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Sample records for pyk2 uncouples metabotropic

  1. Novel Role of Src in Priming Pyk2 Phosphorylation.

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    Ming Zhao

    Full Text Available Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2 is a member of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases and plays an important role in diverse cellular events downstream of the integrin-family of receptors, including cell migration, proliferation and survival. Here, we have identified a novel role for Src kinase in priming Pyk2 phosphorylation and subsequent activation upon cell attachment on the integrin-ligand fibronectin. By using complementary methods, we show that Src activity is indispensable for the initial Pyk2 phosphorylation on the Y402 site observed in response to cell attachment. In contrast, the initial fibronectin-induced autophosphorylation of FAK in the homologous Y397 site occurs in a Src-independent manner. We demonstrate that the SH2-domain of Src is required for Src binding to Pyk2 and for Pyk2 phosphorylation at sites Y402 and Y579. Moreover, Y402 phosphorylation is a prerequisite for the subsequent Y579 phosphorylation. While this initial phosphorylation of Pyk2 by Src is independent of Pyk2 kinase activity, subsequent autophosphorylation of Pyk2 in trans is required for full Pyk2 phosphorylation and activation. Collectively, our studies reveal a novel function of Src in priming Pyk2 (but not FAK phosphorylation and subsequent activation downstream of integrins, and shed light on the signaling events that regulate the function of Pyk2.

  2. PTK2B/Pyk2 overexpression improves a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    KAUST Repository

    Giralt, Albert

    2018-05-24

    Pyk2 is a Ca2+-activated non-receptor tyrosine kinase enriched in forebrain neurons and involved in synaptic regulation. Human genetic studies associated PTK2B, the gene coding Pyk2, with risk for Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD). We previously showed that Pyk2 is important for hippocampal function, plasticity, and spine structure. However, its potential role in AD is unknown. To address this question we used human brain samples and 5XFAD mice, an amyloid mouse model of AD expressing mutated human amyloid precursor protein and presenilin1. In the hippocampus of 5XFAD mice and in human AD patients\\' cortex and hippocampus, Pyk2 total levels were normal. However, Pyk2 Tyr-402 phosphorylation levels, reflecting its autophosphorylation-dependent activity, were reduced in 5XFAD mice at 8 months of age but at 3 months. We crossed these mice with Pyk2−/− mice to generate 5XFAD animals devoid of Pyk2. At 8 months the phenotype of 5XFAD x Pyk2−/− double mutant mice was not different from that of 5XFAD. In contrast, overexpression of Pyk2 in the hippocampus of 5XFAD mice, using adeno-associated virus, rescued autophosphorylated Pyk2 levels and improved synaptic markers and performance in several behavioral tasks. Both Pyk2−/− and 5XFAD mice showed an increase of potentially neurotoxic Src cleavage product, which was rescued by Pyk2 overexpression. Manipulating Pyk2 levels had only minor effects on Aβ plaques, which were slightly decreased in hippocampus CA3 region of double mutant mice and increased following overexpression. Our results show that Pyk2 is not essential for the pathogenic effect of human amyloidogenic mutations in the 5XFAD mouse model. However, the slight decrease in plaque number observed in these mice in the absence of Pyk2 and their increase following Pyk2 overexpression suggest a contribution of this kinase in plaque formation. Importantly, a decreased function of Pyk2 was observed in 5XFAD mice, indicated by its decreased

  3. PTK2B/Pyk2 overexpression improves a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    KAUST Repository

    Giralt, Albert; de Pins, Benoî t; Cifuentes-Dí az, Carmen; Ló pez-Molina, Laura; Farah, Amel Thamila; Tible, Marion; Deramecourt, Vincent; Arold, Stefan T.; Giné s, Silvia; Hugon, Jacques; Girault, Jean-Antoine

    2018-01-01

    Pyk2 is a Ca2+-activated non-receptor tyrosine kinase enriched in forebrain neurons and involved in synaptic regulation. Human genetic studies associated PTK2B, the gene coding Pyk2, with risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We previously showed that Pyk2 is important for hippocampal function, plasticity, and spine structure. However, its potential role in AD is unknown. To address this question we used human brain samples and 5XFAD mice, an amyloid mouse model of AD expressing mutated human amyloid precursor protein and presenilin1. In the hippocampus of 5XFAD mice and in human AD patients' cortex and hippocampus, Pyk2 total levels were normal. However, Pyk2 Tyr-402 phosphorylation levels, reflecting its autophosphorylation-dependent activity, were reduced in 5XFAD mice at 8 months of age but at 3 months. We crossed these mice with Pyk2−/− mice to generate 5XFAD animals devoid of Pyk2. At 8 months the phenotype of 5XFAD x Pyk2−/− double mutant mice was not different from that of 5XFAD. In contrast, overexpression of Pyk2 in the hippocampus of 5XFAD mice, using adeno-associated virus, rescued autophosphorylated Pyk2 levels and improved synaptic markers and performance in several behavioral tasks. Both Pyk2−/− and 5XFAD mice showed an increase of potentially neurotoxic Src cleavage product, which was rescued by Pyk2 overexpression. Manipulating Pyk2 levels had only minor effects on Aβ plaques, which were slightly decreased in hippocampus CA3 region of double mutant mice and increased following overexpression. Our results show that Pyk2 is not essential for the pathogenic effect of human amyloidogenic mutations in the 5XFAD mouse model. However, the slight decrease in plaque number observed in these mice in the absence of Pyk2 and their increase following Pyk2 overexpression suggest a contribution of this kinase in plaque formation. Importantly, a decreased function of Pyk2 was observed in 5XFAD mice, indicated by its decreased autophosphorylation

  4. Dynamin and PTP-PEST cooperatively regulate Pyk2 dephosphorylation in osteoclasts

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    Eleniste, Pierre P.; Du, Liping; Shivanna, Mahesh; Bruzzaniti, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Bone loss is caused by the dysregulated activity of osteoclasts which degrade the extracellular bone matrix. The tyrosine kinase Pyk2 is highly expressed in osteoclasts, and mice lacking Pyk2 exhibit an increase in bone mass, in part due to impairment of osteoclast function. Pyk2 is activated by phosphorylation at Y402 following integrin activation, but the mechanisms leading to Pyk2 dephosphorylation are poorly understood. In the current study, we examined the mechanism of action of the dynamin GTPase on Pyk2 dephosphorylation. Our studies reveal a novel mechanism for the interaction of Pyk2 with dynamin, which involves the binding of Pyk2’s FERM domain with dynamin’s plextrin homology domain. In addition, we demonstrate that the dephosphorylation of Pyk2 requires dynamin’s GTPase activity and is mediated by the tyrosine phosphatase PTP-PEST. The dephosphorylation of Pyk2 by dynamin and PTP-PEST may be critical for terminating outside-in integrin signaling, and for stabilizing cytoskeletal reorganization during osteoclast bone resorption. PMID:22342188

  5. Critical role of the FERM domain in Pyk2 stimulated glioma cell migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipinski, Christopher A.; Tran, Nhan L.; Dooley, Andrea; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Rohl, Carole; Kloss, Jean; Yang, Zhongbo; McDonough, Wendy; Craig, David; Berens, Michael E.; Loftus, Joseph C.

    2006-01-01

    The strong tendency of malignant glioma cells to invade locally into surrounding normal brain precludes effective surgical resection, reduces the efficacy of radiotherapy, and is associated with increased resistance to chemotherapy regimens. We report that the N-terminal FERM domain of Pyk2 regulates its promigratory function. A 3-dimensional model of the Pyk2 FERM domain was generated and mutagenesis studies identified residues essential for Pyk2 promigratory function. Model-based targeted mutations within the FERM domain decreased Pyk2 phosphorylation and reduced the capacity of Pyk2 to stimulate glioma cell migration but did not significantly alter the intracellular distribution of Pyk2. Expression of autonomous Pyk2 FERM domain fragments containing analogous mutations exhibited reduced capacity to inhibit glioma cell migration and Pyk2 phosphorylation relative to expression of an autonomous wild type FERM domain fragment. These results indicate that the FERM domain plays an important role in regulating the functional competency of Pyk2 as a promigratory factor in glioma

  6. SOCS3 inhibiting migration of A549 cells correlates with PYK2 signaling in vitro

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    Zhang Qingfu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3 is considered to inhibit cytokine responses and play a negative role in migration of various cells. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2 is a non-receptor kinase and has been found crucial to cell motility. However, little is known about whether SOCS3 could regulate PYK2 pro-migratory function in lung cancer. Methods The methylation status of SOCS3 was investigated in HBE and A549 cell lines by methylation-specific PCR. A549 cells were either treated with a demethylation agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine or transfected with three SOCS3 mutants with various functional domains deleted. Besides, cells were pretreated with a proteasome inhibitor β-lactacystin where indicated. The effects of SOCS3 up-regulation on PYK2 expression, PYK2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylations were assessed by western blot using indicated antibodies. RT-PCR was used to estimate PYK2 mRNA levels. Transwell experiments were performed to evaluate cell migration. Results SOCS3 expression was found impaired in A549 cells and higher PYK2 activity was correlated with enhanced cell migration. We identified that SOCS3 was aberrantly methylated in the exon 2, and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine restored SOCS3 expression. Reactivation of SOCS3 attenuated PYK2 expression and phosphorylation, cell migration was inhibited as well. Transfection studies indicated that exogenous SOCS3 interacted with PYK2, and both the Src homology 2 (SH2 and the kinase inhibitory region (KIR domains of SOCS3 contributed to PYK2 binding. Furthermore, SOCS3 was found to inhibit PYK2-associated ERK1/2 activity in A549 cells. SOCS3 possibly promoted degradation of PYK2 in a SOCS-box-dependent manner and interfered with PYK2-related signaling events, such as cell migration. Conclusion These data indicate that SOCS3 negatively regulates cell motility and decreased SOCS3 induced by methylation may confer a migration advantage to A549 cells. These results also suggest a

  7. Tyrosine 402 Phosphorylation of Pyk2 Is Involved in Ionomycin-Induced Neurotransmitter Release

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    Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Yun; Mou, Zheng; Chu, Shifeng; Chen, Xiaoyu; He, Wenbin; Guo, Xiaofeng; Yuan, Yuhe; Takahashi, Masami; Chen, Naihong

    2014-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases, which are highly expressed in the central nervous system, are implicated in many neural processes. However, the relationship between protein tyrosine kinases and neurotransmitter release remains unknown. In this study, we found that ionomycin, a Ca2+ ionophore, concurrently induced asynchronous neurotransmitter release and phosphorylation of a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase, proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2), in clonal rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells and cerebellar granule cells, whereas introduction of Pyk2 siRNA dramatically suppressed ionomycin-induced neurotransmitter release. Further study indicated that Tyr-402 (Y402) in Pyk2, instead of other tyrosine sites, underwent rapid phosphorylation after ionomycin induction in 1 min to 2 min. We demonstrated that the mutant of Pyk2 Y402 could abolish ionomycin-induced dopamine (DA) release by transfecting cells with recombinant Pyk2 and its mutants (Y402F, Y579F, Y580F, and Y881F). In addition, Src inhibition could prolong phosphorylation of Pyk2 Y402 and increase DA release. These findings suggested that Pyk2 was involved in ionomycin-induced neurotransmitter release through phosphorylation of Y402. PMID:24718602

  8. Endogenous Control Mechanisms of FAK and PYK2 and Their Relevance to Cancer Development and Therapy

    KAUST Repository

    Naser, Rayan Mohammad Mahmoud

    2018-05-10

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and its close paralogue, proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2), are key regulators of aggressive spreading and metastasis of cancer cells. While targeted small-molecule inhibitors of FAK and PYK2 are showing promising antitumor activity, their clinical long-term efficacy may be undermined by the strong capacity of cancer cells to evade anti-kinase drugs. In healthy cells, the expression and/or function of FAK and PYK2 is tightly controlled through modulation of gene expression, competing alternatively spliced forms, non-coding RNAs, and proteins that directly or indirectly affect kinase activation or protein stability. The molecular factors involved are frequently deregulated in cancer cells. Here, we review the endogenous mechanisms controlling FAK and PYK2, and discuss how these mechanisms could inspire or improve anticancer therapies.

  9. Endogenous Control Mechanisms of FAK and PYK2 and Their Relevance to Cancer Development and Therapy

    KAUST Repository

    Naser, Rayan Mohammad Mahmoud; Aldehaiman, Abdullah; Diaz Galicia, Miriam Escarlet; Arold, Stefan T.

    2018-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and its close paralogue, proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2), are key regulators of aggressive spreading and metastasis of cancer cells. While targeted small-molecule inhibitors of FAK and PYK2 are showing promising antitumor activity, their clinical long-term efficacy may be undermined by the strong capacity of cancer cells to evade anti-kinase drugs. In healthy cells, the expression and/or function of FAK and PYK2 is tightly controlled through modulation of gene expression, competing alternatively spliced forms, non-coding RNAs, and proteins that directly or indirectly affect kinase activation or protein stability. The molecular factors involved are frequently deregulated in cancer cells. Here, we review the endogenous mechanisms controlling FAK and PYK2, and discuss how these mechanisms could inspire or improve anticancer therapies.

  10. A Dual Role for the Nonreceptor Tyrosine Kinase Pyk2 during the Intracellular Trafficking of Human Papillomavirus 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Elinor Y; Meneses, Patricio I

    2015-09-01

    The infectious process of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) has been studied considerably, and many cellular components required for viral entry and trafficking continue to be revealed. In this study, we investigated the role of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Pyk2 during HPV16 pseudovirion infection of human keratinocytes. We found that Pyk2 is necessary for infection and appears to be involved in the intracellular trafficking of the virus. Small interfering RNA-mediated reduction of Pyk2 resulted in a significant decrease in infection but did not prevent viral entry at the plasma membrane. Pyk2 depletion resulted in altered endolysosomal trafficking of HPV16 and accelerated unfolding of the viral capsid. Furthermore, we observed retention of the HPV16 pseudogenome in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) in Pyk2-depleted cells, suggesting that the kinase could be required for the viral DNA to exit the TGN. While Pyk2 has previously been shown to function during the entry of enveloped viruses at the plasma membrane, the kinase has not yet been implicated in the intracellular trafficking of a nonenveloped virus such as HPV. Additionally, these data enrich the current literature on Pyk2's function in human keratinocytes. In this study, we investigated the role of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Pyk2 during human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of human skin cells. Infections with high-risk types of HPV such as HPV16 are the leading cause of cervical cancer and a major cause of genital and oropharyngeal cancer. As a nonenveloped virus, HPV enters cells by interacting with cellular receptors and established cellular trafficking routes to ensure that the viral DNA reaches the nucleus for productive infection. This study identified Pyk2 as a cellular component required for the intracellular trafficking of HPV16 during infection. Understanding the infectious pathways of HPVs is critical for developing additional preventive therapies. Furthermore, this study advances our knowledge of

  11. Inhibition of Pyk2 blocks lung inflammation and injury in a mouse model of acute lung injury

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    Duan Yingli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2 is essential in neutrophil degranulation and chemotaxis in vitro. However, its effect on the process of lung inflammation and edema formation during LPS induced acute lung injury (ALI remains unknown. The goal of the present study was to determine the effect of inhibiting Pyk2 on LPS-induced acute lung inflammation and injury in vivo. Methods C57BL6 mice were given either 10 mg/kg LPS or saline intratracheally. Inhibition of Pyk2 was effected by intraperitoneal administration TAT-Pyk2-CT 1 h before challenge. Bronchoalveolar lavage analysis of cell counts, lung histology and protein concentration in BAL were analyzed at 18 h after LPS treatment. KC and MIP-2 concentrations in BAL were measured by a mouse cytokine multiplex kit. The static lung compliance was determined by pressure-volume curve using a computer-controlled small animal ventilator. The extravasated Evans blue concentration in lung homogenate was determined spectrophotometrically. Results Intratracheal instillation of LPS induced significant neutrophil infiltration into the lung interstitium and alveolar space, which was attenuated by pre-treatment with TAT-Pyk2-CT. TAT-Pyk2-CT pretreatment also attenuated 1 myeloperoxidase content in lung tissues, 2 vascular leakage as measured by Evans blue dye extravasation in the lungs and the increase in protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage, and 3 the decrease in lung compliance. In each paradigm, treatment with control protein TAT-GFP had no blocking effect. By contrast, production of neutrophil chemokines MIP-2 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine in the bronchoalveolar lavage was not reduced by TAT-Pyk2-CT. Western blot analysis confirmed that tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2 in LPS-challenged lungs was reduced to control levels by TAT-Pyk2-CT pretreatment. Conclusions These results suggest that Pyk2 plays an important role in the development of acute lung injury in mice and

  12. An in silico high-throughput screen identifies potential selective inhibitors for the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Pyk2

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    Meirson T

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tomer Meirson, Abraham O Samson, Hava Gil-Henn Faculty of Medicine in the Galilee, Bar-Ilan University, Safed, Israel Abstract: The non-receptor tyrosine kinase proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2 is a critical mediator of signaling from cell surface growth factor and adhesion receptors to cell migration, proliferation, and survival. Emerging evidence indicates that signaling by Pyk2 regulates hematopoietic cell response, bone density, neuronal degeneration, angiogenesis, and cancer. These physiological and pathological roles of Pyk2 warrant it as a valuable therapeutic target for invasive cancers, osteoporosis, Alzheimer’s disease, and inflammatory cellular response. Despite its potential as a therapeutic target, no potent and selective inhibitor of Pyk2 is available at present. As a first step toward discovering specific potential inhibitors of Pyk2, we used an in silico high-throughput screening approach. A virtual library of six million lead-like compounds was docked against four different high-resolution Pyk2 kinase domain crystal structures and further selected for predicted potency and ligand efficiency. Ligand selectivity for Pyk2 over focal adhesion kinase (FAK was evaluated by comparative docking of ligands and measurement of binding free energy so as to obtain 40 potential candidates. Finally, the structural flexibility of a subset of the docking complexes was evaluated by molecular dynamics simulation, followed by intermolecular interaction analysis. These compounds may be considered as promising leads for further development of highly selective Pyk2 inhibitors. Keywords: virtual screen, efficiency metrics, MM-GBSA, molecular dynamics

  13. Pyk2 modulates hippocampal excitatory synapses and contributes to cognitive deficits in a Huntington’s disease model

    KAUST Repository

    Giralt, Albert; Brito, Veronica; Chevy, Quentin; Simonnet, Clé mence; Otsu, Yo; Cifuentes-Dí az, Carmen; Pins, Benoit de; Coura, Renata; Alberch, Jordi; Giné s, Sí lvia; Poncer, Jean-Christophe; Girault, Jean-Antoine

    2017-01-01

    The structure and function of spines and excitatory synapses are under the dynamic control of multiple signalling networks. Although tyrosine phosphorylation is involved, its regulation and importance are not well understood. Here we study the role of Pyk2, a non-receptor calcium-dependent protein-tyrosine kinase highly expressed in the hippocampus. Hippocampal-related learning and CA1 long-term potentiation are severely impaired in Pyk2-deficient mice and are associated with alterations in NMDA receptors, PSD-95 and dendritic spines. In cultured hippocampal neurons, Pyk2 has autophosphorylation-dependent and -independent roles in determining PSD-95 enrichment and spines density. Pyk2 levels are decreased in the hippocampus of individuals with Huntington and in the R6/1 mouse model of the disease. Normalizing Pyk2 levels in the hippocampus of R6/1 mice rescues memory deficits, spines pathology and PSD-95 localization. Our results reveal a role for Pyk2 in spine structure and synaptic function, and suggest that its deficit contributes to Huntington’s disease cognitive impairments.

  14. A role for Pyk2 and Src in linking G-protein-coupled receptors with MAP kinase activation.

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    Dikic, I; Tokiwa, G; Lev, S; Courtneidge, S A; Schlessinger, J

    1996-10-10

    The mechanisms by which mitogenic G-protein-coupled receptors activate the MAP kinase signalling pathway are poorly understood. Candidate protein tyrosine kinases that link G-protein-coupled receptors with MAP kinase include Src family kinases, the epidermal growth factor receptor, Lyn and Syk. Here we show that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and bradykinin induce tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2 and complex formation between Pyk2 and activated Src. Moreover, tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2 leads to binding of the SH2 domain of Src to tyrosine 402 of Pyk2 and activation of Src. Transient overexpression of a dominant interfering mutant of Pyk2 or the protein tyrosine kinase Csk reduces LPA- or bradykinin-induced activation of MAP kinase. LPA- or bradykinin-induced MAP kinase activation was also inhibited by overexpression of dominant interfering mutants of Grb2 and Sos. We propose that Pyk2 acts with Src to link Gi- and Gq-coupled receptors with Grb2 and Sos to activate the MAP kinase signalling pathway in PC12 cells.

  15. Pyk2 modulates hippocampal excitatory synapses and contributes to cognitive deficits in a Huntington’s disease model

    KAUST Repository

    Giralt, Albert

    2017-05-30

    The structure and function of spines and excitatory synapses are under the dynamic control of multiple signalling networks. Although tyrosine phosphorylation is involved, its regulation and importance are not well understood. Here we study the role of Pyk2, a non-receptor calcium-dependent protein-tyrosine kinase highly expressed in the hippocampus. Hippocampal-related learning and CA1 long-term potentiation are severely impaired in Pyk2-deficient mice and are associated with alterations in NMDA receptors, PSD-95 and dendritic spines. In cultured hippocampal neurons, Pyk2 has autophosphorylation-dependent and -independent roles in determining PSD-95 enrichment and spines density. Pyk2 levels are decreased in the hippocampus of individuals with Huntington and in the R6/1 mouse model of the disease. Normalizing Pyk2 levels in the hippocampus of R6/1 mice rescues memory deficits, spines pathology and PSD-95 localization. Our results reveal a role for Pyk2 in spine structure and synaptic function, and suggest that its deficit contributes to Huntington’s disease cognitive impairments.

  16. Differential expression of FAK and Pyk2 in metastatic and non-metastatic EL4 lymphoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihong; Knoepp, Stewart M; Ku, Hsun; Sansbury, Heather M; Xie, Yuhuan; Chahal, Manpreet S; Tomlinson, Stephen; Meier, Kathryn E

    2011-08-01

    The murine EL4 lymphoma cell line exists in variants that are either sensitive or resistant to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). In sensitive cells, PMA causes Erk MAPK activation and Erk-mediated growth arrest. In resistant cells, PMA induces a low level of Erk activation, without growth arrest. A relatively unexplored aspect of the phenotypes is that resistant cells are more adherent to culture substrate than are sensitive cells. In this study, the roles of the protein tyrosine kinases FAK and Pyk2 in EL4 phenotype were examined, with a particular emphasis on the role of these proteins in metastasis. FAK is expressed only in PMA-resistant (or intermediate phenotype) EL4 cells, correlating with enhanced cell-substrate adherence, while Pyk2 is more highly expressed in non-adherent PMA-sensitive cells. PMA treatment causes modulation of mRNA for FAK (up-regulation) and Pyk2 (down-regulation) in PMA-sensitive but not PMA-resistant EL4 cells. The increase in Pyk2 mRNA is correlated with an increase in Pyk2 protein expression. The roles of FAK in cell phenotype were further explored using transfection and knockdown experiments. The results showed that FAK does not play a major role in modulating PMA-induced Erk activation in EL4 cells. However, the knockdown studies demonstrated that FAK expression is required for proliferation and migration of PMA-resistant cells. In an experimental metastasis model using syngeneic mice, only FAK-expressing (PMA-resistant) EL4 cells form liver tumors. Taken together, these studies suggest that FAK expression promotes metastasis of EL4 lymphoma cells.

  17. TrkB is highly expressed in NSCLC and mediates BDNF-induced the activation of Pyk2 signaling and the invasion of A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Siyang; Guo, Dawei; Luo, Wenting; Zhang, Qingfu; Zhang, Ying; Li, Chunyan; Lu, Yao; Cui, Zeshi; Qiu, Xueshan

    2010-01-01

    Aberrant regulation in the invasion of cancer cells is closely associated with their metastatic potentials. TrkB functions as a receptor tyrosine kinase and is considered to facilitate tumor metastasis. Pyk2 is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase and integrates signals in cell invasion. However, little is known about the expression of TrkB in NSCLC and whether Pyk2 is involved in TrkB-mediated invasion of A549 cells. The expression of TrkB was investigated in NSCLC by immunohistochemical staining. Both HBE and A549 cells were treated with BDNF. The expression of TrkB, Pyk2 and ERK phosphorylations were assessed by western blot. Besides, A549 cells were transfected with TrkB-siRNA or Pyk2-siRNA, or treated with ERK inhibitor where indicated. Transwell assay was performed to evaluate cell invasion. 40 cases (66.7%) of NSCLC were found higher expression of TrkB and patients with more TrkB expression had significant metastatic lymph nodes (p = 0.028). BDNF facilitated the invasion of A549 cells and the activations of Pyk2 in Tyr402 and ERK. However, the effects of BDNF were not observed in HBE cells with lower expression of TrkB. In addition, the increased Pyk2 and ERK activities induced by BDNF were significantly inhibited by blocking TrkB expression, so was the invasion of A549 cells. Knockdown studies revealed the essential role of Pyk2 for BDNF-induced cell invasion, since the invasion of A549 cells was abolished by Pyk2-siRNA. The application of ERK inhibitor also showed the suppressed ERK phosphorylation and cell invasion. These data indicated that higher expression of TrkB in NSCLC was closely correlated with lymph node metastasis, and BDNF probably via TrkB/Pyk2/ERK promoted the invasion of A549 cells

  18. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2 regulates IGF-I-induced cell motility and invasion of urothelial carcinoma cells.

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    Marco Genua

    Full Text Available The insulin-like growth factor receptor I (IGF-IR plays an essential role in transformation by promoting cell growth and protecting cancer cells from apoptosis. We have recently demonstrated that the IGF-IR is overexpressed in invasive bladder cancer tissues and promotes motility and invasion of urothelial carcinoma cells. These effects require IGF-I-induced Akt- and MAPK-dependent activation of paxillin. The latter co-localizes with focal adhesion kinases (FAK at dynamic focal adhesions and is critical for promoting motility of urothelial cancer cells. FAK and its homolog Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2 modulate paxillin activation; however, their role in regulating IGF-IR-dependent signaling and motility in bladder cancer has not been established. In this study we demonstrate that FAK was not required for IGF-IR-dependent signaling and motility of invasive urothelial carcinoma cells. On the contrary, Pyk2, which was strongly activated by IGF-I, was critical for IGF-IR-dependent motility and invasion and regulated IGF-I-dependent activation of the Akt and MAPK pathways. Using immunofluorescence and AQUA analysis we further discovered that Pyk2 was overexpressed in bladder cancer tissues as compared to normal tissue controls. Significantly, in urothelial carcinoma tissues there was increased Pyk2 localization in the nuclei as compared to normal tissue controls. These results provide the first evidence of a specific Pyk2 activity in regulating IGF-IR-dependent motility and invasion of bladder cancer cells suggesting that Pyk2 and the IGF-IR may play a critical role in the invasive phenotype in urothelial neoplasia. In addition, Pyk2 and the IGF-IR may serve as novel biomarkers with diagnostic and prognostic significance in bladder cancer.

  19. Hydrogen Sulfide Recruits Macrophage Migration by Integrin β1-Src-FAK/Pyk2-Rac Pathway in Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Lei; Xin, Xiaoming; Xin, Hong; Shen, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Yi-Zhun

    2016-03-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) triggers an inflammatory reaction, in which macrophages are of key importance for tissue repairing. Infiltration and/or migration of macrophages into the infarct area early after MI is critical for infarct healing, vascularization, and cardiac function. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been demonstrated to possess cardioprotective effects post MI and during the progress of cardiac remodeling. However, the specific molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in macrophage recruitment by H2S remain to be identified. In this study, the NaHS (exogenous sources of H2S) treatment exerted an increased infiltration of macrophages into the infarcted myocardium at early stage of MI cardiac tissues in both wild type (WT) and cystathionine-γ-lyase-knockout (CSE-KO) mice. And NaHS accelerated the migration of macrophage cells in vitro. While, the inhibitors not only significantly diminished the migratory ability in response to NaHS, but also blocked the activation of phospho-Src, -Pyk2, -FAK397, and -FAK925. Furthermore, NaHS induced the internalization of integrin β1 on macrophage surface, but, integrin β1 silencing inhibited macrophage migration and Src signaling activation. These results indicate that H2S may have the potential as an anti-infarct of MI by governing macrophage migration, which was achieved by accelerating internalization of integrin β1 and activating downstream Src-FAK/Pyk2-Rac pathway.

  20. Uncoupling Marriages.

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    Kane, Barbara

    1979-01-01

    In counseling groups, uncoupling partners learn to say their good-byes and accept the death of the marriage. They complete their unfinished business with each other. An organizational strategy is necessary. Skill in helping partners uncouple is a vital function of a marriage counselor, who must be proficient in group counseling. (Author)

  1. Non-Catalytic Functions of Pyk2 and Fyn Regulate Late Stage Adhesion in Human T Cells

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    Houtman, Jon C. D.

    2012-01-01

    T cell activation drives the protective immune response against pathogens, but is also critical for the development of pathological diseases in humans. Cytoskeletal changes are required for downstream functions in T cells, including proliferation, cytokine production, migration, spreading, and adhesion. Therefore, investigating the molecular mechanism of cytoskeletal changes is crucial for understanding the induction of T cell-driven immune responses and for developing therapies to treat immune disorders related to aberrant T cell activation. In this study, we used a plate-bound adhesion assay that incorporated near-infrared imaging technology to address how TCR signaling drives human T cell adhesion. Interestingly, we observed that T cells have weak adhesion early after TCR activation and that binding to the plate was significantly enhanced 30–60 minutes after receptor activation. This late stage of adhesion was mediated by actin polymerization but was surprisingly not dependent upon Src family kinase activity. By contrast, the non-catalytic functions of the kinases Fyn and Pyk2 were required for late stage human T cell adhesion. These data reveal a novel TCR-induced signaling pathway that controls cellular adhesion independent of the canonical TCR signaling cascade driven by tyrosine kinase activity. PMID:23300847

  2. CCL2/CCL5 secreted by the stroma induce IL-6/PYK2 dependent chemoresistance in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquier, Jennifer; Gosset, Marie; Geyl, Caroline; Hoarau-Véchot, Jessica; Chevrot, Audrey; Pocard, Marc; Mirshahi, Massoud; Lis, Raphael; Rafii, Arash; Touboul, Cyril

    2018-02-19

    Minimal residual disease is the main issue of advanced ovarian cancer treatment. According to the literature and previous results, we hypothesized that Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSC) could support this minimal residual disease by protecting ovarian cancer cells (OCC) from chemotherapy. In vitro study confirmed that MSC could induce OCC chemoresistance without contact using transwell setting. Further experiments showed that this induced chemoresistance was dependent on IL-6 OCC stimulation. We combined meticulous in vitro profiling and tumor xenograft models to study the role of IL-6 in MSC/OCC intereactions. We demonstrated that Tocilizumab® (anti-IL-6R therapy) in association with chemotherapy significantly reduced the peritoneal carcinosis index (PCI) than chemotherapy alone in mice xenografted with OCCs+MSCs. Further experiments showed that CCL2 and CCL5 are released by MSC in transwell co-culture and induce OCCs IL-6 secretion and chemoresistance. Finally, we found that IL-6 induced chemoresistance was dependent on PYK2 phosphorylation. These findings highlight the potential key role of the stroma in protecting minimal residual disease from chemotherapy, thus favoring recurrences. Future clinical trials targeting stroma could use anti-IL-6 therapy in association with chemotherapy.

  3. NADPH oxidase/ROS-dependent PYK2 activation is involved in TNF-α-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in rat heart-derived H9c2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chuen-Mao; Lee, I-Ta; Hsu, Ru-Chun; Chi, Pei-Ling; Hsiao, Li-Der

    2013-01-01

    TNF-α plays a mediator role in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure contributing to cardiac remodeling and peripheral vascular disturbances. The implication of TNF-α in inflammatory responses has been shown to be mediated through up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). However, the detailed mechanisms of TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression in rat embryonic-heart derived H9c2 cells are largely not defined. We demonstrated that in H9c2 cells, TNF-α induced MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression associated with an increase in the secretion of pro-MMP-9. TNF-α-mediated responses were attenuated by pretreatment with the inhibitor of ROS (N-acetyl-L-cysteine, NAC), NADPH oxidase [apocynin (APO) or diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)], MEK1/2 (U0126), p38 MAPK (SB202190), JNK1/2 (SP600125), NF-κB (Bay11-7082), or PYK2 (PF-431396) and transfection with siRNA of TNFR1, p47 phox , p42, p38, JNK1, p65, or PYK2. Moreover, TNF-α markedly induced NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation in these cells. TNF-α-enhanced p42/p44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, JNK1/2, and NF-κB (p65) phosphorylation and in vivo binding of p65 to the MMP-9 promoter were inhibited by U0126, SB202190, SP600125, NAC, DPI, or APO. In addition, TNF-α-mediated PYK2 phosphorylation was inhibited by NAC, DPI, or APO. PYK2 inhibition could reduce TNF-α-stimulated MAPKs and NF-κB activation. Thus, in H9c2 cells, we are the first to show that TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression is mediated through a TNFR1/NADPH oxidase/ROS/PYK2/MAPKs/NF-κB cascade. We demonstrated that NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation is involved in TNF-α-induced PYK2 activation in these cells. Understanding the regulation of MMP-9 expression and NADPH oxidase activation by TNF-α on H9c2 cells may provide potential therapeutic targets of chronic heart failure. - Highlights: • TNF-α induces MMP-9 secretion and expression via a TNFR1-dependent pathway. • TNF-α induces ROS/PYK2-dependent MMP-9 expression in H9c2 cells. • TNF-α induces

  4. The mitochondrial uncoupling proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Ledesma, Amalia; de Lacoba, Mario García; Rial, Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    The uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are transporters, present in the mitochondrial inner membrane, that mediate a regulated discharge of the proton gradient that is generated by the respiratory chain. This energy-dissipatory mechanism can serve functions such as thermogenesis, maintenance of the redox balance, or reduction in the production of reactive oxygen species. Some UCP homologs may not act as true uncouplers, however, and their activity has yet to be defined. The UCPs are integral membrane...

  5. Synchronizing noisy nonidentical oscillators by transient uncoupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, Aditya, E-mail: adityat@iitk.ac.in; Mannattil, Manu, E-mail: mmanu@iitk.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016 (India); Schröder, Malte, E-mail: malte@nld.ds.mpg.de [Network Dynamics, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPIDS), 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Timme, Marc, E-mail: timme@nld.ds.mpg.de [Network Dynamics, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPIDS), 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Department of Physics, Technical University of Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Chakraborty, Sagar, E-mail: sagarc@iitk.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016 (India); Mechanics and Applied Mathematics Group, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016 (India)

    2016-09-15

    Synchronization is the process of achieving identical dynamics among coupled identical units. If the units are different from each other, their dynamics cannot become identical; yet, after transients, there may emerge a functional relationship between them—a phenomenon termed “generalized synchronization.” Here, we show that the concept of transient uncoupling, recently introduced for synchronizing identical units, also supports generalized synchronization among nonidentical chaotic units. Generalized synchronization can be achieved by transient uncoupling even when it is impossible by regular coupling. We furthermore demonstrate that transient uncoupling stabilizes synchronization in the presence of common noise. Transient uncoupling works best if the units stay uncoupled whenever the driven orbit visits regions that are locally diverging in its phase space. Thus, to select a favorable uncoupling region, we propose an intuitive method that measures the local divergence at the phase points of the driven unit's trajectory by linearizing the flow and subsequently suppresses the divergence by uncoupling.

  6. Mitochondrial uncouplers with an extraordinary dynamic range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Phing-How; Hansen, Birgit S; Olsen, Preben H; Tullin, Søren; Murphy, Michael P; Brand, Martin D

    2007-10-01

    We have discovered that some weak uncouplers (typified by butylated hydroxytoluene) have a dynamic range of more than 10(6) in vitro: the concentration giving measurable uncoupling is less than one millionth of the concentration causing full uncoupling. They achieve this through a high-affinity interaction with the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase that causes significant but limited uncoupling at extremely low uncoupler concentrations, together with more conventional uncoupling at much higher concentrations. Uncoupling at the translocase is not by a conventional weak acid/anion cycling mechanism since it is also caused by substituted triphenylphosphonium molecules, which are not anionic and cannot protonate. Covalent attachment of the uncoupler to a mitochondrially targeted hydrophobic cation sensitizes it to membrane potential, giving a small additional effect. The wide dynamic range of these uncouplers in isolated mitochondria and intact cells reveals a novel allosteric activation of proton transport through the adenine nucleotide translocase and provides a promising starting point for designing safer uncouplers for obesity therapy.

  7. Role of Uncoupling Proteins in Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle, Adamo; Oliver, Jordi; Roca, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are a family of inner mitochondrial membrane proteins whose function is to allow the re-entry of protons to the mitochondrial matrix, by dissipating the proton gradient and, subsequently, decreasing membrane potential and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Due to their pivotal role in the intersection between energy efficiency and oxidative stress, UCPs are being investigated for a potential role in cancer. In this review we compile the latest evidence showing a link between uncoupling and the carcinogenic process, paying special attention to their involvement in cancer initiation, progression and drug chemoresistance

  8. Role of Uncoupling Proteins in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamo Valle

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Uncoupling proteins (UCPs are a family of inner mitochondrial membrane proteins whose function is to allow the re-entry of protons to the mitochondrial matrix, by dissipating the proton gradient and, subsequently, decreasing membrane potential and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Due to their pivotal role in the intersection between energy efficiency and oxidative stress, UCPs are being investigated for a potential role in cancer. In this review we compile the latest evidence showing a link between uncoupling and the carcinogenic process, paying special attention to their involvement in cancer initiation, progression and drug chemoresistance.

  9. Metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1 autoimmunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Chiriboga, A. Sebastian; Komorowski, Lars; Kümpfel, Tania; Probst, Christian; Hinson, Shannon R.; Pittock, Sean J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe retrospectively the clinical associations of immunoglobulin G (IgG) targeting metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1-IgG). Methods: Specimens of 9 patients evaluated on a service basis in the Mayo Clinic Neuroimmunology Laboratory by tissue-based immunofluorescence assay (IFA) yielded a robust, synaptic immunostaining pattern consistent with mGluR1-IgG (serum, 9; CSF, 2 available). Transfected HEK293 cell-based assay (CBA) confirmed mGluR1 specificity in all 11 specimens. A further 2 patients were detected in Germany primarily by CBA. Results: The median symptom onset age for the 11 patients was 58 years (range 33–81 years); 6 were male. All 9 Mayo Clinic patients had subacute onset of cerebellar ataxia, 4 had dysgeusia, 1 had psychiatric symptoms, and 1 had cognitive impairment. All were evaluated for malignancy, but only 1 was affected (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma). One developed ataxia post–herpes zoster infection. Head MRIs were generally atrophic or normal-appearing, and CSF was inflammatory in just 1 of 5 tested, though mGluR1-IgG was detected in both specimens submitted. Five patients improved (attributable to immunotherapy in 4, spontaneously in 1), 3 stabilized (attributable to immunotherapy in 2, cancer therapy in 1), and 1 progressively declined (untreated). The 2 German patients had ataxia, but fulfilled multiple sclerosis diagnostic criteria (1 relapsing-remitting, 1 progressive). However, both had histories of hematologic malignancy (acute lymphocytic leukemia and mantle cell lymphoma), and had mGluR1-IgG detected in serum by CBA (weakly positive on tissue-based IFA). Conclusions: mGluR1 autoimmunity represents a treatable form of cerebellar ataxia. Dysgeusia may be a diagnostic clue. Paraneoplastic, parainfectious, or idiopathic causes may occur. PMID:26888994

  10. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins and energy metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Anna Busiello

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the metabolic factors that contribute to energy metabolism (EM is critical for the development of new treatments for obesity and related diseases. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is not perfectly coupled to ATP synthesis, and the process of proton-leak plays a crucial role. Proton-leak accounts for a significant part of the resting metabolic rate and therefore enhancement of this process represents a potential target for obesity treatment. Since their discovery, uncoupling proteins have stimulated great interest due to their involvement in mitochondrial-inducible proton-leak. Despite the widely accepted uncoupling/thermogenic effect of uncoupling protein one (UCP1, which was the first in this family to be discovered, the reactions catalyzed by its homologue UCP3 and the physiological role remain under debate.This review provides an overview of the role played by UCP1 and UCP3 in mitochondrial uncoupling/functionality as well as EM and suggests that they are a potential therapeutic target for treating obesity and its related diseases such as type II diabetes mellitus.

  11. 30 CFR 56.14215 - Coupling or uncoupling cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coupling or uncoupling cars. 56.14215 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14215 Coupling or uncoupling cars. Prior to coupling or uncoupling cars manually, trains shall be brought to a complete stop, and then moved at minimum...

  12. Certain aspects of uncoupling due to mitochondrial uncoupling proteins in vitro and in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dlasková, Andrea; Špaček, Tomáš; Škobisová, Eva; Šantorová, Jitka; Ježek, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 1757, č. 5-6 (2006), s. 467-473 ISSN 0005-2728 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05ME794; GA ČR(CZ) GA521/02/0183; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5011106 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : fatty acid-induced uncoupling * uncoupling protein-1 * carnitine cycle Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.237, year: 2006

  13. A procedure for noise uncoupling in laser interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Barone, F; Rosa, R D; Eleuteri, A; Milano, L; Qipiani, K

    2002-01-01

    A numerical procedure for noise recognition and uncoupling is described. The procedure is applied to a Michelson interferometer and is effective in seismic and acoustic noise uncoupling from the output signal of the interferometer. Due to the low data flow coming from the instrumentation this uncoupling can be performed in real time and it is useful as a data quality procedure for interferometer data output.

  14. Optimal parameters uncoupling vibration modes of oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, K. C.; Pieper, A.

    2017-07-01

    This paper proposes a novel optimization concept for an oscillator with two degrees of freedom. By using specially defined motion ratios, we control the action of springs to each degree of freedom of the oscillator. We aim at showing that, if the potential action of the springs in one period of vibration, used as the payoff function for the conservative oscillator, is maximized among all admissible parameters and motions satisfying Lagrange's equations, then the optimal motion ratios uncouple vibration modes. A similar result holds true for the dissipative oscillator having dampers. The application to optimal design of vehicle suspension is discussed.

  15. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins and phylogenesis - UCP4 as the ancestral uncoupling protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanák, Petr; Ježek, Petr

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 495, č. 3 (2001), s. 137-141 ISSN 0014-5793 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/98/0568; GA AV ČR IAA5011106 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : phylogenesis of mitochondrial uncoupling protein * specific sequence motif Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.644, year: 2001

  16. Uncoupling proteins of invertebrates: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocinska, Malgorzata; Barylski, Jakub; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2016-09-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) mediate inducible proton conductance in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Herein, we summarize our knowledge regarding UCPs in invertebrates. Since 2001, the presence of UCPs has been demonstrated in nematodes, mollusks, amphioxi, and insects. We discuss the following important issues concerning invertebrate UCPs: their evolutionary relationships, molecular and functional properties, and physiological impact. Evolutionary analysis indicates that the branch of vertebrate and invertebrate UCP4-5 diverged early in the evolutionary process prior to the divergence of the animal groups. Several proposed physiological roles of invertebrate UCPs are energy control, metabolic balance, and preventive action against oxidative stress. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(9):691-699, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  17. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins in unicellular eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa; Woyda-Ploszczyca, Andrzej; Antos-Krzeminska, Nina; Sluse, Francis E

    2010-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are members of the mitochondrial anion carrier protein family that are present in the mitochondrial inner membrane and mediate free fatty acid (FFA)-activated, purine nucleotide (PN)-inhibited proton conductance. Since 1999, the presence of UCPs has been demonstrated in some non-photosynthesising unicellular eukaryotes, including amoeboid and parasite protists, as well as in non-fermentative yeast and filamentous fungi. In the mitochondria of these organisms, UCP activity is revealed upon FFA-induced, PN-inhibited stimulation of resting respiration and a decrease in membrane potential, which are accompanied by a decrease in membranous ubiquinone (Q) reduction level. UCPs in unicellular eukaryotes are able to divert energy from oxidative phosphorylation and thus compete for a proton electrochemical gradient with ATP synthase. Our recent work indicates that membranous Q is a metabolic sensor that might utilise its redox state to release the PN inhibition of UCP-mediated mitochondrial uncoupling under conditions of phosphorylation and resting respiration. The action of reduced Q (QH2) could allow higher or complete activation of UCP. As this regulatory feature was demonstrated for microorganism UCPs (A. castellanii UCP), plant and mammalian UCP1 analogues, and UCP1 in brown adipose tissue, the process could involve all UCPs. Here, we discuss the functional connection and physiological role of UCP and alternative oxidase, two main energy-dissipating systems in the plant-type mitochondrial respiratory chain of unicellular eukaryotes, including the control of cellular energy balance as well as preventive action against the production of reactive oxygen species. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 30 CFR 57.14215 - Coupling or uncoupling cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery... uncoupling shall not be attempted from the inside of curves unless the railroad and cars are designed to...

  19. Conduction slowing by the gap junctional uncoupler carbenoxolone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, [No Value; Veenstra, T; Verkerk, AO; Wilders, R; Smits, JPP; Wilms-Schopman, FJG; Wiegerinck, RF; Bourier, J; Belterman, CNW; Coronel, R; Verheijck, EE

    2003-01-01

    Background: Cellular electrical coupling is essential for normal propagation of the cardiac action potential, whereas reduced electrical coupling is associated with arrhythrmas. Known cellular uncoupling agents have severe side effects on membrane ionic currents. We investigated the effect of

  20. Metabotropic glutamatergic receptors and their ligands in drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomierny-Chamioło, Lucyna; Rup, Kinga; Pomierny, Bartosz; Niedzielska, Ewa; Kalivas, Peter W; Filip, Małgorzata

    2014-06-01

    Glutamatergic excitatory transmission is implicated in physiological and pathological conditions like learning, memory, neuronal plasticity and emotions, while glutamatergic abnormalities are reported in numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, epilepsy, stroke, traumatic brain injury, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia and pain. Also, several lines of evidence have accumulated indicating a pivotal role for glutamatergic neurotransmission in mediating addictive behaviors. Among the proteins regulating glutamatergic transmission, the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) are being developed as pharmacological targets for treating many neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. In this review we describe the molecular structure of mGluRs and their distribution, physiology and pharmacology in the central nervous system, as well as their use as targets in preclinical studies of drug addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Uncoupled thermoelasticity solutions applied on beam dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ouzia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In particle accelerators the process of beam absorption is vital. At CERN particle beams are accelerated at energies of the order of TeV. In the event of a system failure or following collisions, the beam needs to be safely absorbed by dedicated protecting blocks. The thermal shock caused by the rapid energy deposition within the absorbing block causes thermal stresses that may rise above critical levels. The present paper provides a convenient expression of such stresses under hypotheses described hereafter. The temperature field caused by the beam energy deposition is assumed to be Gaussian. Such a field models a non-diffusive heat deposition. These effects are described as thermoelastic as long as the stresses remain below the proportional limit and can be analytically modeled by the coupled equations of thermoelasticity. The analytical solution to the uncoupled thermoelastic problem in an infinite domain is presented herein and matched with a finite unit radius sphere. The assumption of zero diffusion as well as the validity of the match with a finite geometry is quantified such that the obtained solutions can be rigorously applied to real problems. Furthermore, truncated series solutions, which are not novel, are used for comparison purposes. All quantities are nondimensional and the problem reduces to a dependence of five dimensionless parameters. The equations of elasticity are presented in the potential formulation where the shear potential is assumed to be nil due to the source being a gradient and the absence of boundaries. Nevertheless equivalent three-dimensional stresses are computed using the compressive potential and optimized using standard analytical optimization methods. An alternative algorithm for finding the critical points of the three-dimensional stress function is presented. Finally, a case study concerning the proton synchrotron booster dump is presented where the aforementioned analytical solutions are used and the

  2. Triclosan is a Mitochondrial Uncoupler in Live Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Juyoung; Weatherly, Lisa M.; Luc, Richard H.; Dorman, Maxwell T.; Neilson, Andy; Ng, Ryan; Kim, Carol H.; Millard, Paul J.; Gosse, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a synthetic antimicrobial agent used in many consumer goods at millimolar concentrations. As a result of exposure, TCS has been detected widely in humans. We have recently discovered that TCS is a proton ionophore mitochondrial uncoupler in multiple types of living cells. Here we present novel data indicating that TCS is also a mitochondrial uncoupler in a living organism: 24 hour post fertilization zebrafish embryos. These experiments were conducted using a Seahorse Bioscience XFe 96 Extracellular Flux Analyzer modified for bidirectional temperature control, using the XF96 spheroid plate to position and measure one zebrafish embryo per well. Using this method, following acute exposure to TCS, basal oxygen consumption rate (OCR) increases, without a decrease in survival or heartbeat rate. TCS also decreases ATP-linked respiration and spare respiratory capacity and increases proton leak: all indicators of mitochondrial uncoupling. Our data indicate, that TCS is a mitochondrial uncoupler in vivo, which should be taken into consideration when assessing the toxicity and/or pharmaceutical uses of TCS. This is the first example of usage of a Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer to measure bioenergetic flux of a single zebrafish embryo per well in a 96 well assay format. The method developed in this study provides a high-throughput tool to identify previously-unknown mitochondrial uncouplers in a living organism. PMID:27111768

  3. Uncoupled and coupled analysis of a large HDR pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    The main differences are in the structural response. There is no clear tendency that a coupled calculation will result in lower amplitudes of the structural response, but it can be seen from the results that there is a typical difference between coupled and uncoupled analysis which increases with time. This increase is mainly due to the fact that in a coupled analysis the speed of sound of the fluid and the eigenmodes of the piping system structure are lower than in the uncoupled analysis. Coupled and uncoupled piping transient analyses show similar results for the fluiddynamic data. The differences are less than 10% and as long as the fluid is in the two phase domain they can almost be neglected

  4. Molecular cloning of amphioxus uncoupling protein and assessment of its uncoupling activity using a yeast heterologous expression system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kun [Jiangsu Diabetes Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Sun, Guoxun [Department of Hematology, Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001 (China); Lv, Zhiyuan; Wang, Chen [Jiangsu Diabetes Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Jiang, Xueyuan, E-mail: xueyuanjiang@yahoo.com.cn [Jiangsu Diabetes Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Li, Donghai, E-mail: lidonghai@gmail.com [Jiangsu Diabetes Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Chenyu, E-mail: cyzhang@nju.edu.cn [Jiangsu Diabetes Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Invertebrates, for example amphioxus, do express uncoupling proteins. {yields} Both the sequence and the uncoupling activity of amphioxus UCP resemble UCP2. {yields} UCP1 is the only UCP that can form dimer on yeast mitochondria. -- Abstract: The present study describes the molecular cloning of a novel cDNA fragment from amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri) encoding a 343-amino acid protein that is highly homologous to human uncoupling proteins (UCP), this protein is therefore named amphioxus UCP. This amphioxus UCP shares more homology with and is phylogenetically more related to mammalian UCP2 as compared with UCP1. To further assess the functional similarity of amphioxus UCP to mammalian UCP1 and -2, the amphioxus UCP, rat UCP1, and human UCP2 were separately expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the recombinant yeast mitochondria were isolated and assayed for the state 4 respiration rate and proton leak, using pYES2 empty vector as the control. UCP1 increased the state 4 respiration rate by 2.8-fold, and the uncoupling activity was strongly inhibited by GDP, while UCP2 and amphioxus UCP only increased the state 4 respiration rate by 1.5-fold and 1.7-fold in a GDP-insensitive manner, moreover, the proton leak kinetics of amphioxus UCP was very similar to UCP2, but much different from UCP1. In conclusion, the amphioxus UCP has a mild, unregulated uncoupling activity in the yeast system, which resembles mammalian UCP2, but not UCP1.

  5. Molecular cloning of amphioxus uncoupling protein and assessment of its uncoupling activity using a yeast heterologous expression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kun; Sun, Guoxun; Lv, Zhiyuan; Wang, Chen; Jiang, Xueyuan; Li, Donghai; Zhang, Chenyu

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Invertebrates, for example amphioxus, do express uncoupling proteins. → Both the sequence and the uncoupling activity of amphioxus UCP resemble UCP2. → UCP1 is the only UCP that can form dimer on yeast mitochondria. -- Abstract: The present study describes the molecular cloning of a novel cDNA fragment from amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri) encoding a 343-amino acid protein that is highly homologous to human uncoupling proteins (UCP), this protein is therefore named amphioxus UCP. This amphioxus UCP shares more homology with and is phylogenetically more related to mammalian UCP2 as compared with UCP1. To further assess the functional similarity of amphioxus UCP to mammalian UCP1 and -2, the amphioxus UCP, rat UCP1, and human UCP2 were separately expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the recombinant yeast mitochondria were isolated and assayed for the state 4 respiration rate and proton leak, using pYES2 empty vector as the control. UCP1 increased the state 4 respiration rate by 2.8-fold, and the uncoupling activity was strongly inhibited by GDP, while UCP2 and amphioxus UCP only increased the state 4 respiration rate by 1.5-fold and 1.7-fold in a GDP-insensitive manner, moreover, the proton leak kinetics of amphioxus UCP was very similar to UCP2, but much different from UCP1. In conclusion, the amphioxus UCP has a mild, unregulated uncoupling activity in the yeast system, which resembles mammalian UCP2, but not UCP1.

  6. The metabotropic glutamate receptors: structure, activation mechanism and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pin, Jean-Philippe; Acher, Francine

    2002-06-01

    The metabotropic glutamate receptors are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) involved in the regulation of many synapses, including most glutamatergic fast excitatory synapses. Eight subtypes have been identified that can be classified into three groups. The molecular characterization of these receptors revealed proteins much more complex than any other GPCRs. They are composed of a Venus Flytrap (VFT) module where glutamate binds, connected to a heptahelical domain responsible for G-protein coupling. Recent data including the structure of the VFT module determined with and without glutamate, indicate that these receptors function as dimers. Moreover a number of intracellular proteins can regulate their targeting and transduction mechanism. Such structural features of mGlu receptors offer multiple possibilities for synthetic compounds to modulate their activity. In addition to agonists and competitive antagonists acting at the glutamate binding site, a number of non-competitive antagonists with inverse agonist activity, and positive allosteric modulators have been discovered. These later compounds share specific properties that make them good candidates for therapeutic applications. First, their non-amino acid structure makes them pass more easily the blood brain barrier. Second, they are much more selective than any other compound identified so far, being the first subtype selective molecules. Third, for the negative modulators, their non competitive mechanism of action makes them relatively unaffected by high concentrations of glutamate that may be present in disease states (e.g. stroke, epilepsy, neuropathic pain, etc.). Fourth, like the benzodiazepines acting at the GABA(A) receptors, the positive modulators offer a new way to increase the activity of these receptors in vivo, with a low risk of inducing their desensitization. The present review article focuses on the specific structural features of these receptors and highlights the various possibilities these

  7. Uncoupler resistance in E. coli Tuv and Cuv is due to the exclusion of uncoupler by the outer membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haworth, Robert S.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Michelsen, Ole

    1990-01-01

    The uncoupler resistant bacterial strains E. coli Tuv and Cuv share the high deoxycholate sensitivity of the parent strain, Doc S. However, both Tuv and Cuv show greater resistance than Doc S to other detergents. Measurement of the periplasmic volume indicates that the outer membrane of Doc S is ...

  8. Uncoupling in Secondary Transport Proteins. A Mechanistic Explanation for Mutants of lac Permease with an Uncoupled Phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lolkema, J.S.; Poolman, B.

    1995-01-01

    The kinetic behavior of a H+-substrate symporter has been studied in which in addition to the unloaded (E) and fully loaded states (E.S.H) of the carrier also one of the binary complexes (E.S or E.H) may reorient its binding sites. This results in two types of uncoupled mutants, the ES leak and the

  9. New analogues of ACPD with selective activity for group II metabotropic glutamate receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Madsen, U; Mikiciuk-Olasik, E

    1997-01-01

    In this study we have determined the pharmacology of a series of 1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (1,3-ACPD) analogues at cloned metabotropic glutamic acid (mGlu) receptors. The new analogues comprise the four possible stereoisomers of 1-amino-1-carboxycyclopentane-3-acetic acid (1,3-hom...

  10. Metabotropic glutamate receptors as a target for anticonvulsant and anxiolytic action in immature rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Pavel; Mikulecká, Anna; Tichá, Kateřina; Lojková-Janečková, Denisa; Kubová, Hana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 51, Suppl.3 (2010), s. 24-26 ISSN 0013-9580 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : metabotropic glutamate receptors * pharmacology * development Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.955, year: 2010

  11. Antagonists of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors and cortical afterdischarges in immature rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lojková-Janečková, Denisa; Ng, Jessica; Mareš, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 9 (2009), s. 2123-2129 ISSN 0013-9580 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/06/1188 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cortical seizures * metabotropic glutamate receptors * development Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.052, year: 2009

  12. Age-dependent anticonvulsant action of antagonists of group I glutamate metabotropic receptors in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 83, 2-3 (2009), s. 215-223 ISSN 0920-1211 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/06/1188 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : metabotropic glutamate receptors * anticonvulsan effect * ontogeny Subject RIV: FH - Neuro logy Impact factor: 2.479, year: 2009

  13. A new metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist with in vivo anti-allodynic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Nathan J; Hutchinson, Mark R; Kvist, Trine

    2010-01-01

    -substituted carboxycyclopropylglycines, utilizing novel synthetic chemistry. The reaction between substituted 1,2-dioxines and an aminophosphonate furnished the cyclopropane core in a single step with all required stereochemistry of pendant groups. In vitro binding assays at metabotropic glutamate receptors revealed selective activity...

  14. Altered expression patterns of group I and II metabotropic glutamate receptors in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, J. J. G.; Wolswijk, G.; Bö, L.; van der Valk, P.; Polman, C. H.; Troost, D.; Aronica, E.

    2003-01-01

    Recent evidence supports a role for glutamate receptors in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis. In the present study, we have focused specifically on the expression of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in multiple sclerosis brain tissue. The expression of group I (mGluR1alpha and

  15. Selective Negative Allosteric Modulation Of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors - A Structural Perspective of Ligands and Mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Kasper; Isberg, Vignir; Tehan, Benjamin G

    2015-01-01

    modulators. In this analysis, we make the first comprehensive structural comparison of all metabotropic glutamate receptors, placing selective negative allosteric modulators and critical mutants into the detailed context of the receptor binding sites. A better understanding of how the different m......Glu allosteric modulator binding modes relates to selective pharmacological actions will be very valuable for rational design of safer drugs....

  16. Localization of metabotropic glutamate receptors in the outer plexiform layer of the goldfish retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joselevitch, Christina; Klooster, Jan; Kamermans, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    We studied the localization of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in the goldfish outer plexiform layer by light-and electron-microscopical immunohistochemistry. The mGluR1alpha antibody labeled putative ON-type bipolar cell dendrites and horizontal cell processes in both rod spherules and

  17. Arsenate uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in isolated plant mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickes, W A; Wiskich, J T

    1976-01-01

    The uncoupling by arsenate of beetroot and cauliflower bud mitochondria showed the following characteristics: arsenate stimulation of respiration above the rate found with phosphate; inhibition of arsenate-stimulated respiration by phosphate; enhancement of arsenate-stimulated respiration by ADP; only partial prevention of this ADP-enhanced respiration by atractyloside; inhibition by oligomycin of the arsenate-stimulated respiration back to the phosphate rate; and the absence of any stimulatory effect of ADP in the presence of oligomycin. These results are qualitatively analogous to those reported for arsenate uncoupling in rat liver mitochondria. Arsenate stimulated malate oxidation, presumably by stimulating malate entry, in both beetroot and cauliflower bud mitochondria; however, high rates of oxidation, and presumably entry, were only sustained with arsenate in beetroot mitochondria. NADH was oxidized rapidly in cauliflower bud mitochondria in the presence of arsenate, showing that arsenate did not inhibit electron transfer processes.

  18. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins regulate angiotensin-converting enzyme expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhamrait, Sukhbir S.; Maubaret, Cecilia; Pedersen-bjergaard, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) regulate mitochondrial function, and thus cellular metabolism. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is the central component of endocrine and local tissue renin–angiotensin systems (RAS), which also regulate diverse aspects of whole-body metabolism and mitochondrial...... amongst UCP3-55C (rather than T) and UCP2 I (rather than D) allele carriers. RNA interference against UCP2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells reduced UCP2 mRNA sixfold (P 

  19. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins regulate angiotensin-converting enzyme expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhamrait, Sukhbir S.; Maubaret, Cecilia; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) regulate mitochondrial function, and thus cellular metabolism. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is the central component of endocrine and local tissue renin-angiotensin systems (RAS), which also regulate diverse aspects of whole-body metabolism and mitochondrial...... amongst UCP3-55C (rather than T) and UCP2 I (rather than D) allele carriers. RNA interference against UCP2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells reduced UCP2 mRNA sixfold (P 

  20. Possible physiological roles of mitochondrial uncoupling proteins-UCPn

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Petr

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 10 (2002), s. 1190-1206 ISSN 1357-2725 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5011106; GA ČR GA301/02/1215; GA MŠk ME 389 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : uncoupling proteins * diabetes * obesity Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.044, year: 2002

  1. eNOS-uncoupling in age-related erectile dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, JM; Bivalacqua, TJ; Lagoda, GA; Burnett, AL; Musicki, B

    2011-01-01

    Aging is associated with ED. Although age-related ED is attributed largely to increased oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in the penis, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are not fully defined. We evaluated whether endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling in the aged rat penis is a contributing mechanism. Correlatively, we evaluated the effect of replacement with eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) on erectile function in the aged rats. Male Fischer 344 ...

  2. Intrinsic uncoupling of mitochondrial proton pumps. 2. Modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrobon, D; Zoratti, M; Azzone, G F; Caplan, S R

    1986-02-25

    The thermodynamic and kinetic properties associated with intrinsic uncoupling in a six-state model of a redox proton pump have been studied by computing the flow-force relations for different degrees of coupling. Analysis of these relations shows the regulatory influence of the thermodynamic forces on the extent and relative contributions of redox slip and proton slip. Inhibition has been introduced into the model in two different ways, corresponding to possible modes of action of experimental inhibitors. Experiments relating the rate of electron transfer to delta microH at static head upon progressive inhibition of the pumps have been simulated considering (1) the limiting case that the nonzero rate of electron transfer at static head is only due to intrinsic uncoupling (no leaks) and (2) the experimentally observed case that about 30% of the nonzero rate of electron transfer at static head is due to a constant proton leakage conductance in parallel with the pumps, the rest being due to intrinsic uncoupling. The same simulations have been performed for experiments in which the rate of electron transfer is varied by varying the substrate concentration rather than by using an inhibitor. The corresponding experimental results obtained by measuring delta microH and the rate of electron transfer at different succinate concentrations in rat liver mitochondria are presented. Comparison between simulated behavior and experimental results leads to the general conclusion that the typical relationship between rate of electron transfer and delta microH found in mitochondria at static head could certainly be a manifestation of some degree of intrinsic uncoupling in the redox proton pumps.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Mitochondrial Complex I superoxide production is attenuated by uncoupling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dlasková, Andrea; Hlavatá, Lydie; Ježek, Jan; Ježek, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 10 (2008), s. 2098-2109 ISSN 1357-2725 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP303/05/P100; GA AV ČR IAA500110701; GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05ME794 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : mitochondrial H2O2 production * mitochondrial Complex I proton pumping * uncoupling Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.178, year: 2008

  4. Use the Protonmotive Force: Mitochondrial Uncoupling and Reactive Oxygen Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Brandon J; Trewin, Adam J; Amitrano, Andrea M; Kim, Minsoo; Wojtovich, Andrew P

    2018-04-04

    Mitochondrial respiration results in an electrochemical proton gradient, or protonmotive force (pmf), across the mitochondrial inner membrane. The pmf is a form of potential energy consisting of charge (∆ψ m ) and chemical (∆pH) components, that together drive ATP production. In a process called uncoupling, proton leak into the mitochondrial matrix independent of ATP production dissipates the pmf and energy is lost as heat. Other events can directly dissipate the pmf independent of ATP production as well, such as chemical exposure or mechanisms involving regulated mitochondrial membrane electrolyte transport. Uncoupling has defined roles in metabolic plasticity and can be linked through signal transduction to physiologic events. In the latter case, the pmf impacts mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Although capable of molecular damage, ROS also have signaling properties that depend on the timing, location, and quantity of their production. In this review, we provide a general overview of mitochondrial ROS production, mechanisms of uncoupling, and how these work in tandem to affect physiology and pathologies, including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and immunity. Overall, we highlight that isolated bioenergetic models-mitochondria and cells-only partially recapitulate the complex link between the pmf and ROS signaling that occurs in vivo. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Uncoupling of Vascular Nitric Oxide Synthase Caused by Intermittent Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Badran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH, is often present in diabetic (DB patients. Both conditions are associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that diabetic endothelial dysfunction is further compromised by CIH. Methods. Adult male diabetic (BKS.Cg-Dock7m +/+ Leprdb/J (db/db mice (10 weeks old and their heterozygote littermates were subjected to CIH or intermittent air (IA for 8 weeks. Mice were separated into 4 groups: IA (intermittent air nondiabetic, IH (intermittent hypoxia nondiabetic, IADB (intermittent air diabetic, and IHDB (intermittent hypoxia diabetic groups. Endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent relaxation and modulation by basal nitric oxide (NO were analyzed using wire myograph. Plasma 8-isoprostane, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA were measured using ELISA. Uncoupling of eNOS was measured using dihydroethidium (DHE staining. Results. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation and basal NO production were significantly impaired in the IH and IADB group compared to IA group but was more pronounced in IHDB group. Levels of 8-isoprostane, IL-6, ADMA, and eNOS uncoupling were ≈2-fold higher in IH and IADB groups and were further increased in the IHDB group. Conclusion. Endothelial dysfunction is more pronounced in diabetic mice subjected to CIH compared to diabetic or CIH mice alone. Oxidative stress, ADMA, and eNOS uncoupling were exacerbated by CIH in diabetic mice.

  6. Glutamate metabotropic receptors as targets for drug therapy in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldrich, Randal X; Chapman, Astrid G; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Meldrum, Brian S

    2003-08-22

    Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors have multiple actions on neuronal excitability through G-protein-linked modifications of enzymes and ion channels. They act presynaptically to modify glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic transmission and can contribute to long-term changes in synaptic function. The recent identification of subtype-selective agonists and antagonists has permitted evaluation of mGlu receptors as potential targets in the treatment of epilepsy. Agonists acting on group I mGlu receptors (mGlu1 and mGlu5) are convulsant. Antagonists acting on mGlu1 or mGlu5 receptors are anticonvulsant against 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG)-induced seizures and in mouse models of generalized motor seizures and absence seizures. The competitive, phenylglycine mGlu1/5 receptor antagonists generally require intracerebroventricular administration for potent anticonvulsant efficacy but noncompetitive antagonists, e.g., (3aS,6aS)-6a-naphthalen-2-ylmethyl-5-methyliden-hexahydrocyclopenta[c]furan-1-on (BAY36-7620), 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine hydrochloride (MPEP), and 2-methyl-6-(2-phenylethenyl)pyridine (SIB-1893) block generalized seizures with systemic administration. Agonists acting on group II mGlu receptors (mGlu2, mGlu3) to reduce glutamate release are anticonvulsant, e.g., 2R,4R-aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate [(2R,4R)-APDC], (+)-2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (LY354740), and (-)-2-oxa-4-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-4,6-dicarboxylate (LY379268). The classical agonists acting on group III mGlu receptors such as L-(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid, and L-serine-O-phosphate are acutely proconvulsant with some anticonvulsant activity. The more recently identified agonists (R,S)-4-phosphonophenylglycine [(R,S)-PPG] and (S)-3,4-dicarboxyphenylglycine [(S)-3,4-DCPG] and (1S,3R,4S)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid [ACPT-1] are all anticonvulsant without proconvulsant effects. Studies in animal models of kindling

  7. Recruitment of mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP2 after lipopolysaccharide induction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Michal; Škobisová, Eva; Dlasková, Andrea; Šantorová, Jitka; Smolková, Katarína; Špaček, Tomáš; Žáčková, Markéta; Modrianský, M.; Ježek, Petr

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 4 (2005), s. 809-821 ISSN 1357-2725 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA301/02/1215; GA ČR(CZ) GP301/01/P084; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5011106 Grant - others:NIH(US) TW01487 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : lipopolysaccharide * oxidative stress in liver * mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP2 Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.871, year: 2005

  8. Age-dependent suppression of hippocampal epileptic afterdischarges by metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonist MTEP

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zavala-Tecuapetla, Cecília; Kubová, Hana; Otáhal, Jakub; Tsenov, Grygoriy; Mareš, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 5 (2014), s. 927-930 ISSN 1734-1140 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0846; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : epileptic afterdischarge * hippocampus * rat * ontogeny * metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.928, year: 2014

  9. Sequential inter- and intrasubunit rearrangements during activation of dimeric metabotropic glutamate receptor 1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváčková, Veronika; Zabel, U.; Franková, Daniela; Batz, J.; Hoffmann, C.; Prezeau, L.; Pin, J. P.; Blahoš, Jaroslav; Lohse, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 237 (2012), ra59 ISSN 1937-9145 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/08/1591; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063; GA ČR GAP303/12/2408 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : G-protein coupled receptor * metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 * class C GPCR Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.648, year: 2012

  10. Task-specific enhancement of short-term, but not long-term, memory by class I metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist 1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, G.R.J.; Christensen, Lone H.; Harrington, Nicholas R.

    1999-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors; Class I antagonist; 1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid; spatial learning; contextual conditioning; rats......Metabotropic glutamate receptors; Class I antagonist; 1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid; spatial learning; contextual conditioning; rats...

  11. Modelling of the protonophoric uncoupling by phenoxyacetic acid of the plasma membrane of Penicillium chrysogenum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Claus Maxel; Nielsen, Jens Bredal; Villadsen, John

    1998-01-01

    negligible influence on the growth energetics due to protonophoric uncoupling of membrane potentials by passive diffusive uptake. On the other hand, when the extracellular pH is lowered to 5.00, a severe maintenance-related uncoupling effect of phenoxyacetic acid is calculated. These findings were confirmed...

  12. Potential roles for uncoupling proteins in HIV lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, David; Pace, Craig

    2004-07-01

    The 'HIV lipodystrophy syndrome' consists of several distinct components, including lipoatrophy (pathological subcutaneous fat loss), lipohypertrophy (abdominal/visceral adiposity), and metabolic complications including insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Lipoatrophy appears to represent an adipose tissue-specific form of mitochondrial toxicity associated strongly with stavudine NRTI therapy, whilst the 'metabolic syndrome' phenotype is associated with HIV protease inhibitor therapy. In this context, the role of uncoupling proteins (UCPs) in modulating resting energy expenditure in response to elevated fatty acid flux associated with the 'metabolic syndrome' is supported by clinical data as well as findings of elevated adipose tissue UCP expression. The role of UCPs in this syndrome therefore exemplifies the multifactorial nature of these antiretroviral therapy complications.

  13. Astrocyte uncoupling as a cause of human temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedner, Peter; Dupper, Alexander; Hüttmann, Kerstin; Müller, Julia; Herde, Michel K; Dublin, Pavel; Deshpande, Tushar; Schramm, Johannes; Häussler, Ute; Haas, Carola A; Henneberger, Christian; Theis, Martin; Steinhäuser, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Glial cells are now recognized as active communication partners in the central nervous system, and this new perspective has rekindled the question of their role in pathology. In the present study we analysed functional properties of astrocytes in hippocampal specimens from patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy without (n = 44) and with sclerosis (n = 75) combining patch clamp recording, K(+) concentration analysis, electroencephalography/video-monitoring, and fate mapping analysis. We found that the hippocampus of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis is completely devoid of bona fide astrocytes and gap junction coupling, whereas coupled astrocytes were abundantly present in non-sclerotic specimens. To decide whether these glial changes represent cause or effect of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis, we developed a mouse model that reproduced key features of human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis. In this model, uncoupling impaired K(+) buffering and temporally preceded apoptotic neuronal death and the generation of spontaneous seizures. Uncoupling was induced through intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide, prevented in Toll-like receptor4 knockout mice and reproduced in situ through acute cytokine or lipopolysaccharide incubation. Fate mapping confirmed that in the course of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis, astrocytes acquire an atypical functional phenotype and lose coupling. These data suggest that astrocyte dysfunction might be a prime cause of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis and identify novel targets for anti-epileptogenic therapeutic intervention. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Kinetics of oxygen uncoupling of a copper based oxygen carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wenting; Donat, Felix; Scott, S.A.; Dennis, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The kinetics of a Cu-based oxygen carrier was determined using a TGA. • A diffusion model was applied to remove mass transfer effects from rate parameters. • Thermodynamics are separated from kinetics, usually difficult for the CLOU reaction. • The rate parameters correctly described the behaviour in a fluidised bed. • The rate parameters can be used to predict performance of large CLOU systems. - Abstract: Here, an oxygen carrier consisting of 60 wt% CuO supported on a mixture of Al_2O_3 and CaO (23 wt% and 17 wt% respectively) was synthesised by wet-mixing powdered CuO, Al(OH)_3 and Ca(OH)_2, followed by calcination at 1000 °C. Its suitability for chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) was investigated. After 25 repeated redox cycles in either a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) or a laboratory-scale fluidised bed, (with 5 vol% H_2 in N_2 as the fuel, and air as the oxidant) no significant change in either the oxygen uncoupling capacity or the overall oxygen availability of the carrier was found. In the TGA, it was found that the rate of oxygen release from the material was controlled by intrinsic chemical kinetics and external transfer of mass from the surface of the particles to the bulk gas. By modelling the various resistances, values of the rate constant for the decomposition were obtained. The activation energy of the reaction was found to be 59.7 kJ/mol (with a standard error of 5.6 kJ/mol) and the corresponding pre-exponential factor was 632 m"3/mol/s. The local rate of conversion within a particle was assumed to occur either (i) by homogeneous chemical reaction, or (ii) in uniform, non-porous grains, each reacting as a kinetically-controlled shrinking core. Upon cross validation against a batch fluidised bed experiment, the homogeneous reaction model was found to be more plausible. By accurately accounting for the various artefacts (e.g. mass transfer resistances) present in both TGA and fluidised bed experiments, it was

  15. Taurine activates delayed rectifier KV channels via a metabotropic pathway in retinal neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulley, Simon; Liu, Yufei; Ripps, Harris; Shen, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Taurine is one of the most abundant amino acids in the retina, throughout the CNS, and in heart and muscle cells. In keeping with its broad tissue distribution, taurine serves as a modulator of numerous basic processes, such as enzyme activity, cell development, myocardial function and cytoprotection. Despite this multitude of functional roles, the precise mechanism underlying taurine's actions has not yet been identified. In this study we report findings that indicate a novel role for taurine in the regulation of voltage-gated delayed rectifier potassium (KV) channels in retinal neurons by means of a metabotropic receptor pathway. The metabotropic taurine response was insensitive to the Cl− channel blockers, picrotoxin and strychnine, but it was inhibited by a specific serotonin 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, MDL11939. Moreover, we found that taurine enhanced KV channels via intracellular protein kinase C-mediated pathways. When 5-HT2A receptors were expressed in human embryonic kidney cells, taurine and AL34662, a non-specific 5-HT2 receptor activator, produced a similar regulation of KIR channels. In sum, this study provides new evidence that taurine activates a serotonin system, apparently via 5-HT2A receptors and related intracellular pathways. PMID:23045337

  16. Novel expression patterns of metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 in the zebrafish nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yu Huang

    Full Text Available The metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 (mGluR6 or GRM6 belongs to the class III of the metabotropic glutamate receptor family. It is the only known mGluR that mediates direct synaptic transmission in the nervous system and is thought to mediate the ON-response in the ON-pathway of the vertebrate retina. Phylogenetic and gene structure analysis indicated that the zebrafish genome harbours two mglur6 paralogs, mglur6a and mglur6b. Besides expression in the inner nuclear layer and distinct regions in the brain, both mglur6 paralogs are expressed in ganglion cells of the retina, an expression pattern which can also be observed in the downstream effector molecules gnaoa and gnaob. This unexpected expression pattern is consistent with immunohistological labeling using a peptide antibody specific for the mGluR6b paralog. These expression patterns contradict the existing view that mGluR6 is solely located on ON-bipolar cells where it functions in signal transmission. Consistent with expression in ON-bipolar cells, we report a decreased b-wave amplitude in the electroretinogram after morpholino-based downregulation of mGluR6b, showing a function in the ON response. Our data suggest more widespread functions of mGluR6 mediated signaling in the central nervous system, possibly including sign reversing synapses in the inner retina.

  17. Synaptically released zinc triggers metabotropic signaling via a zinc-sensing receptor in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Limor; Chorin, Ehud; Sekler, Israel; Silverman, William F; Atkin, Stan; Russell, James T; Hershfinkel, Michal

    2009-03-04

    Zn(2+) is coreleased with glutamate from mossy fiber terminals and can influence synaptic function. Here, we demonstrate that synaptically released Zn(2+) activates a selective postsynaptic Zn(2+)-sensing receptor (ZnR) in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. ZnR activation induced intracellular release of Ca(2+), as well as phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase and Ca(2+)/calmodulin kinase II. Blockade of synaptic transmission by tetrodotoxin or CdCl inhibited the ZnR-mediated Ca(2+) rises. The responses mediated by ZnR were largely attenuated by the extracellular Zn(2+) chelator, CaEDTA, and in slices from mice lacking vesicular Zn(2+), suggesting that synaptically released Zn(2+) triggers the metabotropic activity. Knockdown of the expression of the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor 39 (GPR39) attenuated ZnR activity in a neuronal cell line. Importantly, we observed widespread GPR39 labeling in CA3 neurons, suggesting a role for this receptor in mediating ZnR signaling in the hippocampus. Our results describe a unique role for synaptic Zn(2+) acting as the physiological ligand of a metabotropic receptor and provide a novel pathway by which synaptic Zn(2+) can regulate neuronal function.

  18. 4-Alkylated homoibotenic acid (HIBO) analogues: versatile pharmacological agents with diverse selectivity profiles towards metabotropic and ionotropic glutamate receptor subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulf; Pickering, Darryl S; Nielsen, Birgitte

    2005-01-01

    4-Alkylated analogues of homoibotenic acid (HIBO) have previously shown high potency and selectivity at ionotropic and metabotropic glutamic acid receptor (iGluR and mGluR) subtypes. Compounds with different selectivity profiles are valuable pharmacological tools for neuropharmacological studies...

  19. A Temporally Distinct Role for Group I and Group II Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors in Object Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Malcolm Watson; Warburton, Elizabeth Clea; Barker, Gareth Robert Isaac; Bashir, Zafar Iqbal

    2006-01-01

    Recognition memory, involving the ability to discriminate between a novel and familiar object, depends on the integrity of the perirhinal cortex (PRH). Glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the cortex, is essential for many types of memory processes. Of the subtypes of glutamate receptor, metabotropic receptors (mGluRs) have received…

  20. Expression of uncoupling protein 1 in bovine muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Eldaim, M A; Hashimoto, O; Ohtsuki, H; Yamada, T; Murakami, M; Onda, K; Sato, R; Kanamori, Y; Qiao, Y; Tomonaga, S; Matsui, T; Funaba, M

    2016-12-01

    Uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) is predominantly expressed in brown/beige adipocytes in mammals. Although myogenic cells have been suggested to commit to a brown adipocyte lineage through the induction of Prdm16 expression, Prdm16 is also expressed in skeletal muscle. Thus, we examined expression of Ucp1 in bovine myogenic cells. Considering that Ucp1 is a principle molecule that induces energy expenditure in brown/beige adipocytes, expression of Ucp1 is not preferable in beef cattle because of potential decrease in energy (fattening) efficiency. The RT-PCR analyses revealed the expression of Ucp1 in the skeletal muscle of cattle; expression levels were markedly lower than those in the brown fat of calves. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that Ucp1 surrounded muscle fibers, but not adipocytes residing in skeletal muscle. Myosatellite cells cultured in myogenic medium showed an increase in the expression levels of myogenic regulatory factors ( levels were greater in cells after myogenic culture for 12 d than in those after myogenic culture for 6 d ( bovine skeletal muscle, which suggests the necessity for further studies on Ucp1-mediated energy expenditure in bovine skeletal muscle.

  1. Stochastic calculus for uncoupled continuous-time random walks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germano, Guido; Politi, Mauro; Scalas, Enrico; Schilling, René L

    2009-06-01

    The continuous-time random walk (CTRW) is a pure-jump stochastic process with several applications not only in physics but also in insurance, finance, and economics. A definition is given for a class of stochastic integrals driven by a CTRW, which includes the Itō and Stratonovich cases. An uncoupled CTRW with zero-mean jumps is a martingale. It is proved that, as a consequence of the martingale transform theorem, if the CTRW is a martingale, the Itō integral is a martingale too. It is shown how the definition of the stochastic integrals can be used to easily compute them by Monte Carlo simulation. The relations between a CTRW, its quadratic variation, its Stratonovich integral, and its Itō integral are highlighted by numerical calculations when the jumps in space of the CTRW have a symmetric Lévy alpha -stable distribution and its waiting times have a one-parameter Mittag-Leffler distribution. Remarkably, these distributions have fat tails and an unbounded quadratic variation. In the diffusive limit of vanishing scale parameters, the probability density of this kind of CTRW satisfies the space-time fractional diffusion equation (FDE) or more in general the fractional Fokker-Planck equation, which generalizes the standard diffusion equation, solved by the probability density of the Wiener process, and thus provides a phenomenologic model of anomalous diffusion. We also provide an analytic expression for the quadratic variation of the stochastic process described by the FDE and check it by Monte Carlo.

  2. A SNP uncoupling Mina expression from the TGFβ signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Shang L; Mihi, Belgacem; Koyanagi, Madoka; Nakayama, Toshinori; Bix, Mark

    2018-03-01

    Mina is a JmjC family 2-oxoglutarate oxygenase with pleiotropic roles in cell proliferation, cancer, T cell differentiation, pulmonary inflammation, and intestinal parasite expulsion. Although Mina expression varies according to cell-type, developmental stage and activation state, its transcriptional regulation is poorly understood. Across inbred mouse strains, Mina protein level exhibits a bimodal distribution, correlating with inheritance of a biallelic haplotype block comprising 21 promoter/intron 1-region SNPs. We previously showed that heritable differences in Mina protein level are transcriptionally regulated. Accordingly, we decided to test the hypothesis that at least one of the promoter/intron 1-region SNPs perturbs a Mina cis-regulatory element (CRE). Here, we have comprehensively scanned for CREs across a Mina locus-spanning 26-kilobase genomic interval. We discovered 8 potential CREs and functionally validated 4 of these, the strongest of which (E2), residing in intron 1, contained a SNP whose BALB/c-but not C57Bl/6 allele-abolished both Smad3 binding and transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) responsiveness. Our results demonstrate the TGFβ signaling pathway plays a critical role in regulating Mina expression and SNP rs4191790 controls heritable variation in Mina expression level, raising important questions regarding the evolution of an allele that uncouples Mina expression from the TGFβ signaling pathway. © 2017 The Authors. Immunity, Inflammation and Disease Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Use of source term uncoupled in radionuclide migration equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Claudia Siqueira da; Lima, Zelmo Rodrigues de; Alvim, Antonio Carlos Marques

    2008-01-01

    Final repositories of high-level radioactive waste have been considered in deep, low permeability and stable geological formations. A common problem found is the migration modeling of radionuclides in a fractured rock. In this work, the physical system adopted consists of the rock matrix containing a single planar fracture situated in water saturated porous rock. The partial differential equations that describe the radionuclide transport were discretized using finite differences techniques, of which the following methods were adopted: Explicit Euler, Implicit Euler and Crank-Nicholson. For each one of these methods, the advective term was discretized with the following numerical schemes: backward differences, centered differences and forward differences. We make a comparison to determine which temporal and space discretization has the best result in relation to a reference solution. The obtained results show that the Explicit Euler Method with forward discretization in the advective term has a good accuracy. Next, with the objective of improving the answer of the Implicit Euler and Crank-Nicholson Methods it was accomplished a source term uncouplement, the diffusive flux. The obtained results were considered satisfactory by comparison with previous studies. (author)

  4. Degradation of brown adipocyte purine nucleotides regulates uncoupling protein 1 activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Fromme

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Non-shivering thermogenesis in mammalian brown adipose tissue depends on thermogenic uncoupling protein 1. Its activity is triggered by free fatty acids while purine nucleotides mediate inhibition. During activation, it is thought that free fatty acids overcome purine-mediated inhibition. We measured the cellular concentration and the release of purine nucleotide metabolites to uncover a possible role of purine nucleotide degradation in uncoupling protein 1 activation. Methods: With mass spectrometry, purine nucleotide metabolites were quantified in cellular homogenates and supernatants of cultured primary brown adipocytes. We also determined oxygen consumption in response to a β-adrenergic agonist. Results: Upon adrenergic activation, brown adipocytes decreased the intracellular concentration of inhibitory nucleotides (ATP, ADP, GTP and GDP and released the respective degradation products. At the same time, an increase in cellular calcium occurred. None of these phenomena occurred in white adipocytes or myotubes. The brown adipocyte expression of enzymes implicated in purine metabolic remodeling is altered upon cold exposure. Pharmacological and genetic interference of purine metabolism altered uncoupling protein 1 mediated uncoupled respiration. Conclusion: Adrenergic stimulation of brown adipocytes lowers the intracellular concentration of purine nucleotides, thereby contributing to uncoupling protein 1 activation. Keywords: Purine nucleotides, Uncoupling protein 1, Brown adipose tissue, Non-shivering thermogenesis, HILIC-MS/MS, Guanosine monophosphate reductase

  5. Role of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors 2/3 and group I metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in developing rat medial vestibular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Silvarosa; Frondaroli, Adele; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico

    2005-08-22

    In brainstem slices from developing rats, metabotropic glutamate receptors mGluR2/3 and mGluR5 play different inhibitory roles in synaptic transmission and plasticity of the medial vestibular nuclei. The mGluR2/3 block (LY341495) reduces the occurrence of long-term depression after vestibular afferent high frequency stimulation at P8-P10, and increases that of long-term potentiation, while the mGluR5 block prevents high frequency stimulation long-term depression. Later on, the receptor block does not influence high frequency stimulation effects. In addition, while mGluR2/3 agonist (APDC) always provokes a transient reduction of synaptic responses, that of mGluR5 (CHPG) induces long-term depression per se at P8-P10. These results show a key role of mGluR5 in inducing high frequency stimulation long-term depression in developing medial vestibular nuclei, while mGluR2/3 modulate synaptic transmission, probably through presynaptic control of glutamate release.

  6. Alkylsulfonates as probes of uncoupling protein transport mechanism. Ion pair transport demonstrates that direct H(+) translocation by UCP1 is not necessary for uncoupling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jabůrek, M.; Vařecha, M.; Ježek, Petr; Garlid, K. D.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 276, č. 34 (2001), s. 31897-31905 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5011106 Grant - others:NIH(US) DK56273 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : mitochondrial uncoupling proteins * alkylsulfonates * ion pair transport Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 7.258, year: 2001

  7. Ca2+-induced uncoupling of Aplysia bag cell neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargaei, Zahra; Standage, Dominic; Groten, Christopher J; Blohm, Gunnar; Magoski, Neil S

    2015-02-01

    Electrical transmission is a dynamically regulated form of communication and key to synchronizing neuronal activity. The bag cell neurons of Aplysia are a group of electrically coupled neuroendocrine cells that initiate ovulation by secreting egg-laying hormone during a prolonged period of synchronous firing called the afterdischarge. Accompanying the afterdischarge is an increase in intracellular Ca2+ and the activation of protein kinase C (PKC). We used whole cell recording from paired cultured bag cell neurons to demonstrate that electrical coupling is regulated by both Ca2+ and PKC. Elevating Ca2+ with a train of voltage steps, mimicking the onset of the afterdischarge, decreased junctional current for up to 30 min. Inhibition was most effective when Ca2+ entry occurred in both neurons. Depletion of Ca2+ from the mitochondria, but not the endoplasmic reticulum, also attenuated the electrical synapse. Buffering Ca2+ with high intracellular EGTA or inhibiting calmodulin kinase prevented uncoupling. Furthermore, activating PKC produced a small but clear decrease in junctional current, while triggering both Ca2+ influx and PKC inhibited the electrical synapse to a greater extent than Ca2+ alone. Finally, the amplitude and time course of the postsynaptic electrotonic response were attenuated after Ca2+ influx. A mathematical model of electrically connected neurons showed that excessive coupling reduced recruitment of the cells to fire, whereas less coupling led to spiking of essentially all neurons. Thus a decrease in electrical synapses could promote the afterdischarge by ensuring prompt recovery of electrotonic potentials or making the neurons more responsive to current spreading through the network. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. The Integrin-Regulated Kinase PYK-2: A Therapeutic Target for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edlund, Magnus

    2001-01-01

    ...) . A number of promising therapeutic targets for androgen-independent and metastatic prostate cancers are contained within the signaling cascades downstream of the ECM-binding Integrin molecules...

  9. Induction of an Olfactory Memory by the Activation of a Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Hideto; Hayashi, Yasunori; Higuchi, Takashi; Nakanishi, Shigetada

    1994-07-01

    Female mice form an olfactory memory of male pheromones at mating; exposure to the pheromones of a strange male after that mating will block pregnancy. The formation of this memory is mediated by the accessory olfactory system, in which an increase in norepinephrine after mating reduces inhibitory transmission of γ-aminobutyric acid from the granule cells to the mitral cells. This study shows that the activation of mGluR2, a metabotropic glutamate receptor that suppresses the γ-aminobutyric acid inhibition of the mitral cells, permits the formation of a specific olfactory memory without the occurrence of mating by infusion of mGluR2 agonists into the female's accessory olfactory bulb. This memory faithfully reflects the memory formed at mating.

  10. Interactions between estrogen receptors and metabotropic glutamate receptors and their impact on drug addiction in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonn Eisinger, Katherine R; Gross, Kellie S; Head, Brian P; Mermelstein, Paul G

    2018-03-10

    Estrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ) have a unique relationship with metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in the female rodent brain such that estradiol is able to recruit intracellular G-protein signaling cascades to influence neuronal physiology, structure, and ultimately behavior. While this association between ERs and mGluRs exists in many cell types and brain regions, its effects are perhaps most striking in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). This review will discuss the original characterization of ER/mGluR signaling and how estradiol activity in the NAc confers increased sensitivity to drugs of abuse in females through this mechanism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 - a promising target in drug development and neuroimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillai, Rajapillai L.I.; Tipre, Dnyanesh N. [Stony Brook University Health Science Center, Department of Psychiatry, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    This review summarizes the contributions by various teams of scientists in assessing the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) as a biomarker in neuropsychiatric disorders and diseases. Development of positive and negative allosteric modulators of mGluR5 is reviewed, as is the development of PET radioligands that have the potential to measure mGluR5 receptor density in neurological disorders and during therapeutic interventions. PET imaging provides an effective tool to assess the specificity of new drugs, select dose regimens in clinical trials, and study drug mechanisms of action. We summarize and deliver comparative analyses of mGluR5-specific PET radiotracers and their applications in understanding the pathophysiology of mGluR5-related nervous system disorders and to speed up drug development. (orig.)

  12. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 - a promising target in drug development and neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, Rajapillai L.I.; Tipre, Dnyanesh N.

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the contributions by various teams of scientists in assessing the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) as a biomarker in neuropsychiatric disorders and diseases. Development of positive and negative allosteric modulators of mGluR5 is reviewed, as is the development of PET radioligands that have the potential to measure mGluR5 receptor density in neurological disorders and during therapeutic interventions. PET imaging provides an effective tool to assess the specificity of new drugs, select dose regimens in clinical trials, and study drug mechanisms of action. We summarize and deliver comparative analyses of mGluR5-specific PET radiotracers and their applications in understanding the pathophysiology of mGluR5-related nervous system disorders and to speed up drug development. (orig.)

  13. Molecular pharmacology of 4-substituted glutamic acid analogues at ionotropic and metabotropic excitatory amino acid receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Nielsen, B; Stensbøl, T B

    1997-01-01

    (subtypes 1alpha and 2), respectively, whereas (S)-4-methyleneglutamic acid showed high but rather non-selective affinity for the (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA), kainic acid, NMDA and mGlu receptors (subtypes 1alpha and 2). Although none of the compounds were specific......The pharmacology of (2S,4R)-4-methylglutamic acid, (2S,4S)-4-methylglutamic acid and (S)- and (R)-4-methyleneglutamic acids (obtained in high chemical and enantiomeric purity from racemic 4-methyleneglutamic acid by chiral HPLC using a Crownpak CR(+) column), was examined in binding experiments...... using rat brain ionotropic glutamate receptors, and in functional assays using cloned metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors. As a notable result of these studies, (2S,4R)-4-methylglutamic acid and (2S,4S)-4-methylglutamic acid were shown to be selective for kainic acid receptors and mGlu receptors...

  14. Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors reduce excitotoxic injury and may facilitate neurogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baskys, Andrius; Bayazitov, Ildar; Fang, Liwei

    2005-01-01

    neuroprotective activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors. Brain Research, Molecular Brain Research 117, 196-205.]. In the present study, we used organotypic hippocampal culture preparation to examine specific phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122 effects on DHPG-induced neuroprotection, changes......-CA1 pathway. The fEPSP depression was not affected by the PLC inhibitor U73122. In contrast, prolonged (2-h) treatment of cultures with DHPG induced a significant protective effect that was blocked by a PLC inhibitor U73122 but not by its inactive analog U73343. Voltage-clamp measurements...... a PLC involvement. Since activation of PLC is thought to be associated with cell proliferation, we investigated whether group I mGluR agonist DHPG or subtype antagonists LY367385 and MPEP have an effect on dentate granule cells expressing immature neuronal marker TOAD-64. DHPG (100 microM, 72 h...

  15. Modulation of seizure activity in mice by metabotropic glutamate receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Nils Ole; Thomsen, C

    1996-01-01

    The anticonvulsant properties of ligands at metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) were examined in different seizure models by use of intracerebroventricular infusion. The mGluR1a antagonist/mGluR2 agonist, (S)-4-carboxy-3-hydroxyphenylglycine [(S)-4C3HPG] dose-dependently antagonized...... pentylenetetrazol- and methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-beta-carboline-2-carboxylate (DMCM)-induced clonic convulsions in mice with ED50 values of 400 and 180 nmol/mice, respectively. A modest increase in electrical seizure threshold was observed in mice injected with (S)-4C3HPG. No effect on seizures induced...... by systemic administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate was observed by prior intracerebroventricular infusion of (S)-4C3HPG. The more selective (but less potent) mGluR1a antagonist, (S)-4-carboxyphenylglycine, was a weak anticonvulsant in similar seizure models with the exception of convulsions induced...

  16. The mechanism of uncoupling by picrate in Escherichia coli K-12 membrane systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, M; Bakker, E P

    1981-06-01

    The mechanism of action of the uncoupler picrate on intact cells and everted membrane vesicles of Escherichia coli K-12 was investigated. Like in mitochondria [Hanstein, W. G. and Hatefi, Y. (1974) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 71, 288-292], it was observed that picrate uncoupled energy-linked functions only in everted, but not in intact membrane systems. In the vesicles picrate also decreased the magnitude of the transmembrane proton-motive force at concentrations similar to those at which it caused uncoupling. Experiments with 14C-labelled picrate showed that this compound bound both to deenergized intact cells and everted vesicles. However, upon energization of the membrane, picrate was extruded from the intact cell and taken up to a larger extent by the vesicles. These energy-dependent changes in picrate uptake correlated with the magnitude of the transmembrane electrical potential, delta psi. It is therefore proposed that picrate is a permeant uncoupler, that delta psi is the driving force for picrate movement across biological membranes, and that the uncoupling activity of picrate in everted membrane systems is due to its protonophoric action.

  17. Microscopic visualization of metabotropic glutamate receptors on the surface of living cells using bifunctional magnetic resonance imaging probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anurag; Mishra, Ritu; Gottschalk, Sven; Pal, Robert; Sim, Neil; Engelmann, Joern; Goldberg, Martin; Parker, David

    2014-02-19

    A series of bimodal metabotropic glutamate-receptor targeted MRI contrast agents has been developed and evaluated, based on established competitive metabotropic Glu receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) antagonists. In order to directly visualize mGluR5 binding of these agents on the surface of live astrocytes, variations in the core structure were made. A set of gadolinium conjugates containing either a cyanine dye or a fluorescein moiety was accordingly prepared, to allow visualization by optical microscopy in cellulo. In each case, surface receptor binding was compromised and cell internalization observed. Another approach, examining the location of a terbium analogue via sensitized emission, also exhibited nonspecific cell uptake in neuronal cell line models. Finally, biotin derivatives of two lead compounds were prepared, and the specificity of binding to the mGluR5 cell surface receptors was demonstrated with the aid of their fluorescently labeled avidin conjugates, using both total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) and confocal microscopy.

  18. Concentration of rat brown adipose tissue uncoupling protein may not be correlated with 3H-GDP binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henningfield, M.F.; Swick, A.G.; Swick, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Rats fed diets low in protein or exposed to cold show an increase in brown adipose tissue (BAT) mitochondrial 3 H-GDP binding. To investigate this phenomenon further, the uncoupling protein associated with BAT function was measured immunochemically on nitrocellulose blots. Quantitation of uncoupling protein was achieved by densitometer scanning with a BioRad densitometer. Peaks were integrated with Chromatochart software and an Apple IIe computer. A standard curve of purified uncoupling protein (50 to 500 ng) was used to calculate uncoupling protein concentration. There is a 1.5-fold increase in uncoupling protein per mg of protein in BAT mitochondria from rats exposed to cold for 15 days. There was no decrease in uncoupling protein from rats exposed to the cold followed by 24 h at 27 0 C although 3 H-GDP binding had decreased by half. Rats fed diets containing either 5 or 15% lactalbumin for 3 weeks did not show differences in uncoupling protein concentration although 3 H-GDP binding was 1.5-fold greater in BAT mitochondria from the low protein group. These results indicate that GDP binding does not necessarily reflect the concentration of uncoupling protein in BAT mitochondria

  19. Platelet-activating factor and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors interact for full development and maintenance of long-term potentiation in the rat medial vestibular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, S; Francescangeli, E; Goracci, G; Pettorossi, V E

    1999-01-01

    In rat brainstem slices, we investigated the interaction between platelet-activating factor and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in mediating long-term potentiation within the medial vestibular nuclei. We analysed the N1 field potential wave evoked in the ventral portion of the medial vestibular nuclei by primary vestibular afferent stimulation. The group I metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist, (R,S)-1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, prevented long-term potentiation induced by a platelet-activating factor analogue [1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-(methylcarbamyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine], as well as the full development of potentiation, induced by high-frequency stimulation under the blocking agent for synaptosomal platelet-activating factor receptors (ginkolide B), at drug washout. However, potentiation directly induced by the group I glutamate metabotropic receptor agonist, (R,S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine, was reduced by ginkolide B. These findings suggest that platelet-activating factor, whether exogenous or released following potentiation induction, exerts its effect through presynaptic group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, mediating the increase of glutamate release. In addition, we found that this mechanism, which led to full potentiation through presynaptic group I metabotropic glutamate receptor activation, was inactivated soon after application of potentiation-inducing stimulus. In fact, the long-lasting block of the platelet-activating factor and metabotropic glutamate receptors prevented the full potentiation development and the induced potentiation progressively declined to null. Moreover, ginkolide B, given when high-frequency-dependent potentiation was established, only reduced it within 5 min after potentiation induction. We conclude that to fully develop vestibular long-term potentiation requires presynaptic events. Platelet-activating factor, released after the activation of postsynaptic mechanisms which induce potentiation, is necessary

  20. Effects of metabotropic glutamate receptor block on the synaptic transmission and plasticity in the rat medial vestibular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, S; Malfagia, C; Pettorossi, V E

    1998-11-01

    In rat brainstem slices, we investigated the possible role of metabotropic glutamate receptors in modulating the synaptic transmission within the medial vestibular nuclei, under basal and plasticity inducing conditions. We analysed the effect of the metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist (R,S)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine on the amplitude of the field potentials and latency of unitary potentials evoked in the ventral portion of the medial vestibular nuclei by primary vestibular afferent stimulation, and on the induction and maintenance of long-term potentiation, after high-frequency stimulation. Two effects were observed, consisting of a slight increase of the field potentials and reduction of unit latency during the drug infusion, and a further long-lasting development of these modifications after the drug wash-out. The long-term effect depended on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, as D,L-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid prevented its development. We suggest that (R,S)-alpha-methyl-4carboxyphenylglycine enhances the vestibular responses and induces N-methyl-D-aspartate-dependent long-term potentiation by increasing glutamate release, through the block of presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors which actively inhibit it. The block of these receptors was indirectly supported by the fact that the agonist (1S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid reduced the vestibular responses and blocked the induction of long-term potentiation by high-frequency stimulation. The simultaneous block of metabotropic glutamate receptors facilitating synaptic plasticity, impedes the full expression of the long-term effect throughout the (R,S)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine infusion. The involvement of such a facilitatory mechanism in the potentiation is supported by its reversible reduction following a second (R,S)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine infusion. The drug also reduced the expression of potentiation induced by high-frequency stimulation

  1. Uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation by curcumin: Implication of its cellular mechanism of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Han Wern; Lim, Hwee Ying [Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119260 (Singapore); Wong, Kim Ping, E-mail: bchsitkp@nus.edu.sg [Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119260 (Singapore)

    2009-11-06

    Curcumin is a phytochemical isolated from the rhizome of turmeric. Recent reports have shown curcumin to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties as well as affecting the 5'-AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), mTOR and STAT-3 signaling pathways. We provide evidence that curcumin acts as an uncoupler. Well-established biochemical techniques were performed on isolated rat liver mitochondria in measuring oxygen consumption, F{sub 0}F{sub 1}-ATPase activity and ATP biosynthesis. Curcumin displays all the characteristics typical of classical uncouplers like fccP and 2,4-dinitrophenol. In addition, at concentrations higher than 50 {mu}M, curcumin was found to inhibit mitochondrial respiration which is a characteristic feature of inhibitory uncouplers. As a protonophoric uncoupler and as an activator of F{sub 0}F{sub 1}-ATPase, curcumin causes a decrease in ATP biosynthesis in rat liver mitochondria. The resulting change in ATP:AMP could disrupt the phosphorylation status of the cell; this provides a possible mechanism for its activation of AMPK and its downstream mTOR and STAT-3 signaling.

  2. Renal transplantation induces mitochondrial uncoupling, increased kidney oxygen consumption, and decreased kidney oxygen tension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papazova, Diana A.; Friederich-Persson, Malou; Joles, Jaap A.; Verhaar, Marianne C.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia is an acknowledged pathway to renal injury and ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) and is known to reduce renal oxygen tension (PO2). We hypothesized that renal I/R increases oxidative damage and induces mitochondrial uncoupling, resulting in increased oxygen consumption and hence kidney

  3. A novel amino acid and metabolomics signature in mice overexpressing muscle uncoupling protein 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and is known to lower mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and promote fatty acid oxidation; however, the global impact of UCP3 activity on skeletal muscle and whole body metabolism has not been extensively studied. We utilized unt...

  4. Uncoupling Protein 3 Content Is Decreased in Skeletal Muscle of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer; E.E. Blaak; P. Schrauwen; G. Schaart; dr. Lars B. Borghouts; Saris; M.K.C. Hesselink

    2001-01-01

    Recently, a role for uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) in carbohydrate metabolism and in type 2 diabetes has been suggested. Mice overexpressing UCP3 in skeletal muscle showed reduced fasting plasma glucose levels, improved glucose tolerance after an oral glucose load, and reduced fasting plasma insulin

  5. Arterial Ventricular Uncoupling with Age and Disease and Recoupling with Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantler, Paul D

    2017-01-01

    The deterioration in arterial and cardiac function with aging impairs arterial ventricular coupling, an important determinant of cardiovascular performance. However, exercise training improves arterial ventricular coupling especially during exercise during the age and disease process. This review examines the concept of arterial-ventricular coupling, and how age, and disease uncouples but exercise training recouples the heart and arterial system. PMID:28072585

  6. Zinc Potentiates an Uncoupled Anion Conductance Associated with the Dopamine Transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Sitte, Harald H; Gether, Ulrik

    2004-01-01

    but by a marked increase in the charge/DA flux coupling ratio as assessed from concomitant measurements of [(3)H]DA uptake and currents in voltage-clamped oocytes. These data suggest that Zn(2+) facilitates an uncoupled ion conductance mediated by DAT. Whereas this required substrate in the wild type (WT), we...

  7. Uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation by curcumin: Implication of its cellular mechanism of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Han Wern; Lim, Hwee Ying; Wong, Kim Ping

    2009-01-01

    Curcumin is a phytochemical isolated from the rhizome of turmeric. Recent reports have shown curcumin to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties as well as affecting the 5'-AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), mTOR and STAT-3 signaling pathways. We provide evidence that curcumin acts as an uncoupler. Well-established biochemical techniques were performed on isolated rat liver mitochondria in measuring oxygen consumption, F 0 F 1 -ATPase activity and ATP biosynthesis. Curcumin displays all the characteristics typical of classical uncouplers like fccP and 2,4-dinitrophenol. In addition, at concentrations higher than 50 μM, curcumin was found to inhibit mitochondrial respiration which is a characteristic feature of inhibitory uncouplers. As a protonophoric uncoupler and as an activator of F 0 F 1 -ATPase, curcumin causes a decrease in ATP biosynthesis in rat liver mitochondria. The resulting change in ATP:AMP could disrupt the phosphorylation status of the cell; this provides a possible mechanism for its activation of AMPK and its downstream mTOR and STAT-3 signaling.

  8. PICK1 uncoupling from mGluR7a causes absence-like seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Bertaso, Federica; Zhang, Chuansheng; Scheschonka, Astrid; de Bock, Frédéric; Fontanaud, Pierre; Marin, Philippe; Huganir, Richard L; Betz, Heinrich; Bockaert, Joël; Fagni, Laurent; Lerner-Natoli, Mireille

    2008-01-01

    Absence epilepsy is a neurological disorder that causes a recurrent loss of consciousness and generalized spike-and-wave discharges on an electroencephalogram (EEG). The role of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and associated scaffolding proteins in absence epilepsy has been unclear to date. We investigated a possible role for these proteins in absence epilepsy, focusing on the mGluR7a receptor and its PDZ-interacting protein, protein interacting with C kinase 1 (PICK1), in rats and ...

  9. Superoxide activates mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 from the matrix side. Studies using targeted antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echtay, Karim S; Murphy, Michael P; Smith, Robin A J; Talbot, Darren A; Brand, Martin D

    2002-12-06

    Superoxide activates nucleotide-sensitive mitochondrial proton transport through the uncoupling proteins UCP1, UCP2, and UCP3 (Echtay, K. S., et al. (2002) Nature 415, 1482-1486). Two possible mechanisms were proposed: direct activation of the UCP proton transport mechanism by superoxide or its products and a cycle of hydroperoxyl radical entry coupled to UCP-catalyzed superoxide anion export. Here we provide evidence for the first mechanism and show that superoxide activates UCP2 in rat kidney mitochondria from the matrix side of the mitochondrial inner membrane: (i) Exogenous superoxide inhibited matrix aconitase, showing that external superoxide entered the matrix. (ii) Superoxide-induced uncoupling was abolished by low concentrations of the mitochondrially targeted antioxidants 10-(6'-ubiquinonyl)decyltriphenylphosphonium (mitoQ) or 2-[2-(triphenylphosphonio)ethyl]-3,4-dihydro-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol bromide (mitoVit E), which are ubiquinone (Q) or tocopherol derivatives targeted to the matrix by covalent attachment to triphenylphosphonium cation. However, superoxide-induced uncoupling was not affected by similar concentrations of the nontargeted antioxidants Q(o), Q(1), decylubiquinone, vitamin E, or 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman 2-carboxylic acid (TROLOX) or of the mitochondrially targeted but redox-inactive analogs decyltriphenylphosphonium or 4-chlorobutyltriphenylphosphonium. Thus matrix superoxide appears to be necessary for activation of UCP2 by exogenous superoxide. (iii) When the reduced to oxidized ratio of mitoQ accumulated by mitochondria was increased by inhibiting cytochrome oxidase, it induced nucleotide-sensitive uncoupling that was not inhibited by external superoxide dismutase. Under these conditions quinols are known to produce superoxide, and because mitoQ is localized within the mitochondrial matrix this suggests that production of superoxide in the matrix was sufficient to activate UCP2. Furthermore, the superoxide

  10. Deletion of Type 2 Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Decreases Sensitivity to Cocaine Reward in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong-Ju; Zhang, Hai-Ying; Bi, Guo-Hua; He, Yi; Gao, Jun-Tao; Xi, Zheng-Xiong

    2017-07-11

    Cocaine users show reduced expression of the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2), but it is not clear whether this is a predisposing trait for addiction or a consequence of drug exposure. In this study, we found that a nonsense mutation at the mGluR2 gene decreased mGluR2 expression and altered the seeking and taking of cocaine. mGluR2 mutant rats show reduced sensitivity to cocaine reward, requiring more cocaine to reach satiation when it was freely available and ceasing their drug-seeking behavior sooner than controls when the response requirement was increased. mGluR2 mutant rats also show a lower propensity to relapse after a period of cocaine abstinence, an effect associated with reduced cocaine-induced dopamine and glutamate overflow in the nucleus accumbens. These findings suggest that mGluR2 polymorphisms or reduced availability of mGluR2 might be risk factors for the initial development of cocaine use but could actually protect against addiction by reducing sensitivity to cocaine reward. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Recent Advances in the Medicinal Chemistry of the Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 1 (mGlu1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This Review summarizes the medicinal chemistry found in publications on both orthosteric and allosteric modulators of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGlu1) from 2005 to the present. The time period covered by the scope of this current review has been particularly rich in mGlu1-related publications with numbers quadrupling when compared to the preceding five year period of 2000−2005. Publications in the field peaked in 2007 with over 35 articles appearing in the peer reviewed literature in the course of that year. Given that glutamate is one of the primary excitatory neurotransmitters in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), it is unsurprising that it acts upon several receptors that are considered to be of potential therapeutic interest for many indications. Orthosteric and allosteric modulation of the receptor is possible, with a logical extrapolation to the chemotypes used for each strategy. The last five years of publications have yielded many mGlu1 selective antagonist chemotypyes, most of which have shown efficacy in pain in vivo models. However, the primary impact of these compounds has been to highlight the mechanistic safety risks of mGlu1 antagonism, independent of chemotype. As a review in medicinal chemistry, the primary focus of this paper will be on the design and, to a lesser degree, synthetic strategies for the delivery of subtype selective, CNS penetrant, druglike compounds through a “medchem” program, targeting modulators of the mGlu1 receptor. PMID:22860168

  12. Molecular pharmacology of homologues of ibotenic acid at cloned metabotropic glutamic acid receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Nielsen, B; Krogsgaard-Larsen, P

    1998-01-01

    We have studied the effects of the enantiomers of 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxyisoxazol-5-yl)propionic acid (homoibotenic acid, HIBO) and analogues substituted with a methyl, bromo or butyl group in the four position of the ring at cloned metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors expressed in Chinese hamster...... ovary (CHO) cells. In contrast to the parent compound ibotenic acid, which is a potent group I and II agonist, the (S)-forms of homoibotenic acid and its analogues are selective and potent group I antagonists whereas the (R)-forms are inactive both as agonists and antagonists at group I, II, and III m......Glu receptors. Interestingly, (S)-homoibotenic acid and the analogues display equal potency at both mGlu1alpha and mGlu5a with Ki values in the range of 97 to 490 microM, (S)-homoibotenic acid and (S)-2-amino-3-(4-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-5-yl)propionic acid [(S)-4-butylhomoibotenic acid] displaying the lowest...

  13. Ionotropic and Metabotropic Proton-Sensing Receptors Involved in Airway Inflammation in Allergic Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Aoki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An acidic microenvironment has been shown to evoke a variety of airway responses, including cough, bronchoconstriction, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR, infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lung, and stimulation of mucus hyperproduction. Except for the participation of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1 and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs in severe acidic pH (of less than 6.0-induced cough and bronchoconstriction through sensory neurons, the molecular mechanisms underlying extracellular acidic pH-induced actions in the airways have not been fully understood. Recent studies have revealed that ovarian cancer G protein-coupled receptor 1 (OGR1-family G protein-coupled receptors, which sense pH of more than 6.0, are expressed in structural cells, such as airway smooth muscle cells and epithelial cells, and in inflammatory and immune cells, such as eosinophils and dendritic cells. They function in a variety of airway responses related to the pathophysiology of inflammatory diseases, including allergic asthma. In the present review, we discuss the roles of ionotropic TRPV1 and ASICs and metabotropic OGR1-family G protein-coupled receptors in the airway inflammation and AHR in asthma and respiratory diseases.

  14. Modulation of short-term plasticity in the corticothalamic circuit by group III metabotropic glutamate receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyuyoung, Christine L; Huguenard, John R

    2014-01-08

    Recurrent connections in the corticothalamic circuit underlie oscillatory behavior in this network and range from normal sleep rhythms to the abnormal spike-wave discharges seen in absence epilepsy. The propensity of thalamic neurons to fire postinhibitory rebound bursts mediated by low-threshold calcium spikes renders the circuit vulnerable to both increased excitation and increased inhibition, such as excessive excitatory cortical drive to thalamic reticular (RT) neurons or heightened inhibition of thalamocortical relay (TC) neurons by RT. In this context, a protective role may be played by group III metabotropic receptors (mGluRs), which are uniquely located in the presynaptic active zone and typically act as autoreceptors or heteroceptors to depress synaptic release. Here, we report that these receptors regulate short-term plasticity at two loci in the corticothalamic circuit in rats: glutamatergic cortical synapses onto RT neurons and GABAergic synapses onto TC neurons in somatosensory ventrobasal thalamus. The net effect of group III mGluR activation at these synapses is to suppress thalamic oscillations as assayed in vitro. These findings suggest a functional role of these receptors to modulate corticothalamic transmission and protect against prolonged activity in the network.

  15. The metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor modulates extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Chesworth

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (METH is a highly addictive psychostimulant with no therapeutics registered to assist addicts in discontinuing use. Glutamatergic dysfunction has been implicated in the development and maintenance of addiction. We sought to assess the involvement of the metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor (mGlu5 in behaviours relevant to METH addiction because this receptor has been implicated in the actions of other drugs of abuse, including alcohol, cocaine and opiates. mGlu5 knockout (KO mice were tested in intravenous self-administration, conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization. Self-administration of sucrose was used to assess the response of KO mice to a natural reward. Acquisition and maintenance of self-administration, as well as the motivation to self-administer METH was intact in mGlu5 KO mice. Importantly, mGlu5 KO mice required more extinction sessions to extinguish the operant response for METH, and exhibited an enhanced propensity to reinstate operant responding following exposure to drug-associated cues. This phenotype was not present when KO mice were tested in an equivalent paradigm assessing operant responding for sucrose. Development of conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization were intact in KO mice; however, conditioned hyperactivity to the context previously paired with drug was elevated in KO mice. These data demonstrate a role for mGlu5 in the extinction and reinstatement of METH-seeking, and suggests a role for mGlu5 in regulating contextual salience.

  16. Expression of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors in the reproductive system of male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Marcin; Chruścicka, Barbara; Lech, Tomasz; Burnat, Grzegorz; Pilc, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Although the presence of metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors in the central nervous system is well documented, they have recently been found in peripheral and non-neuronal tissues. In the present study we investigated the expression of group III mGlu receptors in the reproductive system of male mice. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed the presence of mGlu6, mGlu7 and mGlu8 (but not mGlu4) receptor transcripts in testes and epididymides from adult mice. In addition, expression of mGlu6 (Grm6) and mGlu8 receptor (Grm8) mRNA was detected in spermatozoa isolated from the vas deferens. The vas deferens was found to contain only mGlu7 receptor (Grm7) mRNA, which was particularly intense in 21-day-old male mice. In penile homogenates, only the mGlu7 receptor signal was detected. Genetic ablation of the mGlu7 receptor in males led to fertility disorders manifested by decreased insemination capability as well as deterioration of sperm parameters, particularly sperm motility, vitality, sperm membrane integrity and morphology, with a simultaneous increase in sperm concentration. These results indicate that constitutively expressed mGlu receptors in the male reproductive system may play an important role in ejaculation and/or erection processes, as well as in the formation and maturation of spermatozoa.

  17. Chronic mitochondrial uncoupling treatment prevents acute cold-induced oxidative stress in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, Antoine; Massemin, Sylvie; Criscuolo, François

    2014-12-01

    Endotherms have evolved two major types of thermogenesis that allow them to actively produce heat in response to cold exposure, either through muscular activity (i.e. shivering thermogenesis) or through futile electro-chemical cycles (i.e. non-shivering thermogenesis). Amongst the latter, mitochondrial uncoupling is of key importance because it is suggested to drive heat production at a low cost in terms of oxidative stress. While this has been experimentally shown in mammals, the oxidative stress consequences of cold exposure and mitochondrial uncoupling are clearly less understood in the other class of endotherms, the birds. We compared metabolic and oxidative stress responses of zebra finches chronically treated with or without a chemical mitochondrial uncoupler (2,4-dinitrophenol: DNP), undergoing an acute (24 h) and a chronic (4 weeks) cold exposure (12 °C). We predicted that control birds should present at least a transient elevation of oxidative stress levels in response to cold exposure. This oxidative stress cost should be more pronounced in control birds than in DNP-treated birds, due to their lower basal uncoupling state. Despite similar increase in metabolism, control birds presented elevated levels of DNA oxidative damage in response to acute (but not chronic) cold exposure, while DNP-treated birds did not. Plasma antioxidant capacity decreased overall in response to chronic cold exposure. These results show that acute cold exposure increases oxidative stress in birds. However, uncoupling mitochondrial functioning appears as a putative compensatory mechanism preventing cold-induced oxidative stress. This result confirms previous observations in mice and underlines non-shivering thermogenesis as a putative key mechanism for endotherms in mounting a response to cold at a low oxidative cost.

  18. Selective antagonists at group I metabotropic glutamate receptors: synthesis and molecular pharmacology of 4-aryl-3-isoxazolol amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Hasse; Sløk, Frank A; Stensbøl, Tine B

    2002-01-01

    Homologation of (S)-glutamic acid (Glu, 1) and Glu analogues has previously provided ligands with activity at metabotropic Glu receptors (mGluRs). The homologue of ibotenic acid (7), 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (HIBO, 8), and the 4-phenyl derivative of 8, compound 9a, are bot...... antagonists at group I mGluRs. Here we report the synthesis and molecular pharmacology of HIBO analogues 9b-h containing different 4-aryl substituents. All of these compounds possess antagonist activity at group I mGluRs but are inactive at group II and III mGluRs....

  19. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 as a potential target for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiamulera, Cristiano; Marzo, Claudio Marcello; Balfour, David J K

    2017-05-01

    Most habitual smokers find it difficult to quit smoking because they are dependent upon the nicotine present in tobacco smoke. Tobacco dependence is commonly treated pharmacologically using nicotine replacement therapy or drugs, such as varenicline, that target the nicotinic receptor. Relapse rates, however, remain high, and there remains a need to develop novel non-nicotinic pharmacotherapies for the dependence that are more effective than existing treatments. The purpose of this paper is to review the evidence from preclinical and clinical studies that drugs that antagonise the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in the brain are likely to be efficacious as treatments for tobacco dependence. Imaging studies reveal that chronic exposure to tobacco smoke reduces the density of mGluR5s in human brain. Preclinical results demonstrate that negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) at mGluR5 attenuate both nicotine self-administration and the reinstatement of responding evoked by exposure to conditioned cues paired with nicotine delivery. They also attenuate the effects of nicotine on brain dopamine pathways implicated in addiction. Although mGluR5 NAMs attenuate most of the key facets of nicotine dependence, they potentiate the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. This may limit their value as smoking cessation aids. The NAMs that have been employed most widely in preclinical studies of nicotine dependence have too many "off-target" effects to be used clinically. However, newer mGluR5 NAMs have been developed for clinical use in other indications. Future studies will determine if these agents can also be used effectively and safely to treat tobacco dependence.

  20. Environmental Enrichment Ameliorates Behavioral Impairments Modeling Schizophrenia in Mice Lacking Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Emma L; McOmish, Caitlin E; Buret, Laetitia S; Van den Buuse, Maarten; Hannan, Anthony J

    2015-07-01

    Schizophrenia arises from a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Abnormalities in glutamatergic signaling have been proposed to underlie the emergence of symptoms, in light of various lines of evidence, including the psychotomimetic effects of NMDA receptor antagonists. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) has also been implicated in the disorder, and has been shown to physically interact with NMDA receptors. To clarify the role of mGlu5-dependent behavioral expression by environmental factors, we assessed mGlu5 knockout (KO) mice after exposure to environmental enrichment (EE) or reared under standard conditions. The mGlu5 KO mice showed reduced prepulse inhibition (PPI), long-term memory deficits, and spontaneous locomotor hyperactivity, which were all attenuated by EE. Examining the cellular impact of genetic and environmental manipulation, we show that EE significantly increased pyramidal cell dendritic branching and BDNF protein levels in the hippocampus of wild-type mice; however, mGlu5 KO mice were resistant to these alterations, suggesting that mGlu5 is critical to these responses. A selective effect of EE on the behavioral response to the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 in mGlu5 KO mice was seen. MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion was further potentiated in enriched mGlu5 KO mice and treatment with MK-801 reinstated PPI disruption in EE mGlu5 KO mice only, a response that is absent under standard housing conditions. Together, these results demonstrate an important role for mGlu5 in environmental modulation of schizophrenia-related behavioral impairments. Furthermore, this role of the mGlu5 receptor is mediated by interaction with NMDA receptor function, which may inform development of novel therapeutics.

  1. Negative Allosteric Modulators of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors Subtype 5 in Addiction: a Therapeutic Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background: Abundant evidence at the anatomical, electrophysiological, and molecular levels implicates metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) in addiction. Consistently, the effects of a wide range of doses of different mGluR5 negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) have been tested in various animal models of addiction. Here, these studies were subjected to a systematic review to find out if mGluR5 NAMs have a therapeutic potential that can be translated to the clinic. Methods: Literature on consumption/self-administration and reinstatement of drug seeking as outcomes of interest published up to April 2015 was retrieved via PubMed. The review focused on the effects of systemic (i.p., i.v., s.c.) administration of the mGluR5 NAMs 3-((2-Methyl-4-thiazolyl)ethynyl)pyridine (MTEP) and 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP) on paradigms with cocaine, ethanol, nicotine, and food in rats. Results: MTEP and MPEP were found to reduce self-administration of cocaine, ethanol, and nicotine at doses ≥1mg/kg and 2.5mg/kg, respectively. Dose-response relationship resembled a sigmoidal curve, with low doses not reaching statistical significance and high doses reliably inhibiting self-administration of drugs of abuse. Importantly, self-administration of cocaine, ethanol, and nicotine, but not food, was reduced by MTEP and MPEP in the dose range of 1 to 2mg/kg and 2.5 to 3.2mg/kg, respectively. This dose range corresponds to approximately 50% to 80% mGluR5 occupancy. Interestingly, the limited data found in mice and monkeys showed a similar therapeutic window. Conclusion: Altogether, this review suggests a therapeutic window for mGluR5 NAMs that can be translated to the treatment of substance-related and addictive disorders. PMID:26802568

  2. Metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1 autoimmunity: Clinical features and treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Chiriboga, A Sebastian; Komorowski, Lars; Kümpfel, Tania; Probst, Christian; Hinson, Shannon R; Pittock, Sean J; McKeon, Andrew

    2016-03-15

    To describe retrospectively the clinical associations of immunoglobulin G (IgG) targeting metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1-IgG). Specimens of 9 patients evaluated on a service basis in the Mayo Clinic Neuroimmunology Laboratory by tissue-based immunofluorescence assay (IFA) yielded a robust, synaptic immunostaining pattern consistent with mGluR1-IgG (serum, 9; CSF, 2 available). Transfected HEK293 cell-based assay (CBA) confirmed mGluR1 specificity in all 11 specimens. A further 2 patients were detected in Germany primarily by CBA. The median symptom onset age for the 11 patients was 58 years (range 33-81 years); 6 were male. All 9 Mayo Clinic patients had subacute onset of cerebellar ataxia, 4 had dysgeusia, 1 had psychiatric symptoms, and 1 had cognitive impairment. All were evaluated for malignancy, but only 1 was affected (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma). One developed ataxia post-herpes zoster infection. Head MRIs were generally atrophic or normal-appearing, and CSF was inflammatory in just 1 of 5 tested, though mGluR1-IgG was detected in both specimens submitted. Five patients improved (attributable to immunotherapy in 4, spontaneously in 1), 3 stabilized (attributable to immunotherapy in 2, cancer therapy in 1), and 1 progressively declined (untreated). The 2 German patients had ataxia, but fulfilled multiple sclerosis diagnostic criteria (1 relapsing-remitting, 1 progressive). However, both had histories of hematologic malignancy (acute lymphocytic leukemia and mantle cell lymphoma), and had mGluR1-IgG detected in serum by CBA (weakly positive on tissue-based IFA). mGluR1 autoimmunity represents a treatable form of cerebellar ataxia. Dysgeusia may be a diagnostic clue. Paraneoplastic, parainfectious, or idiopathic causes may occur. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  3. Structure of metabotropic glutamate receptor C-terminal domains in contact with interacting proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf eEnz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs regulate intracellular signal pathways that control several physiological tasks, including neuronal excitability, learning and memory. This is achieved by the formation of synaptic signal complexes, in which mGluRs assemble with functionally related proteins such as enzymes, scaffolds and cytoskeletal anchor proteins. Thus, mGluR associated proteins actively participate in the regulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission. Importantly, dysfunction of mGluRs and interacting proteins may lead to impaired signal transduction and finally result in neurological disorders, e.g. night blindness, addiction, epilepsy, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders and Parkinson´s disease. In contrast to solved crystal structures of extracellular N-terminal domains of some mGluR types, only a few studies analyzed the conformation of intracellular receptor domains. Intracellular C-termini of most mGluR types are subject to alternative splicing and can be further modified by phosphorylation and SUMOylation. In this way, diverse interaction sites for intracellular proteins that bind to and regulate the glutamate receptors are generated. Indeed, most of the known mGluR binding partners interact with the receptors´ C-terminal domains. Within the last years, different laboratories analyzed the structure of these domains and described the geometry of the contact surface between mGluR C-termini and interacting proteins. Here, I will review recent progress in the structure characterization of mGluR C-termini and provide an up-to-date summary of the geometry of these domains in contact with binding partners.

  4. Uncoupling and oxidative stress in liver mitochondria isolated from rats with acute iron overload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo Andreu, G.L. [Centro de Quimica Farmaceutica, Departamento de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba); Inada, N.M.; Vercesi, A.E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Departamento de Patologia Clinica, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Curti, C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2009-01-15

    One hypothesis for the etiology of cell damage arising from iron overload is that its excess selectively affects mitochondria. Here we tested the effects of acute iron overload on liver mitochondria isolated from rats subjected to a single dose of i.p. 500 mg/kg iron-dextran. The treatment increased the levels of iron in mitochondria (from 21{+-}4 to 130{+-}7 nmol/mg protein) and caused both lipid peroxidation and glutathione oxidation. The mitochondria of iron-treated rats showed lower respiratory control ratio in association with higher resting respiration. The mitochondrial uncoupling elicited by iron-treatment did not affect the phosphorylation efficiency or the ATP levels, suggesting that uncoupling is a mitochondrial protective mechanism against acute iron overload. Therefore, the reactive oxygen species (ROS)/H{sup +} leak couple, functioning as a mitochondrial redox homeostatic mechanism could play a protective role in the acutely iron-loaded mitochondria. (orig.)

  5. Comparison of coupled and uncoupled load simulations on a jacket support structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselbach, Philipp Ulrich; Natarajan, Anand; Jiwinangun, Randi Gusto

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a comparison of the moments and forces at the joints of a jacket structure is made between fully coupled aerohydroelastic simulations in HAWC2 and uncoupled load predictions in the finite element software Abaqus. The jacket sub structure is modelled in moderate deep waters of 50m...... structure similar to the Upwind reference jacket is developed in the Abaqus environment, to which is added the transition piece and tower. The aeroelastic loads determined in normal operating conditions of the turbine is integrated and centralized as nodal forces and moments acting at the tower top...... in Abaqus. The fully coupled simulation is implemented and performed in HAWC2. In the uncoupled case, the loads (wave loads and tower base loads) are analysed by an implicit structural Finite Element Analysis (Abaqus 6.11-1). A subroutine is used as a preprocessor generating a beam element model and linking...

  6. Effects of acute and chronic endurance exercise on mitochondrial uncoupling in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernström, Maria; Tonkonogi, Michail; Sahlin, Kent

    2004-01-01

    Mitochondrial proteins such as uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) and adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) may mediate back-leakage of protons and serve as uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. We hypothesized that UCP3 and ANT increase after prolonged exercise and/or endurance training, resulting...... respiration or state 3). Protein expression of UCP3 and ANT was measured with Western blotting. After endurance training, .VO2peak, citrate synthase activity (CS), state 3 respiration and ANT increased by 24, 47, 40 and 95%, respectively (all P ... mitochondrial resistance to Ca2+ overload but does not influence UCR or protein expression of UCP3 and ANT. The increased Ca2+ resistance may prevent mitochondrial degradation and the mechanism needs to be further explored....

  7. Temperature controls oxidative phosphorylation and reactive oxygen species production through uncoupling in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa; Woyda-Ploszczyca, Andrzej; Koziel, Agnieszka; Majerczak, Joanna; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondrial respiratory and phosphorylation activities, mitochondrial uncoupling, and hydrogen peroxide formation were studied in isolated rat skeletal muscle mitochondria during experimentally induced hypothermia (25 °C) and hyperthermia (42 °C) compared to the physiological temperature of resting muscle (35 °C). For nonphosphorylating mitochondria, increasing the temperature from 25 to 42 °C led to a decrease in membrane potential, hydrogen peroxide production, and quinone reduction levels. For phosphorylating mitochondria, no temperature-dependent changes in these mitochondrial functions were observed. However, the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation decreased, whereas the oxidation and phosphorylation rates and oxidative capacities of the mitochondria increased, with increasing assay temperature. An increase in proton leak, including uncoupling protein-mediated proton leak, was observed with increasing assay temperature, which could explain the reduced oxidative phosphorylation efficiency and reactive oxygen species production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Classical-processing and quantum-processing signal separation methods for qubit uncoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Yannick; Deville, Alain

    2012-12-01

    The Blind Source Separation problem consists in estimating a set of unknown source signals from their measured combinations. It was only investigated in a non-quantum framework up to now. We propose its first quantum extensions. We thus introduce the Quantum Source Separation field, investigating both its blind and non-blind configurations. More precisely, we show how to retrieve individual quantum bits (qubits) only from the global state resulting from their undesired coupling. We consider cylindrical-symmetry Heisenberg coupling, which e.g. occurs when two electron spins interact through exchange. We first propose several qubit uncoupling methods which typically measure repeatedly the coupled quantum states resulting from individual qubits preparations, and which then statistically process the classical data provided by these measurements. Numerical tests prove the effectiveness of these methods. We then derive a combination of quantum gates for performing qubit uncoupling, thus avoiding repeated qubit preparations and irreversible measurements.

  9. Derivatives of Rhodamine 19 as Mild Mitochondria-targeted Cationic Uncouplers*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonenko, Yuri N.; Avetisyan, Armine V.; Cherepanov, Dmitry A.; Knorre, Dmitry A.; Korshunova, Galina A.; Markova, Olga V.; Ojovan, Silvia M.; Perevoshchikova, Irina V.; Pustovidko, Antonina V.; Rokitskaya, Tatyana I.; Severina, Inna I.; Simonyan, Ruben A.; Smirnova, Ekaterina A.; Sobko, Alexander A.; Sumbatyan, Natalia V.; Severin, Fedor F.; Skulachev, Vladimir P.

    2011-01-01

    A limited decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential can be beneficial for cells, especially under some pathological conditions, suggesting that mild uncouplers (protonophores) causing such an effect are promising candidates for therapeutic uses. The great majority of protonophores are weak acids capable of permeating across membranes in their neutral and anionic forms. In the present study, protonophorous activity of a series of derivatives of cationic rhodamine 19, including dodecylrhodamine (C12R1) and its conjugate with plastoquinone (SkQR1), was revealed using a variety of assays. Derivatives of rhodamine B, lacking dissociable protons, showed no protonophorous properties. In planar bilayer lipid membranes, separating two compartments differing in pH, diffusion potential of H+ ions was generated in the presence of C12R1 and SkQR1. These compounds induced pH equilibration in liposomes loaded with the pH probe pyranine. C12R1 and SkQR1 partially stimulated respiration of rat liver mitochondria in State 4 and decreased their membrane potential. Also, C12R1 partially stimulated respiration of yeast cells but, unlike the anionic protonophore FCCP, did not suppress their growth. Loss of function of mitochondrial DNA in yeast (grande-petite transformation) is known to cause a major decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. We found that petite yeast cells are relatively more sensitive to the anionic uncouplers than to C12R1 compared with grande cells. Together, our data suggest that rhodamine 19-based cationic protonophores are self-limiting; their uncoupling activity is maximal at high membrane potential, but the activity decreases membrane potentials, which causes partial efflux of the uncouplers from mitochondria and, hence, prevents further membrane potential decrease. PMID:21454507

  10. Excitation contraction uncoupling by high intracellular [Ca2+] in frog skeletal muscle: a voltage clamp study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera, J Fernando; Pizarro, Gonzalo

    2016-10-01

    Raising the intracellular [Ca 2+ ] ([Ca 2+ ] i ) was previously found to produce uncoupling between the electrical depolarization of the transverse tubules and contraction in skinned muscle fibers. Here we study the effect of elevated [Ca 2+ ] i in voltage clamped cut fibers of frog skeletal muscle to establish how the charge movement, a measure of the activation of the dihydropyridine receptors (DHPR)-voltage sensors, and Ca 2+ release, a consequence of the opening of the ryanodine receptor (RyR)-release channels, were affected. [Ca 2+ ] i was raised by various procedures (pharmacological release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, application of high [Ca 2+ ] i intracellular solution, permeabilization of the plasma membrane by a Ca 2+ ionophore) all of which produced impairment of excitation-contraction coupling. The charge movement was reduced from 20.2 ± 1.24 to 9.9 ± 0.94 nC/μF meanwhile the Ca 2+ release flux was reduced from 13.5 + 0.7 to 2.2 ± 0.3 μM/ms (n = 33). This suggests that a significant fraction of the DHPRs that remained functional, could not activate RyRs, and were therefore presumably disconnected. These results are broadly consistent with the original reports in skinned fibers. Uncoupling was prevented by the addition to the intracellular solution of the protease inhibitor leupeptin. In approximately 40 % of the uncoupled cells we observed that the [Ca 2+ ] i transient continued to rise after the voltage clamp pulse was turned off. This loss of control by membrane voltage suggests that the uncoupled release channels might have another mechanism of activation, likely by Ca 2+ .

  11. Augmenting energy expenditure by mitochondrial uncoupling: a role of AMP-activated protein kinase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klaus, S.; Keipert, S.; Rossmeisl, Martin; Kopecký, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2012), s. 369-386 ISSN 1555-8932 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NS10528; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E10059; GA MŠk(CZ) OC08008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : adipose tissue * skeletal muscle * uncoupling protein * transgenic mice * insulin sensitivity Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.329, year: 2012

  12. Triglyceride-lowering effect of respiratory uncoupling in white adipose tissue

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rossmeisl, Martin; Kovář, J.; Syrový, Ivo; Flachs, Pavel; Bobková, D.; Kolář, František; Poledne, R.; Kopecký, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 5 (2005), s. 835-844 ISSN 1071-7323 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP303/03/P127; GA ČR(CZ) GA303/02/1220 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : adipose tissue * uncoupling protein * lipoprotein lipase Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.972, year: 2005

  13. Muscle Mitochondrial Uncoupling Dismantles Neuromuscular Junction and Triggers Distal Degeneration of Motor Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Luc; Gonzalez de Aguilar, Jose-Luis; Echaniz-Laguna, Andoni; Eschbach, Judith; Rene, Frédérique; Oudart, Hugues; Halter, Benoit; Huze, Caroline; Schaeffer, Laurent; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the most frequent adult onset motor neuron disease, is associated with hypermetabolism linked to defects in muscle mitochondrial energy metabolism such as ATP depletion and increased oxygen consumption. It remains unknown whether muscle abnormalities in energy metabolism are causally involved in the destruction of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) and subsequent motor neuron degeneration during ALS. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied transgenic mice with muscular overexpression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), a potent mitochondrial uncoupler, as a model of muscle restricted hypermetabolism. These animals displayed age-dependent deterioration of the NMJ that correlated with progressive signs of denervation and a mild late-onset motor neuron pathology. NMJ regeneration and functional recovery were profoundly delayed following injury of the sciatic nerve and muscle mitochondrial uncoupling exacerbated the pathology of an ALS animal model. Conclusions/Significance These findings provide the proof of principle that a muscle restricted mitochondrial defect is sufficient to generate motor neuron degeneration and suggest that therapeutic strategies targeted at muscle metabolism might prove useful for motor neuron diseases. PMID:19404401

  14. Kidney transplantation restored uncoupled bone turnover in end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawarazaki, Hiroo; Shibagaki, Yugo; Kido, Ryo; Nakajima, Ichiro; Fuchinoue, Shohei; Ando, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Toshiro; Fukagawa, Masafumi; Teraoka, Satoshi; Fukumoto, Seiji

    2012-07-01

    While kidney transplantation (KTx) reverses many disorders associated with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), patients who have received KTx often have chronic kidney disease and bone and mineral disorder (CKD-MBD). However, it is unknown how bone metabolism changes by KTx. Living donor-KTx recipients (n = 34) at Tokyo Women's Medical University were prospectively recruited and the levels of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and serum cross-linked N-telopeptides of Type 1 collagen (NTX) were measured before, 6 and 12 months after transplantation. Before KTx, serum BAP was within the reference range in more than half of patients while NTX was high in most patients. Serum NTX was higher in patients with longer dialysis durations compared to that with shorter durations before KTx. However, there was no difference in serum BAP between these patients. After KTx, BAP increased while NTX decreased along with the decline of PTH. In addition, the numbers of patients who showed high BAP and NTX were comparable after KTx. These results suggest that bone formation is suppressed and uncoupled with bone resorption in patients with ESRD and this uncoupling is restored by KTx. Further studies are necessary to clarify the mechanism of bone uncoupling in patients with ESRD.

  15. Genome-wide copy number variation study associates metabotropic glutamate receptor gene networks with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Josephine; Glessner, Joseph T; Wang, Kai; Takahashi, Nagahide; Shtir, Corina J; Hadley, Dexter; Sleiman, Patrick M A; Zhang, Haitao; Kim, Cecilia E; Robison, Reid; Lyon, Gholson J; Flory, James H; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Imielinski, Marcin; Hou, Cuiping; Frackelton, Edward C; Chiavacci, Rosetta M; Sakurai, Takeshi; Rabin, Cara; Middleton, Frank A; Thomas, Kelly A; Garris, Maria; Mentch, Frank; Freitag, Christine M; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Todorov, Alexandre A; Reif, Andreas; Rothenberger, Aribert; Franke, Barbara; Mick, Eric O; Roeyers, Herbert; Buitelaar, Jan; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Banaschewski, Tobias; Ebstein, Richard P; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Renner, Tobias J; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Warnke, Andreas; Walitza, Susanne; Meyer, Jobst; Pálmason, Haukur; Seitz, Christiane; Loo, Sandra K; Smalley, Susan L; Biederman, Joseph; Kent, Lindsey; Asherson, Philip; Anney, Richard J L; Gaynor, J William; Shaw, Philip; Devoto, Marcella; White, Peter S; Grant, Struan F A; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Rapoport, Judith L; Williams, Nigel M; Nelson, Stanley F; Faraone, Stephen V; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, heritable neuropsychiatric disorder of unknown etiology. We performed a whole-genome copy number variation (CNV) study on 1,013 cases with ADHD and 4,105 healthy children of European ancestry using 550,000 SNPs. We evaluated statistically significant findings in multiple independent cohorts, with a total of 2,493 cases with ADHD and 9,222 controls of European ancestry, using matched platforms. CNVs affecting metabotropic glutamate receptor genes were enriched across all cohorts (P = 2.1 × 10−9). We saw GRM5 (encoding glutamate receptor, metabotropic 5) deletions in ten cases and one control (P = 1.36 × 10−6). We saw GRM7 deletions in six cases, and we saw GRM8 deletions in eight cases and no controls. GRM1 was duplicated in eight cases. We experimentally validated the observed variants using quantitative RT-PCR. A gene network analysis showed that genes interacting with the genes in the GRM family are enriched for CNVs in ~10% of the cases (P = 4.38 × 10−10) after correction for occurrence in the controls. We identified rare recurrent CNVs affecting glutamatergic neurotransmission genes that were overrepresented in multiple ADHD cohorts. PMID:22138692

  16. Protective role for type-1 metabotropic glutamate receptors against spike and wave discharges in the WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngomba, R.T.; Santolini, I.; Biagioni, F.; Molinaro, G.; Simonyi, A.; Rijn, C.M. van; D'Amore, V.; Mastroiacovo, F.; Olivieri, G.; Gradini, R.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Nicoletti, F.

    2011-01-01

    Eight-month old WAG/Rij rats, which developed spontaneous occurring absence seizures, showed a reduced function of mGlu1 metabotropic glutamate receptors in the thalamus, as assessed by in vivo measurements of DHPG-stimulated polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis, in the presence of the mGlu5 antagonist

  17. MacMARCKS interacts with the metabotropic glutamate receptor type 7 and modulates G protein-mediated constitutive inhibition of calcium channels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bertaso, F.; Lill, Y.; Airas, J.M.; Espeut, J.; Blahoš, Jaroslav; Bockaert, J.; Fagni, L.; Betz, H.; Far, O.E.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 99, - (2006), s. 288-298 ISSN 0022-3042 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/05/0920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : calmodulin * metabotropic glutamate receptor * calcium channel Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.260, year: 2006

  18. Vitamin D is associated with metabotropic but not neurotrophic effects of exercise in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Babaei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Here, we studied the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise on metabolic syndrome components, cognitive performance, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and irisin in ovariectomized rats with different serum vitamin D (Vit D status. Methods Eighty female wistar rats were divided into 2 groups of sham operated (sham, n = 8, and ovariectomized (OVX, n = 72. Then OVX were divided into 9 groups of receiving combination of exercise protocol with low dose of Vit D (OVX + EXE + LD, high dose of Vit D (OVX + EXE + HD, Vit D deficiency (OVX + EXE − D, and (OVX + EXE + Veh. Also non exercised groups of OVX receiving high dose of Vit D (OVX + HD, low dose of Vit D (OVX + LD, Vit D deficiency (OVX − D, and Veh (OVX + Veh were included. After 2 months of related interventions, spatial memory was assessed using Morris water maze (MWM, and then metabolic syndrome components were measured. Results High dose of Vit D supplementation showed significant reduction in weight (p = 0.001, lipid profiles (p = 0.001, visceral fat (p = 0.001 and waist circumference (p = 0.001 regardless of exercising or not, with no change in cognitiive function. Serum BDNF level was significantly higher in Vit D deficient group (p = 0.001, and was decreased in the OVX + HD. In contrary, irisin did not show any significant relationship with serum concentration of Vit D, while it was significantly elevated in the exercised groups compared with non-exercised counterparts. Conclusion Vit D insufficiency deteriorates metabolic syndrome components, and elevates serum BDNF as a compensatory metabotropic factor, and further supplementation significantly attenuates these components parallel with reduction in BDNF. In addition, aerobic exercise successfully induces various metabolic benefits, provided optimum serum level of Vit D.

  19. Different metabotropic glutamate receptors play opposite roles in synaptic plasticity of the rat medial vestibular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Silvarosa; Frondaroli, Adele; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico

    2002-09-15

    In the medial vestibular nuclei (MVN) of rat brainstem slices, the role of group II and III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and of the subtypes of group I mGluRs: mGluR1, mGluR5, was investigated in basal synaptic transmission and in the induction and maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP). We used selective antagonists and agonists for mGluRs and we analysed the field potentials evoked by vestibular afferent stimulation before and after high-frequency stimulation (HFS) to induce LTP. The group II and III mGluR antagonist, (R,S)-alpha-2-methyl-4sulphonophenylglycine (MSPG), induced LTP per se and caused a reduction of the paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) ratio indicating an enhancement of glutamate release. This suggests that group II and III mGluRs are activated under basal conditions to limit glutamate release. Both the group II and III mGluR selective antagonists, 2S-2-amino-2-(1S,2S-2-carboxycycloprop-1-yl)-3-(xanth-9-yl)propanoate (LY341495) and (R,S)-alpha-methylserine-O-phosphate (MSOP), induced LTP, and the selective agonists, (2R,4R)-4-aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate (APDC) and L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP4) depressed the field potentials and prevented HFS-LTP, with a prevailing contribution of group II mGluRs over that of group III mGluRs. The mGluR1 antagonist, 7-(hydroxyimino)cyclopropa[b]chromen-1a-carboxylate ethyl ester (CPCCOEt) prevented the full development and maintenance of HFS-LTP. By contrast, the mGluR5 antagonist, 2-methyl-6-phenylethynylpyridine (MPEP) induced LTP per se, which was impeded by CPCCOEt, and it had no effect on LTP once induced by HFS. The PPF analysis showed an enhancement of glutamate release during MPEP potentiation. The group I mGluR agonist, (R,S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) induced LTP per se, which was blocked by CPCCOEt. By contrast the mGluR5 agonist, (R,S)-2-chloro-5-hydroxypheylglycine (CHPG) prevented LTP elicited by HFS and DHPG as well. In conclusion vestibular LTP is

  20. Mitochondrial uncoupler exerts a synthetic lethal effect against β-catenin mutant tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikata, Yuki; Kiga, Masaki; Futamura, Yushi; Aono, Harumi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Kawada, Manabu; Osada, Hiroyuki; Imoto, Masaya

    2017-04-01

    The wingless/int-1 (Wnt) signal transduction pathway plays a central role in cell proliferation, survival, differentiation and apoptosis. When β-catenin: a component of the Wnt pathway, is mutated into an active form, cell growth signaling is hyperactive and drives oncogenesis. As β-catenin is mutated in a wide variety of tumors, including up to 10% of all sporadic colon carcinomas and 20% of hepatocellular carcinomas, it has been considered a promising target for therapeutic interventions. Therefore, we screened an in-house natural product library for compounds that exhibited synthetic lethality towards β-catenin mutations and isolated nonactin, an antibiotic mitochondrial uncoupler, as a hit compound. Nonactin, as well as other mitochondrial uncouplers, induced apoptosis selectively in β-catenin mutated tumor cells. Significant tumor regression was observed in the β-catenin mutant HCT 116 xenograft model, but not in the β-catenin wild type A375 xenograft model, in response to daily administration of nonactin in vivo. Furthermore, we found that expression of an active mutant form of β-catenin induced a decrease in the glycolysis rate. Taken together, our results demonstrate that tumor cells with mutated β-catenin depend on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for survival. Therefore, they undergo apoptosis in response to mitochondrial dysfunction following the addition of mitochondrial uncouplers, such as nonactin. These results suggest that targeting mitochondria is a potential chemotherapeutic strategy for tumor cells that harbor β-catenin mutations. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  1. Antioxidant and regulatory role of mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP2 in pancreatic beta-cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Petr; Olejár, Tomáš; Smolková, Katarína; Ježek, Jan; Dlasková, Andrea; Plecitá-Hlavatá, Lydie; Zelenka, Jaroslav; Špaček, Tomáš; Engstová, Hana; Reguera Pajuelo, David; Jabůrek, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, Suppl.1 (2014), S73-S91 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/10/0346; GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/12/1247; GA ČR(CZ) GPP304/10/P204; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0025 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : mitochondria * uncoupling protein UCP2 * pancreatic beta-cells * reactive oxygen species * glucose-stimulated insulin secretion Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  2. Synchronization of uncoupled excitable systems induced by white and coloured noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambrano, Samuel; Marino, Ines P; Seoane, Jesus M; Sanjuan, Miguel A F; Euzzor, Stefano; Geltrude, Andrea; Meucci, Riccardo; Arecchi, Fortunato T

    2010-01-01

    We study, both numerically and experimentally, the synchronization of uncoupled excitable systems due to a common noise. We consider two identical FitzHugh-Nagumo systems, which display both spiking and non-spiking behaviours in chaotic or periodic regimes. An electronic circuit provides a laboratory implementation of these dynamics. Synchronization is tested with both white and coloured noise, showing that coloured noise is more effective in inducing synchronization of the systems. We also study the effects on the synchronization of parameter mismatch and of the presence of intrinsic (not common) noise, and we conclude that the best performance of coloured noise is robust under these distortions.

  3. Inhibition of electron transfer and uncoupling effects by emodin and emodinanthrone in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubbink-Kok, T; Anderson, J A; Konings, W N

    1986-07-01

    The anthraquinones emodin (1,3,delta-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone) and emodinanthrone (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthrone) inhibited respiration-driven solute transport at micromolar concentrations in membrane vesicles of Escherichia coli. This inhibition was enhanced by Ca ions. The inhibitory action on solute transport is caused by inhibition of electron flow in the respiratory chain, most likely at the level between ubiquinone and cytochrome b, and by dissipation of the proton motive force. The uncoupling action was confirmed by studies on the proton motive force in beef heart cytochrome oxidase proteoliposomes. These two effects on energy transduction in cytoplasmic membranes explain the antibiotic properties of emodin and emodinanthrone.

  4. Hydroperoxy fatty acid cycling mediated by mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jabůrek, Martin; Miyamoto, S.; Di Mascio, P.; Garlid, K. D.; Ježek, Petr

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 279, č. 51 (2004), s. 53097-53102 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5011106; GA MŠk LZ1K03002; GA ČR GA204/04/0495 Grant - others:NIH(US) TW01487; NIH(US) DK 56273; FAPESP(BR) CHPq; Programa de Apoio aos Nucleos de Excelencia(BR) PRONEX/FINEP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : uncoupling protein * fatty acid hydroperoxides * reactive oxygen species Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 6.355, year: 2004

  5. Role of spinal metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in pudendal inhibition of the nociceptive bladder reflex in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jeremy N; Rogers, Marc J; Xiao, Zhiying; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Schwen, Zeyad; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C; Tai, Changfeng

    2015-04-15

    This study examined the role of spinal metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in the nociceptive C-fiber afferent-mediated spinal bladder reflex and in the inhibtion of this reflex by pudendal nerve stimulation (PNS). In α-chloralose-anesthetized cats after spinal cord transection at the T9/T10 level, intravesical infusion of 0.25% acetic acid irritated the bladder, activated nociceptive C-fiber afferents, and induced spinal reflex bladder contractions of low amplitude (reflexes were responsible for a major component of the contractions. This study shows that spinal mGluR5 plays an important role in the nociceptive C-fiber afferent-mediated spinal bladder reflex and in pudendal inhibition of this spinal reflex. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Orphan receptor GPR179 forms macromolecular complexes with components of metabotropic signaling cascade in retina ON-bipolar neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, Cesare; Cao, Yan; Martemyanov, Kirill A

    2013-10-29

    In the mammalian retina, synaptic transmission between light-excited rod photoreceptors and downstream ON-bipolar neurons is indispensable for dim vision, and disruption of this process leads to congenital stationary night blindness in human patients. The ON-bipolar neurons use the metabotropic signaling cascade, initiated by the mGluR6 receptor, to generate depolarizing responses to light-induced changes in neurotransmitter glutamate release from the photoreceptor axonal terminals. Evidence for the identity of the components involved in transducing these signals is growing rapidly. Recently, the orphan receptor, GPR179, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, has been shown to be indispensable for the synaptic responses of ON-bipolar cells. In our study, we investigated the interaction of GPR179 with principle components of the signal transduction cascade. We used immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assays in transfected cells and native retinas to characterize the protein-protein interactions involving GPR179. The influence of cascade components on GPR179 localization was examined through immunohistochemical staining of the retinas from genetic mouse models. We demonstrated that, in mouse retinas, GPR179 forms physical complexes with the main components of the metabotropic cascade, recruiting mGluR6, TRPM1, and the RGS proteins. Elimination of mGluR6 or RGS proteins, but not TRPM1, detrimentally affects postsynaptic targeting or GPR179 expression. These observations suggest that the mGluR6 signaling cascade is scaffolded as a macromolecular complex in which the interactions between the components ensure the optimal spatiotemporal characteristics of signal transduction.

  7. Explicit thin-lens solution for an arbitrary four by four uncoupled beam transfer matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balandin, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Orlov, S. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics

    2011-10-15

    In the design of beam transport lines one often meets the problem of constructing a quadrupole lens system that will produce desired transfer matrices in both the horizontal and vertical planes. Nowadays this problem is typically approached with the help of computer routines, but searching for the numerical solution one has to remember that it is not proven yet that an arbitrary four by four uncoupled beam transfer matrix can be represented by using a finite number of drifts and quadrupoles (representation problem) and the answer to this questions is not known not only for more or less realistic quadrupole field models but also for the both most commonly used approximations of quadrupole focusing, namely thick and thin quadrupole lenses. In this paper we make a step forward in resolving the representation problem and, by giving an explicit solution, we prove that an arbitrary four by four uncoupled beam transfer matrix actually can be obtained as a product of a finite number of thin-lenses and drifts. (orig.)

  8. Mitochondrial Hormesis in Pancreatic β Cells: Does Uncoupling Protein 2 Play a Role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In pancreatic β cells, mitochondrial metabolism translates glucose sensing into signals regulating insulin secretion. Chronic exposure of β cells to excessive nutrients, namely, glucolipotoxicity, impairs β-cell function. This is associated with elevated ROS production from overstimulated mitochondria. Mitochondria are not only the major source of cellular ROS, they are also the primary target of ROS attacks. The mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP2, even though its uncoupling properties are debated, has been associated with protective functions against ROS toxicity. Hormesis, an adaptive response to cellular stresses, might contribute to the protection against β-cell death, possibly limiting the development of type 2 diabetes. Mitochondrial hormesis, or mitohormesis, is a defense mechanism observed in ROS-induced stress-responses by mitochondria. In β cells, mitochondrial damages induced by sublethal exogenous H2O2 can induce secondary repair and defense mechanisms. In this context, UCP2 is a marker of mitohormesis, being upregulated following stress conditions. When overexpressed in nonstressed naïve cells, UCP2 confers resistance to oxidative stress. Whether treatment with mitohormetic inducers is sufficient to restore or ameliorate secretory function of β cells remains to be determined.

  9. Understanding uncoupling in the multiredox centre P450 3A4-BMR model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degregorio, Danilo; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Gilardi, Gianfranco; Solinas, Sandro P

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the uncoupling at the haem active site and/or at the level of multidomain electron transfer is an important element in cytochrome P450 chemistry. Here a chimeric model system consisting of human cytochrome P450 3A4 and the soluble reductase domain of CYP102A1 from Bacillus megaterium (BMR) is used to study the relationship between electron transfer and the coupling efficiency in substrate monoxygenation. Several regulatory features were considered. FAD and FMN added to apoenzyme in oversaturating concentrations influence neither formaldehyde production nor coupling efficiency. The optimal conditions of coupling efficiency depended only on the NADPH concentration. The pH (8.0) and ionic strength (50 mM potassium phosphate) were found to modulate the level of coupling, indicating an influence over the formation of a productive interaction between the BMR and the haem domain. Overall, uncoupling is found to be an intrinsic property of the haem domain, and the covalent linkage of the reductase in a single polypeptide chain has little influence over the activity coupled to product formation.

  10. Uncoupling protein homologs may provide a link between mitochondria, metabolism and lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkow, Catherine A; Iser, Wendy B

    2006-05-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs), which dissipate the mitochondrial proton gradient, have the ability to decouple mitochodrial respiration from ATP production. Since mitochondrial electron transport is a major source of free radical production, it is possible that UCP activity might impact free radical production. Free radicals can react with and damage cellular proteins, DNA and lipids. Accumulated damage from oxidative stress is believed to be a major contributor to cellular decline during aging. If UCP function were to impact mitochondrial free radical production, then one would expect to find a link between UCP activity and aging. This theory has recently been tested in a handful of organisms whose genomes contain UCP1 homologs. Interestingly, these experiments indicate that UCP homologs can affect lifespan, although they do not support a simple relationship between UCP activity and aging. Instead, UCP-like proteins appear to have a variety of effects on lifespan, and on pathways implicated in lifespan regulation. One possible explanation for this complex picture is that UCP homologs may have tissue-specific effects that complicate their effects on aging. Furthermore, the functional analysis of UCP1 homologs is incomplete. Thus, these proteins may perform functions in addition to, or instead of, mitochondrial uncoupling. Although these studies have not revealed a clear picture of UCP effects on aging, they have contributed to the growing knowledge base for these interesting proteins. Future biochemical and genetic investigation of UCP-like proteins will do much to clarify their functions and to identify the regulatory networks in which they are involved.

  11. Uncoupling Protein 2: A Key Player and a Potential Therapeutic Target in Vascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Pierelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 is an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that belongs to the uncoupling protein family and plays an important role in lowering mitochondrial membrane potential and dissipating metabolic energy with prevention of oxidative stress accumulation. In the present article, we will review the evidence that UCP2, as a consequence of its roles within the mitochondria, represents a critical player in the predisposition to vascular disease development in both animal models and in humans, particularly in relation to obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. The deletion of the UCP2 gene contributes to atherosclerosis lesion development in the knockout mice, also showing significantly shorter lifespan. The UCP2 gene downregulation is a key determinant of higher predisposition to renal and cerebrovascular damage in an animal model of spontaneous hypertension and stroke. In contrast, UCP2 overexpression improves both hyperglycemia- and high-salt diet-induced endothelial dysfunction and ameliorates hypertensive target organ damage in SHRSP. Moreover, drugs (fenofibrate and sitagliptin and several vegetable compounds (extracts from Brassicaceae, berberine, curcumin, and capsaicin are able to induce UCP2 expression level and to exert beneficial effects on the occurrence of vascular damage. As a consequence, UCP2 becomes an interesting therapeutic target for the treatment of common human vascular diseases.

  12. Thyroid hormone affects secretory activity and uncoupling protein-3 expression in rat harderian gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieffi Baccari, Gabriella; Monteforte, Rossella; de Lange, Pieter; Raucci, Franca; Farina, Paola; Lanni, Antonia

    2004-07-01

    The effects of T(3) administration on the rat Harderian gland were examined at morphological, biochemical, and molecular levels. T(3) induced hypertrophy of the two cell types (A and B) present in the glandular epithelium. In type A cells, the hypertrophy was mainly due to an increase in the size of the lipid compartment. The acinar lumina were filled with lipoproteic substances, and the cells often showed an olocrine secretory pattern. In type B cells, the hypertrophy largely consisted of a marked proliferation of mitochondria endowed with tightly packed cristae, the mitochondrial number being nearly doubled (from 62 to 101/100 microm(2)). Although the average area of individual mitochondria decreased by about 50%, the total area of the mitochondrial compartment increased by about 80% (from 11 to 19/100 microm(2)). This could be ascribed to T(3)-induced mitochondrial proliferation. The morphological and morphometric data correlated well with our biochemical results, which indicated that mitochondrial respiratory activity is increased in hyperthyroid rats. T(3), by influencing the metabolic function of the mitochondrial compartment, induces lipogenesis and the release of secretory product by type A cells. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 were expressed at both mRNA and protein levels in the euthyroid rat Harderian gland. T(3) treatment increased the mRNA levels of both uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) and UCP3, but the protein level only of UCP3. A possible role for these proteins in the Harderian gland is discussed.

  13. Focal physiological uncoupling of cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism during somatosensory stimulation in human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, P.T.; Raichle, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    Coupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) was studied using multiple sequential administrations of 15 O-labeled radiotracers and positron emission tomography. In the resting state an excellent correlation between CBF and CMRO 2 was found when paired measurements of CBF and CMRO 2 from multiple (30-48) brain regions were tested in each of 33 normal subjects. Regional uncoupling of CBF and CMRO 2 was found, however, during neuronal activation induced by somatosensory stimulation. Stimulus-induced focal augmentation of cerebral blood flow (29% mean) far exceeded the concomitant local increase in tissue metabolic rate (mean, 5%), when resting-state and stimulated-state measurements were obtained in each of 9 subjects. Stimulus duration had no significant effect on response magnitude or on the degree of CBF-CMRO 2 uncoupling observed. Dynamic, physiological regulation of CBF by a mechanism (neuronal or biochemical) dependent on neuronal firing per se, but independent of the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen, is hypothesized

  14. Low shear stress induces vascular eNOS uncoupling via autophagy-mediated eNOS phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Xia; Qu, Xin-Liang; Chu, Peng; Xie, Du-Jiang; Zhu, Lin-Lin; Chao, Yue-Lin; Li, Li; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Chen, Shao-Liang

    2018-05-01

    Uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) produces O 2 - instead of nitric oxide (NO). Earlier, we reported rapamycin, an autophagy inducer and inhibitor of cellular proliferation, attenuated low shear stress (SS) induced O 2 - production. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether autophagy plays a critical role in the regulation of eNOS uncoupling. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the modulation of autophagy on eNOS uncoupling induced by low SS exposure. We found that low SS induced endothelial O 2 - burst, which was accompanied by reduced NO release. Furthermore, inhibition of eNOS by L-NAME conspicuously attenuated low SS-induced O 2 - releasing, indicating eNOS uncoupling. Autophagy markers such as LC3 II/I ratio, amount of Beclin1, as well as ULK1/Atg1 were increased during low SS exposure, whereas autophagic degradation of p62/SQSTM1 was markedly reduced, implying impaired autophagic flux. Interestingly, low SS-induced NO reduction could be reversed by rapamycin, WYE-354 or ATG5 overexpression vector via restoration of autophagic flux, but not by N-acetylcysteine or apocynin. eNOS uncoupling might be ascribed to autophagic flux blockade because phosphorylation of eNOS Thr495 by low SS or PMA stimulation was also regulated by autophagy. In contrast, eNOS acetylation was not found to be regulated by low SS and autophagy. Notably, although low SS had no influence on eNOS Ser1177 phosphorylation, whereas boosted eNOS Ser1177 phosphorylation by rapamycin were in favor of the eNOS recoupling through restoration of autophagic flux. Taken together, we reported a novel mechanism for regulation of eNOS uncoupling by low SS via autophagy-mediated eNOS phosphorylation, which is implicated in geometrical nature of atherogenesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. PSD-95 uncoupling from NMDA receptors by Tat-N-dimer ameliorates neuronal depolarisation in cortical spreading depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucharz, Krzysztof; Søndergaard Rasmussen, Ida; Bach, Anders

    2017-01-01

    during the first hour after i.v. injection. The Tat-N-dimer suppressed stimulation-evoked synaptic activity by 2-20%, while cortical blood flow and cerebral oxygen metabolic (CMRO2) responses were preserved. During cortical spreading depression, the Tat-N-dimer reduced the average amplitude...... depression on cortical blood flow and CMRO2 We suggest that uncoupling of PSD-95 from NMDA receptors reduces overall neuronal excitability and the amplitude of the spreading depolarisation wave. These findings may be of interest for understanding the neuroprotective effects of the nNOS/PSD-95 uncoupling...

  16. Adenosine A2A Receptor in the Monkey Basal Ganglia: Ultrastructural Localization and Colocalization With the Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 in the Striatum

    OpenAIRE

    Bogenpohl, James W.; Ritter, Stefanie L.; Hall, Randy A.; Smith, Yoland

    2012-01-01

    The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) is a potential drug target for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and other neurological disorders. In rodents, the therapeutic efficacy of A2AR modulation is improved by concomitant modulation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). To elucidate the anatomical substrate(s) through which these therapeutic benefits could be mediated, pre-embedding electron microscopy immunohistochemistry was used to conduct a detailed, quantitative ultrastructural...

  17. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is involved in arginase-II-mediated eNOS-uncoupling in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Rajapakse, Angana G; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Yang, Zhihong; Ming, Xiu-Fen

    2014-07-18

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-uncoupling links obesity-associated insulin resistance and type-II diabetes to the increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Studies have indicated that increased arginase is involved in eNOS-uncoupling through competing with the substrate L-arginine. Given that arginase-II (Arg-II) exerts some of its biological functions through crosstalk with signal transduction pathways, and that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38mapk) is involved in eNOS-uncoupling, we investigated here whether p38mapk is involved in Arg-II-mediated eNOS-uncoupling in a high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mouse model. Obesity was induced in wild type (WT) and Arg-II-deficient (Arg-II(-/-)) mice on C57BL/6 J background by high-fat diet (HFD, 55% fat) for 14 weeks starting from age of 7 weeks. The entire aortas were isolated and subjected to 1) immunoblotting analysis of the protein level of eNOS, Arg-II and p38mapk activation; 2) arginase activity assay; 3) endothelium-dependent and independent vasomotor responses; 4) en face staining of superoxide anion and NO production with Dihydroethidium and 4,5-Diaminofluorescein Diacetate, respectively, to assess eNOS-uncoupling. To evaluate the role of p38mapk, isolated aortas were treated with p38mapk inhibitor SB203580 (10 μmol/L, 1 h) prior to the analysis. In addition, the role of p38mapk in Arg-II-induced eNOS-uncoupling was investigated in cultured human endothelial cells overexpressing Arg-II in the absence or presence of shRNA against p38mapk. HFD enhanced Arg-II expression/activity and p38mapk activity, which was associated with eNOS-uncoupling as revealed by decreased NO and enhanced L-NAME-inhibitable superoxide in aortas of WT obese mice. In accordance, WT obese mice revealed decreased endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine despite of higher eNOS protein level, whereas Arg-II(-/-) obese mice were protected from HFD-induced eNOS-uncoupling and endothelial dysfunction, which

  18. Modulation of gene expression of adenosine and metabotropic glutamate receptors in rat's neuronal cells exposed to L-glutamate and [60]fullerene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giust, Davide; Da Ros, Tatiana; Martín, Mairena; Albasanz, José Luis

    2014-08-01

    L-Glutamate (L-Glu) has been often associated not only to fundamental physiological roles, as learning and memory, but also to neuronal cell death and the genesis and development of important neurodegenerative diseases. Herein we studied the variation in the adenosine and metabotropic glutamate receptors expression induced by L-Glu treatment in rat's cortical neurons. The possibility to have structural alteration of the cells induced by L-Glu (100 nM, 1 and 10 microM) has been addressed, studying the modulation of microtubule associated protein-2 (MAP-2) and neurofilament heavy polypeptide (NEFH), natively associated proteins to the dendritic shape maintenance. Results showed that the proposed treatments were not destabilizing the cells, so the L-Glu concentrations were acceptable to investigate fluctuation in receptors expression, which were studied by RT-PCR. Interestingly, C60 fullerene derivative t3ss elicited a protective effect against glutamate toxicity, as demonstrated by MTT assay. In addition, t3ss compound exerted a different effect on the adenosine and metabotropic glutamate receptors analyzed. Interestingly, A(2A) and mGlu1 mRNAs were significantly decreased in conditions were t3ss neuroprotected cortical neurons from L-Glu toxicity. In summary, t3ss protects neurons from glutamate toxicity in a process that appears to be associated with the modulation of the gene expression of adenosine and metabotropic glutamate receptors.

  19. Differential Expression of FAK and Pyk2 in Metastatic and Non-metastatic EL4 Lymphoma Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhihong; Knoepp, Stewart M.; Ku, Hsun; Sansbury, Heather M.; Xie, Yuhuan; Chahal, Manpreet S.; Tomlinson, Stephen; Meier, Kathryn E.

    2011-01-01

    The murine EL4 lymphoma cell line exists in variants that are either sensitive or resistant to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). In sensitive cells, PMA causes Erk MAPK activation and Erk-mediated growth arrest. In resistant cells, PMA induces a low level of Erk activation, without growth arrest. A relatively unexplored aspect of the phenotypes is that resistant cells are more adherent to culture substrate than are sensitive cells. In this study, the roles of the protein tyrosine kinases...

  20. Oxidase uncoupling in heme monooxygenases: Human cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 in Nanodiscs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinkova, Yelena V.; Denisov, Ilia G.; McLean, Mark A. [Departments of Biochemistry and Chemistry, University of Illinois, 505 South Goodwin Avenue (United States); Sligar, Stephen G., E-mail: s-sligar@illinois.edu [Departments of Biochemistry and Chemistry, University of Illinois, 505 South Goodwin Avenue (United States)

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: ► Substantial reducing equivalents are lost in human P450 CYP3A4 via an oxidase channel. ► Substrate binding has a pronounced effect on uncoupling in cytochrome P450. ► Anionic phospholipids improve the overall coupling in CYP3A4 Nanodiscs. -- Abstract: The normal reaction mechanism of cytochrome P450 operates by utilizing two reducing equivalents to reduce atmospheric dioxygen, producing one molecule of water and an oxygenated product in an overall stoichiometry of 2 electrons:1 dioxygen:1 product. However, three alternate unproductive pathways exist where the intermediate iron–oxygen states in the catalytic cycle can yield reduced oxygen products without substrate metabolism. The first involves release of superoxide from the oxygenated intermediate while the second occurs after input of the second reducing equivalent. Superoxide rapidly dismutates and hence both processes produce hydrogen peroxide that can be cytotoxic to the organism. In both cases, the formation of hydrogen peroxide involves the same overall stoichiometry as oxygenases catalysis. The key step in the catalytic cycle of cytochrome P450 involves scission of the oxygen–oxygen bond of atmospheric dioxygen to produce a higher valent iron-oxo state termed “Compound I”. This intermediate initiates a radical reaction in the oxygenase pathway but also can uptake two additional reducing equivalents from reduced pyridine nucleotide (NADPH) and the flavoprotein reductase to produce a second molecule of water. This non-productive decay of Compound I thus yields an overall oxygen to NADPH ratio of 1:2 and does not produce hydrocarbon oxidation. This water uncoupling reaction provides one of a limited means to study the reactivity of the critical Compound I intermediate in P450 catalysis. We measured simultaneously the rates of NADPH and oxygen consumption as a function of substrate concentration during the steady-state hydroxylation of testosterone catalyzed by human P450 CYP3A4

  1. Early Decrease in Respiration and Uncoupling Event Independent of Cytochrome c Release in PC12 Cells Undergoing Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghella, Libera; Ferraro, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome c is a key molecule in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. It also plays a pivotal role in cell respiration. The switch between these two functions occurs at the moment of its release from mitochondria. This process is therefore extremely relevant for the fate of the cell. Since cytochrome c mediates respiration, we studied the changes in respiratory chain activity during the early stages of apoptosis in order to contribute to unravel the mechanisms of cytochrome c release. We found that, during staurosporine (STS)- induced apoptosis in PC12 cells, respiration is affected before the release of cytochrome c, as shown by a decrease in the endogenous uncoupled respiration and an uncoupling event, both occurring independently of cytochrome c release. The decline in the uncoupled respiration occurs also upon Bcl-2 overexpression (which inhibits cytochrome c release), while the uncoupling event is inhibited by Bcl-2. We also observed that the first stage of nuclear condensation during STS-induced apoptosis does not depend on the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol and is a reversibile event. These findings may contribute to understand the mechanisms affecting mitochondria during the early stages of apoptosis and priming them for the release of apoptogenic factors. PMID:22666257

  2. Fatty Acids are Key in 4-Hydroxy-2-Nonenal-Mediated Activation of Uncoupling Proteins 1 and 2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malingriaux, E. A.; Rupprecht, A.; Gille, L.; Jovanovic, O.; Ježek, Petr; Jabůrek, Martin; Pohl, E. E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 10 (2013), e77786 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/10/0346 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : mitochondrial uncoupling proteins * 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal * fatty acids Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  3. Variable ATP yields and uncoupling of oxygen consumption in human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Albert; Aanerud, Joel; Peterson, Ericka

    2011-01-01

    normalized the metabolic rate to the population average of that region. Coefficients of variation ranged from 10 to 15% in the different regions of the human brain and the normalized regional metabolic rates ranged from 70% to 140% of the population average for each region, equal to a two-fold variation......The distribution of brain oxidative metabolism values among healthy humans is astoundingly wide for a measure that reflects normal brain function and is known to change very little with most changes of brain function. It is possible that the part of the oxygen consumption rate that is coupled...... to ATP turnover is the same in all healthy human brains, with different degrees of uncoupling explaining the variability of total oxygen consumption among people. To test the hypothesis that about 75% of the average total oxygen consumption of human brains is common to all individuals, we determined...

  4. Mediator binding to UASs is broadly uncoupled from transcription and cooperative with TFIID recruitment to promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünberg, Sebastian; Henikoff, Steven; Hahn, Steven; Zentner, Gabriel E

    2016-11-15

    Mediator is a conserved, essential transcriptional coactivator complex, but its in vivo functions have remained unclear due to conflicting data regarding its genome-wide binding pattern obtained by genome-wide ChIP Here, we used ChEC-seq, a method orthogonal to ChIP, to generate a high-resolution map of Mediator binding to the yeast genome. We find that Mediator associates with upstream activating sequences (UASs) rather than the core promoter or gene body under all conditions tested. Mediator occupancy is surprisingly correlated with transcription levels at only a small fraction of genes. Using the same approach to map TFIID, we find that TFIID is associated with both TFIID- and SAGA-dependent genes and that TFIID and Mediator occupancy is cooperative. Our results clarify Mediator recruitment and binding to the genome, showing that Mediator binding to UASs is widespread, partially uncoupled from transcription, and mediated in part by TFIID. © 2016 The Authors.

  5. Design of an achromatic and uncoupled medical gantry for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoupas, N.; Kayran, D.; Litvinenko, V.; MacKay, W.W.

    2011-01-01

    We are presenting the layout and the optics of a beam line to be used as a medical gantry in radiation therapy. The optical properties of the gantry's beam line are such as to make the beam line achromatic and uncoupled. These two properties make the beam spot size, which is delivered and focused by the gantry, on the tumor of the patient, independent of the angular orientation of the gantry. In this paper we present the layout of the magnetic elements of the gantry, and also present the theoretical basis for the optics design of such a gantry. A medical gantry, as it is used in the radiation treatment of cancer patients, is the last part of the beam optical system, of the accelerator complex, which delivers and focuses the beam on the tumor. The curved line shown in figure 1 is a schematic diagram of a gantry which can rotate about a horizontal axis. The particle beam (green arrow in fig. 1) enters the gantry, and is guided by the gantry on the tumor (red spot in fig. 1). As the gantry rotates about the axis shown in figure 1, the beam exiting the gantry always lies on a plane normal to the rotation axis at the point of the icocenter. Thus the gantry facilitates the ability of the beam delivery system, to deliver the beam at the tumor, which is placed at the icocenter, from any angle on this vertical plane, which is normal to the rotation angle of the gantry as stated earlier. The gantry consists of dipoles and quadrupoles elements whose median symmetry plane lies on a plane which contains the rotation axis of the gantry. In this paper we define this plane as the 'plane of the gantry'. As the beam is transported along the axis of rotation of the gantry and before it enters the gantry, it is focused by 'normal' quadrupoles and experiences no linear beam coupling. Subsequently the beam enters the gantry, and is transported by the gantry to the delivery point which is the tumor. The transported beam at the tumor is still linearly uncoupled as long as the plane of the

  6. Uncoupling proteins (UCP) in unicellular eukaryotes: true UCPs or UCP1-like acting proteins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luévano-Martínez, Luis Alberto

    2012-04-05

    Uncoupling proteins belong to the superfamily of mitochondrial anion carriers. They are apparently present throughout the Eukarya domain in which only some members have an established physiological function, i.e. UCP1 from brown adipose tissue is involved in non-shivering thermogenesis. However, the proteins responsible for the phenotype observed in unicellular organisms have not been characterized. In this report we analyzed functional evidence concerning unicellular UCPs and found that true UCPs are restricted to some taxonomical groups while proteins conferring a UCP1-like phenotype to fungi and most protists are the result of a promiscuous activity exerted by other mitochondrial anion carriers. We describe a possible evolutionary route followed by these proteins by which they acquire this promiscuous mechanism. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mild mitochondrial uncoupling and calorie restriction increase fasting eNOS, akt and mitochondrial biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Fernanda M; Laurindo, Francisco R M; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2011-03-31

    Enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis promoted by eNOS activation is believed to play a central role in the beneficial effects of calorie restriction (CR). Since treatment of mice with dinitrophenol (DNP) promotes health and lifespan benefits similar to those observed in CR, we hypothesized that it could also impact biogenesis. We found that DNP and CR increase citrate synthase activity, PGC-1α, cytochrome c oxidase and mitofusin-2 expression, as well as fasting plasma levels of NO• products. In addition, eNOS and Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle and visceral adipose tissue was activated in fasting CR and DNP animals. Overall, our results indicate that systemic mild uncoupling activates eNOS and Akt-dependent pathways leading to mitochondrial biogenesis.

  8. Mild mitochondrial uncoupling and calorie restriction increase fasting eNOS, akt and mitochondrial biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M Cerqueira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis promoted by eNOS activation is believed to play a central role in the beneficial effects of calorie restriction (CR. Since treatment of mice with dinitrophenol (DNP promotes health and lifespan benefits similar to those observed in CR, we hypothesized that it could also impact biogenesis. We found that DNP and CR increase citrate synthase activity, PGC-1α, cytochrome c oxidase and mitofusin-2 expression, as well as fasting plasma levels of NO• products. In addition, eNOS and Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle and visceral adipose tissue was activated in fasting CR and DNP animals. Overall, our results indicate that systemic mild uncoupling activates eNOS and Akt-dependent pathways leading to mitochondrial biogenesis.

  9. Acceptably aware during general anaesthesia: 'dysanaesthesia'--the uncoupling of perception from sensory inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Jaideep J

    2014-07-01

    This review makes the case for 'dysanaesthesia', a term encompassing states of mind that can arise in the course of anaesthesia during surgery, characterised by an uncoupling of sensation and perceptual experience. This is reflected in a macroscopic, functional model of anaesthetically-relevant consciousness. Patients in this state can be aware of events but in a neutral way, not in pain, sometimes personally dissociated from the experiences. This makes events associated with surgery peripheral to their whole experience, such that recall is less likely and if it exists, makes any spontaneous report of awareness unlikely. This state of perception-sensation uncoupling is therefore broadly acceptable (a minimum requirement for acceptable anaesthesia) but since it is likely a dose-related phenomenon, may also represent a precursor for awareness with adverse recall. This hypothesis uniquely explains the often inconsistent responses seen during the experimental paradigm of the 'isolated forearm technique', wherein apparently anaesthetised patients exhibit a positive motor response to verbal command, but no spontaneous movement to surgery. The hypothesis can also explain the relatively high incidence of positive response to relatively direct questions for recall (e.g., using the Brice questionnaire; ∼1:500; the vast majority of these being neutral reports) versus the very low incidence of spontaneous reports of awareness (∼1:15,000; a higher proportion of these being adverse recollections). The hypothesis is consistent with relevant notions from philosophical discussions of consciousness, and neuroscientific evidence. Dysanaesthesia has important implications for research and also for the development of appropriate monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Chimera states in a multilayer network of coupled and uncoupled neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majhi, Soumen; Perc, Matjaž; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2017-07-01

    We study the emergence of chimera states in a multilayer neuronal network, where one layer is composed of coupled and the other layer of uncoupled neurons. Through the multilayer structure, the layer with coupled neurons acts as the medium by means of which neurons in the uncoupled layer share information in spite of the absence of physical connections among them. Neurons in the coupled layer are connected with electrical synapses, while across the two layers, neurons are connected through chemical synapses. In both layers, the dynamics of each neuron is described by the Hindmarsh-Rose square wave bursting dynamics. We show that the presence of two different types of connecting synapses within and between the two layers, together with the multilayer network structure, plays a key role in the emergence of between-layer synchronous chimera states and patterns of synchronous clusters. In particular, we find that these chimera states can emerge in the coupled layer regardless of the range of electrical synapses. Even in all-to-all and nearest-neighbor coupling within the coupled layer, we observe qualitatively identical between-layer chimera states. Moreover, we show that the role of information transmission delay between the two layers must not be neglected, and we obtain precise parameter bounds at which chimera states can be observed. The expansion of the chimera region and annihilation of cluster and fully coherent states in the parameter plane for increasing values of inter-layer chemical synaptic time delay are illustrated using effective range measurements. These results are discussed in the light of neuronal evolution, where the coexistence of coherent and incoherent dynamics during the developmental stage is particularly likely.

  11. A novel high-throughput assay for islet respiration reveals uncoupling of rodent and human islets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob D Wikstrom

    Full Text Available The pancreatic beta cell is unique in its response to nutrient by increased fuel oxidation. Recent studies have demonstrated that oxygen consumption rate (OCR may be a valuable predictor of islet quality and long term nutrient responsiveness. To date, high-throughput and user-friendly assays for islet respiration are lacking. The aim of this study was to develop such an assay and to examine bioenergetic efficiency of rodent and human islets.The XF24 respirometer platform was adapted to islets by the development of a 24-well plate specifically designed to confine islets. The islet plate generated data with low inter-well variability and enabled stable measurement of oxygen consumption for hours. The F1F0 ATP synthase blocker oligomycin was used to assess uncoupling while rotenone together with myxothiazol/antimycin was used to measure the level of non-mitochondrial respiration. The use of oligomycin in islets was validated by reversing its effect in the presence of the uncoupler FCCP. Respiratory leak averaged to 59% and 49% of basal OCR in islets from C57Bl6/J and FVB/N mice, respectively. In comparison, respiratory leak of INS-1 cells and C2C12 myotubes was measured to 38% and 23% respectively. Islets from a cohort of human donors showed a respiratory leak of 38%, significantly lower than mouse islets.The assay for islet respiration presented here provides a novel tool that can be used to study islet mitochondrial function in a relatively high-throughput manner. The data obtained in this study shows that rodent islets are less bioenergetically efficient than human islets as well as INS1 cells.

  12. Control of mitochondrial pH by uncoupling protein 4 in astrocytes promotes neuronal survival

    KAUST Repository

    Lambert, Hélène Perreten

    2014-09-18

    Brain activity is energetically costly and requires a steady and highly regulated flow of energy equivalents between neural cells. It is believed that a substantial share of cerebral glucose, the major source of energy of the brain, will preferentially be metabolized in astrocytes via aerobic glycolysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether uncoupling proteins (UCPs), located in the inner membrane of mitochondria, play a role in setting up the metabolic response pattern of astrocytes. UCPs are believed to mediate the transmembrane transfer of protons, resulting in the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation from ATP production. UCPs are therefore potentially important regulators of energy fluxes. The main UCP isoforms expressed in the brain are UCP2, UCP4, and UCP5. We examined in particular the role of UCP4 in neuron-astrocyte metabolic coupling and measured a range of functional metabolic parameters including mitochondrial electrical potential and pH, reactive oxygen species production, NAD/NADH ratio, ATP/ADP ratio, CO2 and lactate production, and oxygen consumption rate. In brief, we found that UCP4 regulates the intramitochondrial pH of astrocytes, which acidifies as a consequence of glutamate uptake, with the main consequence of reducing efficiency of mitochondrial ATP production. The diminished ATP production is effectively compensated by enhancement of glycolysis. This nonoxidative production of energy is not associated with deleterious H2O2 production. We show that astrocytes expressing more UCP4 produced more lactate, which is used as an energy source by neurons, and had the ability to enhance neuronal survival.

  13. Cortical spreading depression produces a neuroprotective effect activating mitochondrial uncoupling protein-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viggiano E

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Emanuela Viggiano,1,2 Vincenzo Monda,1 Antonietta Messina,1 Fiorenzo Moscatelli,3 Anna Valenzano,3 Domenico Tafuri,4 Giuseppe Cibelli,3 Bruno De Luca,1 Giovanni Messina,1,3 Marcellino Monda1 1Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Human Physiology and Unit of Dietetics and Sports Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, 2Department of Medicine, University of Padua, Padua, 3Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia, 4Department of Motor Sciences and Wellness, University of Naples “Parthenope”, Naples, Italy Abstract: Depression of electrocorticogram propagating over the cortex surface results in cortical spreading depression (CSD, which is probably related to the pathophysiology of stroke, epilepsy, and migraine. However, preconditioning with CSD produces neuroprotection to subsequent ischemic episodes. Such effects require the expression or activation of several genes, including neuroprotective ones. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the expression of the uncoupling proteins (UCPs 2 and 5 is amplified during brain ischemia and their expression exerts a long-term effect upon neuron protection. To evaluate the neuroprotective consequence of CSD, the expression of UCP-5 in the brain cortex was measured following CSD induction. CSD was evoked in four samples of rats, which were sacrificed after 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, and 24 hours. Western blot analyses were carried out to measure UCP-5 concentrations in the prefrontal cortices of both hemispheres, and immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the localization of UCP-5 in the brain cortex. The results showed a significant elevation in UCP-5 expression at 24 hours in all cortical strata. Moreover, UCP-5 was triggered by CSD, indicating that UCP-5 production can have a neuroprotective effect. Keywords: cortical spreading depression, neuroprotective effect, uncoupling protein-5

  14. Selective Disruption of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5-Homer Interactions Mimics Phenotypes of Fragile X Syndrome in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weirui; Molinaro, Gemma; Collins, Katie A; Hays, Seth A; Paylor, Richard; Worley, Paul F; Szumlinski, Karen K; Huber, Kimberly M

    2016-02-17

    Altered function of the Gq-coupled, Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors, specifically mGlu5, is implicated in multiple mouse models of autism and intellectual disability. mGlu5 dysfunction has been most well characterized in the fragile X syndrome mouse model, the Fmr1 knock-out (KO) mouse, where pharmacological and genetic reduction of mGlu5 reverses many phenotypes. mGlu5 is less associated with its scaffolding protein Homer in Fmr1 KO mice, and restoration of mGlu5-Homer interactions by genetic deletion of a short, dominant negative of Homer, H1a, rescues many phenotypes of Fmr1 KO mice. These results suggested that disruption of mGlu5-Homer leads to phenotypes of FXS. To test this idea, we examined mice with a knockin mutation of mGlu5 (F1128R; mGlu5(R/R)) that abrogates binding to Homer. Although FMRP levels were normal, mGlu5(R/R) mice mimicked multiple phenotypes of Fmr1 KO mice, including reduced mGlu5 association with the postsynaptic density, enhanced constitutive mGlu5 signaling to protein synthesis, deficits in agonist-induced translational control, protein synthesis-independent LTD, neocortical hyperexcitability, audiogenic seizures, and altered behaviors, including anxiety and sensorimotor gating. These results reveal new roles for the Homer scaffolds in regulation of mGlu5 function and implicate a specific molecular mechanism in a complex brain disease. Abnormal function of the metabotropic, or Gq-coupled, glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) has been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders, including a genetic cause of intellectual disability and autism called fragile X syndrome. In brains of a mouse model of fragile X, mGlu5 is less associated with its binding partner Homer, a scaffolding protein that regulates mGlu5 localization to synapses and its ability to activate biochemical signaling pathways. Here we show that a mouse expressing a mutant mGlu5 that cannot bind to Homer is sufficient to mimic many of the biochemical, neurophysiological, and

  15. Defense reaction induced by a metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist microinjected into the dorsal periaqueductal gray of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Molchanov

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral effects of trans-(±-1-amino-1,3-cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid (t-ACPD, a metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR agonist, or 0.9% (w/v saline, injected into the dorsal periaqueductal gray (DPAG, was investigated. Male Wistar rats showed defense reactions characterized by jumps toward the top edges of the cages (saline = 0 vs t-ACPD = 6.0, medians P<0.05 and gallops (saline = 0 vs t-ACPD = 10.0, medians P<0.05 during the 60-s period after the beginning of the injection. In another experiment animals were placed inside an open arena for 5 min immediately after injection. Their behavior was recorded by a video camera and a computer program analyzed the videotapes. Eleven of fifteen rats injected with t-ACPD showed a short-lasting (about 1 min flight reaction. No saline-treated animal showed this reaction (P<0.0005, chi-square test. The drug induced an increase in turning behavior (P = 0.002, MANOVA and a decrease in the number of rearings (P<0.001, MANOVA and grooming episodes (P<0.001, MANOVA. These results suggest that mGluRs play a role in the control of defense reactions in the DPAG.

  16. Membrane Estrogen Receptor-α Interacts with Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Type 1a to Mobilize Intracellular Calcium in Hypothalamic Astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, John; Hariri, Omid R.; Bondar, Galyna; Ogi, Julie; Micevych, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Estradiol, acting on a membrane-associated estrogen receptor-α (mERα), induces an increase in free cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) needed for progesterone synthesis in hypothalamic astrocytes. To determine whether rapid estradiol signaling involves an interaction of mERα with metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1a (mGluR1a), changes in [Ca2+]i were monitored with the calcium indicator, Fluo-4 AM, in primary cultures of female postpubertal hypothalamic astrocytes. 17β-Estradiol over a range of 1 nm to 100 nm induced a maximal increase in [Ca2+]i flux measured as a change in relative fluorescence [ΔF Ca2+ = 615 ± 36 to 641 ± 47 relative fluorescent units (RFU)], whereas 0.1 nm of estradiol stimulated a moderate [Ca2+]i increase (275 ± 16 RFU). The rapid estradiol-induced [Ca2+]i flux was blocked with 1 μm of the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 (635 ± 24 vs. 102 ± 11 RFU, P estradiol-induced membrane signaling in astrocytes. PMID:18948402

  17. Synthesis and pharmacology of 3-isoxazolol amino acids as selective antagonists at group I metabotropic glutamic acid receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, U; Bräuner-Osborne, H; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea

    2001-01-01

    Using ibotenic acid (2) as a lead, two series of 3-isoxazolol amino acid ligands for (S)-glutamic acid (Glu, 1) receptors have been developed. Whereas analogues of (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid [AMPA, (RS)-3] interact selectively with ionotropic Glu receptors (i......GluRs), the few analogues of (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-isoxazolyl)propionic acid [HIBO, (RS)-4] so far known typically interact with iGluRs as well as metabotropic Glu receptors (mGluRs). We here report the synthesis and pharmacology of a series of 4-substituted analogues of HIBO. The hexyl analogue 9 was shown...... to originate in (S)-11 (EC(50) = 395 microM, K(b) = 86 and 90 microM, respectively). Compound 9, administered icv, but not sc, was shown to protect mice against convulsions induced by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA). Compounds 9 and 11 were resolved using chiral HPLC, and the configurational assignments...

  18. (S)-homo-AMPA, a specific agonist at the mGlu6 subtype of metabotropic glutamic acid receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadian, H; Nielsen, B; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    1997-01-01

    of the spectroscopic configurational assignments. The activities of 6 and 7 at ionotropic EAA (iGlu) receptors and at mGlu1-7 were studied. (S)-Homo-AMPA (6) was shown to be a specific agonist at mGlu6 (EC50 = 58 +/- 11 microM) comparable in potency with the endogenous mGlu agonist (S)-glutamic acid (EC50 = 20 +/- 3......Our previous publication (J. Med. Chem. 1996, 39, 3188-3194) described (RS)-2-amino-4-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)butyric acid (Homo-AMPA) as a highly selective agonist at the mGlu6 subtype of metabotropic excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors. Homo-AMPA has already become a standard agonist...... microM). Although Homo-AMPA did not show significant effects at iGlu receptors, (R)-Homo-AMPA (7), which was inactive at mGlu1-7, turned out to be a weak N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist (IC50 = 131 +/- 18 microM)....

  19. Cyclic ADP ribose-dependent Ca2+ release by group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in acutely dissociated rat hippocampal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Woo Sohn

    Full Text Available Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (group I mGluRs; mGluR1 and mGluR5 exert diverse effects on neuronal and synaptic functions, many of which are regulated by intracellular Ca(2+. In this study, we characterized the cellular mechanisms underlying Ca(2+ mobilization induced by (RS-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG; a specific group I mGluR agonist in the somata of acutely dissociated rat hippocampal neurons using microfluorometry. We found that DHPG activates mGluR5 to mobilize intracellular Ca(2+ from ryanodine-sensitive stores via cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose (cADPR, while the PLC/IP(3 signaling pathway was not involved in Ca(2+ mobilization. The application of glutamate, which depolarized the membrane potential by 28.5±4.9 mV (n = 4, led to transient Ca(2+ mobilization by mGluR5 and Ca(2+ influx through L-type Ca(2+ channels. We found no evidence that mGluR5-mediated Ca(2+ release and Ca(2+ influx through L-type Ca(2+ channels interact to generate supralinear Ca(2+ transients. Our study provides novel insights into the mechanisms of intracellular Ca(2+ mobilization by mGluR5 in the somata of hippocampal neurons.

  20. The association of metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 with the neuronal Ca2+-binding protein 2 modulates receptor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Laia; Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Albergaria, Catarina; Watanabe, Masahiko; Lluís, Carme; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Franco, Rafael; Luján, Rafael; Ciruela, Francisco

    2009-10-01

    Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors mediate in part the CNS effects of glutamate. These receptors interact with a large array of intracellular proteins in which the final role is to regulate receptor function. Here, using co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down experiments we showed a close and specific interaction between mGlu(5) receptor and NECAB2 in both transfected human embryonic kidney cells and rat hippocampus. Interestingly, in pull-down experiments increasing concentrations of calcium drastically reduced the ability of these two proteins to interact, suggesting that NECAB2 binds to mGlu(5) receptor in a calcium-regulated manner. Immunoelectron microscopy detection of NECAB2 and mGlu(5) receptor in the rat hippocampal formation indicated that both proteins are codistributed in the same subcellular compartment of pyramidal cells. In addition, the NECAB2/mGlu(5) receptor interaction regulated mGlu(5b)-mediated activation of both inositol phosphate accumulation and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Overall, these findings indicate that NECAB2 by its physical interaction with mGlu(5b) receptor modulates receptor function.

  1. 3-pyrazolone analogues of the 3-isoxazolol metabotropic excitatory amino acid receptor agonist homo-AMPA. Synthesis and pharmacological testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, D.; Janin, Y.L.; Brehm, L.

    1999-01-01

    the terminal carboxyl group has been replaced by various bioisosteric groups, such as phosphonic acid or 3-isoxazolol groups, have been shown to interact selectively with different subtypes of mGlu receptors. In this paper we report the synthesis of the 3-pyrazolone bioisosteres of a-AA, compounds (RS)-2-amino......-4-(1,2-dihydro-5-methyl-3-oxo-3H-pyrazol-4-yl)butyric acid (1) and (RS)-2-amino-4-(1,2-dihydro-1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-3H-pyrazol-4-yl)butyric acid (2). At a number of steps in the reaction sequences used, the reactions took unexpected courses and provided products which could not be transformed......We have previously shown that the higher homologue of (S)-glutamic acid [(S)-Glu], (S)-a-aminoadipic acid [(S)-a-AA] is selectively recognized by the mGlu and mGlu subtypes of the family of metabotropic glutamic acid (mGlu) receptors. Furthermore, a number of analogues of (S)-a-AA, in which...

  2. Adenosine Receptors in Developing and Adult Mouse Neuromuscular Junctions and Functional Links With Other Metabotropic Receptor Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomàs, Josep; Garcia, Neus; Lanuza, Maria A; Santafé, Manel M; Tomàs, Marta; Nadal, Laura; Hurtado, Erica; Simó-Ollé, Anna; Cilleros-Mañé, Víctor; Just-Borràs, Laia

    2018-01-01

    In the last few years, we have studied the presence and involvement in synaptogenesis and mature transmitter release of the adenosine autoreceptors (AR) in the mammalian neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Here, we review and bring together the previously published data to emphasize the relevance of these receptors for developmental axonal competition, synaptic loss and mature NMJ functional modulation. However, in addition to AR, activity-dependent mediators originating from any of the three cells that make the synapse (nerve, muscle, and glial cells) cross the extracellular cleft to generate signals in target metabotropic receptors. Thus, the integrated interpretation of the complementary function of all these receptors is needed. We previously studied, in the NMJ, the links of AR with mAChR and the neurotrophin receptor TrkB in the control of synapse elimination and transmitter release. We conclude that AR cooperate with these receptors through synergistic and antagonistic effects in the developmental synapse elimination process. In the adult NMJ, this cooperation is manifested so as that the functional integrity of a given receptor group depends on the other receptors operating normally (i.e., the functional integrity of mAChR depends on AR operating normally). These observations underlie the relevance of AR in the NMJ function.

  3. Adenosine Receptors in Developing and Adult Mouse Neuromuscular Junctions and Functional Links With Other Metabotropic Receptor Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Tomàs

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, we have studied the presence and involvement in synaptogenesis and mature transmitter release of the adenosine autoreceptors (AR in the mammalian neuromuscular junction (NMJ. Here, we review and bring together the previously published data to emphasize the relevance of these receptors for developmental axonal competition, synaptic loss and mature NMJ functional modulation. However, in addition to AR, activity-dependent mediators originating from any of the three cells that make the synapse (nerve, muscle, and glial cells cross the extracellular cleft to generate signals in target metabotropic receptors. Thus, the integrated interpretation of the complementary function of all these receptors is needed. We previously studied, in the NMJ, the links of AR with mAChR and the neurotrophin receptor TrkB in the control of synapse elimination and transmitter release. We conclude that AR cooperate with these receptors through synergistic and antagonistic effects in the developmental synapse elimination process. In the adult NMJ, this cooperation is manifested so as that the functional integrity of a given receptor group depends on the other receptors operating normally (i.e., the functional integrity of mAChR depends on AR operating normally. These observations underlie the relevance of AR in the NMJ function.

  4. Imaging for metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 in rat and monkey brains using PET with [18F]FITM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Tomoteru; Fujinaga, Masayuki; Maeda, Jun; Kawamura, Kazunori; Yui, Joji; Hatori, Akiko; Yoshida, Yuichiro; Nagai, Yuji; Tokunaga, Masaki; Higuchi, Makoto; Suhara, Tetsuya; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Zhang, Ming-Rong

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we evaluate the utility of 4-[(18)F]fluoro-N-[4-[6-(isopropylamino)pyrimidin-4-yl]-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]-N-methylbenzamide ([(18)F]FITM) as a positron emission tomography (PET) ligand for imaging of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 (mGluR1) in rat and monkey brains. In vivo distribution of [(18)F]FITM in brains was evaluated by PET scans with or without the mGluR1-selective antagonist (JNJ16259685). Kinetic parameters of monkey PET data were obtained using the two-tissue compartment model with arterial blood sampling. In PET studies in rat and monkey brains, the highest uptake of radioactivity was in the cerebellum, followed by moderate uptake in the thalamus, hippocampus and striatum. The lowest uptake of radioactivity was detected in the pons. These uptakes in all brain regions were dramatically decreased by pre-administration of JNJ16259685. In kinetic analysis of monkey PET, the highest volume of distribution (V(T)) was detected in the cerebellum (V(T) = 11.5). [(18)F]FITM has an excellent profile as a PET ligand for mGluR1 imaging. PET with [(18)F]FITM may prove useful for determining the regional distribution and density of mGluR1 and the mGluR1 occupancy of drugs in human brains.

  5. Pu-erh Tea Protects the Nervous System by Inhibiting the Expression of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunjie; Chai, Shaomeng; Ju, Yongzhi; Hou, Lu; Zhao, Hang; Ma, Wei; Li, Tian; Sheng, Jun; Shi, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Glutamate is one of the major excitatory neurotransmitters of the CNS and is essential for numerous key neuronal functions. However, excess glutamate causes massive neuronal death and brain damage owing to excitotoxicity via the glutamate receptors. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) is one of the glutamate receptors and represents a promising target for studying neuroprotective agents of potential application in neurodegenerative diseases. Pu-erh tea, a fermented tea, mainly produced in Yunnan province, China, has beneficial effects, including the accommodation of the CNS. In this study, pu-erh tea markedly decreased the transcription and translation of mGluR5 compared to those by black and green teas. Pu-erh tea also inhibited the expression of Homer, one of the synaptic scaffolding proteins binding to mGluR5. Pu-erh tea protected neural cells from necrosis via blocked Ca 2+ influx and inhibited protein kinase C (PKC) activation induced by excess glutamate. Pu-erh tea relieved rat epilepsy induced by LiCl-pilocarpine in behavioural and physiological assays. Pu-erh tea also decreased the expression of mGluR5 in the hippocampus. These results show that the inhibition of mGluR5 plays a role in protecting neural cells from glutamate. The results also indicate that pu-erh tea contains biological compounds binding transcription factors and inhibiting the expression of mGluR5 and identify pu-erh tea as a novel natural neuroprotective agent.

  6. Uncoupling effect of palmitate is exacerbated in skeletal muscle mitochondria of sea-acclimatized king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Duchamp, Claude; Roussel, Damien

    2017-09-01

    In king penguin juveniles, the environmental transition from a terrestrial to a marine habitat, occurring at fledging, drastically stimulates lipid catabolism and the remodelling of muscle mitochondria to sustain extensive swimming activity and thermoregulation in the cold circumpolar oceans. However, the exact nature of these mechanisms remains only partially resolved. Here we investigated, in vitro, the uncoupling effect of increasing doses of fatty acids in pectoralis muscle intermyofibrillar mitochondria isolated, either from terrestrial never-immersed or experimentally cold water immersed pre-fledging king penguins or from sea-acclimatized fledged penguins. Mitochondria exhibited much greater palmitate-induced uncoupling respiration and higher maximal oxidative capacity after acclimatization to marine life. Such effects were not reproduced experimentally after repeated immersions in cold water, suggesting that the plasticity of mitochondrial characteristics may not be primarily driven by cold exposure per se but by other aspects of sea acclimatization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Uncoupling of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺-ATPase by N-arachidonoyl dopamine. Members of the endocannabinoid family as thermogenic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmoud, Yasser Ahmed; Gaster, Michel

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺-ATPase (SERCA) plays a role in thermogenesis. The exogenous compound capsaicin increased SERCA-mediated ATP hydrolysis not coupled to Ca²⁺ transport. Here, we have sought to identify endogenous compounds that may function as SERCA uncoupling...... agents. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Using isolated SR vesicles from rabbits, we have screened for endogenous compounds that uncouple SERCA. We have also studied their ability to deplete cytoplasmic ATP from human skeletal muscle cells in culture. KEY RESULTS: Studies on SR vesicles showed that the endogenous......, regardless of the presence of glucose. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: NADA is an endogenous molecule that may function as SERCA uncoupling agent in vivo. Members of the endocannabinoid family exert concerted actions on several Ca²⁺-handling proteins. Uncoupling of SERCA by exogenous compounds could be a novel...

  8. Undecanesulfonate does not allosterically activate H+ uniport mediated by uncoupling protein-1 in brown adipose tissue mitochondria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Petr; Špaček, Tomáš; Garlid, K.; Jabůrek, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 11 (2006), s. 1965-1974 ISSN 1357-2725 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5011106; GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05ME794 Grant - others:NIH(US) TW01487 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : uncoupling protein–1 * mitochondria * fatty acid Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.804, year: 2006

  9. Α-amino-β-fluorocyclopropanecarboxylic acids as a new tool for drug development: synthesis of glutamic acid analogs and agonist activity towards metabotropic glutamate receptor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemonnier, Gérald; Lion, Cédric; Quirion, Jean-Charles; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Goudet, Cyril; Jubault, Philippe

    2012-08-01

    Herein we describe the diastereoselective synthesis of glutamic acid analogs and the evaluation of their agonist activity towards metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 4 (mGluR4). These analogs are based on a monofluorinated cyclopropane core substituted with an α-aminoacid function. The potential of this new building block as a tool for the development of a novel class of drugs is demonstrated with racemic analog 11a that displayed the best agonist activity with an EC50 of 340 nM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor I (mGluR1) Antagonism Impairs Cocaine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference via Inhibition of Protein Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Fei; Zhong, Peng; Liu, Xiaojie; Sun, Dalong; Gao, Hai-qing; Liu, Qing-song

    2013-01-01

    Antagonism of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1 and mGluR5) reduces behavioral effects of drugs of abuse, including cocaine. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Activation of mGluR5 increases protein synthesis at synapses. Although mGluR5-induced excessive protein synthesis has been implicated in the pathology of fragile X syndrome, it remains unknown whether group I mGluR-mediated protein synthesis is involved in any behavioral effects of drugs of abus...

  11. Synthesis of mitochondrial uncoupling protein in brown adipocytes differentiated in cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecky, J.; Baudysova, M.; Zanotti, F.; Janikova, D.; Pavelka, S.; Houstek, J.

    1990-01-01

    In order to characterize the biogenesis of unique thermogenic mitochondria of brown adipose tissue, differentiation of precursor cells isolated from mouse brown adipose tissue was studied in cell culture. Synthesis of mitochondrial uncoupling protein (UCP), F1-ATPase, and cytochrome oxidase was examined by L-[35S]methionine labeling and immunoblotting. For the first time, synthesis of physiological amounts of the UCP, a key and tissue-specific component of thermogenic mitochondria, was observed in cultures at about confluence (day 6), indicating that a complete differentiation of brown adipocytes was achieved in vitro. In postconfluent cells (day 8) the content of UCP decreased rapidly, in contrast to some other mitochondrial proteins (beta subunit of F1-ATPase, cytochrome oxidase). In these cells, it was possible, by using norepinephrine, to induce specifically the synthesis of the UCP but not of F1-ATPase or cytochrome oxidase. The maximal response was observed at 0.1 microM norepinephrine and the synthesis of UCP remained activated for at least 24 h. Detailed analysis revealed a major role of the beta-adrenergic receptors and elevated intracellular concentration of cAMP in stimulation of UCP synthesis. A quantitative recovery of the newly synthesized UCP in the mitochondrial fraction indicated completed biogenesis of functionally competent thermogenic mitochondria

  12. TGF-beta Sma/Mab signaling mutations uncouple reproductive aging from somatic aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijing Luo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Female reproductive cessation is one of the earliest age-related declines humans experience, occurring in mid-adulthood. Similarly, Caenorhabditis elegans' reproductive span is short relative to its total life span, with reproduction ceasing about a third into its 15-20 day adulthood. All of the known mutations and treatments that extend C. elegans' reproductive period also regulate longevity, suggesting that reproductive span is normally linked to life span. C. elegans has two canonical TGF-beta signaling pathways. We recently found that the TGF-beta Dauer pathway regulates longevity through the Insulin/IGF-1 Signaling (IIS pathway; here we show that this pathway has a moderate effect on reproductive span. By contrast, TGF-beta Sma/Mab signaling mutants exhibit a substantially extended reproductive period, more than doubling reproductive span in some cases. Sma/Mab mutations extend reproductive span disproportionately to life span and act independently of known regulators of somatic aging, such as Insulin/IGF-1 Signaling and Dietary Restriction. This is the first discovery of a pathway that regulates reproductive span independently of longevity and the first identification of the TGF-beta Sma/Mab pathway as a regulator of reproductive aging. Our results suggest that longevity and reproductive span regulation can be uncoupled, although they appear to normally be linked through regulatory pathways.

  13. Widespread uncoupling between transcriptome and translatome variations after a stimulus in mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebaldi Toma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The classical view on eukaryotic gene expression proposes the scheme of a forward flow for which fluctuations in mRNA levels upon a stimulus contribute to determine variations in mRNA availability for translation. Here we address this issue by simultaneously profiling with microarrays the total mRNAs (the transcriptome and the polysome-associated mRNAs (the translatome after EGF treatment of human cells, and extending the analysis to other 19 different transcriptome/translatome comparisons in mammalian cells following different stimuli or undergoing cell programs. Results Triggering of the EGF pathway results in an early induction of transcriptome and translatome changes, but 90% of the significant variation is limited to the translatome and the degree of concordant changes is less than 5%. The survey of other 19 different transcriptome/translatome comparisons shows that extensive uncoupling is a general rule, in terms of both RNA movements and inferred cell activities, with a strong tendency of translation-related genes to be controlled purely at the translational level. By different statistical approaches, we finally provide evidence of the lack of dependence between changes at the transcriptome and translatome levels. Conclusions We propose a model of diffused independency between variation in transcript abundances and variation in their engagement on polysomes, which implies the existence of specific mechanisms to couple these two ways of regulating gene expression.

  14. Calculation of Coupled Vibroacoustics Response Estimates from a Library of Available Uncoupled Transfer Function Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Hunt, Ron; Fulcher, Clay; Towner, Robert; McDonald, Emmett

    2012-01-01

    The design and theoretical basis of a new database tool that quickly generates vibroacoustic response estimates using a library of transfer functions (TFs) is discussed. During the early stages of a launch vehicle development program, these response estimates can be used to provide vibration environment specification to hardware vendors. The tool accesses TFs from a database, combines the TFs, and multiplies these by input excitations to estimate vibration responses. The database is populated with two sets of uncoupled TFs; the first set representing vibration response of a bare panel, designated as H(sup s), and the second set representing the response of the free-free component equipment by itself, designated as H(sup c). For a particular configuration undergoing analysis, the appropriate H(sup s) and H(sup c) are selected and coupled to generate an integrated TF, designated as H(sup s +c). This integrated TF is then used with the appropriate input excitations to estimate vibration responses. This simple yet powerful tool enables a user to estimate vibration responses without directly using finite element models, so long as suitable H(sup s) and H(sup c) sets are defined in the database libraries. The paper discusses the preparation of the database tool and provides the assumptions and methodologies necessary to combine H(sup s) and H(sup c) sets into an integrated H(sup s + c). An experimental validation of the approach is also presented.

  15. Spatial uncoupling of biodegradation, soil respiration, and PAH concentration in a creosote contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, Goeran; Toerneman, Niklas; Yang Xiuhong

    2010-01-01

    Hotspots and coldspots of concentration and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) marginally overlapped at the 0.5-100 m scale in a creosote contaminated soil in southern Sweden, suggesting that concentration and biodegradation had little spatial co-variation. Biodegradation was substantial and its spatial variability considerable and highly irregular, but it had no spatial autocorrelation. The soil concentration of PAHs explained only 20-30% of the variance of their biodegradation. Soil respiration was spatially autocorrelated. The spatial uncoupling between biodegradation and soil respiration seemed to be governed by the aging of PAHs in the soil, since biodegradation of added 13 C phenanthrene covaried with both soil respiration and microbial biomass. The latter two were also correlated with high concentrations of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) that are common in gram-negative bacteria. However, several of the hotspots of biodegradation coincided with hotspots for the distribution of a PLFA indicative of fungal biomass. - Hotspots of PAH biodegradation in a creosote contaminated soil do not coincide with hotspots of PAH concentration, microbial biomass and respiration.

  16. Seismic Assessment of Buildings: Proposal of a New Modified Uncoupled Modal Response History Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerez, Sandra; Mebarki, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a new modified uncoupled modal response history analysis (M-UMRHA) in order to study the seismic behavior of structures. It aims to provide an acceptable accuracy with reduced calculation duration in comparison to complete analysis, i.e. the THA. The proposed method improves the existing UMRHA, developed by Chopra and Goel [1], by considering an energy based approach to build the capacity curve [2] and a pseudo-adaptive feature to account for changes in modal shapes after yielding, motivated by an adaptive method [3]. Validation is made by comparison with NLTHA as well as other simplified methods. Low and medium-rise RC buildings were analyzed under real ground motion records. Results show good estimates of structural parameters and give good correlation between damage and story displacements as well as drifts. Like other simplified methods, accuracy decreases in the inelastic domain. However, this procedure gives acceptable estimates of structural response with a few additional calculations and it has the potential to be used in large scale studies, and probabilistic approaches.

  17. Low-level lasers affect uncoupling protein gene expression in skin and skeletal muscle tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuto, K S; Sergio, L P S; Mencalha, A L; Fonseca, A S; Paoli, F

    2016-01-01

    Wavelength, frequency, power, fluence, and emission mode determine the photophysical, photochemical, and photobiological responses of biological tissues to low-level lasers. Free radicals are involved in these responses acting as second messengers in intracellular signaling processes. Irradiated cells present defenses against these chemical species to avoid unwanted effects, such as uncoupling proteins (UCPs), which are part of protective mechanisms and minimize the effects of free radical generation in mitochondria. In this work UCP2 and UCP3 mRNA gene relative expression in the skin and skeletal muscle tissues of Wistar rats exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers was evaluated. Samples of the skin and skeletal muscle tissue of Wistar rats exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and the evaluation of gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. UCP2 and UCP3 mRNA expression was differently altered in skin and skeletal muscle tissues exposed to lasers in a wavelength-dependent effect, with the UCP3 mRNA expression dose-dependent. Alteration on UCP gene expression could be part of the biostimulation effect and is necessary to make cells exposed to red and infrared low-level lasers more resistant or capable of adapting in damaged tissues or diseases. (paper)

  18. Cell Death and Heart Failure in Obesity: Role of Uncoupling Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Ruiz-Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic diseases such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type II diabetes are often characterized by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in mitochondrial respiratory complexes, associated with fat accumulation in cardiomyocytes, skeletal muscle, and hepatocytes. Several rodents studies showed that lipid accumulation in cardiac myocytes produces lipotoxicity that causes apoptosis and leads to heart failure, a dynamic pathological process. Meanwhile, several tissues including cardiac tissue develop an adaptive mechanism against oxidative stress and lipotoxicity by overexpressing uncoupling proteins (UCPs, specific mitochondrial membrane proteins. In heart from rodent and human with obesity, UCP2 and UCP3 may protect cardiomyocytes from death and from a state progressing to heart failure by downregulating programmed cell death. UCP activation may affect cytochrome c and proapoptotic protein release from mitochondria by reducing ROS generation and apoptotic cell death. Therefore the aim of this review is to discuss recent findings regarding the role that UCPs play in cardiomyocyte survival by protecting against ROS generation and maintaining bioenergetic metabolism homeostasis to promote heart protection.

  19. Hydrodynamical simulations of coupled and uncoupled quintessence models - II. Galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlesi, Edoardo; Knebe, Alexander; Lewis, Geraint F.; Yepes, Gustavo

    2014-04-01

    We study the z = 0 properties of clusters (and large groups) of galaxies within the context of interacting and non-interacting quintessence cosmological models, using a series of adiabatic SPH simulations. Initially, we examine the average properties of groups and clusters, quantifying their differences in ΛCold Dark Matter (ΛCDM), uncoupled Dark Energy (uDE) and coupled Dark Energy (cDE) cosmologies. In particular, we focus upon radial profiles of the gas density, temperature and pressure, and we also investigate how the standard hydrodynamic equilibrium hypothesis holds in quintessence cosmologies. While we are able to confirm previous results about the distribution of baryons, we also find that the main discrepancy (with differences up to 20 per cent) can be seen in cluster pressure profiles. We then switch attention to individual structures, mapping each halo in quintessence cosmology to its ΛCDM counterpart. We are able to identify a series of small correlations between the coupling in the dark sector and halo spin, triaxiality and virialization ratio. When looking at spin and virialization of dark matter haloes, we find a weak (5 per cent) but systematic deviation in fifth force scenarios from ΛCDM.

  20. Isoproterenol Increases Uncoupling, Glycolysis, and Markers of Beiging in Mature 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette N Miller

    Full Text Available Beta-adrenergic activation stimulates uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1, enhancing metabolic rate. In vitro, most work has studied brown adipocytes, however, few have investigated more established adipocyte lines such as the murine 3T3-L1 line. To assess the effect of beta-adrenergic activation, mature 3T3-L1s were treated for 6 or 48 hours with or without isoproterenol (10 and 100 μM following standard differentiation supplemented with thyroid hormone (T3; 1 nM. The highest dose of isoproterenol increased lipid content following 48 hours of treatment. This concentration enhanced UCP1 mRNA and protein expression. The increase in UCP1 following 48 hours of isoproterenol increased oxygen consumption rate. Further, coupling efficiency of the electron transport chain was disturbed and an enhancement of glycolytic rate was measured alongside this, indicating an attempt to meet the energy demands of the cell. Lastly, markers of beige adipocytes (protein content of CD137 and gene transcript of CITED1 were also found to be upregulated at 48 hours of isoproterenol treatment. This data indicates that mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes are responsive to isoproterenol and induce UCP1 expression and activity. Further, this finding provides a model for further pharmaceutical and nutraceutical investigation of UCP1 in 3T3-L1s.

  1. The role of uncoupling protein 3 regulating calcium ion uptake into mitochondria during sarcopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikawa, Takeshi; Choi, Inho; Haruna, Marie; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Maita Ohno, Ayako; Kondo Teshima, Shigetada

    Overloaded mitochondrial calcium concentration contributes to progression of mitochondrial dysfunction in aged muscle, leading to sarcopenia. Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is primarily expressed in the inner membrane of skeletal muscle mitochondria. Recently, it has been reported that UCP3 is associated with calcium uptake into mitochondria. However, the mechanisms by which UCP3 regulates mitochondrial calcium uptake are not well understood. Here we report that UCP3 interacts with HS-1 associated protein X-1 (Hax-1), an anti-apoptotic protein that is localized in mitochondria, which is involved in cellular responses to calcium ion. The hydrophilic sequences within the loop 2, matrix-localized hydrophilic domain of mouse UCP3 are necessary for binding to Hax-1 of the C-terminal domain in adjacent to mitochondrial innermembrane. Interestingly, these proteins interaction occur the calcium-dependent manner. Indeed, overexpression of UCP3 significantly enhanced calcium uptake into mitochondria on Hax-1 endogenously expressing C2C12 myoblasts. In addition, Hax-1 knock-down enhanced calcium uptake into mitochondria on both UCP3 and Hax-1 endogenously expressing C2C12 myotubes, but not myoblasts. Finally, the dissociation of UCP3 and Hax-1 enhances calcium uptake into mitochondria in aged muscle. These studies identify a novel UCP3-Hax-1 complex regulates the influx of calcium ion into mitochondria in muscle. Thus, the efficacy of UCP3-Hax-1 in mitochondrial calcium regulation may provide a novel therapeutic approach against mitochondrial dysfunction-related disease containing sarcopenia.

  2. Functional and immunochemical characterization of a mutant of Escherichia coli energy uncoupled for lactose transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzlinger, D.; Carrasco, N.; Kaback, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    Right-side-out cytoplasmic membrane vesicles from Escherichia coli ML 308-22, a mutant ''uncoupled'' for beta-galactoside/H + symport are specifically defective in the ability to catalyze accumulation of methyl 1-thio-beta-D-galactopyranoside (TMG) in the presence of an H + electrochemical gradient (interior negative and alkaline). Furthermore, the rate of carrier-mediated efflux under nonenergized conditions is slow and unaffected by ambient pH from pH 5.5 to 7.5, and TMG-induced H + influx is only about 15% of that observed in vesicles containing wild-type lac permease (ML 308-225). Alternatively, ML 308-22 vesicles bind p-nitrophenyl alpha-D-galactopyranoside and monoclonal antibody 4B1 to the same extent as ML 308-225 vesicles and catalyze facilitated diffusion and equilibrium exchange as well as ML 308-225 vesicles. When entrance counterflow is studied with external substrate at saturating and subsaturating concentrations, it is apparent that the mutation simulates the effects of deuterium oxide. That is, the mutation has no effect on the rate or extent of counterflow when external substrate is saturating but stimulates the efficiency of counterflow when external substrate is below the apparent K/sub m/. Moreover, although replacement of protium with deuterium stimulates counterflow in ML 308-225 vesicles when external substrate is subsaturating, the isotope has no effect on the mutant vesicles under the same conditions

  3. Temporal Uncoupling between Energy Acquisition and Allocation to Reproduction in a Herbivorous-Detritivorous Fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Villamarín

    Full Text Available Although considerable knowledge has been gathered regarding the role of fish in cycling and translocation of nutrients across ecosystem boundaries, little information is available on how the energy obtained from different ecosystems is temporally allocated in fish bodies. Although in theory, limitations on energy budgets promote the existence of a trade-off between energy allocated to reproduction and somatic growth, this trade-off has rarely been found under natural conditions. Combining information on RNA:DNA ratios and carbon and nitrogen stable-isotope analyses we were able to achieve novel insights into the reproductive allocation of diamond mullet (Liza alata, a catadromous, widely distributed herbivorous-detritivorous fish. Although diamond mullet were in better condition during the wet season, most reproductive allocation occurred during the dry season when resources are limited and fish have poorer body condition. We found a strong trade-off between reproductive and somatic investment. Values of δ13C from reproductive and somatic tissues were correlated, probably because δ13C in food resources between dry and wet seasons do not differ markedly. On the other hand, data for δ15N showed that gonads are more correlated to muscle, a slow turnover tissue, suggesting long term synthesis of reproductive tissues. In combination, these lines of evidence suggest that L. alata is a capital breeder which shows temporal uncoupling of resource ingestion, energy storage and later allocation to reproduction.

  4. Metformin induces oxidative stress in white adipocytes and raises uncoupling protein 2 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anedda, Andrea; Rial, Eduardo; González-Barroso, M Mar

    2008-10-01

    Metformin is a drug widely used to treat type 2 diabetes. It enhances insulin sensitivity by improving glucose utilization in tissues like liver or muscle. Metformin inhibits respiration, and the decrease in cellular energy activates the AMP-activated protein kinase that in turn switches on catabolic pathways. Moreover, metformin increases lipolysis and beta-oxidation in white adipose tissue, thereby reducing the triglyceride stores. The uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are transporters that lower the efficiency of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. UCP2 is thought to protect against oxidative stress although, alternatively, it could play an energy dissipation role. The aim of this work was to analyse the involvement of UCP2 on the effects of metformin in white adipocytes. We studied the effect of this drug in differentiating 3T3-L1 adipocytes and found that metformin causes oxidative stress since it increases the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lowers the aconitase activity. Variations in UCP2 protein levels parallel those of ROS. Metformin also increases lipolysis in these cells although only when the levels of ROS and UCP2 have decreased. Hence, UCP2 does not appear to be needed to facilitate fatty acid oxidation. Furthermore, treatment of C57BL/6 mice with metformin also augmented the levels of UCP2 in epididymal white adipose tissue. We conclude that metformin treatment leads to the overexpression of UCP2 in adipocytes to minimize the oxidative stress that is probably due to the inhibition of respiration caused by the drug.

  5. Uncoupling of Metabolic Health from Longevity through Genetic Alteration of Adipose Tissue Lipid-Binding Proteins

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    Khanichi N. Charles

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Deterioration of metabolic health is a hallmark of aging and generally assumed to be detrimental to longevity. Exposure to a high-calorie diet impairs metabolism and accelerates aging; conversely, calorie restriction (CR prevents age-related metabolic diseases and extends lifespan. However, it is unclear whether preservation of metabolic health is sufficient to extend lifespan. We utilized a genetic mouse model lacking Fabp4/5 that confers protection against metabolic diseases and shares molecular and lipidomic features with CR to address this question. Fabp-deficient mice exhibit extended metabolic healthspan, with protection against insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, inflammation, deterioration of adipose tissue integrity, and fatty liver disease. Surprisingly, however, Fabp-deficient mice did not exhibit any extension of lifespan. These data indicate that extension of metabolic healthspan in the absence of CR can be uncoupled from lifespan, indicating the potential for independent drivers of these pathways, at least in laboratory mice. : Deterioration of metabolic health is a hallmark of aging and generally thought to be detrimental to longevity. Charles et al. utilize FABP-deficient mice as a model to demonstrate that the preservation of metabolic health in this model persists throughout life, even under metabolic stress, but does not increase longevity. Keywords: fatty acid binding protein, aging, calorie restriction, metabolic health, inflammation, metaflammation, diabetes, obesity, de novo lipogenesis

  6. Plasma Amino Acids Stimulate Uncoupled Respiration of Muscle Subsarcolemmal Mitochondria in Lean but Not Obese Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kras, Katon A; Hoffman, Nyssa; Roust, Lori R; Patel, Shivam H; Carroll, Chad C; Katsanos, Christos S

    2017-12-01

    Obesity is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. Increasing the plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations stimulates mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in lean individuals. To determine whether acute elevation in plasma AAs enhances muscle mitochondrial respiration and ATP production in subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria in obese adults. Assessment of SS and IMF mitochondrial function during saline (i.e., control) and AA infusions. Eligible participants were healthy lean (body mass index, mass index >30 kg/m2; age 35 ± 3 years; n = 11) subjects. Single trial of saline infusion followed by AA infusion. SS and IMF mitochondria were isolated from muscle biopsies collected at the end of the saline and AA infusions. Mitochondrial respiration and ATP production. AA infusion increased adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-stimulated respiration and ATP production rates of SS mitochondria in the lean (P lean subjects only (P lean or obese subjects (P > 0.05). Increasing the plasma AA concentrations enhances the capacity for respiration and ATP production of muscle SS, but not IMF, mitochondria in lean individuals, in parallel with increases in uncoupled respiration. However, neither of these parameters increases in muscle SS or IMF mitochondria in obese individuals. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  7. Mitochondrial uncoupling and the reprogramming of intermediary metabolism in leukemia cells

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    Juliana eVélez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 60 years ago Otto Warburg proposed, in a seminal publication, that an irreparable defect in the oxidative capacity of normal cells supported the switch to glycolysis for energy generation and the appearance of the malignant phenotype (Warburg, 1956. Curiously, this phenotype was also observed by Warburg in embryonic tissues, and recent research demonstrated that normal stem cells may indeed rely on aerobic glycolysis – fermenting pyruvate to lactate in the presence of ample oxygen - rather than on the complete oxidation of pyruvate in the Krebs cycle - to generate cellular energy (Folmes et al., 2012. However, it remains to be determined whether this phenotype is causative for neoplastic development, or rather the result of malignant transformation. In addition, in light of mounting evidence demonstrating that cancer cells can carry out electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, although in some cases predominantly using electrons from non-glucose carbon sources (Bloch-Frankenthal et al., 1965, Warburg´s hypothesis needs to be revisited. Lastly, recent evidence suggests that the leukemia bone marrow microenvironment promotes the Warburg phenotype adding another layer of complexity to the study of metabolism in hematological malignancies. In this review we will discuss some of the evidence for alterations in the intermediary metabolism of leukemia cells and present evidence for a concept put forth decades ago by lipid biochemist Feodor Lynen, and acknowledged by Warburg himself, that cancer cell mitochondria uncouple ATP synthesis from electron transport and therefore depend on glycolysis to meet their energy demands (Lynen, 1951;Warburg, 1956.

  8. Activity and functional interaction of alternative oxidase and uncoupling protein in mitochondria from tomato fruit

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    F.E. Sluse

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyanide-resistant alternative oxidase (AOX is not limited to plant mitochondria and is widespread among several types of protists. The uncoupling protein (UCP is much more widespread than previously believed, not only in tissues of higher animals but also in plants and in an amoeboid protozoan. The redox energy-dissipating pathway (AOX and the proton electrochemical gradient energy-dissipating pathway (UCP lead to the same final effect, i.e., a decrease in ATP synthesis and an increase in heat production. Studies with green tomato fruit mitochondria show that both proteins are present simultaneously in the membrane. This raises the question of a specific physiological role for each energy-dissipating system and of a possible functional connection between them (shared regulation. Linoleic acid, an abundant free fatty acid in plants which activates UCP, strongly inhibits cyanide-resistant respiration mediated by AOX. Moreover, studies of the evolution of AOX and UCP protein expression and of their activities during post-harvest ripening of tomato fruit show that AOX and plant UCP work sequentially: AOX activity decreases in early post-growing stages and UCP activity is decreased in late ripening stages. Electron partitioning between the alternative oxidase and the cytochrome pathway as well as H+ gradient partitioning between ATP synthase and UCP can be evaluated by the ADP/O method. This method facilitates description of the kinetics of energy-dissipating pathways and of ATP synthase when state 3 respiration is decreased by limitation of oxidizable substrate.

  9. Inhibition of Uncoupling Protein 2 Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy Induced by Transverse Aortic Constriction in Mice

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    Xiao-Bing Ji

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 is critical in regulating energy metabolism. Due to the significant change in energy metabolism of myocardium upon pressure overload, we hypothesize that UCP2 could contribute to the etiology of cardiac hypertrophy. Methods: Adult male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to pressure overload by using transverse aortic constriction (TAC, and then received genipin (a UCP2 selective inhibitor; 25 mg/kg/d, ip or vehicle for three weeks prior to histologic assessment of myocardial hypertrophy. ATP concentration, ROS level, and myocardial apoptosis were also examined. A parallel set of experiments was also conducted in UCP2-/- mice. Results: TAC induced left ventricular hypertrophy, as reflected by increased ventricular weight/thickness and increased size of myocardial cell (vs. sham controls. ATP concentration was decreased; ROS level was increased. Apoptosis and fibrosis markers were increased. TAC increased mitochondrial UCP2 expression in the myocardium at both mRNA and protein levels. Genipin treatment attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and the histologic/biochemical changes described above. Hypertrophy and associated changes induced by TAC in UCP2-/- mice were much less pronounced than in WT mice. Conclusions: Blocking UCP2 expression attenuates cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload.

  10. Cold acclimation increases mitochondrial oxidative capacity without inducing mitochondrial uncoupling in goldfish white skeletal muscle

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    Reinaldo Sousa Dos Santos

    2012-11-01

    Goldfish have been used for cold acclimation studies, which have focused on changes in glycolytic and oxidative enzymes or alterations in lipid composition in skeletal muscle. Here we examine the effects of cold acclimation on the functional properties of isolated mitochondria and permeabilized fibers from goldfish white skeletal muscle, focusing on understanding the types of changes that occur in the mitochondrial respiratory states. We observed that cold acclimation promoted a significant increase in the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates. Western blot analysis showed that UCP3 was raised by ∼1.5-fold in cold-acclimated muscle mitochondria. Similarly, we also evidenced a rise in the adenine nucleotide translocase content in cold-acclimated muscle mitochondria compared to warm-acclimated mitochondria (0.96±0.05 vs 0.68±0.02 nmol carboxyatractyloside mg−1 protein. This was followed by a 2-fold increment in the citrate synthase activity, which suggests a higher mitochondrial content in cold-acclimated goldfish. Even with higher levels of UCP3 and ANT, the effects of activator (palmitate and inhibitors (carboxyatractyloside and GDP on mitochondrial parameters were similar in both warm- and cold-acclimated goldfish. Thus, we propose that cold acclimation in goldfish promotes an increase in functional oxidative capacity, with higher mitochondrial content without changes in the mitochondrial uncoupling pathways.

  11. Loss of dysbindin-1, a risk gene for schizophrenia, leads to impaired group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor function in mice.

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    Sanjeev K Bhardwaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The expression of dysbindin-1, a protein coded by the risk gene dtnbp1, is reduced in the brains of schizophrenia patients. Evidence indicates a role of dysbindin-1 in dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission. Glutamatergic transmission and plasticity at excitatory synapses is critically regulated by G-protein coupled metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR family members, that have been implicated in schizophrenia. Here, we report a role of dysbindin-1 in hippocampal group 1 mGluR (mGluRI function in mice. In hippocampal synaptoneurosomal preparations from sandy (sdy mice, that have a loss of function mutation in dysbindin-1 gene, we observed a striking reduction in mGluRI agonist [(S-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine] (DHPG-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2. This mGluR-ERK1/2 deficit occurred in the absence of significant changes in protein levels of the two members of the mGluRI family (i.e., mGluR1 and mGluR5 or in another mGluRI signaling pathway, i.e., protein kinase C (PKC. Aberrant mGluRI-ERK1/2 signaling affected hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the sdy mutants as DHPG-induced long-term depression (LTD at CA1 excitatory synapses was significantly reduced. Behavioral data suggest that the mGluRI hypofunction may underlie some of the cognitive abnormalities described in sdy mice as the administration of CDPPB (3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl benzamide, a positive allosteric modulator of mGluR5, rescued short-term object recognition and spatial learning and memory deficits in these mice. Taken together, our data suggest a novel role of dysbindin-1 in regulating mGluRI functions.

  12. Both neurons and astrocytes exhibited tetrodotoxin-resistant metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent spontaneous slow Ca2+ oscillations in striatum.

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    Atsushi Tamura

    Full Text Available The striatum plays an important role in linking cortical activity to basal ganglia outputs. Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs are densely expressed in the medium spiny projection neurons and may be a therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease. The group I mGluRs are known to modulate the intracellular Ca(2+ signaling. To characterize Ca(2+ signaling in striatal cells, spontaneous cytoplasmic Ca(2+ transients were examined in acute slice preparations from transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP in the astrocytes. In both the GFP-negative cells (putative-neurons and astrocytes of the striatum, spontaneous slow and long-lasting intracellular Ca(2+ transients (referred to as slow Ca(2+ oscillations, which lasted up to approximately 200 s, were found. Neither the inhibition of action potentials nor ionotropic glutamate receptors blocked the slow Ca(2+ oscillation. Depletion of the intracellular Ca(2+ store and the blockade of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors greatly reduced the transient rate of the slow Ca(2+ oscillation, and the application of an antagonist against mGluR5 also blocked the slow Ca(2+ oscillation in both putative-neurons and astrocytes. Thus, the mGluR5-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate signal cascade is the primary contributor to the slow Ca(2+ oscillation in both putative-neurons and astrocytes. The slow Ca(2+ oscillation features multicellular synchrony, and both putative-neurons and astrocytes participate in the synchronous activity. Therefore, the mGluR5-dependent slow Ca(2+ oscillation may involve in the neuron-glia interaction in the striatum.

  13. Regulation of Akt and Wnt signaling by the group II metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist LY341495 and agonist LY379268.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Laurie P; Rushlow, Walter J

    2011-06-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors 2/3 (mGlu(2/3)) have been implicated in schizophrenia and as a novel treatment target for schizophrenia. The current study examined whether mGlu(2/3) regulates Akt (protein kinase B) and Wnt (Wingless/Int-1) signaling, two cascades associated with schizophrenia and modified by antipsychotics. Western blotting revealed increases in phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3 (pGSK-3) following acute and repeated treatment of LY379268 (mGlu(2/3) agonist), whereas increases in dishevelled-2 (Dvl-2), dishevelled-3 (Dvl-3), GSK-3 and β-catenin were only observed following repeated treatment. LY341495 (mGlu(2/3) antagonist) induced the opposite response compared with LY379268. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed an association between the mGlu(2/3) complex and Dvl-2 providing a possible mechanism to explain how the mGlu(2/3) can mediate changes in Wnt signaling. However, there was no association between the mGlu(2/3) complex and Akt suggesting that changes in Akt signaling following LY341495 and LY379268 treatments may not be directly mediated by the mGlu(2/3) . Finally, an increase in locomotor activity induced by LY341495 treatment correlated with increased pAkt and pGSK-3 levels and was attenuated by the administration of the GSK-3 inhibitor, SB216763. Overall, the results suggest that mGlu(2/3) regulates Akt and Wnt signaling and LY379268 treatment has overlapping effects with D(2) dopamine receptor antagonists (antipsychotic drugs). © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  14. In Vitro Functional Characterization of GET73 as Possible Negative Allosteric Modulator of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggiato, Sarah; Borelli, Andrea C; Tomasini, Maria C; Castelli, M Paola; Pintori, Nicholas; Cacciaglia, Roberto; Loche, Antonella; Ferraro, Luca

    2018-01-01

    The present study was aimed to further characterize the pharmacological profile of N-[4-(trifluoromethyl) benzyl]-4-methoxybutyramide (GET73), a putative negative allosteric modulator (NAM) of metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptor (mGluR5) under development as a novel medication for the treatment of alcohol dependence. This aim has been accomplished by means of a series of in vitro functional assays. These assays include the measure of several down-stream signaling [intracellular Ca ++ levels, inositol phosphate (IP) formation and CREB phosphorylation (pCREB)] which are generally affected by mGluR5 ligands. In particular, GET73 (0.1 nM-10 μM) was explored for its ability to displace the concentration-response curve of some mGluR5 agonists/probes (glutamate, L-quisqualate, CHPG) in different native preparations. GET73 produced a rightward shift of concentration-response curves of glutamate- and CHPG-induced intracellular Ca ++ levels in primary cultures of rat cortical astrocytes. The compound also induced a rightward shift of concentration response curve of glutamate- and L-quisqualate-induced increase in IP turnover in rat hippocampus slices, along with a reduction of CHPG (10 mM)-induced increase in IP formation. Moreover, GET73 produced a rightward shift of concentration-response curve of glutamate-, CHPG- and L-quisqualate-induced pCREB levels in rat cerebral cortex neurons. Although the engagement of other targets cannot be definitively ruled out, these data support the view that GET73 acts as an mGluR5 NAM and support the significance of further investigating the possible mechanism of action of the compound.

  15. Double Dissociation of the Roles of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 and Oxytocin Receptor in Discrete Social Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesic, Ivana; Guzman, Yomayra F; Guedea, Anita L; Jovasevic, Vladimir; Corcoran, Kevin A; Leaderbrand, Katherine; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Contractor, Anis; Radulovic, Jelena

    2015-09-01

    Social interactions in vertebrates are complex phenomena based on affective and cognitive processes. Multiple brain regions and neurotransmitter systems are involved in the expression of social behaviors, but their individual roles in specific aspects of social interactions are not well understood. Here we investigated how Gq-protein-coupled metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) and oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) affect social affiliation and social memory. We used conditional genetic approaches in which the genes coding for these receptors were knocked out in the lateral septum by infusion of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors containing Cre recombinase (AAV-Cre). Social behavior was assessed 2 weeks later using a three-chamber paradigm for sociability and preference for social novelty. Septal deletion of mGluR5 abolished sociability while leaving preference for social novelty intact. In contrast, deletion of Oxtr did not affect sociability but significantly impaired preference for social novelty. Nonsocial behaviors or memories, including novel object recognition or fear conditioning, were not affected by these genetic manipulations. Immunohistochemical analyses of the distribution of mGluR5 and Oxtr revealed non-overlapping localization of these receptors within the lateral septum, suggesting that not only different neurotransmitters but also different neuronal types contribute to sociability versus preference for social novelty. Our findings identify highly specialized roles of lateral septal mGluR5 and Oxtr in the the regulation of discrete social behaviors, and suggest that deficits in social interactions, which accompany many mental illnesses, would benefit from comprehensive treatments targeting different components of social functioning.

  16. Age-related differences in hormonal and nutritional impact on lean anorexia nervosa bone turnover uncoupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galusca, B; Bossu, C; Germain, N; Kadem, M; Frere, D; Lafage-Proust, M H; Lang, F; Estour, B

    2006-01-01

    In anorexia nervosa (AN) patients osteoporosis occurs within a framework of multiple hormonal abnormalities as a result of bone turnover uncoupling, with decreased bone formation and increased bone resorption. The aim of study was to evaluate the hormonal and nutritional relationships with both of these bone remodeling compartments and their eventual modifications with age. In a cohort of 115 AN patients (mean BMI:14.6 kg/m2) that included 60 mature adolescents (age: 15.5-20 years) and 55 adult women (age: 20-37 years) and in 28 age-matched controls (12 mature adolescents and 16 adults) we assessed: bone markers [serum osteocalcin, skeletal alkaline phosphatase (sALP), C-telopeptide of type I collagen (sCTX) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase type 5b (TRAP 5b)], nutritional markers [ body mass index (BMI, fat and lean mass), hormones (free tri-iodothyronine (T3), free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), 17 beta estradiol, free testosterone index (FTI), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), growth hormone (GH) and cortisol], plasma methoxyamines (metanephrine and normetanephrine) and calcium metabolism parameters [parathyroid hormone (PTH), Ca, vitamin D3]. Osteocalcin reached similar low levels in both AN age subgroups. sCTX levels were found to be elevated in all AN subjects and higher in mature adolescents than in adult AN (11,567+/-895 vs. 8976+/-805 pmol/l, psALP was significantly lower only in mature adolescent AN patients, while there were no significant differences in the levels of TRAP 5b between AN patients and age-matched control groups. Osteocalcin correlated with sCTX in the control subjects (r=0.65) but not in the AN patients, suggesting the independent regulation of these markers in AN patients. Osteocalcin levels strongly correlated with freeT3, IGF-I, 17 beta estradiol and cortisol, while sCTX correlated with IGF-I, GH and cortisol in both age

  17. Dietary Curcumin Ameliorates Aging-Related Cerebrovascular Dysfunction through the AMPK/Uncoupling Protein 2 Pathway

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    Yunfei Pu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Age-related cerebrovascular dysfunction contributes to stroke, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases. One pathogenic mechanism underlying this effect is increased oxidative stress. Up-regulation of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 plays a crucial role in regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Dietary patterns are widely recognized as contributors to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that dietary curcumin, which has an antioxidant effect, can improve aging-related cerebrovascular dysfunction via UCP2 up-regulation. Methods: The 24-month-old male rodents used in this study, including male Sprague Dawley (SD rats and UCP2 knockout (UCP2-/- and matched wild type mice, were given dietary curcumin (0.2%. The young control rodents were 6-month-old. Rodent cerebral artery vasorelaxation was detected by wire myograph. The AMPK/UCP2 pathway and p-eNOS in cerebrovascular and endothelial cells were observed by immunoblotting. Results: Dietary curcumin administration for one month remarkably restored the impaired cerebrovascular endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in aging SD rats. In cerebral arteries from aging SD rats and cultured endothelial cells, curcumin promoted eNOS and AMPK phosphorylation, up-regulated UCP2 and reduced ROS production. These effects of curcumin were abolished by either AMPK or UCP2 inhibition. Chronic dietary curcumin significantly reduced ROS production and improved cerebrovascular endothelium-dependent relaxation in aging wild type mice but not in aging UCP2-/- mice. Conclusions: Curcumin improves aging-related cerebrovascular dysfunction via the AMPK/UCP2 pathway.

  18. Mode Transition and Intermittency in an Acoustically Uncoupled Lean Premixed Swirl-Stabilized Combustor

    KAUST Repository

    LaBry, Zachary A.

    2014-06-16

    The prediction of dynamic instability remains an open and important issue in the development of gas turbine systems, particularly those constrained by emissions limitations. The existence and characteristics of dynamic instability are known to be functions of combustor geometry, flow conditions, and combustion parameters, but the form of dependence is not well understood. By modifying the acoustic boundary conditions, changes in flame and flow structure due to inlet parameters can be studied independent of the acoustic modes with which they couple. This paper examines the effect of equivalence ratio on the flame macrostructure — the relationship between the turbulent flame brush and the dominant flow structures — in an acoustically uncoupled environment. The flame brush is measured using CH* chemiluminescence, and the flow is interrogated using two-dimensional particle image velocimetry. We examine a range of equivalence ratios spanning three distinct macrostructures. The first macrostructure (ϕ = 0.550) is characterized by a diffuse flame brush confined to the interior of the inner recirculation zone. We observe a conical flame in the inner shear layer, continuing along the wall shear layer in the second macrostructure (ϕ = 0.600). The third macrostructure exhibits the same flame brush as the second, with an additional flame brush in the outer shear layer (ϕ = 0.650). Between the second and third macrostructures, we observe a regime in which the flame brush transitions intermittently between the two structures. We use dynamic mode decomposition on the PIV data to show that this transition event, which we call flickering, is linked to vorticity generated by the intermittent expansion of the outer recirculation zone as the flame jumps in and out of the outer shear layer. In a companion paper, we show how the macrostructures described in this paper are linked with dynamic instability [1].

  19. Mode Transition and Intermittency in an Acoustically Uncoupled Lean Premixed Swirl-Stabilized Combustor

    KAUST Repository

    LaBry, Zachary A.; Taamallah, Soufien; Kewlani, Gaurav; Shanbhogue, Santosh J.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2014-01-01

    The prediction of dynamic instability remains an open and important issue in the development of gas turbine systems, particularly those constrained by emissions limitations. The existence and characteristics of dynamic instability are known to be functions of combustor geometry, flow conditions, and combustion parameters, but the form of dependence is not well understood. By modifying the acoustic boundary conditions, changes in flame and flow structure due to inlet parameters can be studied independent of the acoustic modes with which they couple. This paper examines the effect of equivalence ratio on the flame macrostructure — the relationship between the turbulent flame brush and the dominant flow structures — in an acoustically uncoupled environment. The flame brush is measured using CH* chemiluminescence, and the flow is interrogated using two-dimensional particle image velocimetry. We examine a range of equivalence ratios spanning three distinct macrostructures. The first macrostructure (ϕ = 0.550) is characterized by a diffuse flame brush confined to the interior of the inner recirculation zone. We observe a conical flame in the inner shear layer, continuing along the wall shear layer in the second macrostructure (ϕ = 0.600). The third macrostructure exhibits the same flame brush as the second, with an additional flame brush in the outer shear layer (ϕ = 0.650). Between the second and third macrostructures, we observe a regime in which the flame brush transitions intermittently between the two structures. We use dynamic mode decomposition on the PIV data to show that this transition event, which we call flickering, is linked to vorticity generated by the intermittent expansion of the outer recirculation zone as the flame jumps in and out of the outer shear layer. In a companion paper, we show how the macrostructures described in this paper are linked with dynamic instability [1].

  20. Process integration of chemical looping combustion with oxygen uncoupling in a coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinelli, Maurizio; Peltola, Petteri; Bischi, Aldo; Ritvanen, Jouni; Hyppänen, Timo; Romano, Matteo C.

    2016-01-01

    High-temperature solid looping processes for CCS (carbon capture and storage) represent a class of promising technologies that enables CO2 capture with relatively low net efficiency penalties. The novel concept of the CLOU (Chemical Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling) process is based on a system of two interconnected fluidized bed reactors that operate at atmospheric pressure. In the fuel reactor, the capability of certain metal oxides to spontaneously release molecular oxygen at high temperatures is exploited to promote the direct conversion of coal in an oxygen-rich atmosphere. As a novel CO_2 capture concept, the CLOU process requires the optimization of design and operation parameters, which may substantially influence the total power plant performance. This study approaches this issue by performing joint simulations of CLOU reactors using a 1.5D model and a steam cycle power plant. A sensitivity analysis has been performed to investigate the performance and main technical issues that are related to the integration of a CLOU island in a state-of-the-art USC (ultra-supercritical) power plant. In particular, the effect of the key process parameters has been evaluated. Superior performance has been estimated for the power plant, with electrical efficiencies of approximately 42% and more than 95% CO2 avoided. - Highlights: • Process modeling and simulation of CLOU integrated in USC coal power plant carried out. • Comprehensive sensitivity analysis on Cu-based CLOU process performed. • Electrical efficiencies of 42% and more than 95% CO_2 avoided obtained. • Reactor size and operating conditions suitable for industrial applications.

  1. Focusing on butterfly eyespot focus: uncoupling of white spots from eyespot bodies in nymphalid butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Masaki; Otaki, Joji M

    2016-01-01

    Developmental studies on butterfly wing color patterns often focus on eyespots. A typical eyespot (such as that of Bicyclus anynana) has a few concentric rings of dark and light colors and a white spot (called a focus) at the center. The prospective eyespot center during the early pupal stage is known to act as an organizing center. It has often been assumed, according to gradient models for positional information, that a white spot in adult wings corresponds to an organizing center and that the size of the white spot indicates how active that organizing center was. However, there is no supporting evidence for these assumptions. To evaluate the feasibility of these assumptions in nymphalid butterflies, we studied the unique color patterns of Calisto tasajera (Nymphalidae, Satyrinae), which have not been analyzed before in the literature. In the anterior forewing, one white spot was located at the center of an eyespot, but another white spot associated with either no or only a small eyespot was present in the adjacent compartment. The anterior hindwing contained two adjacent white spots not associated with eyespots, one of which showed a sparse pattern. The posterior hindwing contained two adjacent pear-shaped eyespots, and the white spots were located at the proximal side or even outside the eyespot bodies. The successive white spots within a single compartment along the midline in the posterior hindwing showed a possible trajectory of a positional determination process for the white spots. Several cases of focus-less eyespots in other nymphalid butterflies were also presented. These results argue for the uncoupling of white spots from eyespot bodies, suggesting that an eyespot organizing center does not necessarily differentiate into a white spot and that a prospective white spot does not necessarily signify organizing activity for an eyespot. Incorporation of these results in future models for butterfly wing color pattern formation is encouraged.

  2. Simulations of the Madden-Julian oscillation in four pairs of coupled and uncoupled global models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chidong; Dong, Min [RSMAS, University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Gualdi, Silvio [National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Bologna (Italy); Hendon, Harry H. [BMRC, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Maloney, Eric D. [Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Marshall, Andrew [Monash University, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Sperber, Kenneth R. [PCMDI, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, Wanqiu [CPC/NCEP/NOAA, Camp Springs, MD (United States)

    2006-11-15

    The status of the numerical reproduction of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) by current global models was assessed through diagnoses of four pairs of coupled and uncoupled simulations. Slow eastward propagation of the MJO, especially in low-level zonal wind, is realistic in all these simulations. However, the simulated MJO suffers from several common problems. The MJO signal in precipitation is generally too weak and often eroded by an unrealistic split of an equatorial maximum of precipitation into a double ITCZ structure over the western Pacific. The MJO signal in low-level zonal wind, on the other hand, is sometimes too strong over the eastern Pacific but too weak over the Indian Ocean. The observed phase relationship between precipitation and low-level zonal wind associated with the MJO in the western Pacific and their coherence in general are not reproduced by the models. The seasonal migration in latitude of MJO activity is missing in most simulations. Air-sea coupling generally strengthens the simulated eastward propagating signal, but its effects on the phase relationship and coherence between precipitation and low-level zonal wind, and on their geographic distributions, seasonal cycles, and interannual variability are inconsistent among the simulations. Such inconsistency cautions generalization of results from MJO simulations using a single model. In comparison to observations, biases in the simulated MJO appear to be related to biases in the background state of mean precipitation, low-level zonal wind, and boundary-layer moisture convergence. This study concludes that, while the realistic simulations of the eastward propagation of the MJO are encouraging, reproducing other fundamental features of the MJO by current global models remains an unmet challenge. (orig.)

  3. Uncoupled defense gene expression and antimicrobial alkaloid accumulation in elicited opium poppy cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, P J; Johnson, A G; Poupart, J; de Luca, V

    1996-01-01

    Treatment of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) cell cultures with autoclaved mycelial homogenates of Botrytis sp. resulted in the accumulation of sanguinarine. Elicitor treatment also caused a rapid and transient induction in the activity of tyrosine/dopa decarboxylase (TYDC, EC 4.1.1.25), which catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine and L-dopa to tyramine and dopamine, respectively, the first steps in sanguinarine biosynthesis. TYDC genes were differentially expressed in response to elicitor treatment. TYDC1-like mRNA levels were induced rapidly but declined to near baseline levels within 5 h. In contrast, TYDC2-like transcript levels increased more slowly but were sustained for an extended period. Induction of TYDC mRNAs preceded that of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) mRNAs. An elicitor preparation from Pythium aphanidermatum was less effective in the induction of TYDC mRNA levels and alkaloid accumulation; however, both elicitors equally induced accumulation of PAL transcripts. In contrast, treatment with methyl jasmonate resulted in an induction of TYDC but not PAL mRNAs. The calmodulin antagonist N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide and the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine partially blocked the fungal elicitor-induced accumulation of sanguinarine. However, only staurosporine and okadaic acid, an inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, blocked the induction of TYDC1-like transcript levels, but they did not block the induction of TYDC2-like or PAL transcript levels. These data suggest that activation mechanisms for PAL, TYDC, and some later sanguinarine biosynthetic enzymes are uncoupled. PMID:8754678

  4. Resolving the contribution of the uncoupled phycobilisomes to cyanobacterial pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Alonso M; Snellenburg, Joris J; Gwizdala, Michal; Kirilovsky, Diana; van Grondelle, Rienk; van Stokkum, Ivo H M

    2016-01-01

    Pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry is extensively used to characterize photosynthetic organisms on the slow time-scale (1-1000 s). The saturation pulse method allows determination of the quantum yields of maximal (F(M)) and minimal fluorescence (F(0)), parameters related to the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus. Also, when the sample undergoes a certain light treatment during the measurement, the fluorescence quantum yields of the unquenched and the quenched states can be determined. In the case of cyanobacteria, however, the recorded fluorescence does not exclusively stem from the chlorophyll a in photosystem II (PSII). The phycobilins, the pigments of the cyanobacterial light-harvesting complexes, the phycobilisomes (PB), also contribute to the PAM signal, and therefore, F(0) and F(M) are no longer related to PSII only. We present a functional model that takes into account the presence of several fluorescent species whose concentrations can be resolved provided their fluorescence quantum yields are known. Data analysis of PAM measurements on in vivo cells of our model organism Synechocystis PCC6803 is discussed. Three different components are found necessary to fit the data: uncoupled PB (PB(free)), PB-PSII complexes, and free PSI. The free PSII contribution was negligible. The PB(free) contribution substantially increased in the mutants that lack the core terminal emitter subunits allophycocyanin D or allophycocyanin F. A positive correlation was found between the amount of PB(free) and the rate constants describing the binding of the activated orange carotenoid protein to PB, responsible for non-photochemical quenching.

  5. Uncoupling protein-2 mRNA expression in mice subjected to intermittent hypoxia

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    Luciana Rodrigues Vieira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of intermittent hypoxia-a model of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA-on pancreatic expression of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2, as well as on glycemic and lipid profiles, in C57BL mice. Methods: For 8 h/day over a 35-day period, male C57BL mice were exposed to intermittent hypoxia (hypoxia group or to a sham procedure (normoxia group. The intermittent hypoxia condition involved exposing mice to an atmosphere of 92% N and 8% CO2 for 30 s, progressively reducing the fraction of inspired oxygen to 8 ± 1%, after which they were exposed to room air for 30 s and the cycle was repeated (480 cycles over the 8-h experimental period. Pancreases were dissected to isolate the islets. Real-time PCR was performed with TaqMan assays. Results: Expression of UCP2 mRNA in pancreatic islets was 20% higher in the normoxia group than in the hypoxia group (p = 0.11. Fasting serum insulin was higher in the hypoxia group than in the normoxia group (p = 0.01. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance indicated that, in comparison with the control mice, the mice exposed to intermittent hypoxia showed 15% lower insulin resistance (p = 0.09 and 21% higher pancreatic β-cell function (p = 0.01. Immunohistochemical staining of the islets showed no significant differences between the two groups in terms of the area or intensity of α- and β-cell staining for insulin and glucagon. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report of the effect of intermittent hypoxia on UCP2 expression. Our findings suggest that UCP2 regulates insulin production in OSA. Further study of the role that UCP2 plays in the glycemic control of OSA patients is warranted.

  6. FGF signalling regulates chromatin organisation during neural differentiation via mechanisms that can be uncoupled from transcription.

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    Nishal S Patel

    Full Text Available Changes in higher order chromatin organisation have been linked to transcriptional regulation; however, little is known about how such organisation alters during embryonic development or how it is regulated by extrinsic signals. Here we analyse changes in chromatin organisation as neural differentiation progresses, exploiting the clear spatial separation of the temporal events of differentiation along the elongating body axis of the mouse embryo. Combining fluorescence in situ hybridisation with super-resolution structured illumination microscopy, we show that chromatin around key differentiation gene loci Pax6 and Irx3 undergoes both decompaction and displacement towards the nuclear centre coincident with transcriptional onset. Conversely, down-regulation of Fgf8 as neural differentiation commences correlates with a more peripheral nuclear position of this locus. During normal neural differentiation, fibroblast growth factor (FGF signalling is repressed by retinoic acid, and this vitamin A derivative is further required for transcription of neural genes. We show here that exposure to retinoic acid or inhibition of FGF signalling promotes precocious decompaction and central nuclear positioning of differentiation gene loci. Using the Raldh2 mutant as a model for retinoid deficiency, we further find that such changes in higher order chromatin organisation are dependent on retinoid signalling. In this retinoid deficient condition, FGF signalling persists ectopically in the elongating body, and importantly, we find that inhibiting FGF receptor (FGFR signalling in Raldh2-/- embryos does not rescue differentiation gene transcription, but does elicit both chromatin decompaction and nuclear position change. These findings demonstrate that regulation of higher order chromatin organisation during differentiation in the embryo can be uncoupled from the machinery that promotes transcription and, for the first time, identify FGF as an extrinsic signal that

  7. Switch in the expression of mGlu1 and mGlu5 metabotropic glutamate receptors in the cerebellum of mice developing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and in autoptic cerebellar samples from patients with multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazio, F.; Notartomaso, S.; Aronica, E.; Storto, M.; Battaglia, G.; Vieira, E.; Gatti, S.; Bruno, V.; Biagioni, F.; Gradini, R.; Nicoletti, F.; Di Marco, R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that changes in the expression of membrane receptors/ion channels in cerebellar Purkinje cells contribute to the onset of cerebellar motor symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). We examined the expression of group-I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu1 and

  8. Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 7 has critical roles in regulation of the endocrine system and social behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masugi-Tokita, M; Yoshida, T; Kageyama, S; Kawata, M; Kawauchi, A

    2018-03-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 7 (mGluR7) is one of the group III mGluRs, which are negatively coupled to adenylate cyclase via Gi/Go proteins and localised to presynaptic active zones of the mammalian central nervous system. We previously reported that mGluR7 is essential for intermale aggression and amygdala-dependent fear learning. To elucidate the role of mGluR7 in the neuroendocrine system, we performed biochemical analyses and found a significant reduction of testosterone levels in mGluR7 knockout (KO) mice. Testosterone replacement restored intermale aggressive behaviour in castrated wild-type mice to the level of gonadally intact wild-type mice. However, given the same dosage of testosterone replacement, mGluR7 KO mice showed almost no aggressive behaviour. These results indicate that reduction of plasma testosterone is unrelated to the deficit in intermale aggression in mGluR7 KO mice. Social investigating behaviour of intact mGluR7 KO mice also differed from that of wild-type mice; e.g. the KO mice showing less frequent anogenital sniffing and more frequent grooming behaviour. Testosterone replacement increased anogenital sniffing and grooming behaviour in castrated mGluR7 KO mice, while the differences were still present between castrated wild-type mice and KO mice after both underwent testosterone replacement. These results imply that reduction of plasma testosterone may partially inhibit social investigating behaviours in intact mGluR7 KO mice. Furthermore, castrated mGluR7 KO mice have smaller seminal vesicles than those of castrated wild-type mice, although seminal vesicle weights were normal in intact mice. These observations suggest that, besides testicular testosterone, some other hormone levels may be dysregulated in mGluR7 KO mice, and indicate a critical role of mGluR7 in the endocrine system. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that mGluR7 is essential for the regulation of the endocrine system, in addition to innate behaviours

  9. VU0477573: Partial Negative Allosteric Modulator of the Subtype 5 Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor with In Vivo Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickols, Hilary Highfield; Yuh, Joannes P; Gregory, Karen J; Morrison, Ryan D; Bates, Brittney S; Stauffer, Shaun R; Emmitte, Kyle A; Bubser, Michael; Peng, Weimin; Nedelcovych, Michael T; Thompson, Analisa; Lv, Xiaohui; Xiang, Zixiu; Daniels, J Scott; Niswender, Colleen M; Lindsley, Craig W; Jones, Carrie K; Conn, P Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) have potential applications in the treatment of fragile X syndrome, levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, addiction, and anxiety; however, clinical and preclinical studies raise concerns that complete blockade of mGlu5 and inverse agonist activity of current mGlu5 NAMs contribute to adverse effects that limit the therapeutic use of these compounds. We report the discovery and characterization of a novel mGlu5 NAM, N,N-diethyl-5-((3-fluorophenyl)ethynyl)picolinamide (VU0477573) that binds to the same allosteric site as the prototypical mGlu5 NAM MPEP but displays weak negative cooperativity. Because of this weak cooperativity, VU0477573 acts as a "partial NAM" so that full occupancy of the MPEP site does not completely inhibit maximal effects of mGlu5 agonists on intracellular calcium mobilization, inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation, or inhibition of synaptic transmission at the hippocampal Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse. Unlike previous mGlu5 NAMs, VU0477573 displays no inverse agonist activity assessed using measures of effects on basal [(3)H]inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation. VU0477573 acts as a full NAM when measuring effects on mGlu5-mediated extracellular signal-related kinases 1/2 phosphorylation, which may indicate functional bias. VU0477573 exhibits an excellent pharmacokinetic profile and good brain penetration in rodents and provides dose-dependent full mGlu5 occupancy in the central nervous system (CNS) with systemic administration. Interestingly, VU0477573 shows robust efficacy, comparable to the mGlu5 NAM MTEP, in models of anxiolytic activity at doses that provide full CNS occupancy of mGlu5 and demonstrate an excellent CNS occupancy-efficacy relationship. VU0477573 provides an exciting new tool to investigate the efficacy of partial NAMs in animal models. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and

  10. Targeting mGlu5 Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors in the Treatment of Cognitive Dysfunction in a Mouse Model of Phenylketonuria

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    Francesca Nardecchia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied group-I metabotropic glutamate (mGlu receptors in Pahenu2 (ENU2 mice, which mimic the genetics and neurobiology of human phenylketonuria (PKU, a metabolic disorder characterized, if untreated, by autism, and intellectual disability (ID. Male ENU2 mice showed increased mGlu5 receptor protein levels in the hippocampus and corpus striatum (but not in the prefrontal cortex whereas the transcript of the mGlu5 receptor was unchanged. No changes in mGlu1 receptor mRNA and protein levels were found in any of the three brain regions of ENU2 mice. We extended the analysis to Homer proteins, which act as scaffolds by linking mGlu1 and mGlu5 receptors to effector proteins. Expression of the long isoforms of Homer was significantly reduced in the hippocampus of ENU2 mice, whereas levels of the short Homer isoform (Homer 1a were unchanged. mGlu5 receptors were less associated to immunoprecipitated Homer in the hippocampus of ENU2 mice. The lack of mGlu5 receptor-mediated long-term depression (LTD in wild-type mice (of BTBR strain precluded the analysis of hippocampal synaptic plasticity in ENU2 mice. We therefore performed a behavioral analysis to examine whether pharmacological blockade of mGlu5 receptors could correct behavioral abnormalities in ENU2 mice. Using the same apparatus we sequentially assessed locomotor activity, object exploration, and spatial object recognition (spatial novelty test after displacing some of the objects from their original position in the arena. Systemic treatment with the mGlu5 receptor antagonist, MPEP (20 mg/kg, i.p., had a striking effect in the spatial novelty test by substantially increasing the time spent in exploring the displaced objects in ENU2 mice (but not in wild-type mice. These suggest a role for mGlu5 receptors in the pathophysiology of ID in PKU and suggest that, also in adult untreated animals, cognitive dysfunction may be improved by targeting these receptors with an appropriate therapy.

  11. Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 7 Modulates the Rewarding Effects of Cocaine in Rats: Involvement of a Ventral Pallidal GABAergic Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Li, Jie; Peng, Xiao-Qing; Spiller, Krista; Gardner, Eliot L; Xi, Zheng-Xiong

    2013-01-01

    The metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 (mGluR7) has received much attention as a potential target for the treatment of epilepsy, major depression, and anxiety. In this study, we investigated the possible involvement of mGluR7 in cocaine reward in animal models of drug addiction. Pretreatment with the selective mGluR7 allosteric agonist N,N’-dibenzyhydryl-ethane-1,2-diamine dihydrochloride (AMN082; 1-20 mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently inhibited cocaine-induced enhancement of electrical brain-stimulation reward and intravenous cocaine self-administration under both fixed-ratio and progressive-ratio reinforcement conditions, but failed to alter either basal or cocaine-enhanced locomotion or oral sucrose self-administration, suggesting a specific inhibition of cocaine reward. Microinjections of AMN082 (1–5 μg/μl per side) into the nucleus accumbens (NAc) or ventral pallidum (VP), but not dorsal striatum, also inhibited cocaine self-administration in a dose-dependent manner. Intra-NAc or intra-VP co-administration of 6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-methyl-3-pyridin-4-ylisoxazolo[4,5-c]pyridin-4(5H)-one (MMPIP, 5 μg/μl per side), a selective mGluR7 allosteric antagonist, significantly blocked AMN082’s action, suggesting an effect mediated by mGluR7 in these brain regions. In vivo microdialysis demonstrated that cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) priming significantly elevated extracellular DA in the NAc or VP, while decreasing extracellular GABA in VP (but not in NAc). AMN082 pretreatment selectively blocked cocaine-induced changes in extracellular GABA, but not in DA, in both naive rats and cocaine self-administration rats. These data suggest: (1) mGluR7 is critically involved in cocaine’s acute reinforcement; (2) GABA-, but not DA-, dependent mechanisms in the ventral striatopallidal pathway appear to underlie AMN082’s actions; and (3) AMN082 or other mGluR7-selective agonists may be useful in the treatment of cocaine addiction. PMID:19158667

  12. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 is associated with heroin dependence but not depression or schizophrenia in a Chinese population.

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    Wei Jia

    Full Text Available Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 3 (mGluR3, encoded by GRM3 plays important roles in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, depression, and drug dependence. GRM3 polymorphisms were reported to be associated with prefrontal activity, cognitive shifting, and memory capability in healthy subjects, as well as susceptibility to schizophrenia and depression. The goal of this study was to replicate the association of GRM3 with schizophrenia and depression and to explore GRM3's potential association with heroin dependence (HD in a Chinese population. Seventeen SNPs throughout the GRM3 gene were genotyped using MALDI-TOF within the MassARRAY system, and the allele and genotype distributions were compared between 619 healthy controls and 433 patients with schizophrenia, 409 patients with major depression, and 584 unrelated addicts. We found that GRM3 polymorphisms modulate the susceptibility to HD but do not significantly influence the risk for schizophrenia or depression. An increased risk of HD was significantly associated with the minor alleles of two GRM3 SNPs, including the T allele of rs274618 (Odds ratio (OR = 1.631, 95% confidence interval (95%CI: 1.317-2.005, the T allele of rs274622 (OR = 1.652, 95% CI: 1.336-2.036, compared with the major alleles. The addicts carrying the minor allele of rs274618 or rs274622 had a shortened duration for transition from first use to dependence (DTFUD in comparison to homozygote for major allele (P<0.0001 for each SNP using log rank test. Additionally, a 6-SNP haplotype within 5' region of the GRM3 including the minor alleles of the two aforementioned SNPs was significantly associated with an increased risk of HD (P = 0.00001, OR = 1.668, 95% CI: 1.335-2.084. Our data indicated that GRM3 polymorphisms do not contribute to genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia and depression, but they confer an increased risk of HD in a Chinese population.

  13. Activity of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 4 Suppresses Proliferation and Promotes Apoptosis With Inhibition of Gli-1 in Human Glioblastoma Cells

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    Zhichao Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most lethal glioma variant in the adult brain and among the deadliest of human cancers. Increasing evidence has shown that metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 4 (mGluR4 expression may play roles in regulating the growth of neural stem cells as well as several cancer cell lines. Here, we investigated the effects of mGluR4 on the growth and apoptosis of the LN229 GBM cell line. Involvement of Gli-1, one of the key transcription factors in the sonic Hedgehog (SHH signaling pathway, was further explored. In this study, mGluR4 was activated using selective agonist VU0155041; and gene-targeted siRNAs were used to generate loss of function of mGluR4 and Gli-1 in LN229 cells. The results demonstrated that LN229 cells expressed mGluR4 and the agonist VU0155041 decreased cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Activation of mGluR4 inhibited cyclin D1 expression, activated pro-caspase-8/9/3, and disrupted the balance of Bcl-2/Bax expression, which indicated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of LN229 cells, respectively. Furthermore, Gli-1 expression was reduced by mGluR4 activation in LN229 cells, and downregulation of Gli-1 expression by gene-targeted siRNA resulted in both inhibition of cell proliferation and promotion of apoptosis. Moreover, VU0155041 treatment substantially blocked SHH-induced cyclin D1 expression and cell proliferation, while increasing TUNEL-positive cells and the activation of apoptosis-related proteins. We concluded that activation of mGluR4 expressed in LN229 cells could inhibit GBM cell growth by decreasing cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis. Further suppression of intracellular Gli-1 expression might be involved in the action of mGluR4 on cancer cells. Our study suggested a novel role of mGluR4, which might serve as a potential drug target for control of GBM cell growth.

  14. In vivo analysis of the role of metabotropic glutamate receptors in the afferent regulation of chick cochlear nucleus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carzoli, Kathryn L; Hyson, Richard L

    2011-02-01

    Cochlea removal results in the death of approximately 20-30% of neurons in the chick nucleus magnocellularis (NM). One early event in NM neuronal degradation is the disruption of their ribosomes. This can be visualized in the first few hours following cochlea removal using Y10B, an antibody that recognizes ribosomal RNA. Previous studies using a brain slice preparation suggest that maintenance of ribosomal integrity in NM neurons requires metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) activation. Isolating the brain slice in vitro, however, may eliminate other potential sources of trophic support and only allows for evaluation of the early changes that occur in NM neurons following deafferentation. Consequently, it is not known if mGluR activation is truly required for the maintenance of NM neurons in the intact system. The current experiments evaluated the importance of mGluRs in vivo. The effects of short-term receptor blockade were assessed through Y10B labeling and the effects of long-term blockade were assessed through stereological counting of NM neurons in Nissl-stained tissue. mGluR antagonists or vehicle were administered intracerebroventricularly following unilateral cochlea removal. Vehicle-treated subjects replicated the previously reported effects of cochlea removal, showing lighter Y10B labeling and fewer Nissl-stained NM neurons on the deafened side of the brain. Blockade of mGluRs prevented the rapid activity-dependent difference in Y10B labeling, and in some cases, had the reverse effect, yielding lighter labeling of NM neurons on the intact side of the brain. Similarly, mGluR blockade over longer survival periods resulted in a reduction in number of cells on both intact and deafferented sides of the brain, and in some cases, yielded a reverse effect of fewer neurons on the intact side versus deafened side. These data are consistent with in vitro findings and suggest that mGluR activation plays a vital role in the afferent maintenance of NM neurons

  15. N-Acetyl-cysteine causes analgesia by reinforcing the endogenous activation of type-2 metabotropic glutamate receptors

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    Bernabucci Matteo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacological activation of type-2 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu2 receptors causes analgesia in experimental models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Presynaptic mGlu2 receptors are activated by the glutamate released from astrocytes by means of the cystine/glutamate antiporter (System xc- or Sxc-. We examined the analgesic activity of the Sxc- activator, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, in mice developing inflammatory or neuropathic pain. Results A single injection of NAC (100 mg/kg, i.p. reduced nocifensive behavior in the second phase of the formalin test. NAC-induced analgesia was abrogated by the Sxc- inhibitor, sulphasalazine (8 mg/kg, i.p. or by the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist, LY341495 (1 mg/kg, i.p.. NAC still caused analgesia in mGlu3−/− mice, but was inactive in mGlu2−/− mice. In wild-type mice, NAC retained the analgesic activity in the formalin test when injected daily for 7 days, indicating the lack of tolerance. Both single and repeated injections of NAC also caused analgesia in the complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA model of chronic inflammatory pain, and, again, analgesia was abolished by LY341495. Data obtained in mice developing neuropathic pain in response to chronic constriction injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve were divergent. In this model, a single injection of NAC caused analgesia that was reversed by LY341495, whereas repeated injections of NAC were ineffective. Thus, tolerance to NAC-induced analgesia developed in the CCI model, but not in models of inflammatory pain. The CFA and CCI models differed with respect to the expression levels of xCT (the catalytic subunit of Sxc- and activator of G-protein signaling type-3 (AGS3 in the dorsal portion of the lumbar spinal cord. CFA-treated mice showed no change in either protein, whereas CCI mice showed an ipislateral reduction in xCT levels and a bilateral increase in AGS3 levels in the spinal cord. Conclusions These data demonstrate that

  16. Acetoacetate reduces growth and ATP concentration in cancer cell lines which over-express uncoupling protein 2

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    Quadros Edward V

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that several human cancers are capable of uncoupling of mitochondrial ATP generation in the presence of intact tricarboxylic acid (TCA enzymes. The goal of the current study was to test the hypothesis that ketone bodies can inhibit cell growth in aggressive cancers and that expression of uncoupling protein 2 is a contributing factor. The proposed mechanism involves inhibition of glycolytic ATP production via a Randle-like cycle while increased uncoupling renders cancers unable to produce compensatory ATP from respiration. Methods Seven aggressive human cancer cell lines, and three control fibroblast lines were grown in vitro in either 10 mM glucose medium (GM, or in glucose plus 10 mM acetoacetate [G+AcA]. The cells were assayed for cell growth, ATP production and expression of UCP2. Results There was a high correlation of cell growth with ATP concentration (r = 0.948 in a continuum across all cell lines. Controls demonstrated normal cell growth and ATP with the lowest density of mitochondrial UCP2 staining while all cancer lines demonstrated proportionally inhibited growth and ATP, and over-expression of UCP2 (p Conclusion Seven human cancer cell lines grown in glucose plus acetoacetate medium showed tightly coupled reduction of growth and ATP concentration. The findings were not observed in control fibroblasts. The observed over-expression of UCP2 in cancer lines, but not in controls, provides a plausible molecular mechanism by which acetoacetate spares normal cells but suppresses growth in cancer lines. The results bear on the hypothesized potential for ketogenic diets as therapeutic strategies.

  17. Expression of genes encoding F-1-ATPase results in uncoupling of glycolysis from biomass production in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Købmann, Brian Jensen; Solem, Christian; Pedersen, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    of the genes encoding F-1-ATPase was found to decrease the intracellular energy level and resulted in a decrease in the growth rate. The yield of biomass also decreased, which showed that the incorporated F-1-ATPase activity caused glycolysis to be uncoupled from biomass production. The increase in ATPase...... threefold in nongrowing cells resuspended in buffer, but in steadily growing cells no increase in flux was observed. The latter result shows that glycolysis occurs close to its maximal capacity and indicates that control of the glycolytic flux under these conditions resides in the glycolytic reactions...

  18. Uncoupling of T Cell Receptor Zeta Chain Function during the Induction of Anergy by the Superantigen, Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A

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    William D. Cornwell

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins have immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we show that Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA induces a strong proliferative response in a murine T cell clone independent of MHC class II bearing cells. SEA stimulation also induces a state of hypo-responsiveness (anergy. We characterized the components of the T cell receptor (TCR during induction of anergy by SEA. Most interestingly, TCR zeta chain phosphorylation was absent under SEA anergizing conditions, which suggests an uncoupling of zeta chain function. We characterize here a model system for studying anergy in the absence of confounding costimulatory signals.

  19. Small structural changes on a hydroquinone scaffold determine the complex I inhibition or uncoupling of tumoral oxidative phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urra, Félix A., E-mail: felix.urra@qf.uchile.cl [Programa de Farmacología Molecular y Clínica, Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas (ICBM), Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Independencia 1027, Casilla 7, Santiago (Chile); Córdova-Delgado, Miguel [Departamento de Química Orgánica y Físico-Química, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 233, Santiago 1 (Chile); Lapier, Michel; Orellana-Manzano, Andrea [Programa de Farmacología Molecular y Clínica, Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas (ICBM), Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Independencia 1027, Casilla 7, Santiago (Chile); Acevedo-Arévalo, Luis; Pessoa-Mahana, Hernán; González-Vivanco, Jaime M. [Departamento de Química Orgánica y Físico-Química, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 233, Santiago 1 (Chile); Martínez-Cifuentes, Maximiliano [Instituto de Química de Recursos Naturales, Universidad de Talca, Casilla 747, Talca (Chile); and others

    2016-01-15

    Mitochondria participate in several distinctiveness of cancer cell, being a promising target for the design of anti-cancer compounds. Previously, we described that ortho-carbonyl hydroquinone scaffold 14 inhibits the complex I-dependent respiration with selective anti-proliferative effect on mouse mammary adenocarcinoma TA3/Ha cancer cells; however, the structural requirements of this hydroquinone scaffold to affect the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) of cancer cells have not been studied in detail. Here, we characterize the mitochondrial metabolism of TA3/Ha cancer cells, which exhibit a high oxidative metabolism, and evaluate the effect of small structural changes of the hydroquinone scaffold 14 on the respiration of this cell line. Our results indicate that these structural changes modify the effect on OXPHOS, obtaining compounds with three alternative actions: inhibitors of complex I-dependent respiration, uncoupler of OXPHOS and compounds with both actions. To confirm this, the effect of a bicyclic hydroquinone (9) was evaluated in isolated mitochondria. Hydroquinone 9 increased mitochondrial respiration in state 4o without effects on the ADP-stimulated respiration (state 3{sub ADP}), decreasing the complexes I and II-dependent respiratory control ratio. The effect on mitochondrial respiration was reversed by 6-ketocholestanol addition, indicating that this hydroquinone is a protonophoric uncoupling agent. In intact TA3/Ha cells, hydroquinone 9 caused mitochondrial depolarization, decreasing intracellular ATP and NAD(P)H levels and GSH/GSSG ratio, and slightly increasing the ROS levels. Moreover, it exhibited selective NAD(P)H availability-dependent anti-proliferative effect on cancer cells. Therefore, our results indicate that the ortho-carbonyl hydroquinone scaffold offers the possibility to design compounds with specific actions on OXPHOS of cancer cells. - Highlights: • Small changes on a hydroquinone scaffold modify the action on OXPHOS of cancer

  20. Use of Hopcalite derived Cu-Mn mixed oxide as Oxygen Carrier for Chemical Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling Process

    OpenAIRE

    Adánez-Rubio, Iñaki; Abad Secades, Alberto; Gayán Sanz, Pilar; Adánez-Rubio, Imanol; Diego Poza, Luis F. de; Garcia-Labiano, Francisco; Adánez Elorza, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Chemical-Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU) is an alternative Chemical Looping process for the combustion of solid fuels with inherent CO2 capture. The CLOU process needs a material as oxygen carrier with the ability to give gaseous O2 at suitable temperatures for solid fuel combustion, e.g. copper oxide and manganese oxide. In this work, treated commercial Carulite 300® was evaluated as oxygen carrier for CLOU. Carulite 300® is a hopcalite material composed of 29.2 wt.% CuO and 67.4 wt.% ...

  1. Unkempt is negatively regulated by mTOR and uncouples neuronal differentiation from growth control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie Avet-Rochex

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal differentiation is exquisitely controlled both spatially and temporally during nervous system development. Defects in the spatiotemporal control of neurogenesis cause incorrect formation of neural networks and lead to neurological disorders such as epilepsy and autism. The mTOR kinase integrates signals from mitogens, nutrients and energy levels to regulate growth, autophagy and metabolism. We previously identified the insulin receptor (InR/mTOR pathway as a critical regulator of the timing of neuronal differentiation in the Drosophila melanogaster eye. Subsequently, this pathway has been shown to play a conserved role in regulating neurogenesis in vertebrates. However, the factors that mediate the neurogenic role of this pathway are completely unknown. To identify downstream effectors of the InR/mTOR pathway we screened transcriptional targets of mTOR for neuronal differentiation phenotypes in photoreceptor neurons. We identified the conserved gene unkempt (unk, which encodes a zinc finger/RING domain containing protein, as a negative regulator of the timing of photoreceptor differentiation. Loss of unk phenocopies InR/mTOR pathway activation and unk acts downstream of this pathway to regulate neurogenesis. In contrast to InR/mTOR signalling, unk does not regulate growth. unk therefore uncouples the role of the InR/mTOR pathway in neurogenesis from its role in growth control. We also identified the gene headcase (hdc as a second downstream regulator of the InR/mTOR pathway controlling the timing of neurogenesis. Unk forms a complex with Hdc, and Hdc expression is regulated by unk and InR/mTOR signalling. Co-overexpression of unk and hdc completely suppresses the precocious neuronal differentiation phenotype caused by loss of Tsc1. Thus, Unk and Hdc are the first neurogenic components of the InR/mTOR pathway to be identified. Finally, we show that Unkempt-like is expressed in the developing mouse retina and in neural stem

  2. Rem uncouples excitation–contraction coupling in adult skeletal muscle fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beqollari, Donald; Romberg, Christin F.; Filipova, Dilyana; Meza, Ulises; Papadopoulos, Symeon

    2015-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, excitation–contraction (EC) coupling requires depolarization-induced conformational rearrangements in L-type Ca2+ channel (CaV1.1) to be communicated to the type 1 ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ release channel (RYR1) of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) via transient protein–protein interactions. Although the molecular mechanism that underlies conformational coupling between CaV1.1 and RYR1 has been investigated intensely for more than 25 years, the question of whether such signaling occurs via a direct interaction between the principal, voltage-sensing α1S subunit of CaV1.1 and RYR1 or through an intermediary protein persists. A substantial body of evidence supports the idea that the auxiliary β1a subunit of CaV1.1 is a conduit for this intermolecular communication. However, a direct role for β1a has been difficult to test because β1a serves two other functions that are prerequisite for conformational coupling between CaV1.1 and RYR1. Specifically, β1a promotes efficient membrane expression of CaV1.1 and facilitates the tetradic ultrastructural arrangement of CaV1.1 channels within plasma membrane–SR junctions. In this paper, we demonstrate that overexpression of the RGK protein Rem, an established β subunit–interacting protein, in adult mouse flexor digitorum brevis fibers markedly reduces voltage-induced myoplasmic Ca2+ transients without greatly affecting CaV1.1 targeting, intramembrane gating charge movement, or releasable SR Ca2+ store content. In contrast, a β1a-binding–deficient Rem triple mutant (R200A/L227A/H229A) has little effect on myoplasmic Ca2+ release in response to membrane depolarization. Thus, Rem effectively uncouples the voltage sensors of CaV1.1 from RYR1-mediated SR Ca2+ release via its ability to interact with β1a. Our findings reveal Rem-expressing adult muscle as an experimental system that may prove useful in the definition of the precise role of the β1a subunit in skeletal-type EC coupling. PMID:26078055

  3. The fate of sulphur in the Cu-based Chemical Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU) Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adánez-Rubio, Iñaki; Abad, Alberto; Gayán, Pilar; García-Labiano, Francisco; Diego, Luis F. de; Adánez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 15 h of CLOU experiments using lignite were carried out in a continuously unit. • The sulphur split between fuel- and air-reactor streams in the process was analysed. • Most of the sulphur introduced with the fuel exits as SO 2 at the fuel-reactor. • The use of a carbon separation system to reduce the S emission was evaluated. • Coals with high S content can be burnt in a CLOU process with a Cu-based material. - Abstract: The Chemical Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU) process is a type of Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) technology that allows the combustion of solid fuels with air, as with conventional combustion, through the use of oxygen carriers that release gaseous oxygen inside the fuel reactor. The aim of this work was to study the behaviour of the sulphur present in fuel during CLOU combustion. Experiments using lignite as fuel were carried out in a continuously operated 1.5 kW th CLOU unit during more than 15 h. Particles containing 60 wt.% CuO on MgAl 2 O 4 , prepared by spray drying, were used as the oxygen carrier in the CLOU process. The temperature in the fuel reactor varied between 900 and 935 °C. CO 2 capture, combustion efficiency and the sulphur split between fuel and air reactor streams in the process were analysed. Complete combustion of the fuel to CO 2 and H 2 O was found in all experiments. Most of the sulphur introduced with the fuel exited as SO 2 at the fuel reactor outlet, although a small amount of SO 2 was measured at the air reactor outlet. The SO 2 concentration in the air reactor exit flow decreased as the temperature in the fuel reactor increased. A carbon capture efficiency of 97.6% was achieved at 935 °C, with 87.9 wt.% of the total sulphur exiting as SO 2 in the fuel reactor. Both the reactivity and oxygen transport capacity of the oxygen carrier were unaffected during operation with a high sulphur content fuel, and agglomeration problems did not occur. Predictions were calculated regarding the use

  4. Correspondence Between Uncoupled Flame Macrostructures and Thermoacoustic Instability in Premixed Swirl-Stabilized Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Taamallah, Soufien

    2014-06-16

    In this paper, we conduct an experimental investigation of a confined premixed swirl-stabilized dump combustor similar to those found in modern gas turbines. We operate the combustor with premixed methane-air in the lean range of equivalence ratio ϕ ∈ [0.5–0.75]. First, we observe different dynamic modes in the lean operating range, as the equivalence ratio is raised, confirming observations made previously in a similar combustor geometry but with a different fuel [1]. Next we examine the correspondence between dynamic mode transitions and changes in the mean flame configuration or macrostructure. We show that each dynamic mode is associated with a specific flame macrostructure. By modifying the combustor length without changing the underlying flow, the resonant frequencies of the geometry are altered allowing for decoupling the heat release fluctuations and the acoustic field, in a certain range of equivalence ratio. Mean flame configurations in the modified (short) combustor and for the same range of equivalence ratio are examined. It is found that not only the same sequence of flame configurations is observed in both combustors (long and short) but also that the set of equivalence ratio where transitions in the flame configuration occur is closely related to the onset of thermo-acoustic instabilities. For both combustor lengths, the flame structure changes at similar equivalence ratio whether thermo-acoustic coupling is allowed or not, suggesting that the flame configuration holds the key to understanding the onset of self-excited thermo-acoustic instability in this range. Finally, we focus on the flame configuration transition that was correlated with the onset of the first dynamically unstable mode ϕ ∈ [0.61–0.64]. Our analysis of this transition in the short, uncoupled combustor shows that it is associated with an intermittent appearance of a flame in the outer recirculation zone (ORZ). The spectral analysis of this “ORZ flame flickering”

  5. Correspondence Between Uncoupled Flame Macrostructures and Thermoacoustic Instability in Premixed Swirl-Stabilized Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Taamallah, Soufien; LaBry, Zachary A.; Shanbhogue, Santosh J.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct an experimental investigation of a confined premixed swirl-stabilized dump combustor similar to those found in modern gas turbines. We operate the combustor with premixed methane-air in the lean range of equivalence ratio ϕ ∈ [0.5–0.75]. First, we observe different dynamic modes in the lean operating range, as the equivalence ratio is raised, confirming observations made previously in a similar combustor geometry but with a different fuel [1]. Next we examine the correspondence between dynamic mode transitions and changes in the mean flame configuration or macrostructure. We show that each dynamic mode is associated with a specific flame macrostructure. By modifying the combustor length without changing the underlying flow, the resonant frequencies of the geometry are altered allowing for decoupling the heat release fluctuations and the acoustic field, in a certain range of equivalence ratio. Mean flame configurations in the modified (short) combustor and for the same range of equivalence ratio are examined. It is found that not only the same sequence of flame configurations is observed in both combustors (long and short) but also that the set of equivalence ratio where transitions in the flame configuration occur is closely related to the onset of thermo-acoustic instabilities. For both combustor lengths, the flame structure changes at similar equivalence ratio whether thermo-acoustic coupling is allowed or not, suggesting that the flame configuration holds the key to understanding the onset of self-excited thermo-acoustic instability in this range. Finally, we focus on the flame configuration transition that was correlated with the onset of the first dynamically unstable mode ϕ ∈ [0.61–0.64]. Our analysis of this transition in the short, uncoupled combustor shows that it is associated with an intermittent appearance of a flame in the outer recirculation zone (ORZ). The spectral analysis of this “ORZ flame flickering”

  6. Co-factor engineering in lactobacilli: Effects of uncoupled ATPase activity on metabolic fluxes in Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum and L. sakei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rud, Ida; Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2008-01-01

    The hydrolytic F-1-part of the F1F0-ATPase was over-expressed in Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum NC8 and L. sakei Lb790x during fermentation of glucose or ribose, in order to study how changes in the intracellular levels of ATP and ADP affect the metabolic fluxes. The uncoupled ATPase activity...... resulted in a decrease in intracellular energy level (ATP/ADP ratio), biomass yield and growth rate. Interestingly, the glycolytic and ribolytic flux increased in L. plantarum with uncoupled ATPase activity compared to the reference strain by up to 20% and 50%, respectively. The ATP demand was estimated...... to have approximately 80% control on both the glycolytic and ribolytic flux in L. plantarum under these conditions. In contrast, the glycolytic and ribolytic flux decreased in L. sakei with uncoupled ATPase activity. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  7. Examination of the requirement for ucp-4, a putative homolog of mammalian uncoupling proteins, for stress tolerance and longevity in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, Wendy B; Kim, Daemyung; Bachman, Eric; Wolkow, Catherine

    2005-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by mitochondrial respiration and can react with and damage cellular components. According to the free radical theory of aging, oxidative damage from mitochondrial ROS is a major cause of cellular decline during aging. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCPs) uncouple ATP production from electron transport and can be stimulated by free radicals, suggesting UCPs may perform a cytoprotective function. The nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, contains one UCP-like protein, encoded by the ucp-4 gene. We have investigated the genetic requirement for ucp-4 in normal aging and stress resistance. Consistent with the hypothesis that ucp-4 encodes a putative uncoupling protein, animals lacking ucp-4 function contained elevated ATP levels. However, the absence of ucp-4 function did not affect adult lifespan or survival in the presence of thermal or oxidative stress. Together, these results demonstrate that ucp-4 is a negative regulator of ATP production in C. elegans, but is not required for normal lifespan.

  8. Dissociation Between Brown Adipose Tissue 18F-FDG Uptake and Thermogenesis in Uncoupling Protein 1-Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankir, Mohammed K; Kranz, Mathias; Keipert, Susanne; Weiner, Juliane; Andreasen, Sille G; Kern, Matthias; Patt, Marianne; Klöting, Nora; Heiker, John T; Brust, Peter; Hesse, Swen; Jastroch, Martin; Fenske, Wiebke K

    2017-07-01

    18 F-FDG PET imaging is routinely used to investigate brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis, which requires mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). It remains uncertain, however, whether BAT 18 F-FDG uptake is a reliable surrogate measure of UCP1-mediated heat production. Methods: UCP1 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice housed at thermoneutrality were treated with the selective β3 adrenergic receptor agonist CL 316, 243 and underwent metabolic cage, infrared thermal imaging and 18 F-FDG PET/MRI experiments. Primary brown adipocytes were additionally examined for their bioenergetics by extracellular flux analysis as well as their uptake of 2-deoxy- 3 H-glucose. Results: In response to CL 316, 243 treatments, oxygen consumption, and BAT thermogenesis were diminished in UCP1 KO mice, but BAT 18 F-FDG uptake was fully retained. Isolated UCP1 KO brown adipocytes exhibited defective induction of uncoupled respiration whereas their glycolytic flux and 2-deoxy- 3 H-glucose uptake rates were largely unaffected. Conclusion: Adrenergic stimulation can increase BAT 18 F-FDG uptake independently of UCP1 thermogenic function. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  9. Uncoupling protein and ATP/ADP carrier increase mitochondrial proton conductance after cold adaptation of king penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Darren A; Duchamp, Claude; Rey, Benjamin; Hanuise, Nicolas; Rouanet, Jean Louis; Sibille, Brigitte; Brand, Martin D

    2004-07-01

    Juvenile king penguins develop adaptive thermogenesis after repeated immersion in cold water. However, the mechanisms of such metabolic adaptation in birds are unknown, as they lack brown adipose tissue and uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1), which mediate adaptive non-shivering thermogenesis in mammals. We used three different groups of juvenile king penguins to investigate the mitochondrial basis of avian adaptive thermogenesis in vitro. Skeletal muscle mitochondria isolated from penguins that had never been immersed in cold water showed no superoxide-stimulated proton conductance, indicating no functional avian UCP. Skeletal muscle mitochondria from penguins that had been either experimentally immersed or naturally adapted to cold water did possess functional avian UCP, demonstrated by a superoxide-stimulated, GDP-inhibitable proton conductance across their inner membrane. This was associated with a markedly greater abundance of avian UCP mRNA. In the presence (but not the absence) of fatty acids, these mitochondria also showed a greater adenine nucleotide translocase-catalysed proton conductance than those from never-immersed penguins. This was due to an increase in the amount of adenine nucleotide translocase. Therefore, adaptive thermogenesis in juvenile king penguins is linked to two separate mechanisms of uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle mitochondria: increased proton transport activity of avian UCP (dependent on superoxide and inhibited by GDP) and increased proton transport activity of the adenine nucleotide translocase (dependent on fatty acids and inhibited by carboxyatractylate).

  10. Investigating the role of uncoupling of Troponin I phosphorylation from changes in myofibrillar Ca2+-sensitivity in the pathogenesis of Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Easton Messer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Contraction in the mammalian heart is controlled by the intracellular Ca2+ concentration as it is in all striated muscle, but the heart has an additional signalling system that comes into play to increase heart rate and cardiac output during exercise or stress. β-adrenergic stimulation of heart muscle cells leads to release of cyclic-AMP and the activation of protein kinase A which phosphorylates key proteins in the sarcolemma, sarcoplasmic reticulum and contractile apparatus. Troponin I (TnI and Myosin Binding Protein C (MyBP-C are the prime targets in the myofilaments. TnI phosphorylation lowers myofibrillar Ca2+-sensitivity and increases the speed of Ca2+-dissociation and relaxation (lusitropic effect.Recent studies have shown that this relationship between Ca2+-sensitivity and TnI phosphorylation may be unstable. In familial cardiomyopathies, both dilated and hypertrophic (DCM and HCM, a mutation in one of the proteins of the thin filament often results in the loss of the relationship (uncoupling and blunting of the lusitropic response. For familial dilated cardiomyopathy in thin filament proteins it has been proposed that this uncoupling is causative of the phenotype. Uncoupling has also been found in human heart tissue from patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy as a secondary effect. Recently, it has been found that Ca2+-sensitizing drugs can promote uncoupling, whilst one Ca2+-desensitising drug Epigallocatechin 3-Gallate (EGCG can reverse uncoupling.We will discuss recent findings about the role of uncoupling in the development of cardiomyopathies and the molecular mechanism of the process.

  11. The role of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in the pathogenesis of mood disorders and addiction:Combining preclinical evidence with human Positron Emission Tomography (PET studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia eTerbeck

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present review, we deliver an overview of the involvement of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5 activity and density in pathological anxiety, mood disorders and addiction. Specifically, we will describe mGluR5 studies in humans that employed Positron Emission Tomography (PET and combined the findings with preclinical animal research. This combined view of different methodological approaches — from basic neurobiological approaches to human studies — might give a more comprehensive and clinically relevant view of mGluR5 function in mental health than the view on preclinical data alone. We will also review the current research data on mGluR5 along the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC. Firstly, we found evidence of abnormal glutamate activity related to the positive and negative valence systems, which would suggest that antagonistic mGluR5 intervention has prominent anti-addictive, anti-depressive and anxiolytic effects. Secondly, there is evidence that mGluR5 plays in important role in systems for social functioning and the response to social stress. Finally, mGluR5’s important role in sleep homeostasis suggests that this glutamate receptor may play an important role in RDoC’s arousal and modulatory systems domain. Glutamate was previously mostly investigate in non-human studies, however initial human clinical PET research now also supports the hypothesis that, by mediating brain excitability, neuroplasticity and social cognition, abnormal metabotropic glutamate activity might predispose individuals to a broad range of psychiatric problems.

  12. Phenotypic characterization of Grm1crv4 mice reveals a functional role for the type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor in bone mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Ilaria; Mattinzoli, Deborah; Otescu, Lavinia Alexandra; Bossi, Simone; Ikehata, Masami; Gentili, Chiara; Cangemi, Giuliana; Gatti, Cinzia; Emionite, Laura; Messa, Piergiorgio; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Rastaldi, Maria Pia; Riccardi, Daniela; Puliti, Aldamaria

    2017-01-01

    Recent increasing evidence supports a role for neuronal type signaling in bone. Specifically glutamate receptors have been found in cells responsible for bone remodeling, namely the osteoblasts and the osteoclasts. While most studies have focused on ionotropic glutamate receptors, the relevance of the metabotropic glutamate signaling in bone is poorly understood. Specifically type 1 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu1) receptors are expressed in bone, but the effect of its ablation on skeletal development has never been investigated. Here we report that Grm1 crv4/crv4 mice, homozygous for an inactivating mutation of the mGlu1 receptor, and mainly characterized by ataxia and renal dysfunction, exhibit decreased body weight, bone length and bone mineral density compared to wild type (WT) animals. Blood analyses of the affected mice demonstrate the absence of changes in circulating factors, such as vitamin D and PTH, suggesting renal damage is not the main culprit of the skeletal phenotype. Cultures of osteoblasts lacking functional mGlu1 receptors exhibit less homogeneous collagen deposition than WT cells, and present increased expression of osteocalcin, a marker of osteoblast maturation. These data suggest that the skeletal damage is directly linked to the absence of the receptor, which in turn leads to osteoblasts dysfunction and earlier maturation. Accordingly, skeletal histomorphology suggests that Grm1 crv4/crv4 mice exhibit enhanced bone maturation, resulting in premature fusion of the growth plate and shortened long bones, and further slowdown of bone apposition rate compared to the WT animals. In summary, this work reveals novel functions of mGlu1 receptors in the bone and indicates that in osteoblasts mGlu1 receptors are necessary for production of normal bone matrix, longitudinal bone growth, and normal skeletal development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Performance analysis of coupled and uncoupled hydrodynamic and wave models in the northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busca, Claudia; Coluccelli, Alessandro; Valentini, Andrea; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bonaldo, Davide; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Carniel, Sandro; Falcieri, Francesco; Paccagnella, Tiziana; Ravaioli, Mariangela; Riminucci, Francesco; Sclavo, Mauro; Russo, Aniello

    2014-05-01

    implementations currently running, there is the need to: assess their forecast skill; quantitatively evaluate if the new, coupled systems provide better performances than the uncoupled ones; individuate weaknesses and eventual time trends in the forecasts quality, their causes, and actions to improve the systems. This work presents a first effort aimed to satisfy such need. We employ in situ and remote sensing data collected starting from November 2011, in particular: temperature and salinity data collected during several oceanographic cruises, sea surface temperature derived from satellite measurements, waves, sea level and currents measurements from oceanographic buoys and platforms; specific observational activities funded by the Italian Flagship project RITMARE allowed to collect new measurements in NA coastal areas. Data-model comparison is firstly performed with exploratory qualitative comparisons in order to highlight discrepancies between observed and forecasted data, then a quantitative comparison is performed through the computation of standard statistical scores (root mean square error, mean error, mean bias, standard deviation, cross-correlation). Results are plotted in Taylor diagrams for a rapid evaluation of the overall performances.

  14. Effect of RNAi p21 gene on uncoupling of EL-4 cells induced by X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Guizhi; Yan Fengqin; Fu Shibo; Shen Bo; Sun Shilong; Yang Ying; Li Pengwu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of RNAi p21 gene on uncoupling of EL-4 cells induced by X-irradiation. Methods: Construction of RNAi p21 plasmid of pSileneer3.1-H1 neo-p21 was performed. Lipofectamine transfection assay was used to transfer the p21siBNA into EL-4 cells. Fluorescent staining and flow cytometry (FCM) analysis were employed for measurement of protein expression. Fluorescent staining of propidium iodide (PI) and FCM were used for measurement of potyploid cells. Results: In dose-effect experiment it was found that the expression of P21 protein of EL-4 cells increased significantly 24 h after X- irradiation with different doses compared with sham-inadiated control. In time course experiment it was found that the expression of P21 protein of EL-4 cells increased significantly at 8 h to 72 h after 4.0 Gy X-irradiation compared with sham-irradiated control. The results showed that the number of polyploid cells in EL-4 cells was not changed markedly after X-irradiation with doses of 0.5-6.0 Gy. After RNA interference with p21 gene, the expression of P21 protein of EL-4 cells decreased significantly 24 h and 48 h after 4.0 Gy X-irradiation in transfection of plasmid of pSilencer3.1-H1 neo-p21 compared with transfection of plasmid of pSilencer3.1-H1 nco control. And at the same time, the number of polyploid cells in EL-4 cells was increased significantly in transfection of plasmid of pSilencer3.1-H1 neo-p21 compared with transfection of plasmid of pSilencer3.1-H1 nco control. Conclusions: Uncoupling could be induced by X-irradiation in EL-4 cells following BNAi p21 gene, suggesting that P21 protein may play an important role in uncoupling induced by X-rays. (authors)

  15. Developmental changes in uncoupling protein 1 and F(1)-ATPase subunit levels in the golden hamster brown adipose tissue mitochondria as determined by electron microscopy in situ immunocytochemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bednár, Jan; Soukup, Tomáš

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 22, - (2003), s. 477-486 ISSN 0231-5882 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/00/1653 Grant - others:NATO Research project(XX) 979876 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : immunoelectron microscopy * uncoupling protein 1 * mitochondrial ATP synthase Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.794, year: 2003

  16. Exhaustive Training Increases Uncoupling Protein 2 Expression and Decreases Bcl-2/Bax Ratio in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Y. Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the effects of oxidative stress due to exhaustive training on uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 and Bcl-2/Bax in rat skeletal muscles. A total of 18 Sprague-Dawley female rats were randomly divided into three groups: the control group (CON, the trained control group (TC, and the exhaustive trained group (ET. Malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, xanthine oxidase (XOD, ATPase, UCP2, and Bcl-2/Bax ratio in red gastrocnemius muscles were measured. Exhaustive training induced ROS increase in red gastrocnemius muscles, which led to a decrease in the cell antiapoptotic ability (Bcl-2/Bax ratio. An increase in UCP2 expression can reduce ROS production and affect mitochondrial energy production. Thus, oxidative stress plays a significant role in overtraining.

  17. Pseudo-reorganization of language cortical function at fMR imaging: a consequence of tumor-induced neurovascular uncoupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, John L; Krouwer, Hendrikus G; Mueller, Wade M; Ugurel, M Sahin; Kocak, Mehmet; Mark, Leighton P

    2003-02-01

    A left-handed patient with a grade II left frontal lobe astrocytoma had spontaneous seizures causing speech arrest and uncontrolled right upper extremity movements. Word-generation functional MR (fMR) imaging showed activity nearly exclusively in the right inferior frontal gyrus. The clinical history of the speech arrest and the intraoperative mapping proved left-hemisphere language dominance. Tumor involvement of the left inferior frontal gyrus caused uncoupling of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) and neuronal response, leading to the erroneous fMR imaging appearance of right-hemisphere language dominance. Discrepancies between BOLD and intraoperative mapping in areas near lesions illustrate the complementary nature of these techniques.

  18. Small molecule PGC-1α1 protein stabilizers induce adipocyte Ucp1 expression and uncoupled mitochondrial respiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. Pettersson-Klein

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α1 (PGC-1α1 regulates genes involved in energy metabolism. Increasing adipose tissue energy expenditure through PGC-1α1 activation is potentially beneficial for systemic metabolism. Pharmacological PGC-1α1 activators could be valuable tools in the fight against obesity and metabolic disease. Finding such compounds has been challenging partly because PGC-1α1 is a transcriptional coactivator with no known ligand-binding properties. While, PGC-1α1 activation is regulated by several mechanisms, protein stabilization is a crucial limiting step due to its short half-life under unstimulated conditions. Methods: We designed a cell-based high-throughput screening system to identify PGC-1α1 protein stabilizers. Positive hits were tested for their ability to induce endogenous PGC-1α1 protein accumulation and activate target gene expression in brown adipocytes. Select compounds were analyzed for their effects on global gene expression and cellular respiration in adipocytes. Results: Among 7,040 compounds screened, we highlight four small molecules with high activity as measured by: PGC-1α1 protein accumulation, target gene expression, and uncoupled mitochondrial respiration in brown adipocytes. Conclusions: We identify compounds that induce PGC-1α1 protein accumulation and show that this increases uncoupled respiration in brown adipocytes. This screening platform establishes the foundation for a new class of therapeutics with potential use in obesity and associated disorders. Keywords: Small molecule screening, PGC-1a, PGC-1alpha, PGC-1alpha1, Protein stabilization, UCP1, Mitochondrial respiration, Brown adipose tissue

  19. Association between uncoupling protein 2, adiponectin and resting energy expenditure in obese women with normal and low resting energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghadomi Masoumi, Zahra; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Hedayati, Mahdi; Pishva, Hamideh

    2018-02-01

    Obesity is recognized as the most prevalent metabolic disease worldwide. Decreases in energy expenditure may increase risk of obesity. One of the key regulators of energy balance is uncoupling protein2 (UCP2), a transporter protein presents in mitochondrial inner membrane. Moreover, adiponectin is the most abundant adipocytokine, it may play a role in energy metabolism and gene expression of UCP2. The aim of this study was to investigate potential associations between the level of uncoupling protein 2 and adiponectin and their relationship with REE (Resting Energy Expenditure) in obese women with normal and low resting energy expenditure. A total of 49 subjects (women, 25-50 years old), were included in current study, 16 subjects with BMI > 30 and low resting energy expenditure, 17 subjects with BMI > 30 and normal resting energy expenditure and 16 non-obese subjects as a control group. Anthropometric, body composition parameters and resting energy expenditure were measured. Plasma adiponectin, UCP2 protein and total protein in PBMC were determined. Measured resting energy expenditure in obese subjects with low REE was significantly lower than other groups. Plasma adiponectin in the obese subjects with low REE was significantly lower compared to normal weight group. There was a significant relationship between 'UCP2 protein/Total protein' ratio and plasma adiponectin in obese group with low REE and in three groups when we pooled. There was a significant association between REE and plasma adiponectin in three groups when we pooled. There was a significant association between plasma adiponectin and REE. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between UCP2 and REE.

  20. Regulation of neuronal pH by the metabotropic Zn(2+)-sensing Gq-coupled receptor, mZnR/GPR39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganay, Thibault; Asraf, Hila; Aizenman, Elias; Bogdanovic, Milos; Sekler, Israel; Hershfinkel, Michal

    2015-12-01

    Synaptically released Zn(2+) acts as a neurotransmitter, in part, by activating the postsynaptic metabotropic Zn(2+)-sensing Gq protein-coupled receptor (mZnR/GPR39). In previous work using epithelial cells, we described crosstalk between Zn(2+) signaling and changes in intracellular pH and/or extracellular pH (pHe). As pH changes accompany neuronal activity under physiological and pathological conditions, we tested whether Zn(2+) signaling is involved in regulation of neuronal pH. Here, we report that up-regulation of a major H(+) extrusion pathway, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE), is induced by mZnR/GPR39 activation in an extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2-dependent manner in hippocampal neurons in vitro. We also observed that changes in pHe can modulate neuronal mZnR/GPR39-dependent signaling, resulting in reduced activity at pHe 8 or 6.5. Similarly, Zn(2+)-dependent extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation and up-regulation of NHE activity were absent at acidic pHe. Thus, our results suggest that when pHe is maintained within the physiological range, mZnR/GPR39 activation can up-regulate NHE-dependent recovery from intracellular acidification. During acidosis, as pHe drops, mZnR/GPR39-dependent NHE activation is inhibited, thereby attenuating further H(+) extrusion. This mechanism may serve to protect neurons from excessive decreases in pHe. Thus, mZnR/GPR39 signaling provides a homeostatic adaptive process for regulation of intracellular and extracellular pH changes in the brain. We show that the postsynaptic metabotropic Zn(2+)-sensing Gq protein-coupled receptor (mZnR/GPR39) activation induces up-regulation of a major neuronal H(+) extrusion pathway, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE), thereby enhancing neuronal recovery from intracellular acidification. Changes in extracellular pH (pHe), however, modulate neuronal mZnR/GPR39-dependent signaling, resulting in reduced activity at pHe 8 or 6.5. This mechanism may serve to protect neurons from excessive

  1. Knocking down metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 improves survival and disease progression in the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanese, Marco; Giribaldi, Francesco; Melone, Marcello; Bonifacino, Tiziana; Musante, Ilaria; Carminati, Enrico; Rossi, Pia I A; Vergani, Laura; Voci, Adriana; Conti, Fiorenzo; Puliti, Aldamaria; Bonanno, Giambattista

    2014-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a late-onset fatal neurodegenerative disease reflecting degeneration of upper and lower motoneurons (MNs). The cause of ALS and the mechanisms of neuronal death are still largely obscure, thus impairing the establishment of efficacious therapies. Glutamate (Glu)-mediated excitotoxicity plays a major role in MN degeneration in ALS. We recently demonstrated that the activation of Group I metabotropic Glu autoreceptors, belonging to both type 1 and type 5 receptors (mGluR1 and mGluR5), at glutamatergic spinal cord nerve terminals, produces excessive Glu release in mice over-expressing human superoxide-dismutase carrying the G93A point mutation (SOD1(G93A)), a widely used animal model of human ALS. To establish whether these receptors are implicated in ALS, we generated mice expressing half dosage of mGluR1 in the SOD1(G93A) background (SOD1(G93A)Grm1(crv4/+)), by crossing the SOD1(G93A) mutant mouse with the Grm1(crv4/+) mouse, lacking mGluR1 because of a spontaneous recessive mutation. SOD1(G93A)Grm1(crv4/+) mice showed prolonged survival probability, delayed pathology onset, slower disease progression and improved motor performances compared to SOD1(G93A) mice. These effects were associated to reduction of mGluR5 expression, enhanced number of MNs, decreased astrocyte and microglia activation, normalization of metallothionein and catalase mRNA expression, reduced mitochondrial damage, and decrease of abnormal Glu release in spinal cord of SOD1(G93A)Grm1(crv4/+)compared to SOD1(G93A) mice. These results demonstrate that a lower constitutive level of mGluR1 has a significant positive impact on mice with experimental ALS, thus providing the rationale for future pharmacological approaches to ALS by selectively blocking Group I metabotropic Glu receptors. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of a positron emission tomographic ligand, 18F-SP203, to image metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptors in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Yasuyuki; Simeon, Fabrice G.; Pike, Victor W.; Innis, Robert B.; Fujita, Masahiro; Hatazawa, Jun; Mozley, P.D.

    2010-01-01

    A new PET ligand, 3-fluoro-5-(2-(2- 18 F-(fluoromethyl)-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl)benzonitrile ( 18 F-SP203), is a positron emission tomographic radioligand selective for metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptors. The purposes of this study were to estimate the radiation-absorbed doses of 18 F-SP203 in humans and to determine from the distribution of radioactivity in bone structures with various proportions of bone and red marrow whether 18 F-SP203 undergoes defluorination. Whole-body images were acquired for 5 h after injecting 18 F-SP203 in seven healthy humans. Urine was collected at various time points. Radiation-absorbed doses were estimated by the Medical Internal Radiation Dose scheme. After injecting 18 F-SP203, the two organs with highest radiation exposure were urinary bladder wall and gallbladder wall, consistent with both urinary and fecal excretion. In the skeleton, most of the radioactivity was in bone structures that contain red marrow and not in those without red marrow. Although the dose to red marrow (30.9 μSv/MBq) was unusually high, the effective dose (17.8 μSv/MBq) of 18 F-SP203 was typical of that of other 18 F radiotracers. 18 F-SP203 causes an effective dose in humans typical of several other 18 F radioligands and undergoes little defluorination. (orig.)

  3. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 and corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor-1 gene expression is differently regulated by BDNF in rat primary cortical neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christinna V; Klein, Anders B; El-Sayed, Mona

    2013-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is important for neuronal survival and plasticity. Incorporation of matured receptor proteins is an integral part of synapse formation. However, whether BDNF increases synthesis and integration of receptors in functional synapses directly is unclear. We...... are particularly interested in the regulation of the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A (5-HT2A R). This receptor form a functional complex with the metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) and is recruited to the cell membrane by the corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF-R1). The effect of BDNF on gene...... expression for all these receptors, as well as a number of immediate-early genes, was pharmacologically characterized in primary neurons from rat frontal cortex. BDNF increased CRF-R1 mRNA levels up to fivefold, whereas mGluR2 mRNA levels were proportionally downregulated. No effect on 5-HT2A R mRNA was seen...

  4. Pharmacology of (S)-homoquisqualic acid and (S)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid [(S)-AP5] at cloned metabotropic glutamate receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Krogsgaard-Larsen, P

    1998-01-01

    1 In this study we have determined the pharmacological profile of (S)-quisqualic acid, (S)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid ((S)-AP4) and their higher homologues (S)-homoquisqualic acid, (S)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid ((S)-AP5), respectively, and (R)-AP5 at subtypes of metabotropic (S)-glutamic...... demonstrate that incorporation of an additional carbon atom into the backbone of (S)-glutamic acid and its analogues, to give the corresponding homologues, and replacement of the terminal carboxyl groups by isosteric acidic groups have profound effects on the pharmacological profiles at mGlu receptor subtypes...... acid (mGlu) receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. 2 (S)-Quisqualic acid was a potent mGlu1/mGlu5 agonist (EC50 values of 1.1 microM and 0.055 microM, respectively) showing no activity at mGlu2 and weak agonism at mGlu4 (EC50 approximately 1000 microM). 3 (S)-Homoquisqualic acid displayed...

  5. Mutation-induced quisqualic acid and ibotenic acid affinity at the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 4: ligand selectivity results from a synergy of several amino acid residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2004-01-01

    The metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are key modulators of excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system. The eight mGluR subtypes are seven trans-membrane-spanning proteins that possess a large extracellular amino-terminal domain in which the endogenous ligand binding pocket...... resides. In this study, we have identified four non-conserved amino acid residues that are essential for differentiating mGluR1 from mGluR4. Our approach has been to increase the affinity of the classic mGluR1 agonists, quisqualic acid and ibotenic acid, at mGluR4 by making various point mutations......, the mutations K74Y and K317R induced dramatic triple-order-of-magnitude increases in the affinity of ibotenic acid at mGluR4, making the affinity equivalent to that of mGluR1. Furthermore, the affinity of quisqualic acid at mGluR4 was increased to the same level as mGluR1 by the two double mutations, K74Y/K317R...

  6. Pharmacological modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 and 7 impairs extinction of social fear in a time-point-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, David A; Neumann, Inga D; Flor, Peter J; Zoicas, Iulia

    2017-06-15

    Pharmacological modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) and 7 (mGluR7) was shown to attenuate the acquisition and to facilitate the extinction of cued and contextual, non-social, fear. Using the allosteric mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) and the allosteric mGluR7 agonist N,N'-dibenzyhydryl-ethane-1,2-diamine dihydrochloride (AMN082), we aimed to study how pharmacological blockade of mGluR5 and activation of mGluR7 influence acquisition and extinction of social fear in mice. We could show that when administered before social fear conditioning, neither MPEP nor AMN082 affected acquisition and extinction of social fear, suggesting that mGluR5 inactivation and mGluR7 activation do not alter social fear. However, when administered before social fear extinction, both MPEP and AMN082 impaired social fear extinction and extinction recall. These findings suggest that mGluR5 inactivation and mGluR7 activation are unlikely to prevent the formation of traumatic social memories. Furthermore, medication strategies aimed at augmenting exposure-based therapies for psychiatric disorders associated with social deficits via modulation of mGluR5 and mGluR7 must be pursued cautiously because of their potential to delay social fear extinction processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fragment Based Optimization of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 2 (mGluR2) Positive Allosteric Modulators in the Absence of Structural Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, György; Túrós, György I; Kolok, Sándor; Vastag, Mónika; Sánta, Zsuzsanna; Dékány, Miklós; Lévay, György I; Greiner, István; Natsumi, Minami; Tatsuya, Watanabe; Keserű, György M

    2018-03-14

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have been implicated as potential pharmacotherapy for psychiatric conditions. Screening our corporate compound deck, we identified a benzotriazole fragment (4) that was rapidly optimized to a potent and metabolically stable early lead (16). The highly lipophilic character of 16, together with its limited solubility, permeability, and high protein binding, however, did not allow reaching of the proof of concept in vivo. Since further attempts on the optimization of druglike properties were unsuccessful, the original hit 4 has been revisited and was optimized following the principles of fragment based drug discovery (FBDD). Lacking structural information on the receptor-ligand complex, we implemented a group efficiency (GE) based strategy and identified a new fragment like lead (60) with more balanced profile. Significant improvement achieved on the druglike properties nominated the compound for in vivo proof of concept studies that revealed the chemotype being a promising PAM lead targeting mGluR2 receptors.

  8. A new highly selective metabotropic excitatory amino acid agonist: 2-amino-4-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)butyric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Sløk, F A; Skjaerbaek, N

    1996-01-01

    The homologous series of acidic amino acids, ranging from aspartic acid (1) to 2-aminosuberic acid (5), and the corresponding series of 3-isoxazolol bioisosteres of these amino acids, ranging from (RS)-2-amino-2-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)acetic acid (AMAA, 6) to (RS)-2-amino-6-(3-hydroxy-5......-methylisoxazol-4-yl)hexanoic acid (10), were tested as ligands for metabotropic excitatory amino acid receptors (mGlu1 alpha, mGlu2, mGlu4a, and mGlu6). Whereas AMAA (6) and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propinoic acid (AMPA, 7) are potent and highly selective agonists at N......-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and AMPA receptors, respectively, the higher homologue of AMPA (7), (RS)-2-amino-4-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)butyric acid (homo-AMPA, 8), is inactive at ionotropic excitatory amino acid receptors. Homo-AMPA (8), which is a 3-isoxazolol bioisostere of 2-aminoadipic acid (3), was...

  9. Effects of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 positive allosteric modulator CDPPB on rats tested with the paired associates learning task in touchscreen-equipped operant conditioning chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Brittney R; Howland, John G

    2016-03-15

    Effective treatments for the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia are critically needed. Positive allosteric modulation (PAM) of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) is one strategy currently under investigation to improve these symptoms. Examining cognition using touchscreen-equipped operant chambers may increase translation between preclinical and clinical research through analogous behavioral testing paradigms in rodents and humans. We used acute CDPPB (1-30mg/kg) treatment to examine the effects of mGluR5 PAM in the touchscreen paired associates learning (PAL) task using well-trained rats with and without co-administration of acute MK-801 (0.15mg/kg). CDPPB had no consistent effects on task performance when administered alone and failed to reverse the MK-801 induced impairments at any of the examined doses. Overall, the disruptive effects of MK-801 on PAL were consistent with previous research but increasing mGluR5 signaling is not beneficial in the PAL task. Future research should test whether administration of CDPPB during PAL acquisition increases performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Administration of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 allosteric modulator GET 73 with alcohol: A translational study in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haass-Koffler, Carolina L; Goodyear, Kimberly; Loche, Antonella; Long, Victoria M; Lobina, Carla; Tran, Harrison H; Cacciaglia, Roberto; Swift, Robert M; Colombo, Giancarlo; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2018-02-01

    Preclinical work suggests that GET 73 (N-[4-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl]-4-methoxybutyramide), a novel metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 negative allosteric modulator, may represent a novel pharmacological treatment for alcohol use disorder. Two independent experiments evaluated the effect of acutely administered GET 73 (0, 30, and 100 mg/kg, intragastrically) on alcohol-induced hypolocomotion ( n=72) and sedation/hypnosis ( n=36) in rats. In healthy male volunteers ( n=14), an open-label, randomised, crossover study was conducted to compare adverse events and pharmacokinetic parameters, in two experiments in which 300 mg GET 73 was administered, with and without alcohol, once and thrice. In rats, when administered with alcohol-vehicle, 100 mg/kg, but not 30 mg/kg, GET 73 reduced spontaneous locomotor activity. When administered with alcohol, no dose of GET 73 altered either alcohol-induced hypolocomotion or sedation/hypnosis. In humans, both single and thrice 300 mg GET 73 administration were well tolerated, in the presence and absence of alcohol, with no differences in adverse events. There were no significant differences in relative bioavailability between administering 300 mg GET 73 in the presence or absence of alcohol.

  11. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) mediates vascular endothelial-cadherin-based cell-cell adhesion by regulating beta-catenin tyrosine phosphorylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Buul, Jaap D.; Anthony, Eloise C.; Fernandez-Borja, Mar; Burridge, Keith; Hordijk, Peter L.

    2005-01-01

    Vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin) controls endothelial cell-cell adhesion and preserves endothelial integrity. In order to maintain endothelial barrier function, VE-cadherin function is tightly regulated through mechanisms that involve protein phosphorylation and cytoskeletal dynamics.

  12. Activating omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inhibitory purine nucleotides are high affinity ligands for novel mitochondrial uncoupling proteins UCP2 and UCP3

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žáčková, Markéta; Škobisová, Eva; Urbánková, Eva; Ježek, Petr

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 278, č. 23 (2003), s. 20761-20769 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5011106; GA ČR GA301/02/1215; GA MŠk ME 389 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : uncoupling protein-2 * polyunsaturated fatty acids * recombinant yeast expression Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 6.482, year: 2003

  13. Alteration in cardiac uncoupling proteins and eNOS gene expression following high-intensity interval training in favor of increasing mechanical efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Fallahi, Ali Asghar; Shekarfroush, Shahnaz; Rahimi, Mostafa; Jalali, Amirhossain; Khoshbaten, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): High-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases energy expenditure and mechanical energy efficiency. Although both uncoupling proteins (UCPs) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) affect the mechanical efficiency and antioxidant capacity, their effects are inverse. The aim of this study was to determine whether the alterations of cardiac UCP2, UCP3, and eNOS mRNA expression following HIIT are in favor of increased mechanical efficiency or decreased oxidative stress. Mat...

  14. Transcriptome response signatures associated with the overexpression of a mitochondrial uncoupling protein (AtUCP1 in tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Vasconcellos Nunes Laitz

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial inner membrane uncoupling proteins (UCP dissipate the proton electrochemical gradient established by the respiratory chain, thus affecting the yield of ATP synthesis. UCP overexpression in plants has been correlated with oxidative stress tolerance, improved photosynthetic efficiency and increased mitochondrial biogenesis. This study reports the main transcriptomic responses associated with the overexpression of an UCP (AtUCP1 in tobacco seedlings. Compared to wild-type (WT, AtUCP1 transgenic seedlings showed unaltered ATP levels and higher accumulation of serine. By using RNA-sequencing, a total of 816 differentially expressed genes between the investigated overexpressor lines and the untransformed WT control were identified. Among them, 239 were up-regulated and 577 were down-regulated. As a general response to AtUCP1 overexpression, noticeable changes in the expression of genes involved in energy metabolism and redox homeostasis were detected. A substantial set of differentially expressed genes code for products targeted to the chloroplast and mainly involved in photosynthesis. The overall results demonstrate that the alterations in mitochondrial function provoked by AtUCP1 overexpression require important transcriptomic adjustments to maintain cell homeostasis. Moreover, the occurrence of an important cross-talk between chloroplast and mitochondria, which culminates in the transcriptional regulation of several genes involved in different pathways, was evidenced.

  15. Genetic variants of uncoupling proteins-2 and -3 in relation to maximal oxygen uptake in different sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdys, Joanna; Gronek, Piotr; Kryściak, Jakub; Stanisławski, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 (UCP2 and UCP3) as mitochondrial electron transporters are involved in regulation of ATP production and energy dissipation as heat. Energy efficiency plays an important role in physical performance, especially in aerobic fitness. The aim of this study was to examine the association between maximal oxygen uptake and genetic variants of the UCP2 and UCP3 genes. The studies were carried out in a group of 154 men and 85 women, professional athletes representing various sports and fitness levels and students of the University of Physical Education in Poznań. Physiological and molecular procedures were used, i.e. direct measurement of maximum oxygen uptake (VO₂max) and analysis of an insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in the 3'untranslated region of exon 8 of the UCP2 gene and a C>T substitution in exon 5 (Y210Y) of the UCP3 gene. No statistically significant associations were found, only certain trends. Insertion allele (I) of the I/D UCP2 and the T allele of the UCP3 gene were favourable in obtaining higher VO₂max level and might be considered as endurance-related alleles.

  16. Escherichia coli fusion carrier proteins act as solubilizing agents for recombinant uncoupling protein 1 through interactions with GroEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douette, Pierre; Navet, Rachel; Gerkens, Pascal; Galleni, Moreno; Levy, Daniel; Sluse, Francis E.

    2005-01-01

    Fusing recombinant proteins to highly soluble partners is frequently used to prevent aggregation of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Moreover, co-overexpression of prokaryotic chaperones can increase the amount of properly folded recombinant proteins. To understand the solubility enhancement of fusion proteins, we designed two recombinant proteins composed of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), a mitochondrial membrane protein, in fusion with MBP or NusA. We were able to express soluble forms of MBP-UCP1 and NusA-UCP1 despite the high hydrophobicity of UCP1. Furthermore, the yield of soluble fusion proteins depended on co-overexpression of GroEL that catalyzes folding of polypeptides. MBP-UCP1 was expressed in the form of a non-covalent complex with GroEL. MBP-UCP1/GroEL was purified and characterized by dynamic light scattering, gel filtration, and electron microscopy. Our findings suggest that MBP and NusA act as solubilizing agents by forcing the recombinant protein to pass through the bacterial chaperone pathway in the context of fusion protein

  17. Effect of ionizing radiation in combination with 5-flurouracil on cell cycle uncoupling of EL-4 cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yang; Sun Yanhong; Zhang Xuan; Gong Shouliang; Zhang Wei; Li Song

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the dose-and time-effect of ionizing radiation in combination with 5-flurouracil(5-FU) on the cell cycle uncoupling of EL-4 cell line. Methods: EL-4 cells were collected after irradiation with 0,1.0,2.0 and 4.0 Gy X-irradiation and treatment with 5-FU(0.001,0.010,0.100 and 1.000 mg·L -1 ) for 0,4,8,16,24 and 48 h.The regularity in the polyloid cells was analyzed by flow cytometry(FCM) following staining cells with propidium iodide(PI). Results: As compared with sham-irradiation group,the percentage of diploid EL-4 cells increased significantly at 8-24 h and returned to normal level at 48 h after irradiation with 2.0 Gy X-rays(P -1 group, the percentage of diploid cells decreased obviously at 16-48 h after treatment with 0.100 mg·L -1 5-FU(P -1 group, the percentage of diploid cells decreased significantly 16 h after treatment with different doses 5-FU(P -1 ; the percentage of octoploid cells increased significantly after treatment with 0.010 and 0.100 mg·L -1 5-Fu(P -1 5-FU. (authors)

  18. A Summary of Coupled, Uncoupled, and Hybrid Tectonic Models for the Yakima Fold Belt--Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamness, Michele A.; Winsor, Kelsey; Unwin, Stephen D.

    2012-08-01

    This document is one in a series of topical reports compiled by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to summarize technical information on selected topics important to the performance of a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of the Hanford Site. The purpose of this report is to summarize the range of opinions and supporting information expressed by the expert community regarding whether a coupled or uncoupled model, or a combination of both, best represents structures in the Yakima Fold Belt. This issue was assessed to have a high level of contention with up to moderate potential for impact on the hazard estimate. This report defines the alternative conceptual models relevant to this technical issue and the arguments and data that support those models. It provides a brief description of the technical issue and principal uncertainties; a general overview on the nature of the technical issue, along with alternative conceptual models, supporting arguments and information, and uncertainties; and finally, suggests some possible approaches for reducing uncertainties regarding this issue.

  19. Structures and mechanisms of antitumor agents: xestoquinones uncouple cellular respiration and disrupt HIF signaling in human breast tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lin; Mahdi, Fakhri; Datta, Sandipan; Jekabsons, Mika B; Zhou, Yu-Dong; Nagle, Dale G

    2012-09-28

    The organic extract of a marine sponge, Petrosia alfiani, selectively inhibited iron chelator-induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) activation in a human breast tumor T47D cell-based reporter assay. Bioassay-guided fractionation yielded seven xestoquinones (1-7) including three new compounds: 14-hydroxymethylxestoquinone (1), 15-hydroxymethylxestoquinone (2), and 14,15-dihydroxestoquinone (3). Compounds 1-7 were evaluated for their effects on HIF-1 signaling, mitochondrial respiration, and tumor cell proliferation/viability. The known metabolites adociaquinones A (5) and B (6), which possess a 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-thiazine-1,1-dioxide moiety, potently and selectively inhibited iron chelator-induced HIF-1 activation in T47D cells, each with an IC(50) value of 0.2 μM. Mechanistic studies revealed that adociaquinones promote oxygen consumption without affecting mitochondrial membrane potential. Compound 1 both enhances respiration and decreases mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting that it acts as a protonophore that uncouples mitochondrial respiration.

  20. Myonuclear transcription is responsive to mechanical load and DNA content but uncoupled from cell size during hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Tyler J; Patel, Rooshil M; McClintock, Timothy S; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E; Peterson, Charlotte A; McCarthy, John J

    2016-03-01

    Myofibers increase size and DNA content in response to a hypertrophic stimulus, thus providing a physiological model with which to study how these factors affect global transcription. Using 5-ethynyl uridine (EU) to metabolically label nascent RNA, we measured a sevenfold increase in myofiber transcription during early hypertrophy before a change in cell size and DNA content. The typical increase in myofiber DNA content observed at the later stage of hypertrophy was associated with a significant decrease in the percentage of EU-positive myonuclei; however, when DNA content was held constant by preventing myonuclear accretion via satellite cell depletion, both the number of transcriptionally active myonuclei and the amount of RNA generated by each myonucleus increased. During late hypertrophy, transcription did not scale with cell size, as smaller myofibers (transcriptional activity. Finally, transcription was primarily responsible for changes in the expression of genes known to regulate myofiber size. These findings show that resident myonuclei possess a significant reserve capacity to up-regulate transcription during hypertrophy and that myofiber transcription is responsive to DNA content but uncoupled from cell size during hypertrophy. © 2016 Kirby et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  1. Fipronil is a powerful uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation that triggers apoptosis in human neuronal cell line SHSY5Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidau, Cyril; González-Polo, Rosa A; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Bravo-San Pedro, José M; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Blasco, Rafael; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Belzunces, Luc P; Fuentes, José M

    2011-12-01

    Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole insecticide known to elicit neurotoxicity via an interaction with ionotropic receptors, namely GABA and glutamate receptors. Recently, we showed that fipronil and other phenylpyrazole compounds trigger cell death in Caco-2 cells. In this study, we investigated the mode of action and the type of cell death induced by fipronil in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Flow cytometric and western blot analyses demonstrated that fipronil induces cellular events belonging to the apoptosis process, such as mitochondrial potential collapse, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, nuclear condensation and phosphatidylserine externalization. In addition, fipronil induces a rapid ATP depletion with concomitant activation of anaerobic glycolysis. This cellular response is characteristic of mitochondrial injury associated with a defect of the respiration process. Therefore, we also investigated the effect of fipronil on the oxygen consumption in isolated mitochondria. Interestingly, we show for the first time that fipronil is a strong uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation at relative low concentrations. Thus in this study, we report a new mode of action by which the insecticide fipronil could triggers apoptosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Uncoupling of glomerular IgA deposition and disease progression in alymphoplasia mice with IgA nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Aizawa

    Full Text Available Previous clinical and experimental studies have indicated that cells responsible for IgA nephropathy (IgAN, at least in part, are localized in bone marrow (BM. Indeed, we have demonstrated that murine IgAN can be experimentally reconstituted by bone marrow transplantation (BMT from IgAN prone mice in not only normal mice, but also in alymphoplasia mice (aly/aly independent of IgA+ cells homing to mucosa or secondary lymphoid tissues. The objective of the present study was to further assess whether secondary lymph nodes (LN contribute to the progression of this disease. BM cells from the several lines of IgAN prone mice were transplanted into aly/aly and wild-type mice (B6. Although the transplanted aly/aly showed the same degree of mesangial IgA and IgG deposition and the same serum elevation levels of IgA and IgA-IgG immune-complexes (IC as B6, even in extent, the progression of glomerular injury was observed only in B6. This uncoupling in aly/aly was associated with a lack of CD4+ T cells and macrophage infiltration, although phlogogenic capacity to nephritogenic IC of renal resident cells was identical between both recipients. It is suggested that secondary LN may be required for the full progression of IgAN after nephritogenic IgA and IgA/IgG IC deposition.

  3. Involvement of oxygen free radicals in the respiratory uncoupling induced by free calcium and ADP-magnesium in isolated cardiac mitochondria: comparing reoxygenation in cultured cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meynier, Alexandra; Razik, Hafida; Cordelet, Catherine; Grégoire, Stéphane; Demaison, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Recently, we have observed that the simultaneous application of free calcium (fCa) and ADP-magnesium (Mg) reduced the ADP:O ratio in isolated cardiac mitochondria. The uncoupling was prevented by cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of the permeability transition pore. The purpose of this study was to know if the generation of oxygen free radicals (OFR) is involved in this phenomenon and if it occurs during reoxygenation (Reox) of cultured cardiomyocytes. Cardiac mitochondria were harvested from male Wistar rats. Respiration was assessed in two media with different fCa concentrations (0 or 0.6 microM) with palmitoylcarnitine and ADP-Mg as respiration substrates. The production of Krebs cycle intermediates (KCI) was determined. Without fCa in the medium, the mitochondria displayed a large production of citrate + isocitrate + alpha-ketoglutarate. fCa drastically reduced these KCI and promoted the accumulation of succinate. To know if OFR are involved in the respiratory uncoupling, the effect of 4OH-TEMPO (250 microM), a hydrosoluble scavenger of OFR, was tested. 4OH-TEMPO completely abolished the fCa- and ADP-Mg-induced uncoupling. Conversely, vitamin E contributed to further decreasing the ADP:O ratio. Since no hydrosoluble electron acceptor was added in our experiment, the oxygen free radical-induced oxidized vitamin E was confined near the mitochondrial membranes, which should reduce the ADP:O ratio by opening the permeability transition pore. The generation of OFR could result from the matrix accumulation of succinate. Taken together, these results indicate that mitochondrial Ca uptake induces a slight increase in membrane permeability. Thereafter, Mg enters the matrix and, in combination with Ca, stimulates the isocitrate and/or alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenases. Matrix succinate favors oxygen free radical generation that further increases membrane permeability and allows respiratory uncoupling through proton leakage. To determine whether the phenomenon takes place

  4. Endurance training blocks uncoupling protein 1 up-regulation in brown adipose tissue while increasing uncoupling protein 3 in the muscle tissue of rats fed with a high-sugar diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Karina Barbosa; Rodovalho, Gisele Vieira; Guimarães, Juliana Bohnen; de Lima, Daniel Carvalho; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; Evangelista, Elísio Alberto; Guerra-Sá, Renata

    2012-09-01

    The mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCPs) of interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) and of muscles play important roles in energy balance. For instance, the expression of UCP1 and UCP3 are modulated by free fatty acid gradients induced by high-sugar diets and acute exercise that is dependent on sympathetic stimulation. However, the effects of endurance training in animals fed with high-sugar diets are unknown. This study aims to evaluate the long-term effects of diet and exercise on UCP1 and UCP3 levels and energy balance efficiency. Rats fed with standard or high-sugar (HSD) diets were simultaneously subjected to running training over an 8-week period. After the training period, the rats were decapitated, and the iBAT and gastrocnemius muscle tissues were removed for evaluation of the β₃-receptor, Ucp1, and Ucp3 mRNA and protein expression, which were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, respectively. Groups fed with an HSD displayed a higher adiposity index and iBAT weight (P < .05), whereas exhibited an up-regulation of Ucp1 mRNA and protein levels (P < .05). Training increased β₃-receptor mRNA in iBAT and reduced the Ucp3 mRNA in muscle tissues. In association with an HSD, training restored the increasing β₃-receptor mRNA and greatly up-regulated the levels of Ucp3 mRNA. Therefore, training blocked the HSD-induced up-regulation of UCP1 expression in iBAT, whereas it up-regulated the expression of Ucp3 mRNA in muscle. These results suggest that training enhances the relationship between Ucp1/Ucp3 mRNA levels, which could result in higher energy efficiency, but not when HSD-induced elevated sympathetic activity is maintained. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Inhibition of Group I Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors Reverses Autistic-Like Phenotypes Caused by Deficiency of the Translation Repressor eIF4E Binding Protein 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Valles, Argel; Matta-Camacho, Edna; Khoutorsky, Arkady; Gkogkas, Christos; Nader, Karim; Lacaille, Jean-Claude; Sonenberg, Nahum

    2015-08-05

    Exacerbated mRNA translation during brain development has been linked to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Deletion of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein 2 gene (Eif4ebp2), encoding the suppressor of mRNA translation initiation 4E-BP2, leads to an imbalance in excitatory-to-inhibitory neurotransmission and ASD-like behaviors. Inhibition of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) mGluR1 and mGluR5 reverses the autistic phenotypes in several ASD mouse models. Importantly, these receptors control synaptic physiology via activation of mRNA translation. We investigated the potential reversal of autistic-like phenotypes in Eif4ebp2(-/-) mice by using antagonists of mGluR1 (JNJ16259685) or mGluR5 (fenobam). Augmented hippocampal mGluR-induced long-term depression (LTD; or chemically induced mGluR-LTD) in Eif4ebp2(-/-) mice was rescued by mGluR1 or mGluR5 antagonists. While rescue by mGluR5 inhibition occurs through the blockade of a protein synthesis-dependent component of LTD, normalization by mGluR1 antagonists requires the activation of protein synthesis. Synaptically induced LTD was deficient in Eif4ebp2(-/-) mice, and this deficit was not rescued by group I mGluR antagonists. Furthermore, a single dose of mGluR1 (0.3 mg/kg) or mGluR5 (3 mg/kg) antagonists in vivo reversed the deficits in social interaction and repetitive behaviors (marble burying) in Eif4ebp2(-/-) mice. Our results demonstrate that Eif4ebp2(-/-) mice serve as a relevant model to test potential therapies for ASD symptoms. In addition, we provide substantive evidence that the inhibition of mGluR1/mGluR5 is an effective treatment for physiological and behavioral alterations caused by exacerbated mRNA translation initiation. Exacerbated mRNA translation during brain development is associated with several autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We recently demonstrated that the deletion of a negative regulator of mRNA translation initiation, the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E

  6. Loss of object recognition memory produced by extended access to methamphetamine self-administration is reversed by positive allosteric modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Carmela M; Schwendt, Marek; McGinty, Jacqueline F; Olive, M Foster; See, Ronald E

    2011-03-01

    Chronic methamphetamine (meth) abuse can lead to persisting cognitive deficits. Here, we utilized a long-access meth self-administration (SA) protocol to assess recognition memory and metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) expression, and the possible reversal of cognitive impairments with the mGluR5 allosteric modulator, 3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl) benzamide (CDPPB). Male, Long-Evans rats self-administered i.v. meth (0.02 mg/infusion) on an FR1 schedule of reinforcement or received yoked-saline infusions. After seven daily 1-h sessions, rats were switched to 6-h daily sessions for 14 days, and then underwent drug abstinence. Rats were tested for object recognition memory at 1 week after meth SA at 90 min and 24 h retention intervals. In a separate experiment, rats underwent the same protocol, but received either vehicle or CDPPB (30 mg/kg) after familiarization. Rats were killed on day 8 or 14 post-SA and brain tissue was obtained. Meth intake escalated over the extended access period. Additionally, meth-experienced rats showed deficits in both short- and long-term recognition memory, demonstrated by a lack of novel object exploration. The deficit at 90 min was reversed by CDPPB treatment. On day 8, meth intake during SA negatively correlated with mGluR expression in the perirhinal and prefrontal cortex, and mGluR5 receptor expression was decreased 14 days after discontinuation of meth. This effect was specific to mGluR5 levels in the perirhinal cortex, as no differences were identified in the hippocampus or in mGluR2/3 receptors. These results from a clinically-relevant animal model of addiction suggest that mGluR5 receptor modulation may be a potential treatment of cognitive dysfunction in meth addiction.

  7. The metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGlu5, is required for extinction learning that occurs in the absence of a context change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Marion Agnes Emma; Güntürkün, Onur; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2015-02-01

    The metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors and, in particular, mGlu5 are crucially involved in multiple forms of synaptic plasticity that are believed to underlie explicit memory. MGlu5 is also required for information transfer through neuronal oscillations and for spatial memory. Furthermore, mGlu5 is involved in extinction of implicit forms of learning. This places this receptor in a unique position with regard to information encoding. Here, we explored the role of this receptor in context-dependent extinction learning under constant, or changed, contextual conditions. Animals were trained over 3 days to take a left turn under 25% reward probability in a T-maze with a distinct floor pattern (Context A). On Day 4, they experienced either a floor pattern change (Context B) or the same floor pattern (Context A) in the absence of reward. After acquisition of the task, the animals were returned to the maze once more on Day 5 (Context A, no reward). Treatment with the mGlu5 antagonist, 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl) pyridine, before maze exposure on Day 4 completely inhibited extinction learning in the AAA paradigm but had no effect in the ABA paradigm. A subsequent return to the original context (A, on Day 5) revealed successful extinction in the AAA paradigm, but impairment of extinction in the ABA paradigm. These data support that although extinction learning in a new context is unaffected by mGlu5 antagonism, extinction of the consolidated context is impaired. This suggests that mGlu5 is intrinsically involved in enabling learning that once-relevant information is no longer valid. © 2014 The Authors. Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The Role of Aldehyde Oxidase and Xanthine Oxidase in the Biotransformation of a Novel Negative Allosteric Modulator of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Ryan D.; Blobaum, Anna L.; Byers, Frank W.; Santomango, Tammy S.; Bridges, Thomas M.; Stec, Donald; Brewer, Katrina A.; Sanchez-Ponce, Raymundo; Corlew, Melany M.; Rush, Roger; Felts, Andrew S.; Manka, Jason; Bates, Brittney S.; Venable, Daryl F.; Rodriguez, Alice L.; Jones, Carrie K.; Niswender, Colleen M.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W.; Emmitte, Kyle A.

    2012-01-01

    Negative allosteric modulation (NAM) of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) represents a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of childhood developmental disorders, such as fragile X syndrome and autism. VU0409106 emerged as a lead compound within a biaryl ether series, displaying potent and selective inhibition of mGlu5. Despite its high clearance and short half-life, VU0409106 demonstrated efficacy in rodent models of anxiety after extravascular administration. However, lack of a consistent correlation in rat between in vitro hepatic clearance and in vivo plasma clearance for the biaryl ether series prompted an investigation into the biotransformation of VU0409106 using hepatic subcellular fractions. An in vitro appraisal in rat, monkey, and human liver S9 fractions indicated that the principal pathway was NADPH-independent oxidation to metabolite M1 (+16 Da). Both raloxifene (aldehyde oxidase inhibitor) and allopurinol (xanthine oxidase inhibitor) attenuated the formation of M1, thus implicating the contribution of both molybdenum hydroxylases in the biotransformation of VU0409106. The use of 18O-labeled water in the S9 experiments confirmed the hydroxylase mechanism proposed, because 18O was incorporated into M1 (+18 Da) as well as in a secondary metabolite (M2; +36 Da), the formation of which was exclusively xanthine oxidase-mediated. This unusual dual and sequential hydroxylase metabolism was confirmed in liver S9 and hepatocytes of multiple species and correlated with in vivo data because M1 and M2 were the principal metabolites detected in rats administered VU0409106. An in vitro-in vivo correlation of predicted hepatic and plasma clearance was subsequently established for VU0409106 in rats and nonhuman primates. PMID:22711749

  9. Synthesis, characterization, and first successful monkey imaging studies of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) PET radiotracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, Terence G; Krause, Stephen; Ryan, Christine; Bonnefous, Celine; Govek, Steve; Seiders, T Jon; Cosford, Nicholas D P; Roppe, Jeffrey; Kamenecka, Ted; Patel, Shil; Gibson, Raymond E; Sanabria, Sandra; Riffel, Kerry; Eng, Waisi; King, Christopher; Yang, Xiaoqing; Green, Mitchell D; O'Malley, Stacey S; Hargreaves, Richard; Burns, H Donald

    2005-06-15

    Three metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) PET tracers have been labeled with either carbon-11 or fluorine-18 and their in vitro and in vivo behavior in rhesus monkey has been characterized. Each of these tracers share the common features of high affinity for mGluR5 (0.08-0.23 nM vs. rat mGluR5) and moderate lipophilicity (log P 2.8-3.4). Compound 1b was synthesized using a Suzuki or Stille coupling reaction with [11C]MeI. Compounds 2b and 3b were synthesized by a SNAr reaction using a 3-chlorobenzonitrile precursor. Autoradiographic studies in rhesus monkey brain slices using 2b and 3b showed specific binding in cortex, caudate, putamen, amygdala, hippocampus, most thalamic nuclei, and lower binding in the cerebellum. PET imaging studies in monkey showed that all three tracers readily enter the brain and provide an mGluR5-specific signal in all gray matter regions, including the cerebellum. The specific signal observed in the cerebellum was confirmed by the autoradiographic studies and saturation binding experiments that showed tracer binding in the cerebellum of rhesus monkeys. In vitro metabolism studies using the unlabeled compounds showed that 1a, 2a, and 3a are metabolized slower by human liver microsomes than by monkey liver microsomes. In vivo metabolism studies showed 3b to be long-lived in rhesus plasma with only one other more polar metabolite observed. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Fear potentiated startle increases phospholipase D (PLD) expression/activity and PLD-linked metabotropic glutamate receptor mediated post-tetanic potentiation in rat amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Balaji; Scott, Michael T; Pollandt, Sebastian; Schroeder, Bradley; Kurosky, Alexander; Shinnick-Gallagher, Patricia

    2016-02-01

    Long-term memory (LTM) of fear stores activity dependent modifications that include changes in amygdala signaling. Previously, we identified an enhanced probability of release of glutamate mediated signaling to be important in rat fear potentiated startle (FPS), a well-established translational behavioral measure of fear. Here, we investigated short- and long-term synaptic plasticity in FPS involving metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and associated downstream proteomic changes in the thalamic-lateral amygdala pathway (Th-LA). Aldolase A, an inhibitor of phospholipase D (PLD), expression was reduced, concurrent with significantly elevated PLD protein expression. Blocking the PLD-mGluR signaling significantly reduced PLD activity. While transmitter release probability increased in FPS, PLD-mGluR agonist and antagonist actions were occluded. In the unpaired group (UNP), blocking the PLD-mGluR increased while activating the receptor decreased transmitter release probability, consistent with decreased synaptic potentials during tetanic stimulation. FPS Post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) immediately following long-term potentiation (LTP) induction was significantly increased. Blocking PLD-mGluR signaling prevented PTP and reduced cumulative PTP probability but not LTP maintenance in both groups. These effects are similar to those mediated through mGluR7, which is co-immunoprecipitated with PLD in FPS. Lastly, blocking mGluR-PLD in the rat amygdala was sufficient to prevent behavioral expression of fear memory. Thus, our study in the Th-LA pathway provides the first evidence for PLD as an important target of mGluR signaling in amygdala fear-associated memory. Importantly, the PLD-mGluR provides a novel therapeutic target for treating maladaptive fear memories in posttraumatic stress and anxiety disorders. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Blockade of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors produces hyper-locomotion in cocaine pre-exposed rats by interactions with dopamine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyung Shin; Jang, Ju Kyong; Kim, Jeong-Hoon

    2008-09-01

    It was previously reported that blockade of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) produces hyper-locomotion in rats previously exposed to amphetamine, indicating that group II mGluRs are well positioned to modulate the expression of behavioral sensitization by amphetamine. The present study further examined the locomotor activating effects of specific blockade of these receptors after cocaine pre-exposures. First, rats were pre-exposed to seven daily injections of cocaine (15mg/kg, IP). When challenged the next day with an injection of either saline or the group II mGluR antagonist LY341495 (0.5, 1.0 or 2.5mg/kg, IP), they produced hyper-locomotor activity, measured by infrared beam interruptions, to LY341495 compared to saline in a dose-dependent manner. Second, rats were pre-exposed to either saline or seven daily injections of cocaine (15mg/kg, IP). Three weeks later, when they were challenged with an injection of either saline or LY341495 (1.0mg/kg, IP), only rats pre-exposed to cocaine produced hyper-locomotor activity to LY341495 compared to saline. These effects, however, were not present when dopamine D1 (SCH23390; 5 or 10microg/kg), but not D2 (eticlopride; 10 or 50microg/kg), receptor antagonist was pre-injected, indicating that this cocaine-induced hyper-locomotor activity to LY341495 may be mediated in dopamine D1 receptor-dependent manner. These results suggest that group II mGluRs may be adapted to interact with dopaminergic neuronal signaling in mediating the sensitized locomotor activity produced by repeated cocaine pre-exposures.

  12. Peri-adolescent drinking of ethanol and/or nicotine modulates astroglial glutamate transporters and metabotropic glutamate receptor-1 in female alcohol-preferring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasmari, Fawaz; Bell, Richard L; Rao, P S S; Hammad, Alaa M; Sari, Youssef

    2018-07-01

    Impairment in glutamate neurotransmission mediates the development of dependence upon nicotine (NIC) and ethanol (EtOH). Previous work indicates that continuous access to EtOH or phasic exposure to NIC reduces expression of the glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and cystine/glutamate antiporter (xCT) but not the glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST). Additionally, metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) expression was affected following exposure to EtOH or NIC. However, little is known about the effects of EtOH and NIC co-consumption on GLT-1, xCT, GLAST, and mGluR1 expression. In this study, peri-adolescent female alcohol preferring (P) rats were given binge-like access to water, sucrose (SUC), SUC-NIC, EtOH, or EtOH-NIC for four weeks. The present study determined the effects of these reinforcers on GLT-1, xCT, GLAST, and mGluR1 expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), hippocampus (HIP) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). GLT-1 and xCT expression were decreased in the NAc following both SUC-NIC and EtOH-NIC. In addition, only xCT expression was downregulated in the HIP in both of these latter groups. Also, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the HIP was reduced following SUC, SUC-NIC, EtOH, and EtOH-NIC consumption. Similar to previous work, GLAST expression was not altered in any brain region by any of the reinforcers. However, mGluR1 expression was increased in the NAc in the SUC-NIC, EtOH, and EtOH-NIC groups. These results indicate that peri-adolescent binge-like drinking of EtOH or SUC with or without NIC may exert differential effects on astroglial glutamate transporters and receptors. Our data further parallel some of the previous findings observed in adult rats. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. The selective metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonist mavoglurant (AFQ056) reduces the incidence of reflux episodes in dogs and patients with moderate to severe gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouzade-Dominguez, M-L; Pezous, N; David, O J; Tutuian, R; Bruley des Varannes, S; Tack, J; Malfertheiner, P; Allescher, H-D; Ufer, M; Rühl, A

    2017-08-01

    Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) induced by gastric distension are modulated by the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) that influences the vagal reflex loop. We therefore aimed to examine the effects of the selective mGluR5 antagonist mavoglurant (AFQ056) on the number of TLESRs in dogs and reflux episodes in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). In a dog model, the number of meal-induced TLESRs was determined after intravenous (0.03, 0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg kg -1 ) and oral (1, 3, and 10 mg kg -1 ) doses of mavoglurant with reference to vehicle. In a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-period crossover study, the incidence of meal-induced reflux episodes was assessed by esophageal impedance monitoring after single, oral doses of mavoglurant (50 and 400 mg) or baclofen (40 mg) in 30 patients with moderate to severe GERD. In dogs, mavoglurant reduced the number of TLESRs after intravenous and oral administration. In patients with GERD, the incidence of postprandial reflux episodes was significantly lower at a dose of 400 mg mavoglurant (-37.5% ; 90% confidence interval [CI]: -57.8, -17.2), whereas there was no significant difference at 50 mg of mavoglurant compared to placebo. A significantly lower incidence of reflux episodes was also noted with the active comparator baclofen (-50.3%; 90% CI: -66.2, -34.3), thereby validating this study. These data suggest a potential clinical benefit of mGluR5 antagonists such as mavoglurant in patients with GERD, particularly in those with persisting symptoms despite treatment with proton pump inhibitors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Methoxyphenylethynyl, methoxypyridylethynyl and phenylethynyl derivatives of pyridine: synthesis, radiolabeling and evaluation of new PET ligands for metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Meixiang; Tueckmantel, Werner; Wang, Xukui; Zhu Aijun; Kozikowski, Alan P.; Brownell, Anna-Liisa

    2005-01-01

    We have synthesized three different PET ligands to investigate the physiological function of metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptors (mGluR5) in vivo: 2-[ 11 C]methyl-6-(2-phenylethynyl)pyridine ([ 11 C]MPEP), 2-(2-(3-[ 11 C]methoxyphenyl)ethynyl)pyridine ([ 11 C]M-MPEP) and 2-(2-(5-[ 11 C]methoxypyridin-3-yl)ethynyl)pyridine ([ 11 C]M-PEPy). [ 11 C]Methyl iodide was used to label the compounds under basic conditions, and a Pd(0) catalyst was applied to label [ 11 C]MPEP in a Stille coupling reaction. In vivo microPET imaging studies of the functional accumulation of radiolabeled ligands were conducted in 35 rats (Sprague-Dawley, 8 weeks old male, weight of 300 g). Specific binding was tested using pre-administration of unlabeled mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-(2-phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP) (10 mg/kg iv 5 min before radioactivity injection). In the radiolabeling of [ 11 C]MPEP, [ 11 C]M-MPEP and [ 11 C]M-PEPy, a specific radioactivity of 700-1200 mCi/μmol and over 97% radiochemical purity were obtained. The microPET studies showed these three radiolabeled mGluR5 antagonists having the highest binding in the olfactory bulb followed by striatum, hippocampus and cortex. Pre-administration of the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP induced a 45.1% decrease in [ 11 C]MPEP binding, a 59.7% decrease in [ 11 C]M-MPEP binding and an 84.6% decrease in [ 11 C]M-PEPy binding in the olfactory bulb at 5 min. The feasibility of synthesizing high-affinity and high-selectivity ligands for mGluR5 receptors and their suitability as PET imaging ligands for mGluR5 receptors in vivo are demonstrated

  15. Stimulation of the metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) 2 receptor attenuates the MK-801-induced increase in the immobility time in the forced swimming test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaura, Kazuaki; Karasawa, Jun-Ichi; Hikichi, Hirohiko

    2016-02-01

    Negative symptoms of schizophrenia are poorly managed using the currently available antipsychotics. Previous studies indicate that agonists of the metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) 2/3 receptors may provide a novel approach for the treatment of schizophrenia. However, the effects of mGlu2/3 receptor agonists or mGlu2 receptor positive allosteric modulators have not yet been clearly elucidated in animal models of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Recently, we reported that the forced swimming test in rats treated with subchronic MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist, may be regarded as a useful test to evaluate the activities of drugs against the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. We evaluated the effects of LY379268, an mGlu2/3 receptor agonist, and BINA, an mGlu2 receptor positive allosteric modulator, on the hyperlocomotion induced by acute administration of MK-801 (0.15mg/kg, sc) and on the increase in the immobility time in the forced swimming test induced by subchronic treatment with MK-801 (0.5mg/kg, sc, twice a day for 7 days) in rats. Both LY379268 (3mg/kg, sc) and BINA (100mg/kg, ip) attenuated the increase in the immobility time induced by subchronic treatment with MK-801 at the same doses at which they attenuated the MK-801-induced increase in locomotor activity, but had no effect on the immobility time in saline-treated rats. The present results suggest that stimulation of the mGlu2 receptor attenuates the increase in the immobility time in the forced swimming test elicited by subchronic administration of MK-801, and may be potentially useful for treatment of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  16. In-vivo effects of knocking-down metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in the SOD1G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacino, Tiziana; Cattaneo, Luca; Gallia, Elena; Puliti, Aldamaria; Melone, Marcello; Provenzano, Francesca; Bossi, Simone; Musante, Ilaria; Usai, Cesare; Conti, Fiorenzo; Bonanno, Giambattista; Milanese, Marco

    2017-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder due to loss of upper and lower motor neurons (MNs). The mechanisms of neuronal death are largely unknown, thus prejudicing the successful pharmacological treatment. One major cause for MN degeneration in ALS is represented by glutamate(Glu)-mediated excitotoxicity. We have previously reported that activation of Group I metabotropic Glu receptors (mGluR1 and mGluR5) at glutamatergic spinal cord nerve terminals produces abnormal Glu release in the widely studied SOD1 G93A mouse model of ALS. We also demonstrated that halving mGluR1 expression in the SOD1 G93A mouse had a positive impact on survival, disease onset, disease progression, and on a number of cellular and biochemical readouts of ALS. We generated here SOD1 G93A mice with reduced expression of mGluR5 (SOD1 G93A Grm5 -/+ ) by crossing the SOD1 G93A mutant mouse with the mGluR5 heterozigous Grm5 -/+ mouse. SOD1 G93A Grm5 -/+ mice showed prolonged survival probability and delayed pathology onset. These effects were associated to enhanced number of preserved MNs, decreased astrocyte and microglia activation, reduced cytosolic free Ca 2+ concentration, and regularization of abnormal Glu release in the spinal cord of SOD1 G93A Grm5 -/+ mice. Unexpectedly, only male SOD1 G93A Grm5 -/+ mice showed improved motor skills during disease progression vs. SOD1 G93A mice, while SOD1 G93A Grm5 -/+ females did not. These results demonstrate that a lower constitutive level of mGluR5 has a significant positive impact in mice with ALS and support the idea that blocking Group I mGluRs may represent a potentially effective pharmacological approach to the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pharmacology of basimglurant (RO4917523, RG7090), a unique metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 negative allosteric modulator in clinical development for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Lothar; Porter, Richard H; Scharf, Sebastian H; Kuennecke, Basil; Bruns, Andreas; von Kienlin, Markus; Harrison, Anthony C; Paehler, Axel; Funk, Christoph; Gloge, Andreas; Schneider, Manfred; Parrott, Neil J; Polonchuk, Liudmila; Niederhauser, Urs; Morairty, Stephen R; Kilduff, Thomas S; Vieira, Eric; Kolczewski, Sabine; Wichmann, Juergen; Hartung, Thomas; Honer, Michael; Borroni, Edilio; Moreau, Jean-Luc; Prinssen, Eric; Spooren, Will; Wettstein, Joseph G; Jaeschke, Georg

    2015-04-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious public health burden and a leading cause of disability. Its pharmacotherapy is currently limited to modulators of monoamine neurotransmitters and second-generation antipsychotics. Recently, glutamatergic approaches for the treatment of MDD have increasingly received attention, and preclinical research suggests that metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) inhibitors have antidepressant-like properties. Basimglurant (2-chloro-4-[1-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-2,5-dimethyl-1H-imidazol-4-ylethynyl]-pyridine) is a novel mGlu5 negative allosteric modulator currently in phase 2 clinical development for MDD and fragile X syndrome. Here, the comprehensive preclinical pharmacological profile of basimglurant is presented with a focus on its therapeutic potential for MDD and drug-like properties. Basimglurant is a potent, selective, and safe mGlu5 inhibitor with good oral bioavailability and long half-life supportive of once-daily administration, good brain penetration, and high in vivo potency. It has antidepressant properties that are corroborated by its functional magnetic imaging profile as well as anxiolytic-like and antinociceptive features. In electroencephalography recordings, basimglurant shows wake-promoting effects followed by increased delta power during subsequent non-rapid eye movement sleep. In microdialysis studies, basimglurant had no effect on monoamine transmitter levels in the frontal cortex or nucleus accumbens except for a moderate increase of accumbal dopamine, which is in line with its lack of pharmacological activity on monoamine reuptake transporters. These data taken together, basimglurant has favorable drug-like properties, a differentiated molecular mechanism of action, and antidepressant-like features that suggest the possibility of also addressing important comorbidities of MDD including anxiety and pain as well as daytime sleepiness and apathy or lethargy. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for

  18. Metabotropic glutamate receptor I (mGluR1) antagonism impairs cocaine-induced conditioned place preference via inhibition of protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Zhong, Peng; Liu, Xiaojie; Sun, Dalong; Gao, Hai-Qing; Liu, Qing-Song

    2013-06-01

    Antagonism of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1 and mGluR5) reduces behavioral effects of drugs of abuse, including cocaine. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Activation of mGluR5 increases protein synthesis at synapses. Although mGluR5-induced excessive protein synthesis has been implicated in the pathology of fragile X syndrome, it remains unknown whether group I mGluR-mediated protein synthesis is involved in any behavioral effects of drugs of abuse. We report that group I mGluR agonist DHPG induced more pronounced initial depression of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) followed by modest long-term depression (I-LTD) in dopamine neurons of rat ventral tegmental area (VTA) through the activation of mGluR1. The early component of DHPG-induced depression of IPSCs was mediated by the cannabinoid CB1 receptors, while DHPG-induced I-LTD was dependent on protein synthesis. Western blotting analysis indicates that mGluR1 was coupled to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways to increase translation. We also show that cocaine conditioning activated translation machinery in the VTA via an mGluR1-dependent mechanism. Furthermore, intra-VTA microinjections of mGluR1 antagonist JNJ16259685 and protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide significantly attenuated or blocked the acquisition of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and activation of translation elongation factors. Taken together, these results suggest that mGluR1 antagonism inhibits de novo protein synthesis; this effect may block the formation of cocaine-cue associations and thus provide a mechanism for the reduction in CPP to cocaine.

  19. Long-term activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors increases functional TRPV1-expressing neurons in mouse dorsal root ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi eMasuoka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Damaged tissues release glutamate and other chemical mediators for several hours. These chemical mediators contribute to modulation of pruritus and pain. Herein, we investigated the effects of long-term activation of excitatory glutamate receptors on functional expression of transient receptor potential vaniloid type 1 (TRPV1 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons and then on thermal pain behavior. In order to detect the TRPV1-mediated responses in cultured DRG neurons, we monitored intracellular calcium responses to capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist, with Fura-2. Long-term (4 h treatment with glutamate receptor agonists (glutamate, quisqualate or DHPG increased the proportion of neurons responding to capsaicin through activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR1, and only partially through the activation of mGluR5; engagement of these receptors was evident in neurons responding to allylisothiocyanate (AITC, a transient receptor potential ankyrin type 1 (TRPA1 agonist. Increase in the proportion was suppressed by phospholipase C, protein kinase C, mitogen/extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase or transcription inhibitors. Whole-cell recording was performed to record TRPV1-mediated membrane current; TRPV1 current density significantly increased in the AITC-sensitive neurons after the quisqualate treatment. To elucidate the physiological significance of this phenomenon, a hot plate test was performed. Intraplantar injection of quisqualate or DHPG induced heat hyperalgesia that lasted for 4 h post injection. This chronic hyperalgesia was attenuated by treatment with either mGluR1 or mGluR5 antagonists. These results suggest that long-term activation of mGluR1/5 by peripherally released glutamate may increase the number of neurons expressing functional TRPV1 in DRG, which may be strongly associated with chronic hyperalgesia.

  20. Paradoxical sleep deprivation in rats causes a selective reduction in the expression of type-2 metabotropic glutamate receptors in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaccione, Isabella; Iacovelli, Luisa; di Nuzzo, Luigi; Nardecchia, Francesca; Mauro, Gianluca; Janiri, Delfina; De Blasi, Antonio; Sani, Gabriele; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Orlando, Rosamaria

    2017-03-01

    Paradoxical sleep deprivation in rats is considered as an experimental animal model of mania endowed with face, construct, and pharmacological validity. We induced paradoxical sleep deprivation by placing rats onto a small platform surrounded by water. This procedure caused the animal to fall in the water at the onset of REM phase of sleep. Control rats were either placed onto a larger platform (which allowed them to sleep) or maintained in their home cage. Sleep deprived rats showed a substantial reduction in type-2 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu2) receptors mRNA and protein levels in the hippocampus, but not in the prefrontal cortex or corpus striatum, as compared to both groups of control rats. No changes in the expression of mGlu3 receptor mRNA levels or mGlu1α and mGlu5 receptor protein levels were found with exception of an increase in mGlu1α receptor levels in the striatum of SD rats. Moving from these findings we treated SD and control rats with the selective mGlu2 receptor enhancer, BINA (30mg/kg, i.p.). SD rats were also treated with sodium valproate (300mg/kg, i.p.) as an active comparator. Both BINA and sodium valproate were effective in reversing the manic-like phenotype evaluated in an open field arena in SD rats. BINA treatment had no effect on motor activity in control rats, suggesting that our findings were not biased by a non-specific motor-lowering activity of BINA. These findings suggest that changes in the expression of mGlu2 receptors may be associated with the enhanced motor activity observed with mania. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In vivo positron emission tomography imaging with [{sup 11}C]ABP688: binding variability and specificity for the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 in baboons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLorenzo, Christine; Brennan, Kathleen G. [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Division of Molecular Imaging and Neuropathology, Department of Psychiatry, NYSPI Mail Unit 42, New York, NY (United States); Milak, Matthew S.; Parsey, Ramin V. [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Division of Molecular Imaging and Neuropathology, Department of Psychiatry, NYSPI Mail Unit 42, New York, NY (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY (United States); Kumar, J.S.D.; Mann, J.J. [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Division of Molecular Imaging and Neuropathology, Department of Psychiatry, NYSPI Mail Unit 42, New York, NY (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY (United States); Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) dysfunction has been implicated in several disorders. [{sup 11}C]ABP688, a positron emission tomography (PET) ligand targeting mGluR5, could be a valuable tool in the development of novel therapeutics for these disorders by establishing in vivo drug occupancy. Due to safety concerns in humans, these studies may be performed in nonhuman primates. Therefore, in vivo characterization of [{sup 11}C]ABP688 in nonhuman primates is essential. Test-retest studies were performed in baboons (Papio anubis) to compare modeling approaches and determine the optimal reference region. The mGluR5-specific antagonist 3-((2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl)pyridine (MTEP) was then used in test-block studies, in which ligand binding was measured before and after MTEP administration. Test/block data were analyzed both by calculating changes in binding and using a graphical approach, which allowed estimation of both MTEP occupancy and nonspecific binding. Test-retest results, which have not been previously reported for [{sup 11}C]ABP688, indicated that [{sup 11}C]ABP688 variability is low using an unconstrained two-tissue compartment model. The most appropriate, though not ideal, reference region was found to be the gray matter of the cerebellum. Using these optimal modeling techniques on the test/block data, about 90% occupancy was estimated by the graphical approach. These studies are the first to demonstrate the specificity of [{sup 11}C]ABP688 for mGluR5 with in vivo PET in nonhuman primates. The results indicate that, in baboons, occupancy of mGluR5 is detectable by in vivo PET, a useful finding for proceeding to human studies, or performing further baboon studies, quantifying the in vivo occupancy of novel therapeutics targeting mGluR5. (orig.)

  2. Role of nitric oxide synthase uncoupling at rostral ventrolateral medulla in redox-sensitive hypertension associated with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kay L H; Chao, Yung-Mei; Tsay, Shiow-Jen; Chen, Chen Hsiu; Chan, Samuel H H; Dovinova, Ima; Chan, Julie Y H

    2014-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is rapidly becoming prevalent worldwide, is long known to be associated with hypertension and recently with oxidative stress. Of note is that oxidative stress in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), where sympathetic premotor neurons reside, contributes to sympathoexcitation and hypertension. This study sought to identify the source of tissue oxidative stress in RVLM and their roles in neural mechanism of hypertension associated with MetS. Adult normotensive rats subjected to a high-fructose diet for 8 weeks developed metabolic traits of MetS, alongside increases in sympathetic vasomotor activity and blood pressure. In RVLM of these MetS rats, the tissue level of reactive oxygen species was increased, nitric oxide (NO) was decreased, and mitochondrial electron transport capacity was reduced. Whereas the protein expression of neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) or protein inhibitor of nNOS was increased, the ratio of nNOS dimer/monomer was significantly decreased. Oral intake of pioglitazone or intracisternal infusion of tempol or coenzyme Q10 significantly abrogated all those molecular events in high-fructose diet-fed rats and ameliorated sympathoexcitation and hypertension. Gene silencing of protein inhibitor of nNOS mRNA in RVLM using lentivirus carrying small hairpin RNA inhibited protein inhibitor of nNOS expression, increased the ratio of nNOS dimer/monomer, restored NO content, and alleviated oxidative stress in RVLM of high-fructose diet-fed rats, alongside significantly reduced sympathoexcitation and hypertension. These results suggest that redox-sensitive and protein inhibitor of nNOS-mediated nNOS uncoupling is engaged in a vicious cycle that sustains the production of reactive oxygen species in RVLM, resulting in sympathoexcitation and hypertension associated with MetS. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Optimal response of key enzymes and uncoupling protein to cold in BAT depends on local T3 generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianco, A.C.; Silva, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have examined the activity of three lipogenic enzymes [malic enzyme (ME), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), and acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase], the activity of the mitochondrial FAD-dependent α-glycerolphosphate dehydrogenase (α-GPD), and the mitochondrial concentration of uncoupling protein (UCP) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) of euthyroid and hypothyroid rats, both at room temperature and in response to acute cold stress. These enzymes and UCP are important for the thermogenic response of BAT in adaptation to cold. The basal level of the lipogenic enzymes was normal or slightly elevated in hypothyroid rats maintained at 23 0 C, but the levels of α-GPD and UCP were markedly reduced. Forty-eight hours at 4 0 C resulted in an increase in the activity of G-6-PD, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and α-GPD and in the concentration of UCP both in euthyroid and hypothyroid animals, but the levels reached were invariably less in hypothyroid animals, indicating that thyroid hormone is necessary for a full metabolic response of BAT under maximal demands. Of all variables measured, the most affected was UCP followed by α-GDP. Dose-response relationship analysis of the UCP response to T 3 indicated that the normalization of the response to cold requires saturation of the nuclear T 3 receptors. They concluded, therefore, that the activation of the BAT 5'-deiodinase induced by cold exposure is essential to provide the high levels of nuclear T 3 required for the full expression of BAT thermogenic potential

  4. Genipin-induced inhibition of uncoupling protein-2 sensitizes drug-resistant cancer cells to cytotoxic agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J Mailloux

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2 is known to suppress mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS production and is employed by drug-resistant cancer cells to mitigate oxidative stress. Using the drug-sensitive HL-60 cells and the drug-resistant MX2 subline as model systems, we show that genipin, a UCP2 inhibitor, sensitizes drug-resistant cells to cytotoxic agents. Increased MX2 cell death was observed upon co-treatment with genipin and different doses of menadione, doxorubicin, and epirubicin. DCFH-DA fluorimetry revealed that the increase in MX2 cell death was accompanied by enhanced cellular ROS levels. The drug-induced increase in ROS was linked to genipin-mediated inhibition of mitochondrial proton leak. State 4 and resting cellular respiratory rates were higher in the MX2 cells in comparison to the HL-60 cells, and the increased respiration was readily suppressed by genipin in the MX2 cells. UCP2 accounted for a remarkable 37% of the resting cellular oxygen consumption indicating that the MX2 cells are functionally reliant on this protein. Higher amounts of UCP2 protein were detected in the MX2 versus the HL-60 mitochondria. The observed effects of genipin were absent in the HL-60 cells pointing to the selectivity of this natural product for drug-resistant cells. The specificity of genipin for UCP2 was confirmed using CHO cells stably expressing UCP2 in which genipin induced an ∼22% decrease in state 4 respiration. These effects were absent in empty vector CHO cells expressing no UCP2. Thus, the chemical inhibition of UCP2 with genipin sensitizes multidrug-resistant cancer cells to cytotoxic agents.

  5. American Ginseng Stimulates Insulin Production and Prevents Apoptosis through Regulation of Uncoupling Protein-2 in Cultured β Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Zeqi Luo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available American ginseng root displays the ability to achieve glucose homeostasis both experimentally and clinically but the unknown mechanism used by ginseng to achieve its therapeutic effects on diabetes limits its application. Disruption in the insulin secretion of pancreatic β cells is considered the major cause of diabetes. A mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2 has been found to play a critical role in insulin synthesis and β cell survival. Our preliminary studies found that the extracts of American ginseng inhibit UCP-2 expression which may contribute to the ability of ginseng protecting β cell death and improving insulin synthesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that ginseng extracts suppress UCP-2 in the mitochondria of pancreatic β cells, promoting insulin synthesis and anti-apoptosis (a programmed cell-death mechanism. To test the hypothesis, the serum-deprived quiescent β cells were cultured with or without interleukin-1β (IL-1β, (200 pg ml−1, a cytokine to induce β cell apoptosis and water extracts of American ginseng (25 μg per 5 μl administered to wells of 0.5 ml culture for 24 h. We evaluated effects of ginseng on UCP-2 expression, insulin production, anti-/pro-apoptotic factors Bcl-2/caspase-9 expression and cellular ATP levels. We found that ginseng suppresses UCP-2, down-regulates caspase-9 while increasing ATP and insulin production/secretion and up-regulates Bcl-2, reducing apoptosis. These findings suggest that stimulation of insulin production and prevention of β cell loss by American ginseng extracts can occur via the inhibition of mitochondrial UCP-2, resulting in increase in the ATP level and the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2, while down-regulation of pro-apoptotic factor caspase-9 occurs, lowering the occurrence of apoptosis, which support the hypothesis.

  6. SET overexpression in HEK293 cells regulates mitochondrial uncoupling proteins levels within a mitochondrial fission/reduced autophagic flux scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Luciana O.; Goto, Renata N. [Department of Clinical Analyses, Toxicology and Food Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Neto, Marinaldo P.C. [Department of Physics and Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Sousa, Lucas O. [Department of Clinical Analyses, Toxicology and Food Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Curti, Carlos [Department of Physics and Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Leopoldino, Andréia M., E-mail: andreiaml@usp.br [Department of Clinical Analyses, Toxicology and Food Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-06

    We hypothesized that SET, a protein accumulated in some cancer types and Alzheimer disease, is involved in cell death through mitochondrial mechanisms. We addressed the mRNA and protein levels of the mitochondrial uncoupling proteins UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 (S and L isoforms) by quantitative real-time PCR and immunofluorescence as well as other mitochondrial involvements, in HEK293 cells overexpressing the SET protein (HEK293/SET), either in the presence or absence of oxidative stress induced by the pro-oxidant t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP). SET overexpression in HEK293 cells decreased UCP1 and increased UCP2 and UCP3 (S/L) mRNA and protein levels, whilst also preventing lipid peroxidation and decreasing the content of cellular ATP. SET overexpression also (i) decreased the area of mitochondria and increased the number of organelles and lysosomes, (ii) increased mitochondrial fission, as demonstrated by increased FIS1 mRNA and FIS-1 protein levels, an apparent accumulation of DRP-1 protein, and an increase in the VDAC protein level, and (iii) reduced autophagic flux, as demonstrated by a decrease in LC3B lipidation (LC3B-II) in the presence of chloroquine. Therefore, SET overexpression in HEK293 cells promotes mitochondrial fission and reduces autophagic flux in apparent association with up-regulation of UCP2 and UCP3; this implies a potential involvement in cellular processes that are deregulated such as in Alzheimer's disease and cancer. - Highlights: • SET, UCPs and autophagy prevention are correlated. • SET action has mitochondrial involvement. • UCP2/3 may reduce ROS and prevent autophagy. • SET protects cell from ROS via UCP2/3.

  7. Ursolic Acid-enriched herba cynomorii extract induces mitochondrial uncoupling and glutathione redox cycling through mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation: protection against menadione cytotoxicity in h9c2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jihang; Wong, Hoi Shan; Ko, Kam Ming

    2014-01-27

    Herba Cynomorii (Cynomorium songaricum Rupr., Cynomoriaceae) is one of the most commonly used 'Yang-invigorating' tonic herbs in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). An earlier study in our laboratory has demonstrated that HCY2, an ursolic acid-enriched fraction derived from Herba Cynomorii, increased mitochondrial ATP generation capacity (ATP-GC) and induced mitochondrial uncoupling as well as a cellular glutathione response, thereby protecting against oxidant injury in H9c2 cells. In this study, we demonstrated that pre-incubation of H9c2 cells with HCY2 increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in these cells, which is likely an event secondary to the stimulation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The suppression of mitochondrial ROS by the antioxidant dimethylthiourea abrogated the HCY2-induced enhancement of mitochondrial uncoupling and glutathione reductase (GR)-mediated glutathione redox cycling, and also protected against menadione-induced cytotoxicity. Studies using specific inhibitors of uncoupling protein and GR suggested that the HCY2-induced mitochondrial uncoupling and glutathione redox cycling play a determining role in the cytoprotection against menadione-induced oxidant injury in H9c2 cells. Experimental evidence obtained thus far supports the causal role of HCY2-induced mitochondrial ROS production in eliciting mitochondrial uncoupling and glutathione antioxidant responses, which offer cytoprotection against oxidant injury in H9c2 cells.

  8. Antioxidant activity by a synergy of redox-sensitive mitochondrial phospholipase A2 and uncoupling protein-2 in lung and spleen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jabůrek, Martin; Ježek, Jan; Zelenka, Jaroslav; Ježek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2013), s. 816-825 ISSN 1357-2725 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/10/0346; GA ČR(CZ) GPP303/11/P320; GA MŠk(CZ) ME09018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP2 * mitochondrial phospholipase A(2) isoform gamma * mitochondrial oxidative stress attenuation * fatty acid * antioxidant mechanism Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.240, year: 2013

  9. A new automated technique for the reconstitution of hydrophobic proteins into planar bilayer membranes. Studies of human recombinant uncoupling protein 1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beck, V.; Jabůrek, Martin; Breen, E. P.; Porter, R. K.; Ježek, Petr; Pohl, E. E.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 1757, č. 5-6 (2006), s. 474-479 ISSN 0005-2728 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5011106; GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05ME794 Grant - others:Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) Po-524/2-2; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) 436 TSE 113/44/0-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : artificial membranes * uncoupling protein-1 Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.237, year: 2006

  10. Preclinical evaluation and test-retest studies of [{sup 18}F]PSS232, a novel radioligand for targeting metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu{sub 5})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milicevic Sephton, Selena; Mueller Herde, Adrienne; Keller, Claudia; Ruedisuehli, Sonja; Schibli, Roger; Kraemer, Stefanie D.; Ametamey, Simon M. [Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences of ETH, PSI and USZ, Zurich (Switzerland); Mu, Linjing [University Hospital Zuerich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zuerich (Switzerland); Auberson, Yves [Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-01-15

    A novel, {sup 18}F-labelled metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu{sub 5}) derivative of [{sup 11}C]ABP688 ([{sup 11}C]1), [{sup 18}F]PSS232 ([{sup 18}F]5), was evaluated in vitro and in vivo for its potential as a PET agent and was used in test-retest reliability studies The radiosynthesis of [{sup 18}F]5 was accomplished via a one-step reaction using a mesylate precursor. In vitro stability was determined in PBS and plasma, and with liver microsomal enzymes. Metabolite studies were performed using rat brain extracts, blood and urine. In vitro autoradiography was performed on horizontal slices of rat brain using 1 and 8, antagonists for mGlu{sub 5} and mGlu{sub 1}, respectively. Small-animal PET, biodistribution, and test-retest studies were performed in Wistar rats. In vivo, dose-dependent displacement studies were performed using 6 and blocking studies with 7. [{sup 18}F]5 was obtained in decay-corrected maximal radiochemical yield of 37 % with a specific activity of 80 - 400 GBq/μmol. Treatment with rat and human microsomal enzymes in vitro for 60 min resulted in 20 % and 4 % of hydrophilic radiometabolites, respectively. No hydrophilic decomposition products or radiometabolites were found in PBS or plasma. In vitro autoradiography on rat brain slices showed a heterogeneous distribution consistent with the known distribution of mGlu{sub 5} with high binding to hippocampal and cortical regions, and negligible radioactivity in the cerebellum. Similar distribution of radioactivity was found in PET images. Under displacement conditions with 6, reduced [{sup 18}F]5 binding was found in all brain regions except the cerebellum. 7 reduced binding in the striatum by 84 % on average. Test-retest studies were reproducible with a variability ranging from 6.8 % to 8.2 %. An extended single-dose toxicity study in Wistar rats showed no compound-related adverse effects. The new mGlu{sub 5} radiotracer, [{sup 18}F]5, showed specific and selective in vitro and in vivo

  11. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 contributes to inflammatory tongue pain via extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in the trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis and upper cervical spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ming-Gang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the orofacial region, limited information is available concerning pathological tongue pain, such as inflammatory pain or neuropathic pain occurring in the tongue. Here, we tried for the first time to establish a novel animal model of inflammatory tongue pain in rats and to investigate the roles of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK signaling in this process. Methods Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA was submucosally injected into the tongue to induce the inflammatory pain phenotype that was confirmed by behavioral testing. Expression of phosphorylated ERK (pERK and mGluR5 in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc and upper cervical spinal cord (C1-C2 were detected with immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. pERK inhibitor, a selective mGluR5 antagonist or agonist was continuously administered for 7 days via an intrathecal (i.t. route. Local inflammatory responses were verified by tongue histology. Results Submucosal injection of CFA into the tongue produced a long-lasting mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia at the inflamed site, concomitant with an increase in the pERK immunoreactivity in the Vc and C1-C2. The distribution of pERK-IR cells was laminar specific, ipsilaterally dominant, somatotopically relevant, and rostrocaudally restricted. Western blot analysis also showed an enhanced activation of ERK in the Vc and C1-C2 following CFA injection. Continuous i.t. administration of the pERK inhibitor and a selective mGluR5 antagonist significantly depressed the mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia in the CFA-injected tongue. In addition, the number of pERK-IR cells in ipsilateral Vc and C1-C2 was also decreased by both drugs. Moreover, continuous i.t. administration of a selective mGluR5 agonist induced mechanical allodynia in naive rats. Conclusions The present study constructed a new animal model of inflammatory tongue pain in rodents, and

  12. Preclinical and the first clinical studies on [11C]ITMM for mapping metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyohara, Jun; Sakata, Muneyuki; Fujinaga, Masayuki; Yamasaki, Tomoteru; Oda, Keiichi; Ishii, Kenji; Zhang, Ming Rong; Moriguchi Jeckel, Cristina Maria; Ishiwata, Kiichi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Preclinical studies and first positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies were performed using N-[4-[6-(isopropylamino)pyrimidin-4-yl]-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]-4-[ 11 C] methoxy-N-methylbenzamide ([ 11 C]ITMM) to map metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1 (mGluR1) in the human brain. Methods: [ 11 C]ITMM was synthesized by O-methylation of the desmethyl precursor with [ 11 C]methyl triflate in the presence of NaOH at room temperature. In vitro selectivity and brain distributions of [ 11 C]ITMM in mice were characterized. Radiation absorbed-dose by [ 11 C]ITMM in humans was calculated from mouse distribution data. Acute toxicity of ITMM at 4.72 mg/kg body weight (> 74,000-fold clinical equivalent dose of [ 11 C]ITMM) was evaluated. Mutagenicity of ITMM was studied by the Ames test. Clinical PET imaging of mGluR1 with [ 11 C] ITMM was performed in a healthy volunteer. Results: ITMM had low activity for a 28-standard receptor binding profile. Regional brain uptake of [ 11 C]ITMM in mice was heterogeneous and consistent with known mGluR1 distributions. The radiation absorbed-dose by [ 11 C]ITMM in humans was sufficiently low for clinical use, and no acute toxicity or mutagenicity of ITMM occurred. A 90-min dynamic PET scan with [ 11 C]ITMM in a healthy volunteer showed a gradual increase of radioactivity in the cerebellum. Total distribution volume of [ 11 C]ITMM was highest in the cerebellum, followed by thalamus, cerebral cortex, and striatum; regional differences in brain radioactivity corresponded to the mGluR1 distribution in the brain. Peripherally, [ 11 C]ITMM was stable in humans: 60% of the plasma radioactivity remained in the unchanged form for 60 min. Conclusions: [ 11 C] ITMM is a suitable radioligand for imaging mGluR1 in the human brain providing acceptable dosimetry and pharmacological safety at the dose required for PET

  13. Selectivity and evolutionary divergence of metabotropic glutamate receptors for endogenous ligands and G proteins coupled to phospholipase C or TRP channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hye Jin; Menlove, Kit; Ma, Jianpeng; Wilkins, Angela; Lichtarge, Olivier; Wensel, Theodore G

    2014-10-24

    To define the upstream and downstream signaling specificities of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR), we have examined the ability of representative mGluR of group I, II, and III to be activated by endogenous amino acids and catalyze activation of G proteins coupled to phospholipase C (PLC), or activation of G(i/o) proteins coupled to the ion channel TRPC4β. Fluorescence-based assays have allowed us to observe interactions not previously reported or clearly identified. We have found that the specificity for endogenous amino acids is remarkably stringent. Even at millimolar levels, structurally similar compounds do not elicit significant activation. As reported previously, the clear exception is L-serine-O-phosphate (L-SOP), which strongly activates group III mGluR, especially mGluR4,-6,-8 but not group I or II mGluR. Whereas L-SOP cannot activate mGluR1 or mGluR2, it acts as a weak antagonist for mGluR1 and a potent antagonist for mGluR2, suggesting that co-recognition of L-glutamate and L-SOP arose early in evolution, and was followed later by divergence of group I and group II mGluR versus group III in l-SOP responses. mGluR7 has low affinity and efficacy for activation by both L-glutamate and L-SOP. Molecular docking studies suggested that residue 74 corresponding to lysine in mGluR4 and asparagine in mGluR7 might play a key role, and, indeed, mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that mutating this residue to lysine in mGluR7 enhances the potency of L-SOP. Experiments with pertussis toxin and dominant-negative Gα(i/o) proteins revealed that mGluR1 couples strongly to TRPC4β through Gα(i/o), in addition to coupling to PLC through Gα(q/11). © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Selectivity and Evolutionary Divergence of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors for Endogenous Ligands and G Proteins Coupled to Phospholipase C or TRP Channels*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hye Jin; Menlove, Kit; Ma, Jianpeng; Wilkins, Angela; Lichtarge, Olivier; Wensel, Theodore G.

    2014-01-01

    To define the upstream and downstream signaling specificities of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR), we have examined the ability of representative mGluR of group I, II, and III to be activated by endogenous amino acids and catalyze activation of G proteins coupled to phospholipase C (PLC), or activation of Gi/o proteins coupled to the ion channel TRPC4β. Fluorescence-based assays have allowed us to observe interactions not previously reported or clearly identified. We have found that the specificity for endogenous amino acids is remarkably stringent. Even at millimolar levels, structurally similar compounds do not elicit significant activation. As reported previously, the clear exception is l-serine-O-phosphate (l-SOP), which strongly activates group III mGluR, especially mGluR4,-6,-8 but not group I or II mGluR. Whereas l-SOP cannot activate mGluR1 or mGluR2, it acts as a weak antagonist for mGluR1 and a potent antagonist for mGluR2, suggesting that co-recognition of l-glutamate and l-SOP arose early in evolution, and was followed later by divergence of group I and group II mGluR versus group III in l-SOP responses. mGluR7 has low affinity and efficacy for activation by both l-glutamate and l-SOP. Molecular docking studies suggested that residue 74 corresponding to lysine in mGluR4 and asparagine in mGluR7 might play a key role, and, indeed, mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that mutating this residue to lysine in mGluR7 enhances the potency of l-SOP. Experiments with pertussis toxin and dominant-negative Gαi/o proteins revealed that mGluR1 couples strongly to TRPC4β through Gαi/o, in addition to coupling to PLC through Gαq/11. PMID:25193666

  15. Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 7 ablation causes dysregulation of the HPA axis and increases hippocampal BDNF protein levels: implications for stress-related psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsukawa, Kayo; Mombereau, Cedric; Lötscher, Erika; Uzunov, Doncho P; van der Putten, Herman; Flor, Peter J; Cryan, John F

    2006-06-01

    Regulation of neurotransmission via group-III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR4, -6, -7, and -8) has recently been implicated in the pathophysiology of affective disorders, such as major depression and anxiety. For instance, mice with a targeted deletion of the gene for mGluR7 (mGluR7-/-) showed antidepressant and anxiolytic-like effects in a variety of stress-related paradigms, including the forced swim stress and the stress-induced hyperthermia tests. Deletion of mGluR7 reduces also amygdala- and hippocampus-dependent conditioned fear and aversion responses. Since the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulates the stress response we investigate whether parameters of the HPA axis at the levels of selected mRNA transcripts and endocrine hormones are altered in mGluR7-deficient mice. Over all, mGluR7-/- mice showed only moderately lower serum levels of corticosterone and ACTH compared with mGluR7+/+ mice. More strikingly however, we found strong evidence for upregulated glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent feedback suppression of the HPA axis in mice with mGluR7 deficiency: (i) mRNA transcripts of GR were significantly upregulated in the hippocampus of mGluR7-/- animals, (ii) similar increases were seen with 5-HT1A receptor transcripts, which are thought to be directly controlled by the transcription factor GR and finally (iii) mGluR7-/- mice showed elevated sensitivity to dexamethasone-induced suppression of serum corticosterone when compared with mGluR7+/+ animals. These results indicate that mGluR7 deficiency causes dysregulation of HPA axis parameters, which may account, at least in part, for the phenotype of mGluR7-/- mice in animal models for anxiety and depression. In addition, we present evidence that protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor are also elevated in the hippocampus of mGluR7-/- mice, which we discuss in the context of the antidepressant-like phenotype found in those animals. We conclude that genetic ablation of m

  16. Effects of the group I metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, DHPG, and injection stress on striatal cell signaling in food-restricted and ad libitum fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carr Kenneth D

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic food restriction augments the rewarding effect of centrally administered psychostimulant drugs and this effect may involve a previously documented upregulation of D-1 dopamine receptor-mediated MAP kinase signaling in nucleus accumbens (NAc and caudate-putamen (CPu. Psychostimulants are known to induce striatal glutamate release, and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR have been implicated in the cellular and behavioral responses to amphetamine. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether chronic food restriction increases striatal MAP kinase signaling in response to the group I mGluR agonist, DHPG. Results Western immunoblotting was used to demonstrate that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. injection of DHPG (500 nmol produces greater activation of ERK1/2 and CREB in CPu and NAc of food-restricted as compared to ad libitum fed rats. Fos-immunostaining induced by DHPG was also stronger in CPu and NAc core of food-restricted relative to ad libitum fed rats. However, i.c.v. injection of saline-vehicle produced greater activation of ERK1/2 and CREB in CPu and NAc of food-restricted relative to ad libitum fed rats, and this difference was not seen when subjects received no i.c.v. injection prior to sacrifice. In addition, although DHPG activated Akt, there was no difference in Akt activation between feeding groups. To probe whether the augmented ERK1/2 and CREB activation in vehicle-injected food-restricted rats are mediated by one or more GluR types, effects of an NMDA antagonist (MK-801, 100 nmol, AMPA antagonist (DNQX, 10 nmol, and group I mGluR antagonist (AIDA, 100 nmol were compared to saline-vehicle. Antagonist injections did not diminish activation of ERK1/2 or CREB. Conclusions These results indicate that a group I mGluR agonist induces phosphorylation of Akt, ERK1/2 and CREB in both CPu and NAc. However, group I mGluR-mediated signaling may not be upregulated in food-restricted rats

  17. Developmental shift from long-term depression to long-term potentiation in the rat medial vestibular nuclei: role of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puyal, Julien; Grassi, Silvarosa; Dieni, Cristina; Frondaroli, Adele; Demêmes, Danielle; Raymond, Jaqueline; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico

    2003-12-01

    The effects of high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the primary vestibular afferents on synaptic transmission in the ventral part of the medial vestibular nuclei (vMVN) were studied during postnatal development and compared with the changes in the expression of the group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) subtypes, mGluR1 and mGluR5. During the first stages of development, HFS always induced a mGluR5- and GABAA-dependent long-term depression (LTD) which did not require NMDA receptor and mGluR1 activation. The probability of inducing LTD decreased progressively throughout the development and it was zero at about the end of the second postnatal week. Conversely, long-term potentiation (LTP) appeared at the beginning of the second week and its occurrence increased to reach the adult value at the end of the third week. Of interest, the sudden change in the LTP frequency occurred at the time of eye opening, about the end of the second postnatal week. LTP depended on NMDA receptor and mGluR1 activation. In parallel with the modifications in synaptic plasticity, we observed that the expression patterns and localizations of mGluR5 and mGluR1 in the medial vestibular nuclei (MVN) changed during postnatal development. At the earlier stages the mGluR1 expression was minimal, then increased progressively. In contrast, mGluR5 expression was initially high, then decreased. While mGluR1 was exclusively localized in neuronal compartments and concentrated at the postsynaptic sites at all stages observed, mGluR5 was found mainly in neuronal compartments at immature stages, then preferentially in glial compartments at mature stages. These results provide the first evidence for a progressive change from LTD to LTP accompanied by a distinct maturation expression of mGluR1 and mGluR5 during the development of the MVN.

  18. Evaluation in vitro and in animals of a new 11C-labeled PET radioligand for metabotropic glutamate receptors 1 in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Liow, Jeih-San; Zoghbi, Sami S.; Clark, David T.; Morse, Cheryl; Pike, Victor W.; Barth, Vanessa N.; Rhoads, Emily; Siuda, Edward; Heinz, Beverly A.; Nisenbaum, Eric; Dressman, Bruce; Joshi, Elizabeth; Luffer-Atlas, Debra; Fisher, Matthew J.; Masters, John J.; Goebl, Nancy; Kuklish, Steven L.; Tauscher, Johannes; Innis, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    Two allosteric modulators of the group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1 and mGluR5) were evaluated as positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands for mGluR1. LY2428703, a full mGluR1 antagonist (IC 50 8.9 nM) and partial mGluR5 antagonist (IC 50 118 nM), and LSN2606428, a full mGluR1 and mGluR5 antagonist (IC 50 35.3 nM and 10.2 nM, respectively) were successfully labeled with 11 C and evaluated as radioligands for mGluR1. The pharmacology of LY2428703 was comprehensively assessed in vitro and in vivo, and its biodistribution was investigated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, and by PET imaging in the rat. In contrast, LSN2606428 was only evaluated in vitro; further evaluation was stopped due to its unfavorable pharmacological properties and binding affinity. 11 C-LY2428703 showed promising characteristics, including: (1) high potency for binding to human mGluR1 (IC 50 8.9 nM) with no significant affinity for other human mGlu receptors (mGluR2 through mGluR8); (2) binding to brain displaceable by administration of an mGluR1 antagonist; (3) only one major radiometabolite in both plasma and brain, with a negligible brain concentration (with 3.5 % of the total radioactivity in cerebellum) and no receptor affinity; (4) a large specific and displaceable signal in the mGluR1-rich cerebellum with no significant in vivo affinity for mGluR5, as shown by PET studies in rats; and (5) lack of substrate behavior for efflux transporters at the blood-brain barrier, as shown by PET studies conducted in wild-type and knockout mice. 11 C-LY2428703, a new PET radioligand for mGluR1 quantification, displayed promising characteristics both in vitro and in vivo in rodents. (orig.)

  19. Evaluation in vitro and in animals of a new {sup 11}C-labeled PET radioligand for metabotropic glutamate receptors 1 in brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Liow, Jeih-San; Zoghbi, Sami S.; Clark, David T.; Morse, Cheryl; Pike, Victor W. [National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Molecular Imaging Branch, Bethesda, MD (United States); Barth, Vanessa N.; Rhoads, Emily; Siuda, Edward; Heinz, Beverly A.; Nisenbaum, Eric; Dressman, Bruce; Joshi, Elizabeth; Luffer-Atlas, Debra; Fisher, Matthew J.; Masters, John J.; Goebl, Nancy; Kuklish, Steven L.; Tauscher, Johannes [Eli Lilly and Co., Indianapolis, IN (United States); Innis, Robert B. [National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Molecular Imaging Branch, Bethesda, MD (United States); National Institute of Mental Health, Molecular Imaging Branch, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Two allosteric modulators of the group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1 and mGluR5) were evaluated as positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands for mGluR1. LY2428703, a full mGluR1 antagonist (IC{sub 50} 8.9 nM) and partial mGluR5 antagonist (IC{sub 50} 118 nM), and LSN2606428, a full mGluR1 and mGluR5 antagonist (IC{sub 50} 35.3 nM and 10.2 nM, respectively) were successfully labeled with {sup 11}C and evaluated as radioligands for mGluR1. The pharmacology of LY2428703 was comprehensively assessed in vitro and in vivo, and its biodistribution was investigated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, and by PET imaging in the rat. In contrast, LSN2606428 was only evaluated in vitro; further evaluation was stopped due to its unfavorable pharmacological properties and binding affinity. {sup 11}C-LY2428703 showed promising characteristics, including: (1) high potency for binding to human mGluR1 (IC{sub 50} 8.9 nM) with no significant affinity for other human mGlu receptors (mGluR2 through mGluR8); (2) binding to brain displaceable by administration of an mGluR1 antagonist; (3) only one major radiometabolite in both plasma and brain, with a negligible brain concentration (with 3.5 % of the total radioactivity in cerebellum) and no receptor affinity; (4) a large specific and displaceable signal in the mGluR1-rich cerebellum with no significant in vivo affinity for mGluR5, as shown by PET studies in rats; and (5) lack of substrate behavior for efflux transporters at the blood-brain barrier, as shown by PET studies conducted in wild-type and knockout mice. {sup 11}C-LY2428703, a new PET radioligand for mGluR1 quantification, displayed promising characteristics both in vitro and in vivo in rodents. (orig.)

  20. The change of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 expression level in rats with late-stage traumatic brain injury and the therapeutic effect of taurine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying CAI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the change of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5 expression level in rats with late-stage (the 7th day traumatic brain injury (TBI and the role of taurine. Methods The left cerebral TBI rat models were made by using lateral fluid percussion method. A total of 30 specific pathogen free (SPF male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham operation group (control group, TBI model group (TBI group and taurine treatment group (taurine group. Wet and dry weight method was used to measure the brain water content. Real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the change of mRNA and protein expression of aquaporin 4 (AQP4 and mGluR5 in each group.  Results Compared with control group, the brain water content (t = 4.893, P = 0.002, AQP4 mRNA (t = 6.523, P = 0.000 and protein (t = 4.366, P = 0.008 expression were upregulated, while mGluR5 mRNA (t = 5.776, P = 0.001 and protein (t = 3.945, P = 0.014 expression were downregulated in TBI group. After taurine treatment, the brain water content (t = 2.151, P = 0.140, AQP4 mRNA (t = 1.144,P = 0.432 and protein (t = 0.367, P = 0.804 decreased to normal, while mGluR5 mRNA (t = 1.824, P = 0.216 and protein (t = 1.185, P = 0.414 increased to normal. Correlation analysis showed brain water content was negatively correlated with mGluR5 mRNA (r = -0.617, P = 0.014 and mGluR5 protein (r = -0.665, P = 0.007, while it was positively correlated with AQP4 protein (r = 0.658, P = 0.008.  Conclusions Taurine can significantly increase the mGluR5 expression level of brain issue in the late-stage (the 7th day of TBI and decline brain edema and brain water content. It may be a potential protective agent as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.08.008

  1. Anti-Cancer Effect of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 1 Inhibition in Human Glioma U87 Cells: Involvement of PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs are G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system, and emerging evidence suggests a role of mGluRs in the biology of cancer. Previous studies showed that mGluR1 was a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer and melanoma, but its role in human glioma has not been determined. Methods: In the present study, we investigated the effects of mGluR1 inhibition in human glioma U87 cells using specific targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA or selective antagonists Riluzole and BAY36-7620. The anti-cancer effects of mGluR1 inhibition were measured by cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release, TUNEL staining, cell cycle assay, cell invasion and migration assays in vitro, and also examined in a U87 xenograft model in vivo. Results: Inhibition of mGluR1 significantly decreased the cell viability but increased the LDH release in a dose-dependent fashion in U87 cells. These effects were accompanied with the induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. In addition, the results of Matrigel invasion and cell tracking assays showed that inhibition of mGluR1 apparently attenuated cell invasion and migration in U87 cells. All these anti-cancer effects were ablated by the mGluR1 agonist L-quisqualic acid. The results of western blot analysis showed that mGluR1 inhibition overtly decreased the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, mTOR and P70S6K, indicating the mitigated activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Moreover, the anti-tumor activity of mGluR1 inhibition in vivo was also demonstrated in a U87 xenograft glioma model in athymic nude mice. Conclusion: The remarkable efficiency of mGluR1 inhibition to induce cell death in U87 cells may find therapeutic application for the treatment of glioma patients.

  2. Test-retest reproducibility of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 ligand [{sup 18}F]FPEB with bolus plus constant infusion in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eunkyung; Sullivan, Jenna M.; Planeta, Beata; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Lim, Keunpoong; Lin, Shu-Fei; Ropchan, Jim; Huang, Yiyun; Carson, Richard E. [Yale School of Medicine, PET Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, 801 Howard Avenue, PO Box 208048, New Haven, CT (United States); McCarthy, Timothy J. [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ding, Yu-Shin [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Morris, Evan D.; Williams, Wendol A. [Yale School of Medicine, PET Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, 801 Howard Avenue, PO Box 208048, New Haven, CT (United States); Yale School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2015-09-15

    [{sup 18}F]FPEB is a promising PET radioligand for the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), a potential target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reproducibility of [{sup 18}F]FPEB in the human brain. Seven healthy male subjects were scanned twice, 3 - 11 weeks apart. Dynamic data were acquired using bolus plus infusion of 162 ± 32 MBq [{sup 18}F]FPEB. Four methods were used to estimate volume of distribution (V{sub T}): equilibrium analysis (EQ) using arterial (EQ{sub A}) or venous input data (EQ{sub V}), MA1, and a two-tissue compartment model (2 T). Binding potential (BP{sub ND}) was also estimated using cerebellar white matter (CWM) or gray matter (CGM) as the reference region using EQ, 2 T and MA1. Absolute test-retest variability (aTRV) of V{sub T} and BP{sub ND} were calculated for each method. Venous blood measurements (C{sub V}) were compared with arterial input (C{sub A}) to examine their usability in EQ analysis. Regional V{sub T} estimated by the four methods displayed a high degree of agreement (r{sup 2} ranging from 0.83 to 0.99 among the methods), although EQ{sub A} and EQ{sub V} overestimated V{sub T} by a mean of 9 % and 7 %, respectively, compared to 2 T. Mean values of aTRV of V{sub T} were 11 % by EQ{sub A}, 12 % by EQ{sub V}, 14 % by MA1 and 14 % by 2 T. Regional BP{sub ND} also agreed well among the methods and mean aTRV of BP{sub ND} was 8 - 12 % (CWM) and 7 - 9 % (CGM). Venous and arterial blood concentrations of [{sup 18}F]FPEB were well matched during equilibrium (C{sub V} = 1.01 . C{sub A}, r{sup 2} = 0.95). [{sup 18}F]FPEB binding shows good TRV with minor differences among analysis methods. Venous blood can be used as an alternative for input function measurement instead of arterial blood in EQ analysis. Thus, [{sup 18}F]FPEB is an excellent PET imaging tracer for mGluR5 in humans. (orig.)

  3. A first-in-man PET study of [18F]PSS232, a fluorinated ABP688 derivative for imaging metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Geoffrey; Sommerauer, Michael; Mu, Linjing; Pla Gonzalez, Gloria; Geistlich, Susanne; Treyer, Valerie; Schibli, Roger; Buck, Alfred; Krämer, Stefanie D; Ametamey, Simon M

    2018-06-01

    Non-invasive imaging of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu 5 ) in the brain using PET is of interest in e.g., anxiety, depression, and Parkinson's disease. Widespread application of the most widely used mGlu 5 tracer, [ 11 C]ABP688, is limited by the short physical half-life of carbon-11. [ 18 F]PSS232 is a fluorinated analog with promising preclinical properties and high selectivity and specificity for mGlu 5 . In this first-in-man study, we evaluated the brain uptake pattern and kinetics of [ 18 F]PSS232 in healthy volunteers. [ 18 F]PSS232 PET was performed with ten healthy male volunteers aged 20-40 years. Seven of the subjects received a bolus injection and the remainder a bolus/infusion protocol. Cerebral blood flow was determined in seven subjects using [ 15 O]water PET. Arterial blood activity was measured using an online blood counter. Tracer kinetics were evaluated by compartment modeling and parametric maps were generated for both tracers. At 90 min post-injection, 59.2 ± 11.1% of total radioactivity in plasma corresponded to intact tracer. The regional first pass extraction fraction of [ 18 F]PSS232 ranged from 0.41 ± 0.06 to 0.55 ± 0.03 and brain distribution pattern matched that of [ 11 C]ABP688. Uptake kinetics followed a simple two-tissue compartment model. The volume of distribution of total tracer (V T , ml/cm 3 ) ranged from 1.18 ± 0.20 for white matter to 2.91 ± 0.51 for putamen. The respective mean distribution volume ratios (DVR) with cerebellum as the reference tissue were 0.88 ± 0.06 and 2.12 ± 0.10, respectively. The tissue/cerebellum ratios of a bolus/infusion protocol (30/70 dose ratio) were close to the DVR values. Brain uptake of [ 18 F]PSS232 matched the distribution of mGlu 5 and followed a two-tissue compartment model. The well-defined kinetics and the possibility to use reference tissue models, obviating the need for arterial blood sampling, make [ 18 F]PSS232 a promising fluorine-18 labeled

  4. Test-retest reproducibility of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 ligand [18F]FPEB with bolus plus constant infusion in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Eunkyung; Sullivan, Jenna M.; Planeta, Beata; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Lim, Keunpoong; Lin, Shu-Fei; Ropchan, Jim; Huang, Yiyun; Carson, Richard E.; McCarthy, Timothy J.; Ding, Yu-Shin; Morris, Evan D.; Williams, Wendol A.

    2015-01-01

    [ 18 F]FPEB is a promising PET radioligand for the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), a potential target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reproducibility of [ 18 F]FPEB in the human brain. Seven healthy male subjects were scanned twice, 3 - 11 weeks apart. Dynamic data were acquired using bolus plus infusion of 162 ± 32 MBq [ 18 F]FPEB. Four methods were used to estimate volume of distribution (V T ): equilibrium analysis (EQ) using arterial (EQ A ) or venous input data (EQ V ), MA1, and a two-tissue compartment model (2 T). Binding potential (BP ND ) was also estimated using cerebellar white matter (CWM) or gray matter (CGM) as the reference region using EQ, 2 T and MA1. Absolute test-retest variability (aTRV) of V T and BP ND were calculated for each method. Venous blood measurements (C V ) were compared with arterial input (C A ) to examine their usability in EQ analysis. Regional V T estimated by the four methods displayed a high degree of agreement (r 2 ranging from 0.83 to 0.99 among the methods), although EQ A and EQ V overestimated V T by a mean of 9 % and 7 %, respectively, compared to 2 T. Mean values of aTRV of V T were 11 % by EQ A , 12 % by EQ V , 14 % by MA1 and 14 % by 2 T. Regional BP ND also agreed well among the methods and mean aTRV of BP ND was 8 - 12 % (CWM) and 7 - 9 % (CGM). Venous and arterial blood concentrations of [ 18 F]FPEB were well matched during equilibrium (C V = 1.01 . C A , r 2 = 0.95). [ 18 F]FPEB binding shows good TRV with minor differences among analysis methods. Venous blood can be used as an alternative for input function measurement instead of arterial blood in EQ analysis. Thus, [ 18 F]FPEB is an excellent PET imaging tracer for mGluR5 in humans. (orig.)

  5. Pharmacological interference with metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 7 but not subtype 5 differentially affects within- and between-session extinction of Pavlovian conditioned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Iulia; Dietz, Monika; Peterlik, Daniel; Huber, Sabine E; Fendt, Markus; Neumann, Inga D; Flor, Peter J; Slattery, David A

    2012-03-01

    Fear extinction is defined as the attenuation of a conditioned-fear memory by re-exposing animals to the conditioned stimulus without the aversive stimulus. This process is known to be effectively enhanced via administration of D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial NMDA-receptor agonist. However, other glutamatergic mechanisms, such as interference with metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) subtypes 5 and 7 in the extinction of aversive memories are insufficiently understood. Using the allosteric mGluR5 receptor antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP), the mGluR7 allosteric agonist N,N'-dibenzyhydryl-ethane-1,2-diamine dihydrochloride (AMN082), and DCS for comparison, we aimed to study how pharmacological blockade of mGluR5 and activation of mGluR7 influenced within- and between-session conditioned-fear extinction training and extinction retention in rats. We show that when injected before extinction training, mGluR7 activation with AMN082 enhanced freezing and thereby attenuated within-session fear extinction, whereas both DCS and the mGluR5 receptor antagonist MPEP had no effect on this process. However, these differential drug effects were not long lasting, as no difference in extinction retention were observed 24 h later. Therefore, we assessed whether the compounds affect 24 h consolidation of extinction training following incomplete extinction training (between-session extinction). Similar to DCS, AMN082- but not MPEP-treated rats showed facilitated extinction retention, as exhibited by decreased freezing. Finally, using fluoxetine, we provide evidence that the effect of AMN082 on between-session extinction retention is most likely not via increasing 5-HT transmission. These findings demonstrate that mGluR7 activation differentially modulates conditioned-fear extinction, in dependence on the protocol employed, and suggests drugs with AMN082-like mechanisms as potential add-on drugs following exposure-based psychotherapy for fear-related human

  6. Effect of Zingiber officinale Supplementation on Obesity Management with Respect to the Uncoupling Protein 1 -3826A>G and ß3-adrenergic Receptor Trp64Arg Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh Attari, Vahideh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Zemestani, Maryam; Ostadrahimi, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) supplementation on some obesity-associated parameters, with nutrigenetics approach. Accordingly, 80 eligible obese women (aged 18-45 years) were randomly assigned to receive either ginger (2-g ginger rhizomes powder as two 1-g tablets per day) or placebo supplements (corn starch with the same amount) for 12 weeks. Subjects were tested for changes in body weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, body composition, appetite score, and dietary intake. Moreover, participants were genotyped for the -3826A>G and Trp64Arg polymorphisms of uncoupling protein 1 and ß3-adrenergic receptor genes, respectively. Over 12 weeks, ginger supplementation resulted in a slight but statistically significant decrease in all anthropometric measurements and total appetite score as compared with placebo group, which were more pronounced in subjects with the AA genotype for uncoupling protein 1 and Trp64Trp genotype for ß3-adrenergic receptor gene. However, there was no significant difference in changes of body composition and total energy and macronutrients intake between groups. In conclusion, our findings suggest that ginger consumption has potential in managing obesity, accompanying with an intervention-genotype interaction effect. However, further clinical trials need to explore ginger's efficacy as an anti-obesity agent in the form of powder, extract, or its active components. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Single nucleotide polymorphisms linked to mitochondrial uncoupling protein genes UCP2 and UCP3 affect mitochondrial metabolism and healthy aging in female nonagenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangkyu; Myers, Leann; Ravussin, Eric; Cherry, Katie E; Jazwinski, S Michal

    2016-08-01

    Energy expenditure decreases with age, but in the oldest-old, energy demand for maintenance of body functions increases with declining health. Uncoupling proteins have profound impact on mitochondrial metabolic processes; therefore, we focused attention on mitochondrial uncoupling protein genes. Alongside resting metabolic rate (RMR), two SNPs in the promoter region of UCP2 were associated with healthy aging. These SNPs mark potential binding sites for several transcription factors; thus, they may affect expression of the gene. A third SNP in the 3'-UTR of UCP3 interacted with RMR. This UCP3 SNP is known to impact UCP3 expression in tissue culture cells, and it has been associated with body weight and mitochondrial energy metabolism. The significant main effects of the UCP2 SNPs and the interaction effect of the UCP3 SNP were also observed after controlling for fat-free mass (FFM) and physical-activity related energy consumption. The association of UCP2/3 with healthy aging was not found in males. Thus, our study provides evidence that the genetic risk factors for healthy aging differ in males and females, as expected from the differences in the phenotypes associated with healthy aging between the two sexes. It also has implications for how mitochondrial function changes during aging.

  8. Uncoupling between soil and xylem water isotopic composition: how to discriminate mobile and tightly-bound water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Gómez, Paula; Aguilera, Mònica; Pemán, Jesús; Gil Pelegrín, Eustaquio; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

    2014-05-01

    As a general rule, no isotopic fractionation occurs during water uptake and water transport, thus, xylem water reflects source water. However, this correspondence does not always happen. Isotopic enrichment of xylem water has been found in several cases and has been either associated to 'stem processes' like cuticular evaporation 1 and xylem-phloem communication under water stress 2,3 or to 'soil processes' such as species-specific use of contrasting water sources retained at different water potential forces in soil. In this regard, it has been demonstrated that mobile and tightly-bound water may show different isotopic signature 4,5. However, standard cryogenic distillation does not allow to separate different water pools within soil samples. Here, we carried out a study in a mixed adult forest (Pinus sylvestris, Quercus subpyrenaica and Buxus sempervirens) growing in a relatively deep loamy soil in the Pre-Pyrenees. During one year, we sampled xylem from twigs and soil at different depths (10, 30 and 50 cm). We also sampled xylem from trunk and bigger branches to assess whether xylem water was enriched in the distal parts of the tree. We found average deviations in the isotopic signature from xylem to soil of 4o 2o and 2.4o in δ18O and 18.3o 7.3o and 8.9o in δ2H, for P.sylvestris, Q.subpyrenaica and B.sempervirens respectively. Xylem water was always enriched compared to soil. In contrast, we did not find clear differences in isotopic composition between xylem samples along the tree. Declining the hypothesis that 'stem processes' would cause these uncoupling between soil and xylem isotopic values, we tested the possibility to separate mobile and tightly-bound water by centrifugation. Even though we could separate two water fractions in soils close to saturation, we could not recover a mobile fraction in drier soils. In this regard, we welcome suggestions on alternatives to separate different soil fractions in order to find the correspondence between soil and

  9. Synthesis and characterization in monkey of [{sup 11}C]SP203 as a radioligand for imaging brain metabotropic glutamate 5 receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeon, Fabrice G.; Liow, Jeih-San; Zhang, Yi; Hong, Jinsoo; Gladding, Robert L.; Zoghbi, Sami S.; Innis, Robert B.; Pike, Victor W. [National Institutes of Health, Molecular Imaging Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2012-12-15

    [{sup 18}F]SP203 (3-fluoro-5-(2-(2-([{sup 18}F]fluoromethyl)-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl)benzonitrile) is an effective high-affinity and selective radioligand for imaging metabotropic 5 receptors (mGluR5) in human brain with PET. To provide a radioligand that may be used for more than one scanning session in the same subject in a single day, we set out to label SP203 with shorter-lived {sup 11}C (t{sub 1/2} = 20.4 min) and to characterize its behavior as a radioligand with PET in the monkey. Iodo and bromo precursors were obtained by cross-coupling 2-fluoromethyl-4-((trimethylsilyl)ethynyl)-1,3-thiazole with 3,5-diiodofluorobenzene and 3,5-dibromofluorobenzene, respectively. Treatment of either precursor with [{sup 11}C]cyanide ion rapidly gave [{sup 11}C]SP203, which was purified with high-performance liquid chromatography. PET was used to measure the uptake of radioactivity in brain regions after injecting [{sup 11}C]SP203 intravenously into rhesus monkeys at baseline and under conditions in which mGluR5 were blocked with 3-[(2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl]pyridine (MTEP). The emergence of radiometabolites in monkey blood in vitro and in vivo was assessed with radio-HPLC. The stability of [{sup 11}C]SP203 in human blood in vitro was also measured. The iodo precursor gave [{sup 11}C]SP203 in higher radiochemical yield (>98 %) than the bromo precursor (20-52 %). After intravenous administration of [{sup 11}C]SP203 into three rhesus monkeys, radioactivity peaked early in brain (average 12.5 min) with a regional distribution in rank order of expected mGluR5 density. Peak uptake was followed by a steady decline. No radioactivity accumulated in the skull. In monkeys pretreated with MTEP before [{sup 11}C]SP203 administration, radioactivity uptake in brain was again high but then declined more rapidly than in the baseline scan to a common low level. [{sup 11}C]SP203 was unstable in monkey blood in vitro and in vivo, and gave predominantly less lipophilic radiometabolites

  10. Activation of AMPKα2 is not crucial for mitochondrial uncoupling-induced metabolic effects but required to maintain skeletal muscle integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ost

    Full Text Available Transgenic (UCP1-TG mice with ectopic expression of UCP1 in skeletal muscle (SM show a phenotype of increased energy expenditure, improved glucose tolerance and increase substrate metabolism in SM. To investigate the potential role of skeletal muscle AMPKα2 activation in the metabolic phenotype of UCP1-TG mice we generated double transgenic (DTG mice, by crossing of UCP1-TG mice with DN-AMPKα2 mice overexpressing a dominant negative α2 subunit of AMPK in SM which resulted in an impaired AMPKα2 activity by 90±9% in SM of DTG mice. Biometric analysis of young male mice showed decreased body weight, lean and fat mass for both UCP1-TG and DTG compared to WT and DN-AMPKα2 mice. Energy intake and weight-specific total energy expenditure were increased, both in UCP1-TG and DTG mice. Moreover, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and fatty acid oxidation were not altered in DTG compared to UCP1-TG. Also uncoupling induced induction and secretion of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 from SM was preserved in DTG mice. However, voluntary physical cage activity as well as ad libitum running wheel access during night uncovered a severe activity intolerance of DTG mice. Histological analysis showed a progressive degenerative morphology in SM of DTG mice which was not observed in SM of UCP1-TG mice. Moreover, ATP-depletion related cellular stress response via heat shock protein 70 was highly induced, whereas capillarization regulator VEGF was suppressed in DTG muscle. In addition, AMPKα2-mediated induction of mitophagy regulator ULK1 was suppressed in DTG mice, as well as mitochondrial respiratory capacity and content. In conclusion, we demonstrate that AMPKα2 is dispensable for SM mitochondrial uncoupling induced metabolic effects on whole body energy balance, glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. But strikingly, activation of AMPKα2 seems crucial for maintaining SM function, integrity and the ability to compensate chronic metabolic stress

  11. Group I Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Julie Ladeby; Blaabjerg, Morten; Bogetofte Thomasen, Helle

    2015-01-01

    differentiated an immortalized, forebrain-derived stem cell line in the presence or absence of glutamate and with addition of either the group I mGluR agonist DHPG or the selective antagonists; MPEP (mGluR5) and LY367385 (mGluR1). Characterization of differentiated cells revealed that both mGluR1 and mGluR5 were...

  12. CaMn0.875Ti0.125O3 as oxygen carrier for chemical-looping combustion with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU)—Experiments in a continuously operating fluidized-bed reactor system

    KAUST Repository

    Rydé n, Magnus; Lyngfelt, Anders; Mattisson, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Particles of the perovskite material CaMn0.875Ti0.125O3 has been examined as oxygen carrier for chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling, and for chemical-looping combustion of natural gas, by 70h of experiments in a circulating fluidized-bed reactor

  13. Practical lesson of Photosynthesis: A demonstration of Hill reaction in chloroplasts with energy dissipation by fluorescence upon photosystems uncoupling or inhibition by Diuron herbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Ravara Viviani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During photosynthesis, the photochemical electron transfer process is easily demonstrated by the Hill reaction, where artificial electron acceptors are reduced by active chloroplasts suspensions in the presence of light.  However, the destiny of luminous energy absorbed by chlorophyll molecules in uncoupled or damaged photosystems is not usually demonstrated. Here we provide an adaptation of the classical Hill reaction using intact spinach chloroplasts, which includes the visualization of energy dissipation by fluorescence in lysed chloroplasts, and a dose/effect response in photosystems inhibited by the herbicide DCMU. This laboratory lesson, which is aimed to biochemistry and biophysics for undergraduate courses of Chemistry, Biological, Environmental and Agricultural Sciences, provides the basic photochemical principles using the classical Hill reaction, and photophysical principles through the visualization of energy dissipation by chlorophyll fluorescence,  improving the understanding of the photosynthetic process, and introducing the concept of fluorescence and its applications as bioanalytical tool to monitor photosynthesis in plants and vegetal ecosystems.

  14. Single-cycle immunodeficiency viruses provide strategies for uncoupling in vivo expression levels from viral replicative capacity and for mimicking live-attenuated SIV vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuate, Seraphin; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Haaft, Peter ten; Heeney, Jonathan; Ueberla, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    To reduce the risks associated with live-attenuated immunodeficiency virus vaccines, single-cycle immunodeficiency viruses (SCIVs) were developed by primer complementation and production of the vaccine in the absence of vif in a vif-independent cell line. After a single intravenous injection of SCIVs into rhesus monkeys, peak viral RNA levels of 10 3 to 10 4 copies/ml plasma were observed, indicating efficient expression of SCIV in the vaccinee. After booster immunizations with SCIVs, SIV-specific humoral and cellular immune responses were observed. Although the vaccine doses used in this pilot study could not protect vaccinees from subsequent intravenous challenge with pathogenic SIVmac239, our results demonstrate that the novel SCIV approach allows us to uncouple in vivo expression levels from the viral replicative capacity facilitating the analysis of the relationship between viral expression levels or viral genes and immune responses induced by SIV

  15. Cyanide-induced death of dopaminergic cells is mediated by uncoupling protein-2 up-regulation and reduced Bcl-2 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.; Li, L.; Zhang, L.; Borowitz, J.L.; Isom, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    Cyanide is a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and produces mitochondria-mediated death of dopaminergic neurons and sublethal intoxications that are associated with a Parkinson-like syndrome. Cyanide toxicity is enhanced when mitochondrial uncoupling is stimulated following up-regulation of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2). In this study, the role of a pro-survival protein, Bcl-2, in cyanide-mediated cell death was determined in a rat dopaminergic immortalized mesencephalic cell line (N27 cells). Following pharmacological up-regulation of UCP-2 by treatment with Wy14,643, cyanide reduced cellular Bcl-2 expression by increasing proteasomal degradation of the protein. The increased turnover of Bcl-2 was mediated by an increase of oxidative stress following UCP-2 up-regulation. The oxidative stress involved depletion of mitochondrial glutathione (mtGSH) and increased H 2 O 2 generation. Repletion of mtGSH by loading cells with glutathione ethyl ester reduced H 2 O 2 generation and in turn blocked the cyanide-induced decrease of Bcl-2. To determine if UCP-2 mediated the response, RNAi knock down was conducted. The RNAi decreased cyanide-induced depletion of mtGSH, reduced H 2 O 2 accumulation, and inhibited down-regulation of Bcl-2, thus blocking cell death. To confirm the role of Bcl-2 down-regulation in the cell death, it was shown that over-expression of Bcl-2 by cDNA transfection attenuated the enhancement of cyanide toxicity after UCP-2 up-regulation. It was concluded that UCP-2 up-regulation sensitizes cells to cyanide by increasing cellular oxidative stress, leading to an increase of Bcl-2 degradation. Then the reduced Bcl-2 levels sensitize the cells to cyanide-mediated cell death.

  16. Suppression of injuries caused by a lytic RNA virus (mengovirus) and their uncoupling from viral reproduction by mutual cell/virus disarmament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikitas, Olga V; Ivin, Yuri Y; Golyshev, Sergey A; Povarova, Natalia V; Galkina, Svetlana I; Pletjushkina, Olga Y; Nadezhdina, Elena S; Gmyl, Anatoly P; Agol, Vadim I

    2012-05-01

    Viruses often elicit cell injury (cytopathic effect [CPE]), a major cause of viral diseases. CPE is usually considered to be a prerequisite for and/or consequence of efficient viral growth. Recently, we proposed that viral CPE may largely be due to host defensive and viral antidefensive activities. This study aimed to check the validity of this proposal by using as a model HeLa cells infected with mengovirus (MV). As we showed previously, infection of these cells with wild-type MV resulted in necrosis, whereas a mutant with incapacitated antidefensive ("security") viral leader (L) protein induced apoptosis. Here, we showed that several major morphological and biochemical signs of CPE (e.g., alterations in cellular and nuclear shape, plasma membrane, cytoskeleton, chromatin, and metabolic activity) in cells infected with L(-) mutants in the presence of an apoptosis inhibitor were strongly suppressed or delayed for long after completion of viral reproduction. These facts demonstrate that the efficient reproduction of a lytic virus may not directly require development of at least some pathological alterations normally accompanying infection. They also imply that L protein is involved in the control of many apparently unrelated functions. The results also suggest that the virus-activated program with competing necrotic and apoptotic branches is host encoded, with the choice between apoptosis and necrosis depending on a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic conditions. Implementation of this defensive suicidal program could be uncoupled from the viral reproduction. The possibility of such uncoupling has significant implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of viral diseases.

  17. The β3 Adrenergic Receptor Agonist BRL37344 Exacerbates Atrial Structural Remodeling Through iNOS Uncoupling in Canine Models of Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobing; Wang, Ruifeng; Liu, Guangzhong; Dong, Jingmei; Zhao, Guanqi; Tian, Jingpu; Sun, Jiayu; Jia, Xiuyue; Wei, Lin; Wang, Yuping; Li, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    The role of the β3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) agonist BRL37344 in atrial fibrillation (AF) structural remodeling and the underlying mechanisms as a therapeutic target were investigated. Four groups of dogs were evaluated: sham, pacing, β3-AR agonist BRL37344 (β3-AGO), and β3-AR antagonist L748337 (β3-ANT) groups. Dogs in the pacing, β3-AGO and β3-ANT groups were subjected to rapid atrial pacing for four weeks. Atrial structure and function, AF inducibility and duration, atrial myocyte apoptosis and interstitial fibrosis were assessed. Atrial superoxide anions were evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and colorimetric assays. Cardiac nitrate+nitrite levels were used to assess nitric oxide (NO) production. Protein and mRNA expression of β3-AR, neuronal NO synthase (nNOS), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase-1 (GCH-1) as well as tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) levels were measured. β3-AR was up-regulated in AF. Stimulation of β3-AR significantly increased atrial myocyte apoptosis, fibrosis and atrial dilatation, resulting in increased AF induction and prolonged duration. These effects were attenuated by β3-ANT. Moreover, β3-AGO reduced BH4 and NO production and increased superoxide production, which was inhibited by the specific iNOS inhibitor, 1400w β3-AGO also increased iNOS but decreased eNOS and had no effect on nNOS expression in AF. β3-AR stimulation resulted in atrial structural remodeling by increasing iNOS uncoupling and related oxidative stress. β3-AR up-regulation and iNOS uncoupling might be underlying AF therapeutic targets. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Mutant Allele-Specific Uncoupling of PENETRATION3 Functions Reveals Engagement of the ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter in Distinct Tryptophan Metabolic Pathways1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xunli; Dittgen, Jan; Piślewska-Bednarek, Mariola; Molina, Antonio; Schneider, Bernd; Doubský, Jan; Schneeberger, Korbinian; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PENETRATION (PEN) genes quantitatively contribute to the execution of different forms of plant immunity upon challenge with diverse leaf pathogens. PEN3 encodes a plasma membrane-resident pleiotropic drug resistance-type ATP-binding cassette transporter and is thought to act in a pathogen-inducible and PEN2 myrosinase-dependent metabolic pathway in extracellular defense. This metabolic pathway directs the intracellular biosynthesis and activation of tryptophan-derived indole glucosinolates for subsequent PEN3-mediated efflux across the plasma membrane at pathogen contact sites. However, PEN3 also functions in abiotic stress responses to cadmium and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-mediated auxin homeostasis in roots, raising the possibility that PEN3 exports multiple functionally unrelated substrates. Here, we describe the isolation of a pen3 allele, designated pen3-5, that encodes a dysfunctional protein that accumulates in planta like wild-type PEN3. The specific mutation in pen3-5 uncouples PEN3 functions in IBA-stimulated root growth modulation, callose deposition induced with a conserved peptide epitope of bacterial flagellin (flg22), and pathogen-inducible salicylic acid accumulation from PEN3 activity in extracellular defense, indicating the engagement of multiple PEN3 substrates in different PEN3-dependent biological processes. We identified 4-O-β-d-glucosyl-indol-3-yl formamide (4OGlcI3F) as a pathogen-inducible, tryptophan-derived compound that overaccumulates in pen3 leaf tissue and has biosynthesis that is dependent on an intact PEN2 metabolic pathway. We propose that a precursor of 4OGlcI3F is the PEN3 substrate in extracellular pathogen defense. These precursors, the shared indole core present in IBA and 4OGlcI3F, and allele-specific uncoupling of a subset of PEN3 functions suggest that PEN3 transports distinct indole-type metabolites in distinct biological processes. PMID:26023163

  19. "Run-through" training at specialist training year 1 and uncoupled core surgical training for oral and maxillofacial surgery in the United Kingdom: a snapshot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, M; Collyer, J; Dhariwal, D

    2018-05-01

    Training in oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) in the UK has undergone considerable changes during the last 10years, and "core" surgical training has replaced "basic" surgical training. In 2014 a pilot "run-through" training programme from specialist training year one (ST1)-ST7 was introduced to facilitate early entry into the speciality. Run-through training guarantees that a trainee, after a single competitive selection process and satisfactory progress, will be given training that covers the entire curriculum of the speciality, whereas uncoupled training requires a second stage of competitive recruitment after the first one (for OMFS only) or two years of "core" training to progress to higher specialty training. The first two years of run-through training (ST1-ST2) are the same as for core surgical training. Dual-qualified maxillofacial aspirants and those in their second degree course are curious to know whether they should go for the uncoupled core surgical training or the run-through programme in OMFS. The General Medical Council (GMC) has now agreed that run-through training can be rolled out nationally in OMFS. To assess the two pathways we used an online questionnaire to gain feedback about the experience from all OMFS ST3 and run-through trainees (ST3/ST4) in 2016-2017. We identified and contacted 21 trainees, and 17 responded, including seven run-through trainees. Eleven, including five of the run-through trainees, recommended the run-through training programme in OMFS. Six of the seven run-through trainees had studied dentistry first. The overall mean quality of training was rated as 5.5 on a scale 0-10 by the 17 respondents. This survey gives valuable feedback from the current higher surgical trainees in OMFS, which will be useful to the GMC, Health Education England, OMFS Specialist Advisory Committee, and those seeking to enter higher surgical training in OMFS. Copyright © 2018 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published

  20. Exercise on-transition uncoupling of ventilatory, gas exchange and cardiac hemodynamic kinetics accompany pulmonary oxygen stores depletion to impact exercise intolerance in human heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Iterson, E H; Smith, J R; Olson, T P

    2018-03-25

    In contrast to knowledge that heart failure (HF) patients demonstrate peak exercise uncoupling across ventilation, gas exchange and cardiac haemodynamics, whether this dyssynchrony follows that at the exercise on-transition is unclear. This study tested whether exercise on-transition temporal lag for ventilation relative to gas exchange and oxygen pulse (O 2 pulse) couples with effects from abnormal pulmonary gaseous oxygen store (O 2store ) contributions to V˙O 2 to interdependently precipitate persistently elevated ventilatory demand and low oxidative metabolic capacity in HF. Beat-to-beat HR and breath-to-breath ventilation and gas exchange were continuously acquired in HF (N = 9, ejection fraction = 30 ± 9%) and matched controls (N = 10) during square-wave ergometry at 60% V˙O 2peak (46 ± 14 vs 125 ± 54-W, P < .001). Temporal responses across V˙ E , V˙O 2 and O 2 pulse were assessed for the exercise on-transition using single exponential model Phase II on-kinetic time constants (τ = time to reach 63% steady-state rise). Breath-to-breath gas fractions and respiratory flows were used to determine O 2stores . HF vs controls: τ for V˙ E (137 ± 93 vs 74 ± 40-seconds, P = .03), V˙O 2 (60 ± 40 vs 23 ± 5-seconds, P = .03) and O 2 pulse (28 ± 18 vs 23 ± 15-seconds, P = .59). Within HF, τ for V˙ E differed from O 2 pulse (P < .02), but not V˙O 2 . Exercise V˙ E rise (workload indexed) differed in HF vs controls (545 ± 139 vs 309 ± 88-mL min -1 W -1 , P < .001). Exercise on-transition O 2store depletion in HF exceeded controls, generally persisting to end-exercise. These data suggest HF demonstrated exercise on-transition O 2store depletion (high O 2store contribution to V˙O 2 ) coupled with dyssynchronous V˙ E , V˙O 2 and O 2 pulse kinetics-not attributable to prolonged cardiac haemodynamics. Persistent high ventilatory demand and low oxidative metabolic capacity in HF may be precipitated by physiological uncoupling occurring within the exercise

  1. Strategies for efficiently selecting PHA producing mixed microbial cultures using complex feedstocks: Feast and famine regime and uncoupled carbon and nitrogen availabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Catarina S S; Silva, Carlos E; Carvalho, Gilda; Reis, Maria A

    2017-07-25

    Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by open mixed microbial cultures (MMCs) has been attracting increasing interest as an alternative technology to PHA production by pure cultures, due to the potential for lower costs associated with the use of open systems (eliminating the requirement for sterile conditions) and the utilisation of cheap feedstock (industrial and agricultural wastes). Such technology relies on the efficient selection of an MMC enriched in PHA-accumulating organisms. Fermented cheese whey, a protein-rich complex feedstock, has been used previously to produce PHA using the feast and famine regime for selection of PHA accumulating cultures. While this selection strategy was found efficient when operated at relatively low organic loading rate (OLR, 2g-CODL -1 d -1 ), great instability and low selection efficiency of PHA accumulating organisms were observed when higher OLR (ca. 6g-CODL -1 d -1 ) was applied. High organic loading is desirable as a means to enhance PHA productivity. In the present study, a new selection strategy was tested with the aim of improving selection for high OLR. It was based on uncoupling carbon and nitrogen supply and was implemented and compared with the conventional feast and famine strategy. For this, two selection reactors were fed with fermented cheese whey applying an OLR of ca. 8.5g-CODL -1 (with 3.8g-CODL -1 resulting from organic acids and ethanol), and operated in parallel under similar conditions, except for the timing of nitrogen supplementation. Whereas in the conventional strategy nitrogen and carbon substrates were added simultaneously at the beginning of the cycle, in the uncoupled substrates strategy, nitrogen addition was delayed to the end of the feast phase (i.e. after exogenous carbon was exhausted). The two different strategies selected different PHA-storing microbial communities, dominated by Corynebacterium and a Xantomonadaceae, respectively with the conventional and the new approaches. The new

  2. The N Terminus of Sarcolipin Plays an Important Role in Uncoupling Sarco-endoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) ATP Hydrolysis from Ca2+ Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahoo, Sanjaya K; Shaikh, Sana A; Sopariwala, Danesh H

    2015-01-01

    to bind SERCA throughout its kinetic cycle and promotes uncoupling of Ca(2+) transport from ATP hydrolysis. To determine the structural regions of SLN that mediate uncoupling of SERCA, we employed mutagenesis and generated chimeras of PLB and SLN. In this study we demonstrate that deletion of SLN N....... Interestingly, transfer of the PLB cytosolic domain to the SLN transmembrane (TM) and luminal tail causes the chimeric protein to lose SLN-like function. Further introduction of the PLB TM region into this chimera resulted in conversion to full PLB-like function. We also found that swapping PLB N and C termini...... with those from SLN caused the resulting chimera to acquire SLN-like function. Swapping the C terminus alone was not sufficient for this conversion. These results suggest that domains can be switched between SLN and PLB without losing the ability to regulate SERCA activity; however, the resulting chimeras...

  3. Activation of PPAR{delta} up-regulates fatty acid oxidation and energy uncoupling genes of mitochondria and reduces palmitate-induced apoptosis in pancreatic {beta}-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Jun; Jiang, Li; Lue, Qingguo; Ke, Linqiu [Department of Endocrinology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, 37 Guoxue Lane, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Li, Xiaoyu [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, No. 14, 3rd Section, Renmin South Road, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Tong, Nanwei, E-mail: buddyjun@hotmail.com [Department of Endocrinology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, 37 Guoxue Lane, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China)

    2010-01-15

    Recent evidence indicates that decreased oxidative capacity, lipotoxicity, and mitochondrial aberrations contribute to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {delta} (PPAR{delta}) activation on lipid oxidation, mitochondrial function, and insulin secretion in pancreatic {beta}-cells. After HIT-T15 cells (a {beta}-cell line) were exposed to high concentrations of palmitate and GW501516 (GW; a selective agonist of PPAR{delta}), we found that administration of GW increased the expression of PPAR{delta} mRNA. GW-induced activation of PPAR{delta} up-regulated carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2); alleviated mitochondrial swelling; attenuated apoptosis; and reduced basal insulin secretion induced by increased palmitate in HIT cells. These results suggest that activation of PPAR{delta} plays an important role in protecting pancreatic {beta}-cells against aberrations caused by lipotoxicity in metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

  4. The Hydroxyl at Position C1 of Genipin Is the Active Inhibitory Group that Affects Mitochondrial Uncoupling Protein 2 in Panc-1 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    Full Text Available Genipin (GNP effectively inhibits uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2, which regulates the leakage of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. UCP2 inhibition may induce pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell death by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS levels. In this study, the hydroxyls at positions C10 (10-OH and C1 (1-OH of GNP were hypothesized to be the active groups that cause these inhibitory effects. Four GNP derivatives in which the hydroxyl at position C10 or C1 was replaced with other chemical groups were synthesized and isolated. Differences in the inhibitory effects of GNP and its four derivatives on pancreatic carcinoma cell (Panc-1 proliferation were assessed. The effects of GNP and its derivatives on apoptosis, UCP2 inhibition and ROS production were also studied to explore the relationship between GNP's activity and its structure. The derivatives with 1-OH substitutions, geniposide (1-GNP1 and 1-ethyl-genipin (1-GNP2 lacked cytotoxic effects, while the other derivatives that retained 1-OH, 10-piv-genipin (10-GNP1 and 10-acetic acid-genipin (10-GNP2 exerted biological effects similar to those of GNP, even in the absence of 10-OH. Thus, 1-OH is the key functional group in the structure of GNP that is responsible for GNP's apoptotic effects. These cytotoxic effects involve the induction of Panc-1 cell apoptosis through UCP2 inhibition and subsequent ROS production.

  5. The Hydroxyl at Position C1 of Genipin Is the Active Inhibitory Group that Affects Mitochondrial Uncoupling Protein 2 in Panc-1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Yang, Yifu; Hou, Jianwei; Ding, Yue; Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Jianying; Shi, Chenchen; Fu, Wenwei; Cai, Zhenzhen

    2016-01-01

    Genipin (GNP) effectively inhibits uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), which regulates the leakage of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. UCP2 inhibition may induce pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell death by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. In this study, the hydroxyls at positions C10 (10-OH) and C1 (1-OH) of GNP were hypothesized to be the active groups that cause these inhibitory effects. Four GNP derivatives in which the hydroxyl at position C10 or C1 was replaced with other chemical groups were synthesized and isolated. Differences in the inhibitory effects of GNP and its four derivatives on pancreatic carcinoma cell (Panc-1) proliferation were assessed. The effects of GNP and its derivatives on apoptosis, UCP2 inhibition and ROS production were also studied to explore the relationship between GNP's activity and its structure. The derivatives with 1-OH substitutions, geniposide (1-GNP1) and 1-ethyl-genipin (1-GNP2) lacked cytotoxic effects, while the other derivatives that retained 1-OH, 10-piv-genipin (10-GNP1) and 10-acetic acid-genipin (10-GNP2) exerted biological effects similar to those of GNP, even in the absence of 10-OH. Thus, 1-OH is the key functional group in the structure of GNP that is responsible for GNP's apoptotic effects. These cytotoxic effects involve the induction of Panc-1 cell apoptosis through UCP2 inhibition and subsequent ROS production.

  6. Up-regulation of avian uncoupling protein in cold-acclimated and hyperthyroid ducklings prevents reactive oxygen species production by skeletal muscle mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servais Stéphane

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although identified in several bird species, the biological role of the avian homolog of mammalian uncoupling proteins (avUCP remains extensively debated. In the present study, the functional properties of isolated mitochondria were examined in physiological or pharmacological situations that induce large changes in avUCP expression in duckling skeletal muscle. Results The abundance of avUCP mRNA, as detected by RT-PCR in gastrocnemius muscle but not in the liver, was markedly increased by cold acclimation (CA or pharmacological hyperthyroidism but was down-regulated by hypothyroidism. Activators of UCPs, such as superoxide with low doses of fatty acids, stimulated a GDP-sensitive proton conductance across the inner membrane of muscle mitochondria from CA or hyperthyroid ducklings. The stimulation was much weaker in controls and not observed in hypothyroid ducklings or in any liver mitochondrial preparations. The production of endogenous mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS was much lower in muscle mitochondria from CA and hyperthyroid ducklings than in the control or hypothyroid groups. The addition of GDP markedly increased the mitochondrial ROS production of CA or hyperthyroid birds up to, or above, the level of control or hypothyroid ducklings. Differences in ROS production among groups could not be attributed to changes in antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase or glutathione peroxidase. Conclusion This work provides the first functional in vitro evidence that avian UCP regulates mitochondrial ROS production in situations of enhanced metabolic activity.

  7. A Ketone Ester Diet Increases Brain Malonyl-CoA and Uncoupling Proteins 4 and 5 while Decreasing Food Intake in the Normal Wistar Rat*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwaya, Yoshihiro; Pawlosky, Robert; Markis, William; King, M. Todd; Bergman, Christian; Srivastava, Shireesh; Murray, Andrew; Clarke, Kieran; Veech, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Three groups of male Wistar rats were pair fed NIH-31 diets for 14 days to which were added 30% of calories as corn starch, palm oil, or R-3-hydroxybutyrate-R-1,3-butanediol monoester (3HB-BD ester). On the 14th day, animal brains were removed by freeze-blowing, and brain metabolites measured. Animals fed the ketone ester diet had elevated mean blood ketone bodies of 3.5 mm and lowered plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin. Despite the decreased plasma leptin, feeding the ketone ester diet ad lib decreased voluntary food intake 2-fold for 6 days while brain malonyl-CoA was increased by about 25% in ketone-fed group but not in the palm oil fed group. Unlike the acute effects of ketone body metabolism in the perfused working heart, there was no increased reduction in brain free mitochondrial [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio nor in the free energy of ATP hydrolysis, which was compatible with the observed 1.5-fold increase in brain uncoupling proteins 4 and 5. Feeding ketone ester or palm oil supplemented diets decreased brain l-glutamate by 15–20% and GABA by about 34% supporting the view that fatty acids as well as ketone bodies can be metabolized by the brain. PMID:20529850

  8. A ketone ester diet increases brain malonyl-CoA and Uncoupling proteins 4 and 5 while decreasing food intake in the normal Wistar Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwaya, Yoshihiro; Pawlosky, Robert; Markis, William; King, M Todd; Bergman, Christian; Srivastava, Shireesh; Murray, Andrew; Clarke, Kieran; Veech, Richard L

    2010-08-20

    Three groups of male Wistar rats were pair fed NIH-31 diets for 14 days to which were added 30% of calories as corn starch, palm oil, or R-3-hydroxybutyrate-R-1,3-butanediol monoester (3HB-BD ester). On the 14th day, animal brains were removed by freeze-blowing, and brain metabolites measured. Animals fed the ketone ester diet had elevated mean blood ketone bodies of 3.5 mm and lowered plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin. Despite the decreased plasma leptin, feeding the ketone ester diet ad lib decreased voluntary food intake 2-fold for 6 days while brain malonyl-CoA was increased by about 25% in ketone-fed group but not in the palm oil fed group. Unlike the acute effects of ketone body metabolism in the perfused working heart, there was no increased reduction in brain free mitochondrial [NAD(+)]/[NADH] ratio nor in the free energy of ATP hydrolysis, which was compatible with the observed 1.5-fold increase in brain uncoupling proteins 4 and 5. Feeding ketone ester or palm oil supplemented diets decreased brain L-glutamate by 15-20% and GABA by about 34% supporting the view that fatty acids as well as ketone bodies can be metabolized by the brain.

  9. Milk Fat Globule Membrane Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity by Inhibiting Adipogenesis and Increasing Uncoupling Protein 1 Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiange Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM, a protein-lipid complex surrounding the fat globules in milk, has many health benefits. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether MFGM could prevent obesity through inhibiting adipogenesis and promoting brown remodeling of white adipose tissue (WAT in mice fed with high-fat diet. C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet (ND, high-fat diet (HFD, HFD plus MFGM at 100 mg/kg BW, 200 mg/kg BW or 400 mg/kg BW for 8 weeks. Results showed that MFGM suppressed body weight gain induced by HFD, reduced white adipose tissue (WAT mass accompanied with the decrease in adipocyte sizes. MFGM was found to have partially improved serum lipid profiles, as well as to have suppressed HFD-induced adipogenesis as shown by reduced expression of peroxisome proliferators-activator receptor-γ (PPARγ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBPα and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c. MFGM also markedly increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, showing activation of AMPK pathway. Moreover, MFGM promoted browning of inguinal WAT by upregulation the protein expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 in HFD mice. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that MFGM may protect against diet-induced adiposity by suppressing adipogenesis and promoting brown-like transformation in WAT.

  10. The Effect of Resveratrol and Quercetin Treatment on PPAR Mediated Uncoupling Protein (UCP- 1, 2, and 3 Expression in Visceral White Adipose Tissue from Metabolic Syndrome Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Castrejón-Tellez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Uncoupling proteins (UCPs are members of the mitochondrial anion carrier superfamily involved in the control of body temperature and energy balance regulation. They are currently proposed as therapeutic targets for treating obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS. We studied the gene expression regulation of UCP1, -2, and -3 in abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT from control and MetS rats treated with two doses of a commercial mixture of resveratrol (RSV and quercetin (QRC. We found that UCP2 was the predominantly expressed isoform, UCP3 was present at very low levels, and UCP1 was undetectable. The treatment with RSV + QRC did not modify UCP3 levels; however, it significantly increased UCP2 mRNA in control and MetS rats in association with an increase in oleic and linoleic fatty acids. WAT from MetS rats showed a significantly increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-α and PPAR-γ when compared to the control group. Furthermore, PPAR-α protein levels were increased by the highest dose of RSV + QRC in the control and MetS groups. PPAR-γ expression was only increased in the control group. We conclude that the RSV + QRC treatment leads to overexpression of UCP2, which is associated with an increase in MUFA and PUFA, which might increase PPAR-α expression.

  11. Uncoupling phototoxicity-elicited neural dysmorphology and death by insidious function and selective impairment of Ran-binding protein 2 (Ranbp2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyoung-in; Haney, Victoria; Yoon, Dosuk; Hao, Yin; Ferreira, Paulo A

    2015-12-21

    Morphological disintegration of neurons is coupled invariably to neural death. In particular, disruption of outer segments of photoreceptor neurons triggers photoreceptor death regardless of the pathological stressors. We show that Ranbp2(-/-)::Tg-Ranbp2(CLDm-HA) mice with mutations in SUMO-binding motif (SBM) of cyclophilin-like domain (CLD) of Ran-binding protein 2 (Ranbp2) expressed in a null Ranbp2 background lack untoward effects in photoreceptors in the absence of light-stress. However, compared to wild type photoreceptors, light-stress elicits profound disintegration of outer segments of Ranbp2(-/-)::Tg-Ranbp2(CLDm-HA) with paradoxical age-dependent resistance of photoreceptors to death and genotype-independent activation of caspases. Ranbp2(-/-)::Tg-Ranbp2(CLDm-HA) exhibit photoreceptor death-independent changes in ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), but death-dependent increase of ubiquitin carrier protein 9(ubc9) levels. Hence, insidious functional impairment of SBM of Ranbp2's CLD promotes neuroprotection and uncoupling of photoreceptor degeneration and death against phototoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Low-level lasers on microRNA and uncoupling protein 2 mRNA levels in human breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, K. S.; Teixeira, A. F.; Rodrigues, J. A.; Paoli, F.; Nogueira, E. M.; Mencalha, A. L.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2017-06-01

    MicroRNA is short non-coding RNA and is a mediator of post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. In addition, uncoupling proteins (UCPs) regulate thermogenesis, metabolic and energy balance, and decrease reactive oxygen species production. Both microRNA and UCP2 expression can be altered in cancer cells. At low power, laser wavelength, frequency, fluence and emission mode deternube photobiological responses, which are the basis of low-level laser therapy. There are few studies on miRNA and UCP mRNA levels after low-level laser exposure on cancer cells. In this work, we evaluate the micrRNA (mir-106b and mir-15a) and UCP2 mRNA levels in human breast cancer cells exposed to low-level lasers. MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells were exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers, total RNA was extracted for cDNA synthesis and mRNA levels by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction were evaluated. Data show that mir-106b and mir-15a relative levels are not altered, but UCP2 mRNA relative levels are increased in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers at fluences used in therapeutic protocols.

  13. Linking mode of action of the model respiratory and photosynthesis uncoupler 3,5-dichlorophenol to adverse outcomes in Lemna minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li; Gomes, Tânia; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn; Song, You; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

    2018-04-01

    Standard chemical toxicity testing guidelines using aquatic plant Lemna minor have been developed by several international standardisation organisations. Although being highly useful for regulatory purposes by focusing on traditional adverse endpoints, these tests provide limited information about the toxic mechanisms and modes of action (MoA). The present study aimed to use selected functional assays in L. minor after exposure to 3,5-dichlorophenol (3,5-DCP) as a model to characterise the toxic mechanisms causing growth inhibition and lethality in primary producers. The results demonstrated that 3,5-DCP caused concentration-dependent effects in chloroplasts and mitochondria. Uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), reduction in chlorophyll (Chlorophyll a and b) content, reproduction rate and frond size were the most sensitive endpoints, followed by formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduction of carotenoid content and impairment of photosynthesis efficiency. Suppression of photosystem II (PSII) efficiency, electron transport rate (ETR), chlorophyll (a and b) contents and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) were closely correlated while ROS production and LPO were negative correlated with ETR, carotenoid content and growth parameters. A network of conceptual Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) was developed to decipher the causal relationships between molecular, cellular, and apical adverse effects occurring in L. minor to form a basis for future studies with similar compounds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Protective Effect of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Activation against Cardiac Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Is Related to Upregulation of Uncoupling Protein-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Wook Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα confers cardioprotection, while its mechanism remains elusive. We investigated the protective effect of PPARα activation against cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury in terms of the expression of uncoupling protein (UCP. Myocardial infarct size and UCP expression were measured in rats treated with WY-14643 20 mg/kg, a PPARα ligand, or vehicle. WY-14643 increased UCP3 expression in vivo. Myocardial infarct size was decreased in the WY-14643 group (76 ± 8% versus 42 ± 12%, P<0.05. During reperfusion, the incidence of arrhythmia was higher in the control group compared with the WY-14643 group (9/10 versus 3/10, P<0.05. H9c2 cells were incubated for 24 h with WY-14643 or vehicle. WY-14643 increased UCP3 expression in H9c2 cells. WY-14643 decreased hypoxia-stimulated ROS production. Cells treated with WY-14643 were more resistant to hypoxia-reoxygenation than the untreated cells. Knocking-down UCP3 by siRNA prevented WY-14643 from attenuating the production of ROS. UCP3 siRNA abolished the effect of WY-14643 on cell viability against hypoxia-reoxygenation. In summary, administration of PPARα agonist WY-14643 mitigated the extent of myocardial infarction and incidence of reperfusion-induced arrhythmia. PPARα activation conferred cytoprotective effect against hypoxia-reoxygenation. Associated mechanisms involved increased UCP3 expression and resultant attenuation of ROS production.

  15. The role of nuclear factor E2-Related factor 2 and uncoupling protein 2 in glutathione metabolism: Evidence from an in vivo gene knockout study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yanyan; Xu, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Hongzhi; Fu, Jingqi; Hou, Yongyong; Wang, Huihui; Zhang, Qiang; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Pi, Jingbo

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) are indicated to protect from oxidative stress. They also play roles in the homeostasis of glutathione. However, the detailed mechanisms are not well understood. In the present study, we found Nrf2-knockout (Nrf2-KO) mice exhibited altered glutathione homeostasis and reduced expression of various genes involved in GSH biosynthesis, regeneration, utilization and transport in the liver. Ucp2-knockout (Ucp2-KO) mice exhibited altered glutathione homeostasis in the liver, spleen and blood, as well as increased transcript of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in the liver, a protein capable of mediating glutathione efflux. Nrf2-Ucp2-double knockout (DKO) mice showed characteristics of both Nrf2-KO and Ucp2-KO mice. But no significant difference was observed in DKO mice when compared with Nrf2-KO or Ucp2-KO mice, except in blood glutathione levels. These data suggest that ablation of Nrf2 and Ucp2 leads to disrupted GSH balance, which could result from altered expression of genes involved in GSH metabolism. DKO may not evoke more severe oxidative stress than the single gene knockout. - Highlights: • Nrf2/Ucp2 deficiency leads to alteration of glutathione homeostasis. • Nrf2 regulates expression of genes in glutathione generation and utilization. • Ucp2 affects glutathione metabolism by regulating hepatic efflux of glutathione. • Nrf2 deficiency may not aggravate oxidative stress in Ucp2-deficient mice.

  16. Up-regulation of avian uncoupling protein in cold-acclimated and hyperthyroid ducklings prevents reactive oxygen species production by skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Roussel, Damien; Romestaing, Caroline; Belouze, Maud; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Desplanches, Dominique; Sibille, Brigitte; Servais, Stéphane; Duchamp, Claude

    2010-04-28

    Although identified in several bird species, the biological role of the avian homolog of mammalian uncoupling proteins (avUCP) remains extensively debated. In the present study, the functional properties of isolated mitochondria were examined in physiological or pharmacological situations that induce large changes in avUCP expression in duckling skeletal muscle. The abundance of avUCP mRNA, as detected by RT-PCR in gastrocnemius muscle but not in the liver, was markedly increased by cold acclimation (CA) or pharmacological hyperthyroidism but was down-regulated by hypothyroidism. Activators of UCPs, such as superoxide with low doses of fatty acids, stimulated a GDP-sensitive proton conductance across the inner membrane of muscle mitochondria from CA or hyperthyroid ducklings. The stimulation was much weaker in controls and not observed in hypothyroid ducklings or in any liver mitochondrial preparations. The production of endogenous mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) was much lower in muscle mitochondria from CA and hyperthyroid ducklings than in the control or hypothyroid groups. The addition of GDP markedly increased the mitochondrial ROS production of CA or hyperthyroid birds up to, or above, the level of control or hypothyroid ducklings. Differences in ROS production among groups could not be attributed to changes in antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase or glutathione peroxidase). This work provides the first functional in vitro evidence that avian UCP regulates mitochondrial ROS production in situations of enhanced metabolic activity.

  17. The role of nuclear factor E2-Related factor 2 and uncoupling protein 2 in glutathione metabolism: Evidence from an in vivo gene knockout study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yanyan [The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Xu, Yuanyuan, E-mail: yyxu@cmu.edu.cn [School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Zheng, Hongzhi [The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Fu, Jingqi; Hou, Yongyong; Wang, Huihui [School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Zhang, Qiang [Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Yamamoto, Masayuki [Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Pi, Jingbo, E-mail: jbpi@cmu.edu.cn [School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2016-09-09

    Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) are indicated to protect from oxidative stress. They also play roles in the homeostasis of glutathione. However, the detailed mechanisms are not well understood. In the present study, we found Nrf2-knockout (Nrf2-KO) mice exhibited altered glutathione homeostasis and reduced expression of various genes involved in GSH biosynthesis, regeneration, utilization and transport in the liver. Ucp2-knockout (Ucp2-KO) mice exhibited altered glutathione homeostasis in the liver, spleen and blood, as well as increased transcript of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in the liver, a protein capable of mediating glutathione efflux. Nrf2-Ucp2-double knockout (DKO) mice showed characteristics of both Nrf2-KO and Ucp2-KO mice. But no significant difference was observed in DKO mice when compared with Nrf2-KO or Ucp2-KO mice, except in blood glutathione levels. These data suggest that ablation of Nrf2 and Ucp2 leads to disrupted GSH balance, which could result from altered expression of genes involved in GSH metabolism. DKO may not evoke more severe oxidative stress than the single gene knockout. - Highlights: • Nrf2/Ucp2 deficiency leads to alteration of glutathione homeostasis. • Nrf2 regulates expression of genes in glutathione generation and utilization. • Ucp2 affects glutathione metabolism by regulating hepatic efflux of glutathione. • Nrf2 deficiency may not aggravate oxidative stress in Ucp2-deficient mice.

  18. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins regulate angiotensin-converting enzyme expression: crosstalk between cellular and endocrine metabolic regulators suggested by RNA interference and genetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamrait, Sukhbir S; Maubaret, Cecilia; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Brull, David J; Gohlke, Peter; Payne, John R; World, Michael; Thorsteinsson, Birger; Humphries, Steve E; Montgomery, Hugh E

    2016-07-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) regulate mitochondrial function, and thus cellular metabolism. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is the central component of endocrine and local tissue renin-angiotensin systems (RAS), which also regulate diverse aspects of whole-body metabolism and mitochondrial function (partly through altering mitochondrial UCP expression). We show that ACE expression also appears to be regulated by mitochondrial UCPs. In genetic analysis of two unrelated populations (healthy young UK men and Scandinavian diabetic patients) serum ACE (sACE) activity was significantly higher amongst UCP3-55C (rather than T) and UCP2 I (rather than D) allele carriers. RNA interference against UCP2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells reduced UCP2 mRNA sixfold (P sACE suggests a novel means of crosstalk between (and mutual regulation of) cellular and endocrine metabolism. This might partly explain the reduced risk of developing diabetes and metabolic syndrome with RAS antagonists and offer insight into the origins of cardiovascular disease in which UCPs and ACE both play a role. © 2016 The Authors. BioEssays published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins regulate angiotensin‐converting enzyme expression: crosstalk between cellular and endocrine metabolic regulators suggested by RNA interference and genetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maubaret, Cecilia; Pedersen‐Bjergaard, Ulrik; Brull, David J.; Gohlke, Peter; Payne, John R.; World, Michael; Thorsteinsson, Birger; Humphries, Steve E.; Montgomery, Hugh E.

    2015-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) regulate mitochondrial function, and thus cellular metabolism. Angiotensin‐converting enzyme (ACE) is the central component of endocrine and local tissue renin–angiotensin systems (RAS), which also regulate diverse aspects of whole‐body metabolism and mitochondrial function (partly through altering mitochondrial UCP expression). We show that ACE expression also appears to be regulated by mitochondrial UCPs. In genetic analysis of two unrelated populations (healthy young UK men and Scandinavian diabetic patients) serum ACE (sACE) activity was significantly higher amongst UCP3‐55C (rather than T) and UCP2 I (rather than D) allele carriers. RNA interference against UCP2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells reduced UCP2 mRNA sixfold (P sACE suggests a novel means of crosstalk between (and mutual regulation of) cellular and endocrine metabolism. This might partly explain the reduced risk of developing diabetes and metabolic syndrome with RAS antagonists and offer insight into the origins of cardiovascular disease in which UCPs and ACE both play a role. PMID:27347560

  20. ZmPUMP encodes a fully functional monocot plant uncoupling mitochondrial protein whose affinity to fatty acid is increased with the introduction of a His pair at the second matrix loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favaro, Regiane Degan; Borecky, Jiri; Colombi, Debora; Maia, Ivan G.

    2006-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are specialized mitochondrial transporter proteins that uncouple respiration from ATP synthesis. In this study, cDNA encoding maize uncoupling protein (ZmPUMP) was expressed in Escherichia coli and recombinant ZmPUMP reconstituted in liposomes. ZmPUMP activity was associated with a linoleic acid (LA)-mediated H + efflux with K m of 56.36 ± 0.27 μM and V max of 66.9 μmol H + min -1 (mg prot) -1 . LA-mediated H + fluxes were sensitive to ATP inhibition with K i of 2.61 ± 0.36 mM (at pH 7.2), a value similar to those for dicot UCPs. ZmPUMP was also used to investigate the importance of a histidine pair present in the second matrix loop of mammalian UCP1 and absent in plant UCPs. ZmPUMP with introduced His pair (Lys155His and Ala157His) displayed a 1.55-fold increase in LA-affinity while its activity remained unchanged. Our data indicate conserved properties of plant UCPs and suggest an enhancing but not essential role of the histidine pair in proton transport mechanism

  1. Selective agonists at group II metabotropic glutamate receptors: synthesis, stereochemistry, and molecular pharmacology of (S)- and (R)-2-amino-4-(4-hydroxy[1,2,5]thiadiazol-3-yl)butyric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Rasmus P; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Greenwood, Jeremy R

    2002-01-01

    Homologation of analogues of the central excitatory neurotransmitter glutamic acid (Glu), in which the distal carboxy group has been bioisosterically replaced by acidic heterocyclic units, has previously provided subtype selective ligands for metabotropic Glu receptors (mGluRs). The (S......)-form of the 1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-ol Glu analogue, 2-amino-3-(4-hydroxy[1,2,5]thiadiazol-3-yl)propionic acid (TDPA, 6), is an 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptor agonist, which in addition stereospecifically activates group I mGluRs. We have now synthesized the (S)- and (R......)-forms of 2-amino-4-(4-hydroxy[1,2,5]thiadiazol-3-yl)butyric acid (homo-TDPA, 7) and shown that whereas neither enantiomer interacts with AMPA receptors, (S)- and (R)-7 appear to be selective and equipotent agonists at group II mGluRs as represented by the mGluR2 subtype. The activities of (S)- and (R)-7...

  2. Learning and memory deficits consequent to reduction of the fragile X mental retardation protein result from metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated inhibition of cAMP signaling in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulos, Alexandros K; Semelidou, Ourania; Kotini, Andriana G; Anezaki, Maria; Skoulakis, Efthimios M C

    2012-09-19

    Loss of the RNA-binding fragile X protein [fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP)] results in a spectrum of cognitive deficits, the fragile X syndrome (FXS), while aging individuals with decreased protein levels present with a subset of these symptoms and tremor. The broad range of behavioral deficits likely reflects the ubiquitous distribution and multiple functions of the protein. FMRP loss is expected to affect multiple neuronal proteins and intracellular signaling pathways, whose identity and interactions are essential in understanding and ameliorating FXS symptoms. We used heterozygous mutants and targeted RNA interference-mediated abrogation in Drosophila to uncover molecular pathways affected by FMRP reduction. We present evidence that FMRP loss results in excess metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) activity, attributable at least in part to elevation of the protein in affected neurons. Using high-resolution behavioral, genetic, and biochemical analyses, we present evidence that excess mGluR upon FMRP attenuation is linked to the cAMP decrement reported in patients and models, and underlies olfactory associative learning and memory deficits. Furthermore, our data indicate positive transcriptional regulation of the fly fmr1 gene by cAMP, via protein kinase A, likely through the transcription factor CREB. Because the human Fmr1 gene also contains CREB binding sites, the interaction of mGluR excess and cAMP signaling defects we present suggests novel combinatorial pharmaceutical approaches to symptom amelioration upon FMRP attenuation.

  3. Preparation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) PET tracer [18F]FPEB for human use: An automated radiosynthesis and a novel one-pot synthesis of its radiolabeling precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Keunpoong; Labaree, David; Li, Songye; Huang, Yiyun

    2014-01-01

    The radiotracer 3-[ 18 F]fluoro-5-(2-pyridinylethynyl)benzonitrile, or [ 18 F]FPEB, is a promising PET imaging agent for the metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptor (mGluR5). In an effort to develop a routine production method of this radiotracer for use in clinical research we adapted its radiosynthesis to an automated chemistry module. In the meanwhile, we also developed a simplified “one-pot” method for the preparation of the nitrobenzonitrile radiolabeling precursor for [ 18 F]FPEB and its reference standard to replace the existing multi-step synthetic approach. - Highlights: • Radiosynthesis of [ 18 F]FPEB was performed in a Tracerlab FX-FN automated module. • The radiolabeling precursor was prepared from a “one-pot” Suzuki coupling method. • Total synthesis time from EOB to a final injectable dose was about 90 min. • The procedure was applied in the routine preparation of [ 18 F]FPEB for human use

  4. Transcriptional profiling of striatal neurons in response to single or concurrent activation of dopamine D2, adenosine A(2A) and metabotropic glutamate type 5 receptors: focus on beta-synuclein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Laia; Selga, Elisabet; García-Martínez, Juan Manuel; Amaral, Olavo B; Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Alberch, Jordi; Canela, Enric I; Franco, Rafael; Noé, Véronique; Lluís, Carme; Ciudad, Carlos J; Ciruela, Francisco

    2012-10-25

    G protein-coupled receptor oligomerization is a concept which is changing the understanding of classical pharmacology. Both, oligomerization and functional interaction between adenosine A(2A,) dopamine D(2) and metabotropic glutamate type 5 receptors have been demonstrated in the striatum. However, the transcriptional consequences of receptors co-activation are still unexplored. We aim here to determine the changes in gene expression of striatal primary cultured neurons upon isolated or simultaneous receptor activation. Interestingly, we found that 95 genes of the total analyzed (15,866 transcripts and variants) changed their expression in response to simultaneous stimulation of all three receptors. Among these genes, we focused on the β-synuclein (β-Syn) gene (SCNB). Quantitative PCR verified the magnitude and direction of change in expression of SCNB. Since β-Syn belongs to the homologous synuclein family and may be considered a natural regulator of α-synuclein (α-Syn), it has been proposed that β-Syn might act protectively against α-Syn neuropathology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Metabotropic glutamate receptor-5 and protein kinase C-epsilon increase in dorsal root ganglion neurons and spinal glial activation in an adolescent rat model of painful neck injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshaar, Christine L; Dong, Ling; Bowman, Alex S; Perez, Federico M; Guarino, Benjamin B; Sweitzer, Sarah M; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2010-12-01

    There is growing evidence that neck pain is common in adolescence and is a risk factor for the development of chronic neck pain in adulthood. The cervical facet joint and its capsular ligament is a common source of pain in the neck in adults, but its role in adolescent pain remains unknown. The aim of this study was to define the biomechanics, behavioral sensitivity, and indicators of neuronal and glial activation in an adolescent model of mechanical facet joint injury. A bilateral C6-C7 facet joint distraction was imposed in an adolescent rat and biomechanical metrics were measured during injury. Following injury, forepaw mechanical hyperalgesia was measured, and protein kinase C-epsilon (PKCɛ) and metabotropic glutamate receptor-5 (mGluR5) expression in the dorsal root ganglion and markers of spinal glial activation were assessed. Joint distraction induced significant mechanical hyperalgesia during the 7 days post-injury (p capsule during injury were 32.8 ± 12.9%, which were consistent with the strains associated with comparable degrees of hypersensitivity in the adult rat. These results suggest that adolescents may have a lower tissue tolerance to induce pain and associated nociceptive response than do adults.

  6. Arginase up-regulation and eNOS uncoupling contribute to impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in a rat model of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandvuillemin, Isabelle; Buffat, Christophe; Boubred, Farid; Lamy, Edouard; Fromonot, Julien; Charpiot, Philippe; Simoncini, Stephanie; Sabatier, Florence; Dignat-George, Françoise; Peyter, Anne-Christine; Simeoni, Umberto; Yzydorczyk, Catherine

    2018-05-09

    Individuals born after intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in adulthood, notably hypertension (HTN). Alterations in the vascular system, particularly impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation, may play an important role in long-term effects of IUGR. Whether such vascular dysfunction precedes HTN has not been fully established in individuals born after IUGR. Moreover, the intimate mechanisms of altered endothelium-dependent vasodilation remain incompletely elucidated. We therefore investigated, using a rat model of IUGR, whether impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation precedes the development of HTN and whether key components of the L-Arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway are involved in its pathogenesis. Pregnant rats were fed with a control (CTRL, 23% casein) or low-protein diet (LP, 9% casein) to induce IUGR. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by tail-cuff plethysmography in 5- and 8-week-old male offspring. Aortic rings were isolated to investigate relaxation to acetylcholine, NO production, eNOS protein content, arginase activity, and superoxide anion production. SBP was not different at 5 weeks, but significantly increased in 8-week-old LP vs. CRTL offspring. In 5-week-old LP vs. CRTL males, endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation was significantly impaired, but restored by pre-incubation with L-Arginine or the arginase inhibitor BEC; NO production was significantly reduced, but restored by L-Arginine pretreatment; total eNOS protein, dimer/monomer ratio, and arginase activity were significantly increased; superoxide anion production was significantly enhanced, but normalized by pretreatment with the NOS inhibitor L-NNA. In this model, IUGR leads to early-impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, resulting from arginase up-regulation and eNOS uncoupling, which precedes the development of HTN.

  7. Regulatory motifs for CREB-binding protein and Nfe2l2 transcription factors in the upstream enhancer of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Jong S; Kozak, Leslie P

    2002-09-13

    Thermogenesis against cold exposure in mammals occurs in brown adipose tissue (BAT) through mitochondrial uncoupling protein (UCP1). Expression of the Ucp1 gene is unique in brown adipocytes and is regulated tightly. The 5'-flanking region of the mouse Ucp1 gene contains cis-acting elements including PPRE, TRE, and four half-site cAMP-responsive elements (CRE) with BAT-specific enhancer elements. In the course of analyzing how these half-site CREs are involved in Ucp1 expression, we found that a DNA regulatory element for NF-E2 overlaps CRE2. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and competition assays with the CRE2 element indicates that nuclear proteins from BAT, inguinal fat, and retroperitoneal fat tissue interact with the CRE2 motif (CGTCA) in a specific manner. A supershift assay using an antibody against the CRE-binding protein (CREB) shows specific affinity to the complex from CRE2 and nuclear extract of BAT. Additionally, Western blot analysis for phospho-CREB/ATF1 shows an increase in phosphorylation of CREB/ATF1 in HIB-1B cells after norepinephrine treatment. Transient transfection assay using luciferase reporter constructs also indicates that the two half-site CREs are involved in transcriptional regulation of Ucp1 in response to norepinephrine and cAMP. We also show that a second DNA regulatory element for NF-E2 is located upstream of the CRE2 region. This element, which is found in a similar location in the 5'-flanking region of the human and rodent Ucp1 genes, shows specific binding to rat and human NF-E2 by electrophoretic mobility shift assay with nuclear extracts from brown fat. Co-transfections with an Nfe2l2 expression vector and a luciferase reporter construct of the Ucp1 enhancer region provide additional evidence that Nfe2l2 is involved in the regulation of Ucp1 by cAMP-mediated signaling.

  8. Mitochondrial energy-dissipating systems (alternative oxidase, uncoupling proteins, and external NADH dehydrogenase) are involved in development of frost-resistance of winter wheat seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabelnych, O I; Borovik, O A; Tauson, E L; Pobezhimova, T P; Katyshev, A I; Pavlovskaya, N S; Koroleva, N A; Lyubushkina, I V; Bashmakov, V Yu; Popov, V N; Borovskii, G B; Voinikov, V K

    2014-06-01

    Gene expression, protein synthesis, and activities of alternative oxidase (AOX), uncoupling proteins (UCP), adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), and non-coupled NAD(P)H dehydrogenases (NDex, NDPex, and NDin) were studied in shoots of etiolated winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings after exposure to hardening low positive (2°C for 7 days) and freezing (-2°C for 2 days) temperatures. The cold hardening efficiently increased frost-resistance of the seedlings and decreased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during further cold shock. Functioning of mitochondrial energy-dissipating systems can represent a mechanism responsible for the decrease in ROS under these conditions. These systems are different in their response to the action of the hardening low positive and freezing temperatures. The functioning of the first system causes induction of AOX and UCP synthesis associated with an increase in electron transfer via AOX in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and also with an increase in the sensitivity of mitochondrial non-phosphorylating respiration to linoleic and palmitic acids. The increase in electron transfer via AOX upon exposure of seedlings to hardening freezing temperature is associated with retention of a high activity of NDex. It seems that NDex but not the NDPex and NDin can play an important role in maintaining the functional state of mitochondria in heterotrophic tissues of plants under the influence of freezing temperatures. The involvement of the mitochondrial energy-dissipating systems and their possible physiological role in the adaptation of winter crops to cold and frost are discussed.

  9. Increased uncoupling protein-2 mRNA abundance and glucocorticoid action in adipose tissue in the sheep fetus during late gestation is dependent on plasma cortisol and triiodothyronine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanalingham, MG; Mostyn, A; Forhead, AJ; Fowden, AL; Symonds, ME; Stephenson, T

    2005-01-01

    The endocrine regulation of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), an inner mitochondrial protein, in fetal adipose tissue remains unclear. The present study aimed to determine if fetal plasma cortisol and triiodothyronine (T3) influenced the mRNA abundance of UCP2, glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) and 2 (11βHSD2) in fetal adipose tissue in the sheep during late gestation. Perirenal–abdominal adipose tissue was sampled from ovine fetuses to which either cortisol (2–3 mg kg−1 day−1) or saline was infused for 5 days up to 127–130 days gestation, or near term fetuses (i.e. 142–145 days gestation) that were either adrenalectomised (AX) or remained intact. Fetal plasma cortisol and T3 concentrations were higher in the cortisol infused animals and lower in AX fetuses compared with their corresponding control group, and increased with gestational age. UCP2 and GR mRNA abundance were significantly lower in AX fetuses compared with age-matched controls, and increased with gestational age and by cortisol infusion. Glucocorticoid action in fetal adipose tissue was augmented by AX and suppressed by cortisol infusion, the latter also preventing the gestational increase in 11βHSD1 mRNA and decrease in 11βHSD2 mRNA. When all treatment groups were combined, both fetal plasma cortisol and T3 concentrations were positively correlated with UCP2, GR and 11βHSD2 mRNA abundance, but negatively correlated with 11βHSD1 mRNA abundance. In conclusion, plasma cortisol and T3 are both required for the late gestation rise in UCP2 mRNA and differentially regulate glucocorticoid action in fetal adipose tissue in the sheep during late gestation. PMID:15961419

  10. Uncoupling of the hnRNP Npl3p from mRNAs during the stress-induced block in mRNA export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebber, H; Taura, T; Lee, M S; Silver, P A

    1999-08-01

    Npl3p, the major mRNA-binding protein of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. A single amino acid change in the carboxyl terminus of Npl3p (E409 --> K) renders the mutant protein largely cytoplasmic because of a delay in its import into the nucleus. This import defect can be reversed by increasing the intracellular concentration of Mtr10p, the nuclear import receptor for Npl3p. Conversely, using this mutant, we show that Npl3p and mRNA export out of the nucleus is significantly slowed in cells bearing mutations in XPO1/CRM1, which encodes the export receptor for NES-containing proteins and in RAT7, which encodes an essential nucleoporin. Interestingly, following induction of stress by heat shock, high salt, or ethanol, conditions under which most mRNA export is blocked, Npl3p is still exported from the nucleus. The stress-induced export of Npl3p is independent of both the activity of Xpo1p and the continued selective export of heat-shock mRNAs that occurs following stress. UV-cross-linking experiments show that Npl3p is bound to mRNA under normal conditions, but is no longer RNA associated in stressed cells. Taken together, we suggest that the uncoupling of Npl3p and possibly other mRNA-binding proteins from mRNAs in the nucleus provides a general switch that regulates mRNA export. By this model, under normal conditions Npl3p is a major component of an export-competent RNP complex. However, under conditions of stress, Npl3p no longer associates with the export complex, rendering it export incompetent and thus nuclear.

  11. Alteration in cardiac uncoupling proteins and eNOS gene expression following high-intensity interval training in favor of increasing mechanical efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Ali Asghar; Shekarfroush, Shahnaz; Rahimi, Mostafa; Jalali, Amirhossain; Khoshbaten, Ali

    2016-03-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases energy expenditure and mechanical energy efficiency. Although both uncoupling proteins (UCPs) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) affect the mechanical efficiency and antioxidant capacity, their effects are inverse. The aim of this study was to determine whether the alterations of cardiac UCP2, UCP3, and eNOS mRNA expression following HIIT are in favor of increased mechanical efficiency or decreased oxidative stress. Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control group (n=12), HIIT for an acute bout (AT1), short term HIIT for 3 and 5 sessions (ST3 and ST5), long-term training for 8 weeks (LT) (6 in each group). The rats of the training groups were made to run on a treadmill for 60 min in three stages: 6 min running for warm-up, 7 intervals of 7 min running on treadmill with a slope of 5° to 20° (4 min with an intensity of 80-110% VO2max and 3 min at 50-60% VO2max), and 5-min running for cool-down. The control group did not participate in any exercise program. Rats were sacrificed and the hearts were extracted to analyze the levels of UCP2, UCP3 and eNOS mRNA by RT-PCR. UCP3 expression was increased significantly following an acute training bout. Repeated HIIT for 8 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in UCPs mRNA and a significant increase in eNOS expression in cardiac muscle. This study indicates that Long term HIIT through decreasing UCPs mRNA and increasing eNOS mRNA expression may enhance energy efficiency and physical performance.

  12. A synonymous mutation of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 gene is associated with growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chao Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncoupling proteins 2 (UCP2 plays an important role in energy regulation, previous studies suggested that UCP2 is an excellent candidate gene for human obesity and growth-related traits in cattle and chicks. The current study was designed to detect the genetic variation of UCP2 gene, and to explore the association between polymorphism of UCP2 gene and growth, carcass and meat quality traits in rabbits. Results A synonymous mutation in exon 1 and four variants in the first intron of the UCP2 gene were identified by using PCR-sequencing. The synonymous mutation c.72G>A was subsequently genotyped by MassArray system (Sequenom iPLEXassay in 248 samples from three meat rabbit breeds (94 Ira rabbits, 83 Champagne rabbits, and 71 Tianfu black rabbits. Association analysis suggested that the individuals with AA and AG genotypes showed greater 70 d body weight (P < 0.05, 84 d body weight (P < 0.01, ADG from 28 to 84 days of age (P < 0.05, eviscerated weight (P < 0.01, semi-eviscerated weight (P < 0.01 and semi-eviscerated slaughter percentage (P < 0.05, respectively. Additionally, the individuals with AA and AG genotype had a lower pH value of longissimus muscle (P < 0.01 and hind leg muscle (P < 0.05 after slaughter 24 h. Conclusions These findings indicated that UCP2 could be a candidate gene that associated with growth performance, body composition and meat quality in rabbits, and this would contribute to advancements in meat rabbit breeding practice.

  13. Seizures induced in immature rats by homocysteic acid and the associated brain damage are prevented by group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist (2R,4R)-4-aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Druga, Rastislav; Otáhal, Jakub; Haugvicová, Renata; Mares, Pavel; Kubová, Hana

    2005-04-01

    The present study has examined the anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effect of group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonist (2R,4R)-4-aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate (2R,4R-APDC) in the model of seizures induced in immature 12-day-old rats by bilateral intracerebroventricular infusion of dl-homocysteic acid (DL-HCA, 600 nmol/side). For biochemical analyses, rat pups were sacrificed during generalized clonic-tonic seizures, approximately 45-50 min after infusion. Comparable time intervals were used for sacrificing the pups which had received 2R,4R-APDC. Low doses of 2R,4R-APDC (0.05 nmol/side) provided a pronounced anticonvulsant effect which was abolished by pretreatment with a selective group II mGluR antagonist LY341495. Generalized clonic-tonic seizures were completely suppressed and cortical energy metabolite changes which normally accompany these seizures were either normalized (decrease of glucose and glycogen) or markedly reduced (an accumulation of lactate). EEG recordings support the marked anticonvulsant effect of 2R,4R-APDC, nevertheless, this was only partial. In spite of the absence of obvious motor phenomena, isolated spikes or even short periods of partial ictal activity could be observed. Isolated spikes could also be seen in some animals after application of 2R,4R-APDC alone, reflecting most likely subclinical proconvulsant activity of this agonist. The neuroprotective effect of 2R,4R-APDC was evaluated after 24 h and 6 days of survival following DL-HCA-induced seizures. Massive neuronal degeneration, as revealed by Fluoro-Jade B staining, was observed in a number of brain regions following infusion of DL-HCA alone (seizure group), whereas 2R,4R-APDC pretreatment provided substantial neuroprotection. The present findings support the possibility that group II mGluRs are a promising target for a novel approach to treating epilepsy.

  14. Muscle uncoupling protein 3 expression is unchanged by chronic ephedrine/caffeine treatment: results of a double blind, randomised clinical trial in morbidly obese females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bracale

    Full Text Available Ephedrine/caffeine combination (EC has been shown to induce a small-to-moderate weight loss in obese patients. Several mechanisms have been proposed, among which an increased thermogenic capacity of skeletal muscle consequent to the EC-induced up-regulation of uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3 gene expression. We did a parallel group double-blind, placebo-controlled, 4-week trial to investigate this hypothesis. Thirteen morbidly obese women (25-52 years of age, body-mass index 48.0±4.0 kg/m2, range 41.1-57.6 were randomly assigned to EC (200/20 mg, n = 6 or to placebo (n = 7 administered three times a day orally, before undergoing bariatric surgery. All individuals had an energy-deficit diet equal to about 70% of resting metabolic rate (RMR diet (mean 5769±1105 kJ/day. The RMR analysed by intention to treat and the UCP3 (long and short isoform mRNA levels in rectus abdominis were the primary outcomes. Body weight, plasma levels of adrenaline, noradrenaline, triglycerides, free fatty acids, glycerol, TSH, fT4, and fT3 were assessed, as well as fasting glucose, insulin and HOMA index, at baseline and at the end of treatments. Body weight loss was evident in both groups when compared to baseline values (overall -5.2±3.2%, p<0.0001 without significant differences between the treated groups. EC treatment increased the RMR (+9.2±6.8%, p = 0.020, differently from placebo which was linked to a reduction of RMR (-7.6±6.5%, p = 0.029. No significant differences were seen in other metabolic parameters. Notably, no changes of either UCP3 short or UCP3 long isoform mRNA levels were evident between EC and placebo group. Our study provides evidence that 4-week EC administration resulted in a pronounced thermogenic effect not related to muscle UCP3 gene expression and weight loss in morbidly obese females under controlled conditions.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02048215.

  15. Plasticity of Signaling by Spinal Estrogen Receptor α, κ-Opioid Receptor, and Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors over the Rat Reproductive Cycle Regulates Spinal Endomorphin 2 Antinociception: Relevance of Endogenous-Biased Agonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nai-Jiang; Murugaiyan, Vijaya; Storman, Emiliya M; Schnell, Stephen A; Kumar, Arjun; Wessendorf, Martin W; Gintzler, Alan R

    2017-11-15

    We previously showed that intrathecal application of endomorphin 2 [EM2; the highly specific endogenous μ-opioid receptor (MOR) ligand] induces antinociception that varies with stage of the rat estrous cycle: minimal during diestrus and prominent during proestrus. Earlier studies, however, did not identify proestrus-activated signaling strategies that enable spinal EM2 antinociception. We now report that in female rats, increased spinal dynorphin release and κ-opioid receptor (KOR) signaling, as well as the emergence of glutamate-activated metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR 1 ) signaling, are critical to the transition from an EM2 nonresponsive state (during diestrus) to an analgesically responsive state (during proestrus). Differential signaling by mGluR 1 , depending on its activation by membrane estrogen receptor α (mERα; during diestrus) versus glutamate (during proestrus), concomitant with the ebb and flow of spinal dynorphin/KOR signaling, functions as a switch, preventing or promoting, respectively, spinal EM2 antinociception. Importantly, EM2 and glutamate-containing varicosities appose spinal neurons that express MOR along with mGluRs and mERα, suggesting that signaling mechanisms regulating analgesic effectiveness of intrathecally applied EM2 also pertain to endogenous EM2. Regulation of spinal EM2 antinociception by both the nature of the endogenous mGluR 1 activator (i.e., endogenous biased agonism at mGluR 1 ) and changes in spinal dynorphin/KOR signaling represent a novel mechanism for modulating analgesic responsiveness to endogenous EM2 (and perhaps other opioids). This points the way for developing noncanonical pharmacological approaches to pain management by harnessing endogenous opioids for pain relief. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The current prescription opioid abuse epidemic underscores the urgency to develop alternative pharmacotherapies for managing pain. We find that the magnitude of spinal endomorphin 2 (EM2) antinociception not only

  16. Neuroprotective effects of metabotropic glutamate receptor group II and III activators against MPP(+)-induced cell death in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells: the impact of cell differentiation state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantas, D; Greda, A; Golda, S; Korostynski, M; Grygier, B; Roman, A; Pilc, A; Lason, W

    2014-08-01

    Recent studies have documented that metabotropic glutamate receptors from group II and III (mGluR II/III) are a potential target in the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), however, the neuroprotective effects of particular mGluR II/III subtypes in relation to PD pathology are recognized only partially. In the present study, we investigated the effect of various mGluR II/III activators in the in vitro model of PD using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line and mitochondrial neurotoxin MPP(+). We demonstrated that all tested mGluR ligands: mGluR II agonist - LY354740, mGluR III agonist - ACPT-I, mGluR4 PAM - VU0361737, mGluR8 agonist - (S)-3,4-DCPG, mGluR8 PAM - AZ12216052 and mGluR7 allosteric agonist - AMN082 were protective against MPP(+)-evoked cell damage in undifferentiated (UN-) SH-SY5Y cells with the highest neuroprotection mediated by mGluR8-specific agents. However, in retinoic acid- differentiated (RA-) SH-SY5Y cells we found protection mediated only by mGluR8 activators. We also demonstrated the cell proliferation stimulating effect for mGluR4 and mGluR8 PAMs. Next, we showed that the protection mediated by mGluR II/III activators in UN-SH-SY5Y was not accompanied by the modulation of caspase-3 activity, however, a decrease in the number of apoptotic nuclei was found. Finally, we showed that the inhibitor of necroptosis, necrostatin-1 blocked the mGluR III-mediated protection. Altogether our comparative in vitro data add a further proof to neuroprotective effects of mGluR agonists or PAMs and point to mGluR8 as a promising target for neuroprotective interventions in PD. The results also suggest the participation of necroptosis-related molecular pathways in neuroprotective effects of mGluR III activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Uncoupling protein 2 G(-866A polymorphism: a new gene polymorphism associated with C-reactive protein in type 2 diabetic patients C-reactive protein in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocozza Sergio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated the relationship between the G(-866A polymorphism of the uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 gene and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP plasma levels in diabetic patients. Methods We studied 383 unrelated people with type 2 diabetes aged 40-70 years. Anthropometry, fasting lipids, glucose, HbA1c, and hs-CRP were measured. Participants were genotyped for the G (-866A polymorphism of the uncoupling protein 2 gene. Results Hs-CRP (mg/L increased progressively across the three genotype groups AA, AG, or GG, being respectively 3.0 ± 3.2, 3.6 ± 5.0, and 4.8 ± 5.3 (p for trend = 0.03. Since hs-CRP values were not significantly different between AA and AG genotype, these two groups were pooled for further analyses. Compared to participants with the AA/AG genotypes, homozygotes for the G allele (GG genotype had significantly higher hs-CRP levels (4.8 ± 5.3 vs 3.5 ± 4.7 mg/L, p = 0.01 and a larger proportion (53.9% vs 46.1%, p = 0.013 of elevated hs-CRP (> 2 mg/L. This was not explained by major confounders such as age, gender, BMI, waist circumference, HbA1c, smoking, or medications use which were comparable in the two genotype groups. Conclusions The study shows for the first time, in type 2 diabetic patients, a significant association of hs-CRP levels with the G(-866A polymorphism of UCP2 beyond the effect of major confounders.

  18. CaMn0.875Ti0.125O3 as oxygen carrier for chemical-looping combustion with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU)—Experiments in a continuously operating fluidized-bed reactor system

    KAUST Repository

    Rydén, Magnus

    2011-03-01

    Particles of the perovskite material CaMn0.875Ti0.125O3 has been examined as oxygen carrier for chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling, and for chemical-looping combustion of natural gas, by 70h of experiments in a circulating fluidized-bed reactor system. For the oxygen uncoupling experiments, it was found that the particles released O2 in gas phase at temperatures above 720°C when the fuel reactor was fluidized with CO2. The effect increased with increased temperature, and with the O2 partial pressure in the air reactor. At 950°C, the O2 concentration in the outlet from the fuel reactor was in the order of 4.0vol%, if the particles were oxidized in air. For the chemical-looping combustion experiments the combustion efficiency with standard process parameters was in the order of 95% at 950°C, using 1000kg oxygen carrier per MW natural gas, of which about 30% was located in the fuel reactor. Reducing the fuel flow so that 1900kg oxygen carrier per MW natural gas was used improved the combustion efficiency to roughly 99.8%. The particles retained their physical properties, reactivity with CH4 and ability to release gas-phase O2 reasonably well throughout the testing period and there were no problems with the fluidization or formation of solid carbon in the reactor. X-ray diffraction showed that the particles underwent changes in their phase composition though. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Metabotropic Regulation of Extrasynaptic GABAA Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Martin Connelly

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A large body of work now shows the importance of GABAA receptor-mediated tonic inhibition in regulating CNS function. However, outside of pathological conditions, there is relatively little evidence that the magnitude of tonic inhibition is itself under regulation. Here we review the mechanisms by which tonic inhibition is known to be modulated, and outline the potential behavioural consequences of this modulation. Specifically, we address the ability of protein kinase A and C to phosphorylate the extrasynaptic receptors responsible for the tonic GABAA current, and how G-protein coupled receptors can regulate tonic inhibition through these effectors. We then speculate about the possible functional consequences of regulating the magnitude of the tonic GABAA current.

  20. Expression profiling analysis: Uncoupling protein 2 deficiency improves hepatic glucose, lipid profiles and insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet-fed mice by modulating expression of genes in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mei-Cen; Yu, Ping; Sun, Qi; Li, Yu-Xiu

    2016-03-01

    Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), which was an important mitochondrial inner membrane protein associated with glucose and lipid metabolism, widely expresses in all kinds of tissues including hepatocytes. The present study aimed to explore the impact of UCP2 deficiency on glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity and its effect on the liver-associated signaling pathway by expression profiling analysis. Four-week-old male UCP2-/- mice and UCP2+/+ mice were randomly assigned to four groups: UCP2-/- on a high-fat diet, UCP2-/- on a normal chow diet, UCP2+/+ on a high-fat diet and UCP2+/+ on a normal chow diet. The differentially expressed genes in the four groups on the 16th week were identified by Affymetrix gene array. The results of intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance showed that blood glucose and β-cell function were improved in the UCP2-/- group on high-fat diet. Enhanced insulin sensitivity was observed in the UCP2-/- group. The differentially expressed genes were mapped to 23 pathways (P high-fat diet. The upregulation of genes in the PPAR signaling pathway could explain our finding that UCP2 deficiency ameliorated insulin sensitivity. The manipulation of UCP2 protein expression could represent a new strategy for the prevention and treatment of diabetes.

  1. Pestel study: system comparison of the generation of electric current and heating energy in coupled and uncoupled plants; Pestel Studie: Systemvergleich der Strom- und Heizenergieerzeugung in gekoppelten und ungekoppelten Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, K.P.

    1995-12-31

    A system comparison of the generation of electric current and heating energy in coupled and uncoupled plants was carried out in the years 1983/84 at the Eduard Pestel Institute for system research in Hannover. A report is given on the main focus of the investigation which was the comparison of cogeneration power plant for cogeneration with the current generation in modern condensation power plants and the corresponding generation of heating energy in modern gas boilers. The primary energy consumption for generating electric current was compared by means of four examples to the consumption for heating energy generation. The costs of this generation in terms of national economy and industrial management were also compared to each other by means of four examples. (orig.) [Deutsch] Am Eduard Pestel Institut fuer Systemforschung e.V. in Hannover wurde in den Jahren 1983/1984 ein Systemvergleich zwischen der Strom- und Heizenergieerzeugung in gekoppelten und ungekoppelten Anlagen durchgefuehrt. Schwerpunkt der Untersuchung, ueber den heute berichtet werden soll, war der Vergleich von - Blockheizkraftwerken zur gekoppelten Erzeugung mit - einer Stromerzeugung in modernene Kondensationskraftwerken und der entsprechenden Heizwaermeerzeugung in modernen Gaskesseln. Dabei wurden anhand von vier konkreten Fallbeispielen jeweils - die Primaerenergieverbraeuche fuer die Strom- und Heizwaermeerzeugung sowie - die volkswirtschaftlichen und betriebswirtschaftlichen Kosten dieser Erzeugung miteinander verglichen. (orig.)

  2. Effect of 5-week moderate intensity endurance training on the oxidative stress, muscle specific uncoupling protein (UCP3) and superoxide dismutase (SOD2) contents in vastus lateralis of young, healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerczak, J; Rychlik, B; Grzelak, A; Grzmil, P; Karasinski, J; Pierzchalski, P; Pulaski, L; Bartosz, G; Zoladz, J A

    2010-12-01

    In the present study fifteen male subjects (age: 22.7 ± 0.5 years; BMI: 23.5 ± 0.6 kg x m⁻²; VO₂(max) 46.0 ± 1.0 mL x kg⁻¹ x min⁻¹) performed 5 week moderate intensity endurance training. The training resulted in a significant increase in maximal oxygen uptake (VO₂(max)) (P=0.048) and power output reached at VO₂(max) (P=0.0001). No effect of training on the uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) content in the vastus lateralis was found (P>0.05). The improvement of physical capacity was accompanied by no changes in cytochrome-c and cytochrome-c oxidase contents in the vastus lateralis (P>0.05). However, the training resulted in an increase (P=0.02) in mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) content in this muscle. Moreover, a significant decrease (P=0.028) in plasma basal isoprostanes concentration [F₂isoprostanes](pl) accompanied by a clear tendency to lower (P=0.08) gluthatione disulfide concentration [GSSG](pl) and tendency to higher (P=0.08) total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was observed after the training. We have concluded that as little as 5 weeks of moderate intensity endurance training is potent to improve physical capacity and antioxidant protection in humans. Surprisingly, these effects occur before any measurable changes in UCP3 protein content. We postulate that the training-induced improvement in the antioxidant protection at the muscle level is due to an increase in SOD2 content and that therefore, the role of UCP3 in the enhancement of physical capacity and antioxidant protection, at least in the early stage of training, is rather questionable.

  3. Effect of the common -866G/A polymorphism of the uncoupling protein 2 gene on weight loss and body composition under sibutramine therapy in an obese Taiwanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Tun-Jen; Wu, Lawrence Shih-Hsin; Hwang, Yuchi; Huang, Shih-Yi; Lin, Eugene

    2010-04-01

    Sibutramine, a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is used as an anti-obesity drug. Several pharmacogenetic studies have shown correlations between sibutramine effects and genetic variants, such as the 825C/T (rs5443) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the guanine nucleotide binding protein beta polypeptide 3 (GNB3) gene. In this study, our goal was to investigate whether a common SNP, -866G/A (rs659366), in the uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) gene could influence weight reduction and body composition under sibutramine therapy in an obese Taiwanese population. The study included 131 obese patients, 44 in the placebo group and 87 in the sibutramine group. We assessed the measures of weight loss and body fat reduction at the end of a 12-week treatment period by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models using gender, baseline weight, and body fat percentage at baseline as covariates. By comparing the placebo and sibutramine groups with ANCOVA, our data showed a strong effect of sibutramine on weight loss in the combined UCP2 -866 AA + GA genotype groups (p sibutramine on body fat percentage loss was found for individuals with the AA or GA genotypes (p sibutramine had no significant effect on weight loss (p = 0.063) or body fat percentage loss (p = 0.194) for individuals with the wild-type GG genotype, compared with the placebo group of the same genotype. Moreover, a potential gene-gene interaction between UCP2 and GNB3 was identified by multiple linear regression models for the weight loss (p sibutramine. The results suggest that the UCP2 gene may contribute to weight loss and fat change in response to sibutramine therapy in obese Taiwanese patients.

  4. Numerical analysis for long-term stability of disposal facility considering thermal and hydraulic effect. Uncoupled analysis for long-term deformation of rock and buffer material and for transport of heat and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Masataka; Okada, Tetsumi; Hasegawa, Takuma

    2004-01-01

    For the early realization of HLW geological repository and for its rational and economical design and safety assessment, it is important to evaluate the stability of repository facilities in deep underground, where high temperature, earth pressure and underground water flow affect the stability. This report discusses the numerical approaches that are useful for attaining these objectives. One of the efficient approaches is to develop models capable of simulating coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (T-H-M) processes. Several T-H-M coupled simulation codes have been proposed and the international cooperative research project DECOVALEX has been held from 1991 in order to develop and validate the T-H-M coupled simulations. But mechanical models adopted in these simulation codes are too simple to be applied to the evaluation of long-term interaction of materials that show nonlinear mechanical behavior (especially in the case that surrounding rock is soft sedimentary rock). Before simulating the long-term and coupled phenomena, uncoupled simulations for four phenomena (creep behavior of surrounding rock mass, consolidation and deformation behavior of buffer material, transport of water, and transport of heat) are conducted using various parameters and boundary condition sets. From the results of those simulations, following conclusions are obtained: (1) swelling property of buffer material is important to evaluate mechanical behavior of barrier materials, (2) hydraulic properties of natural barrier can be more important than that of buffer material because suction effect of buffer material is so strong that transport of water in the buffer material is fast, (3) change of thermal properties and filling of gaps caused by water saturation of buffer material have a strong effect on the temperature field. On the next stage, we will develop a T-H-M coupled simulation code to evaluate the mechanical interaction between barrier materials based on the above study. (author)

  5. Strabismus-mediated primary archenteron invagination is uncoupled from Wnt/β-catenin-dependent endoderm cell fate specification in Nematostella vectensis (Anthozoa, Cnidaria: Implications for the evolution of gastrulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumburegama Shalika

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrulation is a uniquely metazoan character, and its genesis was arguably the key step that enabled the remarkable diversification within this clade. The process of gastrulation involves two tightly coupled events during embryogenesis of most metazoans. Morphogenesis produces a distinct internal epithelial layer in the embryo, and this epithelium becomes segregated as an endoderm/endomesodermal germ layer through the activation of a specific gene regulatory program. The developmental mechanisms that induced archenteron formation and led to the segregation of germ layers during metazoan evolution are unknown. But an increased understanding of development in early diverging taxa at the base of the metazoan tree may provide insights into the origins of these developmental mechanisms. Results In the anthozoan cnidarian Nematostella vectensis, initial archenteron formation begins with bottle cell-induced buckling of the blastula epithelium at the animal pole. Here, we show that bottle cell formation and initial gut invagination in Nematostella requires NvStrabismus (NvStbm, a maternally-expressed core component of the Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (PCP pathway. The NvStbm protein is localized to the animal pole of the zygote, remains asymmetrically expressed through the cleavage stages, and becomes restricted to the apical side of invaginating bottle cells at the blastopore. Antisense morpholino-mediated NvStbm-knockdown blocks bottle cell formation and initial archenteron invagination, but it has no effect on Wnt/ß-catenin signaling-mediated endoderm cell fate specification. Conversely, selectively blocking Wnt/ß-catenin signaling inhibits endoderm cell fate specification but does not affect bottle cell formation and initial archenteron invagination. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that Wnt/PCP-mediated initial archenteron invagination can be uncoupled from Wnt/ß-catenin-mediated endoderm cell fate specification in

  6. Value of Frequency Domain Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Metrics Amplitude of Low-Frequency Fluctuation and Fractional Amplitude of Low-Frequency Fluctuation in the Assessment of Brain Tumor-Induced Neurovascular Uncoupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shruti; Lu, Hanzhang; Pillai, Jay J

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether the phenomenon of brain tumor-related neurovascular uncoupling (NVU) in resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) (rsfMRI) may also affect the resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) frequency domain metrics the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and fractional ALFF (fALFF). Twelve de novo brain tumor patients, who underwent clinical fMRI examinations, including task-based fMRI (tbfMRI) and rsfMRI, were included in this Institutional Review Board-approved study. Each patient displayed decreased/absent tbfMRI activation in the primary ipsilesional (IL) sensorimotor cortex in the absence of a corresponding motor deficit or suboptimal task performance, consistent with NVU. Z-score maps for the motor tasks were obtained from general linear model analysis (reflecting motor activation vs. rest). Seed-based correlation analysis (SCA) maps of sensorimotor network, ALFF, and fALFF were calculated from rsfMRI data. Precentral and postcentral gyri in contralesional (CL) and IL hemispheres were parcellated using an automated anatomical labeling template for each patient. Region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed on four maps: tbfMRI, SCA, ALFF, and fALFF. Voxel values in the CL and IL ROIs of each map were divided by the corresponding global mean of ALFF and fALFF in the cortical brain tissue. Group analysis revealed significantly decreased IL ALFF (p = 0.02) and fALFF (p = 0.03) metrics compared with CL ROIs, consistent with similar findings of significantly decreased IL BOLD signal for tbfMRI (p = 0.0005) and SCA maps (p = 0.0004). The frequency domain metrics ALFF and fALFF may be markers of lesion-induced NVU in rsfMRI similar to previously reported alterations in tbfMRI activation and SCA-derived resting-state functional connectivity maps.

  7. Polarimetry of uncoupled light on the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, D; Moody, J D; Michel, P; Ralph, J E; Divol, L

    2014-11-01

    Polarimetry has been added to the full aperture backscatter diagnostic on the NIF. Wollaston prisms are used to sample a small region of a beam's backscatter, effectively separating it into two linear polarizations, one of which is parallel to the incident beam. A time-averaged measurement of each polarization is obtained by imaging the separated spots off of a scatter plate. Results have improved understanding of crossed beam energy transfer, glint, and sidescatter, and motivated plans to upgrade to a time-resolved polarimeter measuring the full Stokes vector.

  8. Novel polyglutamine model uncouples proteotoxicity from aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Nakeirah T M; Lee, Amy L; Fay, Hannah G; Gray, Amelia A; Kikis, Elise A

    2014-01-01

    Polyglutamine expansions in certain proteins are the genetic determinants for nine distinct progressive neurodegenerative disorders and resultant age-related dementia. In these cases, neurodegeneration is due to the aggregation propensity and resultant toxic properties of the polyglutamine-containing proteins. We are interested in elucidating the underlying mechanisms of toxicity of the protein ataxin-3, in which a polyglutamine expansion is the genetic determinant for Machado-Joseph Disease (MJD), also referred to as spinocerebellar ataxia 3 (SCA3). To this end, we have developed a novel model for ataxin-3 protein aggregation, by expressing a disease-related polyglutamine-containing fragment of ataxin-3 in the genetically tractable body wall muscle cells of the model system C. elegans. Here, we demonstrate that this ataxin-3 fragment aggregates in a polyQ length-dependent manner in C. elegans muscle cells and that this aggregation is associated with cellular dysfunction. However, surprisingly, this aggregation and resultant toxicity was not influenced by aging. This is in contrast to polyglutamine peptides alone whose aggregation/toxicity is highly dependent on age. Thus, the data presented here not only describe a new polyglutamine model, but also suggest that protein context likely influences the cellular interactions of the polyglutamine-containing protein and thereby modulates its toxic properties.

  9. Novel polyglutamine model uncouples proteotoxicity from aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakeirah T M Christie

    Full Text Available Polyglutamine expansions in certain proteins are the genetic determinants for nine distinct progressive neurodegenerative disorders and resultant age-related dementia. In these cases, neurodegeneration is due to the aggregation propensity and resultant toxic properties of the polyglutamine-containing proteins. We are interested in elucidating the underlying mechanisms of toxicity of the protein ataxin-3, in which a polyglutamine expansion is the genetic determinant for Machado-Joseph Disease (MJD, also referred to as spinocerebellar ataxia 3 (SCA3. To this end, we have developed a novel model for ataxin-3 protein aggregation, by expressing a disease-related polyglutamine-containing fragment of ataxin-3 in the genetically tractable body wall muscle cells of the model system C. elegans. Here, we demonstrate that this ataxin-3 fragment aggregates in a polyQ length-dependent manner in C. elegans muscle cells and that this aggregation is associated with cellular dysfunction. However, surprisingly, this aggregation and resultant toxicity was not influenced by aging. This is in contrast to polyglutamine peptides alone whose aggregation/toxicity is highly dependent on age. Thus, the data presented here not only describe a new polyglutamine model, but also suggest that protein context likely influences the cellular interactions of the polyglutamine-containing protein and thereby modulates its toxic properties.

  10. Polarimetry of uncoupled light on the NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, D., E-mail: turnbull2@llnl.gov; Moody, J. D.; Michel, P.; Ralph, J. E.; Divol, L. [National Ignition Facility and Photon Science, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Polarimetry has been added to the full aperture backscatter diagnostic on the NIF. Wollaston prisms are used to sample a small region of a beam's backscatter, effectively separating it into two linear polarizations, one of which is parallel to the incident beam. A time-averaged measurement of each polarization is obtained by imaging the separated spots off of a scatter plate. Results have improved understanding of crossed beam energy transfer, glint, and sidescatter, and motivated plans to upgrade to a time-resolved polarimeter measuring the full Stokes vector.

  11. Rol de las proteinas desacoplantes UCP1, UCP2 y UCP3 en el gasto energetico, diabetes tipo 2 y obesidad: Sinergismo con la tiroides Role of uncoupling proteins UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 in energy balance, type 2 diabetes and obesity: Synergism with the thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel A. Zaninovich

    2005-04-01

    and dissipation through the action of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1 during cold stress, showed the relevance of this tissue for energy expenditure in lower mammals. UCP1 is only expressed in BAT through the synergistic action of norepinephrine (NE and thyroid hormones in animals exposed to cold and to a lesser degree after meals. The uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2 is found in many tissues and exerts dual effects: it protects cells function from damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS. On the other hand, the uncoupling induced by UCP2 in mitochondria of pancreatic ß cells decreases ATP síntesis and impairs insulin secretion in response to glucose. Hyperlipidemia also prevents insulin secretion through a similar pathway, leading to hyperglycemia. The uncoupling protein-3 is found mostly in skeletal muscle and BAT and its absence did not alter heat production or body temperature. This protein would export fatty acids ouside the mitochondrial matrix for combustion in tissues where fat is the main fuel. In humans, the uncoupling proteins may not play a leading role in energy regulation. However, intensive studies on these and other factors influencing energy expenditure, appetite and glucose metabolism are taken place worldwide and may soon provide more clues on the mechanisms regulating energy balance and their use in the prevention or treatment of human obesity and diabetes type 2.

  12. Polymorphisms and haplotypes in the bovine neuropeptide Y, growth hormone receptor, ghrelin, insulin-like growth factor 2, and uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 genes and their associations with measures of growth, performance, feed efficiency, and carcass merit in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, E L; Nkrumah, J D; Murdoch, B M; Li, C; Wang, Z; Fu, A; Moore, S S

    2008-01-01

    Genes that regulate metabolism and energy partitioning have the potential to influence economically important traits in farm animals, as do polymorphisms within these genes. In the current study, SNP in the bovine neuropeptide Y (NPY), growth hormone receptor (GHR), ghrelin (GHRL), uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 (UCP2 and UCP3), IGF2, corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), and GH genes were evaluated for associations with growth, feed efficiency, and carcass merit in beef steers. In total, 24 SNP were evaluated for associations with these traits and haplotypes were constructed within each gene when 2 or more SNP showed significant associations. An A/G SNP located in intron 4 of the GHR gene had the largest effects on BW of the animals (dominance effect P GHRL gene tended to show effects on residual feed intake, FCR, and partial efficiency of growth (P < 0.10). The IGF2 SNP most strongly affected LM area (P < 0.01), back fat, ADG, and FCR (P < 0.05). The SNP in the CART, MC4R, POMC, GH, and CRH genes did not show associations at P < 0.05 with any of the traits. Although most of the SNP that showed associations do not cause amino acid changes, these SNP could be linked to other yet to be detected causative mutations or nearby QTL. It will be very important to verify these results in other cattle populations.

  13. Controller Requirements for Uncoupled Aircraft Motion. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    Turning X3 4.80 In. 4bD X4 7.20 InAbJ sym M, iX 12 InAblg Lateral A On 2X 24in.-IblgjMane, gradient Tracking 6 0 21 Off 3 36 in4blg Error o11 Standard...Evaluation," Air Force Flight Test Center AFFTC- TD -75-1, May 1975. 9 163 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . ...- REFERENCES (Continued) 48

  14. An uncoupling strategy for numerically solving the dynamic thermoelasticity equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, C.A. de; Feijoo, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The dynamic equations of coupled linear thermoelasticity are presented. A numerical algorithm which combines finite-element space approximation with a two-step time discretization in such a way as to reach significant computational savings is presented: It features a strategy for independently calculating the displacement and temperature fields through equations that nevertheless remain coupled. The scheme convergence was shown to be optimal and its machine performance, as ilustrated by some examples, fairly satisfactory. (Author) [pt

  15. Civilized Uncoupling: A Non-Adversarial Approach to Divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaylen Curtis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The word divorce can conjure images and expectations of ugly battles and emotional brutality involving parasitic attorneys profiting from the whole process. For many people the only hope for peace is to just walk away without a fight. There is another way for divorcing people. It is possible to get through a divorce and avoid the ugliness. This requires the willingness of the litigant and problem-solving skills of the attorney, as well as judges who demand compliance with court rules and accountability from both lawyers and litigants. Most of all, keeping divorce peaceful requires the viewpoint that it is possible to do so. This article advocates for this perspective.

  16. UNCOUPLING LAMINAR CONJUGATE HEAT TRANSFER THROUGH CHEBYSHEV POLYNOMIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIO J. BULA

    2010-01-01

    verificados con la solución obtenida por medio de software CFD comercial, FIDAP ®. La solución ncluyo el cálculo del coeficiente de transferencia de calor, el número de Nusselt, el número de Biot, todos tanto local como promedio. La distribución de temperatura en la interface también fue obtenida.

  17. Uncoupling proteins, dietary fat and the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warden Craig H

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There has been intense interest in defining the functions of UCP2 and UCP3 during the nine years since the cloning of these UCP1 homologues. Current data suggest that both UCP2 and UCP3 proteins share some features with UCP1, such as the ability to reduce mitochondrial membrane potential, but they also have distinctly different physiological roles. Human genetic studies consistently demonstrate the effect of UCP2 alleles on type-2 diabetes. Less clear is whether UCP2 alleles influence body weight or body mass index (BMI with many studies showing a positive effect while others do not. There is strong evidence that both UCP2 and UCP3 protect against mitochondrial oxidative damage by reducing the production of reactive oxygen species. The evidence that UCP2 protein is a negative regulator of insulin secretion by pancreatic β-cells is also strong: increased UCP2 decreases glucose stimulated insulin secretion ultimately leading to β-cell dysfunction. UCP2 is also neuroprotective, reducing oxidative stress in neurons. UCP3 may also transport fatty acids out of mitochondria thereby protecting the mitochondria from fatty acid anions or peroxides. Current data suggest that UCP2 plays a role in the metabolic syndrome through down-regulation of insulin secretion and development of type-2 diabetes. However, UCP2 may protect against atherosclerosis through reduction of oxidative stress and both UCP2 and UCP3 may protect against obesity. Thus, these UCP1 homologues may both contribute to and protect from the markers of the metabolic syndrome.

  18. Uncoupling of Sister Replisomes during Eukaryotic DNA Replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yardimci, Hasan; Loveland, Anna B.; Habuchi, Satoshi; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Walter, Johannes C.

    2010-01-01

    The duplication of eukaryotic genomes involves the replication of DNA from multiple origins of replication. In S phase, two sister replisomes assemble at each active origin, and they replicate DNA in opposite directions. Little is known about the functional relationship between sister replisomes.

  19. Ischemic preconditioning protects against gap junctional uncoupling in cardiac myofibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundset, Rune; Cooper, Marie; Mikalsen, Svein-Ole; Ytrehus, Kirsti

    2004-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning increases the heart's tolerance to a subsequent longer ischemic period. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of gap junction communication in simulated preconditioning in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myofibroblasts. Gap junctional intercellular communication was assessed by Lucifer yellow dye transfer. Preconditioning preserved intercellular coupling after prolonged ischemia. An initial reduction in coupling in response to the preconditioning stimulus was also observed. This may protect neighboring cells from damaging substances produced during subsequent regional ischemia in vivo, and may preserve gap junctional communication required for enhanced functional recovery during subsequent reperfusion.

  20. Harmonic response of coupled and uncoupled granular YBCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torralba, Maria Veronica S; Sarmago, Roland V

    2004-01-01

    The harmonic responses of granular YBCO were obtained via mutual inductance measurements. Two samples, one with and another without intergranular coupling, were investigated in terms of the harmonic components of magnetization at various field amplitudes and frequencies. By comparing the behaviour of the features in the harmonics to that of the peaks in the fundamental response, we explicitly identified which features in the harmonics originate from intragranular harmonic generation and which arise due to a contribution of intergranular coupling. Harmonic responses were obtained despite the absence of vortices and even harmonics were detected in a purely AC magnetic field

  1. How to awaken your nanomachines: Site-specific activation of focal adhesion kinases through ligand interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Walkiewicz, Katarzyna Wiktoria; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Arold, Stefan T.

    2015-01-01

    and inhibiting their functions are important for the development of targeted therapy. Because FAK and Pyk2 are involved in many different cellular functions, designing drugs with partial and function-specific inhibitory effects would be desirable. Here, we

  2. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A further four paths, Gq → PLC → PKC → SRC/PYK2 → GRB2/SOS → RAS → RAF, RTK → PLC → PKC → SRC/PYK2 → GRB2/SOS → RAS → RAF, Integrin → FAK/SRC → GRB2/SOS → RAS → RAF and Integrin → FAK → RAC → PAK → RAF, advanced the cell progression of S phase and G2/M checkpoint by ...

  3. Soluble ectodomain of neuroligin 1 decreases synaptic activity by activating metabotropic glutamate receptor 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørlund, Michelle D.; Carlsen, Eva Maria Meier; Kønig, Andreas Bay

    2017-01-01

    Synaptic cell adhesion molecules represent important targets for neuronal activity-dependent proteolysis. Postsynaptic neuroligins (NLs) form trans-synaptic complexes with presynaptic neurexins (NXs). Both NXs and NLs are cleaved from the cell surface by metalloproteases in an activity-dependent ...

  4. Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor mGluR4 as a Novel Target for Parkinson's Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levey, Allan

    2001-01-01

    ...) as a novel target for the treatment of PD. We have localized mGluR4 in basal ganglia structures, and explored its role in mediating the electrophysiological effects of glutamate in rat brain slices...

  5. Effects of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonist MPEP on learning in developing rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulecká, Anna; Mareš, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 18, Suppl. 1 (2007), S48-S48 ISSN 0955-8810. [Biennial Meeting of the European Behavioural Pharmacology Society /12./. 31.08.2007-03.09.2007, Tübingen] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : MPEP * developing rats * behavioral parameters Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  6. Metabotropic action of postsynaptic kainate receptors triggers hippocampal long-term potentiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrovič, Miloš; da Silva, S. V.; Clement, J. P.; Vyklický ml., Ladislav; Mulle, C.; González-González, I. M.; Henley, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2017), s. 529-539 ISSN 1097-6256 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-02300S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : hippocampus * long-term potentiation * membrane proteins Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neuroscience s (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 17.839, year: 2016

  7. The Role of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 in Learning and Memory Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonyi, Agnes; Schachtman, Todd; Christoffersen, Gert Rene Juul

    2005-01-01

    )-pyridine (MPEP) has facilitated the understanding of the roles of mGluR5s in the central nervous system. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that the activation of mGluR5s is necessary for some forms of long-term potentiation and long-term depression in different brain regions. Investigations...... signaling mechanisms have also been revealed. MGluR5s are mainly localized postsynaptically on the periphery of synap-ses. MGluR5s have been implicated in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. The development of the highly potent and selective mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl...... and radial arm maze performance as well as in contextual fear conditioning, but not in cue conditioning. This review summarizes recent advances reported on mGluR5 function in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. The current development of positive and negative allosteric modulators of mGluR5...

  8. Asymetric functioning of dimeric metabotropic glutamate receptors disclosed by positive allosteric modulators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goudet, C.; Kniazeff, J.; Hlaváčková, Veronika; Malhaire, F.; Maurel, D.; Acher, F.; Blahoš, Jaroslav; Prézeau, L.; Pin, J.-P.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 280, č. 26 (2005), s. 24380-24385 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/03/1183; GA AV ČR KJB5039402; GA ČR(CZ) GD309/03/H095 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : GPCR dimer Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 5.854, year: 2005

  9. Evolutionarily conserved regions of the human c-myc protein can be uncoupled from transforming activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarid, J.; Halazonetis, T.D.; Murphy, W.; Leder, P.

    1987-01-01

    The myc family of oncogenes contains coding sequences that have been preserved in different species for over 400 million years. This conservation (which implies functional selection) is broadly represented throughout the C-terminal portion of the human c-myc protein but is largely restricted to three cluster of amino acid sequences in the N-terminal region. The authors have examined the role that the latter three regions of the c-myc protein might play in the transforming function of the c-myc gene. Several mutations, deletions and frameshifts, were introduced into the c-myc gene, and these mutant genes were tested for their ability to collaborate with the EJ-ras oncogene to transform rat embryo fibroblasts. Complete elimination of the first two N-terminal conserved segments abolished transforming activity. In contrast, genes altered in a portion of the second or the entire third conserved segment retained their transforming activity. Thus, the latter two segments are not required for the transformation process, suggesting that they serve another function related only to the normal expression of the c-myc gene

  10. Uncoupling of dynamin polymerization and GTPase activity revealed by the conformation-specific nanobody dynab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Valentina; Sebastian, Rafael; Moutel, Sandrine; Ecard, Jason; Perez, Franck; Roux, Aurélien

    2017-10-12

    Dynamin is a large GTPase that forms a helical collar at the neck of endocytic pits, and catalyzes membrane fission (Schmid and Frolov, 2011; Ferguson and De Camilli, 2012). Dynamin fission reaction is strictly dependent on GTP hydrolysis, but how fission is mediated is still debated (Antonny et al., 2016): GTP energy could be spent in membrane constriction required for fission, or in disassembly of the dynamin polymer to trigger fission. To follow dynamin GTP hydrolysis at endocytic pits, we generated a conformation-specific nanobody called dynab, that binds preferentially to the GTP hydrolytic state of dynamin-1. Dynab allowed us to follow the GTPase activity of dynamin-1 in real-time. We show that in fibroblasts, dynamin GTP hydrolysis occurs as stochastic bursts, which are randomly distributed relatively to the peak of dynamin assembly. Thus, dynamin disassembly is not coupled to GTPase activity, supporting that the GTP energy is primarily spent in constriction.

  11. Centrosome/Cell cycle uncoupling and elimination in the endoreduplicating intestinal cells of C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lu

    Full Text Available The centrosome cycle is most often coordinated with mitotic cell division through the activity of various essential cell cycle regulators, consequently ensuring that the centriole is duplicated once, and only once, per cell cycle. However, this coupling can be altered in specific developmental contexts; for example, multi-ciliated cells generate hundreds of centrioles without any S-phase requirement for their biogenesis, while Drosophila follicle cells eliminate their centrosomes as they begin to endoreduplicate. In order to better understand how the centrosome cycle and the cell cycle are coordinated in a developmental context we use the endoreduplicating intestinal cell lineage of C. elegans to address how novel variations of the cell cycle impact this important process. In C. elegans, the larval intestinal cells undergo one nuclear division without subsequent cytokinesis, followed by four endocycles that are characterized by successive rounds of S-phase. We monitored the levels of centriolar/centrosomal markers and found that centrosomes lose their pericentriolar material following the nuclear division that occurs during the L1 stage and is thereafter never re-gained. The centrioles then become refractory to S phase regulators that would normally promote duplication during the first endocycle, after which they are eliminated during the L2 stage. Furthermore, we show that SPD-2 plays a central role in the numeral regulation of centrioles as a potential target of CDK activity. On the other hand, the phosphorylation on SPD-2 by Polo-like kinase, the transcriptional regulation of genes that affect centriole biogenesis, and the ubiquitin/proteasome degradation pathway, contribute collectively to the final elimination of the centrioles during the L2 stage.

  12. Uncoupling of M1 muscarinic receptor/G-protein interaction by amyloid beta(1-42)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janíčková, Helena; Rudajev, Vladimír; Zimčík, Pavel; Jakubík, Jan; Tanila, H.; El-Fakahany, E. E.; Doležal, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, April (2013), s. 272-283 ISSN 0028-3908 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0681; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E10060 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Alzheimer ´s Disease * muscarinic receptors * G-proteins Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.819, year: 2013

  13. Uncoupling of satellite DNA and centromeric function in the genus Equus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Francesca M; Nergadze, Solomon G; Magnani, Elisa; Bertoni, Livia; Attolini, Carmen; Khoriauli, Lela; Raimondi, Elena; Giulotto, Elena

    2010-02-12

    In a previous study, we showed that centromere repositioning, that is the shift along the chromosome of the centromeric function without DNA sequence rearrangement, has occurred frequently during the evolution of the genus Equus. In this work, the analysis of the chromosomal distribution of satellite tandem repeats in Equus caballus, E. asinus, E. grevyi, and E. burchelli highlighted two atypical features: 1) several centromeres, including the previously described evolutionary new centromeres (ENCs), seem to be devoid of satellite DNA, and 2) satellite repeats are often present at non-centromeric termini, probably corresponding to relics of ancestral now inactive centromeres. Immuno-FISH experiments using satellite DNA and antibodies against the kinetochore protein CENP-A demonstrated that satellite-less primary constrictions are actually endowed with centromeric function. The phylogenetic reconstruction of centromere repositioning events demonstrates that the acquisition of satellite DNA occurs after the formation of the centromere during evolution and that centromeres can function over millions of years and many generations without detectable satellite DNA. The rapidly evolving Equus species gave us the opportunity to identify different intermediate steps along the full maturation of ENCs.

  14. Uncoupling of satellite DNA and centromeric function in the genus Equus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca M Piras

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we showed that centromere repositioning, that is the shift along the chromosome of the centromeric function without DNA sequence rearrangement, has occurred frequently during the evolution of the genus Equus. In this work, the analysis of the chromosomal distribution of satellite tandem repeats in Equus caballus, E. asinus, E. grevyi, and E. burchelli highlighted two atypical features: 1 several centromeres, including the previously described evolutionary new centromeres (ENCs, seem to be devoid of satellite DNA, and 2 satellite repeats are often present at non-centromeric termini, probably corresponding to relics of ancestral now inactive centromeres. Immuno-FISH experiments using satellite DNA and antibodies against the kinetochore protein CENP-A demonstrated that satellite-less primary constrictions are actually endowed with centromeric function. The phylogenetic reconstruction of centromere repositioning events demonstrates that the acquisition of satellite DNA occurs after the formation of the centromere during evolution and that centromeres can function over millions of years and many generations without detectable satellite DNA. The rapidly evolving Equus species gave us the opportunity to identify different intermediate steps along the full maturation of ENCs.

  15. Mitochondrial phospholipase A2 activated by reactive oxygen species in heart mitochondria induces mild uncoupling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Jan; Jabůrek, Martin; Zelenka, Jaroslav; Ježek, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 5 (2010), s. 737-747 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA303/07/0105; GA MŠk ME09018; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB500110902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Heart mitochondrial phospholipase A2 * Fatty Acids * Adenine nucleotide translocase Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2010

  16. Benthic grazing impact: coupling and uncoupling in relation to physical forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Kjerulf; Maar, Marie; Møhlenberg, F

    2012-01-01

    functions were monitored continuously during the field campaigns using meteorological data, current meters, temperature loggers and CTD point measurements. In addition, measurements from a local monitoring program in Kertinge Nor were included in the data analysis. Stratification of the water column...

  17. Permanent uncoupling of male-specific CYP2C11 transcription/translation by perinatal glutamate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Sarmistha; Das, Rajat Kumar; Giffear, Kelly A.; Shapiro, Bernard H., E-mail: shapirob@vet.upenn.edu

    2015-04-01

    Perinatal exposure of rats and mice to the typically reported 4 mg/g bd wt dose of monosodium glutamate (MSG) results in a complete block in GH secretion as well as obesity, growth retardation and a profound suppression of several cytochrome P450s, including CYP2C11, the predominant male-specific isoform — all irreversible effects. In contrast, we have found that a lower dose of the food additive, 2 mg/g bd wt on alternate days for the first 9 days of life results in a transient neonatal depletion of plasma GH, a subsequent permanent overexpression of CYP2C11 as well as subnormal (mini) GH pulse amplitudes in an otherwise normal adult masculine episodic GH profile. The overexpressed CYP2C11 was characterized by a 250% increase in mRNA, but only a 40 to 50% increase in CYP2C11 protein and its catalytic activity. Using freshly isolated hepatocytes as well as primary cultures exposed to the masculine-like episodic GH profile, we observed normal induction, activation, nuclear translocation and binding to the CYP2C11 promoter of the GH-dependent signal transducers required for CYP2C11 transcription. The disproportionately lower expression levels of CYP2C11 protein were associated with dramatically high expression levels of an aberrant, presumably nontranslated CYP2C11 mRNA, a 200% increase in CYP2C11 ubiquitination and a 70–80% decline in miRNAs associated, at normal levels, with a suppression of CYP2C expression. Whereas the GH-responsiveness of CYP2C7 and CYP2C6 as well as albumin was normal in the MSG-derived hepatocytes, the abnormal expression of CYP2C11 was permanent and irreversible. - Highlights: • A “low” neonatal dose of MSG causes an immediate but transient growth hormone depletion. • Adult circulating growth hormone contains mini pulses in an otherwise male profile. • CYP2C11 is permanently overexpressed > 250%; CYP2C6, 2C7 and albumin remain normal. • The bulk of the overexpressed CYP2C11 mRNA consists of an intron-retained form. • SOCS2 and miRNAs are subnormal, ubiquitination is elevated but JAK2/STAT5b is normal.

  18. The aging population: imperative to uncouple sex and gender to establish "gender equal" health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Gloria A; Mussman, Brianna

    2015-04-01

    The transgender community has long been marginalized in society. As the world's population ages, gender-unbiased health services for this growing population, with age-related chronic illnesses, will be essential. To optimally eliminate hurdles that trans individuals often confront when requesting services, it appears judicious to eliminate the strict and antiquated definition of what constitutes "normal" female and "normal" male. A review of literature on transgender medicine on PubMed over the last five years was conducted. Existing statistics indicate that unacceptable bias and discrimination are occurring, making trans patients less likely to seek care. There are emerging initiatives that address the transgender and gender non-conforming population. Ongoing needs include defining what constitutes "gender equal," understanding the continuum of gender identity, and establishing and implementing guidelines for gender equal counseling and care. With the routine practice of defining sex at birth and equating sex with gender in the health care setting, the transgender patient encounters multiple barriers to accessing and acquiring health care services. These strict gender labels appear to preclude the institution of gender equal care. Care templates on gender equal patient encounters should be implemented to better address transgender health needs in a non-biased manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Uncoupled regulation of fibronectin and collagen synthesis in Rous sarcoma virus transformed avian tendon cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, G.; Soo, W.J.; Bissell, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The regulation of fibronectin and procollagen synthesis has been investigated in normal and Rous sarcoma virus transformed primary avian tendon cells. These two proteins interact at the cell periphery and both are reportedly lost upon transformation. Whether their synthesis was coordinately regulated in Rous sarcoma virus-infected cells was thus examined. It was found that while the synthesis of both pro α 1 and pro α 2 peptides was reduced upon transformation, the synthesis of fibronectin was not altered. Nevertheless, long term radiolabeling demonstrated that fibronectin levels were reduced in transformed cells. It is concluded that the reduction in levels of these components at the surface is brought about by different mechanisms; collagen levels being regulated by procollagen synthesis and fibronectin levels by degradation and/or release into the culture medium. The possibility is discussed that fibronectin is lost from the cell periphery of primary avian tendon cells as a consequence of decreased levels of anchoring collagen molecules

  20. Arabidopsis thaliana cdd1 mutant uncouples the constitutive activation of salicylic acid signalling from growth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Swadhin; Roy, Shweta; Shah, Jyoti; Van Wees, Saskia; Pieterse, Corné M; Nandi, Ashis K

    2011-12-01

    Arabidopsis genotypes with a hyperactive salicylic acid-mediated signalling pathway exhibit enhanced disease resistance, which is often coupled with growth and developmental defects, such as dwarfing and spontaneous necrotic lesions on the leaves, resulting in reduced biomass yield. In this article, we report a novel recessive mutant of Arabidopsis, cdd1 (constitutive defence without defect in growth and development1), that exhibits enhanced disease resistance associated with constitutive salicylic acid signalling, but without any observable pleiotropic phenotype. Both NPR1 (NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1)-dependent and NPR1-independent salicylic acid-regulated defence pathways are hyperactivated in cdd1 mutant plants, conferring enhanced resistance against bacterial pathogens. However, a functional NPR1 allele is required for the cdd1-conferred heightened resistance against the oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Salicylic acid accumulates at elevated levels in cdd1 and cdd1 npr1 mutant plants and is necessary for cdd1-mediated PR1 expression and disease resistance phenotypes. In addition, we provide data which indicate that the cdd1 mutation negatively regulates the npr1 mutation-induced hyperactivation of ethylene/jasmonic acid signalling. © 2011 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology © 2011 BSPP and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Dehydrosilybin attenuates the production of ROS in rat cardiomyocyte mitochondria with an uncoupler-like mechanism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gabrielová, E.; Jabůrek, Martin; Gažák, Radek; Vostálová, J.; Ježek, Jan; Křen, Vladimír; Modrianský, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 6 (2010), s. 499-509 ISSN 0145-479X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA303/08/0658 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Reactive oxygen species * Cardiomyocytes * Dehydrosilybin Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.637, year: 2010

  2. Effects of Mitochondrial Uncoupling Protein 2 Inhibition by Genipin in Human Cumulus Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongshan Ge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available UCP2 plays a physiological role by regulating mitochondrial biogenesis, maintaining energy balance, ROS elimination, and regulating cellular autophagy in numerous tissues. But the exact roles of UCP2 in cumulus cells are still not clear. Genipin, a special UCP2 inhibitor, was added into the cultural medium to explore the roles of UCP2 in human cumulus cells. There were no significant differences in ATP and mitochondrial membrane potential levels in cumulus cells from UCP2 inhibiting groups as compared with the control. The levels of ROS and Mn-SOD were markedly elevated after UCP2 inhibited Genipin. However, the ratio of reduced GSH to GSSG significantly declined after treatment with Genipin. UCP2 inhibition by Genipin also resulted in obvious increase in the active caspase-3, which accompanied the decline of caspase-3 mRNA. The level of progesterone in culture medium declined obviously after Genipin treatment. But there was no significant difference in estradiol concentrations. This study indicated that UCP2 is expressed in human cumulus cells and plays important roles on mediate ROS production, apoptotic process, and steroidogenesis, suggesting UCP2 may be involved in regulation of follicle development and oocyte maturation and quality.

  3. Coupled response spectrum analysis of secondary systems using uncoupled modal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.K.; Jaw Jingwen

    1986-01-01

    A method of performing coupled response spectrum analysis of secondary systems is presented. The response spectrum specified at the base of the primary system is used as the input. The complex coupled mode shapes along with frequencies and damping values are calculated using an efficient and accurate perturbation scheme. The new method is applied to a 2 DOF secondary system coupled with a 6 DOF secondary system. The masses and the stiffness of the secondary system are varied to get nine different cases. The coupled system is subjected to El Centro (S00E, 1940) ground motion. It is shown that the response values from the present method are in good agreement with those from the coupled time history analysis. The conventional floor response spectrum method gives response values which are consistently much higher than the corresponding values from the time history analysis. It is concluded that the present method is sufficiently straightforward and efficient, and that it yields accurate response values. (orig.)

  4. Dietary Uncoupling of Gut Microbiota and Energy Harvesting from Obesity and Glucose Tolerance in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, Matthew J; Ross, Alexander W; Walker, Alan W; Morgan, Peter J

    2017-11-07

    Evidence suggests that altered gut microbiota composition may be involved in the development of obesity. Studies using mice made obese with refined high-fat diets have supported this; however, these have commonly used chow as a control diet, introducing confounding factors from differences in dietary composition that have a key role in shaping microbiota composition. We compared the effects of feeding a refined high-fat diet with those of feeding either a refined low-fat diet or a chow diet on gut microbiota composition and host physiology. Feeding both refined low- or high-fat diets resulted in large alterations in the gut microbiota composition, intestinal fermentation, and gut morphology, compared to a chow diet. However, body weight, body fat, and glucose intolerance only increased in mice fed the refined high-fat diet. The choice of control diet can dissociate broad changes in microbiota composition from obesity, raising questions about the previously proposed relationship between gut microbiota and obesity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. On the comparison between seasonal predictive skill of global circulation models: Coupled versus uncoupled

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Beraki, AF

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study compares one- and two-tiered forecasting systems as represented by the South African Weather Service Coupled Model and its atmosphere-only version. In this comparative framework, the main difference between these global climate models...

  6. Biodiversity change is uncoupled from species richness trends : Consequences for conservation and monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrand, Helmut; Blasius, Bernd; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Chase, Jonathan M.; Downing, John A.; Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Filstrup, Christopher T.; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hodapp, Dorothee; Larsen, Stefano; Lewandowska, Aleksandra M.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Van de Waal, Dedmer B.; Ryabov, Alexey B.

    Global concern about human impact on biological diversity has triggered an intense research agenda on drivers and consequences of biodiversity change in parallel with international policy seeking to conserve biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions. Quantifying the trends in biodiversity is

  7. The first murine zygotic transcription is promiscuous and uncoupled from splicing and 3' processing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abe, K.; Yamamoto, R.; Franke, V.; Cao, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Suzuki, M.G.; Vlahovicek, K.; Svoboda, Petr; Schultz, R. M.; Aoki, F.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 11 (2015), s. 1523-1537 ISSN 0261-4189. [GBP305/12/G034. CZ] EU Projects: European Commission(BE) 315997 Grant - others:GA MŠk LH13084; GA AV ČR M200521202; NIH(US) HD022681; Croatian Ministry of Science, Education and Sports(HR) 119-0982913-1211 Program:LH Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : gene expression * preimplantation mouse embryo * pre-mRNA splicing * RNA-Seq * transcription Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.643, year: 2015

  8. Uncoupling the Impact of Fracture Properties and Composition on Sensory Perception of Emulsion-Filled Gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devezeaux de Lavergne, Marine; Strijbosch, V.M.G.; Broek, Van den A.W.M.; Velde, Van de Fred; Stieger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of fracture properties and composition of emulsion-filled gels on dynamic texture perception. Twelve emulsion-filled gels varying in fracture stress (High/Low) and strain (High/Low) were prepared from three binary gel mixtures. Mechanical

  9. Uncoupling File System Components for Bridging Legacy and Modern Storage Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golpayegani, N.; Halem, M.; Tilmes, C.; Prathapan, S.; Earp, D. N.; Ashkar, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Long running Earth Science projects can span decades of architectural changes in both processing and storage environments. As storage architecture designs change over decades such projects need to adjust their tools, systems, and expertise to properly integrate such new technologies with their legacy systems. Traditional file systems lack the necessary support to accommodate such hybrid storage infrastructure resulting in more complex tool development to encompass all possible storage architectures used for the project. The MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS) and the Level 1 and Atmospheres Archive and Distribution System (LAADS) is an example of a project spanning several decades which has evolved into a hybrid storage architecture. MODAPS/LAADS has developed the Lightweight Virtual File System (LVFS) which ensures a seamless integration of all the different storage architectures, including standard block based POSIX compliant storage disks, to object based architectures such as the S3 compliant HGST Active Archive System, and the Seagate Kinetic disks utilizing the Kinetic Protocol. With LVFS, all analysis and processing tools used for the project continue to function unmodified regardless of the underlying storage architecture enabling MODAPS/LAADS to easily integrate any new storage architecture without the costly need to modify existing tools to utilize such new systems. Most file systems are designed as a single application responsible for using metadata to organizing the data into a tree, determine the location for data storage, and a method of data retrieval. We will show how LVFS' unique approach of treating these components in a loosely coupled fashion enables it to merge different storage architectures into a single uniform storage system which bridges the underlying hybrid architecture.

  10. Inhibition of electron transfer and uncoupling effects by emodin and emodinanthrone in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Ubbink-Kok, T; Anderson, J A; Konings, W N

    1986-01-01

    The anthraquinones emodin (1,3,delta-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone) and emodinanthrone (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthrone) inhibited respiration-driven solute transport at micromolar concentrations in membrane vesicles of Escherichia coli. This inhibition was enhanced by Ca ions. The inhibitory action on solute transport is caused by inhibition of electron flow in the respiratory chain, most likely at the level between ubiquinone and cytochrome b, and by dissipation of the proton motive fo...

  11. Hydrodynamical simulations of coupled and uncoupled quintessence models - I. Halo properties and the cosmic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlesi, Edoardo; Knebe, Alexander; Lewis, Geraint F.; Wales, Scott; Yepes, Gustavo

    2014-04-01

    We present the results of a series of adiabatic hydrodynamical simulations of several quintessence models (both with a free and an interacting scalar field) in comparison to a standard Λ cold dark matter cosmology. For each we use 2 × 10243 particles in a 250 h-1 Mpc periodic box assuming 7-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe cosmology. In this work we focus on the properties of haloes in the cosmic web at z = 0. The web is classified into voids, sheets, filaments and knots depending on the eigenvalues of the velocity shear tensor, which are an excellent proxy for the underlying overdensity distribution. We find that the properties of objects classified according to their surrounding environment show a substantial dependence on the underlying cosmology; for example, while Vmax shows average deviations of ≈5 per cent across the different models when considering the full halo sample, comparing objects classified according to their environment, the size of the deviation can be as large as 20 per cent. We also find that halo spin parameters are positively correlated to the coupling, whereas halo concentrations show the opposite behaviour. Furthermore, when studying the concentration-mass relation in different environments, we find that in all cosmologies underdense regions have a larger normalization and a shallower slope. While this behaviour is found to characterize all the models, differences in the best-fitting relations are enhanced in (coupled) dark energy models, thus providing a clearer prediction for this class of models.

  12. The Madden-Julian oscillation in ECHAM4 coupled and uncoupled general circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperber, Kenneth R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison, Livermore, CA (United States); Gualdi, Silvio [National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Bologna (Italy); Legutke, Stephanie; Gayler, Veronika [Max Planck Institute of Meteorology, Models and Data Group, Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-08-01

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) dominates tropical variability on timescales of 30-70 days. During the boreal winter/spring, it is manifested as an eastward propagating disturbance, with a strong convective signature over the eastern hemisphere. The space-time structure of the MJO is analyzed using simulations with the ECHAM4 atmospheric general circulation model run with observed monthly mean sea-surface temperatures (SSTs), and coupled to three different ocean models. The coherence of the eastward propagation of MJO convection is sensitive to the ocean model to which ECHAM4 is coupled. For ECHAM4/OPYC and ECHO-G, models for which 100 years of daily data is available, Monte Carlo sampling indicates that their metrics of eastward propagation are different at the 1% significance level. The flux-adjusted coupled simulations, ECHAM4/OPYC and ECHO-G, maintain a more realistic mean-state, and have a more realistic MJO simulation than the nonadjusted scale interaction experiment (SINTEX) coupled runs. The SINTEX model exhibits a cold bias in Indian Ocean and tropical West Pacific Ocean sea-surface temperature of 0.5 C. This cold bias affects the distribution of time-mean convection over the tropical eastern hemisphere. Furthermore, the eastward propagation of MJO convection in this model is not as coherent as in the two models that used flux adjustment or when compared to an integration of ECHAM4 with prescribed observed SST. This result suggests that simulating a realistic basic state is at least as important as air-sea interaction for organizing the MJO. While all of the coupled models simulate the warm (cold) SST anomalies that precede (succeed) the MJO convection, the interaction of the components of the net surface heat flux that lead to these anomalies are different over the Indian Ocean. The ECHAM4/OPYC model in which the atmospheric model is run at a horizontal resolution of T42, has eastward propagating zonal wind anomalies and latent heat flux anomalies. However, the integrations with ECHO-G and SINTEX, which used T30 atmospheres, produce westward propagation of the latent heat flux anomalies, contrary to reanalysis. It is suggested that the differing ability of the models to represent the near-surface westerlies over the Indian Ocean is related to the different horizontal resolutions of the atmospheric model employed. (orig.)

  13. Uncoupling nicotine mediated motoneuron axonal pathfinding errors and muscle degeneration in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, Lillian; Tanguay, Robert L.; Svoboda, Kurt R.

    2009-01-01

    Zebrafish embryos offer a unique opportunity to investigate the mechanisms by which nicotine exposure impacts early vertebrate development. Embryos exposed to nicotine become functionally paralyzed by 42 hpf suggesting that the neuromuscular system is compromised in exposed embryos. We previously demonstrated that secondary spinal motoneurons in nicotine-exposed embryos were delayed in development and that their axons made pathfinding errors (Svoboda, K.R., Vijayaraghaven, S., Tanguay, R.L., 2002. Nicotinic receptors mediate changes in spinal motoneuron development and axonal pathfinding in embryonic zebrafish exposed to nicotine. J. Neurosci. 22, 10731-10741). In that study, we did not consider the potential role that altered skeletal muscle development caused by nicotine exposure could play in contributing to the errors in spinal motoneuron axon pathfinding. In this study, we show that an alteration in skeletal muscle development occurs in tandem with alterations in spinal motoneuron development upon exposure to nicotine. The alteration in the muscle involves the binding of nicotine to the muscle-specific AChRs. The nicotine-induced alteration in muscle development does not occur in the zebrafish mutant (sofa potato, [sop]), which lacks muscle-specific AChRs. Even though muscle development is unaffected by nicotine exposure in sop mutants, motoneuron axonal pathfinding errors still occur in these mutants, indicating a direct effect of nicotine exposure on nervous system development.

  14. Permanent uncoupling of male-specific CYP2C11 transcription/translation by perinatal glutamate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Sarmistha; Das, Rajat Kumar; Giffear, Kelly A.; Shapiro, Bernard H.

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal exposure of rats and mice to the typically reported 4 mg/g bd wt dose of monosodium glutamate (MSG) results in a complete block in GH secretion as well as obesity, growth retardation and a profound suppression of several cytochrome P450s, including CYP2C11, the predominant male-specific isoform — all irreversible effects. In contrast, we have found that a lower dose of the food additive, 2 mg/g bd wt on alternate days for the first 9 days of life results in a transient neonatal depletion of plasma GH, a subsequent permanent overexpression of CYP2C11 as well as subnormal (mini) GH pulse amplitudes in an otherwise normal adult masculine episodic GH profile. The overexpressed CYP2C11 was characterized by a 250% increase in mRNA, but only a 40 to 50% increase in CYP2C11 protein and its catalytic activity. Using freshly isolated hepatocytes as well as primary cultures exposed to the masculine-like episodic GH profile, we observed normal induction, activation, nuclear translocation and binding to the CYP2C11 promoter of the GH-dependent signal transducers required for CYP2C11 transcription. The disproportionately lower expression levels of CYP2C11 protein were associated with dramatically high expression levels of an aberrant, presumably nontranslated CYP2C11 mRNA, a 200% increase in CYP2C11 ubiquitination and a 70–80% decline in miRNAs associated, at normal levels, with a suppression of CYP2C expression. Whereas the GH-responsiveness of CYP2C7 and CYP2C6 as well as albumin was normal in the MSG-derived hepatocytes, the abnormal expression of CYP2C11 was permanent and irreversible. - Highlights: • A “low” neonatal dose of MSG causes an immediate but transient growth hormone depletion. • Adult circulating growth hormone contains mini pulses in an otherwise male profile. • CYP2C11 is permanently overexpressed > 250%; CYP2C6, 2C7 and albumin remain normal. • The bulk of the overexpressed CYP2C11 mRNA consists of an intron-retained form. • SOCS2 and miRNAs are subnormal, ubiquitination is elevated but JAK2/STAT5b is normal

  15. Impact of bio-physical feedbacks on the tropical climate in coupled and uncoupled GCMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Yeon; Kug, Jong-Seong; Seo, Hyodae; Bader, Jürgen

    2014-10-01

    The bio-physical feedback process between the marine ecosystem and the tropical climate system is investigated using both an ocean circulation model and a fully-coupled ocean-atmosphere circulation model, which interact with a biogeochemical model. We found that the presence of chlorophyll can have significant impact on the characteristics of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), including its amplitude and asymmetry, as well as on the mean state. That is, chlorophyll generally increases mean sea surface temperature (SST) due to the direct biological heating. However, SST in the eastern equatorial Pacific decreases due to the stronger indirect dynamical response to the biological effects outweighing the direct thermal response. It is demonstrated that this biologically-induced SST cooling is intensified and conveyed to other tropical-ocean basins when atmosphere-ocean coupling is taken into account. It is also found that the presence of chlorophyll affects the magnitude of ENSO by two different mechanisms; one is an amplifying effect by the mean chlorophyll, which is associated with shoaling of the mean thermocline depth, and the other is a damping effect derived from the interactively-varying chlorophyll coupled with the physical model. The atmosphere-ocean coupling reduces the biologically-induced ENSO amplifying effect through the weakening of atmospheric feedback. Lastly, there is also a biological impact on ENSO which enhances the positive skewness. This skewness change is presumably caused by the phase dependency of thermocline feedback which affects the ENSO magnitude.

  16. Uncoupling the effects of seed predation and seed dispersal by granivorous ants on plant population dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Arnan

    Full Text Available Secondary seed dispersal is an important plant-animal interaction, which is central to understanding plant population and community dynamics. Very little information is still available on the effects of dispersal on plant demography and, particularly, for ant-seed dispersal interactions. As many other interactions, seed dispersal by animals involves costs (seed predation and benefits (seed dispersal, the balance of which determines the outcome of the interaction. Separate quantification of each of them is essential in order to understand the effects of this interaction. To address this issue, we have successfully separated and analyzed the costs and benefits of seed dispersal by seed-harvesting ants on the plant population dynamics of three shrub species with different traits. To that aim a stochastic, spatially-explicit individually-based simulation model has been implemented based on actual data sets. The results from our simulation model agree with theoretical models of plant response dependent on seed dispersal, for one plant species, and ant-mediated seed predation, for another one. In these cases, model predictions were close to the observed values at field. Nonetheless, these ecological processes did not affect in anyway a third species, for which the model predictions were far from the observed values. This indicates that the balance between costs and benefits associated to secondary seed dispersal is clearly related to specific traits. This study is one of the first works that analyze tradeoffs of secondary seed dispersal on plant population dynamics, by disentangling the effects of related costs and benefits. We suggest analyzing the effects of interactions on population dynamics as opposed to merely analyzing the partners and their interaction strength.

  17. Arabidopsis thaliana cdd1 mutant uncouples the constitutive activation of salicylic acid signalling from growth defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swain, S.; Roy, S.; Shah, J.; Wees, S.C.M. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Nandi, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Arabidopsis genotypes with a hyperactive salicylic acidmediated signalling pathway exhibit enhanced disease resistance, which is often coupled with growth and developmental defects, such as dwarfing and spontaneous necrotic lesions on the leaves, resulting in reduced biomass yield. In this article,

  18. Control of mitochondrial pH by uncoupling protein 4 in astrocytes promotes neuronal survival

    KAUST Repository

    Lambert, Hé lè ne Perreten; Zenger, Manuel; Azarias, Guillaume; Chatton, Jean Yves; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Lengacher, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Brain activity is energetically costly and requires a steady and highly regulated flow of energy equivalents between neural cells. It is believed that a substantial share of cerebral glucose, the major source of energy of the brain

  19. Dietary Uncoupling of Gut Microbiota and Energy Harvesting from Obesity and Glucose Tolerance in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew J. Dalby; Alexander W. Ross; Alan W. Walker; Peter J. Morgan

    2017-01-01

    Summary Evidence suggests that altered gut microbiota composition may be involved in the development of obesity. Studies using mice made obese with refined high-fat diets have supported this; however, these have commonly used chow as a control diet, introducing confounding factors from differences in dietary composition that have a key role in shaping microbiota composition. We compared the effects of feeding a refined high-fat diet with those of feeding either a refined low-fat diet or a cho...

  20. Uncoupling of Protein Aggregation and Neurodegeneration in a Mouse Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Yong; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Li, Ming; Kapur, Meghan; Choi, Su Jin; Kim, Hak-June; Park, Song-Yi; Zhu, Haining; Yao, Tso-Pang

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant accumulation of protein aggregates is a pathological hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Although a buildup of protein aggregates frequently leads to cell death, whether it is the key pathogenic factor in driving neurodegenerative disease remains controversial. HDAC6, a cytosolic ubiquitin-binding deacetylase, has emerged as an important regulator of ubiquitin-dependent quality control autophagy, a lysosome-dependent degradative system responsible for the disposal of misfolded protein aggregates and damaged organelles. Here, we show that in cell models HDAC6 plays a protective role against multiple disease-associated and aggregation-prone cytosolic proteins by facilitating their degradation. We further show that HDAC6 is required for efficient localization of lysosomes to protein aggregates, indicating that lysosome targeting to autophagic substrates is regulated. Supporting a critical role of HDAC6 in protein aggregate disposal in vivo, genetic ablation of HDAC6 in a transgenic SOD1G93A mouse, a model of ALS, leads to dramatic accumulation of ubiquitinated SOD1G93A protein aggregates. Surprisingly, despite a robust buildup of SOD1G93A aggregates, deletion of HDAC6 only moderately modified the motor phenotypes. These findings indicate that SOD1G93A aggregation is not the only determining factor to drive neurodegeneration in ALS, and that HDAC6 likely modulates neurodegeneration through additional mechanisms beyond protein aggregate clearance. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Anthelmintics, used for the treatment of fascioliasis as uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation in warm blooded animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miert, A.S.J.P.A.M. van; Groeneveld, H.W.

    1969-01-01

    Dinitrophenol and liverfluke anthelmintics such as niclofolan, nitroxynil, bromophenophos and hexachlorophene increased ATP-ase activity of rat-liver mitochondria and caused a contracture of striated muscle in vitro. After lethal doses, rigidity occured soon after deatth. It is postulated that these

  2. Fermentation and genomic analysis of acetone-uncoupled butanol production by Clostridium tetanomorphum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fuyu; Bao, Guanhui; Zhao, Chunhua; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin; Dong, Hongjun

    2016-02-01

    In typical acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation, acetone is the main by-product (50 % of butanol mass) of butanol production, resulting in a low yield of butanol. It is known that some Clostridium tetanomorphum strains are able to produce butanol without acetone in nature. Here, we described that C. tetanomorphum strain DSM665 can produce 4.16 g/L butanol and 4.98 g/L ethanol at pH 6.0, and 9.81 g/L butanol and 1.01 g/L ethanol when adding 1 mM methyl viologen. Butyrate and acetate could be reassimilated and no acetone was produced. Further analysis indicated that the activity of the acetate/butyrate:acetoacetyl-CoA transferase responsible for acetone production is lost in C. tetanomorphum DSM665. The genome of C. tetanomorphum DSM665 was sequenced and deposited in DDBJ, EMBL, and GenBank under the accession no. APJS00000000. Sequence analysis indicated that there are no typical genes (ctfA/B and adc) that are typically parts of an acetone synthesis pathway in C. tetanomorphum DSM665. This work provides new insights in the mechanism of clostridial butanol production and should prove useful for the design of a high-butanol-producing strain.

  3. New insights into coupling and uncoupling of cerebral blood flow and metabolism in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat, Poornima; Chopp, Michael; Chen, Jieli

    2016-06-30

    The brain has high metabolic and energy needs and requires continuous cerebral blood flow (CBF), which is facilitated by a tight coupling between neuronal activity, CBF, and metabolism. Upon neuronal activation, there is an increase in energy demand, which is then met by a hemodynamic response that increases CBF. Such regional CBF increase in response to neuronal activation is observed using neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography. The mechanisms and mediators (eg, nitric oxide, astrocytes, and ion channels) that regulate CBF-metabolism coupling have been extensively studied. The neurovascular unit is a conceptual model encompassing the anatomical and metabolic interactions between the neurons, vascular components, and glial cells in the brain. It is compromised under disease states such as stroke, diabetes, hypertension, dementias, and with aging, all of which trigger a cascade of inflammatory responses that exacerbate brain damage. Hence, tight regulation and maintenance of neurovascular coupling is central for brain homeostasis. This review article also discusses the waste clearance pathways in the brain such as the glymphatic system. The glymphatic system is a functional waste clearance pathway that removes metabolic wastes and neurotoxins from the brain along paravascular channels. Disruption of the glymphatic system burdens the brain with accumulating waste and has been reported in aging as well as several neurological diseases.

  4. Polyunsaturated fatty acids activate human uncoupling proteins 1 and 2 in planar lipid bilayers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beck, V.; Jabůrek, Martin; Demina, T.; Rupprecht, A.; Porter, R. K.; Ježek, Petr; Pohl, E. E.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 4 (2007), s. 1137-1144 ISSN 0892-6638 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/05/0221; GA ČR GA204/04/0495; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5011106 Grant - others:-(DE) Po-524/2-2; -(DE) 436TSE113/44/0-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : mitochondria * anion transporter * proton transport Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 6.791, year: 2007

  5. Potassium as an intrinsic uncoupler of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, Michael Gjedde; Buch-Pedersen, Morten Jeppe

    The plant plasma membrane proton pump (H(+)-ATPase) is stimulated by potassium, but it has remained unclear whether potassium is actually transported by the pump or whether it serves other roles. We now show that K(+) is bound to the proton pump at a site involving Asp(617) in the cytoplasmic...

  6. Uncoupling of sexual reproduction from homologous recombination in homozygous Oenothera species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauwolf, U; Greiner, S; Mráček, J; Rauwolf, M; Golczyk, H; Mohler, V; Herrmann, R G; Meurer, J

    2011-07-01

    Salient features of the first meiotic division are independent segregation of chromosomes and homologous recombination (HR). In non-sexually reproducing, homozygous species studied to date HR is absent. In this study, we constructed the first linkage maps of homozygous, bivalent-forming Oenothera species and provide evidence that HR was exclusively confined to the chromosome ends of all linkage groups in our population. Co-segregation of complementary DNA-based markers with the major group of AFLP markers indicates that HR has only a minor role in generating genetic diversity of this taxon despite its efficient adaptation capability. Uneven chromosome condensation during meiosis in Oenothera may account for restriction of HR. The use of plants with ancient chromosomal arm arrangement demonstrates that limitation of HR occurred before and independent from species hybridizations and reciprocal translocations of chromosome arms-a phenomenon, which is widespread in the genus. We propose that consecutive loss of HR favored the evolution of reciprocal translocations, beneficial superlinkage groups and ultimately permanent translocation heterozygosity.

  7. Uncoupling protein 2 gene (UCP2) 45-bp I/D polymorphism is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-10-20

    Oct 20, 2014 ... spectively (Institute of Public Health Malaysia, 2011). Obesity is a ... weight among university students who were majority of the. Chinese ethnicity (n ... was performed with adjustment to age and ethnicity to eval- uate if the ..... tion, International Obesity Task Force, International Association for the Study of ...

  8. Uncoupling of the beta-adrenergic receptor as a mechanism of in vitro neutrophil desensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galant, S.P.; Britt, S.

    1984-01-01

    Human leukocytes have been useful in studying desensitization phenomena to beta-adrenergic agonists in a number of clinical conditions. In the present in vitro study the authors have explored the mechanism for beta-adrenergic desensitization and have compared conditions for homologous and heterologous desensitization, using the intact PMN model. PMN preincubated with isoproterenol (10 -4 M), washed thoroughly, then restimulated, desensitized rapidly so that within 10 min 80% of control isoproterenol-induced cyclic AMP stimulation is lost. Cells washed free of isoproterenol recover full responsiveness in 1 to 2 hr. The estimated isoproterenol desensitization EC 50 in cells washed and then restimulated is 1 x 10 -5 M, and EC 50 in unwashed cells that are restimulated is 9 x 10 -8 M. Rank-order potency studies of catecholamine desensitization show isoproterenol > epinephrine > norepinephrine, a beta-2 pattern. Isoproterenol-induced desensitization results in a small reduction in [ 3 H]DHA binding sites, which becomes statistically significant (p 50 of 6.6 +/- 2.6 x 10 - (M, which is significantly different (p 50 of 38.1 +/- 9.1 x 10 -1 M found when cells are previously desensitized with isoproterenol for 10 min. GTP does not affect the EC 50 of desensitized cells. Finally, prolonged (3 hr) isoproterenol preincubation results in a small but significant (p 1 (59.3% +/- 7.4), suggesting heterologous desensitization. These studies suggest that the human PMN is a suitable model to study both homologous and heterologous desensitization in vitro. 22 references. 6 figures. 3 tables

  9. Uncoupling of Protease trans-Cleavage and Helicase Activities in Pestivirus NS3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fengwei; Lu, Guoliang; Li, Ling; Gong, Peng; Pan, Zishu

    2017-11-01

    The nonstructural protein NS3 from the Flaviviridae family is a multifunctional protein that contains an N-terminal protease and a C-terminal helicase, playing essential roles in viral polyprotein processing and genome replication. Here we report a full-length crystal structure of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV) NS3 in complex with its NS4A protease cofactor segment (PCS) at a 2.35-Å resolution. The structure reveals a previously unidentified ∼2,200-Å 2 intramolecular protease-helicase interface comprising three clusters of interactions, representing a "closed" global conformation related to the NS3-NS4A cis -cleavage event. Although this conformation is incompatible with protease trans -cleavage, it appears to be functionally important and beneficial to the helicase activity, as the mutations designed to perturb this conformation impaired both the helicase activities in vitro and virus production in vivo Our work reveals important features of protease-helicase coordination in pestivirus NS3 and provides a key basis for how different conformational states may explicitly contribute to certain functions of this natural protease-helicase fusion protein. IMPORTANCE Many RNA viruses encode helicases to aid their RNA genome replication and transcription by unwinding structured RNA. Being naturally fused to a protease participating in viral polyprotein processing, the NS3 helicases encoded by the Flaviviridae family viruses are unique. Therefore, how these two enzyme modules coordinate in a single polypeptide is of particular interest. Here we report a previously unidentified conformation of pestivirus NS3 in complex with its NS4A protease cofactor segment (PCS). This conformational state is related to the protease cis -cleavage event and is optimal for the function of helicase. This work provides an important basis to understand how different enzymatic activities of NS3 may be achieved by the coordination between the protease and helicase through different conformational states. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Role of focal adhesion tyrosine kinases in GPVI-dependent platelet activation and reactive oxygen species formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naadiya Carrim

    Full Text Available We have previously shown the presence of a TRAF4/p47phox/Hic5/Pyk2 complex associated with the platelet collagen receptor, GPVI, consistent with a potential role of this complex in GPVI-dependent ROS formation. In other cell systems, NOX-dependent ROS formation is facilitated by Pyk2, which along with its closely related homologue FAK are known to be activated and phosphorylated downstream of ligand binding to GPVI.To evaluate the relative roles of Pyk2 and FAK in GPVI-dependent ROS formation and to determine their location within the GPVI signaling pathway.Human and mouse washed platelets (from WT or Pyk2 KO mice were pre-treated with pharmacological inhibitors targeting FAK or Pyk2 (PF-228 and Tyrphostin A9, respectively and stimulated with the GPVI-specific agonist, CRP. FAK, but not Pyk2, was found to be essential for GPVI-dependent ROS production and aggregation. Subsequent human platelet studies with PF-228 confirmed FAK is essential for GPVI-mediated phosphatidylserine exposure, α-granule secretion (P-selectin (CD62P surface expression and integrin αIIbβ3 activation. To determine the precise location of FAK within the GPVI pathway, we analyzed the effect of PF-228 inhibition in CRP-stimulated platelets in conjunction with immunoprecipitation and pulldown analysis to show that FAK is downstream of Lyn, Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk, PI3-K and Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk and upstream of Rac1, PLCγ2, Ca2+ release, PKC, Hic-5, NOX1 and αIIbβ3 activation.Overall, these data suggest a novel role for FAK in GPVI-dependent ROS formation and platelet activation and elucidate a proximal signaling role for FAK within the GPVI pathway.

  11. Identification of the kinase that activates a nonmetazoan STAT gives insights into the evolution of phosphotyrosine-SH2 domain signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Tsuyoshi; Kawata, Takefumi; Williams, Jeffrey G

    2012-07-10

    SH2 domains are integral to many animal signaling pathways. By interacting with specific phosphotyrosine residues, they provide regulatable protein-protein interaction domains. Dictyostelium is the only nonmetazoan with functionally characterized SH2 domains, but the cognate tyrosine kinases are unknown. There are no orthologs of the animal tyrosine kinases, but there are very many tyrosine kinase-like kinases (TKLs), a group of kinases which, despite their family name, are classified mainly as serine-threonine kinases. STATs are transcription factors that dimerize via phosphotyrosine-SH2 domain interactions. STATc is activated by phosphorylation on Tyr922 when cells are exposed to the prestalk inducer differentiation inducing factor (DIF-1), a chlorinated hexaphenone. We show that in a null mutant for Pyk2, a tyrosine-specific TKL, exposure to DIF-1 does not activate STATc. Conversely, overexpression of Pyk2 causes constitutive STATc activation. Pyk2 phosphorylates STATc on Tyr922 in vitro and complexes with STATc both in vitro and in vivo. This demonstration that a TKL directly activates a STAT has significant implications for understanding the evolutionary origins of SH2 domain-phosphotyrosine signaling. It also has mechanistic implications. Our previous work suggested that a predicted constitutive STATc tyrosine kinase activity is counterbalanced in vivo by the DIF-1-regulated activity of PTP3, a Tyr922 phosphatase. Here we show that the STATc-Pyk2 complex is formed constitutively by an interaction between the STATc SH2 domain and phosphotyrosine residues on Pyk2 that are generated by autophosphorylation. Also, as predicted, Pyk2 is constitutively active as a STATc kinase. This observation provides further evidence for this highly atypical, possibly ancestral, STAT regulation mechanism.

  12. Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist may reduce behavioural deficit induced by early status epilepticus in adult rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alaverdashvili, Mariam; Kaminskij, Julij; Haugvicová, Renata; Folbergrová, Jaroslava

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. S6 (2005), s. 203-203 ISSN 0013-9580. [International Epilepsy Congress /26./. 28.08.2005-01.09.2005, Paris] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/02/1238 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : APDC * memory * cognitive functions Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  13. Positive allosteric modulation of the human metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (hmGluR4) by SIB-1893 and MPEP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Jesper Mosolff; Svendsen, Nannette; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2003-01-01

    We have identified 2-methyl-6-(2-phenylethenyl)pyridine (SIB-1893) and 2-methyl-6-phenylethynyl pyridine hydrochloride (MPEP) as positive allosteric modulators for the hmGluR4. SIB-1893 and MPEP enhanced the potency and efficacy of L-2-amino-4-phophonobutyrate (L-AP4) in guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S...

  14. Construction of a high affinity zinc binding site in the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders A.; Sheppard, P O; Jensen, L B

    2001-01-01

    a molecular model of the ATD of mGluR1 based on a weak amino acid sequence similarity with a bacterial periplasmic binding protein. The ATD consists of two globular lobes, which are speculated to contract from an "open" to a "closed" conformation following agonist binding. In the present study, we have...... created a Zn(2+) binding site in mGluR1b by mutating the residue Lys(260) to a histidine. Zinc acts as a noncompetitive antagonist of agonist-induced IP accumulation on the K260H mutant with an IC(50) value of 2 microm. Alanine mutations of three potential "zinc coligands" in proximity to the introduced...

  15. Long-Term Plasticity of Astrocytic Metabotropic Neurotransmitter Receptors Driven by Changes in Neuronal Activity in Hippocampal Slices

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Xiaoqiao

    2011-01-01

    In addition to synaptic communication between neurons, there is now strong evidence for neuron-to-astrocyte receptor signaling in the brain. During trains of action potentials or repetitive stimulation, neurotransmitter spills out of the synapse to activate astrocytic Gq protein-coupled receptors (Gq GPCRs). To date, very little is known about the ability of astrocytic receptors to exhibit plasticity as a result of long-term changes in neuronal firing rates. Here we describe for the first tim...

  16. Post-endocytotic Deubiquitination and Degradation of the MetabotropicAminobutyric Acid Receptor by the Ubiquitin-specific Protease 14

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lahaie, N.; Králíková, Michaela; Prezeau, L.; Blahoš, Jaroslav; Bouvier, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 291, č. 13 (2016), s. 7156-7170 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP303/12/2408 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) * biosensor * deubiquitylation * G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) * GABA receptor * protein degradation * receptor endocytosis * ubiquitination Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.125, year: 2016

  17. Anticonvulsant action of an antagonist of metabotropic glutamate receptors mGluR5 MPEP in immature rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lojková, Denisa; Mareš, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 49, Suppl. 1 (2005), s. 219-229 ISSN 0028-3908 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00B122; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/03/0770 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : seizures * ontogeny * MPEP Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.637, year: 2005

  18. Gender-specific desensitization of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors after maternal l-glutamate intake during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Zapata, Antonio; León-Navarro, David Agustín; Crespo, María; Martín, Mairena

    2018-04-22

    In the present work we have studied the effect of maternal intake of l-Glutamate (l-Glu) (1 g/L) during lactation on group I mGluR transduction pathway in brain plasma membrane from 15 days-old neonates. Results obtained have shown that maternal l-glutamate intake did not significantly affect neither weights of pups nor negative geotaxis reflex, an index of neurobehavioral development, but increased l-Glu plasma level in both male and female neonates. In male neonates, maternal l-Glu intake evoked a loss of mGluR 1 whereas no variation on mGluR 5 was observed as revealed by Western-blotting assay. The loss of mGlu 1 R was accompanied by a decrease on l-Glu-stimulated phospholipase C activity suggesting, therefore, a loss of group I mGluR functionality. Concerning female neonates, no variations were detected neither mGluR 1 nor mGluR 5 and group I mGluR functionality was also preserved. Copyright © 2018 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Allelic association, DNA resequencing and copy number variation at the metabotropic glutamate receptor GRM7 gene locus in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandaswamy, Radhika; McQuillin, Andrew; Curtis, David; Gurling, Hugh

    2014-06-01

    Genetic markers at the GRM7 gene have shown allelic association with bipolar disorder (BP) in several case-control samples including our own sample. In this report, we present results of resequencing the GRM7 gene in 32 bipolar samples and 32 random controls selected from 553 bipolar cases and 547 control samples (UCL1). Novel and potential etiological base pair changes discovered by resequencing were genotyped in the entire UCL case-control sample. We also report on the association between GRM7 and BP in a second sample of 593 patients and 642 controls (UCL2). The three most significantly associated SNPs in the original UCL1 BP GWAS sample were genotyped in the UCL2 sample, of which none were associated. After combining the genotype data for the two samples only two (rs1508724 and rs6769814) of the original three SNP markers remained significantly associated with BP. DNA sequencing revealed mutations in three cases which were absent in control subjects. A 3'-UTR SNP rs56173829 was found to be significantly associated with BP in the whole UCL sample (P = 0.035; OR = 0.482), the rare allele being less common in cases compared to controls. Bioinformatic analyses predicted a change in the centroid secondary structure of RNA and alterations in the miRNA binding sites for the mutated base of rs56173829. We also validated two deletions and a duplication within GRM7 using quantitative-PCR which provides further support for the pre-existing evidence that copy number variants at GRM7 may have a role in the etiology of BP. © 2014 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. How to awaken your nanomachines: Site-specific activation of focal adhesion kinases through ligand interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Walkiewicz, Katarzyna Wiktoria

    2015-06-17

    The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the related protein-tyrosine kinase 2-beta (Pyk2) are highly versatile multidomain scaffolds central to cell adhesion, migration, and survival. Due to their key role in cancer metastasis, understanding and inhibiting their functions are important for the development of targeted therapy. Because FAK and Pyk2 are involved in many different cellular functions, designing drugs with partial and function-specific inhibitory effects would be desirable. Here, we summarise recent progress in understanding the structural mechanism of how the tug-of-war between intramolecular and intermolecular interactions allows these protein ‘nanomachines’ to become activated in a site-specific manner.

  1. IGF-1 deficiency impairs neurovascular coupling in mice: implications for cerebromicrovascular aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Peter; Tarantini, Stefano; Ashpole, Nicole M; Tucsek, Zsuzsanna; Milne, Ginger L; Valcarcel-Ares, Noa M; Menyhart, Akos; Farkas, Eszter; Sonntag, William E; Csiszar, Anna; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2015-12-01

    Aging is associated with marked deficiency in circulating IGF-1, which has been shown to contribute to age-related cognitive decline. Impairment of moment-to-moment adjustment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) via neurovascular coupling is thought to play a critical role in the genesis of age-related cognitive impairment. To establish the link between IGF-1 deficiency and cerebromicrovascular impairment, neurovascular coupling mechanisms were studied in a novel mouse model of IGF-1 deficiency (Igf1(f/f) -TBG-Cre-AAV8) and accelerated vascular aging. We found that IGF-1-deficient mice exhibit neurovascular uncoupling and show a deficit in hippocampal-dependent spatial memory test, mimicking the aging phenotype. IGF-1 deficiency significantly impaired cerebromicrovascular endothelial function decreasing NO mediation of neurovascular coupling. IGF-1 deficiency also impaired glutamate-mediated CBF responses, likely due to dysregulation of astrocytic expression of metabotropic glutamate receptors and impairing mediation of CBF responses by eicosanoid gliotransmitters. Collectively, we demonstrate that IGF-1 deficiency promotes cerebromicrovascular dysfunction and neurovascular uncoupling mimicking the aging phenotype, which are likely to contribute to cognitive impairment. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Stability of the IMEX Methods, CNLF and BDF2-AB2, for Uncoupling Systems of Evolution Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Implicit-Explicit linear multistep methods, Tech. rep., Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica (CWI) (1996). [14] W. Hundsdorfer, J. Verwer, Numerical...component splitting for the Crank-Nicolson Leap- Frog integration method, Tech. rep., Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica (CWI) (2009). [23] J. Verwer

  3. Loss of an actin crosslinker uncouples cell spreading from cell stiffening on gels with a gradient of stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qi; Byfield, Fitzroy J.; Nordstrom, Kerstin; Arratia, Paulo E.; Miller, R. Tyler; Janmey, Paul A.

    2009-03-01

    We use microfluidics techniques to produce gels with a gradient of stiffness to show the essential function of the actin crosslinker filamin A in cell responses to mechanical stimuli. M2 melanoma cells null for filamin A do not alter their adherent area in response to increased substrate stiffness when they link to the substrate only through collagen receptors, but change adherent area normally when bound through fibronectin receptors. In contrast, filamin A-replete A7 cells change adherent area on both substrates and respond more strongly to collagen 1-coated gels than to fibronectin-coated gels. A7 cells alter their stiffness, as measured by atomic force microscopy, to match the elastic modulus of the substrate immediately adjacent to them on the gradient. M2 cells, in contrast, maintain a constant stiffness on all substrates that is as low as that of A7 cells on the softest gels achievable (1000 Pa). By contrasting the responses of these cell types to different adhesive substrates, cell spreading can be dissociated from stiffening.

  4. Cold-hearted bats: uncoupling of heart rate and metabolism during torpor at sub-zero temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Shannon E; Stawski, Clare; Geiser, Fritz

    2018-01-04

    Many hibernating animals thermoregulate during torpor and defend their body temperature ( T b ) near 0°C by an increase in metabolic rate. Above a critical temperature ( T crit ), animals usually thermoconform. We investigated the physiological responses above and below T crit for a small tree-dwelling bat ( Chalinolobus gouldii , ∼14 g) that is often exposed to sub-zero temperatures during winter. Through simultaneous measurement of heart rate ( f H ) and oxygen consumption ( V̇ O 2 ), we show that the relationship between oxygen transport and cardiac function is substantially altered in thermoregulating torpid bats between 1 and -2°C, compared with thermoconforming torpid bats at mild ambient temperatures ( T a 5-20°C). T crit for this species was at a T a of 0.7±0.4°C, with a corresponding T b of 1.8±1.2°C. Below T crit , animals began to thermoregulate, as indicated by a considerable but disproportionate increase in both f H and V̇ O 2 The maximum increase in f H was only 4-fold greater than the average thermoconforming minimum, compared with a 46-fold increase in V̇ O 2 The differential response of f H and V̇ O 2  to low T a was reflected in a 15-fold increase in oxygen delivery per heart beat (cardiac oxygen pulse). During torpor at low T a , thermoregulating bats maintained a relatively slow f H and compensated for increased metabolic demands by significantly increasing stroke volume and tissue oxygen extraction. Our study provides new information on the relationship between metabolism and f H in an unstudied physiological state that may occur frequently in the wild and can be extremely costly for heterothermic animals. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Association of CD147 and Calcium Exporter PMCA4 Uncouples IL-2 Expression from Early TCR Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supper, Verena; Schiller, Herbert B; Paster, Wolfgang; Forster, Florian; Boulègue, Cyril; Mitulovic, Goran; Leksa, Vladimir; Ohradanova-Repic, Anna; Machacek, Christian; Schatzlmaier, Philipp; Zlabinger, Gerhard J; Stockinger, Hannes

    2016-02-01

    The Ig superfamily member CD147 is upregulated following T cell activation and was shown to serve as a negative regulator of T cell proliferation. Thus, Abs targeting CD147 are being tested as new treatment strategies for cancer and autoimmune diseases. How CD147 mediates immunosuppression and whether association with other coreceptor complexes is needed have remained unknown. In the current study, we show that silencing of CD147 in human T cells increases IL-2 production without affecting the TCR proximal signaling components. We mapped the immunosuppressive moieties of CD147 to its transmembrane domain and Ig-like domain II. Using affinity purification combined with mass spectrometry, we determined the domain specificity of CD147 interaction partners and identified the calcium exporter plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoform 4 (PMCA4) as the interaction partner of the immunosuppressive moieties of CD147. CD147 does not control the proper membrane localization of PMCA4, but PMCA4 is essential for the CD147-dependent inhibition of IL-2 expression via a calcium-independent mechanism. In summary, our data show that CD147 interacts via its immunomodulatory domains with PMCA4 to bypass TCR proximal signaling and inhibit IL-2 expression. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. Activated AKT/PKB signaling in C. elegans uncouples temporally distinct outputs of DAF-2/insulin-like signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanselman Keaton B

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, a conserved insulin-like signaling pathway controls larval development, stress resistance and adult lifespan. AGE-1, a homolog of the p110 catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K comprises the major known effector pathway downstream of the insulin receptor, DAF-2. Phospholipid products of AGE-1/PI3K activate AKT/PKB kinase signaling via PDK-1. AKT/PKB signaling antagonizes nuclear translocation of the DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor. Reduced AGE-1/PI3K signaling permits DAF-16 to direct dauer larval arrest and promote long lifespan in adult animals. In order to study the downstream effectors of AGE-1/PI3K signaling in C. elegans, we conducted a genetic screen for mutations that suppress the constitutive dauer arrest phenotype of age-1(mg109 animals. Results This report describes mutations recovered in a screen for suppressors of the constitutive dauer arrest (daf-C phenotype of age-1(mg109. Two mutations corresponded to alleles of daf-16. Two mutations were gain-of-function alleles in the genes, akt-1 and pdk-1, encoding phosphoinositide-dependent serine/threonine kinases. A fifth mutation, mg227, located on chromosome X, did not correspond to any known dauer genes, suggesting that mg227 may represent a new component of the insulin pathway. Genetic epistasis analysis by RNAi showed that reproductive development in age-1(mg109;akt-1(mg247 animals was dependent on the presence of pdk-1. Similarly, reproductive development in age-1(mg109;pdk-1(mg261 animals was dependent on akt-1. However, reproductive development in age-1(mg109; mg227 animals required only akt-1, and pdk-1 activity was dispensable in this background. Interestingly, while mg227 suppressed dauer arrest in age-1(mg109 animals, it enhanced the long lifespan phenotype. In contrast, akt-1(mg247 and pdk-1(mg261 did not affect lifespan or stress resistance, while both daf-16 alleles fully suppressed these phenotypes. Conclusion A screen for suppressors of PI3K mutant phenotypes identified activating mutations in two known pathway components, providing insights into their regulation. In particular, the interdependence of akt-1 and pdk-1, even in activated forms, supports the existence of AGE-1-independent pathways for these phospholipid-dependent kinases. Phenotypic analysis of these alleles shows that the larval and adult outputs of AGE-1/PI3K are fully separable in these mutants.

  7. Uncoupling of oxidative stress resistance and lifespan in long-lived isp-1 mitochondrial mutants in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dues, Dylan J; Schaar, Claire E; Johnson, Benjamin K; Bowman, Megan J; Winn, Mary E; Senchuk, Megan M; Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy M

    2017-07-01

    Mutations affecting components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain have been shown to increase lifespan in multiple species including the worm Caenorhabditis elegans. While it was originally proposed that decreased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting from lower rates of electron transport could account for the observed increase in lifespan, recent evidence indicates that ROS levels are increased in at least some of these long-lived mitochondrial mutants. Here, we show that the long-lived mitochondrial mutant isp-1 worms have increased resistance to oxidative stress. Our results suggest that elevated ROS levels in isp-1 worms cause the activation of multiple stress-response pathways including the mitochondrial unfolded protein response, the SKN-1-mediated stress response, and the hypoxia response. In addition, these worms have increased expression of specific antioxidant enzymes, including a marked upregulation of the inducible superoxide dismutase genes sod-3 and sod-5. Examining the contribution of sod-3 and sod-5 to the oxidative stress resistance in isp-1 worms revealed that loss of either of these genes increased resistance to oxidative stress, but not other forms of stress. Deletion of sod-3 or sod-5 decreased the lifespan of isp-1 worms and further exacerbated their slow physiologic rates. Thus, while deletion of sod-3 and sod-5 genes has little impact on stress resistance, physiologic rates or lifespan in wild-type worms, these genes are required for the longevity of isp-1 worms. Overall, this work shows that the increased resistance to oxidative stress in isp-1 worms does not account for their longevity, and that resistance to oxidative stress can be experimentally dissociated from lifespan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Metaproteomics and metabolomics analyses of chronically petroleum-polluted sites reveal the importance of general anaerobic processes uncoupled with degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargiela, Rafael; Herbst, Florian-Alexander; Martínez-Martínez, Mónica; Seifert, Jana; Rojo, David; Cappello, Simone; Genovese, María; Crisafi, Francesca; Denaro, Renata; Chernikova, Tatyana N; Barbas, Coral; von Bergen, Martin; Yakimov, Michail M; Ferrer, Manuel; Golyshin, Peter N

    2015-10-01

    Crude oil is one of the most important natural assets for humankind, yet it is a major environmental pollutant, notably in marine environments. One of the largest crude oil polluted areas in the word is the semi-enclosed Mediterranean Sea, in which the metabolic potential of indigenous microbial populations towards the large-scale chronic pollution is yet to be defined, particularly in anaerobic and micro-aerophilic sites. Here, we provide an insight into the microbial metabolism in sediments from three chronically polluted marine sites along the coastline of Italy: the Priolo oil terminal/refinery site (near Siracuse, Sicily), harbour of Messina (Sicily) and shipwreck of MT Haven (near Genoa). Using shotgun metaproteomics and community metabolomics approaches, the presence of 651 microbial proteins and 4776 metabolite mass features have been detected in these three environments, revealing a high metabolic heterogeneity between the investigated sites. The proteomes displayed the prevalence of anaerobic metabolisms that were not directly related with petroleum biodegradation, indicating that in the absence of oxygen, biodegradation is significantly suppressed. This suppression was also suggested by examining the metabolome patterns. The proteome analysis further highlighted the metabolic coupling between methylotrophs and sulphate reducers in oxygen-depleted petroleum-polluted sediments. © 2015 The Authors. PROTEOMICS published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Metaproteomics and metabolomics analyses of chronically petroleum‐polluted sites reveal the importance of general anaerobic processes uncoupled with degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargiela, Rafael; Herbst, Florian‐Alexander; Martínez‐Martínez, Mónica; Seifert, Jana; Rojo, David; Cappello, Simone; Genovese, María; Crisafi, Francesca; Denaro, Renata; Chernikova, Tatyana N.; Barbas, Coral; von Bergen, Martin; Yakimov, Michail M.; Golyshin, Peter N.

    2015-01-01

    Crude oil is one of the most important natural assets for humankind, yet it is a major environmental pollutant, notably in marine environments. One of the largest crude oil polluted areas in the word is the semi‐enclosed Mediterranean Sea, in which the metabolic potential of indigenous microbial populations towards the large‐scale chronic pollution is yet to be defined, particularly in anaerobic and micro‐aerophilic sites. Here, we provide an insight into the microbial metabolism in sediments from three chronically polluted marine sites along the coastline of Italy: the Priolo oil terminal/refinery site (near Siracuse, Sicily), harbour of Messina (Sicily) and shipwreck of MT Haven (near Genoa). Using shotgun metaproteomics and community metabolomics approaches, the presence of 651 microbial proteins and 4776 metabolite mass features have been detected in these three environments, revealing a high metabolic heterogeneity between the investigated sites. The proteomes displayed the prevalence of anaerobic metabolisms that were not directly related with petroleum biodegradation, indicating that in the absence of oxygen, biodegradation is significantly suppressed. This suppression was also suggested by examining the metabolome patterns. The proteome analysis further highlighted the metabolic coupling between methylotrophs and sulphate reducers in oxygen‐depleted petroleum‐polluted sediments. PMID:26201687

  10. Uncoupling protein 2 regulates daily rhythms of insulin secretion capacity in MIN6 cells and isolated islets from male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita Seshadri

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Our study suggests that Ucp2/UCP2 in the β cell is part of an important, endogenous, metabolic regulator that controls the temporal capacity of GSIS over the course of the day/night cycle, which, in turn, regulates time-of-day glucose tolerance. Targeting Ucp2/UCP2 as a therapeutic in type 2 diabetes or any other metabolic condition must take into account the rhythmic nature of its expression and its impact on glucose tolerance over 24 h, specifically during the inactive/fasted phase.

  11. Uncoupling PIP2-calmodulin regulation of Kv7.2 channels by an assembly destabilizing epileptogenic mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, Araitz; Gomis-Perez, Carolina; Bernardo-Seisdedos, Ganeko; Alaimo, Alessandro; Malo, Covadonga; Aldaregia, Juncal; Lopez-Robles, Carlos; Areso, Pilar; Butz, Elisabeth; Wahl-Schott, Christian; Villarroel, Alvaro

    2015-11-01

    We show that the combination of an intracellular bi-partite calmodulin (CaM)-binding site and a distant assembly region affect how an ion channel is regulated by a membrane lipid. Our data reveal that regulation by phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate (PIP2) and stabilization of assembled Kv7.2 subunits by intracellular coiled-coil regions far from the membrane are coupled molecular processes. Live-cell fluorescence energy transfer measurements and direct binding studies indicate that remote coiled-coil formation creates conditions for different CaM interaction modes, each conferring different PIP2 dependency to Kv7.2 channels. Disruption of coiled-coil formation by epilepsy-causing mutation decreases apparent CaM-binding affinity and interrupts CaM influence on PIP2 sensitivity. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the receptor-uncoupled mutant of Gαi1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, Tomohito; Muroya, Ayumu; Nakajima, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Takeshi; Hirai, Keiko; Sugio, Shigetoshi; Wakamatsu, Kaori; Kohno, Toshiyuki

    2007-01-01

    The K349P mutant of Gα i1 , which is unable to couple to G-protein-coupled receptors, has been crystallized and analyzed. The same crystallization conditions were applicable irrespective of the identity of the bound nucleotide or of the presence of the mutation. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms by which G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) activate G proteins, the K349P mutant of Gα i1 (K349P), which is unable to couple to the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, was prepared and its crystals were grown along with those of wild-type Gα i1 protein (WT). The two proteins were crystallized under almost identical conditions, thus enabling a detailed structural comparison. The crystallization conditions performed well irrespective of the identity of the bound nucleotide (GDP or GTPγS) and the crystals diffracted to resolutions of 2.2 Å (WT·GDP), 2.8 Å (WT·GTPγS), 2.6 Å (K349P·GDP) and 3.2 Å (K349P·GTPγS)

  13. Uncoupling of S phase and mitosis in cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes lacking the winged-helix transcription factor Trident

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, W.; Schilham, M. W.; Moerer, P.; van den Hoff, M. J.; Dam, K.; Lamers, W. H.; Medema, R. H.; Clevers, H.

    1998-01-01

    In order to maintain a stable karyotype, the eukaryotic cell cycle is coordinated such that only one round of S phase precedes each mitosis, and mitosis is not initiated until DNA replication is completed. Several checkpoints and regulatory proteins have been defined in lower eukaryotes that govern

  14. Uncoupling the Mitogenic and Metabolic Functions of FGF1 by Tuning FGF1-FGF Receptor Dimer Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Huang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lysine acetylation is involved in various biological processes and is considered a key reversible post-translational modification in the regulation of gene expression, enzyme activity, and subcellular localization. This post-translational modification is therefore highly relevant in the context of circadian biology, but its characterization on the proteome-wide scale and its circadian clock dependence are still poorly described. Here, we provide a comprehensive and rhythmic acetylome map of the mouse liver. Rhythmic acetylated proteins showed subcellular localization-specific phases that correlated with the related metabolites in the regulated pathways. Mitochondrial proteins were over-represented among the rhythmically acetylated proteins and were highly correlated with SIRT3-dependent deacetylation. SIRT3 activity being nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ level-dependent, we show that NAD+ is orchestrated by both feeding rhythms and the circadian clock through the NAD+ salvage pathway but also via the nicotinamide riboside pathway. Hence, the diurnal acetylome relies on a functional circadian clock and affects important diurnal metabolic pathways in the mouse liver.

  15. Intra-Seasonal Flexibility in Avian Metabolic Performance Highlights the Uncoupling of Basal Metabolic Rate and Thermogenic Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Magali; Lewden, Agnès; Vézina, François

    2013-01-01

    Stochastic winter weather events are predicted to increase in occurrence and amplitude at northern latitudes and organisms are expected to cope through phenotypic flexibility. Small avian species wintering in these environments show acclimatization where basal metabolic rate (BMR) and maximal thermogenic capacity (MSUM) are typically elevated. However, little is known on intra-seasonal variation in metabolic performance and on how population trends truly reflect individual flexibility. Here we report intra-seasonal variation in metabolic parameters measured at the population and individual levels in black-capped chickadees ( Poecile atricapillus ). Results confirmed that population patterns indeed reflect flexibility at the individual level. They showed the expected increase in BMR (6%) and MSUM (34%) in winter relative to summer but also, and most importantly, that these parameters changed differently through time. BMR began its seasonal increase in November, while MSUM had already achieved more than 20% of its inter-seasonal increase by October, and declined to its starting level by March, while MSUM remained high. Although both parameters co-vary on a yearly scale, this mismatch in the timing of variation in winter BMR and MSUM likely reflects different constraints acting on different physiological components and therefore suggests a lack of functional link between these parameters. PMID:23840843

  16. Neurotrophic uncoupling of IGF-1 in Alzheimer’s disease: translation into early diagnosis and involvement of lifestyle risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Trueba Sáiz, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Tesis doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Medicina, Departamento de Anatomía, Histología y Neurociencia. Fecha de lectura: 20-02-2015 Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a circulating hormone that is mainly produced by the liver in response to the growth hormone from the adenohypophysis. Previous data from our laboratory have shown that, in the adult, IGF-1 is able to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to enter the central nervous system (...

  17. Activated AKT/PKB signaling in C. elegans uncouples temporally distinct outputs of DAF-2/insulin-like signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gami, Minaxi S; Iser, Wendy B; Hanselman, Keaton B; Wolkow, Catherine A

    2006-10-04

    In the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, a conserved insulin-like signaling pathway controls larval development, stress resistance and adult lifespan. AGE-1, a homolog of the p110 catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) comprises the major known effector pathway downstream of the insulin receptor, DAF-2. Phospholipid products of AGE-1/PI3K activate AKT/PKB kinase signaling via PDK-1. AKT/PKB signaling antagonizes nuclear translocation of the DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor. Reduced AGE-1/PI3K signaling permits DAF-16 to direct dauer larval arrest and promote long lifespan in adult animals. In order to study the downstream effectors of AGE-1/PI3K signaling in C. elegans, we conducted a genetic screen for mutations that suppress the constitutive dauer arrest phenotype of age-1(mg109) animals. This report describes mutations recovered in a screen for suppressors of the constitutive dauer arrest (daf-C) phenotype of age-1(mg109). Two mutations corresponded to alleles of daf-16. Two mutations were gain-of-function alleles in the genes, akt-1 and pdk-1, encoding phosphoinositide-dependent serine/threonine kinases. A fifth mutation, mg227, located on chromosome X, did not correspond to any known dauer genes, suggesting that mg227 may represent a new component of the insulin pathway. Genetic epistasis analysis by RNAi showed that reproductive development in age-1(mg109);akt-1(mg247) animals was dependent on the presence of pdk-1. Similarly, reproductive development in age-1(mg109);pdk-1(mg261) animals was dependent on akt-1. However, reproductive development in age-1(mg109); mg227 animals required only akt-1, and pdk-1 activity was dispensable in this background. Interestingly, while mg227 suppressed dauer arrest in age-1(mg109) animals, it enhanced the long lifespan phenotype. In contrast, akt-1(mg247) and pdk-1(mg261) did not affect lifespan or stress resistance, while both daf-16 alleles fully suppressed these phenotypes. A screen for suppressors of PI3K mutant phenotypes identified activating mutations in two known pathway components, providing insights into their regulation. In particular, the interdependence of akt-1 and pdk-1, even in activated forms, supports the existence of AGE-1-independent pathways for these phospholipid-dependent kinases. Phenotypic analysis of these alleles shows that the larval and adult outputs of AGE-1/PI3K are fully separable in these mutants.

  18. Compact Layers of Hybrid Halide Perovskites Fabricated via the Aerosol Deposition Process—Uncoupling Material Synthesis and Layer Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Panzer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the successful fabrication of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite layers by the aerosol deposition method (ADM. The layers show high structural purity and compactness, thus making them suitable for application in perovskite-based optoelectronic devices. By using the aerosol deposition method we are able to decouple material synthesis from layer processing. Our results therefore allow for enhanced and easy control over the fabrication of perovskite-based devices, further paving the way for their commercialization.

  19. Development of uncoupling between D1- and D2-mediated motor behavior in rats depleted of dopamine as neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, E M; Bruno, J P

    1994-09-01

    The D1- and D2-mediation of stimulated motor behavior was studied in pups (Days 10-11) and weanlings (Days 20-21) that had been depleted of dopamine (DA) on postnatal Day 3. Administration of the D1-like agonist SKF 38393 (30.0 mg/kg) or the D2-like agonist quinpirole (3.0 mg/kg) increased the incidence of sniffing and locomotion in intact and DA-depleted animals tested at either age. However, the ability of selective DA antagonists to reduce these stimulated responses interacted with both the depletion and the age at the time of testing. When tested as pups, both the D1 antagonist SCH 23390 (0.2 or 0.4 mg/kg) and the D2 antagonist clebopride (10.0 mg/kg) suppressed the behaviors induced by either class of DA agonist. When tested as weanlings, intact animals exhibited the profile of pups (i.e., either antagonist blocked each agonist). In DA-depleted weanlings, however, only the D1 antagonist blocked the D1 agonist-induced responses and only the D2 antagonist blocked the D2 agonist-induced responses. These data demonstrate that the interactions between D1 and D2 receptors in the expression of stimulated motor behaviors are altered following DA depletions in neonates. Moreover, this change in receptor function occurs sometime between 7 and 13 days after the DA depletion.

  20. Compact Layers of Hybrid Halide Perovskites Fabricated via the Aerosol Deposition Process-Uncoupling Material Synthesis and Layer Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Fabian; Hanft, Dominik; Gujar, Tanaji P; Kahle, Frank-Julian; Thelakkat, Mukundan; Köhler, Anna; Moos, Ralf

    2016-04-08

    We present the successful fabrication of CH₃NH₃PbI₃ perovskite layers by the aerosol deposition method (ADM). The layers show high structural purity and compactness, thus making them suitable for application in perovskite-based optoelectronic devices. By using the aerosol deposition method we are able to decouple material synthesis from layer processing. Our results therefore allow for enhanced and easy control over the fabrication of perovskite-based devices, further paving the way for their commercialization.

  1. A GTPase chimera illustrates an uncoupled nucleotide affinity and release rate, Providing insight into the activation mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guilfoyle, Amy P.; Deshpande, Chandrika N.; Font Sadurni, Josep

    2014-01-01

    , biophysical studies on both the eukaryotic Gα proteins and the GTPase domain (NFeoB) of prokaryotic FeoB proteins have revealed conformational changes in the G5 loop that accompany nucleotide binding and release. However, it is unclear whether this conformational change in the G5 loop is a prerequisite...

  2. Uncoupling the widespread occurrence of anti-NMDAR1 autoantibodies from neuropsychiatric disease in a novel autoimmune model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hong; Oliveira, Bárbara; Saher, Gesine; Dere, Ekrem; Tapken, Daniel; Mitjans, Marina; Seidel, Jan; Wesolowski, Janina; Wakhloo, Debia; Klein-Schmidt, Christina; Ronnenberg, Anja; Schwabe, Kerstin; Trippe, Ralf; Mätz-Rensing, Kerstin; Berghoff, Stefan; Al-Krinawe, Yazeed; Martens, Henrik; Begemann, Martin; Stöcker, Winfried; Kaup, Franz-Josef; Mischke, Reinhard; Boretius, Susann; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Krauss, Joachim K; Hollmann, Michael; Lühder, Fred; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2018-02-09

    Autoantibodies of the IgG class against N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor subunit-NR1 (NMDAR1-AB) were considered pathognomonic for anti-NMDAR encephalitis. This view has been challenged by the age-dependent seroprevalence (up to >20%) of functional NMDAR1-AB of all immunoglobulin classes found in >5000 individuals, healthy or affected by different diseases. These findings question a merely encephalitogenic role of NMDAR1-AB. Here, we show that NMDAR1-AB belong to the normal autoimmune repertoire of dogs, cats, rats, mice, baboons, and rhesus macaques, and are functional in the NMDAR1 internalization assay based on human IPSC-derived cortical neurons. The age dependence of seroprevalence is lost in nonhuman primates in captivity and in human migrants, raising the intriguing possibility that chronic life stress may be related to NMDAR1-AB formation, predominantly of the IgA class. Active immunization of ApoE -/- and ApoE +/+ mice against four peptides of the extracellular NMDAR1 domain or ovalbumin (control) leads to high circulating levels of specific AB. After 4 weeks, the endogenously formed NMDAR1-AB (IgG) induce psychosis-like symptoms upon MK-801 challenge in ApoE -/- mice, characterized by an open blood-brain barrier, but not in their ApoE +/+ littermates, which are indistinguishable from ovalbumin controls. Importantly, NMDAR1-AB do not induce any sign of inflammation in the brain. Immunohistochemical staining for microglial activation markers and T lymphocytes in the hippocampus yields comparable results in ApoE -/- and ApoE +/+ mice, irrespective of immunization against NMDAR1 or ovalbumin. These data suggest that NMDAR1-AB of the IgG class shape behavioral phenotypes upon access to the brain but do not cause brain inflammation on their own.

  3. Uncoupled hydrogen and volatile fatty acids generation in a two-step biotechnological anaerobic process fed with actual site wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Matilde; Scoma, Alberto; Martinez, Gonzalo; Bertin, Lorenzo; Fava, Fabio

    2015-05-25

    Among agro-wastes, olive mill wastewater (OMW) truly qualifies as a high impact organic residue due to its biochemical-rich composition and high annual production. In the present investigation, dephenolized OMW (OMWdeph) was employed as the feedstock for a biotechnological two-stage anaerobic process dedicated to the production of biohydrogen and volatile fatty acids (VFAs), respectively. To this end, two identically configured packed-bed biofilm reactors were operated sequentially. In the first, the hydraulic retention time was set to 1 day, whereas in the second it was equal to 5 days. The rationale was to decouple the hydrolysis of the organic macronutrients held by the OMWdeph, so as to quantitatively generate a biogas enriched in H2 (first stage aim), for the acidogenesis of the residual components left after hydrolysis, to then produce a highly concentrated mixture of VFAs (second stage aim). Results showed that the generation of H2 and VFAs was effectively split, with carbohydrates and lipids, respectively, being the main substrates of the two processes. About 250 ml H2 L(-1) day(-1) was produced, corresponding to a yield of 0.36 mol mol(-1) of consumed carbohydrates (expressed as glucose equivalents). The overall concentration of VFAs in the acidogenic process was 13.80 g COD L(-1), so that 2.76 g COD L(-1) day(-1) was obtained. Second generation biorefineries use a selected fraction of an organic waste to conduct a microbiologically-driven pathway towards the generation of one target molecule. With the proposed approach, a greater value of the waste was attained, since the multi-purpose two-stage process did not entail competition for substrates between the first and the second steps. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Lifespan extension by dietary intervention in a mouse model of Cockayne syndrome uncouples early postnatal development from segmental progeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brace, Lear E; Vose, Sarah C; Vargas, Dorathy F; Zhao, Shuangyun; Wang, Xiu-Ping; Mitchell, James R

    2013-12-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive segmental progeria characterized by growth failure, lipodystrophy, neurological abnormalities, and photosensitivity, but without skin cancer predisposition. Cockayne syndrome life expectancy ranges from 5 to 16 years for the two most severe forms (types II and I, respectively). Mouse models of CS have thus far been of limited value due to either very mild phenotypes, or premature death during postnatal development prior to weaning. The cause of death in severe CS models is unknown, but has been attributed to extremely rapid aging. Here, we found that providing mutant pups with soft food from as late as postnatal day 14 allowed survival past weaning with high penetrance independent of dietary macronutrient balance in a novel CS model (Csa(-/-) | Xpa(-/-)). Survival past weaning revealed a number of CS-like symptoms including small size, progressive loss of adiposity, and neurological symptoms, with a maximum lifespan of 19 weeks. Our results caution against interpretation of death before weaning as premature aging, and at the same time provide a valuable new tool for understanding mechanisms of progressive CS-related progeroid symptoms including lipodystrophy and neurodysfunction. © 2013 the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Recombination within the apospory specific genomic region leads to the uncoupling of apomixis components in Cenchrus ciliaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Joann A; Gunawan, Gunawati; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2013-07-01

    Apomixis enables the clonal propagation of maternal genotypes through seed. If apomixis could be harnessed via genetic engineering or introgression, it would have a major economic impact for agricultural crops. In the grass species Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris (syn. P. ciliare), apomixis is controlled by a single dominant "locus", the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). For P. squamulatum, 18 published sequenced characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers have been identified which always co-segregate with apospory. Six of these markers are conserved SCARs in the closely related species, C. ciliaris and co-segregate with the trait. A screen of progeny from a cross of sexual × apomictic C. ciliaris genotypes identified a plant, A8, retaining two of the six ASGR-linked SCAR markers. Additional and newly identified ASGR-linked markers were generated to help identify the extent of recombination within the ASGR. Based on analysis of missing markers, the A8 recombinant plant has lost a significant portion of the ASGR but continues to form aposporous embryo sacs. Seedlings produced from aposporous embryo sacs are 6× in ploidy level and hence the A8 recombinant does not express parthenogenesis. The recombinant A8 plant represents a step forward in reducing the complexity of the ASGR locus to determine the factor(s) required for aposporous embryo sac formation and documents the separation of expression of the two components of apomixis in C. ciliaris.

  6. A genetic screen in Myxococcus xanthus identifies mutants that uncouple outer membrane exchange from a downstream cellular response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Arup; Wall, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Upon physical contact with sibling cells, myxobacteria transiently fuse their outer membranes (OMs) and exchange OM proteins and lipids. From previous work, TraA and TraB were identified to be essential factors for OM exchange (OME) in donor and recipient cells. To define the genetic complexity of OME, we carried out a comprehensive forward genetic screen. The screen was based on the observation that Myxococcus xanthus nonmotile cells, by a Tra-dependent mechanism, block swarm expansion of motile cells when mixed. Thus, mutants defective in OME or a downstream responsive pathway were readily identified as escape flares from mixed inocula seeded on agar. This screen was surprisingly powerful, as we found >50 mutants defective in OME. Importantly, all of the mutations mapped to the traAB operon, suggesting that there may be few, if any, proteins besides TraA and TraB directly required for OME. We also found a second and phenotypically different class of mutants that exhibited wild-type OME but were defective in a responsive pathway. This pathway is postulated to control inner membrane homeostasis by covalently attaching amino acids to phospholipids. The identified proteins are homologous to the Staphylococcus aureus MprF protein, which is involved in membrane adaptation and antibiotic resistance. Interestingly, we also found that a small number of nonmotile cells were sufficient to block the swarming behavior of a large gliding-proficient population. This result suggests that an OME-derived signal could be amplified from a few nonmotile producers to act on many responder cells. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Possible involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase in obesity resistance induced by respiratory uncoupling in white fat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějková, Olga; Mustard, K. J.; Šponarová, Jana; Flachs, Pavel; Rossmeisl, Martin; Mikšík, Ivan; Thomason-Hughes, M.; Hardie, D. G.; Kopecký, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 569, č. 1-3 (2004), s. 245-248 ISSN 0014-5793 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/02/1220; GA MŠk LN00A079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : ATP * lipid metabolism * mitochondrion Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.843, year: 2004

  8. The connection between animal stress and meat production: Uncoupling of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    For decades, researchers have demonstrated that "stress" can have detrimental effects on the immune system. However, what had not been distinguished until recently are the divergent effects of "acute" stress associated with subclinical immunological burdens on the animal versus long-term or "chronic...

  9. Repeated potentiation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 and the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulates behavioural and GABAergic deficits induced by early postnatal phencyclidine (PCP) treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerby, Celia; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Fejgin, Kim

    2013-01-01

    GluR5), ADX47273, and the partial agonist of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR), SSR180711. Adolescent rats (4-5 weeks) subjected to PCP treatment during the second postnatal week displayed a consistent deficit in prepulse inhibition (PPI), which was reversed by a one-week treatment...

  10. Activation of Group II Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors Increases Proliferation but does not Influence Neuronal Differentiation of a Human Neural Stem Cell Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Anne; Blaabjerg, Morten; Kamand, Morad

    2018-01-01

    of pharmacological activation and inhibition of mGluR2/3 on proliferation, differentiation and viability of a human neural stem cell line. Immunofluorescence staining revealed the presence of mGluR2/3 receptors on both proliferating and differentiating stem cells, including cells differentiated into β-tubulin III....... Western blot analysis revealed that the active, dimeric form of mGluR2/3 was mainly present on the proliferating cells, which may explain our findings. The present study emphasises the importance of glutamate and mGluRs on regulation of human neural stem cells and suggests a significant role of mGluR2....../3 during cell proliferation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  11. Pharmacological characterization and modeling of the binding sites of novel 1,3-bis(pyridinylethynyl)benzenes as metabotropic glutamate receptor 5-selective negative allosteric modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølck, Christina; Harpsøe, Kasper; Gloriam, David E

    2012-01-01

    )pyridine (MPEP)-derived negative allosteric modulators, 2-, 3-, and 4-BisPEB, have been characterized. 2-, 3-, and 4-BisPEB are 1,3-bis(pyridinylethynyl)-benzenes and differ only by the position of the nitrogen atoms in the pyridine rings. Despite their high structural similarity, 2-BisPEB [1,3-bis(pyridin-2......-ylethynyl)-benzene, nitrogen atoms in ortho positions], with an IC(50) value in the nanomolar range, is significantly more potent than the 3- and 4-pyridyl analogs. Mutational analysis, directed by a previously published mGluR5 homology model, was used to determine key residues for the ligand...... that the higher potency of 2-BisPEB is due to hydrogen bonding to Ser809 because the S809A mutation made 2-BisPEB equipotent to 3- and 4-BisPEB (IC(50), 1-2.5 µM). The potency of MPEP was also greatly affected by S809A (52-fold), suggesting that a Ser809-mediated hydrogen bond is also a key interaction between...

  12. Controversial action of positive modulator of subtype 7 of metabotropic glutamate receptors AMN082 on cortical epileptic afterdischarges in immature rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szczurowska, Ewa; Mareš, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 623, 1-3 (2009), s. 37-40 ISSN 0014-2999 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/06/1188 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : epileptic afterdischarges * glutamate receptors * rat Subject RIV: FH - Neuro logy Impact factor: 2.585, year: 2009

  13. Posttreatment with group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist 2R,4R-4-aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate is only weakly effective on seizures in immature rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Druga, Rastislav; Tsenov, Grygoriy; Haugvicová, Renata; Otáhal, Jakub

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 1273, - (2009), s. 144-154 ISSN 0006-8993 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/05/2015; GA ČR GA309/08/0292; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/07/1137 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : DL-homocysteic acid-induced seizures * posttreatment with 2R * 4R-APDC * partial protection Subject RIV: FH - Neuro logy Impact factor: 2.463, year: 2009

  14. Metabotropic and ionotropic glutamate receptors as neurobiological targets in anxiety and stress-related disorders: focus on pharmacology and preclinical translational models

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Brian H.; Shahid, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are amongst the most common and disabling of psychiatric illnesses and have severe health and socio-economic implications. Despite the availability of a number of treatment options there is still a strong medical need for novel and improved pharmacological approaches in treating these disorders. New developments at the forefront of preclinical research have begun to identify the therapeutic potential of molecular entities integral to the biological response to ad...

  15. Seizures induced by homocysteic acid in immature rats are prevented by group III metabotropic glutamate receptoragonist (R,S)-4-phosphonophenylglycine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Haugvicová, Renata; Mareš, Pavel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 180, č. 1 (2003), s. 46-54 ISSN 0014-4886 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/02/1238 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : immature rats * seizures * energy metabolites Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.676, year: 2003

  16. The Group 2 Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Agonist LY379268 Rescues Neuronal, Neurochemical and Motor Abnormalities in R6/2 Huntington’s Disease Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, A.; Lafferty, D.C.; Wang, H.B.; Del Mar, N.; Deng, Y.P.

    2012-01-01

    Excitotoxic injury to striatum by dysfunctional cortical input or aberrant glutamate uptake may contribute to Huntington’s Disease (H