Sample records for pyometra

  1. Lactate in bitches with pyometra. (United States)

    Volpato, R; Rodello, L; Abibe, R B; Lopes, M D


    Lactate is a compound produced by the anaerobic metabolism of glucose, and hyperlactataemia occurs when the rate of production of lactate exceeds the rate of elimination. This occurs in situations of hypoxia and tissue hypoperfusion. Lactate has been considered a useful prognostic indicator in critically ill patients. Pyometra is a disease of adult female dogs characterized by inflammation of the uterus with an accumulation of exudate, which occurs during the luteal phase. It is one of the most common diseases that occur in the genital tract of female dogs. A total of 31 dogs were diagnosed with pyometra. The diagnosis was confirmed at ultrasonography. Of the 31 dogs, 25 females had open cervix pyometra and six had closed cervix pyometra. Plasma lactate concentrations were determined by an enzymatic colorimetric method. The average concentration (±SD) of plasma lactate in all 31 bitches with pyometra was 3.55 ± 0.46 mm. Healthy dogs had plasma lactate concentrations between 0.3 and 2.5 mm (mean ± SD). Concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 2.9 mm when plasma lactate was measured with a portable device and 0.4-2.6 mm with the blood gas analyser. Even though plasma lactate values vary between several studies and equipment used to measure concentrations, our results for dogs with pyometra are higher indicating hyperlactataemia (Thorneloe et al. , Can Vet J 48, 283-288). Plasma lactate in dogs with closed cervix pyometra was mean ± SD and in dogs with open cervix pyometra, it was mean ± SD. The plasma lactate concentration in dogs with pyometra was higher than in healthy bitches, and there was no influence of patency of the cervix on the concentration of plasma lactate concentrations. Plasma lactate concentrations were similar for animals with open and closed pyometra (3.54 ± 0.52 to 3.64 ± 1.03 mm). © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Lactate in Bitches with Pyometra


    Volpato, R. [UNESP; Rodello, L. [UNESP; Abibe, R. B. [UNESP; Lopes, Maria Denise [UNESP


    Lactate is a compound produced by the anaerobic metabolism of glucose, and hyperlactataemia occurs when the rate of production of lactate exceeds the rate of elimination. This occurs in situations of hypoxia and tissue hypoperfusion. Lactate has been considered a useful prognostic indicator in critically ill patients. Pyometra is a disease of adult female dogs characterized by inflammation of the uterus with an accumulation of exudate, which occurs during the luteal phase. It is one of the mo...

  3. Spontaneous Perforation of Pyometra: A Case Report

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    Full Text Available Pyometra is the accumulation of purulent material in the uterine cavity. Its reported incidence is 0.01–0.5% in gynecologic patients; however, as far as elderly patients are concerned, its incidence is 13.6% [3]. The most common cause of pyometra is malignant diseases of genital tract and the consequences of their treatment (radiotherapy. Other causes are benign tumors like leiomyoma, endometrial polyps, senile cervicitis, cervical occlusion after surgery, puerperal infections, and congenital cervical anomalies. Spontaneous rupture of the uterus is an extremely rare complication of pyometra. To our knowledge, only 21 cases of spontaneous perforation of pyometra have been reported in English literature since 1980. This paper reports an additional case of spontaneous uterine rupture.

  4. Cardiac troponin I levels in canine pyometra

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    Hagman Ragnvi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myocardial injury may contribute to unexpected deaths due to pyometra. To detect myocardial damage, measurement of cardiac troponin I (cTnI is currently the most sensitive and specific method. The aims of the present study were to evaluate presence of myocardial damage in canine pyometra by analysis of cTnI, to explore whether myocardial injury was associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS and to evaluate whether other clinical or laboratory parameters were associated with cTnI increase. Methods Preoperative plasma levels of cTnI were investigated in 58 female dogs with pyometra and 9 controls. The value of physical examination findings, haematological, serum biochemical and pro-inflammatory (CRP and TNF-α parameters as possible predictors of increased cTnI levels was also evaluated. Results Seven dogs with pyometra (12% and one control dog (11% had increased levels of cTnI. In the pyometra group, the levels ranged between 0.3–0.9 μg l-1 and in the control dog the level was 0.3 μg l-1. The cTnI levels did not differ significantly between the two groups. No cardiac abnormalities were evident on preoperative physical examinations. Four of the pyometra patients died within two weeks of surgery, of which two were examined post mortem. In one of these cases (later diagnosed with myocarditis and disseminated bacterial infection the cTnI levels increased from 0.9 μg l-1 preoperatively to 180 μg l-1 the following day when also heart arrhythmia was also detected. The other patient had cTnI levels of 0.7 μg l-1 with no detectable heart pathology post mortem. CTnI increase was not associated with presence of SIRS. There was a trend for the association of cTnI increase with increased mortality. No preoperative physical examination findings and few but unspecific laboratory parameters were associated with increased cTnI levels. Conclusion Increased cTnI levels were observed in 12% of the dogs with pyometra. The

  5. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of pyometra in bitches

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    Nereu Carlos Prestes


    Full Text Available A B-mode ultrasonography (SCANNER 450 (5MHz, Pie Medical, Netherlands was used either alone or associated with laboratorial and radiographic examinations in 33 bitches with clinical diagnosis of pyometra. The increased uterus appeared as a well defined tubular structure with diameter ranging from 0.5 up to 4.0 cm. The uterine lumen was less echoic than the wall, with evident echoic shinings. There was an accordance between the increasing in the viscosity of the vaginal secretion and the echoigenicity. The ultrasonographic diagnosis was possible in 31 bitches (94% confirmed by laparotomy and autopsy. The B-mode ultrasonography can be used in the diagnosis of bitches with pyometra.

  6. Pyometra in a Great Dane: A Clinical Case Report

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    Malik Abu Rafee


    Full Text Available A 4-year-old Great Dane was admitted with continuous sanguino-purulent vaginal discharge, distended abdomen, and cachexia. The dog was clinically diagnosed with pyometra and successfully cured by ovario-hysterectomy. This is the first case report of pyometra seen in as Great Dane in Bareilly, India.

  7. Blood lactate levels in 31 female dogs with pyometra

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    Karlstam Erika


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine pyometra is a life-threatening disease common in countries where spaying of dogs is not routinely performed. The disease is associated with endotoxemia, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS and a 3–4% mortality rate. Blood lactate analysis is clinically valuable in predicting prognosis and survival, evaluating tissue perfusion and treatment response in human and veterinary critical care settings. The aims of the present study were to investigate 1 the blood lactate levels of female dogs with pyometra by a hand-held analyser and 2 if these levels are related with the clinical status or other biochemical or hematological disorders. Methods In total 31 female dogs with pyometra admitted for surgical ovariohysterectomy and 16 healthy female control dogs were included in the present study. A complete physical examination including SIRS-status determination was performed. Blood samples for lactate concentrations, hematological and biochemical parameters, acid-base and blood gas analysis and other laboratory parameters were collected and subsequently analysed. The diagnosis pyometra was verified with histopathological examination of the uterus and ovaries. Increased hospitalisation length and presence of SIRS were used as indicators of outcome. Results In the pyometra group the median blood lactate level was 1,6 mmol l-1 (range -1. In the control group the median lactate level was 1,2 mmol l-1 (range -1. Of the 31 bitches 19 (61% fulfilled 2 or more criteria for SIRS at inclusion, 10 bitches (32% fulfilled 3 of the SIRS criteria whereas none accomplished more than 3 criteria. Lactate levels did not differ significantly between the pyometra and control group, or between the SIRS positive and SIRS negative dogs with pyometra. Increased lactate concentration (>2.5 mmol l-1 was demonstrated in one female dog with pyometra (3%, and was not associated with longer hospitalisation or presence of SIRS. Lactate

  8. Spontaneous Uterine Perforation due to Pyometra Presenting as Acute Abdomen

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    Loabat Geranpayeh


    Full Text Available Spontaneous perforation of the uterus is rare, its incidence being about 0.01%–0.05%. We report a rare case of diffuse peritonitis caused by spontaneously perforated pyometra. A 63-year-old woman with severe abdominal pain was admitted to our hospital. Laparotomy was performed because of the suspicion of gastrointestinal perforation with generalized peritonitis. At laparotomy, about 900 mL of pus was found in the peritoneal cavity. There were no abnormal findings in the alimentary tract, liver, or gallbladder. A total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Pathological investigation of the surgical specimen revealed endometritis and myometritis of the uterus; but there was no evidence of malignancy, and the cervical canal was patent. Although spontaneously perforated pyometra is rare, a perforated pyometra should therefore also be considered when elderly women present with acute abdominal pain.

  9. Escherichia coli : host interactions in the pathogenesis of canine pyometra


    Henriques, Sofia Correia Rosa de Barros


    Tese de Doutoramento em Ciências Veterinárias na Especialidade de Ciências Biológicas e Biomédicas Canine pyometra develops as a result of a complex interaction of etiological and physiopathological factors, such as the virulence and type of the bacteria and the individual host defence mechanisms. Since Escherichia coli is the most common bacterium isolated from uterus of bitches with pyometra, one main objective of this work was to characterize E. coli virulence potential, and...

  10. Pyometra in a Siberian Polecat (Mustela eversmanni) (United States)

    Johnson, J.D.; Biggins, D.E.; Wrigley, R.H.; Mangone, B.A.; Wimsatt, J.


    A 2-year-old Siberian polecat (Mustela eversmanni) from a breeding colony presented for ultrasound evaluation for pregnancy. It was paired with a male for 2.75 months and had remained absent of pregnancy signs when it was anesthetized and clinically evaluated. Until this time, the animal had eaten well and shown no outward signs of debility. On palpation, the animal had a fluid-filled tubular structure in the caudal abdomen, consistent in location and size with the uterus. No sign of vaginal discharge was present. Ultrasonography revealed 10 fluid-filled evaginations (approximately 12 mm in diameter) of the uterine horns. A presumptive diagnosis of a fluid-filled reproductive tract and likely reproductive failure was made in light of the animal's history, its clinical signs, and the ultrasound findings. Euthanasia was performed because the animal was nonreproductive and might yield information relevant to the breeding colony as a whole. Necropsy of the polecat revealed a distended fluctuant uterus containing mildly odiferous, thick, yellow-green, purulent material. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of pyometra. A pure and heavy growth of Enterococcus fecalis was cultured from the uterine contents. In light of results from routine minimal inhibitory concentration antibiotic sensitivity screening, this isolate was resistant to all antibiotics tested in the standard teaching hospital screen.

  11. Pyometra in a Siberian Polecat (Mustela eversmanni). (United States)

    Johnson, Jay D.; Biggins, Dean E.; Wrigley, Robert H.; Mangone, Berney A.; Wimsatt, Jeffrey


    A 2-year-old Siberian polecat (Mustela eversmanni) from a breeding colony presented for ultrasound evaluation for pregnancy. It was paired with a male for 2.75 months and had remained absent of pregnancy signs when it was anesthetized and clinically evaluated. Until this time, the animal had eaten well and shown no outward signs of debility. On palpation, the animal had a fluid-filled tubular structure in the caudal abdomen, consistent in location and size with the uterus. No sign of vaginal discharge was present. Ultrasonography revealed 10 fluid-filled evaginations (approximately 12 mm in diameter) of the uterine horns. A presumptive diagnosis of a fluid-filled reproductive tract and likely reproductive failure was made in light of the animal's history, its clinical signs, and the ultrasound findings. Euthanasia was performed because the animal was nonreproductive and might yield information relevant to the breeding colony as a whole. Necropsy of the polecat revealed a distended fluctuant uterus containing mildly odiferous, thick, yellow-green, purulent material. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of pyometra. A pure and heavy growth of Enterococcus fecalis was cultured from the uterine contents. In light of results from routine minimal inhibitory concentration antibiotic sensitivity screening, this isolate was resistant to all antibiotics tested in the standard teaching hospital screen.

  12. Spontaneous Uterine Perforation of Pyometra Presenting as Acute Abdomen

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    Toshihiro Kitai


    Full Text Available Pyometra is the accumulation of pus in the uterine cavity, and spontaneous perforation of pyometra resulting in generalized diffuse peritonitis is extremely uncommon. We report a rare case of diffuse peritonitis caused by spontaneous perforation of pyometra. A 66-year-old postmenopausal woman with diffuse abdominal pain and vomiting was admitted to our institution. She had a history of mixed connective-tissue disease and had been taking steroids for 20 years. Under a diagnosis of generalized peritonitis secondary to perforation of the gastrointestinal tract or uterus, supravaginal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed. Unfortunately, wound dehiscence and infection occurred during the postoperative course, which were exacerbated by her immunocompromised state. Despite intensive care and a course of antibiotics, the patient died of multiple organ failure resulting from sepsis on the 36th postoperative day. Although correct diagnosis, early intervention, and proper treatment can reduce morbidity and mortality of spontaneous perforation of pyometra, if severe infection occurs, this disease can be life threatening for immunocompromised hosts.

  13. Closed cervix is associated with more severe illness in dogs with pyometra


    Jitpean, Supranee; Ambrosen, Aime; Emanuelson, Ulf; Hagman, Ragnvi


    Background Pyometra, a life-threatening bacterial infection of the uterus, is classified as open or closed depending on the functional patency of the cervix i.e. presence or absence of vaginal discharge. In closed cervix pyometra, pus and bacterial products accumulate in the uterus, which is thought to induce a more severe illness. The aim of this study was to investigate whether disease severity or outcome differed in dogs with open or closed cervix pyometra. Results Prospectively collected ...

  14. Bacterial invasion of the uterus and oviducts in bovine pyometra

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    Karstrup, C. C.; Pedersen, H. G.; Jensen, Tim Kåre


    of bacterial pathogenicity and development of lesions, have not been investigated. Bacterial invasion of the uterus and oviducts was studied in 21 cows diagnosed with pyometra at the time of slaughter by applying fluorescence in situ hybridization using probes targeting 16S ribosomal RNA of Fusobacterium...... necrophorum, Porphyromonas levii, Trueperella pyogenes and the overall bacterial domain Bacteria. Fusobacterium necrophorum and P. levii were found to invade the endometrium, especially if the endometrium was ulcerated, and penetrated deep into the lamina propria. These species co-localized within the tissue...... thus indicating a synergism. Trueperella pyogenes did not invade the uterine tissue. In addition to endometrial lesions, most cows with pyometra also had salpingitis but without significant bacterial invasion of the oviductal wall....

  15. Surgical uterine drainage and lavage as treatment for canine pyometra : clinical communication

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    K.G.M. De Cramer


    Full Text Available Pyometra is a common post-oestral syndrome in bitches. Classical treatment consists of either ovariohystorectomy or medical intervention. Surgical uterine drainage and lavage via direct trans-cervical catheterisation using a 5% povidone-iodine in saline solution was performed successfully in 8 bitches with pyometra. All bitches conceived and whelped without complications subsequent to this treatment. It is concluded that this method offers an effective alternative treatment for canine pyometra with shorter recovery times as well as good clinical recovery and pregnancy rates in bitches destined for further breeding.

  16. Diverticular disease of the colon presenting as pyometra: a case report. (United States)

    Pankaja, Susmita; Rrukaj, Astrit; Bathula, Uma


    Pyometra can be caused by various etiologies. We present a rare case of diverticular disease of the colon presenting as pyometra. This type of presentation can be challenging even for an astute clinician. A 74-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of pyometra was referred to our gynecology clinic as an urgent case. She was obese, diabetic and hypertensive. Due to the patient profile and the clinical presentation, clinicians were misled toward a diagnosis of possible endometrial cancer. After further investigations, she was found to have colouterine fistula secondary to a diverticular abscess of the sigmoid colon. Persistent vaginal discharge due to pyometra can be caused by diverticular disease of the colon. Clinicians should be aware of this important differential diagnosis.

  17. Revisiting bovine pyometra-New insights into the disease using a culture-independent deep sequencing approach

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    Knudsen, Lif Rødtness Vesterby; Karstrup, Cecilia Christensen; Pedersen, Hanne Gervi


    -independent studies have demonstrated that the bacterial diversity in most environments is underestimated in culture-based studies. Consequently, fastidious pyometra-associated pathogens may have been overlooked. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity of bacteria in the uterus......The bacteria present in the uterus during pyometra have previously been studied using bacteriological culturing. These studies identified Fusobacterium necrophorum and Trueperella pyogenes as the major contributors to the pathogenesis of pyometra. However, an increasing number of culture...... of cows with pyometra by using culture-independent 16S rRNA PCR combined with next generation sequencing. We investigated the microbial composition in the uterus of 21 cows with pyometra, which were obtained from a Danish slaughterhouse. Similar to the observations from the culture studies...

  18. Bacterial colonization of the ovarian bursa in dogs with clinically suspected pyometra and in controls. (United States)

    Rubio, Alejandro; Boyen, Filip; Tas, Olaf; Kitshoff, Adriaan; Polis, Ingeborgh; Van Goethem, Bart; de Rooster, Hilde


    Septic peritonitis occurs relatively commonly in dogs. Secondary septic peritonitis is usually associated with perforation of intestines or infected viscera, such as the uterus in pyometra cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial flora in the ovarian bursae of intact bitches as a potential source of contamination. One hundred forty dogs, clinically suspected of pyometra, were prospectively enrolled. The control group consisted of 26 dogs that underwent elective ovariohysterectomies and 18 dogs with mammary gland tumors that were neutered at the time of mastectomy. Bacteriology samples were taken aseptically at the time of surgery from the bursae and the uterus in all dogs. Twenty-two dogs that were clinically suspected of pyometra had sterile uterine content ("mucometra" cases); the remaining 118 had positive uterine cultures ("pyometra" cases) and septic peritoneal fluid was present in 10% of these cases. Of the 118 pyometra cases, 9 had unilateral and 15 had bilateral bacterial colonization of their ovarian bursae. However, the bacteria from the ovarian bursa were similar to those recovered from the uterine pus in only half of the cases. Furthermore, positive bursae were also seen in one mucometra dog (unilateral) and in four control dogs (two unilateral and two bilateral). The data illustrate that the canine ovarian bursa can harbor bacteria. The biological importance of these isolations remains unclear. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pyometra in Bitches Induces Elevated Plasma Endotoxin and Prostaglandin F2α Metabolite Levels

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    Hagman R


    Full Text Available Endotoxemia in bitches with pyometra can cause severe systemic effects directly or via the release of inflammatory mediators. Plasma endotoxin concentrations were measured in ten bitches suffering from pyometra with moderately to severely deteriorated general condition, and in nine bitches admitted to surgery for non-infectious reasons. Endotoxin samples were taken on five occasions before, during and after surgery. In addition, urine and uterine bacteriology was performed and hematological, blood biochemical parameters, prostaglandin F2α metabolite 15-ketodihydro-PGF2α (PG-metabolite, progesterone and oestradiol (E2-17β levels were analysed. The results confirm significantly increased plasma levels of endotoxin in bitches with pyometra and support previous reports of endotoxin involvement in the pathogenesis of the disease. Plasma concentrations of PG-metabolite were elevated in pyometra bitches and provide a good indicator of endotoxin release since the concentrations were significantly correlated to the endotoxin levels and many other hematological and chemistry parameters. The γ-globulin serum protein electrophoresis fraction and analysis of PG-metabolite can be valuable in the diagnosis of endotoxin involvement if a reliable, rapid and cost-effective test for PG-metabolite analysis becomes readily available in the future. Treatment inhibiting prostaglandin biosynthesis and related compounds could be beneficial for bitches suffering from pyometra.

  20. Mummified papyraceous fetuses in the abdominal cavity of an elderly female dog with pyometra

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    F.A. Voorwald


    Full Text Available This paper reports on a rare case of fetal papyraceous mummification after asymptomatic uterine rupture in an elderly female dog with pyometra. The patient had a history of mating six months before the examination but no apparent signs of gestation or parturition. Exploratory laparotomy was used to identify a rupture of the left uterine horn and the presence of cystic endometrial hyperplasia and pyometra. Two mummified papyraceous fetuses were observed in the abdominal cavity and had adhered to the spleen, pancreas, intestine and omentum. Ovariehysterectomy and corrective surgery were performed. The patient had remained healthy after uterine rupture until a new estrous cycle and the development of pyometra. Bitches that are 10 years old or more are predisposed to implantation failure, pregnancy or parturition problems and they should not be breed to avoid complications.

  1. Histopathological Observations on the Uterus and Ovary of a Cat with Pyometra

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    Wen-yang Dong, Chun-yang Jiang and Cun-zhong Qian*


    Full Text Available An 8-year-old, crossbred domestic queen, weighing 2.9 kg, was examined because of obvious clinical signs, including anorexia, lethargy and vomiting, with small quantities of yellow vaginal mucopurulent discharge. Palpation revealed the presence of an abdominal mass. A diagnosis of pyometra was made by radiology. After undergoing ovario-hysterectomy, the queen made a full recovery. Histopathological examination of the uterus and ovary was made. A sterilization case was included for microscopic comparison. Results showed that endometrium of the cat with pyometra presented atrophy and shedding of superficial epithelium, and there were apparent cystic follicles in ovary.

  2. Studies on the pathogenicity of anaerobes, especially Prevotella bivia, in a rat pyometra model. (United States)

    Mikamo, H; Kawazoe, K; Izumi, K; Watanabe, K; Ueno, K; Tamaya, T


    OBJECTIVE: Prevotella bivia is one of the anaerobic bacteria that resides in the flora of the female genital tract. We studied the pathogenicity of P. bivia in a rat pyometra model. METHODS: The experimental animal (rat) model of pyometra was developed to investigate the pathogenicity of P. bivia in a rat pyometra model. RESULTS: In the groups inoculated with aerobes alone, the infection rate was 10% (1/10) in the Staphylococcus aureus- or Staphylococcus agalactiae-inoculated group and 20% (2/10) in the Escherichia coli-inoculated group. Infection was not established in the groups inoculated with anaerobes alone. High infection rates were observed in all the mixed-infection groups. In the S. agalactiae- and Bacteroides fragilis-, S. agalactiae- and P. bivia-, F. coli- and B. fragilis-, and E. coli- and P. bivia-inoculated groups, an infection rate of 100% (10/10) was demonstrated. The efficacy of antibiotics such as flomoxef (FMOX) could be determined using a rat pyometra model. In relation to the alteration of vaginal microbial flora during the menstrual cycle, estrogen increased the growth of P. bivia. CONCLUSION: Mixture of aerobic bacteria and P. bivia increased the pathogenicity of P. bivia. Estrogen would be useful for raising up the inflammatory change of the uterus in experimental models of genital tract infection due to P. bivia. PMID:9702587

  3. Therapeutic efficacy of natural prostaglandin in the treatment of pyometra in bitches

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    Basanti Jena


    Full Text Available Aim: The current study was done to study the therapeutic effect of natural prostaglandin in treatment of canine pyometra. Materials and Methods: Seven bitches were treated with natural PGF2 á i.e. dinoprost tromethamine at the dose rate of 100 μg/kg body weight subcutaneously once daily for 7 days with supportive therapies. The physiological, haematological and biochemical parameters were studied before (0th day and after treatment (8th day. Therapeutic efficacy was assessed in terms of return of abnormal parameters to either normal or near normal value as compared to the untreated control group, intensity of side effects and post treatment reproductive status. Results: All physiological, haematological and biochemical parameters in the seven treated bitches returned to normal range at the end of treatment. The intensity of side effects was quite severe in the treatment group. Six bitches came to estrus within 2 months of treatment and out of them four conceived on subsequent mating. In rest three bitches there was recurrence of pyometra within 4 months of treatment. Conclusion: Though conception rate of recovered bitches is decreased when compared with that of normal healthy bitches still this treatment protocol can be used successfully in treatment of canine pyometra to conserve the breeding capability of bitches. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 295-299

  4. Comparative study of ultrasonographic, radiographic and after surgery signs in fifty bitches with pyometra

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    Tello, L.; Martin, F; Valdes F, Alberto; Albala, A.


    Diagnoses of pyometra are specially based on clinical signs, clinicalpathology findings and radiography. Ultrasound has been a new, only recently available diagnostic tool. To establish some relation between radiography and ultrasonography scans, fifty female dogs with clinicalsigns of pyometra were scanned with ultrasound and radiography. Lateral and ventro-dorsal views were obtained, and scored from 0 to 3 according to presence of radiographical signs. On the other hand, this study tries to correlate uterine section measurements between ultrasound and measurements of the isolated organ in 3 anatomic points after surgery: a) Caudal to kidneys, b) Lateral to navel, c) Uterine body, caudalto horn bifurcation. Lateral radiographs were more succesfull in diagnosing raised uterine volume than ventro-dorsal radiographs. The radiograph technique was less efficient than ultrasound in distinguishing positive cases with pyometra. Ultrasound was able to detect 100% of thepyometra cases. Measurements of uterine sections larger than 900 mm(2) were correlated with higher values (2 or 3) in radiographic scores (p [es

  5. Pyometra caused by carrying of an intrauterine device for a period of forty years and chronic endometritis

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    Todorović Nada 1


    Full Text Available Pyometra is the accumulation of pus in the uterine cavity, thus streaching its walls and thinning and enlarging the uterus. This change is characteristic of the senium period of life, when the uterus is atrophie with a stenotic cervical canal. It most frequently occurs as a result of secondary infection of the cancerogenic tissue of the uterus and additional stenosation and clogging up of cervical canal by a malignant process. Apart from carcinomas of the body and uterus cervix, pyometra less often can occur in other illnesses such as senile endometritis and senile colpitis. As pyometra most frequently occurs in uterine carcinomas, in detection of this state, we must think of malignancy and direct our examination to this direction. In this paper we present a patient in whom pyometra developed because she carried an intrauterine device for forty years that resulted in chronic endometritis. The main symptoms for which the patient was admited to hospital were abdominal pain and intensive suppurative vaginal excretion a month after removal of intrauterine device. The diagnosis of pyometra was made by gynaecological and ultrasound examinations, and also on the basis of gynecological and ultrasound examinations one month after chronic endometritis was confirmed. On the basis of this finding we suspected that chronic endometritis was caused by this state. By cytological, PAP and histopathological examinations of samples obtained by explorative curettage and biopsy of the uterine cervix, malignant changes were eliminated a possible cause. By laboratory analysis and bacteriological examination of the uterine cavity and vaginal excretion, inflammatory changes of the uterine mocous membrane were confirmed as a cause of the pyometra. This conditions was due to carrying the intrauterine device for more decades. The therapy consisted of dilatation of the cervical canal and evacuation of accumulated suppurative contents and irrigation of uterine cavity with 3

  6. Closed cervix is associated with more severe illness in dogs with pyometra. (United States)

    Jitpean, Supranee; Ambrosen, Aime; Emanuelson, Ulf; Hagman, Ragnvi


    Pyometra, a life-threatening bacterial infection of the uterus, is classified as open or closed depending on the functional patency of the cervix i.e. presence or absence of vaginal discharge. In closed cervix pyometra, pus and bacterial products accumulate in the uterus, which is thought to induce a more severe illness. The aim of this study was to investigate whether disease severity or outcome differed in dogs with open or closed cervix pyometra. Prospectively collected data from 111 female dogs diagnosed with pyometra at the University Animal Hospital, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, intermittently during 2005-2012 was analyzed. Seventy-two dogs (65%) had open cervix, whereas 39 dogs (35%) had closed cervix. Differences between the two groups were explored by Wilcoxon Two Sample Test for continuous variables and Chi-square or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. P cervix the median age was 9.0 years and the median weight 26.0 kg. In dogs with closed cervix the median age was 9.6 years and the median weight 25.0 kg, with no significant differences between the groups (p = 0.69 and 0.24, respectively). Five dogs (4.5%) died, all with open cervix, and 16 dogs (14%) had complications. The general physical condition was moderately or severely depressed in 30% (21/71) of dogs with open cervix (severely depressed in 4 dogs, moderately depressed in 17 dogs) and in 56% (22/39) of dogs with closed cervix (severely depressed in 3 dogs, moderately depressed in 19 dogs). The general physical condition was mildly depressed in 41 dogs with open cervix and 16 dogs with closed cervix, whereas it was normal in nine dogs with open cervix and one dog with closed cervix. None of the included dogs had very severely depressed general physical condition or were non-responsive. Leukocytosis, neutrophilia, monocytosis and moderately to severely depressed general condition was more commonly found in dogs with closed cervix (p = 0.003, p

  7. CMV endometritis in a non- immunosuppressed patient presenting as recurrent pyometra- A case report

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    Dr. Geetha Vasudevan


    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus infection of the female genital tract is a rare entity. We present a case of 70 year old woman who came with recurrent pyometra, but was otherwise in good health. Hysterectomy was done and the endometrium showed occasional stromal cells with karyomegaly and intranuclear eosinophilic inclusions consistent with cytomegaloviral infection and dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. This was an incidental finding in an otherwise immunocompetent nonpregnant woman, hence being reported for its rarity and uncommon presentation. Keywords: cytomegalovirus, inclusions, endometrium. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2016; 4(2.000: 52-53

  8. Renal histomorphology in dogs with pyometra and control dogs, and long term clinical outcome with respect to signs of kidney disease

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    Teige Jon


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-related changes in renal histomorphology are described, while the presence of glomerulonephritis in dogs with pyometra is controversial in current literature. Methods Dogs with pyometra were examined retrospectively for evidence of secondary renal damage and persisting renal disease through two retrospective studies. In Study 1, light microscopic lesions of renal tissue were graded and compared in nineteen dogs with pyometra and thirteen age-matched control bitches. In Study 2, forty-one owners of dogs with pyometra were interviewed approximately 8 years after surgery for evidence ofclinical signs of renal failure in order to document causes of death/euthanasia. Results Interstitial inflammation and tubular atrophy were more pronounced in dogs with pyometra than in the control animals. Glomerular lesions classified as glomerular sclerosis were present in both groups. No unequivocal light microscopic features of glomerulonephritis were observed in bitches in any of the groups. Two bitches severely proteinuric at the time of surgery had developed end stage renal disease within 3 years. In five of the bitches polyuria persisted after surgery. Most bitches did not show signs of kidney disease at the time of death/euthanasia. Conclusion Tubulointerstitial inflammation was observed, but glomerular damage beyond age-related changes could not be demonstrated by light microscopy in the dogs with pyometra. However, severe proteinuria after surgery may predispose to development of renal failure.

  9. Pyovagina and stump pyometra in a neutered XX sex-reversed Beagle: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.; Partington, B.P.; Smith, B.; Hedlund, C.S.; Law, J.M.


    An 18-month-old, neutered male beagle presented with acute abdominal signs and a suppurative infection of the urogenital tract. Chromosomal sex was female (78, XX), gonadal sex was male (testicles), and phenotypic sex was ambiguous, with evidence of both male and female duct systems. The internal and external genitalia consisted of epididymides, an underdeveloped uterus with an immature spermatic cord, communication between the uterus or cranial vagina and the membranous urethra, a urethrographically male urethra, a hypoplastic os penis, and a hypoplastic penis with hypospadia. Based on these findings and the familial history of a similarly affected litter mate, the dog was diagnosed as having the XX male syndrome with pyovagina and uterine stump pyometra. Radiographic and ultrasonographic investigations are described, and abnormalities of chromosomal sex, gonadal sex, and phenotypic sex are discussed

  10. Rare cause of acute surgical abdomen with free intraperitoneal air: Spontaneous perforated pyometra. A report of 2 cases. (United States)

    Lim, Siew Fung; Lee, Song Liang; Chiow, Adrian Kah Heng; Foo, Chek Siang; Wong, Andrew Siang Yih; Tan, Su-Ming


    The acute abdomen accounts for up to 40% of all emergency surgical hospital admissions and a large proportion are secondary to gastrointestinal perforation. Studies have shown the superiority of the abdominal CT over upright chest radiographs in demonstrating free intraperitoneal air. Spontaneous perforated pyometra is a rare cause of the surgical acute abdomen with free intraperitoneal air. Only 38 cases have been reported worldwide. We report 2 cases of spontaneously perforated pyometra in our hospital's general surgery department. Both underwent exploratory laparotomy: one had a total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, while the other had an evacuation of the uterine cavity, primary repair of uterine perforation and a peritoneal washout. A literature search was conducted and all reported cases reviewed in order to describe the clinical presentations and management of the condition. Of the 40 cases to date, including 2 of our cases, the most common presenting symptoms were abdominal pain (97.5%), fever (37.5%) and vomiting (25.0%). The main indication for exploratory laparotomy was pneumoperitoneum (97.5%). Pyometra is an unusual but serious condition in elderly women presenting with an acute abdomen. A high index of suspicion is needed to make the appropriate diagnosis.

  11. Collagen and Glycosaminoglycan Profiles in the Canine Cervix during Different Stages of the Estrous Cycle and in Open- and Closed-Cervix Pyometra (United States)



    ABSTRACT The extracellular matrix of the cervix that comprises collagen, elastin, proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is thought to have an essential role in cervical relaxation. This study investigated the proportion of collagen and smooth muscle as well as the GAGs in cervices obtained from healthy bitches at different stages of the estrous cycle and bitches with open- and closed-cervix pyometra. Cervices were collected after ovariohysterectomy. The proportion of collagen to smooth muscle was determined using Masson’s trichrome staining. Alcian blue staining was used to evaluate the relative distribution of cervical GAGs. The proportion of cervical collagen relative to smooth muscle was higher at estrus compared to anestrus (P≤0.05). It was also higher (P≤0.05) in bitches with open- compared to those with closed-cervix pyometra. Overall, hyaluronan (HA) was the predominant GAG in the canine cervix. In the luminal epithelium, the staining intensity for HA was stronger in estrus than in anestrus (P≤0.05), but not in diestrus (P>0.05). On the contrary, the intensity for the combined keratan sulfate (KS) and heparan sulfate (HS) was stronger in anestrus than in estrus and diestrus (P≤0.05). In bitches with pyometra, the staining intensity of the stroma for KS and HS was weaker in open- compared to closed-cervix pyometra (P≤0.05). Collectively, the different profiles of collagen and GAG suggest that the metabolism of both collagen and GAGs in the canine cervix is associated with hormonal statuses during the estrous cycle and cervical patency of bitches with pathological uterine conditions, such as pyometra. PMID:24152876

  12. Phylo-typing of clinical Escherichia coli isolates originating from bovine mastitis and canine pyometra and urinary tract infection by means of quadruplex PCR. (United States)

    Müştak, Hamit Kaan; Günaydin, Elçin; Kaya, İnci Başak; Salar, Merve Özdal; Babacan, Orkun; Önat, Kaan; Ata, Zafer; Diker, Kadir Serdar


    Escherichia coli is one of the major causative agents of bovine mastitis worldwide, and is typically associated with acute, clinical mastitis. Besides this, E. coli strains which belong to the extra-intestinal pathogenic group are also the major cause of urinary tract infections and pyometra in dogs. In this study, it was aimed to investigate phylo-groups/subgroups in 155 E. coli isolates obtained from acute bovine mastitis, 43 from urinary tract infections of dogs and 20 from canine pyometra by a formerly described triplex PCR and recently described new quadruplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Group A1 (n = 118; 76%) and B1 (n = 71; 46%) were found to be the most prevalent groups by triplex and quadruplex PCR assays in mastitis isolates, respectively. Phylo-typing of 43 urinary tract isolates also revealed that most of the isolates belonged to A1 (n = 23; 54%) by triplex and B2 (n = 36; 84%) by quadruplex PCR assays. The isolates assigned as group A1 (n = 17; 85%) by triplex PCR could not be classified by quadruplex PCR in pyometra isolates. The results support the hypothesis that E. coli strains isolated from bovine mastitis cases are environmental. Also, groups C, E and F were identified as new phylo-groups for the first time in acute bovine mastitis cases. The comparison of triplex PCR with quadruplex PCR results revealed that most of the groups assigned in triplex PCR were altered by quadruplex PCR assay.

  13. The significance of radiology in the diagnosis of pyometra (endometritis post oestrum) in dogs: An evaluation of the correlation between radiographic and laboratoy findings in 131 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bree, H. van; Schepper, J. de; Capiau, E.


    In 131 bitches with proven pyometra or endometritis post oestrum (E. P. O.) a retrospective study of the lateral abdominal radiograph was carried out. In 31 (24%) of the cases (group 1) the uterine silhouette could not be perceived on the survey radiograph. In the other 100 cases (group 2) the uterus was clearly visible. Its diameter was measured and compared to the length of the second lumbar vertebra. The values for this ratio ranged between 0.4 and 3.5. The smallest uterine diameter perceived on the plain lateral abdominal radiograph measured 12 mm. Within group 2 the degree of uterine distension was significantly correlated with the number of white blood cells and the serum haptoglobin concentration. This correlation suggests a relation between the degree of uterine distension, the amount of uterine pus, the degree of uterine inflammation and the general inflammatory and stress reaction. Renal failure was more frequently observed in bitches with a greatly enlarged uterus than with a normal or only slightly enlarged uterus, although the degree of renal failure was not correlated to the uterine diameter. Within group 2 the closed type of pyometra was associated with a more enlarged uterus, but not with a higher leucocytosis [de

  14. Life course analysis of the impact of mammary cancer and pyometra on age-anchored life expectancy in female Rottweilers: Implications for envisioning ovary conservation as a strategy to promote healthy longevity in pet dogs. (United States)

    Waters, D J; Kengeri, S S; Maras, A H; Suckow, C L; Chiang, E C


    Mammary cancer and pyometra are important health hazards associated with ovary conservation in pet dogs. Early ovariohysterectomy may reduce the incidence of these two diseases, but an estimate of the extent to which the development of mammary cancer or pyometra adversely influences overall longevity is missing. As a first step toward addressing this knowledge gap, the results of a historical cohort study of Rottweilers that lived in North America are reported. Questionnaires completed by owners and veterinarians were used to obtain lifetime health and medical information on 242 female Rottweilers, including years of lifetime ovary exposure, age at death, and cause of death. To determine the extent to which longevity was shortened in females that developed these ovary-associated diseases, age-anchored life expectancy-defined as the median number of remaining years until death for females alive at specified ages during the life course-and years of life lost, a measure of premature mortality, were estimated. Mammary carcinoma was diagnosed in 19 (7.9%) females; median age at diagnosis was 8.5 years; case fatality was 37%. Pyometra was diagnosed in 16 (6.6%) females; median age at diagnosis was 5.4 years; case fatality was 7%. Median lifetime ovary exposure for the study population was 4.3 years. Although risk for developing both diseases increased with longer ovary exposure, longer ovary exposure (≥4.3 years) was also associated with an overall longevity advantage-a 33% decrease in mortality, living 17 months longer than females with shorter ovary exposure (P=0.002). Analysis of age-anchored life expectancy showed that at no time points during the life course was the current or future diagnosis of mammary carcinoma or pyometra associated with shortened survival compared to females who never developed these conditions. This lack of longevity disadvantage is an expected result for diseases with late-onset, moderate (<50%) case fatality (mammary carcinoma) or low (<10

  15. Perfil de sensibilidade e multirresistência em linhagens de Escherichia coli isoladas de infecção do trato urinário, de piometra e de fezes de cães Sensitivity profile and multiresistance in Escherichia coli strains isolated from urinary tract infection, pyometra and feces of dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Siqueira


    Full Text Available Susceptibility profile and multiple drug resistance in 158 E. coli strains isolated from urinary tract infection (UTI, pyometra, and feces of dogs were studied. Norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin were the most-effective drugs (>60% for E. coli strains. High rates of resistance to antimicrobials were observed in 60% or more of the isolated strains using sulfametoxazole/trimetoprim. Multiple drug resistance for three or more antimicrobials was observed in two (47.1% strains isolated from UTI, seven (13.5% from pyometra, and four (7.3% from feces. From these, 17 (33.3%, one (1.9%, and three (5.5%, respectively, showed multiple resistance to five or more drugs.

  16. Spontaneous Rupture of Pyometra in a Nonpregnant Young Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Mostafa-Gharabaghi


    Full Text Available A 40-year-old woman presented with severe vaginal bleeding. Initial workup with an abdominal sonography revealed endometrium for about 3 mm and free fluid in the abdomen. Hemodynamic instability with abdominal pain and free fluid in the abdomen prompted blood transfusion and laparotomy. There were about 1000 cc blood and clots in the abdomen at laparotomy. There was a longitudinal rupture from fundus up to cervix at the left side of the uterus. Tearing was in full thickness from serosa to endometrium. Scar of previous cesarean was transvers and not associated with this tearing. There was not any myomectomy scar.

  17. Molecular characterisation of the uterine microbiome of dairy cows suffering from endometritis, metritis, and pyometra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lif Rødtness Vesterby

    Postpartum uterine disease is a problem in dairy herds. Approximately 90% of dairy cows experience postpartum bacterial contamination of the uterus. Most of the cows are able to clear the infection within 8 weeks in the process of involution, but up to 20% of the cows develop metritis, which is i...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Schweigert


    Full Text Available Cystic endometrial hyperplasia-pyometra complex is a disease that affects a large number of bitches. It has high morbity and mortality routes, and it occurs particularly in middle-aged bitches during diestrus phase. The bitches with pyometra exhibit apathy, anorexia and possible signs of acute renal failure due to renal parenchyma injuries. There are two types of pyometra: open and closed. The most common sign of open pyometra is the purulent vaginal discharge. In closed pyometra, diagnostic is facilitated by abdominal palpation, laboratory test, ultrasound and X-ray. If untreated, pyometra can cause renal failure, sepsis, septic shock and death. Treatment of pyometra is based on medical or surgical procedures. The treatment choice may vary according to the clinical signs and the state of the patient.

  19. A Rare Case of Peritonitis Following Spontaneous Rupture of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pyometra is the accumulation of pus in the uterine cavity. The reported incidence varies from 0.5% in young patients to 13.6% in elderly patients attending gynecological clinic. It is a common complication of malignancy of cervix and uterine body. The cause of pyometra is the occlusion of cervical canal by benign or ...

  20. Dear Dr XXX,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 27, 2013 ... was based on history, clinical examination and ultrasonography. Ten animals were .... anorexia, polyuria, polydipsia, vomiting and abdominal distension ..... Unusual case of pyometra in a bitch: A case review. Vet. J. 71: 496-.

  1. Clinico-haematological and serum biochemical alterations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An increase in serum CRE and BUN values were recorded in all cases of pyometra which reduced to lower levels during both treatments in follow-ups. All the haemato-biochemical parameters were comparable to their respective reference values after either medicinal treatment or ovariohysterectomy of dogs. Thus the dogs ...

  2. Frequently Encountered Animal Diseases at Animal Hospital Birnin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The least occurring disorders were Fowl typhoid, dislocation, trypanasomosis, pyometra, orf, stomatitis, grass tetany, canine distemper, atresia ani and rectal prolapse 1(0.2%) case each. Information generated can be useful to Government agencies involved in formulating policies and guidelines for prevention and control of ...

  3. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the endometrium of bitches. (United States)

    Chu Py, Po-yin; Salamonsen, L A; Lee, C S; Wright, P J


    The relationships between activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the canine uterus and the occurrence of degeneration of the luminal epithelium, cystic endometrial hyperplasia, pyometra and uterine remodelling post partum were determined. Mature bitches (n = 10) were ovariectomized, treated with hormones (oestradiol benzoate, progestagen) and investigated at stages simulating pro-oestrus (n = 2), oestrus (n = 2), dioestrus (n = 2), and mid- (n = 2) and late (n = 2) anoestrus (3 and 9 weeks, respectively, after cessation of treatment with progestagen). Untreated bitches (n = 1 per group) served as controls (Expt 1). An additional 10 ovariectomized bitches, at the end of treatment-induced simulated dioestrus, were treated each day for a further 3 weeks either with the same dose (standard dose, n = 3), a decreased dose (n = 3) or an increased dose (n = 3) of progestagen, or no treatment (withdrawal dose, n = 1). These bitches were then investigated (Expt 2). A suture was placed in the lumen of one uterine horn of another five bitches at ovariectomy. Three of these bitches were treated to induce simulated dioestrus and two bitches served as untreated controls. In the hormone-treated bitches, the suture resulted in cystic endometrial hyperplasia in one bitch and in cystic endometrial hyperplasia with pyometra in two bitches. The control bitches showed no cystic endometrial hyperplasia or pyometra (Expt 3). Four intact bitches were studied at 2 (n = 1), 3 (n = 2) and 11 (n = 1) weeks post partum. Uterine tissues were also collected from two bitches with naturally occurring cystic endometrial hyperplasia with pyometra (Expt 4). All uteri were examined histologically and the activities of MMP-2, -7 and -9 (latent and active forms) were assessed using zymography of extracts of endometrium. In Expts 1 and 2, marked degeneration of the luminal epithelium in six of 25 bitches (simulated mid-anoestrus, withdrawal dose and decreased dose groups) was not associated

  4. Primary Endometrial Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Situ: Report of a rare disease. (United States)

    Jetley, Sujata; Jairajpuri, Zeeba S; Hassan, Mohammad J; Madaan, Garima; Jain, Reena


    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the endometrium, whether primary or secondary to cervical cancer, is a rare entity. Primary endometrial squamous cell carcinoma in situ is even more uncommon; it usually occurs in postmenopausal women and has a strong association with pyometra. We report a 60-year-old multiparous postmenopausal woman who presented to the Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital, New Delhi, India, in May 2014 with a lower abdominal swelling corresponding in size to a pregnancy of 26 gestational weeks and vaginal discharge of one year's duration. A total abdominal hysterectomy with a bilateral salpingooophorectomy was performed, which revealed an enlarged uterus with pyometra. Histopathology showed that the entire endometrial lining had been replaced with malignant squamous cells without invasion of the myometrium. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the tumour cells were positive for p63 with a high Ki-67 labelling index. No adjuvant therapy was required and the patient was disease-free at a seven-month follow-up.

  5. Primary endometrial squamous cell carcinoma with extensive squamous metaplasia and dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagga Permeet


    Full Text Available Primary squamous cell carcinoma of endometrium is a rare entity. Only 64 cases have been documented in the literature. We report a case of 60-year-old postmenopausal woman who presented with abdominal distention and blood-stained vaginal discharge for 6-7 months. Clinically, chronic pyometra was considered. Total abdominal hysterectomy was performed and histopathologically, it was diagnosed as a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of endometrium with extensive squamous metaplasia and dysplasia.

  6. Close pathological correlations between chronic kidney disease and reproductive organ-associated abnormalities in female cotton rats. (United States)

    Ichii, Osamu; Nakamura, Teppei; Irie, Takao; Kouguchi, Hirokazu; Sotozaki, Kozue; Horino, Taro; Sunden, Yuji; Elewa, Yaser Hosny Ali; Kon, Yasuhiro


    Cotton rat ( Sigmodon hispidus) is a useful experimental rodent for the study of human infectious diseases. We previously clarified that cotton rats, particularly females, developed chronic kidney disease characterized by cystic lesions, inflammation, and fibrosis. The present study investigated female-associated factors for chronic kidney disease development in cotton rats. Notably, female cotton rats developed separation of the pelvic symphysis and hypertrophy in the vaginal parts of the cervix with age, which strongly associated with pyometra. The development of pyometra closely associated with the deterioration of renal dysfunction or immunological abnormalities was indicated by blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine or spleen weight and serum albumin/globulin ratio, respectively. These parameters for renal dysfunction and immunological abnormalities were statistically correlated. These phenotypes found in the female reproductive organs were completely inhibited by ovariectomy. Further, the female cotton rats with pyometra tended to show more severe chronic kidney disease phenotypes and immunological abnormalities than those without pyometra; these changes were inhibited in ovariectomized cotton rats. With regard to renal histopathology, cystic lesions, inflammation, and fibrosis were ameliorated by ovariectomy. Notably, the immunostaining intensity of estrogen receptor α and estrogen receptor β were weak in the healthy kidneys, but both estrogen receptors were strongly induced in the renal tubules showing cystic changes. In conclusion, the close correlations among female reproductive organ-associated abnormalities, immunological abnormalities, and renal dysfunction characterize the chronic kidney disease features of female cotton rats. Thus, the cotton rat is a unique rodent model to elucidate the pathological crosstalk between chronic kidney disease and sex-related factors. Impact statement The increasing number of elderly individuals in the overall

  7. Primary invasive carcinoma of the vagina after Le Fort partial colpocleisis for stage IV pelvic organ prolapse: a case report. (United States)

    Cho, Moon Kyoung; Kim, Chul Hong; Kim, Yoon Ha


    We present here the case report of a postmenopausal woman who complained of recurrent pus-like vaginal discharge and perianal pain 1 year after Le Fort colpocleisis, which was subsequently identified as a primary invasive carcinoma of the vagina. Biopsy confirmed a squamous cell carcinoma in the vagina, and the disease was classified as stage III according to FIGO staging. The patient received pelvic radiotherapy. This case emphasizes that differential diagnosis of recurrent vaginal discharge that presents remote from obliterative procedure for pelvic organ prolapse should consider not only pyometra, but also other causes.

  8. Primary Endometrial Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Situ; Report of a rare disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Jetley


    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the endometrium, whether primary or secondary to cervical cancer, is a rare entity. Primary endometrial squamous cell carcinoma in situ is even more uncommon; it usually occurs in postmenopausal women and has a strong association with pyometra. We report a 60-year-old multiparous postmenopausal woman who presented to the Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital, New Delhi, India, in May 2014 with a lower abdominal swelling corresponding in size to a pregnancy of 26 gestational weeks and vaginal discharge of one year’s duration. A total abdominal hysterectomy with a bilateral salpingooophorectomy was performed, which revealed an enlarged uterus with pyometra. Histopathology showed that the entire endometrial lining had been replaced with malignant squamous cells without invasion of the myometrium. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the tumour cells were positive for p63 with a high Ki-67 labelling index. No adjuvant therapy was required and the patient was disease-free at a seven-month follow-up.

  9. Aerobic bacteria occurring in the vagina of bitches with reproductive disorders. (United States)

    Bjurström, L


    A retrospective survey was performed of aerobic bacterial species found in the vagina of 203 bitches with genital disorders, e.g. infertility, vaginitis, pyometra and puppy death. Escherichia coli, beta-hemolytic streptococci, Staphylococcus intermedius and Pasteurella multocida were the species most often isolated. From bitches with pyometra E. coli in pure culture was the most frequent isolate. In contrast, the majority of infertile bitches gave rise to mixed cultures, and no specific bacterial species was consistently associated with infertility. Thus, bacterial sampling from infertile bitches was concluded to be of low diagnostic value. Bacterial species isolated from the bitches having vaginitis were present in pure culture in 26.9% of the samples while nonspecific mixed cultures were obtained from 34.6% of the samples from these bitches. E. coli was the most frequently isolated bacterial species from bitches with dead puppies. However, in such cases it is important to relate the vaginal bacterial findings to autopsy findings and the results of bacteriological cultures of the pups.

  10. Cefovecin (Convenia) for the treatment of septic peritonitis in a female lion (Panthera leo). (United States)

    Steeil, James; Schumacher, Juergen; Seibert, Rachel; Tobias, Karen


    An 8-yr-old intact female African lion (Panthera leo) presented with a 3-day history of lethargy, anorexia, and vomiting. Hematologic and biochemical abnormalities included a leukocytosis, 41,700/microl (4,700-15,300) with a neutrophilia (37,530/microl; 2,000-9,200) and a left shift (1,250/microl bands; 0-300), and mild hypokalemia of 2.1 mEq/L (2.8-4.8). Abdominal radiographs revealed evidence of intestinal ileus, peritonitis, and the presence of effusion. An exploratory laparotomy was performed, and septic peritonitis due to a pyometra was diagnosed. The lion was treated with an ovariohysterectomy, abdominal lavage, fluid therapy, and a subcutaneous injection of cefovecin. The lion recovered, and clinical signs associated with septic peritonitis resolved within 36 hr. It was returned to conspecifics 3 wk later. Three months postoperatively, the lion showed no residual signs of septic peritonitis.

  11. Isolation of Brucella abortus from a Dog and a Cat Confirms their Biological Role in Re-emergence and Dissemination of Bovine Brucellosis on Dairy Farms. (United States)

    Wareth, G; Melzer, F; El-Diasty, M; Schmoock, G; Elbauomy, E; Abdel-Hamid, N; Sayour, A; Neubauer, H


    Brucellosis is highly contagious bacterial zoonoses affecting a wide range of domesticated and wild animals. In this study, Brucella (B.) abortus bv 1 was identified in uterine discharge of apparently healthy bitch and queen with open pyometra housed on a cattle farm. This study highlights the role of dogs and cats as symptomatic carriers and reservoirs for Brucella. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first report of feline infection with B. abortus bv 1 globally. These pet animals may contaminate the environment and infect both livestock and humans. Surveillance and control programmes of brucellosis have to include eradication of the disease in dogs, cats and companion animals. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Postmortem findings in collared peccaries raised in captivity in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jael S. Batista


    Full Text Available This study is a retrospective examination of diseases in collared peccaries that were diagnosed by the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory, Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido. Necropsy and histological examination were performed from 2005 to 2010. Of the 50 necropsied collared peccaries, 24% died due to restraint and capture myopathy; 18% died from trauma; and the remainder was diagnosed with splenic hemangioma (6%, enterolithiasis (6%, gastritis (6%, gastric ulcer (4%, intestinal volvulus (4%, gastric volvulus (2%, mammary carcinoma (2%, polycystic kidney disease (2%, pyometra (2%, and suppurative bronchopneumonia (2%. Twelve animals remained undiagnosed, seven of which (14% were in advanced autolytic condition and five of which (10% had no gross or microscopic lesions that were compatible with disease. This paper describes illnesses that have not been reported in the collared peccary, focusing on their clinical and pathological aspects.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay C. Parmar


    Full Text Available The use of PGF2 α is based on its luteolytic effect causing regression of corpus luteum and allows development of dominant follicle on the ovary that result in estrus and ovulation in 72 to 96 hours after its administration. Moreover, the PGF2 α also causes relaxation of cervix and smooth muscle contractions of uterus. The use of PGF2 α may provide microbial resistance in uterine environment, on one hand and can favour and enhance body defense mechanism / phagocytic activity on the other hand. PGF2 α is widely used to get rid of from the conditions like luteal cystic ovarian disease, persistent corpus luteum, endometritis, abnormal pregnancy, pyometra, retention of placenta and mummification. It has been now in vogue to administer PGF2 α or its analogue in early postpartum cows and buffaloes in order to hasten early resumption of cyclic ovarian activity and thereby to increase the reproductive efficiency.

  14. Pathologies of the uterine endometrial cavity: usual and unusual manifestations and pitfalls on magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Mayumi; Matsuzaki, Kenji; Yoshida, Shusaku; Nishitani, Hiromu [University of Tokushima, Department of Radiology, Tokushima (Japan); Uehara, Hisanori [University of Tokushima, Department of Molecular and Environmental Pathology, Tokushima (Japan); Shimazu, Hideki [Oe Kyoudo Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan)


    The endometrial cavity may demonstrate various imaging manifestations such as normal, reactive, inflammatory, and benign and malignant neoplasms. We evaluated usual and unusual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the uterine endometrial cavity, and described the diagnostic clues to differential diagnoses. Surgically proven pathologies of the uterine endometrial cavity were evaluated retrospectively with pathologic correlation. The pathologies included benign endometrial neoplasms such as endometrial hyperplasia and polyp, malignant endometrial neoplasms such as endometrial carcinoma and carcinosarcoma, endometrial-myometrial neoplasm such as endometrial stromal sarcoma, pregnancy-related lesions in the endometrial cavity such as gestational trophoblastic diseases (hydatidiform mole, invasive mole and choriocarcinoma) and placental polyp, myometrial lesions simulating endometrial lesions such as submucosal leiomyoma and some adenomyosis, endometrial neoplasms simulating myometrial lesions such as adenomyomatous polyp and endometrial lesions arising in the hemicavity of a septate/bicornate uterus, and fluid collections in the uterine cavity (hydro/hemato/pyometra). It is important to recognize various imaging findings in these diseases, in order to make a correct preoperative diagnosis. (orig.)

  15. Virulence Genes and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Pasteurella multocida Strains Isolated from Rabbits in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Sebastiana Porfida Ferreira


    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida is responsible for a wide range of diseases in domestic animals. In rabbits, the agent is related to nasal discharge, pneumonia, otitis media, pyometra, orchitis, abscess, and septicemia. One hundred and forty rabbits with respiratory diseases from four rabbitries in São Paulo State, Brazil were evaluated for the detection of P. multocida in their nasal cavities. A total of twenty-nine animals were positive to P. multocida isolation, and 46 strains were selected and characterized by means of biochemical tests and PCR. P. multocida strains were tested for capsular type, virulence genes, and resistance profile. A total of 45.6% (21/46 of isolates belonged to capsular type A, and 54.34% (25/46 of the isolates were untypeable. None of the strains harboured toxA or pfhA genes. The frequency of the other twenty genes tested was variable, and the data generated was used to build a dendrogram, showing the relatedness of strains, which were clustered according to origin. Resistance revealed to be more common against sulfonamides and cotrimoxazole, followed by erythromycin, penicillin, and amoxicillin.

  16. Cervicovaginal atresia with hematometra: restoring menstrual and sexual function by utero-coloneovaginoplasty. (United States)

    Kisku, Sundeep; Varghese, Lilly; Kekre, Aruna; Sen, Sudipta; Karl, Sampath; Mathai, John; Thomas, Reju Joseph; Barla, Ravi Kishore


    Cervicovaginal atresia is a rare Mullerian anomaly. The management of cervicovaginal atresia has evolved from historical recommendations of hysterectomy to various reconstructive procedures more recently. The latter carries a risk of significant morbidity and unknown fertility. We present our experience in the management of this complex anomaly. Twenty patients with cervicovaginal atresia were operated in our hospital from January 2004 through December 2013. The details of their anatomical variations and functional outcomes were analyzed. Eighteen out of twenty patients had cervical agenesis. Two patients had cervical hypoplasia. All patients underwent utero-coloneovaginoplasty. Post operatively, all patients have regular menstrual cycles. One patient is married, sexually active and has satisfactory coital function. One patient had a bowel anastomotic leak that required a diversion ileostomy. Two patients developed mild stenosis. One patient has mild neovaginal mucosal prolapse. No patient has developed pyometra. Patients with cervicovaginal atresia need to be counselled about the various reconstructive options available and the potential risks. Social and economic factor play a significant role in determining the plan of management. For patients from conservative societies, utero-coloneovaginoplasty provides a safe conduit for the passage of menstrual flow and coitus, at the cost of permanent infertility.

  17. Genital tuberculosis in postmenopausal women with variable clinical presentations: A report of 3 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashima Arora


    Full Text Available Genital tuberculosis is usually diagnosed in young women being assessed for infertility. After menopause it usually presents with symptoms resembling endometrial malignancy, such as postmenopausal bleeding, persistent vaginal discharge and pyometra. The diagnosis is made by detection of acid-fast bacilli on microscopy or bacteriological culture and/or presence of epithelioid granuloma on biopsy. Anti-tubercular therapy involves the use of rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. Surgery is indicated if a pelvic mass and recurrence of pain or bleeding persist after 9 months of treatment. Three cases of genital tuberculosis in postmenopausal women with different clinical presentations are reported. The first woman presented with ascites and weight loss. The second had postmenopausal bleeding with a pipelle biopsy suggestive of endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia. The third presented with weight loss and a palpable abdominal mass. Pelvic malignancy was initially suspected but a diagnosis of tuberculosis was made following pre-operative endometrial biopsy, bacteriological culture and intra-operative frozen section. All three women responded to anti-tubercular therapy. Keywords: Genital tuberculosis, Postmenopausal, Endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia, Anti-tubercular therapy, Endometrial biopsy

  18. New techniques using transcervical uterine cannulation for the diagnosis of uterine disorders in bitches. (United States)

    Watts, J R; Wright, P J; Lee, C S; Whithear, K G


    A technique for collecting uterine samples from bitches without the need for surgery was developed. This technique involved visualizing the cervix with a rigid endoscope and passing a catheter through the cervix into the uterus. Samples for microbiology and cytology were obtained by the infusion and aspiration of sterile normal saline. This technique allowed uterine microbiology and cytology of the normal bitch throughout the reproductive cycle. Microorganisms were frequently recovered from the uterus during pro-oestrus and oestrus, but rarely at other stages of the reproductive cycle. The uterine microflora often reflected the vaginal microflora during pro-oestrus and oestrus. The cells found in uterine cytology samples from normal bitches included endometrial epithelial cells, leukocytes, erythrocytes, cervical cells, spermatozoa and bacteria. The types, proportions, morphology and numbers of cells varied throughout the reproductive cycle. The endoscope could be passed into the uterus and the endometrium examined from parturition until day 23 post partum. These procedures and contrast hysterography were used to investigate the reproductive tract of bitches. The above techniques have facilitated the diagnosis of postpartum metritis (n = 3), pyometra (n = 2), endometritis (n = 1), abortion (n = 1), retained placenta (n = 1), postpartum uterine rupture (n = 1), endometrial subinvolution (n = 1) and misalliance (n = 1) in 21 bitches investigated.

  19. Safety and efficacy of mid-term pregnancy termination using aglepristone in dogs. (United States)

    Pettersson, C H; Tidholm, A


    To investigate effects and side effects of aglepristone in terminating pregnancy in bitches. Twenty-two bitches were treated in mid-pregnancy with subcutaneous injections of aglepristone at a total dose of 20 mg/kg. Short-term follow-up (one to two weeks after treatment) included clinical examination and abdominal ultrasonography in 18 of the dogs. Long-term telephone follow-up was recorded for all 22 dogs. Pregnancy was terminated in 21 bitches (95 per cent). Signs of abortion occurred one to eight days after treatment. Vaginal discharge was evident in 17 (77 per cent) dogs. Obvious signs of parturition were seen in nine (41 per cent) dogs. Eight dogs (36 per cent) developed anorexia, and in two (9 per cent) of the dogs a local reaction at the injection site was evident. Two dogs developed pyometra two and four years after treatment, respectively. Aglepristone, when administered in mid-gestation, is effective in terminating pregnancy. Side effects are few and transient.

  20. Pre-breeding ovaro-uterine ultrasonography and its relationship with first service pregnancy rate in seasonal-calving dairy herds. (United States)

    Mee, J F; Buckley, F; Ryan, D; Dillon, P


    The objectives of the study were to characterize an ultrasound reproductive tract scoring (URTS) system to assess suitability for breeding in dairy cows, to describe the prevalence of these scores in commercial dairy herds and to examine their relationship with subsequent fertility. Ultrasound examinations (7797) were performed on 5751 Holstein-Friesian cows prior to breeding in 62 seasonally calving herds over 2 years. Data recorded from images of both ovaries and the uterus were combined into a six point scoring system and the prevalence of cows with cystic ovarian follicles and uterine abscesses and adhesions was recorded separately. The prevalence of ovulatory cows which had completed uterine involution (score 1), or had mild (2) or moderate endometritis (3) was 62.5%, 21.7% and 2.2%, respectively. The prevalence of anovulatory cows with moderate endometritis (4), ovulatory cows with pyometra (5) and anovulatory cows which had completed uterine involution (6) was 3.3%, 2.2% and 8.1%, respectively. The interval between calving and examination differed between cows with each of the scores 1, 2, 5 and 6 (61, 46, 53 and 50 days, respectively, p scores 3 and 4 (37 and 35 days, respectively). Ovulatory cows which had completed uterine involution (score 1) had a higher likelihood of pregnancy to first service than ovulatory or anovulatory cows which had not completed uterine involution (p reproductive tract was 3.9% and 1.2%, respectively. In conclusion, 29% and 11% of cows in seasonally calving and breeding dairy herds had not completed uterine involution or were anovulatory prior to the mating start date, respectively. Both conditions, detected using a URTS system, significantly reduced first service pregnancy rate in these pasture-based dairy herds.

  1. Outcome of laparoscopic ovariectomy and laparoscopic-assisted ovariohysterectomy in dogs: 278 cases (2003-2013). (United States)

    Corriveau, Kayla M; Giuffrida, Michelle A; Mayhew, Philipp D; Runge, Jeffrey J


    OBJECTIVE To compare outcomes for laparoscopic ovariectomy (LapOVE) and laparoscopic-assisted ovariohysterectomy (LapOVH) in dogs. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 278 female dogs. PROCEDURES Medical records of female dogs that underwent laparoscopic sterilization between 2003 and 2013 were reviewed. History, signalment, results of physical examination, results of preoperative diagnostic testing, details of the surgical procedure, durations of anesthesia and surgery, intraoperative and immediate postoperative (ie, during hospitalization) complications, and short- (≤ 14 days after surgery) and long-term (> 14 days after surgery) outcomes were recorded. Data for patients undergoing LapOVE versus LapOVH were compared. RESULTS Intraoperative and immediate postoperative complications were infrequent, and incidence did not differ between groups. Duration of surgery for LapOVE was significantly less than that for LapOVH; however, potential confounders were not assessed. Surgical site infection was identified in 3 of 224 (1.3%) dogs. At the time of long-term follow-up, postoperative urinary incontinence was reported in 7 of 125 (5.6%) dogs that underwent LapOVE and 12 of 82 (14.6%) dogs that underwent LapOVH. None of the dogs had reportedly developed estrus or pyometra by the time of final follow-up. Overall, 205 of 207 (99%) owners were satisfied with the surgery, and 196 of 207 (95%) would consider laparoscopic sterilization for their dogs in the future. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that short- and long-term outcomes were similar for female dogs undergoing sterilization by means of LapOVE or LapOVH; however, surgery time may have been shorter for dogs that underwent LapOVE. Most owners were satisfied with the outcome of laparoscopic sterilization.

  2. Genital tract of zebu (Bos indicus cows in Niger

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    M. Moussa Garba


    Full Text Available The anatomical characteristics, and the ovarian and pathological structures of the genital tract of 500 zebu (Bos indicus females belonging to four breeds (Azawak, Bororo, Djelli, Goudali were studied at Niamey’s slaughterhouse in Niger from August 15 to December 15, 2011. Each animal was examined before slaughter. The cows and heifers were on average 8 ± 2.5 years old. Their mean body condition score was 1.6 ± 0.6 and mean carcass weight 113 ± 21 kg. The anatomical characteristics of the genital tract did not show differences between breeds (p > 0.05. The following characteristics were observed: cervix diameter 3.4 ± 1.1 cm, cervix length 8.1 ± 2.5 cm, horn length 21.6 ± 5.2 cm, horn diameter 1.6 ± 0.5 cm, length and width of the right ovary 19.8 ± 4.4 and 11.2 ± 3.8 mm, of the left ovary 18.8 ± 4.5 and 10.2 ± 3.3 mm, and weight of the right and left ovaries 2.9 ± 1.8 and 2.5 ± 1.6 g, respectively. A corpus luteum was identified in only 14% cases and no visible follicles were found on the surface of the ovaries in 32% cases. These characteristics were significantly (p < 0.05 influenced by the age of the animal. Among the examined females, 7.4% were confirmed pregnant. Various genital tract diseases (cysts, uterine infection, free martinism, pyometra... were observed in 10.4% of the genital tracts.

  3. Trueperella pyogenes multispecies infections in domestic animals: a retrospective study of 144 cases (2002 to 2012). (United States)

    Ribeiro, M G; Risseti, R M; Bolaños, C A D; Caffaro, K A; de Morais, A C B; Lara, G H B; Zamprogna, T O; Paes, A C; Listoni, F J P; Franco, M M J


    Formerly, Arcanobacterium pyogenes was recently renamed Trueperella pyogenes. This opportunistic bacterium is related to miscellaneous pyogenic infections in animals. Most studies involving T. pyogenes are case reports, whereas few surveys have focused the major aspects of T. pyogenes infections involving a case series study design. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate selected epidemiological and clinical aspects, as well as the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of 144 cases of T. pyogenes infections among domestic animals from 2002 to 2012. T. pyogenes was isolated from different clinical specimens from cattle, goats, sheep, pigs, horses, dogs, and buffaloes. Correlations were assessed by the Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. Mastitis (45.1%), abscesses (18.0%), pneumonia (11.1%), and lymphadenitis (9.0%) were the most common clinical manifestations. In addition, the organism was also isolated from other miscellaneous clinical specimens from cases of septicemia, encephalitis, pyometra, prostatitis, orchitis, seminal vesiculitis, pericarditis, and omphalitis. No statistical association was observed between T. pyogenes infections and age, gender, or season across the study. The most effective drugs against the pathogen were florfenicol (99.1%), cefoperazone (96.0%), cephalexin (95.0%), and ceftiofur (94.8%). High resistance rates were observed against trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (49.3%), followed by norfloxacin (10.9%) and tetracycline (9.2%). This study highlights the diversity of clinical manifestations and the opportunistic behavior of T. pyogenes infections in domestic animals, with predominance of mastitis, abscesses, pneumonia, and lymphadenitis. It also reinforces the importance of knowing the susceptibility profile before initiating therapy, to improve antimicrobial therapy approaches.

  4. Spontaneous reproductive pathology in female guinea pigs. (United States)

    Veiga-Parga, Tamara; La Perle, Krista M D; Newman, Shelley J


    Reproductive pathology of domestic guinea pigs is underreported to date. To provide a comprehensive review of uterine disease in guinea pigs, we performed a retrospective study of the pathology archives of the University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine. By histology, 13 of 37 uterine lesions in 23 animals were neoplastic; the other 24 nonneoplastic lesions included cystic endometrial hyperplasia (16 of 24), endometrial hemorrhage (3 of 24), pyometra (2 of 24), polyp (2 of 24), and mucometra (1 of 24). The most common guinea pig uterine neoplasms were uterine leiomyomas (6 of 13), followed by adenomas (3 of 13) and leiomyosarcomas (1 of 13). Other neoplasms included anaplastic tumors of unknown origin (2 of 13) and choriocarcinoma (1 of 13). Both anaplastic tumors and the choriocarcinoma were positive for vimentin. The choriocarcinoma was positive for HSD83B1, indicating a trophoblastic origin and its final diagnosis. All were negative for cytokeratin and smooth muscle. In multiple animals, more than 1 tumor or lesion was reported. Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor expression was nearly 100% in uterine neoplasms. Nearly all animals for which data were available had cystic rete ovarii (18 of 19); the animal with no cystic rete ovarii had paraovarian cysts. In our study, female pet guinea pigs had a tendency to develop cystic endometrial hyperplasia and uterine neoplasia. Factors for the development of these lesions could be cystic rete ovarii, hormone dysregulation, and/or age. Other factors could contribute to the development of uterine lesions. As in other species, early ovariohysterectomy could decrease the prevalence of uterine lesions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Evaluation of automated assays for immunoglobulin G, M, and A measurements in dog and cat serum. (United States)

    Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Martínez-Subiela, Silvia; Caldin, Marco; Tecles, Fernando; Ceron, Jose J


    Measurements of immunoglobulins (Igs) in companion animals can be useful to detect deficiencies of the humoral immune system, that can be associated with opportunistic or chronic infections, or other immune-mediated disorders including B-cell neoplasms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate commercially available automated immunoturbidimetric assays designed for human IgG, M, and A measurements in canine and feline serum using species-specific calibrators. Canine and feline serum samples with different IgG, M, and A concentrations were used for the analytical validation of the assays. Intra- and inter-assay precision, linearity under dilution, spiking recovery, and limit of detection were determined. In addition, effects of lipemia, hemolysis, and bilirubinemia were evaluated. Finally, Ig concentrations were determined in small groups of diseased dogs and cats, and compared with healthy groups. Spiking recovery and linearity under dilution tests showed that the assays measured Igs in canine and feline serum samples precisely and accurately. Intra- and inter-assay imprecisions were lower than 15% in all cases. Significantly higher IgG, IgM, and IgA levels were observed in dogs with leishmaniasis, while dogs with pyometra showed a statistically significant increase in IgM and IgA concentrations in comparison with healthy dogs. Significantly higher IgG and IgM levels were observed in FIV-infected cats compared with healthy ones. The automated human Ig assays showed adequate precision and accuracy with serum samples from dogs and cats. Also, they were able to discriminate different concentrations of Igs in healthy and diseased animals. © 2013 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  6. Clinical, laboratory, and hemostatic findings in cats with naturally occurring sepsis. (United States)

    Klainbart, Sigal; Agi, Limor; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Kelmer, Efrat; Aroch, Itamar


    OBJECTIVE To characterize clinical and laboratory findings in cats with naturally occurring sepsis, emphasizing hemostasis-related findings, and evaluate these variables for associations with patient outcomes. DESIGN Prospective, observational, clinical study. ANIMALS 31 cats with sepsis and 33 healthy control cats. PROCEDURES Data collected included history; clinical signs; results of hematologic, serum biochemical, and hemostatic tests; diagnosis; and outcome (survival vs death during hospitalization or ≤ 30 days after hospital discharge). Differences between cats with and without sepsis and associations between variables of interest and death were analyzed statistically. RESULTS The sepsis group included cats with pyothorax (n = 10), septic peritonitis (7), panleukopenia virus infection (5), bite wounds (5), abscesses and diffuse cellulitis (3), and pyometra (1). Common clinical abnormalities included dehydration (21 cats), lethargy (21), anorexia (18), pale mucous membranes (15), and dullness (15). Numerous clinicopathologic abnormalities were identified in cats with sepsis; novel findings included metarubricytosis, hypertriglyceridemia, and high circulating muscle enzyme activities. Median activated partial thromboplastin time and plasma D-dimer concentrations were significantly higher, and total protein C and antithrombin activities were significantly lower, in the sepsis group than in healthy control cats. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy was uncommon (4/22 [18%] cats with sepsis). None of the clinicopathologic abnormalities were significantly associated with death on multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Cats with sepsis had multiple hematologic, biochemical, and hemostatic abnormalities on hospital admission, including several findings suggestive of hemostatic derangement. Additional research including larger numbers of cats is needed to further investigate these findings and explore associations with outcome.

  7. Toxicity of 144Ce fused clay particles inhaled by aged dogs. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.; Hobbs, C.H.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.


    The toxicity of 144 Ce fused clay particles inhaled by 8- to 10.5-year-old dogs is being investigated to provide information on age-related differences in the response of older members of the human population to accidental inhalation of radioactive aerosols. These data on aged dogs will be compared to the results of similar studies using dogs exposed at approximately 3 months or 12 to 14 months of age. To date, 7 blocks of 5 dogs each, divided into 4 exposure levels with mean initial lung burdens of 7.5, 14, 24, and 57 μCi/kg body weight and control dogs exposed to non-labeled fused clay particles have been entered into a longevity study. Twelve dogs with initial lung burdens ranging from 20 to 75 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight and cumulative doses to lung of from 22,000 to 74,000 rads have died at 197 to 943 days post-inhalation with clinico-pathologic findings of radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. Two of these also had congestive heart failure. In addition, 4 dogs with ILBs of 8 to 14 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight have died of mammary neoplasms or congestive heart failure but without radiation pneumonitis. One dog with an ILB of 9 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight died with a chronic interstitial foreign body pneumonia. Two control dogs have died, one with a mammary carcinoma and one with pyometra. Pulmonary retention of the inhaled 144 Ce was similar to that observed previously in dogs exposed at 18 to 22 months of age in a radiation dose pattern study. Serial observations are continuing on the 11 surviving 144 Ce-exposed dogs and 5 controls. (U.S.)

  8. Uterus effusion after irradiation for carcinoma of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Shaokang; Gao Juzhen; Wu Lingying


    Objective: To analyse the clinical characteristics of patients with uterus effusion after irradiation for carcinoma of the cervix. Methods: 151 patients with uterus effusion after irradiation for carcinoma of the cervix were retrospectively analyzed. Results: All these 151 patients who had been treated by radiotherapy had FIGO stage IIB or IIIB lesions including 32 adenocarcinomas. The most common symptom was irregular vaginal discharge or drainage (65 patients), followed by irregular vaginal bleeding (32 patients), and abdominal or pelvic mass (27 patients). Twenty-seven patients were entirely asymptomatic. The positive rate of uterus effusion found by B-ultrasound scan was 100%. When uterus effusion was found, 87 patients (57.6%) had malignant tumor, including 62 with residual or recurrent cervical carcinoma and 25 with secondary primary malignant uterus tumor. Sixty-four patients had uterus effusion alone including 8 with pyometra. Of these 64 patients, 17 underwent abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSOH), the others were treated with drainage till the fluid disappeared. Of the 62 patients with residual or recurrent cervical carcinoma, 19 underwent BSOH and 43 were treated by palliative irradiation or chemotherapy. Twenty-five patients who had secondary primary malignant uterus tumor were treated by BSOH. The 5-year survival rate of patients with uterus effusion alone, with residual tumor (with recurrent tumor), or with secondary primary malignancy were 54.8%, 0%, 28.7% and 47.5%, respectively. The prognosis of the patients with uterus effusion alone was better than those with secondary primary malignant uterus tumor. Patients with residual or recurrent cervical cancer had the worst prognosis. Conclusions: Patients with uterus effusion after irradiation for carcinoma of the cervix often have tumor including secondary primary, malignant uterus tumor. The prognosis is different, which depends on if the patient has tumor or not. (authors)

  9. Clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluation of the extension of uterine cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Masaru


    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 62 patients with uterine cervical cancer and the preoperative MRI findings were compared with the pathological findings following surgery. The surgical stages of 62 patients were 2 at stage 0, 18 at stage Ia, 19 at stage Ib, 9 at stage IIa, 11 at stage IIb, 2 at stage IIIa, and 1 at stage IIIb. The MRI findings in the present study included: (1) the existence of a high intensity area (HIA) in the uterine cervix or minimum thickness of residual normal cervical tissue, (2) necrotic cavity, (3) pyometra, (4) irregular margin of the cervix, (5) parametrial invasion, (6) vaginal invasion, (7) bladder invasion, and (8) lymph node enlargement. No HIA was observed in any patient with stage 0 or stage Ia, in 8 patients with stage Ib, and in 2 patients with stage IIa, while all patients with cancer tissues greater than 10 mm in diameter had a HIA. In 39 patients in whom hysterectomy was undergone without conization, the findings of MRI correlated significantly (r=0.929, p<0.001) with the minimum thickness of residual normal cervical tissue by the pathological measurement. When the irregular margin of the cervix was regarded as a disruption of the cervical myo-metrium by cancer tissue, accuracy was 87%. Furthermore, the degrees of accuracy for parametrial invasion, vaginal invasion and bladder invasion were 92%, 90% and 94%, respectively. When lymphnodes greater than 15 mm in diameter were regarded as a positive in MRI, accuracy was 88%. The present results indicate that MRI is clinically effective in preoperatively evaluating the extension of uterine cervical cancer. (author)

  10. Caracterização de sorotipos em linhagens do gênero Salmonella isoladas de diferentes afecções em animais domésticos

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    Márcio G. Ribeiro


    , septicaemia, pyometra, pneumonia and conjuntivits. The results showed the high frequency of Salmonella Typhimurium serotype in different animals studied. The study highlighted also the presence of serotypes in our animals that also have been identified in humans with salmonellosis.

  11. Echography of clinically relevant disorders in the genital tract of female dromedary camels. (United States)

    Ali, Ahmed; Derar, Derar; Alsamri, Ali; Al Sobayil, Fahd


    The aim of this study was to characterize the clinically relevant genital tract disorders of dromedary camels. Reproductive tract examinations were performed via transrectal palpation, ultrasonography and vaginal exploration. The ultrasonic appearance of the reproductive pathology was described and compared with its morphology at laparotomy, after surgical removal, during postmortem examination or upon slaughter. Diagnosis was also confirmed by histopathology. The most frequently encountered follicular structures were larger than typical follicles (56/338, 16.6%) having three echo textures: 1) thin walls and clear hyperechogenic content (11.6%); 2) thick walls and few fibrous trabeculae (33.7%); and 3) thick walls and many echogenic transecting fibrinous strands (54.7%). Corpora lutea with non-echoic central cavity (5/31, 16.1%) were greater in diameter than those with no cavity (26/31, 83.9%) (P=0.03). A granulosa cell tumor (1/338, 0.3%) was multilocular and honeycombed in shape. Presence of a large, well-demarcated, hypoechogenic sac lateral to or beneath the uterine horn encasing the ovary was diagnostic for ovarian hydrobursitis (102/338, 30.2%). Hydrosalpinx and pyosalpinx (6/338, 1.8%) were beaded in appearance, with the ovary located outside these structures. Clinical endometritis/cervicitis (122, 36.1%) was characterized by changes in the homogeneity in about half of the cases. A greatly dilated uterus with clear, hypoechogenic or echogenic contents with signs of hydrometra and pyometra, respectively, was another categorization of a reproductive pathology (24/338, 7.1%). Highly reflective, linear structures were observed in cases with intrauterine fetal bone retention (1/338, 0.3%). In conclusion, reproductive pathologies in dromedary camels can be efficiently imaged by use of ultrasonic technologies, thus familiarizing the practitioner with these disorders and facilitating application of these technologies so that suitable treatment can occur is important


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    Amel Ćutuk


    Full Text Available Goal of this research was to explore the efficiency of intrauterine application of 4% solution of Lotagen® in the treatment of chronic endometritis of different severity, and to examine the effects of therapy to the breeding-reproductive parameters in animals treated under the real field conditions. Research was conducted between May 2005 - March 2007 by analyzing the data from the protocol of artifitial insemination and treatment of sterility in the county of Sanski Most. Research included dairy cows from 95 stables when chronic endometritis was diagnosed by clinical examination (n=126 at the earliest 21 day postpartum. Animals were treated intrauterinelly with 100 to 180 ml (primiparous and multiparous of 4% solution of Lotagen® during puerperium or in estrus, after puerperium. Out of total of 126 dairy cows with chronic endometritis treated with Lotagen® once or more times, including a group of non-treated animals, clinical healing was noted in 117 animals (92,8%, artificial insemination was performed in 115 (87,3% and 95 animals had conception (86,3%. Due to the lack of clinical healing, fertility loss or some other reasons, 31 cows were excluded (24,6% from breeding and this research. The treatment results as well as some fertility parameters were affected by severity of chronic endometritis and time of therapy introduction. The more time elapsed from parturition, the severity of endometritis decreased. Consequently, the percentage of cured animals after the first treatment increased from 59,5% to 79,6% (P < 0,05. Percentage of healing in E 1-2 (endometritis catarrhalis et mucopurulenta was 68,2% after the first treatment and was significant in relation to 44,4% in E 3-4 (endometritis purulenta et pyometra. Taking into consideration the conception accomplished in two examined groups, obvious differences are shown: experimental group - 91,5%, control group - 76,9% (P<0,05. The effects of treatment to the breeding-reproductive parameters