excimer laser-assisted lamellar keratoplasty for keratoconus and a secondary photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for residual refractive error. A 33-year-old woman, who had originally been treated for keratoconus in the right eye by excimer laser-assisted lamellar keratoplasty, subsequently had her residual ametropia treated by topographically guided, transepithelial excimer laser PRK. Five years after PRK, the patient developed corneal ectasia showing concomitant visual changes of best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) reduced to 20/33 with a refraction of -6.00 +6.00 × 30. The minimum corneal thickness at the ectasia apex was 406 µm. A treatment of riboflavin-UVA-induced corneal CXL was performed on the right eye. Two years after the CXL treatment, the right eye improved to 20/20 BSCVA with a refraction of plano +1.00 × 50 while exhibiting a clear lamellar graft. Corneal CXL provided safe and effective management of ectasia developed after excimer laser-assisted lamellar keratoplasty and PRK.

  6. Excimer laser crystallization of InGaZnO4 on SiO2 substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, T.; Wu, M.Y.; Ishihara, R.; Nomura, K.; Kamiya, T.; Hosono, H.; Beenakker, C.I.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we were able to crystallize InGaZnO4 (IGZO) by excimer laser on SiO2 substrate. It was observed that uniform [0001] textured polycrystalline IGZO film has been obtained without any grain boundaries and oxygen vacancies on SiO2 substrate. This process is very promising in fabricating

  7. Performance characteristics of an excimer laser (XeCl) with single ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... Performance characteristics of an excimer laser (XeCl) with single-stage magnetic ... the stress can increase the lifetime of the switches and ..... work. References. [1] Ying-Tung Chen, Kris Naessens, Roel Bates, Yunn-Shiuan.

  8. Laser drilling of metals with a XeCl excimer laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonderbeek, A.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is about laser drilling with a unique excimer laser with a nearly diffraction-limited beam and relatively long optical pulse duration of 175 ns. The combination of high processing speed and high processing quality suitable for industrial applications can be obtained because the excellent

  9. Microbial transformation of 6-nitrobenzo[a]pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millner, G.C.; Fu, P.P.; Cerniglia, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    The fungal metabolism of the potent mutagenic and carcinogenic nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (nitro-PAH) 6-nitrobenzo[a]pyrene (6-NO 2 -BaP) was investigated. Cunninghamella elegans was incubated with 6-NO 2 -BaP for periods ranging between 1 and 7 d, and the metabolites formed were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by their UV-visible absorption, mass, and 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The results of the study indicate that C. elegans metabolized 6-NO 2 -BaP to glucoside and sulfate conjugates of 1- and 3-hydroxy 6-NO 2 -BaP and suggests that glycosylation and sulfation reactions may represent detoxification pathways in the fungal metabolism of nitro-PAHs. Experiments using [G- 3 H]-6-NO 2 -BaP indicated that C. elegans metabolized 62% of 6-NO 2 -BaP with 168 h. The data also indicated that the nitro group at the C-6 position of benzo[a]pyrene blocked metabolism at the regions peri to the nitro substituent (C-7, C-8 positions) and enhanced metabolism at the C-1 and C-3 positions. The ability of the fungus C. elegans to metabolize 6-NO 2 -BaP to biologically inactive compounds may have practical applications in the detoxification of nitro-PAH-contaminated wastes

  10. Bright and photostable push-pull pyrene dye visualizes lipid order variation between plasma and intracellular membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niko, Yosuke; Didier, Pascal; Mely, Yves; Konishi, Gen-ichi; Klymchenko, Andrey S

    2016-01-11

    Imaging lipid organization in cell membranes requires advanced fluorescent probes. Here, we show that a recently synthesized push-pull pyrene (PA), similarly to popular probe Laurdan, changes the emission maximum as a function of lipid order, but outperforms it by spectroscopic properties. In addition to red-shifted absorption compatible with common 405 nm diode laser, PA shows higher brightness and much higher photostability than Laurdan in apolar membrane environments. Moreover, PA is compatible with two-photon excitation at wavelengths >800 nm, which was successfully used for ratiometric imaging of coexisting liquid ordered and disordered phases in giant unilamellar vesicles. Fluorescence confocal microscopy in Hela cells revealed that PA efficiently stains the plasma membrane and the intracellular membranes at >20-fold lower concentrations, as compared to Laurdan. Finally, ratiometric imaging using PA reveals variation of lipid order within different cellular compartments: plasma membranes are close to liquid ordered phase of model membranes composed of sphingomyelin and cholesterol, while intracellular membranes are much less ordered, matching well membranes composed of unsaturated phospholipids without cholesterol. These differences in the lipid order were confirmed by fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) at the blue edge of PA emission band. PA probe constitutes thus a new powerful tool for biomembrane research.

  11. A comparison of the characteristics of excimer and femtosecond laser ablation of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    See, Tian Long; Liu, Zhu; Li, Lin; Zhong, Xiang Li

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ablation threshold for excimer laser is lower compared to femtosecond laser. • Effective optical penetration depth for excimer laser is lower compared to femtosecond laser. • Two ablation characteristic regimes are observed for femtosecond laser ablation. • Reduction of C=C bond following excimer or fs laser ablation is observed. • Addition of oxygen- and nitrogen-rich functional groups is observed. - Abstract: This paper presents an investigation on the ablation characteristics of excimer laser (λ = 248 nm, τ = 15 ns) and femtosecond laser (λ = 800 nm, τ = 100 fs) on ABS polymer sheets. The laser–material interaction parameters (ablation threshold, optical penetration depth and incubation factor) and the changes in material chemical properties were evaluated and compared between the two lasers. The work shows that the ablation threshold and effective optical penetration depth values are dependent on the wavelength of laser beam (photon energy) and the pulse width. The ablation threshold value is lower for the excimer laser ablation of ABS (F_t_h = 0.087 J/cm"2) than that for the femtosecond laser ablation of ABS (F_t_h = 1.576 J/cm"2), demonstrating a more dominating role of laser wavelength than the pulse width in influencing the ablation threshold. The ablation depth versus the logarithmic scale of laser fluence shows two linear regions for the fs laser ablation, not previously known for polymers. The effective optical penetration depth value is lower for excimer laser ablation (α"−"1 = 223 nm) than that for femtosecond laser ablation (α"−"1 = 2917 nm). The ablation threshold decreases with increasing number of pulses (NOP) due to the chain scission process that shortens the polymeric chains, resulting in a weaker polymeric configuration and the dependency is governed by the incubation factor. Excimer laser treatment of ABS eliminates the C=C bond completely through the chain scission process whereas C=C bond is partially

  12. A comparison of the characteristics of excimer and femtosecond laser ablation of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    See, Tian Long, E-mail: tianlong.see@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, The Mill, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom); Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom); Liu, Zhu [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, The Mill, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom); Li, Lin [Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom); Zhong, Xiang Li [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, The Mill, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-28

    Highlights: • Ablation threshold for excimer laser is lower compared to femtosecond laser. • Effective optical penetration depth for excimer laser is lower compared to femtosecond laser. • Two ablation characteristic regimes are observed for femtosecond laser ablation. • Reduction of C=C bond following excimer or fs laser ablation is observed. • Addition of oxygen- and nitrogen-rich functional groups is observed. - Abstract: This paper presents an investigation on the ablation characteristics of excimer laser (λ = 248 nm, τ = 15 ns) and femtosecond laser (λ = 800 nm, τ = 100 fs) on ABS polymer sheets. The laser–material interaction parameters (ablation threshold, optical penetration depth and incubation factor) and the changes in material chemical properties were evaluated and compared between the two lasers. The work shows that the ablation threshold and effective optical penetration depth values are dependent on the wavelength of laser beam (photon energy) and the pulse width. The ablation threshold value is lower for the excimer laser ablation of ABS (F{sub th} = 0.087 J/cm{sup 2}) than that for the femtosecond laser ablation of ABS (F{sub th} = 1.576 J/cm{sup 2}), demonstrating a more dominating role of laser wavelength than the pulse width in influencing the ablation threshold. The ablation depth versus the logarithmic scale of laser fluence shows two linear regions for the fs laser ablation, not previously known for polymers. The effective optical penetration depth value is lower for excimer laser ablation (α{sup −1} = 223 nm) than that for femtosecond laser ablation (α{sup −1} = 2917 nm). The ablation threshold decreases with increasing number of pulses (NOP) due to the chain scission process that shortens the polymeric chains, resulting in a weaker polymeric configuration and the dependency is governed by the incubation factor. Excimer laser treatment of ABS eliminates the C=C bond completely through the chain scission process whereas

  13. Synthesis and characterization of a fluorescent water-soluble paclitaxel prodrug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jeong-Sun; Choi, Eun-Sun; Jo, Byung-Wook; Hess, Michael; Han, Song-Hee

    2010-05-01

    A fluorescence susceptible water-soluble paclitaxel was synthesized by a condensation reaction between PEGylated paclitaxel (namely, PP7) and 1-pyrene butyric acid (PBA) in order to obtain a better understanding of the mechanism of action of paclitaxel as well as of the environment of the paclitaxel-binding site. The reaction was performed successfully and the resulting paclitaxel was characterized by FT-NMR, analytical-HPLC, UV spectro photometry, and fluorescence spectrometry. The synthesized paclitaxel analogue showed a high susceptibility to fluorescence in both excitation and emission spectra. And we have investigated the time-resolved fluorescence behavior of them in different solvents and at different excitation wavelengths.

  14. Molecules for Fluorescence Detection of Specific Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, Steve

    2008-01-01

    A family of fluorescent dye molecules has been developed for use in on-off fluorescence detection of specific chemicals. By themselves, these molecules do not fluoresce. However, when exposed to certain chemical analytes in liquid or vapor forms, they do fluoresce (see figure). These compounds are amenable to fixation on or in a variety of substrates for use in fluorescence-based detection devices: they can be chemically modified to anchor them to porous or non-porous solid supports or can be incorporated into polymer films. Potential applications for these compounds include detection of chemical warfare agents, sensing of acidity or alkalinity, and fluorescent tagging of proteins in pharmaceutical research and development. These molecules could also be exploited for use as two-photon materials for photodynamic therapy in the treatment of certain cancers and other diseases. A molecule in this family consists of a fluorescent core (such as an anthracene or pyrene) attached to two end groups that, when the dye is excited by absorption of light, transfer an electron to the core, thereby quenching the fluorescence. The end groups can be engineered so that they react chemically with certain analytes. Upon reaction, electrons on the end groups are no longer available for transfer to the core and, consequently, the fluorescence from the core is no longer quenched. The chemoselectivity of these molecules can be changed by changing the end groups. For example, aniline end groups afford a capability for sensing acids or acid halides (including those contained in chemical warfare agents). Pyridine or bipyridyl end groups would enable sensing of metal ions. Other chemicals that can be selectively detected through suitable choice of end groups include glucose and proteins. Moreover, the fluorescent cores can be changed to alter light-absorption and -emission characteristics: anthracene cores fluoresce at wavelengths around 500 nm, whereas perylene cores absorb and emit at

  15. Polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and fullerene: Pyrene acceptor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cominetti, Alessandra; Pellegrino, Andrea; Longo, Luca [Research Center for Renewable Energies and Environment, Istituto Donegani, Eni S.p.A, Via Fauser 4, IT-28100 Novara (Italy); Po, Riccardo, E-mail: riccardo.po@eni.com [Research Center for Renewable Energies and Environment, Istituto Donegani, Eni S.p.A, Via Fauser 4, IT-28100 Novara (Italy); Tacca, Alessandra; Carbonera, Chiara; Salvalaggio, Mario [Research Center for Renewable Energies and Environment, Istituto Donegani, Eni S.p.A, Via Fauser 4, IT-28100 Novara (Italy); Baldrighi, Michele; Meille, Stefano Valdo [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica “G. Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, via Mancinelli 7, IT-20131 Milano (Italy)

    2015-06-01

    The replacement of widely used fullerene derivatives, e.g. [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), with unfunctionalized C60 and C70 is an effective approach to reduce the costs of organic photovoltaics. However, solubility issues of these compounds have always represented an obstacle to their use. In this study, bulk-heterojunction solar cells made of poly(3-hexylthiophene) donor polymer, C60 or C70 acceptors and a pyrene derivative (1-pyrenebutiric acid butyl ester) are reported. Butyl 1-pyrenebutirate limits the aggregation of fullerenes and improves the active layer morphology, plausibly due to the formation of pyrene-fullerene complexes which, in the case of pyrene-C70, were also obtained in a crystalline form. Maximum power conversion efficiencies of 1.54% and 2.50% have been obtained using, respectively, C60 or C70 as acceptor. Quantum mechanical modeling provides additional insight into the formation of plausible supermolecular structures via π-π interactions and on the redox behaviour of pyrene-fullerene systems. - Highlights: • Pyrene derivatives favour the dispersion of unfunctionalized fullerenes. • Polymer solar cells with pyrene: C60 adduct as acceptor have efficiencies of 1.54%. • When C60 is substituted with C70 the efficiency is increased to 2.50%. • DFT calculations support the plausibility of the formation of pyrene: fullerene adducts. • The use of unfunctionalized fullerenes may decrease the costs of polymer solar cells.

  16. Fluorescence spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagatolli, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful experimental tool used by scientists from many disciplines. During the last decades there have been important developments on distinct fluorescence methods, particularly those related to the study of biological phenomena. This chapter discusses the foundati......Fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful experimental tool used by scientists from many disciplines. During the last decades there have been important developments on distinct fluorescence methods, particularly those related to the study of biological phenomena. This chapter discusses...

  17. Laser-induced fluorescence detection strategies for sodium atoms and compounds in high-pressure combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Karen J. R.; Wise, Michael L.; Smith, Gregory P.

    1993-01-01

    A variety of laser-induced fluorescence schemes were examined experimentally in atmospheric pressure flames to determine their use for sodium atom and salt detection in high-pressure, optically thick environments. Collisional energy transfer plays a large role in fluorescence detection. Optimum sensitivity, at the parts in 10 exp 9 level for a single laser pulse, was obtained with the excitation of the 4p-3s transition at 330 nm and the detection of the 3d-3p fluorescence at 818 nm. Fluorescence loss processes, such as ionization and amplified spontaneous emission, were examined. A new laser-induced atomization/laser-induced fluorescence detection technique was demonstrated for NaOH and NaCl. A 248-nm excimer laser photodissociates the salt molecules present in the seeded flames prior to atom detection by laser-induced fluorescence.

  18. The preparation of highly water-soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes by irreversible noncovalent functionalization with a pyrene-carrying polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Chaohua; Zhou Renjia; Shi Minmin; Gao Yan; Wu Gang; Chen Hongzheng; Wang Mang; Zhang Xiaobin

    2008-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) have been solubilized in water via a noncovalent method of exfoliation and centrifugation cycles with the assistance of hydrolyzed poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) carrying pyrene (HPSMAP). After the obtained solution was micro-filtered and dried, a water-soluble complex of HPSMAP-MWNTs was obtained. The solubility of HPSMAP-MWNTs was measured to be 46.2 mg ml -1 with a net MWNT concentration of 7.4 mg ml -1 in water. Thermal gravimetric analyses showed that there was a large amount of polymer remaining on the surface of MWNTs irreversibly after thoroughly removing the free polymer. Other characterizations using transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, fluorescence spectra, and fluorescence decay were conducted

  19. Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) of free radicals induced by X-rays in pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moya Partiti, C.S. de.

    1982-01-01

    Pyrene single crystals C 16 H 10 , irradiated by X-rays, at room temperature, were studied by EPR technique, to determine free radicals formed by radiation. The angular dependence of EPR spectra was explained by the presence of two kinds of radicals with an aditional hydrogen: 2-H 2 pyrene and 3-H 2 pyrene. It was studied the isothermic decay of the EPR signal and two typical values for the activation energy were found = (1,9+-0,1) eV and (1,93+-0,03) eV. (author) [pt

  20. Photochemistry of pyrene with water at low temperature: study of atmospherical and astrochemical interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guennoun, Zohra; Aupetit, Christian; Mascetti, Joëlle

    2011-03-17

    Photochemistry of a polyaromatic hydrocarbon, pyrene C(16)H(10), with water has been investigated at cryogenic temperatures. Photoprocessing of this species, performed at λ > 235 nm, in argon matrices, adsorbed onto amorphous water surfaces, and trapped in solid water, led to the formation of ketonic isomers, C(16)H(10)O, and possibly quinones. These species have been identified for the first time by infrared spectroscopy with the support of isotopic substitution experiments and DFT calculations. These oxidized pyrene-like species, of atmospherical and astrochemical interest, most likely arise from a tautomeric rearrangement of their analogous hydroxylated molecules, these latter being formed by reaction of water with pyrene cations.

  1. Effects of pyrene exposure and temperature on early development of two co-existing Arctic copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grenvald, Julie Cornelius; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Hjorth, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Oil exploration is expected to increase in the near future in Western Greenland. At present, effects of exposure to oil compounds on early life-stages of the ecologically important Calanus spp. are unknown. We investigated the effects of the oil compound pyrene, on egg hatching and naupliar...... with temperature at high pyrene concentration in C. finmarchicus. Both Calanus species were affected by pyrene exposure but C. finmarchicus was more sensitive compared to C. glacialis. Lowered growth rate and increased mortality of the naupliar stages entail reduced recruitment to copepod populations. Exposure...

  2. Distinctive Spectral Features of Exciton and Excimer States in the Ultrafast Electronic Deactivation of the Adenine Dinucleotide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhldreier, Mayra C.; Röttger, Katharina; Temps, Friedrich

    We report the observation by transient absorption spectroscopy of distinctive spectro-temporal signatures of delocalized exciton versus relaxed, weakly bound excimer states in the ultrafast electronic deactivation after UV photoexcitation of the adenine dinucleotide.

  3. FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF THE FORMATION OF HYDROPHOBIC MICRODOMAINS IN AQUEOUS-SOLUTIONS OF POLY(ALKYLMETHYLDIALLYLAMMONIUM BROMIDES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    YANG, YJ; Engberts, Jan B F N

    The conformational state of poly(alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromides) was studied in aqueous solutions using pyrene as a fluorescence probe. The results are indicative for the formation of hydrophobic microdomains in the case of several copolymers which possess sufficiently hydrophobic alkyl side

  4. Monitoring i-motif transitions through the exciplex emission of a fluorescent probe incorporating two (Py)A units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Il Joon; Kim, Byeang Hyean

    2012-02-18

    Pairs of pyrene-modified deoxyadenosine ((Py)A) units induce a stable interstrand i-motif structure, which can be characterized by a change in the fluorescence λ(max), with an exciplex emission that is not observable in its single-strand structure. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  5. Carcinogenicity of the environmental pollutants cyclopenteno-(cd)pyrene and cyclopentano(cd)pyrene in mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalieri, E.; Rogan, E.; Toth, B.; Munhall, A.

    1981-01-01

    Cyclopenteno(cd)pyrene (CPEP) is a widespread environmental pollutant. This hydrocarbon and its 3,4-dihydro derivative, cyclopentano(cd)pyrene (CPAP), were tested on skin in a two-stage initiation-promotion experiment in CD-1 mice and by repeated application in Swiss mice. The biological effect of CPEP and CPAP was compared to that of benzo(a)-pyrene (BP). Nine-week-old female CD-1 mice in groups of 30 were treated every other day over a 20-day period at mini-dose levels of 0.18, 0.06 and 0.02 mumol of CPEP or CPAP in acetone. One group was treated with BP at the low mini-dose level. Initiation was followed by twice weekly application of tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate for 40 weeks. In the second experiments, nine-week-old female Swiss mice in groups of 30 were treated at dose levels of 1.8, 0.6 and 0.2 mumol CPEP or CPAP in acetone twice weekly for 30 weeks. One group was treated with BP at the low dose. CPAP was virtually inactive in both studies. In the initiation-promotion experiment CPEP was inactive at the low dose level, whereas BP exhibited significant tumorigenicity. At the medium and high doses CPEP showed weak, but statistically insignificant, tumorigenic activity. Repeated application of CPEP at the high, medium and low doses resulted in tumor incidences of 23, 37 and 57%, respectively. This reverse dose-response may be due to the relatively high cytotoxicity of CPEP, BP, which was compared to CPEP at the low dose, elicited tumors in 100% of the mice. Most of the CPEP-induced neoplasms were malignant and some metastasized to lungs and lymph nodes. The inactivity of CPAP suggests the carcinogenicity of CPEP is probably due to formation of the ultimate metabolite CPEP 3,4-oxide. In view of the abundance of CPEP in environmental and occupational pollutants, its moderately potent carcinogenicity may represent a potential health hazard.

  6. Clinical results of PRK touch-up using Chiron/Technolas Keracor 116 excimer laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidian, Mary E.; Keates, Richard H.; Ren, Qiushi

    1995-05-01

    Regression of effect as well as undercorrection are well established complications of excimer photorefractive keratectomy for the correction of myopia. In thirteen eyes initially treated with the VISX Taunton excimer laser and then retreated with the Chiron Technolas laser, the minimum follow-up time was six months. The mean postoperative refraction at six months was -0.442 +/- 0.996 D (diopters), significantly different from the pretreatment mean of -1.904 +/- 1.297 D. At six months after retreatment (10/13 eyes) 76.9% had an uncorrected visual acuity greater than or equal to 20/40 and (10/13 eyes) 76.9% were within 1 diopter of emmetropia. Only one eye had a significant increase in postoperative haze. The results of this study indicate that the majority of photorefractive keratectomy regressions and undercorrections can be successfully retreated.

  7. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of excimer laser treated alumina films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, D. G.; Kolev, K.; Laude, L. D.; Mednikarov, B.; Starbov, N.

    1998-01-01

    Amorphous alumina layers are deposited on a single crystal Si substrate by a e-gun evaporation technique. These films are then thermally annealed in oxygen to be crystallized and, further, irradiated with an excimer laser beam. At each stage of the film preparation, an x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis is performed at the film surface and in depth, upon ion beam grinding. Results give evidence for the formation of an aluminosilicate upon thermal annealing of the film in oxygen. At the surface itself, this compound is observed to decompose upon excimer laser irradiation at energy densities exceeding 1.75 J/cm2, giving rise to free Si atoms and SiO2, however with complete disappearance of Al atoms. Model photochemical reactions are proposed to explain such transformations.

  8. Surface modification of polyethylene terephthalate using excimer and CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzadeh, H.; Dadsetan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Attempts have been made to evaluate microstructuring which affects cell behaviour, physical and chemical changes produced by laser irradiation onto the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface. The surfaces of PET were irradiated using the CO 2 laser and KrF excimer pulsed laser. The changes in chemical and physical properties of the irradiated PET surface were investigated by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and contact angle measurements. ATR-IR Spectra showed that the crystallinity in the surface region decreased due to the CO 2 laser and excimer laser irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy observations showed that the morphology of the laser irradiated PET surface changed due to laser irradiation. The results obtained from the cell behaviour studies revealed that changes of physico-chemical properties of the laser treated PET film have significantly changed in comparison with the unmodified PET

  9. Investigation of excimer laser ablation threshold of polymers using a microphone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, Joerg; Niino, Hiroyuki; Yabe, Akira

    2002-09-30

    KrF excimer laser ablation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyimide (PI) and polycarbonate (PC) in air was studied by an in situ monitoring technique using a microphone. The microphone signal generated by a short acoustic pulse represented the etch rate of laser ablation depending on the laser fluence, i.e., the ablation 'strength'. From a linear relationship between the microphone output voltage and the laser fluence, the single-pulse ablation thresholds were found to be 30 mJ cm{sup -2} for PET, 37 mJ cm{sup -2} for PI and 51 mJ cm{sup -2} for PC (20-pulses threshold). The ablation thresholds of PET and PI were not influenced by the number of pulses per spot, while PC showed an incubation phenomenon. A microphone technique provides a simple method to determine the excimer laser ablation threshold of polymer films.

  10. Bound-bound transitions in the emission spectra of Ba+-He excimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroshkin, P.; Kono, K.

    2016-05-01

    We present an experimental and theoretical study of the emission and absorption spectra of the Ba+ ions and Ba+*He excimer quasimolecules in the cryogenic Ba-He plasma. We observe several spectral features in the emission spectrum, which we assign to the electronic transitions between bound states of the excimer correlating to the 6 2P3 /2 and 5 2D3 /2 ,5 /2 states of Ba+. The resulting Ba+(5 2DJ) He is a metastable electronically excited complex with orbital angular momentum L =2 , thus expanding the family of known metal-helium quasimolecules. It might be suitable for high-resolution spectroscopic studies and for the search for new polyatomic exciplex structures.

  11. Excimer lasers utilizing XeF and XeCl molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bychkov, Yu I; Konovalov, I N; Losev, V F; Mesyats, G A; Ryzhov, V V; Tarasenko, V F; Fedorov, A I; Shemyakina, S B; Yastremskii, A G

    1978-12-01

    The results are given of an experimental and theoretical study of XeF (wavelength approx. 350 nm) and XeCl (wavelength approx. 308 nm) lasers excited by an electron beam, a discharge stabilized by an electron beam, and a rapid discharge. These lasers are representative of ones employing halides of noble gases, which are the most powerful sources of stimulated emission in the uv region. The XeCl laser is shown to have good emission characteristics with various methods of excitation. An analysis of the kinetics of processes in the plasma of lasers utilizing halides of noble gases showed that the main channel for the transfer of the beam's energy to the formation of excimer molecules is the ionic channel. An efficiency of about 2.6 percent and a specific radiant energy of 10 J.l/sup -1/ showed that XeCl* is one of the most effective excimer molecules.

  12. Comparing laser induced plasmas formed in diode and excimer pumped alkali lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markosyan, Aram H

    2018-01-08

    Lasing on the D 1 transition (6 2 P 1/2 → 6 2 S 1/2 ) of cesium can be reached in both diode and excimer pumped alkali lasers. The first uses D 2 transition (6 2 S 1/2 → 6 2 P 3/2 ) for pumping, whereas the second is pumped by photoexcitation of ground state Cs-Ar collisional pairs and subsequent dissociation of diatomic, electronically-excited CsAr molecules (excimers). Despite lasing on the same D 1 transition, differences in pumping schemes enables chemical pathways and characteristic timescales unique for each system. We investigate unavoidable plasma formation during operation of both systems side by side in Ar/C 2 H 6 /Cs.

  13. Topological, functional, and dynamic properties of the protein interaction networks rewired by benzo(a)pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ba, Qian; Li, Junyang; Huang, Chao; Li, Jingquan; Chu, Ruiai; Wu, Yongning; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene is a common environmental and foodborne pollutant that has been identified as a human carcinogen. Although the carcinogenicity of benzo(a)pyrene has been extensively reported, its precise molecular mechanisms and the influence on system-level protein networks are not well understood. To investigate the system-level influence of benzo(a)pyrene on protein interactions and regulatory networks, a benzo(a)pyrene-rewired protein interaction network was constructed based on 769 key proteins derived from more than 500 literature reports. The protein interaction network rewired by benzo(a)pyrene was a scale-free, highly-connected biological system. Ten modules were identified, and 25 signaling pathways were enriched, most of which belong to the human diseases category, especially cancer and infectious disease. In addition, two lung-specific and two liver-specific pathways were identified. Three pathways were specific in short and medium-term networks (< 48 h), and five pathways were enriched only in the medium-term network (6 h–48 h). Finally, the expression of linker genes in the network was validated by Western blotting. These findings establish the overall, tissue- and time-specific benzo(a)pyrene-rewired protein interaction networks and provide insights into the biological effects and molecular mechanisms of action of benzo(a)pyrene. - Highlights: • Benzo(a)pyrene induced scale-free, highly-connected protein interaction networks. • 25 signaling pathways were enriched through modular analysis. • Tissue- and time-specific pathways were identified

  14. Topological, functional, and dynamic properties of the protein interaction networks rewired by benzo(a)pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ba, Qian [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); Li, Junyang; Huang, Chao [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Li, Jingquan; Chu, Ruiai [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); Wu, Yongning, E-mail: wuyongning@cfsa.net.cn [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: huiwang@sibs.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-03-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene is a common environmental and foodborne pollutant that has been identified as a human carcinogen. Although the carcinogenicity of benzo(a)pyrene has been extensively reported, its precise molecular mechanisms and the influence on system-level protein networks are not well understood. To investigate the system-level influence of benzo(a)pyrene on protein interactions and regulatory networks, a benzo(a)pyrene-rewired protein interaction network was constructed based on 769 key proteins derived from more than 500 literature reports. The protein interaction network rewired by benzo(a)pyrene was a scale-free, highly-connected biological system. Ten modules were identified, and 25 signaling pathways were enriched, most of which belong to the human diseases category, especially cancer and infectious disease. In addition, two lung-specific and two liver-specific pathways were identified. Three pathways were specific in short and medium-term networks (< 48 h), and five pathways were enriched only in the medium-term network (6 h–48 h). Finally, the expression of linker genes in the network was validated by Western blotting. These findings establish the overall, tissue- and time-specific benzo(a)pyrene-rewired protein interaction networks and provide insights into the biological effects and molecular mechanisms of action of benzo(a)pyrene. - Highlights: • Benzo(a)pyrene induced scale-free, highly-connected protein interaction networks. • 25 signaling pathways were enriched through modular analysis. • Tissue- and time-specific pathways were identified.

  15. Metabolic activation and DNA binding of benzo(a)pyrene in cultured human bronchus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Shen K.; Gelboin, Harry V.; Trump, Benjamin F.

    1977-01-01

    . The predominant metabolite formed by human bronchus from the (-)-trans-7,8-diol is found by high-pressure liquid chromatographic analysis to be the diol-epoxide r-7,t-8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahy-drobenzo(a)pyrene. The results suggest that this diol-epoxide is the major benzo(a)pyrene metabolite bound...

  16. Green synthesis of selenium nanoparticles by excimer pulsed laser ablation in water

    OpenAIRE

    O. Van Overschelde; G. Guisbiers; R. Snyders

    2013-01-01

    Pure selenium nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by Liquid Phase - Pulsed Laser Ablation (LP-PLA) in de-ionized water. Excimer laser (248 nm) operating at low fluence (F ∼ 1 J/cm2) was used to generate colloidal solutions of selenium nanoparticles. The obtained selenium nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, and Transmission Electron Microscopy. We describe the multi-modal size distributions generated and use the cen...

  17. Physical and optical limitations using ArF-excimer and Er:YAG lasers for PRK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semchishen, Vladimir A.; Mrochen, Michael; Seiler, Theo

    1998-06-01

    The Erbium:YAG laser emitting at a wavelength of 2,94 micrometer have been promised as an alternative laser for the ArF-excimer laser (193 nm) in photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). This report discusses the limitations of laser parameters such as wavelength, energy density and pulse duration for the ablation of the cornea. In addition, the melting process during ablation on the corneal surface roughness may play a role.

  18. Levels of interleukin-6 in tears before and after excimer laser treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Resan Mirko; Stanojević Ivan; Petković-Ćurčin Aleksandra; Pajić Bojan; Vojvodić Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim. Immune response and consequent inflammatory process which originate on ocular surface after a trauma are mediated by cytokines. Photoablation of corneal stroma performed by excimer laser causes surgically induced trauma. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is mostly known as a proinflammatory cytokine. However, it also has regenerative and anti-inflammatory effects. It is supposed that this cytokine is likely to play a significant role in the process of co...

  19. Periodic morphological modification developed on the surface of polyethersulfone by XeCl excimer laser photoablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niino, H.; Nakano, M.; Nagano, S.; Yabe, A.; Miki, T.; Center for Structure Analyses, Teijin Limited, Asahigaoka, Hino, Tokyo, 191 Japan)

    1989-01-01

    Periodic and stable micropatterns appeared on the surface of amorphous polyethersulfone etched with an excimer laser at 308 nm in ambient air and a vacuum. The control of such radiative conditions as fluence and incident angle enables us to modify the spacing and pattern of the microstructures. A topographical investigation with scanning electron microscopy and an experiment with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine its composition is reported

  20. Magnetic circular Dichroism and Faraday rotation of cesium-argon excimers and cesium dimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Magnetic Circular Dichroism (MCD) and Faraday Rotation (FR) of excimer absorption bands in gases are measured to obtain the first direct information about the angular momentum quantum numbers and the angular momentum coupling schemes of excimer molecules. So far, there has been no experimental method to obtain information about the axial angular momentum and the angular momentum coupling schemes of excimer molecules. In this experiment, the MCD and the FR of cesium-argon excimer and cesium dimer absorption bands between 5000 A and 10,000 A are measured for the range of temperature from 116 0 to 355 0 C. Of particular interest is the blue wing of D 2 line in cesium which has been the subject of vigorous investigation. The measured MCD data at the blue wing of D 2 line clearly shows that the assignment of 2 μ/sub 1/2/ to this excited state assuming Hund's case (b) is a poor approximation. By a simple inspection of the MCD data, it is found that the coupling scheme is more nearly Hund's case (c) than Hynd's case (b). Several other new and interesting results are obtained. The blue wing associated with 5D transition in atomic cesium is devoid of MCD and exhibits strong MCD in the red wings. Thus, the assignment of 2 μ/sub 1/2/ and 2 π to the blue and red wings, respectively, assuming Hund's case (a) and (b), is a very good approximation. Again the yellow-green band associated with 7s-6s transition in atomic cesium shows no MCD. It is therefore also a good approximation to assign 2 μ/sub 1/2/ to the upper state assuming Hund's case (b). Much more information can be obtained by a detailed analysis of the MCD data

  1. Improved model for the angular dependence of excimer laser ablation rates in polymer materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedder, J. E. A.; Holmes, A. S.; Dyer, P. E.

    2009-10-01

    Measurements of the angle-dependent ablation rates of polymers that have applications in microdevice fabrication are reported. A simple model based on Beer's law, including plume absorption, is shown to give good agreement with the experimental findings for polycarbonate and SU8, ablated using the 193 and 248 nm excimer lasers, respectively. The modeling forms a useful tool for designing masks needed to fabricate complex surface relief by ablation.

  2. High Efficiency Mask Based Laser Materials Processing with TEA-CO2 - and Excimer Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    In general, mask based laser materials processing techniques suffer from a very low energy efficiency. We have developed a simple device called an energy enhancer, which is capable of increasing the energy efficiency of typical mask based laser materials processing systems. A short review of the ...... line marking with TEA-CO2 laser of high speed canning lines. The second one is manufactured for marking or microdrilling with excimer laser....

  3. Photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pyrene by iron oxide in solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Liu, C.S.; Li, F.B.; Liu, C.P.; Liang, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    To better understand the photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in solid phase in natural environment, laboratory experiments were conducted to study the influencing factors, kinetics and intermediate compound of pyrene photodegradation by iron oxides. The results showed that the pyrene photodegradation rate followed the order of α-FeOOH > α-Fe 2 O 3 > γ-Fe 2 O 3 > γ-FeOOH at the same reaction conditions. Lower dosage of α-FeOOH and higher light intensity increased the photodegradation rate of pyrene. Iron oxides and oxalic acid can set up a photo-Fenton-like system without additional H 2 O 2 in solid phase to enhance the photodegradation of pyrene under UV irradiation. All reaction followed the first-order reaction kinetics. The half-life (t 1/2 ) of pyrene in the system showed the higher efficiencies of using iron oxide as photocatalyst to degrade pyrene. Intermediate compound pyreno was found during photodegradation reactions by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The photodegradation efficiency for PAHs in this photo-Fenton-like system was also confirmed by using the contaminated soil samples. This work provides some useful information to understand the remediation of PAHs contaminated soils by photochemical techniques under practical condition

  4. Original papers A study on efficacy of 308 nm excimer light therapy in alopecia areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zo Nun Sanga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Alopecia areata (AA is an autoimmune condition characterized by T-cell-mediated attack on hair follicles. Objective. Evaluation of efficacy of 308 nm excimer light in the treatment of alopecia areata. Material and methods. Patches of AA were treated twice weekly, but not on 2 consecutive days, with UVB excimer 308 nm light. In all patients, half of the AA patch was irradiated and the other half was spared, covered with a black rubber shield and taken as a control. Therapy was started with an initial dose of 300 mJ/cm 2 , with an incremental dose of 100 mJ/cm 2 at every sitting until fine erythema appeared. Results. At the end of the treatment, one patient (3.33% at the test site showed > 50% hair regrowth vs. none at the control site. After a 2-month post-treatment period, successful hair regrowth (grades 3 and 4 was seen in 12 patients at test sites and in 2 patients at control sites. The differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05. After 4 months successful hair regrowth (grades 3 and 4 was seen in 16 patients at test sites and in 5 patients at control sites. The differences were statistically significant (p 0.05. Conclusions. Excimer light has the potential to stimulate hair regrowth in patches of alopecia areata.

  5. Excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy : Indications, results and its role in the Indian scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Srinivas

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To report indications, technique, and results of excimer phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK, and describe possible reasons for the small numbers of such procedures performed in a referral institute in India. METHODS: Retrospective review of case records of 10 patients (11 eyes who underwent excimer PTK at our institute between February 1994 and September 1997. RESULTS: Corneal scars were the most common indication for treatment. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA improved in 6 eyes (mean: 2 lines of Snellen acuity. All eyes had BCVA > or = 6/12 after treatment. None of the patients experienced loss of BCVA after treatment. Unaided visual acuity improved in 3 eyes and decreased in 2 eyes. Change in spherical equivalent refraction > or = 1 diopter occurred in 77.8% of eyes after treatment. Treating central corneal scars resulted in a significant hyperopic shift in refraction. CONCLUSIONS: Excimer PTK is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of superficial corneal opacities. Post-treatment ametropia may require further correction with optical aids. Inappropriate referrals, deep corneal scars, and cost of the procedure could have contributed to the small numbers of PTK performed at our institute. Improved understanding of procedural strengths and limitations could lead to increased use of this procedure, with satisfying results in selected patients.

  6. LASIK for myopia and astigmatism using the SCHWIND AMARIS excimer laser: an international multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbelaez, Maria Clara; Aslanides, Ioannis M; Barraquer, Carmen; Carones, Francesco; Feuermannova, Alena; Neuhann, Tobias; Rozsival, Pavel

    2010-02-01

    To assess the efficacy, predictability, and safety of LASIK for the surgical correction of low to moderate myopia with astigmatism using the SCHWIND AMARIS excimer laser. Six international study sites enrolled 358 eyes with a manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE) from -0.50 to -7.38 diopters (D) (mean sphere: -3.13+/-1.58 D) with up to -5.00 D of astigmatism (mean: -0.69+/-0.67 D). All eyes underwent treatment with the nonwavefront-guided aspheric algorithm of the SCHWIND AMARIS excimer laser. All eyes were targeted for emmetropia. Refractive outcomes and corneal higher order aberrations were analyzed pre- and postoperatively. Visual quality was assessed using photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivity. Six-month postoperative outcomes are reported. At 6 months postoperative, the MRSE for all eyes was -0.21+/-0.20 D, and 96% (343/358) of eyes had MRSE within +/-0.50 D. Uncorrected visual acuity was 20/20 or better in 98% (351/358) of eyes, and no eyes lost 2 or more lines of best spectacle-corrected visual acuity. The total corneal higher order aberrations root-mean-square increased by 0.09 microm, spherical aberration increased by 0.08 microm, and coma increased by 0.04 microm postoperatively. Photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivity did not change 6 months postoperatively. Treatment of myopia with astigmatism using the SCHWIND AMARIS excimer laser is safe, efficacious, predictable, and maintains visual quality.

  7. Application of optical tweezers and excimer laser to study protoplast fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantawang, Titirat; Samipak, Sompid; Limtrakul, Jumras; Chattham, Nattaporn

    2015-07-01

    Protoplast fusion is a physical phenomenon that two protoplasts come in contact and fuse together. Doing so, it is possible to combine specific genes from one protoplast to another during fusion such as drought resistance and disease resistance. There are a few possible methods to induce protoplast fusion, for example, electrofusion and chemical fusion. In this study, chemical fusion was performed with laser applied as an external force to enhance rate of fusion and observed under a microscope. Optical tweezers (1064 nm with 100X objective N.A. 1.3) and excimer laser (308 nm LMU-40X-UVB objective) were set with a Nikon Ti-U inverted microscope. Samples were prepared by soaking in hypertonic solution in order to induce cell plasmolysis. Elodea Canadensis and Allium cepa plasmolysed leaves were cut and observed under microscope. Concentration of solution was varied to induce difference turgor pressures on protoplasts pushing at cell wall. Free protoplasts in solution were trapped by optical tweezers to study the effect of Polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution. PEG was diluted by Ca+ solution during the process to induced protoplast cell contact and fusion. Possibility of protoplast fusion by excimer laser was investigated and found possible. Here we report a novel tool for plant cell fusion using excimer laser. Plant growth after cell fusion is currently conducted.

  8. Corneal aldehyde dehydrogenase and glutathione S-transferase activity after excimer laser keratectomy in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, K; Bilgihan, A; Hasanreisoğlu, B; Turkozkan, N

    1998-03-01

    The free radical balance of the eye may be changed by excimer laser keratectomy. Previous studies have demonstrated that excimer laser keratectomy increases the corneal temperature, decreases the superoxide dismutase activity of the aqueous, and induces lipid peroxidation in the superficial corneal stroma. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) are known to play an important role in corneal metabolism, particularly in detoxification of aldehydes, which are generated from free radical reactions. In three groups of guinea pigs mechanical corneal de-epithelialisation was performed in group I, superficial corneal photoablation in group II, and deep corneal photoablation in group III, and the corneal ALDH and GST activities measured after 48 hours. The mean ALDH and GST activities of group I and II showed no differences compared with the controls (p > 0.05). The corneal ALDH activities were found to be significantly decreased (p < 0.05) and GST activities increased (p < 0.05) in group III. These results suggest that excimer laser treatment of high myopia may change the ALDH and GST activities, metabolism, and free radical balance of the cornea.

  9. A design of energy detector for ArF excimer lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zebin; Han, Xiaoquan; Zhou, Yi; Bai, Lujun

    2017-08-01

    ArF excimer lasers with short wavelength and high photon energy are widely applied in the field of integrated circuit lithography, material processing, laser medicine, and so on. Excimer laser single pulse energy is a very important parameter in the application. In order to detect the single pulse energy on-line, one energy detector based on photodiode was designed. The signal processing circuit connected to the photodiode was designed so that the signal obtained by the photodiode was amplified and the pulse width was broadened. The amplified signal was acquired by a data acquisition card and stored in the computer for subsequent data processing. The peak of the pulse signal is used to characterize the single pulse energy of ArF excimer laser. In every condition of deferent pulse energy value levels, a series of data about laser pulses energy were acquired synchronously using the Ophir energy meter and the energy detector. A data set about the relationship between laser pulse energy and the peak of the pulse signal was acquired. Then, by using the data acquired, a model characterizing the functional relationship between the energy value and the peak value of the pulse was trained based on an algorithm of machine learning, Support Vector Regression (SVR). By using the model, the energy value can be obtained directly from the energy detector designed in this project. The result shows that the relative error between the energy obtained by the energy detector and by the Ophir energy meter is less than 2%.

  10. 308-nm excimer laser for the treatment of alopecia areata in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mutairi, Nawaf

    2009-01-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a common skin disease which is characterized by nonscarring localized or diffused hair loss. In this study we assessed the efficacy of 308-nm Excimer laser in the treatment of alopecia areata in children. A total of 9 children with 30 recalcitrant patches alopecia areata and two children with alopecia areata totalis were enrolled in this study which included seven male and four female patients, aged between 4 and 14 years and the durations of their disease were between 7 and 25 months. All of these patients had more than one lesion of alopecia areata and at least one of them was left as a control for comparison. The lesions were treated with the 308-nm Excimer laser twice a week for a period of 12 weeks. Regrowth of hair was observed in 18 (60%) alopecia patches in the scalp, while there was no response in the control patches and over the extremities. Only four patients with scalp lesions showed a recurrence of alopecia after 6 months post laser therapy. So, 308-nm Excimer laser is considered an effective safe therapeutic option for patchy alopecia areata in children.

  11. [Indomethacin (indocollyre) versus diclofenac (voltarene) for the control of pain following excimer photoablation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochener, B; Kling, F; Savary-Le Floch, G; Colin, J

    2000-06-01

    To compare effect of two topical non steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAI) drugs: Indomethacin (Indocollyre)0.1 %, Chauvin Inc.) and Diclofenac (Voltaren 0.1%, Cibavision) on postoperative pain and epithelial regrowth following surface excimer photoablation. Eighty-six excimer operated patients, were divided in two similar groups depending on the NSAI instilled postoperatively and for 3 days (4 drops daily). No patient was informed of any other available drug. Pain intensity was quantified between 1 and 10 according to an analog scale (reported from 1 to 10 hours, then 4 times a day during 7 days). Complementary medications and functional symptoms were also notified. Biomicroscopic evaluation using fluorescein test was performed to assess reepithelialization. In term of pain, no significative difference was observed between the two groups concerning intensity, associated medications, or numbers of days of discomfort. Controversially, retreated eyes might induce more pain than initial treatments. No delay in epithelial regrowth was noted and the difference between the two groups in functional complaints was no statistically significant. Pain appears to be not related to ablation depth. DISCUSSION- CONCLUSION: Our results are correlated to literature reported data. Introduction of NSAI constitutes a real advent in the care of excimer postoperative pain. Effect of indomethacin seems comparable to diclofenac effect, but might be of interest because of no anesthetic property that might guarantee of no delay in wound healing response.

  12. How to link pyrene to its host lipid to minimize the extent of membrane perturbations and to optimize pyrene dimer formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franova, M. D.; Repakova, J.; Holopainen, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    We study how lipid probes based on pyrene-labeling could be designed to minimize perturbations in lipid bilayers, and how the same design principles could be exploited to develop probes which gauge lipid dynamics primarily within a single lipid monolayer or between them. To this end, we use......, simulations suggest that formation of dimers is a slow process, where the rate is limited by both lateral diffusion and the dimerization process once the two probes are neighbors to one another. Typical lifetimes of pyrene dimers turn out be of the order of nanoseconds. The results are expected to pave...

  13. Change of wettability of PTFE surface by sputter etching and excimer laser. Sputter etching oyobi excimer laser ni yoru PTFE hyomen no shinsuika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, S. (Nitto Denko Corp., Osaka (Japan)); Kubo, U. (Kinki University, Osaka (Japan))

    1994-06-20

    The wettability of PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) surfaces was improved by sputter etching and excimer laser irradiation. In sputter etching, the PTFE surface was treated by reactive sputter etching with H2O gas to give active groups on the surface. In laser irradiation, the surface was irradiated in pure water by high-energy KrF excimer laser. As the surface wettability was evaluated with a contact angle to water, the contact angle decreased remarkably in both treatments resulting in a good improvement effect. In sputter etching, various new chemical bonds such as F-C=O, F2C-FC-O, F2C-C-O and C-O were observed because of a decrease in F and incorporation of oxygen. Such chemical bonds could be eliminated by ultraviolet ray irradiation, and the treated surface condition approached the initial condition after irradiation of 200 hours. In laser irradiation, it was suggested that C-F bonds were broken, and OH groups were added to the surface by dissociation of H2O to H and OH. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Heavy atom induced room temperature fluorescence quenching of PAH from a glucose glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlow, Matt, E-mail: matthew.marlow@nicholls.edu

    2017-06-15

    Sugar glasses are a relatively new matrix for solid-matrix luminescence. Molecular interactions within the sugar glass are not well understood. Fluorescence quenching was used to investigate molecular interactions within the sugar glass matrix. The room temperature fluorescence quenching of pyrene and naphthalene was observed from a glucose glass. The heavy atom salt NaI was the quencher. Two solvent compositions 50/50 and 60/40 MeOH/water, used for glass preparation, were examined for their effect on glass rigidity and molecular interactions. A complex static mechanism was observed for glasses prepared with 50/50 MeOH/water. This data was fit to the sphere of action model and associations constants determined. A Stern-Volmer static mechanism of quenching was observed for glasses prepared with 60/40 MeOH/water. This data fit the Stern-Volmer equation and association constants were determined. A larger association constant was observed for pyrene compared to naphthalene for both solvent systems used. Pyrene had a larger association constant with a sugar glass prepared with 60/40 MeOH/water compared to 50/50 MeOH/water implying a greater association between pyrene and iodide. The greater association is a reflection of a more rigid internal environment for the sugar glass prepared with 60/40 MeOH/water.

  15. Effect of sunlight irradiation on photocatalytic pyrene degradation in contaminated soils by micro-nano size TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Chien, S.W.; Chang, C.H.; Chen, S.H.; Wang, M.C.; Madhava Rao, M.; Satya Veni, S.

    2011-01-01

    The enhanced catalytic pyrene degradation in quartz sand and alluvial and red soils by micro-nano size TiO 2 in the presence and absence of sunlight was investigated. The results showed that the synergistic effect of sunlight irradiation and TiO 2 was more efficient on pyrene degradation in quartz sand and red and alluvial soils than the corresponding reaction system without sunlight irradiation. In the presence of sunlight irradiation, the photooxidation (without TiO 2 ) of pyrene was very pronounced in alluvial and red soils and especially in quartz sand. However, in the absence of sunlight irradiation, the catalytic pyrene degradation by TiO 2 and the photooxidation (without TiO 2 ) of pyrene were almost nil. This implicates that ultra-violet (UV) wavelength range of sunlight plays an important role in TiO 2 -enhanced photocatalytic pyrene degradation and in photooxidation (without TiO 2 ) of pyrene. The percentages of photocatalytic pyrene degradation by TiO 2 in quartz sand, alluvial and red soils under sunlight irradiation were 78.3, 23.4, and 31.8%, respectively, at 5 h reaction period with a 5% (w/w) dose of the amended catalyst. The sequence of TiO 2 -enhanced catalytic pyrene degradation in quartz sand and alluvial and red soils was quartz sand > red soil > alluvial soil, due to different texture and total organic carbon (TOC) contents of the quartz sand and other two soils. The differential Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of degraded pyrene in alluvial soil corroborate that TiO 2 -enhanced photocatalytic degradation rate of degraded pyrene was much greater than photooxidation (without TiO 2 ) rate of degraded pyrene. Based on the data obtained, the importance for the application of TiO 2 -enhanced photocatalytic pyrene degradation and associated organic contaminants in contaminated soils was elucidated. - Highlights: → Synergistic effect of sunlight irradiation and TiO 2 promoted degradation of pyrene. → Micro-nano size TiO 2 enhanced

  16. Comparative study of excimer and erbium:YAG lasers for ablation of structural components of the knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vari, Sandor G.; Shi, Wei-Qiang; van der Veen, Maurits J.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Miller, J. M.; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1991-05-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficiency and thermal effect of a 135 ns pulsed-stretched XeCl excimer laser (308 nm) and a free-running Erbium:YAG laser (2940 nm) with 200 microsecond(s) pulse duration for ablation of knee joint structures (hyaline and fibrous cartilage, tendon and bone). The radiant exposure used for tissue ablation ranged from 2 to 15 J/cm2 for the XeCl excimer and from 33 to 120 J/cm2 for Er:YAG. The excimer and Er:YAG lasers were operated at 4 and 5 Hz respectively. The ablative laser energy was delivered to tissue through fibers. Ablation rates of soft tissues (hyaline and fibrous cartilage, tendon) varied from 8.5 to 203 micrometers /pulse for excimer and from 8.2 to 273 micrometers /pulse for Er:YAG lasers. Ablation rates of soft tissues are linearly dependent on the radiant exposure. Within the range of parameters tested all the tissues except the bone could be rapidly ablated by both lasers. Bone ablation was much less efficient, requiring 15 J/cm2 and 110 J/cm2 radiant exposure for excimer and Er:YAG lasers to ablate 9.5 and 8.2 micrometers tissue per pulse. However, excimer laser ablation produced less thermal damage in the tissues studied compared to Er:YAG at the same laser parameters. The authors conclude that both lasers are capable of efficient knee joint tissue ablation. XeCl excimer laser requires an order of magnitude less energy than Er:YAG laser for comparable tissue ablation.

  17. Benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxides as intermediates in nucleic acid binding in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, I B; Jeffrey, A M; Jennette, K W; Blobstein, S H; Harvey, R G; Harris, C; Autrup, H; Kasai, H; Nakanishi, K

    1976-08-13

    Evidence has been obtained that a specific isomer of a diol epoxide derivative of benzo(a)pyrene, (+/-)-7 beta,8alpha-dihydroxy-9alpha, 10alpha-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene, is an intermediate in the binding of benzo(a)pyrene to RNA in cultured bovine bronchial mucosa. An adduct is formed between position 10 of this derivative and the 2-amino group of guanine.

  18. Persistence of urinary excretion products of benzo(a)pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uziel, M.; Haglund, R.; White, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Persistence of DNA-adducts has been observed in a variety of experimental circumstances and has been suggested as one potential mechanism for explaining the long-term delay before expression of proliferative disease. In this concept, a stable DNA-adduct, which is a remnant of a prior exposure in a nondividing cell, would not express the genotoxic effect until the cells were stimulated to divide, and thus explain the long-term delay in expression of cancer. An alternative view of the observation of persistent DNA-adducts, described in this communication, is the continuing replenishment of DNA adducts by formation and turnover of these adducts from exposure to a constant supply of the ultimate carcinogenic species derived from a prior exposure. It is of interest to note that virtually all experiments where ''persistent'' adducts have been observed have been high dose exposures. During the course of experiments designed to develop improved methods for detection of DNA adducts and related derivatives derived from polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), we observed that there was a continuous excretion of urinary derivatives of the injected benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) beyond the initial burst of detoxification. This report describes the time dependent distribution of those derivatives in blood, urine, feces, and at the site of injection. 11 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Estimating the Biodegradation Kinetics by Mixed Culture Degrading Pyrene (Pyr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. U. Ibn Abubakar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation and kinetics of Pyrene (Pyr degradation by a mixed culture previously isolated from hydrocarbon-polluted soil were conducted. Preliminary investigation on environmental factors affecting the degradation of Pyr such as temperature, pH and concentrations of Pyr was performed. These factors were optimised and established in aqueous experiments. In order to develop kinetics of Pyr degradation, an optimum temperature of 30oC and pH of 7.0 was used. Biodegradation kinetics was carried out, at first, using higher concentration between (100-700 ppm as sole source of carbon in mineral salt medium (MSM supplemented with 0.1% yeast extract. The result indicated that a range of concentration between (100-700 ppm inhibits the performance of the mixed culture. A concentration range between (10-100 ppm did not inhibit the growth of the mixed culture. A First-order rate constant, k was higher (0.0487 mg/lh with a substrate concentration of 20 ppm than other concentrations. The average degradation rate constant is 0.0029 mg/Lh for all the concentrations tested. This indicated that the mixed culture could degrade over 0.0696 ppm of Pyr per day. It also confirmed that kinetics of microbial degradation was partially fitted into Monod model. The data can be used to estimate biodegradation of Pyr by a mixed culture and preliminarily estimation of degradation rates.

  20. Compartmental analysis of benzo[a]pyrene toxicokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, D.R.; Weyand, E.H.

    1986-01-01

    A multicompartmental model to describe quantitatively the toxicokinetics of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) was developed using SAAM (Simulation, Analysis and Modeling). [ 3 H]-B[a]P dissolved in triethylene glycol was administered intratracheally to male Sprague-Dawley rats, and amounts of [ 3 H] were quantified in various tissues at selected times up to 6 hr after administration. Elimination of [ 3 H]-B[a]P and/or metabolites from lungs was biphasic, with half-times of 5.3 min. and 116 min. [ 3 H]-B[a]P and/or metabolites were subsequently distributed primarily to liver and carcass (muscle, bones, fat, skin and associated blood). Carcass contained about 20% of administered [ 3 H] at 6 hr after administration, and agreement between the model and experimental data required that the carcass be modeled as two compartments, one with rapid and one with slow exchange. Approximately 50% of the administered dose was excreted in feces in 6 hr and only 2% appeared in urine. Enterohepatic circulation was accounted for in the model. The model was then used to predict amounts of [ 3 H]-B[a]P and/or metabolites which would be excreted into bile in animals with bile duct cannulas, and good agreement between the model and data was observed

  1. Species differences in biliary excretion of benzo[a]pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyand, E.H.; Bevan, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Biliary excretion of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) was investigated in rats, hamsters, and guinea pigs following intratracheal administration. [ 3 H]-B[a]P, in amounts of approximately 150 ng or 350 μg, was instilled into lungs and amounts of radioactivity excreted in bile were monitored for six hrs following administration. Differences in biliary excretion of [ 3 H]-B[a]P and/or metabolites among species were observed at low doses but not at high doses. Six hours after instillation of a low dose of B[a]P, 70, 54, and 62% of the dose was excreted in bile of rats, hamsters, and guinea pigs, respectively. Upon administration of the higher dose of B[a]P, approximately 50% of the dose was excreted in bile in six hrs by all species. Thus, rats and guinea pigs exhibit differences in biliary excretion of low and high doses of B[a]P whereas hamsters do not. Profiles of phase II metabolites in rats and hamsters were similar at both low and high doses, with the majority of metabolites being glucuronides and thioether conjugates. However, differences in relative amounts of these conjugates were observed between the two doses, with a shift towards a greater proportion of glucuronides at the higher dose. Metabolites in bile from guinea pigs were primarily thioether conjugates, which accounted for 88% of metabolites at the low dose and 95% at the high dose

  2. Tow-step degradation of pyrene by white-rot fungi and soil microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wische, C. in der; Martens, R.; Zadrazil, F.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of soil microorganisms on mineralization of 14 C-labelled pyrene by white-rot fungi in solid-state fermentation was investigated. Two strains of white-rot fungi, Dichomitus squalens and a Pleurotus sp., were tested. The fungi were incubated on milled wheat straw contaminated with [ 14 C]pyrene for 15 weeks. CO 2 and 14 CO 2 liberated from the cultures were determined weekly. To study the effect of soil microorganisms on respiration and [ 14 C]pyrene mineralization in different periods of fungal development, the fungal substrate was covered with soil at different times of incubation (after 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 or 11 weeks). The two fungi showed contrasting ecological behaviour in competition with the soil microflora. Pleurotus sp. was highly resistant to microbial attack and had the ability to penetrate the soil. D. squalens was less competitive and did not colonize the soil. The resistance of the fungus was dependent on the duration of fungal preincubation. Mineralization of [ 14 C]pyrene by mixed cultures of D. squalens and soil microorganisms was higher than by the fungus or the soil microflora alone when soil was added after 3 weeks of incubation or later. With Pleurotus sp., the mineralization of [ 14 C]pyrene was enhanced by the soil microflora irrespective of the time of soil application. With D. squalens, which in pure culture mineralized less [ 14 C]pyrene than did Pleurotus sp., the increase of [ 14 C]pyrene mineralization caused by soil application was higher than with Pleurotus sp. (orig.)

  3. Pyrene conjugation and spectroscopic analysis of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose compounds successfully demonstrated a local dielectric difference associated with in vivo anti-prion activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Teruya

    Full Text Available Our previous study on prion-infected rodents revealed that hydroxypropyl methylcellulose compounds (HPMCs with different molecular weights but similar composition and degree of substitution have different levels of long-lasting anti-prion activity. In this study, we searched these HPMCs for a parameter specifically associated with in vivo anti-prion activity by analyzing in vitro chemical properties and in vivo tissue distributions. Infrared spectroscopic and thermal analyses revealed no differences among HPMCs, whereas pyrene conjugation and spectroscopic analysis revealed that the fluorescence intensity ratio of peak III/peak I correlated with anti-prion activity. This correlation was more clearly demonstrated in the anti-prion activity of the 1-year pre-infection treatment than that of the immediate post-infection treatment. In addition, the intensity ratio of peak III/peak I negatively correlated with the macrophage uptake level of HPMCs in our previous study. However, the in vivo distribution pattern was apparently not associated with anti-prion activity and was different in the representative tissues. These findings suggest that pyrene conjugation and spectroscopic analysis are powerful methods to successfully demonstrate local dielectric differences in HPMCs and provide a feasible parameter denoting the long-lasting anti-prion activity of HPMCs in vivo.

  4. ANTIBODIES TO BENZO[A]PYRENE AND POLYMORPHISMS OF CYP1A1*2A, CYP1A2*1F, GSTT1, AND GSTM1 GENES IN HEALTHY MEN AND LUNG CANCER PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Glushkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some genetic polymorphisms of CYP and GST enzymes metabolizing low-molecular weight xenobiotics may represent endogenous risk factors for carcinogenesis. However, possible relationships between the enzyme activities, amounts of carcinogen adducts and synthesis of anticarcinogen antibodies in humans (including cancer patients are still poorly studied. The purpose of this study was to identify possible associations between occurrence of antibodies against benzo[a]pyrene, and frequency of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1*2A, CYP1A2*1F, GSTT1, GSTM1 in healthy men and in lung cancer patients. Materials and methods. We have examined 203 men with non-small cell lung cancer and 267 apparently healthy donors without respiratory diseases. A non-competitive solid phase immunoassay of antibodies to benzo[a]pyrene was performed. Analysis of polymorphic loci within CYP1A1 (rs4646903, CYP1A2 (rs762551, GSTP1 (rs1695, rs1138272 was performed by means of real-time PCR using TaqMan technology. Null-alleles of GSTM1 (del, GSTT1 (del genes were detected by multiplex PCR with real-time fluorescent assay. Results. Among the lung cancer patients, the proportion of cases with a high level of IgG antibodies to benzo[a]pyrene in carriers of GSTT1+ and GSTM1+ in conjunction with the CYP1A2*1F C allele was significantly greater than in AA homozygotes CYP1A2*1F. The risk of lung cancer was increased to 5.5 in carriers of CYP1A2*1F C allele combined with GSTT1+ and GSTM1+ at high levels of IgG antibodies to benzo [a] pyrene. In healthy male donors, we have not found differences between the incidence of low and high levels of IgG anti-benzo[a]pyrene antibodies in the carriers of certain CYP1A1*2A, CYP1A2*1F, GSTT1 and GSTM1 genotypes. Conclusions. We have first reported a relationship between CYP1 and GST gene polymorphisms and specific immune response to chemical carcinogens in lung cancer patients. Immunoassays of IgG antibodies to benzo[a]pyrene combined with molecular

  5. Study of the Conformational State of Non-Cross-Linked and Cross-Linked Poly(alkylmethyldiallylammonium chlorides) in Aqueous Solution by Fluorescence Probing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Guang-Jia; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.

    The aggregation behaviour of novel non-cross-linked and cross-linked poly(alkylmethyldiallylammonium chlorides) in aqueous solutions has been investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy using pyrene as a probe. These copolymers were found to exhibit similar aggregate properties as the corresponding

  6. Comparative synchronous fluorescence spectrophotometry and 32P-postlabeling analysis of PAH-DNA adducts in human lung and the relationship to TP53 mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Åshild; Kure, Elin H.; Nielsen, Per Sabro

    1996-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts were studied in human lung from 39 lung cancer patients by synchronous fluorescence spectrophotometric (SFS) and 32P-postlabeling assays. Regression analysis of the samples failed to detect any correlation between benzo[a]pyrene-diolepoxide (BPDE)...

  7. Mechanism-based inactivation of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase by aryl acetylenes and aryl olefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, L.S.; Lu, J.Y.L.; Alworth, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    A series of aryl acetylenes and aryl olefins have been examined as substrates and inhibitors of cytochrome P-450 dependent monooxgenases in liver microsomes from 5,6-benzoflavone or phenobarbital pretreated rats. 1-Ethynylpyrene, 3-ethynylperylene, 2-ethynylfluorene, methyl 1-pyrenyl acetylene, cis- and trans-1-(2-bromovinyl)pyrene, and 1-allylpyrene serve as mechanism-based irreversible inactivators (suicide inhibitors) of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase, while 1-vinylpyrene and phenyl 1-pyrenyl acetylene do not cause a detectable suicide inhibition of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase. The mechanism-based loss of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase caused by the aryl acetylenes is not accompanied by a corresponding loss of the P-450 content of the microsomes (suicide destruction). The suicide inhibition by these aryl acetylenes therefore does not involve covalent binding to the heme moiety of the monooxygenase. Nevertheless, in the presence of NADPH, 3 H-labeled 1-ethynylpyrene becomes covalently attached to the cytochrome P-450 protein; the measured stoichiometry of binding is one 1-ethynylpyrene per P-450 heme unit. The authors conclude that the inhibition of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase produced by 1-ethynylpyrene may be related to the mechanism of suicide inhibition of P-450 activity by chloramphenicol rather than the mechanism of suicide destruction of P-450 previously described for acetylene and propyne

  8. Novel asymmetrical pyrene derivatives as light emitting materials: Synthesis and photophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yang; Wang Dong; Wang Lei; Li Zhengqiang; Cui Qing; Zhang Haiquan; Yang Huai

    2012-01-01

    A series of novel substituted pyrene derivatives with asymmetrical groups have been successfully synthesized in excellent yield. Structures of the asymmetrical compound were fully characterized by 1 H-NMR, IR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. By introducing ethynyl functions to pyrene, we obtained highly efficient blue and green light emitting materials. It has been demonstrated that the emission characteristics of pyrene derivatives have been bathochromatically tuned in the visible region by extending the π-conjugation. The photophysical properties of these compounds were carefully examined in different organic solvents and different concentrations. The electrochemical properties and geometrical electronic structures of the new pyrene derivatives have been investigated by cyclic voltammograms and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. - Highlights: ► It is the first research about asymmetrial pyrene derivatives as highly efficient light emitting materials. ► The solvatochromism and concentration effect of the new compounds have been discussed. ► Furthermore, the electrochemical properties and geometrical electronic structures were also investigated in this paper.

  9. Isolation and Identification of Pyrene Mineralizing Mycobacterium spp. from Contaminated and Uncontaminated Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lease, C.W.M; Bentham, R.H; Gaskin, S.E; Juhasz, A.L

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium isolates obtained from PAH-contaminated and uncontaminated matrices were evaluated for their ability to degrade three-, four- and five-ring PAHs. PAH enrichment studies were prepared using pyrene and inocula obtained from manufacturing gas plant (MGP) soil, uncontaminated agricultural soil, and faeces from Macropus fuliginosus (Western Grey Kangaroo). Three pyrene-degrading microorganisms isolated from the corresponding enrichment cultures had broad substrate ranges, however, isolates could be differentiated based on surfactant, phenol, hydrocarbon and PAH utilisation. 16S rRNA analysis identified all three isolates as Mycobacterium sp. The Mycobacterium spp. could rapidly degrade phenanthrene and pyrene, however, no strain had the capacity to utilise fluorene or benzo[a]pyrene. When pyrene mineralisation experiments were performed, 70-79% of added 14 C was evolved as 14 CO 2 after 10 days. The present study demonstrates that PAH degrading microorganisms may be isolated from a diverse range of environmental matrices. The present study demonstrates that prior exposure to PAHs was not a prerequisite for PAH catabolic activity for two of these Mycobacterium isolates.

  10. Offset-gated poly-Si TFTs using in-situ fluorine passivation and excimer laser doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sang Hoon; Kim, Cheon Hong; Yoo, Juhn Suk; Han, Min Koo

    2000-01-01

    A new low-temperature poly-Si thin film transistor (TFT) fabrication method employing in-situ fluorine passivation and excimer-laser doping is proposed to fabricate offset-gated poly-Si TFTs. In the new process, the crystallization, the in-situ fluorine passivation of the active layer, and the doping of the source/drain region are performed simultaneously with only one step of excimer laser annealing while the conventional fabrication method requires two laser annealing steps. Employing phosphosilicate glass (PSG) films as a diffusion source, we successfully accomplished excimer laser doping. The subthreshold and the on-state characteristics of the device with in-situ fluorine passivation were considerably improved. This improvement was due to the fluorine passivation effects, which cured dangling bonds and strained bonds in the poly-Si channel, the offset region, and the SiO 2 /poly-Si interface

  11. Offset-gated poly-Si TFTs using in-situ fluorine passivation and excimer laser doping

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, S H; Yoo, J S; Han, M K

    2000-01-01

    A new low-temperature poly-Si thin film transistor (TFT) fabrication method employing in-situ fluorine passivation and excimer-laser doping is proposed to fabricate offset-gated poly-Si TFTs. In the new process, the crystallization, the in-situ fluorine passivation of the active layer, and the doping of the source/drain region are performed simultaneously with only one step of excimer laser annealing while the conventional fabrication method requires two laser annealing steps. Employing phosphosilicate glass (PSG) films as a diffusion source, we successfully accomplished excimer laser doping. The subthreshold and the on-state characteristics of the device with in-situ fluorine passivation were considerably improved. This improvement was due to the fluorine passivation effects, which cured dangling bonds and strained bonds in the poly-Si channel, the offset region, and the SiO sub 2 /poly-Si interface.

  12. Improvement of Anti-TNF-α Antibody-Induced Palmoplantar Pustular Psoriasis Using a 308-nm Excimer Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsuko Iga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α antibody is utilized in the treatment of a variety of chronic inflammatory conditions, including psoriasis. However, it can induce paradoxical development and/or exacerbation of psoriasis in the course of anti-TNF-α antibody treatment, which is sometimes refractory to conventional treatments. Herein, we report a case of refractory palmoplantar pustular psoriasis induced by anti-TNF-α antibody treatment, which was improved by treatment with a 308-nm excimer light. The 308-nm excimer light has less long-term risks than narrow-band UVB. The 308-nm excimer light may be a good therapeutic option for refractory psoriatic skin lesions induced by anti-TNF-α antibody therapy because of localized side effects without systemic problems, short length of treatment and low cumulative dosages of UV light.

  13. Design, synthesis and photochemical properties of the first examples of iminosugar clusters based on fluorescent cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu L. Lepage

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and photophysical properties of the first examples of iminosugar clusters based on a BODIPY or a pyrene core are reported. The tri- and tetravalent systems designed as molecular probes and synthesized by way of Cu(I-catalysed azide–alkyne cycloadditions are fluorescent analogues of potent pharmacological chaperones/correctors recently reported in the field of Gaucher disease and cystic fibrosis, two rare genetic diseases caused by protein misfolding.

  14. Double discharges in unipolar-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge xenon excimer lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuhai; Neiger, Manfred

    2003-01-01

    Excitation of dielectric barrier discharge xenon excimer lamps by unipolar short square pulses is studied in this paper. Two discharges with different polarity are excited by each voltage pulse (double discharge phenomenon). The primary discharge occurs at the top or at the rising flank of the applied unipolar square pulse, which is directly energized by the external circuit. The secondary discharge with the reversed polarity occurs at the falling flank or shortly after the falling flank end (zero external voltage) depending on the pulse width, which is energized by the energy stored by memory charges deposited by the primary discharge. Fast-speed ICCD imaging shows the primary discharge has a conic discharge appearance with a channel broadening on the anode side. This channel broadening increases with increasing the pulse top level. Only the anode-side surface discharge is observed in the primary discharge. The surface discharge on the cathode side which is present in bipolar sine voltage excitation is not observed. On the contrary, the secondary discharge has only the cathode-side surface discharge. The surface discharge on the anode side is not observed. The secondary discharge is much more diffuse than the primary discharge. Time-resolved emission measurement of double discharges show the secondary discharge emits more VUV xenon excimer radiation but less infrared (IR) xenon atomic emission than the primary discharge. It was found that the IR xenon atomic emission from the secondary discharge can be reduced by shortening the pulse width. The energy efficiency of unipolar-pulsed xenon excimer lamps (the overall energy efficiency of double discharges) is much higher than that obtained under bipolar sine wave excitation. The output VUV spectrum under unipolar pulse excitation is found to be identical to that under sine wave excitation and independent of injected electric power

  15. XeCl excimer laser with new prism resonator configurations and its performance characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benerji, N. S., E-mail: nsb@rrcat.gov.in, E-mail: bsingh@rrcat.gov.in; Singh, A.; Varshnay, N.; Singh, Bijendra, E-mail: nsb@rrcat.gov.in, E-mail: bsingh@rrcat.gov.in [Excimer Laser Section, LMPD, Raja Ramanna Center for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)

    2015-07-15

    New resonator cavity configurations, namely, the prism resonator and unstable prism resonator, are demonstrated for the first time in an excimer (XeCl) laser with interesting and novel results. High misalignment tolerance ∼50 mrad is achieved with considerably reduced beam divergence of less than ∼1 mrad without reduction in output power capabilities of the laser. The misalignment tolerance of ∼50 mrad is a dramatic improvement of ∼25 times compared to ∼2 mrad normally observed in standard excimer laser with plane-plane cavity. Increase in depth of focus from 3 mm to 5.5 mm was also achieved in case of prism resonator configuration with an improvement of about 60%. Unstable prism resonator configuration is demonstrated here in this paper with further reduction in beam divergence to about 0.5 mrad using plano-convex lens as output coupler. The misalignment tolerance in case of unstable prism resonator was retained at about 30 mrad which is a high value compared to standard unstable resonators. The output beam spot was completely filled with flat-top profile with prism resonator configurations, which is desired for various material processing applications. Focusing properties and beam divergence in case of prism resonator have been investigated using SEM (scanning electron microscope) images. SEM images of the focused spot size (∼20 μm holes) on metal sheet indicate beam divergence of about 0.05 mrad which is about 1.5 times diffraction limit. Energy contained in this angle is thus sufficient for micro-machining applications. Clean and sharp edges of the micro-holes show high pointing stability with multiple shot exposures. Such characteristics of the excimer laser system will be extremely useful in micro-machining and other field applications.

  16. Composition of the excimer laser-induced plume produced during LASIK refractive surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickman, Randolph D.; Liu, Yun; Mayo, George L.; Baribeau, Alan D.; Starck, Tomy; Bankhead, Tom

    2003-07-01

    Because of concerns about potential hazards to surgical personnel of the plume associated with laser refractive surgery, this study was performed to characterize the composition of such plumes. Filter elements were removed from the smoke evacuator of a VISX S3 excimer laser (filter pore size ~0.3 microns) and from a Mastel Clean Room ( filter pore size ~0.2 microns) used with a LADARVISION excimer laser. The filters from both laser systems captured the laser-induced plumes from multiple, routine, LASIK patient procedures. Some filters were processed for scanning electron microscopy, while others were extracted with methanol and chloroform for biochemical analysis. Both the VISX "Final Air" filter and the Mastel "Clean Room" filter captured material that was not observed in filters that had clean operating room air only passed through them. In the VISX system, air flows through the filter unit parallel to the filter matrix. SEM analysis showed these filters captured discrete particles of 0.3 to 3.0 microns in size. In the Mastel Clean Room unit, air flows orthogonally through the filter, and the filter matrix was heavily layered with captured debris so that individual particles were not readily distinguished. Amino acid analysis and gel electrophoresis of extracted material revealed proteinaceous molecules as large as 5000 molecular weight. Such large molecules in the laser plume are not predicted by the existing theory of photochemical ablation. The presence of relatively large biomolecules may constitute a risk of allergenic reactions in personnel exposed to the plume, and also calls into question the precise mechanism of excimer laser photochemical ablation. Supported by the RMG Research Endowment, and Research to Prevent Blindness

  17. Optical coherence tomography following percutaneous coronary intervention with Excimer laser coronary atherectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlins, John, E-mail: john.rawlins@doctors.net.uk; Talwar, Suneel; Green, Mark; O’Kane, Peter

    2014-01-15

    The indications for Excimer laser coronary atherectomy (ELCA) have been refined in modern interventional practice. With the expanding role for optical coherence tomography (OCT) providing high-resolution intra-coronary imaging, this article examines the appearance of the coronary lumen after ELCA. Each indication for ELCA is discussed and illustrated with a clinical case, followed by detailed analysis of the OCT imaging pre and post ELCA. The aim of the article is to provide information to interventional cardiologists to facilitate decision making during PCI, when ELCA has been used as part of the interventional strategy.

  18. Impact of Angioscopic Evaluation for Femoropopliteal In-Stent Restenosis Before and After Excimer Laser Atherectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idemoto, Akiko; Okamoto, Naotaka; Tanaka, Akihiro; Mori, Naoki; Nakamura, Daisuke; Yano, Masamichi; Makino, Nobuhiko; Egami, Yasuyuki; Shutta, Ryu; Tanouchi, Jun; Nishino, Masami

    2017-07-01

    In-stent restenosis (ISR) is a prevalent problem following stenting of femoropopliteal lesions. A potential novel treatment modality for ISR including excimer laser atherectomy (ELA) has become available. We performed ELA for in-stent chronic total occlusion (CTO) of femoropopliteal lesions and evaluated lesion morphology before and after ELA by angioscopy in 2 patients. The angioscopic findings clearly showed removal of in-stent thrombi after ELA. Thus, ELA may be effective for in-stent CTO of femoropopliteal lesions. This is the first report describing the direct visualization of ELA effect for vaporization of thrombi in femoropopliteal in-stent lesions by angioscopy.

  19. Excimer-laser-irradiation-induced effects in C60 films for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, K.L.; Yamaguchi, M.; Azuma, H.

    2002-01-01

    Thin films of fullerene C 60 deposited by the molecular-beam epitaxy method have been subjected to a 248 nm excimer laser for various timings. Reduction in the electrical resistance of the films and the spectral evolution of the D and G bands in the Raman spectra, due to the sharp tendency towards graphitization accompanied by an increasing level of structural disorder, are observed during laser irradiation. Based on the above results, an attempt has been carried out on these irradiated C 60 films to make a device sandwiched with n-type Si, and the photovoltaic parameters are reported as a function of the laser exposure times

  20. Excimer-laser-induced activation of Mg-doped GaN layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.-J.; Liu, W.-F.; Lee, C.-T.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the 248 nm excimer-laser-induced activation of the Mg-doped GaN layers. According to the observed photoluminescence results and the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, we found that the dissociation of the Mg-H complexes and the formation of hydrogenated Ga vacancies (i.e., V Ga H 2 ) and/or the Ga vacancies occupied by interstitial Mg during the laser irradiation process, led to an increase in the hole concentration

  1. High efficiency metal marking with CO2 laser and glass marking with excimer laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    with a thoroughly tested ray-tracing model is presented and compared with experimental results. Special emphasis is put on two different applications namely marking in metal with TEA-CO2 laser and marking in glass with excimer laser. The results are evaluated on the basis of the achievable energy enhancement......Today, mask based laser materials processing and especially marking is widely used. However, the energy efficiency in such processes is very low [1].This paper gives a review of the results, that may be obtained using the energy enhancing technique [1]. Results of simulations performed...

  2. Green synthesis of selenium nanoparticles by excimer pulsed laser ablation in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Van Overschelde

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pure selenium nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by Liquid Phase - Pulsed Laser Ablation (LP-PLA in de-ionized water. Excimer laser (248 nm operating at low fluence (F ∼ 1 J/cm2 was used to generate colloidal solutions of selenium nanoparticles. The obtained selenium nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, and Transmission Electron Microscopy. We describe the multi-modal size distributions generated and use the centrifugation method to isolate the smallest nanoparticles (∼60 nm in diameter.

  3. Perspectives and advantages of the use of excimer laser annealing for MOS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Privitera, V.; Alippi, P.; Camalleri, M.

    2006-01-01

    The integration of excimer laser annealing (ELA) into the MOS device technology has been studied and evaluated within the frame of the IST project FLASH (Fundamentals and applications of laser processing for highly innovative MOS technology), funded by the European Commission. The final aim of the project was to demonstrate that ELA can be applied as a reliable, effective and advantageous process in the context of semiconductor device fabrication. Some of the results of this activity are summarised, relative to the experimental characterization and theoretical modelling. The electrical characterization of the transistor fabricated by ELA is also presented, showing a device yield of 90% on wafer

  4. Pulse repetition frequency effects in a high average power x-ray preionized excimer laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, B.; Forestier, B.; Delaporte, P.; Canarelli, P.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental study of waves damping in a high repetition rate excimer laser is undertaken. Excitation of laser active medium in a subsonic loop is achieved by means of a classical discharge, through transfer capacitors. The discharge stability is controlled by a wire ion plasma (w.i.p.) X-rays gun. The strong acoustic waves induced by the active medium excitation may lead to a decrease, at high PRF, of the energy per pulse. First results of the influence of a damping of induced density perturbations between two successive pulses are presented

  5. Influence of Selected Parameters of XeCl Excimer Laser System on Characteristics of Radiation Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokora, L.; Iwanejko, L.

    1998-01-01

    We present the dependences of energy and duration of radiation pulses as well as efficiency of XeCl laser on selected parameters of the laser system such as: C 2 capacitance, the separating inductance, L S , the distance between electrodes in laser's chamber, d K and also the supply voltage, U 0 , composition, and pressure of the active-medium mixture of gases. Results of numerical computations relate to a three-component mixture of gases, He-Xe-HCl, of the active medium of the excimer laser. (author)

  6. Optical Sensing Properties of Pyrene-Schiff Bases toward Different Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babgi, Bandar A; Alzahrani, Asma

    2016-07-01

    A set of (4-substituted-phenyl)-pyren-1-ylmethylene-amine (PMA) was prepared by the reaction of pyrene-1-carboxaldehyde and the corresponding 4-substituted aniline. The structure of the PMA compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic data (IR, (1)HNMR, (13)CNMR, ISI-MS and elemental analysis. The structure of (4-bromo-phenyl)-pyren-1-ylmethylene-amine (BrPMA) was further confirmed by the single X-ray crystallography. The absorption and emission spectroscopic behaviors were investigated in variant acids. The compounds showed dramatic spectroscopic changes upon acidifying with strong acids and negligible effects when weak acids are used in the acidifications. Hence, the PMA compounds can be used as sensors to distinguish between weak and strong acids.

  7. Ultraviolet excimer laser ablation: the effect of wavelength and repetition rate on in vivo guinea pig skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morelli, J.; Kibbi, A.G.; Farinelli, W.; Boll, J.; Tan, O.T.

    1987-06-01

    Multiple dermatologic conditions that are currently treated with traditional cold-knife surgery are amenable to laser therapy. The ideal surgical treatment would be precise and total removal of abnormal tissue with maximal sparing of remaining structures. The ultraviolet (UV) excimer laser is capable of such precise tissue removal due to the penetration depth of 193 nm and 248 nm irradiation of 1 micron per pulse. This type of ablative tissue removal requires a high repetition rate for efficient lesional destruction. Excimer laser radiation at 193 nm is capable of high repetition rates, which are necessary while 248 nm radiation causes increasing nonspecific thermal injury as the laser repetition rate is increased.

  8. Percutaneous absorption of [14C]DDT and [14C]benzo[a]pyrene from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, R.C.; Maibach, H.I.; Bucks, D.A.; Sedik, L.; Melendres, J.; Liao, C.; DiZio, S.

    1990-01-01

    The objective was to determine percutaneous absorption of DDT and benzo[a]pyrene in vitro and in vivo from soil into and through skin. Soil (Yolo County 65-California-57-8; 26% sand, 26% clay, 48% silt) was passed through 10-, 20-, and 48-mesh sieves. Soil then retained by 80-mesh was mixed with [14C]-labeled chemical at 10 ppm. Acetone solutions at 10 ppm were prepared for comparative analysis. Human cadaver skin was dermatomed to 500 microns and used in glass diffusion cells with human plasma as the receptor fluid (3 ml/hr flow rate) for a 24-hr skin application time. With acetone vehicle, DDT (18.1 +/- 13.4%) readily penetrated into human skin. Significantly less DDT (1.0 +/- 0.7%) penetrated into human skin from soil. DDT would not partition from human skin into human plasma in the receptor phase (less than 0.1%). With acetone vehicle, benzo[a]pyrene (23.7 +/- 9.7%) readily penetrated into human skin. Significantly less benzo[a]pyrene (1.4 +/- 0.9%) penetrated into human skin from soil. Benzo[a]pyrene would not partition from human skin into human plasma in the receptor phase (less than 0.1%). Substantivity (skin retention) was investigated by applying 14C-labeled chemical to human skin in vitro for only 25 min. After soap and water wash, 16.7 +/- 13.2% of DDT applied in acetone remained absorbed to skin. With soil only 0.25 +/- 0.11% of DDT remained absorbed to skin. After soap and water wash 5.1 +/- 2.1% of benzo[a]pyrene applied in acetone remained absorbed to skin. With soil only 0.14 +/- 0.13% of benzo[a]pyrene remained absorbed to skin

  9. Biotransformation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pyrene by the marine polychaete Nereis virens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Giessing, Anders M. B.; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2005-01-01

    In vivo and in vitro biotransformation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pyrene was investigated in the marine polychaete Nereis virens. Assays were designed to characterize phase I and II enzymes isolated from gut tissue. High-pressure liquid chromatography measurement of 1-hydroxypyr......In vivo and in vitro biotransformation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pyrene was investigated in the marine polychaete Nereis virens. Assays were designed to characterize phase I and II enzymes isolated from gut tissue. High-pressure liquid chromatography measurement of 1...

  10. Aggregation induced emission enhancement of pyrene-appended Schiff base luminophore and its photovoltaic effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, Uttam; Roy, Suman; Mallick, Debashis [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Dalapati, Pradip [Condensed Matter Physics Research Center, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Biswas, Subir [Immunology Lab, Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700019 (India); Manik, Nabin Baran [Condensed Matter Physics Research Center, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Bhattacharyya, Arindam [Immunology Lab, Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700019 (India); Sinha, Chittaranjan, E-mail: c_r_sinha@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2016-07-15

    Pyrene appended Schiff base, 1,3-bis-((E)-pyrene-1-ylmethyleneamino)propan-2-ol (HL), a fluorophore, shows aggregation induced emission enhancement upon addition of water in DMF (4:1, v/v) solution; the quantum yield (Φ) is increased by 0.034–0.450. Under illumination of solar radiation HL (10{sup −3} M) impregnated photovoltaic cell generates 4.4 mA/6.29 V electricity. DFT and TD-DFT computation of optimized geometry of HL has explained the photophysical properties.

  11. Effects of Sludge-amendment on Mineralization of Pyrene and Microorganisms in Sludge and Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge, C; Gejlsbjerg, B; Ekelund, Flemming

    2001-01-01

    . Sludge-amendment enhanced the mineralization of pyrene in the soil compared to soil without sludge, and the most extensive mineralization was observed when the sludge was kept in a lump. The number of protozoa, heterotrophic bacteria and pyrene-mineralizing bacteria was much higher in the sludge compared...... to the soil. The amendment of sludge did not affect the number of protozoa and bacteria in the surrounding soil, which indicated that organic contaminants in the sludge had a little effect on the number of protozoa and bacteria in the surrounding soil...

  12. Determination of Benzo[α]pyrene in Edible Oil Using Tetraoxocalix[2]arene[2]triazine Bonded Silica SPE Sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yun; Zhao, Wen-Jie; Deng, Zhi-Fen; Hongbo, Wang; Peng, Bin; Ma, Xue; Lan, Chen; Zhang, Shu-Sheng

    2018-06-01

    Benzo[α]pyrene (BaP) is a well-known carcinogen in edible oil. In this study, a method combined solid-phase extraction (SPE) with fluorescent detection was developed using tetraoxocalix[2]arene[2]triazine sorbent (SiO 2 -OCA) for the clean-up and enrichment of BaP. The interaction between SiO 2 -OCA and BaP involves a donor-acceptor complex mechanism. The experimental procedure was as follows: BaP was extracted from edible oil with DMF/H 2 O (9:1, v/v). Then, the ratio of DMF/H 2 O was adjusted to 1:2 prior to SPE. The final concentrate was analyzed using a fluorescence detector at excitation and emission wavelengths of 255 and 420 nm. The method was fully validated. The linearity was in the range of 0.1-100 μg kg -1 with a coefficient of 0.999. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.03 and 0.1 μg kg -1 , respectively. The average recoveries were in the range of 88.0-122.3%. The intraday and interday precisions were 6.8% and 9.2%, respectively. Compared with other methods, the method reported in this article shows a good detection limit, high reproducibility and recovery, and linearity over a broad concentration range. This established method was also applied to evaluate real samples. The concentration of six tested samples was below 5 μg kg -1 .

  13. Prenatal induction of benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylases in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubert, D.; Tapken, S.

    1988-01-01

    1. Benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase (BPH) activity was measured in homogenates of fetal liver (day 18) or of whole-embryos of mice on day 9, 10 or 12 of gestation after maternal pretreatment with B(a)P on 3 consecutive days. A 3 H-liberation assay with 3 H-B(a)P labelled either generally or at the 6-position was used. The values obtained with the embryonic/fetal tissues were compared with those found in maternal liver. 2. Three oral doses of 17.5 mg B(a)P/kg body wt were found to just significantly induce BPH in maternal liver. An induction was observed after pretreatment with 24 mg B(a)P/kg body wt in 9, 10 or 12-day-old whole-embryos, but the V max reached was only 10-20% (1% on day 9) of that of adult non-induced liver. The K m (6-hydroxylation) for all tissues tested were in the same range (600-900 nM). The induction was demonstrable in embryos at tissue levels about one order of magnitude lower than those required for induction in maternal liver. 3. Treatment with 25 mg B(a)P/kg body wt on 3 consecutive days was required to induce BPH in fetal liver on day 18 of gestation. The required B(a)P tissue concentrations were about one half of those necessary for induction in maternal liver. 4. Among a variety of other polycyclic hydrocarbons only chrysene showed an inducing potency similar to that of B(a)P in adult and fetal liver. For all compounds tested there was no correlation found in the inducing potency between adult and fetal liver (e.g. coronene). 5. The doses required to induce BPH in the maternal or fetal liver or in whole embryos of rodents are significantly higher (mg range) than those of usual average human exposure or those taken up by smokers (ng range). (orig.)

  14. Fabrication of SERS Active Surface on Polyimide Sample by Excimer Laser Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Csizmadia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A possible application of excimer laser irradiation for the preparation of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS substrate is demonstrated. A polyimide foil of 125 μm thickness was irradiated by 240 pulses of focused ArF excimer laser beam (λ = 193 nm, FWHM = 20 ns. The applied fluence was varied between 40 and 80 mJ/cm2. After laser processing, the sample was coated with 40 nm silver by PLD in order to create a conducting layer required for the SERS application. The SERS activity of the samples was tested by Raman microscopy. The Raman spectra of Rhodamine 6G aqueous solution (c=10−3 mol/dm3 were collected from the patterned and metalized areas. For areas prepared at 40–60 mJ/cm2 laser fluences, the measured Raman intensities have shown a linear dependence on the applied laser fluence, while above 60 mJ/cm2 saturation was observed. The morphology of the SERS active surface areas was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Finite element modeling was performed in order to simulate the laser-absorption induced heating of the polyimide foil. The simulation resulted in the temporal and spatial distribution of the estimated temperature in the irradiated polyimide sample, which are important for understanding the structure formation process.

  15. The development and progress of XeCl Excimer laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongsheng; Ma, Lianying; Wang, Dahui; Zhao, Xueqing; Zhu, Yongxiang; Hu, Yun; Qian, Hang; Shao, Bibo; Yi, Aiping; Liu, Jingru

    2015-05-01

    A large angularly multiplexed XeCl Excimer laser system is under development at the Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology (NINT). It is designed to explore the technical issues of uniform and controllable target illumination. Short wavelength, uniform and controllable target illumination is the fundamental requirement of high energy density physics research using large laser facility. With broadband, extended light source and multi-beam overlapping techniques, rare gas halide Excimer laser facility will provide uniform target illumination theoretically. Angular multiplexing and image relay techniques are briefly reviewed and some of the limitations are examined to put it more practical. The system consists of a commercial oscillator front end, three gas discharge amplifiers, two electron beam pumped amplifiers and the optics required to relay, encode and decode the laser beam. An 18 lens array targeting optics direct and focus the laser in the vacuum target chamber. The system is operational and currently undergoing tests. The total 18 beams output energy is more than 100J and the pulse width is 7ns (FWHM), the intensities on the target will exceed 1013W/cm2. The aberration of off-axis imaging optics at main amplifier should be minimized to improve the final image quality at the target. Automatic computer controlled alignment of the whole system is vital to efficiency and stability of the laser system, an array of automatic alignment model is under test and will be incorporated in the system soon.

  16. Photo-triggering and secondary electron produced ionization in electric discharge ArF* excimer lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhongmin; Kushner, Mark J.

    2011-10-01

    Electric discharge excimer lasers are sustained in multi-atmosphere attaching gas mixtures that are typically preionized to enable a reproducible, uniform glow, which maximizes optical quality and gain. This preionization is often accomplished using UV light produced by a corona discharge within the plasma cavity. To quantify the relationship between corona discharge properties and those of the laser discharge, the triggering of electron avalanche by preionizing UV light in an electric discharge-pumped ArF* excimer laser was numerically investigated using a two-dimensional model. The preionizing UV fluxes were generated by a corona-bar discharge driven by the same voltage pulse as the main discharge sustained in a multi-atmospheric Ne/Ar/Xe/F2 gas mixture. The resulting peak photo-electron density in the inter-electrode spacing is around 108 cm-3, and its distribution is biased toward the UV source. The preionization density increases with increasing dielectric constant and capacitance of the corona bar. The symmetry and uniformity of the discharge are, however, improved significantly once the main avalanche develops. In addition to bulk electron impact ionization, the ionization generated by sheath accelerated secondary electrons was found to be important in sustaining the discharge current at experimentally observed values. At peak current, the magnitude of the ionization by sheath accelerated electrons is comparable to that from bulk electron impact in the vicinity of the cathode.

  17. Fabrication of biosynthetic vascular prostheses by 193-nm excimer laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husinsky, Wolfgang; Csek, Ch.; Bartel, A.; Grabenwoeger, M.; Fitzal, F.; Wolner, Ernst

    1998-05-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of transmural capillary ingrowth into the inner surface of biosynthetic vascular prostheses (OmniflowTM) through perforations created by an excimer-laser, thus inducing an endothelial cell coverage. The biosynthetic vascular prostheses (10 cm length, 6 mm (phi) ) were perforated with an excimer laser ((phi) of the holes 50 - 100 micrometer, distance 4 mm) and implanted into the carotid arteries of 8 sheep. The laser tissue interaction process of 193 nm radiation ensures minimal thermal damage to the prostheses. They were compared to untreated OmniflowTM prostheses implanted at the contralateral side. Three months after implantation the prostheses were explanted and evaluated by gross morphology, histological examination and scanning electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy showed endothelial cells in the midgraft portion of all perforated prostheses, whereas collagen fibers, fibrin meshwork and activated platelets formed the inner layer in 6 out of 8 untreated OmniflowTM prostheses. It can be concluded, that spontaneous endothelialization of biosynthetic vascular prostheses can be achieved by transmural capillary ingrowth through perforations in the wall of the prostheses in an experimental sheep model.

  18. Micro flow-through PCR in a PMMA chip fabricated by KrF excimer laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Liying; Liu, Baoan; Chen, Tao; Liu, Shibing; Zuo, Tiechuan

    2005-09-01

    As the third PCR technology, micro flow-through PCR chip can amplify DNA specifically in an exponential fashion in vitro. Nowadays many academies in the world have successfully amplified DNA using their own-made flow-through PCR chip. In this paper, the ablation principle of PMMA at 248 nm excimer laser was studied, then a PMMA based flow-through PCR chip with 20 cycles was fabricated by excimer laser at 19 kv and 18 mm/min. The chip was bonded together with another cover chip at 105( composite function)C, 160 N and 20 minutes. In the end, it was integrated with electrical thermal thin films and Pt 100 temperature sensors. The temperature controllers was built standard PID digital temperature controller, the temperature control precision was +/- 0.2( composite function)C. The temperature grads between the three temperature zones were 16.5 and 22.2( composite function)C respectively, the gaps between the temperature zones could realize heat insulation.

  19. Comparison of KrF and ArF excimer laser treatment of biopolymer surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaljaničová, I. [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Slepička, P., E-mail: petr.slepicka@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Heitz, J.; Barb, R.A. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Sajdl, P. [Department of Power Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Švorčík, V. [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-06-01

    Highlights: • The influence of ArF and KrF laser on biopolymer surface was determined. • ArF laser acts predominantly on biopolymer surface. • PHB roughness is increased similarly for both applied wavelengths. • Roughness of nanostructures can be precisely controlled. • ArF laser introduces nitrogen on PHB surface. - Abstract: The goal of this work was the investigation of the impact of two different excimer lasers on two biocompatible and biodegradable polymers (poly-L-lactide and poly hydroxybutyrate). Both polymers find usage in medical and pharmaceutical fields. The polymers were modified by KrF and ArF excimer lasers. Subsequently the impact on surface morphology, surface chemistry changes, and thermal properties was studied by means of confocal and AFM microscopy, FTIR and XPS spectroscopy and DSC calorimetry. Under the same conditions of laser treatment it was observed that ArF laser causes more significant changes on surface chemistry, surface morphology and pattern formation on the polymers under investigation. The data obtained in this work can be used for a wide range of possible applications, in tissue engineering or in combination with metallization in electronics, e.g. for biosensors.

  20. Agglomeration of amorphous silicon film with high energy density excimer laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Ming; Ishihara, Ryoichi; Metselaar, Wim; Beenakker, Kees

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, agglomeration phenomena of amorphous Si (α-Si) films due to high energy density excimer laser irradiation are systematically investigated. The agglomeration, which creates holes or breaks the continuous Si film up into spherical beads, is a type of serious damage. Therefore, it determines an upper energy limit for excimer laser crystallization. It is speculated that the agglomeration is caused by the boiling of molten Si. During this process, outbursts of heterogeneously nucleated vapor bubbles are promoted by the poor wetting property of molten silicon on the SiO 2 layer underneath. The onset of the agglomeration is defined by extrapolating the hole density as a function of the energy density of the laser pulse. A SiO 2 capping layer (CL) is introduced on top of the α-Si film to investigate its influence on the agglomeration. It is found that effects of the CL depend on its thickness. The CL with a thickness less than 300 nm can be used to suppress the agglomeration. A thin CL acts as a confining layer and puts a constraint on bubble burst, and hence suppresses the agglomeration

  1. Random noise can help to improve synchronization of excimer laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingesz, Róbert; Barna, Angéla; Gingl, Zoltán; Mellár, János

    2016-02-01

    Recently, we have reported on a compact microcontroller-based unit developed to accurately synchronize excimer laser pulses (Mingesz et al. 2012 Fluct. Noise Lett. 11, 1240007 (doi:10.1142/S021947751240007X)). We have shown that dithering based on random jitter noise plus pseudorandom numbers can be used in the digital control system to radically reduce the long-term drift of the laser pulse from the trigger and to improve the accuracy of the synchronization. In this update paper, we present our new experimental results obtained by the use of the delay-controller unit to tune the timing of a KrF excimer laser as an addition to our previous numerical simulation results. The hardware was interfaced to the laser using optical signal paths in order to reduce sensitivity to electromagnetic interference and the control algorithm tested by simulations was applied in the experiments. We have found that the system is able to reduce the delay uncertainty very close to the theoretical limit and performs well in real applications. The simple, compact and flexible system is universal enough to also be used in various multidisciplinary applications.

  2. Structural and morphological transformations of TiO2 nanotube arrays induced by excimer laser treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Ming-Yi; Thang, Nguyen Van; Wang Chih; Leu Jihperng

    2012-01-01

    The structural and morphological transformations of TiO 2 nanotube arrays (TNAs) treated by excimer laser annealing (ELA) were investigated as a function of the laser fluence using parallel and tilted modes. Results showed that the crystallinity of the ELA-treated TNAs reached only about 50% relative to that of TNAs treated by furnace anneal at 400 °C for 1 h. The phase transformation starts from the top surface of the TNAs with surface damage resulting from short penetration depth and limited one-dimensional heat transport from the surface to the bottom under extremely short pulse duration (25 ns) of the excimer laser. When a tilted mode was used, the crystallinity of TNAs treated by ELA at 85° was increased to 90% relative to that by the furnace anneal. This can be attributed to the increased area of the laser energy interaction zone and better heat conduction to both ends of the TNAs. - Highlights: ► We examined the morphology and microstructure of TNAs treated by ELA. ► Crystallinity of parallel ELA-treated TNAs reached ∼50% of furnace anneal. ► Tilted ELA at 85o enhanced the degree of crystallization in TNAs to 90%.

  3. Fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Michael J; Smith, Ian; Parker, Ian; Bootman, Martin D

    2014-10-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is a major tool with which to monitor cell physiology. Although the concepts of fluorescence and its optical separation using filters remain similar, microscope design varies with the aim of increasing image contrast and spatial resolution. The basics of wide-field microscopy are outlined to emphasize the selection, advantages, and correct use of laser scanning confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, scanning disk confocal microscopy, total internal reflection, and super-resolution microscopy. In addition, the principles of how these microscopes form images are reviewed to appreciate their capabilities, limitations, and constraints for operation. © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  4. Pressure dependence of emission intensity of rare-gas excimer light produced by silent discharge; Teikiatsu ryoiki ni okeru musei hoden reiki ki gas excimer hikari shutsuryoku no atsuryoku izonsei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Yukimura, K. [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1996-09-20

    To establish the pressure dependence of silent discharge excited rare gas excimer light emission, a vacua ultraviolet light was subjected to spectroscopic analysis at a pressure lower than 20kPa. Researches are under way to apply the discharge excited rare gas excimer lamp as a vacuum ultraviolet light source for the development of new materials and for the conservation of environments. When the pressure is as low as 1.8kPa or 4.4kPa, the emission has peaks at wavelengths centering on 147nm and 149nm, both of which are the resonance lines of the xenon atom. Excimer generation becomes prominent as the pressure increases, with the second continuum of light growing dominant at 35kPa to weaken relatively the resonance lines and the first continuum of light. In the first continuum, emission increases only at a suppressed rate, as compared with emission in the second continuum, due for instance to a collision caused relaxation process in which excimers are lost. In the case of xenon in the vicinity of 10-11kPa, the first continuum of light and the second continuum of light are approximately equal in emission intensity, producing a vacuum ultraviolet light source with a bandwidth relatively large for a single gas spectrum. 14 refs., 11 figs.

  5. Effect of excimer laser (Arf, 193 nm) on aqueous humor during photorefractive keratectomy biophysical and biochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, S.S.; Mahmoud, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Ultraviolet light (193 nm) produced by an excimer laser has been used to produce precise tissue ablation with minimal thermal damage to adjacent tissue. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of excimer laser during photo refractive keratectomy (PRK) on aqueous humor constituents and also the effect of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD)- applied topically- on these changes if exist. Five groups of schenchilla rabbits were involved in this study, where four groups underwent corneal stromal ablation using argon fluoride excimer laser (Ar F, 193 nm). Two of these four groups were treated with superoxide dismutase intra operatively. The fifth group was used as control one. The obtained results revealed depletion of aqueous humor ascorbate and glutathione contents. Aqueous humor refractive index, cholesterol, phospholipids, malondialdehyde (MDA) and total protein were measured. In conclusion, the excimer laser can induce changes in aqueous humor constituents during PRK. These changes lasted at least for 24 hours and as the time increased to 4 weeks, these changes became limited. The use of exogenous SOD seems to exert beneficial effect on aqueous humor refractive index and total protein

  6. Evaluation and diffusion of excimer laser treatment of myopia in the United States and in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vondeling, H.; Rosendal, H.; Banta, D.

    1995-01-01

    Excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) is an experimental treatment to correct myopia (short-sightedness) that is diffusing into use without convincing evidence of safety and efficacy. It has been claimed that PRK may render conventional methods of correcting myopia, such as wearing glasses

  7. Singlet Fission via an Excimer-Like Intermediate in 3,6-Bis(thiophen-2-yl)diketopyrrolopyrrole Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauck, Catherine M; Hartnett, Patrick E; Margulies, Eric A; Ma, Lin; Miller, Claire E; Schatz, George C; Marks, Tobin J; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2016-09-14

    Singlet fission (SF) in polycrystalline thin films of four 3,6-bis(thiophen-2-yl)diketopyrrolopyrrole (TDPP) chromophores with methyl (Me), n-hexyl (C6), triethylene glycol (TEG), and 2-ethylhexyl (EH) substituents at the 2,5-positions is found to involve an intermediate excimer-like state. The four different substituents yield four distinct intermolecular packing geometries, resulting in variable intermolecular charge transfer (CT) interactions in the solid. SF from the excimer state of Me, C6, TEG, and EH takes place in τSF = 22, 336, 195, and 1200 ps, respectively, to give triplet yields of 200%, 110%, 110%, and 70%, respectively. The transient spectra of the excimer-like state and its energetic proximity to the lowest excited singlet state in these derivatives suggests that this state may be the multiexciton (1)(T1T1) state that precedes formation of the uncorrelated triplet excitons. The excimer decay rates correlate well with the SF efficiencies and the degree of intermolecular donor-acceptor interactions resulting from π-stacking of the thiophene donor of one molecule with the DPP core acceptor in another molecule as observed in the crystal structures. Such interactions are found to also increase with the SF coupling energies, as calculated for each derivative. These structural and spectroscopic studies afford a better understanding of the electronic interactions that enhance SF in chromophores having strong intra- and intermolecular CT character.

  8. Elimination of chlorohydrocarbons from water by vacuum UV and UV photolysis in excimer flow-through photoreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppenlaender, T.; Baum, G.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that chlorinated hydrocarbons can be eliminated efficiently from water in an excimer flow photoreactor by complete photomineralisation induced by VUV irradiation. The problem of stripping of chlorohydrocarbons can be avoided by carrying out irradiation in a sealed apparatus without external supply of air or ozone. (orig.) [de

  9. The excimer lamp induces cutaneous nerve degeneration and reduces scratching in a dry-skin mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamo, Atsuko; Tominaga, Mitsutoshi; Kamata, Yayoi; Kaneda, Kazuyuki; Ko, Kyi C; Matsuda, Hironori; Kimura, Utako; Ogawa, Hideoki; Takamori, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    Epidermal hyperinnervation, which is thought to underlie intractable pruritus, has been observed in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). The epidermal expression of axonal guidance molecules has been reported to regulate epidermal hyperinnervation. Previously, we showed that the excimer lamp has antihyperinnervative effects in nonpruritic dry-skin model mice, although epidermal expression of axonal guidance molecules was unchanged. Therefore, we investigated the antipruritic effects of excimer lamp irradiation and its mechanism of action. A single irradiation of AD model mice significantly inhibited itch-related behavior 1 day later, following improvement in the dermatitis score. In addition, irradiation of nerve fibers formed by cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons increased bleb formation and decreased nerve fiber expression of nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferase 2, suggesting degenerative changes in these fibers. We also analyzed whether attaching a cutoff excimer filter (COF) to the lamp, thus decreasing cytotoxic wavelengths, altered hyperinnervation and the production of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD), a DNA damage marker, in dry-skin model mice. Irradiation with COF decreased CPD production in keratinocytes, as well as having an antihyperinnervative effect, indicating that the antipruritic effects of excimer lamp irradiation with COF are due to induction of epidermal nerve degeneration and reduced DNA damage.

  10. Low temperature high-mobility InZnO thin-film transistors fabricated by excimer laser annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujii, M.; Ishikawa, Y.; Ishihara, R.; Van der Cingel, J.; Mofrad, M.R.T.; Horita, M.; Uraoka, Y.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we successfully achieved a relatively high field-effect mobility of 37.7?cm2/Vs in an InZnO thin-film transistor (TFT) fabricated by excimer layer annealing (ELA). The ELA process allowed us to fabricate such a high-performance InZnO TFT at the substrate temperature less than 50?°C

  11. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) as a tool to predict the bioavailability and toxicity of pyrene to the springtail, Folsomia candida, under various soil conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Styrishave, Bjarne; Mortensen, Mads; Krogh, Paul Henning

    2008-01-01

    The porewater concentrations of pyrene were estimated by a negligible depletive solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method. The effects of organic matter (OM) and soil aging on the bioavailability of pyrene in soil were investigated by generation of reproductive effect concentrations (EC50...... increased with increasing OM and aging of the soil. The increase of the OM content in the soil reduced the extractability of pyrene by SPME, as well as the toxicity of pyrene. An aging effect was demonstrated in Askov soil, EC50 values increased with increased contact time. The amounts of pyrene extracted...

  12. Time-resolved fluorescence quenching studies of sodium lauryl ether sulfate micelles

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich, Leidi C.; Silva, Volnir O.; Moreira Jr, Paulo F.; Tcacenco, Celize M.; Quina, Frank H.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregation numbers (N Ag) of micelles of the commercial anionic detergent sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), with an average of two ethylene oxide subunits, were determined at 30 and 40º C by the time-resolved fluorescence quenching method with pyrene as the fluorescent probe and the N-hexadecylpyridinium ion as the quencher. The added-salt dependent growth of SLES micelles (γ = 0.11-0.15, where γ is the slope of a plot of log aggregation number vs. log [Yaq] and [Yaq] is the sodium counter...

  13. Applications of PDMS partitioning methods in the study of biodegradation of pyrene in the

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tejeda-Agredano, MC; Gouliarmou, Varvara; Ortega-Calvo, JJ

    Although there are reports on the inhibition of anthropogenic organic chemicals biodegradation due to binding to dissolved humic substances (HS), there is an increasing body of evidence pointing to an enhancing effect in the case of hydrophobic chemicals, like pyrene. The addition of humic fracti...

  14. Dispersion state and humic acids concentration-dependent sorption of pyrene to carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Kah, M.; Jonker, M.T.O.; Hofmann, T.

    2012-01-01

    Sonication and humic acids (HA) are known to disperse carbon nanotube (CNT) suspensions, but potential effects on sorption of chemicals to CNTs remain poorly understood. We applied a passive sampling method to investigate the influence of dispersion/aggregation on sorption of pyrene to CNTs.

  15. Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Pyrene by Biosurfactant-Producing Bacteria Gordonia cholesterolivorans AMP 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Handayani Kurniati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pyrene degradation and biosurfactant activity by a new strain identified as Gordonia cholesterolivorans AMP 10 were studied. The strain grew well and produced effective biosurfactants in the presence of glucose, sucrose, and crude oil. The biosurfactants production was detected by the decreased surface tension of the medium and emulsification activity.  Analysis of microbial growth parameters showed that AMP10 grew best at 50 µg mL-1 pyrene concentration, leading to 96 % degradation of pyrene within 7 days. The result of nested PCR analysis revealed that this isolate possessed the nahAc gene which encodes dioxygenase enzyme for initial degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH. Observation of both tensio-active and emulsifying activities indicated that biosurfactants which produced by AMP 10 when grown on glucose could lower the surface tension of medium from 71.3 mN/m to 24.7 mN/m and formed a stable emulsion in used lubricant oil with an emulsification index (E24 of 74%. According to the results, it is suggested that the bacterial isolates G. cholesterolivorans AMP10 are suitable candidates for bioremediation of PAH-contaminated environments.How to CiteKurniati, T. H.,  Rusmana, I. Suryani, A. & Mubarik, N. R. (2016. Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Pyrene by Biosurfactant-Producing Bacteria Gordonia cholesterolivorans AMP 10. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(3, 336-343. 

  16. Degradation of ¹³C-labeled pyrene in soil-compost mixtures and fertilized soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Iris K U; Miltner, Anja; Kästner, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are toxic pollutants widely distributed in the environment due to natural and anthropogenic processes. In order to mitigate tar oil contaminations with PAH, research on improving bioremediation approaches, which are sometimes inefficient, is needed. However, the knowledge on the fate of PAH-derived carbon and the microbial degraders in particular in compost-supplemented soils is still limited. Here we show the PAH carbon turnover mass balance in microcosms with soil-compost mixtures or in farmyard fertilized soil using [(13)C6]-pyrene as a model PAH. Complete pyrene degradation of 100 mg/kg of soil was observed in all supplemented microcosms within 3 to 5 months, and the residual (13)C was mainly found as carbon converted to microbial biomass. Long-term fertilization of soil with farmyard manure resulted in pyrene removal efficiency similar to compost addition, although with a much longer lag phase, higher mineralization, and lower carbon incorporation into the biomass. Organic amendments either as long-term manure fertilization or as compost amendment thus play a key role in increasing the PAH-degrading potential of the soil microbial community. Phospholipid fatty acid stable isotope probing (PLFA-SIP) was used to trace the carbon within the microbial population and the amount of biomass formed from pyrene degradation. The results demonstrate that complex microbial degrader consortia rather than the expected single key players are responsible for PAH degradation in organic-amended soil.

  17. STUDYING THE INFLUENCE OF THE PYRENE INTERCALATOR TINA ON THE STABILITY OF DNA i-MOTIFS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Sayed, Ahmed A.; Pedersen, Erik Bjerregaard; Khaireldin, Nahid A.

    2012-01-01

    Certain cytosine-rich (C-rich) DNA sequences can fold into secondary structures as four-stranded i-motifs with hemiprotonated base pairs. Here we synthesized C-rich TINA-intercalating oligonucleotides by inserting a nonnucleotide pyrene moiety between two C-rich regions. The stability of their i-...

  18. Patterns of 1-hydroxypyrene excretion in volunteers exposed to pyrene by the dermal route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viau, C.; Vyskocil, A. [University of Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1995-02-24

    The urinary excretion profiles following exposure to pyrene were established in one psoriasic patient under treatment with a coal tar-based shampoo and in two other volunteers exposed to a single dose of 100{mu}1 creosote and, in a separate experiment, to five consecutive daily dermal applications of 500{mu}g pyrene on 200 cm{sup 2} of the inner face of the forearms. Timed micturitions were collected for up to 48 h following exposure. Both in the psoriasic patient and in the volunteers exposed to creosote, the excretion peaks between 10 and 15 h after application and first-order apparent half lives of 11.5-15 h can be calculated for the elimination phase. Compatible with these observations, repeated exposure to pyrene in the volunteers causes an increase in peak and trough urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) values for the first few days following the first exposure. These results suggest that the difference between beginning-of-shift/beginning of work week and beginning-of-shift/end of work week 1-OHP excretion should reflect the average exposure of the week in workers having a constant exposure to pyrene. The difference between the beginning and end-of-shift excretion values of a given day should reflect the exposure of that day but the maximum excretion would be attained a few hours after termination of exposure.

  19. Solubility of Benzo[a]pyrene and Organic Matter of Soil in Subcritical Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Sushkova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic subcritical water extraction method of benzo[a]pyrene from soils is under consideration. The optimum conditions for benzo[a]pyrene extraction from soil are described including the soil treatment by subcritical water at 250 °C and 100 atm for 30 min. The effectiveness of developed method was determined using the matrix spiking recovery technique. A comparative analysis was made to evaluate the results of benzo[a]pyrene extraction from soils using the subcritical water and organic solvents. The advantages of the subcritical water extraction involve the use of ecologically friendly solvent, a shorter time for the analysis and a higher amount of benzo[a]pyrene extracted from soil (96 %. The influence of subcritical water extraction on soil properties was measured the investigation of the processes occurring within soil under the influence the high temperature and pressure. Under appropriate conditions of the experiment there is the destruction of the soil organic matter while the composition of the soil mineral fraction remains practically unchanged.

  20. Enzymatic synthesis of pyrene-labeled polyphosphoinositides and their behavior in organic solvents and phosphatidylcholine bilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, Th.W.J.; Moritz, A.; Westerman, J.; Wirtz, K.W.A.

    1990-01-01

    A method is reported for the synthesis of pyrene-labeled analogues of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (Pyr-PIP) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (Pyr-PIP,) from sn-2-(pyrenyl-decanoy1)phosphatidylinositol (Pyr-PI) using partially purified PI and PIP kinase preparations. Phos-phorylation of

  1. Effect of various chemicals on the metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene by cultured rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Harris, Curtis C.; Fugaro, Steven

    1977-01-01

    The effect of various co- and anti-carcinogens of colon carcinogenesis on the metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) in cultured rat colon is reported. Rat colon enzymatically converted BP into metabolites which bind to cellular macromolecules i.e., DNA and protein. Activity of aryl hydrocarbon...

  2. On the carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo(a)pyrene in volcano exhausts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilnitsky, A P; Belitsky, G A; Shabad, L M

    1976-05-01

    The content of benzo(a)pyrene in the juvenile ashes of the volcano Tyatya (Kunashir Island, Kuriles) and in the soil, vegetation and volcanic mud collected near volcanos in Kamchatka was studied. It was concluded that volcanic activity does not play a large role in forming the background level of this carcinogen in the human environment.

  3. Investigation of biological destruction of benzo[a]pyrene andpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of biochar in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunev, R. V.; Smirnova, E. V.; Sharipova, A. R.; Gilmutdinova, I. M.; Giniyatullin, K. G.

    2018-01-01

    The biological decomposition of benzo[a]pyrene in the concentrations exceeding the MAC (maximum permissible concentration) level in soils by 2, 5 and 10 times was studied in laboratory conditions. The gray forest soil samples were contaminated with benzo[a]pyrene and incubated in optimum for bacterial growth soil moisture for 30 and 60 days. The residual amount of contaminant was monitored by HPLC after extraction with acetone-cyclohexane (2:1). Soil microbial activity was evaluated by measuring basal respiration (BR) and substrate-induced respiration (SID) rates of the soil by gas chromatography. The results of the experiment showed that in 60 days the amount of benzo[a]pyrene in contaminated soils decreased; however, this time was not enough for complete decomposition of pollutant. In this case, benzo[a]pyrene has a negative effect on the BR and SIR rates. Soil contamination affected the BR rate only at high doses (10 MPC), whereas the SIR was a more sensitive indicator of the toxic effect of the pollutant and significantly reacts already at concentrations at the level of 2 MPC. The combination of PAHs isolated from biochar has a strong negative effect on the values of BR and SIR.

  4. Transfer of benzo[a]pyrene from microplastics to Artemia nauplii and further to zebrafish via a trophic food web experiment: CYP1A induction and visual tracking of persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batel, Annika; Linti, Frederic; Scherer, Martina; Erdinger, Lothar; Braunbeck, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The uptake of microplastic particles and the transfer of potential harmful substances along with microplastics has been studied in a variety of organisms, especially invertebrates. However, the potential accumulation of very small microplastic particles along food webs ending with vertebrate models has not been investigated so far. Therefore, a simple artificial food chain with Artemia sp. nauplii and zebrafish (Danio rerio) was established to analyze the transfer of microplastic particles and associated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) between different trophic levels. Very small (1-20 μm) microplastic particles accumulated in Artemia nauplii and were subsequently transferred to fish. Virgin particles not loaded with POPs did not cause any observable physical harm in the intestinal tracts of zebrafish, although parts of the particles were retained within the mucus of intestinal villi and might even have been taken up by epithelial cells. The transfer of associated POPs was tested with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene and an ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay for CYP1A induction in zebrafish liver as well as via fluorescence analyses. Whereas a significant induction in the EROD assay could not be shown, because of high individual variation and low sensitivity regarding substance concentration, the fluorescence tracking of benzo[a]pyrene indicates that food-borne microplastic-associated POPs may actually desorb in the intestine of fish and are thus transferred to the intestinal epithelium and liver. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1656-1666. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  5. Pyrene Molecular Orbital Shuffle-Controlling Excited State and Redox Properties by Changing the Nature of the Frontier Orbitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Julia; Fink, Julian; Friedrich, Alexandra; Krummenacher, Ivo; Al Mamari, Hamad H; Lorenzen, Sabine; Haehnel, Martin; Eichhorn, Antonius; Moos, Michael; Holzapfel, Marco; Braunschweig, Holger; Lambert, Christoph; Steffen, Andreas; Ji, Lei; Marder, Todd B

    2017-09-21

    We show that by judicious choice of substituents at the 2- and 7-positions of pyrene, the frontier orbital order of pyrene can be modified, giving enhanced control over the nature and properties of the photoexcited states and the redox potentials. Specifically, we introduced a julolidine-like moiety and Bmes 2 (mes=2,4,6-Me 3 C 6 H 2 ) as very strong donor (D) and acceptor (A), respectively, giving 2,7-D-π-D- and unsymmetric 2,7-D-π-A-pyrene derivatives, in which the donor destabilizes the HOMO-1 and the acceptor stabilizes the LUMO+1 of the pyrene core. Consequently, for 2,7-substituted pyrene derivatives, unusual properties are obtained. For example, very large bathochromic shifts were observed for all of our compounds, and unprecedented green light emission occurs for the D/D system. In addition, very high radiative rate constants in solution and in the solid state were recorded for the D-π-D- and D-π-A-substituted compounds. All compounds show reversible one-electron oxidations, and Jul 2 Pyr exhibits a second oxidation, with the largest potential splitting (ΔE=440 mV) thus far reported for 2,7-substituted pyrenes. Spectroelectrochemical measurements confirm an unexpectedly strong coupling between the 2,7-substituents in our pyrene derivatives. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Inoculating wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with the endophytic bacterium Serratia sp. PW7 to reduce pyrene contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuezhu; Wang, Wanqing; Sun, Kai; Lin, Xianghao; Li, Shuang; Waigi, Michael Gatheru; Ling, Wanting

    2017-08-03

    This research was conducted to find an optimal inoculation way for a pyrene-degrading endophytic Serratia sp. PW7 to colonize wheat for reducing pyrene contamination. Three inoculation ways, which are soaking seeds in inocula (TS), dipping roots of seedlings in inocula (TR), and spraying inocula on leaves of seedlings (TL), were used in this study. Inoculated seedlings and noninoculated seedlings (CK) were, respectively, cultivated in Hoagland solutions supplemented with pyrene in a growth chamber. The results showed that strain PW7 successfully colonized the inoculated seedlings in high numbers, and significantly promoted the growth of seedlings (TS and TR). More importantly, strain PW7 reduced pyrene levels in the seedlings and the Hoagland solutions. Compared to the noninoculated seedlings, the pyrene contents of the inoculated seedlings were decreased by 35.7-86.3% in the shoots and by 26.8-60.1% in the roots after 8-day cultivation. By comparing the efficiencies of decreasing pyrene residues, it can be concluded that TR was an optimal inoculation way for endophytic strains to colonize the inoculated plants and to reduce the pyrene contamination. Our findings provide an optimized inoculation way to reduce organic contamination in crops by inoculating plants with functional endophytic bacteria.

  7. The effects of simultaneous application of plant growth regulators and bioaugmentation on improvement of phytoremediation of pyrene contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Saeid; Azhdarpoor, Abooalfazl; Rostami, Majid; Samaei, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) refer to a wide group of soil contaminants whose presence in the environment is a cause of concern. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the phytoremediation activities of sorghum bicolor and increase in pyrene removal efficiency in the soil. The initial concentration of pyrene was 150 and 300 mg kg(-1) in this experiment. The treatments included unplanted soil (T0), planted soil with sorghum (T1), planted soil with application of IAA (T2), planted soil with application of Pseudomonas sp. (T3), and planted soil with simultaneous application of IAA and Pseudomonas sp. (T4). The pyrene removal rate in the soil was measured every 30 days. Moreover, plant biomass and soil bacteria were measured after 90 days. The results showed that pyrene removal rate significantly increased in the planted treatments compared to the unplanted ones. After 90 days, at the initial concentration of 150-300 mg kg(-1), pyrene removal efficiency was 52-92% in T1-T4 and 35-47% in the unplanted treatment (T0). Application of IAA and Pseudomonas sp. significantly increased plant biomass, soil bacteria, and pyrene removal rate in T2, T3, and T4 compared to T1. Therefore, application of IAA in the planted treatments with sorghum could have a significant effect on increasing the removal efficiency of pyrene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of microarc oxidation and excimer laser processing on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of Zr–1Nb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jiaoxi; Wang, Xin; Wen, Qiang; Wang, Xibing; Wang, Rongshan; Zhang, Yanwei; Xue, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of microarc oxidation (MAO) and excimer laser processing on the corrosion resistance of Zr–1Nb alloy in service environment. The pre-oxide film was fabricated on the surface of Zr–1Nb cladding tubes by MAO processing, and then subjected to KrF excimer laser irradiation. The surface morphology of the pre-oxide film was observed using a scanning electron microscope; phase compositions and quantities were determined using an X-ray diffraction; surface roughness was determined using a profilometer; and thermal expansion coefficient was measured using a dilatometer. Autoclave experiments were conducted for 94 days in an aqueous condition of 360 °C under 18.6 MPa in 0.01 mol/L LiOH solutions. The results showed that MAO + laser treatment resulted in a significant increase in the corrosion resistance of Zr–1Nb cladding tubes at high temperatures, because laser melting and etching could lead to a reduction in surface roughness and an increase in compactness of the pre-oxide film, and laser processing could promote the transformation of m-ZrO 2 phase to t-ZrO 2 phase. The best corrosion resistance was obtained when the pulse energy was 500 mJ, scanning speed was 0.13 mm/s, and pulse number was 2400. - Highlights: • Pre-oxide film was fabricated on Zr–1Nb cladding tube by MAO+ excimer laser processing. • Excimer laser processing induced the transformation of m-ZrO 2 to t-ZrO 2 . • The Rietveld quantitative analysis of the pre-oxide film was made. • We investigated the high temperature corrosion and corrosion mechanism of the oxide film. • The parameters of MAO+ excimer laser processing were optimized.

  9. The effect of microarc oxidation and excimer laser processing on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of Zr–1Nb alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jiaoxi, E-mail: yangjiaoxi@bjut.edu.cn [Institute of Laser Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Wang, Xin; Wen, Qiang; Wang, Xibing [Institute of Laser Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Wang, Rongshan; Zhang, Yanwei [Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute, Suzhou 215004 (China); Xue, Wenbin [College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2015-12-15

    The main purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of microarc oxidation (MAO) and excimer laser processing on the corrosion resistance of Zr–1Nb alloy in service environment. The pre-oxide film was fabricated on the surface of Zr–1Nb cladding tubes by MAO processing, and then subjected to KrF excimer laser irradiation. The surface morphology of the pre-oxide film was observed using a scanning electron microscope; phase compositions and quantities were determined using an X-ray diffraction; surface roughness was determined using a profilometer; and thermal expansion coefficient was measured using a dilatometer. Autoclave experiments were conducted for 94 days in an aqueous condition of 360 °C under 18.6 MPa in 0.01 mol/L LiOH solutions. The results showed that MAO + laser treatment resulted in a significant increase in the corrosion resistance of Zr–1Nb cladding tubes at high temperatures, because laser melting and etching could lead to a reduction in surface roughness and an increase in compactness of the pre-oxide film, and laser processing could promote the transformation of m-ZrO{sub 2} phase to t-ZrO{sub 2} phase. The best corrosion resistance was obtained when the pulse energy was 500 mJ, scanning speed was 0.13 mm/s, and pulse number was 2400. - Highlights: • Pre-oxide film was fabricated on Zr–1Nb cladding tube by MAO+ excimer laser processing. • Excimer laser processing induced the transformation of m-ZrO{sub 2} to t-ZrO{sub 2}. • The Rietveld quantitative analysis of the pre-oxide film was made. • We investigated the high temperature corrosion and corrosion mechanism of the oxide film. • The parameters of MAO+ excimer laser processing were optimized.

  10. Study of Necrosis in the Liver of Formaldehyde and Benzo(αPyrene Exposured-Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Soni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde and benzo(αpyrene are compounds that harmful for health. Misapplication of this compound has an impact in the form of organ damage in the body. This study aims to determine the impact of the treatment of the combined exposure of formaldehyde and benzo(αpyrene to cell necrosis in the liver of mice (Mus musculus. Treatment of formaldehyde dose of 25 mg/kg BW to mice was given orally every day for 60 days. Treatment of benzo(αpyrene via intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 250 mg/kg BW were given after 30 days of incubation with four times injection with one day interval. Liver organ histological preparations were made through the HE staining. Observations were made by using a microscope for liver organ preparations. The data obtained that is the percentage of cells necrosis and necrotic foci. This research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD with 95% confidence interval. Liver organ preparations observations indicate that the percentage of necrosis in the untreated control, benzo(αpyrene 250 mg/kg BW, formaldehyde 25 mg/kg BW, combination of formaldehyde 25 mg/kg BW with BaP in a row that is equal to 14.43% ± 0.91; 26.05% ± 3.75; 49.38% ± 2.66; 51.86 ± 1.73. The mean of necrotic foci in liver organ formed in the untreatment control, benzo(αpyrene 250 mg/kg BW, Formaldehyde 25 mg/kg BW, and the combination of formaldehyde 25 mg/kg BW with BaP in a row, equal to 1.3 ± 0,07; 1.63 ± 0.61; 2 ± 0.51, and 3.4 ± 0.76. This suggests that the combined treatment had the highest level of toxicity compared with other treatments.

  11. Degradation of phenanthrene and pyrene using genetically engineered dioxygenase producing Pseudomonas putida in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardani Gashtasb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation use to promote degradation and/or removal of contaminants into nonhazardous or less-hazardous substances from the environment using microbial metabolic ability. Pseudomonas spp. is one of saprotrophic soil bacterium and can be used for biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs but this activity in most species is weak. Phenanthrene and pyrene could associate with a risk of human cancer development in exposed individuals. The aim of the present study was application of genetically engineered P. putida that produce dioxygenase for degradation of phenanthrene and pyrene in spiked soil using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method. The nahH gene that encoded catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O was cloned into pUC18 and pUC18-nahH recombinant vector was generated and transformed into wild P. putida, successfully. The genetically modified and wild types of P. putida were inoculated in soil and pilot plan was prepared. Finally, degradation of phenanthrene and pyrene by this bacterium in spiked soil were evaluated using HPLC measurement technique. The results were showed elimination of these PAH compounds in spiked soil by engineered P. putida comparing to dishes containing natural soil with normal microbial flora and inoculated autoclaved soil by wild type of P. putida were statistically significant (p0.05 but it was few impact on this process (more than 2%. Additional and verification tests including catalase, oxidase and PCR on isolated bacteria from spiked soil were indicated that engineered P. putida was alive and functional as well as it can affect on phenanthrene and pyrene degradation via nahH gene producing. These findings indicated that genetically engineered P. putida generated in this work via producing C23O enzyme can useful and practical for biodegradation of phenanthrene and pyrene as well as petroleum compounds in polluted environments.

  12. Isolation and Identification of Pyrene-degrading Bacteria from Soils around Landfills in Shiraz and Their Growth Kinetic Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Kafilzadeh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Pyrene is a kind of carcinogen hydrocarbon in environment and one of the top 129 pollutants as ranked by the U.S.Environmental Pretection Agency (USEPA. Today's commodious method that is considered by many researchers is the use of microorganisms to degrade these compounds from the environment. The goal of this research is separation and identification of the indigenous bacterias which are effective in decomposition of Pyrene hydrocarbon from soils around Shiraz Landfills. Isolated bacteria growth in the presence of different concentrations of the aforesaid organic pollutant was evaluated. Materials & Methods: Taking samples from Landfills were done after transportation them to the laboratory. The numbers of the bacterias were counted in a medium including Pyrene 0.6 g/l and in another medium without Pyrene. The isolated bacterias were separated by the enriched medium of hydrocarbon Pyrene and were recognized accordance with standards methods (specialty of colony, microscopic properties, fermentation of sugars and biochemical test.The kinetic growth of the separated bacterias was evaluated every 12 hours during 7 successive days. Results: It was reported that the numbers of the bacterias in the medium without Pyrene is more than those with Pyrene (cfu/g. The separated bacterias were included Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Micrococcus spp., Mycobacterium spp. These four isolated bacterias showed the best growth with Pyrene 0.6 g/l during third and fourth days. Conclusion: The separating bacterias, effecting in decomposition of PAH, make this possibility that the modern methods with more efficiency to be created for removing the carcinogen organic polluters from the environment. Moreover, the separated bacterias (relating to this research can be applied to develop the microbial population in the areas that polluted with Pyrene.

  13. excimer laser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-07

    Jan 7, 2014 ... is necessary to deposit one order higher input electric power into gas medium than ... cross-sectional view of the laser system is shown in figure 2A. The system mainly consists ... Considering the simplicity and reliability of the.

  14. excimer laser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This gas then passes through a set of water-cooled aluminum finned tube heat exchangers. ... been made leak tight better than 10. −5 ... The excitation circuit primarily consists of a high voltage power supply, a thyratron (CX 3608). Figure 4.

  15. Structuring of poly ether ether ketone by ArF excimer laser radiation in different atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Y.; Gottmann, J.; Kreutz, E.W.

    2003-01-01

    Structuring of poly ether ether ketone (PEEK) by 193 nm ArF excimer laser radiation has been investigated. Experiments were carried out in different atmospheres (air, vacuum, Ar, O 2 ) in order to study its influence on the quality of the structures and the formation of the debris. Repetition rate makes little effect on the ablation rate and roughness of the structure in presence of any kind of atmosphere, indicating for the structuring of PEEK by ArF laser radiation a large window of processing. The roughness at the bottom of the structures and the morphology of the side walls are strongly affected by the properties of the atmosphere. The smallest roughness is achieved at 0.6 J/cm 2 for all kinds of processing gases. Debris around the structures can be diminished by structuring in vacuum. Plasma expansion speed has been measured by using high speed photography

  16. Excimer-laser-induced permanent electrical conductivity in solid C60 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning, D.; Lou, Q.H.; Dong, J.X.; Wei, Y.R.

    1996-01-01

    After being irradiated in air by a XeCl (308 nm) excimer laser, the electrical conductivity of solid thin-film C 60 has been improved by more than six orders of magnitudes. The products resulting from laser irradiation of C 60 films have been investigated by Raman scattering and the onset of conductivity can be attributed to laser-induced oxygenation and disintegration of the fullerene. Irradiated by ∼40 ns laser pulses with different fluence, products with different microstructure were observed. At lower fluence, the Raman features of microcrystalline graphite and fullerene polymer were observed. At a fluence just below the ablation threshold (36 mJ/cm 2 ), the fullerene molecules in the film were disintegrated completely and transformed to amorphous graphite. (orig.). With 5 figs

  17. Excimer laser correction of hyperopia, hyperopic and mixed astigmatism: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukenda, Adrian; Martinović, Zeljka Karaman; Kalauz, Miro

    2012-06-01

    The broad acceptance of "spot scanning" or "flying spot" excimer lasers in the last decade has enabled the domination of corneal ablative laser surgery over other refractive surgical procedures for the correction of hyperopia, hyperopic and mixed astigmatism. This review outlines the most important reasons why the ablative laser correction of hyperopia, hyperopic and mixed astigmatism for many years lagged behind that of myopia. Most of today's scanning laser systems, used in the LASIK and PRK procedures, can safely and effectively perform low, moderate and high hyperopic and hyperopic astigmatic corrections. The introduction of these laser platforms has also significantly improved the long term refractive stability of hyperopic treatments. In the future, further improvements in femtosecond and nanosecond technology, eye-tracker systems, and the development of new customized algorithms, such as the ray-tracing method, could additionally increase the upper limit for the safe and predictable corneal ablative laser correction ofhyperopia, hyperopic and mixed astigmatism.

  18. The European answer to the integration issues of excimer laser annealing in MOS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Privitera, V.; La Magna, A.; Fortunato, G.; Camalleri, M.; Magri, A.; Simon, F.; Svensson, B.G.

    2004-01-01

    Excimer laser annealing (ELA) of MOSFET devices is currently studied and evaluated within the frame of the IST project 'Fundamentals and applications of laser processing for highly innovative MOS technology' (FLASH), funded by the European Commission. This European consortium aim to demonstrate that ELA can be industrialized in the context of semiconductor device fabrication. The technical achievement of homogeneous irradiation of entire wafers by industrial line beam system set up has been combined with device design solutions, in order to avoid the detrimental effects of the laser beam on device structures and tackle the integration issues, main obstacles for the use of ELA in the semiconductor industry. The launch of ELA, to open a new market segment in the semiconductor industry, implies also the availability of reliable process simulation tools. Therefore, a simulation program based on the phase-field method was produced, fully working and available

  19. Levels of interleukin-6 in tears before and after excimer laser treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resan Mirko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Immune response and consequent inflammatory process which originate on ocular surface after a trauma are mediated by cytokines. Photoablation of corneal stroma performed by excimer laser causes surgically induced trauma. Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is mostly known as a proinflammatory cytokine. However, it also has regenerative and anti-inflammatory effects. It is supposed that this cytokine is likely to play a significant role in the process of corneal wound healing response after photoablation of stroma carried out by laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK or photorefractive keratectomy (PRK methods. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the levels of IL-6 in tears before and after treatment with LASIK and PRK methods. Methods. The study included 68 shortsighted eyes up to -3.0 diopter sphere, i.e. 198 samples of tears (per three samples taken from each of the eyes, divided into two groups according to the kind of excimer laser intervention performed: the group 1 - eyes treated by LASIK method (n = 31, and the group 2 - eyes treated by the PRK method (n = 37. The samples of tears were taken from each eye at the following time points: before excimer laser treatment (0 h, the control group, 1 h after the treatment (1 h and 24 h after the treatment (24 h. The patients did not use anti-inflammatory therapy 24 h after the intervention. Tear samples were collected using microsurgical sponge. Level of IL-6 in tear fluid was determined by the flow cytometry method, applying a commercial test kit which allowed cytokine detection from a small sample volume. Results. The values of IL-6 were detectable in 16% of samples before LASIK treatment and in 30% of samples before PRK treatment. One h after the treatment IL-6 was detectable in 29% of samples for the LASIK group and 43% of samples for the PRK group, and 24 h after the treatment it was detectable in 19% of samples for the LASIK group and in 57% of samples for the PRK group. When we

  20. Levels of interleukin-6 in tears before and after excimer laser treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resan, Mirko; Stanojević, Ivan; Petković, Aleksandra; Pajić, Bojan; Vojvodić, Danilo

    2015-04-01

    Immune response and consequent inflammatory process which originate on ocular surface after a trauma are mediated by cytokines. Photoablation of corneal stroma performed by excimer laser causes surgically induced trauma. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is mostly known as a proinflammatory cytokine. However, it also has regenerative and anti-inflammatory effects. It is supposed that this cytokine is likely to play a significant role in the process of corneal wound healing response after photoablation of stroma carried out by laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) or photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) methods. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the levels of IL-6 in tears before and after treatment with LASIK and PRK methods. The study included 68 shortsighted eyes up to -3.0 diopter sphere, i.e. 198 samples of tears (per three samples taken from each of the eyes), divided into two groups according to the kind of excimer laser intervention performed: the group 1--eyes treated by LASIK method (n=31), and the group 2--eyes treated by the PRK method (n=37). The samples of tears were taken from each eye at the following time points: before excimer laser treatment (0 h, the control group), 1 h after the treatment (1 h) and 24 h after the treatment (24 h). The patients did not use anti-inflammatory therapy 24 h after the intervention. Tear samples were collected using microsurgical sponge. Level of IL-6 in tear fluid was determined by the flow cytometry method, applying a commercial test kit which allowed cytokine detection from a small sample volume. Results. The values of IL-6 were detectable in 16% of samples before LASIK treatment and in 30% of samples before PRK treatment. One h after the treatment IL-6 was detectable in 29% of samples for the LASIK group and 43% of samples for the PRK group, and 24 h after the treatment it was detectable in 19% of samples for the LASIK group and in 57% of samples for the PRK group. When we analyzed the dynamics of IL76 production

  1. Simulation of beam pointing stability on targeting plane of high power excimer laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dahui; Zhao Xueqing; Zhang Yongsheng; Zheng Guoxin; Hu Yun; Zhao Jun

    2011-01-01

    Based on characteristics of image-relaying structure in high power excimer MOPA laser system, simulation and analysis software of targeting beam's barycenter stability was designed by using LABVIEW and MATLAB. Simulation was made to measured results of every optical component in laboratory environment. Simulation and validation of budget values for optical components was and optimization of error budget of system was accomplished via post-allocation for several times. It is shown that targeting beam's barycenter stability in the condition of current laboratory environment can't satisfy needs and index of high demand optical components can be allotted to 1.7 μrad when index of low demand optical components have some stability margin. These results can provide a guide to construction of system and design and machining of optical components and optimization of system. Optical components of laboratory on work can satisfy optimized distributed index, which reduce the demand of structure to some extent. (authors)

  2. Singlet Fission and Excimer Formation in Disordered Solids of Alkyl-Substituted 1,3-Diphenylisobenzofurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Paul I; Michl, Josef; Johnson, Justin C

    2017-11-16

    We describe the preparation and excited state dynamics of three alkyl derivatives of 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran (1) in both solutions and thin films. The substitutions are intended to disrupt the slip-stacked packing observed in crystals of 1 while maintaining the favorable energies of singlet and triplet for singlet fission (SF). All substitutions result in films that are largely amorphous as judged by the absence of strong X-ray diffraction peaks. The films of 1 carrying a methyl in the para position of one phenyl ring undergo SF relatively efficiently (≥75% triplet yield, Φ T ) but more slowly than thin films of 1. When the methyl is replaced with a t-butyl, kinetic competition in the excited state favors excimer formation rather than SF (Φ T = 55%). When t-Bu groups are placed in both meta positions of the phenyl substituent, SF is slowed further and Φ T = 35%.

  3. Gasochromic performance of WO3-nanorod thin films fabricated with an ArF excimer laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaacob, M. H.; Ou, J. Z.; Wlodarski, W.; Kim, C. S.; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, Y. H.; Oh, C. M.; Dhakal, K. P.; Kim, J. Y.; Kang, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    Thin films with tungsten trioxide (WO 3 ) nanorods were fabricated by using an ArF pulsed laser deposition system. Because the ArF excimer laser operates at a very short wavelength of 193 nm, short enough to expect strong absorption of the photons in the semiconductor oxide targets, and because the clusters incoming to the substrates have high momentum, we could build thin films with good surface morphology. Highly homogeneous arrays of nanorods with sizes mostly in the range of 30 - 40 nm were observed. The absorbance response towards hydrogen (H 2 ) gas was investigated for a WO 3 film coated with 25-A-thick palladium (Pd). The Pd/WO 3 -nanorod thin films exhibited excellent gasochromic response when measured in the visible-NIR range (400 - 1000 nm). As low as 0.06% H 2 concentration was clearly sensed. A significant reversible absorbance change and fast recovery ( 2 at different concentrations.

  4. Unscheduled DNA synthesis in human skin after in vitro ultraviolet-excimer laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, H.A.; Margolis, R.; Boll, J.; Kochevar, I.E.; Parrish, J.A.; Oseroff, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    DNA damage repaired by the excision repair system and measured as unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) was assessed in freshly excised human skin after 193 and 248 nm ultraviolet (UV)-excimer laser ablative incisions. Laser irradiation at 248 nm induced DNA damage throughout a zone of cells surrounding the ablated and heat-damaged area. In contrast, with 193 nm irradiation UDS was not detected in cells adjacent to the ablated area, even though DNA strongly absorbs this wavelength. Our results suggest that the lack of UDS after 193 nm irradiation is due to: ''shielding'' of DNA by the cellular interstitium, membrane, and cytoplasm, DNA damage that is not repaired by excision repair, or thermal effects that either temporarily or permanently inhibit the excision repair processes

  5. Unscheduled DNA synthesis in human skin after in vitro ultraviolet-excimer laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, H.A.; Margolis, R.; Boll, J.; Kochevar, I.E.; Parrish, J.A.; Oseroff, A.R.

    1987-08-01

    DNA damage repaired by the excision repair system and measured as unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) was assessed in freshly excised human skin after 193 and 248 nm ultraviolet (UV)-excimer laser ablative incisions. Laser irradiation at 248 nm induced DNA damage throughout a zone of cells surrounding the ablated and heat-damaged area. In contrast, with 193 nm irradiation UDS was not detected in cells adjacent to the ablated area, even though DNA strongly absorbs this wavelength. Our results suggest that the lack of UDS after 193 nm irradiation is due to: ''shielding'' of DNA by the cellular interstitium, membrane, and cytoplasm, DNA damage that is not repaired by excision repair, or thermal effects that either temporarily or permanently inhibit the excision repair processes.

  6. In-vitro ablation of fibrocartilage by XeCl excimer laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchelt, Martin; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Fishbein, Michael C.; Peters, Werner; Beeder, Clain; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1991-07-01

    A 308 nm excimer laser was employed for ablation of human fibrocartilage. Experiments were conducted in vitro. The tissue response was investigated with respect to dosimetry (ablation rate versus radiant exposure) and thermal effect (thermographic analysis). Irradiation was performed via a 600 um fiber, with radiant exposures ranging between 20mj/mm2 and 80mj/mm2, at 20Hz. The ablation rates were found to range from 3um/pulse to 80um/pulse depending on the radiant exposure and/or the applied pressure on the delivery system. Thermographic analysis, during ablation, revealed maximum average temperatures of about 65 degree(s)C. Similar measurements performed, for the purpose of comparison, with a CW Nd:YAG and a CW CO2 laser showed higher values, of the order of 200 degree(s)C.

  7. A 223-nm KrCl excimer laser on a He-Kr-HCl mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razhev, A M; Zhupikov, A A; Kargapol'tsev, E S

    2004-01-01

    The results of experimental studies of the parameters of a 223-nm electric-discharge KrCl excimer laser on a He-Kr-HCl mixture depending on the excitation conditions and the composition of the active gaseous medium are presented. To achieve the maximum values of the output energy and the efficiency of the KrCl laser on mixtures with buffer gaseous helium, an excitation system was used that included a circuit with an LC inverter with a high-voltage switch based on an RU-65 spark gap. An output energy of 320 mJ with an efficiency of 0.5% relative to the energy stored in the capacitors is obtained in a KrCl laser with an active medium based on the buffer He gas at a charging voltage of 30 kV. Radiation pulses with a duration of 22±1 ns and a pulse power of 15 MW are obtained. (lasers)

  8. [Excimer laser therapy of alopecia areata--side-by-side evaluation of a representative area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulin, Christian; Gündogan, Cüneyt; Greve, Bärbel; Gebert, Susanne

    2005-07-01

    We report for the first time on hair regrowth in alopecia areata of the scalp achieved with the 308-nm xenon-chloride excimer laser in a prospective side-by-side trial. The alopecia areata had shown progression over a period of three years, and various treatments had not been effective. Out of a number of affected areas, one representative lesion was chosen; one half of it was treated, the other half remained untreated. After 27 sessions (200 - 4000 mJ/cm2, cumulative dose 52.6 J/cm2) over 3 months, only the treated area showed hair growth; which suggests that this was most probably not a spontaneous remission.

  9. Measurements of barium photocathode quantum yields at four excimer laser wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Loy, M.D.; Young, A.T.; Leung, K.N.

    1992-06-01

    The electron quantum yields from barium cathodes excited by excimer laser radiation at 193, 248, 308, and 351 nm have been determined. Experiments with different cathode surface preparation techniques reveal that deposition of barium film a few microns thick on a clean copper surface under moderate vacuum conditions achieves relatively high quantum efficiencies. Quantum yields measured from surfaces prepared in this manner are 2.3 x 10 -3 at 193 nm, 7.6 x 10 - 4 at 248 nm, 6.1 x 10 -4 at 308 nm, and 4.0 x 10 -4 at 351 nm. Other preparation techniques, such as laser cleaning of a solid barium surface, produced quantum yields that were at least an order of magnitude lower than these values

  10. The effect of excimer laser pretreatment on diffusion and activation of boron implanted in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monakhov, E.V.; Svensson, B.G.; Linnarsson, M.K.; La Magna, A.; Italia, M.; Privitera, V.; Fortunato, G.; Cuscuna, M.; Mariucci, L.

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of excimer laser annealing (ELA) on transient enhanced diffusion (TED) and activation of boron implanted in Si during subsequent rapid thermal annealing (RTA). It is observed that ELA with partial melting of the implanted region causes reduction of TED in the region that remains solid during ELA, where the diffusion length of boron is reduced by a factor of ∼4 as compared to the as-implanted sample. This is attributed to several mechanisms such as liquid-state annealing of a fraction of the implantation induced defects, introduction of excess vacancies during ELA, and solid-state annealing of the defects beyond the maximum melting depth by the heat wave propagating into the Si wafer. The ELA pretreatment provides a substantially improved electrical activation of boron during subsequent RTA

  11. Boron distribution in silicon after excimer laser annealing with multiple pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monakhov, E.V.; Svensson, B.G.; Linnarsson, M.K.; La Magna, A.; Italia, M.; Privitera, V.; Fortunato, G.; Cuscuna, M.; Mariucci, L.

    2005-01-01

    We have studied B re-distribution in Si after excimer laser annealing (ELA) with multiple laser pulses. B was implanted using both B and BF 2 ions with energies from 1 to 20 keV and doses of 1 x 10 14 and 1 x 10 15 cm -2 . ELA with the number of pulses from 1 to 100 was performed in vacuum with the sample kept at room temperature and 450 deg. C. Independently of the implantation parameters and the ELA conditions used, a peak in the B concentration is observed near the maximum melting depth after 10 pulses of ELA. A detailed study has revealed that B accumulates at the maximum melt depth gradually with the number of ELA pulses. An increase in the carrier concentration at the maximum melt depth is observed after ELA with 100 pulses. No structural defects have been detected by transmission electron microscopy in the region of the B accumulation

  12. Time-resolved fluorescence quenching studies of sodium lauryl ether sulfate micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Leidi C.; Silva, Volnir O.; Quina, Frank H.; Moreira Junior, Paulo F.; Tcacenco, Celize M.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregation numbers (N Ag ) of micelles of the commercial anionic detergent sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), with an average of two ethylene oxide subunits, were determined at 30 and 40 deg C by the time-resolved fluorescence quenching method with pyrene as the fluorescent probe and the N-hexadecylpyridinium ion as the quencher. The added-salt dependent growth of SLES micelles (γ = 0.11-0.15, where γ is the slope of a plot of log aggregation number vs. log [Y aq ] and [Y aq ] is the sodium counterion concentration free in the intermicellar aqueous phase) is found to be significantly lower than that of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles (γ ca. 0.25), a difference attributed to the larger headgroup size of SLES. The I 1 /I 3 vibronic intensity ratio and the rate constant for intramicellar quenching of pyrene show that the pyrene solubilization microenvironment and the intramicellar microviscosity are insensitive to micelle size or the presence of added salt. (author)

  13. Time-resolved fluorescence quenching studies of sodium lauryl ether sulfate micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Leidi C.; Silva, Volnir O.; Quina, Frank H., E-mail: quina@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Moreira Junior, Paulo F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Quimica; Tcacenco, Celize M. [Fundacao Instituto de Ensino para Osasco (FIEO/UNIFIEO), SP (Brazil). Centro Universitario FIEO. Centro de Estudos Quimicos

    2013-02-15

    Aggregation numbers (N{sub Ag}) of micelles of the commercial anionic detergent sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), with an average of two ethylene oxide subunits, were determined at 30 and 40 deg C by the time-resolved fluorescence quenching method with pyrene as the fluorescent probe and the N-hexadecylpyridinium ion as the quencher. The added-salt dependent growth of SLES micelles ({gamma} = 0.11-0.15, where {gamma} is the slope of a plot of log aggregation number vs. log [Y{sub aq}] and [Y{sub aq}] is the sodium counterion concentration free in the intermicellar aqueous phase) is found to be significantly lower than that of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles ({gamma} ca. 0.25), a difference attributed to the larger headgroup size of SLES. The I{sub 1}/I{sub 3} vibronic intensity ratio and the rate constant for intramicellar quenching of pyrene show that the pyrene solubilization microenvironment and the intramicellar microviscosity are insensitive to micelle size or the presence of added salt. (author)

  14. Preparation of PZT thin films on YBCO electrodes by KrF excimer laser ablation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurogi, H.; Yamagata, Y.; Ebihara, K.

    1998-01-01

    Pb(Zr X Ti 1-X )O 3 (PZT) films have excellent ferroelectric, optical, piezoelectric, and pyroelectric properties. We prepared PZT thin films by the excimer laser ablation technique. A pulsed KrF excimer laser (Lambda Physik LPX305icc, pulse duration of 25 ns, λ=248 nm, 850 mJ Max.) was used to ablate the bulk targets. We investigated the influence of bottom electrode materials on the characteristics of the PZT thin films prepared on Pt and YBCO underlayers. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the PZT films prepared with a laser fluence of 2 Jcm -2 on YBCO/MgO(100) substrate at a wide temperature range of 550-680 C have a perovskite (001) structure. At the same laser fluence, the PZT films prepared on Pt/MgO(100) substrate have a perovskite (001) structure only at 650 C. The polarization-electric field (P-E) characteristics and fatigue properties of PZT thin films were measured by the Sawyer-Tower circuit. The remnant polarization and coercive field have been found to be P r =15 μC cm -2 , 30 μC cm -2 and E c =200 kV cm -1 , 100 kV cm -1 for Au/PZT/Pt/MgO and Au/PZT/YBCO/MgO correspondingly. The remnant polarization of Au/PZT/YBCO/MgO thin film was reduced to one-half after about 10 8 cycles of switching. (orig.)

  15. Preparation of PZT thin films on YBCO electrodes by KrF excimer laser ablation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurogi, H; Yamagata, Y; Ebihara, K [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Electr. Eng. and Comput. Sci.; Inoue, N [Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc., Suizenji, 1-6-36, Kumamoto 862 (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Pb(Zr{sub X}Ti{sub 1-X})O{sub 3} (PZT) films have excellent ferroelectric, optical, piezoelectric, and pyroelectric properties. We prepared PZT thin films by the excimer laser ablation technique. A pulsed KrF excimer laser (Lambda Physik LPX305icc, pulse duration of 25 ns, {lambda}=248 nm, 850 mJ Max.) was used to ablate the bulk targets. We investigated the influence of bottom electrode materials on the characteristics of the PZT thin films prepared on Pt and YBCO underlayers. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the PZT films prepared with a laser fluence of 2 Jcm{sup -2} on YBCO/MgO(100) substrate at a wide temperature range of 550-680 C have a perovskite (001) structure. At the same laser fluence, the PZT films prepared on Pt/MgO(100) substrate have a perovskite (001) structure only at 650 C. The polarization-electric field (P-E) characteristics and fatigue properties of PZT thin films were measured by the Sawyer-Tower circuit. The remnant polarization and coercive field have been found to be P{sub r}=15 {mu}C cm{sup -2}, 30 {mu}C cm{sup -2} and E{sub c}=200 kV cm{sup -1}, 100 kV cm{sup -1} for Au/PZT/Pt/MgO and Au/PZT/YBCO/MgO correspondingly. The remnant polarization of Au/PZT/YBCO/MgO thin film was reduced to one-half after about 10{sup 8} cycles of switching. (orig.) 7 refs.

  16. Aqueous transforming growth factor-beta-I levels in rabbit eyes after excimer laser photoablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, K; Gürelik, G; Okur, H; Bilgihan, A; Hasanreisoglu, B; Imir, T

    1997-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) plays an important role in anterior segment wound healing, by controlling the cell proliferation and differentiation, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix composition and mediating the immunosuppressive properties of the aqueous humor. The present study was undertaken to clarify the possible changes of aqueous humor TGF-betaI levels after excimer laser photoablation. Twenty-eight New Zealand rabbits were divided into four groups of 7 rabbits each. Group 1 served as control, the central 7 mm of corneal epithelium was removed in groups 2, 3 and 4. We performed 50-microm corneal photoablation in group 3, and 100-microm ablation in group 4. After 48 h we measured the TGF-betaI levels of the aqueous humor by ELISA method. The mean TGF-betaI value of the aqueous humor was found to be 162.94+/-13.73 pg/ml in the control group. Mechanical deepithelialization did not change the TGF-betaI levels of the aqueous humor (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference between the 50-microm photoablated group and the controls (p > 0.05), but the TGF-betaI levels of the 100-microm photoablated group were found to be significantly higher than those of both the control group and 50-microm photoablated group (p < 0.05). Many factors and cytokines may induce corneal haze and myopic regression after excimer laser photoablation; our study demonstrated that TGF-betaI is one of these factors and there is a positive correlation between the depth of corneal photoablation and aqueous TGF-betaI concentrations.

  17. Influence of particle characteristics and organic matter content on the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of pyrene by clams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verrengia Guerrero, N.R.; Taylor, M.G.; Wider, E.A.; Simkiss, K.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental model with artificial particles and humic acids describes bioavailability of sediment-bound pyrene to clams. - Hydrophobic chemicals are known to associate with sediment particles including those from both suspended particulate matter and bottom deposits. The complex and variable composition of natural particles makes it very difficult therefore, to predict the bioavailability of sediment-bound contaminants. To overcome these problems we have previously devised a test system using artificial particles, with or without humic acids, for use as an experimental model of natural sediments. In the present work we have applied this experimental technique to investigate the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of pyrene by the freshwater fingernail clam Sphaerium corneum. The uptake and accumulation of pyrene in clams exposed to the chemical in the presence of a sample of natural sediment was also investigated. According to the results obtained, particle surface properties and organic matter content are the key factors for assessing the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of pyrene by clams

  18. Topological analysis of the electron density and of the electron localization function of pyrene and its radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Trujillo, Jesus; Garcia-Cruz, Isidoro; Martinez-Magadan, Jose Manuel

    2005-01-01

    The topological properties of the charge distribution of pyrene and the three derived monoradicals in their ground state and of didehydrogenated pyrenes in the lowest singlet and triplet electronic states are discussed in detail by means of the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (TAIM) and by the electron localization function (ELF). The non-equivalence of the fused aromatic rings of pyrene prevents one from anticipating the stability and reactivity of these species from the chemistry of didehydrogenated species derived from benzene only. Whereas some of these didehydrogenated molecules were found to display a diradical character in the singlet ground state, the topological analysis reveals that others correspond to normal closed shells. Using these theoretical tools, the energetic and geometric details of o-, m- and p-benzyne-like pyrene derivatives are explained

  19. Transplantation of hamster lung lesions induced by 239PuO2 or benz(a)pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, K.E.; Sanders, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    None(0%) of 1000 recipients of lung lesions for 239 PuO 2 -exposed hamsters that were transplanted into other hamsters' cheek pouches, developed tumors, whereas 90% of transplants from benz(a)pyrene-induced lung lesions were malignant

  20. Association between mutation spectra and stable and unstable DNA adduct profiles in Salmonella for benzo[a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMarini, David M., E-mail: demarini.david@epa.gov [Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Hanley, Nancy M.; Warren, Sarah H.; Adams, Linda D.; King, Leon C. [Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Highlights: {yields} Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) induces stable DNA adducts and mutations primarily at guanine. {yields} Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) induces them primarily at adenine. {yields} BP induces abasic sites, but DBP does not in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. {yields} Stable DNA adducts alone appear to account for the mutation spectrum of DBP. {yields} Stable DNA adducts and possibly abasic sites account for the mutation spectrum of BP. - Abstract: Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) are two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that exhibit distinctly different mutagenicity and carcinogenicity profiles. Although some studies show that these PAHs produce unstable DNA adducts, conflicting data and arguments have been presented regarding the relative roles of these unstable adducts versus stable adducts, as well as oxidative damage, in the mutagenesis and tumor-mutation spectra of these PAHs. However, no study has determined the mutation spectra along with the stable and unstable DNA adducts in the same system with both PAHs. Thus, we determined the mutagenic potencies and mutation spectra of BP and DBP in strains TA98, TA100 and TA104 of Salmonella, and we also measured the levels of abasic sites (aldehydic-site assay) and characterized the stable DNA adducts ({sup 32}P-postlabeling/HPLC) induced by these PAHs in TA104. Our results for the mutation spectra and site specificity of stable adducts were consistent with those from other systems, showing that DBP was more mutagenic than BP in TA98 and TA100. The mutation spectra of DBP and BP were significantly different in TA98 and TA104, with 24% of the mutations induced by BP in TA98 being complex frameshifts, whereas DBP produced hardly any of these mutations. In TA104, BP produced primarily GC to TA transversions, whereas DBP produced primarily AT to TA transversions. The majority (96%) of stable adducts induced by BP were at guanine, whereas the majority (80%) induced by DBP were at adenine

  1. Spirolactone and spirothiolactone rhodamine-pyrene probes for detection of Hg²⁺ with different sensing properties and its application in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Qing-Qing; Zhou, Yi; Fang, Yuan; Yao, Cheng

    2016-04-15

    Two new rhodamine B-based fluorescent probes PyRbS and PyRbO containing pyrene moiety were designed and synthesized. Both of the probes showed colorimetric and fluorometric sensing abilities for Hg(2+) with high selectivity over other metal ions. The binding analysis using Job's plot suggested 1:1 stoichiometry for the complexes formed for Hg(2+). Compared with PyRbO, the PyRbS showed higher selectivity and sensitivity due to the thiophilic property of Hg(2+) ion. The PyRbS exhibited the linear fluorescence quenching to Hg(2+) in the range of 0.3 to 4.8 μM (λ(ex)=365 nm) and 0.3 to 5.4 μM (λ(ex)=515 nm), and the detection limit was 0.72 μM. Moreover, ratiometric changes of PyRbS with Hg(2+) in absorption spectrum were observed, which could not be obtained in the combination of PyRbO with Hg(2+). In addition, the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay demonstrated that RbPyS had low cytotoxicity and was successfully used to monitor intracellular Hg(2+) levels in living cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel baseline-correction method for standard addition based derivative spectra and its application to quantitative analysis of benzo(a)pyrene in vegetable oil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Li, Xiu-Ying; Zou, Zhe-Xiang; Lin, Li-Rong; Li, Yao-Qun

    2011-07-07

    In the present work, a baseline-correction method based on peak-to-derivative baseline measurement was proposed for the elimination of complex matrix interference that was mainly caused by unknown components and/or background in the analysis of derivative spectra. This novel method was applicable particularly when the matrix interfering components showed a broad spectral band, which was common in practical analysis. The derivative baseline was established by connecting two crossing points of the spectral curves obtained with a standard addition method (SAM). The applicability and reliability of the proposed method was demonstrated through both theoretical simulation and practical application. Firstly, Gaussian bands were used to simulate 'interfering' and 'analyte' bands to investigate the effect of different parameters of interfering band on the derivative baseline. This simulation analysis verified that the accuracy of the proposed method was remarkably better than other conventional methods such as peak-to-zero, tangent, and peak-to-peak measurements. Then the above proposed baseline-correction method was applied to the determination of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in vegetable oil samples by second-derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. The satisfactory results were obtained by using this new method to analyze a certified reference material (coconut oil, BCR(®)-458) with a relative error of -3.2% from the certified BaP concentration. Potentially, the proposed method can be applied to various types of derivative spectra in different fields such as UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy.

  3. Systemic excretion of benzo(a)pyrene in the control and microsomally induced rat: the influence of plasma lipoproteins and albumin as carrier molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, H.P.; Bymun, E.N.

    1983-01-01

    In vitro studies have previously indicated that benzo(a)pyrene distributes primarily into the plasma lipoprotein fraction when incubated with whole plasma. Hydroxylated metabolites of benzo(a)pyrene distribute increasingly into the albumin fraction as the degree of metabolite hydroxylation increases. This report assesses the influence of plasma lipoproteins and albumin as carriers for benzo(a)pyrene on carcinogen excretion in the control and microsomally induced rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats cannulated in the bile duct received i.v. injections of radiolabeled benzo(a)pyrene noncovalently bound to the very-low-density, low-density, or high-density lipoproteins in equimolar amounts. Bile was collected and measured for radioactivity. Cumulative biliary excretions of benzo(a)pyrene complexed with rat lipoproteins were 39.6 +/- 9.7 (S.D.), 24.6 +/- 1.3, and 21.2 +/- 8.8% for very low-density, low-density, and high-density lipoprotein, respectively. Values for excretion of benzo(a)pyrene complexed with rat or human lipoproteins were comparable. These data suggest that the transport molecule can effect a 2-fold difference in benzo(a)pyrene excretion under conditions of the present study. Thus, excretion increased as the degree of benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylation increased. The effect of microsomal enzyme induction on excretion of lipoprotein-bound benzo(a)pyrene was also assessed. Contrary to expectation, excretion of benzo(a)pyrene bound to the very-low-density, low-density, or high-density lipoproteins in Aroclor-induced rats was not greater than that of control animals. Hence, under the conditions of the present study, 60 to 80% of the injected benzo(a)pyrene and 50 to 60% of the injected benzo(a)pyrene metabolites were not excreted immediately in control or microsomally induced animals. This benzo(a)pyrene may represent a carcinogen pool that is slowly excreted

  4. Phthalic acid and benzo[a]pyrene in soil-plant-water systems amended with contaminated sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mougin, C.; Dappozze, F.; Brault, A.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the fate of C-14-labelled phthalic acid and benzo[a]pyrene applied to the soil by the way of contaminated sewage sludge in model ecosystems allowing the simultaneous assessment of physicochemical and biological descriptors. Here we show that the mineralisation of phthalic acid is highe......[a]pyrene is recalcitrant to biodegradation whatever the type of soil contamination. We show also that the chemicals present in the sludge are poorly transferred to soil leachates and plant seedlings....

  5. Gambaran Histopatologik Payudara Mencit (Mus Musculus) Yang Diinduksi Benzo(α)pyrene Dan Diberikan Ekstrak Kunyit (Curcuma Longa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Nansi, Eka M; Durry, Meilany F; Kairupan, Carla

    2015-01-01

    : Breast cancer (Carcinoma mammae) is one of the most common cancers affecting women. The etiology of breast cancer is still unknown, however, there are several important risk factors linked to the occurence of breast cancer, as follows: genetic, hormonal, and environmental. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PHA) such as benzo(a)pyrene is a carcinogenic agent that can be found in the surrounding environment. It has been proven that benzo(a)pyrene can induce tumors in experimental animal model...

  6. High-efficiency pyrene-based blue light emitting diodes: Aggregation suppression using a calixarene 3D-scaffold

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Khaileok

    2012-01-01

    An efficient blue light emitting diode based on solution processable pyrene-1,3-alt-calix[4]arene is demonstrated, providing a record current efficiency of 10.5 cd A -1 in a simple non-doped OLED configuration. Complete suppression of pyrene aggregation in the solid state is achieved by controlling chromophore dispersion using the 1,3-alt-calix[4]arene scaffold. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Effect of bioaugmentation to enhance phytoremediation for removal of phenanthrene and pyrene from soil with Sorghum and Onobrychis sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The use of plants to remove Poly-aromatic-hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil (phytoremediation) is emerging as a cost-effective method. Phytoremediation of contaminated soils can be promoted by the use of adding microorganisms with the potential of pollution biodegradation (bioaugmentation). In the present work, the effect of bacterial consortium was studied on the capability of Sorghum and Onobrychis sativa for the phytoremediation of soils contaminated with phenanthrene and pyrene. 1.5 kg of the contaminated soil in the ratio of 100 and 300 mg phenanthrene and/or pyrene per kg of dry soil was then transferred into each pot (nine modes). The removal efficiency of natural, phytoremediation and bioaugmentation, separately and combined, were evaluated. The samples were kept under field conditions, and the remaining concentrations of pyrene and phenanthrene were determined after 120 days. The rhizosphere as well as the microbial population of the soil was also determined. Results indicated that both plants were able to significantly remove pyrene and phenanthrene from the contaminated soil samples. Phytoremediation alone had the removal efficiency of about 63% and 74.5% for pyrene and phenanthrene respectively. In the combined mode, the removal efficiency dramatically increased, leading to pyrene and phenanthrene removal efficiencies of 74.1% and 85.02% for Onobrychis sativa and 73.84% and 85.2% for sorghum, respectively. According to the results from the present work, it can be concluded that Onobrychis sativa and sorghum are both efficient in removing pyrene and phenanthrene from contamination and bioaugmentation can significantly enhance the phytoremediation of soils contaminated with pyrene and phenanthrene by 22% and 16% respectively. PMID:24406158

  8. Investigation on the photocatalytic degradation of pyrene on soil surfaces using nanometer anatase TiO2 under UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Dianbo; Li Peijun; Li Xiaojun; Zhao Qing; Zhang Yinqiu; Jia Chunyun; Li Peng

    2010-01-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of pyrene on soil surfaces was investigated in the presence of nanometer anatase TiO 2 under a variety of conditions. After being spiked with pyrene, soil samples loaded with different amounts of TiO 2 (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%, w/w) were exposed to UV irradiation for 25 h. The results indicated that the photocatalytic degradation of pyrene followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. TiO 2 accelerated the degradation of pyrene generally as indicated by the half-life reduction from 45.90 to 31.36 h, corresponding to the TiO 2 amounts from 0% to 4%, respectively. The effects of H 2 O 2 , light intensity and humic acids on the degradation of pyrene were also investigated. The degradation of pyrene increased along with increasing the concentration of H 2 O 2 , light intensity and the concentration of humic acids. All results indicated that the photocatalytic method in the presence of nanometer anatase TiO 2 was an advisable choice for the treatments of PAHs polluted soil in the future.

  9. Reactions of model compounds in the presence of pyrene and MoS sub 2 to simulate coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, P.-S.; Curtis, C.W.; Cronauer, D.C. (Auburn University, Auburn, AL (USA). Chemical Engineering Dept.)

    Catalytic reactions of pyrene using in situ generated MoS{sub 2} from molybdenum naphthenate and excess sulfur were evaluated in the presence of added model species, both hydrocarbons and heteroatomic species. The added hydrocarbons and heteroatomic compounds containing oxygen and sulfur had little effect on the hydrogenation of pyrene at either 400 or 425{degree}C, but quinoline at 400{degree}C reduced the hydrogenation of pyrene by half. Reactions at 425{degree}C also reduced the hydrogenation of pyrene by half regardless of the added model species. The added model species underwent different degrees of reaction: the hydrocarbons underwent little or no reaction, dibenzofuran showed little hydrodeoxygenation, dibenzothiophene yielded substantial hydrodesulfurization and quinoline was almost totally hydrodenitrogenated. The addition of quinoline at increasing concentration resulted in substantial lowering of pyrene hydrogenation and quinoline hydrodenitrogenation. Introduction of quinoline at a low concentration of 0.4 wt% gave a pyrene hydrogenation rate constant of 0.073 min{sup -1} at 400{degree}C while an increase in quinoline to 10.0 wt% yielded a rate constant of 0.020 min{sup -1}. 21 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Effects of Nereis diversicolor on the Transformation of 1-Methylpyrene and Pyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Christensen, Jan Henning; Selck, Henriette

    and quantitative analyses of metabolites and parent compounds in worm tissue, water, and sediment were performed. Transformation of 1-methylpyrene generated the benzylic hydroxylated phase I product, 1-pyrenecarboxylic acid that comprised 90% of the total metabolites of 1-methylpyrene, and was mainly found......Transformation of nonsubstituted and alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by the benthic invertebrate Nereis diversicolor was compared in this study. Pyrene and 1-methylpyrene were used as model compounds for nonsubstituted and alkyl-substituted PAHs, respectively. Qualitative...... as the most prominent metabolite. Transformation of 1-methylpyrene (21% transformed) was more than 3 times as efficient as pyrene transformation (5.6% transformed). Because crude oils contain larger amounts of C1−C4-substituted PAHs than nonsubstituted PAHs, the rapid and efficient transformation of sediment...

  11. Effects of Nereis diversicolor on the transformation of 1-Methylpyrene and Pyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Christensen, Jan H.; Selck, Henriette

    2013-01-01

    and quantitative analyses of metabolites and parent compounds in worm tissue, water, and sediment were performed. Transformation of 1-methylpyrene generated the benzylic hydroxylated phase I product, 1-pyrenecarboxylic acid that comprised 90% of the total metabolites of 1-methylpyrene, and was mainly found......Transformation of nonsubstituted and alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by the benthic invertebrate Nereis diversicolor was compared in this study. Pyrene and 1-methylpyrene were used as model compounds for nonsubstituted and alkyl-substituted PAHs, respectively. Qualitative...... as the most prominent metabolite. Transformation of 1-methylpyrene (21% transformed) was more than 3 times as efficient as pyrene transformation (5.6% transformed). Because crude oils contain larger amounts of C1−C4-substituted PAHs than nonsubstituted PAHs, the rapid and efficient transformation of sediment...

  12. Optical and electronic properties of HWCVD and PECVD silicon films irradiated using excimer and Nd:Yag lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, M.Z.; O'Neill, K.A.; Anthony, S.; Persheyev, S.K.; Rose, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Thin silicon film samples were deposited using HWCVD and PECVD techniques to study the influence of laser annealing on their optical and electronic properties. Samples were annealed in air using a XeCl excimer and Nd:Yag lasers. Excimer laser annealing (ELA) at 50 to 222 mJ/cm 2 increased conductivity in PECVD films by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude and in HWCVD films by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude. ELA was also seen to decrease the optical gap in PECVD films by 0.5 eV and HWCVD films by 0.15 eV. Silicon-oxygen bond content was higher in as-deposited HWCVD films than PECVD films. Hydrogen content (at.%) in PECVD films was higher than HWCVD for higher H dilution ratios. A Nd:Yag laser 3-beam interference pattern was used to produce a periodic array of crystals in both PECVD and HWCVD films

  13. Krypton Gas for High Quality Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes Synthesis by KrF Excimer Laser Ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasim Al-Zanganawee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report for the first time the production of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs by KrF excimer laser ablation method under the krypton gas atmosphere. For the ablation experiment 450 mJ energy and 30 Hz repetition rate KrF excimer laser was used, and the target was prepared with the following composition: 0.6% Ni, 0.6% Co, and 98.8% C (atomic percentage. The ablation product was characterized by confocal Raman microspectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The SWCNTs obtained are a mixture of semiconducting and metallic types with narrow diameters distribution of 1.26 to 1.49 nm, are micrometers long, and contain low amount of graphite and amorphous carbon.

  14. Development of a Silicon Based Electron Beam Transmission Window for Use in a KrF Excimer Laser System

    CERN Document Server

    Gentile, C A; Hartfield, J W; Hawryluk, R J; Hegeler, F; Heitzenroeder, P J; Jun, C H; Ku, L P; Lamarche, P H; Myers, M C; Parker, J J; Parsells, R F; Payen, M; Raftopoulos, S; Sethian, J D

    2002-01-01

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), in collaboration with the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), is currently investigating various novel materials (single crystal silicon, , and ) for use as electron-beam transmission windows in a KrF excimer laser system. The primary function of the window is to isolate the active medium (excimer gas) from the excitation mechanism (field-emission diodes). Chosen window geometry must accommodate electron energy transfer greater than 80% (750 keV), while maintaining structural integrity during mechanical load (1.3 to 2.0 atm base pressure differential, approximate 0.5 atm cyclic pressure amplitude, 5 Hz repetition rate) and thermal load across the entire hibachi area (approximate 0.9 W centre dot cm superscript ''-2''). In addition, the window must be chemically resistant to attack by fluorine free-radicals (hydrofluoric acid, secondary). In accordance with these structural, functional, and operational parameters, a 22.4 mm square silicon prototype window, coated w...

  15. Detection of Salmonella typhi utilizing bioconjugated fluorescent polymeric nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Swati; Chattopadhyay, Sruti; Jackeray, Richa; Abid, Zainul; Singh, Harpal

    2016-01-01

    Present work demonstrates effective utilization of functionalized polymeric fluorescent nanoparticles as biosensing probe for the detection of Salmonella typhi bacteria on modified polycarbonate (PC) filters in about 3 h. Antibody modified-PC membranes were incubated with contaminated bacterial water for selective capturing which were detected by synthesized novel bioconjugate probe. Core–shell architecture of polymeric nanoparticles endows them with aqueous stabilization and keto-enolic functionalities making them usable for covalently linking S. typhi antibodies without any crosslinker or activator. Bradford analysis revealed that one nanoparticle has an average of 3.51 × 10"−"1"9 g or 21 × 10"4 bound S. typhi Ab molecules. Analysis of the regions of interest (ROI) in fluorescent micrographs of modified fluoroimmunoassay showed higher detection sensitivity of 5 × 10"2 cells/mL due to signal amplification unlike conventional naked dye FITC-Ab conjugate. Fluorescence of pyrene dye remained same on immobilization of biomolecules and nanoparticles showed stable fluorescent intensity under prolong exposure to laser owing to protective polymeric layer allowing accurate identification of bacteria. Surface-functionalized PC matrix and fluorescent label NPs permit covalent interactions among biomolecules enhancing signal acquisitions showing higher detection efficiency as compared to conventional microtiter plate-based system. Our novel immunoassay has the potential to be explored as rapid detection method for identifying S. typhi contaminations in water.Graphical Abstract

  16. Detection of Salmonella typhi utilizing bioconjugated fluorescent polymeric nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Swati, E-mail: swatijain.iitd@gmail.com; Chattopadhyay, Sruti, E-mail: sruticiitd@gmail.com; Jackeray, Richa; Abid, Zainul; Singh, Harpal, E-mail: harpal2000@yahoo.com [Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology-Delhi (India)

    2016-05-15

    Present work demonstrates effective utilization of functionalized polymeric fluorescent nanoparticles as biosensing probe for the detection of Salmonella typhi bacteria on modified polycarbonate (PC) filters in about 3 h. Antibody modified-PC membranes were incubated with contaminated bacterial water for selective capturing which were detected by synthesized novel bioconjugate probe. Core–shell architecture of polymeric nanoparticles endows them with aqueous stabilization and keto-enolic functionalities making them usable for covalently linking S. typhi antibodies without any crosslinker or activator. Bradford analysis revealed that one nanoparticle has an average of 3.51 × 10{sup −19} g or 21 × 10{sup 4} bound S. typhi Ab molecules. Analysis of the regions of interest (ROI) in fluorescent micrographs of modified fluoroimmunoassay showed higher detection sensitivity of 5 × 10{sup 2} cells/mL due to signal amplification unlike conventional naked dye FITC-Ab conjugate. Fluorescence of pyrene dye remained same on immobilization of biomolecules and nanoparticles showed stable fluorescent intensity under prolong exposure to laser owing to protective polymeric layer allowing accurate identification of bacteria. Surface-functionalized PC matrix and fluorescent label NPs permit covalent interactions among biomolecules enhancing signal acquisitions showing higher detection efficiency as compared to conventional microtiter plate-based system. Our novel immunoassay has the potential to be explored as rapid detection method for identifying S. typhi contaminations in water.Graphical Abstract.

  17. Degradation of pyrene in soil and in vitro by a Bacillus lentus strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A bacterium isolated from an asphalt plant soil and identified as a strain of Bacillus lentus was tested in vitro and in sterilized and native soils for ability to survive and sustain pyrene degradation over a period of 63 days. The exponential growth rate in vitro was 0.049 d-1 and the doubling time 2.65 d. In the control flask ...

  18. Chemoresistance to Cancer Treatment: Benzo-α-Pyrene as Friend or Foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzobo, Kevin; Hassen, Naseeha; Senthebane, Dimakatso Alice; Thomford, Nicholas Ekow; Rowe, Arielle; Shipanga, Hendrina; Wonkam, Ambroise; Parker, M Iqbal; Mowla, Shaheen; Dandara, Collet

    2018-04-17

    Background: Environmental pollution such as exposure to pro-carcinogens including benzo-α-pyrene is becoming a major problem globally. Moreover, the effects of benzo-α-pyrene (BaP) on drug pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and drug resistance warrant further investigation, especially in cancer outpatient chemotherapy where exposure to environmental pollutants might occur. Method: We report here on the effects of benzo-α-pyrene on esophageal cancer cells in vitro, alone, or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs cisplatin, 5-flurouracil, or paclitaxel. As the study endpoints, we employed expression of proteins involved in cell proliferation, drug metabolism, apoptosis, cell cycle analysis, colony formation, migration, and signaling cascades in the WHCO1 esophageal cancer cell line after 24 h of treatment. Results: Benzo-α-pyrene had no significant effect on WHCO1 cancer cell proliferation but reversed the effect of chemotherapeutic drugs by reducing drug-induced cell death and apoptosis by 30–40% compared to drug-treated cells. The three drugs significantly reduced WHCO1 cell migration by 40–50% compared to control and BaP-treated cells. Combined exposure to drugs was associated with significantly increased apoptosis and reduced colony formation. Evaluation of survival signaling cascades showed that although the MEK-ERK and Akt pathways were activated in the presence of drugs, BaP was a stronger activator of the MEK-ERK and Akt pathways than the drugs. Conclusion: The present study suggest that BaP can reverse the effects of drugs on cancer cells via the activation of survival signaling pathways and upregulation of anti-apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Our data show that BaP contribute to the development of chemoresistant cancer cells.

  19. Benzo(a)pyrene activation and detoxification by human pulmonary alveolar macrophages and lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, M.V.; McLemore, T.L.; Martin, R.R.; Marshall, M.H.; Wray, N.P.; Busbee, D.L.; Cantrell, E.T.; Arnott, M.S.; Griffin, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    Comparisons of pulmonary alveolar macrophages and circulating lymphocytes from five smokers and five nonsmokers for their ability to metabolize benzo(a)pyrene as determined by high pressure liquid chromatography were carried out. Utilizing this approach, further investigation of activation and detoxification by several human cell types could provide the basis for more precise and comprehensive studies of carcinogen and drug metabolism in the human lung, and for a better assessment of cancer risk in selected populations

  20. Deposition of high Tc superconductor thin films by pulsed excimer laser ablation and their post-synthesis processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogale, S.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the use of pulsed excimer laser ablation technique for deposition of high quality superconductor thin films on different substrate materials such as Y stabilized ZrO 2 , SrTiO 3 , LiNbO 3 , Silicon and Stainless Steels, and dopant incorporation during the film depositions. Processing of deposited films using ion and laser beams for realisation of device features are presented. 28 refs., 16 figs

  1. Improvement of physical properties of IGZO thin films prepared by excimer laser annealing of sol–gel derived precursor films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsay, Chien-Yie; Huang, Tzu-Teng

    2013-01-01

    Indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) transparent semiconductor thin films were prepared by KrF excimer laser annealing of sol–gel derived precursor films. Each as-coated film was dried at 150 °C in air and then annealed using excimer laser irradiation. The influence of laser irradiation energy density on surface conditions, optical transmittances, and electrical properties of laser annealed IGZO thin films were investigated, and the physical properties of the excimer laser annealed (ELA) and the thermally annealed (TA) thin films were compared. Experimental results showed that two kinds of surface morphology resulted from excimer laser annealing. Irradiation with a lower energy density (≤250 mJ cm −2 ) produced wavy and irregular surfaces, while irradiation with a higher energy density (≥350 mJ cm −2 ) produced flat and dense surfaces consisting of uniform nano-sized amorphous particles. The explanation for the differences in surface features and film quality is that using laser irradiation energy to form IGZO thin films improves the film density and removes organic constituents. The dried IGZO sol–gel films irradiated with a laser energy density of 350 mJ/cm 2 had the best physical properties of all the ELA IGZO thin films. The mean resistivity of the ELA 350 thin films (4.48 × 10 3 Ω cm) was lower than that of TA thin films (1.39 × 10 4 Ω cm), and the average optical transmittance in the visible range (90.2%) of the ELA 350 thin films was slightly higher than that of TA thin films (89.7%). - Highlights: • IGZO semiconductor films were prepared by laser annealing of sol–gel derived films. • Surface roughness and resistivity of ELA samples were affected by energy density. • The ELA 350 IGZO film exhibited the best properties among all of ELA IGZO films. • Transmittance and resistivity of ELA 350 films are greater than those of TA films

  2. Excimer laser-assisted anterior lamellar keratoplasty for keratoconus, corneal problems after laser in situ keratomileusis, and corneal stromal opacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, Kamil; Ozdek, Sengül C; Sari, Ayça; Hasanreisoğlu, Berati

    2006-08-01

    To evaluate excimer laser-assisted anterior lamellar keratoplasty to augment thin corneas as in keratoconus ( .05). This technique presents a different modality for the treatment of keratoconus, post-LASIK corneal problems, and other corneal stromal opacities with anterior lamellar keratoplasty. Additional studies with more patients and longer follow-up will help determine the role of this technique as a substitute for penetrating keratoplasty in these patients.

  3. Human hair follicle benzo(a)pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene 7, 8-diol metabolism: effect of exposure to a coal tar-containing shampoo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merk, H.F.; Mukhtar, H.; Kaufmann, I.; Das, M.; Bickers, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Hair follicles are a readily available source of human epithelial tissue and offer an excellent system with which to study carcinogen metabolism in human populations. In this study hair follicles were employed to measure the metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene (BP), benzo(a)pyrene - 7,8-diol (BP 7,8-diol) and the enzyme mediated binding of /sup 3/H-BP to DNA. The effect of human exposure to a crude coal tar (CCT) - containing shampoo, a preparation rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs on these parameters was also evaluated. It was found that aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity increased after use of the shampoo and enhancement of enzyme-mediated binding of BP to DNA was detected in most subjects. Hair follicles were shown to convert BP to several metabolic species and BP, 7,8-diol was also metabolised. Clotrimazole, a known inhibitor of the metabolism of BP was found to inhibit AHH and the metabolism of BP and BP 7,8-diol in human hair follicles, as were other imidazole compounds. The studies show that hair follicles represent an accessible tissue suitable for assessing the extent of PAH carcinogen metabolism in human subjects. Furthermore enzyme activity critical to cancer induction by PAHs was shown to be inducible following the use of a CCT-containing shampoo. Imidazole compounds were shown to be possible effective anti-carcinogens in human populations. 29 refs.

  4. Ultraviolet Radiation Increases the Toxicity of Pyrene, 1-Aminopyrene and 1-Hydroxypyrene to Human Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey-Min Hwang

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several years, a great deal of interest has been focused on the harmful effects of ultraviolet (UV radiation to human skin. UV light has been implicated in aging, sunburn and skin cancer. Few studies, however, have been done to determine the effects that UV light, in conjunction with other environmental contaminants, may have on human skin. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs are a class of compounds that have been reported to be toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic to many eukaryotic organisms. UV light is also known to increase the toxicity of PAHs through photo-activation and photo-modification. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of UV-A irradiated pyrene (Pyr, 1-aminopyrene (1-AP and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP on human keratinocytes, the skin primary site of UV irradiated PAH exposure. Our findings indicate that simultaneous treatment of human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT, with 1.0μg/ml pyrene, 1-AP or 1-HP and 3.9 J/cm2/min UV-A light resulted in significant inhibition of cell proliferation. Approximately 100% of the cells died in the case of UV-A irradiated 1-AP and 1-HP. In the case of UV-A irradiated pyrene, more than 70% of the cells died, indicating that UV-A is able to transform these PAHs into more harmful intermediates.

  5. High-mobility pyrene-based semiconductor for organic thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunduck; Lee, Sunyoung; Cho, Nam Sung; Jabbour, Ghassan E; Kwak, Jeonghun; Hwang, Do-Hoon; Lee, Changhee

    2013-05-01

    Numerous conjugated oligoacenes and polythiophenes are being heavily studied in the search for high-mobility organic semiconductors. Although many researchers have designed fused aromatic compounds as organic semiconductors for organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), pyrene-based organic semiconductors with high mobilities and on-off current ratios have not yet been reported. Here, we introduce a new pyrene-based p-type organic semiconductor showing liquid crystal behavior. The thin film characteristics of this material are investigated by varying the substrate temperature during the deposition and the gate dielectric condition using the surface modification with a self-assembled monolayer, and systematically studied in correlation with the performances of transistor devices with this compound. OTFT fabricated under the optimum deposition conditions of this compound, namely, 1,6-bis(5'-octyl-2,2'-bithiophen-5-yl)pyrene (BOBTP) shows a high-performance transistor behavior with a field-effect mobility of 2.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and an on-off current ratio of 7.6 × 10(6) and enhanced long-term stability compared to the pentacene thin-film transistor.

  6. Excimer laser assisted very fast exfoliation and reduction of graphite oxide at room temperature under air ambient for Supercapacitors electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek Hosseini, S. M. B.; Baizaee, S. M.; Naderi, Hamid Reza; Dare Kordi, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Excimer laser was used for reduction and exfoliation of graphite oxide (GO) at room temperature under air ambient. The prepared excimer laser reduced graphite oxide (XLRGO) is characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), nitrogen adsorption/desorption (BET method), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-vis absorption techniques for surface, structural functional groups and band gap analysis. Electrochemical properties are investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and continues cyclic voltammetry (CCV) in 0.5 M Na2SO4 as electrolyte. Electrochemical investigations revealed that XLRGO electrode has enhanced supercapacitive performance including specific capacitance of 299 F/g at a scan rate of 2 mV/s. Furthermore, CCV measurement showed that XLRGO electrode kept 97.8% of its initial capacitance/capacity after 4000 cycles. The obtained results from electrochemical investigations confirm that the reduction of GO by using an excimer laser produces high-quality graphene for supercapacitor applications without the need for additional operations.

  7. Comparative study of efficacy of excimer light therapy vs intralesional triamcinolone vs topical 5% minoxidil: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alopecia Areota is a chronic inflammatory disease that involves hair follicles, and sometimes nails, caused by T-cell mediated autoimmune mechanism. Current treatment modalities includes corticosteroids (oral, topical or intralesional, Minoxidil, Contact sensitizers like DNCB, DPCP and SADBE, Immunosuppressants like Methotrexate or Azathioprine, DMARDs like Sulfasalazine, and Phototherapy. Materials and methods: After taking consent, 40 patients treated with excimer light, 46 patients treated with triamcinolone injection intralesionally and 14 patients treated with topical minoxidil 5% were compared by their photographs taken prior to treatments, at 2 months and 6 months follow up. Results: Among the excimer group, 21/32 (61.76% with single patch and 1/6 (16.67% with multiple patches achieved >50% hair regrowth. Among Triamcinolone group, 23/30 (76.67% with single patch and 10/16 (62.5% with multiple patches achieved >50% hair regrowth. Among the Minoxidil group, 4/12 (33.33% with single patch and none .i.e 0/2 with multiple patches achieved >50% regrowth. Conclusion: After comparing the efficacy of Excimer light therapy, intralesional triamcinolone and 5% Minoxidil, it was concluded that intralesional triamcinolone seems to be the most efficacious. Multiple patches were more resistant than single patch. Scalp response much better than beard.

  8. Co-effects of pyrene and nitrate on the activity and abundance of soil denitrifiers under anaerobic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi-Feng; Yao, Yan-Hong; Wang, Ming-Xia; Zuo, Xiao-Hu

    2017-10-01

    It has previously been confirmed that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) could be degraded by soil microbes coupling with denitrification, but the relationships among soil denitrifiers, PAHs, and nitrate under obligate anaerobic condition are still unclear. Here, co-effects of pyrene and nitrate on the activity and abundance of soil denitrifiers were investigated through a 45-day incubation experiment. Two groups of soil treatments with (N 30 ) and without (N 0 ) nitrate (30 mg kg -1 dry soil) amendment were conducted, and each group contained three treatments with different pyrene concentrations (0, 30, and 60 mg kg -1 dry soil denoted as P 0 , P 30 , and P 60 , respectively). The pyrene content, abundances of denitrification concerning genes (narG, periplasmic nitrate reductase gene; nirS, cd 1 -nitrite reductase gene; nirK, copper-containing nitrite reductase gene), and productions of N 2 O and CO 2 were measured at day 3, 14, 28, and 45, and the bacterial community structures in four represented treatments (N 0 P 0 , N 0 P 60 , N 30 P 0 , and N 30 P 60 ) were analyzed at day 45. The results indicated that the treatments with higher pyrene concentration had higher final pyrene removal rates than the treatments with lower pyrene concentration. Additionally, intensive emission of N 2 O was detected in all treatments only at day 3, but a continuous production of CO 2 was measured in each treatment during the incubation. Nitrate amendment could enhance the activity of soil denitrifiers, and be helpful for soil microbes to sustain their activity. While pyrene seemed had no influence on the productions of N 2 O and CO 2 , and amendment with pyrene or nitrate both had no obvious effect on abundances of denitrification concerning genes. Furthermore, it was nitrate but not pyrene had an obvious influence on the community structure of soil bacteria. These results revealed that, under anaerobic condition, the activity and abundance of soil denitrifiers both were

  9. Outcomes of excimer laser enhancements in pseudophakic patients with multifocal intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schallhorn SC

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Steven C Schallhorn,1–3 Jan A Venter,2 David Teenan,2 Julie M Schallhorn,3 Keith A Hettinger,2 Stephen J Hannan,2 Martina Pelouskova2 1Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; 2Optical Express, Glasgow, UK; 3Department of Ophthalmology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess visual and refractive outcomes of laser vision correction (LVC to correct residual refraction after multifocal intraocular lens (IOL implantation. Patients and methods: In this retrospective study, 782 eyes that underwent LVC to correct unintended ametropia after multifocal IOL implantation were evaluated. Of all multifocal lenses implanted during primary procedure, 98.7% were refractive and 1.3% had a diffractive design. All eyes were treated with VISX STAR S4 IR excimer laser using a convectional ablation profile. Refractive outcomes, visual acuities, patient satisfaction, and quality of life were evaluated at the last available visit. Results: The mean time between enhancement and last visit was 6.3±4.4 months. Manifest spherical equivalent changed from -0.02±0.83 D (-3.38 D to +2.25 D pre-enhancement to 0.00±0.34 D (-1.38 D to +1.25 D post-enhancement. At the last follow-up, the percentage of eyes within 0.50 D and 1.00 D of emmetropia was 90.4% and 99.5%, respectively. Of all eyes, 74.9% achieved monocular uncorrected distance visual acuity 20/20 or better. The mean corrected distance visual acuity remained the same before (-0.04±0.06 logMAR [logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution] and after LVC procedure (-0.04±0.07 logMAR; P=0.70. There was a slight improvement in visual phenomena (starburst, halo, glare, ghosting/double vision following the enhancement. No sight-threatening complications related to LVC occurred in this study. Conclusion: LVC in pseudophakic patients with multifocal IOL was safe, effective, and predictable in a large cohort of

  10. Topography-guided treatment of irregular astigmatism with the wavelight excimer laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankov, Mirko R; Panagopoulou, Sophia I; Tsiklis, Nikolaos S; Hajitanasis, Georgos C; Aslanides, loannis M; Pallikaris, loannis G

    2006-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and predictability of correcting high irregular astigmatism in symptomatic eyes with the use of topography-guided photoablation. In a prospective, non-comparative case series, 16 consecutive symptomatic eyes of 11 patients with small hyperopic and myopic excimer laser optical zones, decentered and irregular ablation after corneal graft, and corneal scars were operated. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), manifest and cycloplegic refraction, and corneal topography, with asphericity and regularity, were analyzed. LASIK (n = 10) and photorefractive keratectomy (n = 6) were performed using the ALLEGRETTO WAVE excimer laser and T-CAT software (Topography-guided Customized Ablation Treatment; WaveLight Laser Technologie AG, Erlangen, Germany). In the LASIK group, UCVA improved from 0.81 +/- 0.68 IogMAR (20/130) (range: 0.2 to 2.0) to 0.29 +/- 0.21 logMAR (20/39) (range: 0.1 to 0.7) at 6 months. In the PRK group, mean UCVA improved from 0.89 +/- 0.87 IogMAR (20/157) (range: 0.1 to 2.0) to 0.42 +/- 0.35 logMAR (20/53) (range: 0.1 to 1.0) at 6 months. Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity did not change significantly in either group. One PRK patient lost one line of BSCVA. Refractive cylinder for the LASIK group improved from -2.53 +/- 1.71 diopters (D) (range: -0.75 to -5.75 D) to -1.28 +/- 0.99 D (range: 0 to -2.50 D) at 6 months. Refractive cylinder in the PRK group improved from -2.21 +/- 2.11 D (range: -0.25 to -5.50 D) to -1.10 +/- 0.42 D (range: -0.50 to -1.50 D). Index of surface irregularity showed a decrease from 60 +/- 12 (range: 46 to 89) to 50 +/- 9 (range: 32 to 63) at 6 months in the LASIK group whereas no significant change was noted in the PRK group. Subjective symptoms, such as glare, halos, ghost images, starbursts, and monocular diplopia, were not present postoperatively. Topography-guided LASIK and PRK resulted in a significant reduction of refractive cylinder and

  11. Does imiquimod pretreatment optimize 308-nm excimer laser (UVB) therapy in psoriasis patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacastacas, Joselin D; Oyetakin-White, Patricia; Soler, David C; Young, Andrew; Groft, Sarah; Honda, Kord; Cooper, Kevin D; McCormick, Thomas S

    2017-07-01

    Psoriasis continues to be a debilitating skin disease affecting 1-3% of the United States population. Although the effectiveness of several current biologic therapies have described this pathology as a IL-23, TNF-a and Th17-mediated disease, less invasive approaches are still in use and in need of refinement. One of these is the usage of narrow band-UVB (NB-UVB) therapy to deplete specifically intra-epidermal CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ cells to clear psoriatic plaques. In order to improve NB-UVB therapy, we sought to determine whether skin pre-treatment with the TLR7 agonist imiquimod (IMQ) would help increase the efficiency of the former at resolving psoriatic plaques. Eucerin ® Original Moisturizing Lotion (topical vehicle) or Aldara ® (imiquimod 5% topical cream) were applied for 5 days once daily to a maximum contiguous area of 25 cm 2 (5 cm × 5 cm area). Patients were provided with sachets containing 12.5 mg of imiquimod each and were instructed to apply imiquimod (I) to two psoriasis plaques (5 sachets of imiquimod allotted to each plaque). A PHAROS excimer Laser EX-308 (Ra Medical Systems, Inc. Carlsbad, CA, USA) with an output of monochromatic 308-nm light and pulse width of 20-50 ns was used for all patients. Punch biopsies of psoriatic lesions (6 mm) were taken at 4 and 48 h after final application of topical treatment with or without excimer laser treatment. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR was performed according to manufacturer's instructions and Inmunohistochemistry was used as described before. Our results suggests that although IMQ seemed to activate the type I interferon pathway as previously described, its concomitant usage with NB-UVB for clearing psoriatic skin was ineffective. Although upregulation of genes MxA, GRAMD1A and DMXL2 suggested that IMQ treatment did induce skin changes in psoriasis patients, more optimal dosing of IMQ and NB-UVB might be necessary to achieve desired treatment responses. The observation that psoriasis involvement was not

  12. New dual emission fluorescent sensor for pH and Pb(II) based on bis(napfthalimide) derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina-Luis, Georgina; Martínez-Quiroz, Marisela; Ochoa-Terán, Adrián; Santacruz-Ortega, Hisila; Mendez-Valenzuela, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a novel dual emission bis-1,8-naphthalimide sensor for selective determination of pH and Pb 2+ ions. The influence of the variability in the backbone that links the two fluorophores (naphthalimides) as a function of pH and metal ions was studied by UV–visible and fluorescence spectroscopy. Compounds 1(a–d) with different length alkyl linkers (CH 2 ) n (n=1, 2, 4 and 6) showed no excimer formation in aqueous solution. Fluorescence emission of these derivatives varied in a narrow range of pH (5–8) and was only slightly influenced by the addition of metal ions in CH 3 CN solutions. However, derivative 1e with amino-containing spacer (CH 2 –NH–CH 2 ) showed excimer emission in aqueous solution, a wide response to pH (2.5–9.5) and fluorescence enhancement with selective behavior towards metal ions. The pH sensor based in derivative 1e has a sufficient selectivity for practical pH monitoring in the presence of Li + , Na + , K + , Cs + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Ba 2+ , Cu 2+ , Pb 2+ , Ni 2+ , Zn 2+ and Cd 2+ . The coordination chemistry of these complexes was studied by UV–Vis, fluorescence and 1 H NMR. This chemosensor displayed high selectivity fluorescence enhancement toward Pb 2+ ions in the presence of the metals ions mentioned in CH 3 CN solutions. Competitive assays show that a 1-fold of metal cations in each case, compared with Pb 2+ ions, results in less than ±5% fluorescence intensity changes. Linear calibration up to 1×10 −5 M for Pb(II) ions (R=0.9968) was obtained and detection limit resulted of 5.0×10 −8 M. - Highlights: ► A novel dual emission bis-1,8-naphthalimide sensor for pH and Pb 2+ ions is synthetized. ► The excimer formation depends on the spacer that links the two naphthalimide groups. ► Bis(naphthalimide) with amino-containing spacer showed a wide selective response to pH. ► This chemosensor displayed a selective fluorescence enhancement effect towards Pb 2+ ions. ► Mechanism for the fluorescence OFF

  13. Excimer laser texturing of natural composite polymer surfaces for studying cell-to-substrate specific response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinca, V., E-mail: dincavalentina@yahoo.com [NILPRP, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Alloncle, P.; Delaporte, P. [Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, LP3 Laboratory, Campus de Luminy, 13288 Marseille (France); Ion, V. [NILPRP, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Rusen, L.; Filipescu, M. [NILPRP, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Mustaciosu, C. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering – IFIN HH, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Luculescu, C.; Dinescu, M. [NILPRP, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Roughness gradients are obtained in one step by applying single laser pulses and sample tilting. • BSA protein and cell dependence behavior onto gradient characteristics was studied. • The degradation of the samples by lysozyme was correlated to its ability to access the textured area. - Abstract: Surface modifications of biocompatible materials are among the main factors used for enhancing and promoting specific cellular activities (e.g. spreading, adhesion, migration, and differentiation) for various types of medical applications such as implants, microfluidic devices, or tissue engineering scaffolds. In this work an excimer laser at 193 nm was used to fabricate chitosan–collagen roughness gradients. The roughness gradients were obtained in one step by applying single laser pulses and sample tilting. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and spectro-ellipsometry (SE) were used for sample characterization. The goal is to determine the optimal morpho-chemical characteristics of these structures for in vitro tailoring of protein adsorption and cell behavior. The response induced by the roughness gradient onto various cell lines (i.e. L 929 fibroblasts, HEP G2 hepatocytes, OLN 93 oligodendrocytes, M63 osteoblasts) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein absorption was investigated.

  14. Electrical and kinetical aspects of homogeneous dielectric-barrier discharge in xenon for excimer lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belasri, A.; Harrache, Z.

    2010-01-01

    A pulsed dielectric-barrier discharge in xenon has been simulated for operating conditions typical to excimer lamps, in which the discharge is considered spatially homogeneous. The computer model developed is based on the xenon plasma chemistry, the circuit, and the Boltzmann equations. First, the validity of the physical model was checked and compared to experimental and theoretical works, and then the model is applied in the case of a sinusoidal voltage at period frequencies in the range of 50 kHz-2 MHz. The results obtained with the present description are in good agreement with experimental measurements and one-dimensional fluid prediction in terms of electrical characteristics and vacuum ultraviolet (vuv) emission. The effect of operation voltage, power source frequency, dielectric capacitance, as well as gas pressure on the discharge efficiency and the 172, 150, and 147 nm photon generation, under the typical experimental operating conditions and for the case of a sinusoidal applied voltage, have been investigated and discussed. Calculations suggest that the overall conversion efficiency from electrical energy to vuv emission in the lamp is greater than 38%, and it will be very affected at high power source frequency and high gas pressure with a significant dependence on the dielectric capacitance.

  15. Hydrophilicity and morphological investigation of polycarbonate irradiated by ArF excimer laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaleh, B. [Bu-Ali-Sina University, Physics Department, Postal Code 65174, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: jaleh@basu.ac.ir; Parvin, P. [Amir Kabir University of Technology, Physics Department, P.O. Box: 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Laser Research Center, AEOI, P.O. Box: 11365-8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sheikh, N. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Radiation Applications Research School, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zamanipour, Z. [Laser Research Center, AEOI, P.O. Box: 11365-8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sajad, B. [Azzahra University, Physics Department, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    Lasers are used to modify polymeric materials. In this work, a number of polycarbonate (PC) pieces were exposed by ArF excimer laser, 193 nm, at various UV doses from 10 to 100 J/cm{sup 2} with 50-500 mJ/pulse at 10 Hz pulse repetition rate. Morphology of PC has been investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) at three regimes pre-ablation, slow and fast ablation. SEM identifies that the conical defects are created on the polymer surface to grow opposite to the direction of laser irradiation. It increases the superficial absorptivity of the material dependent on the ArF laser induced conical microstructure geometry. The contact angle measurement was performed here, in order to determine the hydrophilicity of the irradiated polymer at various coherent doses. It is shown that the contact angle of PC samples which are exposed to the ArF laser significantly alters with UV dose below 7 J/cm{sup 2}.

  16. Excimer laser doping technique for application in an integrated CdTe imaging device

    CERN Document Server

    Mochizuki, D; Aoki, T; Tomita, Y; Nihashi, T; Hatanaka, Y

    1999-01-01

    CdTe is an attractive semiconductor material for applications in solid-state high-energy X-ray and gamma-ray imaging systems because of its high absorption coefficient, large band gap, good mobility lifetime product of holes and stability at normal atmospheric conditions. We propose a new concept for fabricating an integrated CdTe with monolithic circuit configuration for two-dimensional imaging systems suitable for medical, research or industrial applications and operation at room temperature. A new doping technique has been recently developed that employs excimer laser radiation to diffuse impurity atoms into the semiconductor. Accordingly, heavily doped n- and p-type layers with resistivities less than 1 OMEGA cm can be formed on the high resistive CdTe crystals. We have further extended this technique for doping with spatial pattern. We will present the laser doping technique and various results thus obtained. Spatially patterned doping is demonstrated and we propose the use of these doping techniques for...

  17. Analyses of surface coloration on TiO2 film irradiated with excimer laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, H.Y.; Qian, H.X.; Zhou, W.

    2008-01-01

    TiO 2 film of around 850 nm in thickness was deposited on a soda-lime glass by PVD sputtering and irradiated using one pulse of krypton-fluorine (KrF) excimer laser (wavelength of 248 nm and pulse duration of 25 ns) with varying fluence. The color of the irradiated area became darker with increasing laser fluence. Irradiated surfaces were characterized using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Surface undergoes thermal annealing at low laser fluence of 400 and 590 mJ/cm 2 . Microcracks at medium laser fluence of 1000 mJ/cm 2 are attributed to surface melting and solidification. Hydrodynamic ablation is proposed to explain the formation of micropores and networks at higher laser fluence of 1100 and 1200 mJ/cm 2 . The darkening effect is explained in terms of trapping of light in the surface defects formed rather than anatase to rutile phase transformation as reported by others. Controlled darkening of TiO 2 film might be used for adjustable filters

  18. Excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy in conjunction with mitomycin C in corneal macular and granular dystrophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Yuksel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the visual outcomes, recurrence patterns, safety, and efficacy of excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK in conjunction with mitomycin C (MMC for corneal macular and granular diystrophies. Methods: The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 included patients with macular corneal dystrophy (MCD that caused superficial corneal plaque opacities, and Group 2 included patients with granular corneal dystrophy (GCD. Patients in both groups were pre-, peri-, and postoperatively evaluated. The groups were compared in terms of uncorrected visual acuity (VA, best spectacle-corrected VA, presence of mild or significant recurrence, and time of recurrence. Results: Eighteen eyes (nine with MCD and nine with GCD of 18 patients (10 men and eight women were included. PTK was performed for each eye that was included in this study. The mean ablation amount was 117.8 ± 24.4 µm and 83.5 ± 45.7 µm in MCD and GCD, respectively, (p=0.18. The postoperative improvement of the mean VA was similar between the two groups before recurrences (p>0.43 and after recurrences (p>0.71. There were no statistically significant differences in the recurrence rate and the recurrence-free period for any recurrence type. Conclusion: PTK was an effective, safe, and minimally invasive procedure for patients with MCD and GCD. PTK in conjunction with MMC was similarly effective for both groups in terms of recurrence and visual outcomes.

  19. Excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy in conjunction with mitomycin C in corneal macular and granular dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Erdem; Cubuk, Mehmet Ozgur; Eroglu, Hulya Yazıcı; Bilgihan, Kamil

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the visual outcomes, recurrence patterns, safety, and efficacy of excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) in conjunction with mitomycin C (MMC) for corneal macular and granular diystrophies. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 included patients with macular corneal dystrophy (MCD) that caused superficial corneal plaque opacities, and Group 2 included patients with granular corneal dystrophy (GCD). Patients in both groups were pre-, peri-, and postoperatively evaluated. The groups were compared in terms of uncorrected visual acuity (VA), best spectacle-corrected VA, presence of mild or significant recurrence, and time of recurrence. Eighteen eyes (nine with MCD and nine with GCD) of 18 patients (10 men and eight women) were included. PTK was performed for each eye that was included in this study. The mean ablation amount was 117.8 ± 24.4 µm and 83.5 ± 45.7 µm in MCD and GCD, respectively, (p=0.18). The postoperative improvement of the mean VA was similar between the two groups before recurrences (p>0.43) and after recurrences (p>0.71). There were no statistically significant differences in the recurrence rate and the recurrence-free period for any recurrence type. PTK was an effective, safe, and minimally invasive procedure for patients with MCD and GCD. PTK in conjunction with MMC was similarly effective for both groups in terms of recurrence and visual outcomes.

  20. Electric field dependence of the total excimer luminescence of xenon excited below the atomic ionization limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    In the spectral region of interest (i.e., 11.1 eV ≤ h nu ≤ 11.9 eV), the photoionization yield of electrons from excited-state dimers of xenon, increases monotonically to relatively high values (e.g., Y(11.7 eV) = 0.43 electrons/absorbed photon). It is also known however, that the luminescence intensity excited by photons in this region is quite high, even at low pressures. These two observations can be reconciled only by assuming that one of the processes leading to excimer luminescence involves dimer-ion + electron recombination. If this assumption is correct, application of an electric field, with concomitant collection of the free charges generated by the incident photons, should lead to a decrease in luminescence intensity; moreover, this decrease should follow the energy dependence of the photoionization yield function. The present report demonstrates experimentally that this is indeed the case. Such experiments combining luminescence and electric fields were made, until now, only by high-energy excitation. In this case the deconvolution of the various decay channels is hardly possible

  1. DNA damage in cultured human skin fibroblasts exposed to excimer laser radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimoldi, D.; Miller, A.C.; Freeman, S.E.; Samid, D. (Department of Pathology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Ultraviolet excimer lasers are being considered for use in a variety of refractive and therapeutic procedures, the long-term biologic consequences of which are unknown. The effect of sublethal doses of 193-nm laser radiation on cellular DNA was examined in cultured human skin fibroblasts. In contrast to 248 nm, treatments with the 193-nm laser radiation below 70 J/m2 did not cause significant pyrimidine dimer formation in the skin cells. This was indicated by the lack of excision repair activities (unscheduled DNA synthesis assay), and further demonstrated by direct analysis of pyrimidine dimers in DNA from irradiated cells. However, a low level of unscheduled DNA synthesis could be detected following irradiation at 193 nm with 70 J/m2. Both the 193-nm and 248-nm radiation were able to induce chromosomal aberrations, as indicated by a micronucleus assay. A dose-dependent increase in micronuclei frequency was observed 48 and 72 h after laser irradiation. These results indicate that exposure of actively replicating human skin fibroblasts to sublethal doses of either 193- or 248-nm laser radiation can result in genotoxicity.

  2. Insight into excimer laser crystallization exploiting ellipsometry: Effect of silicon film precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losurdo, Maria [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR and INSTM sez. Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy)], E-mail: maria.losurdo@ba.imip.cnr.it; Giangregorio, Maria M.; Sacchetti, Alberto; Capezzuto, Pio; Bruno, Giovanni [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR and INSTM sez. Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Mariucci, Luigi; Fortunato, Guglielmo [IFN-CNR, Via Cineto Romano, 42 - 00156 Rome (Italy)

    2007-07-16

    The optical diagnostic of spectroscopic ellipsometry is shown to be an effective tool to investigate the mechanism of excimer laser crystallization (ELC) of silicon thin films. A detailed spectroscopic ellipsometric investigation of the microstructures of polycrystalline Si films obtained on SiO{sub 2}/Si wafers by ELC of a-Si:H and nc-Si films deposited, respectively, by SiH{sub 4} plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and SiF{sub 4}-PECVD is presented. It is shown that ellipsometric spectra of the pseudodielectric function of polysilicon thin films allows to discern the three different ELC regimes of partial melting, super lateral growth and complete melting. Exploiting ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy, it is shown that ELC of nc-Si has very low energy density threshold of 95 mJ/cm{sup 2} for complete melting, and that re-crystallization to large grains of {approx} 2 {mu}m can be achieved by multi-shot irradiation at an energy density as low as 260 mJ/cm{sup 2} when using nc-Si when compared to 340 mJ/cm{sup 2} for the ELC of a-Si films.

  3. Excimer Laser Surgery: Biometrical Iris Eye Recognition with Cyclorotational Control Eye Tracker System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajic, Bojan; Cvejic, Zeljka; Mijatovic, Zoran; Indjin, Dragan; Mueller, Joerg

    2017-05-25

    A prospective comparative study assessing the importance of the intra-operative dynamic rotational tracking-especially in the treatment of astigmatisms in corneal refractive Excimer laser correction-concerning clinical outcomes is presented. The cyclotorsion from upright to supine position was measured using iris image comparison. The Group 1 of patients was additionally treated with cyclorotational control and Group 2 only with X-Y control. Significant differences were observed between the groups regarding the mean postoperative cylinder refraction ( p < 0.05). The mean cyclotorsion can be calculated to 3.75° with a standard deviation of 3.1°. The total range of torsion was from -14.9° to +12.6°. Re-treatment rate was 2.2% in Group 1 and 8.2% in Group 2, which is highly significant ( p < 0.01). The investigation confirms that the dynamic rotational tracking system used for LASIK results in highly predictable refraction quality with significantly less postoperative re-treatments.

  4. Modeling of excimer laser radiation induced defect generation in fluoride phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natura, U.; Ehrt, D.

    2001-01-01

    Fluoride phosphate (FP) glasses with low phosphate content are high-transparent in the deep ultraviolet (UV) range and attractive candidates for UV-optics. Their optical properties are complementary to fluoride crystals. The anomalous partial dispersion makes them desirable for optical lens designs to reduce the secondary spectrum. Their UV transmission is limited by trace impurities introduced by raw materials and decreases when exposed to UV-radiation (lamps, lasers). The experiments of the paper published previously in this journal were used in order to separate radiation induced absorption bands in the fluoride phosphate glass FP10. In this paper the generation mechanism of the phosphorus-oxygen related hole center POHC 2 is investigated in detail in glasses of various compositions (various phosphate and impurity contents) in order to predict the transmission loss in case of long-time irradiation. Experiments were carried out using ArF- and KrF-excimer lasers (ns-pulses). POHC 2 generation strongly depends on the phosphate content and on the content of Pb 2+ . A model was developed on these terms. Rate equations are formulated, incorporating the influence of the Pb 2+ -content on the defect generation, a two-step creation term including an energy transfer process and a one-photon bleaching term. This results in a set of coupled nonlinear differential equations. Absorption coefficients and lifetimes of the excited states were calculated as well. Experimental results compared well with the numerical analysis of the theoretical rate equations

  5. Theoretical study of the near uv photoabsorption by the Kr2* excimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, J.F.

    1990-04-01

    The physical process responsible for near UV photoabsorption by the Kr* 2 excimer are examined and the energy dependence of the photoabsorption cross sections is calculated. Near UV photoabsorption by the Kr* 2 is a multiprocess phenomenon involving direct photoionization and concurrent photoexcitation to a repulsive resonance state, which subsequently autoionizes or dissociates. An adiabatic nuclei theory is developed, based on the use of Feshbach projection operators, to separate the ionization and dissociation channels, and to device photoionization and photodissociation cross sections. These cross sections are expressed in terms of parameters obtained from fixed nuclei electronic calculations and in terms wavefunctions describing nuclear motion. Stieltjes Tchebycheff Moment Theory (STMT) techniques are used to extract information concerning the ionization continuum from localized L 2 electronic wavefunctions obtained from molecular electronic structure codes. Problems in the application of STMT techniques to narrow spectral features are examined. The cause of these problems is determined to be the use of the histogram midpoint approximation in low order STMT quadratures. Techniques are then developed which significantly improve the accuracy of STMT calculations for an isolated, narrow, resonance in a single continuum. Improved treatment of resonance profiles is demonstrated for pure Fano profiles, a shape resonance in a model barrier-and-well potential, and a shape resonance in the K-shell photoionization spectrum of N 2 . The improved STMT techniques are then used to obtain the fixed nuclei resonance profiles in the spectrum of Kr 2

  6. Surface morphologies of excimer-laser annealed BF2+ implanted Si diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtsev, A.; Schut, H.; Nanver, L.K.; Veen, A. van; Slabbekoorn, J.; Scholtes, T.L.M.

    2004-01-01

    Laser-induced surface roughness and damage formation in ultra-shallow n + -p and p + -n junctions, formed by low energy (5 keV) As + and BF 2 + implantations in Si, respectively, with a dose of 1 x 10 15 cm -2 have been investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Positron Annihilation Doppler Broadening (PADB) technique. The Si surface roughness is found to increase with laser energy density, and reaches a value of 3.5 nm after excimer-laser annealing (ELA) at 1100 mJ/cm 2 . However, anomalous behavior is witnessed for BF 2 + -implanted Si sample at 800 mJ/cm 2 , at which energy very high surface protrusions up to 9 nm high are observed. By PADB this behavior is correlated to extensive deep microcavity formation in the Si whereby the volatile F 2 fraction can accumulate and evaporate/out-diffuse, leading to Si surface roughening. The consequences for the diode characteristics and contact resistivity are examined

  7. Excimer laser processing of ZnO thin films prepared by the sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, R.J.; Koh, L.H.K.; O'Brien, Shane; Crean, Gabriel M.

    2007-01-01

    ZnO thin films were prepared on soda-lime glass from a single spin-coating deposition of a sol-gel prepared with anhydrous zinc acetate [Zn(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 ], monoethanolamine [H 2 NC 2 H 4 OH] and isopropanol. The deposited films were dried at 50 and 300 deg. C. X-ray analysis showed that the films were amorphous. Laser annealing was performed using an excimer laser. The laser pulse repetition rate was 25 Hz with a pulse energy of 5.9 mJ, giving a fluence of 225 mJ cm -2 on the ZnO film. Typically, five laser pulses per unit area of the film were used. After laser processing, the hexagonal wurtzite phase of zinc oxide was observed from X-ray diffraction pattern analysis. The thin films had a transparency of greater than 70% in the visible region. The optical band-gap energy was 3.454 eV. Scanning electron microscopy and profilometry analysis highlighted the change in morphology that occurred as a result of laser processing. This comparative study shows that our sol-gel processing route differs significantly from ZnO sol-gel films prepared by conventional furnace annealing which requires temperatures above 450 deg. C for the formation of crystalline ZnO

  8. Post-growth annealing of germanium-tin alloys using pulsed excimer laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lanxiang; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Qian; Yeo, Yee-Chia, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117582 (Singapore); Pan, Jisheng; Zhang, Zheng [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Tok, Eng Soon [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117551 (Singapore)

    2015-07-14

    We investigate the impact of pulsed excimer laser anneal on fully strained germanium-tin alloys (Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x}) epitaxially grown on Ge substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. Using atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the morphological and compositional evolution of Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} with Sn content up to 17% after annealing using various conditions is studied. Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} samples annealed at 80 mJ/cm{sup 2} or 150 mJ/cm{sup 2} have no observable changes with respect to the as-grown sample. However, Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} samples annealed at 250 mJ/cm{sup 2} or 300 mJ/cm{sup 2} have Sn-rich islands on the surface, which is due to Sn segregation in the compressively strained epitaxial film. For Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11}, significant Sn redistribution occurs only when annealed at 300 mJ/cm{sup 2}, indicating that it has better thermal stability than Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17}. A mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of Sn-rich islands and Sn-depleted regions.

  9. Excimer Laser Phototherapeutic Keratectomy for the Treatment of Clinically Presumed Fungal Keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Mao Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study was to evaluate treatment outcomes of excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK for clinically presumed fungal keratitis. Forty-seven eyes of 47 consecutive patients underwent manual superficial debridement and PTK. All corneal lesions were located in the anterior stroma and were resistant to medication therapy for at least one week. Data were collected by a retrospective chart review with at least six months of follow-up data available. After PTK, infected corneal lesions were completely removed and the clinical symptoms resolved in 41 cases (87.2%. The mean ablation depth was 114.39±45.51 μm and diameter of ablation was 4.06±1.07 mm. The mean time for healing of the epithelial defect was 8.8±5.6 days. Thirty-four eyes (82.9% showed an improvement in best spectacle-corrected visual acuity of two or more lines. PTK complications included mild to moderate corneal haze, hyperopic shift, irregular astigmatism, and thinning cornea. Six eyes (12.8% still showed progressed infection, and conjunctival flap covering, amniotic membrane transplantation, or penetrating keratoplasty were given. PTK is a valuable therapeutic alternative for superficial infectious keratitis. It can effectively eradicate lesions, hasten reepithelialization, and restore and preserve useful visual function. However, the selection of surgery candidates should be conducted carefully.

  10. Nucleoside adducts from the in vitro reaction of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol 9,10-oxide or benzo[a]pyrene 4,5-oxide with nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennette, K W; Jeffrey, A M; Blobstein, S H; Beland, F A; Harvey, R G; Weinstein, I B

    1977-03-08

    The covalent binding of benzo[a]pyrene 4,5-oxide and benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol 9,10-oxide isomer I and isomer II to nucleic acids in aqueous acetone solution has been investigated. Benzo[a]pyrene 4,5-oxide reacted preferentially with guanosine residues. On the other hand, benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol 9,10-oxide isomer I and II reacted extensively with guanosine, adenosine, and cytidine residues. Time course studies showed that the reactivity of isomer I or isomer II with homopolyribonucleotides followed the order poly(G) greater than poly(A) greater than poly(C). Alkaline or enzymatic hydrolysis of the modified nucleic acids and subsequent chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 columns yielded benzo[a]pyrene-nucleotide adducts. These were enzymatically converted to the corresponding nucleosides which were resolved into several distinct components by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Evidence was obtained for the presence of multiple nucleoside adducts of guanosine, adenosine, cytidine, deoxyguanosine, deoxyadenosine, and deoxycytidine. The HPLC profiles of adducts formed with isomer I were different from the corresponding profiles of adducts formed with isomer II. Structural aspects of these nucleoside adducts are discussed.

  11. A method for the measurement of in line pistachio aflatoxin concentration based on the laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paghaleh, Soodeh Jamali; Askari, Hassan Ranjbar; Marashi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Rahimi, Mojtaba; Bahrampour, Ali Reza

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of pistachio nuts with aflatoxin is one of the most significant issues related to pistachio health and expert. A fast pistachio aflatoxin concentration measurement method based on the laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) is proposed. The proposed method from theoretical and experimental points of view is analyzed. In our experiments XeCl Excimer laser is employed as an Ultra Violet (UV) source (λ=308 nm) and a UV–visible (UV–vis) spectrometer is used for fluorescent emission detection. Our setup is employed to measure the concentration of different type of Aflatoxins in pistachio nuts. Measurements results obtained by the LIFS method are compared with those are measured by the standard HPLC method. Aflatoxins concentrations are in good agreement with those are obtained by the HPLC method. The proposed laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy can be used as an in line aflatoxins concentrations measurement instrument for industrial applications. - Highlights: • XeCl Excimer laser is employed as an UV source for measurement of AFs in pistachio nuts. • Results are compared with those are measured by the standard HPLC method. • LIFS is an online AFs concentration measurement method for industrial applications

  12. Formation of quinones by one-electron oxidation in the metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene and 6-fluorobenzo[a]pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalieri, E.; Wong, A.; Cremonesi, P.; Warner, C.; Rogan, E.

    1986-01-01

    Metabolic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), as well as other chemical carcinogens, occurs by two major pathways: One-electron oxidation and two-electron oxidation, or monooxygenation. One-electron oxidation generates radical cations or radicals, depending on the molecule in which the oxidation occurs, whereas two-electron oxidation produces oxygenated metabolites. Radical cations of PAH are ultimate electrophilic metabolites capable of binding to cellular macromolecules to initiate the tumor process. In this paper the authors will provide evidence that one-electron oxidation is involved not only in PAH carcinogenesis, but also in the formation of certain metabolites. Metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) by cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase yields three classes of products: phenols, dihydrodiols and the quinones, 1,6-, 3,6- and 6,12- dione

  13. Conditions for effective removal of pyrene from an artificially contaminated soil using Pseudomonas aeruginosa 57SJ rhamnolipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordas, Francois [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Centre INRS-Eau-Terre-Environnement, Universite du Quebec, 2800 rue Einstein, C.P. 7500, Sainte-Foy, Quebec, G1V 4C7 (Canada)]. E-mail: francois.bordas@unilim.fr; Lafrance, Pierre [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement, Universite du Quebec, 490, rue de la Couronne, Quebec, G1K 9A9 (Canada)]. E-mail: pierre_lafrance@inrs-ete.uquebec.ca; Villemur, Richard [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Centre INRS-Institut Armand Frappier, Universite du Quebec, 531 bd des Prairies, Laval, Quebec, H7V 1B7 (Canada)]. E-mail: richard.villemur@inrs-iaf.uquebec.ca

    2005-11-15

    The efficacy of a new rhamnolipid biosurfactants mixture to enhance the removal of pyrene from a soil artificially contaminated was investigated. The molar solubilization ratio (MSR) and the partition coefficient between the micelles and water (log K {sub m}) were found to be 7.5 x 10{sup -3} and 5.7, respectively. From soil column studies, the pyrene removal increased linearly with the concentration of the injected biosurfactants solution above the effective critical micellar concentration (0.4 g L{sup -1}). Flushing with a 5.0 g L{sup -1} biosurfactants solution increased the pyrene concentration in the effluent by 178 times. At high biosurfactants' concentrations (2.5 and 5.0 g L{sup -1}), the cumulative pyrene recovery reached 70%. This pyrene remobilization takes place independently of the soil organic carbon solubilization. This study provides a combination of batch and column experiments in order to find the conditions for effective soil remediation using a new rhamnolipids mixture. - The potential of newly isolated biosurfactants to mobilize PAHs from contaminated soils was evaluated from the determination in dynamic conditions of their effective critical micellar concentration.

  14. Conditions for effective removal of pyrene from an artificially contaminated soil using Pseudomonas aeruginosa 57SJ rhamnolipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordas, Francois; Lafrance, Pierre; Villemur, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of a new rhamnolipid biosurfactants mixture to enhance the removal of pyrene from a soil artificially contaminated was investigated. The molar solubilization ratio (MSR) and the partition coefficient between the micelles and water (log K m ) were found to be 7.5 x 10 -3 and 5.7, respectively. From soil column studies, the pyrene removal increased linearly with the concentration of the injected biosurfactants solution above the effective critical micellar concentration (0.4 g L -1 ). Flushing with a 5.0 g L -1 biosurfactants solution increased the pyrene concentration in the effluent by 178 times. At high biosurfactants' concentrations (2.5 and 5.0 g L -1 ), the cumulative pyrene recovery reached 70%. This pyrene remobilization takes place independently of the soil organic carbon solubilization. This study provides a combination of batch and column experiments in order to find the conditions for effective soil remediation using a new rhamnolipids mixture. - The potential of newly isolated biosurfactants to mobilize PAHs from contaminated soils was evaluated from the determination in dynamic conditions of their effective critical micellar concentration

  15. A Novel Combination of Surfactant Addition and Persulfate-assisted Electrokinetic Oxidation for Remediation of Pyrene-Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abtahi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Effect of surfactant addition on persulfate-assisted electrokinetic remediation of pyrene-spiked soil was studied. The influence of effective factors including voltage, surfactant addition, moisture content, and persulfate concentration on the removal of initial pyrene concentration of 200 mg kg–1 were investigated. A complete pyrene removal was observed for voltage of 1 V cm–1, saturated conditions, Tween 80 concentration of 20 mL kg–1, and persulfate concentration of 100 mg kg–1 after 24 h, corresponding to pyrene mineralization of 61 %, based on TPH analysis. The experimental results were best fitted with pseudo-first-order kinetic model with correlation coefficient of 0.968 and rate constant of 0.191 min−1. The main intermediates of pyrene degradation were benzene o-toluic acid, acetic, azulene, naphthalene and decanoic acid. Finally, an unwashed hydrocarbon-contaminated soil was subjected to persulfate-assisted electrokinetic remediation, and a TPH removal of 38 % was observed for the initial TPH content of 912 mg kg–1, under the selected conditions.

  16. Effectiveness of 308-nm Excimer Laser Therapy in Treating Alopecia Areata, Determined by Examining the Treated Sides of Selected Alopecic Patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Ji Won; Moon, Jong Hyuk; Bang, Chan Yl; Shin, Jeonghyun; Choi, Gwang Seong

    2015-01-01

    Some studies have reported the use of 308-nm excimer laser therapy for treating alopecia areata (AA); however, the effectiveness of this therapy on a theoretical basis has not yet been comparatively analyzed. To determine the therapeutic effect of excimer laser therapy on AA. One alopecic patch was divided into control and treated sides in 10 patients with AA. Then, 308-nm excimer laser therapy was administered twice a week for 12 weeks. Photograph and phototrichogram analyses were performed. Photographic assessments by both dermatologists and individuals of the general population showed objective improvements after excimer laser therapy. On the treated side, the hair count and hair diameter had statistically increased after treatment. However, only the hair diameter was found to be significantly high in the treated half when it was compared with the control side. The 308-nm excimer laser has a therapeutic effect on AA, which is proven by photograph and phototrichogram analysis by a side-by-side comparison. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Effect of dietary factors on mutagenesis, metabolism, and binding to DNA of benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-dihydrodiol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring plant phenol, at concentrations of 5 to 50 μg/plate, inhibited rate liver S9 protein dependent benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-induced mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 by 30-81% and B[a]P 7,8-dihydrodiol (DHD)-induced mutagenesis by 29 to 75%. EA did not significantly affect the metabolism of B[a]P or B[a]P 7,8-DHD as determined by high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the organosoluble fraction and by the quantification of water-soluble conjugates. At these concentrations EA inhibited the covalent binding of [ 3 H] B[a]P and [ 3 H] B[a]P 7,8-DHD metabolites to calf thymus DNA by 5 to 42% and 27 to 64%, respectively. Formation of benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide:deoxyguanosine (BPDE:dG) adducts was inhibited by 13 to 56% for B[a]P for B[a]P and 11 to 38% for B[a]P 7,8-DHD. These results suggest that the antimutagenic effect of EA and its inhibition of B[a]P and B[a]P 7,8-DHD metabolite-binding to DNA is not due to the inhibition of S9-mediated metabolism of these compounds. The inhibitory effect may be by previously described scavenging mechanism or by a DNA-affinity binding mechanism that prevents BPDE:DNA adduct formation

  18. Doppler-shifted fluorescence imaging of velocity fields in supersonic reacting flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. G.; Davis, S. J.; Kessler, W. J.; Sonnenfroh, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    The application of Doppler-shifted fluorescence imaging of velocity fields in supersonic reacting flows is analyzed. Focussing on fluorescence of the OH molecule in typical H2-air Scramjet flows, the effects of uncharacterized variations in temperature, pressure, and collisional partner composition across the measurement plane are examined. Detailed measurements of the (1,0) band OH lineshape variations in H2-air combustions are used, along with single-pulse and time-averaged measurements of an excimer-pumped dye laser, to predict the performance of a model velocimeter with typical Scramjet flow properties. The analysis demonstrates the need for modification and control of the laser bandshape in order to permit accurate velocity measurements in the presence of multivariant flow properties.

  19. Fluorescence Detection and Discrimination of ss- and ds-DNA with a Water Soluble Oligopyrene Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoquan Shi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel water-soluble cationic conjugated oligopyrene derivative, oligo(N1,N1,N1,N4,N4,N4-hexamethyl-2-(4-(pyren-1-yl butane-1,4-diaminium bromide (OHPBDB, was synthesized by a combination of chemical and electrochemical synthesis techniques. Each oligomer chain has five pyrene derivative repeating units and brings 10 positive charges. OHPBDB showed high and rapid fluorescence quenching in aqueous media upon addition of trace amounts of single-stranded (ss and double-stranded (ds DNA. The Stern-Volmer constants for ss- and ds-DNA were measured to be as high as 1.3 × 108 mol-1·L and 1.2 × 108 mol-1·L, respectively. On the other hand, distinct fluorescence enhancement of OHPBDB upon addition of large amount of ss-DNA or ds-DNA was observed. Furthermore, ss-DNA showed much stronger fluorescence enhancement than that of ds-DNA, thus yielding a clear and simple signal useful for the discrimination between ss- and ds-DNA in aqueous media.

  20. Multi-step intramolecular excitation energy transfer in dendritic pyrene-phosphorus(V)porphyrin heptads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakawa, Kazutaka; Segawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic heptad molecules in which four pyrenyl groups are connected at the central phosphorus atom of the edge-porphyrins of the center-to-edge type porphyrin trimers were synthesized to investigate a multi-step excitation energy transfer. As the central energy acceptor, two types porphyrins which one was phosphorus(V)tetraphenylporphyrin (H2) and another was its derivative substituted by butoxy groups at four para-position of meso-phenyl groups (H1) were used. In the photoexcited state of the pyrene units, the excitation energy transfer to the central-porphyrin unit was observed in toluene. The excitation energy transfer is considered to be through two pathways; one is a stepwise pathway through the edge-porphyrin unit and another is a direct excitation energy transfer to the central porphyrin. The direct excitation energy transfer from pyrenes to the edge-porphyrin and central-porphyrin were observed in the case for H1. From the excited state of the edge-porphyrins, the excitation energy transfer to the central-porphyrin occurs in the H1 case. In the H2 case, the excitation energy of central-porphyrin is higher than that of H1, and the electron transfer from edge-porphyrin to the central-porphyrin become predominant process. - Highlights: • Dendritic pyrene-porphyrin heptads were synthesized. • Excitation energy transfer occurs from the pyrenyl moiety to the phosphorus(V)porphyrin. • The stepwise and direct energy transfer pathways were observed. • The quantum yields of these energy transfer pathways could be determined.

  1. Multi-step intramolecular excitation energy transfer in dendritic pyrene-phosphorus(V)porphyrin heptads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirakawa, Kazutaka, E-mail: hirakawa.kazutaka@shizuoka.ac.jp [Applied Chemistry and Biochemical Engineering Course, Department of Engineering, Graduate School of Integrated Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, Johoku 3-5-1, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 432-8561 (Japan); Department of Optoelectronics and Nanostructure Science, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, Johoku 3-5-1, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 432-8561 (Japan); Segawa, Hiroshi [Department of Multi-Disciplinary Science - General Systems Studies, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba 3-8-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Komaba 4-6-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Dendritic heptad molecules in which four pyrenyl groups are connected at the central phosphorus atom of the edge-porphyrins of the center-to-edge type porphyrin trimers were synthesized to investigate a multi-step excitation energy transfer. As the central energy acceptor, two types porphyrins which one was phosphorus(V)tetraphenylporphyrin (H2) and another was its derivative substituted by butoxy groups at four para-position of meso-phenyl groups (H1) were used. In the photoexcited state of the pyrene units, the excitation energy transfer to the central-porphyrin unit was observed in toluene. The excitation energy transfer is considered to be through two pathways; one is a stepwise pathway through the edge-porphyrin unit and another is a direct excitation energy transfer to the central porphyrin. The direct excitation energy transfer from pyrenes to the edge-porphyrin and central-porphyrin were observed in the case for H1. From the excited state of the edge-porphyrins, the excitation energy transfer to the central-porphyrin occurs in the H1 case. In the H2 case, the excitation energy of central-porphyrin is higher than that of H1, and the electron transfer from edge-porphyrin to the central-porphyrin become predominant process. - Highlights: • Dendritic pyrene-porphyrin heptads were synthesized. • Excitation energy transfer occurs from the pyrenyl moiety to the phosphorus(V)porphyrin. • The stepwise and direct energy transfer pathways were observed. • The quantum yields of these energy transfer pathways could be determined.

  2. Molecular mechanics and quantum mechanical modeling of hexane soot structure and interactions with pyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubicki JD

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular simulations (energy minimizations and molecular dynamics of an n-hexane soot model developed by Smith and co-workers (M. S. Akhter, A. R. Chughtai and D. M. Smith, Appl. Spectrosc., 1985, 39, 143; ref. 1 were performed. The MM+ (N. L. Allinger, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1977, 395, 157; ref. 2 and COMPASS (H. Sun, J. Phys. Chem., 1998, 102, 7338; ref. 3 force fields were tested for their ability to produce realistic soot nanoparticle structure. The interaction of pyrene with the model soot was simulated. Quantum mechanical calculations on smaller soot fragments were carried out. Starting from an initial 2D structure, energy minimizations are not able to produce the observed layering within soot with either force field. Results of molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the COMPASS force field does a reasonably accurate job of reproducing observations of soot structure. Increasing the system size from a 683 to a 2732 atom soot model does not have a significant effect on predicted structures. Neither does the addition of water molecules surrounding the soot model. Pyrene fits within the soot structure without disrupting the interlayer spacing. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, such as pyrene, may strongly partition into soot and have slow desorption kinetics because the PAH-soot bonding is similar to soot–soot interactions. Diffusion of PAH into soot micropores may allow the PAH to be irreversibly adsorbed and sequestered so that they partition slowly back into an aqueous phase causing dis-equilibrium between soil organic matter and porewater.

  3. Cancer risk estimation for mixtures of coal tars and benzo(a)pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaylor, D.W.; Culp, S.J.; Goldstein, L.S.; Beland, F.A.

    2000-01-01

    Two-year chronic bioassays were conducted by using B6C3F1 female mice fed several concentrations of two different mixtures of coal tars from manufactured gas waste sites or benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). The purpose of the study was to obtain estimates of cancer potency of coal tar mixtures, by using conventional regulatory methods, for use in manufactured gas waste site remediation. A secondary purpose was to investigate the validity of using the concentration of a single potent carcinogen, in this case benzo(a)pyrene, to estimate the relative risk for a coal tar mixture. The study has shown that BaP dominates the cancer risk when its concentration is greater than 6,300 ppm in the coal tar mixture. In this case the most sensitive tissue site is the forestomach. Using low-dose linear extrapolation, the lifetime cancer risk for humans is estimated to be: Risk -4 (ppm coal tar in total diet) + 240 x 10 -4 (ppm BaP in total diet), based on forestomach tumors. If the BaP concentration in the coal tar mixture is less than 6,300 ppm, the more likely case, then lung tumors provide the largest estimated upper limit of risk, Risk -4 (ppm coal tar in total diet), with no contribution of BaP to lung tumors. The upper limit of the cancer potency (slope factor) for lifetime oral exposure to benzo(a)pyrene is 1.2 x 10 -3 per microg per kg body weight per day from this Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) study compared with the current value of 7.3 x 10 -3 per microg per kg body weight per day listed in the US EPA Integrated Risk Information System

  4. Analysis of discrete and continuous laser induced fluorescence spectra of the A 1Σsub(u)+-X 1Σsub(g)+ band system of Sr2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.; Moeller, R.

    1982-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence spectra of the gaseous Sr 2 excimer molecule have been measured. The spectra contain discrete molecular fluorescence series, regularly modulated continuous fluorescence and an unstructured continuum. Analysis of the molecular line spectra yields for the first time Dunham coefficients for the X 1 Σsub(g) + ground state and the A 1 Σsub(u) + excited state. Using the intensity distribution of the modulated continuum which is associated with bound-free transitions the repulsive potential of the ground state up to 3000 cm -1 above the dissociation limit has been determined. The unstructured continuum can be analyzed as due to two types of continuous fluorescence. The dissociation energy of Sr 2 has been determined to Dsub(e)(X) = 965 +- 45 cm -1 . (Auth.)

  5. Analysis of discrete and continuous laser induced fluorescence spectra of the A 1μ+sub(u) - X 1μ+sub(g) band system of SR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.; Moeller, R.

    1982-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence spectra of the gaseous Sr 2 excimer molecule have been measured. The spectra contain discrete molecular fluorescence series, regularly modulated continuous fluorescence and an unstructured continuum. Analysis of the molecular line spectra yields for the first time Dunham coefficients for the X 1 μ + sub(g) ground state and the A 1 μ + sub(u) excited state. Using the intensity distribution of the modulated continuum which is associated with bound-free transitions the repulsive potential of the ground state up to 3000 cm - 1 above the dissociation limit has been determined. The unstructured continuum can be analyzed as due to two types of continuous fluorescence. The dissociation energy of Sr 2 has been determined to Dsub(e) (X) = 965 +- 45 cm - 1 . (Author)

  6. Multimedia transport of particle-bound organics: benzo(a)pyrene test case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, P A; Cohen, Y

    1986-01-01

    A screening multimedia-compartmental (MCM) modeling approach is presented for predicting the distribution of particle-bound pollutants within an environment consisting of the atmosphere, surface water, and surface soil compartments. An MCM model was used to simulate the dynamic distribution of Benzo(a)Pyrene (B(a)P) for a study region located in southeast Ohio. The model incorporates theoretical estimates of the dry deposition velocity and a new semi-empirical model for rain scavenging of B(a)P. The predicted concentrations of B(a)P compared favorably with available field data.

  7. Immunotoxicity effect of benzo[α]pyrene on scallop Chlamys farreri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Pan, Luqing; Liu, Jing

    2009-03-01

    The toxic effects of benzo[ α]pyrene (B[ α]P) at different concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1, 2.5 and 7.5 μgL-1) on scallop ( Chlamy farreri) immune system were studied. The results showed that B[ α]P had significant toxic effects on the haemocyte counts, neutral red uptake, phagocytosis, bacteriolytic and antibacterial activity ( P0.05). Thus, B[ α] has evident toxic effects on scallop immune system, which supports the view that a relationship exists between pollution and immunomodulation in aquatic organisms.

  8. Microplastic does not magnify the acute effect of PAH pyrene on predatory performance of a tropical fish (Lates calcarifer)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guven, Olgac; Bach, Lis; Munk, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Microplastic (MP) leads to widespread pollution in the marine ecosystem. In addition to the physical hazard posed by ingestion of microplastic particles, concern is also on their potential as vector for transport of hydrophobic contaminants. We studied experimentally the single and interactive...... effects of microplastic and pyrene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, on the swimming behaviour and predatory performance of juvenile barramundi (Lates calcarifer). Juveniles (18+ days post hatch) were exposed to MPs, or pyrene (100nM), or combination of both and feeding rate and foraging activity...... no effect on feeding while swimming speed showed a significant decrease. Thus, our results confirm that short-time exposure to pyrene impacts performance of fish juveniles, while additional exposure to microplastic influenced their activity but not their feeding rate at the given conditions. Further studies...

  9. Life history traits and the activity of antioxidative enzymes in Lymantria dispar L. (lepidoptera, lymantriidae) larvae exposed to benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilijin, Larisa; Mrdaković, Marija; Todorović, Dajana; Vlahović, Milena; Gavrilović, Anja; Mrkonja, Aleksandra; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna

    2015-11-01

    Increased presence of benzo[a]pyrene in the environment underlines the need for development of sensitive biomarkers for monitoring. Antioxidative enzymes could be used as early-warning signals because of their sensitivity and applicability. The activity of 2 antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), were measured in midgut tissues of fifth instar Lymantria dispar larvae exposed to different concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene: 2 ng, 10 ng, 20 ng, 100 ng, 200 ng, and 2000 ng benzo[a]pyrene/g dry food weight. Larval development, larval mass, and relative growth rate were also monitored. The authors detected prolonged larval development, as well as reduced larval mass and relative growth rate in larvae exposed to all benzo[a]pyrene concentrations. The L. dispar midgut SOD activity was significantly increased, and 2 SOD isoforms were detected on native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in larvae fed on artificial diet supplemented with benzo[a]pyrene. In contrast, the control group had only 1 isoform. Catalase activity was significantly increased in all benzo[a]pyrene-treated larvae. Native gel electrophoresis showed that a switch in active CAT isoforms occurred after benzo[a]pyrene treatment. Thus, SOD and CAT in polyphagous herbivorous L. dispar larvae are very sensitive to low concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene. Therefore, they could be used as biomarkers for exposure and effects of this toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. © 2015 SETAC.

  10. LC/MSMS STUDY OF BENZO[A]PYRENE-7,8-QUINONE ADDUCTION TO GLOBIN TRYPTIC PEPTIDES AND N-ACETYLAMINO ACIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-quinone (BPQ) is regarded as a reactive genotoxic compound enzymatically formed from a xenobiotic precursor benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol by aldo-keto-reductase family of enzymes. Because BPQ, a Michael electrophile, was previously shown to react with oligonucleotide...

  11. Induction of secondary metabolism by environmental pollutants: metabolization of pyrene and formation of 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin by Crinipellis stipitaria JK 364

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, B.; Kremer, S.; Sterner, O.; Anke, H.

    1995-01-01

    In submerged cultures, when grown in the presence of pyrene, the saprophytic and plant inhabiting basidiomycete Crinipellis stipitaria was found to produce 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methyl-isocoumarin. The amount of 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin formed depended on the concentration of pyrene in the medium. In cultures incubated without pyrene or with less than 2.5 mg/l no formation of 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin was observed. Besides pyrene, chrysene, anotther four ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, induced isocoumarin formation whereas anthracene, phenanthrene or fluoranthene were not effective. During metabilization experiments with [4,5,9,10- 14 C]pyrene (0.4 mCi (14.8 kBq)/mmol), labelled 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methylsiocoumarin (specific activity 15 μCi (0.6 kBq)/mmol) was identified. When C. stipitaria JK 364 was incubated for 14 days with 5 μCi (0.2 kBq) sodium [2- 14 C]acetate and 10 mg/l pyrene, labelled 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin was isolated from the culture. The results are in agreement with the polyketide origin of the isocoumarin and proof the breakdown of pyrene to acetate which is a central intermediate in the pathway from pyrene to 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin. (orig.)

  12. UV excimer laser and low temperature plasma treatments of polyamide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Yiu Wan Joanne

    Polyamides have found widespread application in various industrial sectors, for example, they are used in apparel, home furnishings and similar uses. However, the requirements for high quality performance products are continually increasing and these promote a variety of surface treatments for polymer modification. UV excimer laser and low temperature plasma treatments are ideally suited for polyamide modification because they can change the physical and chemical properties of the material without affecting its bulk features. This project aimed to study the modification of polyamides by UV excimer laser irradiation and low temperature plasma treatment. The morphological changes in the resulting samples were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM). The chemical modifications were studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and chemical force microscopy (CFM). Change in degree of crystallinity was examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). After high-fluence laser irradiation, topographical results showed that ripples of micrometer size form on the fibre surface. By contrast, sub-micrometer size structures form on the polyamide surface when the applied laser energy is well below its ablation threshold. After high-fluence laser irradiation, chemical studies showed that the surface oxygen content of polyamide is reduced. A reverse result is obtained with low-fluence treatment. The DSC result showed no significant change in degree of crystallinity in either high-fluence or low-fluence treated samples. The same modifications in polyamide surfaces were studied after low temperature plasma treatment with oxygen, argon or tetrafluoromethane gas. The most significant result was that the surface oxygen content of polyamide increased after oxygen and argon plasma treatments. Both treatments induced many hydroxyl (-OH) and carboxylic acid (-COOH

  13. Humic acid-bonded silica as a novel sorbent for solid-phase extraction of benzo[a]pyrene in edible oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Dan; Yu Qiongwei; Yin Hongrui; Feng Yuqi

    2007-01-01

    A novel solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent, humic acid-bonded silica (HAS), was prepared. Humic acids (HAs) were grafted onto silica matrices via an amide linkage between humyl chloride and the amido terminus of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTS)-silica gel. The resulting material was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, elemental analysis, and nitrogen adsorption analysis. This sorbent exhibits an excellent adsorption capacity for some electron-abundant analytes owing to its peculiar structure. In this paper, we choose benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in oil as a probe to validate the adsorption capacity of the material. Thus a fast, cheap and simple SPE method with humic acid-bonded silica cartridge for edible oil clean-up, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection was established. The effects of experimental variables, such as washing and elution solvents, and the amount of sorbents have been studied. The recoveries of BaP in edible oils spiked at 0.2-100 μg kg -1 were in the range of 78.8-102.7% with relative standard deviations ranging between 1.3 and 9.3%; the limit of detection was -0.06 μg kg -1

  14. Biodegradation of benzo(a)pyrene by two freshwater microalgae Selenastrum capricornutum and Scenedesmus acutus: a comparative study useful for bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Llasera, Martha Patricia; Olmos-Espejel, José de Jesús; Díaz-Flores, Gabriel; Montaño-Montiel, Adriana

    2016-02-01

    A comparative evaluation of the removal of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) by sorption and degradation by two microalgal species, Selenastrum capricornutum and Scenedesmus acutus was performed. The monitoring of the amount of BaP remaining in the liquid culture media and the biomass along with the appearance of three metabolites (4,5 dihydrodiol-BaP; 7,8-dihydrodiol-BaP; and 9,10 dihydrodiol-BaP) at short time periods (from 0.25 to 72 h) in cultures exposed to BaP was made by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence and UV detection. Complete removal of BaP was achieved by the two live microalgal species: S. capricornutum at 15 h of exposure (99%) and S. acutus at 72 h of exposure (95%). Sorption is an important phenomenon for BaP removal by S. capricornutum but biodegradation is the principal means of removing BaP in live cells. The formation of metabolites by S. capricornutum is rapid and seems to be proportional to the amount of the BaP added to cultures. In contrast, in these bioassays, most of the BaP removal of S. acutus is due to sorption rather than degradation. The appearance of metabolites in the cultures is very slow and at a low amount compared to cultures of S. capricornutum. The similarities and differences existing between the two microalgae are important for the establishment of the conditions for bioremediation.

  15. Clinical results of excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy: a multicenter study of 265 eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron-Rosa, D S; Colin, J; Aron, B; Burin, N; Cochener, B; Febraro, J L; Gallinaro, C; Ganem, S; Valdes, R

    1995-11-01

    Efficacy, predictability, and safety of excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy were evaluated at centers in Paris and Brest, France. Photoablation was performed with the VISX laser on 265 eyes (151 at the Paris center and 114 at the Brest center). The eyes were clinically and statistically evaluated over a six month follow-up. Initial myopia ranged from -0.7 to -19.4 diopters (D) (mean spherical equivalent [SE] -5.9 D) in the Paris center and from -0.9 to -14.5 D (SE -4.5 D) in the Brest center. At both centers, the mean uncorrected visual acuity was worse than 20/200; over 90% of cases in each center had a best uncorrected visual acuity of 20/100 or worse. Results are reported globally and for subgroups of myopia: Group A, SE better than or equal to -3.0 D; Group B, SE worse than -3.0 D and better than or equal to -7.0 D; Group C, SE worse than -7.0 D. Uncorrected visual acuity was significantly improved in the patients followed for six months; 64% of Paris cases and 62% of Brest cases obtained an uncorrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Predictability of the treatment was good; 67% of Paris eyes and 74% of Brest eyes were less than 1.0 D from the intended correction after six months. The data suggest that the initial myopia affected the efficacy and predictability of the treatment; results in the mild to moderate myopia eyes were significantly better than results in the severe myopia eyes. One case of visual acuity regression (less than one line) was observed in the two groups. This was associated with corneal haze of moderate intensity.

  16. Analysis of excimer laser radiant exposure effect toward corneal ablation volume at LASIK procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiati, Rima Fitria; Rini Rizki, Artha Bona; Kusumawardhani, Apriani; Setijono, Heru; Rahmadiansah, Andi

    2016-11-01

    LASIK (Laser Asissted In Situ Interlamelar Keratomilieusis) is a technique for correcting refractive disorders of the eye such as myopia and astigmatism using an excimer laser. This procedure use photoablation technique to decompose corneal tissues. Although preferred due to its efficiency, permanency, and accuracy, the inappropriate amount radiant exposure often cause side effects like under-over correction, irregular astigmatism and problems on surrounding tissues. In this study, the radiant exposure effect toward corneal ablation volume has been modelled through several processes. Data collecting results is laser data specifications with 193 nm wavelength, beam diameter of 0.065 - 0.65 cm, and fluence of 160 mJ/cm2. For the medical data, the myopia-astigmatism value, cornea size, corneal ablation thickness, and flap data are taken. The first modelling step is determining the laser diameter between 0.065 - 0.65 cm with 0.45 cm increment. The energy, power, and intensity of laser determined from laser beam area. Number of pulse and total energy is calculated before the radiant exposure of laser is obtained. Next is to determine the parameters influence the ablation volume. Regression method used to create the equation, and then the spot size is substituted to the model. The validation used is statistic correlation method to both experimental data and theory. By the model created, it is expected that any potential complications can be prevented during LASIK procedures. The recommendations can give the users clearer picture to determine the appropriate amount of radiant exposure with the corneal ablation volume necessary.

  17. Surface modification of Al–Si alloy by excimer laser pulse processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahanty, S., E-mail: soumitro@iitk.ac.in; Gouthama

    2016-04-15

    The laser irradiation on Al-Si alloy sample is carried out by excimer laser in ambient conditions for 30 or 45 pulses. Microstructural investigation of laser treated sample is done by OM, SEM and TEM and the surface hardness is evaluated by Vickers micro indentation. Laser treated, samples suggested the dissolution of coarse primary Si and β-AlFeSi particle in α-Al matrix. The SEM/EDS study shows the enhancement of retained Si in α-Al matrix. The interface analysis of laser treated sample suggested the effected modified depth is ∼6 μm. TEM investigation shows the formation of nanocrystalline Si in size ∼2–15 nm. The cellular structures of size range ∼30–50 nm are observed after 45 pulses. The α-Al cells and Si precipitates sizes were considerably refined at higher number of pulses. The fine Si precipitates are found to be dispersed in the intercellular boundaries. An improvement in surface hardness from ∼1.6 to 1.8 is observed 30 and 45 pulse treatment, respectively. The mechanism involves for improvement in surface properties are non-equilibrium solidification, metastable phase formation and microstructural refinement. - Highlights: • Coarse Si and β phase intermetallic are melted and the constituent elements dispersed into the matrix during re-solidification. • The solid solubility of the Si at the surface enhanced after the laser treatment. • The Cellular structure with the size range ∼30–50 nm observed in α-Al after 45 laser pulses. • Si nano particles in size ∼ 2–15 nm were observed in the intercellular region. • Surface hardness increased after laser processing.

  18. Excimer laser micropatterning of freestanding thermo-responsive hydrogel layers for cells-on-chip applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santaniello, Tommaso; Milani, Paolo; Lenardi, Cristina; Martello, Federico; Tocchio, Alessandro; Gassa, Federico; Webb, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    We report a novel reliable and repeatable technologic manufacturing protocol for the realization of micro-patterned freestanding hydrogel layers based on thermo-responsive poly-(N-isopropyl)acrylamide (PNIPAAm), which have potential to be employed as temperature-triggered smart surfaces for cells-on-chip applications. PNIPAAm-based films with controlled mechanical properties and different thicknesses (100–300 µm thickness) were prepared by injection compression moulding at room temperature. A 9 × 9 array of 20 µm diameter through-holes is machined by means of the KrF excimer laser on dry PNIPAAm films which are physically attached to flat polyvinyl chloride (PVC) substrates. Machining parameters, such as fluence and number of shots, are optimized in order to achieve highly resolved features. Micro-structured freestanding films are then easily obtained after hydrogels are detached from PVC by gradually promoting the film swelling in ethanol. In the PNIPAAm water-swollen state, the machined holes’ diameter approaches a slight larger value (30 µm) according to the measured hydrogel swelling ratio. Thermo-responsive behaviour and through-hole tapering characterization are carried out by metrology measurements using an optical inverted and confocal microscope setup, respectively. After the temperature of freestanding films is raised above 32 °C, we observe that the shrinkage of the whole through-hole array occurs, thus reducing the holes’ diameter to less than a half its original size (about 15 µm) as a consequence of the film dehydration. Different holes’ diameters (10 and 30 µm) are also obtained on dry hydrogel employing suitable projection masks, showing similar shrinking behaviour when hydrated and undergone thermo-response tests. Thermo-responsive PNIPAAm-based freestanding layers could then be integrated with other suitable micro-fabricated thermoplastic components in order to preliminary test their feasibility in operating as temperature

  19. Photochemically induced deposition of protective alumina coatings onto UV emitting phosphors for Xe excimer discharge lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broxtermann, Mike; Jüstel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A UV-reactor for the pH induced precipitation of inorganic material is described. • The photolysis of Azide (N_3"−) leads to a steady pH increase used for precipitation. • A UV induced Al(OH)_3 precipitation is used to craft Al_2O_3 coatings onto YPO_4:Bi. • The influence of Al_2O_3 coated onto YPO_4:Bi with different thicknesses is discussed. • SEM, VUV-spectroscopy and ESA measurements were performed on Al_2O_3 coated samples. - Abstract: This work concerns the particle coating of the UV-C emitting phosphor YPO_4:Bi, targeting a stability enhancement of the phosphor material for Xe excimer lamp operation. To this end, the material is coated by the wide band gap material Al_2O_3. In order to obtain a thin and homogeneous coating layer, a novel process based on the photochemical cleavage of NaN_3 in water was developed. This results in a slow and continuous enhancement of the pH value due to ongoing NaOH formation, which results in the precipitation of Al(OH)_3 from an Al_2(SO_4)_3 _× 18H_2O solution. It turned out that the obtained particle coatings are of much better quality, i.e. homogeneity, compared to coatings made from a wet-chemical homogeneous precipitation process. The morphology and electrochemical properties of Al_2O_3 coated YPO_4:Bi are discussed on the basis of optical spectroscopy, ESA measurements, and SEM/EDX investigations.

  20. Photochemically induced deposition of protective alumina coatings onto UV emitting phosphors for Xe excimer discharge lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broxtermann, Mike, E-mail: mike.b@fh-muenster.de; Jüstel, Thomas, E-mail: tj@fh-muenster.de

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A UV-reactor for the pH induced precipitation of inorganic material is described. • The photolysis of Azide (N{sub 3}{sup −}) leads to a steady pH increase used for precipitation. • A UV induced Al(OH){sub 3} precipitation is used to craft Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings onto YPO{sub 4}:Bi. • The influence of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated onto YPO{sub 4}:Bi with different thicknesses is discussed. • SEM, VUV-spectroscopy and ESA measurements were performed on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated samples. - Abstract: This work concerns the particle coating of the UV-C emitting phosphor YPO{sub 4}:Bi, targeting a stability enhancement of the phosphor material for Xe excimer lamp operation. To this end, the material is coated by the wide band gap material Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In order to obtain a thin and homogeneous coating layer, a novel process based on the photochemical cleavage of NaN{sub 3} in water was developed. This results in a slow and continuous enhancement of the pH value due to ongoing NaOH formation, which results in the precipitation of Al(OH){sub 3} from an Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} {sub ×} 18H{sub 2}O solution. It turned out that the obtained particle coatings are of much better quality, i.e. homogeneity, compared to coatings made from a wet-chemical homogeneous precipitation process. The morphology and electrochemical properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated YPO{sub 4}:Bi are discussed on the basis of optical spectroscopy, ESA measurements, and SEM/EDX investigations.

  1. Putative photoacoustic damage in skin induced by pulsed ArF excimer laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, S.; Flotte, T.J.; McAuliffe, D.J.; Jacques, S.L.

    1988-05-01

    Argon-fluoride excimer laser ablation of guinea pig stratum corneum causes deeper tissue damage than expected for thermal or photochemical mechanisms, suggesting that photoacoustic waves have a role in tissue damage. Laser irradiation (193 nm, 14-ns pulse) at two different radiant exposures, 62 and 156 mJ/cm2 per pulse, was used to ablate the 15-microns-thick stratum corneum of the skin. Light and electron microscopy of immediate biopsies demonstrated damage to fibroblasts as deep as 88 and 220 microns, respectively, below the ablation site. These depths are far in excess of the optical penetration depth of 193-nm light (1/e depth = 1.5 micron). The damage is unlikely to be due to a photochemical mechanism because (a) the photons will not penetrate to these depths, (b) it is a long distance for toxic photoproducts to diffuse, and (c) damage is proportional to laser pulse intensity and not the total dose that accumulates in the residual tissue; therefore, reciprocity does not hold. Damage due to a thermal mechanism is not expected because there is not sufficient energy deposited in the tissue to cause significant heating at such depths. The damage is most likely due to a photoacoustic mechanism because (a) photoacoustic waves can propagate deep into tissue, (b) the depth of damage increases with increasing laser pulse intensity rather than with increasing total residual energy, and (c) the effects are immediate. These effects should be considered in the evaluation of short pulse, high peak power laser-tissue interactions.

  2. Visual and refractive outcomes following myopic laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy with a flying-spot excimer laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlinden, Colm; Skiadaresi, Eirini; Moore, Jonathan E

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the visual and refractive outcomes following laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK) surgery with a flying-spot excimer laser. Private practice, Ireland. Case series. In this prospective study, the mean manifest spherical equivalent (SE), sphere, and cylinder were measured preoperatively. All eyes had LASEK surgery with an aberration-free algorithm with the Schwind Amaris excimer laser. Outcomes measured at 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year were uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), manifest refraction, corrected distance visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, aberrometry, and complications. Accuracy, efficacy, and safety were evaluated at 1 year. Preoperatively, the mean SE, sphere, and cylinder in the 80 eyes (48 patients) were -3.58 diopters (D) ± 2.00 (SD), -3.23 ± 1.93 D, and -0.85 ± 0.65 D, respectively. One year postoperatively, the mean SE was -0.00 ± 0.22 D; 57 eyes (71%) were within -0.13 to +0.13 D of the SE, and 71 eyes (98%) were within ±0.50 D. The mean UDVA was -0.06 ± 0.07 logMAR, with an efficacy index of 1.04. The postoperative SE was stable between 1 month, 3 months, and 1 year. One eye (1%) had a change in SE by more than 0.50 D at 6 months and 1 year. There were no statistically significant differences in any aberrations at 1 year. The contrast sensitivity improved from 1.66 ± 0.17 log units preoperatively to 1.72 ± 0.15 log units at 1 month postoperatively (P=.0003), which was unchanged at 6 months and 1 year. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of LASEK for the treatment of myopia with this flying-spot excimer laser. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. ArF excimer laser modulation of TNF-alpha and gelatinase B in NIH 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudy-Vives, C.; Courant, D.; Perot, J.C.; Garcia, J.; Fretier, P.; Court, L.; Dormont, D.

    1995-01-01

    The effects on TNF-alpha and gelatinase B activity in mammalian cells induced by 193 nm argon fluoride excimer laser have been investigated. The data show that a secretion of 92 kDa type IV collagenase and TNF-alpha were increased in cell culture supernatants. Moreover, the 193 nm laser radiation produces a decrease of cell proliferation and an increase of cell activation 8 hours after irradiation. The total protein amount increases with the delivered dose. Same, but less effects were obtained after exposure to a conventional UV lamp at 254 nm. (author)

  4. Properties of the ablation process for excimer laser ablation of Y1Ba2Cu3O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neifeld, R.A.; Potenziani, E.; Sinclair, W.R.; Hill III, W.T.; Turner, B.; Pinkas, A.

    1991-01-01

    The process of excimer laser ablation has been studied while varying the laser fluence from 0.237 to 19.1 J/cm 2 . Ion time-of-flight, total charge, target etch depth per pulse, and etch volume per pulse have been measured. Results indicate a maximum ablation volume and minimum ionization fraction occur near 5 J/cm 2 . Several of the parameters measured vary rapidly in the 1--5 J/cm 2 range. Variation in these parameters strongly influences the properties of films grown by this technique

  5. Effect of laser-plasma X-ray irradiation on crystallization of amorphous silicon film by excimer laser annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Naoto; Uejukkoku, Kazuya; Heya, Akira; Takanashi, Yasuyuki; Amano, Sho; Miyamoto, Shuji; Mochizuki, Takayasu

    2007-01-01

    The effect of laser plasma soft X-ray (LPX) irradiation on crystallization by excimer laser annealing (ELA) was investigated at low ELA energy densities. The crystalline fraction at energy densities of 50 and 60 mJ/cm 2 for LPX followed by ELA is nearly equal to that at 80 to 100 mJ/cm 2 for the ELA method with non-LPX irradiation. The results obtained indicate that LPX irradiation before ELA reduces the critical energy density for the start of crystallization. The combined method of LPX irradiation and ELA will enable us to realize a low-temperature process for ELA crystallization. (author)

  6. Improvement of physical properties of IGZO thin films prepared by excimer laser annealing of sol–gel derived precursor films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsay, Chien-Yie, E-mail: cytsay@fcu.edu.tw; Huang, Tzu-Teng

    2013-06-15

    Indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) transparent semiconductor thin films were prepared by KrF excimer laser annealing of sol–gel derived precursor films. Each as-coated film was dried at 150 °C in air and then annealed using excimer laser irradiation. The influence of laser irradiation energy density on surface conditions, optical transmittances, and electrical properties of laser annealed IGZO thin films were investigated, and the physical properties of the excimer laser annealed (ELA) and the thermally annealed (TA) thin films were compared. Experimental results showed that two kinds of surface morphology resulted from excimer laser annealing. Irradiation with a lower energy density (≤250 mJ cm{sup −2}) produced wavy and irregular surfaces, while irradiation with a higher energy density (≥350 mJ cm{sup −2}) produced flat and dense surfaces consisting of uniform nano-sized amorphous particles. The explanation for the differences in surface features and film quality is that using laser irradiation energy to form IGZO thin films improves the film density and removes organic constituents. The dried IGZO sol–gel films irradiated with a laser energy density of 350 mJ/cm{sup 2} had the best physical properties of all the ELA IGZO thin films. The mean resistivity of the ELA 350 thin films (4.48 × 10{sup 3} Ω cm) was lower than that of TA thin films (1.39 × 10{sup 4} Ω cm), and the average optical transmittance in the visible range (90.2%) of the ELA 350 thin films was slightly higher than that of TA thin films (89.7%). - Highlights: • IGZO semiconductor films were prepared by laser annealing of sol–gel derived films. • Surface roughness and resistivity of ELA samples were affected by energy density. • The ELA 350 IGZO film exhibited the best properties among all of ELA IGZO films. • Transmittance and resistivity of ELA 350 films are greater than those of TA films.

  7. Does the Digestibility of Cyclodextrins Influence the In Vivo Absorption of Benzo[a] pyrene in Rats?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Erik; Vana, Vasiliki; Holm, Rene

    2016-01-01

    -Cyclodextrin is digestible in contrast to b-cyclodextrins. This could potentially limit the sensitivity toward overdose, which was evaluated using benzo[a] pyrene in this study, in which rats were administered benzo[a] pyrene and different doses of the 2 cyclodextrins. Both cyclodextrins lowered the area under the curve......,000 at the concentration where a significant decrease in the absorption was observed. No difference was observed between the 2 cyclodextrins, so digestibility seemed less important. More interesting was that the decrease in absorption was relatively small when compared with literature values, suggesting that the effect...

  8. SF{sub 6} decomposition and layer formation due to excimer laser photoablation of SiO{sub 2} surface at gas-solid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajad, Batool [Physics Department, Amirkabir University, PO Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Parvin, Parviz [Physics Department, Amirkabir University, PO Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bassam, Mohamad Amin [Excimer Laser Lab, Emam Hussain University, PO Box 16575-4347, Tehrann (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2004-12-21

    In this work, the effect of an excimer laser has been studied for presenting a method for SF{sub 6} decomposition and simultaneous formation of a SiF{sub 2} layer on amorphous SiO{sub 2}. Though the excimer laser did not establish a gas phase photodissociation, we have shown that UV photoablation leads strongly to molecular decomposition in the SF{sub 6}-SiO{sub 2} system. Moreover, the dependence of the decomposition process on the exposure parameters such as the wavelength and intensity as well as the gas pressure and the focal point distance from the gas-solid interface has been investigated.

  9. Endobronchial Forceps-Assisted and Excimer Laser-Assisted Inferior Vena Cava Filter Removal: The Data, Where We Are, and How It Is Done.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, James X; Montgomery, Jennifer; McLennan, Gordon; Stavropoulos, S William

    2018-06-01

    The recognition of inferior vena cava filter related complications has motivated increased attentiveness in clinical follow-up of patients with inferior vena cava filters and has led to development of multiple approaches for retrieving filters that are challenging or impossible to remove using conventional techniques. Endobronchial forceps and excimer lasers are tools for designed to aid in complex inferior vena cava filter removals. This article discusses endobronchial forceps-assisted and excimer laser-assisted inferior vena cava filter retrievals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Repair of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation and benzo[a]pyrene in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerutti, P.; Shinohara, K.; Remsen, J.

    1977-01-01

    The biological effects of DNA-damaging agents are codetermined by the structural characteristics of the lesions, the quality and extent of the local distortion of DNA and chromatin structure, and the mode(s) of damage processing used by a given type of cell. Persistent damage (i.e., damage that is not removed before it is reached by DNA replication) may be mostly responsible for mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. To understand the effects of environmental physical and chemical DNA-damaging agents on human health, the mechanisms of damage processing used by human cells have to be elucidated. We report our studies of the excision of gamma-ray products of the 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine type (t 0 /sub 2//sup γ/) in normal human fibroblasts and in fibroblasts from patients with the hereditary diseases Fanconi's anemia (FA) and ataxia telangiectasia (AT). Both diseases are characterized by chromosomal instability and increased susceptibility for the development of cancer. Formation and repair of DNA-benzo[a]pyrene adducts were studied in baby hamster kidney cells, secondary mouse embryo cells, and human lymphoma. The relative persistence of DNA-B[a]P may explain the high mutagenicity of the 7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene metabolites in rodent cells that has been observed by several investigators

  11. Targeting Antibodies to Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors by Pyrene Hydrazide Modification of Heavy Chain Carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steingrimur Stefansson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNT-FET studies have used immobilized antibodies as the ligand binding moiety. However, antibodies are not optimal for CNT-FET detection due to their large size and charge. Their size can prevent ligands from reaching within the Debye length of the CNTs and a layer of charged antibodies on the circuits can drown out any ligand signal. In an attempt to minimize the antibody footprint on CNT-FETs, we examined whether pyrene hydrazide modification of antibody carbohydrates could reduce the concentration required to functionalize CNT circuits. The carbohydrates are almost exclusively on the antibody Fc region and this site-specific modification could mediate uniform antibody orientation on the CNTs. We compared the hydrazide modification of anti-E. coli O157:H7 polyclonal antibodies to pyrenebutanoic acid succinimidyl ester-coated CNTs and carbodiimide-mediated antibody CNT attachment. Our results show that the pyrene hydrazide modification was superior to those methods with respect to bacteria detection and less than 1 nM labeled antibody was required to functionalize the circuits.

  12. Pyrene synthesis in circumstellar envelopes and its role in the formation of 2D nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Long; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Xu, Bo; Ablikim, Utuq; Ahmed, Musahid; Joshi, Dharati; Veber, Gregory; Fischer, Felix R.; Mebel, Alexander M.

    2018-05-01

    For the past decades, the hydrogen-abstraction/acetylene-addition (HACA) mechanism has been instrumental in attempting to untangle the origin of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as identified in carbonaceous meteorites such as Allende and Murchison. However, the fundamental reaction mechanisms leading to the synthesis of PAHs beyond phenanthrene (C14H10) are still unknown. By exploring the reaction of the 4-phenanthrenyl radical (C14H9•) with acetylene (C2H2) under conditions prevalent in carbon-rich circumstellar environments, we show evidence of a facile, isomer-selective formation of pyrene (C16H10). Along with the hydrogen-abstraction/vinylacetylene-addition (HAVA) mechanism, molecular mass growth processes from pyrene may lead through systematic ring expansions not only to more complex PAHs, but ultimately to 2D graphene-type structures. These fundamental reaction mechanisms are crucial to facilitate an understanding of the origin and evolution of the molecular universe and, in particular, of carbon in our Galaxy.

  13. Preparation and electrochemistry of a pyrene-linked iron terpyridine and its anodic redox polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Hsiao-Chu; Straus, Daniel A.; Johnson, Victoria Anne; Lu, Jia E.; Lopez, Louise; Terrill, Roger H.

    2012-01-01

    An iron(II)bis-terpyridine complex bearing 4′ pendant pyrenyl groups on each ligand (Fe(tpySCH 2 -pyr) 2 2+ ) was synthesized, characterized electrochemically and was shown to form a novel redox polymer via anodic electropolymerization. Immersion of glassy carbon electrodes into dilute acetonitrile solutions of the complex and then into clean electrolyte established that the complex will physisorb onto glassy carbon at 0.1 monolayer coverage from 500 μM solution. Anodic cyclic voltammetry of the pyrenyl iron compound revealed well-resolved Fe(II/III) centered redox waves near 0.9 V and an irreversible, pyrene centered oxidation at ca. 1.1 V. The Fe(II/III) waves grew in magnitude over time and persisted in fresh complex-free electrolyte indicating a surface electropolymerization reaction most likely mediated via the pyrene pendant groups, and exhibiting facile charge transport through a ca. 100 nm polymer film. Spectroelectrochemical analysis of Fe(tpySCH 2 -pyr) 2 (OTf) 2 films grown on indium–tin oxide transparent electrodes confirmed the presence of a Fe(II/III) redox-active film that has a nearly Nernstian response, but with a small Fe(II) component that does not oxidize interfacially.

  14. Distribution of sorbed phenanthrene and pyrene in different humic fractions of soils and importance of humin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, B.; Xing, B.S.; Liu, W.X.; Tao, S.; Lin, X.M.; Zhang, X.M.; Zhang, Y.X.; Xiao, Y.; Dai, H.C.; Yuan, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    Contributions of fulvic-humic acids (FA/HA) and humin (HM) to sorption of phenanthrene (PHE) and pyrene (PYR) in a soil were differentiated using a humic separation procedure after multi-concentration sorption experiments. It was found that the amount of solutes in FA/HA did not change significantly after 48 h, while that in HM increased continuously and slowly up to the end of the experimental period (720 h), indicating that HM was the main region for slow sorption. Based on the fitting results using Freundlich equation, it was found that nonlinearity of both solutes was greater in HM than in FA/HA, consistent with the sorption characteristics of individually extracted HA and HM in a separate experiment. The observed nonlinearity of the solute distribution was confirmed by using three other soil samples with organic carbon contents ranging from 0.7 to 7.9%. Distribution dynamics of PHE and PYR among various fractions were also discussed. - Humic fractionation after sorption experiment revealed that humin fraction is the main region for slow and nonlinear sorption of phenanthrene and pyrene

  15. Reviews in fluorescence 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2011-01-01

    ""Reviews in Fluorescence 2010"", the seventh volume of the book serial from Springer, serves as a comprehensive collection of current trends and emerging hot topics in the field of fluorescence and closely related disciplines. It summarizes the year's progress in fluorescence and its applications, with authoritative analytical reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. ""Reviews in Fluorescence"" offers an essential reference material for any lab working in the fluoresc

  16. Principles of fluorescence techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are being used and applied increasingly in academics and industry. The Principles of Fluorescence Techniques course will outline the basic concepts of fluorescence techniques and the successful utilization of the currently available commercial instrumentation. The course is designed for students who utilize fluorescence techniques and instrumentation and for researchers and industrial scientists who wish to deepen their knowledge of fluorescence applications. Key scientists in the field will deliver theoretical lectures. The lectures will be complemented by the direct utilization of steady-state and lifetime fluorescence instrumentation and confocal microscopy for FLIM and FRET applications provided by leading companies.

  17. Laser-Induced Photofragmentation Fluorescence Imaging of Alkali Compounds in Flames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffler, Tomas; Brackmann, Christian; Aldén, Marcus; Li, Zhongshan

    2017-06-01

    Laser-induced photofragmentation fluorescence has been investigated for the imaging of alkali compounds in premixed laminar methane-air flames. An ArF excimer laser, providing pulses of wavelength 193 nm, was used to photodissociate KCl, KOH, and NaCl molecules in the post-flame region and fluorescence from the excited atomic alkali fragment was detected. Fluorescence emission spectra showed distinct lines of the alkali atoms allowing for efficient background filtering. Temperature data from Rayleigh scattering measurements together with simulations of potassium chemistry presented in literature allowed for conclusions on the relative contributions of potassium species KOH and KCl to the detected signal. Experimental approaches for separate measurements of these components are discussed. Signal power dependence and calculated fractions of dissociated molecules indicate the saturation of the photolysis process, independent on absorption cross-section, under the experimental conditions. Quantitative KCl concentrations up to 30 parts per million (ppm) were evaluated from the fluorescence data and showed good agreement with results from ultraviolet absorption measurements. Detection limits for KCl photofragmentation fluorescence imaging of 0.5 and 1.0 ppm were determined for averaged and single-shot data, respectively. Moreover, simultaneous imaging of KCl and NaCl was demonstrated using a stereoscope with filters. The results indicate that the photofragmentation method can be employed for detailed studies of alkali chemistry in laboratory flames for validation of chemical kinetic mechanisms crucial for efficient biomass fuel utilization.

  18. Development of a Silicon Based Electron Beam Transmission Window for Use in a KrF Excimer Laser System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, C.A.; Fan, H.M.; Hartfield, J.W.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Hegeler, F.; Heitzenroeder, P.J.; Jun, C.H.; Ku, L.P.; LaMarche, P.H.; Myers, M.C.; Parker, J.J.; Parsells, R.F.; Payen, M.; Raftopoulos, S.; Sethian, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), in collaboration with the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), is currently investigating various novel materials (single crystal silicon, , and ) for use as electron-beam transmission windows in a KrF excimer laser system. The primary function of the window is to isolate the active medium (excimer gas) from the excitation mechanism (field-emission diodes). Chosen window geometry must accommodate electron energy transfer greater than 80% (750 keV), while maintaining structural integrity during mechanical load (1.3 to 2.0 atm base pressure differential, approximate 0.5 atm cyclic pressure amplitude, 5 Hz repetition rate) and thermal load across the entire hibachi area (approximate 0.9 W · cm superscript ''-2''). In addition, the window must be chemically resistant to attack by fluorine free-radicals (hydrofluoric acid, secondary). In accordance with these structural, functional, and operational parameters, a 22.4 mm square silicon prototype window, coated with 500 nm thin-film silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ), has been fabricated. The window consists of 81 square panes with a thickness of 0.019 mm ± 0.001 mm. Stiffened (orthogonal) sections are 0.065 mm in width and 0.500 mm thick (approximate). Appended drawing (Figure 1) depicts the window configuration. Assessment of silicon (and silicon nitride) material properties and CAD modeling and analysis of the window design suggest that silicon may be a viable solution to inherent parameters and constraints

  19. Update on excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center: two-year experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguen, Ezra I.; Salz, James J.; Warren, Cathy; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Macy, Jonathan I.; Hofbauer, John; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1993-06-01

    Our two year experience with excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy for the correction of myopia on 160 eyes of 128 patients is described. All eyes were treated with a VISX Twenty- Twenty excimer laser, with the following parameters: radiant exposure 160 mJ/cm2, frequency 5 Hz, ablation zone diameter 5.0 to 5.5 mm, and stromal ablation rate 0.18 to 0.33 (mu) /pulse. A suction fixation ring was used in all cases either with nitrogen flow (79 eyes) or without nitrogen flow (81 eyes) across the cornea. Follow-up ranged from one month (152 eyes) to 24 months (12 eyes). The results are stable between 3 and 24 months with less than 0.25 D change in the mean postoperative spherical equivalents. In eyes with a follow-up of 6 to 24 months, 77% to 100% were 20/40 or better uncorrected, and 84% to 92% were corrected to within +/- 1 D of emmetropia. Further follow-up is needed to assess the long term safety and efficacy of the procedure.

  20. Excimer laser assisted re-oxidation of BaTiO3 thin films on Ni metal foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharadwaja, S. S. N.; Ko, S. W.; Qu, W.; Clark, T.; Rajashekhar, A.; Motyka, M.; Podraza, N.; Randall, C. A.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.

    2016-01-01

    Excimer laser assisted re-oxidation for reduced, crystallized BaTiO 3 thin films on Ni-foils was investigated. It was found that the BaTiO 3 can be re-oxidized at an oxygen partial pressure of ∼50 mTorr and substrate temperature of 350 °C without forming a NiO x interface layer between the film and base metal foil. The dielectric permittivity of re-oxidized films was >1000 with loss tangent values <2% at 100 Hz, 30 mV rms excitation signal. Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy indicated that BaTiO 3 thin films can be re-oxidized to an oxygen stoichiometry close to ∼3 (e.g., stoichiometric). High resolution cross sectional transmission electron microscopy showed no evidence of NiO x formation between the BaTiO 3 and the Ni foil upon excimer laser re-oxidation. Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies on laser re-oxidized [001] C and [111] C BaTiO 3 single crystals indicate that the re-oxidation of BaTiO 3 single crystals is augmented by photo-excitation of the ozone, as well as laser pulse induced temperature and local stress gradients