WorldWideScience

Sample records for pylori-negative low-grade gastric

  1. Treatment outcome of localized Helicobacter pylori-negative low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyung; Soon; Park; Yu; Jin; Kim; Woo; Ick; Yang; Chang; Ok; Suh; Yong; Chan; Lee

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate treatment outcome of Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori )-negative low-grade gastric mucosaassociated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma.METHODS: In this study,we retrospectively reviewed the clinical outcome and clinicopathologic factors of stage Ⅰ E H.pylori -negative low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma cases from August 1998 to June 2009.RESULTS: A total of eleven patients with H.pylori -negative low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma were enrolled in the study and received anti-H.pylori eradication tre...

  2. Comparison between Resectable Helicobacter pylori-Negative and -Positive Gastric Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Nayoung; Yoon, Hyuk; Choi, Yoon Jin; Lee, Ju Yup; Kwon, Yong Hwan; Yoon, Kichul; Jo, Hyun Jin; Shin, Cheol Min; Park, Young Soo; Park, Do Joong; Kim, Hyung Ho; Lee, Hye Seung; Lee, Dong Ho

    2016-03-01

    Controversy exists regarding the characteristics of Helicobacter pylori infection-negative gastric cancer (HPIN-GC). The aim of this study was to evaluate clinicopathologic features of HPIN-GC compared to H. pylori infection-positive gastric cancer (HPIP-GC) using a comprehensive analysis that included genetic and environmental factors. H. pylori infection status of 705 resectable gastric cancer patients was determined by the rapid urease test, testing for anti-H. pylori antibodies, histologic analysis and culture of gastric cancer tissue samples, and history of H. pylori eradication. HPIN-GC was defined as gastric cancer that was negative for H. pylori infection based on all five methods and that had no evidence of atrophy in histology or serology. The prevalence of HPIN-GC was 4% (28/705). No significant differences with respect to age, sex, smoking, drinking, family history of gastric cancer or obesity were observed between the two groups. HPIN-GC tumors were marginally more likely to involve the cardia (14.3% for HPIN-GC vs 5.3% for HPIP-GC, p=0.068). The Lauren classification, histology, and TNM stage did not differ according to H. pylori infection status. Microsatellite instability was not different between the two groups, but p53 overexpression in HPIN-GC was marginally higher than in HPIP-GC (56.0% for HPIN-GC vs 37.0% for HPIP-GC, p=0.055). The prevalence of HPIN-GC was extremely low, and its clinicopathologic characteristics were similar to HPIP-GC.

  3. Distinct Clinicopathological Features and Prognosis of Helicobacter pylori Negative Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Jyh; Chen, Chien-Chuan; Kuo, Sung-Hsin; Lai, I-Rue; Yeh, Kun-Huei; Lin, Ming-Tsan; Wang, Hsiu-Po; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Lin, Jaw-Town; Shun, Chia-Tung; Wu, Ming-Shiang

    2017-01-01

    Background Whether the characteristics and prognosis of gastric cancer (GC) are different in patients with and without Helicobacter pylori (HP) remains controversial. The definitions of HP status in patients with atrophic gastritis but negative tests for HP are heterogeneous. We aimed to assess the impact of HP on the prognosis of GC using different definitions. Methods From 1998 Nov to 2011 Jul, five hundred and sixty-seven consecutive patients with GC were included. HP status was determined by serology and histology. Patients with any positive test were defined as HP infection. Patients without HP infection whose serum pepsinogen (PG) I gastritis and they were categorized into model 1: HP positive; model 2: HP negative; and model 3: exclusion of these patients. Results We found four characteristics of HP negative GC in comparison to HP positive GC: (1) higher proportion of the proximal tumor location (24.0%, P = 0.004), (2) more diffuse histologic type (56.1%, p = 0.008), (3) younger disease onset (58.02 years, p = 0.008) and (4) more stage IV disease (40.6%, p = 0.03). Patients with negative HP had worse overall survival (24.0% vs. 35.8%, p = 0.035). In Cox regression models, the negative HP status is an independent poor prognostic factor (HR: 1.34, CI:1.04–1.71, p = 0.019) in model 1, especially in stage I, II and III patients (HR: 1.62; CI:1.05–2.51,p = 0.026). Conclusion We found the distinct characteristics of HP negative GC. The prognosis of HP negative GC was poor. PMID:28152027

  4. Lymphoid follicles in children with Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broide, Efrat; Richter, Vered; Mendlovic, Sonia; Shalem, Tzippora; Eindor-Abarbanel, Adi; Moss, Steven F; Shirin, Haim

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis has been declining, whereas H. pylori-negative gastritis has become more common. We evaluated chronic gastritis in children with regard to H. pylori status and celiac disease (CD). Demographic, clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features of children who underwent elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy were reviewed retrospectively. Gastric biopsies from the antrum and corpus of the stomach were graded using the Updated Sydney System. H. pylori presence was defined by hematoxylin and eosin, Giemsa, or immunohistochemical staining and urease testing. A total of 184 children (61.9% female) met the study criteria with a mean age of 10 years. A total of 122 (66.3%) patients had chronic gastritis; 74 (60.7%) were H. pylori-negative. Children with H. pylori-negative gastritis were younger (p=0.003), were less likely to present with abdominal pain (p=0.02), and were mostly of non-Arabic origin (p=0.011). Nodular gastritis was found to be less prevalent in H. pylori-negative gastritis (6.8%) compared with H. pylori-positive gastritis (35.4%, ppylori-positive group (ppylori. Although less typical, lymphoid follicles were demonstrated in 51.3% of H. pylori-negative patients. The presence or absence of CD was not associated with histologic findings in H. pylori-negative gastritis. Our findings suggest that lymphoid follicles are a feature of H. pylori-negative gastritis in children independent of their CD status.

  5. Treatment of low-grade gastric malt lymphoma using Helicobacter pylori eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grgov Saša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma of the stomach usually occurs as a consequence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of treatment of low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma with the H. pylori eradication method. Methods. In the period 2002-2012 in 20 patients with dyspepsia, mean age 55.1 years, the endoscopic and histologic diagnosis of gastric MALT lymphoma in the early stages were made. Histological preparations of endoscopic biopsy specimens were stained with hematoxyllineosin (HE, histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Results. Endoscopic findings of gastritis were documented in 25% of the patients, and 75% of the patients had hypertrophic folds, severe mucosal hyperemia, fragility, nodularity, exulcerations and rigidity. Histopathologically, pathognomonic diagnostic criterion were infiltration and destruction of glandular epithelium with neoplastic lymphoid cells, the so-called lymphoepithelial lesions. In all 20 patients H. pylori was verified by rapid urease test and Giemsa stain. After the triple eradication therapy complete remission of MALT lymphoma was achieved in 85% of the patients, with no recurrence of lymphoma and H. pylori infection in the average follow-up period of 48 months. In 3 (15% of the patients, there was no remission of MALT lymphoma 12 months after the eradication therapy. Of these 3 patients 2 had progression of MALT lymphoma to diffuse large-cell lymphoma. Conclusion. Durable complete re-mission of low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma is achieved in a high percentage after eradication of H. pylori infection, thus preventing the formation of diffuse large-cell lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma.

  6. Lymphoid follicles in children with Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broide, Efrat; Richter, Vered; Mendlovic, Sonia; Shalem, Tzippora; Eindor-Abarbanel, Adi; Moss, Steven F; Shirin, Haim

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis has been declining, whereas H. pylori-negative gastritis has become more common. We evaluated chronic gastritis in children with regard to H. pylori status and celiac disease (CD). Patients and methods Demographic, clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features of children who underwent elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy were reviewed retrospectively. Gastric biopsies from the antrum and corpus of the stomach were graded using the Updated Sydney System. H. pylori presence was defined by hematoxylin and eosin, Giemsa, or immunohistochemical staining and urease testing. Results A total of 184 children (61.9% female) met the study criteria with a mean age of 10 years. A total of 122 (66.3%) patients had chronic gastritis; 74 (60.7%) were H. pylori-negative. Children with H. pylori-negative gastritis were younger (p=0.003), were less likely to present with abdominal pain (p=0.02), and were mostly of non-Arabic origin (p=0.011). Nodular gastritis was found to be less prevalent in H. pylori-negative gastritis (6.8%) compared with H. pylori-positive gastritis (35.4%, pgastritis and lymphoid follicles were associated most commonly with H. pylori. Although less typical, lymphoid follicles were demonstrated in 51.3% of H. pylori-negative patients. The presence or absence of CD was not associated with histologic findings in H. pylori-negative gastritis. Conclusion Our findings suggest that lymphoid follicles are a feature of H. pylori-negative gastritis in children independent of their CD status. PMID:28860835

  7. Characterization of Patients with Helicobacter pylori-Negative Peptic Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Hernández Conde

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: the rate of Helicobacter pylori-negative ulcers is increasing. Treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and other ulcerogenic drugs plays a significant role.Objective: to characterize patients with Helicobacter pylori-negative peptic ulcer. Methods: a case series study of patients attended by the Gastroenterology Service of the Hermanos Ameijeiras Hospital was conducted in the year 2009. Demographic, epidemiological, clinical, endoscopic and histological variables were studied. Mean and standard deviation were analyzed; logistic regression, t-Student and Chi-square tests were used. Results: A total of 269 gastric ulcers, 239 duodenal ulcers and 41 combined were diagnosed; 115 cases were Helicobacter pylori-negative and 434 were positive. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were associated with 33,9 % of H. pylori-negative patients and 22.8% of the positive patients. Ulcerative syndrome occurred in 47 % and 45% in both groups. All H. pylori-negative duodenal ulcers were located in the duodenal bulb as well as 96, 6 % of the positive. The antrum was the most common location for gastric ulcerations (92.3% negative; 90.5% positive. Multiple ulcers predominated in the duodenum while double ulcers prevailed in the stomach, all negative for H.pylori. Antral gastritis predominated (73. 0 % H. pilory- negative, the level of activity was higher in the positive cases (97. 0 % and intestinal metaplasia was similar for both groups. Conclusions: in patients with H. pylori-negative peptic ulcer, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be taken into consideration as one of the main factors associated with this entity.

  8. How Commonly Is the Diagnosis of Gastric Low Grade Dysplasia Upgraded following Endoscopic Resection? A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangfeng Zhao

    Full Text Available Gastric dysplasia is a well-known precancerous lesion. Though the diagnosis of gastric low grade dysplasia (LGD is generally made from endoscopic forceps biopsy (EFB, the accuracy is doubtful after numerous EFB-proven gastric LGD were upgraded to gastric high grade dysplasia (HGD or even carcinoma (CA by further diagnostic test with the procedure of endoscopic resection (ER. We aimed to evaluate the upgraded diagnosis rate (UDR and the risk factors by ER in EFB-proven gastric LGD lesions. Two investigators independently searched studies reporting the UDR by ER in EFB-proven gastric LGD lesions from databases and analyzed the overall UDR, HGD-UDR and CA-UDR. The pooled UDR by ER in EFB-proven gastric LGD lesions was 25.0% (95% CI, 20.2%-29.8%, made up of HGD-UDR and CA-UDR by rates of 16.7% (95% CI, 12.8%-20.6% and 6.9% (95% CI, 4.2%-9.6% respectively. Lesion size larger than 2 cm, surface with depression and nodularity under endoscopic examinations were the major risk factors associated with UDR. In conclusion, one quarter of EFB-proven gastric LGD lesions will be diagnosed as advanced lesions, including gastric HGD (16.7% and gastric CA (6.9% by ER. The diagnosis of those LGD lesions with an endoscopic diameter larger than 2cm, and depressed or nodular surface are more likely to be upgraded after ER.

  9. Helicobacter pylori-Negative Gastritis: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenstedt, Helena; Graham, David Y.; Kramer, Jennifer R.; Rugge, Massimo; Verstovsek, Gordana; Fitzgerald, Stephanie; Alsarraj, Abeer; Shaib, Yasser; Velez, Maria E.; Abraham, Neena; Anand, Bhupinderjit; Cole, Rhonda; El-Serag, Hashem B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Recent studies using histology alone in select patients have suggested that Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis may be common. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of H. pylori among individuals with histologic gastritis. METHODS Subjects between 40 and 80 years underwent elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy at a VA Medical Center. Gastric biopsies were mapped from seven prespecified sites (two antrum, four corpus, and one cardia) and graded by two gastrointestinal pathologists, using the Updated Sydney System. H. pylori-negative required four criteria: negative triple staining at all seven gastric sites, negative H. pylori culture, negative IgG H. pylori serology, and no previous treatment for H. pylori. Data regarding tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use were obtained by questionnaire. RESULTS Of the 491 individuals enrolled, 40.7% (200) had gastritis of at least grade 2 in at least one biopsy site or grade 1 in at least two sites. Forty-one (20.5%) had H. pylori-negative gastritis; most (30 or 73.2%) had chronic gastritis, five (12.2%) had active gastritis, and six (14.6%) had both. H. pylori-negative gastritis was approximately equally distributed in the antrum, corpus, and both antrum and corpus. Past and current PPI use was more frequent in H. pylori-negative vs. H. pylori-positive gastritis (68.2% and 53.8%; P = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS We used multiple methods to define non-H. pylori gastritis and found it in 21% of patients with histologic gastritis. While PPI use is a potential risk factor, the cause or implications of this entity are not known. PMID:23147524

  10. Gastric low-grade MALT lymphoma, high-grade MALT lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma show different frequencies of trisomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M A; Gisbertz, I A; Schouten, H C; Schuuring, E; Bot, F J; Hermans, J; Hopman, A; Kluin, P M; Arends, J E; van Krieken, J H

    1999-01-01

    Gastric MALT lymphoma is a distinct entity related to Helicobacter pylori gastritis. Some studies suggest a role for trisomy 3 in the genesis of these lymphomas, but they mainly focused on low-grade MALT lymphoma. Gastric MALT lymphoma, however, comprises a spectrum from low- to high-grade cases. Fu

  11. Helicobacter pylori-negative Russell body gastritis: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Gobbo, Alessandro; Elli, Luca; Braidotti, Paola; Di Nuovo, Franca; Bosari, Silvano; Romagnoli, Solange

    2011-03-07

    Russell body gastritis is an unusual form of chronic gastritis characterized by the permeation of lamina propria by numerous plasma cells with eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions. Very few cases have been reported in the literature; the majority of which have shown Helicobacter Pylori (H. pylori) infection, thus suggesting a correlation between plasma cell presence and antigenic stimulation by H. pylori. We present a case of Russell body gastritis in a 78-year-old woman who was undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy for epigastric pain. Gastric biopsy of the gastroesophageal junction showed the presence of cells with periodic acid-Schiff-positive hyaline pink bodies. Giemsa staining for H. pylori infection was negative, as well as immunohistochemical detection. The cells with eosinophilic inclusions stained positive for CD138, CD79a, and κ and lambda light chains, which confirmed plasma cell origin. In particular, κ and lambda light chains showed a polyclonal origin and the patient was negative for immunological dyscrasia. The histological observations were confirmed by ultrastructural examination. The cases reported in the literature associated with H. pylori infection have shown regression of plasma cells after eradication of H. pylori. Nothing is known about the progression of H. pylori-negative cases. The unusual morphological appearance of this type of chronic gastritis should not be misinterpreted during routine examination, and it should be distinguished from other common forms of chronic gastritis. It is mandatory to exclude neoplastic diseases such as gastric carcinoma, lymphoma and plasmocytoma by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, which can help with differential diagnosis. The long-term effects of plasma cells hyperactivation are still unknown, because cases of gastric tumor that originated in patients affected by Russell body gastritis have not been described in the literature. We are of the opinion that these patients should be scheduled

  12. Helicobacter pylori-negative Russell body gastritis: Case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alessandro Del Gobbo; Luca Elli; Paola Braidotti; Franca Di Nuovo; Silvano Bosari; Solange Romagnoli

    2011-01-01

    Russell body gastritis is an unusual form of chronic gas-tritis characterized by the permeation of lamina propria by numerous plasma cells with eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions. Very few cases have been reported in the lit-erature; the majority of which have shown Helicobacter Pylori (H. pylori) infection, thus suggesting a correlation between plasma cell presence and antigenic stimulation by H. pylori. We present a case of Russell body gastritis in a 78-year-old woman who was undergoing esophago-gastroduodenoscopy for epigastric pain. Gastric biopsy of the gastroesophageal junction showed the presence of cells with periodic acid-Schiff-positive hyaline pink bodies. Giemsa staining for H. pylori infection was nega-tive, as well as immunohistochemical detection. The cells with eosinophilic inclusions stained positive for CD138, CD79a, and κ and lambda light chains, which confirmed plasma cell origin. In particular, κ and lambda light chains showed a polyclonal origin and the patient was negative for immunological dyscrasia. The histologi-cal observations were confirmed by ultrastructural ex-amination. The cases reported in the literature associated with H. pylori infection have shown regression of plasma cells after eradication of H. pylori. Nothing is known about the progression of H. pylori-negative cases. The unusual morphological appearance of this type of chron-ic gastritis should not be misinterpreted during routine examination, and it should be distinguished from other common forms of chronic gastritis. It is mandatory to exclude neoplastic diseases such as gastric carcinoma, lymphoma and plasmocytoma by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, which can help with differential diagnosis. The long-term effects of plasma cells hyper-activation are still unknown, because cases of gastric tu-mor that originated in patients affected by Russell body gastritis have not been described in the literature. We are of the opinion that these patients should be

  13. Characterization of Patients with Helicobacter pylori-Negative Peptic Ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Hernández Conde; Guillermo Noa Pedroso; Carlos Domínguez Álvarez; Isabel Mora Díaz; Marcos Félix Osorio Pagola; Yagén Pomares Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Background: the rate of Helicobacter pylori-negative ulcers is increasing. Treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and other ulcerogenic drugs plays a significant role.Objective: to characterize patients with Helicobacter pylori-negative peptic ulcer. Methods: a case series study of patients attended by the Gastroenterology Service of the Hermanos Ameijeiras Hospital was conducted in the year 2009. Demographic, epidemiological, clinical, endoscopic and histological variables were ...

  14. [Gastric Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Based on Outcome of Domestic Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin Tae

    2016-10-25

    Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. H. pylori eradication can be performed as a primary therapy regardless of H. pylori status. In Korea, six articles were published about low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma with H. pylori. Complete regression rate after H. pylori eradication is reported at 74.5% to 94.4%. Radiotherapy results in favorable clinical long-term outcomes in patients with early-stage gastric MALT lymphoma who fail H. pylori eradication therapy and those who are H. pylori negative. Chemotherapy could be reserved for patients with metastatic or high-grade lymphoma. In gastric MALT lymphoma, patients with polypoid type on initial endoscopy had a higher likelihood of recurrence than those with diffuse infiltration or ulceration types. The depth of invasion, location of lesions, and chromosomal abnormality with t(11;18) together are predictive factors for failure to remission by H. pylori eradication.

  15. Endoscopic staging of low-grade gastric malt lymphoma Estadificación por ecoendoscopia en el linfoma gástrico tipo malt de bajo grado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Varas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS has already proven useful in the assessment of submucosal lesions, and the staging of gastrointestinal cancer, particularly gastric MALT-type lymphoma. The goal of this paper was EUS staging. Patients and method: 24 patients (10 females, 14 males with a median age of 56 years and possibly gastric MALT lymphoma (25 cases were studied using videoendoscopy, biopsies, and echoendoscopy with 7.5- and 20-MHz radial EUS, and also with 12- and 20-MHz miniprobes (MPs. Nineteen patients were definitely evaluated (7 females, 12 males as having 20 MALT-type lymphomas, as five patients were post-hoc disregarded when an invasive, high-grade gastric lymphoma (3c or plasmocytoma (2c was subsequently demonstrated. Of these 19 patients, all had T1 lesions except for two with T2 lesions; one patient had a gastroduodenal T1 lymphoma. Echographic findings with MPs were compared to EUS (gold standard and histology both before and after eradication. Then, patients were followed up every 1-3-6 months using videoendoscopy and MPs. Results: echoendoscopy correctly identified T stages in 90% of cases. MPs identified T stages in 88% of cases, and N stages in 33% of cases, with results being slightly inferior to those obtained with conventional EUS (91 vs. 45%; they were consequently used for follow-up. After eradication, all but two patients are in complete remission and have been followed every 1-3-6 months using MPs without echographic abnormalities, except for a patient who relapsed.Introducción: la ultrasonografía endoscópica (USE ha demostrado ya su utilidad en la evaluación de las lesiones submucosas, en la estadificación del cáncer digestivo en general, y del linfoma gástrico tipo MALT en particular. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la estadificación por USE. Pacientes y método: veinticuatro enfermos (10 mujeres y 14 varones con edad media de 56 años y con posible linfoma gástrico tipo MALT (25 casos fueron

  16. Optimal management of biopsy-proven low-grade gastricdysplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jung-Wook Kim; Jae Young Jang

    2015-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma generally culminates via theinflammation-metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequenceprogression. The prevalence of gastric adenomasshows marked geographic variation. Recently, therate of diagnosis of low-grade dysplasia (LGD) hasincreased due to increased use of upper endoscopy.Many investigators have reported that gastric highgradedysplasia has high potential for malignancy andshould be removed; however, the treatment for gastricLGD remains controversial. Although the risk of LGDprogression to invasive carcinoma has been reported tobe inconsistent, progression has been observed duringfollow-up. Additionally, the rate of upgraded diagnosisin biopsy-proven LGD is high. Therefore, endoscopicresection (ER) may be useful in the treatment anddiagnosis of LGD, especially if lesions are found to haverisk factors for upgraded histology after ER, such aslarge size, surface erythema or depressed morphology.Fatal complications in endoscopic submucosal dissection(ESD) are extremely low and its therapeutic and diagnosticoutcomes are excellent. Therefore, ESD shouldbe applied preferentially instead of endoscopic mucosalresection.

  17. Extrauterine Low-Grade Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ju Chen

    2005-12-01

    Conclusions: Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma typically has an indolent clinical course and favorable prognosis. Surgical resection is the primary therapeutic approach, and adjuvant therapy with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or progesterone therapy should be considered for the management of residual or recurrent low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas.

  18. Ongoing trials in low-grade lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Burchardt

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many therapies available for the management of low-grade lymphoma. With follicular lymphoma, for example, combination of chemotherapy and rituximab (immuno-chemo - therapy and consecutive maintenance therapy for 2 years is the current standard of care. To date, the most widely used regimen seems to be rituximab combined with cyclo phosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (RCHOP. Substitution of liposomal doxorubicin in place of conventional doxorubicin may improve outcomes in this indication, although evidence for its use in low-grade lymphoma is not as relevant as in aggressive lymphoma. Bendamustine, in combination with rituximab, has shown very good efficacy and tolerability in several lymphoma types, particularly follicular lymphoma and other low-grade lymphomas. Other combinations, such as those including bortezomib and lenalidomide, are under investigation in low-grade lymphoma, and the duration of rituximab maintenance therapy following bendamustine−rituximab-containing induction is being researched by the German Study Group for Indolent Lymphoma (StiL.

  19. Current treatment of low grade gliomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van den Bent (Martin); T.A.B. Snijders (Tom); J.E.C. Bromberg (Jacolien)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLow grade gliomas affect predominantly young adults, and have a relatively favorable prognosis compared to grade III and grade IV gliomas. The challenge for an optimal management of these patients is to find the balance between an optimal survival and the preservation of neurological fun

  20. Case report 541: Low grade chrondrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, G.; Wagner, L.D.; Klein, M.J.; Faye-Peterson, O.M.; Lewis, M.M.

    1989-05-01

    A case of low grade chondrosarcoma of the femur in a 15-year-old female is presented. Although chondrosarcoma is a relatively common primary malignant bone tumor in adults, its incidence in the pediatric age group is low. If it does occur in the very young the lesion usually is a high grade tumor. The atypical radiological pattern and the differential diagnosis are discussed. (orig.).

  1. Low grade metamorphism of mafic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Peter

    1995-07-01

    Through most of this past century, metamorphic petrologists in the United States have paid their greatest attention to high grade rocks, especially those which constitute the core zones of exhumed, mountain belts. The pioneering studies of the 50's through the 80's, those which applied the principles of thermodynamics to metamorphic rocks, focused almost exclusively on high temperature systems, for which equilibrium processes could be demonstrated. By the 1980's, metamorphic petrologists had developed the methodologies for deciphering the thermal and baric histories of mountain belts through the study of high grade rocks. Of course, low grade metamorphic rocks - here defined as those which form at pressures and temperatures up to and including the greenschist facies - had been well known and described as well, initially through the efforts of Alpine and Circum-Pacific geologists who recognized that they constituted an integral and contiguous portion of mountain belts, and that they underlay large portions of accreted terranes, many of oceanic origins. But until the mid 80's, much of the effort in studying low grade rocks - for a comprehensive review of the literature to that point see Frey (1987) - had been concentrated on mudstones, volcanoclastic rocks, and associated lithologies common to continental mountain belts and arcs. In the mid 80's, results of the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) rather dramatically mitigated a shift in the study of low grade metamorphic rocks.

  2. Clinical Outcome of Eradication Therapy for Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma according to H. pylori Infection Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Seok Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To evaluate the long-term outcome of H. pylori eradication therapy for gastric MALT lymphoma according to the presence of H. pylori infection. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients between January 2001 and June 2014. The clinicopathologic characteristics and clinical outcomes were compared between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma groups. Results. Fifty-four patients were enrolled: 12 H. pylori-negative and 42 H. pylori-positive patients. The tumor was located more frequently in both the proximal and distal parts of the stomach (P=0.001, and the percentage of multiple lesions was significantly greater in the H. pylori-negative group (P=0.046. Forty-seven patients received initial eradication therapy, and 85% (35/41 of H. pylori-positive patients and 50% (3/6 of H. pylori-negative patients achieved complete remission after eradication therapy. The presence of multiple lesions was a predictive factor for unresponsiveness to H. pylori eradication (P=0.024. The efficacy of eradication therapy (P=0.133, complete remission (CR maintenance period, and relapse after eradication therapy were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions. H. pylori eradication therapy could be an effective first-line treatment for localized H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma, especially for single lesions.

  3. [MALT-type low-grade B-cell lymphomas of the stomach and Helicobacter pylori].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binek, J; Morant, R; Weber, A; Schmid, U; Hammer, B

    1996-05-11

    From January 1 1994 to March 1 1995 we observed 6 patients with gastric low-grade B-cell lymphoma of MALT type in association with Helicobacter pylori infection. Endoscopically only 3 of the 6 patients presented with pathological findings. All but one patient with metastatic carcinoma received antibiotic therapy for Helicobacter pylori. Follow-up was not possible in one patient who died unexpectedly. In all 4 patients followed-up, eradication of Helicobacter pylori resulted in regression of the malignant lymphoma. During the median follow-up time of 7 months (2-13 months) no relapse of lymphoma was observed. Our results confirm that gastric low-grade B-cell lymphoma of MALT type can regress after eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

  4. Low-grade osteosarcoma of the spine: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Chul; Suh, Jin Suck; Kim, Myung In; Choo, Hye Jung; Huh, Yong Min [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Low-grade osteosarcoma is not typically found in the long bone and pelvis. Most primary osteosarcomas that arise in the spine are high-grade malignancies. A low-grade osteosarcoma arising in the spine has not been previously described. We report here the clinical, radiological, and histological findings of a case of low-grade osteosarcoma that arose in the spine.

  5. Current treatment of low grade astrocytoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christina Louise; Romner, Bertil

    2013-01-01

    Through a comprehensive review of the current literature, the present article investigates several aspects of low grade astrocytomas (LGA), including prognostic factors, treatment strategies and follow-up regimes. LGA are in general relatively slow-growing primary brain tumours, but they have...... as the course of disease. The current literature seems to support the idea that treatment with radical tumour resection, where possible, yields better long term outcome for patients with LGA. However, adjuvant therapy is often necessary. Administering early postoperative radiotherapy to patients with partially...... effective in discriminating between tumour progression and radiation necrosis. The research into biomarkers is currently limited with regards to their applications in LGA diagnostics, and therefore further studies including larger patient populations are needed....

  6. Bioleaching of low-grade copper sulphides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Sheng-hua; WU Ai-xiang; QIU Guan-zhou

    2008-01-01

    The bioleaching behavior of low-grade copper sulphides under the condition of preferential solution flow was investigated through experiments.The experiment of bioleaching was conducted within the multifunction autocontrol bioleaching apparatus.The results show that the concentrations of Cu2+ and total Fe increase slowly at the beginning.The recovery rate decreases with the increase of depth of dump.The preferential solution happens within the fine region when the application rate is low,and the recovery rate of the fine region is higher than that of the coarse region.The content of fine ore particles within both fine and coarse regions increases during the leaching period,and the preferential solution flow shifts from fine region to coarse region.The surface of the ores at the top of dump is attacked seriously,and the ores in the middle is attacked slightly.There are plenty of crackles on the surface of bottom ores because of the precipitation layer on the surface.

  7. Beneficiation of a low grade limestone sample

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rao Danda Srinivas; Vijayakumar Tadiparthi Venkata; Subba Rao Sripada; Bhaskar Raju Guntamadugu; Prabhakar Swarna

    2011-01-01

    Pilot scale column flotation studies were conducted on a low grade siliceous limestone ore.Silica content was reduced to less than 1% in the concentrate so that it became satisfactory for use in the paper or rubber industries.The limestone sample was crystalline and constituted primarily of calcite that contained quartz,feldspar,pyroxene,and biotite as gangue minerals.Quartz is the major silicate gangue whereas feldspar,pyroxene,and biotite exist in minor to trace quantities.Traces of pyrite were also observed within the sample.A reverse flotation process was adopted where the silicate gangue minerals were floated using two different commercial cationic collectors:Chem-750 F or Floatamine-D.The studies clearly suggest it is possible to produce a limestone concentrate assaying around 96-97% CaCO3 containing less than 1 % SiO2.The effect of feed flow rate,percent solids,froth depth,and wash water on the grade and recovery of the CaCO3 concentrate is discussed.

  8. Low-grade and anaplastic oligodendroglioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Bent, Martin J; Bromberg, Jacolien E C; Buckner, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic oligodendrogliomas have long attracted interest because of their sensitivity to chemotherapy, in particular in the subset of 1p/19q co-deleted tumors. Recent molecular studies have shown that all 1p/19q co-deleted tumors have IDH mutations and most of them also have TERT mutations. Because of the presence of similar typical genetic alterations in astrocytoma and glioblastoma, the current trend is to diagnose these tumors on the basis of their molecular profile. Further long-term follow-up analysis of both EORTC and RTOG randomized studies on (neo)adjuvant procarbazine, lomustine, vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy have shown that adjuvant chemotherapy indeed improves outcome, and this is now standard of care. It is also equally clear that benefit to PCV chemotherapy is not limited to the 1p/19q co-deleted cases; potential other predictive factors are IDH mutations and MGMT promoter methylation. Moreover, a recent RTOG study on low-grade glioma also noted an improved outcome after adjuvant PCV chemotherapy, thus making (PCV) chemotherapy now standard of care for all 1p/19q co-deleted tumors regardless of grade. It remains unclear whether temozolomide provides the same survival benefit, as no data from well-designed clinical trials on adjuvant temozolomide in this tumor type are available. Another question that remains is whether one can safely leave out radiotherapy as part of initial treatment to avoid cognitive side-effects of radiotherapy. The current data suggest that delaying radiotherapy and treatment with chemotherapy only may be detrimental for overall survival.

  9. Desalination using low grade heat sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    A new, low temperature, energy-efficient and sustainable desalination system has been developed in this research. This system operates under near-vacuum conditions created by exploiting natural means of gravity and barometric pressure head. The system can be driven by low grade heat sources such as solar energy or waste heat streams. Both theoretical and experimental studies were conducted under this research to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed process. Theoretical studies included thermodynamic analysis and process modeling to evaluate the performance of the process using the following alternate energy sources for driving the process: solar thermal energy, solar photovoltaic/thermal energy, geothermal energy, and process waste heat emissions. Experimental studies included prototype scale demonstration of the process using grid power as well as solar photovoltaic/thermal sources. Finally, the feasibility of the process in reclaiming potable-quality water from the effluent of the city wastewater treatment plant was studied. The following results have been obtained from theoretical analysis and modeling: (1) The proposed process can produce up to 8 L/d of freshwater for 1 m2 area of solar collector and evaporation chamber respectively with a specific energy requirement of 3122 kJ for 1 kg of freshwater production. (2) Photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) energy can produce up to 200 L/d of freshwater with a 25 m2 PV/T module which meets the electricity needs of 21 kWh/d of a typical household as well. This configuration requires a specific energy of 3122 kJ for 1 kg of freshwater production. (3) 100 kg/hr of geothermal water at 60°C as heat source can produce up to 60 L/d of freshwater with a specific energy requirement of 3078 kJ for 1 kg of freshwater production. (4) Waste heat released from an air conditioning system rated at 3.25 kW cooling, can produce up to 125 L/d of freshwater. This configuration requires an additional energy of 208 kJ/kg of

  10. Low-grade oligodendroglioma: current treatments and future hopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, Zarnie; Gan, Hui K; Mason, Warren P

    2009-11-01

    Current treatment modalities for low-grade gliomas include surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Management of these ultimately incurable tumors remains controversial, particularly the timing and extent of surgery, and the optimal sequence of radiotherapy and chemotherapy thereafter. Two ongoing Phase III trials should provide definitive answers to some of these controversial issues in the treatment of low-grade gliomas and confirm the impact of molecular predictors of response and outcome. This review will discuss recent progress and topical issues in the treatment of low-grade gliomas.

  11. Expression of gastric cancer-associated MG7 antigen in gastric cancer, precancerous lesions and H. pylori-associated gastric diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Li Guo; Ming Dong; Lan Wang; Li-Ping Sun; Yuan Yuan

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between the antigen MG7 antigen expression and gastric cancer as well as precancerous condition; to study the relationship between the MG7 antigen expression and H. pyloriinfection in benign gastric lesions in order to find out the effect of H. pylori infection on the process of gastric cancer development.METHODS: The level of MG7 antigen expression was determined by immunohistochemical method in 383 gastric biopsied materials. The intestinal metaplasia was determined by histochemistry method. The H. pyloriinfection was determined by HE stain, PCR and ELISA in 291 specimens, among which only 34 cases of H. pylori-associated gastric lesions were followed up.RESULTS: The positive rate of MG7 expression in normal gastric mucosa, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and gastric cancer increased gradually in ascending order (P<0.01). The positive rate of MG7 antigen expression in type Ⅲ intestinal metaplasia of gastric mucosa was higher than that of type Ⅰand Ⅱ intestinal metaplasia, being highly significant (P<0.05).The positive rate of MG7 antigen expression in superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer increased gradually (11.9 %, 64.8 %, 91.2 %, P<0.01). There was no significant difference between H.pylori-negative and H. pyloripositive intestinal metaplasia, atrophic gastritis and dysplasia of gastric epithelium in the positive rate of MG7 antigen expression. There was no expression of MG7 antigen in H. pylori-negative superficial gastritis. The positive rate of MG7 expression in H. pylori-positive superficial gastritis was 20.5 %, and the difference between them was significant (P<0.05). During following up, one of the three H. pylori negative cases turned positive again, and its MG7 antigen expression turned to be stronger correspondingly. 3 of 31 H. pyloripositive cases were detected as early gastric cancer, among which one with "+++" MG7 antigen expression was diminished after H. pylori

  12. Low-grade osteosarcoma of the ethmoid sinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlychou, M.; Ostlere, S.J. [Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Department of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Kerr, R. [Radcliffe Infirmary, Department of Neurosurgery, Oxford (United Kingdom); Athanasou, N.A. [Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Department of Pathology, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    Osteosarcoma uncommonly arises in craniofacial bones and has only rarely been reported to arise in the ethmoid sinus. Most primary osteosarcomas arising in paranasal sinuses are high-grade malignancies. A low-grade osteosarcoma arising in the ethmoid sinus has not previously been described. We report the clinical, radiological and histological findings of a case of low-grade (parosteal osteosarcoma-like) osteosarcoma which arose in the ethmoid sinus. (orig.)

  13. Low-grade proteinuria and microalbuminuria in renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimi, Jean-Michel

    2013-07-27

    Nephrotic-range proteinuria has been known for years to be associated with poor renal outcome. Newer evidence indicates that early (1-3 months after transplantation) low-grade proteinuria and microalbuminuria (1) provide information on the graft in terms of donor characteristics and ischemia/reperfusion injury, (2) may occur before the development of donor-specific antibodies, (3) predict the development of diabetes and cardiovascular events, and (4) are associated with reduced long-term graft and patient survivals. Low-grade proteinuria and microalbuminuria are also predictive of diabetes, cardiovascular morbidity, and death in nontransplanted populations, which may help us to understand the pathophysiology of low-grade proteinuria or microalbuminuria in renal transplantation. The impact of immunosuppressive medications, including mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, on graft survival is still discussed, and the effect on proteinuria is crucial to the debate. The fact that chronic allograft rejection may exist as early as 3 months after renal transplantation indicates that optimal management of low-grade proteinuria or microalbuminuria should occur very early after transplantation to improve long-term renal function and the overall outcome of renal transplant recipients. The presence of low-grade proteinuria or microalbuminuria early after transplantation must be taken into account to choose adequate immunosuppressive and antihypertensive medications. Limited information exists regarding the benefit of therapeutic interventions to reduce low-grade proteinuria or microalbuminuria. Whether renin angiotensin blockade results in optimal nephroprotection in patients with low-grade proteinuria or microalbuminuria is not proven, especially in the absence of chronic allograft nephropathy. Observational studies and randomized clinical trials yield conflicting results. Finally, randomized clinical trials are urgently needed.

  14. Low-Grade Oligodendroglioma of the Pineal Region: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamis, Fabricio Correa; de Paiva Neto, Manoel Antonio; Stavale, João Norberto; Cavalheiro, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    Background Although germ cell tumors and pineal cell tumors account for most of the histologic tumor subtypes, > 17 different tumors can arise in this location. We report a rare case of a low-grade oligodendroglioma that arose in the pineal region. Clinical Presentation A young woman complaining of a headache underwent magnetic resonance imaging that showed a mass in the pineal region and mild hydrocephalus. A ventriculoperitoneal shunt was performed followed by a near-total tumor removal, due to tumor invasion of the tectal plate and thalamus. The histologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of a low-grade oligodendroglioma. The patient then underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy as adjuvant therapies. Conclusion Although the pineal region is a common place for a large number of tumoral lesions, low-grade oligodendrogliomas are extremely rare in this location. This case is only the second account of a benign oligodendroglioma of the pineal region reported in the literature.

  15. Low-grade leiomyosarcoma of renal vein: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalan NEŞE

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcomas originating from renal vein are quite rare malignant tumors since only 30 cases have been reported in the literature. Clinical symptoms which are due to a renal mass along with radiological findings, usually mislead to a preoperative diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma. The correct diagnosis is frequently made on nephrectomy specimens. Low-grade leiomyosarcomas need to be differentiated from leiomyomas. Increased mitotic activity and necrosis are known to be gold standards for differential diagnosis. In this report, we present a case of a 62 year old woman whose tumor in the left kidney diagnosed as low-grade leiomyosarcoma together with a brief review of the literature.

  16. Helicobacter pylori-induced modulation of the promoter methylation of Wnt antagonist genes in gastric carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyo-Joon; Kim, Sang Gyun; Lim, Joo Hyun; Choi, Ji Min; Kim, Woo Ho; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2017-06-22

    This study aimed to investigate the changes in the promoter methylation and gene expression of multiple Wnt antagonists between the chronic infection and eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in gastric carcinogenesis. The levels of methylation and corresponding mRNA expression of seven Wnt antagonist genes (SFRP1, -2, -5, DKK1, -2, -3, WIF1) were compared among the patients with H. pylori-positive gastric cancers (GCs), and H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative controls, by quantitative MethyLight assay and real-time reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. The changes of the methylation and expression levels of the genes were also compared between the H. pylori eradication and H. pylori-persistent groups 1 year after endoscopic resection of GCs. The methylation levels of SFRP and DKK family genes were significantly increased in the patients with H. pylori-positive GCs and followed by H. pylori-positive controls compared with H. pylori-negative controls (P pylori-negative controls, H. pylori-positive controls, and to H. pylori-positive GCs (P pylori eradication (P pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. The epigenetic field may not be reversed even after H. pylori eradication except by DKK3 methylation.

  17. An unusual cystic appearance of disseminated low-grade gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, T.; Zimmerman, R.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States); Perilongo, G. [Dipt. di Pediatria, Univ. di Padova (Italy); Kaufman, B.A. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, St Louis Children' s Hospital, St Louis, MO (United States); Holden, K.R. [Division of Pediatric Neurology, Room 511, Children' s Hospital, Medical University of South Carolina, 171 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425-2232 (United States); Carollo, C. [Division of Neuroradiology, Regione Veneto, Azienda Ospedalieri di Padova, Universita di Padova, Via Giustiniani 3, 35 128 Padua (Italy); Kling Chong, W.K. [Dept. of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-10-01

    We report five cases of pediatric disseminated low-grade gliomas of the brainstem or spinal cord that exhibited an unusual, cystic pattern. Leptomeningeal disease was present in three of these at diagnosis, and was detected shortly afterwards in the other two. Four patients are alive up to 5 years later, following minimal to no intervention, while one is dead. (orig.)

  18. Deformation of chlorite in naturally deformed low-grade rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bons, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    The intracrystalline deformation of chlorite in naturally deformed low-grade rocks was investigated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As in other phyllosilicates, the deformation of chlorite is dominated by the (001) slip plane. Slip along this plane is very easy through the generation an

  19. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of the nasal fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Lagunas, Javier; Alasà-Caparrós, Cristian; Vendrell-Escofet, Gerard; Huguet-Redecilla, Pere; Raspall-Martin, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    An unusual case of a T4N2CMx polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma located in the nasal fossae and extending to the pterygoid area is presented. The primary tumor was excised through a Lefort I maxillotomy and the neck was managed with a supraomohyoid neck dissection. Adjuntive postoperative radiotherapy was also administered to the patient.

  20. Gamma Knife treatment of low-grade gliomas in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekşi, Murat Şakir; Yılmaz, Baran; Akakın, Akın; Toktaş, Zafer Orkun; Kaur, Ahmet Cemil; Demir, Mustafa Kemal; Kılıç, Türker

    2015-11-01

    Low-grade gliomas have good overall survival rates in pediatric patients compared to adults. There are some case series that reported the effectiveness and safety of Gamma Knife radiosurgery, yet they are limited in number of patients. We aimed to review the relevant literature for pediatric low-grade glial tumors treated with stereotactic radiosurgery, specifically Gamma Knife radiosurgery, and to present an exemplary case. A 6-year-old boy was admitted to clinic due to head trauma. He was alert, cooperative, and had no obvious motor or sensorial deficit. A head CT scan depicted a hypodense zone at the right caudate nucleus. The brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) depicted a mass lesion at the same location. A stereotactic biopsy was performed. Histopathological diagnosis was low-grade astrocytoma (grade II, World Health Organization (WHO) classification, 2007). Gamma Knife radiosurgery was applied to the tumor bed. Tumor volume was 21.85 cm(3). Fourteen gray was given to 50% isodose segment of the lesion (maximal dose of 28 Gy). The tumor has disappeared totally in 4 months, and the patient was tumor-free 21 months after the initial treatment. The presented literature review represents mostly single-center experiences with different patient and treatment characteristics. Accordingly, a mean/median margin dose of 11.3-15 Gy with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is successful in treatment of pediatric and adult low-grade glial tumor patients. However, prospective studies with a large cohort of pediatric patients should be conducted to make a more comprehensive conclusion for effectiveness and safety of GKRS in pediatric low-grade glial tumors.

  1. Direct SX of uranium from low-grade leach solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinbaum, B., E-mail: baruchgr@bateman.co.il [Bateman Advanced Technologies, Yokneam (Israel)

    2010-07-01

    Historically, recovery of uranium from high-grade (>400 ppm U) pregnant leach solutions (PLS) was done by solvent extraction (SX), while low-grade feed was treated by ion exchange (IX). Significant improvement in the SX technology, especially application of large pulsed columns instead of mixer-settlers (MS), have now made the SX more attractive for PLS with U below 100 ppm. Recently Bateman carried out three test work programs for direct SX of low-grade (<100 ppm) U PLS, using BPC pulsed columns for extraction and MS for stripping and scrubbing. In all 3 cases the results prove that the direct SX is overall more economical that any combination of IX and SX. Based on these results, two industrial plants, in South Africa and Australia, were erected. (author)

  2. Interventricular low-grade oligodendroglioma with multiple parenchymal relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Ali; Binesh, Fariba; Rakhsha, Afshin; Navabii, Hossein

    2012-06-08

    Oligodendrogliomas can be found anywhere oligodendrocytes exist; however, they mostly occur in frontal lobes. Although intra- and extra central nervous system dissemination of anaplastic oligodendroglioma is a well-known property of this tumour, low-grade oligodendroglioma with intracranial relapse is a very uncommon finding. In this case report, a 37-year-old man with grade II oligodendroglioma relapsed after 18 months with multiple parenchymal masses is presented.

  3. Bioprocessing low grade copper ores - a promising alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Guezennec, Anne-Gwenaëlle; d'Hugues, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents an overview of the work performed by the BRGM team in the last 10 years on the development of bio-hydrometallurgy dedicated to the processing of low-grade copper ores from the Kupferschiefer deposits. It covers selection and adaptation of microbial consortia, optimization of process operating parameters such as solid contents, the relationship between bioleaching performance and mineralogy, testing operating parameters to overcome chalcopyrite recal...

  4. Apoptosis, proliferation and p53 gene expression of H. pylori associated gastric epithelial lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Zhang1; Yuan Yuan; Hua Gao; Ming Dong; Lan Wang; Yue-Hua Gong

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To study the relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) and gastric carcinoma and its possible pathogenesis by H. Pylori. METHODS: DNEL technique and immunohistochemical technique were used to study the state of apoptosis,proliferation and p53 gene expression. A total of 100 gastric mucosal biopsy specimens, including 20 normal mucosa, 30H. Pylori-negative and 30 H. Pylorf-positive gastric precancerous lesions along with 20 gastric carcinomas were studied. RESULTS: There were several apoptotic cells in the superficial epithelium and a few proliferative cells within the neck of gastric glands, and no p53 protein expression in normal mucosa. In gastric carcinoma, there were few apoptotic cells, while there were a large number of proliferative cells, and expression of p53 protein significantly was increased. In the phase of metaplasia, the apoptotic index (Al, 4.36% ± 1.95%), proliferative index (PI, 19.11% ± 6.79%) and positivity of p53 expression (46.7%) in H. Pylori-positive group were higher than those in normal mucosa (P< 0.01). Al in H. Pylori-positive group was higher than that in H. Pylori-negative group (3.81% ±1.76%), PI in H. Pylori-positive group was higher than that in H. Pylori-negative group (12.25% ±5.63%, P<0.01 ). In the phase of dysplasia, Al (2.31% ± 1.10%) in H. Pylori-positive group was lower (3.05% ± 1.29%) than that in H. Pylori-negative group, but PI (33.89% ± 11.65%)wassignificantly higher(22.09± 8018%, P< 0.01). In phases of metaplasia, dysplasia and gastric cancer in the H. Pylori-positive group, Als had an evidently graduall decreasing trend (P < 0.01 ), while Pis had an evidently gradual increasing trend (P< 0.05 or P< 0.01), and there was also a trend of gradual increase in the expression of p53 gene. CONCLUSION: In the course of the formation of gastric carcinoma, proliferation of gastric mucosa can be greatly increased by H. Pylori, and H. Pylori can induce apoptosis in the phase of metaplasia but in the phase of

  5. [Low grade parosteal osteosarcoma. Clinical and oncological outcomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albergo, José I; Farfalli, Germán L; Ayerza, Miguel A; Muscolo, Domingo L; Aponte-Tinao, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze a group of patients with low grade parosteal osteosarcoma treated with limb salvage surgery and reconstructed with bone allograft. A retrospective review from our oncologic data base between 1980 and 2010 was done and all patients with diagnosis of low grade parosteal osteosarcoma, treated with limb salvage surgery and reconstructed with allograft were included. Twenty-two patients were included for the analysis. The mean age was 32±11 years (10-59) y the mean follow-up 93±69 months (8-237). Ten year overall survival of the series was 91% (95% CI: 79-100). Four patients developed local recurrence, 2 of them histological classified after the resection dedifferentiated parosteal osteosarcoma. Two patients developed distant recurrence, being the lung the only site of metastasis. Ten year limb salvage reconstruction survival was 65% (95% CI: 44-86). Long term survival rate in low grade parosteal osteosarcoma is over 90%. Surgical resection wide margin should be the elective treatment and biological limb salvage reconstruction is a good alternative.

  6. Helicobacter pyloriin gastric corpus of patients 20 years after partial gastric resection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian Kirsch; Ahmed Madisch; Petja Piehler; Ekkehard Bayerd(o)rffer; Manfred Stolte; Stephan Miehlke

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the long-term prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) gastritis in patients after partial gastric resection due to peptic ulcer, and to compare the severity of H pylori-positive gastritis in the corpus mucosa between partial gastrectomy patients and matched controls.METHODS: Endoscopic biopsies were obtained from 57 patients after partial gastric resection for histological examination using hematoxylin/eosin and Warthin-Starry staining. Gastritis was graded according to the updated Sydney system. Severity of corpus gastritis was compared between H pylori-positive partial gastrectomy patients and H pylori-positive duodenal ulcer patients matched for age and gender.RESULTS: In partial gastrectomy patients, surgery was performed 20 years (median) prior to evaluation. In 25 patients (43.8%) H pylori was detected histologically in the gastric remnant. Gastric atrophy was more common in H pylori-positive compared to H pylori-negative partial gastrectomy patients (P<0.05). The severity of corpus gastritis was significantly lower in H pylori-positive partial gastrectomy patients compared to duodenal ulcer patients (P<0.01). There were no significant differences in the activity of gastritis, atrophy and intestinal metaplasia between the two groups.CONCLUSION: The long-term prevalence of H pylorigastritis in the gastric corpus of patients who underwent partial gastric resection due to peptic ulcer disease is comparable to the general population. The expression of H pylori gastritis in the gastric remnant does not resemble the gastric cancer phenotype.

  7. Helicobacter pylori-negative Russell body gastritis: does the diagnosis call for screening for plasmacytic malignancies, especially multiple myeloma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klair, Jagpal Singh; Girotra, Mohit; Kaur, Aneet; Aduli, Farshad

    2014-03-26

    Russell body gastritis (RBG) is a rare entity with unestablished pathophysiology, endoscopic findings, clinical manifestations and treatments. Literature is scarce on this clinical entity with unclear clinical significance. Of 18 cases reported, 12 tested (+) for Helicobacter pylori and improved with treatment, but it remains unclear whether this link is coincidental or bears some clinical significance. We describe a case of elderly woman who had a follow-up oesophagogastroduodenoscopy for chronic peptic ulcers, and biopsy showed positive immunohistochemical stains for κ and λ, indicating a polytypic population of plasma cells. Immunostaining for H pylori was negative. Biopsies were also (-) for gastric carcinoma, lymphoma and plasmacytoma. Considering her RGB-suggestive histology and her symptoms of bone pains and anaemia, multiple myeloma screening was considered clinically relevant. The purpose of this review was to educate clinicians and gastroenterologists about this unique entity and explore its association with multiple myeloma or other plamacytic malignancies.

  8. Seizure prognosis of patients with low-grade tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlenberg, Cynthia A; Fadul, Camilo E; Roberts, David W; Thadani, Vijay M; Bujarski, Krzysztof A; Scott, Rod C; Jobst, Barbara C

    2012-09-01

    Seizures frequently impact the quality of life of patients with low grade tumors. Management is often based on best clinical judgment. We examined factors that correlate with seizure outcome to optimize seizure management. Patients with supratentorial low-grade tumors evaluated at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Using multiple regression analysis the patient characteristics and treatments were correlated with seizure outcome using Engel's classification. Of the 73 patients with low grade tumors and median follow up of 3.8 years (range 1-20 years), 54 (74%) patients had a seizure ever and 46 (63%) had at least one seizure before tumor surgery. The only factor significantly associated with pre-surgical seizures was tumor histology. Of the 54 patients with seizures ever, 25 (46.3%) had a class I outcome at last follow up. There was no difference in seizure outcome between grade II gliomas (astrocytoma grade II, oligodendroglioma grade II, mixed oligo-astrocytoma grade II) and other pathologies (pilocytic astrocytoma, ependymomas, DNET, gangliocytoma and ganglioglioma). Once seizures were established seizure prognosis was similar between different pathologies. Chemotherapy (p=0.03) and radiation therapy (p=0.02) had a positive effect on seizure outcome. No other parameter including significant tumor growth during the follow up period predicted seizure outcome. Only three patients developed new-onset seizures after tumor surgery that were non-perioperative. Anticonvulsant medication was tapered in 14 patients with seizures and 10 had no further seizures. Five patients underwent additional epilepsy surgery with a class I outcome in four. Two patients received a vagal nerve stimulator with >50% seizure reduction. Seizures at presentation are the most important factor associated with continued seizures after tumor surgery. Pathology does not influence seizure outcome. Use of long term prophylactic anticonvulsants is unwarranted. Chemotherapy and

  9. Experimental Study on Purification of Low Grade Diatomite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liguang; Pang, Bo

    2017-04-01

    This paper presented an innovation for purification of low grade diatomite(DE) by grinding, ultrasonic pretreatment, acid leaching of closed stirring and calcination. The optimum process parameters of DE purification were obtained, the characterizations of original and purified DE were determined by SEM and BET. The results showed that the specific surface area of DE increased from 12.65m2/g to 23.23m2/g, which increased by 45.54%. SEM analysis revealed that the pore structure of purified DE was dredged highly.

  10. Persistent low-grade inflammation and regular exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrom, Maj-Briit; Feigh, Michael; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2010-01-01

    Persistent low-grade systemic inflammation is a feature of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes and dementia and evidence exists that inflammation is a causal factor in the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Regular exercise offers protection...... against all of these diseases and recent evidence suggests that the protective effect of exercise may to some extent be ascribed to an anti-inflammatory effect of regular exercise. Visceral adiposity contributes to systemic inflammation and is independently associated with the occurrence of CVD, type 2...

  11. Histopathological spectrum of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Surya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas (PLGA are distinctive salivary gland neoplasms, with an almost exclusive propensity to arise from the minor salivary glands. PLGA frequently manifests as an asymptomatic, slow-growing mass within the oral cavity, which must be separated from adenoid cystic carcinoma and benign mixed tumor for therapeutic and prognostic considerations. We report a case of a 67-year-old male, who presented with a long-standing mass in the palate. This lesion was diagnosed as PLGA based on histopathological findings, which was further confirmed by the immunohistochemical marker.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torriani, Martin; Ouellette, Hugue [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Radiology. Div. of Musculoskeletal Radiology; Etchebehere, Mauricio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Ortopedia; Amstalden, Eliane M.I. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Patologia

    2006-06-15

    Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare soft-tissue tumor with a deceptively benign histologic appearance affecting predominantly young adults during the fourth decade of life. (MR) imaging features of a surgically confirmed case of LGFMS, affecting the shoulder is presented. A 30-year-old man presented with a 20-year history of a painless slow-growing mass in the right shoulder. Magnetic resonance images were obtained on a 2.0T scanner (Elscint, Haifa, Israel), demonstrating a well-defined soft tissue mass measuring 12.0 x 7.0 x 9.0 cm located between the deltoid muscle, rotator-cuff muscles, and proximal humerus. The differential diagnosis of LGFMS includes several benign and malignant neoplasms containing variable amounts of myxoid and fibrous tissue. Histologically, the most important differential diagnosis is with myxofibrosarcoma. Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma is a rare soft tissue tumor with slow growth and deceptively benign histologic appearance. The possibility of LGFMS must be considered when elaborating differential diagnostic possibilities for young adults with a large soft tissue mass exhibiting MR imaging characteristics of intermixed fibrous and myxoid tissue.

  13. Bioleaching of low grade nickel sulfide mineral in column reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHEN Shi-jie; QIN Wen-qing; YAN Zhong-qiang; ZHANG Yan-sheng; WANG Jun; REN Liu-yi

    2008-01-01

    Jinchuan low grade nickel (0.4%-0.6% Ni,mass fraction) sulfide mineral ore contains a remarkably high content of magnesia (30%-35% MgO,mass fraction) present in the main gangue minerals.Bioleaching was performed to investigate the feasibility to process the mineral due to its relative simplicity,eco-friendly operation and low capital cost requirements.The mixed mesophiles were enriched from acid mine drainage samples collected from several acid mines in China.Considering that the magnesia is easily extracted by acid solution and the excessive Mg2+ will exceed the tolerance of the mixed mesophiles,three effective means were used to reduce the disadvantage of magnesia during the bioleaching operation.They were adaptation of the mixed mesophiles to improve the tolerance; pre-leaching to remove most leachable magnesia and periodic bleeds of a portion of the pregnant leaching solution to control the level of Mg2+ based on the tolerance of the mixed mesophiles.An extraction of nickel (90.3%) and cobalt (88.6%) was successfully achieved within a 300 d leaching process from the Jinchuan low grade nickel sulfide mineral ore using a column reactor at ambient temperature.

  14. Flotation technology of refractory low-grade molybdenum ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Shuhua; Luo Zhenfu

    2013-01-01

    Because of the low grade,high oxidation rate and the accumulation of little associated metal sulfide ore in the molybdenum concentrate during flotation,the Qingyang molybdenum ore is difficult to beneflciate.The experimental studies of grinding fineness,the amount of roughing modifier,depressant and collector were completed.In the cleaning process,the contrast experiments of one regrinding.the regrinding and scrubbing,two-stage regrinding was carried.The result shows that the grade of molybdenum ore concentrate is 45.31%,the recovery is 65.98% and the rich ore ratio reaches 20.59% by the regrinding and scrubbing seven cleaning,the regrinding of concentrations from middling of molybdenum-sulfur separation.The regularly-concentrated material from the apparatus was as the middling products.Hence,ideal beneficiation index can be obtained with a rational mineral processing,which offers new beneficiating technology for the refractory low-grade molybdenum ore in China.

  15. Stimulation of systemic low-grade inflammation by psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohleder, Nicolas

    2014-04-01

    Psychosocial stress is an important precursor of disease and reduced quality of life in humans. The biological pathways between stress exposure and pathophysiological processes underlying disease have received substantial scientific attention, although the roles of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system remain insufficiently understood. Recent attention has focused on chronic systemic low-grade inflammation as a promising pathway because elevated inflammation often accompanies chronic psychosocial distress. These alterations of inflammatory activity play a key role in the pathophysiology of diseases that are adversely affected by chronic distress, such as cardiovascular disease. Transient increases in systemic inflammation are observed in response to acute psychosocial stress, with larger responses among individuals reporting adverse psychosocial states or conditions such as depression, lower self-esteem, or lower self-compassion. Recent evidence shows that lower subjective social status and perceived purpose in life are associated with sensitization of inflammatory stress responses to repeated stress exposure. The aims of this selective review article are to summarize current knowledge of the role of acute and chronic psychosocial stress on low-grade inflammation in humans and to discuss potential relationships between inflammatory responses to acute psychosocial stress and long-term development of disease.

  16. Ethanol and other oxygenateds from low grade carbonaceous resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, O.S.; Jung, K.D.; Han, S.H. [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Anhydrous ethanol and other oxygenates of C2 up can be produced quite competitively from low grade carbonaceous resources in high yield via gasification, methanol synthesis, carbonylation of methanol an hydrogenation consecutively. Gas phase carbonylation of methanol to form methyl acetate is the key step for the whole process. Methyl acetate can be produced very selectively in one step gas phase reaction on a fixed bed column reactor with GHSV over 5,000. The consecutive hydrogenation of methyl or ethyl acetate produce anhydrous ethanol in high purity. It is also attempted to co-produce methanol and DME in IGCC, in which low grade carbonaceous resources are used as energy sources, and the surplus power and pre-power gas can be stored in liquid form of methanol and DME during base load time. Further integration of C2 up oxygenate production with IGCC can improve its economics. The attempt of above extensive technology integration can generate significant industrial profitability as well as reduce the environmental complication related with massive energy consumption.

  17. Low-grade energy of the ground for civil engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potienko Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article researches issues related to the relevance of applying renewable energy sources for civil engineering. The aim of the work is the study of modern approaches to designing buildings, using low-grade energy of the ground. The research methodology is based on the complex analysis of international design experience and on identifying the strengths and weaknesses of objects that use low-grade heat. We have identified the prospects of applying it for domestic construction practice. The state policy in the field of the efficient use of energy resources has been analyzed, and the vector of energy-saving programs development for the Samara Region has been defined. The research describes the impact of using geothermal energy on the architectural and planning solutions of buildings, as well as the peculiar features of the latter’s design, which are related primarily to the increase of energy efficiency. As a result, in the article a conclusion is made that the objects under investigation may be considered as one of the vectors of sustainable architecture development.

  18. Low-grade serous carcinoma: new concepts and emerging therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Ignacio; Sun, Charlotte C; Wong, Kwong K; Bast, Robert C; Gershenson, David M

    2013-09-01

    For the past several years, all women with epithelial ovarian cancer have been treated identically, whether in a clinical trial or off protocol. Over the past decade, we have come to appreciate the magnitude of the heterogeneity of ovarian cancer. The development of the binary grading system for serous carcinoma was a major advance leading to separate clinical trials for patients with this subtype originating from the Gynecologic Oncology Group's Rare Tumor Committee. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway appears to play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of this subtype. Approximately 20-40% of low-grade serous carcinomas have a KRAS mutation, while BRAF mutations are rare - about 5%. Primary treatment of low-grade serous carcinoma includes surgery+platinum-based chemotherapy (either adjuvant or neoadjuvant). Clinical behavior is characterized by young age at diagnosis, relative chemoresistance, and prolonged overall survival. Current options for treatment of relapsed disease include secondary cytoreduction in selected patients, salvage chemotherapy, or hormonal therapy. A recently completed trial of a MEK inhibitor for women with recurrent disease demonstrated promising activity. Future directions will include further investigations of the molecular biology and biomarker-driven clinical trials with targeted agent monotherapy and combinations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma: review and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintor, María Fernanda; Figueroa, Liberto; Martínez, Benjamín

    2007-12-01

    Polymorphous Low-Grade Adenocarcinoma is a rare, malignant salivary gland tumor, which is found almost exclusively in minor salivary glands. It is more frequent in the age range from 30 to 70, with a clear female predilection in a 2:1 ratio. It is usually located in the hard or soft palate, although it may be found in the rest of the oral cavity too. It is rare in major salivary glands. In general it has good prognosis, with recurrence rates in the range of 17% - 24%. Although rare, metastasis to regional lymph nodes may occur in 9% of the cases. This report describes the case of a patient that consulted at the Military Odontological Center (Central Odontológica del Ejército) due to an esthetic alteration of her dental prosthesis, which had been made 8 years before. The patient was sent to the Maxillofacial Surgery Service, where the intraoral examination showed a big mass compromising the hard palate and the alveolar ridge. During examination, a dent in her prosthesis was found to correspond to the tumor mass; it was therefore concluded that the tumor had at least an eight-year-old evolution. An incisional biopsy was carried out, and once the polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma diagnosis had been stated, the patient was sent to the Head and Neck Surgery Service of the Military Hospital, where the lesion was treated by wide surgical excision followed by radiation therapy.

  20. Persistent low-grade inflammation and regular exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrom, Maj-Briit; Feigh, Michael; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2010-01-01

    Persistent low-grade systemic inflammation is a feature of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes and dementia and evidence exists that inflammation is a causal factor in the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Regular exercise offers protection against all of these diseases and recent evidence suggests that the protective effect of exercise may to some extent be ascribed to an anti-inflammatory effect of regular exercise. Visceral adiposity contributes to systemic inflammation and is independently associated with the occurrence of CVD, type 2 diabetes and dementia. We suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of exercise may be mediated via a long-term effect of exercise leading to a reduction in visceral fat mass and/or by induction of anti-inflammatory cytokines with each bout of exercise.

  1. Beneficiation of low-grade diasporic bauxite with hydrocyclone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Shu-ling; LI Xia-an; WEI De-zhou; FANG Ping; JIA Chun-yun; LIU Wen-gang; HAN Cong

    2008-01-01

    Low-grade diasporic bauxite was treated with hydrocyclone of small cone-angle. The effects of apex diameter, feed pressure and feed concentration on separation indexes were tested, and then the separation process was discussed by hydrokinetics tentatively. The results show that the increase of apex diameter changes the spacial locality of the envelope of zero vertical velocity, resulting in decrease of the ratio of Al2O3/SiO2 in overflow and increase of the recovery of Al2O3 in underflow, while feed pressure and feed concentration have no remarkable effect on the spacial locality of the envelope of zero vertical velocity, however, the separation indexes are improved by the increase of feed pressure, but are worsened by the increase of feed concentration.

  2. Persistent low-grade inflammation and regular exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åström, Maj-brit; Feigh, Michael; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2010-01-01

    Persistent low-grade systemic inflammation is a feature of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes and dementia and evidence exists that inflammation is a causal factor in the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Regular exercise offers protection...... against all of these diseases and recent evidence suggests that the protective effect of exercise may to some extent be ascribed to an anti-inflammatory effect of regular exercise. Visceral adiposity contributes to systemic inflammation and is independently associated with the occurrence of CVD, type 2...... diabetes and dementia. We suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of exercise may be mediated via a long-term effect of exercise leading to a reduction in visceral fat mass and/or by induction of anti-inflammatory cytokines with each bout of exercise....

  3. Flotation studies on low grade graphite ore from eastern India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vasumathi N.; Vijaya Kumar T.V.; Ratchambigai S.; Subba Rao S.; Bhaskar Raju G

    2015-01-01

    A low grade graphite ore from eastern India was beneficiated by flotation to improve its quality. The ore was composed of 87.80%ash and 8.59%fixed carbon. Primary coarse wet grinding (d80:186 lm) followed by rougher flotation in Denver flotation cell using diesel as collector and pine oil as frother yielded a rougher concentrate. Regrinding (d80:144 lm) of this rougher concentrate was opted for further libera-tion of graphite. It was followed by cleaning in laboratory flotation column. This combined process of relatively coarse primary grinding followed by regrinding and cleaning in flotation column resulted in final concentrate of 7.44% yield with 89.65% fixed carbon and 6.00% ash. This approach of two-stage grinding to recover the flake graphite at the coarsest possible grind can help to minimize grinding energy costs. A conceptual flow sheet which is cost effective was developed based on this methodology.

  4. Development of low grade waste heat thermoelectric power generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvit Punnachaiya

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to develop a 50 watt thermoelectric power generator using low grade waste heat as a heat source,in order to recover and utilize the excess heat in cooling systems of industrial processes and high activity radioisotope sources. Electricity generation was based on the reverse operation of a thermoelectric cooling (TEC device. The TEC devices weremodified and assembled into a set of thermal cell modules operating at a temperature less than 100°C. The developed powergenerator consisted of 4 modules, each generating 15 watts. Two cascade modules were connected in parallel. Each modulecomprised of 96 TEC devices, which were connected in series. The hot side of each module was mounted on an aluminumheat transfer pipe with dimensions 12.212.250 cm. Heat sinks were installed on the cold side with cooling fans to provideforced air cooling.To test electricity generation in the experiment, water steam was used as a heat source instead of low grade waste heat.The open-circuit direct current (DC of 250 V and the short-circuit current of 1.2 A was achieved with the following operatingconditions: a hot side temperature of 96°C and a temperature difference between the hot and cold sides of 25°C. The DC poweroutput was inverted to an AC power source of 220 V with 50 Hz frequency, which can continuously supply more than 50 wattsof power to a resistive load as long as the heat source was applied to the system. The system achieved an electrical conversionefficiency of about 0.47 percent with the capital cost of 70 US$/W.

  5. Low grade epithelial stromal tumour of the seminal vesicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozzoli Gianluigi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mixed epithelial stromal tumour is morphologically characterised by a mixture of solid and cystic areas consisting of a biphasic proliferation of glands admixed with solid areas of spindle cells with variable cellularity and growth patterns. In previous reports the seminal vesicle cystoadenoma was either considered a synonym of or misdiagnosed as mixed epithelial stromal tumour. The recent World Health Organisation Classification of Tumours considered the two lesions as two distinct neoplasms. This work is aimed to present the low-grade epithelial stromal tumour case and the review of the literature to the extent of establishing the true frequency of the neoplasm. Case presentation We describe a low-grade epithelial stromal tumour of the seminal vesicle in a 50-year-old man. Computed tomography showed a 9 × 4.5 cm pelvic mass in the side of the seminal vesicle displacing the prostate and the urinary bladder. Magnetic resonance was able to define tissue planes between the lesion and the adjacent structures and provided useful information for an accurate conservative laparotomic surgical approach. The histology revealed biphasic proliferation of benign glands admixed with stromal cellularity, with focal atypia. After 26 months after the excision the patient is still alive with no evidence of disease. Conclusion Cystoadenoma and mixed epithelial stromal tumour of seminal vesicle are two distinct pathological entities with different histological features and clinical outcome. Due to the unavailability of accurate prognostic parameters, the prediction of the potential biological evolution of mixed epithelial stromal tumour is still difficult. In our case magnetic resonance imaging was able to avoid an exploratory laparotomy and to establish an accurate conservative surgical treatment of the tumour.

  6. Conformal proton radiation therapy for pediatric low-grade astrocytomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hug, E.B. [Loma Linda Univ. Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Medicine; Loma Linda Univ. Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA (United States). Dept. of Pediatrics and Dept. of Pathology; Darthmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States). Section of Radiation Oncology; Muenter, M.W.; Archambeau, J.O.; DeVries, A.; Loredo, L.N.; Grove, R.I.; Slater, J.D. [Loma Linda Univ. Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Medicine; Liwnicz, B. [Loma Linda Univ. Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA (United States). Dept. of Pathology

    2002-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of proton radiation therapy (PRT) for intracranial low-grade astrocytomas, the authors analyzed the first 27 pediatric patients treated at Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC). Patients and Method: Between September 1991 and August 1997, 27 patients (13 female, 14 male) underwent fractionated proton radiation therapy for progressive or recurrent low-grade astrocytoma. Age at time of treatment ranged from 2 to 18 years (mean: 8.7 years). Tumors were located centrally (diencephatic) in 15 patients, in the cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres in seven patients, and in the brainstem in five patients. 25/27 patients (92%) were treated for progressive, unresectable, or residual disease following subtotal resection. Tissue diagnosis was available in 23/27 patients (85%). Four patients with optic pathway tumors were treated without histologic confirmation. Target doses between 50.4 and 63.0 CGE (cobalt gray equivalent, mean: 55.2 CGE) were prescribed at 1.8 CGE per fraction, five treatments per week. Results: At a mean follow-up period of 3.3 years (0.6-6.8 years), 6/27 patients experienced local failure (all located within the irradiated field), and 4/27 patients had died. By anatomic site these data translated into rates of local control and survival of 87% (13/15 patients) and 93% (14/15 patients) for central tumors, 71% (5/7 patients) and 86% (6/7 patients) for hemispheric tumors, and 60% (3/5 patients) and 60% (3/5 patients) for tumors located in the brainstem. Proton radiation therapy was generally well tolerated. All children with local control maintained their performance status. One child with associated neurofibromatosis, Type 1, developed Moyamoya disease. All six patients with optic pathway tumors and useful vision maintained or improved their visual status. Conclusions: This report on pediatric low-grade astrocytomas confirms proton radiation therapy as a safe and efficacious 3-D conformal treatment

  7. Outcomes of Multidisciplinary Management in Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kevin S., E-mail: koh2@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hung, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Robertson, Patricia L. [Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Neurology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Garton, Hugh J.; Muraszko, Karin M. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sandler, Howard M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hamstra, Daniel A. [Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes in pediatric low-grade gliomas managed in a multidisciplinary setting. Methods and Materials: We conducted a single-institution retrospective study of 181 children with Grade I-II gliomas. Log-rank and stepwise Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze freedom from progression (FFP) and overall survival (OS). Results: Median follow-up was 6.4 years. Thirty-four (19%) of patients had neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) and because of their favorable prognosis were evaluated separately. In the 147 (81%) of patients without NF1, actuarial 7-year FFP and OS were 67 {+-} 4% (standard error) and 94 {+-} 2%, respectively. In this population, tumor location in the optic pathway/hypothalamus was associated with worse FFP (39% vs. 76%, p < 0.0003), but there was no difference in OS. Age {<=}5 years was associated with worse FFP (52% vs. 75%, p < 0.02) but improved OS (97% vs. 92%, p < 0.05). In those with tissue diagnosis, gross total resection (GTR) was associated with improved 7-year FFP (81% vs. 56%, p < 0.02) and OS (100% vs. 90%, p < 0.03). In a multivariate model, only location in the optic pathway/hypothalamus predicted worse FFP (p < 0.01). Fifty patients received radiation therapy (RT). For those with less than GTR, adjuvant RT improved FFP (89% vs. 49%, p < 0.003) but not OS. There was no difference in OS between patient groups given RT as adjuvant vs. salvage therapy. In NF1 patients, 94% of tumors were located in the optic pathway/hypothalamus. With a conservative treatment strategy in this population, actuarial 7-year FFP and OS were 73 {+-} 9% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: Low-grade gliomas in children {<=}5 years old with tumors in the optic pathway/hypothalamus are more likely to progress, but this does not confer worse OS because of the success of salvage therapy. When GTR is not achieved, adjuvant RT improves FFP but not OS. Routine adjuvant RT can be avoided and instead reserved as salvage.

  8. Efficacy of the Kyoto Classification of Gastritis in Identifying Patients at High Risk for Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Ban, Hiromitsu; Ichikawa, Hitomi; Sahara, Shu; Otsuka, Taketo; Inatomi, Osamu; Bamba, Shigeki; Furuta, Takahisa; Andoh, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Objective The Kyoto gastritis classification categorizes the endoscopic characteristics of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection-associated gastritis and identifies patterns associated with a high risk of gastric cancer. We investigated its efficacy, comparing scores in patients with H. pylori-associated gastritis and with gastric cancer. Methods A total of 1,200 patients with H. pylori-positive gastritis alone (n=932), early-stage H. pylori-positive gastric cancer (n=189), and successfully treated H. pylori-negative cancer (n=79) were endoscopically graded according to the Kyoto gastritis classification for atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, fold hypertrophy, nodularity, and diffuse redness. Results The prevalence of O-II/O-III-type atrophy according to the Kimura-Takemoto classification in early-stage H. pylori-positive gastric cancer and successfully treated H. pylori-negative cancer groups was 45.1%, which was significantly higher than in subjects with gastritis alone (12.7%, pgastritis scores of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in the H. pylori-positive cancer group were significantly higher than in subjects with gastritis alone (all pgastritis classification may thus be useful for detecting these patients.

  9. Second Surgery in Insular Low-Grade Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Ius

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Given the technical difficulties, a limited number of works have been published on insular gliomas surgery and risk factors for tumor recurrence (TR are poorly documented. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine TR in adult patients with initial diagnosis of insular Low-Grade Gliomas (LGGs that subsequently underwent second surgery. Methods. A consecutive series of 53 patients with insular LGGs was retrospectively reviewed; 23 patients had two operations for TR. Results. At the time of second surgery, almost half of the patients had experienced progression into high-grade gliomas (HGGs. Univariate analysis showed that TR is influenced by the following: extent of resection (EOR (P<0.002, ΔVT2T1 value (P<0.001, histological diagnosis of oligodendroglioma (P=0.017, and mutation of IDH1 (P=0.022. The multivariate analysis showed that EOR at first surgery was the independent predictor for TR (P<0.001. Conclusions. In patients with insular LGG the EOR at first surgery represents the major predictive factor for TR. At time of TR, more than 50% of cases had progressed in HGG, raising the question of the oncological management after the first surgery.

  10. Recovery of nickel from low grade laterite by electrochemical leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-Gyu; Lee, Hwa-Young; Oh, Jong-Kee [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-06-30

    A study on the recovery of nickel from low-grade laterite is carried out by the electrochemical leaching. The results show that the leaching reaction of Ni and Fe increases with time until 60 minutes, after which the leaching rate decreases. The leaching efficiencies of Ni and Fe are 73% and 64% at 2 hr. reaction, respectively. And current density plays an important role in the leaching rate of nickel, but power consumption increases with increase of current density which proportionally corresponds to nickel leaching. Also, the leaching efficiency of nickel appears to decrease in a small amount with increasing solid density. However, so as to reduce power consumption solid density has to be raised so long as the stirring intensity is not restricted due to heavy load. When the pH of the leaching solution is increased to 6.0, iron and nickel are remaining about 10% and 90% of initial concentrations in the leaching solution, respectively. (author). 11 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  11. Advances in the management of low-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswara Rao, Amulya A; Packer, Roger J

    2014-01-01

    Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) represent the most common childhood brain tumors and are a histologically heterogenous group of tumors. Most LGGs are surgically resectable with excellent 10-year overall survival outcomes of more than 90 % with surgery alone. Tumors not amenable to surgical resection and those with an aggressive biology are more challenging to treat. Conventional radiotherapy is a more efficacious method of long-term tumor control than chemotherapy. However, radiation is associated with significant cognitive, endocrine, and cerebrovascular late effects, making chemotherapy an often-preferred modality over radiotherapy, especially in younger children. Multiple chemotherapy regimens have been evaluated over the past few decades with comparable survival outcomes and differing toxicity profiles. Newer regimens containing antiangiogenic agents also show promise. Recent molecular studies have implicated the BRAF oncogene, a key regulator of the MAPK pathway, and the AKT/mTOR pathway in pediatric LGG tumorigenesis. This has opened up promising new avenues for targeted therapy, with many agents currently under investigation.

  12. Low-grade Prehnite-Pumpellyite facies metamorphism in the Bamble sector, SE-Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Velo, Mari Roen

    2014-01-01

    Low-grade metamorphic minerals have been found within the high-grade terrain in the Bamble sector, SE-Norway. The minerals prehnite and pumpellyite indicative of prehnite-pumpellyite facies conditions have been confirmed around the Kragerø area. The formation of analcime, thomsonite, hydrogarnet, albite and clay minerals is also a part of the low-grade metamorphism. The occurrence of these low-grade minerals is constricted to pseudomorph replacement of earlier mineral phases, hydrothermal vei...

  13. Distribution of H.pylori antigens in gastric mucosa and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆新良; 钱可大; 唐训球; 朱永良

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the distribution of H. pylori antigens in the gastric mucosa in patients with H. pylori infection, and the relationship between the distribution and gastric cancer. Methods: Of 112 patients confirmed by pathological study to have chronic superficial gastritis, precancerous changes (chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia or atypical hyperplasia) and gastric cancer, 28 were H. pylori negative and 84 were H. pylori positive. H. pylori antigens in the gastric mucosa were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: The H. pylori positive group, comprised 12 of 22 (50.0%) in the chronic superficial gastritis group, 22 of 25 (88.0%) in the precancerous changes group and 13 of 35 (37.1%) in the gastric cancer group. The positive rates of H. pylori antigens in the cytoplasm progressively increased, respectively at 0.0% (0/12),63.6% (14/22) and 84.6% (11/13) for the same groups (χ2=19.76, P=0.000); H.pylori antigens were located in the mucus layer and above the neck of the mucosal gland in 9 of 12 (75.0%) cases with chronic superficial gastritis, at the neck of the mucosal gland and the isthmus in 12 of 22 (54.5%) cases with precancerous changes, below the isthmus in 9 of 13 (69.2%) cases with gastric cancer (x2=25.30, P=0.000). In the H. pylori negative group, no H.pylori antigen was observed. Conclusion: With the progression of chronic superficial gastritis→precancerous changes→gastric cancer, H. pylori antigens progressively migrated from the outer part to the inner part of the cell, and from the superficial to the deep gastric mucosa.

  14. Sexuality after surgery for diffuse low-grade glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbeck, Werner; Herbet, Guillaume; Duffau, Hugues

    2015-01-01

    Background Although neurological and neurocognitive outcomes have previously been studied after resection of diffuse low-grade glioma (DLGG), the impact of surgery on sexual life has not been investigated. Our aim was to assess whether DLGG surgery could have consequences on sexual experience. Methods Anonymous standardized questionnaires concerning sexual functioning, including the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX) and a subjective statement, were completed by 32 patients who underwent surgery for DLGG. All patients returned to a normal social and professional life following resection, with neither neurological deficits nor depression. No radiotherapy was administered, and patients who received chemotherapy were without treatment for at least 1 year. Results Seventeen patients (53%) reported a postoperative sexual change, with subjective deterioration in 15 (88%) and improvement in 2 (12%). Sexual dysfunction according to ASEX affected 9 of 15 women (60%) and 5 of 17 men (29%). Right-sided resections were associated with more difficulties in reaching orgasm than left-sided resections (P < .02). Men with temporal lobe resection displayed more reduction in sexual drive (P < .003) and sexual arousal (P < .004) than women, resulting in significant higher overall ASEX scores for temporal lobe resections in men (P = .01). Men remaining on antiepileptic drugs who underwent right-sided resection displayed higher overall ASEX scores than women (P = .031). Conclusions This first evaluation of sexual life after surgery for DLGG suggests that sexual dysfunction is common in this population. Therefore, we suggest that sexual health should consistently be addressed during routine pre- and postoperative examination of patients with DLGG. PMID:25699682

  15. PDGFRA gain in low-grade diffuse gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Kazuya; Mittelbronn, Michel; Paulus, Werner; Brokinkel, Benjamin; Keyvani, Kathy; Sure, Ulrich; Wrede, Karsten; Nakazato, Yoichi; Tanaka, Yuko; Nonoguchi, Naosuke; Pierscianek, Daniela; Kim, Young-Ho; Mariani, Luigi; Vital, Anne; Perry, Arie; Ohgaki, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastomas with a proneural expression signature are characterized by frequent IDH1 mutations (i.e. genetic hallmarks of secondary glioblastomas) and PDGFRA (platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α) amplification. Mutations in IDH1/2 are frequent and early genetic events in diffuse astrocytomas (World Health Organization grade II), precursor to secondary glioblastomas, but little is known about the role and timing of PDGFRA amplification in these tumors. We assessed PDGFRA gain in 342 low-grade diffuse gliomas by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Gain in PDGFRA was detected in 27 (16.3%) of 166 diffuse astrocytomas, significantly more frequent than in oligodendrogliomas (3 [2.6%] of 115, p < 0.0001). Analyses using previously published data from our laboratory showed an inverse correlation between PDGFRA gain and IDH1/2 mutations (p = 0.018) or 1p/19q loss (p < 0.0001). The vast majority of diffuse astrocytomas showed IDH1/2 mutations and/or PDGFRA gain (154 [93%] of 166). Mean survival of diffuse astrocytoma patients with PDGFRA gain was 8.8 ± 1.6 years, similar to that with IDH1/2 mutations (7.8 ± 0.5 years) or TP53 mutations (7.6 ± 0.6 years) but significantly longer than those with MET gain (4.4 ± 0.7 years). Dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization in 6 diffuse astrocytomas with PDGFRA/MET co-gain identified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that PDGFRA and MET were typically amplified in different tumor cell populations. Tumor cells with coamplification were also focally observed, suggesting intratumoral heterogeneity, even in diffuse astrocytomas.

  16. Gut microbiota, low-grade inflammation, and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassaing, Benoit; Gewirtz, Andrew T

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal tract is inhabited by a large diverse community of bacteria collectively referred to as the gut microbiota. Alterations in gut microbiota composition are associated with a variety of disease states including obesity, diabetes, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Transplant of microbiota from diseased persons (or mice) to germfree mice transfers some aspects of disease phenotype, indicating that altered microbiota plays a role in disease establishment and manifestation. There are myriad potential mechanisms by which alterations in gut microbiota might promote disease, including increasing energy harvest, production of toxic metabolites, and molecular mimicry of host proteins. However, our research indicates that an overarching mechanism by which an aberrant microbiota negatively impacts health is by driving chronic inflammation. More specifically, we hypothesize that the histopathologically evident gut inflammation that defines IBD is a severe but relatively rare outcome of an altered host-microbiota relationship, while a much more common consequence of such disturbances is "low-grade" inflammation characterized by elevated proinflammatory gene expression that associates with, and may promote, metabolic syndrome. In this context, a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases may stem from inability of the mucosal immune system to properly manage a stable healthy relationship with the gut microbiota. While one's ability to manage their gut microbiota is dictated in part by genetics, it can be markedly influenced by the composition of the microbiota one inherits from their early environment. Moreover, the host-microbiota relationship can be perturbed by instigator bacteria or dietary components, which may prove to play a role in promoting chronic inflammatory disease states.

  17. Cumulative irritancy in the guinea pig from low grade irritant vehicles and the angry skin syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I

    1980-01-01

    A 4-week open cumulative irritancy test in guinea pigs discriminated between two low grade irritant vehicles, nonionic base (anhydrous) and hydrophilic ointment. The procedure might be useful as a predictive test for low grade irritants. The angry skin syndrome was established in the guinea pigs...

  18. DNA methylation signatures of chronic low-grade inflammation are associated with complex diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Ligthart (Symen); Marzi, C. (Carola); Aslibekyan, S. (Stella); Mendelson, M.M. (Michael M.); K.N. Conneely (Karen N.); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); Colicino, E. (Elena); L. Waite (Lindsay); R. Joehanes (Roby); W. Guan (Weihua); J. Brody (Jennifer); C.E. Elks (Cathy); R.E. Marioni (Riccardo); M.A. Jhun (Min A.); Agha, G. (Golareh); J. Bressler (Jan); C.K. Ward-Caviness (Cavin K.); B.H. Chen (Brian); T. Huan (Tianxiao); K.M. Bakulski (Kelly M.); E. Salfati (Elias); Fiorito, G. (Giovanni); S. Wahl (Simone); K. Schramm (Katharina); Sha, J. (Jin); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); Just, A.C. (Allan C.); J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); N. Sotoodehnia (Nona); L.C. Pilling (Luke); J.S. Pankow (James); Tsao, P.S. (Phil S.); Liu, C. (Chunyu); W. Zhao (Wei); S. Guarrera (Simonetta); Michopoulos, V.J. (Vasiliki J.); Smith, A.K. (Alicia K.); M.J. Peters (Marjolein); D. Melzer (David); Vokonas, P. (Pantel); M. Fornage (Myriam); H. Prokisch (Holger); J.C. Bis (Joshua); A.Y. Chu (Audrey); C. Herder (Christian); H. Grallert (Harald); C. Yao (Chen); S. Shah (Sonia); A.F. McRae (Allan F.); H. Lin; S. Horvath (Steve); Fallin, D. (Daniele); A. Hofman (Albert); N.J. Wareham (Nick); K.L. Wiggins (Kerri); A.P. Feinberg (Andrew P.); J.M. Starr (John); P.M. Visscher (Peter); J. Murabito (Joanne); Kardia, S.L.R. (Sharon L.R.); D. Absher (Devin); E.B. Binder (Elisabeth); A. Singleton (Andrew); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); A. Peters (Annette); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); G. Matullo; Schwartz, J.D. (Joel D.); E.W. Demerath (Ellen); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); Meurs, J.B.J. (Joyce B.J.); O.H. Franco (Oscar); Y.D. Chen (Y.); D. Levy (Daniel); S.T. Turner (Stephen); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); K.J. Ressler (Kerry); J. Dupuis (Josée); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); Ong, K.K. (Ken K.); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); D.K. Arnett (Donna); A.A. Baccarelli (Andrea A.); E.J. Benjamin (Emelia); A. Dehghan (Abbas)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Chronic low-grade inflammation reflects a subclinical immune response implicated in the pathogenesis of complex diseases. Identifying genetic loci where DNA methylation is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation may reveal novel pathways or therapeutic targets for infl

  19. Allergic sensitization at school age is a systemic low-grade inflammatory disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, B. L. K.; Stokholm, J.; Malby-Schoos, A.-M.;

    2015-01-01

    Systemic low-grade inflammation has been demonstrated in a range of the frequent noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) as a possible shared mechanism, but is largely unexplored in relation to allergic sensitization. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the possible association between systemic low-grade...

  20. Upregulation of miR-222 in both Helicobacter pylori-infected and noninfected gastric cancer patients

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MINA NOORMOHAMMAD; SAMIRA SADEGHI; HOSSEIN TABATABAEIAN; KAMRAN GHAEDI; ARDESHIR TALEBI; MANSOUREH AZADEH; MEHRI KHATAMI; MOHAMMAD MEHDI HEIDARI

    2016-12-01

    Despite of promising improvements in treatment of gastric cancer, the mortality rate of this malignancy remains high. Chronic infection by Helicobacter pylori, interfering with intracellular signalling pathways, is the main risk factor for gastric cancer.Some evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNA), the small noncoding RNA molecules, can play role as oncogenes or tumour suppressors in the cells. MiR-222 is one of the remarkable miRNAs undergoing upregulation in gastric cancer. However, the association between miR-222 upregulation and H. pylori infection in gastric cancer tissues remains unclear. The aim of this study was to analyse the expression level of miR-222 in gastric cancer tissues, evaluating the relationship between miR-222 expression level and H. pylori infection and also finding novel miR-222 targets based on in silico investigations. MiR-222 expression level in 200 patients including 112 H. pylori positive and 88 H. pylori negative was relatively measured using RT-qPCR and compared with 88 healthy samples. In silico enrichment analysis of miR-222 targets was performed byDAVID database to evaluate the possible role(s) of miR-222 in gastric tumourigenesis. We observed upregulated level of miR-222 in gastric cancer tissues compared with normal samples (P<0.05). However, no significant difference between miR-222 expression in H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative cases was observed. Our in silico analyses showed the possiblerole of p53, p27, PTEN and Elongin B in gastric cancer tumourigenesis. MiR-222 functions as an onco-miRNA and its overexpression can be involved in pathogenesis of gastric cancer, independent of H. pylori infection.

  1. Synchronous Low-grade Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasm and Primary Peritoneal Low-grade Serous Carcinoma: A First Description of These 2 Neoplasms Presenting Together as Suspected Peritoneal Carcinomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Miroslav; Pichler Sekulic, Simona; Movahedi-Lankarani, Saeid

    2016-09-28

    Low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm is a neoplasm typically of appendiceal origin, which is characterized by diffuse peritoneal involvement by pools of mucin with mucinous epithelium lacking high-grade cytologic atypia, and clinically presents as suspected peritoneal carcinomatosis. A similar clinical presentation can sometimes be seen with disseminated low-grade serous carcinomas of the peritoneum, fallopian tubes, or ovaries; however, this neoplasm is histologically characterized by tubal-type epithelium and invasive or confluent growth. In this case report, we describe a patient presenting with a clinical examination and radiologic features suggestive of peritoneal carcinomatosis and a prominent pelvic mass; however, after pathologic review, the patient was proven to have peritoneal involvement by both low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm of appendiceal origin and a low-grade peritoneal primary serous carcinoma. In short, we present the first description of low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm and serous carcinoma of the peritoneum presenting synchronously, providing morphologic characterization and immunohistochemical studies supporting the diagnosis, and illustrating a rare instance in which 2 neoplastic processes are underlying clinically suspected peritoneal carcinomatosis.

  2. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on Bax protein expression in patients with gastric precancerous lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Feng Liu; Wei-Wen Liu; Guo-An Wang; Xiao-Chun Teng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection on Bax protein expression, and explore the role of H pylori in gastric carcinogenesis.METHODS: H pylori was assessed by rapid urease test and Warthin-Starry method, and expression of Bax protein was examined immunohistochemically in 72 patients with pre-malignant lesions.RESULTS: Bax protein was differently expressed in intestinal metaplasia and gastric dysplasia, and showed 63.99% positivity. The positivity of Bax protein expression in H pylori-positive gastric precancerous lesions (72.3%) was significantly higher than that in H pylori-negative gastric precancerous lesions (48.0%, χ2 = 4.191, P<0.05).H pylori infection was well correlated with the expression of Bax protein in gastric precancerous lesions (r = 0.978,P<0.01). After eradication of H pylori, the positivity of Bax protein expression significantly decreased in H pylori-positive gastric precancerous lesions (χ2= 5.506,P<0.05). In the persisting H pylori-infected patients,the positivity of Bax protein expression was not changed.CONCLUSION: H pylori infection may be involved in the upregulation of Bax gene, which might be one of the mechanisms of H pylori infection-induced gastric epithelial cell apoptosis. H pylori might act as a tumor promoter in the genesis of gastric carcinoma and eradication of H pylori could inhibit gastric carcinogenesis.

  3. Epithelial cell kinetics of the gastric mucosa during Helicobacter pylori infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Susanne; Holm, I.L.; Holck, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important pathogen in major gastroduodenal diseases, including inflammation with ulceration and gastric malignancies. Alterations in H. pylori associated cell turnover in gastric epithelial cells are examined in relation to inflammatory activity, bacteria load...... and cytokines which may improve knowledge concerning the outcome of gastric diseases caused by H. pylori. Antral biopsies from 42 dyspeptic patients including 27 H. pylori-positive and 15 H. pylori-negative patients were tested for apoptotic activity by the TUNEL assay, and immuno-histochemically for p53...... and the proliferative marker Ki-67. H. pylori infection, bacteria load and inflammatory activity were associated with increased cell turnover as judged by enhanced activities of TUNEL, p53 and Ki-67. Only p53 was significantly correlated to IFN-gamma, IL-8 and IL-10. The H. pylori-positive state was furthermore...

  4. Stress-induced hemorrhagic gastric ulcer after successful Helicobacter pylori eradication: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyamoto Mitsuaki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Helicobacter pylori infection is a major cause of gastric ulcers, and Helicobacter pylori eradication drastically reduces ulcer recurrence. It has been reported, however, that severe physical stress is closely associated with gastric ulceration even in Helicobacter pylori -negative patients. Case presentation We report the cases of a 47-year-old Japanese man and a 69-year-old Japanese man who developed psychological stress-induced hemorrhagic gastric ulcers, in both of whom Helicobacter pylori had been successfully eradicated. Conclusion Our cases strongly suggest that not only physical but also psychological stress is still an important pathogenic factor for peptic ulceration and accordingly that physicians should pay attention to the possible presence of psychological stress in the management of patients with peptic ulcers.

  5. BRAF Mutation Is Rare in Advanced-Stage Low-Grade Ovarian Serous Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kwong-Kwok; Tsang, Yvonne T.M.; Deavers, Michael T.; Mok, Samuel C.; Zu, Zhifei; Sun, Charlotte; Malpica, Anais; Wolf, Judith K.; Lu, Karen H.; Gershenson, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas are believed to arise via an adenoma-serous borderline tumor-serous carcinoma sequence. In this study, we found that advanced-stage, low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas both with and without adjacent serous borderline tumor shared similar regions of loss of heterozygosity. We then analyzed 91 ovarian tumor samples for mutations in TP53, BRAF, and KRAS. TP53 mutations were not detected in any serous borderline tumors (n = 30) or low-grade serous carcinomas (n = 43) but were found in 73% of high-grade serous carcinomas (n = 18). BRAF (n = 9) or KRAS (n = 5) mutation was detected in 47% of serous borderline tumors, but among the low-grade serous carcinomas (39 stage III, 2 stage II, and 2 stage I), only one (2%) had a BRAF mutation and eight (19%) had a KRAS mutation. The low frequency of BRAF mutations in advanced-stage, low-grade serous carcinomas, which contrasts with previous findings, suggests that aggressive, low-grade serous carcinomas are more likely derived from serous borderline tumors without BRAF mutation. In addition, advanced-stage, low-grade carcinoma patients with BRAF or KRAS mutation have a better apparent clinical outcome. However, further investigation is needed. PMID:20802181

  6. Metastatic low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma of clitoris: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulaki, A; Papathomas, T G; Alexandrou, P; Lazaris, A C

    2007-01-01

    Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) is an uncommon neoplasm, which has a highly recurrent nature. A review of the literature revealed that only one case of low-grade ESS, arising within the vulva from a focus of endometriosis, has been previously published. We describe an additional case of low-grade ESS arising within the vulva and to the best of our knowledge the first report of low-grade ESS metastasized to clitoris. A 46-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to a heavy uterine bleeding. A physical examination revealed a lesion in clitoris, which exhibited a densely cellular mesenchymal neoplasm on microscopy. On the basis of the pathologic features alone, a differential diagnosis of a low-grade ESS and cellular leiomyoma was considered. Seven months later, the patient presented again with excessive uterine bleeding and a total hysterectomy was performed. A tumor of white-tan, whorled appearance was found. Its features were suggestive of low-grade ESS. Taking into account the possible extrauterine location of an ESS and reviewing the first case, a diagnosis of rare low-grade ESS metastasized to clitoris was made.

  7. Oxyntic gastric atrophy in Helicobacter pylori gastritis is distinct from autoimmune gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venerito, Marino; Varbanova, Mariya; Röhl, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Reinhold, Dirk; Frauenschläger, Katrin; Jechorek, Doerthe; Weigt, Jochen; Link, Alexander; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2016-08-01

    To assess characteristics of oxyntic gastric atrophy (OGA) in autoimmune gastritis (AIG) compared with OGA as a consequence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Patients undergoing oesophagogastroduodenoscopy from July 2011 to October 2014 were prospectively included (N=452). Gastric biopsies were obtained for histology and H. pylori testing. Serum gastrin-17 (G17), pepsinogen (PG) I, PGII and antibodies against H. pylori and cytotoxin-associated gene A protein were determined in all patients. Antibodies against parietal cells and intrinsic factor were determined in patients with advanced (moderate to severe) OGA. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were calculated for serum biomarkers and compared with histology. Overall, 34 patients (8.9%) had advanced OGA by histology (22 women, age 61±15 years). Current or past H. pylori infection and AIG were present in 14/34 and 22/34 patients, respectively. H. pylori-negative AIG patients (N=18) were more likely to have another autoimmune disease (OR 6.3; 95% CI 1.3 to 29.8), severe corpus atrophy (OR 10.1; 95% CI 1.9 to 54.1) and corpus intestinal metaplasia (OR 26.9; 95% CI 5.3 to 136.5) compared with H. pylori-positive patients with advanced OGA. Antrum atrophy was present in 39% of H. pylori-negative AIG patients. The diagnostic performance of G17, PG I and PGI/II was excellent for AIG patients (AUC=0.83, 0.95 and 0.97, respectively), but limited for H. pylori-positive patients with advanced OGA (AUC=0.62, 0.75 and 0.67, respectively). H. pylori-negative AIG has a distinct clinical, morphological and serological phenotype compared with advanced OGA in H. pylori gastritis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on outcomes in resected gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Jennifer M; Ozbek, Umut; Harpaz, Noam; Holcombe, Randall F; Ang, Celina

    2017-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection is a known risk factor for gastric cancer (GC) and has been linked with gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. Studies examining the relationship between H. pylori infection, GC characteristics and prognosis are limited and have yielded conflicting results. We report on the clinicopathologic characteristics and oncologic outcomes of gastric and GEJ cancer patients with and without a history of H. pylori treated at our institution. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients over the age of 18 years who underwent curative resection for GEJ and GC at Mount Sinai Hospital between 2007 and 2012 who had histopathologic documentation of the presence or absence of H pylori infection. Demographic, clinical, pathologic, treatment characteristics and outcomes including recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared. Ninety-five patients were identified. The majority of patients were male (61%), white (36%) or Asian (34%), with median age at diagnosis 64. Tumors were stage I (51%), stage II (23%), stage III (25%), and stage IV (1%). H pylori infection status was documented at the time of cancer diagnosis in 89 (94%) patients, and following cancer diagnosis and treatment in 6 (6%) patients. Younger age at diagnosis, Asian race and Lauren histologic classification were associated with H Pylori infection. H pylori positive patients exhibited higher 5-year OS and 5-year RFS compared to H pylori negative patients, though the difference was not statistically significant in either univariate or multivariate analyses. In this retrospective series of predominantly early stage GC and GEJ cancers, H. pylori positive patients were significantly younger at cancer diagnosis and were more frequently Asian compared to H. pylori negative patients. Other demographic and histologic classifications except for Lauren histologic classification were similar between the two groups. H pylori positive patients appeared

  9. The improvement of treatment efficacy of gastropathy associated with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in Helicobacter pylori-negative patients with osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonenko Antonina V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the more common side effects of osteoarthritis treatment are NSAID-gastropathy and NSAID-enteropathy. NSAIDs can cause direct injury to colon tissue and also impair synthesis of prostaglandins, reduce mucosal integrity, increase permeability and promote an influx of bacteria and toxins. Alterations in gastrointestinal permeability are considered as an initial step in the development of lesions of the gastric mucosa such as erosions and ulcers. The mechanisms underlying the ability of NSAIDs to cause ulceration in the stomach and proximal duodenum are well understood and this injury can be largely be prevented through suppression of gastric acid secretion. However, our work showed that 28-day administration of the anti-secretory preparation pantoprazole (20 mg 2 times per day resulted in a statistically significant increase of dysbiosis. Monitoring of patients with osteoarthritis who used NSAIDs for more than three months showed that, in comparison to the situation before the beginning of treatment, changes in colonic microbiota were present. Multiprobiotic “Symbiter® acidophilic concentrated” introduced simultaneously with pantoprazole during 20 days prevented formation of dysbiotic changes and led to the quicker healing of gastric mucous healing, in comparison with patients who used only pantoprazole alone. Moreover, it brought about total healing of the gastric mucosa within 4 weeks from the beginning of treatment.

  10. Laryngeal lymphoma: the high and low grades of rare lymphoma involvement sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, Charles Paul; Degaetano, James; Betts, Alexandra; Farrugia, Eric; Magri, Claude; Refalo, Nicholas; Gatt, Alexander; Camilleri, David J

    2014-01-01

    The larynx is an extremely rare site of involvement by lymphomatous disease. We present two cases of isolated laryngeal high-grade and another low-grade lymphoma, together with a literature review of laryngeal lymphoma management.

  11. The Cancer Genome Atlas expression profiles of low-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, David D; Cheung, Vincent J; Muller, Karra A; Goyal, Amit; Carter, Bob S; Chen, Clark C

    2014-04-01

    Differentiating between low-grade gliomas (LGGs) of astrocytic and oligodendroglial origin remains a major challenge in neurooncology. Here the authors analyzed The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) profiles of LGGs with the goal of identifying distinct molecular characteristics that would afford accurate and reliable discrimination of astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors. They found that 1) oligodendrogliomas are more likely to exhibit the glioma-CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP), relative to low-grade astrocytomas; 2) relative to oligodendrogliomas, low-grade astrocytomas exhibit a higher expression of genes related to mitosis, replication, and inflammation; and 3) low-grade astrocytic tumors harbor microRNA profiles similar to those previously described for glioblastoma tumors. Orthogonal intersection of these molecular characteristics with existing molecular markers, such as IDH1 mutation, TP53 mutation, and 1p19q status, should facilitate accurate and reliable pathological diagnosis of LGGs.

  12. Supratentorial low grade astrocytoma: prognostic factors, dedifferentiation, and the issue of early versus late surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L.C. van Veelen; C.J.J. Avezaat (Cees); J.M. Kros (Johan); W.L.J. van Putten (Wim); C. Vecht

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: A retrospective study of patients with low grade astrocytoma was carried out because the best management of such patients remains controversial. Prognostic factors were identified by multivariate analysis. Special attention was paid to the effect

  13. Synchronized brain activity and neurocognitive function in patients with low-grade glioma : a magnetoencephalography study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, Ingeborg; Douw, Linda; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Heimans, Jan J.; van Dijk, Bob W.; Postma, Tjeerd J.; Stam, Cornelis J.; Reijneveld, Jaap C.; Klein, Martin

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the mechanisms underlying neurocognitive dysfunction in patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) by relating functional connectivity revealed by magnetoencephalography to neurocognitive function. We administered a battery of standardized neurocognitive tests measuring six neurocognitive

  14. Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma of the transverse colon: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Farrell

    2014-01-01

    This is only the second reported case of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma of the colon and would potentially have been missed had not the sample been sent for second opinion at a regional specialist centre.

  15. Prospects for production of synthetic liquid fuel from low-grade coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevyrev, Sergei; Bogomolov, Aleksandr; Alekssev, Maksim

    2015-01-01

    In the paper, we compare the energy costs of steam and steam-oxygen gasification technologies for production of synthetic liquid fuel. Results of mathematic simulation and experimental studies on gasification of low-grade coal are presented.

  16. Intramedullary spinal cord and leptomeningeal metastases from intracranial low-grade oligodendroglioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Nipun; Nolan, Craig; Hirano, Miki; Young, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    We present an unusual case of a patient with an intracranial low-grade oligodendroglioma who developed recurrence with an intramedullary spinal cord metastasis and multiple spinal leptomeningeal metastases. The intramedullary spinal cord metastasis showed mild enhancement similar to the original intracranial primary, while the multiple spinal leptomeningeal metastases revealed no enhancement. This is the seventh reported case of symptomatic intramedullary spinal cord metastasis from a low-grade oligodendroglioma.

  17. Plasma-enhanced gasification of low-grade coals for compact power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Han S.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Lee, Bong J.

    2011-10-01

    A high temperature of a steam torch ensures an efficient gasification of low-grade coals, which is comparable to that of high-grade coals. Therefore, the coal gasification system energized by microwaves can serve as a moderately sized power plant due to its compact and lightweight design. This plasma power plant of low-grade coals would be useful in rural or sparsely populated areas without access to a national power grid.

  18. Neonates with reduced neonatal lung function have systemic low-grade inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Chawes, Bo L.K.; Stokholm, Jakob; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Bisgaard, Hans Flinker

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children and adults with asthma and impaired lung function have been reported to have low-grade systemic inflammation, but it is unknown whether this inflammation starts before symptoms and in particular whether low-grade inflammation is present in asymptomatic neonates with reduced lung function. ObjectiveWe sought to investigate the possible association between neonatal lung function and biomarkers of systemic inflammation. Methods: Plasma levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive p...

  19. Radiation-Associated Low-Grade Extraskeletal Osteosarcoma of the Neck Following Treatment for Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martin; Chebib, Ivan; Deshpande, Vikram; Nielsen, G Petur

    2015-08-01

    Low-grade extraskeletal osteosarcoma is a rare tumor that may arise de novo or following radiation therapy. Because of the low-grade histology, it may be misdiagnosed as a benign lesion. We present a case of a 59-year-old man with a past history of radiotherapy for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, presenting 16 years later with a low-grade extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the neck. The patient was treated with surgical excision and is disease free after 12 months of follow-up. The prognosis for patients with low-grade extraskeletal osteosarcoma is relatively good when compared with high-grade sarcomas. While there is a report of a low-grade extraskeletal osteosarcoma arising following radiotherapy for a benign condition, to the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case of a low-grade extraskeletal osteosarcoma occurring following radiotherapy for thyroid cancer, and the only case reported in the soft tissue of the head and neck region. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Direct measurement of gastric H + / K +-ATPase activities in patients with or without Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duangporn Thong-Ngam; Pisit Tangkijvanich; Pichet Sampatanukul; Paungpayom Prichakas; Varocha Mahachai; Piyaratana Tosukowong

    2005-01-01

    AIM: The role of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection in gastric acid secretion of patients with chronic gastritisremains controversial. This study was designed to elucidate the effect of H pylori on H+/K+-ATPase activities in gastric biopsy specimens.METHODS: Eighty-two patients with chronic gastritis who had undergone upper endoscopy were included in this study. H pylori infection was confirmed by rapid urease test and histology. Gastric H+/K+-ATPase activities and serum gastrin concentrations were measured by an enzymatic method and radioimmunoassay, respectively. For those patients who received triple therapy for eradicating H pylori, changes in the activity of gastric H+/K+-ATPase and serum gastrin levels were also measured. RESULTS: The mean gastric H+/K+-ATPase activity in H pyloripositive group (42 patients) was slightly higher than thatin H pylori-negative group (29 patients) (169.65±52.9 and eradication of H pylori, the gastric H+/K+-ATPase activities slightly decreased compared to prior therapy (165.03±59.50 The mean basal gastrin concentration was slightly higher in H pylori-positive patients than in H pylori-negative patients (87.92±39.65 pg/mL vs75.04± 42.57 pg/mL, P= 0.228). The gastrin levels fell significantly after the eradication of Hpylori. (Before treatment 87.00±30.78 pg/mL, aftertreatment 64.73±18.96 pg/mL, P = 0.015).CONCLUSION: Gastric H+/K+-ATPase activities are not associated with H pylori status in patients with chronicgastritis.

  1. Abnormal DNA-PKcs and Ku 70/80 expression may promote malignant pathological processes in gastric carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Xie, Chuan; Yang, Zhen; Chen, Jiang; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2013-10-28

    To determine the expression of the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) and the Ku70/Ku80 heterodimer (Ku 70/80) in gastric carcinoma. Gastric biopsies were obtained from 146 gastric carcinoma patients [Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-negative: 89 and H. pylori-positive: 57] and 34 from normal subjects (H. pylori-negative: 16 and H. pylori-positive: 18) via surgery and endoscopic detection from April 2011 to August 2012 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University. Pathological diagnosis and classification were made according to the criteria of the World Health Organization and the updated Sydney system. An ''in-house'' rapid urease test and modified Giemsa staining were employed to detect H. pylori infection. The expression of DNA-PKcs and the Ku 70/80 protein was detected by immunohistochemistry. Overall, the positive rates of both DNA-PKcs and Ku 70/80 were significantly increased in gastric cancer (χ(2) = 133.04, P gastric mucosa. There was hardly any detectable expression of DNA-PKcs in normal gastric mucosa, and the positive rate of DNA-PKcs protein expression in patients with a normal gastric mucosa was 0% (0/34), whereas the rate in gastric cancer (GC) was 93.8% (137/146). The difference between the two groups was statistically significant. Additionally, the positive rate of Ku 70/80 was 79.4% (27/34) in normal gastric mucosa and 96.6% (141/146) in gastric cancer. The DNA-PKcs protein level was significantly increased in gastric cancer (Mann-Whitney U = 39.00, P gastric mucosa. In addition, there was a significant difference in the expression of Ku 70/80 (Mann-Whitney U = 1117.00, P gastric cancer and normal gastric mucosa. There was also a significant difference in Ku70/80 protein expression between GC patients with and without H. pylori infection (P gastric carcinoma.

  2. PAX2 Expression in Low Malignant Potential Ovarian Tumors and Low-Grade Ovarian Serous Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Celestine S.; Mok, Samuel C.; Tsang, Yvonne T.M.; Zu, Zhifei; Song, Huijuan; Liu, Jinsong; Deavers, Michael; Malpica, Anais; Wolf, Judith K.; Lu, Karen H.; Gershenson, David M.; Wong, Kwong-Kwok

    2009-01-01

    Ovarian tumors of low-malignant potential and low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas are thought to represent different stages on a tumorigenic continuum and to develop along pathways distinct from high-grade ovarian serous carcinoma. We performed gene expression profiling on 3 normal human ovarian surface epithelia samples, and 10 low-grade and 10 high-grade ovarian serous carcinomas. Analysis of gene expression profiles of these samples has identified 80 genes up-regulated and 232 genes down-regulated in low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas. PAX2 was found to be one of the most up-regulated genes in low-grade ovarian serous carcinoma. The up-regulation of PAX2 was validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated a statistically significant difference in PAX2 mRNA expression (expressed as fold change in comparison to normal human ovarian surface epithelia) among ovarian tumors of low-malignant potential (1837.38, N=8), low-grade (183.12, N=17), and high-grade (3.72, N=23) carcinoma samples (p=0.015). Western blot analysis revealed strong PAX2 expression in ovarian tumors of low-malignant potential (67%, N=3) and low-grade carcinoma samples (50%, N=10) but no PAX2 protein expression in high-grade carcinomas (0%, N=10). Using immunohistochemistry, tumors of low-malignant potential (59%, N=17) and low-grade carcinoma (63%, N=16) samples expressed significantly stronger nuclear staining than high-grade ovarian carcinoma samples (9.1%, N=263). Furthermore, consistent with previous immunohistochemical findings, PAX2 expression was found to be expressed in the epithelial cells of fallopian tubes but not in normal ovarian surface epithelial cells. Our findings further support the two-tiered hypothesis that tumors of low-malignant potential and low-grade ovarian serous carcinoma are on a continuum and are distinct from high-grade ovarian carcinomas. Additionally, the absence of PAX2 expression in normal

  3. Stress induces endotoxemia and low-grade inflammation by increasing barrier permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin ede Punder

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs are the leading causes of work absence, disability and mortality worldwide. Most of these diseases are associated with low-grade inflammation. Here we hypothesize that stresses (defined as homeostatic disturbances can induce low-grade inflammation by increasing the availability of water, sodium and energy-rich substances to meet the increased metabolic demand induced by the stressor. One way of triggering low-grade inflammation is by increasing intestinal barrier permeability through activation of various components of the stress system. Although beneficial to meet the demands necessary during stress, increased intestinal barrier permeability also raises the possibility of the translocation of bacteria and their toxins across the intestinal lumen into the blood circulation. In combination with modern life-style factors, the increase in bacteria/bacterial toxin translocation arising from a more permeable intestinal wall causes a low-grade inflammatory state. We support this hypothesis with numerous studies finding associations with NCDs and markers of endotoxemia, suggesting that this process plays a pivotal and perhaps even a causal role in the development of low-grade inflammation and its related diseases.

  4. Antral atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and preneoplastic markers in Mexican children with Helicobacter pylori-positive and Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Luévano-González, Arturo; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Zhu, Hongtu; Yuan, Ying; Xiang, Qun; Yan, Benjamin; Stoll, Kathryn Anne; Cross, Janet V; Iczkowski, Kenneth A; Mackinnon, Alexander Craig

    2014-06-01

    Chronic inflammation and infection are major risk factors for gastric carcinogenesis in adults. As chronic gastritis is common in Mexican children, diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori and other causes of gastritis are critical for the identification of children who would benefit from closer surveillance. Antral biopsies from 82 Mexican children (mean age, 8.3 ± 4.8 years) with chronic gastritis (36 H pylori+, 46 H pylori-) were examined for gastritis activity, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia (IM), and immunohistochemical expression of gastric carcinogenesis biomarkers caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2), ephrin type-B receptor 4 (EphB4), matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), p53, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. Atrophy was diagnosed in 7 (9%) of 82, and IM, in 5 (6%) of 82 by routine histology, whereas 6 additional children (7%) (3 H pylori+) exhibited aberrant CDX2 expression without IM. Significant positive correlations were seen between EphB4, MMP3, and MIF (Pgastritis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Candida-associated gastric ulcer relapsing in a different position with a different appearance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenji Sasaki

    2012-01-01

    An 87-year-old,Japanese woman was shown to have a submucosal tumor-like lesion with a deep,central ulceration covered with thick,whitish exudate in the stomach.Biopsy showed Candida tropicalis but not Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori).She had no predisposing factors or history of peptic ulcers nor had taken non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs),diagnosed with Candida-associated gastric ulcer.Though cured of the lesion,she developed another ulcer in a different position,in which Candida was demonstrated but H.pylori was undetectable.This is the first case of recurrent Candida-associated gastric ulcer in the world.Detected in both the original and recurrent lesions in an H.pylori-negative patient with no antecedent ulcers who had not taken NSAIDs,Candida is considered,contrary to the prevailing opinion,to play an etiologic role in ulcer formation.

  6. Candida-associated gastric ulcer relapsing in a different position with a different appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kenji

    2012-08-28

    An 87-year-old, Japanese woman was shown to have a submucosal tumor-like lesion with a deep, central ulceration covered with thick, whitish exudate in the stomach. Biopsy showed Candida tropicalis but not Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). She had no predisposing factors or history of peptic ulcers nor had taken non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diagnosed with Candida-associated gastric ulcer. Though cured of the lesion, she developed another ulcer in a different position, in which Candida was demonstrated but H. pylori was undetectable. This is the first case of recurrent Candida-associated gastric ulcer in the world. Detected in both the original and recurrent lesions in an H. pylori-negative patient with no antecedent ulcers who had not taken NSAIDs, Candida is considered, contrary to the prevailing opinion, to play an etiologic role in ulcer formation.

  7. Richter syndrome and brain involvement: low-grade lymphoma relapsing as cerebral high-grade lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuplich, Moritz; Mayer, Karin; Kim, Young; Thanendrarajan, Sharmilan; Simon, Matthias; Schäfer, Niklas; Glas, Martin; Schmidt-Wolf, Ingo G H; Herrlinger, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Richter syndrome (RS) describes the development of high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) from low-grade NHL. RS isolated to the brain is very rare and has a poor prognosis. We describe the cases of high-grade large B-cell diffuse NHL in a 56-year-old male with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and in a 71-year-old female with previously unknown low-grade NHL, both with initial appearance of neurological symptoms. This report extends the literature of central nervous system RS and particularly highlights the importance of a thorough diagnostic evaluation of patients with low-grade NHL presenting with neurological symptoms. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Extraction of Copper from Malanjkhand Low-Grade Ore by Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sradhanjali; Sukla, Lala Behari; Mishra, Baroda Kanta

    2011-10-01

    Thermophilic bacteria are actively prevalent in hot water springs. Their potential to grow and sustain at higher temperatures makes them exceptional compare to other microorganism. The present study was initiated to isolate, identify and determine the feasibility of extraction of copper using thermophilic heterotrophic bacterial strain. Bacillus stearothermophilus is a thermophilic heterotrophic bacterium isolated from hot water spring, Atri, Orissa, India. This bacterium was adapted to low-grade chalcopyrite ore and its efficiency to solubilize copper from Malanjkhand low-grade ore was determined. The low-grade copper ore contains 0.27% Cu, in which the major copper-bearing mineral is chalcopyrite associated with other minerals present as minor phase. Variation in parameters such as pulp-density and temperatures were studied. After 30 days of incubation, it was found that Bacillus stearothermophilus solubilize copper up to 81.25% at pH 6.8 at 60°C.

  9. Low-grade glioma: supratentorial astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, and oligoastrocytoma in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Lynn S; Shapiro, William R

    2004-05-01

    Low-grade glioma is not a single diagnosis but a category of biologically diverse neoplasms. They are indolent, progressive, and, following anaplastic transformation, invariably fatal. Neuro-oncologists have not established a treatment standard for these tumors. However, it is clear that "low-grade" is not synonymous with "benign," and treatment is required sometime in the course of the disease. Previously, achieving a consensus had been limited by a lack of class I evidence. Physicians treated patients based on retrospective series and personal experience. Currently, results from prospective clinical trials are becoming available. These studies have provided data that may serve as treatment guidelines. Additional results regarding the identification of prognostic variables have raised more questions to be answered. Attention is now directed to the importance of translational research to better define these neoplasms. In the future, it will be necessary to distinguish among low-grade gliomas and identify therapies that may differ between them.

  10. Statistical evaluation of manual segmentation of a diffuse low-grade glioma MRI dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Abdallah, Meriem; Blonski, Marie; Wantz-Mezieres, Sophie; Gaudeau, Yann; Taillandier, Luc; Moureaux, Jean-Marie

    2016-08-01

    Software-based manual segmentation is critical to the supervision of diffuse low-grade glioma patients and to the optimal treatment's choice. However, manual segmentation being time-consuming, it is difficult to include it in the clinical routine. An alternative to circumvent the time cost of manual segmentation could be to share the task among different practitioners, providing it can be reproduced. The goal of our work is to assess diffuse low-grade gliomas' manual segmentation's reproducibility on MRI scans, with regard to practitioners, their experience and field of expertise. A panel of 13 experts manually segmented 12 diffuse low-grade glioma clinical MRI datasets using the OSIRIX software. A statistical analysis gave promising results, as the practitioner factor, the medical specialty and the years of experience seem to have no significant impact on the average values of the tumor volume variable.

  11. Thermophysical properties of the products of low-grade fuels thermal recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabakaev Roman B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the work is caused by reorientation of the modern power engineering to use of local low grade fuel resources. Some types of low grade fuels (peat, brown coal, sapropel, wood chips are considered in this work. Thermotechnical characteristics of the investigated fuels and products of their thermal recycling are determined. Thermal recycling process is accompanied by release of fuel dissociation heat (0.33-3.69 MJ/kg. The results of thermal low grade fuel recycling are solid carbonaceous product (semi-coke with a calorific value higher in 1.5-7 times than the value of natural fuels; pyrolysis resin with calorific value 29.4-36.8 MJ/kg; combustible gas with calorific value 15.16-19.06 MJ/m3.

  12. Persistent Depressive Symptoms are Independent Predictors of Low-Grade Inflammation Onset Among Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Gazelato de Mello Franco

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Depressive symptoms are independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD among individuals with non-diagnosed CVD. The mechanisms underlying this association, however, remain unclear. Inflammation has been indicated as a possible mechanistic link between depression and CVD. Objectives: This study evaluated the association between persistent depressive symptoms and the onset of low-grade inflammation. Methods: From a database of 1,508 young (mean age: 41 years individuals with no CVD diagnosis who underwent at least two routine health evaluations, 134 had persistent depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory - BDI ≥ 10, BDI+ and 1,374 had negative symptoms at both time points (BDI-. All participants had been submitted to repeated clinical and laboratory evaluations at a regular follow-up with an average of 26 months from baseline. Low-grade inflammation was defined as plasma high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (CRP concentrations > 3 mg/L. The outcome was the incidence of low-grade inflammation evaluated by the time of the second clinical evaluation. Results: The incidence of low-grade inflammation was more frequently observed in the BDI+ group compared to the BDI- group (20.9% vs. 11.4%; p = 0.001. After adjusting for sex, age, waist circumference, body mass index, levels of physical activity, smoking, and prevalence of metabolic syndrome, persistent depressive symptoms remained an independent predictor of low-grade inflammation onset (OR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.03-3.02; p = 0.04. Conclusions: Persistent depressive symptoms were independently associated with low-grade inflammation onset among healthy individuals.

  13. Screening of various low-grade biomass materials for low temperature gasification: Method development and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias Pape; Ravenni, Giulia; Holm, Jens Kai;

    2015-01-01

    method and the subsequent use of the method to identify promising e but currently unproven, low-grade biomass resources for conversion in Pyroneer systems. The technical assessment is conducted by comparing the results from a series of physical-mechanical and thermochemical experiments to a set of proven...... references. The technical assessment is supplemented by an evaluation of practical application and overall energy balance. Applying the developed method to 4 references and 18 unproven low-grade potential fuels, indicated that one of these unproven candidates was most likely unsuited for Pyroneer...

  14. Neonates with reduced neonatal lung function have systemic low-grade inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo L.K.; Stokholm, Jakob; Bønnelykke, Klaus;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children and adults with asthma and impaired lung function have been reported to have low-grade systemic inflammation, but it is unknown whether this inflammation starts before symptoms and in particular whether low-grade inflammation is present in asymptomatic neonates with reduced...... lung function. ObjectiveWe sought to investigate the possible association between neonatal lung function and biomarkers of systemic inflammation.  Methods: Plasma levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and CXCL8 (IL-8) were measured at age 6 months in 300 children...

  15. Inter-hemispheric language functional reorganization in low-grade glioma patients after tumour surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristo, Gert; Raemaekers, Mathijs; Rutten, Geert Jan; de Gelder, Beatrice; Ramsey, Nick F.

    2015-01-01

    Despite many claims of functional reorganization following tumour surgery, empirical studies that investigate changes in functional activation patterns are rare. This study investigates whether functional recovery following surgical treatment in patients with a low-grade glioma in the left hemispher

  16. Low-grade and high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma: A National Cancer Database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagle, Brandon-Luke L; Shilpi, Arunima; Buchanan, Samuel; Goodman, Chelain; Shahabi, Shohreh

    2017-08-01

    To provide refined prognostic information from large cohorts of women with low-grade or high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS). We performed an observational retrospective cohort analysis of women diagnosed with low-grade or high-grade ESS from the 1998-2013 National Cancer Database. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable accelerated failure time survival analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors after multiple imputation of missing data. Recursive partitioning methods were used to rank prognostic factors in high-grade ESS. Matched cohort analyses were performed to hypothesis-test effects of adjuvant treatments. We identified 2414 and 1383 women with low-grade or high-grade ESS, respectively. Women with high-grade ESS had markedly decreased survival compared to women with low-grade ESS (five-year survival (95% CI): 32.6 (30.1-35.3%) versus 90.5% (89.3-91.8%), Pradiotherapy (TR (95% CI): 1.57 (1.32-1.87), Pradiotherapy may increase survival of women with high-grade ESS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A new power generation method utilizing a low grade heat source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-feng WU; Kin-ping LONG; Xiao-ling YU; Quan-ke FENG

    2012-01-01

    Energy crisis make the effective use of low grade energy more and more urgent.It is still a worldwide difficult conundrum.To efficiently recover low grade heat,this paper deals with a theoretical analysis of a new power generation method driven by a low grade heat source.When the temperature of the low grade heat source exceeds the saturated temperature,it can heat the liquid into steam.If the steam is sealed and cooled in a container,it will lead to a negative pressure condition.The proposed power generation method utilizes the negative pressure condition in the sealed container,called as a condensator.When the condensator is connected to a liquid pool,the liquid will be pumped into it by the negative pressure condition.After the condensator is filled by liquid,the liquid flows back into the pool and drives the turbine to generate electricity.According to our analysis,for water,the head pressure of water pumped into the condensator could reach 9.5 m when the temperature of water in the pool is 25 ℃,and the steam temperature is 105 ℃.Theoretical thermal efficiency of this power generation system could reach 3.2% to 5.8% varying with the altitude of the condensator to the water level,ignoring steam leakage loss.

  18. Diagnostic value of fine motor deficits in patients with low-grade hepatic encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sergei Mechtcheriakov; Ivo W. Graziadei; Maria Rettenbacher; Ingrid Schuster; Hartmann Hinterhuber; Wolfgang Vogel; Joser Marksteiner

    2005-01-01

    AIM: The role of motor dysfunction in early diagnosis of low-grade hepatic encephalopathy remains uncertain. We performed a pilot study to comparatively investigate the kinematic characteristics of small and large rapid alternating movements in patients with liver cirrhosis and low-grade hepatic encephalopathy.METHODS: A kinematic analysis of alternating handwriting (7.5 mm) and large drawing movements (DM, 175 mm) was performed in 30 patients with liver cirrhosis (no hepatic encephalopathy: n = 10; minimal hepatic encephalopathy: n = 9; grade I hepatic encephalopathy: n = 11; healthy controls: n = 12). The correlation between kinematic parameters, clinical neuro-psychiatric symptoms of cerebral dysfunction and the grade of encephalopathy was investigated.RESULTS: Both movement types, handwriting and drawing, were significantly slower in cirrhotic patients. In contrast to large DM, the deterioration of handwriting movements significantly correlated with the increase of symptoms of motor dysfunction and differentiated significantly within the group of cirrhosis patients corresponding to the degree of hepatic encephalopathy. CONCLUSION: The deterioration of fine motor control is an important symptom of low-grade hepatic encephalopathy. The kinematic analysis of handwriting allows the quantitative analysis of alterations of motor function and is a possible tool for diagnostics and monitoring of motor dysfunction in patients with low-grade hepatic encephalopathy.

  19. Low-Grade Inflammation Is Associated with Susceptibility to Infection in Healthy Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Kathrine Agergård; Dinh, Khoa Manh; Erikstrup, Lise Tornvig

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to examine whether low-grade inflammation (LGI) is associated with a subsequently increased risk of infection. METHODS: We included 15,754 healthy participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study, who completed a questionnaire on health-related items. LGI was...

  20. IDH1 mutations in low-grade astrocytomas predict survival but not response to temozolomide.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbink, H.J.; Taal, W.; Marion, R. van; Kros, J.M.; Heuvel, I. van; Bromberg, J.E.; Zonnenberg, B.A.; Zonnenberg, C.B.; Postma, T.J.; Gijtenbeek, J.M.M.; Boogerd, W.; Groenendijk, F.H.; Smitt, P.A.; Dinjens, W.N.; Bent, M.J. van den

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) have been implicated in tumorigenesis of gliomas. Patients with high-grade astrocytomas with IDH1 or IDH2 mutations were reported to have a better survival, but it is unknown if this improved survival also holds for low-grade

  1. IDH1 mutations in low-grade astrocytomas predict survival but not response to temozolomide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbink, H. J.; Taal, W.; van Marion, R.; Kros, J. M.; van Heuvel, I.; Bromberg, J. E.; Zonnenberg, B. A.; Zonnenberg, C. B. L.; Postma, T. J.; Gijtenbeek, J. M. M.; Boogerd, W.; Groenendijk, F. H.; Smitt, P. A. E. Sillevis; Dinjens, W. N. M.; van den Bent, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) have been implicated in tumorigenesis of gliomas. Patients with high-grade astrocytomas with IDH1 or IDH2 mutations were reported to have a better survival, but it is unknown if this improved survival also holds for low-grade

  2. Prospects for production of synthetic liquid fuel from low-grade coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevyrev Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we compare the energy costs of steam and steam-oxygen gasification technologies for production of synthetic liquid fuel. Results of mathematic simulation and experimental studies on gasification of low-grade coal are presented.

  3. Aerobic Training Improved Low-Grade Inflammation in Obese Women with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, F. J.; Rosety, M. A.; Camacho, A.; Rosety, I.; Diaz, A. J.; Fornieles, G.; Garcia, N.; Rosety-Rodriguez, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major health problem in people with intellectual disabilities. It is also widely accepted that low-grade systemic inflammation associated to obesity plays a key role in the pathogenic mechanism of several disorders. Fortunately, physical activity has shown to improve inflammation in people with metabolic syndrome and type…

  4. Evolution of DNA repair defects during malignant progression of low-grade gliomas after temozolomide treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thuijl, H.F. van; Mazor, T.; Johnson, B.E.; Fouse, S.D.; Aihara, K.; Hong, C.; Malmstrom, A.; Hallbeck, M.; Heimans, J.J.; Kloezeman, J.J.; Stenmark-Askmalm, M.; Lamfers, M.L.; Saito, N.; Aburatani, H.; Mukasa, A.; Berger, M.S.; Soderkvist, P.; Taylor, B.S.; Molinaro, A.M.; Wesseling, P.; Reijneveld, J.C.; Chang, S.M.; Ylstra, B.; Costello, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) increases the overall survival of patients with glioblastoma (GBM), but its role in the clinical management of diffuse low-grade gliomas (LGG) is still being defined. DNA hypermethylation of the O (6) -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter is associated with an impro

  5. Primary pulmonary amyloidosis due to low-grade B cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georghiou, Georgios P; Boikov, Olga; Vidne, Bernardo A; Saute, Milton

    2007-01-01

    Pulmonary involvement is not an infrequent complication of systemic amyloidosis, although affected patients rarely have significant pulmonary symptoms. In contrast, localized (primary) pulmonary amyloidosis is rare. We report a case of pulmonary low-grade B cell lymphoma with amyloid production, causing localized pulmonary amyloidosis.

  6. Heat-to-current conversion of low-grade heat from a thermocapacitive cycle by supercapacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Härtel, Andreas; Janssen, Mathijs; Weingarth, Daniel; Presser, Volker; van Roij, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Thermal energy is abundantly available, and especially low-grade heat is often wasted in industrial processes as a by-product. Tapping into this vast energy reservoir with cost-attractive technologies may become a key element for the transition to an energy-sustainable economy and society. We propos

  7. Endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation and the progression of retinopathy in Type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkerman, A.M.W.; Gall, M.A.; Tarnow, L.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Lauritzen, E.; Lund-Andersen, H.; Emeis, J.; Parving, H.H.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To study whether microalbuminuria, endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation are associated with the presence and progression of diabetic retinopathy. Methods: Patients with Type 2 diabetes (n = 328) attending a diabetes clinic were followed for 10 years and examined annually during t

  8. The influence of low-grade glioma on resting state oscillatory brain activity: a magnetoencephalography study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, I.; Stam, C.; Douw, L.; Bartolomei, F.; Heimans, J.; Dijk, van B.; Postma, T.; Klein, M.; Reijneveld, J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In the present MEG-study, power spectral analysis of oscillatory brain activity was used to compare resting state brain activity in both low-grade glioma (LGG) patients and healthy controls. We hypothesized that LGG patients show local as well as diffuse slowing of resting state brain activ

  9. Using low-grade hardwoods for CLT production: a yield analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward Thomas; Urs. Buehlmann

    2017-01-01

    Low-grade hardwood logs are the by-product of logging operations and, more frequently today, urban tree removals. The market prices for these logs is low, as is the value recovered from their logs when producing traditional forest products such as pallet parts, railroad ties, landscaping mulch, or chips for pulp. However, the emergence of cross-laminated timber (CLT)...

  10. Endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation and the progression of retinopathy in Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Gall, Mari-Anne; Tarnow, L

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: To study whether microalbuminuria, endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation are associated with the presence and progression of diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: Patients with Type 2 diabetes (n = 328) attending a diabetes clinic were followed for 10 years and examined annually durin...

  11. Radiotherapy-induced cerebral abnormalities in patients with low-grade glioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, TJ; Klein, M; Verstappen, CCP; Bromberg, JEC; Swennen, M; Langendijk, JA; Taphoorn, MJB; Scheltens, P; Slotman, BJ; van der Ploeg, HM; Aaronson, NK; Heimans, JJ

    2002-01-01

    Abnormalities on CT or MRI and neuropsychological performance in patients with low-grade glioma, with (n = 23) or without (n = 16) prior cerebral radiotherapy, were evaluated. Cerebral atrophy was observed in 14 of 23 patients (61%) treated with prior radiotherapy, and in 1 of 16 patients (6%) witho

  12. Biological formation of caproate and caprylate from acetate: fuel and chemical production from low grade biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Plugge, C.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    This research introduces an alternative mixed culture fermentation technology for anaerobic digestion to recover valuable products from low grade biomass. In this mixed culture fermentation, organic waste streams are converted to caproate and caprylate as precursors for biodiesel or chemicals. It wa

  13. Low-grade inflammation, diet composition and health: Current research evidence and its translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minihane, A.M.; Vinoy, S.; Russell, W.R.; Baka, A.; Roche, H.M.; Tuohy, K.M.; Teeling, J.L.; Blaak, E.E.; Fenech, M.; Vauzour, D.; McArdle, H.J.; Kremer, B.H.A.; Sterkman, L.; Vafeiadou, K.; Benedetti, M.M.; Williams, C.M.; Calder, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of chronic low-grade inflammation in the pathology of numerous age-related chronic conditions is now clear. An unresolved inflammatory response is likely to be involved from the early stages of disease development. The present position paper is the most recent in a series produced by

  14. The influence of low-grade glioma on resting state oscillatory brain activity : a magnetoencephalography study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, I; Stam, C J; Douw, L; Bartolomei, F; Heimans, J J; van Dijk, B W; Postma, T J; Klein, M; Reijneveld, J C

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: In the present MEG-study, power spectral analysis of oscillatory brain activity was used to compare resting state brain activity in both low-grade glioma (LGG) patients and healthy controls. We hypothesized that LGG patients show local as well as diffuse slowing of resting state brain activ

  15. Effect of basicity on ferromanganese production from beneficiated low-grade manganese ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suharno, Bambang; Noegroho, Adi; Ferdian, Deni; Nurjaman, Fajar

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia is known to have a large low-grade manganese ore reserve. Nevertheless, it could not be used optimally in producing ferromanganese due to their low Mn/Fe ratio. In this present study, the beneficiation process had been applied to the low-grade manganese ore. Reduction roasting was conducted to this manganese ore at 700°C for an hour and then continued with low-intensity magnetic separation. This process had improved the Mn/Fe ratio from 1.39 to 6.11. The effect of basicity on ferromanganese production from this beneficiated low-grade manganese ore had been investigated clearly in this experiment by using mini submerged arc furnace (SAF). Several basicities for 0.7 and 1.0, was used and it was controlled by the addition of limestone in this smelting process. From this experiment, the ferromanganese containing 60% Mn was obtained from smelting the beneficiated low-grade manganese ore with the optimum basicity 0.7.

  16. Catalytic effect of activated carbon on bioleaching of low-grade primary copper sulfide ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The catalytic effect of activated carbon on the bioleaching of low-grade primary copper sulfide ores using mixture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans was investigated. The results show that the addition of activated carbon can greatly accelerate the rate and efficiency of copper dissolution from low-grade primary copper sulfide ores. The solution with the concentration of 3.0 g/L activated carbon is most beneficial to the dissolution of copper. The resting time of the mixture of activated carbon and ores has an impact on the bioleaching of low-grade primary copper sulfide ores. The 2 d resting time is most favorable to the dissolution of copper. The enhanced dissolution rate and efficiency of copper can be attributed to the galvanic interaction between activated carbon and chalcopyrite. The addition of activated carbon obviously depresses the dissolution of iron and the bacterial oxidation of ferrous ions in solution. The lower redox potentials are more favorable to the copper dissolution than the higher potentials for low-grade primary copper sulfide ores in the presence of activated carbon.

  17. {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the diagnosis of paediatric low grade brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orphanidou-Vlachou, E., E-mail: eleni.orphanidou@googlemail.com [School of Cancer Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Auer, D., E-mail: dorothee.auer@nottingham.ac.uk [Division of Academic Radiology, School of Medical and Surgical Sciences, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Children' s Brain Tumour Research Centre, Queens Medical Centre, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom); Brundler, M.A., E-mail: marie-anne.brundler@bch.nhs.uk [Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Davies, N.P., E-mail: nigel.davies@nhs.net [School of Cancer Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Department of Medical Physics, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2WB (United Kingdom); Jaspan, T., E-mail: tim.jaspan@nuh.nhs.uk [Children' s Brain Tumour Research Centre, Queens Medical Centre, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom); MacPherson, L., E-mail: Lesley.MacPherson@bch.nhs.uk [Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Natarajan, K., E-mail: Kal.Natarajan@uhb.nhs.uk [Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Department of Medical Physics, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2WB (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-06-15

    Introduction: Low grade gliomas are the commonest brain tumours in children but present in a myriad of ways, each with its own treatment challenges. Conventional MRI scans play an important role in their management but have limited ability to identify likely clinical behaviour. The aim of this study is to investigate {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) as a method for detecting differences between the various low grade gliomas and related tumours in children. Patients and methods: Short echo time single voxel {sup 1}H MRS at 1.5 or 3.0 T was performed prior to treatment on children with low grade brain tumours at two centres and five MR scanners, 69 cases had data which passed quality control. MRS data was processed using LCModel to give mean spectra and metabolite concentrations which were compared using T-tests, ANOVA, Receiver Operator Characteristic curves and logistic regression in SPSS. Results: Significant differences were found in concentrations of key metabolites between glioneuronal and glial tumours (T-test p < 0.05) and between most of the individual histological subtypes of low grade gliomas. The discriminatory metabolites identified, such as choline and myoinositol, are known tumour biomarkers. In the set of pilocytic astrocytomas and unbiopsied optic pathway gliomas, significant differences (p < 0.05, ANOVA) were found in metabolite profiles of tumours depending on location and patient neurofibromatosis type 1 status. Logistic regression analyses yielded equations which could be used to assess the probability of a tumour being of a specific type. Conclusions: MRS can detect subtle differences between low grade brain tumours in children and should form part of the clinical assessment of these tumours.

  18. Low grade urothelial carcinoma mimicking basal cell hyperplasia and transitional metaplasia in needle prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Arista-Nasr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose The vast majority of urothelial carcinomas infiltrating the bladder are consistent with high-grade tumors that can be easily recognized as malignant in needle prostatic biopsies. In contrast, the histological changes of low-grade urothelial carcinomas in this kind of biopsy have not been studied. Materials and Methods We describe the clinicopathologic features of two patients with low-grade bladder carcinomas infiltrating the prostate. They reported dysuria and hematuria. Both had a slight elevation of the prostate specific antigen and induration of the prostatic lobes. Needle biopsies were performed. At endoscopy bladder tumors were found in both cases. Results Both biopsies showed nests of basophilic cells and cells with perinuclear clearing and slight atypia infiltrating acini and small prostatic ducts. The stroma exhibited extensive desmoplasia and chronic inflammation. The original diagnosis was basal cell hyperplasia and transitional metaplasia. The bladder tumors also showed low-grade urothelial carcinoma. In one case, the neoplasm infiltrated the lamina propria, and in another, the muscle layer. In both, a transurethral resection was performed for obstructive urinary symptoms. The neoplasms were positive for high molecular weight keratin (34BetaE12 and thrombomodulin. No metastases were found in either of the patients, and one of them has survived for five years. Conclusions The diagnosis of low-grade urothelial carcinoma in prostate needle biopsies is difficult and may simulate benign prostate lesions including basal cell hyperplasia and urothelial metaplasia. It is crucial to recognize low-grade urothelial carcinoma in needle biopsies because only an early diagnosis and aggressive treatment can improve the prognosis for these patients.

  19. Gastric mucosal status in populations with a low prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Nusi, Iswan Abbas; Akil, Fardah; Syam, Ari Fahrial; Wibawa, I Dewa Nyoman; Rezkitha, Yudith Annisa Ayu; Maimunah, Ummi; Subsomwong, Phawinee; Parewangi, Muhammad Luthfi; Mariadi, I Ketut; Adi, Pangestu; Uchida, Tomohisa; Purbayu, Herry; Sugihartono, Titong; Waskito, Langgeng Agung; Hidayati, Hanik Badriyah; Lusida, Maria Inge; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    In Indonesia, endoscopy services are limited and studies about gastric mucosal status by using pepsinogens (PGs) are rare. We measured PG levels, and calculated the best cutoff and predictive values for discriminating gastric mucosal status among ethnic groups in Indonesia. We collected gastric biopsy specimens and sera from 233 patients with dyspepsia living in three Indonesian islands. When ≥5.5 U/mL was used as the best cutoff value of Helicobacter pylori antibody titer, 8.6% (20 of 233) were positive for H. pylori infection. PG I and II levels were higher among smokers, and PG I was higher in alcohol drinkers than in their counterparts. PG II level was significantly higher, whereas PG I/II ratios were lower in H. pylori-positive than in H. pylori-negative patients. PG I/II ratios showed a significant inverse correlation with the inflammation and atrophy scores of the antrum. The best cutoff values of PG I/II were 4.05 and 3.55 for discriminating chronic and atrophic gastritis, respectively. PG I, PG II, and PG I/II ratios were significantly lower in subjects from Bangli than in those from Makassar and Surabaya, and concordant with the ABC group distribution; however, group D (H. pylori negative/PG positive) was the lowest in subjects from Bangli. In conclusion, validation of indirect methods is necessary before their application. We confirmed that serum PG level is a useful biomarker determining chronic gastritis, but a modest sensitivity for atrophic gastritis in Indonesia. The ABC method should be used with caution in areas with a low prevalence of H. pylori.

  20. Insulin secretion and cellular glucose metabolism after prolonged low-grade intralipid infusion in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2003-01-01

    We examined the simultaneous effects of a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion on peripheral glucose disposal, intracellular glucose partitioning and insulin secretion rates in twenty young men, by 2-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp [low insulin clamp (LI), 10 mU/m(2) x min; high insulin clamp...... Intralipid infusion. At LI, glucose oxidation decreased by 10%, whereas glucose disposal, glycolytic flux, glucose storage, and glucose production were not significantly altered. At HI, glucose disposal, and glucose oxidation decreased by 12% and 24%, respectively, during Intralipid infusion. Glycolytic flux......, glucose storage, and glucose production were unchanged. Insulin secretion rates increased in response to Intralipid infusion, but disposition indices (DI = insulin action.insulin secretion) were unchanged. In conclusion, a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion caused insulin resistance in the oxidative (but...

  1. The association between low-grade inflammation, iron status and nucleic acid oxidation in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broedbaek, Kasper; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Andersen, Jon T

    2011-01-01

    This study applied a case-control approach to investigate the association between low-grade inflammation, defined by high values within the normal range of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation. No differences in excretion of urinary...... markers of nucleic acid oxidation between cases and controls were found and multivariable linear regression analysis showed no association between urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation and inflammatory markers. Post-hoc multivariable linear regression analysis showed significant associations between...... nucleic acid oxidation and various iron status markers and especially a close relationship between nucleic acid oxidation and ferritin. This study shows no association between low-grade inflammation and urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation in a population of elderly Italian people. The results...

  2. Low-Grade Inflammation and Spinal Cord Injury: Exercise as Therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Silva Alves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in the prevalence of obesity in people with spinal cord injury can contribute to low-grade chronic inflammation and increase the risk of infection in this population. A decrease in sympathetic activity contributes to immunosuppression due to the lower activation of immune cells in the blood. The effects of physical exercise on inflammatory parameters in individuals with spinal cord injury have not been well described. We conducted a review of the literature published from 1974 to 2012. This review explored the relationships between low-grade inflammation, spinal cord injury, and exercise to discuss a novel mechanism that might explain the beneficial effects of exercise involving an increase in catecholamines and cytokines in people with spinal cord injury.

  3. Monitoring temozolomide treatment of low-grade glioma with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, P. S.; Viviers, L; Abson, C;

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of low-grade glioma treatment response remains as much of a challenge as the treatment itself. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) and imaging were incorporated into a study of patients receiving temozolomide therapy for low-grade glioma in order to evaluate and monitor...... tumour metabolite and volume changes during treatment. Patients (n=12) received oral temozolomide (200 mg m(-2) day(-1)) over 5 days on a 28-day cycle for 12 cycles. Response assessment included baseline and three-monthly magnetic resonance imaging studies (pretreatment, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months) assessing...... months, a significant reduction in the mean choline signal was observed compared with the pretreatment (P=0.035) and 3-month scan (P=0.021). The reduction in the tumour choline/water signal paralleled tumour volume change and may reflect the therapeutic effect of temozolomide...

  4. Immunoblastic follicular lymphoma: a very unusual transformation of low-grade follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheith, Shereen; Cornfield, Dennis; Chen, Weiyi; Singh-Kahlon, Pal; Ahmed, Basil

    2014-11-01

    A 73-year-old man, in clinical remission 17 years after radiation therapy for a localized low-grade follicular lymphoma (FL), developed extensive lymphadenopathy, ascites, and splenomegaly with splenic masses. Axillary lymph node biopsy showed FL composed of nodules of centrocytes side by side with nodules of immunoblasts rather than centroblasts. Immunophenotyping revealed conventional FL markers (BCL-2, BCL-6, and CD10) as well as MUM-1 in the immunoblastic component, suggesting postgerminal center differentiation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed t(14;18) in both centrocytic and immunoblastic components and a copy gain of BCL-6 predominantly in the immunoblastic component. Areas of centrocytic and of immunoblastic nodules were macrodissected separately and underwent molecular evaluation for immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement. Identical base-pair peaks were found, attesting to their clonal identity. This case represents a very unusual example of transformation of a low-grade FL to a nodular immunoblastic FL.

  5. Emerging role of functional brain MRI in low-grade glioma surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friismose, Ancuta; Traise, Peter; Markovic, Ljubo

    Learning objectives 1. To describe the use of functional MRI (fMRI) in cranial surgery planning for patients with low-grade gliomas (LGG). 2. To show the increasing importance of fMRI in the clinical setting. Background LGG include brain tumors classified by the World Health Organization as grade I....... Language comprehension and visual tasks can be added to visualize Wernicke’s area or the visual cortex. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is used to map nerve tract course relative to the tumour. Conclusion FMRI has proven its clinical utility in locating eloquent brain areas with relation to tumor site...... be used to map eloquent cortex areas, thus minimizing postoperative deficits and improving surgical performance. Findings and procedure details Patients diagnosed with low-grade gliomas located in eloquent brain areas undergo fMRI prior to surgery. The exams are performed on a 3T MR system (Achieva TX...

  6. Dominance of Acidithiobacillus at ore surface of Zijinshan commercial low-grade copper bioleaching heap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xing-yu; CHEN Bo-wei; WEN Jian-kang

    2008-01-01

    The microbial community structure in the ore surface of Zijinshan commercial low-grade copper bioleaching heap was investigated by 16S rRNA gene clone library.For both bacteria and Archaea,105 clones were sequenced.The dominant bacteria species present in the ore surface were Acidithiobacillus and Leptospirillum,accounting for 51.42% and 48.57%,respectively.However,for the Archaea,only one operational taxonomic unit (OUT) belonged to Ferroplasma acidiphilum.These results indicate that function of genus Acidithiobacillus in the commercial low-grade copper bioleaching heap may be underestimated.More detailed and quantitative information on microbial community structure over time are now under investigation.

  7. Low-grade sarcoma in classical seminoma - the first case reported

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Fredrik; Michal, Michal; Grossmann, Petr; Franco, Marcello; Zámečník, Michal; Hes, Ondrej

    2010-01-01

    A 30-year-old male with no previous history of neoplastic disease presented with a 5 cm large testicular tumor. Routine histopathological examination and immunohistochemical investigation showed a classical seminoma with a contiguous 8 mm large nodule. The nodule was separated from the tunica albuginea by tubuli seminiferi showing intratesticular germ cell neoplasi not otherwise specified (NOS). The nodule was composed of spindle cells with low-grade nuclear atypia, nuclear and cytoplasmic S100 protein immunoreactivity in 15% of the cells and a proliferative activity of up to 20%. No other germ cell tumor components were found. To the best of our knowledge, we herein present the first tumor of a pure classical seminoma with an associated low-grade sarcomatous component. PMID:20126588

  8. Low-Grade Inflammation and Spinal Cord Injury: Exercise as Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Alves, Eduardo; de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; Ruiz da Silva, Francieli; Lira, Fabio Santos; dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Thomathieli; Rosa, João Paulo Pereira; Caperuto, Erico; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2013-01-01

    An increase in the prevalence of obesity in people with spinal cord injury can contribute to low-grade chronic inflammation and increase the risk of infection in this population. A decrease in sympathetic activity contributes to immunosuppression due to the lower activation of immune cells in the blood. The effects of physical exercise on inflammatory parameters in individuals with spinal cord injury have not been well described. We conducted a review of the literature published from 1974 to 2012. This review explored the relationships between low-grade inflammation, spinal cord injury, and exercise to discuss a novel mechanism that might explain the beneficial effects of exercise involving an increase in catecholamines and cytokines in people with spinal cord injury. PMID:23533315

  9. A CASE REPORT OF LOW GRADE MALIGNANT PERIPHERAL NERVE SHEATH TUMOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampath Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant nerve sheath tumours [syn : Neurogenic sarcoma , Neuro fibro sarcoma] comprise approximately 5% of all soft tissue sarcomas. Only 8to15% of these tumours arises in Head and neck region. Commonest sites in head and neck region a re lateral skull base or along the course of cranial nerves. These tumours in sino nasal region are extreme rare. In this article we report a rare case of low grade MPNST. The tumour was resected by medial maxillectomy via modified Denker extended maxillar y anterior antrostomy , resected tumour Histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry study reported as low grade MPNST and negative for s - 100 protein. Patient was relieved from symptoms and followed for 18 months.

  10. Low-grade osteosarcoma arising from cemento-ossifying fibroma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Bin; Kim, Nam-Kyoo; Kim, Jae-Young; Kim, Hyung Jun

    2015-02-01

    Cemento-ossifying fibromas are benign tumors, and, although cases of an aggressive type have been reported, no cases of cemento-ossifying fibroma transforming into osteosarcoma have been documented previously. Low-grade osteosarcoma is a rare type of primary bone tumor, representing 1%-2% of all osteosarcomas. A 45-year-old female patient was diagnosed with cemento-ossifying fibroma, treated with mass excision several times over a period of two years and eight months, and followed up. After biopsy gathered because of signs of recurrence, she was diagnosed with low-grade osteosarcoma. The patient underwent wide excision, segmental mandibulectomy, and reconstruction with fibula free flap. The aim of this report is to raise awareness of the possibility that cemento-ossifying fibroma can transform into osteosarcoma and of the consequent necessity for careful diagnosis and treatment planning.

  11. Low-grade fibromatosis-like spindle cell carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Jessica B; Clark, Beth Z

    2015-04-01

    Low-grade fibromatosis-like spindle cell carcinoma is a rare tumor in the breast, and represents a variant of the very heterogeneous group of metaplastic carcinomas of the breast. These tumors warrant distinction because of their resemblance to pure fibromatosis, their propensity for local recurrence, and their favorable prognosis among the metaplastic carcinomas of the breast. The diagnosis is potentially challenging, particularly on core needle biopsies, because of the morphologic overlap with other low-grade spindle cell lesions. Recognition of a proliferation of cytologically bland spindle cells with areas of epithelial differentiation in combination with immunohistochemistry using antibodies against cytokeratins and myoepithelial markers should aid in producing a definitive diagnosis. These tumors can be locally aggressive with an increased incidence of local recurrence, but the potential for lymph node or distant metastasis is low. Complete excision with adequate margins is considered curative in the majority of cases.

  12. Collection of low-grade waste heat for enhanced energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dede, Ercan M.; Schmalenberg, Paul; Wang, Chi-Ming; Zhou, Feng; Nomura, Tsuyoshi

    2016-05-01

    Enhanced energy harvesting through the collection of low-grade waste heat is experimentally demonstrated. A structural optimization technique is exploited in the design of a thermal-composite substrate to guide and gather the heat emanating from multiple sources to a predetermined location. A thermoelectric generator is then applied at the selected focusing region to convert the resulting low-grade waste heat to electrical power. The thermal characteristics of the device are experimentally verified by direct temperature measurements of the system and numerically validated via heat conduction simulations. Electrical performance under natural and forced convection is measured, and in both cases, the device with optimized heat flow control plus energy harvesting demonstrates increased power generation when compared with a baseline waste heat recovery system. Electronics applications include energy scavenging for autonomously powered sensor networks or self-actuated devices.

  13. Intraosseous polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of mandible: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma is a rare type of minor salivary gland malignancy. The characteristic features of these tumors are the varied histomorphology and the malignant, albeit indolent behavior. It occurs commonly in the minor salivary glands, with the palate (58.5% being the most common intra oral site. Maxillary area (2%, mandibular mucosal area (1.5% and posterior trigone region (0.5% are the least affected areas. An occasional case has been reported arising from an intraosseous location i.e the maxilla, and only two cases have been reported in the English literature originating from the mandible. One such very rare case of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of the mandible, which radiographically has a soap bubble appearance, is reported here.

  14. Challenges in Drug Discovery for Neurofibromatosis Type 1-Associated Low-Grade Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cora Antoinette Ricker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 is an autosomal dominant disorder that results from germline mutations of the NF1 gene, creating a predisposition to low-grade gliomas (pilocytic astrocytoma; PA in young children. Insufficient data and resources represent major challenges to identifying the best possible drug therapies for children with this tumor. Herein, we summarize the currently-available cell lines, genetically-engineered mouse models, and therapeutic targets for these low-grade gliomas (LGGs. Conspicuously absent are human tumor-derived cell lines or patient-derived xenograft models for NF1-LGG. New collaborative initiatives between patients and their families, research groups and pharmaceutical companies are needed to create transformative resources and broaden the knowledge base relevant to identifying cooperating genetic drivers and possible drug therapeutics for this common pediatric brain tumor.

  15. Low-grade inflammation and spinal cord injury: exercise as therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Alves, Eduardo; de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; Ruiz da Silva, Francieli; Lira, Fabio Santos; Dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Thomathieli; Rosa, João Paulo Pereira; Caperuto, Erico; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2013-01-01

    An increase in the prevalence of obesity in people with spinal cord injury can contribute to low-grade chronic inflammation and increase the risk of infection in this population. A decrease in sympathetic activity contributes to immunosuppression due to the lower activation of immune cells in the blood. The effects of physical exercise on inflammatory parameters in individuals with spinal cord injury have not been well described. We conducted a review of the literature published from 1974 to 2012. This review explored the relationships between low-grade inflammation, spinal cord injury, and exercise to discuss a novel mechanism that might explain the beneficial effects of exercise involving an increase in catecholamines and cytokines in people with spinal cord injury.

  16. Is male factor infertility associated with midlife low-grade inflammation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hærvig, Katia Keglberg; Kierkegaard, Lene; Lund, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    Male factor infertility is associated with an increased risk of disease and mortality, which has been related to markers of chronic systemic inflammation. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between male factor infertility and low-grade inflammation and furthermore...... to examine the lifetime prevalence of male factor infertility and overall infertility (also including female and couple infertility). The study population consisted of 2140 members of the Metropolit 1953 Danish Male Birth Cohort who had participated in the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank data collection...... in 2009-2011. Information on male factor infertility and overall infertility was obtained from a questionnaire, and low-grade inflammation was evaluated as the highest plasma levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in the population. The level of interleukin-6...

  17. Exercise as a Mean to Control Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Mathur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic noncommunicable diseases (CNCDs, which include cardiovascular disease, some cancers, for example, colon cancer, breast cancer, and type 2 diabetes, are reaching epidemic proportions worldwide. It has now become clear that low-grade chronic inflammation is a key player in the pathogenesis of most CNCDs. Given that regular exercise offers protection against all causes of mortality, primarily by protection against atherosclerosis and insulin resistance, we suggest that exercise may exert some of its beneficial health effects by inducing anti-inflammatory actions. Recently, IL-6 was introduced as the first myokine, defined as a cytokine, which is produced and released by contracting skeletal muscle fibres, exerting its effects in other organs of the body. We suggest that skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ and that myokines may be involved in mediating the beneficial effects against CNCDs associated with low-grade inflammation.

  18. Exploiting molecular biology for diagnosis and targeted management of pediatric low-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Michael A; Solomon, David A; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A

    2016-06-01

    The majority of brain tumors arising in children are low-grade gliomas. Although historically categorized together as pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs), there is significant histologic and genetic diversity within this group. In general, prognosis for PLGGs is excellent, and limitation of sequelae from tumor and treatment is paramount. Advances in high-throughput genetic sequencing and gene expression profiling are fundamentally changing the way PLGGs are classified and managed. Here, we review the histologic subtypes and highlight how recent advances in elucidating the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors have refined diagnosis and prognostication. Additionally, we discuss how characterizing specific genetic alterations has paved the way for the rational use of targeted therapies that are currently in various phase clinical trials.

  19. Magnetic separation studies for a low grade siliceous iron ore sample

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dwari Ranjan Kumar; Rao Danda Srinivas; Reddy Palli Sita Ram

    2013-01-01

    Investigations were carried out,on a low grade siliceous iron ore sample by magnetic separation,to establish its amenability for physical beneficiation.Mineralogical studies revealed that the sample consists of magnetite,hematite and goethite as major opaque oxide minerals where as silicates as well as carbonates form the gangue minerals in the sample.Processes involving combination of classification,dry magnetic separation and wet magnetic separation were carried out to upgrade the low grade siliceous iron ore sample to make it suitable as a marketable product.The sample was first ground and each closed size sieve fractions were subjected to dry magnetic separation and it was observed that limited upgradation is possible.The ground sample was subjected to different finer sizes and separated by wet low intensity magnetic separator.It was possible to obtain a magnetic concentrate of 67% Fe by recovering 90% of iron values at below 200 μm size.

  20. Collection of low-grade waste heat for enhanced energy harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan M. Dede

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced energy harvesting through the collection of low-grade waste heat is experimentally demonstrated. A structural optimization technique is exploited in the design of a thermal-composite substrate to guide and gather the heat emanating from multiple sources to a predetermined location. A thermoelectric generator is then applied at the selected focusing region to convert the resulting low-grade waste heat to electrical power. The thermal characteristics of the device are experimentally verified by direct temperature measurements of the system and numerically validated via heat conduction simulations. Electrical performance under natural and forced convection is measured, and in both cases, the device with optimized heat flow control plus energy harvesting demonstrates increased power generation when compared with a baseline waste heat recovery system. Electronics applications include energy scavenging for autonomously powered sensor networks or self-actuated devices.

  1. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 Gene Mutation Is Associated with Prognosis in Clinical Low-Grade Gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yang Li

    Full Text Available Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene mutations are found in most World Health Organization grade II and III gliomas and secondary glioblastomas. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutations are known to have prognostic value in high-grade gliomas. However, their prognostic significance in low-grade gliomas remains controversial. We determined the predictive and prognostic value of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 status in low-grade gliomas. The association of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 status with clinicopathological and genetic factors was also evaluated. Clinical information and genetic data including isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation, O 6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation, 1p/19q chromosome loss, and TP53 mutation of 417 low-grade gliomas were collected from the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas database. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed to evaluate the prognostic effect of clinical characteristics and molecular biomarkers. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation was identified as an independent prognostic factor for overall, but not progression-free, survival. Notably, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation was found to be a significant prognostic factor in patients with oligodendrogliomas, but not in patients with astrocytomas. Furthermore, O 6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation (p = 0.017 and TP53 mutation (p < 0.001, but not 1p/19q loss (p = 0.834, occurred at a higher frequency in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1-mutated tumors than in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 wild-type tumors. Younger patient age (p = 0.041 and frontal lobe location (p = 0.010 were significantly correlated with isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation. Chemotherapy did not provide a survival benefit in patients with isocitrate dehydrogenase 1-mutated tumors. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation was an independent prognostic factor in low-grade gliomas, whereas it showed no predictive value for chemotherapy response

  2. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 Gene Mutation Is Associated with Prognosis in Clinical Low-Grade Gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Yang; Wang, Yin-Yan; Cai, Jin-Quan; Zhang, Chuan-Bao; Wang, Kuan-Yu; Cheng, Wen; Liu, Yan-Wei; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene mutations are found in most World Health Organization grade II and III gliomas and secondary glioblastomas. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutations are known to have prognostic value in high-grade gliomas. However, their prognostic significance in low-grade gliomas remains controversial. We determined the predictive and prognostic value of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 status in low-grade gliomas. The association of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 status with clinicopathological and genetic factors was also evaluated. Clinical information and genetic data including isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation, O 6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation, 1p/19q chromosome loss, and TP53 mutation of 417 low-grade gliomas were collected from the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas database. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed to evaluate the prognostic effect of clinical characteristics and molecular biomarkers. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation was identified as an independent prognostic factor for overall, but not progression-free, survival. Notably, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation was found to be a significant prognostic factor in patients with oligodendrogliomas, but not in patients with astrocytomas. Furthermore, O 6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation (p = 0.017) and TP53 mutation (p isocitrate dehydrogenase 1-mutated tumors than in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 wild-type tumors. Younger patient age (p = 0.041) and frontal lobe location (p = 0.010) were significantly correlated with isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation. Chemotherapy did not provide a survival benefit in patients with isocitrate dehydrogenase 1-mutated tumors. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation was an independent prognostic factor in low-grade gliomas, whereas it showed no predictive value for chemotherapy response. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation was highly associated with O 6-methylguanine DNA

  3. Fatty acids and chronic low grade inflammation associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Aoife A; Connaughton, Ruth M; Lyons, Claire L; McMorrow, Aoibheann M; Roche, Helen M

    2016-08-15

    The metabolic syndrome is a group of obesity associated metabolic conditions that result in increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Global increases in obesity rates have led to an increase in metabolic syndrome resulting in a demand for increased understanding of the mechanisms involved. This review examines the relationship between adipose tissue biology, lipid metabolism and chronic low grade inflammation relating to obesity and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Platelet turnover in stable coronary artery disease - influence of thrombopoietin and low-grade inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Bøjet Larsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Newly formed platelets are associated with increased aggregation and adverse outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. The mechanisms involved in the regulation of platelet turnover in patients with CAD are largely unknown. AIM: To investigate associations between platelet turnover parameters, thrombopoietin and markers of low-grade inflammation in patients with stable CAD. Furthermore, to explore the relationship between platelet turnover parameters and type 2 diabetes, prior myocardial infarction, smoking, age, gender and renal insufficiency. METHODS: We studied 581 stable CAD patients. Platelet turnover parameters (immature platelet fraction, immature platelet count, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width and platelet large cell-ratio were determined using automated flow cytometry (Sysmex XE-2100. Furthermore, we measured thrombopoietin and evaluated low-grade inflammation by measurement of high-sensitive CRP and interleukin-6. RESULTS: We found strong associations between the immature platelet fraction, immature platelet count, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width and platelet large cell ratio (r = 0.61-0.99, p<0.0001. Thrombopoietin levels were inversely related to all of the platelet turnover parameters (r = -0.17--0.25, p<0.0001. Moreover, thrombopoietin levels were significantly increased in patients with diabetes (p = 0.03 and in smokers (p = 0.003. Low-grade inflammation evaluated by high-sensitive CRP correlated significantly, yet weakly, with immature platelet count (r = 0.10, p = 0.03 and thrombopoietin (r = 0.16, p<0.001. Also interleukin-6 correlated with thrombopoietin (r = 0.10, p = 0.02. CONCLUSION: In stable CAD patients, thrombopoietin was inversely associated with platelet turnover parameters. Furthermore, thrombopoietin levels were increased in patients with diabetes and in smokers. However, low-grade inflammation did not seem to have a

  5. Childhood bullying involvement predicts low-grade systemic inflammation into adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Copeland, William E.; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Shanahan, Lilly; Worthman, Carol; Costello, E. Jane

    2014-01-01

    Bullying is a common childhood experience that affects children at all income levels and racial/ethnic groups. Being a bully victim has long-term adverse consequences on physical and mental health and financial functioning, but bullies themselves display few ill effects. Here, we show that victims suffer from greater increases in low-grade systemic inflammation from childhood to young adulthood than are seen in others. In contrast, bullies showed lower increases in inflammation into adulthood...

  6. Low-grade inflammation in young adults exposed to intrauterine hyperglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, L.; Clausen, T. D.; Mathiesen, E. R.;

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate associations between fetal exposure to intrauterine hyperglycemia and plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in adult offspring. Method: We studied 597 offspring, aged 18-27 years, from four different groups concerning...... overweight but not exposure to intrauterine hyperglycemia was associated with low-grade inflammation in adult offspring. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. Adsorption refrigeration-green cooling driven by low grade thermal energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ruzhu; WANG Liwei

    2005-01-01

    As a type of environmental benign refrigeration technology powered by low grade thermal energy, adsorption refrigeration have aroused more and more attention in recent years. In this paper, the research frontiers of adsorption refrigeration, including adsorbent, adsorption theory, heat recovery process, technology of adsorber, the research achievements, and the development achievements, are summarized. Typical systems for adsorption refrigeration research facing to applications in the recent years are presented. Future applications of adsorption refrigeration are analysed.

  8. Fragmentation mechanism of low-grade hematite ore in a high pressure grinding roll

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁致涛; 李丽匣; 韩跃新; 刘磊; 刘廷

    2016-01-01

    The fragmentation mechanism of low-grade hematite ore in a high pressure grinding roll (HPGR) was studied based on the characteristics of comminuted products at different specific pressure levels. The major properties included the reduction ratio, liberation, specific surface energy, and specific surface area. The results showed that the fracture of low-grade hematite ore in HPGR was an interactive dynamic process in which the interaction between coarse particles of gangue minerals and fine particles of valuable minerals was alternately continuous with increased compactness and compacting strength of materials. Within a range of 2.8–4.4 N/mm2, valuable minerals were crushed after preferentially absorbing energy, whereas gangue minerals were not completely crushed and only acted as an energy transfer medium. Within a range of 4.4–5.2 N/mm2, gangue minerals were adequately crushed after absorbing the remaining energy, whereas preferentially crushed valuable minerals acted as an energy transfer medium. Within a range of 5.2–6.0 N/mm2 range, the low-grade hematite ore was not further comminuted because of the “size effect” on the strength of materials, and the comminution effect of materials became stable.

  9. Low-grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levidou Georgia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gliomas are a very rare subtype of pineal region tumours, whereas oligodendrogliomas of the pineal region are exceedingly rare, since there have been only 3 cases of anaplastic oligodedrogliomas reported this far. Methods-Results We present a case of a low-grade oligodendroglioma arising in the pineal gland of a 37 year-old woman. The patient presented with diplopia associated with a cystic pineal region mass demonstrated on MRI. Total resection was performed and histological examination showed that the cystic wall consisted of tumour cells with a central nucleus a perinuclear halo and minimal pleomorphism. Immnunohistochemical analysis showed that these cells were diffusely positive for CD57, and negative for GFAP, CD10, CD99, cytokeratins, neurofilaments and synaptophysin. FISH analysis was performed in a small number of neoplastic cells, which were not exhausted after immunohistochemistry and did not reveal deletion of 1p and 19q chromosome arms. However, the diagnosis of a low grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland was assigned. Conclusion Although the spectrum of tumours arising in the pineal gland is broad, the reports of oligodendrogliomas confined to this location are exceedingly rare, and to the best of our knowledge there is no report of a low-grade oligodendroglioma. However, they should be added in the long list of tumours arising in the pineal gland.

  10. Dedifferentiated high-grade osteosarcoma originating from low-grade central osteosarcoma of the fibula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenan, Samuel [New York University-Hospital for Joint Diseases, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Ginat, Daniel T. [New York University, School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Steiner, German C. [New York University-Hospital for Joint Diseases, Department of Orthopedic Pathology, New York, NY (United States); Department of Pathology, New York, NY (United States)

    2007-04-15

    Low grade central osteosarcoma is a distinct, rare low grade malignant neoplasm characterized histologically by a spindle cell proliferation associated with trabecular bone formation. This tumor usually carries a good prognosis. However, it has the potential to recur, dedifferentiate, and metastasize subsequent to surgical treatment. In extremely rare occasions, LGCOS presents with areas of dedifferentiation upon initial patient evaluation. In this report we describe one such case affecting the fibula of a 39-year-old female, presenting with pain. Initial biopsy demonstrated a high-grade osteosarcoma. No areas of LGCOS were seen histologically. Following biopsy the patient received 3 months of chemotherapy at a different institution. However, the patient continued to exhibit symptoms. X-rays indicated a very aggressive tumor in the diaphysis of the proximal fibula, MRI revealed soft tissue involvement. The tumor and surrounding soft-tissues were excised en bloc at our institution. Microscopically, the lesion consisted of high-grade osteosarcoma as well as an underlying LGCOS that involved the cortex and medullary cavity of the fibula. The two histological components of the tumor were sharply delineated from one another. No chemotherapy effect was appreciated histologically or clinically. Eight months following the surgery, the patient died from lung metastases. This is the third documented case of dedifferentiated LGCOS at initial presentation. This case reveals that the low-grade component was also evident on preoperative radiographs. (orig.)

  11. Putamen involvement and survival outcomes in patients with insular low-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongheng; Wang, Yinyan; Fan, Xing; Li, Shaowu; Liu, Xing; Wang, Jiangfei; Jiang, Tao

    2016-08-26

    OBJECTIVE Insular glioma has a unique origin and biological behavior; however, the associations between its anatomical features and prognosis have not been well established. The object of this study was to propose a classification system of insular low-grade gliomas based on preoperative MRI findings and to assess the system's association with survival outcome. METHODS A total of 211 consecutively collected patients diagnosed with low-grade insular gliomas was analyzed. All patients were classified according to whether tumor involved the putamen on MR images. The prognostic role of this novel putaminal classification, as well as that of Yaşargil's classification, was examined using multivariate analyses. RESULTS Ninety-nine cases (46.9%) of insular gliomas involved the putamen. Those tumors involving the putamen, as compared with nonputaminal tumors, were larger (p putamen classification (p = 0.014), and IDH1 mutation (p = 0.026) were independent predictors of overall survival. No prognostic role was found for Yaşargil's classification. CONCLUSIONS The current study's findings suggest that the putamen classification is an independent predictor of survival outcome in patients with insular low-grade gliomas. This newly proposed classification allows preoperative survival prediction for patients with insular gliomas.

  12. MRI differentiation of low-grade from high-grade appendicular chondrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douis, Hassan; Singh, Leanne; Saifuddin, Asif [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    To identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features which differentiate low-grade chondral lesions (atypical cartilaginous tumours/grade 1 chondrosarcoma) from high-grade chondrosarcomas (grade 2, grade 3 and dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma) of the major long bones. We identified all patients treated for central atypical cartilaginous tumours and central chondrosarcoma of major long bones (humerus, femur, tibia) over a 13-year period. The MRI studies were assessed for the following features: bone marrow oedema, soft tissue oedema, bone expansion, cortical thickening, cortical destruction, active periostitis, soft tissue mass and tumour length. The MRI-features were compared with the histopathological tumour grading using univariate, multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses. One hundred and seventy-nine tumours were included in this retrospective study. There were 28 atypical cartilaginous tumours, 79 grade 1 chondrosarcomas, 36 grade 2 chondrosarcomas, 13 grade 3 chondrosarcomas and 23 dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that bone expansion (P = 0.001), active periostitis (P = 0.001), soft tissue mass (P < 0.001) and tumour length (P < 0.001) were statistically significant differentiating factors between low-grade and high-grade chondral lesions with an area under the ROC curve of 0.956. On MRI, bone expansion, active periostitis, soft tissue mass and tumour length can reliably differentiate high-grade chondrosarcomas from low-grade chondral lesions of the major long bones. (orig.)

  13. A 31-year-old woman with a transformed low-grade glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnke, Peter C

    2010-03-10

    Low-grade gliomas in adults have an incidence of 0.8 to 1.2 per 100,000, and their causes are unknown. Despite their histological classification as low-grade, they cannot be cured by any current treatment mode, and no class I evidence exists to guide initial treatment of these tumors. Median survival ranges between 7.5 years and 10 years, with a 5-year survival probability between 55% and 86%. The prognosis depends on age, World Health Organization (WHO) tumor grade, Karnofsky performance score, cytological type (oligodendroglioma vs astrocytoma), and, potentially, the extent of resection. Oligodendrogliomas with loss of heterozygosity on chromosomes 1p and 19q have a distinctly more favorable prognosis and therapeutic response rate. Low-grade tumors progress to high-grade gliomas with aggressive biological behavior at increasing frequency with advancing age. Ms P is a young woman with a previously treated oligodendroglioma, WHO grade II, with loss of heterozygosity on chromosomes 1p and 19q, which at a third resection had transformed into an oligodendroglioma of WHO grade III. She wants to know her current and future therapeutic options.

  14. Histopathological-molecular genetic correlations in referral pathologist-diagnosed low-grade "oligodendroglioma".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hikaru; Zlatescu, Magdalena C; Betensky, Rebecca A; Johnk, Loki B; Cutone, Andrea N; Cairncross, J Gregory; Louis, David N

    2002-01-01

    Allelic loss of chromosome 1p predicts increased chemosensitivity and better survival in oligodendroglial tumors. Clinical testing for 1p loss in oligodendroglial tumors at our hospital has allowed us to postulate that certain histological appearances are associated with 1p allelic status. Forty-four cases received for genetic testing were diagnosed by referring pathologists as pure low-grade oligodendroglioma. Central neuropathological review divided the series equally into 22 cases with classical oligodendroglioma histology and 22 with more astrocytic features. Molecular genetic analyses demonstrated 1p loss in 19 of 22 classic oligodendrogliomas (86%) and maintenance of both 1p alleles in 16 of 22 gliomas with astrocytic features (73%). No glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cell type (gliofibrillary oligodendrocyte, minigemistocyte, cellular processes) was associated with 1p allelic status. Fourteen of the 44 cases were treated with chemotherapy at tumor progression: 3 "astrocytic" gliomas with 1p loss responded to PCV chemotherapy and 2 classic oligodendrogliomas that maintained both 1p alleles included a responder and a non-responder. These results suggest that histological appearance correctly predicts genotype in approximately 80% of low-grade gliomas, but that tumor genotype more closely predicts chemosensitivity. As a result, such objective molecular genetic analyses should be incorporated into patient management and into clinical trials of low-grade diffuse gliomas.

  15. Low-grade Schwann cell neoplasms with leptomeningeal dissemination: clinicopathologic and autopsy findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Erika F; Blakeley, Jaishri; Langmead, Shannon; Olivi, Alessandro; Tufaro, Anthony; Tabbarah, Abeer; Berkenblit, Gail; Sacks, Justin M; Newsome, Scott D; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Rodriguez, Fausto J

    2017-02-01

    Leptomeningeal dissemination of low-grade Schwann cell neoplasms is an exceptionally rare occurrence and has not been well documented in the literature. We encountered 2 cases of leptomeningeal dissemination of low-grade Schwann cell neoplasms. Patient 1 was a 63-year-old woman with neurofibromatosis type 1 and a progressive low-grade malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor developing from a diffuse/plexiform orbital neurofibroma that arose in childhood. The neoplasm demonstrated local and leptomeningeal dissemination intracranially leading to the patient's death. There was partial loss of H3K27 tri-methylation, p16 and collagen IV. Patient 2 was a 60-year-old man without neurofibromatosis type 1 who presented with cranial nerve symptoms and a disseminated neoplasm with a Schwann cell phenotype. The neoplasm stabilized after irradiation and chemotherapy, but the patient died of medical complications. Autopsy findings documented disseminated leptomeningeal disease in the intracranial and spinal compartment. H3K27M tri-methylation was preserved. The clinicopathologic and autopsy findings are studied and presented, and the literature is reviewed.

  16. Low-grade extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the chest wall: case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetaille Bruno

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-grade extraskeletal osteosarcomas (ESOS are extremely rare. Case presentation We present the first case of low-grade ESOS of the chest wall, which occurred in a 30-year-old man. Because of initial misdiagnosis and patient's refusal of surgery, the diagnosis was done after a 4-year history of a slowly growing mass in soft tissues, leading to a huge (30-cm diameter calcified mass locally extended over the left chest wall. Final diagnosis was helped by molecular analysis of MDM2 and CDK4 oncogenes. Unfortunately, at this time, no surgical treatment was possible due to loco-regional extension, and despite chemotherapy, the patient died one year after diagnosis, five years after the first symptoms. Conclusion We describe the clinical, radiological and bio-pathological features of this unique case, and review the literature concerning low-grade ESOS. Our case highlights the diagnostic difficulties for such very rare tumours and the interest of molecular analysis in ambiguous cases.

  17. Simulation of NOx emission in circulating fluidized beds burning low-grade fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afsin Gungor [Nigde University, Nigde (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering and Architecture

    2009-05-15

    Nitrogen oxides are a major environmental pollutant resulting from combustion. This paper presents a modeling study of pollutant NOx emission resulting from low-grade fuel combustion in a circulating fluidized bed. The simulation model accounts for the axial and radial distribution of NOx emission in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB). The model results are compared with and validated against experimental data both for small-size and industrial-size CFBs that use different types of low-grade fuels given in the literature. The present study proves that CFB combustion demonstrated by both experimental data and model predictions produces low and acceptable levels of NOx emissions resulting from the combustion of low-grade fuels. Developed model can also investigate the effects of different operational parameters on overall NOx emission. As a result of this investigation, both experimental data and model predictions show that NOx emission increases with the bed temperature but decreases with excess air if other parameters are kept unchanged. 37 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. The insulin-like growth factor 1 pathway is a potential therapeutic target for low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Erin R.; Zu, Zhifei; Tsang, Yvonne T.M.; Deavers, Michael T.; Malpica, Anais; Mok, Samuel C.; Gershenson, David M.; Wong, Kwong-Kwok

    2011-01-01

    Objective To validate the overexpression of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and its receptor (IGF-1R) in low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (SOC), and to investigate whether the IGF-1 pathway is a potential therapeutic target for low-grade SOC. Methods Gene expression profiling was performed on serous borderline ovarian tumors (SBOTs) and low-grade SOC, and overexpression of IGF-1 in low-grade SOC was validated by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The effect of exogenous IGF-1 on cell proliferation was determined in cell lines by cell proliferation assays, cell migration assays, and Western blot. Signaling pathways downstream of IGF-1 and the effects of the AKT inhibitor MK-2206 were investigated by Western blot analysis and by generating IGF-1R short hairpin RNA stable knockdown cell lines. Low- and high-grade cell lines were treated with the dual IGF-1R- and insulin receptor-directed tyrosine kinase inhibitor OSI-906, and cellular proliferation was measured. Results mRNA analysis and immunostaining revealed significantly higher IGF-1 expression in low-grade SOCs than in SBOTs or high-grade SOCs. In response to exogenous treatment with IGF-1, low-grade cell lines exhibited more intense upregulation of phosphorylated AKT than did high-grade cell lines, an effect that was diminished with IGF-1R knockdown and MK-2206 treatment. Low-grade SOC cell lines were more sensitive to growth inhibition with OSI-906 than were high-grade cell lines. Conclusions IGF-1 is overexpressed in low-grade SOCs compared with SBOTs and high-grade SOCs. Additionally, low-grade SOC cell lines were more responsive to IGF-1 stimulation and IGF-1R inhibition than were high-grade lines. The IGF-1 pathway is therefore a potential therapeutic target in low-grade SOC. PMID:21726895

  19. Telomere length in non-neoplastic gastric mucosa and its relationship to H. pylori infection, degree of gastritis, and NSAID use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Tomomitsu; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Kawamura, Tomohiko; Ishizuka, Takamitsu; Okubo, Masaaki; Nagasaka, Mitsuo; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Arisawa, Tomiyasu; Ohmiya, Naoki; Hirata, Ichiro

    2016-02-01

    Telomere shortening occurs with human aging in many organs and tissues and is accelerated by rapid cell turnover and oxidative injury. We measured average telomere length using quantitative real-time PCR in non-neoplastic gastric mucosa and assessed its relationship to H. pylori-related gastritis, DNA methylation, ulcer disease, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) usage. Gastric biopsies were obtained from 151 cancer-free subjects including 49 chronic NSAID users and 102 nonusers. Relative telomere length in genomic DNA was measured by real-time PCR. H. pylori infection status, histological severity of gastritis, and serum pepsinogens (PGs) were also investigated. E-cadherin (CDH1) methylation status was determined by methylation-specific PCR (MSP). Average relative telomere length of H. pylori-infected subjects was significantly shortened when compared to H. pylori-negative subjects (p = 0.002) and was closely associated with all histological parameter of gastritis (all p values gastritis and CDH1 methylation status. Also, telomere shortening is accelerated by NSAID usage especially in H. pylori-negative subjects.

  20. KRAS/BRAF Analysis in Ovarian Low-Grade Serous Carcinoma Having Synchronous All Pathological Precursor Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Nakamura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma is thought to begin as a serous cystadenoma or adenofibroma that progresses in a slow stepwise fashion. Among the low-grade serous carcinomas, there is a high frequency of activating mutations in the KRAS or BRAF genes; however, it remains unclear as to how these mutations contribute to tumor progression. This is the first report to track the histopathological progression of serous adenofibroma to low-grade serous carcinoma. Each stage was individually analyzed by pathological and molecular genetic methods to determine what differences occur between the distinct stages of progression.

  1. Extent of surgical resection predicts seizure freedom in low-grade temporal lobe brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englot, Dario J; Han, Seunggu J; Berger, Mitchel S; Barbaro, Nicholas M; Chang, Edward F

    2012-04-01

    Achieving seizure control in patients with low-grade temporal lobe gliomas or glioneuronal tumors remains highly underappreciated, because seizures are the most frequent presenting symptom and significantly impact patient quality-of-life. To assess how the extent of temporal lobe resection influences seizure outcome. We performed a quantitative, comprehensive systematic literature review of seizure control outcomes in 1181 patients with epilepsy across 41 studies after surgical resection of low-grade temporal lobe gliomas and glioneuronal tumors. We measured seizure-freedom rates after subtotal resection vs gross-total lesionectomy alone vs tailored resection, including gross-total lesionectomy with hippocampectomy and/or anterior temporal lobe corticectomy. Included studies were observational case series, and no randomized, controlled trials were identified. Although only 43% of patients were seizure-free after subtotal tumor resection, 79% of individuals were seizure-free after gross-total lesionectomy (OR = 5.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.33-7.14). Furthermore, tailored resection with hippocampectomy plus corticectomy conferred additional benefit over gross-total lesionectomy alone, with 87% of patients achieving seizure freedom (OR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.23-2.70). Overall, extended resection with hippocampectomy and/or corticectomy over gross-total lesionectomy alone significantly predicted seizure freedom (OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.11-1.26). Age seizure outcome. Gross-total lesionectomy of low-grade temporal lobe tumors results in significantly improved seizure control over subtotal resection. Additional tailored resection including the hippocampus and/or adjacent cortex may further improve seizure control, suggesting dual pathology may sometimes allow continued seizures after lesional excision.

  2. ENabling Reduction of Low-grade Inflammation in SEniors Pilot Study: Concept, Rationale, and Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manini, Todd M; Anton, Stephen D; Beavers, Daniel P; Cauley, Jane A; Espeland, Mark A; Fielding, Roger A; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Lewis, Kristina H; Liu, Christine; McDermott, Mary M; Miller, Michael E; Tracy, Russell P; Walston, Jeremy D; Radziszewska, Barbara; Lu, Jane; Stowe, Cindy; Wu, Samuel; Newman, Anne B; Ambrosius, Walter T; Pahor, Marco

    2017-09-01

    To test two interventions to reduce interleukin (IL)-6 levels, an indicator of low-grade chronic inflammation and an independent risk factor for impaired mobility and slow walking speed in older adults. The ENabling Reduction of low-Grade Inflammation in SEniors (ENRGISE) Pilot Study was a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized pilot trial of two interventions to reduce IL-6 levels. Five university-based research centers. Target enrollment was 300 men and women aged 70 and older with an average plasma IL-6 level between 2.5 and 30 pg/mL measured twice at least 1 week apart. Participants had low to moderate physical function, defined as self-reported difficulty walking one-quarter of a mile or climbing a flight of stairs and usual walk speed of less than 1 m/s on a 4-m usual-pace walk. Participants were randomized to losartan, omega-3 fish oil (ω-3), combined losartan and ω-3, or placebo. Randomization was stratified depending on eligibility for each group. A titration schedule was implemented to reach a dose that was safe and effective for IL-6 reduction. Maximal doses were 100 mg/d for losartan and 2.8 g/d for ω-3. IL-6, walking speed over 400 m, physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery), other inflammatory markers, safety, tolerability, frailty domains, and maximal leg strength were measured. Results from the ENRGISE Pilot Study will provide recruitment yields, feasibility, medication tolerance and adherence, and preliminary data to help justify a sample size for a more definitive randomized trial. The ENRGISE Pilot Study will inform a larger subsequent trial that is expected to have important clinical and public health implications for the growing population of older adults with low-grade chronic inflammation and mobility limitations. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. Low-Grade Uterine Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma Presented as a Submucosal Leiomyoma during Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios V. Koutsopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the exception of leiomyomas, soft tissue tumors of the uterine corpus are not common. This is particularly true for vascular neoplasms, with the epithelioid hemangioendothelioma being a curiosity; not more than twenty-two cases of malignant hemangioendotheliomas have been reported in the literature so far, all of which were high-grade hemangioendotheliomas (hemangiosarcomas. We present herewith a unique case of low-grade epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the uterus in a pregnant woman aged 29 years. The clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical characteristics of this entity, together with its differential diagnosis, are discussed.

  4. Low-grade meningioma showing nearly equal density with spinal fluid on radiographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Ryota; Tomita, Hideyuki; Shimizu, Kazuhiko; Sugiyama, Kazutoshi

    2013-06-21

    A 61-year-old woman had an intracranial tumour that was located on the falx. Meningioma was suspected and the tumour rapidly grew over 1 year. It showed nearly equal density with spinal fluid showing almost no enhancement on radiographic images, like microcystic meningioma. Successful removal of the tumour was achieved. Histopathologically, the tumour was diagnosed as low-grade meningioma. The meningioma had variable sized microcysts and the appearance of solid area was meningothelial meningioma. This is a rare radiographic image for meningothelial meningioma.

  5. Exercise as a mean to control low-grade systemic inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathur, Neha; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2008-01-01

    Chronic noncommunicable diseases (CNCDs), which include cardiovascular disease, some cancers, for example, colon cancer, breast cancer, and type 2 diabetes, are reaching epidemic proportions worldwide. It has now become clear that low-grade chronic inflammation is a key player in the pathogenesis...... of most CNCDs. Given that regular exercise offers protection against all causes of mortality, primarily by protection against atherosclerosis and insulin resistance, we suggest that exercise may exert some of its beneficial health effects by inducing anti-inflammatory actions. Recently, IL-6...

  6. Low-grade mucinous neoplasm of the appendix managed with laparoscopic appendectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas P DeMuro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucocele of the appendix is uncommon and caused by a variety of pathologies. While the gold standard approach to these lesions has historically been exploratory laparotomy and right hemicolectomy, there is increasing experience with a minimally invasive approach and the resection limited to an appendectomy. A case is presented of an appendiceal mucocele diagnosed preoperatively and managed with a laparoscopic appendectomy. The pathology showed a low-grade mucinous neoplasm, with no evidence of recurrence on 30 month follow-up.

  7. Investigating depression-like and metabolic parameters in a chronic low-grade inflammation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, C. W.; Elfving, B.; Lund, S.

    2012-01-01

    (registered trademark) 2ML4, infusion rate 2.5l/day), which delivers LPS through a catheter into the abdomen. Depression-like behavior was assessed as increased time spent immobile in the forced swim test (FST). Peripheral markers of a low-grade inflammation was measured using a high sensitivity ELISA kit and central...... disturbances or sickness behavior. Thus, this model might help elucidating some of the mechanisms underlying inflammation-associated depression, in order to assist in developing more effective treatment strategies for this group of patients....

  8. A decomposing technique for scheelite concentrate and low-grade scheelite concentrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Guangsheng; SUN Peimei; LI Honggui; LI Yunjiao; ZHAO Zhongwei; SUN Zhaoming; LIU Maosheng

    2004-01-01

    The effect of different decomposition conditions on tungsten recovery for scheelite concentrate has been examined. The results show that tungsten recovery can be more than 98% under decomposing conditions as follows: the amount of caustic soda is 2.2 and 3.2 times of theoretical respectively, ratio of water and ore is 0.7-0.8, temperature is 160℃, and preservation time is 2.0 h for scheelite concentrate (63.21% WO3) and low grade scheelite concentrate (55.17% WO3).

  9. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of parotid gland: A rare occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathi N

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA is a rare salivary gland malignant tumor of low aggressiveness, commonly occurring in minor salivary glands. Its occurrence in major salivary gland has been documented albeit rarely. The striking histological feature is architectural diversity combined with benign cytologic features. We report a case of PLGA arising from left parotid in a 25-year-old male patient. On light microscopy, varied patterns were seen .The cells were uniform with bland nuclei. Neural invasion was noted.

  10. Distribution of H.pylori antigens in gastric mucosa and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆新良; 钱可大; 唐训球; 朱永良

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the distribution of H.p),lori antigens in the gastric mucosa in patients with H.pylori infection, and the relationship between the distribution and gastric cancer. Methods: Of 112 patients confirmed by pathological study to have chronic superficial gastritis, precancerous changes (chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia or atypical hyperplasia) and gastric cancer, 28 were H.pylori negative and 84 were H.pylori positive. H.pylori antigens in the gastric mucosa were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: The H.pylori positive group, comprised 12 of 22 (50.0%) in the chronic superficial gastritis group, 22 of 25 (88.0%) in the precancerous changes group and 13 of 35 (37.1%) in the gastric cancer group. The positive rates of H.pylori antigens in the cytoplasm progressively increased, respectively at 0.0% (0/12), 63.6% (14/22) and 84.6% (11/13) for the same groups (χ2= 19.76, P=0.000); H.pylori antigens were located in the mucus layer and above the neck of the mucosal gland in 9 of 12 (75.0%) cases with chronic superficial gastritis, at the neck of the mucosal gland and the isthmus in 12 of 22 (54.5%) cases with precancerous changes, below the isthmus in 9 of 13 (69.2%) cases with gastric cancer (χ2=25.30, P=0.000). In the H.pvlori negative group, no H.pylori antigen was observed. Conclusion: With the progression of chronic superficial gastritis→precancerous changes→gastric cancer, H.pylori antigens progressively migrated from the outer part to the inner part of the cell, and from the superficial to the deep gastric mucosa.

  11. Effects of Helicobacter pylori infection on gastric emptying rate in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Grigoris I Leontiadis; George I Minopoulos; Efstratios Maltezos; Stamatia Kotsiou; Konstantinos I Manolas; Konstantinos Simopoulos; Dimitrios Hatseras

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The pathogenesis of delayed gastric emptying in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) remains unclear.We aimed to examine whether gastric emptying rate in NUD patients was associated with Helicobacter pylori(H pylori)infection and whether it was affected by eradication of the infection.METHODS: Gastric emptying rate of a mixed solid-liquid meal was assessed by the paracetamol absorption method in NUD patients and asymptomatic controls (n=17). H pylori status was assessed by serology and biopsy urease test.H pylori-positive NUD patients (n=23) received 10-day triple eradication therapy. H pylori status was re-assessed by biopsy urease test four weeks later, and if eradication was confirmed, gastric emptying rate was re-evaluated.RESULTS: Thirty-three NUD patients and 17 controls were evaluated. NUD patients had significantly delayed gastric emptying compared with controls. The mean maximum plasma paracetamol concentration divided by body mass (P=0.02), the mean area under plasma paracetamol concentration-time curve divided by body mass (AUC/BM)Gastric emptying rate did not differ significantly between H pylori-positive and H pylori-negative NUD patients. The were initially H pylori-positive, confirmed eradication of the infection did not significantly alter gastric emptying rate.and after Hp eradication, respectively (P=0.64), the mean eradication, respectively (P=0.93).CONCLUSION: Although gastdc emptying is delayed in NUD patients compared with controls, gastric emptying rate is not associated with H pylori status nor it is affected by eradication of the infection.

  12. The gastric acid pocket is attenuated in H. pylori infected subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, David R; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Wirz, Angela A; Orange, Clare; Ballantyne, Stuart A; Going, James J; McColl, Kenneth E L

    2017-09-01

    Gastric acid secretory capacity in different anatomical regions, including the postprandial acid pocket, was assessed in Helicobacter pylori positive and negative volunteers in a Western population. We studied 31 H. pylori positive and 28 H. pylori negative volunteers, matched for age, gender and body mass index. Jumbo biopsies were taken at 11 predetermined locations from the gastro-oesophageal junction and stomach. Combined high-resolution pH metry (12 sensors) and manometry (36 sensors) was performed for 20 min fasted and 90 min postprandially. The squamocolumnar junction was marked with radio-opaque clips and visualised radiologically. Biopsies were scored for inflammation and density of parietal, chief and G cells immunohistochemically. Under fasting conditions, the H. pylori positives had less intragastric acidity compared with negatives at all sensors >1.1 cm distal to the peak lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) pressure (ppylori positives at sensors 2.2, 3.3 and 4.4 cm distal to the peak LES pressure (ppylori positives. The H. pylori positives had a lower density of parietal and chief cells compared with H. pylori negatives in 10 of the 11 gastric locations (ppylori positives were CagA-seropositive and showed a more marked reduction in intragastric acidity and increased mucosal inflammation. In population volunteers, H. pylori positives have reduced intragastric acidity which most markedly affects the postprandial acid pocket. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. What women want. Women's preferences for the management of low-grade abnormal cervical screening tests: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm; Lynge, E; Rebolj, M

    2012-01-01

    cytology in primary cervical screening, the frequency of low-grade abnormal screening tests will double. Several available alternatives for the follow-up of low-grade abnormal screening tests have similar outcomes. In this situation, women's preferences have been proposed as a guide for management......Please cite this paper as: Frederiksen M, Lynge E, Rebolj M. What women want. Women's preferences for the management of low-grade abnormal cervical screening tests: a systematic review. BJOG 2011; DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2011.03130.x. Background If human papillomavirus (HPV) testing will replace....... Selection criteria Studies asking women to state a preference between active follow-up and observation for the management of low-grade abnormalities on screening cytology or HPV tests. Data collection and analysis Information on study design, participants and outcomes was retrieved using a prespecified form...

  14. Human β-defensin-3 induction in H pylori-infected gastric mucosal tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K Kawauchi; A Yagihashi; N Tsuji; N Uehara; D Furuya; D Kobayashi; N Watanabe

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To examine human β-defensin-3 (hBD-3)expression in inflamed gastric mucosal tissues or MKN45 gastric cancer cells with or without H pylori infection for better understanding the innate immune response to H pylori.METHODS: We used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions and immunohistochemistry to examine hBD-3 expression in inflamed gastric mucosal tissues or MKN45 gastric cancer cells with or without H pylori.Effects of hBD-3 against H pylori were also evaluated.RESULTS: The mean mRNA expression of hBD-3 in H pylori-positive specimens was significantly higher than that in H pylori-negative specimens (P = 0.0002,Mann-Whitney). In addition, unlike uninfected samples,8 of 15 (53.33%) infected mucosal samples expressed hBD-3 protein. H pylori dose-dependently induced mRNA expression of hBD-3 in MKN45 cells, an effect inhibited by adding anti-toil-like receptor (TLR)-4 antibody. HBD-3 protein completely inhibited H pylori growth.CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that like hBD-2,hBD-3 may be involved in the pathophysiology of H pylori-induced gastritis.

  15. Antralization at the edge of proximal gastric ulcers: Does Helicobacter pylori infection play a role?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harry Hua-Xinag Xia; Benjamin Chun-Yu Wong; Shiu Kum Lam; Wai Man Wong; Wayne Hsing Cheng Hu; Kam Chuen Lai; Sau Hing Wong; Suet Yi Leung; Siu Tsan Yuen; Nicholas A.Wright

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of antralization at the edge of proximal gastric ulcers, and the effect ofH. pylori eradication on the mucosal appearances. METHODS: Biopsies were taken from the antrum, body and the ulcer edge of patients with benign proximal gastric ulcers before and one year after treatment. Gastric mucosa was classified as antral, transitional or body type.H. pylori positive patients receivedeither triple therapy, or omeprazole. RESULTS: Patients with index ulcers in the incisura, body or fundus (n=116) were analyzed. Antral-type mucosa was more prevalent at the ulcer edge inH. pylori-positive patients thanH.pylori-negative patients (93% vs 60%, OR=8.95,95%CI: 2.47-32.4, P=0.001). At one year, there was a significant reduction in the prevalence of antralization (from 93 % to 61%, P=0.004) at the ulcer edge in patients with H. pyloribeing eradicated. However, there was no difference in the prevalence of antralization at the ulcer edge in those with persistent infection. CONCLUSION: H. pylori infection is associated with antralization at the edge of proximal gastric ulcers, which may be reversible in some patients after eradication of the infection.

  16. Low-Grade Myxofibrosarcoma of the Rectus Abdominus Muscle Infiltrating into Abdominal Cavity: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Tadashi; Sakakibara, Shunsuke; Moriwaki, Aya; Kawamoto, Teruya; Suzuki, Satoshi; Ishimura, Takeshi; Hashikawa, Kazunobu; Terashi, Hiroto

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Myxofibrosarcoma (MFS) is a relatively rare tumor that is histologically characterized by myxoid stroma and spindle cell proliferation. This tumor most commonly arises as a slow growing, enlarging painless mass in the extremities of elderly patients. Methods: We report a case of a primary, low-grade MFS in the rectus abdominis muscle infiltrating the abdominal cavity of a 75-year-old man. Results: The patient underwent a wide excision of the right abdominal wall mass with a 3-cm surgical margin from the scar due to a biopsy. The tumor infiltrated the urinary bladder, peritoneum, and external iliac vessels. Twenty-six months after the initial operation, he had recurrences in his abdominal wall, urinary bladder, and right iliac vessels. Conclusions: To our knowledge, primary MFS of the muscle in the abdomen has not been documented previously. Although this case was histopathologically classified as a low-grade tumor, it infiltrated the abdominal cavity. The tumor is suspected to have penetrated the abdominal cavity below the linea arcuata, which lacks the posterior sheath of the rectus abdominis muscle; from there, it could easily spread without being blocked by any biological barriers.

  17. Mucinous cystic neoplasm of the liver with low grade dysplasia of the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirdopska, T; Terziev, I; Taneva, I; Dimitrova, V

    2014-01-01

    Mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN) with low grade dysplasia of the liver is rare. It had been previously called hepatobiliary cystadenoma and is seen almost exclusively in women without an associated invasive carcinoma. There are different theories for development of MCN of the liver. One of these is developing from endodermal immature stroma or primary yolk cells implanted during embryogenesis. Another theory refers to the prevalence of hepatic mucinous cystic neoplasm in segment IV, which may support an implant origin because hamartomatous lesions commonly develop in segment IV. The third theory concerns the expression of oestrogen receptor or progesterone receptor in ovarian-like stroma, which also supports a putative role for female hormones in the tumorogenesis. MCN of the liver is a cystic-forming epithelial neoplasm, usually showing no communication with the bile ducts, composed of cuboidal to columnar, variably mucin-producing epithelium, associated with ovarian-type subepithelial stroma. We present a case of MCN with low grade dysplasia of the liver in a young woman whose working surgical diagnosis was Echinococcus cyst. The MCN diagnosis was confirmed with Immunohistochemical study.

  18. Enchondroma versus Low-Grade Chondrosarcoma in Appendicular Skeleton: Clinical and Radiological Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio M. Ferrer-Santacreu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the validity of clinical and radiological features of enchondroma and low grade chondrosarcoma, and contrast the biopsy results with the clinical diagnosis based on the history and imaging. Material and Method. The study included 96 patients with cartilage type lesions suggestive of an enchondroma (E or an low grade chondrosarcoma (LGC according to the clinical and imaging data. The hypotheses were contrasted with the biopsy. Results. Of the 82 patients studied completely, 56 were considered E (68.29%, 8 as LGC (8.33% and in 18 (18.75% were doubtful cases and considered as suspected LGC. Of these, the biopsy showed 4 E (25%, 10 LGC (50% and 4 were not definitive. On the other hand, of the 56 cases diagnosed as E, 15 were biopsied, 5 of these biopsies turned out to be LGC (33.3%. The 8 cases diagnosed as LGC, were also biopsied and only 4 biopsies (50% confirmed the initial diagnosis. Features analyzed in the study showed no statistically significant difference. Correlation analysis between the diagnosis issued initially and the biopsy result gave a value of 0.69 (kappa coefficient, which was considered a good correlation. Conclusion. Features analyzed did not have any statistical significance. However, there was a good correlation between initial diagnosis and biopsy's result.

  19. Harvesting low-grade heat energy using thermo-osmotic vapour transport through nanoporous membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Anthony P.; Yip, Ngai Yin; Lin, Shihong; Lee, Jongho; Elimelech, Menachem

    2016-07-01

    Low-grade heat from sources below 100 ∘C offers a vast quantity of energy. The ability to extract this energy, however, is limited with existing technologies as they are not well-suited to harvest energy from sources with variable heat output or with a small temperature difference between the source and the environment. Here, we present a process for extracting energy from low-grade heat sources utilizing hydrophobic, nanoporous membranes that trap air within their pores when submerged in a liquid. By driving a thermo-osmotic vapour flux across the membrane from a hot reservoir to a pressurized cold reservoir, heat energy can be converted to mechanical work. We demonstrate operation of air-trapping membranes under hydraulic pressures up to 13 bar, show that power densities as high as 3.53 ± 0.29 W m-2 are achievable with a 60 ∘C heat source and a 20 ∘C heat sink, and estimate the efficiency of a full-scale system. The results demonstrate a promising process to harvest energy from low-temperature differences (<40 ∘C) and fluctuating heat sources.

  20. Low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma arising in fibroadenoma of the breast-A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myong, Na-Hye; Min, Jun-Won

    2016-03-25

    Myofibroblastic sarcoma or myofibrosarcoma is a malignant tumor of myofibroblasts and known to develop rarely in the breast, but its underlying lesion and tumor cell origin have never been reported yet. A 61-year-old female presented with a gradually growing breast mass with well-demarcated ovoid nodular shape. The tumor was histologically characterized by fascicular-growing spindle cell proliferation with large areas of hyalinized fibrosis and focally ductal epithelial remnants embedded in myxoid stroma, mimicking a fibroadenomatous lesion. It had frequent mitoses of 5-16/10 high-power fields, hemorrhagic necrosis, and focally pericapsular invasion. The spindle cells were diffusely immunoreactive for fibronectin, smooth muscle actin, and calponin, which suggest a myofibroblastic origin. Multiple irregularly thickened vessels with medial or pericytic cell proliferation were found to be merged with the intrinsic tumor cells. The tumor could be diagnosed low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma arising in an old fibroadenoma. We report a case of a low-grade mammary myofibrosarcoma that showed a background lesion of fibroadenoma first in the worldwide literature and suggest the pericytes or medial muscle cells of the intratumoral vessels as the cell origin of the myofibroblastic sarcoma.

  1. Simultaneous Purification and Perforation of Low-Grade Si Sources for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yan; Zhang, Su; Zhu, Bin; Tan, Yingling; Hu, Xiaozhen; Zong, Linqi; Zhu, Jia

    2015-11-11

    Silicon is regarded as one of the most promising candidates for lithium-ion battery anodes because of its abundance and high theoretical capacity. Various silicon nanostructures have been heavily investigated to improve electrochemical performance by addressing issues related to structure fracture and unstable solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI). However, to further enable widespread applications, scalable and cost-effective processes need to be developed to produce these nanostructures at large quantity with finely controlled structures and morphologies. In this study, we develop a scalable and low cost process to produce porous silicon directly from low grade silicon through ball-milling and modified metal-assisted chemical etching. The morphology of porous silicon can be drastically changed from porous-network to nanowire-array by adjusting the component in reaction solutions. Meanwhile, this perforation process can also effectively remove the impurities and, therefore, increase Si purity (up to 99.4%) significantly from low-grade and low-cost ferrosilicon (purity of 83.4%) sources. The electrochemical examinations indicate that these porous silicon structures with carbon treatment can deliver a stable capacity of 1287 mAh g(-1) over 100 cycles at a current density of 2 A g(-1). This type of purified porous silicon with finely controlled morphology, produced by a scalable and cost-effective fabrication process, can also serve as promising candidates for many other energy applications, such as thermoelectrics and solar energy conversion devices.

  2. Scalable Production of Si Nanoparticles Directly from Low Grade Sources for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bin; Jin, Yan; Tan, Yingling; Zong, Linqi; Hu, Yue; Chen, Lei; Chen, Yanbin; Zhang, Qiao; Zhu, Jia

    2015-09-09

    Silicon, one of the most promising candidates as lithium-ion battery anode, has attracted much attention due to its high theoretical capacity, abundant existence, and mature infrastructure. Recently, Si nanostructures-based lithium-ion battery anode, with sophisticated structure designs and process development, has made significant progress. However, low cost and scalable processes to produce these Si nanostructures remained as a challenge, which limits the widespread applications. Herein, we demonstrate that Si nanoparticles with controlled size can be massively produced directly from low grade Si sources through a scalable high energy mechanical milling process. In addition, we systematically studied Si nanoparticles produced from two major low grade Si sources, metallurgical silicon (∼99 wt % Si, $1/kg) and ferrosilicon (∼83 wt % Si, $0.6/kg). It is found that nanoparticles produced from ferrosilicon sources contain FeSi2, which can serve as a buffer layer to alleviate the mechanical fractures of volume expansion, whereas nanoparticles from metallurgical Si sources have higher capacity and better kinetic properties because of higher purity and better electronic transport properties. Ferrosilicon nanoparticles and metallurgical Si nanoparticles demonstrate over 100 stable deep cycling after carbon coating with the reversible capacities of 1360 mAh g(-1) and 1205 mAh g(-1), respectively. Therefore, our approach provides a new strategy for cost-effective, energy-efficient, large scale synthesis of functional Si electrode materials.

  3. Obesity and Low-Grade Inflammation Increase Plasma Follistatin-Like 3 in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Brandt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rodent models suggest that follistatin-like 3 (fstl3 is associated with diabetes and obesity. In humans, plasma fstl3 is reduced with gestational diabetes. In vitro, TNF-α induces fstl3 secretion, which suggests a link to inflammation. Objective. To elucidate the association between plasma fstl3 and obesity, insulin resistance, and low-grade inflammation in humans. Study Design. Plasma fstl3 levels were determined in a cross-sectional study including three groups: patients with type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and healthy controls. In addition, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, TNF-α, or interleukin-6 (IL-6 as well as a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp were used to examine if plasma fstl3 was acutely regulated in humans. Results. Plasma fstl3 was increased in obese subjects independent of glycemic state. Moreover, plasma fstl3 was positively correlated with fat mass, plasma leptin, fasting insulin, and HOMA B and negatively with HOMA S. Furthermore plasma fstl3 correlated positively with plasma TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Infusion of LPS and TNF-α, but not IL-6 and insulin, increased plasma fstl3 in humans. Conclusion. Plasma fstl3 is increased in obese subjects and associated with fat mass and low-grade inflammation. Furthermore, TNF-α increased plasma fstl3, suggesting that TNF-α is one of the inflammatory drivers of increased systemic levels of fstl3.

  4. Frontal brain asymmetry, childhood maltreatment, and low-grade inflammation at midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostinar, Camelia E; Davidson, Richard J; Graham, Eileen K; Mroczek, Daniel K; Lachman, Margie E; Seeman, Teresa E; van Reekum, Carien M; Miller, Gregory E

    2017-01-01

    Frontal EEG asymmetry is thought to reflect variations in affective style, such that greater relative right frontal activity at rest predicts enhanced emotional responding to threatening or negative stimuli, and risk of depression and anxiety disorders. A diathesis-stress model has been proposed to explain how this neuro-affective style might predispose to psychopathology, with greater right frontal activity being a vulnerability factor especially under stressful conditions. Less is known about the extent to which greater relative right frontal activity at rest might be associated with or be a diathesis for deleterious physical health outcomes. The present study examined the association between resting frontal EEG asymmetry and systemic, low-grade inflammation and tested the diathesis-stress model by examining whether childhood maltreatment exposure interacts with resting frontal asymmetry in explaining inflammation. Resting EEG, serum inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen) and self-reported psychological measures were available for 314 middle-aged adults (age M=55.3years, SD=11.2, 55.7% female). Analyses supported the diathesis-stress model and revealed that resting frontal EEG asymmetry was significantly associated with inflammation, but only in individuals who had experienced moderate to severe levels of childhood maltreatment. These findings suggest that, in the context of severe adversity, a trait-like tendency towards greater relative right prefrontal activity may predispose to low-grade inflammation, a risk factor for conditions with inflammatory underpinnings such as coronary heart disease.

  5. Risk factors for recurrence and prognosis of low-grade endometrial adenocarcinoma; vaginal versus other sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschiano, Elizabeth J; Barbuto, Denise A; Walsh, Christine; Singh, Kanwaljit; Euscher, Elizabeth D; Roma, Andres A; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth E; Montiel, Delia P; Kim, Insun; Djordjevic, Bojana; Malpica, Anais; Hong, Sung Ran; Silva, Elvio G

    2014-05-01

    Endometrial adenocarcinoma is the most common gynecologic cancer in the United States. The prognosis is generally favorable, however, a significant number of patients do develop local or distant recurrence. The most common site of recurrence is vaginal. Our aim was to better characterize patients with vaginal recurrence of low-grade endometrioid adenocarcinoma with respect to associated tumor parameters and clinical outcome. We compiled 255 cases of low-grade (FIGO Grade I or II) endometrioid adenocarcinoma on hysterectomy specimens with lymph node dissection. A total of 113 cases with positive lymph nodes or recurrent disease were included in our study group. Seventy-three cases (13 Grade 1, 60 Grade 2) developed extravaginal recurrence and 40 cases (7 Grade 1, 33 Grade 2) developed vaginal recurrence. We evaluated numerous tumor parameters including: percentage myoinvasion, presence of microcystic, elongated, and fragmented pattern of myoinvasion, lymphovascular space invasion, and cervical involvement. Clinical follow-up showed that 30% (34/113) of all patients with recurrent disease died as a result of their disease during our follow-up period, including 31 (42.5%) with extravaginal recurrence and 3 (7.5%) with primary vaginal recurrence (P=0.001). The 3 patients with vaginal recurrence developed subsequent extravaginal recurrence before death. Vaginal recurrence patients show increased cervical involvement by tumor, but lack other risk factors associated with recurrent disease at other sites. There were no deaths among patients with isolated vaginal recurrence, suggesting that vaginal recurrence is not a marker of aggressive tumor biology.

  6. Polymorphous Low-Grade Adenocarcinoma of the Tongue Base Treated by Transoral Robotic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Hong Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma is a rare malignancy arising from the minor salivary glands in the aerodigestive system, most frequently the hard palate. The treatment of choice is wide surgical resection, and the efficacy of radiotherapy has not been confirmed. A 54-year-old male presenting with a mass at the base of the tongue performed transoral laser microsurgery. The pathologic diagnosis was polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma. Complete surgical excision was performed via transoral robotic surgery without a flap reconstruction of the surgical defect. Without complications of bleeding or injury to the hypoglossal nerve, proper surgical margins were obtained, and no recurrence was found after 6 months after surgery. The patient did not complain of dysphagia or aspiration. We conclude that, in surgery for tongue base tumors with unknown malignant potential, transoral robotic surgery can be considered for achieving a definite resection avoiding a mandibulotomy without complications of dysphagia or aspiration after confirmation of malignancy with a frozen biopsy.

  7. Mouse Low-Grade Gliomas Contain Cancer Stem Cells with Unique Molecular and Functional Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsien Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The availability of adult malignant glioma stem cells (GSCs has provided unprecedented opportunities to identify the mechanisms underlying treatment resistance. Unfortunately, there is a lack of comparable reagents for the study of pediatric low-grade glioma (LGG. Leveraging a neurofibromatosis 1 (Nf1 genetically engineered mouse LGG model, we report the isolation of CD133+ multi-potent low-grade glioma stem cells (LG-GSCs, which generate glioma-like lesions histologically similar to the parent tumor following injection into immunocompetent hosts. In addition, we demonstrate that these LG-GSCs harbor selective resistance to currently employed conventional and biologically targeted anti-cancer agents, which reflect the acquisition of new targetable signaling pathway abnormalities. Using transcriptomic analysis to identify additional molecular properties, we discovered that mouse and human LG-GSCs harbor high levels of Abcg1 expression critical for protecting against ER-stress-induced mouse LG-GSC apoptosis. Collectively, these findings establish that LGG cancer stem cells have unique molecular and functional properties relevant to brain cancer treatment.

  8. Low-grade inflammation disrupts structural plasticity in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, C; Kelemen, O; Kéri, S

    2014-09-05

    Increased low-grade inflammation is thought to be associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by decreased neuronal plasticity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between structural changes in the human brain during cognitive training and the intensity of low-grade peripheral inflammation in healthy individuals (n=56). A two-month training (30 min/day) with a platformer video game resulted in a significantly increased volume of the right hippocampal formation. The number of stressful life events experienced during the past year was associated with less pronounced enlargement of the hippocampus. However, the main predictor of hippocampal volume expansion was the relative peripheral expression of Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB), a transcription factor playing a central role in the effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein levels were not related to hippocampal plasticity when NF-κB was taken into consideration. These results suggest that more intensive peripheral inflammation is associated with weaker neuronal plasticity during cognitive training. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Low-grade inflammation, diet composition and health: current research evidence and its translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minihane, Anne M; Vinoy, Sophie; Russell, Wendy R; Baka, Athanasia; Roche, Helen M; Tuohy, Kieran M; Teeling, Jessica L; Blaak, Ellen E; Fenech, Michael; Vauzour, David; McArdle, Harry J; Kremer, Bas H A; Sterkman, Luc; Vafeiadou, Katerina; Benedetti, Massimo Massi; Williams, Christine M; Calder, Philip C

    2015-10-14

    The importance of chronic low-grade inflammation in the pathology of numerous age-related chronic conditions is now clear. An unresolved inflammatory response is likely to be involved from the early stages of disease development. The present position paper is the most recent in a series produced by the International Life Sciences Institute's European Branch (ILSI Europe). It is co-authored by the speakers from a 2013 workshop led by the Obesity and Diabetes Task Force entitled 'Low-grade inflammation, a high-grade challenge: biomarkers and modulation by dietary strategies'. The latest research in the areas of acute and chronic inflammation and cardiometabolic, gut and cognitive health is presented along with the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying inflammation-health/disease associations. The evidence relating diet composition and early-life nutrition to inflammatory status is reviewed. Human epidemiological and intervention data are thus far heavily reliant on the measurement of inflammatory markers in the circulation, and in particular cytokines in the fasting state, which are recognised as an insensitive and highly variable index of tissue inflammation. Potential novel kinetic and integrated approaches to capture inflammatory status in humans are discussed. Such approaches are likely to provide a more discriminating means of quantifying inflammation-health/disease associations, and the ability of diet to positively modulate inflammation and provide the much needed evidence to develop research portfolios that will inform new product development and associated health claims.

  10. An electrochemical system for efficiently harvesting low-grade heat energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seok Woo; Yang, Yuan; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Ghasemi, Hadi; Kraemer, Daniel; Chen, Gang; Cui, Yi

    2014-05-01

    Efficient and low-cost thermal energy-harvesting systems are needed to utilize the tremendous low-grade heat sources. Although thermoelectric devices are attractive, its efficiency is limited by the relatively low figure-of-merit and low-temperature differential. An alternative approach is to explore thermodynamic cycles. Thermogalvanic effect, the dependence of electrode potential on temperature, can construct such cycles. In one cycle, an electrochemical cell is charged at a temperature and then discharged at a different temperature with higher cell voltage, thereby converting heat to electricity. Here we report an electrochemical system using a copper hexacyanoferrate cathode and a Cu/Cu2+ anode to convert heat into electricity. The electrode materials have low polarization, high charge capacity, moderate temperature coefficients and low specific heat. These features lead to a high heat-to-electricity energy conversion efficiency of 5.7% when cycled between 10 and 60 °C, opening a promising way to utilize low-grade heat.

  11. Extracapsular dissection as sole therapy for small low-grade malignant tumors of the parotid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantsopoulos, Konstantinos; Koch, Michael; Iro, Heinrich

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether extracapsular dissection of a primarily unsuspected lesion in the parotid gland could be oncologically sufficient for carefully selected cases of parotid gland malignomas. Retrospective clinical study. The records of all patients treated for primary malignant tumors of the parotid gland solely by means of extracapsular dissection between 2006 and 2013 were studied retrospectively. Patients with manifestation of malignant tumors in the parotid gland that were not of primary salivary gland origin (squamous cell carcinomas, lymphomas, melanomas) or who had had revision surgery or other malignant tumors in their history, as well as patients with insufficient data, were excluded from our study sample. Nine patients, all with low-grade parotid malignancies, were detected. Our study showed acceptable oncologic and functional outcomes throughout. Our study was able to show very encouraging preliminary results following primary extracapsular dissection as sole surgical therapy for carefully selected low-stage, low-grade, inferiorly located lesions in patients with high compliance. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:1804-1807, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. The Outlook for Low-Grade Fuels in Tomsk Region: Research Experience at Tomsk Polytechnic University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaustov Sergei A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of the discussed issue is caused by the need to substitute in the regional fuel-energy balances imported energy resources with local low-grade fuels. The main aim of the study is to estimate thermal properties of local fuels in Tomsk region and evaluate its energy use viability. The methods used in the study were based standard GOST 52911-2008, 11022-95 and 6382-2001, by means of a bomb calorimeter ABK-1 and Vario micro cube analyzer. The mineral ash of researched fuels was studied agreeing with GOST 10538-87. The results state the fact that discussed low-grade fuels of Tomsk region in the unprepared form are not able to replace imported coal in regional energy balance, because of the high moisture and ash content values. A promosing direction of a low-temperature fue processing is a catalytic converter, which allows receiving hydrogen-enriched syngas from the initial solid raw.

  13. An electrochemical system for efficiently harvesting low-grade heat energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seok Woo; Yang, Yuan; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Ghasemi, Hadi; Kraemer, Daniel; Chen, Gang; Cui, Yi

    2014-05-21

    Efficient and low-cost thermal energy-harvesting systems are needed to utilize the tremendous low-grade heat sources. Although thermoelectric devices are attractive, its efficiency is limited by the relatively low figure-of-merit and low-temperature differential. An alternative approach is to explore thermodynamic cycles. Thermogalvanic effect, the dependence of electrode potential on temperature, can construct such cycles. In one cycle, an electrochemical cell is charged at a temperature and then discharged at a different temperature with higher cell voltage, thereby converting heat to electricity. Here we report an electrochemical system using a copper hexacyanoferrate cathode and a Cu/Cu(2+) anode to convert heat into electricity. The electrode materials have low polarization, high charge capacity, moderate temperature coefficients and low specific heat. These features lead to a high heat-to-electricity energy conversion efficiency of 5.7% when cycled between 10 and 60 °C, opening a promising way to utilize low-grade heat.

  14. Supratentorial low-grade glioma: results and prognostic factors following postoperative radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabenbauer, G.G.; Roedel, C.M.; Schuchardt, U.; Sauer, R. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Paulus, W. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Neuropathology; Ganslandt, O.; Buchfelder, M.; Schrell, U.; Fahlbusch, R. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik mit Poliklinik; Huk, W.J. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    2000-06-01

    Background and Purpose: To assess treatment outcome and prognostic factors following postoperative external radiotherapy in 77 patients with low-grade glioma. Patients and Methods: Between 1977 and 1996, 45 patients with astrocytoma, 14 with oligodendroglioma and 18 with mixed glioma received postoperative radiotherapy with a median total dose of 52 Gy (range, 45 to 61 Gy). Sixty-seven patients were treated immediately following surgery, 10 patients with tumor progression. The influence of various factors including histology, gender, age, seizures, duration of symptoms ({<=}6 weeks vs >6 weeks), CT pattern (enhancement vs no enhancement), type of surgery, total radiotherapy dose and timing of radiotherapy on relapse-free survival and overall survival was investigated. Results: The median overall survival time was 81 months, the 5- and 10-year survival rates were 54% and 31%, respectively. The median time to progression was 56 months, while the 5- and 10-year progression-free survival rates were 45% and 24%. Univariate analyses identified the total radiotherapy dose (p=0.01), duration of symptoms (p=0.05), the presence of seizures (p=0.04), and the CT pattern following intravenous contrast (p=0.005) as significant prognostic factors for overall survival. Progression-free survival rates were influenced by the total dose (p=0.04), the duration of symptoms (p=0.01) and CT pattern (p=0.006). On multivariate analysis, only the CT pattern (enhancement vs no enhancement) remained as independent prognostic factors for both progession-free survival and overall survival. Conclusion: A minimum total dose of 52 Gy is recommended for the postoperative radiotherapy in low-grade glioma. Tumors with CT enhancement seem to need further intensification of treatment. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund: Es sollten Ergebnisse und Prognosefaktoren nach postoperativer Radiotherapie bei 77 Patienten mit Low-grade-Gliomen evaluiert werden. Patienten und Methoden: Zwischen 1977 und 1996 wurden 45

  15. Cytologic diagnosis of low-grade papillary urothelial neoplasms (low malignant potential and low-grade carcinoma) in the context of the 1998 WHO/ISUP classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisnant, Richard E; Bastacky, Sheldon I; Ohori, N Paul

    2003-04-01

    The 1998 World Health Organization/International Society of Urological Pathology (WHO/ISUP) classification of urothelial neoplasms introduced a category called papillary neoplasm of low malignant potential (LMP) and separated it from low-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma (LGPUC), which was thought to yield abnormal cells in cytology specimens. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of urine cytology in diagnosing these lesions. Eighty-six paired transurethral surgical biopsy and corresponding urine cytology specimens representing the spectrum of urothelial papillary lesions were examined. Consensus diagnosis on each biopsy was made, and the distribution was as follows: 16 benign urothelium, 27 LMP, 28 LGPUC, and 15 high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma (HGPUC). This was followed by a blinded independent review of the urine cytology specimens by three observers. Each cytology case was marked as negative, atypical, suspicious, or positive for malignant cells by using previously published cytologic criteria. When the negative and atypical diagnoses were grouped together as "benign" and the suspicious and malignant diagnoses as "malignant," the detection rate of "malignancy" of the lesions was as follows: LMP, 37%; LGPUC, 25%; and HGPUC, 53%. The false positive rate was 6%, and the positive predictive value (PPV) was 94%. Detection rates of cells that were at least "atypical" were as follows: LMP, 74%; LGPUC, 79%; and HGPUC, 100%. While most of the LMP and LGPUC cases yielded cells that were at least "atypical," there was no significant difference in the distribution of cytologic diagnoses for LMP and LGPUC cases (P > 0.05). Urine cytology in the context of the 1998 WHO/ISUP classification appears to be useful as a screening tool but does not appear to discriminate LMP effectively from LGPUC. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Cytotoxic T Cells in H. pylori-Related Gastric Autoimmunity and Gastric Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathijs P. Bergman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection is the major cause of gastroduodenal pathologies, but only a minority of infected patients develop gastric B-cell lymphoma, gastric autoimmunity, or other life threatening diseases, as gastric cancer or peptic ulcer. The type of host immune response against H. pylori, particularly the cytolytic effector functions of T cells, is crucial for the outcome of the infection. T cells are potentially able to kill a target via different mechanisms, such as perforins or Fas-Fas ligand interaction. In H. pylori-infected patients with gastric autoimmunity cytolytic T cells, that cross-recognize different epitopes of H. pylori proteins and H+K+-ATPase autoantigen, infiltrate the gastric mucosa and lead to gastric atrophy via long-lasting activation of Fas ligand-mediated appotosis and perforin-induced cytotoxicity. On the other hand, gastric T cells from MALT lymphoma exhibit defective perforin- and Fas-Fas ligand-mediated killing of B cells, with consequent abnormal help for B-cell proliferation, suggesting that deregulated and exhaustive H. pylori-induced T cell-dependent B-cell activation can support both the onset and the promotion of low-grade B-cell lymphoma.

  17. Telomere length shortening in gastric mucosa is a field effect associated with increased risk of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Tomomitsu; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Kawamura, Tomohiko; Horiguchi, Noriyuki; Okubo, Masaaki; Nakano, Naoko; Ishizuka, Takamitsu; Nagasaka, Mitsuo; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Ohmiya, Naoki

    2016-07-01

    Telomere shortening occurs in many organs and tissues and is accelerated by oxidative injury and rapid cell turnover. Short telomeres initiate chromosomal instability and may eventually contribute to tumorigenesis. To evaluate telomere length as potential biomarker for gastric cancer (GC) risk, we measured average telomere length using quantitative real-time PCR in GC tissues and in non-neoplastic mucosa from patients with GC and without GC. We obtained of 217 GC patients matched biopsies from the GC and adjacent tissues as well as gastric biopsies of 102 subjects without GC. Relative telomere length was measured in genomic DNA by real-time PCR. Relative telomere length decreased gradually in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) negative and positive gastric mucosa of GC free subjects compared with adjacent mucosa and cancer tissue from GC patients (4.03 ± 0.3 vs. 2.82 ± 0.19 vs. 0.82 ± 0.07 vs. 0.29 ± 0.09, P telomeres were found significantly more often than in that of GC free subjects (age, sex, and H. pylori adjusted odds ratio = 7.81, 95 % confidence interval = 4.71-12.9, P Telomere shortening in non-neoplastic mucosa was associated with chronic inflammation (P = 0.0018) and intestinal metaplasia (P telomere length and clinicopathological features of GC and overall survival. Telomere shortening in gastric mucosa reflects a field effect in an early stage of carcinogenesis and is associated with an increased risk of GC. Telomere length in GC is not associated with clinicopathological features or prognosis.

  18. Helicobacter pylori infection, glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in superficial gastritis, gastric erosion, erosive gastritis, gastric ulcer and early gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan Zhang; Nobutaka Yamada; Yun-Lin Wu; Min Wen; Takeshi Matsuhisa; Norio Matsukura

    2005-01-01

    of mucosa glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia were significantly highest in early gastric cancer, lower in gastric ulcer, the next were erosive gastritis, gastric erosion, the lowest in superficial gastritis (P<0.01). Furthermore, 53.3% and 51.4% showed glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in angular biopsy specimens, respectively; but only 40.3%and 39.9% were identified in antral biopsy, and 14.1%and 13.6% in corpus biopsy; therefore, the angulus was more reliable for the diagnosis of glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia compared with antrum and corpus (P<0.01). The positivity rate of glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia of superficial gastritis with H pyloripositivity was 50.7%, 34.1%; of erosive gastritis 76.1%,63.0%; of gastric erosion 84.8%, 87.8%; of gastric ulcer 80.6%, 90.9%; and of early gastric cancer 85.5%, 85.3%,respectively. The positivity rate of glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia of superficial gastritis with H pylorinegativity was 9.9%, 6.9%; of erosive gastritis 42.5%,42.1%; of gastric erosion 51.1%, 61.9%; of gastric ulcer 29.8%, 25.5%; and of early gastric cancer 84.0%,86.0%,respectively. The positivity rate of glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia of superficial gastritis, erosive gastritis, gastric erosion, and gastric ulcer patients with H pylori positivity was significantly higher than those with H pylori negativity (P<0.01); however, there was no significant difference in patients with early gastric cancer with or without H pylori infection.CONCLUSION: The progression of the gastric pre-cancerous lesions, glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in superficial gastritis, gastric erosion, erosive gastritis and gastric ulcer was strongly related to H pylori infection. In depth studies are needed to evaluate whether eradication of H pylori infection will really diminish the risk of gastric cancer.

  19. Investigation of denitrifying microbial communities within an agricultural drainage system fitted with low-grade weirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Beth H; Kröger, Robert; Brooks, John P; Smith, Renotta K; Czarnecki, Joby M Prince

    2015-12-15

    Enhancing wetland characteristics in agricultural drainage ditches with the use of low-grade weirs, has been identified as a best management practice (BMP) to mitigate nutrient runoff from agriculture landscapes. A major objective of utilizing low-grade weirs as a BMP includes fostering environments suitable for the biogeochemical removal of nitrogen via denitrification. This study examined the spatial resolution of microbial communities involved in denitrification in agricultural drainage systems fitted with low-grade weirs. Appropriate sampling scales of microbial communities were investigated using 16S rRNA and denitrification functional genes nosZ, nirS, and nirK via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. Genes 16S rRNA, nosZ, and nirS were all successfully detected in soil samples, while nirK was below the detection limit throughout the study. Utilizing a combination of three sampling regimes (management, reach, catchment) was found to be effective in capturing microbial community patterns, as ANOVA results revealed nosZ gene abundance was significantly greater at the management rather than reach scale (p = 0.045; F = 3.311), although, no significant differences were observed in 16S rRNA or nirS between sampling scales (p > 0.05). A Pearson correlation matrix confirmed that 16S rRNA and nosZ gene abundances were positively correlated with soil carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and moisture, while nirS abundance was only positively correlated with soil C and soil moisture. This highlights the potential for wetland-like characteristics to be recovered in agricultural drainage systems, as weir proximity is observed to enhance soil moisture and conditions for N remediation. This study provides the basis for additional investigations of these unique environments in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley and a starting point for adaptive management to enhance agricultural drainage systems for microbial

  20. "Gastric cytoprotection" is still relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Sandor

    2014-12-01

    rapid vascular changes (e.g. increased VP and blood flow), followed by cellular events (e.g. infiltration by acute and chronic inflammatory cells). Thus, PG and histamine, by increasing VP create a perivascular edema that dilutes and delays toxic agents reaching the subepithelial capillaries. Otherwise, damaging chemicals may induce severe early vascular injury resulting in blood flow stasis, hypoxia, and necrosis of surrounding epithelial and mesenchymal cells. In this complex response, increased mucus and/or bicarbonate secretion seem to cause luminal dilution of gastrotoxic chemicals that is further reinforced by a perivascular, histodilutional component. This mechanistic explanation would encompass the protective actions of diverse agents as PG, small doses of histamine, motility stimulants, and dilute irritants (i.e. "adaptive cytoprotection"). Thus, although markedly increased VP is pathologic, slight increase in VP seems to be protective, that is, a key element in the complex pathophysiologic response during acute gastroprotection. Over the years, "gastroprotection" was also applied to accelerated healing of chronic gastroduodenal ulcers without reduction of acid secretion. The likely main mechanism here is the binding of angiogenic growth factors (e.g. basic fibroblast growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor) to the heparin-like structures of sucralfate and sofalcone. Thus, despite intensive research of the last 30 years, gastroprotection is incompletely understood, and we are still far away from effectively treating Helicobacter pylori-negative ulcers and preventing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-caused erosions and ulcers in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract; hence "gastric cytoprotection" research is still relevant.

  1. Analysis the relationship between helicobacter pylori negative peptic ulcer and hemorrhages%幽门螺杆菌阴性消化性溃疡与出血关系的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 王毓麟; 崔立红; 刘超群

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the relationship between helicobacter pylori negative peptic ulcer and hemorrhages. METHODS The patients with peptic ulcer were randomly divided into pure ulcer group and bleeding ulcer group. We examined whether patients were detected with helicobacter pylori by RUT and histological examination. RESULTS Among 90 patients with peptic ulcer, 30 patients had negative helicobacter pylori infection with negative rate of 33.3%. However, among 90 pure ulcer group, 18 patients showed negative helicobacter pylori infection with the negative rate of 20%. There was significant difference in the two groups. CONCLUSION The incidence of peptic ulcer showed lower in negative helicobacter pylori infection patients than positive patients. However, the incidence of hemorrhage is high, and we should pay attention to them and taken property measure to improve the cure rate.%目的 探讨幽门螺旋杆菌阴性消化性溃疡与消化道出血之同的关系.方法 将发生消化性溃疡的病人分为单纯溃疡组以及溃疡合并出血组,通过快速尿素酶实验以及组织学检查两组消化性患者是否感染幽门螺旋杆菌.结果 溃疡合并出血组90例病人中,幽门螺旋杆菌阴性者有30人,阴性率为33.3%;而单纯溃疡组90例病人中,幽门螺旋杆菌阴性者仅为18人,阴性率为20.0%,两组差异有统计学意义.结论 幽门螺旋杆菌阴性消化性溃疡在消化性溃疡所占比例要低于幽门螺旋杆菌阳性消化性溃疡,但是并发出血的可能性更高,对这类病人要引起足够的重视,采取合适的治疗措施,提高治愈率.

  2. Low-Grade Esthesioneuroblastoma Presenting as SIADH: A Review of Atypical Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Senchak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB is a neuroendocrine tumor that typically manifests as advanced stage malignancy in the superior nasal cavity. The hallmark symptoms include nasal obstruction and epistaxis, which result from local tissue invasion. Atypical clinical features can also arise and must be considered when diagnosing and treating ENB. These can include origin in an ectopic location, unusual presenting symptoms, and associated paraneoplastic syndromes. The case described here reports a nasal cavity ENB with atypical clinical features that occurred in a young female. Her tumor was low grade, appeared to arise primarily from the middle nasal cavity, and presented as syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH. She also became pregnant shortly after diagnosis, which had implications on her surgical management. We review the atypical features that uncommonly occur with ENB and the clinical considerations that arise from these unusual characteristics.

  3. High Efficient Enrichment and Activated Dissolution of Refractory Low Grade Rh-containing Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiaofeng; DONG Haigang; TONG Weifeng; ZHAO Jiachun; ZENG Rui

    2012-01-01

    Aiming to the low-grade rhodium-containing waste materials,a new process was proposed to enrich and activate rhodium by smelting using iron oxide as a trapping agent and activator.A rhodium concentrate was obtained by the separation of base metals and precious metals.The concentrate was reacted with dilute aqua regia to obtain rhodium solution.The factors influencing the enrichment and activation effects were discussed in this paper.The results showed that the dissolution rate is greater than 99% under the optimum conditions.In this process,the activation of rhodium was finished in the enrichment process.The iron oxide is both a trapping agent and activator,which simplifies the process and reduce the cost.

  4. Principles of Treatment for Borderline, Micropapillary Serous, and Low-Grade Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Kari E; Uppal, Shitanshu; Johnston, Carolyn

    2016-09-01

    Borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) are less common than epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs). Low-grade EOCs (LG-EOCs) occur even less frequently than BOTs. After primary therapy, recurrence rates of BOTs and LG-EOCs are significantly lower and the stage-adjusted survival is higher than for high-grade EOCs. Thus, determining the best management in terms of traditional ovarian cancer staging and debulking procedures is more challenging and has been recently brought to question. This article reviews the particulars of BOTs and LG-EOCs, their similarities and differences, and how they are best managed and treated, and emphasizes the major role of surgery and the controversial role of chemotherapy. Because these tumors disproportionately affect younger women, this review addresses ovarian preservation in circumstances when fertility or hormonal preservation is desired.

  5. Combined Oral Contraception and Obesity Are Strong Predictors of Low-Grade Inflammation in Healthy Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Cecilie J; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-established marker of inflammation. The level of CRP is affected by several lifestyle factors. A slightly increased CRP level, also known as low-grade inflammation (LGI), is associated with increased risk of several diseases, especially cardiovascular...... disease. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of increased CRP levels in healthy individuals. We therefore assessed CRP in a large cohort of blood donors. METHODS: We measured plasma CRP levels in 15,684 participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study. CRP was measured by a commercial assay...... and abdominal obesity strongly predicted LGI among healthy individuals. However, the most striking finding was the high prevalence of LGI among premenopausal women who used combined oral contraception. Although the significance of CRP as a marker of inflammation is well known, the role of CRP in pathogenesis...

  6. Diagnostic Challenges of Low-Grade Central Osteosarcoma of Jaw: a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyd Hosein Tabatabaei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Low Grade Central Osteosarcoma (LGCO is a rare subtype of osteosarcoma that is less aggressive than conventional osteosarcoma. The importance of LGCO lies in the fact that regarding microscopic and radiographic features, it occasionally simulates some benign jaw lesions and would consequently be misdiagnosed in many patients. The present study was conducted to collect the information and descriptive analyses related to ten cases reported between 1987 and 2010, including a sample reported by the authors emphasizing on diagnostic errors and the prevailing misdiagnosis. The aforementioned reports were gathered in full-texts through Google and PubMed search engines. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the pathologists should exactly evaluate the clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features in order to observe the evidence of invasion.

  7. Effect of technological factors on bacterial leaching of low-grade Ni-Cu sulfide ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The bioleaching of a low-grade Ni-Cu sulfide ore from Jinchuan Mine with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans (TF5) and Thiobaxillus thiooxxidlans (TT) was investigated. The effect of pH, the initial cell numbers of bacteria, the pulp den sity and the ratio of TF5 and TT on leaching was described, and the favorable bioleaching conditions for the ore were ex perimentally confirmed. The aeration leaching, agitation leaching with air bubbling, and column leaching were respective ly tested. The highest recovery was achieved in the aeration leaching. After leaching for 20 d with pulp density of 15 %, the extractions of Ni, Cu and Co were respectively 95.4 %, 48.6 % and 82.6 %.

  8. Associations of low grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction with depression - The Maastricht Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dooren, Fleur E P; Schram, Miranda T; Schalkwijk, Casper G

    2016-01-01

    in this association. METHODS: In The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study (n=852, 55% men, m=59.8±8.5years), depressive symptoms were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and (major and minor) depressive disorder with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Plasma biomarkers......BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of depression may involve low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. We aimed to evaluate the independent associations of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction with depressive symptoms and depressive disorder, and the role of lifestyle factors......E-Selectin) were univariately associated with depressive symptoms and depressive disorder. The sum scores of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction were associated with depressive disorder after adjustment for age, sex, type 2 diabetes, kidney function and prior cardiovascular disease (OR 1.54, p=0.001 and 1...

  9. Waist circumference is related to low-grade inflammation in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Kolle, Elin; Resaland, GK

    2010-01-01

    included as controls. Inflammatory markers included C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin, adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), resistin and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The CVD risk factors included blood pressure, glucose......Abstract Objectives. To examine markers of inflammation in 9- and 15-year-olds with high waist circumference and compare these with controls, and to examine the relationships between inflammatory markers and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Methods. Cross-sectional analysis of data from 2.......51) compared with controls. All CVD risk factors differed between the HW group and controls. The CVD risk factors were not associated with TNFalpha or IL-6, but CRP, HGF and PAI-1 were related to the metabolic risk score. Conclusions. Low grade systemic inflammation is already present in youth with high waist...

  10. Neutral Leaching of Low-Grade Pyrolusite with High Silica Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Leaching studies of low-grade pyrolusite, containing 11.84% Mn with high silicon, were carried out using sodium sulfite as a reductant in ammonium sulfate medium. Various process parameters including temperature, leaching time, solid-liquid ratio, quantity of ammonium sulfate, as well as the amount of reducing agent were studied in detail. The manganese extraction yield was the response of the process. Temperature and reagent concentration exerted the most important positive effect on the manganese extraction. The optimized conditions showed that when the amount of reducing agent was a stoichonmetric amount, over 90% manganese extraction and the lowest impurities were achieved, the amount of heavy metal impurities in the manganese leaching liquid was less than 5 mg/L, and almost no iron and aluminum were extracted in 3 mol/L ammonium sulfate concentration at 100 ℃ in 45 min.

  11. Experimental study on preferential solution flow during dump leaching of low-grade ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Sheng-hua; WU Ai-xiang; SU Yong-ding; ZHANG Jie

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenon of preferential solution flow during dump leaching of low-grade ores was studied. The formative mechanism of preferential solution flow was investigated through analyzing the relationship between permeability and ore diameter,and the relationship between surface tension and ore diameter. The preferential solution flow happened within the fine ore area when the dump was unsaturated. And it could happen within the coarse ore area when the dump became saturated. The results of experiment show that the outflow of coarse ore area increases sharply with higher applied rate. The outflow of fine ore area is greater than that of coarse ore area when the applied rate is below 3.2 L/min, and the preferential solution flow happens in fine ore area. But the preferential solution flow happens in coarse ore area when the applied rate is higher than 3.2 L/min. The result of the experiment is consistent with the mechanism analyzing.

  12. Investigating depression-like and metabolic parameters in a chronic low-grade inflammation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, C. W.; Elfving, B.; Lund, S.

    2012-01-01

    that elevated markers of inflammation predict a poor response to treatment. Furthermore, increasing evidences show that metabolic abnormalities such as obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2 are associated with a low-grade inflammation. Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a systemic...... levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1, IL-6) together with the expression of enzymes involved in the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway, will be analyzed in specific brain regions using real-time qPCR. Body weight and food intake was measured once a week, while fasting glucose and insulin...... disturbances or sickness behavior. Thus, this model might help elucidating some of the mechanisms underlying inflammation-associated depression, in order to assist in developing more effective treatment strategies for this group of patients....

  13. Silver-catalyzed bioleaching for raw low-grade copper sulphide ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianlong DENG; Yafei GUO; Mengxia LIAO; Dongchan LI

    2009-01-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the biooxidation and copper dissolution from raw low-grade refractory copper sulphide ores located in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China using adapted Thiobacillus ferrooxidans bacteria. In order to accelerate the bioleach-ing rate, the adapted mixed bacteria and silver ion catalyst were tested in the leach columns at laboratory scale. The overall acid consumption was 4.3 kg sulphuric acid per kg of dissolved copper and was linearly related to the percent copper dissolution. The calculated copper dissolution rates obey the Shrinking Core Model. The relative activation energy of the whole biooxidative leaching stages was calculated to be 48.58 kJ/mol.

  14. Giant Sporadic Low Grade Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath (MPNST) of Left Thigh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikumbh, Dhiraj B; Suryawanshi, K H; Dravid, N V; Patil, T B; Rokade, C M

    2013-06-01

    Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumours (MPNST) are rare spindle- cell sarcomas which are derived from the schwann cells or the pleuripotent cells of the neural crest. MPNSTs are usually located in the peripheral nerve trunk roots, extremities and in the head and neck region. These tumours may arise as sporadic variants or in patients with neurofibromatosis1 (NF1). The estimated incidence of MPNSTs in the patients with NF1is 2-5% as compared to a 0.001% incidence in the general population. Herein, we are reporting a case of a giant sporadic (NF1 independent) low grade MPNST of the left thigh in 65 year female patient, which had a good prognosis.

  15. Assessment of quality of life in patients treated for low-grade glioma: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taphoorn, M J; Heimans, J J; Snoek, F J; Lindeboom, J; Oosterink, B; Wolbers, J G; Karim, A B

    1992-01-01

    In this pilot study quality of life was assessed in fourteen adult patients who were treated for a low-grade glioma with surgery and radiotherapy at least one year previously. Apart from widely used parameters, such as the neurological and functional status, the patients' cognitive functioning and actual affective status were determined. In addition the patients were interviewed to evaluate various aspects of quality of life. Generally no serious focal neurological deficits were found, although psychological examination showed serious cognitive and affective disturbances in most cases. Self report measures concerning cognitive functioning were not in all cases in accordance with objective test results. When the results of treatment in glioma patients are evaluated assessment of quality of life, including neuropsychological functioning, should be performed, especially as new therapeutic strategies are being developed. PMID:1602310

  16. Plantar fibromatosis may adopt the brain gyriform pattern of a low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touraine, Sébastien; Bousson, Valérie; Kaci, Rachid; Parlier-Cuau, Caroline; Haddad, Samuel; Laouisset, Liess; Petrover, David; Laredo, Jean-Denis

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 42-year-old man with histologically proven plantar fibromatosis (Ledderhose disease) demonstrating an uncommon brain gyriform pattern at MRI, so far exclusively described in the low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS). An acoustic posterior enhancement at ultrasound, a high intensity on T2w and post-contrast T1wMR images were unusual and related to a high tumor cellularity at histology with no myxoid tissue. The juxtaposition of areas of high and low cellularity (with more fibrous material) in a multilobulated mass built a brain gyriform pattern at MR, similar to what was so far described exclusively in LGFMS. This case demonstrates that the brain gyriform pattern may also be observed in other soft tissue fibrous tumors with no myxoid material but with high cellularity areas alternating with fibrous zones of low cellularity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid Multiorgan Dissemination of Low-Grade Myxofibrosarcoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutaka Murahashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Myxofibrosarcoma is one of the most common sarcomas in the extremities of elderly people. It is characterized by a high frequency of local recurrence due to an infiltrative growth property. In contrast, the overall risk of distant metastases is generally low. This makes the prognosis for the patients with myxofibrosarcoma definitely good. In this paper, we will report the case of a 79-year-old female with very aggressive metastatic low-grade myxofibrosarcoma. The disease progression was really unexpected and misled every possible medical interpretation, leading to rapid worsening of the patient's clinical conditions and no chance for therapy. The tumor developed diffuse infiltration in lung, spine, skeletal bone, abdomen, paravertebral muscles, and liver. The patient died 8 months after the diagnosis of remote metastases due to rapid tumor progression.

  18. Adaptability of language-related brain network in a low-grade glioma patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olivera Sveljo; Katarina Koprivsek; Milos Lucic

    2011-01-01

    Because functional magnetic resonance imaging can be used for dynamic observation of functional cortical changes after brain injuries, we followed up functional magnetic resonance imaging manifestationsof a language-related brain network in a low -grade glioma patient. Disease progressionand therapy during a 3-year period were followed up at different time points: before and after reoperation,after radiation therapy, and 1 year after irradiation. During the whole 3-year follow -up period,the patient exhibited no neurological deficits while functional magnetic resonance imaging revealeddifferent topologies of the language-related brain network. During disease progression and after irradiation,the language-related brain network was extended or completely transferred to the nondominant(right) hemisphere. In addition, after reoperation and 1 year after irradiation, languageareas were primarily found in the language dominant (left) hemisphere. Our results suggest a highlevel of adaptability of the language-related cortical network of the bilateral hemispheres in thislow -grade glioma patient.

  19. Low-Grade Astrocytoma Associated with Abscess Formation: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Hsin Tsai

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of low-grade astrocytoma associated with abscess formation occurred in a 52-year-old man presenting with Broca's aphasia. He underwent craniotomy and tumor removal under the impression of brain tumor with necrotic cystic change. Abscess accumulation within the intra-axial tumor was found intraoperatively. Literature related to brain abscess with brain tumor is reviewed, with an emphasis on abscesses with astrocytoma. We discuss the common brain tumors that are associated with abscess, pathogens that coexist with brain tumor, and the pathogeneses of coexisting brain abscess and tumor. It is very important to know how to differentiate between and diagnose a brain abscess and tumor, or brain abscess with tumor, preoperatively from clinical presentation and through the use of computed tomography, conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging or magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  20. Role of immune cells in obesity induced low grade inflammation and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Ambreen; Sheikh, Nadeem

    2017-05-01

    The frequency of obesity is enormously growing worldwide. Obesity results when energy intake exceeds, energy expenditure. Excess adiposity is a major risk factor in the progress of various metabolic disorders accounting insulin resistance, hypertension, Type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovarian disease and several types of cancers. Obesity is characterized by pro-inflammatory condition in which hypertrophied adipose tissue along with immune cells contribute to increase the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Immune cells are the key players in inducing low grade chronic inflammation in obesity and are main factor responsible for pathogenesis of insulin resistance resulting Type 2 diabetes. The current review is aimed to investigate the mechanism of pro-inflammatory responses and insulin resistance involving immune cells and their products in obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sodium sulfide leaching of low-grade jamesonite concentrate in production of sodium pyroantimoniate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Tian-zu; JIANG Ming-xi; LAI Qiong-lin; CHEN Jin-zhong

    2005-01-01

    Sodium sulfide leaching of a low-grade jamesonite concentrate in the production of sodium pyroantimoniate through the air oxidation process and the influencing factors on the leaching rate of antimony were investigated.In order to decrease the consumption of sodium sulfide and increase the concentration of antimony in the leaching solution, two-stage leaching of jamesonite concentrate and combination leaching of high-grade stibnite concentrate and jamesonite concentrate were used. The experimental results showthat the consumptions of sodium sulfide for the two-stage leaching process and the combination leaching process are decreased by 20% and 60% compared to those of one-stage leaching process respectively. The final concentrations of antimony in the leaching solutions of both processes are above 100 g/L.

  2. Combustion of low grade fractions of Lubnica coal in fluidized bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Milica R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a method of examination of fuel suitability for fluidized bed combustion is presented. The research of combustion characteristics of low grade fractions of Lubnica brown coal in the fluidized bed by the aforementioned methodology has been carried out on a laboratory semi-industrial apparatus of 200 kWt. Description of the experimental fluidized bed combustion facility is given, as well as experimental results, with the focus on furnace temperature distribution, in order to determine the location of the zone of intensive combustion. Based on investigation results, which are focused on combustion quality (combustion completion as well as on satisfying the environmental protection criteria, it can be stated that the investigated coal is suitable for burning in bubbling, as well as in circulating fluidized bed.

  3. Recovery of zinc from low-grade zinc oxide ores by solvent extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃文庆; 蓝卓越; 黎维中

    2003-01-01

    The recovery of zinc from low-grade zinc oxide ores with solvent extraction-electrowinning technique was investigated by using D2EHPA as extractant and 260# kerosene as diluent. The results show that it is possible to selectively leach zinc from the ores by heap leaching. The zinc concentration of leach solution in the first leaching cycle is 32.57 g/L, and in the sixteenth cycle the zinc concentration is 8.27g/L after solvent extraction. The leaching solution is subjected to solvent extraction, scrubbing and selective stripping for enrichment of zinc and removal of impurities. The pregnant zinc sulfate solution produced from the stripping cycle is suitable for zinc electrowinning.Extra-pure zinc metal was obtained in the electrowinning test under conventional conditions.

  4. Low grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus:Should we worry?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vamshi; P; Jagadesham; Clive; J; Kelty

    2014-01-01

    The optimal management for low-grade dysplasia(LGD)in Barrett’s esophagus is unclear.In this article the importance of LGD is discussed,including the significant risk of progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma.Endoscopic surveillance is a management option but is plagued by sampling error and issues of suboptimal endoscopy.Furthermore endoscopic surveillance has not been demonstrated to be cost-effective or to reduce cancer mortality.The emergence of endoluminal therapy over the past decade has resulted in a paradigm shift in the management of LGD.Ablative therapy,including radiofrequency ablation,has demonstrated promising results in the management of LGD with regards to safety,cost-effectiveness,durability and reduction in cancer risk.It is,however,vital that a shareddecision making process occurs between the physician and the patient as to the preferred management of LGD.As such the management of LGD should be"individualised."

  5. High-efficient thermochemical sorption refrigeration driven by low-grade thermal energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI TingXian; WANG RuZhu; WANG LiWei

    2009-01-01

    Thermochemical sorption refrigeration powered by low-grade thermal energy is one of the en ergy-saving and environment friendly green refrigeration technologies. The operation principle of sorption refrigeration system is based on the thermal effects of reversible physicochemical reaction processes between sorbents and refrigerants. This paper presents the developing study on the differ ent thermochemical sorption refrigeration cycles, and some representative high-efficient thermo chemical sorption refrigeration cycles were evaluated and analyzed based on the conventional single-effect sorption cycle. These advanced sorption refrigeration cycles mainly include the heat and mass recovery sorption cycle, double-effect sorption cycle, multi-effect sorption cycle, combined douhie-way sorption cycle, and double-effect and double-way sorption cycle with internal heat recovery.Moreover, the developing tendency of the thermochemical sorption refrigeration is also predicted in this paper.

  6. Roles of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation in the Development of Ectopic Fat Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pattern of fat distribution is a major determinant for metabolic homeostasis. As a depot of energy, the storage of triglycerides in adipose tissue contributes to the normal fat distribution. Decreased capacity of fat storage in adipose tissue may result in ectopic fat deposition in nonadipose tissues such as liver, pancreas, and kidney. As a critical biomarker of metabolic complications, chronic low-grade inflammation may have the ability to affect the process of lipid accumulation and further lead to the disorder of fat distribution. In this review, we have collected the evidence linking inflammation with ectopic fat deposition to get a better understanding of the underlying mechanism, which may provide us with novel therapeutic strategies for metabolic disorders.

  7. Membrane-free battery for harvesting low-grade thermal energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan; Loomis, James; Ghasemi, Hadi; Lee, Seok Woo; Wang, Yi Jenny; Cui, Yi; Chen, Gang

    2014-11-12

    Efficient and low-cost systems are desired to harvest the tremendous amount of energy stored in low-grade heat sources (membrane in this system raises concerns about the overall cost, which is crucial for waste heat harvesting. Here, we report on a new membrane-free battery with a nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) cathode and a silver/silver chloride anode. The system has a temperature coefficient of -0.74 mV K(-1). When the battery is discharged at 15 °C and recharged at 55 °C, thermal-to-electricity conversion efficiencies of 2.6% and 3.5% are achieved with assumed heat recuperation of 50% and 70%, respctively. This work opens new opportunities for using membrane-free electrochemical systems to harvest waste heat.

  8. Role of PGC-1α in acute and low-grade inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jesper

    inflammation as well as in the inflammatory response in mouse skeletal muscle. 2) Long-term exercise training and/or resveratrol supplementation prevents age-associated low-grade- and skeletal muscle inflammation in mice with PGC-1α being required for these improvements. 3) Exercise training and/or resveratrol....... However, PGC-1α was not mandatory for the exercise training-induced reductions in systemic IL-6 in mice, suggesting that additional factors contribute to the systemic anti-inflammatory effects of exercise training. Study II and III demonstrated that while resveratrol increased the protein content...... of the anti-oxidant enzyme GPX1 and appeared to reduce oxidative stress in mouse skeletal muscle, resveratrol did not elicit any antiinflammatory effects neither in mice nor in human subjects. In contrast, resveratrol even impaired the exercise training-induced reduction in protein carbonylation and TNFα m...

  9. Dedifferentiated liposarcoma of the retro-peritoneum: Histologically low-grade type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parakh Rugvedita

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A dedifferentiated liposarcoma of the retro-peritoneum of a 45-year-old female is described in this case report. It showed dedifferentiation into a histological low-grade type and thus defies the traditional definition of dedifferentiated liposarcoma. The excised specimen was a huge, multi-nodular encapsulated mass surrounding the kidney and infiltrating into it. The mass showed a dedifferentiated focus different in color from the surrounding tumor and containing areas of necrosis and hemorrhage. The sections from the dedifferentiated part of the tumor appeared predominantly as benign spindle cell component on histology but the tumor was infiltrating into the kidney. Hence, a close and long-term follow-up is expected in such cases though they look benign. In the retro-peritoneum, a lipoma-like well-differentiated liposarcoma with spindle cell component, like the present tumor, which shows dedifferentiation, should not be overlooked.

  10. Obesity and Low-Grade Inflammation Increase Plasma Follistatin-Like 3 in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Claus; Pedersen, Maria; Rinnov, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rodent models suggest that follistatin-like 3 (fstl3) is associated with diabetes and obesity. In humans, plasma fstl3 is reduced with gestational diabetes. In vitro, TNF-α induces fstl3 secretion, which suggests a link to inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the association between...... plasma fstl3 and obesity, insulin resistance, and low-grade inflammation in humans. STUDY DESIGN: Plasma fstl3 levels were determined in a cross-sectional study including three groups: patients with type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and healthy controls. In addition, lipopolysaccharide (LPS......), TNF-α, or interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp were used to examine if plasma fstl3 was acutely regulated in humans. RESULTS: Plasma fstl3 was increased in obese subjects independent of glycemic state. Moreover, plasma fstl3 was positively correlated with fat mass...

  11. Thermomagnetic conversion of low-grade waste heat into electrical power

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Achkar, G.; Dianoux, A.; Kheiri, A.; Maillet, D.; Mazet, T.; Colasson, S.; Feidt, M.; Rado, C.; Servant, F.; Paul-Boncour, V.

    2016-09-01

    A theoretical study relying on the thermal modelling of a Curie wheel, used for the conversion of low-grade waste heat into electrical power, is presented in this paper. It allows understanding the thermal behaviour of a Curie wheel operating in steady state in order to optimise its design. To this end, a stationary one-dimensional analytical thermal model, based on a Lagrangian approach, was developed. It allows determining the local distribution over time of the temperature in the magnetocaloric material exposed to a periodic sinusoidal heat source. Thanks to this model, the effects of different parameters (nature of the magnetocaloric material, nature and temperature of the fluid) were highlighted and studied.

  12. Predictors of seizure freedom after resection of supratentorial low-grade gliomas. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englot, Dario J; Berger, Mitchel S; Barbaro, Nicholas M; Chang, Edward F

    2011-08-01

    Seizures are the most frequent presenting symptom in patients with low-grade gliomas (LGGs), and significantly influence quality of life if they are uncontrolled. Achieving freedom from seizures is of utmost importance in surgical planning, but the factors associated with seizure control remain incompletely understood. The authors performed a systematic literature review of seizure outcomes after resection of LGGs causing seizures, examining 773 patients across 20 published series. Rates of seizure freedom were stratified across 7 variables: patient age, tumor location, preoperative seizure control with medication, seizure semiology, epilepsy duration, extent of resection, and the use of intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG). Gross-total resection was most predictive of complete seizure freedom, when compared with subtotal resection (OR 3.41, 95% CI 2.36-4.93). Other predictors of seizure freedom included preoperative seizure control on antiepileptic medication (OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.33-3.38) and duration of seizures of ≤ 1 year (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.22-2.79). Patients with simple partial seizure semiology achieved seizure freedom less often than those with complex partial, generalized, or mixed seizure types (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.26-0.80). No significant differences in seizure outcome were observed between adults versus children, patients with temporal lobe versus extratemporal tumors, or with the use of intraoperative ECoG. Seizure control is one of the most important considerations in planning surgery for low-grade brain tumors. Gross-total resection is a critical factor in achieving seizure freedom.

  13. The significance of "geothermal microzonation" for the correct planning of low-grade source geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viccaro, Marco; Pezzino, Antonino; Belfiore, Giuseppe Maria; Campisano, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Despite the environmental-friendly energy systems are solar thermal technologies, photovoltaic and wind power, other advantageous technologies exist, although they have not found wide development in countries such as Italy. Given the almost absent environmental impact and the rather favorable cost/benefit ratio, low-enthalpy geothermal systems are, however, likely to be of strategic importance also in Italy during the next years. The importance of geology for a sustainable exploitation of the ground through geothermal systems from low-grade sources is becoming paramount. Specifically, understanding of the lithological characteristics of the subsurface along with structures and textures of rocks is essential for a correct planning of the probe/geo-exchanger field and their associated ground source heat pumps. The complex geology of Eastern Sicily (Southern Italy), which includes volcanic, sedimentary and metamorphic units over limited extension, poses the question of how thermal conductivity of rocks is variable at the scale of restricted areas (even within the same municipality). This is the innovative concept of geothermal microzonation, i.e., how variable is the geothermal potential as a function of geology at the microscale. Some pilot areas have been therefore chosen to test how the geological features of the subsurface can influence the low-enthalpy geothermal potential of an area. Our geologically based evaluation and micro-zonation of the low-grade source geothermal potential of the selected areas have been verified to be fundamental for optimization of all the main components of a low-enthalpy geothermal system. Saving realization costs and limiting the energy consumption through correct sizing of the system are main ambitions to have sustainable development of this technology with intensive utilization of the subsurface. The variegated territory of countries such as Italy implies that these goals can be only reached if, primarily, the geological features

  14. Childhood bullying involvement predicts low-grade systemic inflammation into adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, William E; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Shanahan, Lilly; Worthman, Carol; Costello, E Jane

    2014-05-27

    Bullying is a common childhood experience that involves repeated mistreatment to improve or maintain one's status. Victims display long-term social, psychological, and health consequences, whereas bullies display minimal ill effects. The aim of this study is to test how this adverse social experience is biologically embedded to affect short- or long-term levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of low-grade systemic inflammation. The prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (n = 1,420), with up to nine waves of data per subject, was used, covering childhood/adolescence (ages 9-16) and young adulthood (ages 19 and 21). Structured interviews were used to assess bullying involvement and relevant covariates at all childhood/adolescent observations. Blood spots were collected at each observation and assayed for CRP levels. During childhood and adolescence, the number of waves at which the child was bullied predicted increasing levels of CRP. Although CRP levels rose for all participants from childhood into adulthood, being bullied predicted greater increases in CRP levels, whereas bullying others predicted lower increases in CRP compared with those uninvolved in bullying. This pattern was robust, controlling for body mass index, substance use, physical and mental health status, and exposures to other childhood psychosocial adversities. A child's role in bullying may serve as either a risk or a protective factor for adult low-grade inflammation, independent of other factors. Inflammation is a physiological response that mediates the effects of both social adversity and dominance on decreases in health.

  15. Diagnostic utility of flow cytometry in low-grade myelodysplastic syndromes: a prospective validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Kiyoyuki; Della Porta, Matteo G.; Malcovati, Luca; Picone, Cristina; Yokose, Norio; Matsuda, Akira; Yamashita, Taishi; Tamura, Hideto; Tsukada, Junichi; Dan, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes is not always straightforward when patients lack specific diagnostic markers, such as blast excess, karyotype abnormality, and ringed sideroblasts. Design and Methods We designed a flow cytometry protocol applicable in many laboratories and verified its diagnostic utility in patients without those diagnostic markers. The cardinal parameters, analyzable from one cell aliquot, were myeloblasts (%), B-cell progenitors (%), myeloblast CD45 expression, and channel number of side scatter where the maximum number of granulocytes occurs. The adjunctive parameters were CD11b, CD15, and CD56 expression (%) on myeloblasts. Marrow samples from 106 control patients with cytopenia and 134 low-grade myelodysplastic syndromes patients, including 81 lacking both ringed sideroblasts and cytogenetic aberrations, were prospectively analyzed in Japan and Italy. Results Data outside the predetermined reference range in 2 or more parameters (multiple abnormalities) were common in myelodysplastic syndromes patients. In those lacking ringed sideroblasts and cytogenetic aberrations, multiple abnormalities were observed in 8/26 Japanese (30.8%) and 37/55 Italians (67.3%) when the cardinal parameters alone were considered, and in 17/26 Japanese (65.4%) and 42/47 Italians (89.4%) when all parameters were taken into account. Multiple abnormalities were rare in controls. When data from all parameters were used, the diagnostic sensitivities were 65% and 89%, specificities were 98% and 90%, and likelihood ratios were 28.1 and 8.5 for the Japanese and Italian cohorts, respectively. Conclusions This protocol can be used in the diagnostic work-up of low-grade myelodysplastic syndromes patients who lack specific diagnostic markers, although further improvement in diagnostic power is desirable. PMID:19546439

  16. MRI-suspected low-grade glioma: is there a need to perform dynamic FET PET?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Nathalie L.; Graute, Vera; Cumming, Paul; Bartenstein, Peter; Fougere, Christian la [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Armbruster, Lena; Suchorska, Bogdana; Tonn, Joerg-Christian; Kreth, Friedrich Wilhelm [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Department of Neurosurgery, Munich (Germany); Lutz, Juergen [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Eigenbrod, Sabina [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Department of Neuropathology, Munich (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    Since differentiation between low-grade glioma (LGG) and high-grade glioma (HGG) remains challenging according to MRI criteria alone, we investigated the discriminative value of additional dynamic FET PET in patients with MRI-suspected LGG. Included in this retrospective study were 127 patients with newly diagnosed MRI-suspected LGG and dynamic FET PET prior to histopathological assessment. FET PET lesions were visually classified as having reduced, normal, or increased tracer uptake. Maximal tumour uptake scaled to the mean background uptake (SUV{sub max}/BG), mean tumour uptake (SUV{sub mean}/BG), biological tumour volume and kinetics were evaluated and correlated with individual histopathological findings. Histopathological analysis revealed 71 patients with LGG, 47 patients with HGG (including 5 glioblastoma multiforme), 2 patients with low-grade ganglioglioma and 7 patients with non-neoplastic lesions. Of the 127 patients, 97 had lesions with increased FET uptake, of which 93 were neoplastic. Increased uptake was found in 49/71 LGG (69 %) and 42/47 HGG (89 %). None of the conventional uptake parameters differed significantly between the HGG and LGG groups. Kinetic analysis reliably identified HGG (sensitivity 95 %, specificity 72 %, PPV 74 %, NPV 95 %). Normal tracer uptake was observed in 19 patients (15 with LGG, 1 with HGG and 3 with non-neoplastic lesions) and reduced uptake in 11 patients (7 with LGG and 4 with HGG). Among the MRI-suspected LGG, kinetic but not conventional analysis of FET uptake enabled remarkably high sensitivity for detection of HGG. This held true even for lesions with low or diffuse tracer uptake. Lesions with reduced tracer uptake must be interpreted with caution, as they can also harbour HGG tissue. (orig.)

  17. Behavior of Low Grade Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Made with Fresh and Recycled Brick Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shariful Islam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste (CDW have been widely accepted in construction sectors as the replacement of coarse aggregate in order to minimize the excessive use of natural resources. In this paper, an experimental investigation is carried out to observe the influence of low grade steel fiber reinforcements on the stress-strain behavior of concrete made with recycled and fresh brick aggregates. In addition, compressive strength by destructive and nondestructive tests, splitting tensile strength, and Young’s modulus are determined. Hooked end steel wires with 50 mm of length and an aspect ratio of 55.6 are used as fiber reinforcements in a volume fraction of 0% (control case, 0.50%, and 1.00% in concrete mixes. The same gradation of aggregates and water-cement ratio (w/c=0.44 were used to assess the effect of steel fiber in all these concrete mixes. All tests were conducted at 7, 14, and 28 days to perceive the effect of age on different mechanical properties. The experimental results show that around 10%~15% and 40%~60% increase in 28 days compressive strength and tensile strength of steel fiber reinforced concrete, respectively, compared to those of the control case. It is observed that the effect of addition of 1% fiber on the concrete compressive strength is little compared to that of 0.5% steel fiber addition. On the other hand, strain of concrete at failure of steel fiber reinforced concrete has increased almost twice compared to the control case. A simple analytical model is also proposed to generate the ascending portions of the stress-strain curve of concrete. There exists a good correlation between the experimental results and the analytical model. A relatively ductile failure is observed for the concrete made with low grade steel fibers.

  18. Hypnosis for Awake Surgery of Low-grade Gliomas: Description of the Method and Psychological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemmoura, Ilyess; Fournier, Eric; El-Hage, Wissam; Jolly, Virginie; Destrieux, Christophe; Velut, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Awake craniotomy with intraoperative electric stimulation is a reliable method for extensive removal of low-grade gliomas while preserving the functional integrity of eloquent surrounding brain structures. Although fully awake procedures have been proposed, asleep-awake-asleep remains the standard technique. Anesthetic contraindications are the only limitation of this method, which is therefore not reliable for older patients with high-grade gliomas. To describe and assess a novel method for awake craniotomy based on hypnosis. We proposed a novel hypnosedation procedure to patients undergoing awake surgery for low-grade gliomas in our institution between May 2011 and April 2015. Surgical data were retrospectively recorded. The subjective experience of hypnosis was assessed by 3 standardized questionnaires: the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist Scale, the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experience Questionnaire, and a fourth questionnaire designed specifically for this study. Twenty-eight questionnaires were retrieved from 43 procedures performed on 37 patients. The Peritraumatic Dissociative Experience Questionnaire revealed a dissociation state in 17 cases. The Perceived Stress Scale was pathological in 8 patients. Two patients in this group stated that they would not accept a second hypnosedation procedure. The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist Scale revealed 1 case of posttraumatic stress disorder. Burr hole and bone flap procedures were the most frequently reported unpleasant events during opening (15 of 52 events). The main findings of our study are the effectiveness of the technique, which in all cases allowed resection of the tumor up to functional boundaries, and the positive psychological impact of the technique in most of the patients.

  19. Molecular profiling of low grade serous ovarian tumours identifies novel candidate driver genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Sally M; Anglesio, Michael S; Ryland, Georgina L; Sharma, Raghwa; Chiew, Yoke-Eng; Rowley, Simone M; Doyle, Maria A; Li, Jason; Gilks, C Blake; Moss, Phillip; Allan, Prue E; Stephens, Andrew N; Huntsman, David G; deFazio, Anna; Bowtell, David D; Gorringe, Kylie L; Campbell, Ian G

    2015-11-10

    Low grade serous ovarian tumours are a rare and under-characterised histological subtype of epithelial ovarian tumours, with little known of the molecular drivers and facilitators of tumorigenesis beyond classic oncogenic RAS/RAF mutations. With a move towards targeted therapies due to the chemoresistant nature of this subtype, it is pertinent to more fully characterise the genetic events driving this tumour type, some of which may influence response to therapy and/or development of drug resistance. We performed genome-wide high-resolution genomic copy number analysis (Affymetrix SNP6.0) and mutation hotspot screening (KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, ERBB2 and TP53) to compare a large cohort of ovarian serous borderline tumours (SBTs, n = 57) with low grade serous carcinomas (LGSCs, n = 19). Whole exome sequencing was performed for 13 SBTs, nine LGSCs and one mixed low/high grade carcinoma. Copy number aberrations were detected in 61% (35/57) of SBTs, compared to 100% (19/19) of LGSCs. Oncogenic RAS/RAF/ERBB2 mutations were detected in 82.5% (47/57) of SBTs compared to 63% (12/19) of LGSCs, with NRAS mutations detected only in LGSC. Some copy number aberrations appeared to be enriched in LGSC, most significantly loss of 9p and homozygous deletions of the CDKN2A/2B locus. Exome sequencing identified BRAF, KRAS, NRAS, USP9X and EIF1AX as the most frequently mutated genes. We have identified markers of progression from borderline to LGSC and novel drivers of LGSC. USP9X and EIF1AX have both been linked to regulation of mTOR, suggesting that mTOR inhibitors may be a key companion treatment for targeted therapy trials of MEK and RAF inhibitors.

  20. MiR-27a rs895819 is involved in increased atrophic gastritis risk, improved gastric cancer prognosis and negative interaction with Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian; Chen, Tie-jun; He, Cai-yun; Sun, Li-ping; Liu, Jing-wei; Yuan, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    MiR-27a rs895819 is a loop-stem structure single nucleotide polymorphism affecting mature miR-27a function. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis about the association of rs895819 with gastric cancer risk and prognosis, atrophic gastritis risk, as well as the interactions with environmental factors. A total of 939 gastric cancer patients, 1,067 atrophic gastritis patients and 1,166 healthy controls were screened by direct sequencing and MALDI-TOF-MS. The association of rs895819 with clinical pathological parameters and prognostic survival in 357 gastric cancer patients was also been analyzed. The rs895819 variant genotype increased the risk for atrophic gastritis (1.58-fold) and gastric cancer (1.24-fold). While in stratified analysis, the risk effect was demonstrated more significantly in the female, age >60y, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) negative and non-drinker subgroups. Rs895819 and H. pylori showed an interaction effect for atrophic gastritis risk. In the survival analysis, the rs895819 AG heterozygosis was associated with better survival than the AA wild-type in the TNM stage I–II subgroup. In vitro study by overexpressing miR-27a, cells carrying polymorphic-type G allele expressed lower miR-27a than wild-type A allele. In conclusion, miR-27a rs895819 is implicated as a biomarker for gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis risk, and interacts with H. pylori in gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:28150722

  1. Novel insights into the molecular pathogenesis of gastric MALT lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Gastric marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) represents a distinct class of extranodal lymphoma that evolves against a background of chronic inflammation induced by persistent infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. In its early stages, MALT lymphoma is an antigen-dependent disease characterised by an indolent clinical course and in most cases is treatable by antibiotic eradication therapy alone. Low grade MALT lymphomas c...

  2. Low-grade and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas: differences in tumour microvascular permeability evaluated with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhongzheng; Geng, Daoying; Liu, Ying; Chen, Xingrong; Zhang, Jun

    2013-08-01

    This study was designed to quantitatively assess the microvascular permeability of oligodendroglioma using the volume transfer constant (K(trans)) and the volume of the extravascular extracellular space per unit volume of tissue (V(e)) with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of K(trans) and V(e) in distinguishing between low-grade and anaplastic oligodendroglioma. The maximal values of K(trans) and V(e) for 65 patients with oligodendroglioma (27 grade II, 38 grade III) were obtained. Differences in K(trans) and V(e) between the two groups were analysed using the Mann-Whitney rank-sum test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were performed to determine the cut-off values for the K(trans) and Ve that could differentiate between low-grade and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas. Values for K(trans) and Ve in low-grade oligodendrogliomas were significantly lower than those in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (p low-grade and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas in a statistically significant manner. Our results suggest that DCE-MRI can distinguish the differences in microvascular permeability between low-grade and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas.

  3. Catalytic decomposition of tar derived from wood waste pyrolysis using Indonesian low grade iron ore as catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicakso, Doni Rahmat [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Lambung Mangkurat University, Jalan A. Yani KM. 36 Banjarbaru, 70714, South Kalimantan (Indonesia); Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Grafika No. 2 Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta, 55281 (Indonesia); Sutijan; Rochmadi [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Grafika No. 2 Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta, 55281 (Indonesia); Budiman, Arief, E-mail: abudiman@ugm.ac.id [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Grafika No. 2 Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta, 55281 (Indonesia); Center for Energy Studies, Gadjah Mada University, Sekip K1A, Yogyakarta, 55281 (Indonesia)

    2016-06-03

    Low grade iron ore can be used as an alternative catalyst for bio-tar decomposition. Compared to other catalysts, such as Ni, Rd, Ru, Pd and Pt, iron ore is cheaper. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of using low grade iron ore as catalyst for tar catalytic decomposition in fixed bed reactor. Tar used in this experiment was pyrolysis product of wood waste while the catalyst was Indonesian low grade iron ore. The variables studied were temperatures between 500 – 600 °C and catalyst weight between 0 – 40 gram. The first step, tar was evaporated at 450 °C to produce tar vapor. Then, tar vapor was flowed to fixed bed reactor filled low grade iron ore. Gas and tar vapor from reactor was cooled, then the liquid and uncondensable gas were analyzed by GC/MS. The catalyst, after experiment, was weighed to calculate total carbon deposited into catalyst pores. The results showed that the tar components that were heavy and light hydrocarbon were decomposed and cracked within the iron ore pores to from gases, light hydrocarbon (bio-oil) and carbon, thus decreasing content tar in bio-oil and increasing the total gas product. In conclusion, the more low grade iron ore used as catalyst, the tar content in the liquid decrease, the H{sup 2} productivity increased and calorimetric value of bio-oil increased.

  4. Catalytic decomposition of tar derived from wood waste pyrolysis using Indonesian low grade iron ore as catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicakso, Doni Rahmat; Sutijan, Rochmadi, Budiman, Arief

    2016-06-01

    Low grade iron ore can be used as an alternative catalyst for bio-tar decomposition. Compared to other catalysts, such as Ni, Rd, Ru, Pd and Pt, iron ore is cheaper. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of using low grade iron ore as catalyst for tar catalytic decomposition in fixed bed reactor. Tar used in this experiment was pyrolysis product of wood waste while the catalyst was Indonesian low grade iron ore. The variables studied were temperatures between 500 - 600 °C and catalyst weight between 0 - 40 gram. The first step, tar was evaporated at 450 °C to produce tar vapor. Then, tar vapor was flowed to fixed bed reactor filled low grade iron ore. Gas and tar vapor from reactor was cooled, then the liquid and uncondensable gas were analyzed by GC/MS. The catalyst, after experiment, was weighed to calculate total carbon deposited into catalyst pores. The results showed that the tar components that were heavy and light hydrocarbon were decomposed and cracked within the iron ore pores to from gases, light hydrocarbon (bio-oil) and carbon, thus decreasing content tar in bio-oil and increasing the total gas product. In conclusion, the more low grade iron ore used as catalyst, the tar content in the liquid decrease, the H2 productivity increased and calorimetric value of bio-oil increased.

  5. Ultrasonographic findings of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma of the uterus with a focus on cystic degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ga Eun; Rha, Sung Eun; Oh, Soon Nam; Lee, Ah Won; Lee, Keun Ho; Kim, Mee Ran [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The goal of this study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the ultrasonographic findings associated with low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma. Ten pathologically confirmed cases of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma at our institution from January 2007 to April 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent a preoperative transvaginal ultrasound. Two radiologists came to a consensus regarding the location, size, margin, and echogenicity of the tumor, as well as the presence of intratumoral cystic degeneration and its extent and configuration. Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma manifested as an intramural mass protruding into the endometrial cavity (n=6) or as a purely intramural mass (n=4). The maximal diameter of the lesion ranged from 4 to 9.1 cm (mean, 6.2 cm). The imaging features of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma were variable: six cases involved predominantly solid masses containing cystic degeneration, one was a predominantly unilocular cystic mass, two were ill-defined infiltrative solid masses, and one was a well-defined solid mass. Among the seven cases with internal cystic degeneration, five patients showed a multiseptated cystic area or a cystic area with multiple small clusters, while a unilocular cystic area within the tumor was found in two patients. Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma is associated with variable ultrasonographic findings with regard to the location, margin, and configuration of the lesion. Multiseptated cystic areas and multiple small areas of cystic degeneration are common.

  6. Production of alcohol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of low-grade wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio das Neves

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Two samples of low-grade wheat flour, namely low-grade 1 (LG1 and low-grade 2 (LG2, with different carbohydrate and fibrous content, were used as substrates. The samples were liquefied using various concentrations of alpha- or beta-amylase, in order to optimize the production of fermentable sugars; the enzyme alpha-amylase revealed higher performance. After liquefaction, the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was conducted in a jar fermentor. Amyloglucosidase was used for saccharification, and dry baker's yeast, S. cerevisiae, for fermentation simultaneously. Glucose was consumed promptly in both cases, LG1 and LG2; ethanol production was considerably higher in LG1 (38.6 g/L, compared to LG2 (24.9 g/L. The maximum ATP production was observed early in the SSF process. LG1 revealed higher potential as substrate for ethanol production.Dois lotes de amostras de resíduo de farinha de trigo com teor reduzido de amido, especificamente designadas como amostra 1 (LG1 e amostra 2 (LG2, foram utilizados como substrato para fermentação alcoólica. Inicialmente as amostras foram hidrolisadas utilizando-se diferentes concentrações de alfa- ou beta-amilase, com o objetivo de otimizar a produção de açúcares fermentáveis; a enzima alfa-amilase apresentou melhor desempenho. O processo simultâneo de sacarificação e fermentação foi conduzido logo após a hidrólise do amido, em um fermentador com volume de 2 L; o meio contendo amido hidrolisado foi inoculado com amiloglucosidase (enzima utilizada para sacarificação e levedura de panificação desidratada (para fermentação, simultaneamente. Amostras do meio de fermentação foram retiradas regularmente para análise dos teores de glucose, maltose, açúcares redutores e etanol. O teor de Adenosina Tri-Fosfato (ATP também foi analisado. O açúcar glucose foi completamente consumido no início da fermentação, tanto no caso da amostra LG1, quanto LG2, sendo que a produção de etanol

  7. A Prospective Study of Urinary Prostaglandin E2 Metabolite, Helicobacter pylori Antibodies, and Gastric Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyi; Cai, Hui; Zheng, Wei; Michel, Angelika; Pawlita, Michael; Milne, Ginger; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Li, Hong-Lan; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Epplein, Meira

    2017-05-15

    Previous studies suggest that a stable end-product of prostaglandin E2, the urinary metabolite PGE-M, is associated with colorectal cancer, and 1 study of relatively small sample size found an association with gastric cancer among women. In the present study we further investigate the PGE-M, Helicobacter pylori, and gastric cancer association. The present analysis included 359 prospectively ascertained gastric cancer cases and 700 individually matched controls from the Shanghai Women's and Men's Health Studies. Urinary PGE-M was measured by a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric method. Seropositivity to 15 H. pylori recombinantly expressed fusion proteins was detected by H. pylori multiplex serology. Adjusting for H. pylori, increasing PGE-M was associated with higher risk of gastric cancer (quartile 4 vs 1: odds ratio [OR], 1.76 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.17-2.66], Ptrend = .004). This association remained after excluding those diagnosed within 2 years from sample collection (OR, 1.73 [95% CI, 1.12-2.65], Ptrend = .007). However it was no longer present among individuals with 10 or more years of follow-up (2-4.9 years: OR, 3.15 [95% CI, 1.11-8.91]; 5-9.9 years: OR, 2.23 [95% CI, 1.22-4.06]; ≥10 years: OR, 0.73 [95% CI, .31-1.70]). Compared to H. pylori-negative individuals with below-median PGE-M levels, H. pylori-positive individuals with above-median PGE-M levels had a 5-fold increase in the odds of gastric cancer (OR, 5.08 [95% CI, 2.47-10.43]). In China, higher PGE-M levels may indicate an increased risk of gastric cancer independent of the risk conferred by H. pylori infection status, particularly for cancers diagnosed within 10 years of sample collection.

  8. Gastric carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ismail Gomceli; Baris Demiriz; Mesut Tez

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths.Despite complete resection of gastric cancer and lymph node dissection,as well as improvements in chemotherapy and radiotherapy,there are still 700 000 gastric cancer-related deaths per year worldwide and more than 80% of patients with advanced gastric cancer die of the disease or recurrent disease within 1 year after diagnosis.None of the treatment modalities we have been applying today can influence the overall survival rates:at present,the overall 5-year relative survival rate for gastric cancer is about 28%.Cellular metaplasia due to chronic inflammation,injury and repair are the most documented processes for neoplasia.It appears that chronic inflammation stimulates tumor development and plays a critical role in initiating,sustaining and advancing tumor growth.It is also evident that not all inflammation is tumorigenic.Additional mutations can be acquired,and this leads to the cancer cell gaining a further growth advantage and acquiring a more malignant phenotype.Intestinalization of gastric units,which is called "intestinal metaplasia";phenotypic antralization of fundic units,which is called "spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia"; and the development directly from the stem/progenitor cell zone are three pathways that have been described for gastric carcinogenesis.Also,an important factor for the development of gastrointestinal cancers is peritumoral stroma.However,the initiating cellular event in gastric metaplasia is still controversial.Understanding gastric carcinogenesis and its precursor lesions has been under intense investigation,and our paper attempts to high-light recent progress in this field of cancer research.

  9. First experiences in treatment of low-grade glioma grade I and II with proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To retrospectively assess feasibility and toxicity of proton therapy in patients with low-grade glioma (WHO °I/II). Patients and methods Proton beam therapy only administered in 19 patients (median age 29 years; 9 female, 10 male) for low-grade glioma between 2010 and 2011 was reviewed. In 6 cases proton therapy was performed due to tumor progression after biopsy, in 8 cases each due to tumor progression after (partial-) resection, and in 5 cases due to tumor progression after chemotherapy. Median total dose applied was 54 GyE (range, 48,6-54 GyE) in single fractions of median 1.8 GyE. Median clinical target volume was 99 cc (range, 6–463 cc) and treated using median 2 beams (range, 1–2). Results Proton therapy was finished as planned in all cases. At end of proton therapy, 13 patients showed focal alopecia, 6 patients reported mild fatigue, one patient with temporal tumor localization concentration deficits and speech errors and one more patient deficits in short-term memory. Four patients did not report any side effects. During follow-up, one patient presented with pseudo-progression showing worsening of general condition and brain edema 1–2 months after last irradiation and restitution after 6 months. In the present MR imaging (median follow-up 5 months; range 0–22 months) 12 patients had stable disease, 2 (1) patients partial (complete) remission, one more patient pseudo-progression (differential diagnosis: tumor progression) 4 weeks after irradiation without having had further follow-up imaging so far, and one patient tumor progression approximately 9 months after irradiation. Conclusion Regarding early side effects, mild alopecia was the predominant finding. The rate of alopecia seems to be due to large treatment volumes as well as the anatomical locations of the target volumes and might be avoided by using multiple beams and the gantry in the future. Further evaluations including neuropsychological testing are in preparation. PMID

  10. Effects of Helicobacter pylori infection on gastric epithelial cell kinetics in patients with chronic renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selim Aydemir; Binnaz Handan Ozdemir; Gurden Gur; Ibrahim Dogan; Ugur Yilmaz; Sedat Boyacioglu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of Helicobacter pylori infection on gastric epithelial cell kinetics in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF).METHODS: Forty-four patients were enrolled in this study and divided into four groups with respect to their Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) and CRF status. Groups were labeled as follows: 1a: normal renal function, H pylori negative (n = 12), 1b: normal renal function,H pylori positive (n = 11), 2a: CRF, H pylori negative (n = 10), 2b: CRF, H pylori positive (n = 11). Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was done in all the patients involved in the study. During endoscopical investigation,antral biopsy specimens were taken from each patient.In order to evaluate the cell apoptosis and proliferation in gastric epithelial cells, Bax and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labeling indexes (LI) were assessed with immunohistochemical staining method.RESULTS: For groups 1a, 1b, 2a, and 2b, mean Bax LI was identified as 34.4±13.7, 44.1±16.5, 46.3±20.5,60.7±13.8, respectively and mean PCNA LI was identified as 36.2±17.2, 53.6±25.6, 59.5±25.6, 67.2±22,respectively. When the one-way ANOVA test was applied,statistically significant differences were detected between the groups for both Bax LI (P = 0.004 <0.01) and PCNA LI (P = 0.009 <0.01). When groups were compared further in terms of Bax LI and PCNA LI with Tukey's HSD test for multiple pairwise comparisons, statistically significant difference was observed only between groups 1a and 2b (P = 0.006 <0.01).CONCLUSION: In gastric epithelial cells, expression of both the pre-apoptotic protein Bax and the proliferation marker PCNA increase with H pylori infection. This increase is more evident in patients with uremia. These findings suggest that uremia accelerates apoptosis and proliferation in gastric epithelial cells.

  11. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on gastric mucosal pathologic change and level of nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Fu Wang; Chun-Lin Guo; Li-Zhen Zhao; Guo-An Yang; Peng Chen; Hong-Kun Wang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the level of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide synthase (NOS) enzyme and its effect on gastric mucosal pathologic change in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori (H pylori), and to study the pathogenic mechanism of H pylori.METHODS: The mucosal tissues of gastric antrum were taken by endoscopy, then their pathology, H pylori and anti-CagA-IgG were determined. Fifty H pyloripositive cases and 35 H pylori negative cases were randomly chosen.Serum level of NO and NOS was detected.RESULTS: One hundred and seven cases (71.33%) were anti-CagA-IgG positive in 150 H pyloripositive cases. The positive rate was higher especially in those with preneoplastic diseases, such as atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia. The level of NO and NOS in positive group was higher than that in negative group, and apparently lower in active gastritis than in pre-neoplastic diseases such as atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia.CONCLUSION: H pyloriis closely related with chronic gastric diseases, and type Ⅰ Hpylorimay be the real factor for Hpylori-related gastric diseases. Infection with H pylori can induce elevation of NOS, which produces NO.

  12. Cognitive impairments in patients with low grade gliomas and high grade gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane C. Miotto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The relationship between brain tumors and cognitive deficits is well established in the literature. However, studies investigating the cognitive status in low and high-grade gliomas patients are scarce, particularly in patients with average or lower educational level. This study aimed at investigating the cognitive functioning in a sample of patients with low and high-grade gliomas before surgical intervention. METHOD: The low-grade (G1, n=19 and high-grade glioma (G2, n=8 patients underwent a detailed neuropsychological assessment of memory, executive functions, visuo-perceptive and visuo-spatial abilities, intellectual level and language. RESULTS: There was a significant impairment on verbal and visual episodic memory, executive functions including mental flexibility, nominal and categorical verbal fluency and speed of information processing in G2. G1 showed only specific deficits on verbal and visual memory recall, mental flexibility and processing speed. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrated different levels of impairments in the executive and memory domains in patients with low and high grade gliomas.

  13. Fast Thermal Calibration of Low-Grade Inertial Sensors and Inertial Measurement Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalong Ban

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The errors of low-cost inertial sensors, especially Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS ones, are highly dependent on environmental conditions such as the temperature. Thus, there is a need for the development of accurate and reliable thermal compensation models to reduce the impact of such thermal drift of the sensors. Since the conventional thermal calibration methods are typically time-consuming and costly, an efficient thermal calibration method to investigate the thermal drift of a full set of gyroscope and accelerometer errors (i.e., biases, scale factor errors and non-orthogonalities over the entire temperature range in a few hours is proposed. The proposed method uses the idea of the Ramp method, which removes the time-consuming process of stabilizing the sensor temperature, and addresses its inherent problems with several improvements. We change the temperature linearly for a complete cycle and take a balanced strategy by making comprehensive use of the sensor measurements during both heating and cooling processes. Besides, an efficient 8-step rotate-and-static scheme is designed to further improve the calibration accuracy and efficiency. Real calibration tests showed that the proposed method is suitable for low-grade IMUs and for both lab and factory calibration due to its efficiency and sufficient accuracy.

  14. Fast thermal calibration of low-grade inertial sensors and inertial measurement units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaoji; Li, You; Zhang, Hongping; Wang, Qingjiang; Ban, Yalong

    2013-09-12

    The errors of low-cost inertial sensors, especially Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) ones, are highly dependent on environmental conditions such as the temperature. Thus, there is a need for the development of accurate and reliable thermal compensation models to reduce the impact of such thermal drift of the sensors. Since the conventional thermal calibration methods are typically time-consuming and costly, an efficient thermal calibration method to investigate the thermal drift of a full set of gyroscope and accelerometer errors (i.e., biases, scale factor errors and non-orthogonalities) over the entire temperature range in a few hours is proposed. The proposed method uses the idea of the Ramp method, which removes the time-consuming process of stabilizing the sensor temperature, and addresses its inherent problems with several improvements. We change the temperature linearly for a complete cycle and take a balanced strategy by making comprehensive use of the sensor measurements during both heating and cooling processes. Besides, an efficient 8-step rotate-and-static scheme is designed to further improve the calibration accuracy and efficiency. Real calibration tests showed that the proposed method is suitable for low-grade IMUs and for both lab and factory calibration due to its efficiency and sufficient accuracy.

  15. Low grade bioethanol for fuel mixing on gasoline engine using distillation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abikusna, Setia; Sugiarto, Bambang; Suntoro, Dedi; Azami

    2017-03-01

    Utilization of renewable energy in Indonesia is still low, compared to 34% oil, 20% coal and 20% gas, utilization of energy sources for water 3%, geothermal 1%, 2% biofuels, and biomass 20%. Whereas renewable energy sources dwindling due to the increasing consumption of gasoline as a fuel. It makes us have to look for alternative renewable energy, one of which is bio ethanol. Several studies on the use of ethanol was done to the researchers. Our studies using low grade bio ethanol which begins with the disitillation independently utilize flue gas heat at compact distillator, produces high grade bio ethanol and ready to be mixed with gasoline. Stages of our study is the compact distillator design of the motor dynamic continued with good performance and emission testing and ethanol distilled. Some improvement is made is through the flue gas heat control mechanism in compact distillator using gate valve, at low, medium, and high speed engine. Compact distillator used is kind of a batch distillation column. Column design process using the shortcut method, then carried the tray design to determine the overall geometry. The distillation is done by comparing the separator with a tray of different distances. As well as by varying the volume of the feed and ethanol levels that will feed distilled. In this study, we analyzed the mixing of ethanol through variation between main jet and pilot jet in the carburetor separately interchangeably with gasoline. And finally mixing mechanism bio ethanol with gasoline improved with fuel mixer for performance.

  16. Network Plasticity and Intraoperative Mapping for Personalized Multimodal Management of Diffuse Low-Grade Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghinda, Cristina Diana; Duffau, Hugues

    2017-01-01

    Gliomas are the most frequent primary brain tumors and include a variety of different histological tumor types and malignancy grades. Recent achievements in terms of molecular and imaging fields have created an unprecedented opportunity to perform a comprehensive interdisciplinary assessment of the glioma pathophysiology, with direct implications in terms of the medical and surgical treatment strategies available for patients. The current paradigm shift considers glioma management in a comprehensive perspective that takes into account the intricate connectivity of the cerebral networks. This allowed significant improvement in the outcome of patients with lesions previously considered inoperable. The current review summarizes the current theoretical framework integrating the adult human brain plasticity and functional reorganization within a dynamic individualized treatment strategy for patients affected by diffuse low-grade gliomas. The concept of neuro-oncology as a brain network surgery has major implications in terms of the clinical management and ensuing outcomes, as indexed by the increased survival and quality of life of patients managed using such an approach.

  17. Selective Removal of Iron from Low-Grade Ti Ore by Reacting with Calcium Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jungshin; Okabe, Toru H.

    2017-02-01

    Recently, titanium metal production by molten salt electrolysis using CaCl2 as molten salt and TiO2 or rutile (94 to 96 pct TiO2) as feedstock has been drawing attention. However, when a low-grade Ti ore (mainly FeTiO3) is used as feedstock, removal of iron (Fe) from the ore is indispensable. In this study, the influence of reaction temperature, reaction time, particle size of the ore, and source country for the ore on the removal of iron by selective chlorination using CaCl2 was assessed. Experimental results showed that the mass percent of iron in the ore decreased from 49.7 to 1.79 pct under certain conditions by selective removal of iron as FeCl2. As a result, high-grade CaTiO3 was produced when the ore particles smaller than 74 µm reacted with CaCl2 at 1240 K (967 °C) for 8 to 10 hours. Therefore, this study demonstrates that the removal of iron from the ore is feasible through the selective chlorination process using CaCl2 by optimizing the variables.

  18. Enhancing Low-Grade Thermal Energy Recovery in a Thermally Regenerative Ammonia Battery Using Elevated Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2015-02-13

    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. A thermally regenerative ammonia battery (TRAB) is a new approach for converting low-grade thermal energy into electricity by using an ammonia electrolyte and copper electrodes. TRAB operation at 72°C produced a power density of 236±8 Wm-2, with a linear decrease in power to 95±5 Wm-2 at 23°C. The improved power at higher temperatures was due to reduced electrode overpotentials and more favorable thermodynamics for the anode reaction (copper oxidation). The energy density varied with temperature and discharge rates, with a maximum of 650 Whm-3 at a discharge energy efficiency of 54% and a temperature of 37°C. The energy efficiency calculated with chemical process simulation software indicated a Carnot-based efficiency of up to 13% and an overall thermal energy recovery of 0.5%. It should be possible to substantially improve these energy recoveries through optimization of electrolyte concentrations and by using improved ion-selective membranes and energy recovery systems such as heat exchangers.

  19. A New Heterotrophic Strain for Bioleaching of Low Grade Complex Copper Ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijian Hu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A new heterotrophic strain, named Providencia sp. JAT-1, was isolated and used in bioleaching of low-grade complex copper ore. The strain uses sodium citrate as a carbon source and urea as a nitrogen source to produce ammonia. The optimal growth condition of the strain is 30 C, initial pH 8, sodium citrate 10 g/L and urea 20 g/L, under which the cell density and ammonia concentration in the medium reached a maximum of 4.83 × 108 cells/mL and 14 g/L, respectively. Ammonia produced by the strain is used as the main lixiviant in bioleaching. Bioleaching results revealed that higher strain growth led to a higher copper recovery, while higher pulp density will cause a greater inhibitory effect on strain growth and ammonia production. The copper extraction reached the highest value of 54.5% at the pulp density of 1%. Malachite, chrysocolla and chalcocite are easy to leach out in this bioleaching system while chalcopyrite is difficult. Results of comparative leaching experiments show that bioleaching using JAT-1 is superior to ammonia leaching at the same condition. The metabolites produced by the strain other than ammonia are also involved in bioleaching.

  20. Current understanding of BRAF alterations in diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic targeting in paediatric low grade gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Louise Penman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway is known to play a key role in the initiation and maintenance of many tumours as well as normal development. This often occurs through mutation of the genes encoding RAS and RAF proteins which are involved in signal transduction in this pathway. BRAF is one of three RAF kinases which act as downstream effectors of growth factor signalling leading to cell cycle progression, proliferation and survival. Initially reported as a point mutation (V600E in the majority of metastatic melanomas, other alterations in the BRAF gene have now been reported in a variety of human cancers including papillary thyroid cancer, colon carcinomas, hairy cell leukaemia and more recently in gliomas. The identification of oncogenic mutations in the BRAF gene have led to a revolution in the treatment of metastatic melanoma using targeted molecular therapies that affect the MAPK pathway either directly through BRAF inhibition or downstream through inhibition of MEK. This review describes the molecular biology of BRAF in the context of paediatric low grade gliomas, the role of BRAF as a diagnostic marker, the prognostic implications of BRAF and evidence for therapeutic targeting of BRAF.

  1. Updated therapeutic strategy for adult low-grade glioma stratified by resection and tumor subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Masayuki; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Maruyama, Takashi; Iseki, Hiroshi; Ikuta, Soko; Konishi, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Taichi; Tamura, Manabu; Chernov, Michael; Watanabe, Atsushi; Okamoto, Saori; Maebayashi, Katsuya; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Okada, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    The importance of surgical resection for patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma (LGG) remains controversial. This retrospective study of patients (n = 153) treated between 2000 to 2010 at a single institution assessed whether increasing the extent of resection (EOR) was associated with improved progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Histological subtypes of World Health Organization grade II tumors were as follows: diffuse astrocytoma in 49 patients (32.0%), oligoastrocytoma in 45 patients (29.4%), and oligodendroglioma in 59 patients (38.6%). Median pre- and postoperative tumor volumes and median EOR were 29.0 cm(3) (range 0.7-162 cm(3)) and 1.7 cm(3) (range 0-135.7 cm(3)) and 95%, respectively. Five- and 10-year OS for all LGG patients were 95.1% and 85.4%, respectively. Eight-year OS for diffuse astrocytoma, oligoastrocytoma, and oligodendroglioma were 70.7%, 91.2%, and 98.3%, respectively. Five-year PFS for diffuse astrocytoma, oligoastrocytoma, and oligodendroglioma were 42.6%, 71.3%, and 62.7%, respectively. Patients were divided into two groups by EOR ≥90% and oligodendroglioma. Multivariate analysis identified age and EOR as parameters significantly associated with OS. The only parameter associated with PFS was EOR. Based on these findings, we established updated therapeutic strategies for LGG. If surgery resulted in EOR oligodendroglioma or oligoastrocytoma, which are sensitive to chemotherapy, will be treated with chemotherapy.

  2. Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia: A marker of low-grade inflammation in irritable bowel syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscaglia, Anna Chiara; Laterza, Lucrezia; Cesario, Valentina; Gerardi, Viviana; Landi, Rosario; Lopetuso, Loris Riccardo; Calò, Giovanni; Fabbretti, Giovanna; Brisigotti, Massimo; Stefanelli, Maria Loredana; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2016-12-14

    To evaluate the prevalence of nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH) in adult patients undergoing colonoscopy and its association with known diseases. We selected all cases showing NLH at colonoscopy in a three-year timeframe, and stratified them into symptomatic patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms or suspected inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and asymptomatic individuals undergoing endoscopy for colorectal cancer screening. Data collection included medical history and final diagnosis. As controls, we considered all colonoscopies performed for the aforementioned indications during the same period. One thousand and one hundred fifty colonoscopies were selected. NLH was rare in asymptomatic individuals (only 3%), while it was significantly more prevalent in symptomatic cases (32%). Among organic conditions associated with NLH, the most frequent was IBD, followed by infections and diverticular disease. Interestingly, 31% of IBS patients presented diffuse colonic NLH. NLH cases shared some distinctive clinical features among IBS patients: they were younger, more often female, and had a higher frequency of abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhoea, unspecific inflammation, self-reported lactose intolerance and metal contact dermatitis. About 1/3 of patients with IBS-type symptoms or suspected IBD presented diffuse colonic NLH, which could be a marker of low-grade inflammation in a conspicuous subset of IBS patients.

  3. Surgery of insular and paralimbic diffuse low-grade gliomas: technical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Karine; Duffau, Hugues

    2016-11-01

    Once considered a "no man's land" especially when invaded by a diffuse low grade glioma (DLGG), the insula remains to this day a surgical challenge. Surgery for insular DLGG involves consideration of its hidden location under the potentially eloquent operculae, the proximity to vascular tree and high density of functions not only in the insular cortex but also in the white fiber pathways passing under the insular lobe. The natural history of DLGG and the potential benefits and consequences of the surgical approach also need a close look. In the last decade, a better knowledge of the functional anatomy and connectivity of this region, as well as an improvement in surgical techniques as direct stimulation mapping, combined with an increasing literature showing a favorable impact of maximal resection for DLGG, were deciding factors in the paradigmatic shift from expectative treatment to early surgical management. Here, our goal is to discuss the structural and functional aspects of the insula, the specificities of insular and paralimbic DLGG by emphasizing the technical considerations of surgery in this region, as well as its oncological and functional outcomes. In summary, this new strategy based upon early maximal safe surgical resection showed both oncological benefit and preservation of quality of life-or even an improvement thanks to epilepsy relief.

  4. A disconnection account of subjective empathy impairments in diffuse low-grade glioma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbet, Guillaume; Lafargue, Gilles; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Menjot de Champfleur, Nicolas; Costi, Emanuele; Bonnetblanc, François; Duffau, Hugues

    2015-04-01

    Human empathic experience is a multifaceted psychological construct which arises from functional integration of multiple neural networks. Despite accumulating knowledge about the cortical circuitry of empathy, almost nothing is known about the connectivity that may be concerned in conveying empathy-related neural information. To bridge this gap in knowledge, we studied dispositional empathy in a large-sized cohort of 107 patients who had undergone surgery for a diffuse low-grade glioma. The self-report questionnaire used enabled us to obtain a global measure of subjective empathy but also, importantly, to assess the two main components of empathy (cognitive and emotional). Data were processed by combining voxelwise and tractwise lesion-symptom analyses. Several major findings emerged from our analyses. First of all, topological voxelwise analyses were inconclusive. Conversely, tractwise multiple regression analyses, including all major associative white matter pathways as potential predictors, yielded to significant models explaining substantial part of the behavioural variance. Among the main results, we found that disconnection of the left cingulum bundle was a strong predictor of a low cognitive empathy (pempathy. Finally, although we failed to relate emotional empathy to disruption of a specific tract, correlation analyses indicated a positive association between this component of empathy and the volumes of residual lesion infiltration in the right hemisphere (pempathy. They may help to better understand the pathophysiology of empathy impairments in pathological conditions characterized by abnormalities of long-range anatomical connectivity, such as autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia and fronto-temporal dementia.

  5. Beneficiation of low grade graphite ore of eastern India by two-stage grinding and flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasumathi N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A low grade graphite run-of-mine (r.o.m ore from eastern India was studied for its amenability to beneficiation by flotation technique. The petrography studies indicate that the ore primarily consists of quartz and graphite with minor quantity of mica. It analyzed 89.89% ash and 8.59% fixed carbon. The ore was crushed in stages followed by primary coarse wet grinding to 212 μm (d80. Rougher flotation was carried out in Denver flotation cell to eliminate gangue as much as possible in the form of primary tailings with minimal loss of carbon. Diesel & pine oil were used as collector and frother respectively. Regrinding of rougher concentrate to150 μm (d80 was resorted to further liberate the graphite values and was followed by multi-stage cleaning. This two-stage grinding approach involving a primary coarse grinding and regrinding of rougher float followed by its multi-stage cleaning was found to yield required grade of concentrate for applications such as refractories, batteries and high temperature lubricants. This approach is supposed to retain the flake size of coarse, free and liberated graphite, if available, during primary coarse grinding and rougher flotation stage with minimal grinding energy costs as against the usual practice of single stage grinding in the case of many ores. A final concentrate of 8.97% weight recovery with 5.80% ash and 92.13% fixed carbon could be achieved.

  6. Melatonin ameliorates low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress in young Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agil, Ahmad; Reiter, Russel J; Jiménez-Aranda, Aroa; Ibán-Arias, Ruth; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Marchal, Juan Antonio; Adem, Abdu; Fernández-Vázquez, Gumersindo

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress in young male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, an experimental model of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). ZDF rats (n = 30) and lean littermates (ZL) (n = 30) were used. At 6 wk of age, both lean and fatty animals were subdivided into three groups, each composed of 10 rats: naive (N), vehicle treated (V), and melatonin treated (M) (10 mg/kg/day) for 6 wk. Vehicle and melatonin were added to the drinking water. Pro-inflammatory state was evaluated by plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Also, oxidative stress was assessed by plasma lipid peroxidation (LPO), both basal and after Fe(2+)/H2O2 inducement. ZDF rats exhibited higher levels of IL-6 (112.4 ± 1.5 pg/mL), TNF-α (11.0 ± 0.1 pg/mL) and CRP (828 ± 16.0 µg/mL) compared with lean rats (IL-6, 89.9 ± 1.0, P Melatonin lowered IL-6 (10%, P Melatonin improved basal LPO (15%, P melatonin administration ameliorates the pro-inflammatory state and oxidative stress, which underlie the development of insulin resistance and their consequences, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

  7. Preparation of manganese sulfate from low-grade manganese carbonate ores by sulfuric acid leaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-quan Lin; Guo-hua Gu; Hui Wang; Ren-feng Zhu; You-cai Liu; and Jian-gang Fu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a method for preparing pure manganese sulfate from low-grade ores with a granule mean size of 0.47 mm by direct acid leaching was developed. The effects of the types of leaching agents, sulfuric acid concentration, reaction temperature, and agitation rate on the leaching efficiency of manganese were investigated. We observed that sulfuric acid used as a leaching agent provides a similar leach-ing efficiency of manganese and superior selectivity against calcium compared to hydrochloric acid. The optimal leaching conditions in sul-furic acid media were determined; under the optimal conditions, the leaching efficiencies of Mn and Ca were 92.42% and 9.61%, respec-tively. Moreover, the kinetics of manganese leaching indicated that the leaching follows the diffusion-controlled model with an apparent ac-tivation energy of 12.28 kJ·mol−1. The purification conditions of the leaching solution were also discussed. The results show that manganese dioxide is a suitable oxidant of ferrous ions and sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate is an effective precipitant of heavy metals. Finally, through chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis, the obtained product was determined to contain 98% of MnSO4·H2O.

  8. Low-grade fibromatosis-like spindle cell carcinomas of the breast are molecularly exiguous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Elena A; Hunter, Sally M; Campbell, Ian G; Fox, Stephen B

    2015-05-01

    Low-grade fibromatosis-like spindle cell carcinomas are very rare breast carcinomas comprising <0.5% of all breast cancers. They demonstrate immunohistochemical (IHC) features of basal-like/metaplastic breast carcinomas, but the underlying molecular characteristics are unknown. We hypothesised that, as with IHC similarities, there may be common genomic alterations between spindle cell and basal-like/metaplastic carcinomas. Genomic mutational profile and genomic copy number aberration (CNA) analyses were performed on three cases of this unusual entity, and findings were compared with that reported for basal-like/metaplastic breast carcinomas. Copy number analyses by molecular inversion probe assays of the three spindle cell carcinoma samples revealed little overall genomic CNAs with only minor changes identified (fraction of the genome altered; 1.3%-6.4%), but with a common 9p21.3 loss in 2 out of 3 samples, with CDKN2A (p16) being a likely candidate. No areas of commonality were identified in an in silico analysis compared with publically available basal-like/metaplastic carcinoma copy number data. These tumours are characterised by low genomic instability, and share no CNAs with other metaplastic carcinomas. These findings favour this entity being a unique group genotype and belie their apparent homogeneous morphology and phenotype. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma versus fibromatosis: a comparative study of clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Guo-Zhao; Zhang, Hong-Ying; Bu, Hong; Geng, Jian-Guo

    2009-02-01

    We have studied 11 cases of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) and 15 cases of fibromatosis with respect to clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical expression of Ki-67, nm23, cyclinD1, and p53, in order to investigate the differential diagnosis between this two groups. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections from 11 cases of LGFMS and 15 cases of fibromatosis were studied histologically and immunohistochemically. The immunostainings were semiquantitatively evaluated using the Allred score system. Microscopically, LGFMS was composed of bland spindle cells arranged in a whorled pattern showing alternating myxoid zones and fibrous stroma zones with prominent arcade curvilinear capillaries. Cytological atypia, mitotic figures, and tumor necrosis were absent in all 11 cases of LGFMS. In contrast, fibromatosis was less cellular and more fascicular, containing more collagen and showing no alternating fibrous and myxoid zones as compared with LGFMS. The immunostaining scores of nm23 in LGFMS were significantly lower than that in fibromatosis. The immunostaining scores of Ki-67, p53, and cyclinD1 in LGFMS were significantly higher than that in fibromatosis. Thus, we consider that LGFMS can be distinguished from fibromatosis by clinicopathological features, and assessments of the immunohistochemical expression level of cyclinD1, p53, nm23, and Ki-67 are helpful in the differential diagnosis.

  10. A visfatin promoter polymorphism is associated with low-grade inflammation and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Gottardo, Lucia; Thompson, Ryan; Powers, Christine; Nolan, David; Duffy, Jill; Marescotti, Maria Cristina; Avogaro, Angelo; Doria, Alessandro

    2006-12-01

    Visfatin (also known as pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor, or PBEF) is a pro-inflammatory adipokine expressed predominantly in visceral fat. We investigated whether polymorphisms at the visfatin/PBEF locus influence the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Linkage disequilibrium analysis of 52 single nucleotide polymorphisms spanning the entire gene (34.7 kb) plus 20.5 kb of the upstream region and 25.5 kb of the downstream region revealed a single haplotype block that could be tagged by seven single nucleotide polymorphisms. These seven tags were typed in a group of T2D patients (n = 814) and a group of non-diabetic controls (n = 320) of white origin. A significant association was observed at -948C>A, with minor allele frequencies of 0.157 in T2D cases and 0.119 in non-diabetic controls (p = 0.021). In a non-diabetic population (n = 630), the same -948 allele that conferred increased risk of T2D was significantly associated with higher plasma levels of fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (p = 0.0022 and 0.0038, respectively). However, no significant associations were observed with BMI, waist circumference, serum glucose levels, or fasting insulin levels. Our findings suggest that the visfatin/PBEF gene may play a role in determining T2D susceptibility, possibly by modulating chronic, low-grade inflammatory responses.

  11. Thyroid-like low-grade nasopharyngeal papillary adenocarcinoma: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Naoki; Kondo, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Tadao; Mochizuki, Kunio; Kasai, Kazunari; Inoue, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Takanori; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Hatsushika, Kyousuke; Masuyama, Keisuke; Katoh, Ryohei

    2014-12-01

    Thyroid-like low-grade nasopharyngeal papillary adenocarcinoma (TL-LGNPPA) is an extremely rare neoplasm characterized by morphological analogy to papillary thyroid carcinoma and abnormal expression of thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1). Here we report a novel case of TL-LGNPPA with literature review. The patient was a 43-year-old woman complaining of nasal obstruction. Laryngoscopic study and computed tomography identified a pedunculated mass located on the posterior edge of the left nasal septum. Histologically, the tumor consisted of papillary growth of cuboidal or columnar epithelium. Tubular architecture and a spindle cell component were also observed focally. Some tumor cells exhibited intra-nuclear cytoplasmic inclusions. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were positive for pancytokeratin (AE1/AE3), CK7, CK19, TTF-1, vimentin and HBME1, but negative for thyroglobulin, Pax8 and CK5/6. Ki67-labeling index reached 5% in the most concentrated spot. Despite the morphological and immunohistochemical similarity to papillary thyroid carcinoma, no BRAF V600E mutation was detected by mutation-specific immunohistochemistry. The patient had neither local recurrence nor distant metastasis 19 months after removal of the tumor.

  12. Low-Grade Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma with Intravenous and Intracardiac Extension: A Multidisciplinary Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Kudaka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A rare case of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LG-ESS extending to inferior vena cava (IVC and cardiac chambers. Case Report. A 40-year-old woman had IVC tumor, which was incidentally detected by abdominal ultrasonography during a routine medical checkup. CT scan revealed a tumor in IVC, right iliac and ovarian veins, which was derived from the uterus and extended into the right atrium and ventricle. The operation was performed, the heart and IVC were exposed, and cardiopulmonary bypass was initiated. A right atriotomy was performed, and the intracardiac mass was removed. Then the tumor in IVC and the right internal iliac vein were removed after longitudinal venotomies in the suprarenal and infrarenal vena cava, the right common iliac vein. Next the pelvis was explored. Tumors were found originating from the posterior wall of the uterus and continuing into both the right uterine and ovarian vein. The patient underwent total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingooophorectomy. Complete tumor resection was achieved. Histopathological analysis confirmed a diagnosis of LG-ESS. She showed no evidence of disease for 2 years and 3 months. Conclusions. Our case highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in treating this rare cardiovascular pathological condition through preoperative assessment to final operation.

  13. Co-pyrolysis of a Ukrainian low-grade coal (brown) with plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.N. Shevkoplyas [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    2003-07-01

    An effective pathway of the wastes plastics utilization can be its co-pyrolysis with a low-grade (brown) coal. The Dneprovsky deposit brown coal (Ukraine) and waste plastics as a polyethyleneterephthalate in this investigation were taken. The brown coal-plastics mixed used: 19:1; 9:1 and 4:1 ratio that was as 5, 10 and 20 % plastics additive to the brown coal. The co-pyrolysis mix prepared in the temperature region 450-800{sup o}C in a fixed bed reactor has been carried out. The process time was 0, 60 and 120 min., heating rate - 25{sup o}C/min. The influence plastics additive on the co-pyrolysis yield has been estimated. The influence of the co-pyrolysis isothermal time on the yield and properties of the tars produced has been studied. The mass balances of co-pyrolysis brown coal with plastics have been calculated. It was concluded that the co-pyrolysis brown coal with plastics is a way to utilize organic pollutants. 3 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  14. Dry Separation of Iron Minerals from Low-Grade Coal-series Kaolin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Teng; LEI Shaomin; LIU Mochou; JI Mengjiao; LIU Yuanyuan; YIN Xudong; PENG Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    Dry separation of iron mineral from low-grade coal-series kaolin in Hubei Province of China was investigated. The structure and chemical composition of the kaolin ore were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyses. The narrow particle size range classiifcation, dry magnetic separation and calcination were carried out to evaluate the particle size distribution, and the relation between the content of iron and the whiteness. Experimental results revealed that the highest content of iron (3.70%) in kaolin ore was in the particle size range from 60 to 74 μm, and pyrite was the main occurrence of iron in the kaolin ore. Dry magnetic separation showed that the removal rate of iron in kaolin ore could be increased obviously after calcination, and the rate of iron removal was 60% in the particle size range from 60 to 74 μm. As pyrite can be transformed into hematite through calcination, thermodynamic studies and XRD analysis showed that the maximum content of hematite was obtained at 900℃, which would be more beneifcial to magnetic separation.

  15. Ubiquitous Burgess Shale-style "clay templates" in low-grade metamorphic mudrocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Alex; Gabbott, Sarah E.; Wilby, Philip R.; Zalasiewicz, Jan A.

    2008-11-01

    Despite the Burgess Shale's (British Columbia, Canada) paleobiologicalimportance, there is little consensus regarding its taphonomy.Its organic fossils are preserved as compressions associatedwith phyllosilicate films ("clay templates"). Debate focuseson whether these templates were fundamental in exceptional preservationor if they formed in metamorphism, meaning that it is importantto establish the timing of their formation relative to decay.An early diagenetic origin has been proposed based on anatomy-specificvariations in their composition, purportedly reflecting contrastsin decay. However, we demonstrate that these films bear a remarkablesimilarity to those that occur on organic fossils in graptoliticmudrocks and form as a normal product of low-grade metamorphism.Such phyllosilicates may also occur within voids created byvolume loss in maturation, a process that may have aided theirformation. In bedding-plane assemblages from graptolitic mudrocks,different taxa are associated with distinct phyllosilicates.This likely reflects stepwise maturation of their constituentkerogens in an evolving hydrothermal fluid, with different phyllosilicatesforming as each taxon progressively underwent maturation. Theseobservations provide an analogue for the distribution and compositionof phyllosilicates on Burgess Shale fossils, which we interpretas reflecting variations in the maturation of their constituenttissues. Thus, their clay templates seem unremarkable, formingtoo late to account for exceptional preservation.

  16. Transportation of low-grade thermal energy over long distance by ammonia-water absorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qiang; WANG RuZhui; LUO LinGai; XIA ZaiZhong; LIN Peng

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the importance and the cycle choice for long-distance transportation of low-grade thermal energy, and the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic feasibility of single-effect ammonia-water absorption system for heat or cold transportation over long distance are also involved. A model of a long-distance thermal energy transportation system is built and analyzed, which shows satisfactory and attractive results. When a steam heat source at 12012 is available, the user site can get hot water output at about 55℃ with the thermal COP of about 0.6 and the electric COP of about 100 in winter, and cold water output at about 10~C with the thermal COP of about 0.5 and the electric COP of 50 in summer.A small-size prototype is built to verify the performance analysis. Basically the experimental data show good accordance with the analysis results. The ammonia-water absorption system is a potential prospective solution for the heat or cold transportation over long distance.

  17. Selective Removal of Iron from Low-Grade Ti Ore by Reacting with Calcium Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jungshin; Okabe, Toru H.

    2016-09-01

    Recently, titanium metal production by molten salt electrolysis using CaCl2 as molten salt and TiO2 or rutile (94 to 96 pct TiO2) as feedstock has been drawing attention. However, when a low-grade Ti ore (mainly FeTiO3) is used as feedstock, removal of iron (Fe) from the ore is indispensable. In this study, the influence of reaction temperature, reaction time, particle size of the ore, and source country for the ore on the removal of iron by selective chlorination using CaCl2 was assessed. Experimental results showed that the mass percent of iron in the ore decreased from 49.7 to 1.79 pct under certain conditions by selective removal of iron as FeCl2. As a result, high-grade CaTiO3 was produced when the ore particles smaller than 74 µm reacted with CaCl2 at 1240 K (967 °C) for 8 to 10 hours. Therefore, this study demonstrates that the removal of iron from the ore is feasible through the selective chlorination process using CaCl2 by optimizing the variables.

  18. Integrated utilization of low-grade thermal energy in hot coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-min CHENG; Yu-dong QI; Yan-bin YU; Gang PAN

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the integrated utilization of low-grade thermal energy in hot coal mines,based on analysis of original heating,refrigerating,mine draining,bath draining and air exhaust systems,and in combination with the actual conditions of Tangkou Coal Mine in Shandong Province.It presents a set of comprehensive and integrated utilization schemes for the various different kinds of low quality heat energy.With heat pumps,the recycling of the low quality heat energy from the drainage,bathing water and the exhaust air can occur in winter,and in summer,there exists condensed heat of the refrigerating system.When in conjunction with solar collectors,the thermal utilization of solar power can be realized for the whole year.The system achieves mine drainage and bathing water purification and recycling,as well as purifying exhaust air by water spraying.It also satisfies the demands of a whole year's bathing heat for the coal mine,with refrigeration in summer,and heating for the ground house and shaft house in winter.It is able to integrate different kinds of low quality heat energy and low emission drainage and dust,and can replace the traditional boiler heating system.Finally,the system reduces conventional energy consumption and the amount of mine water drainage.

  19. The association between obesity and fluid intelligence impairment is mediated by chronic low-grade inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyridaki, Eirini C; Simos, Panagiotis; Avgoustinaki, Pavlina D; Dermitzaki, Eirini; Venihaki, Maria; Bardos, Achilles N; Margioris, Andrew N

    2014-11-28

    Published evidence suggests that obesity impairs cognition. Development of chronic low-grade inflammation (CLGI) represents the earliest consequence of obesity. The present study investigated the association between obesity and fluid intelligence impairment and assessed the potential mediating role of CLGI and psychological (depression/anxiety symptoms), lifestyle (exercise) and physiological (metabolic dysfunction indices) factors in this association. Clinically healthy participants (n 188), grouped as per BMI, underwent cognitive (General Ability Measure for Adults), psychological (Beck Depression Inventory-II and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and activity (Godin leisure-time physical activity) measurements. Biochemical parameters included the following: (a) indices of CLGI (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and fibrinogen); (b) insulin resistance (Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance index); (c) adiposity (plasma adiponectin). An inverse association between elevated BMI and fluid intelligence was observed, with obese participants displaying significantly poorer performance compared with age-matched normal-weight peers. Structural equation modelling results were consistent with a negative impact of obesity on cognition that was mediated by CLGI. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that reduced general cognitive ability is associated with obesity, an adverse effect mainly mediated by obesity-associated activation of innate immunity.

  20. Low-grade astrocytoma: surgical outcomes in eloquent versus non-eloquent brain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André de Macedo Bianco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of 81 patients with low-grade astrocytoma (LGA comparing the efficacy of aggressive versus less aggressive surgery in eloquent and non-eloquent brain areas was conducted. Extent of surgical resection was analyzed to assess overall survival (OS and progression- free survival (PFS. Degree of tumor resection was classified as gross total resection (GTR, subtotal resection (STR or biopsy. GTR, STR and biopsy in patients with tumors in non-eloquent areas were performed in 31, 48 and 21% subjects, whereas in patients with tumors in eloquent areas resections were 22.5, 35 and 42.5%. Overall survival was 4.7 and 1.9 years in patients with tumors in non-eloquent brain areas submitted to GTR/STR and biopsy (p=0.013, whereas overall survival among patients with tumors in eloquent area was 4.5 and 2.1 years (p=0.33. Improved outcome for adult patients with LGA is predicted by more aggressive surgery in both eloquent and non-eloquent brain areas.

  1. [Presence of high risk human papilomaviruses (HPV) in the low grade cervical lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iljazović, Ermina; Mustadenagić-Mujanović, Jasminka; Karasalihović, Zinaida; Cickusić, E; Avdić, S

    2006-01-01

    Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL) and atypical squamous cells undetermined significance (ASCUS) are the most frequent verified cellular abnormalities. Their management are still highly controversial mostly caused by uncertainty about their histology and nature of originate. Detection of HPV DNA in the absence of cytological abnormalities can also indicate presence of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The aim of this study was to show the association of the benign cellular changes, ASCUS and LGSIL with oncogenic types of HPV and to prove the necessity of more intensive screening of this group of patients. Cytology and pathomorphology analyses were performed first. Identification of the presence of human papiloma virus was carried out by the Digene Hybride Capture II test for all patients. Identification of different HPV types for the particular number of patients was carried out by RFLP (Rsetriction Fragments Length of Polymorphism). Out of the 101 patients in the first group 92 (91,08%) were HPV positive, and 41, 58% had no cellular abnormalities, ASCUS or LGSIL. Out of 509 patients of the second group 26.92% were positive for HRHPV, and 78,97% of them had no cellular abnormalities, ASCUS or LGSIL. HPV 16 was detected in 27.36% (ASCUS/LGSIL) of low risk cervical lesion of the first examined period. The combination of smears with the detection of high risk HPV types increases the triage sensitivity especially at patients with mild.

  2. Reduction of Low-grade Manganese Dioxide Ore Pellets by Biomass Wheat Stalk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Honglei ZHANG; Guocai ZHU; Hong YAN; Yuna ZHAO; Tiancheng LI; Xiujuan FENG

    2013-01-01

    An investigation on reducing low-grade manganese dioxide ore pellets was carried out by using wheat stalk as reductant.The main impact factors of reduction percent such as particle size,biomass/ore ratio,heating rate,nitrogen flow rate,temperature and time in reduction process were discussed.The morphology and component of manganese dioxide ore particle at different stages were also analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS).The results show the increase of the reduction temperature and time,biomass/ore ratio,and the decrease of particle size,heating rate and nitrogen flow rate can significantly enhance reduction efficiency.The reduction kinetic of the manganese ore is controlled by three-dimensional mass diffusion of gaseous reductive volatiles passing from the surface to the core of the ore particles.The activation energy E and frequency factor A were calculated to be 24.15 kJ.mol-1 and 166 min-1,respectively.Biomass pyrolysis volatiles adsorbed onto the surface of the ore particle leads to serious variation of the microstructures and chemical composition of the manganese ore particles.

  3. Inhibition of Low-Grade Inflammation by Anthocyanins after Microbial Fermentation in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Kuntz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory effects of anthocyanins (ACNs on vascular functions are discussed controversially because of their low bioavailability. This study was performed to determine whether microorganism (MO-fermented ACNs influence vascular inflammation in vitro. Therefore, MO growth media were supplemented with an ACN-rich grape/berry extract and growth responses of Escherichia coli, E. faecalis and H. alvei, as well as ACN fermentation were observed. MO supernatants were used for measuring the anti-inflammatory effect of MO-fermented ACNs in an epithelial-endothelial co-culture transwell system. After basolateral enrichment (240 min, endothelial cells were stimulated immediately or after 20 h with TNF-α. Afterwards, leukocyte adhesion, expression of adhesion molecules and cytokine release were measured. Results indicate that E. coli, E. faecalis and H. alvei utilized ACNs differentially concomitant with different anti-inflammatory effects. Whereas E. coli utilized ACNs completely, no anti-inflammatory effects of fermented ACNs were observed on activated endothelial cells. In contrast, ACN metabolites generated by E. faecalis and H. alvei significantly attenuated low-grade stimulated leukocyte adhesion, the expression of adhesion molecules E-selectin, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 and cytokine secretion (IL-8 and IL-6, as well as NF-κB mRNA expression with a more pronounced effect of E. faecalis than H. alvei. Thus, MO-fermented ACNs have the potential to reduce inflammation.

  4. Fractionated resection on low grade gliomas involving Broca's area and insights to brain plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Chen-xing; PU Song; LIN Yi; WANG Yong-zhi; JIANG Tao; XIE Jian; WEI Miao; YI Xiao-li; WANG Xiao-yi

    2008-01-01

    Background Resent advances on functional mapping have enabled us to conduct surgery on gliomas within the eloquent area. The objective of the article is to discuss the feasibility of a planned fractionated strategy of resection on low-grade gliomas (LGGs) involving Broca's area. We report the first surgical series of planned fractionated resections on LGGs within Broca's area, focusing on language functional reshaping.Methods Four patients were treated with fractionated operations for LGGs involving Broca's area. All cases underwent conventional magnetic resonance (MR) scanning, language functional MR and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) before operation. The resections were then performed on patients under awake anesthesia using intraoperative electrical stimulation (IES) for functional mapping. Pre- and post-operative neuro-psychological examinations were evaluated. Results Total resections were achieved in all cases as confirmed by the postoperative control MR. After transient language worsening, all patients recovered to normal3-6 months later.Language functional MR scannings have shown the operation.All patients retumed to a normal socioprofessional life.Conclusions By utilizing the dynamic interaction between brain plasticity and fractionated resections,we can totally remove the tumor involving Broca'S structure without inducing permanent postoperative deficits and even improve the qualityof life.

  5. Multiphoton imaging of low grade, high grade intraepithelial neoplasia and intramucosal invasive cancer of esophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Jiang, Liwei; Kang, Deyong; Wu, Xuejing; Xu, Meifang; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Lin, Jiangbo; Chen, Jianxin

    2017-04-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is devastating because of its aggressive lymphatic spread and clinical course. It is believed to occur through low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (LGIN), high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN), and intramucosal invasive cancer (IMC) before transforming to submucosal cancer. In particular, these early lesions (LGIN, HGIN and IMC), which involve no lymph node nor distant metastasis, can be cured by endoscopic treatment. Therefore, early identification of these lesions is important so as to offer a curative endoscopic resection, thus slowing down the development of ESCC. In this work, spectral information and morphological features of the normal esophageal mucosa are first studied. Then, the morphological changes of LGIN, HGIN and IMC are described. Lastly, quantitative parameters are also extracted by calculating the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of epithelial cells and the pixel density of collagen in the lamina propria. These results show that multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has the ability to identify normal esophageal mucosa, LGIN, HGIN and IMC. With the development of multiphoton endoscope systems for in vivo imaging, combined with a laser ablation system, MPM has the potential to provide immediate pathologic diagnosis and curative treatment of ESCC before the transformation to submucosal cancer in the future.

  6. Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia: A marker of low-grade inflammation in irritable bowel syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscaglia, Anna Chiara; Laterza, Lucrezia; Cesario, Valentina; Gerardi, Viviana; Landi, Rosario; Lopetuso, Loris Riccardo; Calò, Giovanni; Fabbretti, Giovanna; Brisigotti, Massimo; Stefanelli, Maria Loredana; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the prevalence of nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH) in adult patients undergoing colonoscopy and its association with known diseases. METHODS We selected all cases showing NLH at colonoscopy in a three-year timeframe, and stratified them into symptomatic patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms or suspected inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and asymptomatic individuals undergoing endoscopy for colorectal cancer screening. Data collection included medical history and final diagnosis. As controls, we considered all colonoscopies performed for the aforementioned indications during the same period. RESULTS One thousand and one hundred fifty colonoscopies were selected. NLH was rare in asymptomatic individuals (only 3%), while it was significantly more prevalent in symptomatic cases (32%). Among organic conditions associated with NLH, the most frequent was IBD, followed by infections and diverticular disease. Interestingly, 31% of IBS patients presented diffuse colonic NLH. NLH cases shared some distinctive clinical features among IBS patients: they were younger, more often female, and had a higher frequency of abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhoea, unspecific inflammation, self-reported lactose intolerance and metal contact dermatitis. CONCLUSION About 1/3 of patients with IBS-type symptoms or suspected IBD presented diffuse colonic NLH, which could be a marker of low-grade inflammation in a conspicuous subset of IBS patients. PMID:28028368

  7. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Request Permissions Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/2015 What is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an inherited ...

  8. The macrophage low-grade inflammation marker sCD163 is modulated by exogenous sex steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henrik Holm; Møller, Holger Jon; Trolle, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a novel marker linked to states of low grade inflammation such as diabetes, obesity, liver disease and atherosclerosis, all prevalent in subjects with Turner and Klinefelter Syndromes. We aimed to assess the levels of sCD163 and the regulation of sCD163 in regards...

  9. Polyphenol intake is associated with low-grade inflammation, using a novel data analysis from the Moli-sani study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounis, George; Bonaccio, Marialaura; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Costanzo, Simona; de Curtis, Amalia; Persichillo, Mariarosaria; Sieri, Sabina; Donati, Maria Benedetta; Cerletti, Chiara; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia

    2016-01-01

    The association of polyphenol content of human diet with low-grade inflammation is not yet fully understood. It was the objective of this study to evaluate the association of flavonoid and lignan intake with frequently used and easily applicable in clinical practice low-grade inflammation biomarkers, in a novel holistic approach. A total of 5,948 women and 5,965 men (aged ≥ 35 years) were analysed from the Moli-sani cohort, randomly recruited from the general population. The EPIC-FFQ was used for dietary assessment. Flavonol, flavone, flavanone, flavanol, anthocyanin, isoflavone and lignan intakes were calculated using Eurofir eBASIS and the polyphenol antioxidant content (PAC)-score was constructed to assess the total content of diet in these nutrients. CRP levels, WBC and PLT count and granulocyte to lymphocyte ratio were conceived as low-grade inflammation biomarkers. INFLA-score was constructed summarizing synergistic effects of these biomarkers. The INFLA-score was negatively associated with PAC-score in different levels of adjustment, in both genders (for all β-coefinflammation status (i.e. higher quartile of INFLA-score) in men and women (odds ratio [ORs] 0.92 to 0.95, pinflammation biomarkers in a large population based study. For the first time low-grade inflammation was evaluated in a holistic way through INFLA-score and was associated with polyphenol content of diet.

  10. The role of low-grade inflammation and metabolic flexibility in aging and nutritional modulation thereof: A systems biology approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calçada, D.; Vianello, D.; Giampieri, E.; Sala, C.; Castellani, G.; Graaf, A.A. de; Kremer, S.H.A.; Ommen, B. van; Feskens, E.; Santoro, A.; Franceschi, C.; Bouwman, J.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a biological process characterized by the progressive functional decline of many interrelated physiological systems. In particular, aging is associated with the development of a systemic state of low-grade chronic inflammation (inflammaging), and with progressive deterioration of metabolic

  11. The role of low-grade inflammation and metabolic flexibility in aging and nutritional modulation thereof: a systems biology approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viegas Calcada, D.I.; Vianello, D.; Giampieri, E.; Sala, C.; Castellani, G.; Graaf, de A.; Kremer, B.; Ommen, van B.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Santoro, A.; Franceschi, C.; Bouwman, J.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a biological process characterized by the progressive functional decline of many interrelated physiological systems. In particular, aging is associated with the development of a systemic state of low-grade chronic inflammation (inflammaging), and with progressive deterioration of metabolic

  12. Reduced cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in extremely preterm neonates with low-grade germinal matrix- intraventricular hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Yi; Hagan, Katherine; Fenoglio, Angela; Grant, P. Ellen; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    2016-05-01

    Low-grade germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH) is the most common complication in extremely premature neonates. The occurrence of GM-IVH is highly associated with hemodynamic instability in the premature brain, yet the long-term impact of low-grade GM-IVH on cerebral blood flow and neuronal health have not been fully investigated. We used an innovative combination of frequency-domain near infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (FDNIRS-DCS) to measure cerebral oxygen saturation (SO2) and an index of cerebral blood flow (CBFi) at the infant’s bedside and compute an index of cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO2i). We enrolled twenty extremely low gestational age (ELGA) neonates (seven with low-grade GM-IVH) and monitored them weekly until they reached full-term equivalent age. During their hospital stay, we observed consistently lower CBFi and CMRO2i in ELGA neonates with low-grade GM-IVH compared to neonates without hemorrhages. Furthermore, lower CBFi and CMRO2i in the former group persists even after the resolution of the hemorrhage. In contrast, SO2 does not differ between groups. Thus, CBFi and CMRO2i may have better sensitivity than SO2 in detecting GM-IVH-related effects on infant brain development. FDNIRS-DCS methods may have clinical benefit for monitoring the evolution of GM-IVH, evaluating treatment response, and potentially predicting neurodevelopmental outcome.

  13. First-line temozolomide chemotherapy in progressive low-grade astrocytomas after radiotherapy: molecular characteristics in relation to response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taal, W.; Dubbink, H.J.; Zonnenberg, C.B.; Zonnenberg, B.A.; Postma, T.J.; Gijtenbeek, J.M.M.; Boogerd, W.; Groenendijk, F.H.; Kros, J.M.; Kouwenhoven, M.C.; Marion, R. van; Heuvel, I. van; Holt, B. van der; Bromberg, J.E.; Sillevis Smitt, P.A.; Dinjens, W.N.; Bent, M.J. van den

    2011-01-01

    Only a few studies examined the effect of temozolomide (TMZ) in recurrent low-grade astrocytoma (LGA) after surgery, none of which included a homogeneous and sufficiently sized group of patients with progression after radiotherapy (RT). We evaluated a cohort of 58 patients treated with TMZ for progr

  14. First-line temozolomide chemotherapy in progressive low-grade astrocytomas after radiotherapy: Molecular characteristics in relation to response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Taal (Walter); H.J. Dubbink (Erik Jan); B.A. Zonnenberg; T.J. Postma (Tjeerd); J. Gijtenbeek (Johanna); W. Boogerd (Willem); F.H. Groenendijk (Floris); J.M. Kros (Johan); M.C.M. Kouwenhoven (Mathilde); R. van Marion (Ronald); I. van Heuvel (Irene); B. van der Holt (Bronno); J.E.C. Bromberg (Jacolien); P.A. Smitt (Peter); W.N.M. Dinjens (Winand); M.J. van den Bent (Martin)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractOnly a few studies examined the effect of temozolomide (TMZ) in recurrent low-grade astrocytoma (LGA) after surgery, none of which included a homogeneous and sufficiently sized group of patients with progression after radiotherapy (RT). We evaluated a cohort of 58 patients treated with T

  15. Health-related quality of life in stable, long-term survivors of low-grade glioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.W. Boele; L. Douw; J.C. Reijneveld; R. Robben; M.J.B. Taphoorn; N.K. Aaronson; J.J. Heimans; M. Klein

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) often experience long periods of stable disease, emphasizing the importance of maintaining good health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We assessed the changes in HRQOL in long-term survivors of WHO grade I or II astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, or oligoa

  16. Cognitive and radiological effects of radiotherapy in patients with low-grade glioma : long-term follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douw, Linda; Klein, Martin; Fagel, Selene S. A. A.; van den Heuvel, Josje; Taphoorn, Martin J. B.; Aaronson, Neil K.; Postma, Tjeerd J.; Vandertop, W. Peter; Mooij, Jacob J.; Boerman, Rudolf H.; Beute, Guus N.; Sluimer, Jasper D.; Slotman, Ben J.; Reijneveld, Jaap C.; Heimans, Jan J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Our previous study on cognitive functioning among 195 patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) a mean of 6 years after diagnosis suggested that the tumour itself, rather than the radiotherapy used to treat it, has the most deleterious effect on cognitive functioning; only high fraction dose r

  17. Successful treatment of low-grade oligodendroglial tumors with a chemotherapy regimen of procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stege, Elize M Biemond-ter; Kros, Johan M; de Bruin, Hein G; Enting, R H; van Heuvel, Irene; Looijenga, Leendert H J; van der Rijt, Carin D D; Smitt, Peter A E Sillevis; van den Bent, Martin J

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anaplastic oligodendroglioma (OD) tumors, especially those with the combined loss of the short arm of chromosome 1 (1p) and the long arm of chromosome 19 (19q), are sensitive to chemotherapy. Only limited data are available on the role of chemotherapy in low-grade OD. The authors retrosp

  18. Health-related quality of life in stable, long-term survivors of low-grade glioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boele, F.W.; Douw, L.; Reijneveld, J.C.; Robben, R.; Taphoorn, M.J.B.; Aaronson, N.K.; Heimans, J.J.; Klein, M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) often experience long periods of stable disease, emphasizing the importance of maintaining good health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We assessed the changes in HRQOL in long-term survivors of WHO grade I or II astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, or

  19. Low grade astrocytoma transformating primitive neuroectodermal tumour in an adult? A case report and review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofeng Wang; Yuqiang Sun; Zeshi Tan; Anlong Ji; Xu Sun; Xinyu Li; Ningwei Che

    2016-01-01

    Background:Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNET) are rarely occurred in adults.Only 39 cases have been reported in the past decade.The transformation from low grade to aggressive astrocytoma is well known.However,such convert from a low-grade astrocytoma (LGA) into a sPNET between two completely different tumors is rarer.Case Presentation:This report discussed a 36-year-old male,who presented with the chief complaint of partial seizures and left limbs dysfunction and Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of whom revealed right frontal lesions which was operated to resect accompanied by the histological diagnosis of sPNET.The patient underwent operation 2.5 years ago because of seizures and was diagnosed with right frontal astrocytoma confirmed by pathology.However,radiotherapy was not preformed on him after the primary surgery.Histology now revealed high grade PNET.Conclusion:It is exactly uncertain that reports revelant to transformation from low-grade astrocytoma to a new kind of tumor or neoplasm induced by radiotation have been published.This case report is accompanied by a review of 39 cases of adult sPNET in the past decade,especially discussing about the transformation of low grade glioma into sPNET.

  20. Microbiota, gastrointestinal infections, low-grade inflammation, and antibiotic therapy in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS: an evidence-based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Schmulson

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: Further studies are required to determine the nature of the gut microbiota in IBS and the differences in low-grade inflammation between PI-IBS and non PI-IBS. Rifaximin has shown itself to be an effective treatment for IBS, regardless of prior factors.

  1. Low-grade intraventricular hemorrhage disrupts cerebellar white matter in preterm infants: evidence from diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Takashi; Morimoto, Masafumi; Hasegawa, Tatsuji; Morioka, Shigemi; Kidowaki, Satoshi; Moroto, Masaharu; Yamashita, Satoshi; Maeda, Hiroshi; Chiyonobu, Tomohiro; Tokuda, Sachiko; Hosoi, Hajime [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto (Japan); Yamada, Kei [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    Recent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have demonstrated that leakage of hemosiderin into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is caused by high-grade intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), can affect cerebellar development in preterm born infants. However, a direct effect of low-grade IVH on cerebellar development is unknown. Thus, we evaluated the cerebellar and cerebral white matter (WM) of preterm infants with low-grade IVH. Using DTI tractography performed at term-equivalent age, we analyzed 42 infants who were born less than 30 weeks gestational age (GA) at birth (22 with low-grade IVH, 20 without). These infants were divided into two birth groups depending on GA, and we then compared the presence and absence of IVH which was diagnosed by cerebral ultrasound (CUS) within 10 days after birth or conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at term-equivalent age in each group. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) at the superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP), middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP), motor tract, and sensory tract were measured. In the SCP, preterm born infants with IVH had lower FA values compared with infants without IVH. In particular, younger preterm birth with IVH had lower FA values in the SCP and motor tract and higher ADC values in the MCP. Low-grade IVH impaired cerebellar and cerebral WM, especially in the SCP. Moreover, younger preterm infants exhibited greater disruptions to cerebellar WM and the motor tract than infants of older preterm birth. (orig.)

  2. Research on Experimental and Application for the High Efficient Enrichment of the Low-grade Precious Metal Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xingxiang; FU Guangqiang; DONG Haigang; WU Yuedong; LIU Yang; ZHAO Jiachun; WU Xiaofeng; LI Bojie; TONG Weifeng

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of reviewing the progress in the high efficient enrichment from secondary resources of low-grade precious metals at home and abroad,a process route of the high efficient enrichment precious metals from secondary resources of low-grade metals by adding iron oxide as the trapping agent,reducing agent,additive,mixing uniformly and grinding,pelletizing,reduction,grinding and separation,and selectively acid leaching iron has been put forward in this paper.The experiments of reduction,grinding and separation,and selectively acid leaching iron were carried out mainly.Under the decided experiment parameters and conditions,iron generated during the reduction can trap precious metals during reduction,high active alloy powders were obtained from the reduced products by grinding and separation,the concentration of precious metals was obtained by acid leaching high active alloy powders.The better enrichment effect was obtained by adopting the technical route of processing.Other low grade noble metal materials and enrichment ratio of precious metals from the materials to acid products was high through acid leaching.This process has the advantages of simple process,environmental-friendly,strong adaptability of raw materials,high concentration ratio,which was regarded as a kind of the general efficient enrichment technology of low grade precious metal materials.

  3. Effects of low-grade weirs on soil microbial communities to advance agricultural best management practices for nitrate remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural activities throughout the Mississippi River Basin have been identified as a major source of nutrient pollution, particularly nitrogen from fertilizer application, to downstream waters including the Gulf of Mexico. Utilizing best management practices, such as low-grade weirs have been id...

  4. Central low-grade osteosarcoma with an unusual localization in the diaphysis of a 12-year old patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilg, Magdalena Maria; Liegl, Bernadette; Wibmer, Christine; Maurer-Ertl, Werner; Leithner, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    Low-grade central osteosarcoma is a very rare subtype of osteosarcoma with a predilection for the metaphysis of long bones and a peak incidence in the 3(rd) decade of life. Absence of specific clinical symptoms and a good prognosis after wide resection are the characteristics of this entity. Chemotherapy is not indicated in this highly differentiated tumour. A 12-year old girl presented with limping, swelling and pain in the mid of the left femur. Radiography showed a 12 cm long intraosseous expansion with lamellated periosteal reaction and contrast medium enhancement in MRI. Although radiology led to the differential diagnoses of Ewing's sarcoma, osteomyelitis and fibrous dysplasia, the histological specimen showed a hyopocellular spindle-cell proliferation arranged in fascicles with mild cytologic atypia and only single mitotic figures. In synopsis with radiology the diagnosis of low-grade central osteosarcoma was made and confirmed by reference pathology. The tumour was resected with wide margins and reconstruction was performed with a vascularized fibula, a homologous allograft and a plate. Staging was negative for recurrence and metastasis at a follow-up of 16 months. Low-grade osteosarcoma accounts for only 1% of all osteosarcomas with a peak incidence in the 3(rd) decade. The diaphyseal localization and the young age make this case special. To achieve the correct diagnosis of this rare low-grade entity and thereby the adequate treatment, despite a wide range of differential diagnoses, a multidisciplinary approach is essential.

  5. Triple-negative breast cancer: the importance of molecular and histologic subtyping, and recognition of low-grade variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Fresia; Geyer, Felipe C; Marchiò, Caterina; Burke, Kathleen A; Weigelt, Britta; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs), defined by lack of expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER2, account for 12-17% of breast cancers and are clinically perceived as a discrete breast cancer subgroup. Nonetheless, TNBC has been shown to constitute a vastly heterogeneous disease encompassing a wide spectrum of entities with marked genetic, transcriptional, histological and clinical differences. Although most TNBCs are high-grade tumors, there are well-characterized low-grade TNBCs that have an indolent clinical course, whose natural history, molecular features and optimal therapy vastly differ from those of high-grade TNBCs. Secretory and adenoid cystic carcinomas are two histologic types of TNBCs underpinned by specific fusion genes; these tumors have an indolent clinical behavior and lack all of the cardinal molecular features of high-grade triple-negative disease. Recent studies of rare entities, including lesions once believed to constitute mere benign breast disease (e.g., microglandular adenosis), have resulted in the identification of potential precursors of TNBC and suggested the existence of a family of low-grade triple-negative lesions that, despite having low-grade morphology and indolent clinical behavior, have been shown to harbor the complex genomic landscape of common forms of TNBC, and may progress to high-grade disease. In this review, we describe the heterogeneity of TNBC and focus on the histologic and molecular features of low-grade forms of TNBC. Germane to addressing the challenges posed by the so-called triple-negative disease is the realization that TNBC is merely a descriptive term, and that low-grade types of TNBC may be driven by distinct sets of genetic alterations.

  6. [Low-grade systemic inflammation and the development of metabolic diseases: from the molecular evidence to the clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Pedroza, José Israel; González-Tapia, Luis Alonso; del Olmo-Gil, Esteban; Castellanos-Rodríguez, Diana; Escobedo, Galileo; González-Chávez, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Systemic inflammation is characterised by high circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines and increased macrophage infiltration in peripheral tissues. Most importantly, this inflammatory state does not involve damage or loss of function of the infiltrated tissue, which is a distinctive feature of the low-grade systemic inflammation. The term "meta-inflammation" has also been used to refer to the low-grade systemic inflammation due to its strong relationship with the development of cardio-metabolic diseases in obesity. A review is presented on the recent clinical and experimental evidence concerning the role of adipose tissue inflammation as a key mediator of low-grade systemic inflammation. Furthermore, the main molecular mechanisms involved in the inflammatory polarization of macrophages with the ability to infiltrate both the adipose tissue and the vascular endothelium via activation of toll-like receptors by metabolic damage-associated molecular patterns, such as advanced glycation-end products and oxidized lipoproteins, is discussed. Finally, a review is made of the pathogenic mechanisms through which the low-grade systemic inflammation contributes to develop insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, atherogenesis, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension in obese individuals. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of low-grade systemic inflammation in promoting cardio-metabolic diseases is necessary, in order to further design novel anti-inflammatory therapies that take into consideration clinical data, as well as the circulating levels of cytokines, immune cells, and metabolic damage-associated molecular patterns in each patient. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  7. Four year efficacy of prophylactic human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine against low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and anogenital warts: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillner, Joakim; Kjaer, Susanne K; Wheeler, Cosette M;

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata)....

  8. Longitudinal Investigation of Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Irradiation for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma and Low-Grade Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netson, Kelli L. [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Kansas University School of Medicine—Wichita, Kansas (United States); Conklin, Heather M. [Department of Psychology, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Children treated for brain tumors with conformal radiation therapy experience preserved cognitive outcomes. Early evidence suggests that adaptive functions or independent-living skills may be spared. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intellectual and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years following irradiation for childhood craniopharyngioma and low-grade glioma (LGG). The effect of visual impairment on adaptive outcomes was investigated. Methods and Materials: Children with craniopharyngioma (n=62) and LGG (n=77) were treated using conformal or intensity modulated radiation therapy. The median age was 8.05 years (3.21-17.64 years) and 8.09 years (2.20-19.27 years), respectively. Serial cognitive evaluations including measures of intelligence quotient (IQ) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were conducted at preirradiation baseline, 6 months after treatment, and annually through 5 years. Five hundred eighty-eight evaluations were completed during the follow-up period. Results: Baseline assessment revealed no deficits in IQ and VABS indices for children with craniopharyngioma, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline in VABS Communication and Socialization indices. Clinical factors associated with more rapid decline included females and preirradiation chemotherapy (interferon). The only change in VABS Daily Living Skills correlated with IQ change (r=0.34; P=.01) in children with craniopharyngioma. Children with LGG performed below population norms (P<.05) at baseline on VABS Communication, Daily Living Indices, and the Adaptive Behavior Composite, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline limited to VABS Communication. Older age at irradiation was a protective factor against longitudinal decline. Severe visual impairment did not independently correlate with poorer adaptive outcomes for either tumor group. Conclusions: There was relative sparing of postirradiation functional outcomes over time in this sample

  9. The relation of saturated fatty acids with low-grade inflammation and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Núñez, Begoña; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2016-10-01

    The mantra that dietary (saturated) fat must be minimized to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has dominated nutritional guidelines for decades. Parallel to decreasing intakes of fat and saturated fatty acids (SFA), there have been increases in carbohydrate and sugar intakes, overweight, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The "lipid hypothesis" coined the concept that fat, especially SFA, raises blood low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and thereby CVD risk. In view of current controversies regarding their adequate intakes and effects, this review aims to summarize research regarding this heterogenic group of fatty acids and the mechanisms relating them to (chronic) systemic low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and notably CVD. The intimate relationship between inflammation and metabolism, including glucose, fat and cholesterol metabolism, revealed that the dyslipidemia in Western societies, notably increased triglycerides, "small dense" low-density lipoprotein and "dysfunctional" high-density lipoprotein, is influenced by many unfavorable lifestyle factors. Dietary SFA is only one of these, not necessarily the most important, in healthy, insulin-sensitive people. The environment provides us not only with many other proinflammatory stimuli than SFA but also with many antiinflammatory counterparts. Resolution of the conflict between our self-designed environment and ancient genome may rather rely on returning to the proinflammatory/antiinflammatory balance of the Paleolithic era in consonance with the 21st century culture. Accordingly, dietary guidelines might reconsider recommendations for SFA replacement and investigate diet in a broader context, together with nondietary lifestyle factors. This should be a clear priority, opposed to the reductionist approach of studying the effects of single nutrients, such as SFA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Solidification/stabilisation of electric arc furnace waste using low grade MgO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubukcuoglu, B; Ouki, S K

    2012-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the potential of low grade MgO (LGMgO) for the stabilisation/solidification (S/S) of heavy metals in steel electric arc furnace wastes. Relevant characteristics such as setting time, unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and leaching behaviour assessed by acid neutralisation capacity (ANC), monolithic and granular leaching tests were examined in light of the UK landfill Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for disposal. The results demonstrated that all studied mix designs with Portland cement type 1 (CEM1) and LGMgO, CEM1-LGMgO 1:2 and 1:4 at 40% and 70% waste addition met the WAC requirements by means of UCS, initial and final setting times and consistence. Most of the ANC results met the WAC limits where the threshold pH values without acid additions were stable and between 11.9 and 12.2 at 28d. Granular leaching results indicate fixation of most of the metals at all mix ratios. An optimum ratio was obtained at CEM1-LGMgO 1:4 at 40% waste additions where none of the metals leaching exceeded the WAC limits and hence may be considered for landfill disposal. The monolithic leaching test results showed that LGMgO performed satisfactorily with respect to S/S of Zn, as the metal component present at the highest concentration level in the waste exhibited very little leaching and passed the leaching test requirement at all mix ratios studied. However, its performance with respect to Pb, Cd and Cr was less effective in reducing their leaching suggesting a higher cumulative rate under those leaching regimes.

  11. Quality of life in low-grade glioma patients receiving temozolomide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Raymond; Solheim, Karla; Polley, Mei-Yin; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Page, Margaretta; Fedoroff, Anne; Rabbitt, Jane; Butowski, Nicholas; Prados, Michael; Chang, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the quality of life (QOL) of low-grade glioma (LGG) patients at baseline prior to chemotherapy and through 12 cycles of temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. Patients with histologically confirmed LGG with only prior surgery were given TMZ for 12 cycles. QOL assessments by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–Brain (FACT-Br) were obtained at baseline prior to chemotherapy and at 2-month intervals while receiving TMZ. Patients with LGG at baseline prior to chemotherapy had higher reported social well-being scores (mean difference = 5.0; p < 0.01) but had lower reported emotional well-being scores (mean difference = 2.2; p < 0.01) compared to a normal population. Compared to patients with left hemisphere tumors, patients with right hemisphere tumors reported higher physical well-being scores (p = 0.01): 44% could not drive, 26% did not feel independent, and 26% were afraid of having a seizure. Difficulty with work was noted in 24%. Mean change scores at each chemotherapy cycle compared to baseline for all QOL subscales showed either no significant change or were significantly positive (p < 0.01). Patients with LGG on TMZ at baseline prior to chemotherapy reported QOL comparable to a normal population with the exception of social and emotional well-being, and those with right hemisphere tumors reported higher physical well-being scores compared to those with left hemisphere tumors. While remaining on therapy, LGG patients were able to maintain their QOL in all realms. LGG patients’ QOL may be further improved by addressing their emotional well-being and their loss of independence in terms of driving or working. PMID:18713953

  12. Phase II TPDCV protocol for pediatric low-grade hypothalamic/chiasmatic gliomas: 15-year update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Kavita K.; Squire, Sarah; Lamborn, Kathleen; Banerjee, Anuradha; Gupta, Nalin; Wara, William M.; Prados, Michael D.; Berger, Mitchel S.

    2010-01-01

    To report long-term results for children with low-grade hypothalamic/chiasmatic gliomas treated on a phase II chemotherapy protocol. Between 1984 and 1992, 33 children with hypothalamic/chiasmatic LGGs received TPDCV chemotherapy on a phase II prospective trial. Median age was 3.0 years (range 0.3–16.2). Twelve patients (36%) underwent STRs, 14 (42%) biopsy only, and seven (21%) no surgery. Twenty patients (61%) had pathologic JPAs, nine (27%) grade II gliomas, and four (12%) no surgical sampling. Median f/u for surviving patients was 15.2 years (range 5.3–20.7); 20 of the 23 surviving patients had 14 or more years of follow-up. Fifteen-year PFS and OS were 23.4 and 71.2%, respectively. Twenty-five patients progressed, of whom 13 are NED, two are AWD, and 10 have died. All children who died were diagnosed and first treated at age three or younger. Age at diagnosis was significantly associated with relapse and survival (P = 0.004 for PFS and P = 0.037 for OS). No PFS or OS benefit was seen with STR versus biopsy/no sampling (P = 0.58 for PFS, P = 0.59 for OS). For patients with JPAs and WHO grade II tumors, the 15-year PFS was 18.8 and 22.2% (P = 0.95) and 15-year OS was 73.7 and 55.6% (P = 0.17), respectively. Upfront TPDCV for children with hypothalamic/chiasmatic LGGs resulted in 15-year OS of 71.2% and 15-year PFS of 23.4%. No survival benefit is demonstrated for greater extent of resection. Age is a significant prognostic factor for progression and survival. PMID:20221671

  13. Evidence for low-grade metamorphism, hydrothermal alteration, and diagenesis on mars from phyllosilicate mineral assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlmann, B.L.; Mustard, J.F.; Clark, R.N.; Swayze, G.A.; Murchie, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    The enhanced spatial and spectral resolution provided by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has led to the discovery of numerous hydrated silicate minerals on Mars, particularly in the ancient, cratered crust comprising the southern highlands. Phases recently identified using visible/near-infrared spectra include: smectite, chlorite, prehnite, high-charge phyllosilicates (illite or muscovite), the zeolite analcime, opaline silica, and serpentine. Some mineral assemblages represent the products of aqueous alteration at elevated temperatures. Geologic occurrences of these mineral assemblages are described using examples from west of the Isidis basin near the Nili Fossae and with reference to differences in implied temperature, fluid composition, and starting materials during alteration. The alteration minerals are not distributed homogeneously. Rather, certain craters host distinctive alteration assemblages: (1) prehnite-chlorite-silica, (2) analcime-silica-Fe,Mg-smectite-chlorite, (3) chlorite-illite (muscovite), and (4) serpentine, which furthermore has been found in bedrock units. These assemblages contrast with the prevalence of solely Fe,Mg-smectites in most phyllosilicate-bearing terrains on Mars, and they represent materials altered at depth then exposed by cratering. Of the minerals found to date, prehnite provides the clearest evidence for subsurface, hydrothermal/metamorphic alteration, as it forms only under highly restricted conditions (T = 200 400??C). Multiple mechanisms exist for forming the other individual minerals; however, the most likely formation mechanisms for the characteristic mineralogic assemblages observed are, for (1) and (2), low- grade metamorphism or hydrothermal (400??C has not been found.

  14. Value added products with popular low grade rice varieties of Andhra Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, G; Rajyalakshmi, P

    2014-12-01

    Eight Popular Low Grade Rice Varieties (PLRVs) MTU 3626, MTU 1001, MTU 1010, MTU 4870 and NLR 145, NLR 34242, NLR 30491, NLR 34449, (developed and released by ANGR agricultural University, Andhra Pradesh) having poor cooking quality were selected for the study. ANGRAU variety BPT 5204 popularly consumed as staple rice was used as check. Eight products of traditional/commercial importance were standardized incorporating PLRVs as a major ingredient in the form of rice flour (burfi, noodles and extruded snack product and vennaundalu (butter coated balls), palathalikalu (dough rolled into strips, steamed/cooked in milk); rice semolina (instant kheer mix and instant upma mix), and flaked rice (nutritious bar). The products were evaluated for nutritional, cooking quality characteristics, consumer acceptability and shelf-life. Consumer acceptability of the PLR products was carried out with 60 farm women based on 9 point hedonic scale. Shelf-life of the products (packed in both metalized PP and PE pouches) was evaluated monthly for chemical, microbiological and sensory parameters. Energy values of control and PLR products showed no significant difference. Upon cooking, PLR Noodles showed no significant difference with water absorption and volume but more (p control. The percent total solids and suspended solids were more (though not significant) in PLR kheer and palathalikalu. Extruded product (control and PLR) showed no significant difference with length, diameter, weight and volume expansion ratio and water absorption index (WAI). Consumer acceptability was high for PLR products palathalikalu (95%), instant kheer mix (92%) and extruded product (88%). As per sensory scores, all the PLR products were well accepted with no observable changes in flavor or taste upon storage. PLR products showed increased (P control and PLR) showed no microbial growth during the entire storage period. Considering the poor marketability of PLRVs for consumption as staple rice, the study

  15. The Immune Protective Effect of the Mediterranean Diet against Chronic Low-grade Inflammatory Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Rosa; Sacanella, Emilio; Estruch, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns high in refined starches, sugar, and saturated and trans-fatty acids, poor in natural antioxidants and fiber from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and poor in omega-3 fatty acids may cause an activation of the innate immune system, most likely by excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines associated with a reduced production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is a nutritional model inspired by the traditional dietary pattern of some of the countries of the Mediterranean basin. This dietary pattern is characterized by the abundant consumption of olive oil, high consumption of plant foods (fruits, vegetables, pulses, cereals, nuts and seeds); frequent and moderate intake of wine (mainly with meals); moderate consumption of fish, seafood, yogurt, cheese, poultry and eggs; and low consumption of red meat, processed meat products and seeds. Several epidemiological studies have evaluated the effects of a Mediterranean pattern as protective against several diseases associated with chronic low-grade inflammation such as cancer, diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome and cognition disorders. The adoption of this dietary pattern could counter the effects of several inflammatory markers, decreasing, for example, the secretion of circulating and cellular biomarkers involved in the atherosclerotic process. Thus, the aim of this review was to consider the current evidence about the effectiveness of the MedDiet in these chronic inflammatory diseases due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which may not only act on classical risk factors but also on inflammatory biomarkers such as adhesion molecules, cytokines or molecules related to the stability of atheromatic plaque. PMID:25244229

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of Radiation and Chemotherapy for High-Risk Low-Grade Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yushen; Maruyama, Satoshi; Kim, Haju; Pollom, Erqi L; Kumar, Kiran A; Chin, Alexander L; Harris, Jeremy P; Chang, Daniel T; Pitt, Allison; Bendavid, Eran; Owens, Douglas K; Durkee, Ben Y; Soltys, Scott G

    2017-06-28

    The addition of PCV (procarbazine, lomustine, vincristine) chemotherapy to radiotherapy (RT) for patients with high-risk (≥ 40 years old or sub-totally resected) low-grade glioma (LGG) results in an absolute median survival benefit of over 5 years. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of this treatment strategy. A decision tree with an integrated three-state Markov model was created to follow patients with high risk LGG after surgery treated with RT vs. RT+PCV. Patients existed in one of 3 health states: stable, progressive, and dead. Survival and freedom from progression were modeled to reflect the results of RTOG 9802 using time-dependent transition probabilities. Health utility values and costs of care were derived from the literature and national registry databases. Analysis was conducted from the healthcare perspective. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis explored uncertainty in model parameters. Modeled outcomes demonstrated agreement with clinical data in expected benefit of addition of PCV to RT. The addition of PCV to RT yielded an incremental benefit of 4.77 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) (9.94 for RT+PCV vs. 5.17 for RT alone) at an incremental cost of $48,635 ($188,234 for RT+PCV vs. $139,598 for RT alone), resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $10,186 per QALY gained. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis demonstrates that within modeled distributions of parameters, RT+PCV has 99.96% probability of being cost-effectiveness at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000 per QALY. The addition of PCV to RT is a cost-effective treatment strategy for patients with high-risk LGG.

  17. Longitudinal investigation of adaptive functioning following conformal irradiation for pediatric craniopharyngioma and low-grade glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netson, Kelli L; Conklin, Heather M; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E

    2013-04-01

    Children treated for brain tumors with conformal radiation therapy experience preserved cognitive outcomes. Early evidence suggests that adaptive functions or independent-living skills may be spared. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intellectual and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years following irradiation for childhood craniopharyngioma and low-grade glioma (LGG). The effect of visual impairment on adaptive outcomes was investigated. Children with craniopharyngioma (n=62) and LGG (n=77) were treated using conformal or intensity modulated radiation therapy. The median age was 8.05 years (3.21-17.64 years) and 8.09 years (2.20-19.27 years), respectively. Serial cognitive evaluations including measures of intelligence quotient (IQ) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were conducted at preirradiation baseline, 6 months after treatment, and annually through 5 years. Five hundred eighty-eight evaluations were completed during the follow-up period. Baseline assessment revealed no deficits in IQ and VABS indices for children with craniopharyngioma, with significant (PVABS Communication and Socialization indices. Clinical factors associated with more rapid decline included females and preirradiation chemotherapy (interferon). The only change in VABS Daily Living Skills correlated with IQ change (r=0.34; P=.01) in children with craniopharyngioma. Children with LGG performed below population norms (PVABS Communication, Daily Living Indices, and the Adaptive Behavior Composite, with significant (PVABS Communication. Older age at irradiation was a protective factor against longitudinal decline. Severe visual impairment did not independently correlate with poorer adaptive outcomes for either tumor group. There was relative sparing of postirradiation functional outcomes over time in this sample. Baseline differences in functional abilities before the initiation of irradiation suggested that other factors influence functional outcomes

  18. Direct reduction of low grade nickel laterite ore to produce ferronickel using isothermal - temperature gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulhan, Zulfiadi; Gibranata, Ian

    2017-01-01

    In this study, low grade nickel laterite ore was processed by means of isothermal-temperature gradient method to produce ferronickel nugget. The ore and coal as reductant were ground to obtain the grain size of less than 0.25 mm and 0.425 mm, respectively. Both ground laterite ore and coal were mixed, agglomerated in the form of cylindrical pellet by using press machine and then reduced at temperature of 1000°C to 1400°C in a muffle furnace. The experiments were conducted at three stages each at different temperature profile: the first stage was isothermal at 1000°C; the second stage was temperature gradient at certain heating rate from 1000 to 1400°C; and the third stage was isothermal at 1400°C. The heating rate during temperature gradient stage was varied: 6.67, 8.33 and 10°C/minute. No fluxes were added in these experiments. By addition of 10 wt% of coal into the laterite nikel ore, product of ferronickel nugget was formed with the size varies from 1-2 mm. However, by increasing the coal content, the size of ferronickel nugget was decreased to less than 0.2 mm. The observation of the samples during the heating stage showed that ferronickel nugget grew and separated from the gangue during temperature gradient stage as it achieved the temperature of 1380°C. Furthermore, the experiment results indicated that the recovery of ferronickel can be increased at lower heating rate during temperature gradient stage and longer holding time for final isothermal stage. The highest nickel recovery was obtained at a heating rate of 6.67°C/minute.

  19. Learning and Memory Following Conformal Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma and Low-Grade Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Pinto, Marcos [Department of Pediatric Psychology, Children' s Hospital of Orange County, Orange, California (United States); Conklin, Heather M. [Department of Psychology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Li, Chenghong [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to examine whether children with low-grade glioma (LGG) or craniopharyngioma had impaired learning and memory after conformal radiation therapy (CRT). A secondary objective was to determine whether children who received chemotherapy before CRT, a treatment often used to delay radiation therapy in younger children with LGG, received any protective benefit with respect to learning. Methods and Materials: Learning and memory in 57 children with LGG and 44 children with craniopharyngioma were assessed with the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version and the Visual-Auditory Learning tests. Learning measures were administered before CRT, 6 months later, and then yearly for a total of 5 years. Results: No decline in learning scores after CRT was observed when patients were grouped by diagnosis. For children with LGG, chemotherapy before CRT did not provide a protective effect on learning. Multiple regression analyses, which accounted for age and tumor volume and location, found that children treated with chemotherapy before CRT were at greater risk of decline on learning measures than those treated with CRT alone. Variables predictive of learning and memory decline included hydrocephalus, shunt insertion, younger age at time of treatment, female gender, and pre-CRT chemotherapy. Conclusions: This study did not reveal any impairment or decline in learning after CRT in overall aggregate learning scores. However, several important variables were found to have a significant effect on neurocognitive outcome. Specifically, chemotherapy before CRT was predictive of worse outcome on verbal learning in LGG patients. In addition, hydrocephalus and shunt insertion in craniopharyngioma were found to be predictive of worse neurocognitive outcome, suggesting a more aggressive natural history for those patients.

  20. The Mechanism on Biomass Reduction of Low-Grade Manganese Dioxide Ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honglei; Zhu, Guocai; Yan, Hong; Li, Tiancheng; Zhao, Yuna

    2013-08-01

    The mechanism on biomass reduction of low-grade manganese dioxide ore was studied by investigating influence factors on manganese recovery degree, such as the reaction temperature, time, biomass/ore ratio, compositions of biomass, nitrogen flow rate, and particle size of raw materials, and it was further identified through analysis of gas composition in the outlet gas, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for the reduced sample. The results show that the reduction process involved mainly two steps: (1) The biomass was first pyrolyzed to release reductive volatiles and (2) manganese oxide ore was reacted with the reductive volatiles. By an analysis of gas composition in the outlet gas, it was also found that the ratio of biomass/ore had an important effect on the reduction mechanism. With a low biomass/ore ratio of 0.5:10, the reducing reaction of the reductive volatiles with manganese dioxide ore proceeded mainly in two stages: (1) The condensable volatiles (tar) released from biomass pyrolysis reacted with manganese oxide ore to produce reductive noncondensable gases such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and some light hydrocarbons; and (2) the small molecule gases further participated in the reduction. XRD pattern analysis on the reduced manganese dioxide ore revealed that the process of biomass reduction of manganese ore underwent in phases (MnO2 → Mn3O4 → MnO). The kinetics study showed the reduction process was controlled by a gas-solid reaction between biomass volatiles and manganese oxide ore with activation energy E of 53.64 kJ mol-1 and frequency factor A of 5.45 × 103 minutes-1.

  1. Revisiting the prognostic role of gallium scintigraphy in low-grade Non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallamini, A.; Cavallero, G.; Pregno, P.; Grasso, M.; Gallo, E. [Division of Haematology, S. Croce Hospital, Cuneo (Italy); Biggi, A.; Farinelli, C. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, S. Croce Hospital, Cuneo (Italy); Fruttero, A.; Pugno, F. [Department of Pathology, S. Croce Hospital, Cuneo (Italy); Leone, A. [Department of Radiology, S. Croce Hospital, Cuneo (Italy)

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this study was threefold: to evaluate the role of gallium-67 scintigraphy in the staging of low-grade non-Hodgkin`s lymphomas (LGNHL), to assess the relationship between the expression of CD71 on the surface of the neoplastic cells and the {sup 67}Ga uptake by the tumour, and to establish the contribution of {sup 67}Ga scan in defining the prognosis of LGNHL. Forty-eight patients with untreated LGNHL diagnosed in a single institution over a decade were reviewed. The end point of the study was survival of the patients according to the scintigraphic {sup 67}Ga score at diagnosis. In addition to {sup 67}Ga scan, other prognostic variables were studied, relating to the neoplastic burden, the biology of the tumour and the host. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used. {sup 67}Ga scan identified only 116/286 (41%) nodes involved by lymphoma that were detected by clinical examination or computed tomography scan. A scintigraphic scoring system with an arbitrary cut-off value of 3 (high scan score) was able to predict patients with a dismal prognosis: with a mean follow-up of 47 months (range: 1-146 months) the median survival time was 28 months in patients with a high scan score and 74 months in patients with a low scan score (P=0.002). CD71 values were 27.4%{+-}14.9% (mean {+-}SD) in the former and 8.9%{+-}7.2% in the latter (P=0.0001). Only performance status and extranodal sites were significant variables for prognosis in multivariate analysis. It is concluded that {sup 67}Ga scan is inaccurate in staging but might be very important in defining the prognosis in LGNHL, in association with other prognostic variables. (orig.) With 2 figs., 3 tabs., 43 refs.

  2. Obesity phenotypes and resorption percentage after breast autologous fat grafting: Rule of low-grade inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Pietro; Sarlo, Francesca; De Angelis, Barbara; De Lorenzo, Antonio; Cervelli, Valerio

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of the main reasons why the breast fat grafting was questioned is that there may be lipofilling resorption. In the literature, the resorption rate reported over the 1st year is highly variable (20–90%). Objective: The aim of this work was to identify the biochemical and clinical parameters, which increase fat graft maintenance in breast reconstruction. Materials and Methods: A sample of 19 patients was treated with fat grafting mixed with platelet-rich plasma. A complete screening of anthropometry, body composition, and blood biochemical parameters was assessed using the standardized equipment. Pre- and post-operative evaluation was performed, which included a complete clinical examination, photographic assessment, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the soft tissue, and ultrasound. The follow-up period was 2 years. Results: The authors divided the results into two types of patients: “responder” and “not a responder.” In the “responder” group patients with normal weight, gynoid fat distribution, obese, with normal blood biochemical parameters, and atherogenic indices but with high preoperative values of platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) (174.49) and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (2.65) showed a greater increase of fat graft maintenance at 6 and 12 months after the last lipofilling session. In the “not responder group” patients with overweight, android fat distribution, obese, high values of atherogenic indices, but with normal preoperative NLR and PLR ratios showed a lower fat graft maintenance at 6 and 12 months. Conclusion: We assume, the problem of fat resorption may be resolved by analysis of body composition and by examine the predictive role of preoperative markers of low-grade inflammation. PMID:27656603

  3. Exploratory Visual Analysis of Statistical Results from Microarray Experiments Comparing High and Low Grade Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason H. Moore

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological interpretation of gene expression microarray results is a daunting challenge. For complex diseases such as cancer, wherein the body of published research is extensive, the incorporation of expert knowledge provides a useful analytical framework. We have previously developed the Exploratory Visual Analysis (EVA software for exploring data analysis results in the context of annotation information about each gene, as well as biologically relevant groups of genes. We present EVA as a fl exible combination of statistics and biological annotation that provides a straightforward visual interface for the interpretation of microarray analyses of gene expression in the most commonly occurring class of brain tumors, glioma. We demonstrate the utility of EVA for the biological interpretation of statistical results by analyzing publicly available gene expression profi les of two important glial tumors. The results of a statistical comparison between 21 malignant, high-grade glioblastoma multiforme (GBM tumors and 19 indolent, low-grade pilocytic astrocytomas were analyzed using EVA. By using EVA to examine the results of a relatively simple statistical analysis, we were able to identify tumor class-specifi c gene expression patterns having both statistical and biological signifi cance. Our interactive analysis highlighted the potential importance of genes involved in cell cycle progression, proliferation, signaling, adhesion, migration, motility, and structure, as well as candidate gene loci on a region of Chromosome 7 that has been implicated in glioma. Because EVA does not require statistical or computational expertise and has the fl exibility to accommodate any type of statistical analysis, we anticipate EVA will prove a useful addition to the repertoire of computational methods used for microarray data analysis. EVA is available at no charge to academic users and can be found at http://www.epistasis.org.

  4. Effect of dietary Schizochytrium microalga oil on selected markers of low-grade inflammation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komprda, T; Sládek, Z; Škultéty, O; Křížková, S; Rozíková, V; Němcová, B; Šustrová, T; Valová, M

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate a potential of Schizochytrium microalga oil to alleviate possible negative effects of high-fat-high-energy diets. Forty adult male rats (Wistar Albino) were fed 7 weeks the diet containing beef tallow + evaporated sweetened milk (diet T) intended to cause mild obesity and low-grade systemic inflammation. Consequently, the animals were divided into four groups by 10 animals each and fed either the T-diet (control) or the diet containing 6% of safflower oil (S), 6% of fish oil (F) and 6% of Schizochytrium microalga oil (A), respectively, for another 7 weeks. The A-diet decreased (p  0.05). In comparison with control, higher (p  0.05) on cellular adiponectin content in the EAT. Higher (p < 0.05) EPA+DHA deposition in the liver of the A-rats correlated with higher expression (149% of control; p < 0.05) of the gene coding for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, and with lower expression (82% and 66%; p < 0.05) of the genes coding for adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2; no relationship to the expression of receptor GPR120 was found. The A-diet did not affect amount of the nuclear fraction of the nuclear factor kappa B in the liver, but increased plasma level of anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-β1 (p < 0.05). The presented data agree with results of other in vivo rodent and human studies, but not with literature data regarding in vitro experiments: it can be concluded that the effects of dietary oils on inflammatory markers need further investigation.

  5. Cortical mapping with navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation in low-grade glioma surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiva WS

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Wellingson S Paiva1, Erich T Fonoff1, Marco A Marcolin2, Hector N Cabrera1, Manoel J Teixeira11Division of Functional Neurosurgery, Hospital das Clinicas, 2TMS Laboratory of the Psychiatry Institute, Hospital das Clinicas, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is a promising method for both investigation and therapeutic treatment of psychiatric and neurologic disorders and, more recently, for brain mapping. This study describes the application of navigated TMS for motor cortex mapping in patients with a brain tumor located close to the precentral gyrus.Materials and methods: In this prospective study, six patients with low-grade gliomas in or near the precentral gyrus underwent TMS, and their motor responses were correlated to locations in the cortex around the lesion, generating a functional map overlaid on three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans of the brain. To determine the accuracy of this new method, we compared TMS mapping with the gold standard mapping with direct cortical electrical stimulation in surgery. The same navigation system and TMS-generated map were used during the surgical resection procedure.Results: The motor cortex could be clearly mapped using both methods. The locations corresponding to the hand and forearm, found during intraoperative mapping, showed a close spatial relationship to the homotopic areas identified by TMS mapping. The mean distance between TMS and direct cortical electrical stimulation (DES was 4.16 ± 1.02 mm (range: 2.56–5.27 mm.Conclusion: Preoperative mapping of the motor cortex with navigated TMS prior to brain tumor resection is a useful presurgical planning tool with good accuracy.Keywords: transcranial magnetic stimulation, cortical mapping, brain tumor, motor cortex

  6. Efficacy and safety of hexaminolevulinate photodynamic therapy in patients with low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillemanns, Peter; Petry, Karl-Ulrich; Soergel, Philipp; Collinet, Pierre; Ardaens, Katty; Gallwas, Julia; Luyten, Alexander; Dannecker, Christian

    2014-08-01

    Non-surgical therapies are needed to reduce the rate of progression of low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 1) to high grade CIN (CIN 2/3). The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of hexaminolevulinate (HAL) photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of patients with CIN 1. This phase IIa prospective double-blind study randomized patients with CIN 1 into three groups: HAL vaginal suppository, placebo vaginal suppository or follow-up only. Patients in the first two groups received HAL or placebo suppositories 5 hours before illumination with 50 J/cm(2) red coherent light (633 nm) using a special light catheter. All patients had a follow up including colposcopy, cytology and human papilloma virus (HPV) testing 3 and 6 months and additional biopsy 6 months after PDT. The main outcome measure was efficacy, defined as complete histologic remission 6 months after PDT. Secondary outcomes were histologic remission 3 months and HPV eradication 6 months after first PDT. Seventy patients were randomized: 47 to HAL, 12 to placebo, 11 to follow up only. After 6 months CIN lesions had cleared in 57% of patients in the HAL-PDT group compared to 25% in the combined control group (per protocol population, P = 0.04). Twenty-six patients (37%) reported 44 adverse events (AEs), of which 40 were mild or moderate. Nineteen treatment-related AEs were reported by 15 patients (32%) in the HAL PDT group, one in the placebo PDT group (8%), and none in the follow-up group. The most common adverse events were local discomfort including mild pain/cramping (11) and leucorrhoea (2). HAL PDT shows a favorable efficacy and safety profile and represents a promising alternative to observation and surgical procedures in patients with CIN 1. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Human papillomavirus testing for triage of women with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzick, Jack; Thomas Cox, J; Zhang, Guili; Einstein, Mark H; Stoler, Mark; Trupin, Suzanne; Behrens, Catherine M

    2013-02-15

    Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) is a common cytologic finding in cervical screening, yet only about 10-20% have significant histologic abnormalities and these are almost always positive for high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV). This analysis aims to clarify the role of hrHPV DNA testing in the triage of women with LSIL cytology. In the ATHENA screening trial, we examined 1,084 cases of LSIL, of which 925 had an evaluable biopsy, to determine the extent to which hrHPV testing can identify those patients who have precursor lesions in need of immediate clinical referral and those who have changes more likely to regress spontaneously. Overall, 71.2% of LSIL cases were hrHPV positive, but the prevalence was age dependent, with only 56.1% in women ≥ 40 years. Among women with LSIL, 11.6% (107/925) had a cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) histologic diagnosis and, of these, only nine were hrHPV negative. For CIN3+, 91.7% (44/48) of women with LSIL were hrHPV positive. The negative predictive value of hrHPV testing for CIN3+ in LSIL was 100% for women aged ≥ 40 years. Women who were HPV16 positive had a higher positive predictive value for CIN2+ (25.4%) than those who were positive for 12 other pooled hrHPV types (11.5%). Testing for hrHPV in women with LSIL is effective in identifying high-grade cervical lesions, thereby avoiding unnecessary referrals to colposcopy and potential over-treatment of non-progressive lesions, especially for women aged ≥ 40 years. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  8. p16 Expression and Biological Behavior of Flat Vulvar Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (LSIL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Natasha; Blanco, Luis Z; Maniar, Kruti P

    2017-09-01

    Flat low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) of the vulva [vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) 1, flat condyloma] is an uncommon entity with poorly understood biological behavior. We aimed to determine the risk of subsequent vulvar high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or carcinoma following a diagnosis of vulvar LSIL/VIN 1, as well as the frequency and predictive value of p16 immunohistochemical expression in this setting. Of the 51 included cases, p16 positivity (diffuse block staining) was identified in 2 (4%). Follow-up data were available in 34 cases, of which 2 (5.9%) developed subsequent vulvar HSIL, including 1/2 p16-positive cases and 1/32 p16-negative cases. The difference in HSIL frequency between p16-positive and p16-negative cases was not statistically significant (P=0.116 for VIN 2+, P=0.061 for VIN 3). For the 18 patients with treatment information available, 10 (56%) received medical or surgical treatment after biopsy. Our results indicate that flat vulvar LSIL is infrequently p16 positive, and that few patients with vulvar LSIL develop subsequent vulvar HSIL. Despite the use of destructive treatment in some cases, the data provide support for the nonpreneoplastic nature of the entity. Immunohistochemical expression of p16 may not be a predictor of HSIL risk in vulvar LSIL, although this result may also be related to the very low rates of both p16 positivity and subsequent vulvar HSIL in our sample. It is clear that vulvar LSIL is distinct from LSIL in other lower anogenital sites in terms of its behavior and p16 expression frequency.

  9. Associations among Gastric Juice pH, Atrophic Gastritis, Intestinal Metaplasia and Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jihee; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Jongchan; Hwang, Young-Jae; Kim, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Jung Wha; Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, Dong Ho

    2017-09-19

    Gastric juice plays a crucial role in the physiology of the stomach. The aim of this study is to evaluate associations among the pH of gastric juice, atrophic gastritis (AG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), pepsinogen, and Helicobacter pylori infection. Gastric biopsies and juice were collected from 46 subjects who underwent endoscopies at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between November 2011 and March 2013. H. pylori, AG and IM were evaluated, and pepsinogen I or II, I/II ratio and interleukin (IL)-1β levels were measured. The mean pH of gastric juice was higher in the H. pylori-positive group (n=17) than that in the H. pylori-negative group (n=29) (4.54 vs 2.46, p=0.002). When patients were divided into pH 〈3 (n=28) and pH ≥3 (n=18) groups, H. pylori was lower in the pH 〈3 group (21.4%) than in the pH ≥3 group (61.1%) (p=0.007). The pH ≥3 group demonstrated AG and IM more frequently than the pH 〈3 group in the body (p=0.047 and p=0.051, respectively) but not in the antrum. There were no differences in pepsinogen I or II, I/II ratio and IL-1β levels between the two groups. There is a relationship between chronic H. pylori infection and gastric juice pH ≥3, which may originate from AG and IM in the body.

  10. [Gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belén Fraile, M; Serra Bartual, M; Segarra Sánchez, J; Richart Rufino, M J

    1991-11-01

    Gastric cancer represents a disorder which incidence has come down last years. Its etiology is unknown, but diet is the principal determinant risk of suffering it. Clinic history is not much useful, because in the early stage symptoms can fail and in the late stage are inespecific. Election diagnosis is endoscopy. Surgery is the only curative treatment. By these features, it would be useful to left under vigilance to: a) patients 40 years older with dispepsia; b) patients following gastric operations; c) patients with disorders presenting aclorhidria. The authors report a clinic case that can be of frequent presentation in primary assistance.

  11. Disturbed small-world networks and neurocognitive function in frontal lobe low-grade glioma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingling Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brain tumor patients often associated with losses of the small-world configuration and neurocognitive functions before operations. However, few studies were performed on the impairments of frontal lobe low-grade gliomas (LGG after tumor resection using small-world network features. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To detect differences in the whole brain topology among LGG patients before and after operation, a combined study of neurocognitive assessment and graph theoretical network analysis of fMRI data was performed. We collected resting-state fMRI data of 12 carefully selected frontal lobe LGG patients before and after operation. We calculated the topological properties of brain functional networks in the 12 LGG, and compared with 12 healthy controls (HCs. We also applied Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA in a subset of patients (n = 12, including before and after operation groups and HCs (n = 12. The resulting functional connectivity matrices were constructed for all 12 patients, and binary network analysis was performed. In the range of 0.05 ≤ Kcos t ≤ 0.35, the functional networks in preoperative LGG and postoperative one both fitted the definition of small-worldness. We proposed Knet = 0.20 as small-world network interval, and the results showed that the topological properties were found to be disrupted in the two LGG groups, meanwhile the global efficiency increased and the local efficiency decreased. Lnet in the two LGG groups both were longer than HCs. Cnet in the LGG groups were smaller than HCs. Compared with the Hcs, MoCA in the two LGG groups were lower than HCs with significant difference, and the disturbed networks in the LGG were negatively related to worse MoCA scores. CONCLUSIONS: Disturbed small-worldness preperty in the two LGG groups was found and widely spread in the strength and spatial organization of brain networks, and the alterated small-world network may be responsible for cognitive

  12. Bacterial bioleaching of low grade nickel limonite and saprolite ores by mixotrophic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaerun Siti Khodijah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of indigenous bacteria should be considered to establish a successful biohydrometallurgical process. In this study, mixrotrophic iron-oxidizing bacterial consortia consisting of Comamonas testosteroni, Alicyclobacillus ferrooxydans and Pantoea septic which were isolated from Indonesian mineral ores were examined to determine their abilities to recover nickel from limonite and saprolite ores in the bioleaching experiments using stirred tank reactors. The nickel bioleaching experiments inoculated with the bacterial consortia were carried out using coarse limonite ores and weathered saprolite ores with pulp density of 10% w/v. Abiotic controls were also carried out replacing the inocula by the sterile medium. The bioleaching processes were monitored by measuring Ni and Fe contents and pH of the leaching solution as well as the total bacterial enzymatic activity measured as FDA hydrolytic activity. The effect of leaching on the mineralogy of laterite ores was investigated by the scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD. After 28 days of incubation, the FDA hydrolytic activity was observed in both bioleaching experiments containing limonite (17.2 μg fluorescein/mL and saprolite ores (16.9 μg fluorescein/mL. The leached Ni and Fe in the bioleaching experiments containing limonite ores (30% Ni and 5.6% Fe was greater than that in abiotic controls (1% Ni and 0.1% Fe with the pH range of 2.5 to 3.5. However, the bacterial consortia were less capable of bioleaching of Ni (2.5% with the similar leached Fe (6% from the saprolite ores. In abiotic controls, the medium pH remained relatively constant (pH 6. It was concluded that these bacterial isolated as the consortium were capable of nickel bioleaching (precious metal more effectively than iron (gangue metal, thus being applicable to the commercial processing of the difficult-to-process low-grade nickel laterite ores

  13. [Clinico-morphological variants of gastric mucosa atrophic lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, L A; Pal'tsev, A I; Beliaeva, Ia Iu

    2009-01-01

    To characterize clinicomorphological manifestations of atrophic process (AP) in gastric mucosa (GM) in chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) associated and not associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. Clinicoendoscopic and pathomorphological (light microscopy of gastric biopsies, 6 point scale assessment of dysregeneratory alterations) investigations were made in 98 patients aged 16 to 68 years. H. pylori-negative CAG was diagnosed in 52 of them, H. pylori-positive one in 46 patients (groups 1 and 2, respectively). A comparative clinicomorphological analysis has identified 2 variants of AP morphogenesis in GM. Variant 1 is not associated with H. pylori but associated with a combined action of several endogenic risk factors of chronic gastritis or failure of regeneration, with diffuse or diffuse-focal changes with initial prevalence of dysregeneratory changes in a fundal stomach manifesting as a trend to atrophy of the glands. Clinically, this variant is characterized by longer disease, frequent systemic atrophic lesions of gastrointestinal mucosa, prevalent complaints of dyspeptic pain. Variant 2 is associated with a combined action of endo- and exogenic factors, H. pylori infection in particular, pathogenetic components of "chemical" gastritis (duodenogastric reflux, malnutrition), prevalence of dysregeneratory and sclerotic alterations in the antral stomach. GM atrophy is characterized by a significant frequency of concomitant endocrinopathies, undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia, systemic lesions, structurally--by multidirectional disorders of proliferation and differentiation. First of all, it is the result of impaired regulation of regenerative processes. AP polyetiology and different morphogenetic variants in GM suggest necessity of both individual diagnostic algorithm and pathogenetically sound therapy in each individual case.

  14. Four year efficacy of prophylactic human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine against low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and anogenital warts: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillner, Joakim; Kjaer, Susanne K; Wheeler, Cosette M;

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata).......To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata)....

  15. Temozolomide chemotherapy versus radiotherapy in high-risk low-grade glioma (EORTC 22033-26033) : a randomised, open-label, phase 3 intergroup study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumert, Brigitta G; Hegi, Monika E; van den Bent, Martin J; von Deimling, Andreas; Gorlia, Thierry; Hoang-Xuan, Khê; Brandes, Alba A; Kantor, Guy; Taphoorn, Martin J B; Hassel, Mohamed Ben; Hartmann, Christian; Ryan, Gail; Capper, David; Kros, Johan M; Kurscheid, Sebastian; Wick, Wolfgang; Enting, Roelien; Reni, Michele; Thiessen, Brian; Dhermain, Frederic; Bromberg, Jacoline E; Feuvret, Loic; Reijneveld, Jaap C; Chinot, Olivier; Gijtenbeek, Johanna M M; Rossiter, John P; Dif, Nicolas; Balana, Carmen; Bravo-Marques, Jose; Clement, Paul M; Marosi, Christine; Tzuk-Shina, Tzahala; Nordal, Robert A; Rees, Jeremy; Lacombe, Denis; Mason, Warren P; Stupp, Roger

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Outcome of low-grade glioma (WHO grade II) is highly variable, reflecting molecular heterogeneity of the disease. We compared two different, single-modality treatment strategies of standard radiotherapy versus primary temozolomide chemotherapy in patients with low-grade glioma, and asses

  16. COMPARISON OF THE CONCENTRIC TORQUE OF KNEE MUSCLES AND TIMED-WALKING TEST IN HEALTHY AND LOW GRADE TIBIOFEMORAL OSTEOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bagheri

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate and compare the concentric torque of Quadriceps and Hamstring muscles and Timed-Walking test in two groups. Thus, one group of healthy subjects and one group of patients with low grade of tibiofemoral osteoarthritis (OA were selected. Concentric torque of Quadriceps and Hamstring were measured in both groups. Besides, pain measurement, Timed-Walking test, range of motion and the muscle bulk of thigh were assessed in both groups. The independent t-test revealed significant differences between the two groups with regard to concentric torques and Timed-Walking test. However, no significant difference in range of motion and the muscle bulk was seen. In conclusion, patients with low grade of osteoarthritis and minimum clinical signs had weaker muscles and functional limitation in comparison with the matched healthy individuals.

  17. Office-Based Transurethral Devascularisation of Low Grade Non-Invasive Urothelial Cancer Using Diode Laser. A Feasibility Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Gregers G.; Mogensen, Karin; Lindvold, Lars René

    2015-01-01

    Frequent recurrence of non‐muscle invasive bladder tumours (NMIBC) requiring transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TUR‐BT) and lifelong monitoring makes the lifetime cost per patient the highest of all cancers. A new method is proposed for the removal of low grade NMIBCs in an office......‐based setting, without the need for sedation and pain control and where the patient can leave immediately after treatment. An in vitro model was developed to examine the dose/response relationship between laser power, treatment time, and distance between laser fibre and target, using a 980 nm diode laser...... and chicken meat. The relationship between depth and extent of tissue destruction and the laser settings was measured using microscopy and non‐parametric statistical analysis. A patient with low grade stage Ta tumour and multiple comorbidity, and therefore not fit for general anaesthesia, had a tumour...

  18. Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genotype diversity and interferon gamma expression in patients with chronic gastritis and patients with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Carrillo, D N; Atrisco-Morales, J; Hernández-Pando, R; Reyes-Navarrete, S; Betancourt-Linares, R; Cruz-del Carmen, I; Illades Aguiar, B; Román-Román, A; Fernández-Tilapa, G

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the main risk factor for the development of chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, and gastric cancer. In H. pylori-infected individuals, the clinical result is dependent on various factors, among which are bacterial components, the immune response, and environmental influence. To compare IFN-γ expression with the H. pylori vacA and cagA genotypes in patients with chronic gastritis and patients with gastric cancer. Ninety-five patients diagnosed with chronic gastritis and 20 with gastric cancer were included in the study. Three gastric biopsies were taken; one was used for the molecular detection and genotyping of H. pylori; another was fixed in absolute alcohol and histologic sections were made for determining IFN-γ expression through immunohistochemistry. No differences were found in the cells that expressed IFN-γ between the patients with chronic gastritis (median percentage of positive cells: 82.6% in patients without H. pylori and 82% in infected persons) and those with gastric cancer (70.5% in H. pylori-negative patients and 78.5% in infected persons). IFN-γ expression was 69% in chronic gastritis patients infected with H. pylori vacAs2m2/cagA⁻ it was 86.5% in patients infected with H. pylori vacAs1m2/cagA⁻, 86.5% in vacAs1m1/cagA⁻, and 82% in vacAs1m1/cagA⁺. Similar data were found in the patients with gastric cancer. IFN-γ expression varied depending on the H. pylori vacA and cagA genotype, but not in accordance with the presence of chronic gastritis or gastric cancer.

  19. Analysis of KIAA1549-BRAF fusion gene expression and IDH1/IDH2 mutations in low grade pediatric astrocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Gabriela Rampazzo; Dias Oliveira, Indhira; Moraes, Laís; Del Giudice Paniago, Mário; de Seixas Alves, Maria Teresa; Capellano, Andrea Maria; Saba-Silva, Nasjla; Cavalheiro, Sérgio; Cerutti, Janete Maria; Toledo, Silvia Regina Caminada

    2014-04-01

    Low-grade astrocytomas comprise about 30 % of the central nervous system tumors in children. Several investigations have searched a correlation between the BRAF gene fusions alterations and mutations at IDH1 and IDH2 genes in low grade pediatric astrocytomas. This study identified the expression of KIAA1549-BRAF fusion gene and BRAF V600E mutation, mutations at exon 4 of the IDH1 and IDH2 genes in samples of pilocytic astrocytomas (PA) and grade-II astrocytomas (A-II) pediatric patients. The correlation between these alterations and the clinical profile of the patients was also evaluated. Eighty-two samples of low-grade astrocytomas (65 PA and 17 A-II) were analyzed by PCR and sequencing for each of the targets identified. We identified the KIAA1549-BRAF fusion transcript in 45 % of the samples. BRAF V600E and BRAFins598T mutations were detected in 7 and 1 % of the samples, respectively. Mutations in the R132/R172 residues of the IDH1/IDH2 genes were detected in only two samples, and the G105G polymorphism (rs11554137:C>T) was identified in ten patients. Additionally, we observed two mutations out of the usual hotspots at IDH1 and IDH2 genes. We observed a smaller frequency of mutations in IDHs genes than previously described, but since the prior studies were composed of adult or mixed (adults and children) samples, we believe that our results represent a relevant contribution to the growing knowledge in low grade childhood astrocytomas.

  20. Upgrading of consumer characteristics of granulated solid fuel from mixture of low-grade coal and biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmina, J. S.; Milovanov, O. Yu; Sinelshchikov, V. A.; Sytchev, G. A.; Zaichenko, V. M.

    2015-11-01

    Effect of torrefaction on consumer characteristics of fuel pellets made of low-grade and agricultural waste is shown. Data on the volatile content, ash content, calorific value and hygroscopicity for initial pellets and pellets, heat-treated at various temperatures are presented. The experimental study of the combustion process of initial and heat-treated pellets showed that torrefaction of pellets leads to a decreasing of the ignition temperature and an increasing of the efficiency of boiler plant.

  1. Comparison of chest radiography and high-resolution computed tomography findings in early and low-grade coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savranlar, Ahmet; Altin, Remzi; Mahmutyazicioğlu, Kamran; Ozdemir, Hüseyin; Kart, Levent; Ozer, Tülay; Gündoğdu, Sadi

    2004-08-01

    High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is more sensitive than chest X-ray (CXR) in the depiction of parenchymal abnormalities. We aimed to present and compare CXR and HRCT findings in coal workers with and without early and low-grade coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP). 71 coal workers were enrolled in this study. All workers were male. The CXR and HRCT of those workers were obtained and graded by two trained readers. HRCT's were graded according to Hosoda and Shida's Japanese classification. After grading, 67 workers with CXR profusion 0/0-2/2 were included in the study. Four patients with major opacity were excluded. Profusion 0/1 to 1/1 cases were accepted as early and profusion 1/2 and 2/2 cases as low-grade pneumoconiosis. Discordance between CXR and HRCT was high. Discordance rate was found higher in the early pneumoconiosis cases with negative CXR than low-grade pneumoconiosis (60, 36 and 8%, respectively). When coal miners with normal CXR were evaluated by HRCT, six out of 10 cases were diagnosed as positive. In low-grade pneumoconiosis group, the number of patients with positive CXR but negative HRCT were low in comparison to patients with CXR negative and early pneumoconiosis findings. Most of the CXR category 0 patients (10/16) were diagnosed as category 1 by HRCT. Eleven cases diagnosed as CXR category 1 were diagnosed as category 0 (7/11) and category 2 (4/11) by HRCT. In CXR category 2 (eight cases), there were four cases diagnosed as category 1 by HRCT. Discordance between CXR and HRCT was high, especially for CXR negative and early pneumoconiosis cases. The role of CXR in screening coal workers to detect early pneumoconiosis findings should be questioned. We suggest using HRCT as a standard screening method instead of CXR to distinguish between normal and early pneumoconiosis.

  2. Helicobacter pylori Is Associated with miR-133a Expression through Promoter Methylation in Gastric Carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Joo Hyun; Kim, Sang Gyun; Choi, Ji Min; Yang, Hyo-Joon; Kim, Joo Sung; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2017-09-28

    To investigate whether Helicobacter pylori eradication can reverse epigenetic silencing of microRNAs (miRNAs) which are associated with H. pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis. We examined expression and promoter methylation of miR-34b/c, miR-133a, let-7a, and let-7i in gastric cancer cell line, before/after demethylation. Among them, epigenetically controlled miRNAs were identified. Their expression and promoter methylation was examined in human tissues of H. pylori-positive gastric cancer (T), H. pylori-positive gastritis (H), and H. pylori-negative controls (C). We also compared changes of miRNA expression and promoter methylation in H. pylori-positive patients who were endoscopically treated for early gastric cancer, between baseline and 1 year later according to eradication status. In gastric cancer cell line, miR-34b/c, and miR-133a showed epigenetic silencing. In human tissues, miR-34b/c and miR-133a showed serial increase of promoter methylation in order of C, H, and T (all, p〈0.01), and the miR-133a expression showed serial decrease (C vs H, p=0.02; H vs T, p=0.01; C vs T, p〈0.01) while miR-34b and miR-34c expressions did not. H. pylori eradication induced decrease of methylation (p〈0.01) and increase of miR-133a expression (p=0.03), compared with noneradication group. This result suggests H. pylori eradication could reverse methylation-silencing of miR-133a which is involved in H. pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis.

  3. The GSTM1 null genotype increased risk of gastric cancer: a meta-analysis based on 46 studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glutathione S-transferases M1 (GSTM1 is an important phase II metabolizing enzyme. The null genotype of GSTM1 causes total loss of GSTM1 enzyme activity and numerous studies have investigated the association between GSTM1 null genotype and gastric cancer risk. METHODS: This meta-analysis was designed to investigate the relationship between GSTM1 null genotype and susceptibility to gastric cancer and assess the influence of Helicobacter pylori infection, smoking, Lauren's classification, and other factors. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated to estimate the association strength. RESULTS: A total of 46 eligible studies were indentified and analyzed in this meta-analysis, including 8138 cases of gastric cancer and 13867 controls. Pooled results showed that the GSTM1 null genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk of gastric cancer (OR=1.217, 95% CI: 1.113-1.331, P(heterogeneity<0.001. Sub-group analysis suggested that the significant association was only observed in Asians (OR=1.273, 95%: 1.137-1.426, P(heterogeneity= 0.002, but not in Caucasians. The increased risk was found among H. pylori positive population (OR=1.928, 95% CI: 1.028-3.615, P(heterogeneity=0.065, while no association was found among H. pylori negative population (OR=0.969, 95% CI: 0.618-1.521, P(heterogeneity=0.168. For smoking status, the GSTM1 null genotype increased risk of gastric cancer in both ever-smokers and non-smokers. Source of control, sample size, location of tumor and Lauren's classification did not modify the association. CONCLUSIONS: In this meta-analysis based on 46 epidemiological studies, we show that the GSTM1 null genotype is associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer among Asians but not among Caucasians. H. pylori infection but not smoking status could modify the association.

  4. Gastric lipoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zameer M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 12-year-old-boy with gastric lipoma. Upper gastrointestinal (GI endoscopy with biopsy and abdominal computed tomogram (CT scan revealed the diagnosis. Open surgical excision of the mass with stomach preservation was done. The clinical presentation and management are discussed and the literature reviewed here. This is the sixth pediatric case reported in the English literature.

  5. Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Vacuum Packaging on Quality Characteristics of Low Grade Beef during Cold Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, S J; Jin, S K; Park, J H; Jung, S W; Lyu, H J

    2013-12-01

    Many studies have been carried out with respect to packaging methods and temperature conditions of beef. However, the effects of packaging methods and temperature conditions on the quality characteristics have not been extensively studied in low-grade beef. Low-grade beef samples were divided into 3 groups (C: ziplock bag packaging, T1: vacuum packaging, and T2: modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), CO2/N2 = 3:7) and samples were stored at 4°C for 21 days. The water-holding capacity (WHC) was significantly lower in T1 than in the other samples up to 14 days of storage. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and volatile basic nitrogen values were significantly lower in T1 and T2 than in C after 7 to 14 days of storage. The total bacterial counts were significantly lower in T1 and T2 than in C after 14 days of storage. In a sensory evaluation, tenderness and overall acceptability were significantly higher in T1 and T2 than in C at the end of the storage period (21 days). We propose that the MAP method can improve beef quality characteristics of low-grade beef during cold storage. However, the beneficial effects did not outweigh the cost increase to implement MAP.

  6. Contribution of nuclear morphometric features to differentiation of atypical complex type endometrial hyperplasia and low grade endometrial carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onder Onguru

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The differentiation of atypical complex type endometrial hyperplasia (ACEH and low grade endometrial carcinoma (EC may be problematic in endometrial biopsy materials. Desmoplasia and stromal invasion are diagnostic for EC but they are not always demonstrated in endometrial biopsies. In this study, we investigated the contribution of nuclear morphometry to distinction of ACEH and low grade EC. Methods: Ten low grade EC and eight ACEH cases retrieved from the archives of the Department of Pathology. For each case at least 100 nuclei (totally 1000 for both groups were selected using hematoxylen-eosine stained sections and evaluated by a computer assisted system. Measured nuclear morphometric features were nuclear area, nuclear perimeter, circular form factor, diameter equivalent circle, minimum feret, maximum feret, area convex hull, perimeter convex hull. Results: There was no significant differences between these two groups for circular form factor (P=0.871. But all other morphometric features were statistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that nuclear morphometric features may be used as an ancillary diagnostic tool in addition to conventional histopathological findings in borderline lesion. These findings should be confirmed with expanded case series. [J Exp Integr Med 2011; 1(4.000: 277-280

  7. Computed tomography- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous screw fixation of low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis in adults: a new technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoretti, Nicolas; Huwart, Laurent; Browaeys, Patrick; Nouri, Yasir; Ibba, Caroline [Hopital Archet 2, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Nice, Department of Radiology, Nice (France); Hauger, Olivier [Hopital Pellegrin, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Bordeaux, Department of Radiology, Bordeaux (France); Marcy, Pierre-Yves [Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Research Institute, Department of Radiology, Nice (France); Boileau, Pascal [Hopital Archet 2, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Nice, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nice (France)

    2012-12-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of computed tomography (CT)- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous screw fixation for the treatment of low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis in adults. Ten consecutive adult patients (four men and six women; mean age: 57.1 [range, 44-78 years]) were prospectively treated by percutaneous screw fixation for low-grade (six grade 1 and four grade 2) isthmic spondylolisthesis of L5. For each patient, two 4.0-mm Asnis III cannulated screws were placed to fix the pars interarticularis defects. All procedures were performed under local anaesthesia by using CT and fluoroscopy guidance. Post-operative outcome was assessed using the visual analogue scale and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores. The procedure time ranged from 45 to 60 min. The mean screw length was 27 mm (range, 24-32 mm). The VAS and ODI measurements {+-} SD decreased from 7.8 {+-} 0.9 preoperatively to 1.5 {+-} 1.1 at the last 2-year follow-up, and from 62.3 {+-} 17.2 to 15.1 {+-} 6.0, respectively (P < 0.001 in both cases). Neither slip progression nor screw failure was noted. This feasibility study showed that CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous screw fixation could be a rapid, safe and effective method of treating low-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis. (orig.)

  8. Research on curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine treating low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangyun

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to explore the curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine treating low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection. Sixty children who suffered low-grade fever caused by respiratory system infection were selected and divided into treatment group and control group randomly, each with 30 cases. Control group was treated with conventional methods including oxygen uptake, nebulization and anti-infection, etc, while treatment group was given boil-free granules of traditional Chinese medicine besides the treatment which control group received. Then clinical curative effect of two groups was compared. Results showed that 28 cases (93.3%) were cured in treatment group; while 21 cases (70.0%) were cured in control group. Compared with control group, the treatment group showed up better treatment efficiency and the difference between groups was of statistical significance (Pfever of children caused by respiratory system infection; characterized by short treatment cycle and effective treatment effect, Chinese medicine granules in the combination with oxygen atomization inhalation is proved to be able to efficiently remit symptoms such as coughing, gasp and labored breathing, with outstanding curative effect in the treatment of low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection, thus it is worthy of popularization and application clinically.

  9. Impact of Early Low-Grade Proteinuria and Allograft Dysfunction on Survival in Expanded Criteria Donor Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, V; Cabello, M; Ruíz-Esteban, P; Sola, E; Gutiérrez, C; Jironda, C; Burgos, D; González-Molina, M; Hernández, D

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between low-grade proteinuria and worse graft survival, but this has not been fully studied in expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidney transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to assess whether the combination of early low-grade proteinuria (proteinuria (300 mg/d) and median creatinine (Cr; 1.7 mg/dL; interquartile range, 1.4-2.1 mg/dL) at the third month post-transplantation: Group A (Cr proteinuria proteinuria ≥300 mg/24 h; n = 38), Group C (Cr ≥1.7 mg/dL and proteinuria proteinuria ≥300 mg/24 h; n = 55). Death-censored graft survival was significantly lower in Group D compared with the rest (P proteinuria and a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as associated with graft failure (hazard rate [HR] 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-5.97; P = .03). The early association of low-grade proteinuria and allograft dysfunction represents an important risk factor for graft loss in ECD kidney transplant recipients. Strategies to optimize renal function could improve the outcome in this specific population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Seizure control as a new metric in assessing efficacy of tumor treatment in low-grade glioma trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Edward K; Chamberlain, Marc; Schiff, David; Reijneveld, Jaap C; Armstrong, Terri S; Ruda, Roberta; Wen, Patrick Y; Weller, Michael; Koekkoek, Johan A F; Mittal, Sandeep; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Choucair, Ali; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge; MacDonald, David R; Nishikawa, Ryo; Shah, Aashit; Vecht, Charles J; Warren, Paula; van den Bent, Martin J; DeAngelis, Lisa M

    2017-01-01

    Patients with low-grade glioma frequently have brain tumor-related epilepsy, which is more common than in patients with high-grade glioma. Treatment for tumor-associated epilepsy usually comprises a combination of surgery, anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Response to tumor-directed treatment is measured primarily by overall survival and progression-free survival. However, seizure frequency has been observed to respond to tumor-directed treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. A review of the current literature regarding seizure assessment for low-grade glioma patients reveals a heterogeneous manner in which seizure response has been reported. There is a need for a systematic approach to seizure assessment and its influence on health-related quality-of-life outcomes in patients enrolled in low-grade glioma therapeutic trials. In view of the need to have an adjunctive metric of tumor response in these patients, a method of seizure assessment as a metric in brain tumor treatment trials is proposed. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Deep sequencing detects very-low-grade somatic mosaicism in the unaffected mother of siblings with nemaline myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, Satoko; Koshimizu, Eriko; Hayashi, Yukiko K; Miya, Kazushi; Shiina, Masaaki; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Miyake, Noriko; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Ogata, Kazuhiro; Nishino, Ichizo; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2014-07-01

    When an expected mutation in a particular disease-causing gene is not identified in a suspected carrier, it is usually assumed to be due to germline mosaicism. We report here very-low-grade somatic mosaicism in ACTA1 in an unaffected mother of two siblings affected with a neonatal form of nemaline myopathy. The mosaicism was detected by deep resequencing using a next-generation sequencer. We identified a novel heterozygous mutation in ACTA1, c.448A>G (p.Thr150Ala), in the affected siblings. Three-dimensional structural modeling suggested that this mutation may affect polymerization and/or actin's interactions with other proteins. In this family, we expected autosomal dominant inheritance with either parent demonstrating germline or somatic mosaicism. Sanger sequencing identified no mutation. However, further deep resequencing of this mutation on a next-generation sequencer identified very-low-grade somatic mosaicism in the mother: 0.4%, 1.1%, and 8.3% in the saliva, blood leukocytes, and nails, respectively. Our study demonstrates the possibility of very-low-grade somatic mosaicism in suspected carriers, rather than germline mosaicism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation in Childhood Obesity Is Associated with Decreased IL-10 Expression by Monocyte Subsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Rafael T.; Medeiros, Nayara I.; Menezes, Carlos A.; Fares, Rafaelle C. G.; Franco, Eliza P.; Dutra, Walderez O.; Rios-Santos, Fabrício; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Gomes, Juliana A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation is related to the development of comorbidities and poor prognosis in obesity. Monocytes are main sources of cytokines and play a pivotal role in inflammation. We evaluated monocyte frequency, phenotype and cytokine profile of monocyte subsets, to determine their association with the pathogenesis of childhood obesity. Children with obesity were evaluated for biochemical and anthropometric parameters. Monocyte subsets were characterized by flow cytometry, considering cytokine production and activation/recognition molecules. Correlation analysis between clinical parameters and immunological data delineated the monocytes contribution for low-grade inflammation. We observed a higher frequency of non-classical monocytes in the childhood obesity group (CO) than normal-weight group (NW). All subsets displayed higher TLR4 expression in CO, but their recognition and antigen presentation functions seem to be diminished due to lower expression of CD40, CD80/86 and HLA-DR. All subsets showed a lower expression of IL-10 in CO and correlation analyses showed changes in IL-10 expression profile. The lower expression of IL-10 may be decisive for the maintenance of the low-grade inflammation status in CO, especially for alterations in non-classical monocytes profile. These cells may contribute to supporting inflammation and loss of regulation in the immune response of children with obesity. PMID:27977792

  13. The comparative study of efficacy on domperidone poly I:C and omeprazol in treatment of Helicobacter pylori negative chronic superficial gastritis%多潘立酮聚肌胞与奥美拉唑治疗Hp(-)慢性浅表性胃炎疗效的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯盛才; 夏敏; 晏明君; 吴攀

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较多潘立酮聚肌胞与奥美拉唑治疗幽门螺杆菌(HP)阴性慢性浅表性胃炎的疗效.方法 选择确诊为慢性浅袁性胃炎且Hp(-)的患者89例,随机分为治疗组45例,对照组44例,治疗组采用多潘立酮聚肌胞治疗;对照组采用奥美拉唑治疗;3周后进行疗效观察;统计学处理.结果 治疗组总有效41例,显效28例,对照组总有效30例,显效13例,治疗组总有效率及显效率均明显高于对照组;统计学处理,差异有统计学意义.结论 治疗组的治疗效果优于对照组治疗效果.%Objective Compare domperidone polyI:C and omeprazol treatment Helicobacter pylori negative chronic superficial gastritis curative effect. Methods Selecting helicobacter pylori negative chronic superficial gastritis 89 cases diagnosed were randomly divided into the treatment group 45 cases and control group 44 cases, the treatment group using domperidone polyI:C treatment,the control group using omeprazol treatment, treated for 3 weeks, observation clinical manifestations. Results The total effective of treatment group got 41 cases, powerfully 28 cases and The total effective of control group got 29 cases, powerfully 11 cases. Conclusion Curative effects of treatment group are better than that of control group, Statistical processing, Significant differences.

  14. Advanced Energy and Water Recovery Technology from Low Grade Waste Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexin Wang

    2011-12-19

    The project has developed a nanoporous membrane based water vapor separation technology that can be used for recovering energy and water from low-temperature industrial waste gas streams with high moisture contents. This kind of exhaust stream is widely present in many industrial processes including the forest products and paper industry, food industry, chemical industry, cement industry, metal industry, and petroleum industry. The technology can recover not only the sensible heat but also high-purity water along with its considerable latent heat. Waste heats from such streams are considered very difficult to recover by conventional technology because of poor heat transfer performance of heat-exchanger type equipment at low temperature and moisture-related corrosion issues. During the one-year Concept Definition stage of the project, the goal was to prove the concept and technology in the laboratory and identify any issues that need to be addressed in future development of this technology. In this project, computational modeling and simulation have been conducted to investigate the performance of a nanoporous material based technology, transport membrane condenser (TMC), for waste heat and water recovery from low grade industrial flue gases. A series of theoretical and computational analyses have provided insight and support in advanced TMC design and experiments. Experimental study revealed condensation and convection through the porous membrane bundle was greatly improved over an impermeable tube bundle, because of the membrane capillary condensation mechanism and the continuous evacuation of the condensate film or droplets through the membrane pores. Convection Nusselt number in flue gas side for the porous membrane tube bundle is 50% to 80% higher than those for the impermeable stainless steel tube bundle. The condensation rates for the porous membrane tube bundle also increase 60% to 80%. Parametric study for the porous membrane tube bundle heat transfer

  15. Chronic low-grade inflammation, lipid risk factors and mortality in functionally dependent elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasović Olga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. It has been proved that a highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP can be used as an established marker of chronic inflammation for cardiovascular risk assessment. Since mean values of both low-density cholesterol (LDL-C and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C decrease during aging, the knowledge that increased hsCRP concentration predicts mortality (Mt would influence therapy and treatment outcome. The aim of this study was to examine importance of chronic low grade inflammation and its association with lipid risk factors for all-cause Mt in functionally dependent elderly. Methods. The participants of this longitudinal prospective study were 257 functionally dependent elderly aged 65-99 years. Baseline measurements: anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting plasma total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, non- HDL-C, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c were recorded and different lipid ratios were calculated. Inflammation was assessed by the levels of white blood cells, fibrinogen and hsCRP. The participants with hsCRP grater than 10 mg/L were excluded from the study. The residual participants (77.4% women were divided into three groups according to their hsCRP levels: a low (< 1 mg/L, n = 70, average (1 to 3 mg/L, n = 69, and high (3-10 mg/L, n = 69 hsCRP group. Associations of all-cause Mt with different risk factors were examined using logistic regression analysis. Results. The hsCRP level showed a significant positive correlation with waist (r = 0.199, p = 0.004 and hip (r = 0.187, p = 0.007 circumferences, body mass index (r = 0.143, p = 0.040 and serum triglyceride level (r = 0.139, p = 0.045 and significant negative correlation with HDL-C (r = -0.164, p = 0.018. Ratios TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C were significantly smaller in the low hsCRP group compared to the average hsCRP group (p = 0.019, p = 0.045, respectively and without significant differences compared with the high hsCRP group. Two years after the

  16. Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Gastric Sleeve Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Gastric Sleeve Surgery Print A ... buying healthy food ) continue Preparing for Gastric Sleeve Surgery Preparing for this major operation takes months of ...

  17. Pharmacokinetic MRI of the prostate. Parameters for differentiating low-grade and high-grade prostate cancer; Pharmakokinetische MRT der Prostata. Parameter zur Unterscheidung von low-grade- und high-grade-Prostatakarzinomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franiel, T.; Taupitz, M.; Asbach, P.; Beyersdorff, D. [Inst. fuer Radiologie CCM, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany); Luedemann, L. [Inst. fuer Strahlentherapie CVK, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany); Rost, J. [Klinik fuer Gynaekologie und Geburtshilfe, Ernst-von-Bergmann-Klinikum, Potsdam (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Purpose: to investigate whether pharmacokinetic MRI parameters ''perfusion, blood volume, mean transit time (MTT), interstitial volume, permeability, extraction coefficient, delay, and dispersion'' allow the differentiation of low-grade (Gleason score {<=} 6) and high-grade (Gleason score {>=} 7) prostate cancer. Materials and method: forty-two patients with prostate cancer verified by biopsy (PSA 2.7 to 31.4ng/ml) and scheduled for prostatectomy underwent MRI at 1.5 Tesla using the dynamic contrast-enhanced inversion-prepared dual-contrast gradient echo sequence (temporal resolution, 1.65 s) and a combined endorectal body phased array coil. Parametric maps were computed using a sequential 3-compartment model and the corresponding post-processing algorithms. A total of 41 areas of prostate cancer (15 low-grade, 26 high-grade cancers) in 32 patients were able to be correlated with the prostatectomy specimens and were included in the analysis. Results: low-grade prostate cancers had a higher mean blood volume (1.76% vs. 1.64%, p = 0.039), longer MTT (6.39 s vs. 3.25 s, p < 0.001), and lower mean permeability (2.57 min{sup -1} vs. 3.86 min{sup -1}, p = 0.011) than high-grade cancers. No statistically significant difference was found for perfusion (p = 0.069), interstitial volume (p = 0.849), extraction coefficient (p = 0.615), delay (p = 0.489), and dispersion (p = 0.306). (orig.)

  18. Cyclin D1 (Bcl-1, PRAD1) protein expression in low-grade B-cell lymphomas and reactive hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W. I.; Zukerberg, L. R.; Motokura, T.; Arnold, A.; Harris, N. L.

    1994-01-01

    Mantle cell (centrocytic) lymphoma (MCL) and occasional cases of B-cell small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-SLL/CLL) show a characteristic translocation, t(11:14)(q13;q32) involving rearrangement of the Bcl-1 region. Recently it was shown that the key Bcl-1 region oncogene is cyclin D1/PRAD1; cyclin D1 mRNA was shown to be overexpressed in cases of MCL. We examined cyclin D1 protein expression in low-grade B-cell lymphomas and reactive lymphoid hyperplasias using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to cyclin D1 protein. Definite nuclear staining was seen in 15 of 15 MCLs, 1 of 7 B-SLL/CLLs, 0 of 7 reactive hyperplasias, 0 of 10 follicular lymphomas, and 0 of 4 lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue using immunoperoxidase stains on paraffin-embedded sections. Best results were obtained with the affinity-purified polyclonal antibody on microwave-treated, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. MCLs showed diffuse nuclear staining, whereas the one positive B-SLL/CLL showed dot-like or globular nuclear staining. Nuclear cyclin D1 protein can be detected in all cases of MCL and in rare cases of B-SLL/CLL using an immunohistochemical technique on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, and it does not appear to be detectable in reactive hyperplasias and other low-grade B-cell lymphomas. This protein may be useful in subclassification of low-grade B-cell lymphomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:7518196

  19. Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for low grade glioma at McGill University: long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, D; Souhami, L; Olivier, A; Leblanc, R; Podgorsak, E

    2006-02-01

    Small, well-defined, unresectable low-grade gliomas are attractive targets for stereotactic irradiation. Fractionated stereotactic irradiation of these targets has the theoretical benefit of increased normal tissue sparing beyond that provided by the physical characteristics of stereotactic radiosurgery. From July 1987 to November 1992, 21 patients were treated for low-grade glioma at our institution using a hypofractionated regimen of stereotactic radiotherapy. All patients had well-circumscribed, < 40 mm tumors. No patient had had prior radiotherapy. All lesions were histologically proven WHO grade I or II glial tumors. Lesions involved sensitive brain structures and were deemed unresectable. A typical dose of 42 Gy was delivered in 6 fractions over a two-week period using rigid immobilization and a linac-based dynamic stereotactic radiosurgical technique. Patients had a median age of 23 years (9-74) and were predominantly female (60%). Median tumor diameter was 20 mm. With a median follow-up for living patients of 13.3 years, the actuarial 5, 10, and 15-year overall survival rates are 76%, 71%, and 63%, respectively. Treatment was acutely well tolerated although three patients experienced late post-therapy complications. Our results and those of 241 patients treated in nine other institutional series are reviewed. Despite some examples of favorable short-term outcomes, all reported series are highly selected and thus likely biased. The data regarding the use of SRS is limited and, in our opinion, insufficient to claim a clear therapeutic advantage to SRS in the initial management of low-grade glioma. Our own results with hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy are similar to those expected with standard therapy.

  20. Lingonberries alter the gut microbiota and prevent low-grade inflammation in high-fat diet fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovisa Heyman-Lindén

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The gut microbiota plays an important role in the development of obesity and obesity-associated impairments such as low-grade inflammation. Lingonberries have been shown to prevent diet-induced obesity and low-grade inflammation. However, it is not known whether the effect of lingonberry supplementation is related to modifications of the gut microbiota. The aim of the present study was to describe whether consumption of different batches of lingonberries alters the composition of the gut microbiota, which could be relevant for the protective effect against high fat (HF-induced metabolic alterations. Methods: Three groups of C57BL/6J mice were fed HF diet with or without a supplement of 20% lingonberries from two different batches (Lingon1 and Lingon2 during 11 weeks. The composition and functionality of the cecal microbiota were assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing and PICRUSt. In addition, parameters related to obesity, insulin sensitivity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation and gut barrier function were examined. Results: HF-induced obesity was only prevented by the Lingon1 diet, whereas both batches of lingonberries reduced plasma levels of markers of inflammation and endotoxemia (SAA and LBP as well as modified the composition and functionality of the gut microbiota, compared to the HF control group. The relative abundance of Akkermansia and Faecalibacterium, genera associated with healthy gut mucosa and anti-inflammation, was found to increase in response to lingonberry intake. Conclusions: Our results show that supplementation with lingonberries to an HF diet prevents low-grade inflammation and is associated with significant changes of the microbiota composition. Notably, the anti-inflammatory properties of lingonberries seem to be independent of effects on body weight gain.

  1. Oral Echinacea purpurea extract in low-grade, steroid-dependent, autoimmune idiopathic uveitis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Pier Giorgio; Stagni, Edoardo; Filippello, Massimo; Camillieri, Giovanni; Giovannini, Alfonso; Leggio, Gian Marco; Drago, Filippo

    2006-12-01

    The aim of to test efficacy and safety of Echinacea purpurea (echinacea) extract in the control of low-grade uveitis. Fifty-one (51) patients with low-grade, steroid dependent, autoimmune uveitis were recruited; posterior uveitis was excluded. The start therapy was represented by topical desamethazone for anterior uveitis and oral prednisone, rapidly tapered, for anterior uveitis with inflammatory scores equal to +2 and in all cases of intermediate uveitis. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) decrease or improvement was defined as a reduction or increase of 2 or more letters seen from the initial BCVA; ETDRS chart was used. Thirty-two (32) patients (21 with anterior uveitis and 11 with intermediate uveitis) received Echinacea (150 mg twice/day) as add-on therapy, whereas 20 patients (10 with anterior uveitis and 9 with intermediate uveitis) were treated with the conventional steroid therapy alone. Thirty-one (31) patients showed anterior uveitis and 20 intermediate uveitis. The follow-up duration was 9 months. At the last follow-up, 19/21 patients with anterior uveitis and 9/11 with intermediate uveitis treated with echinacea presented uveitis settled, with a steroid-off time of 209 and 146 days, respectively. BCVA was stable or improved in 19/21 of anterior uveitis and 9/11 of intermediate uveitis. No adverse reactions supposed to be resulting from commercial-grade echinacea were recorded. Patients who did not receive echinacea required a longer treatment period with steroids with a steroid-off time of 121 and 87 days. Systemic echinacea appears safe and effective in the control of low-grade autoimmune idiopathic uveitis.

  2. Cyclin D1 (Bcl-1, PRAD1) protein expression in low-grade B-cell lymphomas and reactive hyperplasia.

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, W. I.; Zukerberg, L R; Motokura, T.; Arnold, A.; Harris, N. L.

    1994-01-01

    Mantle cell (centrocytic) lymphoma (MCL) and occasional cases of B-cell small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-SLL/CLL) show a characteristic translocation, t(11:14)(q13;q32) involving rearrangement of the Bcl-1 region. Recently it was shown that the key Bcl-1 region oncogene is cyclin D1/PRAD1; cyclin D1 mRNA was shown to be overexpressed in cases of MCL. We examined cyclin D1 protein expression in low-grade B-cell lymphomas and reactive lymphoid hyperplasias using polycl...

  3. The method for Determining the Effectiveness of Low-Grade Geothermal Heat Usage under the Conditions of the Russian Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev G.P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of study on the effectiveness of using low-grade ground heat in heat pump systems under the climatic conditions of Russia. The study was performed to collect data for using the software package "INSOLAR.GSHP.12", which simulates the non-stationary thermal conditions of ground source heat pumps (GSHPs over several years of operation.The described study was performed with the financial support of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia. Contract ID RFMEFI57914X0026.

  4. 1{sup 25I} brachytherapy seeds implantation for inoperable low-grade leiomyosarcoma of inferior vena cava

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuliang; Wang, Yongzheng; Liu, Bin; Li, Zheng; Wang, Wujie [The Second Hospital of Shandong Univ., Jinan (China)

    2013-04-15

    A 60-year-old female presented with abdominal pain and tenderness of five-day duration. Contrast enhanced CT showed a mass of 9 x 6 x 5.5 cm in size with almost complete obliteration of the inferior vena cava and massive extension to the extravascular space. CT-guided biopsy demonstrated a low-grade leiomyosarcoma. The patient underwent 1{sup 25I}odine seeds implantation in two sessions, and another balloon cavoplasty. Abdominal pain and tenderness gradually improved and the patient continues to remain as disease free state for three years after the procedures.

  5. Combined lowering of low grade systemic inflammation and insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome patients treated with Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, G; Ermilov, E; Knes, O; Rodríguez, M

    2014-12-01

    In a clinical pilot study with eleven metabolic syndrome patients, a simultaneous decrease in hs-CRP from 8.85 ± 4.09 to 4.92 ± 2.51 mg/L (-44.4%) (p Ginkgo biloba. Furthermore, both IL-6 (-12.9%, p < 0.0407) and nanoplaque formation (-14.3%, p < 0.0077) were additionally reduced. According to a large clinical trial elucidating the importance of insulin resistance and low-grade systemic inflammation for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality risk, these data might indicate a CVD/total mortality risk reduction.

  6. SWELLING ON THE HARD PALATE PRESENTING AS POLYMORPHOUS LOW GRADE ADENOCARCINOMA: A CASE REPORT AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil D

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphous Low Grade Adenocarcinoma (PLGA is a relatively newer entity under the sub-classification of adenocarcinoma, which arises mainly from the minor salivary glands. PLGA is difficult to diagnose both clinically and histopathologically due to its indolent presentation and its morphological diversity that includes several microscopic patterns. It is an uncommon malignant neoplasm with low aggressiveness accounting for about 2% of all salivary gland tumours. We are reporting this case of PLGA which arose from the minor salivary gland over the hard palate.

  7. Comparison of Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric mucosal histological features of gastric ulcer patients with chronic gastritis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan Zhang; Nobutaka Yamada; Yun-Lin Wu; Min Wen; Takeshi Matsuhisa; Norio Matsukura

    2005-01-01

    gastric ulcer. In the other age- groups,the rate of H pylori colonization was highest in corpus,lower in antrum and lowest in angulus (all P<0.05). The rates of glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia were higher and earlier in H pylori-positive patients than those without H pylori infection (both P<0.01). In comparison of gastric ulcer patients with chronic gastritis patients,the rate of glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia was higher in H pylori-positive patients with gastric ulcer than in H pylori-positive patients with chronic gastritis(both P<0.01); the rate of glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia were also higher in H pylori-negative patients with gastric ulcer than in H pylori-negative patients with chronic gastritis (both P<0.01). Both glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia were much more commonly identified in the angulus than in the antrum, lowest in corpus (all P<0.01).CONCLUSION: Rate of H pylori infection, glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in gastric ulcer were higher than in chronic gastritis in all-different age -groups. Distribution of H pylori colonization is pangastric in the younger patients. It is highest in corpus, lower in antrum and lowest in angulus in the older age groups. Progression of glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia seem to have a key role in the distribution of H pylori colonization. H pylori appears to be the most important risk factor for the development of glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia, but it is not the only risk.

  8. Gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Patrick H; Kang, Young S; Cahill, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Gastric infarction is an extremely rare occurrence owing to the stomach’s extensive vascular supply. We report an unusual case of gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery. We describe the imaging findings and discuss possible causes of this condition. PMID:27200168

  9. Research of Mechanical Treatment Influence on Rheological Properties of Coal-Water Fuel Based on Low-Grade 3B Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolokolnikov A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental study of mechanical treatment effect of rotary flow modulation device on coal-water fuel rheological properties were conducted. The slurry was prepared on the basis of low-grade 3B coal from Balakhtinskoe deposit.

  10. Elevated Remnant Cholesterol Causes Both Low-Grade Inflammation and Ischemic Heart Disease, Whereas Elevated Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Causes Ischemic Heart Disease Without Inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2013-01-01

    Elevated nonfasting remnant cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol are causally associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD), but whether elevated nonfasting remnant cholesterol and LDL cholesterol both cause low-grade inflammation is currently unknown....

  11. Multidimensional assessment of neuro-psychiatric symptoms in patients with low-grade hepatic encephalopathy: A clinical rating scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sergei Mechtcheriakov; Ivo W Graziadei; André Kugener; Julia Wiedemann; Chantal Galbavy; Hartmann Hinterhuber; Josef Marksteiner; Wolfgang Vogel

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the feasibility of a new clinical rating scale for a standardized assessment of cirrhosis-associated neuro-psychiatric symptoms.METHODS: Forty patients with liver cirrhosis (LC, with or without low-grade hepatic encephalopathy) were invest-igated using a clinical neuro-psychiatric rating scale based on a comprehensive list of neurological, psychomotor,cognitive, affective, behavioral symptoms, and symptoms of disturbed bioregulation.RESULTS: The analysis revealed that the majority of cirrhotic patients showed, besides characteristic neurological symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy, various psychomotor,affective and bioregulatory symptoms (disturbed sleep and sexual dysfunction). Patients were impaired in the following subscales: sleep and biorhythm disorder (75.0% of patients), Parkinsonoid symptoms (25.0%), affective symptoms (17.5%), and psychomotor retardation (12.5%).The increase of total neuro-psychiatric clinical score was significantly associated with the degree of hepatic enceph-alopathy.CONCLUSION: This study suggests that a substantial number of patients with LC and low-grade hepatic encephalopathy manifest various clinical neuro-psychiatric symptoms. The use of a rating scale, which explores clinical dimensions of hepatic encephalopathy, would improve the management of patients with LC.

  12. Influence of microwaves on the leaching kinetics of uraninite from a low grade ore in dilute sulfuric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madakkaruppan, V. [Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research, Begumpet, Hyderabad 500016 (India); Pius, Anitha, E-mail: dranithapius@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural Institute, Gandhigram, Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu 624302 (India); Sreenivas, T.; Giri, Nitai [Mineral Processing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, AMD Complex, Begumpet, Hyderabad 500016 (India); Sarbajna, Chanchal [Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research, Begumpet, Hyderabad 500016 (India)

    2016-08-05

    Highlights: • U leaching from a low-grade Si-rich ore studied in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} medium with (MW) irradiation. • MW heating is more efficient in terms of U recovery, kinetics and purity of liquor. • U leachability of 84% obtained in 90 min at 95 °C with 0.38 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 450 mVwith MW heating • Conventional conductive heating gave about 74% leachability with less purity liquor. • U leaching was found follow product layer diffusion as controlling mechanism. - Abstract: This paper describes a study on microwave assisted leaching of uranium from a low-grade ore of Indian origin. The host rock for uranium mineralization is chlorite-biotite-muscovite-quartzo-feldspathic schist. The dominant presence of siliceous minerals determined leaching of uranium values in sulfuric acid medium under oxidizing conditions. Process parametric studies like the effect of sulfuric acid concentration (0.12–0.50 M), redox potential (400–500 mV), particle size (600–300 μm) and temperature (35°–95 °C) indicated that microwave assisted leaching is more efficient in terms of overall uranium dissolution, kinetics and provide relatively less impurities (Si, Al, Mg and Fe) in the leach liquor compared to conventional conductive leaching. The kinetics of leaching followed shrinking core model with product layer diffusion as controlling mechanism.

  13. Gross-total resection of temporal low grade gliomas is a critically important factor in achieving seizure-freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Crociati Meguins

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To present a surgical series of patients with low grade temporal gliomas causing intractable epilepsy, focusing on long-term seizure outcome.Method A retrospective study was conducted with patients with temporal low-grade gliomas (LGG.Results Sixty five patients with were operated in our institution. Males were more affected than females and the mean age at surgery was 32.3 ± 8.4 (9-68 years. The mean age at seizure onset was 25.7 ± 9.2 (11-66 years. Seizure outcome was classified according with Engel classification. After one year of follow up, forty two patients (64.6% were Engel I; seventeen (26.2% Engel II; four (6.2% Engel III and two (3.1% Engel IV. Statistically significant difference in seizure outcome was obtained when comparing the extension of resection. Engel I was observed in 39 patients (69.6% with total resection and in only 3 (33.3% patients with partial resection.Conclusion Gross-total resection of temporal LGGs is a critically important factor in achieving seizure-freedom.

  14. Gross-total resection of temporal low grade gliomas is a critically important factor in achieving seizure-freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguins, Lucas Crociati; Adry, Rodrigo Antônio Rocha da Cruz; Silva Júnior, Sebastião Carlos da; Pereira, Carlos Umberto; Oliveira, Jean Gonçalves de; Morais, Dionei Freitas de; Araújo Filho, Gerardo Maria de; Marques, Lúcia Helena Neves

    2015-11-01

    To present a surgical series of patients with low grade temporal gliomas causing intractable epilepsy, focusing on long-term seizure outcome. A retrospective study was conducted with patients with temporal low-grade gliomas (LGG). Sixty five patients with were operated in our institution. Males were more affected than females and the mean age at surgery was 32.3 ± 8.4 (9-68 years). The mean age at seizure onset was 25.7 ± 9.2 (11-66 years). Seizure outcome was classified according with Engel classification. After one year of follow up, forty two patients (64.6%) were Engel I; seventeen (26.2%) Engel II; four (6.2%) Engel III and two (3.1%) Engel IV. Statistically significant difference in seizure outcome was obtained when comparing the extension of resection. Engel I was observed in 39 patients (69.6%) with total resection and in only 3 (33.3%) patients with partial resection. Gross-total resection of temporal LGGs is a critically important factor in achieving seizure-freedom.

  15. A population-based study of low-grade gliomas and mutated isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlrot, Rikke H; Kristensen, Bjarne W; Hjelmborg, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Low-grade gliomas (LGG) have a slow growth rate, but transformations into malignant gliomas with a rapid deterioration occur in many patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical prognostic factors in a population-based cohort of patients with LGG. In addition we investigated the expre......Low-grade gliomas (LGG) have a slow growth rate, but transformations into malignant gliomas with a rapid deterioration occur in many patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical prognostic factors in a population-based cohort of patients with LGG. In addition we investigated...... the expression and prognostic value of the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) R132H mutation. Seventy-four patients diagnosed between 2005 and 2009 in the Region of Southern Denmark were identified using the Danish Cancer Register and The Danish Pathology Databank. Survival analysis using Cox regression......) was identified in 46 % of the patients and was significantly correlated to a good survival in both univariate (HR 0.24, 95 % CI 0.11-0.53) and in multivariate analysis (HR 0.40, 95 % CI 0.17-0.91). The other clinical variables were not significant when adjusted for the effect of mIDH1 status. We find that young...

  16. On a minimal model for hemodynamics and metabolism of lactate: application to low grade glioma and therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahutte-Auboin, Marion; Guillevin, Rémy; Françoise, Jean-Pierre; Vallée, Jean-Noël; Costalat, Robert

    2013-03-01

    WHO II low grade glioma evolves inevitably to anaplastic transformation. Magnetic resonance imaging is a good non-invasive way to watch it, by hemodynamic and metabolic modifications, thanks to multinuclear spectroscopy (1)H/(31)P. In this work we study a multi-scale minimal model of hemodynamics and metabolism applied to the study of gliomas. This mathematical analysis leads us to a fast-slow system. The control of the position of the stationary point brings to the concept of domain of viability. Starting from this system, the equations bring to light the parameters that push glioma cells out of their domain of viability. Four fundamental factors are highlighted. The first two are cerebral blood flow and the rate of lactate transport through monocarboxylate transporters, which must be reduced in order to push glioma out of its domain of viability. Another factor is the intra arterial lactate, which must be increased. The last factor is pH, indeed a decrease of intra cellular pH could interfere with glioma growth. These reflections suggest that these four parameters could lead to new therapeutic strategies for the management of low grade gliomas.

  17. Key parameters for low-grade fine-grained iron ore valorization: lower environmental impact through reduced waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Christiane; Orberger, Beate; Tudryn, Alina; Baptiste, Benoît; Wirth, Richard; Morgan, Rachel; Miska, Serge

    2016-04-01

    In low-grade banded iron formations (BIFs), a large part of the iron is related to micro- and nano- metric iron-bearing inclusions within quartz and/or carbonates, mainly dolomite (~ 20 to 50 μm). Low-grade fine grained iron ore present two types of environmental risks: a) they are often stocked as tailings. For example, the recent disaster (5th of November 2015) in the Minas Gerais district, Brazil, was caused by the collapse of the Fundão tailings dam at an open cast mine; b) during beneficiation significant amounts of dust are generated also leading to metal loss. A laminated BIF studied from a drill core at Àguas Claras Mine, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil, contains 26.71 wt. % total iron, 0.2 wt. % SiO2, 0.32 wt.% MnO, 15.46 wt. % MgO, 22.32 wt.% CaO, 0.09 wt. % P2O5, risk factors.

  18. Multiple low-grade sarcomas of fibroblastic type in the setting of HIV and acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosal, Jacquelyn; Nelson, Ann M; Shelling, Michael; Romaguera, Rita; Poulos, Evangelos; Alonso-Llamazares, Javier

    2014-10-01

    A 46-year-old white male with a history of HIV (CD4 245), acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis, anal carcinoma in situ, hepatitis B and C presented with 3 asymptomatic, nontender, firm pink/skin-colored nodules involving the arm, left lateral leg, and right third finger. One year later, he developed a similar lesion on his right medial lower leg. Excisional biopsy of one of the lesions showed an atypical spindle cell neoplasm of the dermis compatible with a low-grade sarcoma of fibroblastic origin. Testing for human herpes virus-8, 23 human papillomavirus types, Epstein-Barr virus, and FUS fusion protein were negative. The patient underwent diagnostic imaging with computed tomography scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis along with positron emission tomography scan to ensure that there was no other occult primary tumor, all of which were negative. The lesions were excised and have not recurred with 3 years of follow-up. The best histopathologic term for these lesions is multiple low-grade sarcomas of fibroblastic phenotype. They have been proven to be nonaggressive, with little or no metastatic potential. This is a neoplastic process that has not been well defined in the literature. To our knowledge, there are no previous reports of these lesions occurring in multiple sites or in an HIV-positive patient.

  19. Effects of Sodium Citrate on the Ammonium Sulfate Recycled Leaching of Low-Grade Zinc Oxide Ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Li, Shi-wei; Zhang, Li-bo; Peng, Jin-hui; Ma, Ai-yuan; Wang, Bao-bao

    2016-03-01

    The effects of sodium citrate on ammonium sulfate recycled leaching of low-grade zinc oxide ores were studied. By applying various kinds of detection and analysis techniques such as chemical composition analysis, chemical phase method, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrum (SEM/EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transforming infrared spectrum (FT-IR), zinc raw ore, its leaching slag and the functional mechanism of sodium citrate were investigated. Based on a comprehensive analysis, it can be concluded that in contrast to hemimorphite (Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O), amorphous smithsonite (ZnCO3) and zinc silicate (Zn2SiO4) prove to be refractory phases under ammonium sulfate leaching, while sodium citrate has a better chelating action with the refractory phases, resulting in a higher zinc leaching rate. Under conditions of [NH3]/[NH3]T molar ratio being 0.5, [NH3]T being 7.5 mol/L, [Na3C6H5O7] being 0.2 mol/L, S/L ratio being 1:5, temperature being 303 K, holding time being 1 h in each of the two stages, and stirring rate being 300 rpm, the leaching rate of zinc reached 93.4%. In this article, sulfate ammonium recycled technology also reveals its unique advantage in processing low-grade zinc oxide ores accompanied by high silicon and high alkaline gangue.

  20. Computer-based image analysis system designed to differentiate between low-grade and high-grade laryngeal cancer cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninos, Konstantinos; Kostopoulos, Spiros; Sidiropoulos, Konstantinos; Kalatzis, Ioannis; Glotsos, Dimitris; Athanasiadis, Emmanouil; Ravazoula, Panagiota; Panayiotakis, George; Economou, George; Cavouras, Dionisis

    2013-10-01

    To design a pattern recognition (PR) system for discriminating between low- and high-grade laryngeal cancer cases, employing immunohistochemically stained, for p63 expression, histopathology images. The PR system was designed to assist in the physician's diagnosis for improving patient survival. The material comprised 55 verified cases of laryngeal cancer, 21 of low-grade and 34 of high-grade malignancy. Histopathology images were first processed for automatically segmenting p63 expressed nuclei. Fifty-two features were next extracted from the segmented nuclei, concerning nuclei texture, shape, and physical topology in the image. Those features and the Probabilistic Neural Network classifier were used to design the PR system on the multiprocessors of the Nvidia 580 GTX graphics processing unit (GPU) card using the Compute Unified Device Architecture parallel programming model and C++ programming language. PR system performance in classifying laryngeal cancer cases as low grade and high grade was 85.7% and 94.1%, respectively. The system's overall accuracy was 90.9%, using 7 features, and its estimated accuracy to "unseen" by the system cases was 80%. Optimum system design was feasible after employing parallel processing techniques and GPU technology. The proposed system was structured so as to function in a clinical environment, as a research tool, and with the capability of being redesigned on site when new verified cases are added to its repository.

  1. Leaching kinetics of low grade zinc oxide ore in NH3-NH4Cl-H2O system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rui-xiang; TANG Mo-tang; YANG Sheng-hai; ZHAGN Wen-hai; TANG Chao-bo; HE Jing; YANG Jian-guang

    2008-01-01

    The leaching kinetics of low grade zinc oxide ore in NH3-NH4Cl-H2O system was studied. The effects of ore particle size,reaction temperature and the sum concentration of ammonium ion and ammonia on the leaching efficiency of zinc were examined.The leaching kinetics of low-grade zinc oxide ore in NH3-NH4Cl-H2O system follows the kinetic law of shrinking-core model. The results show that diffusion through the inert particle pores is the leaching kinetics rate controlling step. The calculated apparent activation energy of the process is about 7.057kJ/mol. The leaching efficiency of zinc is 92.1% under the conditions of ore particle size of 69μm, holding at 80℃ for 60min, sum ammonia concentration of 7.5mol/L, the molar ratio of ammonium to ammonia being 2:1, and the ratio (g/mL) of solid to liquid being 1:10.

  2. Role of microRNAs on adipogenesis, chronic low-grade inflammation, and insulin resistance in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Kyria Jayanne Clímaco; de Oliveira, Ana Raquel Soares; Morais, Jennifer Beatriz Silva; Severo, Juliana Soares; Marreiro PhD, Dilina do Nascimento

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this review was to convey updated information on the role of microRNAs in adipogenesis, chronic low-grade inflammation, and insulin resistance in obesity. Obesity is a chronic disease characterized by the presence of metabolic disorders (e.g., low-grade chronic inflammation), which contributes to the manifestation of insulin resistance. Diverse molecular mechanisms have been implicated in the development of these disorders, and microRNAs stand out as a contributing factor. They are a class of noncoding RNAs that regulate the expression of genes by inducing cleavage of mRNAs or via inhibition of protein translation. It is important to point out that obese individuals show alterations in the expression of microRNAs favoring manifestation of the metabolic disorders present in these patients, and these alterations may be reversed by the loss of weight. Therefore, microRNAs may be regarded as potential biomarkers of obesity-related disorders. Further studies on this topic may advance the understanding of the molecular basis of obesity, including the participation of microRNAs in the pathogenesis of this disease.

  3. Experimental Analysis of Thermoelectric Heat Exchanger for Power Generation from Salinity Gradient Solar Pond Using Low-Grade Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baljit; Baharin, Nuraida `Aadilia; Remeli, Muhammad Fairuz; Oberoi, Amandeep; Date, Abhijit; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

    2016-10-01

    Salinity gradient solar ponds act as an integrated thermal solar energy collector and storage system. The temperature difference between the upper convective zone and the lower convective zone of a salinity gradient solar pond can be in the range of 40-60°C. The temperature at the bottom of the pond can reach up to 90°C. Low-grade heat (solar ponds is currently converted into electricity by organic Rankine cycle engines. Thermoelectric generators can operate at very low temperature differences and can be a good candidate to replace organic Rankine cycle engines for power generation from salinity gradient solar ponds. The temperature difference in a solar pond can be used to power thermoelectric generators for electricity production. This paper presents an experimental investigation of a thermoelectric generators heat exchanger system designed to be powered by the hot water from the lower convective zone of a solar pond, and cold water from the upper convective zone of a solar pond. The results obtained have indicated significant prospects of such a system to generate power from low-grade heat for remote area power supply systems.

  4. Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Aspect of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation (Pathophysiological ParaInflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Nita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The products of oxidative stress trigger chronic low-grade inflammation (pathophysiological parainflammation process in AMD patients. In early AMD, soft drusen contain many mediators of chronic low-grade inflammation such as C-reactive protein, adducts of the carboxyethylpyrrole protein, immunoglobulins, and acute phase molecules, as well as the complement-related proteins C3a, C5a, C5, C5b-9, CFH, CD35, and CD46. The complement system, mainly alternative pathway, mediates chronic autologous pathophysiological parainflammation in dry and exudative AMD, especially in the Y402H gene polymorphism, which causes hypofunction/lack of the protective complement factor H (CFH and facilitates chronic inflammation mediated by C-reactive protein (CRP. Microglial activation induces photoreceptor cells injury and leads to the development of dry AMD. Many autoantibodies (antibodies against alpha beta crystallin, alpha-actinin, amyloid, C1q, chondroitin, collagen I, collagen III, collagen IV, elastin, fibronectin, heparan sulfate, histone H2A, histone H2B, hyaluronic acid, laminin, proteoglycan, vimentin, vitronectin, and aldolase C and pyruvate kinase M2 and overexpression of Fcc receptors play role in immune-mediated inflammation in AMD patients and in animal model. Macrophages infiltration of retinal/choroidal interface acts as protective factor in early AMD (M2 phenotype macrophages; however it acts as proinflammatory and proangiogenic factor in advanced AMD (M1 and M2 phenotype macrophages.

  5. Prediction of Helicobacter pylori status by conventional endoscopy, narrow-band imaging magnifying endoscopy in stomach after endoscopic resection of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Kazuyoshi; Saka, Akiko; Nozawa, Yujiro; Nakamura, Atsuo

    2014-04-01

    To reduce the incidence of metachronous gastric carcinoma after endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer, Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy has been endorsed. It is not unusual for such patients to be H. pylori negative after eradication or for other reasons. If it were possible to predict H. pylori status using endoscopy alone, it would be very useful in clinical practice. To clarify the accuracy of endoscopic judgment of H. pylori status, we evaluated it in the stomach after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of gastric cancer. Fifty-six patients treated by ESD were enrolled. The diagnostic criteria for H. pylori status by conventional endoscopy and narrow-band imaging (NBI)-magnifying endoscopy were decided, and H. pylori status was judged by two endoscopists. Based on the H. pylori stool antigen test as a diagnostic gold standard, conventional endoscopy and NBI-magnifying endoscopy were compared for their sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). Interobserver agreement was assessed in terms of κ value. Interobserver agreement was moderate (0.56) for conventional endoscopy and substantial (0.77) for NBI-magnifying endoscopy. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 0.79, 0.52, 0.70, and 0.63 for conventional endoscopy and 0.91, 0.83, 0.88, and 0.86 for NBI-magnifying endoscopy, respectively. Prediction of H. pylori status using NBI-magnifying endoscopy is practical, and interobserver agreement is substantial. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. RAD51 G135C genetic polymorphism and their potential role in gastric cancer induced by Helicobacter pylori infection in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, T T H; Nagashima, H; Uchida, T; Mahachai, V; Vilaichone, R-K; Tshering, L; Binh, T T; Yamaoka, Y

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the role of the RAD51 G135C genetic polymorphism on the risk of gastric cancer induced by Helicobacter pylori infection, we determined allele frequency and genotype distribution of this polymorphism in Bhutan--a population documented with high prevalence of gastric cancer and extremely high prevalence of H. pylori infection. The status of RAD51 G135C was examined by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR amplified fragments and sequencing. Histological scores were evaluated according to the updated Sydney system. G135C carriers showed significantly higher scores for intestinal metaplasia in the antrum than G135G carriers [mean (median) 0·33 (0) vs. 0·08 (0), P = 0·008]. Higher scores for intestinal metaplasia of G135C carriers compared to those of G135G carriers were also observed in H. pylori-positive patients [0·3 (0) vs. 0·1 (0), P = 0·002] and H. pylori-positive patients with gastritis [0·4 (0) vs. 0·1 (0), P = 0·002] but were not found in H. pylori-negative patients. Our findings revealed that a combination of H. pylori infection and RAD51 G135C genotype of the host showed an increasing score for intestinal metaplasia. Therefore, RAD51 G135C might be the important predictor for gastric cancer of H. pylori-infected patients.

  7. Apoptotic depletion of infiltrating mucosal lymphocytes associated with Fas ligand expression by Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosal epithelium: human glandular stomach as a site of immune privilege.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, S

    2000-04-01

    H. pylori infection almost invariably results in chronic gastritis, but only a proportion of patients develops severe destruction of epithelial glandular structure or peptic ulcer. To confirm the recent data obtained in testis and eye, showing that Fas ligand is involved in the phenomenon of "immune privilege," expression of Fas receptor and its ligand of the stomach was investigated in a panel of gastric biopsies obtained from patients H. pylori-positive (N = 42) and with H. pylori-negative (N = 18) by two-color flow cytometry. The results show that membrane-bound Fas ligand protein is constitutively expressed on freshly isolated human gastric mucosal epithelium coupled with infiltrating lymphocytes. There was significant overexpression of Fas receptor and its ligand, and a higher frequency of apoptotic cell death detected by TUNEL in epithelium and infiltrating lymphocytes in H. pylori-infected patients. These findings suggest that involvement of Fas receptor and its ligand system contributes to some extent to mucosal damage in H. pylori-associated gastritis. However, the more specific findings are apoptotic depletion of invading mucosal lymphocytes associated with Fas ligand expression by gastric epithelium. These provide the first direct quantitative evidence to support Fas receptor counterattack and/or paracrine fratricide as a mechanism of immune privilege in vivo in the H. pylori-infected glandular stomach.

  8. Assessment of p21, p53 expression, and Ki-67 proliferative activities in the gastric mucosa of children with Helicobacter pylori gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saf, Coskun; Gulcan, Enver Mahir; Ozkan, Ferda; Cobanoglu Saf, Seyhan Perihan; Vitrinel, Ayca

    2015-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori that is generally acquired in childhood and infects the gastric mucosa is considered to be responsible for many pathobiological changes that are linked to the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. Although the majority of studies on the subject have been carried out in adults, there are a limited number of studies on children that reflect the early period of infection and may be of greater significance. We aimed to determine the role of H. pylori infection and/or gastritis in several histopathological changes, p53, p21, and cell proliferation-associated Ki-67 antigen expression in the gastric mucosa. We studied 60 patients with a mean age of 7.5 ± 4.5 years at referral. On the basis of endoscopic appearance and the evaluation of the gastric antral specimens, the patients were divided into three groups: patients without gastritis, patients with H. pylori-positive gastritis, and patients with H. pylori-negative gastritis. To determine the expression of p53, Ki-67, and p21 in gastric biopsy specimens, immunohistochemical stains were performed. The incidence of neutrophil activity, which was one of our histopathologic parameters, was significantly higher in the H. pylori-positive gastritis group than the other two groups. The presence of lymphoid aggregate was more frequent in H. pylori ± gastritis groups than the nongastritis group. p53 expression was found to be significantly higher in the H. pylori-positive gastritis group than the nongastritis group. Ki-67 and p21 expressions were significantly more frequent in the H. pylori-positive gastritis group than the other two groups. When we evaluated the density of H. pylori, as the density of bacteria increases, we found that the expressions of p53, p21, and Ki-67 increased significantly. Expression of the studied precancerous markers in significant amounts indicates the importance of childhood H. pylori infection in the constitution of gastric cancer in adulthood.

  9. Increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 associated with gastric ulcer recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sen-Lin; Zhao, Jing-Run; Ren, Xiao-Yan; Xie, Jia-Ping; Ma, Qing-Zhu; Rong, Qiu-Hua

    2013-07-28

    To compare matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 in gastric ulcer (GU) and chronic superficial gastritis (CSG). This study enrolled 63 patients with GU and 25 patients with CSG. During upper gastroduodenal endoscopy, we took samples of gastric mucosa from the antrum and ulcer site from patients with GU, and samples of antral mucosa from patients with CSG. Mucosal biopsy tissues were cultured for 24 h, and the culture supernatant was measured for levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1. After receiving eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and 8 wk proton-pump inhibitor therapy for GU, follow-up endoscopy examination was performed after 6 mo and whenever severe symptoms occurred. Levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 at the ulcer site or in the antrum were significantly higher in GU than CSG patients. MMP-9 levels at the ulcer site were significantly higher than in the antrum in GU patients, and had a significantly positive correlation with TIMP-1. MMP-9 levels were significantly higher in H. pylori-positive than H. pylori-negative GU and CSG patients. Levels of MMP-9 or TIMP-1 at the ulcer site were associated with the histological severity of activity and inflammation. About 57 GU patients were followed up, and seven had GU recurrence. H. pyloriinfection and MMP-9 levels were risk factors for the recurrence of GU adjusted for age and sex by multiple logistic regression analysis. MMP-9 may perform an important function in gastric ulcer formation and recurrence.

  10. CTNNB1 (beta-catenin) mutation identifies low grade, early stage endometrial cancer patients at increased risk of recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnit, Katherine C; Kim, Grace N; Fellman, Bryan M; Urbauer, Diana L; Mills, Gordon B; Zhang, Wei; Broaddus, Russell R

    2017-03-10

    Although the majority of low grade, early stage endometrial cancer patients will have good survival outcomes with surgery alone, those patients who do recur tend to do poorly. Optimal identification of the subset of patients who are at high risk of recurrence and would benefit from adjuvant treatment has been difficult. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of somatic tumor mutation on survival outcomes in this patient population. For this study, low grade was defined as endometrioid FIGO grades 1 or 2, while early stage was defined as endometrioid stages I or II (disease confined to the uterus). Next-generation sequencing was performed using panels comprised of 46-200 genes. Recurrence-free and overall survival was compared across gene mutational status in both univariate and multivariate analyses. In all, 342 patients were identified, 245 of which had endometrioid histology. For grades 1-2, stages I-II endometrioid endometrial cancer patients, age (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03-1.10), CTNNB1 mutation (HR 5.97, 95% CI 2.69-13.21), and TP53 mutation (HR 4.07, 95% CI 1.57-10.54) were associated with worse recurrence-free survival on multivariate analysis. When considering endometrioid tumors of all grades and stages, CTNNB1 mutant tumors were associated with significantly higher rates of grades 1-2 disease, lower rates of deep myometrial invasion, and lower rates of lymphatic/vascular space invasion. When both TP53 and CTNNB1 mutations were considered, presence of either TP53 mutation or CTNNB1 mutation remained a statistically significant predictor of recurrence-free survival on multivariate analysis and was associated with a more precise confidence interval (HR 4.69, 95% CI 2.38-9.24). Thus, mutational analysis of a 2 gene panel of CTNNB1 and TP53 can help to identify a subset of low grade, early stage endometrial cancer patients who are at high risk of recurrence.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 10 March 2017; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2017.15.

  11. Clinical Outcomes and Late Endocrine, Neurocognitive, and Visual Profiles of Proton Radiation for Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberger, Benjamin A. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Pulsifer, Margaret B. [Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ebb, David H. [Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); MacDonald, Shannon M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Jones, Robin M. [Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Butler, William E. [Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Huang, Mary S. [Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Marcus, Karen J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Oberg, Jennifer A. [Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York (United States); Tarbell, Nancy J. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Yock, Torunn I., E-mail: tyock@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): Primary low-grade gliomas are common brain tumors of childhood, many of which require radiation therapy (RT) as definitive treatment. Increased conformality of RT could decrease the incidence and severity of late effects. We report our experience with 32 pediatric patients treated with proton RT. Methods and Materials: Thirty-two pediatric patients with low-grade gliomas of the brain or spinal cord were treated with proton RT from 1995 to 2007. Sixteen patients received at least 1 regimen of chemotherapy before definitive RT. The median radiation dose was 52.2 Gy{sub RBE} (48.6-54 Gy{sub RBE}). Results: The median age at treatment was 11.0 years (range, 2.7-21.5 years), with a median follow-up time of 7.6 years (range, 3.2-18.2 years). The 6-year and 8-year rates of progression-free survival were 89.7% and 82.8%, respectively, with an 8-year overall survival of 100%. For the subset of patients who received serial neurocognitive testing, there were no significant declines in Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (P=.80), with a median neurocognitive testing interval of 4.5 years (range, 1.2-8.1 years) from baseline to follow-up, but subgroup analysis indicated some significant decline in neurocognitive outcomes for young children (<7 years) and those with significant dose to the left temporal lobe/hippocampus. The incidence of endocrinopathy correlated with a mean dose of ≥40 Gy{sub RBE} to the hypothalamus, pituitary, or optic chiasm. Stabilization or improvement of visual acuity was achieved in 83.3% of patients at risk for radiation-induced injury to the optic pathways. Conclusions: This report of late effects in children with low-grade gliomas after proton RT is encouraging. Proton RT appears to be associated with good clinical outcome, especially when the tumor location allows for increased sparing of the left temporal lobe, hippocampus, and hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

  12. Can we eradicate gastric MALT-lymphoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Zullo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of primary gastric lymphoma in Italy is considerably higher than that observed in the rest of Europe. It is widely accepted that gastric B-cell, low-grade mucosalassociated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma is caused by specific host-bacterial interactions that occur during Helicobacter pylori infection. This review examines recent findings on the origins, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of gastric MALT lymphomas. Clinical and endoscopic findings at diagnosis vary widely. In a substantial number of cases, the patient presents only vague dyspeptic symptoms or poorly defined abdominal pain with no macroscopic lesions on the gastric mucosa. Review of data from 32 trials in which a total of 1,387 MALT-lymphoma patients of the stomach were treated solely with H. pylori eradication revealed high remission rates when the disease is treated early (stage I-II1. Neoplasia confined to the submucosa, antral localization of tumors, and negativity for the API2-MALT1 translocation were associated with a high probability of remission following H. pylori eradication. When the latter approach is not sufficient, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and, in selected cases, surgery are associated with high success rates; data on the efficacy of monoclonal antibody therapy (rituximab are still limited. Five-year survival rates are higher than 90%. Patients whose tumors have been eliminated require close, long-term endoscopic follow-up since recurrence has been reported in some cases. Broader clinical follow-up is also advisable because the incidence of other solid tumors and of cardiovascular events is reportedly increased in these patients.

  13. SUVmax/THKmax as a biomarker for distinguishing advanced gastric carcinoma from primary gastric lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Fu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gastric carcinoma and primary gastric lymphoma (PGL are the two most common malignancies in stomach. The purpose of this study was to screen and validate a biomarker of (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18F-FDG PET/CT for distinguishing advanced gastric carcinoma (AGC from PGL for clinical applications. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We reviewed PET/CT scans collected from January 2008 to April 2012 of 69 AGC and 38 PGL (14 low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue [MALT], 24 non-MALT aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma [ANHL] with a focus on FDG intensity (maximum standardized uptake value [SUVmax] of primary lesions and its CT-detected abnormalities, including maximal gastrointestinal wall thickness (THKmax and mucosal ulcerations. Gastric FDG uptake was found in 69 (100% patients with AGC and 36 (95%, 12 MALT vs. 24 ANHLwith PGL. The presence of CT-detected abnormalities of AGC and PGL were 97% (67/69 and 89% (12 MALT vs. 22 ANHL, respectively. After controlling for THKmax, SUVmax was higher with ANHL than AGC (17.10 ± 8.08 vs. 9.65 ± 5.24, p0.05. Cross-validation analysis showed that for distinguishing ANHL from AGC, the classifier with SUVmax as a feature achieved a correct classification rate of 81% with thresholds 13.40 ± 1.12 and the classifier with SUVmax/THKmax as a feature achieved a correct classification rate of 83% with thresholds 7.51 ± 0.63. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SUVmax/THKmax may be as a promising biomarker of FDG-PET/CT for distinguishing ANHL from AGC. Structural CT abnormalities alone may not be reliable but can help with PET assessment of gastric malignancies. (18F-FDG PET/CT have potential for distinguishing AGC from PGL at the individual level.

  14. Gastric adenocarcinoma of fundic gland type: Endoscopicand clinicopathological features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma of fundic gland type (GA-FG)with chief cell differentiation was recently proposed asan extremely rare type of gastric adenocarcinoma. Here,we report 4 cases of GA-FG with chief cell differentiation.Endoscopic features included a submucosal tumor shapeor a flat shape, whitish discolorationand dilated vesselson the surface. The tumors were located in the upper ormiddle third of the stomach. All cases were preoperativelydiagnosed as GA-FG by biopsy, and endoscopic submucosaldissection was performed. Resected specimensrevealed well-differentiated adenocarcinomas resemblingchief cells. Tumor cells were diffusely positive for pepsinogen-Ⅰ,but partially positive for H+/K+-ATPase inscattered locations around the tumor margin. Despitethe presence of minimal invasion of the carcinoma intothe submucosal layer, which was observed in two cases,neither lymphatic nor venous invasion was detected inany of the cases. Finally, all cases showed less aggressiveclinical behavior with low grade malignancy.

  15. Optimization study of large-scale low-grade energy recovery from conventional Rankine cycle power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, K.M.; Bettle, M.C.; Gerber, A.G.; Hall, J.W. [University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2010-10-10

    This study evaluates large-scale low-grade energy recovery (LS-LGER) from a conventional coal-fired Rankine cycle (RC) as a 'green' option to offsetting the cost of treating pollution. An energy and exergy analysis of a reference-generating station isolates the key areas for investigation into LS-LGER. This is followed by a second law analysis and a detailed optimization study for a revised RC configuration, which provides a conservative estimate of the possible energy recovery. Cycle optimization based on specific power output, and including compact heat exchanger designs, indicates plant efficiency improvements (with high-capacity equipment) of approximately 2 percentage points with reduced environmental impact.

  16. The role of low-grade inflammation and metabolic flexibility in aging and nutritional modulation thereof: a systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calçada, Dulce; Vianello, Dario; Giampieri, Enrico; Sala, Claudia; Castellani, Gastone; de Graaf, Albert; Kremer, Bas; van Ommen, Ben; Feskens, Edith; Santoro, Aurelia; Franceschi, Claudio; Bouwman, Jildau

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a biological process characterized by the progressive functional decline of many interrelated physiological systems. In particular, aging is associated with the development of a systemic state of low-grade chronic inflammation (inflammaging), and with progressive deterioration of metabolic function. Systems biology has helped in identifying the mediators and pathways involved in these phenomena, mainly through the application of high-throughput screening methods, valued for their molecular comprehensiveness. Nevertheless, inflammation and metabolic regulation are dynamical processes whose behavior must be understood at multiple levels of biological organization (molecular, cellular, organ, and system levels) and on multiple time scales. Mathematical modeling of such behavior, with incorporation of mechanistic knowledge on interactions between inflammatory and metabolic mediators, may help in devising nutritional interventions capable of preventing, or ameliorating, the age-associated functional decline of the corresponding systems.

  17. Long-term Behavior of Serous Borderline Tumors Subdivided Into Atypical Proliferative Tumors and Noninvasive Low-grade Carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Russell; Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Junge, Jette

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian serous borderline tumors (SBTs) have been the subject of considerable controversy, particularly with regard to terminology and behavior. It has been proposed that they constitute a heterogenous group of tumors composed, for the most part, of typical SBTs that are benign and designated...... "atypical proliferative serous tumor (APST)" and a small subset of SBTs with micropapillary architecture that have a poor outcome and are designated "noninvasive low-grade serous carcinoma (niLGSC)". It also has been argued that the difference in behavior between the 2 groups is not due to the subtype...... of the primary tumor but rather the presence of extraovarian disease, specifically invasive implants. According to the terminology of the 2014 WHO Classification, typical SBTs are equivalent to APSTs and SBTs displaying micropapillary architecture are synonymous with niLGSC. In addition, "invasive implants" were...

  18. Low-Grade Malignant Triton Tumor of the Neck: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taissir Omar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyoblastic differentiation in a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST is termed malignant triton tumor (MTT, a rare neoplasm that poses a diagnostic dilemma in the differential diagnosis of neck masses and portends poor prognosis. We report a sporadic case of MTT of the neck in a 23-year-old female. We present the pathological findings. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the neurogenic origin with S-100 expression and the rhabdomyoblastic differentiation with desmin and vimentin positivity. Radical surgical excision was done. After 4 years there were no signs of recurrence or distant metastasis. The clinical, microscopic, and long-term follow-up of this case are consistent with those of a low-grade malignancy.

  19. Simulated small-scale pilot heap leaching of low-grade copper sulfide ore with selective extraction of copper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Wen-qing; ZHANG Yan-sheng; LI Wei-zhong; WANG Jun

    2008-01-01

    The bioleaching of low-grade copper sulfide ore and the selective extraction of copper were investigated.Lix984 dissolved in kerosene was used as extractant.The results show that it is possible to selectively leach copper from the ores by heap leaching.The copper concentration of leaching liquor after 250 d is 2.17 g/L,and the copper concentration is 0.27 g/L after solvent extraction.The leach liquor was subjected to solvent extraction,scrubbing and selective stripping for the enrichment of copper and the removal of impurities.The pregnant copper sulfate solution produced from the stripping cycle is suitable for copper electro-winning.

  20. Stochastic modelling of slow-progressing tumors: Analysis and applications to the cell interplay and control of low grade gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Clara Rojas; Fernández Calvo, Gabriel; Ramis-Conde, Ignacio; Belmonte-Beitia, Juan

    2017-08-01

    Tumor-normal cell interplay defines the course of a neoplastic malignancy. The outcome of this dual relation is the ultimate prevailing of one of the cells and the death or retreat of the other. In this paper we study the mathematical principles that underlay one important scenario: that of slow-progressing cancers. For this, we develop, within a stochastic framework, a mathematical model to account for tumor-normal cell interaction in such a clinically relevant situation and derive a number of deterministic approximations from the stochastic model. We consider in detail the existence and uniqueness of the solutions of the deterministic model and study the stability analysis. We then focus our model to the specific case of low grade gliomas, where we introduce an optimal control problem for different objective functionals under the administration of chemotherapy. We derive the conditions for which singular and bang-bang control exist and calculate the optimal control and states.

  1. Energy resources of low-grade wood, small wood and waste materials. [Scots Pine; Norway Spruce; Birch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, A.P.; Sviridyuk, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    An account is made of recent Finnish work on the potential of low-grade wood, small-dimension wood and waste material (of Scots pine, Norway spruce and birch) for power production, in the context of the current world energy crisis. The physical and economic aspects are considered, and the relevance of the Finnish research for the USSR is discussed. In 1978, wood accounted for only 1.4% of the energy balance of the USSR. Taking one t of 'standard fuel' as equal to 7000 kcal for the purposes of calculation, the energy potential of bark alone in the USSR is 13.6 million t/yr. (Refs. 6).

  2. Massive low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma presenting as acute respiratory distress in a 12-year-old girl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Michael A.; Giles, Henry W. [University of Mississippi, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Jackson, MS (United States); Daley, William P. [University of Mississippi, Department of Pathology, Jackson, MS (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare soft-tissue sarcoma that usually presents in young adults as a painless, slow-growing mass. Evans first described LGFMS in 1987 as a spindle-cell sarcoma with bland histological features and paradoxically aggressive behavior. Although young adults are most frequently affected, recent reports describe pediatric cases being increasingly more common. Males and females are affected approximately equally and common locations include the deep soft tissue of the lower extremity, particularly the thigh and trunk. Primary occurrence within the chest cavity is exceedingly rare. Local recurrence and metastasis are not uncommon and present the clinician and radiologist with challenges regarding follow-up recommendations. Review of the literature reveals many cases of slowly progressive symptoms related to a mass effect. We present a healthy 12-year-old African-American girl who interestingly developed acute symptoms of shortness of breath and chest pain while playing with her brother. (orig.)

  3. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis CNCM-I2494 restores gut barrier permeability in chronically low-grade inflamed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca eMartín

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence supports the efficacy of many probiotic strains in the management of gastrointestinal disorders associated with deregulated intestinal barrier function and/or structure. In particular, bifidobacteria have been studied for their efficacy to both prevent and treat a broad spectrum of animal and/or human gut disorders. The aim of the current work was thus to evaluate effects on intestinal barrier function of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis CNCM-I2494, a strain used in fermented dairy products. A chronic DNBS-induced low-grade inflammation model causing gut dysfunction in mice was used in order to study markers of inflammation, intestinal permeability and immune function in the presence of the bacterial strain. In this chronic low-grade inflammation mice model several parameters pointed out the absence of an over active inflammation process. However, gut permeability, lymphocyte populations and colonic cytokines were found to be altered. B. animalis subsp lactis CNCM-I2494 was able to protect barrier functions by restoring intestinal permeability, colonic goblet cell populations and cytokine levels. Furthermore, tight junction (TJ proteins levels were also measured by qRT-PCR showing the ability of this strain to specifically normalize the level of several TJ proteins, in particular for claudin-4. Finally, B. lactis strain counterbalanced CD4+ lymphocyte alterations in both spleen and mesenteric lymphoid nodes (MLN. It restores the Th1/Th2 ratio altered by the DNBS challenge (which locally augments CD4+ Th1 cells by increasing the Th2 response as measured by the increase in the production of major representative Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10. Altogether, these data suggest that B. animalis subsp lactis CNCM-I2494 may efficiently prevent disorders associated with increased barrier permeability.

  4. Low grade Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma of uterine corpus, a clinico-pathological and survey study in 14 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariat Mamak

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS is a rare disease with probably less than 700 new cases in the USA or Europe per year. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LGESS in relation to their clinical and pathological features and to identify possible prognostic factors. Patients and methods Fourteen patients with histologically proven ESS were included in the analysis. Endometrial stromal sarcoma is characterized by proliferations composed of cells with Endometrial stromal cell differentiation. Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma has an infiltrating margin and typically show extensive worm-like vessel invasion. Results The median age was 44.35 ± 6 years. The most common presenting symptom was vaginal bleeding, occurring in twelve patients (86%. Diagnosis was made through Fractional dilatation and curettage in four patients (28.5%. Eight patients had a total abdominal hysterectomy and salpingo-ophorectomy (57%. Radiotherapy as adjuvant therapy was administered to four patients (28.5%. The median follow-up time was 45.6 months (range 24–84. The median overall survival of the 14 patients was 45.35 ± 21 months (range 20–83. Three of 14 patients demonstrated a recurrence of disease at 9, 72, and 96 months respectively. The recurrent diseases were treated with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. No patient died of the disease. Clinico-pathological parameters did not significantly differ between patients with and without recurrence, but patients with no myometrial invasion and low mitotic count Conclusion Five-year survival rate was 93%. Survival probabilities were calculated by the product limit method of Kaplan and Meier that showed, patients with no myometrial invasion and low mitotic count

  5. Membrane-Based Osmotic Heat Engine with Organic Solvent for Enhanced Power Generation from Low-Grade Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaulsky, E; Boo, C; Lin, SH; Elimelech, M

    2015-05-05

    We present a hybrid osmotic heat engine (OHE) system that uses draw solutions with an organic solvent for enhanced thermal separation efficiency. The hybrid OHE system produces sustainable energy by combining pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) as a power generation stage and membrane distillation (MD) utilizing low-grade heat as a separation stage. While previous OHE systems employed aqueous electrolyte draw solutions, using methanol as a solvent is advantageous because methanol is highly volatile and has a lower heat capacity and enthalpy of vaporization than water. Hence, the thermal separation efficiency of a draw solution with methanol would be higher than that of an aqueous draw solution. In this study, we evaluated the performance of LiCl-methanol as a potential draw solution for a PRO-MD hybrid OHE system. The membrane transport properties as well as performance with LiCl methanol draw solution were evaluated using thin-film composite (TFC) PRO membranes and compared to the results obtained with a LiCl water draw solution. Experimental PRO methanol flux and maximum projected power density of 47.1 L m(-2) h(-1) and 72.1 W m(-2), respectively, were achieved with a 3 M LiCl-methanol draw solution. The overall efficiency of the hybrid OHE system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages under conditions with and without heat recovery. The modeling results demonstrate higher ORE energy efficiency with the LiCl methanol draw solution compared to that with the LiCl water draw solution under practical operating conditions (i.e., heat recovery <90%). We discuss the implications of the results for converting low-grade heat to power.

  6. The beneficial role of anti-inflammatory dietary ingredients in attenuating markers of chronic low-grade inflammation in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panickar, Kiran S; Jewell, Dennis E

    2015-08-01

    Aging in humans is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation (systemic), and this condition is sometimes referred to as "inflammaging". In general, canines also age similarly to humans, and such aging is associated with a decline in mobility, joint problems, weakened muscles and bones, reduced lean body mass, cancer, increased dermatological problems, decline in cognitive ability, reduced energy, decreased immune function, decreased renal function, and urinary incontinence. Each of these conditions is also associated with an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines. An inflammatory state characterized by an increase in pro-inflammatory markers including but not restricted to tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, IL-1β, and C-reactive protein (CRP) is believed to contribute to or worsen a general decline in biological mechanisms responsible for physical function with aging. Nutritional management of inflammation in aging dogs is important in maintaining health. In particular, natural botanicals have bioactive components that appear to have robust anti-inflammatory effects and, when included in the diet, may contribute to a reduction in inflammation. While there are scientific data to support the anti-inflammatory effects and the efficacy of such bioactive molecules from botanicals, the clinical data are limited and more studies are needed to validate the efficacy of these ingredients. This review will summarize the role of dietary ingredients in reducing inflammatory molecules as well as review the evidence available to support the role of diet and nutrition in reducing chronic low-grade systemic inflammation in animal and human studies with a special reference to canines, where possible.

  7. Prediction of SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions for low-grade Turkish lignites in CFB combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gungor, A. [Nigde University, Nigde (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-02-15

    The CFB technology is widely used for combustion of coal because of its unique ability to handle low quality, high ash, high sulphur and low heating value coals. This paper presents a modeling study of pollutant emissions such as sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitric oxide (NOx) resulting from coal combustion in a CFBC. Using this model, overall SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions are predicted for the combustion of three different kinds of low-grade Turkish lignites. The contents of these lignites are as follows: ash from 23.70% to 45.31%, sulphur from 1.81% to 8.40% and calorific values (LHV) from 10,283 to 15.215 kJ/kg. The data is obtained from two pilot scale CFBCs (50 and 80 kW) and an industrial scale CFBC (160 MW). The present study proves that CFB combustion demonstrated by both experimental data and model predictions produces low and acceptable level of SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions resulting from the combustion of low-grade lignites. Developed model can also investigate the effects of different operational parameters on overall SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions. As a result of this investigation, it is observed that increase of excess air decreases SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions. However, NOx emission increases with the operational bed velocity while SO{sub 2} emission decreases. A bigger inlet bed pressure value results in lower emissions of SO{sub 2} and NOx if other parameters are kept unchanged.

  8. Postoperative Helicobacter pylori Infection as a Prognostic Factor for Gastric Cancer Patients after Curative Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Da Hyun; Lee, Yong Chan; Kim, Jie-Hyun; Chung, Hyunsoo; Park, Jun Chul; Shin, Sung Kwan; Lee, Sang Kil; Kim, Hyoung-Il; Hyung, Woo Jin; Noh, Sung Hoon

    2017-09-15

    Few studies have evaluated the effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on the prognosis of patients diagnosed with gastric cancer (GC) after curative surgery. We investigated the association between the H. pylori infection status and clinical outcome after surgery. We assessed the H. pylori status of 314 patients who underwent curative resection for GC. The H. pylori status was examined using a rapid urease test 2 months after resection. Patients were followed for 10 years after surgery. An H. pylori infection was observed in 128 of 314 patients. The median follow-up period was 93.5 months. A Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that patients with H. pylori had a higher cumulative survival rate than those who were negative for H. pylori. Patients with stage II cancer who tested negative for H. pylori were associated with a poor outcome. In a multivariate analysis, H. pylori-negative status was a significant independent prognostic factor for poor overall survival. Having a negative H. pylori infection status seems to indicate poor prognosis for patients with GC who have undergone curative resection. Further prospective controlled studies are needed to evaluate the mechanism by which H. pylori affects GC patients after curative surgery in Korea.

  9. Gastric carditis: Is it a histological response to high concentrations of luminal nitric oxide?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katsunori Iijima; Tooru Shimosegawa

    2006-01-01

    During the last decade, inflammation (carditis) and intestinal metaplasia localized to immediately below the human gastro-oesophageal junction have received much attention in relation to the rising incidence of cancer at this site. Since these histological findings are frequently observed even among those who are H pylori-negative,the causative factors for such histologic events at the human gastro-oesophageal junction remain obscure. A series of recent studies have demonstrated that a high level of salivary nitrite is sustained over several hours after the ingestion of a high nitrate meal, and that the nitrite in swallowed saliva is rapidly converted to nitric oxide by an acid catalyzed chemical reaction at the gastro-oesophageal junction. Eventually, a substantial amount of nitric oxide diffuses from the lumen into the adjacent tissue. Therefore, the human gastro-oesophageal junction is likely to be a region of high nitrosative stress. Considering the life-time exposure of the gastrooesophageal junction to cytotoxic levels of nitric oxide,this may account for the high prevalence of inflammation, intestinal metaplasia, and subsequent development of neoplasia at this site. Although gastric acid, pepsin,and bile acid have been intensively investigated as a cause of adenocarcinoma at the gastro-oesophageal junction and the distal esophagus, nitric oxide and the related nitrosative stress should also be examined.(C) 2006 The WJG Press. All rights reserved.

  10. Markers of low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are related to reduced information processing speed and executive functioning in an older population - the Hoorn Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heringa, S M; van den Berg, E; Reijmer, Y D; Nijpels, G; Stehouwer, C D A; Schalkwijk, C G; Teerlink, T; Scheffer, P G; van den Hurk, K; Kappelle, L J; Dekker, J M; Biessels, G J

    2014-02-01

    Low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are related to cognitive decline and dementia, in a complex interplay with vascular factors and aging. We investigated, in an older population, low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in relation to detailed assessment of cognitive functioning. Furthermore, we explored this association within the context of vascular factors. 377 participants (73 ± 6 years) of the population-based Hoorn Study were included. In plasma samples of 2000-2001 (n=363) and/or 2005-2008 (n=323), biomarkers were determined of low-grade inflammation (CRP, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-8, SAA, MPO, and sICAM-1) and endothelial dysfunction (vWF, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sTM, sE-selectin). In 2005-2008, all participants underwent neuropsychological examination. Composite z-scores were computed for low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction at both time points, and for six domains of cognitive functioning (abstract reasoning, memory, information processing speed, attention and executive functioning, visuoconstruction, and language). The association between low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, and cognitive functioning was evaluated with linear regression analysis. In secondary analyses, we explored the relation with vascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease. Low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction were associated with worse performance on information processing speed and attention and executive functioning, in prospective and cross-sectional analyses (standardized betas ranging from -0.20 to -0.10). No significant relation with other cognitive domains was observed. Adjusting for vascular factors slightly attenuated the associations. Low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction accounted for only 2.6% explained variance in cognitive functioning, on top of related vascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease. Bootstrapping analyses show that low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction mediate the

  11. Prescribing Optimal Nutrition and Physical Activity as “First-Line” Interventions for Best Practice Management of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation Associated with Osteoarthritis: Evidence Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Dean

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress underlie chronic osteoarthritis. Although best-practice guidelines for osteoarthritis emphasize self-management including weight control and exercise, the role of lifestyle behavior change to address chronic low-grade inflammation has not been a focus of first-line management. This paper synthesizes the literature that supports the idea in which the Western diet and inactivity are proinflammatory, whereas a plant-based diet and activity are anti-inflammatory, and that low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress underlying osteoarthritis often coexist with lifestyle-related risk factors and conditions. We provide evidence-informed recommendations on how lifestyle behavior change can be integrated into “first-line” osteoarthritis management through teamwork and targeted evidence-based interventions. Healthy living can be exploited to reduce inflammation, oxidative stress, and related pain and disability and improve patients’ overall health. This approach aligns with evidence-based best practice and holds the promise of eliminating or reducing chronic low-grade inflammation, attenuating disease progression, reducing weight, maximizing health by minimizing a patient’s risk or manifestations of other lifestyle-related conditions hallmarked by chronic low-grade inflammation, and reducing the need for medications and surgery. This approach provides an informed cost effective basis for prevention, potential reversal, and management of signs and symptoms of chronic osteoarthritis and has implications for research paradigms in osteoarthritis.

  12. Association of MTOR and AKT Gene Polymorphisms with Susceptibility and Survival of Gastric Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Piao

    Full Text Available The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (PKB, AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway plays a critical role in angiogenesis and cell growth, proliferation, metabolism, migration, differentiation, and apoptosis. Genetic diversity in key factors of this pathway may influence protein function and signal transduction, contributing to disease initiation and progression. Studies suggest that MTOR rs1064261 and AKT rs1130233 polymorphisms are associated with risk and/or prognosis of multiple cancer types. However, this relationship with gastric cancer (GC remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of MTOR and AKT polymorphisms in the risk and prognosis of GC.The Sequenom MassARRAY platform was used to genotype 1842 individuals for MTOR rs1064261 T→C and AKT rs1130233 G→A polymorphisms. ELISA was used to detect Helicobacter pylori antibodies in serum. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to detect total and phosphorylated MTOR and AKT proteins.The MTOR rs1064261 (TC+CC genotype and the AKT rs1130233 (GA+AA genotype were associated with increased risk of GC in men (P = 0.049, P = 0.030. In H. pylori-negative individuals, the AKT rs1130233 GA and (GA+AA genotypes were related to increased risk of atrophic gastritis (AG; P = 0.012, P = 0.024. Notably, the AKT rs1130233 (GA+AA genotype demonstrated significant interactions with H. pylori in disease progression from healthy controls (CON to AG (P = 0.013 and from AG to GC (P = 0.049. Additionally, for individuals with the AKT rs1130233 variant, those in the H. pylori-positive group had higher levels of phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT expression. The AKT rs1130233 genotype was found to be associated with clinicopathological parameters including lymph node metastasis and alcohol drinking (P<0.05.MTOR rs1064261and AKT rs1130233 polymorphisms were associated with increased GC risk in males and increased AG risk in H. pylori-negative individuals. A significant

  13. Epithelial dysplasia of the stomach with gastric immunophenotype shows features of biological aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Pedro; Garrido, Mónica; Gullo, Irene; Baldaia, Helena; Marques, Margarida; Baldaque-Silva, Francisco; Lopes, Joanne; Carneiro, Fátima

    2015-10-01

    Gastric dysplasia is classified as adenomatous/type I (intestinal phenotype) and foveolar or pyloric/type II (gastric phenotype) according to morphological (architectural and cytological) features. The immunophenotypic classification of dysplasia, based on the expression of the mucins, CD10 and CDX2, recognizes the following immunophenotypes: intestinal (MUC2, CD10, and CDX2); gastric (MUC5AC and/or MUC6, absence of CD10, and absent or low expression of CDX2); hybrid (gastric and intestinal markers); and null. Sixty-six cases of nonpolypoid epithelial dysplasia of the stomach were classified according to morphological features (histotype and grade) and immunophenotype. Immunohistochemical staining was performed with antibodies against MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, CD10, CDX2, chromogranin, synaptophysin, Ki-67, and TP53. HER2 alterations were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and silver-enhanced in situ hybridization. By conventional histology, dysplasia was classified as adenomatous/intestinal (n = 42; 64 %) and foveolar or pyloric/gastric (n = 24; 36 %) and graded as low grade (n = 37; 56 %) or high grade (n = 29; 44 %). Immunophenotypic classification showed intestinal (n = 22; 33.3 %), gastric (n = 25; 37.9 %), hybrid (n = 17; 25.8 %), or null (n = 2; 3.0 %) phenotypes. In 20 cases a coexistent intramucosal carcinoma was identified. The intestinal immunophenotype was shown to be significantly associated with low-grade dysplasia (p = 0.001), high expression of CDX2 (p = 0.015), TP53 (p = 0.034), synaptophysin (p = 0.003), and chromogranin (p gastric immunophenotype was significantly associated with high-grade dysplasia (p = 0.001), high Ki-67 proliferative index (p = 0.05), and coexistence of intramucosal carcinoma (p = 0.013). HER2 amplification was observed in 3 cases, typed as gastric or hybrid. Epithelial nonpolypoid dysplasia of the stomach with gastric immunophenotype shows features of biological aggressiveness and may represent the putative precursor lesion in a

  14. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Stomach Cancer Key Points Stomach (gastric) cancer is a ...

  15. Virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori vacA increase markedly gastric mucosal TGF-β1 mRNA expression in gastritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimian, Ghorbanali; Sanei, Mohammad Hosein; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Azadegan-Dehkordi, Fatemeh; Taghikhani, Afshin; Salimzadeh, Loghman; Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Bagheri, Nader

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is the main cause of gastric inflammation. Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) suppress the activation and proliferation of antigen-specific T cells and mediate immunologic tolerance. TGF-β1 was shown to be secreted in a subset of Treg cells known as 'Th3 cells'. These cells have not been sufficiently studied in context to H. pylori-induced inflammation in human gastric mucosa. In this study we therefore, aimed to investigate the expression of TGF-β1 in the context of H. pylori colonization in chronic gastritis, to examine the relationship between it and histopathologic findings and to compare it with virulence factors. Total RNA was extracted from gastric biopsies of 48 H. pylori-infected patients and 38 H. pylori-negative patients with gastritis. Mucosal TGF-β1 mRNA expression in H. pylori-infected and uninfected gastric biopsies was determined by real-time PCR. Presence of vacA, cagA, iceA, babA2 and oipA virulence factors was evaluated using PCR. TGF-β1 mRNA expression was significantly increased in biopsies of H. pylori-infected patients compared to H. pylori-uninfected patients. There was association between virulence factors and TGF-β1 mRNA expression. TGF-β1 mRNA expression in mucosa was significantly higher in patients with vacA s1 and s1m1. TGF-β1 may play an important role in the inflammatory response and promote the chronic and persistent inflammatory changes in the gastric. This may ultimately influence the outcome of H. pylori-associated diseases that arise within the context of gastritis and vacA may suffice to induce expression of TGF-β1 mRNA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rare synchronous association of vestibular schwannoma and indolent insular oligodendroglioma in a patient without neurofibromatosis: controversial issue of timing for surgical treatment of asymptomatic low-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoangeli, Maurizio; Di Rienzo, Alessandro; Colasanti, Roberto; Alvaro, Lorenzo; Nocchi, Niccolò; Polonara, Gabriele; Di Somma, Lucia Giovanna Maria; Zizzi, Antonio; Scarpelli, Marina; Scerrati, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The co-occurrence of a vestibular schwannoma and a low-grade glioma is rare, and even rarer is the association with an oligodendroglioma. Although various authors have addressed the problem of treating patients with incidentally discovered indolent low-grade gliomas, an established protocol does not exist to date. The common approach is to reserve surgery until there is radiological evidence of tumor growth or high-grade transformation. However, because incidental low-grade glioma may represent the first stage of unavoidable pathological progression towards high-grade glioma, early and radical surgical resection should be advocated in order to increase the chance of a "cure" and prolonged survival. This case report supports this view, and suggests reflection on a possible change from a conservative philosophy to preventative surgical treatment.

  17. Rare synchronous association of vestibular schwannoma and indolent insular oligodendroglioma in a patient without neurofibromatosis: controversial issue of timing for surgical treatment of asymptomatic low-grade gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoangeli, Maurizio; Di Rienzo, Alessandro; Colasanti, Roberto; Alvaro, Lorenzo; Nocchi, Niccolò; Polonara, Gabriele; Di Somma, Lucia Giovanna Maria; Zizzi, Antonio; Scarpelli, Marina; Scerrati, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The co-occurrence of a vestibular schwannoma and a low-grade glioma is rare, and even rarer is the association with an oligodendroglioma. Although various authors have addressed the problem of treating patients with incidentally discovered indolent low-grade gliomas, an established protocol does not exist to date. The common approach is to reserve surgery until there is radiological evidence of tumor growth or high-grade transformation. However, because incidental low-grade glioma may represent the first stage of unavoidable pathological progression towards high-grade glioma, early and radical surgical resection should be advocated in order to increase the chance of a “cure” and prolonged survival. This case report supports this view, and suggests reflection on a possible change from a conservative philosophy to preventative surgical treatment. PMID:23180968

  18. Epidemiology of gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Crew, Katherine D.; Neugut, Alfred I.

    2006-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer have fallen dramatically in US and elsewhere over the past several decades. Nonetheless, gastric cancer remains a major public health issue as the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Demographic trends differ by tumor location and histology. While there has been a marked decline in distal, intestinal type gastric cancers, the incidence of proximal, diffuse type adenocarcinomas of the gastric cardia has...

  19. Gastric lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sravani Padala

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal lymphomas represent 5-20% of extra nodal lymphomas and mainly occur in the stomach and small intestine. Clinical findings are not specific, thus often determining a delay in the diagnosis. Imaging features at conventional and cross-sectional imaging must be known by the radiologist since he/she plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis and disease assessment, thus assisting in the choice of the optimal treatment to patients. This review focuses on the wide variety of imaging presentation of esophageal, gastric, and small and large bowel lymphoma presenting their main imaging appearances at conventional and cross-sectional imaging, mainly focusing on computed tomography and magnetic resonance, helping in the choice of the best imaging technique for the disease characterization and assessment and the recognition of potential complications. Gastrointestinal tract is the most common extra nodal site involved by lymphoma. Although lymphoma can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract .The most frequent sites in order of its occurrence are the stomach followed by small intestine and ileocecal region. Gastrointestinal tract lymphoma is usually secondary to the widespread nodal diseases and primary gastrointestinal tract lymphoma is relatively rare. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2481-2486

  20. Stages of Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liver cancer . The following stages are used for gastric cancer: Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ) In stage 0 , abnormal cells are ... check-ups. Treatment Options by Stage Stage 0 (Carcinoma in ... Stage I Gastric Cancer Treatment of stage I gastric cancer may ...

  1. Ganglioglioma: comparison with other low-grade brain tumors Ganglioglioma: estudo comparativo com outros tumores cerebrais primarios de baixo grau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Thadeu Brainer-Lima

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available METHOD: Forty-two patients with low-grade brain tumor and refractory epilepsy were studied. The mean age was 22.3 years. They were divided into two groups: Group A, patients with ganglioglioma (n=19 and group B, patients with other low-grade tumors (n=23 (14 astrocytoma, 6 oligodendroglioma, 2 dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, and 1 xanthoastrocytoma. RESULTS: Age at seizure’s onset was 7 years or less in 73% of the patients in group A and in 30.4% of the patients in group B (p=0.045. Complex partial occurred frequently in group A and B (94.7% versus 82%, respectively. Seizure’s frequency was higher in group B (p=0.002.Computerized tomography (CT was normal in 36.8% of group A patients and abnormal in all group B patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was abnormal in all patients. Surgical removal was complete in 89.5% of the patients in group A and in 78.2% of the patients in group B. CONCLUSION: The association of refractory epilepsy and complex partial seizures, at a relatively low frequency, in young patients potentially normal CT and a MRI hypointense temporal lobe lesion in T1-weighed slices were habitual image findings in ganglioglioma, rather than other low-grade tumor.MÉTODO: Foram estudados 42 pacientes com tumor cerebral primário de baixo grau e epilepsia refratária. A idade média foi 22,3 anos. Eles foram divididos em dois grupos: no grupo A os pacientes com ganglioglioma (n=19 e no grupo B os pacientes com outros tumores primários de crescimento lento (n=23 (14 astrocitomas, 6 oligodendrogliomas, 2 tumores desembrioblástico neuroepitelial e um xantoastrocitoma. RESULTADOS: A idade de início das crises convulsivas foi 7 anos ou menos em 73% dos pacientes no grupo A e 30,4% dos pacientes no grupo B (p=0,045. A crise convulsiva do tipo parcial complexa foi a mais identificada nos grupos A e B (94,7% versus 82%, respectivamente. A freqüência de crise foi mais alta no grupo B (p=0,002. A tomografia computadorizada

  2. Primary pulmonary low-grade angiosarcoma characterized by mismatch between {sup 18}F-FDG FET and dynamic contrast-enhanced CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIm, Eun Young; Lee, Ho Yun; Han, Joung Ho; Choi, Joon Young [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    We report a rare case of primary pulmonary low-grade angiosarcoma on dynamic contrast-enhanced CT and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging. A 38-year-old, asymptomatic woman was hospitalized because of an abnormality on chest radiography. A dynamic contrast-enhanced chest CT showed a 1.2 cm-sized irregular-margined nodule with strong and persistent enhancement in the right lower lobe. The lesion had low metabolic activity on an {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scan. The patient underwent a wedge resection for the lesion, and pathology revealed a primary pulmonary low-grade angiosarcoma.

  3. Radiolabelled leucocyte scintigraphy versus conventional radiological imaging for the management of late, low-grade vascular prosthesis infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erba, P.A. [University of Pisa, and University Hospital of Pisa, Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Translational Research and Advanced Technology in Medicine, Pisa (Italy); University of Pisa, Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Leo, G. [ASL Lecce, U.O. Gestione Rapporti Convenzionali, U.O. Chirurgia Generale, Lecce, Pisa (Italy); University of Pisa, and University Hospital of Pisa, Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Translational Research and Advanced Technology in Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Sollini, M. [Az. Osp. S.Maria Nuova - IRCCS Reggio Emilia, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Oncology and Advanced Technology, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Tascini, C.; Menichetti, F. [University Hospital of Pisa, Division of Infectious Diseases, Pisa (Italy); Boni, R.; Lazzeri, E.; Mariani, G. [University of Pisa, and University Hospital of Pisa, Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Translational Research and Advanced Technology in Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Berchiolli, R.N.; Ferrari, M. [University of Pisa, and University Hospital of Pisa, Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Translational Research and Advanced Technology in Medicine, Pisa (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    In this study we evaluated the diagnostic performance of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-leucocyte ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-WBC) scintigraphy in a consecutive series of 55 patients (46 men and 9 women, mean age 71 ± 9 years, range 50 - 88 years) with a suspected late or a low-grade late vascular prosthesis infection (VPI), also comparing the diagnostic accuracy of WBC with that of other radiological imaging methods. All patients suspected of having VPI underwent clinical examination, blood tests, microbiology, US and CT, and were classified according to the Fitzgerald criteria. A final diagnosis of VPI was established in 47 of the 55 patients, with microbiological confirmation after surgical removal of the prosthesis in 36 of the 47. In the 11 patients with major contraindications to surgery, the final diagnosis was based on microbiology and clinical follow-up of at least 18 months. {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-WBC planar, SPECT and SPECT/CT imaging identified VPI in 43 of 47 patients (20 of these also showed infection at extra-prosthetic sites). In the remaining eight patients without VPI, different sites of infections were found. The use of SPECT/CT images led to a significant reduction in the number of false-positive findings in 37 % of patients (sensitivity and specificity 100 %, versus 85.1 % and 62.5 % for stand-alone SPECT). Sensitivity and specificity were 34 % and 75 % for US, 48.9 % and 83.3 % for CT, and 68.1 % and 62.5 % for the FitzGerald classification. Perioperative mortality was 5.5 %, mid-term mortality 12 %, and long-term mortality 27 %. Survival rates were similar in patients treated with surgery and antimicrobial therapy compared to patients treated with antimicrobial therapy alone (61 % versus 63 %, respectively), while infection eradication at 12 months was significantly higher following surgery (83.3 % versus 45.5 %). {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-WBC SPECT/CT is useful for detecting, localizing and defining the extent of graft infection in patients with late and low-grade late VPI

  4. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the gastric-type with focal nodular growth of the arborizing papillae: a case of high-grade transformation of the gastric-type IPMN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Shinichi; Naitoh, Yoshihisa; Ogawa, Fumihiro; Shimizu, Yoshihiko; Shimizu, Michio; Yasumoto, Akihiro; Koyama, Isamu

    2006-07-01

    We present a case of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas, demonstrating a process of high-grade transformation of the gastric-type IPMN. An 83-year-old Japanese woman underwent pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy for removal of a multicystic mass of the pancreas head, which had been followed up for 7 years. The removed tumor was a low-grade gastric-type IPMN spreading in the branch ducts, focally forming an intraluminal nodular lesion. The nodular lesion was comprised of arborizing papillotubular proliferation of cuboidal to columnar epithelia with high-grade atypia, and was characterized by diffuse MUC1 expression and a gastric mucin phenotype (focal MUC5AC and MUC6 expressions). Therefore, the nodular lesion was consistent with the pancreatobiliary-type IPMN, and the present case suggests that the low-grade gastric-type IPMN may progress to a focal intraductal carcinoma over the years, and the pancreatobiliary-type IPMN may be one of the forms of such high-grade transformation of the gastric-type IPMN. One of the cystic lesions was an oligocystic-type serous cystic neoplasm (serous cystadenoma), which might be an incidental concomitance or have a common basis.

  5. Diffuse low-grade glioma: a review on the new molecular classification, natural history and current management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-López, P D; Corrales-García, E M; Martino, J; Lastra-Aras, E; Dueñas-Polo, M T

    2017-03-02

    The management of diffuse supratentorial WHO grade II glioma remains a challenge because of the infiltrative nature of the tumor, which precludes curative therapy after total or even supratotal resection. When possible, functional-guided resection is the preferred initial treatment. Total and subtotal resections correlate with increased overall survival. High-risk patients (age >40, partial resection), especially IDH-mutated and 1p19q-codeleted oligodendroglial lesions, benefit from surgery plus adjuvant chemoradiation. Under the new 2016 WHO brain tumor classification, which now incorporates molecular parameters, all diffusely infiltrating gliomas are grouped together since they share specific genetic mutations and prognostic factors. Although low-grade gliomas cannot be regarded as benign tumors, large observational studies have shown that median survival can actually be doubled if an early, aggressive, multi-stage and personalized therapy is applied, as compared to prior wait-and-see policy series. Patients need an honest long-term therapeutic strategy that should ideally anticipate neurological, cognitive and histopathologic worsening.

  6. Electrochemical studies on interplay of mineralogical variation and particle size on bioleaching low grade complex sulphide ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. A. OLUBAMBI; J. H. POTGIETER; S. NDLOVU; J. O. BORODE

    2009-01-01

    The interplay of mineralogical variation and mineral phase distribution within varying particle sizes on the dissolution behaviour of a low grade complex sulphide ore was investigated through bioleaching experiments and electrochemical technique. Investigations were carried out utilizing mineralogical data on the variations in mineral and phase distribution within particle sizes of<53 μm, 53-75 μm, 75-106 μm and 106-150 μm in mixed mesophilic cultures of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans. Electrochemical behaviour was studied using particulate electrodes from the four varying particle sizes and from massive electrodes prepared from the two major sulphide mineral rich phases (sphalerite-rich and galena-rich) and a complex mineralogical phase of the bulk ore. Bioleaching studies reveal the highest recoveries at a particle size of 75 μm, while electrochemical investigations reveal the highest dissolution at particle size of 106 μm. Electrochemical results show that sphalerite rich phase has the highest dissolution rate while galena-rich complex phase has the least. SEM studies confirm the highest bacterial attack at the sphalerite-rich phase. The discrepancies between the dissolutions within particle sizes obtained from bioleaching experiments and electrochemical studies are consistent with and attributed both to the physical and mineralogical influences. Electrochemical behaviour is influenced and controlled by galvanic interaction resulting from mineralogical variation, while bioleaching behaviour is influenced by mineralogical variation as well as physical effect of particle size.

  7. Pollution control and metal resource recovery for low grade automobile shredder residue: a mechanism, bioavailability and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jiwan; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2015-04-01

    Automobile shredder residue (ASR) is considered as hazardous waste in Japan and European countries due to presence of heavy metals. This study was carried on the extraction characteristics of heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr) from automobile shredder residue (ASR). The effects of pH, temperature, particle size, and liquid/solid ratio (L/S) on the extraction of heavy metals were investigated. The recovery rate of Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr increased with increasing extraction temperature and L/S ratio. The lowest pH 2, the highest L/S ratio, and the smallest particle size showed the highest recovery of heavy metals from ASR. The highest recovery rates were in the following order: Mn > Ni > Cr > Fe. Reduction of mobility factor for the heavy metals was observed in all the size fractions after the recovery. The results of the kinetic analysis for various experimental conditions supported that the reaction rate of the recovery process followed a second order reaction model (R(2) ⩾ 0.95). The high availability of water-soluble fractions of Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr from the low grade ASR could be potential hazards to the environment. Bioavailability and toxicity risk of heavy metals reduced significantly with pH 2 of distilled water. However, water is a cost-effective extracting agent for the recovery of heavy metals and it could be useful for reducing the toxicity of ASR.

  8. A Case of Metastatic Low-Grade Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma Treated with Letrozole after Ovarian Ablation by Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kyung Ho; Shin, Jung A; Jung, Joo Hyuk; Jung, Hae Won; Lee, Hye Ran; Chang, Sunhee; Park, Ji Yeon; Yi, Seong Yoon

    2015-10-01

    A 50-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to multiple lung nodules detected incidentally on a chest X-ray. A video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy revealed low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LG-ESS). She had undergone a simple hysterectomy 1 year earlier owing to a diagnosis of adenomyosis. A review of her previous hysterectomy specimen showed not endometriosis but LG-ESS. According to the patient's levels of serum follicle stimulating hormone and estradiol, she was in the premenopausal state with retained and normally functioning ovaries. She then underwent ovarian ablation by radiotherapy, after which she was administered 2.5 mg of letrozole once per day. Three months later, the size of the metastatic nodules in both lungs had decreased. The patient was followed up for 24 months while continuing on letrozole, and maintained a partial remission. We report herein on a case of metastatic LG-ESS treated with letrozole after ovarian ablation by radiotherapy.

  9. Spontaneous and Fas-induced apoptosis of low-grade MDS erythroid precursors involves the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyan, E; Frisan, E; Beyne-Rauzy, O; Deschemin, J-C; Pierre-Eugene, C; Randriamampita, C; Dubart-Kupperschmitt, A; Garrido, C; Dreyfus, F; Mayeux, P; Lacombe, C; Solary, E; Fontenay, M

    2008-10-01

    Spontaneous apoptosis of bone marrow erythroid precursors accounts for the anemia that characterizes most low-grade myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We have shown that death of these precursors involved the Fas-dependent activation of caspase-8. To explore the pathway leading from caspase-8 activation to apoptosis, we transduced MDS bone marrow CD34(+) cells with a lentivirus encoding wild-type (WT) or endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-targeted Bcl-2 protein before inducing their erythroid differentiation. Both WT-Bcl-2 and ER-targeted Bcl-2 prevented spontaneous and Fas-dependent apoptosis in MDS erythroid precursors. ER-targeted Bcl-2 inhibited mitochondrial membrane depolarization and cytochrome c release in MDS erythroid precursors undergoing apoptosis, indicating a role for the ER in the death pathway, upstream of the mitochondria. MDS erythroid precursors demonstrated elevated ER Ca(2+) stores and these stores remained unaffected by ER-targeted Bcl-2. The ER-associated protein Bcl-2-associated protein (BAP) 31 was cleaved by caspase-8 in MDS erythroid precursors undergoing apoptosis. The protective effect of ER-targeted Bcl-2 toward spontaneous and Fas-induced apoptosis correlated with inhibition of BAP31 cleavage. A protective effect of erythropoietin against Fas-induced BAP31 cleavage and apoptosis was observed. We propose that apoptosis of MDS erythroid precursors involves the ER, downstream of Fas and upstream of the mitochondria, through the cleavage of the ER-associated BAP31 protein.

  10. New concepts in the management of diffuse low-grade glioma: Proposal of a multistage and individualized therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffau, Hugues; Taillandier, Luc

    2015-03-01

    Diffuse low-grade glioma grows, migrates along white matter tracts, and progresses to high-grade glioma. Rather than a "wait and see" policy, an aggressive attitude is now recommended, with early surgery as the first therapy. Intraoperative mapping, with maximal resection according to functional boundaries, is associated with a longer overall survival (OS) while minimizing morbidity. However, most studies have investigated the role of only one specific treatment (surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy) without taking a global view of managing the cumulative time while preserving quality of life (QoL) versus time to anaplastic transformation. Our aim is to switch towards a more holistic concept based upon the anticipation of a personalized and long-term multistage therapeutic approach, with online adaptation of the strategy over the years using feedback from clinical, radiological, and histomolecular monitoring. This dynamic strategy challenges the traditional approach by proposing earlier therapy, by repeating treatments, and by reversing the classical order of therapies (eg, neoadjuvant chemotherapy when maximal resection is impossible, no early radiotherapy) to improve OS and QoL. New individualized management strategies should deal with the interactions between the course of this chronic disease, reaction brain remapping, and oncofunctional modulation elicited by serial treatments. This philosophy supports a personalized, functional, and preventive neuro-oncology. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Expression of serum human epididymal secretory protein E4 at low grade and high grade serous carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Fei Zhu; Lin-Sheng He; Zhen-Dong Zhang; Qing-Shui Huang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of serum human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) in differential diagnosis of patients with low-grade serous (LGSC) and high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) serous ovarian cancer. Methods: LGSC and HGSC serous ovarian cancer were diagnosed by the two-tier grade system, serum levels of HE4 and carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) were measured by ELISA and radioisotope method, respectively in 60 serous ovarian cancer patients. HE4 and TP53 protein in cancer tissue were measured by immunohistochemical method. Results: The difference in density of HE4 and TP53 protein was significant between LGSC and HGSC tissue, while serum CA125 did not show significant difference between different serum samples. There was significant difference in serum HE4 levels between LGSC and HGSC, and the result was different within FIGO (I+II) stage, suggesting HE4 was not a reliable biomarker for the discrimination between LGSC and HGSC. HE4 had potential as a biomarker for the discrimination between LGSC and HGSC but the role in early diagnosis was limited. Conclusions: HE4 may be a reliable marker for differential diagnosis of LGSC and HGSC. But its role in early diagnosis of LGSC and HGSC need to be confirmed from the perspective of two-tier grade system.

  12. Comparison of microbial communities in three different mine drainages and their bioleaching efficiencies to low grade of chalcopyrite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Hua-qun; QIU Guan-zhou; WANG Dian-zuo; CAO Lin-hui; DAI Zhi-min; WANG Jie-wei; LIU Xue-duan

    2007-01-01

    Microbial community diversities in the drainage from three mines (Dexing Copper Mine, Qibaoshan Copper Mine and Yaogangxian Tungsten Mine, China) were analyzed using 16S rDNA PCR-RFLP approach. The efficiencies of chalcopyrite bioleaching were compared using enrichment of the three cultures. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the dominant microorganisms are clustered with the Proteobacteria, the remaining is affiliated with Nitrospira, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria.At the genus level, Acidithiobacillus is the dominant group in both YTW and QBS samples, while Spingomonas is dominant in YGX sample. Moreover, the principal component analysis (PCA) reveals that QBS and YTW have similar geochemical character and microbial communities. The results also show that pH value and tungsten concentration play a key role in microbial community distribution and relative abundance. The bioleaching efficiency of the enrichment cultures from YTW and QBS is similar. After 15 d,the bioleaching rates of low grade chalcopyrite (0.99%) are both up to 99.5% when using 10 g/L pulp density due to the similar microbial composition of YTW and QBS. Moreover, the leaching efficiencies of enrichment cultures containing multiple bioleaching microorganisms are higher than that of pure culture Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

  13. Health related quality of life (HRQOL) in long-term survivors of pediatric low grade gliomas (LGGs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Chika R; Youland, Ryan S; Chioreso, Catherine; Wetjen, Nicholas; NageswaraRao, Amulya; Keating, Gesina; Laack, Nadia N

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and the impact of treatment on HRQOL in long-term survivors of pediatric low-grade gliomas (LGGs) using an adult instrument. QOL of 121 patients with a diagnosis of LGG from the Mayo Clinic were assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ-C30 for cancer in general) and (EORTC QLQ-BN20 specific for brain tumors). Median follow-up was 21.9 years for the participants. Median age at diagnosis was 11.8 years and at assessment was 33 years. Mean (standard deviation) global QOL score for the study was 78 (18) and 76.4 (22.8) in a reference population of healthy adults. Using QLQ-C30, radiation treated patients compared to non-radiation patients reported lower physical functioning (p = 0.002), role functioning (p = 0.004), and more constipation problems (p related to brain tumors like visual disorders and motor dysfunction. Global QOL of long-term survivors of pediatric LGGs is similar to that of a reference population of healthy adults. The following tumor and treatment related factors were most consistently associated with poorer QOL: CNS tumor location, post-operative radiation, and tumor recurrence. Future studies are necessary to identify strategies to improve QOL in this subgroup of patients.

  14. Proposed Partial Repowering of a Coal-Fired Power Plant Using Low-Grade Solar Thermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Jin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available

    In this paper, a hybrid power-generation system with integration of solar heat at approximately 300 ⁰C was proposed for a coal-fired power plant. The system was investigated with the aid of energy-utilization diagram methodology (EUD methodology. In this research, instead of steam, low-grade solar heat was utilized to heat the feed water, leading to an improvement in the plant thermodynamic performance. The net annual solar-to-electric efficiency was recorded as over 15%. Solar feed-water heaters can operate in line with previously used feed-water heaters during the solar off-design period. A preliminary economic evaluation demonstrated that the increased capital cost of the solar collectors may be approximately $2,007/kWe. The promising results indicated that the proposed thermal cycle offers an approach that integrates mid-temperature solar heat to partially repower existing coal-fired power plants.


  15. Comprehensive recovery of gold and base-metal sulfide minerals from a low-grade refractory ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-juan Li; Shuang Liu; Yong-sheng Song; Jian-kang Wen; Gui-ying Zhou; and Yong Chen

    2016-01-01

    The comprehensive recovery of small amounts of valuable minerals such as gold and base-metal sulfide minerals from a low-grade refractory ore was investigated. The following treatment strategy was applied to a sample of this ore: gold flotation–gold concen-trate leaching–lead and zinc flotation from the gold concentrate leaching residue. Closed-circuit trials of gold flotation yielded a gold concen-trate that assayed at 40.23 g·t−1Au with a recovery of 86.25%. The gold concentrate leaching rate was 98.76%. Two variants of lead-zinc flotation from the residue—preferential flotation of lead and zinc and bulk flotation of lead and zinc—were tested using the middling proc-essing method. Foam from the reflotation was returned to the lead rougher flotation or lead–zinc bulk flotation, whereas middlings from re-flotation were discarded. Sulfur concentrate was a byproduct. The combined strategy of flotation, leaching, and flotation is recommended for the treatment of this kind of ore.

  16. Continuous monitoring of regional function by a miniaturized ultrasound transducer allows early quantification of low-grade myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyler, Stefan; Pischke, Søren E; Halvorsen, Per Steinar; Espinoza, Andreas; Bergsland, Jacob; Tønnessen, Tor Inge; Fosse, Erik; Skulstad, Helge

    2015-04-01

    Sensitive methods for the early detection of myocardial dysfunction are still needed, as ischemia is a leading cause of decreased ventricular function during and after heart surgery. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that low-grade ischemia could be detected quantitatively by a miniaturized epicardial ultrasound transducer (Ø = 3 mm), allowing continuous monitoring. In 10 pigs, transducers were positioned in the left anterior descending and circumflex coronary artery areas. Left ventricular pressure was obtained by a micromanometer. The left internal mammary artery was grafted to the left anterior descending coronary artery, which was occluded proximal to the anastomosis. Left internal mammary artery flow was stepwise reduced by 25%, 50%, and 75% for 18 min each. From the transducers, M-mode traces were obtained, allowing continuous tissue velocity traces and displacement measurements. Regional work was assessed as left ventricular pressure-displacement loop area. Tissue lactate measured from intramyocardial microdialysis was used as reference method to detect ischemia. All steps of coronary flow reduction demonstrated reduced peak systolic velocity (P transducer allowed the precise detection of different levels of coronary flow reduction. The results also showed a quantitative and linear relationship among coronary flow, ischemia, and myocardial function. Thus, the ultrasound transducer has the potential to improve the monitoring of myocardial ischemia and to detect graft failure during and after heart surgery. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Concurrent TERT promoter and BRAF V600E mutation in epithelioid glioblastoma and concomitant low-grade astrocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Nozomi; Nakajima, Nozomi; Yamazaki, Tatsuya; Nagano, Takuro; Kagoshima, Kaie; Nobusawa, Sumihito; Ikota, Hayato; Yokoo, Hideaki

    2017-02-01

    Epithelioid glioblastoma (E-GBM) is a rare variant of glioblastoma (GBM), characterized by epithelioid cells with eosinophilic round cytoplasm devoid of stellate cytoplasmic processes. A number of studies have demonstrated that more than half of E-GBMs harbor a valine to glutamic acid substitution at position 600 of the serine/threonine-protein kinase BRAF (BRAF V600E). However, there are no previous reports on E-GBM with telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutation in addition to BRAF V600E mutation. Here, we report an E-GBM case in an 18-year-old man with BRAF V600E and TERT promoter mutations. The tumor composed of 80% E-GBM and 20% diffuse astrocytoma-like components, and BRAF V600E and TERT promoter mutations were detected in both. E-GBM generally arises as a primary lesion; however, a few previous cases have been demonstrated to accompany low-grade areas. Demonstration of concurrent BRAF V600E and TERT promoter mutations in low- and high-grade lesions strongly suggested their identical origin, and acquisition of each mutation may be an early event, possibly playing a pivotal role in the genesis and subsequent progression to E-GBM.

  18. Economic assessment of greenhouse gas reduction through low-grade waste heat recovery using organic Rankine cycle (ORC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imran, Muhammad; Park, Byung Sik; Kim, Hyouck Ju; Usman, Muhammad [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Hyun [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Low-grade waste heat recovery technologies reduce the environmental impact of fossil fuels and improve overall efficiency. This paper presents the economic assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction through waste heat recovery using organic Rankine cycle (ORC). The ORC engine is one of the mature low temperature heat engines. The low boiling temperature of organic working fluid enables ORC to recover low-temperature waste heat. The recovered waste heat is utilized to produce electricity and hot water. The GHG emissions for equivalent power and hot water from three fossil fuels-coal, natural gas, and diesel oil-are estimated using the fuel analysis approach and corresponding emission factors. The relative decrease in GHG emission is calculated using fossil fuels as the base case. The total cost of the ORC system is used to analyze the GHG reduction cost for each of the considered fossil fuels. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted to investigate the effect of the key parameter of the ORC system on the cost of GHG reduction. Throughout the 20-year life cycle of the ORC plant, the GHG reduction cost for R245fa is 0.02 $/kg to 0.04 $/kg and that for pentane is 0.04 $/kg to 0.05 $/kg. The working fluid, evaporation pressure, and pinch point temperature difference considerably affect the GHG emission.

  19. Imaging and Outcomes for a New Entity: Low-Grade Sinonasal Sarcoma with Neural and Myogenic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Richard B.; Wiggins, Richard H.; Witt, Benjamin L.; Dundar, Yusuf; Johnston, Tawni M.; Hunt, Jason P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Low-grade sinonasal sarcoma with neural and myogenic features (LGSSNMF) is a new, rare tumor. Our goal is to describe the imaging characteristics and surgical outcomes of this unique skull base malignancy. Design Retrospective case series. Setting Academic medical center. Participants There were three patients who met inclusion criteria with a confirmed LGSSNMF. Main Outcome Measures Imaging and histopathological characteristics, treatments, survival and recurrence outcomes, complications, morbidity, and mortality. Results Patients presented with diplopia, facial discomfort, a supraorbital mass, and nasal obstruction. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography imaging in all cases showed an enhancing sinonasal mass with associated hyperostotic bone formation that involved the frontal sinus, invaded the lamina papyracea and anterior skull base, and had intracranial extension. One patient underwent a purely endoscopic surgical resection and the second underwent a craniofacial resection, while the last is pending treatment. All patients recovered well, without morbidity or long-term complications, and are currently without evidence of disease (mean follow-up of 2.1 years). One patient recurred after 17 months and underwent a repeat endoscopic skull base and dural resection. Conclusions The surgical outcomes and imaging of this unique, locally aggressive skull base tumor are characterized. PMID:28229035

  20. Comprehensive recovery of gold and base-metal sulfide minerals from a low-grade refractory ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-juan; Liu, Shuang; Song, Yong-sheng; Wen, Jian-kang; Zhou, Gui-ying; Chen, Yong

    2016-12-01

    The comprehensive recovery of small amounts of valuable minerals such as gold and base-metal sulfide minerals from a low-grade refractory ore was investigated. The following treatment strategy was applied to a sample of this ore: gold flotation-gold concentrate leaching-lead and zinc flotation from the gold concentrate leaching residue. Closed-circuit trials of gold flotation yielded a gold concentrate that assayed at 40.23 g·t-1 Au with a recovery of 86.25%. The gold concentrate leaching rate was 98.76%. Two variants of lead-zinc flotation from the residue—preferential flotation of lead and zinc and bulk flotation of lead and zinc—were tested using the middling processing method. Foam from the reflotation was returned to the lead rougher flotation or lead-zinc bulk flotation, whereas middlings from reflotation were discarded. Sulfur concentrate was a byproduct. The combined strategy of flotation, leaching, and flotation is recommended for the treatment of this kind of ore.

  1. Extraction of valuable metals from low-grade nickeliferous laterite ore by reduction roasting-ammonia leaching method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Sheng-li; GUO Xue-yi; SHI Wen-tang; LI Dong

    2010-01-01

    Nickel and cobalt were extracted from low-grade nickeliferous laterite ore using a reduction roasting-ammonia leaching method.The reduction roasting-ammonia leaching experimental tests were chiefly introduced,by which fine coal was used as a reductant.The results show that the optimum process conditions are confirmed as follows: in reduction roasting process,the mass fraction of reduetant in the ore is 10%,roasting time is 120 min,roasting temperature is 1023-1073 K; in ammonia leaching process,the liquid-to-solid ratio is 4:1(mL/g),leaching temperature is 313 K,leaching time is 120 min,and concentration ratio of NH3 to CO2is 90 g/L:60 g/L.Under the optimum conditions,leaching efficiencies of nickel and cobalt are 86.25% and 60.84%,respectively.Therefore,nickel and cobalt can be effectively reclaimed,and the leaching agent can be also recycled at room temperature and normal pressure.

  2. Pathophysiological basis for compromised health beyond generations: role of maternal high-fat diet and low-grade chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Pan, Yuan-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Early exposure to a fat-enriched diet programs the developmental profile and thus is associated with disease susceptibility in subsequent generations. Chronic low-grade inflammation, resulting from maternal high-fat diet, is activated in the fetal environment and in many organs of offspring, including placenta, adipose, liver, vascular system and brain. The prevalence of an inflammatory response is highly associated with obesity incidence, cardiovascular diseases, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and brain damage. Substantial studies using high-fat model have consistently demonstrated the incidence of such inflammatory reactions; however, the potential contribution of active inflammation toward the physiological outcomes and developmental diseases is neither discussed in depth nor systemically integrated. Therefore, we aim to summarize the current findings in regards to how a maternal high-fat diet influences the inflammatory status, and probable pathogenic effects on the offspring. More importantly, since limited research has been conducted to reveal the epigenetic regulation of these inflammatory markers by maternal high-fat diet, we sincerely hope that our review will not only outline the pathophysiological relevance of inflammation but also identify a future direction for mechanistic investigation and clinical application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Local applications of GM-CSF induce the recruitment of immune cells in cervical low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Pascale; Doyen, Jean; Capelle, Xavier; Arafa, Mohammad; Renoux, Virginie; Bisig, Bettina; Seidel, Laurence; Evrard, Brigitte; Bousarghin, Latifa; Gerday, Colette; Boniver, Jacques; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Delvenne, Philippe; Jacobs, Nathalie

    2010-08-01

    Quantitative alterations of antigen-presenting cells (APC) in (pre)neoplastic lesions of the uterine cervix associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection suggest a diminished capacity to capture viral antigens and to induce a protective immune response. To test whether a cervical application of GM-CSF could restore an immune response against HPV in women with cervical low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), we performed two clinical trials with 11 healthy women and 15 patients with LSIL. GM-CSF applications were well tolerated in all enrolled women, and no difference in toxicity between the treated and placebo groups was observed during the follow-up (until 30 months). Interestingly, in the GM-CSF treated group, a significant increase of APC and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte infiltration was observed in the cervical biopsies with no change in regulatory T cell numbers. All the HPV16(+) patients exhibited an immune response against HPV16 after GM-CSF applications, as shown by NK and/or T cells producing IFN-gamma whereas no cellular immune response was observed before the treatment. Moreover, the anti-virus-like particles antibody titers also increased after the treatment. These encouraging results obtained from a limited number of subjects justify further study on the therapeutic effect of APC in cervical (pre)neoplastic lesions.

  4. Progression and persistence of low-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions in women living with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeier, Michèle Desiré; Botha, Matthys Hendrik; van der Merwe, Frederick Haynes; Eshun-Wilson, Ingrid; van Schalkwyk, Marije; la Grange, Marina; Mason, Deidre; Louw, Mercia; Nachega, Jean B

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the progression and persistence of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women. Study participants for this retrospective cohort study were 1,720 women who had LSIL as their first abnormal Pap smear. A comparison of the survival of LSIL without progression to high-grade SIL as progression-free time and the survival of SIL without clearance of the lesion as persistence of SIL was done for women of HIV-positive, HIV-negative, or unknown status using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was applied to identify independent risk factors for disease progression or persistence. We found progression of LSIL not different between HIV groups but that persistence occurred more in HIV-positive women (63.8% vs 35.0%, p treatment and age (hazard ratio = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.29-2.27, p treatment reduced the risk for progression and persistence of LSIL in HIV-infected women.

  5. An Innovative Approach to Separate Iron Oxide Concentrate from High-sulfur and Low-grade Pyrite Cinders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong LI; Fu-chun ZHOU; Zhao-xin ZHOU; Zhi-han TIAN; Chao YANG; Xi-ke TIAN

    2016-01-01

    High-sulfur and low-grade pyrite cinders are the waste products of sulfuric acid manufacturing plants. Many valuable components,such as iron oxide,are contained in pyrite cinders and difficult to be separated and puri-fied j ust via the high temperature roasting process.Considering this,an innovative method including water-washing, aqua regia leaching,hydrothermal alkali activation and acid-washing was developed.And the effects of different pa-rameters on recovery efficiency of iron oxide were systematically investigated.The optimum parameters were pro-posed as follows:water rinse-leaching at room temperature for 5-20 min,and melting at 160 ℃ for 2.0 h with NaOH (concentration of 30 mass%),followed by leaching with aqua regia solution (3.0 vol.%)for 1.0 h.After the treatment,the content of iron oxides increased from 54.3 to 96.0 mass% with the recovery rate exceeding 85%. Meanwhile,calcium sulphate was recovered as the high value-added products by alkali extraction liquid.Further-more,the phase transformation and microstructure of the samples in the process were studied by physicochemical methods to reveal the separation mechanisms of different components in the pyrite cinders.

  6. Relationship between ghrelin, Helicobacter pylori and gastric mucosal atrophy in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Hitomi; Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Sakao, Yukitoshi; Sahara, Shu; Ohashi, Naro; Kato, Akihiko; Sugimoto, Ken; Furuta, Takahisa; Andoh, Akira; Sakao, Tadashi; Yasuda, Hideo

    2016-12-21

    To investigate the relationship between plasma ghrelin level, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection status and the severity of atrophy in hemodialysis patients. One hundred eights patients who received hemodialysis and 13 non-hemodialysis H. pylori-negative controls underwent gastroduodenoscopy to evaluate the severity of gastric atrophy. Serum levels of pepsinogen (PG) were measured as serum markers of gastric atrophy. H. pylori infection was evaluated by anti-H. pylori IgG antibody, rapid urease test and culture test. We classified H. pylori infection status as non-infection, present infection and past infection. In addition, plasma acyl-ghrelin and desacyl-ghrelin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Infection rate of H. pylori was 45.4% (49/108). Acyl-ghrelin level in the non-infection group (39.4 ± 23.0 fmol/mL) was significantly higher than in the past (23.4 ± 19.9 fmol/mL, P = 0.005) and present infection groups (19.5 ± 14.0 fmol/mL, P atrophy (both P atrophy (24.5 ± 23.1 fmol/mL, 20.2 ± 14.9 fmol/mL and 18.3 ± 11.8 fmol/mL) than in those with non-atrophy (39.4 ± 22.2 fmol/mL, P = 0.039, P = 0.002 and P atrophy related to H. pylori infection.

  7. Clinicopathological Characteristics of Synchronous Multiple Gastric Cancers in Chinese: An Analysis of 44 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-shan Zhang; Cai-gang Liu; Yang Lu; Feng Jin; Hui-mian Xu; Ping Lu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics of the primary synchronous multiple gastric cancers (SMGC) in Chinese.Methods: Clinicopathologic data of patients with histologically confirmed gastric cancer who received surgical operations in our department between 1993 and 2002 were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Clinicopathologic characteristics including gender, age, tumor location, differentiation and staging between patients with SMGC and those with solitary gastric cancer (SGC) were compared. Synchronous multiple and solitary gastric cancers were diagnosed and classified based on radiography upper endoscopy and histology. All the cases were followed up after the operation and 5-year survival rate between the two groups was compared.Results: A total of 871 patients with gastric cancer were included. Synchronous multiple gastric cancers were found in 44 (5.1%) of these cases. More of the diagnose in the early stage to SMGC than to SGC. SMGC were more likely to be located at the lower third stomach and of a low grade differentiation, compared to SGC. However, there were no significant differences in the rates of lymph node metastasis and lymphatic vessel invasion between multiple and solitary gastric cancers. In addition, the 5-year survival rate did not difference between the two groups.Conclusion: The whole stomach should be detected carefully to avoid missing out the multiple gastric cancers. Concerning the treatment of multiple gastric cancer, the sufficient extent of the stomach wall resection was necessary, and the extent of lymphadenectomy was supposed to follow the operation for the solitary gastric cancer according to the staging of the cancer lesions.

  8. Radiological features in paediatric primary gastric MALT lymphoma and association with Helicobacter pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurugoglu, Sebuh; Mihmanli, Ismail; Aksoy, Hilmi; Korman, Ugur [Department of Radiology, University of Istanbul, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty (Turkey); Celkan, Tiraje [Department of Paediatric Oncology, University of Istanbul, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey); Aki, Hilal [Department of Pathology, University of Istanbul, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2002-02-01

    Primary malignant tumours of the stomach are very rare in children, most being lymphomas and sarcomas. The majority of primary gastric lymphomas are high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and are of B-cell origin. However, a significant number are low-grade B-cell lymphomas that are derived from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) that is not found in the normal stomach. Helicobacter pylori infection predisposes to the development of MALT in the stomach and provides the pathogenic background for MALT-type lymphomagenesis. To our knowledge, only eight paediatric cases of primary gastric lymphoma have been described. The diagnosis and follow-up of gastric lymphoma are mainly made by endoscopy. Nevertheless, radiologists must be aware of this disease because it may be observed on radiological examinations that are performed for non-specific upper digestive symptoms in children. (orig.)

  9. Long-term omeprazole and esomeprazole treatment does not significantly increase gastric epithelial cell proliferation and epithelial growth factor receptor expression and has no effect on apoptosis and p53 expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Istvan Hritz; Laszlo Herszenyi; Bela Molnar; Zsolt Tulassay; Laszlo Pronai

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of proton pump inhibitor (PPI)treatment on patients with reflux esophagitis and its in vivo effect on apoptosis, p53- and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression.METHODS: After informed consent was obtained, gastric biopsies of the antrum were taken from patients with reflux oesophagitis prior to and after 6 mo of 20 mg omeprazole (n = 14) or 40 mg esomeprazole (n = 12) therapy.Patients did not take any other medications known to affect the gastric mucosa. All patients were Helicobacter pylori negative as confirmed by rapid urease test and histology,respectively. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, EGFR, and p53expression were measured by immunohistochemical techniques. At least 600 glandular epithelial cells were encountered and results were expressed as percentage of total cells counted. Was considered statistically significant.RESULTS: Although there was a trend towards increase of cell proliferation and EGFR expression both in omeprazole and esomeprazole treated group, the difference was not statistically significant. Neither apoptosis nor p53 expression was affected.CONCLUSION: Long-term PPI treatment does not significantly increase gastric epithelial cell proliferation and EGFR expression and has no effect on apoptosis and p53 expression.

  10. Impact of physical inactivity on adipose tissue low-grade inflammation in first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, Mette Paulli; Alibegovic, Amra Ciric

    2011-01-01

    First-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with type 2 diabetes may exhibit a disproportionately elevated risk of developing insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes when exposed to physical inactivity, which to some unknown extent may involve low-grade inflammation. We investigated whether...

  11. A healthy diet is associated with less endothelial dysfunction and less low-grade inflammation over a 7-year period in adults at risk of cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henry, R.M.A.; Ferreira, I.; Greevenbroek, van M.M.J.; Kallen, van der C.J.H.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Bussel, van B.C.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A healthy diet rich in fish, fruit, and vegetables, but moderate in alcohol and low in dairy products and meat, has been associated with a lower rate of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). The underlying mechanisms, however, remain unclear. Endothelial dysfunction and low-grade

  12. Preparation and Characterization of Mg1-xB2 Bulk Samples and Cu/Nb Sheathed Wires with Low Grade Amorphous Boron Powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Alexiou, Aikaterini; Rubesova, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    MgB2 bulk and wire samples were prepared using cheap, low grade amorphous boron powders. Based on chemical analysis performed on the starting reagents, three nominal stoichiometries were studied. It was found that the structural and superconducting properties of the bulk samples were not affected...

  13. Alcohol and red wine consumption, but not fruit, vegetables, fish or dairy products, are associated with less endothelial dysfunction and less low-grade inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussel, van B.C.T.; Henry, R.M.A.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Dekker, J.M.; Nijpels, G.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation are key phenomena in the pathobiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Their dietary modification might explain the observed reduction in CVD that has been associated with a healthy diet rich in fruit, vegetables and fish, low in dairy

  14. Dietary proteins improve endothelial function under fasting conditions but not in the postprandial state, with no effects on markers of low-grade inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F. M.; Dopheide, Janneke; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Brink, Elizabeth J.; de Leeuw, Peter W.; Schalkwijk, Casper G.; van Baak, Marleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction (ED) and low-grade inflammation (LGI) have a role in the development of CVD. The two studies reported here explored the effects of dietary proteins and carbohydrates on markers of ED and LGI in overweight/obese individuals with untreated elevated blood pressure. In the first

  15. Rare synchronous association of vestibular schwannoma and indolent insular oligodendroglioma in a patient without neurofibromatosis: controversial issue of timing for surgical treatment of asymptomatic low-grade gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizzi A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Maurizio Iacoangeli,1 Alessandro Di Rienzo,1 Roberto Colasanti,1 Lorenzo Alvaro,1 Niccolò Nocchi,1 Gabriele Polonara,2 Lucia Giovanna Maria Di Somma,1 Antonio Zizzi,3 Marina Scarpelli,3 Massimo Scerrati11Department of Neurosurgery, 2Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, 3Department of Pathology, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Umberto I General Hospital, Ancona, ItalyAbstract: The co-occurrence of a vestibular schwannoma and a low-grade glioma is rare, and even rarer is the association with an oligodendroglioma. Although various authors have addressed the problem of treating patients with incidentally discovered indolent low-grade gliomas, an established protocol does not exist to date. The common approach is to reserve surgery until there is radiological evidence of tumor growth or high-grade transformation. However, because incidental low-grade glioma may represent the first stage of unavoidable pathological progression towards high-grade glioma, early and radical surgical resection should be advocated in order to increase the chance of a "cure" and prolonged survival. This case report supports this view, and suggests reflection on a possible change from a conservative philosophy to preventative surgical treatment.Keywords: multiple primary intracranial tumors, vestibular schwannoma, oligodendroglioma, indolent low grade gliomas, incidentaloma, surgery

  16. Lifestyle and nutritional imbalances associated with Western diseases : causes and consequences of chronic systemic low-grade inflammation in an evolutionary context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Nunez, Begona; Pruimboom, Leo; Dijck-Brouwer, D.A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    In this review, we focus on lifestyle changes, especially dietary habits, that are at the basis of chronic systemic low grade inflammation, insulin resistance and Western diseases. Our sensitivity to develop insulin resistance traces back to our rapid brain growth in the past 2.5 million years. An

  17. A case of an epithelioid glioblastoma with the BRAF V600E mutation colocalized with BRAF intact low-grade diffuse astrocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Jun-Ichiro; Nobusawa, Sumihito; Nakamura, Hideo; Yokoo, Hideaki; Ueda, Ryuta; Makino, Keishi; Yano, Shigetoshi; Kuratsu, Jun-ichi

    2016-04-01

    Epithelioid glioblastomas are one of the rarest histological variants of glioblastomas, which are not formally recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) classification. Epithelioid glioblastomas usually occur as primary lesions, but there have been several reports of secondary epithelioid glioblastomas or epithelioid glioblastomas with pre- or co-existing lesions to date. The serine/threonine-protein kinase B-Raf (BRAF) V600E mutation has been found at a high frequency of 54% in epithelioid glioblastomas. We present a case of a 26-year-old female patient with an epithelioid glioblastoma with the BRAF V600E mutation in her right frontal lobe. In the present case, a low-grade diffuse astrocytoma component had colocalized with the epithelioid glioblastoma. The component presented prominent calcification on neuroimages as well as by histology, and low-grade diffuse astrocytoma was considered to be a precursor lesion of an epithelioid glioblastoma. However, the BRAF V600E mutation was detected only in epithelioid glioblastoma but not in low-grade diffuse astrocytoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating a discrepancy in the BRAF V600E mutation states between epithelioid glioblastoma and colocalized low-grade astrocytoma.

  18. Low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance independently explain substantial parts of the association between body fat and serum C3: The CODAM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wlazlo, N.; Greevenbroek, van M.M.J.; Ferreira, I.; Jansen, E.J.H.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Kallen, van der C.J.H.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Bravenboer, B.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) in adiposity-related increases in serum complement factor 3 (C3). Although C3 has been linked to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, and C3 levels are closely related to body fat, the underlying m

  19. Diagenesis, low-grade and contact metamorphism in the Triassic-Jurassic of the Vichuquen-Tilicura and Hualane-Gualleco Basins, Coastal Range of Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmar, M.; Schmidt, S.T.; Mahlmann, R.F.; Mullis, J.; Stern, W.B.; Frey, M. [University of Chile, Santiago (Chile). Dept. of Geology

    2002-07-01

    Diagenetic and low-grade metamorphic conditions have been determined (pressure and temperature) for Late Triassic to Early Jurassic sedimentary rocks from the Vichuquen-Tilicura and the Hualane-Gualleco basins in Central Chile using Kubler index (KI), coal rank data, K-white mica b cell dimension, characteristic mineral assemblages and fluid inclusion data. A burial-related diagenetic to low-grade metamorphic event, which is recorded in both basins, is partly overprinted in the Hualane-Gualleco basin by contact metamorphism around Jurassic dioritic to granodioritic intrusions. Diagenetic conditions prevailed in the northern Vichuquen-Tilicura basin, whereas in the southern Hualane-Gualleco basin low-grade metamorphism is observed with an increase in metamorphic grade from north to south. Epizonal conditions are locally reached in the very south of the Hualane-Gualleco basin. Low-pressure conditions were determined using the K-white mica b cell dimension. A numerical maturity model corroborates with the regional low-grade metamorphism. Evidence of contact metamorphism in the immediate proximity of some Jurassic intrusions includes: (1) hornfels facies assemblages such as ferrosilite (XFe0.6)-magnesiohornblende-ferroactinolite-biotite together with chlorite, plagioclase, stilpnomelane and (2) natural coke and pyrolitic bituminite in some sedimentary samples. Epizonal KI and high coal rank values are probably a result of this locally occurring contact metamorphism.

  20. Insulin secretion after short- and long-term low-grade free fatty acid infusion in men with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Heidi; Jensen, Christine B; Vaag, Allan A;

    2003-01-01

    - and long-term Intralipid infusion is not balanced by an adequate compensatory increase in insulin secretion in IGT relatives or in matched controls. IGT relatives appear to be more sensitive to the deleterious effects of low-grade fat infusion on insulin secretion than normal glucose tolerant control...

  1. Lifestyle and nutritional imbalances associated with Western diseases : causes and consequences of chronic systemic low-grade inflammation in an evolutionary context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Nunez, Begona; Pruimboom, Leo; Dijck-Brouwer, D.A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we focus on lifestyle changes, especially dietary habits, that are at the basis of chronic systemic low grade inflammation, insulin resistance and Western diseases. Our sensitivity to develop insulin resistance traces back to our rapid brain growth in the past 2.5 million years. An i

  2. Cerebral low-grade lymphoma and light chain deposition disease: exceedingly high IgG levels in the cerebrospinal fluid as a diagnostic clue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, G; Psaras, T; Krope, K; von Coelln, R; Fend, F; Bock, T; Schittenhelm, J; Melms, A; Meyermann, R; Bornemann, A

    2010-01-01

    Herein, we report the case of a 72-year-old male with an exceedingly rare manifestation of a low-grade lymphoma in the brain associated with light chain deposition disease (LCDD). The patient presented with epileptic seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed multiple hyperintense lesions in the right parietal lobe that were suspicious of vasculitis, low-grade glioma, or neurosarcoidosis. In the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), but not in the serum, highly elevated IgG was found. A stereotactic biopsy of one cerebral lesion was performed. Histopathology revealed a low grade lymphoplasmacytic B-cell lymphoma with light chain deposition disease (LCDD). Bone marrow biopsy and laboratory workup did not show any systemic involvement. LCDD exclusively affecting the brain is an exceedingly rare finding. It can be associated with low-grade B-cell lymphoma. This is the first report of LCDD exclusively affecting the brain in an elderly patient. Compared with the two younger patients previously reported, the course of the disease was of a slow-evolving nature. In constellations of highly elevated IgG in CSF and multiple white matter lesions, LCDD should be considered as underlying pathology.

  3. Differential effects of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammation after a single high fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzig Karl-Heinz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the pathophysiology of both type-2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Prevention or reduction of chronic low-grade inflammation may be advantageous in relation to obesity related co-morbidity. In this study we investigated the acute effect of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammatory markers after a high-fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Methods We conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study in a crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins - cod protein, whey isolate, gluten or casein. 11 obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, BMI: 30.3-42.0 kg/m2 participated and blood samples were drawn in the 4 h postprandial period. Adiponectin was estimated by ELISA methods and cytokines were analyzed by multiplex assay. Results MCP-1 and CCL5/RANTES displayed significant postprandial dynamics. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals, but overall CCL5/RANTES incremental area under the curve (iAUC was significantly lower after the whey meal compared with the cod and casein meals (P = 0.0053. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all protein meals. However, the iAUC was significantly higher after whey meal compared to the cod and gluten meals (P = 0.04. Conclusion We have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial low grade inflammation of four dietary proteins in obese non-diabetic subjects. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals but the smallest overall postprandial increase was observed after the whey meal. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all 4 protein meals and the whey meal caused the smallest overall postprandial suppression. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00863564

  4. Autoantibodies against protein disulfide isomerase ER-60 are a diagnostic marker for low-grade testicular inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijak, Monika; Zeller, Thomas; Huys, Tatjana; Klug, Jörg; Wahle, Eva; Linder, Monica; Haidl, Gerhard; Allam, Jean-Pierre; Pilatz, Adrian; Weidner, Wolfgang; Schuppe, Hans-Christian; Meinhardt, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Is there a non-invasive biomarker for the diagnosis of testicular inflammatory lesions? In sera from infertile azoospermic patients with histologically confirmed low-grade testicular inflammation, significantly elevated titers of autoantibodies against disulfide isomerase family A, member 3 (ER-60) were found. Infection and inflammation of the genital tract are supposed to be responsible for up to 15% of cases among infertile males. However, specific seminal or serological markers are not available to assess subacute or chronic inflammatory conditions in the testis. This study consisted of the identification of autoantibodies for testicular antigens in sera of patients with low-grade testicular inflammation, validation of candidates, development of an ELISA for the most promising target antigen and measurement of autoantibodies titers in healthy normozoospermic men (n = 20); male blood donors (n = 14); men with impaired semen quality without (n = 14) or with (n = 26) symptoms of genital tract infection/inflammation; azoospermic men with histologically confirmed testicular inflammatory lesions (n = 16); men after pharmacotherapy of genital tract infection/inflammation (n = 15) and men with acute epididymo-orchitis (n = 30). Proteins in lysates of normal testicular tissue were separated by high-resolution 2D gel electrophoresis and probed with sera of 13 patients with histologically confirmed chronic testicular inflammation. There were 14 proteins that immunoreacted with a majority of these sera and could be identified by mass spectrometry. Of these 14 proteins, disulfide isomerase family A, member 3 (ER-60), transferrin and chaperonin containing TCP1 complex, subunit 5 (epsilon) (CCT5) were considered as specific. Since ER-60 reacted with 92% of patient sera, an ER-60-autoantibody ELISA was developed. The newly established ELISA detected significantly elevated titers of autoantibodies against ER-60 in the sera from infertile men with histologically confirmed chronic

  5. Hydrometallurgical recovery of heavy metals from low grade automobile shredder residue (ASR): An application of advanced Fenton process (AFP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jiwan; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2015-09-15

    To investigate the leaching and recovery of heavy metals from low-grade automobile shredder residue (ASR), the effects of nitric acid (HNO3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, leaching temperature and ASR particle size fractions on the heavy metal leaching rate were determined. The heavy metals were recovered by fractional precipitation and advanced Fenton process (AFP) at different pHs. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test was also performed in the residue remaining after heavy metal leaching to evaluate the potential toxicity of ASR. The heavy metal leaching efficiency was increased with increasing HNO3 and H2O2 concentrations, L/S ratio and temperature. The heavy metal leaching efficiencies were maximized in the lowest ASR size fraction at 303 K and L/S ratio of 100 mL/g. The kinetic study showed that the metal leaching was best represented by a second-order reaction model, with a value of R(2) > 0.99 for all selected heavy metals. The determined activation energy (kJ/mol) was 21.61, 17.10, 12.15, 34.50, 13.07 and 11.45 for Zn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr, respectively. In the final residue, the concentrations of Cd, Cr and Pb were under their threshold limits in all ASR size fractions. Hydrometallurgical metal recovery was greatly increased by AFP up to 99.96% for Zn, 99.97% for Fe, 95.62% for Ni, 99.62% for Pb, 94.11% for Cd and 96.79% for Cr. AFP is highly recommended for the recovery of leached metals from solution even at low concentrations.

  6. KRAS (but not BRAF) mutations in ovarian serous borderline tumor are associated with recurrent low-grade serous carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Yvonne T.; Deavers, Michael T.; Sun, Charlotte C.; Kwan, Suet-Yan; Kuo, Eric; Malpica, Anais; Mok, Samuel C.; Gershenson, David M.; Wong, Kwong-Kwok

    2014-01-01

    BRAF and KRAS mutations in ovarian serous borderline tumors (OSBTs) and ovarian low-grade serous carcinomas (LGSCs) have been previously described. However, whether those OSBTs would progress to LGSCs or those LGSCs were developed from OSBT precursors in previous studies is unknown. Therefore, we assessed KRAS and BRAF mutations in tumor samples from 23 recurrent LGSC patients with known initial diagnosis of OSBT. Paraffin blocks from both OSBT and LGSC samples were available for 5 patients, and either OSBT or LGSC were available for another 18 patients. Tumor cells from paraffin-embedded tissues were dissected out for mutation analysis by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Sanger sequencing. Tumors that appeared to have wild-type KRAS by conventional PCR–Sanger sequencing were further analyzed by full COLD (coamplification at lower denaturation temperature)-PCR and deep sequencing. Full COLD-PCR was able to enrich the amplification of mutated alleles. Deep sequencing was performed with the Ion Torrent personal genome machine (PGM). By conventional PCR–Sanger sequencing, BRAF mutation was detected only in one patient and KRAS mutations were detected in 10 patients. Full COLD-PCR deep sequencing detected low-abundance KRAS mutations in eight additional patients. Three of the five patients with both OSBT and LGSC samples available had the same KRAS mutations detected in both OSBT and LGSC samples. The remaining two patients had only KRAS mutations detected in their LGSC samples. For patients with either OSBT or LGSC samples available, KRAS mutations were detected in 7 OSBT samples and 6 LGSC samples. To our surprise, patients with the KRAS G12V mutation appeared to have shorter survival times. In summary, KRAS mutations are very common in recurrent LGSC, while BRAF mutations are rare. The findings indicate that recurrent LGSC can arise from proliferation of OSBT tumor cells with or without detectable KRAS mutations. PMID:24549645

  7. A systematic review of p16/Ki-67 immuno-testing for triage of low grade cervical cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisser, A; Zechmeister-Koss, I

    2015-01-01

    Screening for cervical cancer precursors by Papanicolaou cytology is a public health success story; however, its low sensitivity entails unnecessary referrals to colposcopy of healthy women with equivocal (ASCUS) or mild dysplasia (LSIL) cytology. We assessed the accuracy of p16/Ki-67 immuno-testing for triage of low grade cervical cytology. We systematically searched Medline, Embase, CRD and Cochrane databases, and handsearched key references. Eligible studies included women with ASCUS or LSIL cervical cytology who had undergone p16/Ki-67 testing and subsequent verification by colposcopy-directed biopsies and histologic analysis. We extracted data on patient characteristics and test conduct, diagnostic accuracy measures and assessed the methodological quality of the studies. R software was used to perform a bivariate analysis of test performance data. Five eligible studies were identified. Four of the studies had high risk of bias. In the LSIL subgroup, the sensitivity of p16/Ki-67 testing ranged from 0.86 to 0.98, compared with 0.92-0.96 of high-risk HPV testing (hrHPV); specificity ranged from 0.43 to 0.68 versus 0.19 to 0.37, respectively. In the ASCUS subgroup, sensitivity ranged from 0.64 to 0.92 (p16/Ki67 test) versus 0.91 to 0.97 (hrHPV); specificity ranged from 0.53 to 0.81 versus 0.26 to 0.44, respectively. p16/Ki-67 testing cannot be recommended for triage women with ASCUS or LSIL cytology due to insufficient high-quality evidence. Further studies on test performance and the impact of p16/Ki-67-based triage on health outcomes are needed for a definitive evaluation of its clinical utility. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  8. Stabilization and solidification of electric arc furnace dust originating from steel industry by using low grade MgO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayraktar Ahmet Can

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, solidification/stabilization (S/S of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD which is generated during the production of steel from scrap metals and classified as hazardous waste were investigated by using different ratios of cement and low grade MgO (LG MgO as binding agents. Type I PC 42.5 R portland cement and LG MgO which contains 70–80% MgO were used. S/S blocks that contain different ratios of binding agents which have 1/0.5 – 1/1 – 1/2 – 1/3 – 1/4 – 1/5 cement/LG MgO ratio and S/S blocks which contain only cement and no LG MgO agents were prepared. These blocks, which contain 3 different waste ratios according to weight, 20%, 30% and 40% respectively, were produced and exposed to 28-day water purification. At the end of the purification process, S/S blocks were extracted using TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure tests in order to determine the leaching behavior of Zn, Pb, and Cd in S/S blocks. By the end of this study, it was concluded that the recovery of EAFD is possible and applicable by immobilization. The findings of the study concluded that environmental performances or structural properties of blocks contain 30% waste by weight are suitable. This method is a proper one for recovering and treatment of EAFD with mixture of cement and LG MgO.

  9. Early postprandial low-grade inflammation after high-fat meal in healthy rats: possible involvement of visceral adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magné, Joëlle; Mariotti, François; Fischer, Romy; Mathé, Véronique; Tomé, Daniel; Huneau, Jean François

    2010-06-01

    In the postprandial period, low-grade inflammation may contribute to vascular endothelial dysfunction, a hallmark of atherogenesis. Little is known about the involvement of the adipose tissue in the initiation of the postprandial inflammatory response such as obtained after a high-saturated fat meal (HFM). In the present study, we first studied the time course of appearance of systemic inflammation after a HFM in healthy rats, and then we investigated whether a HFM activates the inflammatory signaling in the visceral adipose tissue, with a focus on the key component, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). Two hours after the HFM, plasma IL-6 and PAI-1, but not plasma C-reactive protein and soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1, showed a marked, transient increase. These changes were specific to the postprandial state as not observed after a control water load. Neutrophils count and activation markers CD11B and CD62L, assessed by flow cytometry, also rose significantly 2 h after the HFM, while remaining steady after the control. At the same time, the HFM decreased significantly B-cell count and expression of the activation marker CD62L. Interestingly, at the same early time after the HFM, in the visceral adipose tissue, there was a 2.2-fold increase in the activation of NF-kappaB (p65) in nuclear extract and an increase in IL-6 mRNA. As far as we know, this is the first study evidencing an acute, postprandial activation of inflammation in visceral adipose tissue. This early activation of NF-kappaB pathway after a HFM may play a triggering role in the initiation of the complex postprandial proatherogenic phenotype. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Significance of a minor high-grade component in a low-grade noninvasive papillary urothelial carcinoma of bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Leonardo O; Taheri, Diana; Chaux, Alcides; Guner, Gunes; Mendoza Rodriguez, Maria A; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Schoenberg, Mark P; Epstein, Jonathan I; Netto, George J

    2016-01-01

    To assess the clinicopathological features and prognostic significance of the presence of 5% or less high-grade component in otherwise low-grade noninvasive bladder urothelial carcinoma, referred to as mixed-grade (MG) urothelial carcinoma, we reviewed all archival cases with such diagnosis between 2005 and 2014. Clinicopathological and outcome parameters were compared to those in our previously reported low- and high-grade noninvasive bladder urothelial carcinoma cohorts (LGUC and HGUC, respectively). The study included 31 MG urothelial carcinomas. Mean patient age was 67.6 years, and mean follow-up was 39.7 months. Intravesical treatment was administered in 15 patients (48.4%). Recurrence occurred in 14 cases (45.2%): 10 as LGUC and 4 as HGUC; there was no stage progression. Mean time to progression was 9 months (5-17 months), and there was no death of disease. MG urothelial carcinoma stage progression and dead of disease rates were comparable to that of LGUC. MG urothelial carcinoma stage progression was significantly lower than that of HGUC, P = .002, using Pearson χ(2) test. MG urothelial carcinoma patients with no intravesical treatment had higher incidence rate of grade progression (25%) compared to LGUC patients (7.9%); however, the difference was not statistically significant. MG urothelial carcinoma had a prognosis closer to "pure" LGUC than "pure" HGUC. Untreated MG urothelial carcinoma may have a higher rate of grade progression than LGUC, although more data are needed before this issue can be definitively addressed. Until such data are available, it is reasonable to keep MG urothelial carcinoma as a distinct grade category with potential management implications.

  11. Immunohistochemical pattern of pleomorphic adenoma, polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma in minor salivary glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Zaib

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To study the immunohistochemical pattern of CD 117, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, smooth muscle actin (SMA and CD 43 in pleomorphic adenoma (PA, adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA of minor salivary glands.Twenty cases of PA, 20 cases of AdCC and 10 cases of PLGA were retrieved from record files along with their paraffin blocks at Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Pakistan. New histological diagnosis was made on freshly prepared H&E sections followed by application and analysis of immunostains.The mean age of the patients was 44 ± 15 (mean SD (range; 17-86 years. There were 26 male and 24 female patients with a male to female ratio of 1.08:1. Fourteen cases of PA, 14 cases of AdCC and 6 cases of PLGA were positive for CD117. In case of GFAP, only 9 cases of AdCC and 3 cases of PLGA were positive; however, 16 cases of PA were also positive. Twelve cases of AdCC and 7 cases of PA were positive for SMA and half of the PLGA cases were also reactive. Nonetheless, the least expression was seen in case of CD 43, where only five cases of AdCC were positive. Six cases of PA and three cases of PLGA were also positive.Our results suggest that the use of GFAP, SMA, CD 117 and CD 43 as an adjunct to histological examination is not helpful in differentiating PA, AdCC and PLGA from one another.

  12. Evidence for chronic low-grade systemic inflammation in individuals with agoraphobia from a population-based prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Young N Wagner

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders have been linked to an increased risk of incident coronary heart disease in which inflammation plays a key pathogenic role. To date, no studies have looked at the association between proinflammatory markers and agoraphobia.In a random Swiss population sample of 2890 persons (35-67 years, 53% women, we diagnosed a total of 124 individuals (4.3% with agoraphobia using a validated semi-structured psychiatric interview. We also assessed socioeconomic status, traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., body mass index, hypertension, blood glucose levels, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio, and health behaviors (i.e., smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity, and other major psychiatric diseases (other anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, drug dependence which were treated as covariates in linear regression models. Circulating levels of inflammatory markers, statistically controlled for the baseline demographic and health-related measures, were determined at a mean follow-up of 5.5 ± 0.4 years (range 4.7 - 8.5.Individuals with agoraphobia had significantly higher follow-up levels of C-reactive protein (p = 0.007 and tumor-necrosis-factor-α (p = 0.042 as well as lower levels of the cardioprotective marker adiponectin (p = 0.032 than their non-agoraphobic counterparts. Follow-up levels of interleukin (IL-1β and IL-6 did not significantly differ between the two groups.Our results suggest an increase in chronic low-grade inflammation in agoraphobia over time. Such a mechanism might link agoraphobia with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, and needs to be tested in longitudinal studies.

  13. Genetic and epigenetic characterization of low-grade gliomas reveals frequent methylation of the MLH3 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhotska, Halka; Zemanova, Zuzana; Cechova, Hana; Ransdorfova, Sarka; Lizcova, Libuse; Kramar, Filip; Krejcik, Zdenek; Svobodova, Karla; Bystricka, Dagmar; Hrabal, Petr; Dohnalova, Alena; Michalova, Kyra

    2015-11-01

    Diffuse astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas (WHO grade II) are the most common histological subtypes of low-grade gliomas (LGGs). Several molecular and epigenetic markers have been identified that predict tumor progression. Our aim was in detail to investigate the genetic and epigenetic background of LGGs and to identify new markers that might play a role in tumor behavior. Twenty-three patients with oligodendroglioma or oligoastrocytoma (LGO) and 22 patients with diffuse astrocytoma (LGA) were investigated using several molecular-cytogenetic and molecular methods to assess their copy number variations, mutational status and level of promoter methylation. The most frequent findings were a 1p/19q codeletion in 83% of LGO and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (CN-LOH) of 17p in 72% of LGA. Somatic mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 (IDH1/IDH2) genes were detected in 96% of LGO and 91% of LGA. The O-6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter was methylated in 83% of LGO and 59% of LGA. MutL homolog 3 (MLH3) promoter methylation was observed in 61% of LGO and 27% of LGA. Methylation of the MGMT promoter, 1p/19q codeletion, mutated IDH1, and CN-LOH of 17p were the most frequent genetic aberrations in LGGs. The findings were more diverse in LGA than in LGO. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time description of methylation of the MLH3 gene promoter in LGGs. Further studies are required to determine the role of the methylated MLH3 promoter and the other aberrations detected.

  14. Malignant transformation of low grade gliomas into glioblastoma a series of 10 cases and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rotariu1, S. Gaivas1, Z. Faiyad1, D. Haba2, B. Iliescu1, I. Poeata1

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diffuse infiltrative low-gradegliomas (LGG of the cerebral hemispheresin the adult are tumors with distinctclinical, histological and molecularcharacteristics. WHO (World HealthOrganization classification recognizesgrade II astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomasand oligoastrocytomas. Conventional MRIis used for differential diagnosis, guidingsurgery, planning radiotherapy andmonitoring treatment response.Advanced imaging techniques areincreasing the diagnostic accuracy. Lowgradegliomas have been documented toundergo transformation into high-gradegliomas, and the time interval of thistransformation has been reported togenerally occur within 5 years in about 50%of patients diagnosed with low-gradegliomas.Methods: We have reviewed all adultpatients operated on for hemisphericglioblastoma at N Oblu Hospital in Iasibetween 2006 and 2009 and in particularthose patients with secondary glioblastoma.Results: from the total 110 cases ofglioblastoma, ten of them were secondaryto malignant transformation of anpreviously operated low grade glioma. Ofthe 10 patients with secondaryglioblastoma, the initial histology was: gr IIastocytoma in 6 cases, oligoastocytoma in 2cases and in oligodendroglioma in 2 cases.The mean patient age was 46.1± 0.9 yearsand the most frequent symptom wasrepresented by seizures 70%, the mean timefrom the first symptom to diagnosis was11,2 months. 40% of the cases had subtotalresection and 60% had total resection(defined by the surgeon at the time ofoperation. 5 patients received radiotherapypostoperatively, 2 received both radio andchemotherapy and 3 had no adjuvanttreatment. In our series the median time tomalignant transformation was 32,5 months.Conclusions: Younger age, normalneurological examination andoligodendroglial histology are favorableprognostic factors, total/near total resectioncan improve seizure control, progressionfreeand overall survival, mean whilereducing the risk of malignanttransformation. Early post

  15. Obesity is associated with worse overall survival in women with low-grade papillary serous epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previs, Rebecca Ann; Kilgore, Joshua; Craven, Renatta; Broadwater, Gloria; Bean, Sarah; Wobker, Sara; DiFurio, Megan; Bae-Jump, Victoria; Gehrig, Paola A; Secord, Angeles Alvarez

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate prognostic risk factors for survival in women with low-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer (LGSC). A multicenter retrospective analysis of patients with LGSC was conducted. Potential epidemiologic risk factors evaluated included obesity, age, parity, race, smoking, oral contraceptive pill and/or hormonal replacement therapy use, and previous hysterectomy or surgery on fallopian tubes and/or ovaries. Additional factors included stage, extent of debulking, residual disease, and disease status. Eighty-one patients were identified, and pathologic diagnosis was independently confirmed. Median age at diagnosis was 56 years (range, 21-86 years). Thirty-four percent were obese, and 80% had optimally debulked disease. Forty-six percent were alive, 14% with disease, whereas 25% were dead of disease, 2% died of intercurrent disease, and 27% had an unknown status. In a univariate analysis, optimal surgical debulking was associated with improved progression-free survival (P = 0.01), disease-specific survival (P = 0.03), and overall survival (OS) (P obesity (hazard ratio, 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-7.3; P = 0.04) and optimal tumor debulking (hazard ratio, 0.05; 95% confidence interval, 0.008-0.29; P = 0.001) were a significant predictor of OS. In a multivariate analysis, obesity and optimal tumor cytoreduction were significant predictors of OS. However, obesity was not associated with worse disease-specific survival, suggesting that mortality of obese patients with LGSC may result from other comorbidities. Interventions addressing obesity may improve survival for women diagnosed with LGSC, and further study is warranted to address the role of obesity in LGSC.

  16. Seizure characteristics and outcomes in 508 Chinese adult patients undergoing primary resection of low-grade gliomas: a clinicopathological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Gan; Sha, Zhi-Yi; Yan, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yong-Zhi; Li, Shao-Wu; Sang, Lin; Wang, Zi; Li, Gui-Lin; Li, Shou-Wei; Song, Yi-Jun; Kang, Chun-Sheng; Jiang, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Seizure is a common presenting manifestation and plays an important role in the clinical presentation and quality of life for patients with low-grade gliomas (LGGs). The authors set out to identify factors that influence preoperative seizure characteristics and postoperative seizure control. Cases involving adult patients who had undergone initial surgery for LGGs in a single institution between 2005 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with preoperative seizures and postoperative seizure control. Of the 508 patients in the series, 350 (68.9%) presented with seizures. Age less than 38 years and cortical involvement of tumor were more likely to be associated with seizures (P = .003 and .001, respectively, multivariate logistic analysis). For the cohort of 350 patients with seizures, Engel classification was used to evaluate 6- and 12-month outcome after surgery: completely seizure free (Engel class I), 65.3% and 62.5%; not seizure free (Engel classes II, III, IV), 34.7% and 37.5%. After multivariate logistic analysis, favorable seizure prognosis was more common in patients with secondary generalized seizure (P = .006) and with calcification on MRI (.031). With respect to treatment-related variables, patients achieved much better seizure control after gross total resection than after subtotal resection (P seizure control in the patients with a history of seizure if overexpressed but was not a predictor for those without preoperative seizures. These factors may provide insight into developing effective treatment strategies aimed at prolonging patients' survival. PMID:22187341

  17. Resecting diffuse low-grade gliomas to the boundaries of brain functions: a new concept in surgical neuro-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffau, H

    2015-12-01

    The traditional dilemma making surgery for diffuse low-grade gliomas (DLGGs) challenging is underlain by the need to optimize tumor resection in order to significantly increase survival versus the risk of permanent neurological morbidity. Development of neuroimaging led neurosurgeons to achieve tumorectomy according to the oncological limits provided by preoperative or intraoperative structural and metabolic imaging. However, this principle is not coherent, neither with the infiltrative nature of DLGGs nor with the limited resolution of current neuroimaging. Indeed, despite technical advances, MRI still underestimates the actual spatial extent of gliomas, since tumoral cells are present several millimeters to centimeters beyond the area of signal abnormalities. Furthermore, cortical and subcortical structures may be still crucial for brain functions despite their invasion by this diffuse tumoral disease. Finally, the lack of reliability of functional MRI has also been demonstrated. Therefore, to talk about "maximal safe resection" based upon neuroimaging is a non-sense, because oncological MRI does not show the tumor and functional MRI does not show critical neural pathways. This review proposes an original concept in neuro-oncological surgery, i.e. to resect DLGG to the boundaries of brain functions, thanks to intraoperative electrical mapping performed in awake patients. This paradigmatic shift from image-guided resection to functional mapping-guided resection, based upon an accurate study of brain connectomics and neuroplasticity in each patient throughout tumor removal has permitted to solve the classical dilemma, by increasing both survival and quality of life in DLGG patients. With this in mind, brain surgeons should also be neuroscientists.

  18. Right inferior frontal gyrus activation is associated with memory improvement in patients with left frontal low-grade glioma resection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane C Miotto

    Full Text Available Patients with low-grade glioma (LGG have been studied as a model of functional brain reorganization due to their slow-growing nature. However, there is no information regarding which brain areas are involved during verbal memory encoding after extensive left frontal LGG resection. In addition, it remains unknown whether these patients can improve their memory performance after instructions to apply efficient strategies. The neural correlates of verbal memory encoding were investigated in patients who had undergone extensive left frontal lobe (LFL LGG resections and healthy controls using fMRI both before and after directed instructions were given for semantic organizational strategies. Participants were scanned during the encoding of word lists under three different conditions before and after a brief period of practice. The conditions included semantically unrelated (UR, related-non-structured (RNS, and related-structured words (RS, allowing for different levels of semantic organization. All participants improved on memory recall and semantic strategy application after the instructions for the RNS condition. Healthy subjects showed increased activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and middle frontal gyrus (MFG during encoding for the RNS condition after the instructions. Patients with LFL excisions demonstrated increased activation in the right IFG for the RNS condition after instructions were given for the semantic strategies. Despite extensive damage in relevant areas that support verbal memory encoding and semantic strategy applications, patients that had undergone resections for LFL tumor could recruit the right-sided contralateral homologous areas after instructions were given and semantic strategies were practiced. These results provide insights into changes in brain activation areas typically implicated in verbal memory encoding and semantic processing.

  19. Right inferior frontal gyrus activation is associated with memory improvement in patients with left frontal low-grade glioma resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotto, Eliane C; Balardin, Joana B; Vieira, Gilson; Sato, Joao R; Martin, Maria da Graça M; Scaff, Milberto; Teixeira, Manoel J; Junior, Edson Amaro

    2014-01-01

    Patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) have been studied as a model of functional brain reorganization due to their slow-growing nature. However, there is no information regarding which brain areas are involved during verbal memory encoding after extensive left frontal LGG resection. In addition, it remains unknown whether these patients can improve their memory performance after instructions to apply efficient strategies. The neural correlates of verbal memory encoding were investigated in patients who had undergone extensive left frontal lobe (LFL) LGG resections and healthy controls using fMRI both before and after directed instructions were given for semantic organizational strategies. Participants were scanned during the encoding of word lists under three different conditions before and after a brief period of practice. The conditions included semantically unrelated (UR), related-non-structured (RNS), and related-structured words (RS), allowing for different levels of semantic organization. All participants improved on memory recall and semantic strategy application after the instructions for the RNS condition. Healthy subjects showed increased activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and middle frontal gyrus (MFG) during encoding for the RNS condition after the instructions. Patients with LFL excisions demonstrated increased activation in the right IFG for the RNS condition after instructions were given for the semantic strategies. Despite extensive damage in relevant areas that support verbal memory encoding and semantic strategy applications, patients that had undergone resections for LFL tumor could recruit the right-sided contralateral homologous areas after instructions were given and semantic strategies were practiced. These results provide insights into changes in brain activation areas typically implicated in verbal memory encoding and semantic processing.

  20. Evaluation of low-grade glioma structural changes after chemotherapy using DTI-based histogram analysis and functional diffusion maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castell