Sample records for pycnometers

  1. Rapid estimate of solid volume in large tuff cores using a gas pycnometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thies, C. [ed.; Geddis, A.M.; Guzman, A.G. [and others


    A thermally insulated, rigid-volume gas pycnometer system has been developed. The pycnometer chambers have been machined from solid PVC cylinders. Two chambers confine dry high-purity helium at different pressures. A thick-walled design ensures minimal heat exchange with the surrounding environment and a constant volume system, while expansion takes place between the chambers. The internal energy of the gas is assumed constant over the expansion. The ideal gas law is used to estimate the volume of solid material sealed in one of the chambers. Temperature is monitored continuously and incorporated into the calculation of solid volume. Temperature variation between measurements is less than 0.1{degrees}C. The data are used to compute grain density for oven-dried Apache Leap tuff core samples. The measured volume of solid and the sample bulk volume are used to estimate porosity and bulk density. Intrinsic permeability was estimated from the porosity and measured pore surface area and is compared to in-situ measurements by the air permeability method. The gas pycnometer accommodates large core samples (0.25 m length x 0.11 m diameter) and can measure solid volume greater than 2.20 cm{sup 3} with less than 1% error.

  2. Porosity of Metals/Alloys/Porous Solids with Design of Air Pycnometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Balaji Bhanu


    Full Text Available The physical properties of materials play an important role in production, handling and its utilization. Physical properties such as density, thermal conductivity and strength depend on the pore structure of the solids. A quick and accurate method of measuring the physical property like porosity is required for more efficient management of the process with density route. Number of devices were designed to determine the density of solids but are costly and not yet accurate. In this context a simple and low cost air pycnometer is designed which utilizes ideal gas principle to determine the amount of air space within a given material and further density. It is designed with steel chambers, solenoids along with pressure sensor interfaced with AT89C51 microcontroller. The computed densities are within the specified limits with accuracy less than 10%

  3. Projeto e construção de um picnômetro a ar para caracterização de insumos e produtos farmacêuticos Project and construction of an air pycnometer to characterization of pharmaceutical raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Martins de Oliveira Jr


    Full Text Available This paper describes a project, construction and test of a low cost air pycnometer, developed to be used preferentially in pharmaceutical research. A complete discussion of the construction, test and calibration of this equipment is presented and some measurements are made using pharmaceutical powders and dry granulations. The equipment performance has been estimated through its calibration curve, and the obtained value to its volume resolution is about 1%. This equipment is accomplished at the Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory of University of Sorocaba (LAFINAU in Sorocaba, SP, Brazil and it was denominated "Picnômetro a Ar Uniso - PICNAU".

  4. Polymerization shrinkage evaluation of three packable composite resins using a gas pycnometer Avaliação da contração de polimerização de três resinas compactáveis, medida por picnômetro a gás

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    Ricardo Amore


    Full Text Available Modern restorative dentistry has been playing an outstanding role lately since composite resins, allied to adhesive systems, have been widely applied on anterior and posterior teeth restorations. The evolution of composite resins has mostly been verified due to the improvement of their aesthetic behavior and the increase in their compressive and abrasive strengths. In spite of these developments, the polymerization shrinkage inherent to the material has been a major deficiency that, so far, has been impossible to avoid. Using a gas pycnometry, this research investigated the polymerization shrinkage of three packable composite resins: Filtek P60 (3M, Prodigy Condensable (Kerr, and SureFil (Dentsply/Caulk, varying the distance from the light source to the surface of the resins (2 mm or 10 mm. The pycnometer Accupyc 1330 (Micromeritics, USA precisely records helium displacement, allowing fast and reliable measurements of the volume of composite resin immediately before and after polymerization, without interference of temperature or humidity. Results were not found to be statistically different for the three tested resins, either for 2 mm or 10 mm-distance from the light source to the composite surface.A Odontologia Restauradora moderna tem se destacado nos últimos anos e as resinas compostas, aliadas aos sistemas adesivos, têm sido muito empregadas para restaurações de dentes anteriores e posteriores. A evolução das resinas compostas tem sido constatada na melhoria do seu comportamento estético e no aumento da sua resistência à compressão e à abrasão. Apesar dos avanços mencionados, a contração de polimerização, inerente a esse material, continua sendo uma grande deficiência e, por enquanto, impossível de ser evitada. Nesta pesquisa a contração de polimerização de três resinas compostas compactáveis, Filtek P60 (3M, Prodigy Condensável (Kerr e SureFil (Dentsply/Caulk, variando-se a distância entre a fonte de luz e a

  5. Gas diffusion, non-darcy air permeability and CT-scans for a traffic-affected clay subsoil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Schjønning, Per; Berisso, Feto Esimo


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term effect of compaction on the pore system at 0.5 m depth of a heavy clay soil in Jokioinen, Finland. Gas diffusion and air permeability measurements were combined with pycnometer-estimated air-filled pore volumes. We wanted to evaluate, to w...

  6. Subsoil compaction of a Vertic Cambisol persists three decades after wheel traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Schjønning, Per

    activity in Finland. The compaction treatment was inflicted 29 years prior to investigation and included four passes with a tractor-trailer combination with wheel loads up to 4.8 Mg and inflation pressures of 700 kPa. Gas diffusion and air permeability measurements were combined with pycnometer...

  7. Combustion Enhancement of Liquid Fuels via Nanoparticle Additions: Screening, Dispersion, and Characterization (United States)


    heat of combustion of mixtures of nano-sized aluminum (n-Al) and nano-sized aluminum oxide (n-Al2O3) in ethanol with a bomb calorimeter. Stable...made at 20 °C, provided by partially immersing the pycnometer in a Forma Scientific Model 2095 circulator bath . The following steps were taken: 1

  8. Effect of Aluminum on the Microstructure and Properties of Two Refractory High-Entropy Alloys (Postprint) (United States)


    measured with an AccuPyc 1330 V1.03 helium pycnometer. Vickers microhardness was measured on polished cross-section surfaces using a 136 Vickers diamond ...Chang YA, Furrer D, Venkatesh V. J Mater Eng Perf 2005;14(6):717–21. [22] Scheil E. Z Metallkd 1942;34:70. [23] Porter DA, Easterling KE. Phase

  9. Properties evaluation of silorane, low-shrinkage, non-flowable and flowable resin-based composites in dentistry


    Maia, Rodrigo R.; Reis, Rodrigo S.; Moro, André F.V.; Perez, Cesar R.; Bárbara M. Pessôa; Dias, Katia R.H.C.


    Purpose. This study tested the null hypothesis that different classes of direct restorative dental materials: silorane-based resin, low-shrinkage and conventional (non-flowable and flowable) resin-based composite (RBC) do not differ from each other with regard to polymerization shrinkage, depth of cure or microhardness. Methods. 140 RBC samples were fabricated and tested by one calibrated operator. Polymerization shrinkage was measured using a gas pycnometer both before and immediately after ...

  10. Comparison of Two Methods for the Oil Density Detection%油脂密度检测方法的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹维金; 招辉; 陈娜


    油脂密度是油脂大宗贸易中需检测的一个重要指标,本实验对国标GB/T 5526-85和现代仪器自动密度仪法测定油脂密度进行了比较并讨论了计算净含量时的空气质量问题,结果表明采用自动密度仪法测得的油脂密度和国标法相吻合,并且自动密度仪法更简便快捷、结果重现性好,精确度高;计算净含量时由密度仪测得的密度要减去空气密度.%The oil density is an important indicator that is detected in significant trade. In this study, the national standard GB/T 5526-85 “the test of vegetable oils pycnometer method” and the automatic density meter method are compared and air quality are discussed in oil net mass. The results showed that the values of oil densities by pycnometer method were in accordance with those by automatic density meter method. But the automatic density meter method was more convenient with higher reproducibility and precision than the pycnometer method. The air density should be deducted by oil density detected by Automatic Density Meter method when calculating oil net msss.

  11. Combustion Characteristics of Nanoaluminum, Liquid Water, and Hydrogen Peroxide Mixtures (United States)


    test peroxide ( HTP , 85% H2O2) as the oxidizer [22– 26]. Problems with the use of H2O2 systems include its sensitivity to shock and its tendency to...reported that the mix- ture would not self-deflagrate without the addition of the thickening agent into the mixture. At their maximum test pressure, 7...A pycnometer test determined particle density to be 3.205 g/cm3, which is inclusive of the oxide passiva- tion layer (∼3.97 g/cm3), which explains

  12. Treatment of wastes in the production of radioactive patterns of {sup 241}Am, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 57}Co e {sup 60}Co; Tratamento de rejeitos na producao de padroes radioativos de {sup 241}Am, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 57}Co e {sup 60}Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Regio dos Santos; Silva, Carlos Jose da; Veras, Eduardo Vieira de; Silva, Ronaldo Lins da; Poledna, Roberto; Laranjeiras, Adilson Silva; Delgado, Jose Ubiratan, E-mail: [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes


    Standardized sources of {sup 241}Am, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 57}Co and {sup 60}Co are the most requested solutions by customers of LNMRI. After preparation, the remainder of the stock is transferred to a new vial, with the generation of waste in glass and plastic pycnometers and high activity levels which can be recovered. By means of the rinse procedure, this work reduced the activity remaining for master solutions above 1 MBq/g. The treatment adopted here allowed to produce new standardized sources of radionuclides in the range of 20 to 70 kBq/g, with uncertainty below 3%, which may be offered to different users. (author)

  13. 288.15K-308.15K(Poloxamerl88+乙醇/丙酮+水)三元体系的密度和黏度%Density and Viscosity of Ternary Systems (Poloxamer 188 + Ethanol/Acetone + Water) at Temperatures from 288.15 K to 308.15 K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘谦; 张颂红; 沈绍传; 贠军贤; 姚克俭


    The densities and viscosities of ternary systems (Poloxamer 188 + ethanol/acetone + water) were measured at 288. i 5, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15 K and atmospheric pressure for different mass fractions of Poloxamer 188 (0 to 0.02) in aqueous solution and different solvent volume fractions of ethanol/acetone (0 to 0.3) in Poloxamer 188 aqueous solution. The densities were measured by a pycnometer, while the viscosities were measured using two Ubbelohde capillary viscometers. The correlations of density and viscosity of these ternary systems are obtained by fitting the experimental data at different temperatures, mass fractions and volume fractions.

  14. Physical and chemical characterization of pastes of bone cements with ZrO{sub 2}; Caracterizacion fisica y quimica de pastas de cementos oseos con ZrO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinto H, A. [Instituto Tecnologico de Zacatepec, A.P. 45, 62900 Zacatepec, Morelos (Mexico); Pina B, M.C. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-360, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    Setting times and temperature of sixteen calcium phosphate cements added with ZrO{sub 2} were evaluated. Their behaviors were analysed to be used like injectable formulations in surgery of bone. Two cements of calcium phosphates enriched with ZrO{sub 2} with the best characteristics in setting times and temperature, were mechanically tested after 1 and 7 days of prepared. Density was determined using a pycnometer, chemical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction and the molecular structure was determined by infrared spectroscopy. (Author)

  15. Density of biogas digestate depending on temperature and composition. (United States)

    Gerber, Mandy; Schneider, Nico


    Density is one of the most important physical properties of biogas digestate to ensure an optimal dimensioning and a precise design of biogas plant components like stirring devices, pumps and heat exchangers. In this study the density of biogas digestates with different compositions was measured using pycnometers at ambient pressure in a temperature range from 293.15 to 313.15K. The biogas digestates were taken from semi-continuous experiments, in which the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina, corn silage and a mixture of both were used as feedstocks. The results show an increase of density with increasing total solid content and a decrease with increasing temperature. Three equations to calculate the density of biogas digestate were set up depending on temperature as well as on the total solid content, organic composition and elemental composition, respectively. All correlations show a relative deviation below 1% compared to experimental data.

  16. Magnetorheology of xanthan-gum-coated soft magnetic carbonyl iron microspheres and their polishing characteristics (United States)

    Kwon, Seung Hyuk; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Lee, Jung Won; Hong, Kwang Pyo; Cho, Myeong Woo


    Magnetorheological (MR) fluids are colloidal suspensions of soft magnetic particles dispersed in a non-magnetic liquid. Among their applications, MR polishing has attracted considerable attention owing to its smart control of the polishing characteristics for dedicated microelectromechanical system applications. To improve the polishing characteristics of MR fluids, we fabricated carbonyl iron (CI) microspheres coated with xanthan gum (XG) by using a solvent casting method. The morphologies and densities of both pure CI and CI/XG particles were characterized using a scanning electron microscope and a pycnometer, respectively. In addition, the rheological characteristics of the MR fluids under various applied magnetic field strengths were examined using a rotational rheometer. The MR polishing characteristics were conducted using an MR polishing machine to examine the surface roughness and the material removal by MR polishing with added nano-ceria slurry abrasives.

  17. Gas diffusion, non-darcy air permeability and CT-scans for a traffic-affected clay subsoil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Schjønning, Per; Berisso, Feto Esimo


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term effect of compaction on the pore system at 0.5 m depth of a heavy clay soil in Jokioinen, Finland. Gas diffusion and air permeability measurements were combined with pycnometer-estimated air-filled pore volumes. We wanted to evaluate...... pressure drops. Compaction at 50 cm depth was persistent 29 years after the compaction event. Compaction diminished the size of vertical macropores that served as arterial pores, while the volume and role of marginal pores branching from the arterial pores were diminished. Compacted soil had...... the significantly lowest volume of blocked pores not in contact to the surrounding atmosphere. For this clay-holding soil, the long-term compaction effect is interpreted as a serious reduction of the aeration potential of the bulk soil matrix in between the vertical, arterial pores. Our data indicate a high degree...

  18. Excess Molar Volume of Binary Systems Containing Mesitylene

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    Morávková, L.


    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of density measurements for binary systems containing 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (mesitylene with a variety of organic compounds at atmospheric pressure. Literature data of the binary systems were divided into nine basic groups by the type of contained organic compound with mesitylene. The excess molar volumes calculated from the experimental density values have been compared with literature data. Densities were measured by a few experimental methods, namely using a pycnometer, a dilatometer or a commercial apparatus. The overview of the experimental data and shape of the excess molar volume curve versus mole fraction is presented in this paper. The excess molar volumes were correlated by Redlich–Kister equation. The standard deviations for fitting of excess molar volume versus mole fraction are compared. Found literature data cover a huge temperature range from (288.15 to 343.15 K.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, P C; Dehaven, M; McClelland, M; Chidester, S; Maienschein, J L


    Thermal damage experiments were conducted on LX-04, LX-10, and LX-17 at high temperatures. Both pristine and damaged samples were characterized for their material properties. A pycnometer was used to determine sample true density and porosity. Gas permeability was measured in a newly procured system (diffusion permeameter). Burn rate was measured in the LLNL strand burner. Weight losses upon thermal exposure were insignificant. Damaged pressed parts expanded, resulting in a reduction of bulk density by up to 10%. Both gas permeabilities and burn rates of the damaged samples increased by several orders of magnitude due to higher porosity and lower density. Moduli of the damaged materials decreased significantly, an indication that the materials became weaker mechanically. Damaged materials were more sensitive to shock initiation at high temperatures. No significant sensitization was observed when the damaged samples were tested at room temperature.

  20. Influence of the Scrap Tyre Processing Techniques on the Physical Properties of the Crumb Rubber

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    Naeem Aziz Memon


    Full Text Available The processing mechanism of scrap tyres to produce CR (Crumb Rubber has a great influence on the properties of the CRMB (Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen. A fair amount of research was observed in the literature on the bitumen modified by CR processed cryogenically and ambiently. However, little or no work has been done on the CR processed by the other methods such as the Aquablast processing technique, which is a relatively a new waste tyre rubber processing technique within the CR industry. In this study, CR obtained from the two sources; ambient and Aquablast grinding techniques were primarily assessed with a helium pycnometer and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy for their physical properties and appearance respectively. Observations from this laboratory study indicated: (1 the density of the ambient CR was slightly higher than the CR obtained from Aquablast technique; (2 difference in physical appearance was found insignificant.

  1. SIM.M.FF-S7: Final report on SIM/ANDIMET supplementary comparison for volume of liquids at 100 mL and 100 μL (United States)

    Trujillo, S.; Maldonado, J. M.; Vega, M. C.; Santalla, E.; Sica, A.; Cantero, D.; Salazar, M.; Morales, A.; Solano, P.; Rodríguez, L. D.


    A SIM/ANDIMET comparison for liquid volume using two 100 mL pycnometers and two 100 μL piston pipettes was performed between January 2012 and October 2013. The National Metrology Institute (NMI) of Bolivia was the coordinating laboratory and the Mexican NMI provided technical assistance. The participating labs were IBMETRO (Bolivia), INM (Colombia), INEN (Ecuador), INDECOPI (Peru), LACOMET (Costa Rica), LATU (Uruguay), INTN (Paraguay), and CENAM (Mexico). Based on measurements made by CENAM at the beginning and end of the comparison, the transfer standards were stable during the comparison within 0.0001 mL for the 100 mL pycnometers and 0.03 μL for the 100 μL pipettes. For 100 mL, six of the eight participants agreed within ± 0.003 % and had standardized degrees of equivalence (EN) less than 1. Two participants (INEN and INM) had EN values greater than 1. For the 100 μL pipettes, the results were corrected for the influence of altitude and seven of the eight participants agreed within ± 0.3 %. Results from INEN and some from INM and IBMETRO had EN values greater than 1 for the 100 μL pipettes. Uncertainties recommended by Guideline DKD-R 8-1 for micropipettes were included. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  2. Numerical modelling of agricultural products on the example of bean and yellow lupine seeds (United States)

    Anders, Andrzej; Kaliniewicz, Zdzisław; Markowski, Piotr


    Numerical models of bean seeds cv. Złota Saxa and yellow lupine seeds cv. Juno were generated with the use of a 3D scanner, the geometric parameters of seeds were determined based on the models developed, and compared with the results of digital image analysis and micrometer measurements. Measurements of seed length, width and thickness performed with the use of a micrometer, 3D scanner and digital image analysis produced similar results that did not differ significantly at α = 0.05. The micrometer delivered the simplest and fastest measurements. The mean surface area of bean seeds cv. Złota Saxa and yellow lupine seeds cv. Juno, calculated with the use of mathematical formulas based on the results of micrometer measurements and digital image analysis, differed significantly from the mean surface area determined with a 3D scanner. No significant differences in seed volume were observed when this parameter was measured with a 3D scanner and determined with the use of mathematical formulas based on the results of digital image analysis and micrometer measurements. The only differences were noted when the volume of yellow lupine seeds cv. Juno was measured in a 25 ml liquid pycnometer.

  3. Effect of kaolinite as a key factor controlling the petrophysical properties of the Nubia sandstone in central Eastern Desert, Egypt (United States)

    Kassab, Mohamed A.; Abu Hashish, Mohamed F.; Nabawy, Bassem S.; Elnaggar, Osama M.


    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive petrographical and petrophysical investigation for the Late Cretaceous Nubia sandstone from Wadi Kareem in central Eastern Desert to measure their fluid flow properties and to investigate the effect of kaolinite on their petrophysical characteristics. From the petrographical analyses, scanning electron microscope 'SEM' and the X-ray diffraction 'XRD' analysis, it is shown that the studied sandstone samples are quite homogeneous in mineralogy and can be distinguished into four sedimentary microfacies: quartz arenite as a clean sandstone as well as three kaolinitic microfacies; namely they are kaolinitic quartz arenite, kaolinitic subarkose, and calcareous to kaolinitc quartz arenite. The main recognized diagenetic processes that prevailed during the post-depositional history of the Nubia sandstone are; compaction, cementation, alteration and dissolution of feldspar into kaolinite. The petrophysical potentiality of the studied sandstones was studied using the helium pycnometer, gas permeability and mercury injection confining pressure 'MICP' techniques. The investigated sandstones can be classified into three petrophysical facies with varying reservoir performances. The petrophysical behaviour of these facies is dependent mostly on their kaolinite content and its impact on porosity, permeability, irreducible water saturation, R35 (pore aperture corresponding to mercury saturation of 35% pore volume), R50 (median pore-throat radius), and MHR (the mean hydraulic radius). Therefore, the studied petrophysical facies are comparable to the distinguished petrographical facies.

  4. Preparation of 6061 Borated Al alloy by hot isostatic pressing (HIP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhm, Young Rang; Park, Jin Ju; Rhee, Chang Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Won Hyuk [Daewha alloy technology Co., Hwaseong (Korea, Republic of)


    Neutron absorber for wet/dry spent fuel storage applications are used in plate or sheet form. Neutron absorber materials are comprised of a chemical form of the neutron absorber nuclide and a matrix that serve to hold the absorber nuclide in its intended location. Of the metal matrix neutron absorbers, aluminum has been the most commonly used although stainless steel is another choice that has been used, extensively. Aluminum (Al) matrix absorbers can be manufactured to generally thin plate form by a variety of methods. In one method, a preform with near maximum theoretical density can be produced by casting and hot rolling. In another, aluminum and boron carbide with a full dense is produced using powder metallurgy technology. This is well known as metal matrix composites (MMCs) such as BORAL. This material is prepared by hot rolling a cubic aluminum ingot containing powdered aluminum and boron carbide. Discontinuously reinforced aluminum /boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) composite like a cermet offer a product with superior mechanical properties relative to the aluminum alloys itself. However, the density of this cermet is less than 100 % dense due to some internal porosity in MMCs. The hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is a candidate to get full density. In this study, MMCs of aluminum and boron carbide were prepared by powder mixing and canning HIP process. The density of prepared plate were measured by using gas pycnometer method, and compared to MMCs produced by METAMIC Co

  5. Characterization of glass filter micromodels used for polymer EOR flooding experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foedisch, H.; Wegner, J.; Hincapie-Reina, R.; Ganzer, L. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). ITE


    This work is conducted as part of the research project DGMK 746 - ''Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Polymer Flooding Processes Using Micromodels - From Pore Scale to Continuum Scale''. The industry standard to assess polymer flood performance is through flooding experiments with cores or plugs. A complement to flooding experiments in cores is represented by micromodels such as glass filters, which resemble real porous media through their porous structures. In this way, an almost unlimited number of equivalent samples can be produced. Moreover, compared to cores the micromodels enable visual access to the flooding process enabling a detailed process description. The sintered glass filters used in this work represent one way to make displacement processes inside artificial structures visible. However, challenges exist to transfer the results obtained from models composed of glass to real plugs or rock sections. Therefore, this study focuses on the comparison of glass filter micromodels and real rock samples composed of Bentheimer sandstone. We determine water permeability and oil-water relative permeability endpoints with flooding experiments, compare capillary pressure functions of the glass models obtained from mercury porosimetry analysis with results from Bentheimer sandstone, and characterize the glass filter with respect of connate water saturation using NMR-spectroscopy and porosity obtained from pycnometer measurements. (orig.)

  6. Technique for bone volume measurement from human femur head samples by classification of micro-CT image histograms

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    Franco Marinozzi


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Micro-CT analysis is a powerful technique for a non-invasive evaluation of the morphometric parameters of trabecular bone samples. This elaboration requires a previous binarization of the images. A problem which arises from the binarization process is the partial volume artifact. Voxels at the external surface of the sample can contain both bone and air so thresholding operates an incorrect estimation of volume occupied by the two materials. AIM: The aim of this study is the extraction of bone volumetric information directly from the image histograms, by fitting them with a suitable set of functions. METHODS: Nineteen trabecular bone samples were extracted from femoral heads of eight patients subject to a hip arthroplasty surgery. Trabecular bone samples were acquired using micro-CT Scanner. Hystograms of the acquired images were computed and fitted by Gaussian-like functions accounting for: a gray levels produced by the bone x-ray absorption, b the portions of the image occupied by air and c voxels that contain a mixture of bone and air. This latter contribution can be considered such as an estimation of the partial volume effect. RESULTS: The comparison of the proposed technique to the bone volumes measured by a reference instrument such as by a helium pycnometer show the method as a good way for an accurate bone volume calculation of trabecular bone samples.

  7. Effect of drying on the mesoporous structure of sol-gel derived silica with PPO-PEO-PPO template block copolymer. (United States)

    Pei, Lihua; Kurumada, Ken-Ichi; Tanigaki, Masataka; Hiro, Masahiko; Susa, Kenzo


    The effects of drying method on the pore structure of mesoporous silica were studied from the viewpoint of enhancing closed porosity in mesoporous silica. The mesoporous silica was prepared via a sol-gel process using polyethyleneoxide-polypropyleneoxide-polyethyleneoxide (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock copolymer (Pluronic P123) as the structure-directing template. The closed porosity was evaluated from the apparent mass density of the sample measured by a helium pycnometer. These mesoporous silicas were also characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and nitrogen adsorption. The drying method was shown to be responsible for the finally templated mesoporous structure of the silica. More rapid drying is more preferable for enhancing the closed porosity of the mesoporous silica. The closed pores were formed by immediate immobilization of copolymer molecular assemblies in the silica matrix due to the instant removal of the solvent and solidification at higher temperatures. The drying method, mainly affecting the drying rate, is highly influential on the finally replicated mesoporous structure in silica.

  8. Petrophysical Properties of North Sea Shales

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    Kenneth S. Okiongbo


    Full Text Available This study presents a data set comprising estimated permeabilities of 22 natural mudstones which also have been characterised in terms of their pore size distribution, porosity, grain density and Total Organic Carbon (TOC content. Pore size distribution and grain density were determined using mercury porosimetry and pycnometer method. TOC was determ ined by direct combustion of the organic carbon in LECO RLS-100 Carbon Sulphur analyser. Permeabilities were estimated based on the measured pore throat size distribution plus assumed pore alignment and pore shape using the model of Yang and Aplin. TOC and grain density ranges from 3.44- 9.98% and 2.61-2.70 g/cm3, respectively. Porosity decreases from ~24-3% between the depth range of 1515-4781 m. The pore size distribution data show that the m ean pore radius decreases from ~36-2 nm within the same depth range, the shift to smaller mean pore radii is driven primarily by the collapse of pores larger than 10nm with increase in consolidation. These values represent some of the smallest pore sizes known for rocks and in part provide a qualitative explanation for the low shale permeabilities. Estimated vertical permeabilities range from 9.5×10-23 to 8.6×10-21 m2. In general, permeability decreases logarithmically with porosity.

  9. The evaluation of chosen properties of ashes created by thermal utilization of hazardous and communal wastes

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    Damian Krawczykowski


    Full Text Available One of methods of the waste neutralization is their thermal transformation in suitable installations or devices in order to achieve the state, which is no longer dangerous for the human health and life or for the environment. In effect of the thermal transformation the “new” wastes are created, which, by law are suppose a to be utilized first. These wastes may be utilized if their properties are suitable. In the paper, the process of thermal utilization of hazardous and municipal wastes is presented, together with the investigation results of the grain composition, surface area, density and of the initial chemical analysis of the created ashes. The research of the grain composition was conducted by using the “Fritsch” apparatus. On the base of the grain composition, the surface area of ashes under investigation was determined, whereas the density was determined by using the helium pycnometer. The purpose of the research was to determine how the properties of ashes are changed and if the differences allow to use these ashes in future.

  10. Porosity of dental phosphate-bonded investments after setting and heating processes. (United States)

    Asaoka, Kenzo; Bae, Ji-Young; Lee, Hae-Hyoung


    Porosities of set and burnout compacts of phosphate-bonded investments were determined. A gas pycnometer was used to measure the volumes, and hence the densities, of fine powders and porous compacts. Porosities of set and burnout compacts were then obtained from these data for as-received powders and dry set compacts by a numerical simulation method, subsequently leading on to the estimated compositions of conventional and rapid-heating investments used in this study. Excess water content in the hardening investment compact was evaluated as a function of setting time elapsed from the start of mixing. Porosities were about 24-32% for set compacts and 43% for burnout compacts, which well agreed with the numerically computed results. It was concluded that the functional composition of investment powder needed to achieve the optimal porosity as well as process parameters such as water-powder (W/P) ratio and keeping time of mixed investment casting slurry before heat treatment could be determined using the numerical simulation method developed in this study.

  11. Herbal mouthwash based on Libidibia ferrea: microbiological control, sensory characteristics, sedimentation, pH and density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisely Naura Venâncio

    Full Text Available Introduction Phytotherapy is the study of herbal medicines and their applicability to cure diseases in general, being a therapeutic method which can be used for the prevention and treatment of mouth diseases. Among the herbal studied, the Libidibia ferrea, known as jucá or ironwood, is widely used in folk medicine by presenting anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial and antipyretic therapeutic properties. Objective To evaluate in vitro pharmacological stability of the Libidibia ferrea extract’s mouthwash (INPA - 228 022. Material and method It was held the mouthwash microbiological control by determining the total number of microorganisms and Salmonella sp, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus; stability characteristics (color, odor, brightness and consistency, sedimentation test (centrifuge, the pH measurement (pH meter and density evaluation (pycnometer were analyzed. Result The mouthwash showed to be absent from microorganisms and no changes were observed in the organoleptics and sedimentation characteristics. The average pH values were 6.21, 6.15 and 5.85 at 0, 30 and 60 days, respectively, and 1.029, 1.033 and 1.035 g/ mL density values, respectively, without interfering with the final characteristic of the formulation. Conclusion The mouthwash presented pharmacological stability and quality conditions.

  12. Cure shrinkage in epoxy grouts for grouted repairs (United States)

    Shamsuddoha, Md.; Islam, Md. Mainul; Aravinthan, Thiru; Manalo, Allan; Lau, Kin-tak


    Structures can go through harsh environmental adversity and can experience material loss and cracks during their service lives. Infill material is used to ensure a supporting bed for a grouted repair. Epoxy grouts are used for repairing and rehabilitating structures, such as foundations, bridges, piers, transportation pipelines, etc., because they are resistant to typical chemicals and possess superior mechanical properties than other grouts. The resin based infill used inside the void or cracked space of the repair is vulnerable to shrinkage. When these filled grouts have high resin content, cracks can develop from residual stresses, which can affect the load transfer performance. It follows that interlayer separation and cracking of infill layer can occur in a grouted repair. In this study, volumetric shrinkage of two epoxy grouts was measured over 28 days using a Pycnometer. The highest volumetric shrinkage measured after 7 days was found to be 2.72%. The results suggest that the volumetric shrinkage can be reduced to 1.1% after 7 days, through the introduction of a coarse aggregate filler; a 2.5 times reduction in shrinkage. About 98% and 92% of the total shrinkage over the 28 day period, of the unfilled and filled grouts respectively, was found to occur within 7 days of mixing. The gel-time shrinkages were also calculated, to determine the "postgel" part of the curing contraction which subsequently produces residual stresses in the hardened grout systems.

  13. Properties, structure and machnining capabilities sintered corundum abrasives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cz.J. Niżankowski


    Full Text Available The diversity of sintered corundum abrasives used in both bonded and in the embankment of abrasive tools currently poses substantialproblems for their choice of technology to specific tasks. Therefore performed a comparative study of ownership structures and capacitiesof elected representatives machnining sintered corundum abrasives of different generations, and this is normal sintered alumina,submicrocrystalline alumina sintered and nanocrystalline alumina sintered. Were studied some properties of a set of abrasive particles,physicochemical properties and structural and mechanical and technological properties. The studies used the method of microscopicmeasurement to determine the shape of abrasive particles, the pycnometer to determine the density of abrasive, a spectrometer todetermine the chemical composition of the magnetic analyzer for determining the magnetic fraction, scanning electron microscope toanalysis of abrasive grains and a special position to designate the machining capacity abrasive grains. The results showed a significantincrease in machining capacity sintered corundum abrasives with increasing degree of fragmentation of the crystallites sintered corundum abrasives and distinctive bands in the emerging microchip. The originality of the development provides a comparative summary ofproperties of sintered corundum abrasives of different generations and functions obtained by the author making the change in value indexof machininhcapacity grit from cutting speeds for different generations of sintered corundum.

  14. Influence of Milling Media on the Mechanical Alloyed W-0.5 wt.% Ti Powder Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Jahangiri


    Full Text Available The effects of milling atmosphere and mechanical alloying (MA duration on the effective lattice parameter, crystallite size, lattice strain, and amorphization rate of the W-0.5 wt.% Ti powders were investigated. W-0.5 wt.% Ti powders were mechanically alloyed (MA’d for 10 h and 20 h in a high energy ball mill. Moreover, morphology of the powders for various MA was analyzed using SEM microscopy. Their powder density was also measured by helium pycnometer. The dry milled agglomerated powders have spherical particle, while wet milled powders have layered morphology. Milling media and increasing of milling time significantly reduce the crystallite size. The smallest crystallite size is 4.93 nm which belonged to the dry milled powders measured by Lorentzian method after 20 hours’ MA. However, after 20 hours, MA’d powders show the biggest crystallite size, as big as 57.07 nm, measured with the same method in ethanol.

  15. Processing of rock core microtomography images: Using seven different machine learning algorithms (United States)

    Chauhan, Swarup; Rühaak, Wolfram; Khan, Faisal; Enzmann, Frieder; Mielke, Philipp; Kersten, Michael; Sass, Ingo


    The abilities of machine learning algorithms to process X-ray microtomographic rock images were determined. The study focused on the use of unsupervised, supervised, and ensemble clustering techniques, to segment X-ray computer microtomography rock images and to estimate the pore spaces and pore size diameters in the rocks. The unsupervised k-means technique gave the fastest processing time and the supervised least squares support vector machine technique gave the slowest processing time. Multiphase assemblages of solid phases (minerals and finely grained minerals) and the pore phase were found on visual inspection of the images. In general, the accuracy in terms of porosity values and pore size distribution was found to be strongly affected by the feature vectors selected. Relative porosity average value of 15.92±1.77% retrieved from all the seven machine learning algorithm is in very good agreement with the experimental results of 17±2%, obtained using gas pycnometer. Of the supervised techniques, the least square support vector machine technique is superior to feed forward artificial neural network because of its ability to identify a generalized pattern. In the ensemble classification techniques boosting technique converged faster compared to bragging technique. The k-means technique outperformed the fuzzy c-means and self-organized maps techniques in terms of accuracy and speed.

  16. Water absorption characteristics and structural properties of rice for sake brewing. (United States)

    Mizuma, Tomochika; Kiyokawa, Yoshifumi; Wakai, Yoshinori


    This study investigated the water absorption curve characteristics and structural properties of rice used for sake brewing. The parameter values in the water absorption rate equation were calculated using experimental data. Differences between sample parameters for rice used for sake brewing and typical rice were confirmed. The water absorption curve for rice suitable for sake brewing showed a quantitatively sharper turn in the S-shaped water absorption curve than that of typical rice. Structural characteristics, including specific volume, grain density, and powdered density of polished rice, were measured by a liquid substitution method using a Gay-Lussac pycnometer. In addition, we calculated internal porosity from whole grain and powdered grain densities. These results showed that a decrease in internal porosity resulted from invasion of water into the rice grain, and that a decrease in the grain density affected expansion during the water absorption process. A characteristic S-shape water absorption curve for rice suitable for sake brewing was related to the existence of an invisible Shinpaku-like structure.

  17. Characterization of glass filter micromodels used for polymer EOR flooding experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foedisch, H.; Wegner, J.; Hincapie-Reina, R.; Ganzer, L. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). ITE


    This work is conducted as part of the research project DGMK 746 - ''Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Polymer Flooding Processes Using Micromodels - From Pore Scale to Continuum Scale''. The industry standard to assess polymer flood performance is through flooding experiments with cores or plugs. A complement to flooding experiments in cores is represented by micromodels such as glass filters, which resemble real porous media through their porous structures. In this way, an almost unlimited number of equivalent samples can be produced. Moreover, compared to cores the micromodels enable visual access to the flooding process enabling a detailed process description. The sintered glass filters used in this work represent one way to make displacement processes inside artificial structures visible. However, challenges exist to transfer the results obtained from models composed of glass to real plugs or rock sections. Therefore, this study focuses on the comparison of glass filter micromodels and real rock samples composed of Bentheimer sandstone. We determine water permeability and oil-water relative permeability endpoints with flooding experiments, compare capillary pressure functions of the glass models obtained from mercury porosimetry analysis with results from Bentheimer sandstone, and characterize the glass filter with respect of connate water saturation using NMR-spectroscopy and porosity obtained from pycnometer measurements. (orig.)

  18. Mg-Zn based composites reinforced with bioactive glass (45S5) fabricated via powder metallurgy (United States)

    Ab llah, N.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Daud, Z. C.; Zaludin, M. A. F.


    Metallic implants are shifting from bio-inert to bioactive and biodegradable materials. These changes are made in order to improve the stress shielding effect and bio-compatibility and also avoid the second surgery procedure. Second surgery procedure is required if the patient experienced infection and implant loosening. An implant is predicted to be well for 15 to 20 years inside patient body. Currently, magnesium alloys are found to be the new biomaterials because of their properties close to the human bones and also able to degrade in the human body. In this work, magnesium-zinc based composites reinforced with different content (5, 15, 20 wt. %) of bioactive glass (45S5) were fabricated through powder metallurgy technique. The composites were sintered at 450˚C. Density and porosity of the composites were determined using the gas pycnometer. Microstructure of the composites was observed using an optical microscope. In-vitro bioactivity behavior was evaluated in the simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 days. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) was used to characterize the apatite forming on the samples surface. The microstructure of the composite showed that the pore segregated near the grain boundaries and bioglass clustering was observed with increasing content of bioglass. The true density of the composites increased with the increasing content of bioglass and the highest value of porosity was indicated by the Mg-Zn reinforced with 20 wt.% of bioglass. The addition of bio-glass to the Mg-Zn has also induced the formation of apatite layer after soaking in SBF solution.

  19. Assessment of Methods to Consolidate Iodine-Loaded Silver-Functionalized Silica Aerogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyas, Josef; Engler, Robert K.


    The U.S. Department of Energy is currently investigating alternative sorbents for the removal and immobilization of radioiodine from the gas streams in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. One of these new sorbents, Ag0-functionalized silica aerogels, shows great promise as a potential replacement for Ag-bearing mordenites because of its high selectivity and sorption capacity for iodine. Moreover, a feasible consolidation of iodine-loaded Ag0-functionalized silica aerogels to a durable SiO2-based waste form makes this aerogel an attractive choice for sequestering radioiodine. This report provides a preliminary assessment of the methods that can be used to consolidate iodine-loaded Ag0-functionalized silica aerogels into a final waste form. In particular, it focuses on experimental investigation of densification of as prepared Ag0-functionalized silica aerogels powders, with or without organic moiety and with or without sintering additive (colloidal silica), with three commercially available techniques: 1) hot uniaxial pressing (HUP), 2) hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and 3) spark plasma sintering (SPS). The densified products were evaluated with helium gas pycnometer for apparent density, with the Archimedes method for apparent density and open porosity, and with high-resolution scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) for the extent of densification and distribution of individual elements. The preliminary investigation of HUP, HIP, and SPS showed that these sintering methods can effectively consolidate powders of Ag0-functionalized silica aerogel into products of near-theoretical density. Also, removal of organic moiety and adding 5.6 mass% of colloidal silica to Ag0-functionalized silica aerogel powders before processing provided denser products. Furthermore, the ram travel data for SPS indicated that rapid consolidation of powders can be performed at temperatures below 950°C.

  20. Field studies at the Apache Leap Research Site in support of alternative conceptual models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhouse, E.G.; Davidson, G.R.; Theis, C. [eds.] [and others


    This is a final technical report for a project of the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission (sponsored contract NRC-04-090-51) with the University of Arizona. The contract was an optional extension that was initiated on July 21, 1994 and that expired on May 31, 1995. The project manager was Thomas J. Nicholson, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objectives of this contract were to examine hypotheses and conceptual models concerning unsaturated flow and transport through fractured rock, and to design and execute confirmatory field and laboratory experiments to test these hypotheses and conceptual models at the Apache Leap Research Site near Superior, Arizona. The results discussed here are products of specific tasks that address a broad spectrum of issues related to flow and transport through fractures. Each chapter in this final report summarizes research related to a specific set of objectives and can be read and interpreted as a separate entity. The tasks include detection and characterization of historical rapid fluid flow through fractured rock and the relationship to perched water systems using environmental isotopic tracers of {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C, fluid- and rock-derived {sup 2343}U/{sup 238}U measurements, and geophysical data. The water balance in a small watershed at the ALRS demonstrates the methods of acounting for ET, and estimating the quantity of water available for infiltration through fracture networks. Grain density measurements were made for core-sized samples using a newly designed gas pycnometer. The distribution and magnitude of air permeability measurements have been measured in a three-dimensional setting; the subsequent geostatistical analysis is presented. Electronic versions of the data presented here are available from authors; more detailed discussions and analyses are available in technical publications referenced herein, or soon to appear in the professional literature.

  1. Geological constraints for muon tomography: The world beyond standard rock (United States)

    Lechmann, Alessandro; Mair, David; Ariga, Akitaka; Ariga, Tomoko; Ereditato, Antonio; Käser, Samuel; Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Scampoli, Paola; Vladymyrov, Mykhailo; Schlunegger, Fritz


    In present day muon tomography practice, one often encounters an experimental setup in which muons propagate several tens to a few hundreds of meters through a material to the detector. The goal of such an undertaking is usually centred on an attempt to make inferences from the measured muon flux to an anticipated subsurface structure. This can either be an underground interface geometry or a spatial material distribution. Inferences in this direction have until now mostly been done, thereby using the so called "standard rock" approximation. This includes a set of empirically determined parameters from several rocks found in the vicinity of physicist's laboratories. While this approach is reasonable to account for the effects of the tens of meters of soil/rock around a particle accelerator, we show, that for material thicknesses beyond that dimension, the elementary composition of the material (average atomic weight and atomic number) has a noticeable effect on the measured muon flux. Accordingly, the consecutive use of this approximation could potentially lead into a serious model bias, which in turn, might invalidate any tomographic inference, that base on this standard rock approximation. The parameters for standard rock are naturally close to a granitic (SiO2-rich) composition and thus can be safely used in such environments. As geophysical surveys are not restricted to any particular lithology, we investigated the effect of alternative rock compositions (carbonatic, basaltic and even ultramafic) and consequentially prefer to replace the standard rock approach with a dedicated geological investigation. Structural field data and laboratory measurements of density (He-Pycnometer) and composition (XRD) can be merged into an integrative geological model that can be used as an a priori constraint for the rock parameters of interest (density & composition) in the geophysical inversion. Modelling results show that when facing a non-granitic lithology the measured muon

  2. Statistically significant data base of rock properties for geothermal use (United States)

    Koch, A.; Jorand, R.; Clauser, C.


    The high risk of failure due to the unknown properties of the target rocks at depth is a major obstacle for the exploration of geothermal energy. In general, the ranges of thermal and hydraulic properties given in compilations of rock properties are too large to be useful to constrain properties at a specific site. To overcome this problem, we study the thermal and hydraulic rock properties of the main rock types in Germany in a statistical approach. An important aspect is the use of data from exploration wells that are largely untapped for the purpose of geothermal exploration. In the current project stage, we have been analyzing mostly Devonian and Carboniferous drill cores from 20 deep boreholes in the region of the Lower Rhine Embayment and the Ruhr area (western North Rhine Westphalia). In total, we selected 230 core samples with a length of up to 30 cm from the core archive of the State Geological Survey. The use of core scanning technology allowed the rapid measurement of thermal conductivity, sonic velocity, and gamma density under dry and water saturated conditions with high resolution for a large number of samples. In addition, we measured porosity, bulk density, and matrix density based on Archimedes' principle and pycnometer analysis. As first results we present arithmetic means, medians and standard deviations characterizing the petrophysical properties and their variability for specific lithostratigraphic units. Bi- and multimodal frequency distributions correspond to the occurrence of different lithologies such as shale, limestone, dolomite, sandstone, siltstone, marlstone, and quartz-schist. In a next step, the data set will be combined with logging data and complementary mineralogical analyses to derive the variation of thermal conductivity with depth. As a final result, this may be used to infer thermal conductivity for boreholes without appropriate core data which were drilled in similar geological settings.

  3. Properties evaluation of silorane, low-shrinkage, non-flowable and flowable resin-based composites in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo R. Maia


    Full Text Available Purpose. This study tested the null hypothesis that different classes of direct restorative dental materials: silorane-based resin, low-shrinkage and conventional (non-flowable and flowable resin-based composite (RBC do not differ from each other with regard to polymerization shrinkage, depth of cure or microhardness.Methods. 140 RBC samples were fabricated and tested by one calibrated operator. Polymerization shrinkage was measured using a gas pycnometer both before and immediately after curing with 36 J/cm2 light energy density. Depth of cure was determined, using a penetrometer and the Knoop microhardness was tested from the top surface to a depth of 5 mm.Results. Considering polymerization shrinkage, the authors found significant differences (p < 0.05 between different materials: non-flowable RBCs showed lower values compared to flowable RBCs, with the silorane-based resin presenting the smallest shrinkage. The low shrinkage flowable composite performed similarly to non-flowable with significant statistical differences compared to the two other flowable RBCs. Regarding to depth of cure, low-shrinkage flowable RBC, were most effective compared to other groups. Microhardness was generally higher for the non-flowable vs. flowable RBCs (p < 0.05. However, the values for low-shrinkage flowable did not differ significantly from those of non-flowable, but were significantly higher than those of the other flowable RBCs.Clinical Significance. RBCs have undergone many modifications as they have evolved and represent the most relevant restorative materials in today’s dental practice. This study of low-shrinkage RBCs, conventional RBCs (non-flowable and flowable and silorane-based composite—by in vitro evaluation of volumetric shrinkage, depth of cure and microhardness—reveals that although filler content is an important determinant of polymerization shrinkage, it is not the only variable that affects properties of materials that were tested in

  4. Properties evaluation of silorane, low-shrinkage, non-flowable and flowable resin-based composites in dentistry. (United States)

    Maia, Rodrigo R; Reis, Rodrigo S; Moro, André F V; Perez, Cesar R; Pessôa, Bárbara M; Dias, Katia R H C


    Purpose. This study tested the null hypothesis that different classes of direct restorative dental materials: silorane-based resin, low-shrinkage and conventional (non-flowable and flowable) resin-based composite (RBC) do not differ from each other with regard to polymerization shrinkage, depth of cure or microhardness. Methods. 140 RBC samples were fabricated and tested by one calibrated operator. Polymerization shrinkage was measured using a gas pycnometer both before and immediately after curing with 36 J/cm(2) light energy density. Depth of cure was determined, using a penetrometer and the Knoop microhardness was tested from the top surface to a depth of 5 mm. Results. Considering polymerization shrinkage, the authors found significant differences (p flowable RBCs showed lower values compared to flowable RBCs, with the silorane-based resin presenting the smallest shrinkage. The low shrinkage flowable composite performed similarly to non-flowable with significant statistical differences compared to the two other flowable RBCs. Regarding to depth of cure, low-shrinkage flowable RBC, were most effective compared to other groups. Microhardness was generally higher for the non-flowable vs. flowable RBCs (p flowable did not differ significantly from those of non-flowable, but were significantly higher than those of the other flowable RBCs. Clinical Significance. RBCs have undergone many modifications as they have evolved and represent the most relevant restorative materials in today's dental practice. This study of low-shrinkage RBCs, conventional RBCs (non-flowable and flowable) and silorane-based composite-by in vitro evaluation of volumetric shrinkage, depth of cure and microhardness-reveals that although filler content is an important determinant of polymerization shrinkage, it is not the only variable that affects properties of materials that were tested in this study.

  5. 3,3'-Dinitroamino-4,4'-azoxyfurazan and its derivatives: an assembly of diverse N-O building blocks for high-performance energetic materials. (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaheng; Shreeve, Jean'ne M


    On the basis of a design strategy that results in the assembly of diverse N-O building blocks leading to energetic materials, 3,3'-dinitroamino-4,4'-azoxyfurazan and its nitrogen-rich salts were obtained and fully characterized via spectral and elemental analyses. Oxone (potassium peroxomonosulfate) is an efficient oxidizing agent for introducing the azoxy N-oxide functionality into the furazan backbone, giving a straightforward and low-cost synthetic route. On the basis of heats of formation calculated with Gaussian 03 and combined with experimentally determined densities, energetic properties (detonation velocity, pressure and specific impulse) were obtained using the EXPLO v6.01 program. These new molecules exhibit high density, moderate to good thermal stability, acceptable impact and friction sensitivities, and excellent detonation properties, which suggest potential applications as energetic materials. Interestingly, 3,3'-dinitroamino-4,4'-azoxyfurazan (4) has the highest calculated crystal density of 2.02 g cm(-3) at 173 K (gas pycnometer measured density is 1.96 g cm(-3) at 298 K) for N-oxide energetic compounds yet reported. Another promising compound is the hydroxylammonium salt (6), which has four different kinds of N-O moieties and a detonation performance superior to those of 1,3,5,7-tetranitrotetraazacyclooctane (HMX), and 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazatetracyclododecane (CL-20). Furthermore, computational results, viz., NBO charges and ESP, also support the superior qualities of the newly prepared compounds and the design strategy.

  6. The precursors effects on biomimetic hydroxyapatite ceramic powders. (United States)

    Yoruç, Afife Binnaz Hazar; Aydınoğlu, Aysu


    In this study, effects of the starting material on chemical, physical, and biological properties of biomimetic hydroxyapatite ceramic powders (BHA) were investigated. Characterization and chemical analysis of BHA powders were performed by using XRD, FT-IR, and ICP-AES. Microstructural features such as size and morphology of the resulting BHA powders were characterized by using BET, nano particle sizer, pycnometer, and SEM. Additionally, biological properties of the BHA ceramic powders were also investigated by using water-soluble tetrazolium salts test (WST-1). According to the chemical analysis of BHA ceramic powders, chemical structures of ceramics which are prepared under different conditions and by using different starting materials show differences. Ceramic powders which are produced at 80°C are mainly composed of hydroxyapatite, dental hydroxyapatite (contain Na and Mg elements in addition to Ca), and calcium phosphate sulfide. However, these structures are altered at high temperatures such as 900°C depending on the features of starting materials and form various calcium phosphate ceramics and/or their mixtures such as Na-Mg-hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite, Mg-Whitlockit, and chloroapatite. In vitro cytotoxicity studies showed that amorphous ceramics produced at 80°C and ceramics containing chloroapatite structure as main or secondary phases were found to be extremely cytotoxic. Furthermore, cell culture studies showed that highly crystalline pure hydroxyapatite structures were extremely cytotoxic due to their high crystallinity values. Consequently, the current study indicates that the selection of starting materials which can be used in the production of calcium phosphate ceramics is very important. It is possible to produce calcium phosphate ceramics which have sufficient biocompatibility at physiological pH values and by using appropriate starting materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimation of reactive surface area using a combined method of laboratory analyses and digital image processing (United States)

    Ma, Jin; Kong, Xiang-Zhao; Saar, Martin O.


    Fluid-rock interactions play an important role in the engineering processes such as chemical stimulation of enhanced geothermal systems and carbon capture, utilization, and storage. However, these interactions highly depend on the accessible reactive surface area of the minerals that are generally poorly constrained for natural geologic samples. In particular, quantifying surface area of each reacting mineral within whole rock samples is challenging due to the heterogeneous distribution of minerals and pore space. In this study, detailed laboratory analyses were performed on sandstone samples from deep geothermal sites in Lithuania. We measure specific surface area of whole rock samples using a gas adsorption method (so-called B.E.T.) with N2 at a temperature of 77.3K. We also quantify their porosity and pore size distribution by a Helium gas pycnometer and a Hg porosimetry, respectively. Rock compositions are determined by a combination of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and quantitative scanning electron microscopy (SEM) - Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), which are later geometrically mapped on images of two-dimensional SEM- Backscattered electrons (BSE) with a resolution of 1.2 μm and three-dimensional micro-CT with a resolution of 10.3 μm to produce a digital mineral map for further constraining the accessibility of reactive minerals. Moreover, we attempt to link the whole rock porosity, pore size distribution, and B.E.T. specific surface area with the digital mineral maps. We anticipate these necessary analyses to provide in-depth understanding of fluid sample chemistry from later hydrothermal reactive flow-through experiments on whole rock samples at elevated pressure and temperature.

  8. Comparison of the Remaining Tooth Structure and Fracture Resistance between Labial and Lingual Access Cavities in Permanent Anterior Teeth with Labial Caries: An In-vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftekhar B.


    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Labial access cavity preparation is a conventional method in endodontic treatment of the anterior teeth, but in some conditions labial cavity preparation is recommended.Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare labial and lingual access cavity preparation in the permanent anterior teeth with labial caries in terms of the remaining tooth structure and fracture resistance. Materials and Method: In this experimental study, 150 intact permanent human anterior teeth were selected in 5 groups each with 30 teeth including the maxillary central, maxillary lateral, maxillary canine, mandibular incisors and mandibular canine. A class V cavity with similar ratios to dimensions of each tooth was prepared on the labial surface of all specimens. The volumes of each of these teeth were measured by Penta Pycnometer before and after class V cavity preparation (V1, V2. Each group was randomly divided into 2 equal subgroups (n=15. Access cavities were prepared labially in subgroup A and lingually in subgroup B; then, the remained volume of each tooth was measured again (V3. The mean proportional volume loss of each tooth was calculated through access preparation (V2-V3/V1. Then, the specimens were embedded in acrylic resin blocks and subjected to load with a universal testing machine.Results: The differences of mean of theremained volume and fracture resistance of the two subgroups were statistically significant in all groups ( p <0.05 and those teeth with labial access showed more remained volume and fracture resistance than lingual access. Conclusion: Labial access cavity preparation can enhance the remained volume and fracture resistance as compared to lingual access in endodontic treatment of the anterior teeth with labial caries especially in mandibular incisors.

  9. Effect Of Cuo-Distilled Water Based Nanofluids On Heat Transfer Characteristics And Pressure Drop Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this paper, the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of the distilled water and the copper oxide-distilled water based nanofluid flowing in a horizontal circular pipe under constant heat flux condition are studied. Copper oxide nanoparticles of 40nm size are dispersed in distilled water using sodium dodecyl sulphate as surfactant and sonicated the nanofluid for three hour. Both surfactant and sonication increases the stability of the nanofluid. The nanofluids are made in three different concentration i.e. 0.1 Vol. %, 0.25 Vol. % and 0.50 Vol. %. The thermal conductivity is measured by KD2 PRO, density with pycnometer, viscosity with Brookfield LVDV-III rheometer. The results show that the thermal conductivity increases with both temperature and concentration. The viscosity and density increases with concentration but decreases with temperature. The specific heat is calculated by model and it decreases with concentration. The experimental local Nusselt number of distilled water is compared with local Nusselt number obtained by the well known shah equation for laminar flow under constant heat flux condition for validation of the experimental set up. The relative error is 4.48 % for the Reynolds number 750.9. The heat transfer coefficient increases with increase in both flow rate and concentration. It increases from 14.33 % to 46.1 % when the concentration is increased from 0.1 Vol. % to 0.5 Vol. % at 20 LPH flow rate. Friction factor decreases with increase in flow rate. It decreases 66.54 % when the flow rate increases from 10 LPH to 30 LPH for 0.1 Vol. %.

  10. Metrological evaluation of characterization methods applied to nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faeda, Kelly Cristina Martins; Lameiras, Fernando Soares; Camarano, Denise das Merces; Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto Neto; Migliorini, Fabricio Lima; Carneiro, Luciana Capanema Silva; Silva, Egonn Hendrigo Carvalho, E-mail:, E-mail: fernando.lameiras@pq.cnpq.b, E-mail: dmc@cdtn.b, E-mail: ranf@cdtn.b, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: egonn@ufmg.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    In manufacturing the nuclear fuel, characterizations are performed in order to assure the minimization of harmful effects. The uranium dioxide is the most used substance as nuclear reactor fuel because of many advantages, such as: high stability even when it is in contact with water at high temperatures, high fusion point, and high capacity to retain fission products. Several methods are used for characterization of nuclear fuels, such as thermogravimetric analysis for the ratio O / U, penetration-immersion method, helium pycnometer and mercury porosimetry for the density and porosity, BET method for the specific surface, chemical analyses for relevant impurities, and the laser flash method for thermophysical properties. Specific tools are needed to control the diameter and the sphericity of the microspheres and the properties of the coating layers (thickness, density, and degree of anisotropy). Other methods can also give information, such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, microanalysis, and mass spectroscopy of secondary ions for chemical analysis. The accuracy of measurement and level of uncertainty of the resulting data are important. This work describes a general metrological characterization of some techniques applied to the characterization of nuclear fuel. Sources of measurement uncertainty were analyzed. The purpose is to summarize selected properties of UO{sub 2} that have been studied by CDTN in a program of fuel development for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The selected properties are crucial for thermalhydraulic codes to study basic design accidents. The thermal characterization (thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity) and the penetration immersion method (density and open porosity) of UO{sub 2} samples were focused. The thermal characterization of UO{sub 2} samples was determined by the laser flash method between room temperature and 448 K. The adaptive Monte Carlo Method was used to obtain the endpoints of

  11. Physical Property Comparison of Ordinary Chondrite Classes (United States)

    Ostrowski, Daniel; Bryson, Kathryn L.


    Measurements of the physical properties of meteorites are essential in helping to determine the physical characteristics of the parent asteroids. Studying of physical properties can provide fundamental information to understand meteoroid behavior in the atmosphere and determine methods to deflect potentially hazardous asteroids. Initial focus of our study is on ordinary chondrites, since they are over 70% of the meteorites.To date we have measured the density (bulk and grain), porosity, thermal emissivity, and acoustic velocity of 7 ordinary chondrites (Tamdakht, Chelyabinsk, and multiple Antarctic meteorites). Each meteorite is first scanned using a 3D laser scanner to determine bulk density. For the other tests 1.5cm cubes are studied. Grain density is determined using gas pycnometer using nitrogen gas. Acoustic velocity, longitudinal and shear wave, are measured using an Olympus 45-MG in single element mode. Thermal emissivity is measured from 20°C up to atmospheric entry temperatures, and is based on average measurements over the wavelength range of 8 to 14μm.Tamdakht's bulk density is that of an average H Chondrite (3-4 g/cm3), while it has a low longitudinal velocity of 3540 m/s compared to the normal rage for H chondrites at 3529-6660 m/s. The velocity is consistent across all three axes in the sample. One possibility is an internal fracture, where part of has been seen on the surface of one of the test cubes. Chelyabinsk and the studied Antarctic meteorites have lower bulk and higher grain densities yielding above average porosities. Tamdakht is on the high end of the emissivity range for H chondrites and Chelyabinsk is on the high end for LL chondrites. Emissivity ranges from 0.985-0.995 at 20°C for the ordinary chondrites studied. Heated samples emissivity decreases slightly, 0.045, from initial 20°C measurement. Between 40-200°C, the emissivity stays fairly constant after decrease from room temperature. BTN 00304 has the highest average over the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Al-Achi


    Full Text Available Commercially available products serve as good examples for the compounding pharmacist to produce quality compounded dosage forms. Their physical and chemical properties, when known, can provide valuable information for preparing similar dosage forms to patients. One of the important physical characteristics of preparations is their specific gravity. The specific gravity is defined as the density of the substance divided by the density of water at a given temperature. We purchased ten non-prescription products from a store in North Carolina. We tested three bottles of each product for their specific gravity using Densito 30PX (Metter Toledo; Switzerland. The instrument is easy to use and allows calibration with a standard liquid (purified water or alcohol, U.S.P. at different temperatures (0oC to 40oC. We measured each bottle of the same product thrice. The following products were tested for their specific gravity at room temperature: Alka-seltzer Plus (Bayer Health Care; Lot#-276698L; Children’s Advil (Wyeth Consumer Healthcare; Lot#-B58397; Children’s Motrin (McNeil Consumer Healthcare; Lot#-ABM011; Children’s Tylenol (McNeil Consumer Healthcare; Lot#-SSM015; Children’s Zyrtec (McNeil Consumer Healthcare; Lot# for bottle 1-809301; Lot# for bottles 2 and 3- 809302; Listerine (Lot#-0619LZ; Oral Health Rinse (TopCare; Lot#-90F1001; Scope (Proctor & Gamble; Lot#-95609187; Theraflu (Novartis Consumer Health; Lot# for bottles 1 and 3-10061769; Lot# for bottle 2-10063059; Tylenol Cold (McNeil Consumer Healthcare; Lot# for bottles 1 and 2-900009; Lot# for bottle 3-808311. The results are summarized in Table 1. The specific gravity for Children’s Motrin, Children’s Tylenol, Listerine, and Scope agree with previously published values using a pycnometer (1.164, 1.306, 1.042, and 1.009, respectively.1 In general, the presence of suspended solid particles increases the specific gravity (e.g., Childrens Tylenol, whereas diluted hydroalcoholic

  13. Quantifying Density, Water Adsorption and Equilibration Properties of Wind Tunnel Materials (United States)

    Yu, Xinting; Horst, Sarah; He, Chao; Bridges, Nathan; Burr, Devon M.; Sebree, Joshua


    Aeolian processes are found on various planetary bodies including Earth, Venus, Mars, Titan, Triton, Pluto, and Comet 67P. Wind tunnels can simulate aeolian processes under different planetary parameters, with the robustness of results relying on experimental conditions and understanding of experimental materials. Threshold wind speed, the minimum wind speed to initiate saltation, is one parameter that can be investigated in wind tunnels. Liquid water adsorbed on wind tunnel materials could greatly enhance the threshold wind speed by increasing the interparticle force, density, and effective size of particles. Previous studies have shown that this effect could increase the threshold by 100% by putting 0.3-0.6% of water into typical dry quartz sand (Fecan et al. 1998). In order to simulate the weight of particles on other planetary bodies where gravity is significantly lower than on Earth, low-density materials are used in planetary wind tunnels, including walnut shells, activated charcoal, iced tea, and instant coffee.We first quantified the densities for all wind tunnel materials using a pycnometer and updated the density for low-density materials (e.g., walnut shells have density of 1.4 g/cm3 instead of 1.1 g/cm3 in the literature (Greeley et al. 1980)). Then we present a set of measurements that quantify water adsorption for both low and high-density materials (sand, basalt, and chromite). We first measured the water content and equilibration timescales for the materials through gravimetric measurements. We found low-density materials tend to have much more water (>5%) compared to high-density materials ( 6 hrs) compared to high-density materials (10-50 minutes). Since only water adsorbed on the particle surface would change the interparticle force, we then separate the surface and internal water using thermo-gravimetric analysis, and found that >80% of the water is still on the surface. Thus we assume water adsorption for low-density materials could greatly

  14. Statistically Based Inference of Physical Rock Properties of Main Rock Types in Germany (United States)

    Koch, A.; Jorand, R.; Clauser, C.


    A major obstacle for an increased use of geothermal energy often lies in the high success risk for the development of geothermal reservoirs due to the unknown rock properties. In general, the ranges of thermal and hydraulic properties (thermal conductivity, volumetric heat capacity, porosity, permeability) in existing compilations of rock properties are too large to be useful to constrain properties for specific sites. Usually, conservative assumptions are made about these properties, resulting in greater drilling depth and increased exploration cost. In this study, data from direct measurements on more than 600 core samples from different borehole locations and depths enable to derive statistical moments of the desired properties for selected main rock types in the German subsurface. Using modern core scanning technology allowed measuring rapidly thermal conductivity, sonic velocity, and gamma density with high resolution on a large number of samples. In addition, we measured porosity, bulk density, and matrix density based on Archimedes’ principle and pycnometer analysis. Tests on a smaller collection of samples also include specific heat capacity, hydraulic permeability, and radiogenic heat production rate. In addition, we complemented the petrophysical measurements by quantitative mineralogical analysis. The results reveal that even for the same main rock type the results differ significantly depending on geologic age, origin, compaction, and mineralogical composition. For example, water saturated thermal conductivity of tight Palaeozoic sandstones from the Lower Rhine Embayment and the Ruhr Area is 4.0±0.7 W m-1 K-1 and 4.6±0.6 W m-1 K-1, respectively, which is nearly identical to values for the Lower Triassic Bunter sandstone in Southwest-Germany (high in quartz showing an average value of 4.3±0.4 W m-1 K-1). In contrast, saturated thermal conductivity of Upper Triassic sandstone in the same area is considerably lower at 2.5±0.1 W m-1 K-1 (Schilf

  15. Mechanical behaviour of the Krafla geothermal reservoir: Insight into an active magmatic hydrothermal system (United States)

    Eggertsson, Guðjón H.; Lavallée, Yan; Kendrick, Jackie E.


    Krafla volcano, located in North-East Iceland, holds an active magmatic hydrothermal system. Since 1978, this system has been exploited for geothermal energy. Today it is exploited by Landsvirkjun National Power of Iceland and the system is generating 60 MWg from 18 wells, tapping into fluids at 200-300°C. In order to meet further demands of environmentally sustainable energy, Landsvirkjun aims to drill deeper and source fluids in the super-heated, super high-enthalpy system which resides deeper (at 400-600°C). In relation to this, the first well of the Icelandic Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) was drilled in Krafla in 2009. Drilling stopped at a depth of 2.1 km, when the drill string penetrated a rhyolitic magma body, which could not be bypassed despite attempts to side-track the well. This pioneering effort demonstrated that the area close to magma had great energy potential. Here we seek a constraint on the mechanical properties of reservoir rocks overlying the magmatic systems to gain knowledge on these systems to improve energy extraction. During two field surveys in 2015 and 2016, and through information gathered from drilling of geothermal wells, five main rock types were identified and sampled [and their porosities (i.e., storage capacities) where determined with a helium-pycnometer]: basalts (5-60% porosity), hyaloclastites (geothermal reservoir. Uniaxial and triaxial compressive strength tests have been carried out, as well as indirect tensile strength tests using the Brazilian disc method, to measure the rock strengths. The results show that the rock strength is inversely proportional to the porosity and strongly affected by the abundance of microcracks; some of the rocks are unusually weak considering their porosities, especially at low effective pressure as constrained at Krafla. The results also show that the porous lithologies may undergo significant compaction at relatively low loads (i.e., depth). Integration of the observed mechanical behaviour and

  16. Elastic Properties of Sedimentary Rocks (United States)

    Melendez Martinez, Jaime

    Sedimentary rocks are an important research topic since such rocks are associated to sources of ground water as well as oil, gas, and mineral reservoirs. In this work, elastic and physical properties of a variety of sedimentary samples that include glacial sediments, carbonates, shales, one evaporite, and one argillite from a variety of locations are investigated. Assuming vertical transverse isotropy, ultrasonic compressional- and shear-waves (at 1 MHz central frequency) were measured as a function of confining pressure on all samples with the exception of glacial samples which were tested assuming isotropy. Tensile strength tests (Brazilian test) were also carried out on selected glacial samples and, in addition, static-train measurements were conducted on shales and argillite samples. Lithological and textural features of samples were obtained through thin section techniques, scanning electron microscopy images and micro-tomography images. X-ray diffraction and X-Ray fluorescence provided the mineralogical oxides content information. Porosity, density, and pore structure were studied by using a mercury intrusion porosimeter and a helium pycnometer. The wide range of porosities of the studied samples (ranging from a minimum of 1% for shales to a maximum 45% for some glacial sediments) influence the measured velocities since high porosity sample shows an noticeable velocity increment as confining pressure increases as a consequence of closure of microcracks and pores, unlike low porosity samples where increment is quasi-lineal. Implementation of Gassmann's relation to ultrasonic velocities obtained from glacial samples has negligible impact on them when assuming water saturated samples, which suggests that state of saturation it is no so important in defining such velocities and instead they are mainly frame-controlled. On the other hand, velocities measured on carbonate and evaporite samples show that samples are at best weak anisotropic, thus the intrinsic

  17. 1,2-丙二醇+丁醇/戊醇/己醇二元系的过量体积和黏度%Excess Molar Volumes and Viscosities of Binary Mixtures Composed of 1,2-Propanediol with Butanol, Pentanol or Hexanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌锦龙; 李灵; 杨佳琳


    常压下测定了1,2-丙二醇分别与丁醇、戊醇和己醇组成的二元系在293.15~318.15 K下的密度和黏度,建立了混合液密度和黏度随温度和组成变化的方程。计算了过量摩尔体积VE,黏度偏差∆η和过量流动活化自由能∆G*E。结果表明,三个二元系的过量摩尔体积在全浓度范围内均为正值,随温度升高,偏差增大,但发生最大偏差时的溶液组成不同;过量摩尔体积值按丁醇-戊醇-己醇顺序逐渐增大;黏度偏差和过量流动活化自由能三个体系显示了相同的变化关系,均为负值,且都随温度降低而偏差增大。利用Redlich-Kister方程对过量性质进行了关联。分析和讨论了分子间相互作用。%The densities and viscosities of binary mixtures consisting of butanol, pentanol or hexanol with 1,2-propanediol(12PD) were measured using pycnometer and Ubbelohde viscometer at 293.15~318.15 K under atmospheric pressure. The density and viscosity data of the binary mixtures were fitted as functions of composition and temperature. Excess molar volumes (VE), viscosity deviations (∆η) and excess Gibbs energy of activation of viscous flow (∆G*E) were calculated from the experimental data. The results show that the excess molar volumes are positive over the whole mole fraction range in the temperature range studied for all of the binary mixtures, and the deviation increases as temperature increases. However, the largest deviation varies in different solution compositions. The excess molar volume value increases following an order of butanol - pentanol – hexanol. Both∆η and∆G*E are negative over the whole mole fraction range in the temperature range studied for all of the binary mixtures, and the deviation increases as temperature decreases. All of the excess properties are correlated by the Redlich-Kister equation and the molecular interactions are analyzed.

  18. Determination of degradation rates of organic substances in the unsaturated soil zone depending on the grain size fractions of various soil types (United States)

    Fichtner, Thomas; Stefan, Catalin; Goersmeyer, Nora


    respectively pore sizes in the soil samples occurred by air pycnometer measurement and determination of soil moisture characteristic by evaporation method according to Wind/Schindler. The present study results can be useful to find a correlation between various soil types with different grain size distributions and the suitability of these soils for example for the infiltration of treated wastewater in the context of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) measures.

  19. Explosive Origins of Welded Block and Ash Flow Deposits (United States)

    Andrews, G. D.; Michol, K.; Russell, K.


    The 2360 years B. P. eruption of Mount Meager, British Columbia, Canada, produced a succession of rarely- observed, welded block and ash flow deposits and non-welded equivalents, the Pebble Creek Formation. The welded block and ash flow deposits result from accumulation in a narrow, confined river valley; the accumulation was sufficiently rapid to keep the deposits above their glass transition temperature thereby allowing the succession to weld as a single cooling unit. The average integrated strain for vertical sections of the deposit is 31% implying > 50 m shortening of the thickest deposit (from 162 m to the current 112 m). Observations made in the field were supplemented by textural studies with the SEM and microscope, before being quantified by image analysis software. These data were then added to with measurements of connected and isolated porosity from the He-pycnometer at UBC. Only through the integration of these related data sets were we able to explore two significant findings: (1) Unconsolidated deposits have an average matrix porosity of ~41% and clasts have an average porosity of ~32%. Isolated porosity is pervasive (< 8%) in juvenile clasts, but is near absent in samples of matrix (< 1%). Welding and compaction cause a reduction in both connected and isolated porosity, where, equivalent amounts of strain (~38%) are recorded in matrix and clasts. Thus, both matrix and clasts are fully coupled during the welding and compaction process; in contrast, reports from pumiceous ignimbrites suggest that pumice clasts deform faster than the corresponding matrix. We present a series of strain evolution pathways that predict the theoretical welding trajectories for different pyroclastic deposits through porosity space. In this conceptual environment, coupled clast-matrix welding plots along the 1:1 diagonal. (2) The nature and distribution of isolated porosity in the juvenile clasts of rhyodacite (< 8%) suggests an explosive (rather than effusive) origin for

  20. Influence of the metakaolin on porous structure of matrixes based in mk/cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frías, M.


    Full Text Available The incorporation of pozzolanic materials in the manufacturing of blended cement has a positive effect on the improvement of blended mortar and concretes performances. These active additions modify porous structure, impeding or delaying the access of aggressive solutions and, therefore materials more durable are possible of obtaining. An increase or decrease on the durability of blended pastes, mortars and concretes will depend on chemical and mineralogical compositions, fineness and reaction kinetics of these pozzolans. The current work shows the results of a research carried out in blended pastes to know the effect of activated material (metakaolin on the microporosity of pastes elaborated with different amounts of mk (0-25%. A water/ binder ratio of 0,55 was used. Samples were cured at 20ºC for 360 days. The evolution of total, capilary and gel porosity as well as average pore size were carried out through mercury intrusion porosimeter (MIP. Also, the helium pycnometer as alternative method to obtain additional information about porosity above 1,4 Å was used. A good correlation between both methods has been obtained. In addition, it is proposed the best mk content for the elaboration of mk-blended pastes.

    La incorporación de materiales puzolánicos presenta un efecto positivo en la mejora de las prestaciones de los morteros y hormigones mixtos. Estos modifican la estructura porosa, impidiendo o retrasando el acceso de los medios agresivos y, por lo tanto, contribución a la obtención de materiales mixtos más durables. La mayor o menor durabilidad de las pastas, morteros y hormigones mixtos dependerá de la composición química, mineralógica, finura y de la cinética de reacción de estas adiciones activas. En el presente trabajo se recogen los resultados de una investigación llevada a cabo para conocer el efecto de un material activado (metacaolin en la microporosidad de pastas, elaboradas con diferentes contenidos de

  1. Structural and Petrophysical Characterization of Fault Zones in Shales: Example from the Tournemire Url (sw, France) (United States)

    DICK, P.; Du Peloux de Saint Romain, A.; Moreno, E.; Homberg, C.; Renel, F.; Dauzères, A.; Wittebroodt, C.; Matray, J.


    The Tournemire Underground Research Laboratory (URL) operated by IRSN (French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety) is located on the western border of the Mesozoic sedimentary Causses Basin (SW France). The URL crosses a thick Toarcian shale formation (≈250 m) and is interbedded between two aquiferous limestone formations. In addition to the 250 m thick overlying limestones, the geotechnical and hydrogeological characteristics of this site exhibit similarities with those measured by the French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (Andra) in the Callovo-Oxfordian formation of Bure (Meuse/Haute Marne, France). The Tournemire site is marked by numerous minor shear bands that affect not only the shale formation but also the over- and underlying limestone units. Since analogous discontinuities in an underground deep geological repository could act as a preferential pathway for radionuclide migration, the Tournemire site appears as an ideal location to understand the internal and permeability structures of such clay-based faults. In this study, we investigate the structural and petrophysical variations observed in a 10-15 m thick, subvertical, strike-slip shear band. For this, eight fully cored and logged horizontal boreholes were drilled normal to the fault's direction. The internal architecture and permeability of the fault was revealed through a combination of different tools (AMS, SEM, XRD and helium pycnometer) used on samples, as well as optical, induction and neutron porosity logging used in boreholes. The analysis of core samples from the different boreholes indicates that the studied fault zone is divided into a fault core (gouge), surrounded by a damaged zone (e.g., kinematically related fracture sets, small faults, and veins). Porosity and hydraulic conductivity values are low in the undisturbed shale (respectively, 9% and 10-14 m.s-1) and increase progressively towards the fault core (respectively, 15-20% and 5.10-12 m.s-1

  2. Spatial analysis of water infiltration in urban soils. Case study of Iasi municipality (Romania) (United States)

    Cristian Vasilica, Secu; Ionut, Minea


    The post-communist period (after 1989) caused important changes in the functional structure of Iasi municipality. The partly dismantling of the industrial area, the urban sprawl against the periurban and agricultural space, the new infrastructure works, all these determined important changes of soils' physical and morphological properties (e.g. porosity, density, compaction, infiltration rate etc., in the first case, and changes in soil horizons, in the second case etc.). This study aims to prove the variability of physical properties through the combination of statistical and geostatistical methods intended for a correct spatial representation. Water infiltration in urban soils was analyzed in relation to land use and the age of parental materials. Field investigations consisted in measurements of the water infiltration (by the means of Turf Tech infiltrometer), resistance to penetration (penetrologger), moisture deficit (Theta Probe) and resistivity (EC) for 70 equally distanced points (750 m x 750 m) placed in a grid covering more than 33 km2. In the laboratory, there were determined several parameters as density, porosity (air pycnometer), gravimetric moisture and other hydrophysical indicators. Filed investigations results are very heterogeneous, because of the human intervention on soils. The curves of variation for the rate water infiltration in soils indicate a downward trend, from high values in first time interval (one minute), between 5000 and 60 mm/h-1, gradually decreasing to the interval of 5-10 minutes (between 30 and 1000 mm/ h-1 to a general trend of flattening after a large time interval (in the timeframe of 50-60 minutes, the infiltration rate ranges between 4 and 142 mm•h-1). The highest frequency (≥65%) caracterizes the infiltration rates between 20 and 65 mm•h-1. For each analyzed sector (residential areas, industrial areas, degraded lands, recreational areas - parks and botanical gardens, forests heterogeneous agricultural lands), the

  3. Evolution of the poral structure of a constructed Technosol during its early pedogenesis (United States)

    Salifou, N.; Séré, G.; Watteau, F.; Casel, V.; Cortet, J.; Schwartz, C.


    , solid density (helium pycnometer) and total porosity. Complementary, saturated hydraulic conductivity was measured using the constant head method and water retention data were determined using the drying method on a pressure plate apparatus. In 2010, the total porosity - estimated with bulk and solid densities - was 63.1% ± 9.2%. Within that poral system, 25.1% corresponded to pores below the permanent wilting point, 22.8% was considered as available water for plant and 15.2% as macropores. The porosity parameters (area, shape, and connectivity) and the hydraulic properties (saturated hydraulic conductivity Ksat) were related taking into account the huge spatial variations of this last parameter. There is a very strong correlation between the proportions of macroporosity determined by the two methods. The great proportion of capillary pores denotes that this Technosol has a very high water retention capacity. The outlooks of this work suggest that, through soil construction, pedological engineering brings solution for water management. Applications could be developed in water stressed areas such as derelict lands in urban and industrial areas or under dry climates. Further developments could even lead to an alternative way to mitigate the adverse effects of climate change by an adapted management of soil and waste resources.

  4. Caracterização termofísica de polpas de bacuri Thermophysical characterization of bacuri pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo B. Muniz


    Full Text Available Foram estudadas as propriedades termofísicas calor específico, massa específica, difusividade térmica e condutividade térmica de polpas de bacuri em diferentes concentrações. O calor específico foi determinado pelo método do calorímetro de mistura; a massa específica foi determinada em picnômetro; a difusividade térmica foi obtida utilizando-se o método do cilindro infinito; a condutividade térmica foi determinada a partir dos resultados experimentais obtidos para massa específica, calor específico e difusividade térmica. Todas as propriedades também foram estimadas teoricamente com o uso de equações propostas em literatura e por meio de regressões dependentes da concentração. Entre os resultados experimentais o calor específico situou-se entre 3,616 a 2,986 kJ/kgºC; a massa específica variou de 1.008,40 a 1.048,36 kg/m³; a difusividade térmica variou de 1,637x10-7 a 1,787x10-7 m²/s; a condutividade térmica variou de 0,50 a 0,64 W/mºC. Exceto a massa específica, o valor de todas as propriedades diminuiu com o aumento da concentração. A condutividade térmica foi melhor representada por equação do tipo exponencial. As demais propriedades foram bem ajustadas por equações do tipo quadrática.Thermophysical properties, specific heat, density, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of bacuri pulps at different concentrations were studied. The specific heat was determined by the mixture calorimeter method; the density was determined by the pycnometer; the thermal diffusivity was obtained by using the infinite cylinder method; the thermal conductivity was determined from the experimental results obtained for density, specific heat and thermal diffusivity. All the properties were also theoretically determined using proposals equations and regressions. Among the experimental results the specific heat varied from 3.616 to 2.986 kJ/kgºC; the density varied from 1,008.40 to 1,048.36 kg/m³; the thermal

  5. 潮州柑果皮挥发油的组分分析及其抑菌性和抗氧化性的研究%Study on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial Activity and Antioxidant Ability of Essential Oil from Chaozhou Citrus Peel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 王忠合; 刘谋泉; 陈雪纯; 黄帆帆; 李桂丽; 吴悦婷


    利用水蒸汽蒸馏法提取潮州柑(Citrus reticulata Blanco‘Jiao gan’)果皮中的挥发油,并用气相色谱-质谱联用法对其化学成分进行分析和鉴定,并利用比重瓶法等测定挥发油的相对密度等理化性质;以金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌等为受试菌株,观察潮州柑果皮挥发油对各菌的体外抑制作用;以清除DPPH自由基的能力考察挥发油的抗氧化性.结果表明,潮州柑果皮精油共鉴定出66种化学成分,其含量占挥发油总量的98.89%,主要为:D-柠檬烯(93.75%)、β-月桂烯(2.46%)、β-芳樟醇(1.55%)、α-蒎烯(0.57%)、乙酸乙酯(0.34%)、3-蒈烯(0.14%),α-水芹烯(0.05%),4,5-二甲基-2,6-辛二烯(0.03%).理化性质结果表明:潮州柑果皮挥发油的相对密度为0.83,折光率为1.47,酸价为7.29,过氧化值为8.33 meq/kg,含皂量0.07%.抑菌试验结果表明:潮州柑果皮挥发油可抑制金黄色葡萄球菌、藤黄微球菌、枯草芽孢杆菌、大肠杆菌等细菌的生长.抗氧化性分析表明:潮州柑果皮挥发油可有效清除DPPH自由基,其IC50值为50.16μg/mL.上述实验结果表明,潮州柑果皮精油可作为一种食品防腐剂或抗氧化剂应用.%The essential oil was extracted from Citrus reticulata Blanco‘Jiao gan’ peel by steam distil-lation, and the constituents were separated and identified by capillary GC-MS method, and the relative density was determined by pycnometer method. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was evaluated against a panel of 4 bacteria and 2 fungal strains using agar diffusion and broth microdilution methods, and the antioxidant ability was also studied based on DPPH-scavenging model. Results showed that 66 different com-ponents were identified in the essential oil. Among them, the major components detected were: D-limonene (93.75%), beta-myrcene (2.46%), beta.-Linalool (1

  6. Volumetric Properties and Molecular Interactions of Binary Mixtures Imidazolium Acetates-ethanol at 293.15 K%293.15 K时咪唑醋酸盐-乙醇二元体系的体积性质及分子间相互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯海云; 黄银蓉; 白博峰; 杨靖


    用比重瓶法测定了293.15 K时1-甲基咪唑醋酸盐([Mim]Ac)/1,3-二甲基咪唑醋酸盐([Mmim]Ac)/1-乙基-3-甲基咪唑醋酸盐([Emim]Ac)-乙醇(EtOH)二元体系在全组成范围内的密度.计算出[Mim]Ac/[ Mmim] Ac/[ Emim] Ac和EtOH的表观摩尔体积和体系的超额摩尔体积.用三参数多项式关联拟合了表观摩尔体积与摩尔分数的关系,外推出组分的极限偏摩尔体积和摩尔体积.[ Mim] Ac/[ Mmim] Ac/[ Emim] Ac和EtOH的摩尔体积的外推值与实验值分别在±0.07和±0.04 cm3/mol范围内相一致.计算出了[ Mim] Ac/[ Mmim] Ac/[ Emim] Ac和EtOH分别在无限稀溶液中的溶剂化系数.用Redlich-Kister 方程关联拟合了超额摩尔体积与摩尔分数的关系.分别根据极限偏摩尔体积、摩尔体积与极限偏摩尔体积的差值、溶剂化系数和超额摩尔体积对照讨论了分子间相互作用的强弱.结果显示,在[ Mim] Ac/[ Mmim] Ac/[ Emim] Ac的浓度无限稀溶液中,[ Mim] Ac/[ Mmim] Ac/[ Emim] Ac-EtOH 分子对间相互作用的强弱顺序为[ Mim] Ac-EtOH>[Mmim]Ac-EtOH>[Emim] Ac-EtOH;在 EtOH 的浓度无限稀溶液中,以及体系中[ Mim] Ac/[ Mmim] Ac/[ Emim] Ac的摩尔分数在0.15~0.95间时,[ Mim] Ac/[ Mmim] Ac/[ Emim] Ac-EtOH分子对间相互作用的强弱顺序都为[ Emim] Ac-EtOH>[ Mmim] Ac-EtOH>[ Mim] Ac-EtOH.%Over the full molar fraction range and at 293.15 K, the densities of binary systems 1-methylimi-dazolium acetate ( [ Mim ] Ac )/1 , 3-dimethylimidazolium acetate ( [ Mmim ] Ac )/1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate([Emim]Ac)(1)-ethanol(EtOH)(2) were measured by pycnometer method. The apparent molar volumes of [ Mim] Ac/[ Mmim] Ac/[ Emim] Ac and EtOH, and the excess molar volumes of the binary mix-tures were calculated. The relations of apparent molar volumes and molar fractions were fitted by three-parame-ter polynomials, from which, the limiting partial molar volumes and molar volumes were extrapolated. For [ Mim] Ac/[ Mmim] Ac/[ Emim

  7. The Effect of Compost and the Ripe Fruit Waste of Fig on some Physical Properties of Surface Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zahra dianat maharluei


    Full Text Available Introduction: In arid and semi-arid soils, low organic matter is one of the barriers to achieving optimal performance. The soils with more organic matter have a better structure and are more resistant to erosive factors such as water and wind. Soil organic matter has a particular importance and has significant impact on the stability of soil aggregates, the extension of plant root system, carbon and water cycles and soil resistance to erosion. This substance acts as a cementing agent and plays an important role in soil flocculation and formation of resistant aggregates.Also, the addition of organic matter to the soil increases soil porosity and decreases soil bulk density. Materials and Methods: In this research, the effect of the two types of organic matter (compost and the ripe fruit waste of fig on some soil physical properties was studied. A factorial experiment based on completely randomized design, including the four levels of compost and the ripe fruit waste of fig (0, 1, 2 and 4 by weight % and three soil types (loamy sand, loam and silty clay loam with three replications was carried out. The soil samples were collected from the three territories of Fars Province: loamy sand soil from Shiraz, loamy soil from Maharlu and Silty clay loam soil from Zarghan area. The soil samples were air dried and passed through a 2 mm sieve. The physical properties including the bulk density, particle density, porosity, moisture content and soil crust strength was measured. In this research, the soil texture by hydrometer method, Electrical conductivity of the soil saturated paste extract by electrical conductivity meter, saturated paste pH by pH meter, seedling emergence test, soil crust strength by a pocket penetrometer (HUMBOLDT MFG.CO. bulk density by cylindrical sample and particle density by pycnometer method were measured. The fig fruit treatments were prepared by thoroughly mixing the dried powder of ripe fig fruit passed through a 2 mm sieve (with

  8. Rapid Solidification of AB{sub 5} Hydrogen Storage Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulbrandsen-Dahl, Sverre


    thesis the changes of the crystal structure and the grain structure of La{sub 0.60}Ce{sub 0.29}Pr{sub 0.04}Nd{sub 0.07}Ni{sub 3.37}Co{sub 0.79}Mn{sub 0.25}Al{sub 0.7}= cooling rate during chill-block melt spinning are described. Totally, the material was rapidly solidified at 9 different cooling rates. The grain structure, crystallographic texture and the lattice parameters were studied by means of electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. Additionally, the density of the rapidly solidified materials was measured by a gas pycnometer. All these properties were found to change with increasing cooling rate. The grain size decreased continuously with increasing cooling rate and was in the range of 1-5 {mu}m. The strength of the crystallographic texture first increased and then decreased with increasing cooling rate. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that the grains contained a large amount of crystallographic twins and that the solidification morphology changed from cellular to plane front at a cooling rate during solidification of approximately 6*10{sup 4} Ks{sup -1}. The unit cell volume and the density followed the same pattern with increasing cooling rate and decreased within each solidification morphology, but at the cooling rate from which the morphology changed, both these parameters suddenly increased. The identical variations in the unit cell volume and the density is explained by formation of excess lattice vacancies during rapid solidification. In Part IV of the thesis rapid solidification of the materials La{sub 0.60}Ce{sub 0.27}Pr{sub 0.04}Nd{sub 0.09}Ni{sub 4.76}Sn{sub 0.24} and LaNi{sub 4.76}Sn different cooling rates are described. The materials were analysed by means of electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. The grain structures of both alloys were found to be in the nanometer range, and the grain sizes were almost invariant with increasing cooling rate. Furthermore, the lattice parameters of these materials were almost

  9. Modeling moisture absorption kinetics of barley grain using viscoelastic model and neural networks

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    M Kamali


    containers having 200 mg of distilled water. Grains were weighed after a predetermined period of elapsed time (5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 120, etc. minutes. The experiments were conducted with three replications and moisture absorption rates were determined by the equations presented by McWatters et al., 2002. The experiments were conducted on a time table based on which the time for the dissolving of grains was reached. In this case, the moisture content of the grains reaches the saturation point. According to equations presented by Peleg, as water density increases as much as 0.01 gram due to grains dissolving in water, the saturation point has been reached (Peleg, 1988. For this reason, distilled water density was measured and controlled before and after each experiment by a pycnometer. Neural network was designed according to the two methods of multi-layer perceptron (MLP and radial basis function (RBF with three neuron layers. The first layer, i.e. input layer, is independent variables of temperature and time.The second layer, i.e. hidden layers, is the networks hidden layer and the third layer, i.e. output layer, is the dependent variable of moisture content which was selected. In each case, the nonlinear reduced gradient, combined gradient and BFGS algorithm, and Trigonometric, Logarithmic, Gaussian, and Logical functions were used to train, test and evaluate the network. To evaluate the predicting viscoelastic model and the network, we used statistical indices maximum value of coefficient of determination (R2 and minimum value of mean square error (RMSE. Results and Discussion: Moisture absorption curves showed that as the temperature increases, moisture absorption rate increases as well. Higher equilibrium moisture levels are obtained in water with higher temperatures. This phenomenon is the result of increased moisture diffusion in grains due to higher temperature levels. Higher water temperatures causes grain internal material which is mainly starch to gelatinize and